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Sample records for relaxor ferroelectric behavior

  1. Multidimensional dynamic piezoresponse measurements. Unraveling local relaxation behavior in relaxor-ferroelectrics via big data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudevan, Rama K.; Zhang, Shujun; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Bassiri-Gharb, Nazanin

    2015-01-01

    Compositional and charge disorder in ferroelectric relaxors lies at the heart of the unusual properties of these systems, such as aging and non-ergodicity, polarization rotations, and a host of temperature and field-driven phase transitions. However, much information about the field-dynamics of the polarization in the prototypical ferroelectric relaxor (1-x)Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3-x PbTiO 3 (PMN-xPT) remains unprobed at the mesoscopic level. We use a piezoresponse force microscopy-based dynamic multimodal relaxation spectroscopy technique, enabling the study of ferroelectric switching and polarization relaxation at mesoscopic length scales, and carry out measurements on a PMN-0.28PT sample with minimal polishing. Results indicate that beyond a threshold DC bias the average relaxation increases as the system attempts to relax to the previous state. Phenomenological fitting reveals the presence of mesoscale heterogeneity in relaxation amplitudes and clearly suggests the presence of two distinct amplitudes. Independent component analysis reveals the presence of a disorder component of the relaxation, which is found to be strongly anti-correlated with the maximum piezoresponse at that location, suggesting smaller disorder effects where the polarization reversal is large and vice versa. The disorder in the relaxation amplitudes is postulated to arise from rhombohedral and field-induced tetragonal phase in the crystal, with each phase associated with its own relaxation amplitude. As a result, these studies highlight the crucial importance of the mixture of ferroelectric phases in the compositions in proximity of the morphotropic phase boundary in governing the local response and further highlight the ability of PFM voltage and time spectroscopies, in conjunction with big-data multivariate analyses, to locally map disorder and correlate it with parameters governing the dynamic behavior

  2. Boosting the Recoverable Energy Density of Lead-Free Ferroelectric Ceramic Thick Films through Artificially Induced Quasi-Relaxor Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddigari, Mahesh; Palneedi, Haribabu; Hwang, Geon-Tae; Lim, Kyung Won; Kim, Ga-Yeon; Jeong, Dae-Yong; Ryu, Jungho

    2018-06-08

    Dielectric ceramic film capacitors, which store energy in the form of electric polarization, are promising for miniature pulsed power electronic device applications. For a superior energy storage performance of the capacitors, large recoverable energy density, along with high efficiency, high power density, fast charge/discharge rate, and good thermal/fatigue stability, is desired. Herein, we present highly dense lead-free 0.942[Na 0.535 K 0.480 NbO 3 ]-0.058LiNbO 3 (KNNLN) ferroelectric ceramic thick films (∼5 μm) demonstrating remarkable energy storage performance. The nanocrystalline KNNLN thick film fabricated by aerosol deposition (AD) process and annealed at 600 °C displayed a quasi-relaxor ferroelectric behavior, which is in contrast to the typical ferroelectric nature of the KNNLN ceramic in its bulk form. The AD film exhibited a large recoverable energy density of 23.4 J/cm 3 , with an efficiency of over 70% under the electric field of 1400 kV/cm. Besides, an ultrahigh power density of 38.8 MW/cm 3 together with a fast discharge speed of 0.45 μs, good fatigue endurance (up to 10 6 cycles), and thermal stability in a wide temperature range of 20-160 °C was also observed. Using the AD process, we could make a highly dense microstructure of the film containing nano-sized grains, which gave rise to the quasi-relaxor ferroelectric characteristics and the remarkable energy storage properties.

  3. A Temperature-Dependent Hysteresis Model for Relaxor Ferroelectric Compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raye, Julie K; Smith, Ralph C

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of a homogenized free energy model which characterizes the temperature-dependent hysteresis and constitutive nonlinearities inherent to relaxor ferroelectric materials...

  4. Phonon localization transition in relaxor ferroelectric PZN-5%PT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, Michael E.; Christianson, Andrew D.; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Sahul, Raffi

    2017-01-01

    Relaxor ferroelectric behavior occurs in many disordered ferroelectric materials but is not well understood at the atomic level. Recent experiments and theoretical arguments indicate that Anderson localization of phonons instigates relaxor behavior by driving the formation of polar nanoregions (PNRs). Here, we use inelastic neutron scattering to observe phonon localization in relaxor ferroelectric PZN-5%PT (0.95[Pb(Zn 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 ]–0.05PbTiO 3 ) and detect additional features of the localization process. In the lead, up to phonon localization on cooling, the local resonant modes that drive phonon localization increase in number. The increase in resonant scattering centers is attributed to a known increase in the number of locally off centered Pb atoms on cooling. The transition to phonon localization occurs when these random scattering centers increase to a concentration where the Ioffe-Regel criterion is satisfied for localizing the phonon. Finally, we also model the effects of damped mode coupling on the observed phonons and phonon localization structure.

  5. High-resolution 2-D Bragg diffraction reveal heterogeneous domain transformation behavior in a bulk relaxor ferroelectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pramanick, Abhijit, E-mail: apramani@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Stoica, Alexandru D.; An, Ke [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2016-08-29

    In-situ measurement of fine-structure of neutron Bragg diffraction peaks from a relaxor single-crystal using a time-of-flight instrument reveals highly heterogeneous mesoscale domain transformation behavior under applied electric fields. It is observed that only ∼25% of domains undergo reorientation or phase transition contributing to large average strains, while at least 40% remain invariant and exhibit microstrains. Such insights could be central for designing new relaxor materials with better performance and longevity. The current experimental technique can also be applied to resolve complex mesoscale phenomena in other functional materials.

  6. The lineshape of inelastic neutron scattering in the relaxor ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.A.; Kozlovski, M.; Piesiewicz, T.; Stephanovich, V.A.; Weron, A.; Wymyslowski, A.

    2005-01-01

    The possibilities of theoretical and experimental investigations of relaxor ferroelectrics by inelastic neutron scattering method are considered. The simple model to description of the peculiarities of inelastic neutron scattering lineshapes in ferroelectric relaxors is suggested. The essence of this model is to consider the interaction of the phonon subsystem of relaxor ferroelectrics with the ensemble of defects and impurities. The modification of the Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) method is presented. The optimization of planning of experiment by the modified LHS method is considered [ru

  7. Stable Ferroelectric Behavior of Nb-Modified Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3 Lead-Free Relaxor Ferroelectric Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Arif; Malik, Rizwan Ahmed; Maqbool, Adnan; Hussain, Ali; Ahmed, Tanveer; Song, Tae Kwon; Kim, Won-Jeong; Kim, Myong-Ho

    2018-03-01

    Crystal structure, dielectric, ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and electric field-induced strain properties of lead-free Nb-modified 0.96Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-0.04Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3 (BKT-BMT) piezoelectric ceramics were investigated. Crystal structure analysis showed a gradual phase transition from tetragonal to pseudocubic phase with increasing Nb content. The optimal piezoelectric property of small-signal d 33 was enhanced up to ˜ 68 pC/N with a lower coercive field ( E c) of ˜ 22 kV/cm and an improved remnant polarization ( P r) of ˜ 13 μC/cm2 for x = 0.020. A relaxor-like behavior with a frequency-dependent Curie temperature T m was observed, and a high T m around 320°C was obtained in the investigated system. This study suggests that the ferroelectric properties of BKT-BMT was significantly improved by means of Nb substitution. The possible shift of depolarization temperature T d toward high temperature T m may have triggered the spontaneous relaxor to ferroelectric phase transition with long-range ferroelectric order without any traces of a nonergodic relaxor state in contradiction with Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based systems. The possible enhancement in ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties near the critical composition x = 0.020 may be attributed to the increased anharmonicity of lattice vibrations which may facilitate the observed phase transition from a low-symmetry tetragonal to a high-symmetry cubic phase with a decrease in the lattice anisotropy of an undoped sample. This highly flexible (at a unit cell level) narrow compositional range triggers the enhancement of d 33 and P r values.

  8. Broadband dielectric response of Ba(Zr,Ti)O.sub.3./sub. ceramics: From incipient via relaxor and diffuse up to classical ferroelectric behavior

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Petzelt, Jan; Savinov, Maxim; Ostapchuk, Tetyana; Bovtun, Viktor; Kempa, Martin; Hlinka, Jiří; Buscaglia, V.; Buscaglia, M. T.; Nanni, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 1 (2012), "014106-1"-"014106-9" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0232 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : dielectric spectroscopy * soft mode * central mode * diffuse ferroelectric transition * relaxor ferroelectric transition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.767, year: 2012

  9. Ferroelectric relaxor Ba(TiCe)O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ang; Zhi Jing; Yu Zhi

    2002-01-01

    The dielectric behaviour of Ba(Ti 1-y Ce y )O 3 solid solutions (y=0-0.3) has been studied. A small amount of Ce doping (y=0.02) has weak influence on the dielectric behaviour of Ba(Ti 1-y Ce y )O 3 . With increasing Ce concentration, three phase transitions of pure BaTiO 3 are pinched into one rounded dielectric peak with frequency dispersion, and the relaxation time follows the Vogel-Fulcher relation. The evolution from a normal ferroelectric to a ferroelectric relaxor is emphasized. High strains (S=∼0.1-0.19%) with a small hysteresis under ac fields are obtained in ferroelectric relaxors Ba(Ti 1-y Ce y )O 3 . The physical mechanism of the relaxation process, the pinching effect of the phase transitions and their influence on the ferroelectric and electrostrictive behaviour are discussed. (author)

  10. Relaxor ferroelectrics: back to the single-soft-mode picture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hehlen, B.; Al-Sabbagh, M.; Al-Zein, A.; Hlinka, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 15 (2016), 1-6, č. článku 155501. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04121S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : relaxor * ferroelectrics * light-scattering * hyper-Raman * dielectric permittivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  11. Advances in the Growth and Characterization of Relaxor-PT-Based Ferroelectric Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Compared to Pb(Zr1−xTixO3 (PZT polycrystalline ceramics, relaxor-PT single crystals offer significantly improved performance with extremely high electromechanical coupling and piezoelectric coefficients, making them promising materials for piezoelectric transducers, sensors and actuators. The recent advances in crystal growth and characterization of relaxor-PT-based ferroelectric single crystals are reviewed in this paper with emphases on the following topics: (1 the large crystal growth of binary and ternary relaxor-PT-based ferroelectric crystals for commercialization; (2 the composition segregation in the crystals grown from such a solid-solution system and possible solutions to reduce it; (3 the crystal growth from new binary and ternary compositions to expand the operating temperature and electric field; (4 the crystallographic orientation dependence and anisotropic behaviors of relaxor-PT-based ferroelectriccrystals; and (5 the characterization of the dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric properties of the relaxor-PT-based ferroelectriccrystals under small and large electric fields.

  12. Soft phonon anomalies in relaxor ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirane, Gen; Gehring, Peter M.

    2001-01-01

    A review is given of the phonon anomalies, which have been termed waterfalls', that were recently discovered through a series of neutron inelastic scattering measurements on the lead-oxide relaxor systems PZN-xPT, PMN, and PZN. We discuss a simple coupled-mode model that has been used successfully to describe the basic features of the waterfall, and which relates this unusual feature to the presence of polar micro-regions. (author)

  13. Soft phonon anomalies in relaxor ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirane, Gen [Department of Physics, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York (United States); Gehring, Peter M. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States)

    2001-03-01

    A review is given of the phonon anomalies, which have been termed waterfalls', that were recently discovered through a series of neutron inelastic scattering measurements on the lead-oxide relaxor systems PZN-xPT, PMN, and PZN. We discuss a simple coupled-mode model that has been used successfully to describe the basic features of the waterfall, and which relates this unusual feature to the presence of polar micro-regions. (author)

  14. Piezoresponse force microscopy of ferroelectric relaxors =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, Dmitry

    Nesta tese, ferroelectricos relaxor (I dont know uf the order is correct) de base Pb das familias (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 (PLZT), Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT), Pb(Zn1/3,Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PZN-PT) foram investigados e analisados. As propriedades ferroelectricas e dielectricas das amostras foram estudadas por metodos convencionais de macro e localmente por microscopia de forca piezoelectrica (PFM). Nos cerâmicos PLZT 9.75/65/35 o contraste da PFM a escala nanometrica foi investigado em funcao do tamanho e orientacao dos graos. Apurou-se que a intensidade do sinal piezoelectrico das nanoestruturas diminui com o aumento da temperatura e desaparece a 490 K (La mol. 8%) e 420 K (9,5%). Os ciclos de histerese locais foram obtidos em funcao da temperatura. A evolucao dos parâmetros macroscopicos e locais com a temperatura de superficie sugere um forte efeito de superficie nas transicoes de fase ferroelectricas do material investigado. A rugosidade da parede de dominio e determinada por PFM para a estrutura de dominio natural existente neste ferroelectrico policristalino. Alem disso, os dominios ferroelectricos artificiais foram criados pela aplicacao de pulsos electricos a ponta do condutor PFM e o tamanho de dominio in-plane foi medido em funcao da duracao do pulso. Todas estas experiencias levaram a conclusao de que a parede de dominio em relaxors do tipo PZT e quase uma interface unidimensional. O mecanismo de contraste na superficie de relaxors do tipo PLZT e medido por PFMAs estruturas de dominio versus evolucao da profundidade foram estudadas em cristais PZN-4,5%PT, com diferentes orientacoes atraves da PFM. Padroes de dominio irregulares com tamanhos tipicos de 20-100 nm foram observados nas superficies com orientacao das amostras unpoled?. Pelo contrario, os cortes de cristal exibem dominios regulares de tamanho micron normal, com os limites do dominio orientados ao longo dos planos cristalograficos permitidos. A existencia de nanodominios em cristais com orientacao

  15. Aging and Barkhausen Noise in the Relaxor Ferroelectric SBN:La and PMN/PT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Lambert K.; Colla, Eugene V.; Weissman, M. B.

    2003-03-01

    Relaxor ferroelectrics form a diverse class of materials which exhibit frequency-dependent freezing into a disordered state. The relation to other cooperative glassy freezing, such as in spin glasses, remain uncertain. Previous aging investigations on several relaxors already indicate diverse behavior (E.V. Colla phet al., Phys. Rev. B 63, 134107 (2001)). We present results on aging behavior on PMN/PT (90/10) and SBN:La. SBN:La, believed to fit a random-field Ising model, exhibits complicated aging behavior with a low-temperature regime lacking the memory effects characteristic of spin-glass-like aging seen in the perovskites PMN and PMN/PT. Further information on the glassy freezing is provided via Barkhausen noise experiments using a balanced capacitance bridge technique capable of measuring random noise despite a large systematic background signal [E.V. Colla phet al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 017601 (2002).].

  16. Kinetics of Domain Switching by Mechanical and Electrical Stimulation in Relaxor-Based Ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zibin; Hong, Liang; Wang, Feifei; An, Xianghai; Wang, Xiaolin; Ringer, Simon; Chen, Long-Qing; Luo, Haosu; Liao, Xiaozhou

    2017-12-01

    Ferroelectric materials have been extensively explored for applications in high-density nonvolatile memory devices because of their ferroelectric-ferroelastic domain-switching behavior under electric loading or mechanical stress. However, the existence of ferroelectric and ferroelastic backswitching would cause significant data loss, which affects the reliability of data storage. Here, we apply in situ transmission electron microscopy and phase-field modeling to explore the unique ferroelastic domain-switching kinetics and the origin of this in relaxor-based Pb (Mg1 /3Nb2 /3)O3-33 % PbTiO3 single-crystal pillars under electrical and mechanical stimulations. Results showed that the electric-mechanical hysteresis loop shifted for relaxor-based single-crystal pillars because of the low energy levels of domains in the material and the constraint on the pillars, resulting in various mechanically reversible and irreversible domain-switching states. The phenomenon can potentially be used for advanced bit writing and reading in nonvolatile memories, which effectively overcomes the backswitching problem and broadens the types of ferroelectric materials for nonvolatile memory applications.

  17. Development of “fragility” in relaxor ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi-zhen, E-mail: wangyizhen80@gmail.com [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China); Bioengineering Program and Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics Department, Lehigh University, 19 Memorial Drive West, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Chen, Lan; Xiong, Xiao-min; Zhang, Jin-xiu [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang, Hai-yan [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Measurement and Testing Technology, Guangzhou 510663 (China); Frank Zhang, X. [Bioengineering Program and Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics Department, Lehigh University, 19 Memorial Drive West, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Fu, Jun [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China)

    2014-02-07

    Relaxor ferroelectrics (RFs), a special class of the disordered crystals or ceramics, exhibit a pronounced slowdown of their dynamics upon cooling as glass-forming liquids, called the “Super-Arrhenius (SA)” relaxation. Despite great progress in glass-forming liquids, the “fragility” property of the SA relaxation in RFs remains unclear so far. By measuring the temperature-dependent dielectric relaxation in the typical relaxor Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-x%PbTiO{sub 3} (PMN − x%PT) with 0 ≤ x ≤ 20.0, we in-depth study the “fragility” properties of the SA relaxation in PMN − x%PT. Such fascinating issues as the mechanism of the “fragility” at an atomic scale, the roles of the systematic configurational entropy change and interaction among relaxing units (RUs, including polar nanoregions and free dipoles) and the relation between “fragility” and ferroelectric order are investigated. Our results show that both the “fragility” of the temperature-dependent SA relaxation and ferroelectric order in the PMN − x%PT systems investigated arise thermodynamically from the configurational-entropy loss due to the attractive interaction among RUs, and develops as a power law, possibly diverging at the finite critical temperature T{sub c}. A reasonable physical scenario, based on our “configurational-entropy-loss” theory and Nowick's “stress-induced-ordering” theory, was proposed.

  18. Development of “fragility” in relaxor ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi-zhen; Chen, Lan; Xiong, Xiao-min; Zhang, Jin-xiu; Wang, Hai-yan; Frank Zhang, X.; Fu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Relaxor ferroelectrics (RFs), a special class of the disordered crystals or ceramics, exhibit a pronounced slowdown of their dynamics upon cooling as glass-forming liquids, called the “Super-Arrhenius (SA)” relaxation. Despite great progress in glass-forming liquids, the “fragility” property of the SA relaxation in RFs remains unclear so far. By measuring the temperature-dependent dielectric relaxation in the typical relaxor Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -x%PbTiO 3 (PMN − x%PT) with 0 ≤ x ≤ 20.0, we in-depth study the “fragility” properties of the SA relaxation in PMN − x%PT. Such fascinating issues as the mechanism of the “fragility” at an atomic scale, the roles of the systematic configurational entropy change and interaction among relaxing units (RUs, including polar nanoregions and free dipoles) and the relation between “fragility” and ferroelectric order are investigated. Our results show that both the “fragility” of the temperature-dependent SA relaxation and ferroelectric order in the PMN − x%PT systems investigated arise thermodynamically from the configurational-entropy loss due to the attractive interaction among RUs, and develops as a power law, possibly diverging at the finite critical temperature T c . A reasonable physical scenario, based on our “configurational-entropy-loss” theory and Nowick's “stress-induced-ordering” theory, was proposed

  19. The origin of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in relaxor-ferroelectric solid solution crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Shujun; Yang, Tiannan; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Gang; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Jianli; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Luo, Jun; Shrout, Thomas R.; Chen, Long-Qing (Penn); (Xian Jiaotong); (CIW); (Simon); (TRS Techn); (Wollongong)

    2016-12-19

    The discovery of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in relaxor-ferroelectric solid solution single crystals is a breakthrough in ferroelectric materials. A key signature of relaxor-ferroelectric solid solutions is the existence of polar nanoregions, a nanoscale inhomogeneity, that coexist with normal ferroelectric domains. Despite two decades of extensive studies, the contribution of polar nanoregions to the underlying piezoelectric properties of relaxor ferroelectrics has yet to be established. Here we quantitatively characterize the contribution of polar nanoregions to the dielectric/piezoelectric responses of relaxor-ferroelectric crystals using a combination of cryogenic experiments and phase-field simulations. The contribution of polar nanoregions to the room-temperature dielectric and piezoelectric properties is in the range of 50–80%. A mesoscale mechanism is proposed to reveal the origin of the high piezoelectricity in relaxor ferroelectrics, where the polar nanoregions aligned in a ferroelectric matrix can facilitate polarization rotation. This mechanism emphasizes the critical role of local structure on the macroscopic properties of ferroelectric materials.

  20. The origin of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in relaxor-ferroelectric solid solution crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Shujun; Yang, Tiannan; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Gang; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Jianli; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Luo, Jun; Shrout, Thomas R; Chen, Long-Qing

    2016-12-19

    The discovery of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in relaxor-ferroelectric solid solution single crystals is a breakthrough in ferroelectric materials. A key signature of relaxor-ferroelectric solid solutions is the existence of polar nanoregions, a nanoscale inhomogeneity, that coexist with normal ferroelectric domains. Despite two decades of extensive studies, the contribution of polar nanoregions to the underlying piezoelectric properties of relaxor ferroelectrics has yet to be established. Here we quantitatively characterize the contribution of polar nanoregions to the dielectric/piezoelectric responses of relaxor-ferroelectric crystals using a combination of cryogenic experiments and phase-field simulations. The contribution of polar nanoregions to the room-temperature dielectric and piezoelectric properties is in the range of 50-80%. A mesoscale mechanism is proposed to reveal the origin of the high piezoelectricity in relaxor ferroelectrics, where the polar nanoregions aligned in a ferroelectric matrix can facilitate polarization rotation. This mechanism emphasizes the critical role of local structure on the macroscopic properties of ferroelectric materials.

  1. Advantages and Challenges of Relaxor-PbTiO3 Ferroelectric Crystals for Electroacoustic Transducers- A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujun; Li, Fei; Jiang, Xiaoning; Kim, Jinwook; Luo, Jun; Geng, Xuecang

    2014-01-01

    Relaxor-PbTiO3 (PT) based ferroelectric crystals with the perovskite structure have been investigated over the last few decades due to their ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients (d33 > 1500 pC/N) and electromechanical coupling factors (k33 > 90%), far outperforming state-of-the-art ferroelectric polycrystalline Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics, and are at the forefront of advanced electroacoustic applications. In this review, the performance merits of relaxor-PT crystals in various electroacoustic devices are presented from a piezoelectric material viewpoint. Opportunities come from not only the ultrahigh properties, specifically coupling and piezoelectric coefficients, but through novel vibration modes and crystallographic/domain engineering. Figure of merits (FOMs) of crystals with various compositions and phases were established for various applications, including medical ultrasonic transducers, underwater transducers, acoustic sensors and tweezers. For each device application, recent developments in relaxor-PT ferroelectric crystals were surveyed and compared with state-of-the-art polycrystalline piezoelectrics, with an emphasis on their strong anisotropic features and crystallographic uniqueness, including engineered domain - property relationships. This review starts with an introduction on electroacoustic transducers and the history of piezoelectric materials. The development of the high performance relaxor-PT single crystals, with a focus on their uniqueness in transducer applications, is then discussed. In the third part, various FOMs of piezoelectric materials for a wide range of ultrasound applications, including diagnostic ultrasound, therapeutic ultrasound, underwater acoustic and passive sensors, tactile sensors and acoustic tweezers, are evaluated to provide a thorough understanding of the materials’ behavior under operational conditions. Structure-property-performance relationships are then established. Finally, the impacts and challenges of relaxor

  2. Visualization of dielectric constant-electric field-temperature phase maps for imprinted relaxor ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, J. C.; Kim, T. H.; Maeng, W.; Brewer, A. A.; Podkaminer, J. P.; Saenrang, W.; Vaithyanathan, V.; Schlom, D. G.; Li, F.; Chen, L.-Q.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Eom, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    The dielectric phase transition behavior of imprinted lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate relaxor ferroelectric thin films was mapped as a function of temperature and dc bias. To compensate for the presence of internal fields, an external electric bias was applied while measuring dielectric responses. The constructed three-dimensional dielectric maps provide insight into the dielectric behaviors of relaxor ferroelectric films as well as the temperature stability of the imprint. The transition temperature and diffuseness of the dielectric response correlate with crystallographic disorder resulting from strain and defects in the films grown on strontium titanate and silicon substrates; the latter was shown to induce a greater degree of disorder in the film as well as a dielectric response lower in magnitude and more diffuse in nature over the same temperature region. Strong and stable imprint was exhibited in both films and can be utilized to enhance the operational stability of piezoelectric devices through domain self-poling.

  3. Characterizing new compositions of [001]C relaxor ferroelectric single crystals using a work-energy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, John A.

    2016-04-01

    The desired operating range of ferroelectric materials with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary is limited by field induced phase transformations. In [001]C cut and poled relaxor ferroelectric single crystals the mechanically driven ferroelectric rhombohedral to ferroelectric orthorhombic phase transformation is hindered by antagonistic electrical loading. Instability around the phase transformation makes the current experimental technique for characterization of the large field behavior very time consuming. Characterization requires specialized equipment and involves an extensive set of measurements under combined electrical, mechanical, and thermal loads. In this work a mechanism-based model is combined with a more limited set of experiments to obtain the same results. The model utilizes a work-energy criterion that calculates the mechanical work required to induce the transformation and the required electrical work that is removed to reverse the transformation. This is done by defining energy barriers to the transformation. The results of the combined experiment and modeling approach are compared to the fully experimental approach and error is discussed. The model shows excellent predictive capability and is used to substantially reduce the total number of experiments required for characterization. This decreases the time and resources required for characterization of new compositions.

  4. High-pressure structure of Pb-based relaxor ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Bernd J.; Mihailova, Boriana; Paulmann, Carsten; Welsch, Anna-Maria; Bismayer, Ulrich [Mineralogisch-Petrographisches Institut, Universitaet Hamburg (Germany); Angel, Ross J. [Crystallography Laboratory, Virgina Tech, Blacksburg (United States); Marshall, William G. [ISIS Neutron Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom); Engel, Jens M. [Institut fuer Werkstoffwissenschaft, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Gospodinov, Marin [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Petrova, Dimitrina [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); South-West University Neofit Rilski, Blagoevgrad (Bulgaria)

    2010-07-01

    The pressure-induced phase transitions that occur in the perovskite-type relaxor ferroelectric PbSc{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (PST) and Pb{sub 0.78}Ba{sub 0.22}Sc{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (PST-Ba) were studied with combined neutron powder diffraction and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. An increase in the intensities of h,k,l=all odd reflections is observed while the intensity of h,h,h peaks, h=2n+1, does not change with pressure, indicating a glide-plane pseudo-symmetry of the structural distortion along the left angle 111 right angle cubic directions. Rietveld refinement to the neutron powder data shows that the high-pressure phase has either R anti 3c or R anti 3 symmetry, depending on whether the presence of 1:1 octahedral cation ordering is neglected or taken into account, and comprises anti-phase octahedral tilts of type a{sup -}a{sup -}a{sup -} that continuously evolve with pressure.

  5. Origin of dielectric relaxor behavior in PVDF-based copolymer and terpolymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanick, Abhijit; Osti, Naresh C.; Jalarvo, Niina; Misture, Scott T.; Diallo, Souleymane Omar; Mamontov, Eugene; Luo, Y.; Keum, Jong-Kahk; Littrell, Ken

    2018-04-01

    Relaxor ferroelectrics exhibit frequency-dispersion of their dielectric permittivity peak as a function of temperature, the origin of which has been widely debated. Microscopic understanding of such behavior for polymeric ferroelectrics has presented new challenges since unlike traditional ceramic ferroelectrics, dielectric relaxation in polymers is a consequence of short-range molecular dynamics that are difficult to measure directly. Here, through careful analysis of atomic-level H-atom dynamics as determined by Quasi-elastic Neutron Scattering (QENS), we show that short-range molecular dynamics within crystalline domains cannot explain the macroscopic frequency-dispersion of dielectric properties observed in prototypical polyvinylidene-fluoride (PVDF)-based relaxor ferroelectrics. Instead, from multiscale quantitative microstructural characterization, a clear correlation between the amount of crystalline-amorphous interfaces and dielectric relaxation is observed, which indicates that such interfaces play a central role. These results provide critical insights into the role of atomic and microscopic structures towards relaxor behavior in ferroelectric polymers, which will be important for their future design.

  6. Origin of dielectric relaxor behavior in PVDF-based copolymer and terpolymer films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Pramanick

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Relaxor ferroelectrics exhibit frequency-dispersion of their dielectric permittivity peak as a function of temperature, the origin of which has been widely debated. Microscopic understanding of such behavior for polymeric ferroelectrics has presented new challenges since unlike traditional ceramic ferroelectrics, dielectric relaxation in polymers is a consequence of short-range molecular dynamics that are difficult to measure directly. Here, through careful analysis of atomic-level H-atom dynamics as determined by Quasi-elastic Neutron Scattering (QENS, we show that short-range molecular dynamics within crystalline domains cannot explain the macroscopic frequency-dispersion of dielectric properties observed in prototypical polyvinylidene-fluoride (PVDF-based relaxor ferroelectrics. Instead, from multiscale quantitative microstructural characterization, a clear correlation between the amount of crystalline-amorphous interfaces and dielectric relaxation is observed, which indicates that such interfaces play a central role. These results provide critical insights into the role of atomic and microscopic structures towards relaxor behavior in ferroelectric polymers, which will be important for their future design.

  7. Non-Resonant Magnetoelectric Energy Harvesting Utilizing Phase Transformation in Relaxor Ferroelectric Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Finkel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in phase transition transduction enabled the design of a non-resonant broadband mechanical energy harvester that is capable of delivering an energy density per cycle up to two orders of magnitude larger than resonant cantilever piezoelectric type generators. This was achieved in a [011] oriented and poled domain engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystal, mechanically biased to a state just below the ferroelectric rhombohedral (FR-ferroelectric orthorhombic (FO phase transformation. Therefore, a small variation in an input parameter, e.g., electrical, mechanical, or thermal will generate a large output due to the significant polarization change associated with the transition. This idea was extended in the present work to design a non-resonant, multi-domain magnetoelectric composite hybrid harvester comprised of highly magnetostrictive alloy, [Fe81.4Ga18.6 (Galfenol or TbxDy1-xFe2 (Terfenol-D], and lead indium niobate–lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate (PIN-PMN-PT domain engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. A small magnetic field applied to the coupled device causes the magnetostrictive element to expand, and the resulting stress forces the phase change in the relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. We have demonstrated high energy conversion in this magnetoelectric device by triggering the FR-FO transition in the single crystal by a small ac magnetic field in a broad frequency range that is important for multi-domain hybrid energy harvesting devices.

  8. Statistical mechanical lattice model of the dual-peak electrocaloric effect in ferroelectric relaxors and the role of pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, Lawrence J; Axelsson, Anna-Karin; Alford, Neil McN; Valant, Matjaz; Manos, George

    2011-01-01

    Despite considerable effort, the microscopic origin of the electrocaloric (EC) effect in ferroelectric relaxors is still intensely discussed. Ferroelectric relaxors typically display a dual-peak EC effect, whose origin is uncertain. Here we present an exact statistical mechanical matrix treatment of a lattice model of polar nanoregions forming in a neutral background and use this approach to study the characteristics of the EC effect in ferroelectric relaxors under varying electric field and pressure. The dual peaks seen in the EC properties of ferroelectric relaxors are due to the formation and ordering of polar nanoregions. The model predicts significant enhancement of the EC temperature rise with pressure which may have some contribution to the giant EC effect.

  9. Monte Carlo simulations for describing the ferroelectric-relaxor crossover in BaTiO3-based solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padurariu, Leontin; Enachescu, Cristian; Mitoseriu, Liliana

    2011-01-01

    The properties induced by the M 4+ addition (M = Zr, Sn, Hf) in BaM x Ti 1-x O 3 solid solutions have been described on the basis of a 2D Ising-like network and Monte Carlo calculations, in which BaMO 3 randomly distributed unit cells were considered as being non-ferroelectric. The polarization versus temperature dependences when increasing the M 4+ concentration (x) showed a continuous reduction of the remanent polarization and of the critical temperature corresponding to the ferroelectric-paraelectric transition and a modification from a first-order to a second-order phase transition with a broad temperature range for which the transition takes place, as commonly reported for relaxors. The model also describes the system's tendency to reduce the polar clusters' average size while increasing their stability in time at higher temperatures above the Curie range, when a ferroelectric-relaxor crossover is induced by increasing the substitution (x). The equilibrium micropolar states during the polarization reversal process while describing the P(E) loops were comparatively monitored for the ferroelectric (x = 0) and relaxor (x = 0.3) states. Polarization reversal in relaxor compositions proceeds by the growth of several nucleated domains (the 'labyrinthine domain pattern') instead of the large scale domain formation typical for the ferroelectric state. The spatial and temporal evolution of the polar clusters in BaM x Ti 1-x O 3 solid solutions at various x has also been described by the correlation length and correlation time. As expected for the ferroelectric-relaxor crossover characterized by a progressive increasing degree of disorder, local fluctuations cause a reducing correlation time when the substitution degree increases, at a given temperature. The correlation time around the Curie temperature increases, reflecting the increasing stability in time of some polar nanoregions in relaxors in comparison with ferroelectrics, which was experimentally proved in

  10. Debye’s temperature and heat capacity for Sr0.15Ba0.85Bi2Nb2O9 relaxor ferroelectric ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peláiz-Barranco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A lead-free relaxor ferroelectric, Sr0.15Ba0.85Bi2Nb2O9, was synthesized via solid-state reaction and the temperature-dependence of the heat capacity was measured in a wide temperature range. The dielectric permittivity was also measured between 500Hz and 5MHz in the same temperature range. No anomaly has been detected in the heat capacity curve for the whole temperature range covered in the present experiments, while broad peaks have been observed in the dielectric permittivity with high frequency dispersion. A typical relaxor behavior has been observed from the dielectric analysis. The Debye’s temperature has showed a minimum value near the freezing temperature. The results are discussed considering the spin-glass model and the high frequency dispersion, which has been observed for the studied relaxor system.

  11. High Performance Relaxor-Based Ferroelectric Single Crystals for Ultrasonic Transducer Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT have drawn much attention in the ferroelectric field because of their excellent piezoelectric properties and high electromechanical coupling coefficients (d33~2000 pC/N, kt~60% near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB. Ternary Pb(In1/2Nb1/2O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT single crystals also possess outstanding performance comparable with PMN-PT single crystals, but have higher phase transition temperatures (rhombohedral to tetragonal Trt, and tetragonal to cubic Tc and larger coercive field Ec. Therefore, these relaxor-based single crystals have been extensively employed for ultrasonic transducer applications. In this paper, an overview of our work and perspectives on using PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is presented. Various types of single-element ultrasonic transducers, including endoscopic transducers, intravascular transducers, high-frequency and high-temperature transducers fabricated using the PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT crystals and their 2-2 and 1-3 composites are reported. Besides, the fabrication and characterization of the array transducers, such as phased array, cylindrical shaped linear array, high-temperature linear array, radial endoscopic array, and annular array, are also addressed.

  12. Ferroelectric relaxor behaviour and impedance spectroscopy of Bi2O3-doped barium zirconium titanate ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Sandeep; Thakur, O P; Bhattacharya, D K; Sreenivas, K

    2009-03-01

    Bi2O3-doped barium zirconate titanate ceramics, Ba1-xBix(Zr0.05Ti0.95)O3, have been prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction method. The ferroelectric relaxor behaviour and dielectric properties have been investigated in detail. By XRD analysis, it is suggested that up to x = 0.04, Bi3+ substitutes A-site ion, and thereafter with higher Bi3+ content, it enters the B-site sub lattice. Substitution of Bi3+ ions induces ferroelectric relaxor behaviour and the degree of relaxation behaviour increases with bismuth concentration. The remanent polarization and strain behaviour show a slight increase with the substitution level. The degree of hysteresis (strain versus electric field) also reduces from 21.4% to 4.6% with bismuth substitution. Impedance measurements were made on the prepared sample over a wide range of temperatures (300-723 K) and frequencies (40 Hz-1 MHz), which show the presence of both bulk and grain boundary effects in the material. The bulk and grain boundary conductivities determined from impedance study indicate the Arrhenius-type thermally activated process. Impedance spectroscopy is shown to be an efficient method capable of detecting the contributions of the resistances of grains and grain boundaries to the complex impedance of a ceramic system, accurately estimating its electrical conductivity as well as its corresponding activation energies and drawing conclusions on its structural properties.

  13. Ferroelectric relaxor behaviour and impedance spectroscopy of Bi2O3-doped barium zirconium titanate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, Sandeep; Thakur, O P; Bhattacharya, D K; Sreenivas, K

    2009-01-01

    Bi 2 O 3 -doped barium zirconate titanate ceramics, Ba 1-x Bi x (Zr 0.05 Ti 0.95 )O 3 , have been prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction method. The ferroelectric relaxor behaviour and dielectric properties have been investigated in detail. By XRD analysis, it is suggested that up to x = 0.04, Bi 3+ substitutes A-site ion, and thereafter with higher Bi 3+ content, it enters the B-site sub lattice. Substitution of Bi 3+ ions induces ferroelectric relaxor behaviour and the degree of relaxation behaviour increases with bismuth concentration. The remanent polarization and strain behaviour show a slight increase with the substitution level. The degree of hysteresis (strain versus electric field) also reduces from 21.4% to 4.6% with bismuth substitution. Impedance measurements were made on the prepared sample over a wide range of temperatures (300-723 K) and frequencies (40 Hz-1 MHz), which show the presence of both bulk and grain boundary effects in the material. The bulk and grain boundary conductivities determined from impedance study indicate the Arrhenius-type thermally activated process. Impedance spectroscopy is shown to be an efficient method capable of detecting the contributions of the resistances of grains and grain boundaries to the complex impedance of a ceramic system, accurately estimating its electrical conductivity as well as its corresponding activation energies and drawing conclusions on its structural properties.

  14. First-principles studies of the local structure and relaxor behavior of Pb(Mg 1 /3Nb2 /3) O3-PbTiO3 -derived ferroelectric perovskite solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hengxin; Takenaka, Hiroyuki; Xu, Changsong; Duan, Wenhui; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2018-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of transition-metal dopants on the local structure of the prototypical 0.75 Pb (Mg1 /3Nb2 /3) O3-0.25 PbTiO3 relaxor ferroelectric. We find that these dopants give rise to very different local structure and other physical properties. For example, when Mg is partially substituted by Cu or Zn, the displacement of Cu or Zn is much larger than that of Mg and is even comparable to that of Nb. The polarization of these systems is also increased, especially for the Cu-doped solution, due to the large polarizability of Cu and Zn. As a result, the predicted maximum dielectric constant temperatures Tm are increased. On the other hand, the replacement of a Ti atom with a Mo or Tc atom dramatically decreases the displacements of the cations and the polarization, and thus, the Tm values are also substantially decreased. The higher Tm cannot be explained by the conventional argument based on the ionic radii of the cations. Furthermore, we find that Cu, Mo, or Tc doping increases the cation displacement disorder. The effect of the dopants on the temperature dispersion Δ Tm , which is the change in Tm for different frequencies, is also discussed. Our findings lay the foundation for further investigations of unexplored dopants.

  15. A polarized Raman study of the relaxor and ferroelectric states of La-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Marssi, M.; Farhi, R.; Viehland, D.

    1997-01-01

    Lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics with La/Zr/Ti ratios of 6/40/60, 12/40/60, 5/65/35, and 9/65/35 have been studied by polarized Raman scattering. In the two former (tetragonal-type) compositions, selection rules were rather well defined and allowed an assignment of the Raman lines at lower temperature. These selection rules disappeared for 6/40/60 but remained for 12/40/60 even at higher temperatures. The behavior of the two latter (rhombohedral-type compositions) was quite different. No assignment of lines could be done. In addition, the spectra recorded in parallel and crossed polarizations were almost identical for 5/65/35 regardless of temperature. A very smeared paraelectric to ferroelectric transition was evidenced by Raman intensity measurements for this composition. On the contrary, selection rules were always present for the relaxor composition 9/65/35 which were similar to those for 12/40/60 and 6/40/60. This suggests that both tetragonal and rhombohedral-type local polar order is present for 9/65/35. The spectra of the field induced ferroelectric phase for 9/65/35 revealed no selection rules, similar to 5/65/35. This is attributed to the onset of only medium range ferroelectric order. Finally, Raman spectra recorded on powders of every composition did not reveal any selection rules, suggesting that intergranular effects might play a significant role in the behavior of these materials. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  16. Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals: growth, domain engineering, characterization and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Enwei; Cao, Wenwu

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, domain engineered relaxor-PT ferroelectric single crystals, including (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT), (1-x)Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PZN-PT) and (1-x-y)Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-yPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT), with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) have triggered a revolution in electromechanical devices owing to their giant piezoelectric properties and ultra-high electromechanical coupling factors. Compared to traditional PbZr1-xTixO3 (PZT) ceramics, the piezoelectric coefficient d33 is increased by a factor of 5 and the electromechanical coupling factor k33 is increased from 90%. Many emerging rich physical phenomena, such as charged domain walls, multi-phase coexistence, domain pattern symmetries, etc., have posed challenging fundamental questions for scientists. The superior electromechanical properties of these domain engineered single crystals have prompted the design of a new generation electromechanical devices, including sensors, transducers, actuators and other electromechanical devices, with greatly improved performance. It took less than 7 years from the discovery of larger size PMN-PT single crystals to the commercial production of the high-end ultrasonic imaging probe “PureWave”. The speed of development is unprecedented, and the research collaboration between academia and industrial engineers on this topic is truly intriguing. It is also exciting to see that these relaxor-PT single crystals are being used to replace traditional PZT piezoceramics in many new fields outside of medical imaging. The new ternary PIN-PMN-PT single crystals, particularly the ones with Mn-doping, have laid a solid foundation for innovations in high power acoustic projectors and ultrasonic motors, hinting another revolution in underwater SONARs and miniature actuation devices. This article intends to provide a comprehensive review on the development of relaxor-PT single crystals, spanning material discovery, crystal growth

  17. Relaxor ferroelectricity, ferromagnetic and optical second harmonic properties in lanthanum lithium niobate (La0.05Li0.85NbO3) nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Moreno, Carlos A.; Ding, Yu; Li, Chunqiang; Portelles, Jorge; Heiras, J.; Hurtado-Macias, A.; Farias, J.R.; González-Hernández, J.; Yacamán, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Relaxor ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism and Second Harmonic Generation properties were founded and studied as a function of a reduction heat treatment at 650 °C in a Ar-5%H 2 atmosphere in stoichiometric La 0.05 Li 0.85 NbO 3 nanoparticles of 40 nm. A diffuse dielectric anomaly related with relaxor behavior from 25 °C to 800 °C in a frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz was founded. It also shows ferromagnetic anhysterestic type and ferroelectric hysteresis loops at room temperature with a magnetic spin remnant of 2.5 × 10 −3 emu/g and polarization saturation of 0.235 μC/cm 2 , remnant polarization of 0.141 μC/cm 2 , coercive field of 1.35 kV/cm, respectively. It shows very good second harmonic generation signal at 450 nm and 500 nm. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, indicate an ABO 3 perovskite structure, new electronic binding energy structure for La (5s, 4d), Li (1s), Nb (4s, 3d, 4p) and oxygen (1s, 2s) and new vibrations modes on octahedron NbO 6 related to multiferroic single phase nanoparticles, respectively.

  18. Relaxor ferroelectricity, ferromagnetic and optical second harmonic properties in lanthanum lithium niobate (La0.05Li0.85NbO3) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Moreno, Carlos A.; Ding, Yu; Li, Chunqiang; Portelles, Jorge; Heiras, J.; Hurtado-Macias, A.; Farias, J. R.; González-Hernández, J.; Yacamán, M. J.; López, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    Relaxor ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism and Second Harmonic Generation properties were founded and studied as a function of a reduction heat treatment at 650 °C in a Ar-5%H2 atmosphere in stoichiometric La0.05Li0.85NbO3 nanoparticles of 40 nm. A diffuse dielectric anomaly related with relaxor behavior from 25 °C to 800 °C in a frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz was founded. It also shows ferromagnetic anhysterestic type and ferroelectric hysteresis loops at room temperature with a magnetic spin remnant of 2.5 × 10-3 emu/g and polarization saturation of 0.235 μC/cm2, remnant polarization of 0.141 μC/cm2, coercive field of 1.35 kV/cm, respectively. It shows very good second harmonic generation signal at 450 nm and 500 nm. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, indicate an ABO3 perovskite structure, new electronic binding energy structure for La (5s, 4d), Li (1s), Nb (4s, 3d, 4p) and oxygen (1s, 2s) and new vibrations modes on octahedron NbO6 related to multiferroic single phase nanoparticles, respectively.

  19. Three-mode coupling interference patterns in the dynamic structure factor of a relaxor ferroelectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, M. E.; Abernathy, D. L.; Sahul, R.; Stonaha, P. J.; Budai, J. D.

    2016-09-01

    A longstanding controversy for relaxor ferroelectrics has been the origin of the "waterfall" effect in the phonon dispersion curves, in which low-energy transverse phonons cascade into vertical columns. Originally interpreted as phonons interacting with polar nanoregions (PNRs), it was later explained as an interference effect of coupling damped optic and acoustic phonons. In light of a recently discovered PNR vibrational mode near the "waterfall" wave vector [M. E. Manley, J. W. Lynn, D. L. Abernathy, E. D. Specht, O. Delaire, A. R. Bishop, R. Sahul, and J. D. Budai, Nat. Commun. 5, 3683 (2014), 10.1038/ncomms4683], we have reexamined this feature using neutron scattering on [100]-poled PMN-30%PT [0.6 Pb (M g1 /3N b2 /3 ) O3-0.3 PbTi O3] . We find that the PNR mode couples to both optic and acoustic phonons and that this results in complex patterns in the dynamic structure factor, including intensity pockets and peaks localized in momentum-energy space. These features are fully explained by extending the mode-coupling model to include three coupled damped harmonic oscillators representing the transverse optic, acoustic, and PNR modes.

  20. BaZr.sub.0.5./sub.Ti.sub.0.5./sub.O.sub.3./sub.: Lead-free relaxor ferroelectric or dipolar glass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filipič, C.; Kutnjak, Z.; Pirc, R.; Canu, G.; Petzelt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 22 (2016), 1-7, č. článku 224105. ISSN 2469-9950 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : relaxor ferroelectric * dipolar glass * dielectric relaxation * Edwards-Anderson parameter Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  1. Ferroelectric relaxor behaviour and impedance spectroscopy of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped barium zirconium titanate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahajan, Sandeep; Thakur, O P; Bhattacharya, D K [Electroceramics Group, Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Delhi-110054 (India); Sreenivas, K, E-mail: omprakasht@hotmail.co [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi- 110007 (India)

    2009-03-21

    Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped barium zirconate titanate ceramics, Ba{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x}(Zr{sub 0.05}Ti{sub 0.95})O{sub 3}, have been prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction method. The ferroelectric relaxor behaviour and dielectric properties have been investigated in detail. By XRD analysis, it is suggested that up to x = 0.04, Bi{sup 3+} substitutes A-site ion, and thereafter with higher Bi{sup 3+} content, it enters the B-site sub lattice. Substitution of Bi{sup 3+} ions induces ferroelectric relaxor behaviour and the degree of relaxation behaviour increases with bismuth concentration. The remanent polarization and strain behaviour show a slight increase with the substitution level. The degree of hysteresis (strain versus electric field) also reduces from 21.4% to 4.6% with bismuth substitution. Impedance measurements were made on the prepared sample over a wide range of temperatures (300-723 K) and frequencies (40 Hz-1 MHz), which show the presence of both bulk and grain boundary effects in the material. The bulk and grain boundary conductivities determined from impedance study indicate the Arrhenius-type thermally activated process. Impedance spectroscopy is shown to be an efficient method capable of detecting the contributions of the resistances of grains and grain boundaries to the complex impedance of a ceramic system, accurately estimating its electrical conductivity as well as its corresponding activation energies and drawing conclusions on its structural properties.

  2. Chemical approach to neutral-ionic valence instability, quantum phase transition, and relaxor ferroelectricity in organic charge-transfer complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Sachio; Kumai, Reiji; Okimoto, Yoichi; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    Neutral-ionic (NI) phase transition is a reversible switching of organic charge-transfer complexes between distinct valence states by external stimuli. This phase transformation in the low-dimensional system is demonstrated to provide a variety of novel dielectric, structural, and electronic properties. Importantly, ionization of the electron donor-acceptor pairs is usually accompanied by a ferroelectric or antiferroelectric order of the molecular lattice, leading to huge dielectric response near the transition point. Although these characteristics are potentially useful for future electronic and optical applications, the thermally accessible NI transition (TINIT) is still an extremely rare case. The TINIT compounds including some new materials are overviewed in order to provide convenient guides to their design and experimental identifications. The phase transition and dielectric properties can be closely controlled in various ways depending on chemical and physical modifications of the crystals. Among them, a quantum phase transition and relaxor ferroelectricity, both of which are currently attracting subjects from both scientific and practical perspectives, are highlighted as the first achievements in organic charge-transfer complexes

  3. An Ultrathin Single Crystalline Relaxor Ferroelectric Integrated on a High Mobility Semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghadam, Reza M. [Department; Xiao, Zhiyong [Department; Ahmadi-Majlan, Kamyar [Department; Grimley, Everett D. [Department; Bowden, Mark [Environmental; amp, Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Ong, Phuong-Vu [Physical; amp, Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Chambers, Scott A. [Physical; amp, Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Lebeau, James M. [Department; Hong, Xia [Department; Sushko, Peter V. [Physical; amp, Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Ngai, Joseph H. [Department

    2017-09-13

    The epitaxial growth of multifunctional oxides on semiconductors has opened a pathway to introduce new functionalities to semiconductor device technologies. In particular, ferroelectric materials integrated on semiconductors could lead to low-power field-effect devices that can be used for logic or memory. Essential to realizing such field-effect devices is the development of ferroelectric metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors, in which the polarization of a ferroelectric gate is coupled to the surface potential of a semiconducting channel. Here we demonstrate that ferroelectric MOS capacitors can be realized using single crystalline SrZrxTi1-xO3 (x= 0.7) that has been epitaxially grown on Ge. We find that the ferroelectric properties of SrZrxTi1-xO3 are exceptionally robust, as gate layers as thin as 5 nm give rise to hysteretic capacitance-voltage characteristics that are 2 V in width. The development of ferroelectric MOS capacitors with gate thicknesses that are technologically relevant opens a pathway to realize scalable ferroelectric field-effect devices.

  4. Relaxor ferroelectricity, ferromagnetic and optical second harmonic properties in lanthanum lithium niobate (La{sub 0.05}Li{sub 0.85}NbO{sub 3}) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-Moreno, Carlos A., E-mail: cdiazmoreno@utep.edu [Department of Physics of University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University Ave, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Ding, Yu; Li, Chunqiang [Department of Physics of University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University Ave, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Portelles, Jorge [Facultad de Física, Universidad de La Habana, San lázaro y L, 10400 (Cuba); Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, B.C. 22860 (Mexico); Heiras, J. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, B.C. 22860 (Mexico); Hurtado-Macias, A. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados S.C., Miguel de Cervantes #120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua, C.P. 31109 (Mexico); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Farias, J.R. [Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología, UACJ, Avenida del Charro #450 N. Cd. Juárez, Chihuahua, C.P. 32310 (Mexico); González-Hernández, J. [Centro de Ingeniería y Desarrollo Industrial, Santiago de Querétaro 76130, Qro (Mexico); Yacamán, M.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); and others

    2017-07-01

    Relaxor ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism and Second Harmonic Generation properties were founded and studied as a function of a reduction heat treatment at 650 °C in a Ar-5%H{sub 2} atmosphere in stoichiometric La{sub 0.05}Li{sub 0.85}NbO{sub 3} nanoparticles of 40 nm. A diffuse dielectric anomaly related with relaxor behavior from 25 °C to 800 °C in a frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz was founded. It also shows ferromagnetic anhysterestic type and ferroelectric hysteresis loops at room temperature with a magnetic spin remnant of 2.5 × 10{sup −3} emu/g and polarization saturation of 0.235 μC/cm{sup 2}, remnant polarization of 0.141 μC/cm{sup 2}, coercive field of 1.35 kV/cm, respectively. It shows very good second harmonic generation signal at 450 nm and 500 nm. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, indicate an ABO{sub 3} perovskite structure, new electronic binding energy structure for La (5s, 4d), Li (1s), Nb (4s, 3d, 4p) and oxygen (1s, 2s) and new vibrations modes on octahedron NbO{sub 6} related to multiferroic single phase nanoparticles, respectively.

  5. Relaxor behavior in lead-free Ba(Ti1−xScx/2Nbx/2O3 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bensemma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid solutions of (1−xBaTiO3-xBaSc1/2Nb1/2O3 (BT-BSN with x = 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1 and 0.125 were prepared by a high temperature solid-state reaction technique. The effects of the Ba(Sc1/2Nb1/2O3 addition on the phase composition, dielectric properties, as well as polarization-electric field (P-E loops of the BT-BSN solid solution were investigated. The room-temperature X-ray diffraction analyses of all the ceramics revealed a perovskite phase after sintering at 1350 °C with a composition-dependent symmetry. Temperature and frequency dependence of the dielectric permittivity and losses have been explored: ceramics of compositions x ≤ 0.075 showed normal ferroelectric behavior, while ceramics with x ≥ 0.1 were of relaxor type. The degree of diffuseness and the relaxor effect increase while the transition temperature (TC or Tm decreases when both scandium and niobium are introduced in the BaTiO3 lattice. Ceramics of composition x = 0.125 exhibited interesting relaxor characteristics at 10 kHz: ΔTm = 20 K, ɛr = 12,000, and Tm = 140 K. In addition, modeled using Vogel–Fülcher relation, this same composition showed the fitting parameters: Ea = 0.0503 eV, f0 = 1.129 × 1014 Hz and TVF = 166.85 K.

  6. Anisotropic phonon coupling in the relaxor ferroelectric (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 near its high-temperature phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ling; Toulouse, Jean; Luo, Haosu; Tian, Wei

    2014-08-01

    The lead free relaxor Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (NBT) undergoes a structural cubic-to-tetragonal transition near 800 K which is caused by the cooperative rotations of O6 octahedra. These rotations are also accompanied by the displacements of the cations and the formation of the polar nanodomains (PNDs) that are responsible for the characteristic dielectric dispersion of relaxor ferroelectrics. Because of their intrinsic properties, spontaneous polarization, and lack of inversion symmetry, these PNDs are also piezoelectric and can mediate an interaction between polarization and strain or couple the optic and acoustic phonons. Because PNDs introduce a local tetragonal symmetry, the phonon coupling they mediate is found to be anisotropic. In this paper we present inelastic neutron scattering results on coupled transverse acoustic (TA) and transverse optic (TO) phonons in the [110] and [001] directions and across the cubic-tetragonal phase transition at TC˜800 K. The phonon spectra are analyzed using a mode coupling model. In the [110] direction, as in other relaxors and some ferroelectric perovskites, a precipitous drop of the TO phonon into the TA branch or "waterfall" is observed at a certain qwf˜0.14 r.l.u. In the [001] direction, the highly overdamped line shape can be fitted with closely positioned bare mode energies which are largely overlapping along the dispersion curves. Two competing lattice coupling mechanism are proposed to explain these observations.

  7. Giant electrocaloric response in the prototypical Pb(Mg,Nb)O3 relaxor ferroelectric from atomistic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhijun; Nahas, Y.; Prokhorenko, S.; Prosandeev, S.; Wang, D.; Íñiguez, Jorge; Bellaiche, L.

    2018-03-01

    An atomistic effective Hamiltonian is used to investigate electrocaloric (EC) effects of Pb (Mg1 /3Nb2 /3) O3 relaxor ferroelectrics in its ergodic regime, and subject to electric fields applied along the pseudocubic [111] direction. Such a Hamiltonian qualitatively reproduces (i) the electric field-versus-temperature phase diagram, including the existence of a critical point where first-order and second-order transitions meet each other; and (ii) a giant EC response near such a critical point. It also reveals that such giant response around this critical point is microscopically induced by field-induced percolation of polar nanoregions. Moreover, it is also found that, for any temperature above the critical point, the EC coefficient-versus-electric-field curve adopts a maximum (and thus larger electrocaloric response too), that can be well described by the general Landau-like model proposed by Jiang et al., [Phys. Rev. B 96, 014114 (2017)], 10.1103/PhysRevB.96.014114, and that is further correlated with specific microscopic features related to dipoles lying along different rhombohedral directions. Furthermore, for temperatures being at least 40 K higher than the critical temperature, the (electric field, temperature) line associated with this maximal EC coefficient is below both the Widom line and the line representing percolation of polar nanoregions.

  8. Octahedral tilt transitions in the relaxor ferroelectric Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Kai-Christian; Gröting, Melanie; Albe, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics of octahedral tilt transitions in the lead-free relaxor material sodium bismuth titanate Na 1/2 Bi 1/2 TiO 3 (NBT) is investigated by electronic structure calculations within density functional theory. Energy barriers for transitions between tetragonal, rhombohedral and orthorhombic tilts in cation configurations with [001]- and [111]-order on the A-sites are determined by nudged elastic band calculations. By tilting entire layers of octahedra simultaneously we find that the activation energy is lower for structures with 001-order compared to such with 111-order. The energetic coupling between differently tilted layers is, however, negligibly small. By introducing a single octahedral defect we create local tilt disorder and find that the deformation energy of the neighboring octahedra is less in a rhombohedral than in a tetragonal structure. By successively increasing the size of clusters of orthorhombic defects in a rhombohedral matrix with 001-order, we determine a critical cluster size of about 40 Å . Thus groups of about ten octahedra can be considered as nuclei for polar nanoregions, which are the cause of the experimentally observed relaxor behavior of NBT. - Graphical abstract: Nine orthorhombic oxygen octahedral tilt defects in a rhombohedral tilt configuration. - Highlights: • Chemical order influences energy barriers of octahedral tilt transitions. • The octahedral deformation energy is lower in rhombohedral phases. • Tilt defect clusters are more likely in rhombohedral structures. • Tilt defect clusters can act as nuclei for polar nanoregions

  9. Effects of Bi(Zn2/3Nb1/3)O3 Modification on the Relaxor Behavior and Piezoelectricity of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zenghui; Wu, Hua; Paterson, Alisa; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2017-10-01

    Relaxor lead magnesium niobate (PMN)-based materials exhibit complex structures and unusual properties that have been puzzling researchers for decades. In this paper, a new ternary solid solution of Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -PbTiO 3 -Bi(Zn 2/3 Nb 1/3 )O 3 (PMN-PT-BZN) is prepared in the form of ceramics, and the effects of the incorporation of BZN into the PMN-PT binary system are investigated. The crystal structure favors a pseudocubic symmetry and the relaxor properties are enhanced as the concentration of BZN increases. The relaxor behavior and the related phase transformations are studied by dielectric spectroscopy. A phase diagram mapping out the characteristic temperatures and various states is established. Interestingly, the piezoelectricity of the PMN-PT ceramics is significantly enhanced by the BZN substitution, with an optimal value of d 33 reaching 826 pC/N for 0.96[0.7Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -0.3PbTiO 3 ]-0.04Bi(Zn 2/3 Nb 1/3 )O 3 . This paper provides a better understanding of the relaxor ferroelectric behavior, and unveils a new relaxor-based ternary system as piezoelectric materials potentially useful for electromechanical transducer applications.

  10. Superspin glass phase and hierarchy of interactions in multiferroic PbFe.sub.1/2./sub.Sb.sub.1/2./sub.O.sub.3./sub.: an analog of ferroelectric relaxors?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laguta, Valentyn; Stephanovich, V. A.; Savinov, Maxim; Maryško, Miroslav; Kuzian, R. O.; Kondakova, I.V.; Olekhnovich, N.M.; Pushkarev, A.V.; Radyush, Yu.V.; Raevski, I. P.; Raevskaya, S. I.; Prosandeev, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, Nov (2014), "113041-1"-"113041-19" ISSN 1367-2630 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11473S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : multiferroics * spin glass * superantiferromagnetism * ferroelectrics * relaxors Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.558, year: 2014

  11. Infrared and dielectric spectroscopy of the relaxor ferroelectric Sr.sub.0.61./sub.Ba.sub.0.39./sub.Nb.sub.2./sub.O.sub.6./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buixaderas, Elena; Savinov, Maxim; Kempa, Martin; Veljko, Sergiy; Kamba, Stanislav; Petzelt, Jan; Pankrath, R.; Kapphan, S.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 17, - (2005), s. 653-666 ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010213; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/04/0993 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : relaxor ferroelectrics * dielectric relaxation * phonons Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.145, year: 2005

  12. Relaxor-like behavior of BaTiO.sub.3./sub. crystals from acoustic emission study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dul´kin, E.; Petzelt, Jan; Kamba, Stanislav; Mojaev, E.; Roth, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 3 (2010), 032903/1-032903/3 ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/10/0616; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0682 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : relaxor ferroelectrics * acoustic emission * phase transitions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.820, year: 2010

  13. Novel optically active lead-free relaxor ferroelectric (Ba0.6Bi0.2Li0.2)TiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkar, Hitesh; Rao, Vaibhav; Barvat, Arun; Pal, Prabir; Kumar, Ashok; Dutta, Soma; Tomar, M; Gupta, Vinay; Scott, J F

    2016-01-01

    We discovered a near-room-temperature lead-free relaxor-ferroelectric (Ba 0.6 Bi 0.2 Li 0.2 )TiO 3 (BBLT) having A-site compositionally disordered ABO 3 perovskite structure. Microstructure-property relations revealed that the chemical inhomogeneities and development of local polar nano-regions (PNRs) are responsible for dielectric dispersion as a function of probe frequencies and temperatures. Rietveld analysis indicates mixed crystal structure with 80% tetragonal structure (space group P4mm) and 20% orthorhombic structure (space group Amm2), which is confirmed by the high resolution transmission electron diffraction (HRTEM). Dielectric constant and tangent loss dispersion with and without illumination of light obey nonlinear Vogel–Fulcher (VF) relations. The material shows slim polarization–hysteresis (P – E) loops and excellent displacement coefficients (d 33 ∼ 233 pm V −1 ) near room temperature, which gradually diminish near the maximum dielectric dispersion temperature (T m ) . The underlying physics for light-sensitive dielectric dispersion was probed by x-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS), which strongly suggests that mixed valence of bismuth ions, especially Bi 5+ ions, comprise most of the optically active centers. Ultraviolet photoemission measurements showed most of the Ti ions are in 4 +  states and sit at the centers of the TiO 6 octahedra; along with asymmetric hybridization between O 2 p and Bi 6 s orbitals, this appears to be the main driving force for net polarization. This BBLT material may open a new path for environmental friendly lead-free relaxor-ferroelectric research. (paper)

  14. Relaxor-ferroelectric BaLnZT (Ln = La, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Sc) ceramics for actuator and energy storage application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sarit K.; Mallick, Kaushik; Tiwari, B.; Sinha, E.; Rout, S. K.

    2018-01-01

    Lead free ceramics Ba1-x Ln2x/3Zr0.3Ti0.7O3 (Ln = La, Nd, Sm, Eu and Sc), x = 0.02-0.10 are investigated for electrostrictive effect and energy storage properties in the proximity of relaxor-paraelectric phase boundary. Relaxor phase evidence from slim hysteresis loop and low remnant polarization are the key parameters responsible for improve the electrostrictive effect and energy storage properties simultaneously. With increase in rare earth content negative strain disappeared and almost hysteresis free strain is achieved. Strain-hysteresis profile in term of S-E, S-E 2 and S-P 2 is used to analyze the electrostrictive behavior of these ceramics. An average strain (S%) ˜ 0.03%, is accomplished at initial concentrations of x = 0.02-0.04 and electrostrictive coefficients (Q 11, and M 11) as well as the energy storage density is improved by a factor of 1.2 and 2.6 respectively when compare with pure (x = 0.0) ceramic. Above x ≥ 0.06, all compositions show a stable behavior which suggested the possibilities of these relaxor ceramics towards high precision actuators and energy storage application.

  15. Far-infrared and dielectric spectroscopy of relaxor ferroelectric (Pb.sub.1-x./sub.La.sub.x./sub.)(Zr.sub.0,4./sub.Ti.sub.0,6./sub.)O.sub.3./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buixaderas, Elena; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Veljko, Sergiy; Kamba, Stanislav; Savinov, Maxim; Petzelt, Jan; Kosec, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 7 (2007), 074106/1-074106/8 ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100701; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0403; GA ČR GA202/04/0993 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : relaxor ferroelectrics * phase transitions * soft mode Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.171, year: 2007

  16. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy of Ba(Zr,Ti)O.sub.3./sub.: dynamics of relaxors and diffuse ferroelectrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petzelt, Jan; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Savinov, Maxim; Bovtun, Viktor; Kempa, Martin; Ostapchuk, Tetyana; Hlinka, Jiří; Canu, G.; Buscaglia, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 469, č. 1 (2014), s. 14-25 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0232; GA ČR GA13-15110S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : relaxor * diffuse phase transition * dielectric dispersion * polar phonons * local ion hopping Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.469, year: 2014

  17. Relaxor properties of barium titanate crystals grown by Remeika method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Michel; Tiagunov, Jenia; Dul'kin, Evgeniy; Mojaev, Evgeny

    2017-06-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT) crystals have been grown by the Remeika method using both the regular KF and mixed KF-NaF (0.6-0.4) solvents. Typical acute angle "butterfly wing" BT crystals have been obtained, and they were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (including energy dispersive spectroscopy), conventional dielectric and acoustic emission methods. A typical wing has a triangular plate shape which is up to 0.5 mm thick with a 10-15 mm2 area. The plate has a (001) habit and an atomically smooth outer surface. Both K+ and F- solvent ions are incorporated as dopants into the crystal lattice during growth substituting for Ba2+ and O2- ions respectively. The dopants' distribution is found to be inhomogeneous, their content being almost an order of magnitude higher (up to 2 mol%) at out surface of the plate relatively to the bulk. A few μm thick surface layer is formed where a multidomain ferroelectric net is confined between two≤1 μm thick dopant-rich surfaces. The layer as a whole possess relaxor ferroelectric properties, which is apparent from the appearance of additional broad maxima, Tm, in the temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity around the ferroelectric phase transition. Intense acoustic emission responses detected at temperatures corresponding to the Tm values allow to observe the Tm shift to lower temperatures at higher frequencies, or dispersion, typical for relaxor ferroelectrics. The outer surface of the BT wing can thus serve as a relaxor thin film for various electronic application, such as capacitors, or as a substrate for BT-based multiferroic structure. Crystals grown from KF-NaF fluxes contain sodium atoms as an additional impurity, but the crystal yield is much smaller, and while the ferroelectric transition peak is diffuse it does not show any sign of dispersion typical for relaxor behavior.

  18. Electromechanical Anisotropy at the Ferroelectric to Relaxor Transition of (Bi0.5Na0.50.94Ba0.06TiO3 Ceramics from the Thermal Evolution of Resonance Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Pérez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available (Bi0.5Na0.50.94Ba0.06TiO3 dense ceramics were obtained from autocombustion sol-gel synthesized nanopowders and sintered at 1050 °C for 1–2 h for the study of the electromechanical anisotropy. Measurement of the complex impedance spectrum was carried out on thin ceramic disks, thickness-poled, as a function of the temperature from 16 °C up to the vanishing of the electromechanical resonances at the ferroelectric to relaxor transition near 100 °C. The spectrum comprises the fundamental radial extensional mode and three overtones of this, together with the fundamental thickness extensional mode, coupled with other complex modes. Thermal evolution of the spectrum shows anisotropic behavior. Piezoelectric, elastic, and dielectric material coefficients, including all losses, were determined from iterative analysis of the complex impedance curves at the planar, thickness, and shear virtually monomodal resonances of disks and shear plates, thickness-poled. d33 was measured quasi-statically at 100 Hz. This set of data was used as the initial condition for the optimization of the numerical calculation by finite elements of the full spectrum of the disk, from 100 kHz to 1.9 MHz, to determine the thermal evolution of the material coefficients. An appropriate measurement strategy to study electromechanical anisotropy of piezoelectric ceramics has been developed.

  19. Single crystal magnetic, dielectric and thermal studies of the relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Fe2/3W1/3)O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Z.G.; Sato, M.; Kita, E.; Bursill, L.A.; Schmid, H.

    1998-01-01

    The magnetic, dielectric and thermal properties of the complex perovskite Pb(Fe 2/3 W 1/3 )O 3 [PFW] have been studied on single crystals by means of a SQUID magnetometer, dielectric measurements and thermal analysis. Anomalies in the temperature dependence of the magnetization have revealed magnetic phase transitions at T N1 =350 K and T N2 =20 K. These two steps of antiferromagnetic ordering are attributed to the microstructural feature of the complex perovskite, characterized by ordered and disordered arrangements on the B-site, giving rise to a strong superexchange interaction of - Fe 3 + - O - Fe 3+ - type with a higher ordering temperature, and to a weak superexchange interaction of the B-site ordered elpasolite type - Fe 3+ + - O - W - O - Fe 3+ - with a lower Neel temperature. The low temperature antiferromagnetic phase exhibits a weak ferromagnetism. The dielectric properties of PFW show a relaxor ferroelectric behaviour with a dispersive maximum of permittivity at Tm (170 -190 K). The magnetic phase transition at T N2 =20 K results in anomalies both of the real part of permittivity and the dissipation factor, suggesting a magneto-electric coupling via magneto-structural interactions

  20. Electrocaloric effect and freezing temperature in (Pb0.8Ba0.2[(Zn1∕3Nb2∕30.7Ti0.3]O3 relaxor ferroelectric ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peláiz-Barranco

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The electrocaloric effect (ECE is studied in (Pb0.8Ba0.2[(Zn1∕3Nb2∕30.7Ti0.3]O3 relaxor ferroelectric ceramic by using an “indirect method”. The electric dependence for the polarization (hysteresis loops has been obtained for several temperatures showing typical relaxor characteristics. The temperature change ΔT, which is associated with the ECE, is calculated by using the temperature dependence for the polarization. A maximum value for ΔT is observed for temperatures close above the freezing temperature, showing an indirect evidence of that critical temperature. The results are discussed considering the contribution of the polar nanoregions to the polarization.

  1. Role of random electric fields in relaxors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Daniel; Stock, Christopher; Rodriguez-Rivera, Jose A.; Chi, Songxue; Leão, Juscelino; Long, Xifa; Xie, Yujuan; Bokov, Alexei A.; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Gehring, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    PbZr1–xTixO3 (PZT) and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)1–xTixO3 (PMN-xPT) are complex lead-oxide perovskites that display exceptional piezoelectric properties for pseudorhombohedral compositions near a tetragonal phase boundary. In PZT these compositions are ferroelectrics, but in PMN-xPT they are relaxors because the dielectric permittivity is frequency dependent and exhibits non-Arrhenius behavior. We show that the nanoscale structure unique to PMN-xPT and other lead-oxide perovskite relaxors is absent in PZT and correlates with a greater than 100% enhancement of the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient in PMN-xPT relative to that in PZT. By comparing dielectric, structural, lattice dynamical, and piezoelectric measurements on PZT and PMN-xPT, two nearly identical compounds that represent weak and strong random electric field limits, we show that quenched (static) random fields establish the relaxor phase and identify the order parameter. PMID:24449912

  2. Cofiring behavior and interfacial structure of NiCuZn ferrite/PMN ferroelectrics composites for multilayer LC filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Chunlin; Zhou Ji; Cui Xuemin; Wang Xiaohui; Yue Zhenxing; Li Longtu

    2006-01-01

    The cofiring behavior, interfacial structure and cofiring migration between NiCuZn ferrite and lead magnesium niobate (PMN)-based relaxor ferroelectric materials were investigated via thermomechanical analyzer (TMA), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Mismatched sintering shrinkage between NiCuZn ferrite and PMN was modified by adding an appropriate amount of sintering aids, Bi 2 O 3 , into NiCuZn ferrite. Pyrochlore phase appeared in the mixture of NiCuZn ferrite and PMN, which is detrimental to the final electric properties of LC filters. EDS results indicated that the interdiffusion at the heterogeneous interfaces in the composites, such as Fe, Pb, Zn, existed which can strengthen combinations between ferrite layers and ferroelectrics layers

  3. Effect of La doping on the ferroic order in Pb-based perovskite-type relaxor ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, B. J.; Welsch, A.-M.; Mihailova, B.; Angel, R. J.; Zhao, J.; Paulmann, C.; Engel, J. M.; Marshall, W. G.; Gospodinov, M.; Petrova, D.; Bismayer, U.

    2011-04-01

    The structural alteration induced by the substitution of three-valent cations with an isotropic electronic outermost shell for Pb2+ in perovskite-type relaxors was investigated in the solid solutions Pb1-xLaxSc(1+x)/2Ta(1-x)/2O3, x =0.08 (PST-La) and Pb1-xLaxSc(1+x)/2Nb(1-x)/2O3, x =0.23 (PSN-La). In order to distinguish the “charge” effects from “strain” effects associated with the incorporation of La3+ in the structure, Sr-containing PbSc0.5Nb0.5O3 was characterized as well. The structure of the compounds was analyzed by in situ Raman spectroscopy, single-crystal x-ray diffraction, and powder neutron diffraction at different temperatures or pressures. It is shown that the embedding of La3+ strongly affects the ferroic structural species due to strain effects through a disturbance of the system of lone-pair electrons associated with Pb2+ and a decrease in the tolerance factor. La doping suppresses the dynamical coupling between off-centered Pb and B-site cations and enhances antiphase BO6 octahedral tilting which, depending on the level of doping, may lead to long-range order of antiphase BO6 tilts at ambient conditions and frustrated antiferroelectric order of Pb ions at low temperatures.

  4. Temperature dependent polarization reversal mechanism in 0.94(Bi1/2Na1/2) TiO3-0.06Ba(Zr0.02Ti0.98)O3 relaxor ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaum, Julia; Simons, Hugh; Hudspeth, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    and structural investigation of the polarization reversal process in the prototypical lead-free relaxor 0.94(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-0.06Ba(Zr0.02Ti0.98)O3 reveals that an applied electric field can trigger depolarization and onset of relaxor-like behavior well below TF-R. The polarization reversal process can...... as such be described as a combination of (1) ferroelectric domain switching and (2) a reversible phase transition between two polar ferroelectric states mediated by a non-polar relaxor state. Furthermore, the threshold fields of the second, mediated polarization reversal mechanism depend strongly on temperature....... These results are concomitant with a continuous ferroelectric to relaxortransition occurring over a broad temperature range, during which mixed behavior is observed. The nature of polarization reversal can be illustrated in electric-field-temperature (E-T) diagrams showing the electric field amplitudes...

  5. Controlling dielectric and relaxor-ferroelectric properties for energy storage by tuning Pb0.92La0.08Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 film thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emery; Ma, Chunrui; Acharya, Jagaran; Ma, Beihai; Wu, Judy; Li, Jun

    2014-12-24

    The energy storage properties of Pb0.92La0.08Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PLZT) films grown via pulsed laser deposition were evaluated at variable film thickness of 125, 250, 500, and 1000 nm. These films show high dielectric permittivity up to ∼1200. Cyclic I-V measurements were used to evaluate the dielectric properties of these thin films, which not only provide the total electric displacement, but also separate contributions from each of the relevant components including electric conductivity (D1), dielectric capacitance (D2), and relaxor-ferroelectric domain switching polarization (P). The results show that, as the film thickness increases, the material transits from a linear dielectric to nonlinear relaxor-ferroelectric. While the energy storage per volume increases with the film thickness, the energy storage efficiency drops from ∼80% to ∼30%. The PLZT films can be optimized for different energy storage applications by tuning the film thickness to optimize between the linear and nonlinear dielectric properties and energy storage efficiency.

  6. Temperature dependent polarization reversal mechanism in 0.94(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-0.06Ba(Zr0.02Ti0.98)O3 relaxor ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaum, Julia; Simons, Hugh; Hudspeth, Jessica; Acosta, Matias; Daniels, John E.

    2015-12-01

    The temperature at which the electric field induced long-range ordered ferroelectric state undergoes transition into the short-range ordered relaxor state, TF-R, is commonly defined by the onset of strong dispersion of the dielectric permittivity. However, this combined macroscopic property and structural investigation of the polarization reversal process in the prototypical lead-free relaxor 0.94(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-0.06Ba(Zr0.02Ti0.98)O3 reveals that an applied electric field can trigger depolarization and onset of relaxor-like behavior well below TF-R. The polarization reversal process can as such be described as a combination of (1) ferroelectric domain switching and (2) a reversible phase transition between two polar ferroelectric states mediated by a non-polar relaxor state. Furthermore, the threshold fields of the second, mediated polarization reversal mechanism depend strongly on temperature. These results are concomitant with a continuous ferroelectric to relaxor transition occurring over a broad temperature range, during which mixed behavior is observed. The nature of polarization reversal can be illustrated in electric-field-temperature (E-T) diagrams showing the electric field amplitudes associated with different polarization reversal processes. Such diagrams are useful tools for identifying the best operational temperature regimes for a given composition in actuator applications.

  7. Homogenized electromechanical properties of crystalline and ceramic relaxor ferroelectric 0.58Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 0.42PbTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayachandran, K. P.; Guedes, J. M.; Rodrigues, H. C.

    2007-10-01

    A modelling framework that incorporates the peculiarities of microstructural features, such as the spatial correlation of crystallographic orientations and morphological texture in piezoelectrics, is established. The mathematical homogenization theory of a piezoelectric medium is implemented using the finite element method by solving the coupled equilibrium electrical and mechanical fields. The dependence of the domain orientation on the macroscopic electromechanical properties of crystalline as well as polycrystalline ceramic relaxor ferroelectric 0.58Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.42PbTiO3 (PMN-42% PT) is studied based on this model. The material shows large anisotropy in the piezoelectric coefficient ejK in its crystalline form. The homogenized electromechanical moduli of polycrystalline ceramic also exhibit significantly anisotropic behaviours. An optimum texture at which the piezoceramic exhibits its maximum longitudinal piezoelectric response is identified.

  8. Electric-field-induced local structural phenomena in relaxor ferroelectric PbSc0.5Nb0.5O3 near the intermediate temperature T* studied by Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steilmann, T; Maier, B J; Bismayer, U; Mihailova, B; Gospodinov, M

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy at different temperatures and under an external electric field E was applied to PbSc 0.5 Nb 0.5 O 3 single crystals in order to gain further insights into the mesoscopic-scale coupling processes in perovskite-type (ABO 3 ) relaxor ferroelectrics. Parallel and cross-polarized Raman spectra were collected between 800–80 K with E applied along the cubic [1 0 0], [1 1 0] or [1 1 1] crystallographic directions. The analysis was focused on the field-induced changes in the temperature evolution of three low-energy phonon modes: the Pb-localized mode near 50 cm −1 , the Pb-BO 3 translation mode near 150 cm −1 , and the B-cation-localized mode near 250 cm −1 . The results show that competitive ferroelectric (FE) and antiferroelectric (AFE) coupling exists within the system of off-centred Pb 2+ cations, within the system of off-centred B-site cations as well as between off-centred Pb 2+ and B-site cations. The strong AFE-type coupling between Pb 2+ cations along the cubic body diagonal significantly influences the coupling between the B-site cations via the Pb-BO 3 mode and results in AFE-type behaviour of the ‘microscopic’ T* determined from the B-cation-localized mode near 250 cm −1 , which explains the previously reported non-trivial field dependence of the ‘macroscopic’ characteristic temperatures: the temperature of the dielectric-permittivity maximum T m , T*, and the Burns temperature T B . The comparative analysis between PbSc 0.5 Nb 0.5 O 3 and PbSc 0.5 Ta 0.5 O 3 indicates that two major displacive order parameters couple to form a relaxor state in B-site complex perovskites: the FE order associated with polar shifts of B-site cations and the AFE order associated with polar shifts of A-site cations. The latter penetrates through both polar and non-polar regions, but it is highly frustrated due to the high density of translation-symmetry faults in the chemical NaCl-type B-site order. The frustrated AFE order

  9. Polarization-coupled tunable resistive behavior in oxide ferroelectric heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruverman, Alexei [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Tsymbal, Evgeny Y. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Eom, Chang-Beom [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-05-03

    This research focuses on investigation of the physical mechanism of the electrically and mechanically tunable resistive behavior in oxide ferroelectric heterostructures with engineered interfaces realized via a strong coupling of ferroelectric polarization with tunneling electroresistance and metal-insulator (M-I) transitions. This report describes observation of electrically conductive domain walls in semiconducting ferroelectrics, voltage-free control of resistive switching and demonstration of a new mechanism of electrical control of 2D electron gas (2DEG) at oxide interfaces. The research goals are achieved by creating strong synergy between cutting-edge fabrication of epitaxial single-crystalline complex oxides, nanoscale electrical characterization by scanning probe microscopy and theoretical modeling of the observed phenomena. The concept of the ferroelectric devices with electrically and mechanically tunable nonvolatile resistance represents a new paradigm shift in realization of the next-generation of non-volatile memory devices and low-power logic switches.

  10. Dielectric response of the relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 in the nonergodic state after a DC electric field is turned off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolpakova, N. N.; Czarnecki, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 (PMN) relaxor system is used as an example to analyze the temperature dependences of the low-frequency dielectric permitivity (ε'(T)) measured during zero-field heating (ZFH) from T = 10 K to T = 300 K after using different field cooling (FC) conditions. No changes in the temperature dependences of the permittivity have been detected during the transition from a nonergodic relaxor state (NERS) into an ergodic relaxor state (ERS) (at T f ∼ 216 K). However, the difference Δε'(T) between the curves corresponding to different field cooling conditions in the same electric field has different shapes and different values below and above T → (T f + 9 K) - (for E dc = 1.52 kV/cm). The reduced permittivities ε' r (T, f) recorded under different cooling conditions are shown to change their behavior when passing through T = T f + 9 K. In NERS, these curves diverge: the stronger the field (0 ≤ E dc ≤ 3 kV/cm), the larger the divergence. In ERS, however, the ε' r (T, f) curves coincide under different cooling conditions irrespective of the field. The character of the changes in Δε'(T) and ε' r (T, f) during the NERS-ERS transition is frequency-independent. The difference in the behavior of the dielectric response during ZFH after cooling in different (ZFC, FC) modes (even in a weak field), for both transition through T f and cooling down to T = 10 K, indicates different NERSs forming under these conditions. The contribution to ε'(T) from slowly relaxing regions (ω ∼ 0.1 mHz), whose polarization is reoriented after the field is turned off, is responsible for the fact that, during the NERS-ERS transition, the ε' r (T, f) curves coincide at a temperature that is higher than T = T f

  11. Relaxor-like behavior of lead-free Sr.sub.2./sub.LaTi.sub.2./sub.Nb.sub.3./sub.O.sub.15./sub. ceramics with tetragonal tungsten bronze structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bovtun, Viktor; Kamba, Stanislav; Veljko, Sergiy; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Knížek, Karel; Savinov, Maxim; Petzelt, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 5 (2007), 054115/1-054115/6 ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0403; GA ČR GA202/04/0993; GA MŠk OC 101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : relaxor ferroelectrics * dielectric spectroscopy * dipolar glass * infrared spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.171, year: 2007

  12. Magnetodielectric effect in relaxor/ferrimagnetic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naveed Ul-Haq, M., E-mail: naveedulhaq07@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Institute for Materials Sciences and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen 45141 (Germany); Yunus, Tayyaba; Mumtaz, Arif [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Shvartsman, V.V.; Lupascu, Doru C. [Institute for Materials Sciences and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen 45141 (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Single phase ferroelectric (relaxor)/ferrimagnetic composites are synthesized. • The composite shows magnetodielectric effect. • Effect of interface strain is discussed. • MD is explained via defining a local order parameter q(T). - Abstract: We report on the effect of an applied static magnetic field on the dielectric properties of ferroelectric relaxor/ferrimagnetic composites consisting of [Ba(Sn{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7})O{sub 3}]{sub 0.8}–[CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}]{sub 0.2} (BST{sub 0.8}–CFO{sub 0.2}). The pure Ba(Sn{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7})O{sub 3} (BST30) as well as the composites, were synthesized by solid state reaction method. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that BST30 and CFO coexist in the composite without any secondary phase. The real and the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity were studied as a function of temperature, with and without static magnetic field, respectively. Relaxor characteristics such as dielectric permittivity and its peak temperature are observed to vary with the magnetic field. This is explained in the context that the applied magnetic field creates magnetostriction in the ferrite phase which is transferred to the relaxor phase via the interface coupling. The strain in the relaxor phase results in the reorientation of local polarization entities, polar nano regions (PNRs), which alters the dielectric characteristics of the sample. This effect is explained in relation to local order parameter q(T) which is found to increase in a certain temperature range above the typical ferroelectric temperature regime with the application of magnetic field.

  13. Anomalous atomic displacement parameters and local dynamics in the Curie range of a Pb-free relaxor ferroelectric system (Bi1-xBax)(Fe1-xTix)O3(0.36 ≤ x ≤ 0.50)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anar; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro; Pandey, Dhananjai

    2018-04-01

    We report here the relaxor ferroelectric (RFE) behaviour in a multiferroic solid solution system, (Bi1-xBax)(Fe1-xTix)O3, at a critical disorder level of xC ˜ 0.35 in BiFeO3 and 0.65 (i.e., 1-xC = 0.35) in BaTiO3 similar to the 1:2 ratio of Mg2+ and Nb5+ in the canonical RFE Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3. This Pb-free system, like canonical Pb-based RFEs, does not exhibit macroscopic symmetry breaking and shows only the signatures of ergodicity breaking at Vogel-Fulcher freezing temperature (TVF). The atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) of Fe3+/Ti4+ and O2-, obtained using high wave vector (Q) and high-resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction data as a function of temperature, show anomalous diffuse peaks in the Curie range. It is shown that the diffuse peak in ADPs is due to softening of the vibrational frequencies of the B-O chain (B = Fe3+/Ti4+ and O = O2-) below the Burns temperature (TB) followed by hardening below the characteristic temperature (T'm), which corresponds to a peak in the dielectric permittivity (ɛ').

  14. Optical evidences for an intermediate phase in relaxor ferroelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO3 single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of low-temperature structural transformation and evolution of polar nano-structures in relaxor ferroelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-xPbTiO3 (x = 0.33, 0.35, and 0.42 single crystals have been investigated with the aid of temperature dependent low-wavenumber Raman scattering (LWRS and photoluminescence (PL spectra. The E(TO1 phonon mode reveals the characteristic relaxational polarization fluctuations associated with the reorientation of either polar nano-regions or polar nano-domains. It was found that these mechanisms are not independent and they can be ascribed to the phonon localization. In addition, a short-range monoclinic phase (Mc can be found below 250 K in the tetragonal phase region by LWRS, which is always associated with the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB and excellent electromechanical properties. It is interesting that PL spectra confirm these results. The present work indicates that external field modulation and change of composition can result in the monoclinic phase and co-existence of multi-phase.

  15. Switching kinetics of a relaxor ferroelectric Sr0.75Ba0.25Nb2O6 observed by the second harmonic generation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, Tatyana; Isakov, Dmitry; Belsley, Michael Scott; Ivleva, Lyudmila

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present a study of the ferroelectric switching kinetic process in strontium-barium niobate (SBN). The kinetics of polarization deduced from the dynamics of the diffuse second harmonic generation is in good qualitative agreement with thekinetics observed by more traditional polarization methods. Our work highlights the specific characteristics of polarization reversal in SBN, which is fundamentally different from that which occurs in model ferroelectrics. The presented optical measurements of the polarization processes provide several experimental advantages over traditional electrical measurements. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Losses in Ferroelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Wenhua; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials are the best dielectric and piezoelectric materials known today. Since the discovery of barium titanate in the 1940s, lead zirconate titanate ceramics in the 1950s and relaxor-PT single crystals (such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate and lead zinc niobate-lead titanate) in the 1980s and 1990s, perovskite ferroelectric materials have been the dominating piezoelectric materials for electromechanical devices, and are widely used in sensors, actuators and ultrasonic transducers. Energy losses (or energy dissipation) in ferroelectrics are one of the most critical issues for high power devices, such as therapeutic ultrasonic transducers, large displacement actuators, SONAR projectors, and high frequency medical imaging transducers. The losses of ferroelectric materials have three distinct types, i.e., elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric losses. People have been investigating the mechanisms of these losses and are trying hard to control and minimize them so as to reduce performance degradation in electromechanical devices. There are impressive progresses made in the past several decades on this topic, but some confusions still exist. Therefore, a systematic review to define related concepts and clear up confusions is urgently in need. With this objective in mind, we provide here a comprehensive review on the energy losses in ferroelectrics, including related mechanisms, characterization techniques and collections of published data on many ferroelectric materials to provide a useful resource for interested scientists and engineers to design electromechanical devices and to gain a global perspective on the complex physical phenomena involved. More importantly, based on the analysis of available information, we proposed a general theoretical model to describe the inherent relationships among elastic, dielectric, piezoelectric and mechanical losses. For multi-domain ferroelectric single crystals and ceramics, intrinsic and extrinsic energy

  17. Losses in Ferroelectric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Wenhua; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-03-01

    Ferroelectric materials are the best dielectric and piezoelectric materials known today. Since the discovery of barium titanate in the 1940s, lead zirconate titanate ceramics in the 1950s and relaxor-PT single crystals (such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate and lead zinc niobate-lead titanate) in the 1980s and 1990s, perovskite ferroelectric materials have been the dominating piezoelectric materials for electromechanical devices, and are widely used in sensors, actuators and ultrasonic transducers. Energy losses (or energy dissipation) in ferroelectrics are one of the most critical issues for high power devices, such as therapeutic ultrasonic transducers, large displacement actuators, SONAR projectors, and high frequency medical imaging transducers. The losses of ferroelectric materials have three distinct types, i.e., elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric losses. People have been investigating the mechanisms of these losses and are trying hard to control and minimize them so as to reduce performance degradation in electromechanical devices. There are impressive progresses made in the past several decades on this topic, but some confusions still exist. Therefore, a systematic review to define related concepts and clear up confusions is urgently in need. With this objective in mind, we provide here a comprehensive review on the energy losses in ferroelectrics, including related mechanisms, characterization techniques and collections of published data on many ferroelectric materials to provide a useful resource for interested scientists and engineers to design electromechanical devices and to gain a global perspective on the complex physical phenomena involved. More importantly, based on the analysis of available information, we proposed a general theoretical model to describe the inherent relationships among elastic, dielectric, piezoelectric and mechanical losses. For multi-domain ferroelectric single crystals and ceramics, intrinsic and extrinsic energy

  18. Far-infrared and THz spectroscopy of 0.4PMN-0.3PSN-0.3PZN relaxor ferroelectric ceramics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macutkevic, J.; Kamba, Stanislav; Banys, J.; Pashkin, Alexej; Bormanis, K.; Sternberg, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 27, - (2007), s. 3713-3717 ISSN 0955-2219 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0403; GA ČR GA202/04/0993 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : sintering * spectroscopy * ferroelectric properties * petrovskites * traditional ceramics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.562, year: 2007

  19. Electric field cycling behavior of ferroelectric hafnium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Tony; Schroeder, Uwe; Pešić, Milan; Popovici, Mihaela; Pershin, Yuriy V; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2014-11-26

    HfO2 based ferroelectrics are lead-free, simple binary oxides with nonperovskite structure and low permittivity. They just recently started attracting attention of theoretical groups in the fields of ferroelectric memories and electrostatic supercapacitors. A modified approach of harmonic analysis is introduced for temperature-dependent studies of the field cycling behavior and the underlying defect mechanisms. Activation energies for wake-up and fatigue are extracted. Notably, all values are about 100 meV, which is 1 order of magnitude lower than for conventional ferroelectrics like lead zirconate titanate (PZT). This difference is mainly atttributed to the one to two orders of magnitude higher electric fields used for cycling and to the different surface to volume ratios between the 10 nm thin films in this study and the bulk samples of former measurements or simulations. Moreover, a new, analog-like split-up effect of switching peaks by field cycling is discovered and is explained by a network model based on memcapacitive behavior as a result of defect redistribution.

  20. Dynamics of nanoscale polarization fluctuations in a uniaxial relaxor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondrejkovič, Petr; Kempa, Martin; Kulda, J.; Frick, B.; Appel, M.; Combet, J.; Dec, J.; Lukasiewicz, T.; Hlinka, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 16 (2014), "167601-1"-"167601-5" ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : strontium barium niobate * relaxor ferroelectrics * dielectric relaxations * neutron backscattering Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.512, year: 2014

  1. Lattice dynamics and dielectric spectroscopy of BZT and NBT lead-free perovskite relaxors - comparison with lead-based relaxors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petzelt, Jan; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Bovtun, Viktor; Kempa, Martin; Savinov, Maxim; Kamba, Stanislav; Hlinka, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 3 (2015), 320-332 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15110S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : relaxor ferroelectrics * polar phonons * polar nanoregions * dielectric spectroscopy * off-centred ions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.858, year: 2015

  2. Note: High-power piezoelectric transformer fabricated with ternary relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-Pb(In(1/2)Nb(1/2))O3-PbTiO3 single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Ma, Chuanguo; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Bao; Chen, Jianwei; Luo, Haosu; Wang, Tao; Shi, Wangzhou

    2016-03-01

    A plate-shaped piezoelectric transformer was designed and fabricated using ternary relaxor ferroelectric single crystal Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-Pb(In(1/2)Nb(1/2))O3-PbTiO3. Both the input and output sections utilized the transverse-extensional vibration mode. The frequency and load dependences of the electrical properties for the proposed transformer were systematically studied. Results indicated that under a matching load resistance of 14.9 kΩ, a maximum output power of 2.56 W was obtained with the temperature rise less than 5 °C. The corresponding power density reached up to 50 W/cm(3). This ternary single-crystal transformer had potential applications in compact-size converters requiring high power density.

  3. Lead-free relaxor ferroelectric ceramics in NaNbO.sub.3./sub.-Sr.sub.0.5./sub.NbO.sub.3./sub.-LiNbO.sub.3./sub. solid solution system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raevskaya, S. I.; Dellis, J.L.; Reznichenko, L.A.; Prosandeev, S. A.; Raevski, I. P.; Lisitsina, S.O.; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 317, - (2005), s. 241-243 ISSN 0015-0193 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : diffuse phase transition * lead-free relaxors * solid solutions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.459, year: 2005

  4. Dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric properties of grain-orientated Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jing; Shen Zhijian; Yan Haixue; Reece, Michael J.; Kan Yanmei; Wang Peiling

    2007-01-01

    By dynamic forging during Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), grain-orientated ferroelectric Bi 3.25 La 0.75 Ti 3 O 12 (BLT) ceramics were prepared. Their ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties are anisotropic. The textured ceramics parallel and perpendicular to the shear flow directions have similar thermal depoling behaviors. The d 33 piezoelectric coefficient of BLT ceramics gradually reduces up to 350 deg. C; it then drops rapidly. The broadness of the dielectric constant and loss peaks and the existence of d 33 above the permittivity peak, T m , show that the BLT ceramic has relaxor-like behavior

  5. Research Update: Enhanced energy storage density and energy efficiency of epitaxial Pb0.9La0.1(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 relaxor-ferroelectric thin-films deposited on silicon by pulsed laser deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh D. Nguyen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pb0.9La0.1(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PLZT relaxor-ferroelectric thin films were grown on SrRuO3/SrTiO3/Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition. A large recoverable storage density (Ureco of 13.7 J/cm3 together with a high energy efficiency (η of 88.2% under an applied electric field of 1000 kV/cm and at 1 kHz frequency was obtained in 300-nm-thick epitaxial PLZT thin films. These high values are due to the slim and asymmetric hysteresis loop when compared to the values in the reference undoped epitaxial lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 ferroelectric thin films (Ureco = 9.2 J/cm3 and η = 56.4% which have a high remanent polarization and a small shift in the hysteresis loop, under the same electric field.

  6. Study of the structure, dielectric and ferroelectric behavior of BaBi4+δTi4O15 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Anita; Goyal, Parveen K.; Thakur, O. P.; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-05-01

    The structure and ferroelectric properties of excess bismuth doped barium bismuth titanate BaBi4+δTi4O15 (δ = 2 - 10 wt.%)) ceramics prepared by solid-state reaction method have been investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of a single phase material with a change in the orthorhombic distortion with varying excess of bismuth content. There is no change in the phase transition temperature (Tm) while the relaxor behaviour has been modified significantly with excess of bismuth doping. Saturated hysteresis loops with high remnant polarization (Pr ~ 12.5 µC/cm2), low coercive fields (Ec ~ 26 kV/cm) are measured and a high piezoelectric coefficient (d33 ~ 29 pC/N) is achieved in poled BaBi4Ti4O15 ceramics prepared with up to 8 wt.% of excess bismuth oxide. The improvement in the ferroelectric properties with increase in the excess bismuth content in BaBi4Ti4O15 ceramics has been explained in terms of changing oxygen vacancy concentration and structural relaxation. Tunable ferroelectric materials can be obtained by manipulating the doping amount of excess bismuth.

  7. Tetragonal and rhombohedral induced polar order from the relaxor state of PbZn sub 1 sub / sub 3 Nb sub 2 sub / sub 3 O sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Lebon, A; Calvarin, G

    2003-01-01

    Structural and dielectric characterizations of the relaxor ferroelectric PbZn sub 1 sub / sub 3 Nb sub 2 sub / sub 3 O sub 3 (PZN) were carried out on single crystals in the temperature range of the dielectric anomaly (370 K = 1.5 kV cm sup - sup 1. The microscopic origin of these PNRs can be discussed in relation with recent nuclear magnetic resonance and structural results reported in other isomorphous relaxors.

  8. Modeling of strain effects on the device behaviors of ferroelectric memory field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Feng; Hu, Guangda; Wu, Weibing; Yang, Changhong; Wu, Haitao; Tang, Minghua

    2013-01-01

    The influence of strains on the channel current–gate voltage behaviors and memory windows of ferroelectric memory field-effect transistors (FeMFETs) were studied using an improved model based on the Landau–Devonshire theory. ‘Channel potential–gate voltage’ ferroelectric polarization and silicon surface potential diagrams were constructed for strained single-domain BaTiO 3 FeMFETs. The compressive strains can increase (or decrease) the amplitude of transistor currents and enlarge memory windows. However, tensile strains only decrease the maximum value of transistor currents and compress memory windows. Mismatch strains were found to have a significant influence on the electrical behaviors of the devices, therefore, they must be considered in FeMFET device designing. (fast track communication)

  9. Energy storage properties and relaxor behavior of lead-free Ba1-xSm2x/3Zr0.15Ti0.85O3 ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zheng; Li, Lingxia; Yu, Shihui; Kang, Xinyu; Chen, Siliang

    2017-10-24

    Lead-free Ba 1-x Sm 2x/3 Zr 0.15 Ti 0.85 O 3 (BSZT) ceramics were synthesized by a solid state reaction route. The microstructure, dielectric relaxor behavior and energy storage properties of BSZT ceramics were studied. The growth of grain size was suppressed with the increase of Sm addition and kept in the submicrometer scale. Successive substitution of Sm 3+ for Ba 2+ disrupted the long-range dipole and promoted the increase of polar nano-region (PNR) size, resulting in the enhanced degree of relaxor behavior. The increasing PNR size also lead to the slimmer hysteresis loops and improved the energy storage efficiency. Furthermore, high saturated polarization (P max ) and low remnant polarization (P r ) were obtained due to the formation of defect dipoles, which facilitated the switch of PNRs and contributed to the enhancement of energy storage density. The x = 0.003 sample was found to exhibit a higher energy storage density of 1.15 J cm -3 and an energy storage efficiency of 92%. The result revealed that the BSZT ceramics may be a good candidate for energy storage application.

  10. Stress effects in ferroelectric perovskite thin-films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zednik, Ricardo Johann

    The exciting class of ferroelectric materials presents the engineer with an array of unique properties that offer promise in a variety of applications; these applications include infra-red detectors ("night-vision imaging", pyroelectricity), micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS, piezoelectricity), and non-volatile memory (NVM, ferroelectricity). Realizing these modern devices often requires perovskite-based ferroelectric films thinner than 100 nm. Two such technologically important material systems are (Ba,Sr)TiO3 (BST), for tunable dielectric devices employed in wireless communications, and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT), for ferroelectric non-volatile memory (FeRAM). In general, the material behavior is strongly influenced by the mechanical boundary conditions imposed by the substrate and surrounding layers and may vary considerably from the known bulk behavior. A better mechanistic understanding of these effects is essential for harnessing the full potential of ferroelectric thin-films and further optimizing existing devices. Both materials share a common crystal structure and similar properties, but face unique challenges due to the design parameters of these different applications. Tunable devices often require very low dielectric loss as well as large dielectric tunability. Present results show that the dielectric response of BST thin-films can either resemble a dipole-relaxor or follow the accepted empirical Universal Relaxation Law (Curie-von Schweidler), depending on temperature. These behaviors in a single ferroelectric thin-film system are often thought to be mutually exclusive. In state-of-the-art high density FeRAM, the ferroelectric polarization is at least as important as the dielectric response. It was found that these properties are significantly affected by moderate biaxial tensile and compressive stresses which reversibly alter the ferroelastic domain populations of PZT at room temperature. The 90-degree domain wall motion observed by high resolution

  11. Ferroelectric domain switching dynamics and memristive behaviors in BiFeO3-based magnetoelectric heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weichuan; Liu, Yukuai; Luo, Zhen; Hou, Chuangming; Zhao, Wenbo; Yin, Yuewei; Li, Xiaoguang

    2018-06-01

    The ferroelectric domain reversal dynamics and the corresponding resistance switching as well as the memristive behaviors in epitaxial BiFeO3 (BFO, ~150 nm) based multiferroic heterojunctions were systematically investigated. The ferroelectric domain reversal dynamics could be described by the nucleation-limited-switching model with the Lorentzian distribution of logarithmic domain-switching times. By engineering the domain states, multi and even continuously tunable resistances states, i.e. memristive states, could be non-volatilely achieved. The resistance switching speed can be as fast as 30 ns in the BFO-based multiferroic heterojunctions with a write voltage of ~20 V. By reducing the thickness of BFO, the La0.6Sr0.4MnO3/BFO (~5 nm)/La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 multiferroic tunnel junction (MFTJ) shows an even a quicker switching speed (20 ns) with a much lower operation voltage (~4 V). Importantly, the MFTJ exhibits a tunable interfacial magnetoelectric coupling related to the ferroelectric domain switching dynamics. These findings enrich the potential applications of multiferroic BFO based devices in high-speed, low-power, and high-density memories as well as future neuromorphic computational architectures.

  12. Local strain heterogeneity and elastic relaxation dynamics associated with relaxor behavior in the single-crystal perovskite Pb (I n1 /2N b1 /2 ) O3-PbZr O3-Pb (M g1 /3N b2 /3 ) O3-PbTi O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenhui; Carpenter, Michael A.; Lampronti, Giulio I.; Li, Qiang; Yan, Qingfeng

    2017-10-01

    Recently, Pb (In1/2Nb1/2 ) O3-PbZr O3-Pb (Mg1/3Nb2/3 ) O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PZ-PMN-PT) relaxor single crystals were demonstrated to possess improved temperature-insensitive properties, which would be desirable for high-power device applications. The relaxor character associated with the development of local random fields (RFs) and a high rhombohedral-tetragonal (R-T) ferroelectric transition temperature (TR-T>120°C) would be critical for the excellent properties. A significant effect of the chemical substitution of In3+ and Zr4+ in PMN-PT to give PIN-PZ-PMN-PT is the development of local strain heterogeneity, which acts to suppress the development of macroscopic shear strains without suppressing the development of local ferroelectric moments and contribute substantially to the RFs in PIN-PZ-PMN-PT. Measurements of elastic and anelastic properties by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy show that PIN-PZ-PMN-PT crystal has a quite different form of elastic anomaly due to Vogel-Fulcher freezing, rather than the a discrete cubic-T transition seen in a single crystal of PMN-28PT. It also has high acoustic loss of the relaxor phase down to TR-T. Analysis of piezoresponse force microscopy phase images at different temperatures provides a quantitative insight into the extent to which the RFs influence the microdomain structure and the short-range order correlation length 〈ξ 〉 .

  13. Metastable Behavior in Uniaxial Ferroelectrics TGS and TGSe near TC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández del Castillo, J.R.; Przeslawski, J.; Iglesias, T.; Noheda, B.; Gonzalo, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    High resolution hysteresis loops measurements in triglycine sulfate (ordinary critical point) and in triglycine selenate (tricritical point) allow the approximate characterization of the behavior in the metastable region (E < 0, P > 0, or vice versa) at T ≤ TC. The coercive field may be assumed to

  14. Study of the structure, dielectric and ferroelectric behavior of BaBi{sub 4+δ}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khokhar, Anita, E-mail: mails4anita@gmail.com, E-mail: goyalphy@gmail.com; Goyal, Parveen K., E-mail: mails4anita@gmail.com, E-mail: goyalphy@gmail.com; Sreenivas, K. [Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110 007 (India); Thakur, O. P. [Electroceramics Group, Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Delhi 110 054 (India)

    2016-05-23

    The structure and ferroelectric properties of excess bismuth doped barium bismuth titanate BaBi{sub 4+δ}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} (δ = 2 - 10 wt.%)) ceramics prepared by solid-state reaction method have been investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of a single phase material with a change in the orthorhombic distortion with varying excess of bismuth content. There is no change in the phase transition temperature (T{sub m}) while the relaxor behaviour has been modified significantly with excess of bismuth doping. Saturated hysteresis loops with high remnant polarization (P{sub r} ~ 12.5  µC/cm{sup 2}), low coercive fields (E{sub c} ~ 26 kV/cm) are measured and a high piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33} ~ 29 pC/N) is achieved in poled BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} ceramics prepared with up to 8 wt.% of excess bismuth oxide. The improvement in the ferroelectric properties with increase in the excess bismuth content in BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} ceramics has been explained in terms of changing oxygen vacancy concentration and structural relaxation. Tunable ferroelectric materials can be obtained by manipulating the doping amount of excess bismuth.

  15. Study of the structure, dielectric and ferroelectric behavior of BaBi_4_+_δTi_4O_1_5 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, Anita; Goyal, Parveen K.; Sreenivas, K.; Thakur, O. P.

    2016-01-01

    The structure and ferroelectric properties of excess bismuth doped barium bismuth titanate BaBi_4_+_δTi_4O_1_5 (δ = 2 - 10 wt.%)) ceramics prepared by solid-state reaction method have been investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of a single phase material with a change in the orthorhombic distortion with varying excess of bismuth content. There is no change in the phase transition temperature (T_m) while the relaxor behaviour has been modified significantly with excess of bismuth doping. Saturated hysteresis loops with high remnant polarization (P_r ~ 12.5  µC/cm"2), low coercive fields (E_c ~ 26 kV/cm) are measured and a high piezoelectric coefficient (d_3_3 ~ 29 pC/N) is achieved in poled BaBi_4Ti_4O_1_5 ceramics prepared with up to 8 wt.% of excess bismuth oxide. The improvement in the ferroelectric properties with increase in the excess bismuth content in BaBi_4Ti_4O_1_5 ceramics has been explained in terms of changing oxygen vacancy concentration and structural relaxation. Tunable ferroelectric materials can be obtained by manipulating the doping amount of excess bismuth.

  16. Preparation and electromagnetic properties of low-temperature sintered ferroelectric-ferrite composite ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Zhenxing; Chen Shaofeng; Qi Xiwei; Gui Zhilun; Li Longtu

    2004-01-01

    For the purpose of multilayer chip EMI filters, the new ferroelectric-ferrite composite ceramics were prepared by mixing PMZNT relaxor ferroelectric powder with composition of 0.85Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -0.1Pb(Ni 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -0.05PbTiO 3 and NiCuZn ferrite powder with composition of (Ni 0.20 Cu 0.20 Zn 0.60 )O(Fe 2 O 3 ) 0.97 at low sintering temperatures. A small amount of Bi 2 O 3 was added to low sintering temperature. Consequently, the dense composite ceramics were obtained at relative low sintering temperatures, which were lower than 940 deg. C. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) identifications showed that the sintered ceramics retained the presence of distinct ferroelectric and ferrite phases. The sintering studies and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations revealed that the co-existed two phases affect the sintering behavior and grain growth of components. The electromagnetic properties, such as dielectric constant and initial permeability, change continuously between those of two components. Thus, the low-temperature sintered ferroelectric-ferrite composite ceramics with tunable electromagnetic properties were prepared by adjusting the relative content of two components. These materials can be used for multilayer chip EMI filters with various properties

  17. Relaxor-PT Single Crystal Piezoelectric Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Jiang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Relaxor-PbTiO3 piezoelectric single crystals have been widely used in a broad range of electromechanical devices, including piezoelectric sensors, actuators, and transducers. This paper reviews the unique properties of these single crystals for piezoelectric sensors. Design, fabrication and characterization of various relaxor-PT single crystal piezoelectric sensors and their applications are presented and compared with their piezoelectric ceramic counterparts. Newly applicable fields and future trends of relaxor-PT sensors are also suggested in this review paper.

  18. Flexoelectricity: strain gradient effects in ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Wenhui [Department of Physics, Shantou Unversity, Shantou, Guangdong 515063 (China)

    2007-12-15

    Mechanical strain gradient induced polarization effect or flexoelectricity in perovskite-type ferroelectric and relaxor ferroelectric ceramics was investigated. The flexoelectric coefficients measured at room temperature ranged from about 1 {mu} C m{sup -1} for lead zirconate titanate to 100 {mu} C m{sup -1} for barium strontium titanate. Flexoelectric effects were discovered to be sensitive to chemical makeup, phase symmetry, and domain structures. Based on phenomenological discussion and experimental data on flexoelectricity, the present study proposed that mechanical strain gradient field could influence polarization responses in a way analogous to electric field. Flexoelectric coefficients were found to be nonlinearly enhanced by dielectric permittivity and strain gradient. Interfacial mismatch in epitaxial thin films can give rise to high strain gradients, enabling flexoelectric effects to make a significant impact in properly engineered ferroelectric heterostructure systems.

  19. Modeling the influence of the seeding layer on the transition behavior of a ferroelectric thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oubelkacem, A.; Essaoudi, I.; Ainane, A.; Saber, M.; Dujardin, F.

    2011-01-01

    The transition properties of a ferroelectric thin film with seeding layers were studied using the effective field theory with a probability distribution technique that accounts for the self-spin correlation functions. The effect of interaction parameters for the seeding layer on the phase diagram was also examined. We calculated the critical temperature and the polarization of the ferroelectric thin film for different seeding layer structures. We found that the seeding layer can greatly increase the Curie temperature and the polarization.

  20. Thermal-induced structural transition and depolarization behavior in (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-BiAlO3 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ping; Nie, Hengchang; Cheng, Guofeng; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Genshui; Dong, Xianlin

    2018-03-01

    The depolarization temperature Td determines the upper temperature limit for the application of piezoelectric materials. However, the origin of depolarization behavior for Bi-based materials still remains controversial and the mechanism is intricate for different (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-based systems. In this work, the structure and depolarization behavior of (1-x)(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-xBiAlO3 (BNT-BA, x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.07) ceramics were investigated using a combination of X-ray diffraction and electrical measurements. It was found that as temperature increased, the induced long-range ferroelectric phase irreversibly transformed to the relaxor phase as evidenced by the temperature-dependent ferroelectric and dielectric properties, which corresponded to a gradual structural change from the rhombohedral to the pseudocubic phase. Therefore, the thermal depolarization behavior of BNT-BA ceramics was proposed to be directly related to the rhombohedral-pseudocubic transition. Furthermore, Td (obtained from thermally stimulated depolarization currents curves) was higher than the induced ferroelectric-relaxor phase transition temperature TFR (measured from dielectric curves). The phenomenon was quite different from other reported BNT-based systems, which may suggest the formation of polar nanoregions (PNRs) within macrodomains prior to the detexturation of short-range ferroelectric domains with PNRs or nanodomains.

  1. Ferroelectric Negative Capacitance Domain Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr$_{0.2}$Ti$_{0.8}$)O$_3$ capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transien...

  2. Catalytic behaviors of ruthenium dioxide films deposited on ferroelectrics substrates, by spin coating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khachane, M.; Nowakowski, P.; Villain, S.; Gavarri, J.R.; Muller, Ch.; Elaatmani, M.; Outzourhite, A.; Luk'yanchuk, I.; Zegzouti, A.; Daoud, M.

    2007-01-01

    Catalytic ruthenium dioxide films were deposited by spin-coating process on ferroelectric films mainly constituted of SrBi 2 Ta 2 O 9 (SBT) and Ba 2 NaNb 5 O 15 (BNN) phases. After thermal treatment under air, these ferroelectric-catalytic systems were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images showed that RuO 2 film morphology depended on substrate nature. A study of CH 4 conversion into CO 2 and H 2 O was carried out using these catalytic-ferroelectric multilayers: the conversion was analyzed from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, at various temperatures. Improved catalytic properties were observed for RuO 2 films deposited on BNN oxide layer

  3. Hysteresis loop behaviors of ferroelectric thin films:A Monte Carlo simulation study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. M. Bedoya-Hincapi´e; H. H. Ortiz-´Alvarez; E. Restrepo-Parra; J. J. Olaya-Fl´orez; J. E. Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The ferroelectric response of bismuth titanate Bi4Ti3O12 (BIT) thin film is studied through a Monte Carlo simulation of hysteresis loops. The ferroelectric system is described by using a Diffour Hamiltonian with three terms: the electric field applied in the z direction, the nearest dipole–dipole interaction in the transversal (x–y) direction, and the nearest dipole–dipole interaction in the direction perpendicular to the thin film (the z axis). In the sample construction, we take into consideration the dipole orientations of the monoclinic and orthorhombic structures that can appear in BIT at low temperature in the ferroelectric state. The effects of temperature, stress, and the concentration of pinned dipole defects are assessed by using the hysteresis loops. The results indicate the changes in the hysteresis area with temperature and stress, and the asymmetric hysteresis loops exhibit evidence of the imprint failure mechanism with the emergence of pinned dipolar defects. The simulated shift in the hysteresis loops conforms to the experimental ferroelectric response.

  4. Hysteresis loop behaviors of ferroelectric thin films: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Bedoya-Hincapié, C.; H. Ortiz-Álvarez, H.; Restrepo-Parra, E.; J. Olaya-Flórez, J.; E. Alfonso, J.

    2015-11-01

    The ferroelectric response of bismuth titanate Bi4Ti3O12 (BIT) thin film is studied through a Monte Carlo simulation of hysteresis loops. The ferroelectric system is described by using a Diffour Hamiltonian with three terms: the electric field applied in the z direction, the nearest dipole-dipole interaction in the transversal (x-y) direction, and the nearest dipole-dipole interaction in the direction perpendicular to the thin film (the z axis). In the sample construction, we take into consideration the dipole orientations of the monoclinic and orthorhombic structures that can appear in BIT at low temperature in the ferroelectric state. The effects of temperature, stress, and the concentration of pinned dipole defects are assessed by using the hysteresis loops. The results indicate the changes in the hysteresis area with temperature and stress, and the asymmetric hysteresis loops exhibit evidence of the imprint failure mechanism with the emergence of pinned dipolar defects. The simulated shift in the hysteresis loops conforms to the experimental ferroelectric response. Project sponsored by the research departments of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia DIMA and DIB under Project 201010018227-“Crecimiento y caracterización eléctrica y estructural de películas delgadas de BixTiyOz producidas mediante Magnetrón Sputtering” and Project 12920-“Desarrollo teóricoexperimental de nanoestructuras basadas en Bismuto y materiales similares” and “Bisnano Project.”

  5. Relationship between ferroelectric properties and local structure of Pb{sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}Zr{sub 0.40}Ti{sub 0.60}O{sub 3} ceramic materials studied by X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Alexandre, E-mail: mesquita@rc.unesp.br [Instituto de Geociências e Ciências Exatas, UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Física, Av. 24-a, 1515, Rio Claro, SP 13506-900 (Brazil); Institut de Chimie et des Materiaux Paris Est, CNRS and Université Paris Est Créteil, 2 Rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São-Carlense, 400, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Michalowicz, Alain, E-mail: michalov@u-pec.fr [Institut de Chimie et des Materiaux Paris Est, CNRS and Université Paris Est Créteil, 2 Rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Moscovici, Jacques, E-mail: moscovic@u-pec.fr [Institut de Chimie et des Materiaux Paris Est, CNRS and Université Paris Est Créteil, 2 Rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Pizani, Paulo Sergio, E-mail: pizani@df.ufscar.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luís, s/n, São Carlos, SP, 13565-905 (Brazil); Mastelaro, Valmor Roberto, E-mail: valmor@ifsc.usp.br [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São-Carlense, 400, São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports on the structural characterization of Pb{sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}Zr{sub 0.40}Ti{sub 0.60}O{sub 3} (PBZT) ferroelectric ceramic compositions prepared by the conventional solid state reaction method. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Raman spectroscopy were used in the probing of the local structure of PBZT samples that exhibit a normal or relaxor ferroelectric behavior. They showed a considerable local disorder around Zr and Pb atoms in the samples of tetragonal or cubic long-range order symmetry. The intensity of the E(TO{sub 3}) mode in the Raman spectra of PBZT relaxor samples remains constant at temperatures lower than T{sub m}, which has proven the stabilization of the correlation process between nanodomains. - Graphical abstract: X-ray absorption measurements showed considerable local disorder around Zr and Pb atoms in the samples of tetragonal or cubic long-range order symmetry. The intensity of the E(TO{sub 3}) mode in the Raman spectra of PBZT relaxor samples remains constant at temperatures lower than T{sub m}, which has proven the stabilization of the correlation process between nanodomains. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Structural characterization of Pb{sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}Zr{sub 0.40}Ti{sub 0.60}O{sub 3} (PBZT) ferroelectric ceramic. • X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopies were used to probe the structure of PBZT. • Dissymmetry of Zr and Pb sites was observed in samples long-range cubic symmetry. • Local disorder in all PBZT samples through the observation of Raman active modes.

  6. Frontiers of ferroelectricity a special issue of the journal of materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Sidney B

    2007-01-01

    The book presents theory, fundamentals and some applications of ferroelectricy. The 24 chapters comprise reviews and research reports covering the spectrum of ferroelectricity. It is intended to describe the current levels of understanding of various aspects of ferroelectricity as presented by authorities in the field. Topics include relaxors, piezoelectrics, microscale and nanoscale studies, polymers and composites, unusual properties, and techniques and devices. The information in this book is intended for physicists, engineers and materials scientists working with ferroelectric materials including ceramics, single crystals, polymers, composites and even some biological materials.

  7. Giant Magnetoelectric Energy Conversion Utilizing Inter-Ferroelectric Phase Transformations in Ferroics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Peter; Staruch, Margo

    Phase transition-based electromechanical transduction permits achieving a non-resonant broadband mechanical energy conversion see (Finkel et al Actuators, 5 [1] 2. (2015)) , the idea is based on generation high energy density per cycle , at least 100x of magnitude larger than linear piezoelectric type generators in stress biased [011]cut relaxor ferroelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystal can generate reversible strain >0.35% at remarkably low fields (0.1 MV/m) for tens of millions of cycles. Recently we demonstrated that large strain and polarization rotation can be generated for over 40 x 106cycles with little fatigue by realization of reversible ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition in [011] cut PIN-PMN-PT relaxor ferroelectric single crystal while sweeping through the transition with a low applied electric field <0.18 MV/m under mechanical stress. This methodology was extended in the present work to propose magnetoelectric (ME) composite hybrid system comprised of highly magnetostrictive alloymFe81.4Ga18.6 (Galfenol), and lead indium niobate-lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PIN-PMN-PT) domain engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. A small time-varying magnetic field applied to this system causes the magnetostrictive element to expand, and the resulting stress forces the phase change in the relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. ME coupling coefficient was fond to achieve 80 V/cm Oe near the FR-FO phase transition that is at least 100X of magnitude higher than any currently reported values.

  8. Ferroelectric properties of bismuth-doped PMT-PT ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, June Won; Kim, Yeon Jung; Kim, Gang Bae

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the ferroelectric properties of Bi-doped 0.66(Pb (1-3x/2) Bi x )(Mg 1/3 Ta 2/3 )O 3 - 0.34PbTiO 3 ceramics for use as a piezoelectric transformer. The optimum conditions for obtaining samples with high density and improved electrical properties were a sintering temperature of 1200 .deg. C/4 h and the addition of 3 mol% Bi. The temperature dependent dielectric constant of the ceramics was examined at frequencies ranging from 1 kHz to 100 kHz. The broad dielectric constant anomaly coupled with a shift in the dielectric maximum towards higher temperature with increasing frequency indicates a relaxor-type behavior in the ceramics. The piezoelectric coefficient (d 33 ) and the planar coupling factor (K p ) increase with the addition of 3 mol% Bi, and then decrease with further addition of Bi. The dielectric constant and the dissipation factor at room temperature could be improved by the addition of 3 mol% Bi.

  9. Combined intrinsic elastocaloric and electrocaloric properties of ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khassaf, H.; Patel, T.; Alpay, S. P.

    2017-04-01

    In multiferroic materials, adiabatic temperature changes can be obtained by the combined application of electric, stress, and magnetic fields. These external stimuli provide additional channels of entropy variations resulting in a multi-caloric response. In ferroelectric (FE) materials, caloric responses can be obtained with the application of electric and mechanical fields. Here, we compute the intrinsic elastocaloric and stress-mediated electrocaloric behavior of prototypical FE materials using the Landau-Devonshire theory of phase transformations with appropriate electrical and electro-mechanical boundary conditions. We show that an elastocaloric adiabatic temperature variation of 12.7 °C can be obtained in PbTiO3 with the application of uniaxial tensile stress of 500 MPa near its Curie point. This is 59% higher than its pure intrinsic electrocaloric response for an electric field difference of 100 kV/cm. Moreover, external stresses allow the maximum electro-elastocaloric response to be tuned towards room temperature. Our calculations show that relaxor FEs should exhibit large adiabatic temperature variations in relatively broad temperature ranges. These findings indicate that caloric responses in ferroic materials can be deterministically controlled and enhanced by utilizing a variety of external stimuli.

  10. Ferroelectric devices

    CERN Document Server

    Uchino, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Updating its bestselling predecessor, Ferroelectric Devices, Second Edition assesses the last decade of developments-and setbacks-in the commercialization of ferroelectricity. Field pioneer and esteemed author Uchino provides insight into why this relatively nascent and interdisciplinary process has failed so far without a systematic accumulation of fundamental knowledge regarding materials and device development.Filling the informational void, this collection of information reviews state-of-the-art research and development trends reflecting nano and optical technologies, environmental regulat

  11. Origin of the "waterfall" effect in phonon dispersion of relaxor perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlinka, J; Kamba, S; Petzelt, J; Kulda, J; Randall, C A; Zhang, S J

    2003-09-05

    We have undertaken an inelastic neutron scattering study of the perovskite relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3 with 8% PbTiO3 (PZN-8%PT) in order to elucidate the origin of the previously reported unusual kink on the low frequency transverse phonon dispersion curve (known as the "waterfall effect"). We show that its position (q(wf)) depends on the choice of the Brillouin zone and that the relation of q(wf) to the size of the polar nanoregions is highly improbable. The waterfall phenomenon is explained in the framework of a simple model of coupled damped harmonic oscillators representing the acoustic and optic phonon branches.

  12. Origin of the "Waterfall" Effect in Phonon Dispersion of Relaxor Perovskites

    OpenAIRE

    Hlinka, J.; Kamba, S.; Petzelt, J.; Kulda, J.; Randall, C. A.; Zhang, S. J.

    2003-01-01

    We have undertaken an inelastic neutron scattering study of the perovskite relaxor ferroelectric \\ud P\\ud b\\ud (\\ud Z\\ud n\\ud 1\\ud /\\ud 3\\ud N\\ud b\\ud 2\\ud /\\ud 3\\ud )\\ud O\\ud 3\\ud with 8% \\ud P\\ud b\\ud T\\ud i\\ud O\\ud 3\\ud (PZN-8%PT) in order to elucidate the origin of the previously reported unusual kink on the low frequency transverse phonon dispersion curve (known as the “waterfall effect”). We show that its position (\\ud q\\ud w\\ud f\\ud ) depends on the choice of the Brillouin zone and tha...

  13. Influence of particle sizes on the electronic behavior of Zn{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinels (x = 0.2, 0.3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viñas, R. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Álvarez-Serrano, I., E-mail: ias@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); López, M.L.; Pico, C.; Veiga, M.L. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mompeán, F.; García-Hernández, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Relaxor ferroelectric behavior and superparamagnetism in nanoparticles of Zn{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} obtained in supercritical water. - Highlights: • Title ferrites were prepared by hydrothermal techniques (sub and supercritical). • In supercritical (SCW) conditions highly monodispersive samples were obtained. • All samples are semiconductors; n-type or p-type response depends on the composition. • Superparamagnetic and relaxor ferroelectric response coexist in SCW samples. - Abstract: The effect of composition and particle size on the electrical and magnetic behavior of Zn{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinels (x = 0.2 and 0.3) has been studied. Powdered samples of these ferrites have been synthetized by the liquid mix technique and hydrothermal method (in sub and supercritical conditions), leading to average particle sizes of ca. 50 and 10 nm, respectively. They have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, Thermogravimetric analysis, Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and impedance and magnetic measurements. Permittivity values up to ca. 500 were registered at 375 K, which remained almost constant at moderate frequencies, between 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 6} Hz. Stabilization of polarization phenomena is very sensitive to grain size and composition. Dielectric behavior evolves to a relaxor ferroelectric response when grain size becomes nanometric and, particularly, when the sample shows high monodispersion. The conduction mechanism and type of majority charge carriers have been established from Seebeck measurements. The x = 0.3 sample, prepared in supercritical water for the first time, exhibits homogeneous particle size distribution, superparamagnetic behavior and Curie temperature lower than those corresponding to similar microsized samples. The electronic response of the ferrites obtained in supercritical conditions is interpreted considering the possible short scale polarization of nanodomains.

  14. The effects of PbZn1/3Nb2/3O3-doping on structural, thermal, optical, dielectric, and ferroelectric properties of BaTiO3 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchanicz, J.; Świerczek, K.; Sitko, D.; Czaja, P.; Marchet, P.; Czternastek, H.; Majda, D.

    2017-09-01

    Low-lead (1-x)BT-xPZN (x = 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.10, 0.125, and 0.15) ceramics were successfully synthesized by the spark-plasma-sintering method for the first time. Their phase transition behavior as well as structural, thermal, optical, and electrical properties was investigated. These materials exhibit the structure of perovskite-type solid solutions and undergo a sequence of phase transitions, typical of pure BaTiO3 (BT). The dielectric test results revealed that with the increase in the PbZn1/3Nb2/3O3 (PZN) content, the frequency dispersion of electric permittivity increases, whilst the dielectric/ferroelectric properties tend to deteriorate, which is characteristic of relaxor-type behavior. Therefore, it is reasonable to suppose that these ceramics progressively lack long-range ordering. These effects are due to the competition between lone-pair electrons' induced changes in the A-O band upon Pb2+ addition and ionic size differences. In general, the transition temperatures observed by dielectric analyses are in good agreement with those obtained from X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. The BT-PZN system may help to understand why relaxor behavior appears in perovskite-based materials. It appears that these materials can become a good starting point for the development of new low-lead electronic ceramics.

  15. Structure and phase formation behavior and dielectric and magnetic properties of lead iron tantalate-lead zirconate titanate multiferroic ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wongmaneerung, R.; Tipakontitikul, R.; Jantaratana, P.; Bootchanont, A.; Jutimoosik, J.; Yimnirun, R.; Ananta, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The multiferroic ceramics consisted of PFT and PZT. • Crystal structure changed from cubic to mixedcubic and tetragonal with increasing PZT content. • Dielectric showed the samples underwent a typical relaxor ferroelectric behavior. • Magnetic properties showed very interesting behavior with square saturated magnetic hysteresis loops. - Abstract: Multiferroic (1 − x)Pb(Fe_0_._5Ta_0_._5)O_3–xPb(Zr_0_._5_3Ti_0_._4_7)O_3 (or PFT–PZT) ceramics were synthesized by solid-state reaction method. The crystal structure and phase formation of the ceramics were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The local structure surrounding Fe and Ti absorbing atoms was investigated by synchrotron X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) measurement. Dielectric properties were studied as a function of frequency and temperature using a LCR meter. A vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) was used to determine the magnetic hysteresis loops. XRD study indicated that the crystal structure of the sample changed from pure cubic to mixed cubic and tetragonal with increasing PZT content. XANES measurements showed that the local structure surrounding Fe and Ti ions was similar. Dielectric study showed that the samples underwent a typical relaxor ferroelectric behavior while the magnetic properties showed very interesting behavior with square saturated magnetic hysteresis loops.

  16. Structure and phase formation behavior and dielectric and magnetic properties of lead iron tantalate-lead zirconate titanate multiferroic ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongmaneerung, R., E-mail: re_nok@yahoo.com [Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Tipakontitikul, R. [Department of Physics, Ubonratchathani University, Ubonratchathani 31490 (Thailand); Jantaratana, P. [Department of Physics, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Bootchanont, A.; Jutimoosik, J.; Yimnirun, R. [School of Physics, Institute of Science, and NANOTEC-SUT Center of Excellence on Advanced Functional Nanomaterials, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Ananta, S. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • The multiferroic ceramics consisted of PFT and PZT. • Crystal structure changed from cubic to mixedcubic and tetragonal with increasing PZT content. • Dielectric showed the samples underwent a typical relaxor ferroelectric behavior. • Magnetic properties showed very interesting behavior with square saturated magnetic hysteresis loops. - Abstract: Multiferroic (1 − x)Pb(Fe{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}–xPb(Zr{sub 0.53}Ti{sub 0.47})O{sub 3} (or PFT–PZT) ceramics were synthesized by solid-state reaction method. The crystal structure and phase formation of the ceramics were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The local structure surrounding Fe and Ti absorbing atoms was investigated by synchrotron X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) measurement. Dielectric properties were studied as a function of frequency and temperature using a LCR meter. A vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) was used to determine the magnetic hysteresis loops. XRD study indicated that the crystal structure of the sample changed from pure cubic to mixed cubic and tetragonal with increasing PZT content. XANES measurements showed that the local structure surrounding Fe and Ti ions was similar. Dielectric study showed that the samples underwent a typical relaxor ferroelectric behavior while the magnetic properties showed very interesting behavior with square saturated magnetic hysteresis loops.

  17. Ferroelectric behavior of a lead titanate nanosphere due to depolarization fields and mechanical stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade Landeta, J.; Lascano, I.

    2017-07-01

    A theorical model has been developed based on the theory of Ginzburg-Landau-Devonshire to study and predict the effects the decreasing of size particle in a nanosphere of PbTiO3 subjected to the action of depolarization fields and mechanical stress. It was considered that the nanosphere is surrounded by a layer of space charges on its surface, and containing 180° domains generated by minimizing free energy of depolarization. Energy density of depolarization, wall domain and electro-elastic energy have been incorporated into the free energy of the theory Ginzburg-Landau-Devonshire. Free energy minimization was performed to determine the spontaneous polarization and transition temperature system. These results show that the transition temperature for nanosphere is substantially smaller than the corresponding bulk material. Also, it has been obtained that the stability of the ferroelectric phase of nanosphere is favored for configurations with a large number of 180° domains, with the decreasing of thickness space charge layer, and the application of tensile stress and decreases with compressive stress. (Author)

  18. In situ transmission electron microscopy study of the microstructural origins for the electric field-induced phenomena in ferroelectric perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hanzheng

    an unusual behavior is attributed to the electric field-induced irreversible P4bm nanodomains coalescence into thin lamellar domains prior to the phase transition. In the (K0.5 Na0.5)NbO3-based ceramics, as demonstrated by an archetypical polymorphic phase boundary (PPB) composition of 0.948(K 0.5Na0.5)NbO3-0.052LiSbO3, the origin of the excellent piezoelectric performance is due to a tilted monoclinic phase that emerges from the tetragonal and orthorhombic PPB at the poling fields beyond 14 kV/cm. This monoclinic phase, as manifested by the appearance of blotchy domains and 1/2{oeo} superlattice diffraction spots, was determined to possess a Pm symmetry with a 0b+c0 oxygen octahedra tilting and antiparallel cation displacements. For the PPB composition of x = 0.5 in the (1-x)Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8 )O3-x(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO 3 solid solution system, the original multi-domain state was found to transform into a unique single-domain state with orthorhombic symmetry at very moderate poling fields of 3 6 kV/cm. This single-domain state is suggested to be primarily responsible for the observed large piezoelectricity due to its significant elastic softening. In the electrical reversal process, a highly unusual phenomenon of electric field-induced ferroelectric-to-relaxor phase transition was directly observed in a lead-free composition of [(Bi1/2Na1/2)0.95 Ba0.05]0.98La0.02TiO3. It is manifested by the disruption of large ferroelectric domains with long range polar order into polar nanodomains with short range orders when the polarity of electric field is reversed. This observation was further rationalized by a phenomenological model that takes the large difference in kinetics between the phase transition and the polarization reversal processes into account. During the electrical cycling process, the microstructural mechanisms for electric fatigue behaviors of two ceramics were investigated. In 0.7Pb(Mg 1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3, the frozen domain configuration after 103 cycles is

  19. Resistive switching via the converse magnetoelectric effect in ferromagnetic multilayers on ferroelectric substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertsev, N A; Kohlstedt, H

    2010-11-26

    A voltage-controlled resistive switching is predicted for ferromagnetic multilayers and spin valves mechanically coupled to a ferroelectric substrate. The switching between low- and high-resistance states results from the strain-driven magnetization reorientations by about 90°, which are shown to occur in ferromagnetic layers with a high magnetostriction and weak cubic magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Such reorientations, not requiring external magnetic fields, can be realized experimentally by applying moderate electric field to a thick substrate (bulk or membrane type) made of a relaxor ferroelectric having ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients. The proposed multiferroic hybrids exhibiting giant magnetoresistance may be employed as electric-write nonvolatile magnetic memory cells with nondestructive readout.

  20. A flexible tactile-feedback touch screen using transparent ferroelectric polymer film vibrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Woo-Eon; Moon, Yong-Ju; Park, Cheon-Ho; Choi, Seung Tae

    2014-01-01

    To provide tactile feedback on flexible touch screens, transparent relaxor ferroelectric polymer film vibrators were designed and fabricated in this study. The film vibrator can be integrated underneath a transparent cover film or glass, and can also produce acoustic waves that cause a tactile sensation on human fingertips. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE)] polymer was used as the relaxor ferroelectric polymer because it produces a large strain under applied electric fields, shows a fast response, and has excellent optical transparency. The natural frequency of this tactile-feedback touch screen was designed to be around 200–240 Hz, at which the haptic perception of human fingertips is the most sensitive; therefore, the resonance of the touch screen at its natural frequency provides maximum haptic sensation. A multilayered relaxor ferroelectric polymer film vibrator was also demonstrated to provide the same vibration power at reduced voltage. The flexible P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) film vibrators developed in this study are expected to provide tactile sensation not only in large-area flat panel displays, but also in flexible displays and touch screens. (papers)

  1. Nanoscale Ferroelectric Switchable Polarization and Leakage Current Behavior in (Ba0.50Sr0.50(Ti0.80Sn0.20O3 Thin Films Prepared Using Chemical Solution Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Sreenivas Puli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscale switchable ferroelectric (Ba0.50Sr0.50(Ti0.80Sn0.20O3-BSTS polycrystalline thin films with a perovskite structure were prepared on Pt/TiOx/SiO2/Si substrate by chemical solution deposition. X-ray diffraction (XRD spectra indicate that a cubic perovskite crystalline structure and Raman spectra revealed that a tetragonal perovskite crystalline structure is present in the thin films. Sr2+ and Sn4+ cosubstituted film exhibited the lowest leakage current density. Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM technique has been employed to acquire out-of-plane (OPP piezoresponse images and local piezoelectric hysteresis loop in polycrystalline BSTS films. PFM phase and amplitude images reveal nanoscale ferroelectric switching behavior at room temperature. Square patterns with dark and bright contrasts were written by local poling and reversible nature of the piezoresponse behavior was established. Local piezoelectric butterfly amplitude and phase hysteresis loops display ferroelectric nature at nanoscale level. The significance of this paper is to present ferroelectric/piezoelectric nature in present BSTS films at nanoscale level and corroborating ferroelectric behavior by utilizing Raman spectroscopy. Thus, further optimizing physical and electrical properties, BSTS films might be useful for practical applications which include nonvolatile ferroelectric memories, data-storage media, piezoelectric actuators, and electric energy storage capacitors.

  2. Why is the electrocaloric effect so small in ferroelectrics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Guzmán-Verri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferroelectrics are attractive candidate materials for environmentally friendly solid state refrigeration free of greenhouse gases. Their thermal response upon variations of external electric fields is largest in the vicinity of their phase transitions, which may occur near room temperature. The magnitude of the effect, however, is too small for useful cooling applications even when they are driven close to dielectric breakdown. Insight from microscopic theory is therefore needed to characterize materials and provide guiding principles to search for new ones with enhanced electrocaloric performance. Here, we derive from well-known microscopic models of ferroelectricity meaningful figures of merit for a wide class of ferroelectric materials. Such figures of merit provide insight into the relation between the strength of the effect and the characteristic interactions of ferroelectrics such as dipolar forces. We find that the long range nature of these interactions results in a small effect. A strategy is proposed to make it larger by shortening the correlation lengths of fluctuations of polarization. In addition, we bring into question other widely used but empirical figures of merit and facilitate understanding of the recently observed secondary broad peak in the electrocalorics of relaxor ferroelectrics.

  3. Transmission electron microscope studies of phase transitions in single crystals and ceramics of ferroelectric Pb(Sc1/2Ta1/2)O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba-Kishi, K.Z.; Barber, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    An account is given of transmission electron microscope investigations of the phase transitions in single crystals and ceramics of the complex perovskite-structured ferroelectric 'relaxor' compound Pb(Sc 1/2 Ta 1/2 )O 3 . The crystal symmetries pertaining to both the non-polar paraelectric (PE) and polar ferroelectric (FE) states have been studied by the technique of convergent-beam electron diffraction. A new phase transition has been discovered in the temperature range for which the FE and PE states coexist. The new phase transition is interpreted as the creation of a modulated antiferroelectric state, and this is viewed as marking a departure from relaxor behaviour towards more 'normal' ferroelectric behaviour. (orig.)

  4. Investigation of the ferroelectric switching behavior of P(VDF-TrFE)-PMMA blended films for synaptic device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E J; Kim, K A; Yoon, S M

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity can be mimicked by electronic synaptic devices. By using ferroelectric thin films as gate insulator for thin-film transistors (TFT), channel conductance can be defined as the synaptic plasticity, and gradually modulated by the variations in amounts of aligned ferroelectric dipoles. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)]-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blended films are chosen and their switching kinetics are investigated by using the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi model. The switching time for ferroelectric polarization is sensitively influenced by the amplitude of applied electric field and volumetric ratio of ferroelectric beta-phases in the P(VDF-TrFE)-PMMA films. The switching time of the P(VDF-TrFE) increases with decreasing the pulse amplitude and/or the ratio of ferroelectric beta-phases by incorporation of PMMA. The activation electric field is also found to increase as the increase in blended amount of PMMA. Synapse TFTs are fabricated using the P(VDF-TrFE)-PMMA as gate insulator and In-Ga-Zn-O active channels. The drain currents of the synapse TFTs gradually increased when the voltage pulse signals with given duration are repeatedly applied. This suggests that the synaptic weights can be modulated by the number of external pulse signals, and that the proposed synapse TFT can be applied for mimicking the operations of bio-synapses. (paper)

  5. Raman and IR phonons in ferroelectric Sr.sub.0.35./sub.Ba.sub.0.69./sub.Nb.sub.2./sub.O.sub.6.04./sub. single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buixaderas, Elena; Gregora, Ivan; Hlinka, Jiří; Dec, J.; Lukasiewicz, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 86, 2-3 (2013), s. 217-229 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/10/0616 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ferroelectrics * Raman spectroscopy * IR spectroscopy * phonons * relaxors * tungsten-bronze materials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.044, year: 2013

  6. Electric-field influence on the neutron diffuse scattering near the ferroelectric transition of Sr.sub.0.61./sub.Ba.sub.0.39./sub.Nb.sub.2./sub.O.sub.6./sub.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondrejkovič, Petr; Kempa, Martin; Savinov, Maxim; Bednyakov, Petr; Kulda, J.; Bourges, P.; Dec, J.; Hlinka, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 89, 7-8 (2016), s. 808-815 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-09142S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : relaxor ferroelectrics * lead-free * strontium barium niobate * neutron scattering * dielectric spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2016

  7. A high energy density relaxor antiferroelectric pulsed capacitor dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hwan Ryul; Lynch, Christopher S. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    Pulsed capacitors require high energy density and low loss, properties that can be realized through selection of composition. Ceramic (Pb{sub 0.88}La{sub 0.08})(Zr{sub 0.91}Ti{sub 0.09})O{sub 3} was found to be an ideal candidate. La{sup 3+} doping and excess PbO were used to produce relaxor antiferroelectric behavior with slim and slanted hysteresis loops to reduce the dielectric hysteresis loss, to increase the dielectric strength, and to increase the discharge energy density. The discharge energy density of this composition was found to be 3.04 J/cm{sup 3} with applied electric field of 170 kV/cm, and the energy efficiency, defined as the ratio of the discharge energy density to the charging energy density, was 0.920. This high efficiency reduces the heat generated under cyclic loading and improves the reliability. The properties were observed to degrade some with temperature increase above 80 °C. Repeated electric field cycles up to 10 000 cycles were applied to the specimen with no observed performance degradation.

  8. Structural evolution in three and four-layer Aurivillius solid solutions: A comparative study versus relaxor properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Jenny; Boullay, Philippe; Ben Jennet, Dorra; Mercurio, Daniele

    2008-02-01

    Two solid solutions of three-layer Ba xBi 4- xNb xTi 3- xO 12 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.2) and four-layer Aurivillius compounds (Na 0.5Bi 0.5) 1- xBa xBi 4Ti 4O 15 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1), which both present a ferroelectric to relaxor-like transition with increasing x, were synthesized by solid state reaction. The evolution of their crystal structures, as a function of x, was performed using Rietveld refinements from X-ray powder diffraction data. As x increases, the average crystal structures become less distorted with respect to the archetypal high temperature tetragonal one and the coordination number of Bi 3+ in M 2O 2 layers continuously changes from {4 + 2} to {4}. The relaxor behaviour which appears in samples for a tolerance factor t > 0.96 is associated with a general static disorder in A and M sites together with the presence of some Ba 2+ cations in M 2O 2 layers (less than 10%).

  9. A comparative study of the Aurivillius phase ferroelectrics CaBi 4Ti 4O 15 and BaBi 4Ti 4O 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, J.; Boullay, Ph.; Manier, M.; Mercurio, D.

    2004-06-01

    The room temperature structures of the four-layer Aurivillius phase ferroelectrics CaBi 4Ti 4O 15 and BaBi 4Ti 4O 15 are determined by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. Regarding the CaBi 4Ti 4O 15 phase, in agreement with the tolerance factor, a significant deformation of the perovskite blocks is observed. The rotation system of the octahedra is typical from even layer Aurivillius phases and leads to the use of the space group A2 1am. For the BaBi 4Ti 4O 15 phase, only a weak variation with respect to the F2 mm space group can be suggested from single crystal X-ray diffraction. A significant presence of Ba atoms in the [ M2O 2] slabs is confirmed in agreement with the previous works but specific Ba 2+ and Bi 3+ sites have to be considered due to the large difference in bounding requirement of these cations. Possible origins for the ferroelectric relaxor behavior of the Ba-based compound are discussed in view of the presented structural analyses.

  10. SOFT MODE ANOMALIES IN THE PEROVSKITE RELAXOR Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GEHRING, P.M.; VAKRUSHEV, S.B.; SHIRANE, G.

    2000-01-01

    Neutron inelastic scattering measurements of the polar TO phonon mode in the cubic relaxor Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 , at room temperature, reveal anomalous behavior similar to that recently observed in Pb(Zn 1/3 Nb 2/3 ) 0.92 Ti 0.08 O 3 in which the optic branch appears to drop precipitously into the acoustic branch at a finite value of the momentum transfer q = 0.2 angstrom -1 , measured from the zone center. By contrast, a recent neutron study indicates that PMN exhibits a normal TO phonon dispersion at 800 K. The authors speculate this behavior is common to all relaxor materials, and is the result of the presence of nanometer-scale polarized domains in the crystal that form below a temperature T d , which effectively prevent the propagation of long wavelength (q = 0) phonons

  11. The Homogenized Energy Model (HEM) for Characterizing Polarization and Strains in Hysteretic Ferroelectric Materials: Material Properties and Uniaxial Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Sebastian, Spain, 2006. [68] N.O. Pérez-Arancibia, K.Y. Ma, K.C. Galloway , J.D. Greenberg and R.J. Wood, “First con- trolled vertical flight of a...temperature on the large field electromechanical response of relaxor ferroelectric 8/65/35 PLZT,” Acta Materialia, 2011, to appear. [70] J.F. Scott

  12. Ferroelectric negative capacitance domain dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transient negative capacitance is shown to originate from reverse domain nucleation and unrestricted domain growth. However, with the onset of domain coalescence, the capacitance becomes positive again. The persistence of the negative capacitance state is therefore limited by the speed of domain wall motion. By changing the applied electric field, capacitor area or external resistance, this domain wall velocity can be varied predictably over several orders of magnitude. Additionally, detailed insights into the intrinsic material properties of the ferroelectric are obtainable through these measurements. A new method for reliable extraction of the average negative capacitance of the ferroelectric is presented. Furthermore, a simple analytical model is developed, which accurately describes the negative capacitance transient time as a function of the material properties and the experimental boundary conditions.

  13. Study of the structure and ferroelectric behavior of BaBi4-xLaxTi4O15 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Anita; Goyal, Parveen K.; Thakur, O. P.; Sreenivas, K.

    2015-06-01

    The structure and ferroelectric properties of Lanthanum substituted barium bismuth titanate BaBi4-xLaxTi4O15 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) ceramics prepared by solid-state reaction method have been investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of a single phase material. The distribution of lanthanum into the perovskite layers and (Bi2O2)2+ layers of BaBi4Ti4O15 ceramics have been revealed through Raman spectroscopy. At lower value of x, it is seen that La3+ ions prefer to substitute A-site Bi3+ ions in the perovskite layers while for higher x values, La3+ ions get incorporated into the (Bi2O2)2+ layers. A critical La content of x ˜ 0.2 in BaBi4-xLaxTi4O15 is seen to exhibit a large remnant polarization (Pr) with low coercive field (Ec). The improvement in the ferroelectric properties of La substituted BaBi4Ti4O15 ceramics has been explained in terms of changing oxygen vacancy concentration and structural relaxation. Tunable ferroelectric materials can be obtained by manipulating the doping amount of lanthanum ion.

  14. In situ transmission electron microscopy study of the microstructural origins for the electric field-induced phenomena in ferroelectric perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hanzheng [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Ferroelectrics are important materials due to their extensive technological applications, such as non-volatile memories, field-effect transistors, ferroelectric tunneling junctions, dielectric capacitors, piezoelectric transducers, sensors and actuators. As is well known, the outstanding dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric properties of these functional oxides originate from their ferroelectric domain arrangements and the corresponding evolution under external stimuli (e.g. electric field, stress, and temperature). Electric field has been known as the most efficient stimulus to manipulate the ferroelectric domains through polarization switching and alignment. Therefore, direct observation of the dynamic process of electric field-induced domain evolution and crystal structure transformation is of significant importance to understand the microstructural mechanisms for the functional properties of ferroelectrics. In this dissertation, electric field in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique was employed to monitor the real-time evolution of the domain morphology and crystal structure during various electrical processes: (1) the initial poling process, (2) the electric field reversal process, and (3) the electrical cycling process. Two types of perovskite-structured ceramics, normal ferroelectrics and relaxor ferroelectrics, were used for this investigation. In addition to providing the microscopic insight for some wellaccepted phase transformation rules, discoveries of some new or even unexpected physical phenomena were also demonstrated.

  15. Ferroelectric ultrathin perovskite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappe, Andrew M; Kolpak, Alexie Michelle

    2013-12-10

    Disclosed herein are perovskite ferroelectric thin-film. Also disclosed are methods of controlling the properties of ferroelectric thin films. These films can be used in a variety materials and devices, such as catalysts and storage media, respectively.

  16. Relaxor type perovskites: Primary candidates of nano-polar regions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    between Pb and O ions. Kleeman et al5 ... sputtering,13 sol–gel14 etc. In the present work ..... Hence the barium-based non lead relaxor materials have been of ..... Kingon A I, Streiffer, Basceri C and Summerfelt S R 1996 Mater. Res. Soc. Bull.

  17. Evidence for anisotropic polar nanoregions in relaxor Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3: A neutron study of the elastic constants and anomalous TA phonon damping in PMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, C.; Gehring, P. M.; Hiraka, H.; Swainson, I.; Xu, Guangyong; Ye, Z.-G.; Luo, H.; Li, J.-F.; Viehland, D.

    2012-09-01

    We use neutron inelastic scattering to characterize the acoustic phonons in the relaxor Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN) and demonstrate the presence of a highly anisotropic damping mechanism that is directly related to short-range polar correlations. For a large range of temperatures above Tc˜210 K, where dynamic, short-range polar correlations are present, acoustic phonons propagating along [11¯0] and polarized along [110] (TA2 phonons) are overdamped and softened across most of the Brillouin zone. By contrast, acoustic phonons propagating along [100] and polarized along [001] (TA1 phonons) are overdamped and softened for a more limited range of wave vectors q. The anisotropy and temperature dependence of the acoustic phonon energy linewidth Γ are directly correlated with neutron diffuse scattering cross section, indicating that polar nanoregions are the cause of the anomalous behavior. The damping and softening vanish for q→0, i.e., for long-wavelength acoustic phonons near the zone center, which supports the notion that the anomalous damping is a result of the coupling between the relaxational component of the diffuse scattering and the harmonic TA phonons. Therefore, these effects are not due to large changes in the elastic constants with temperature because the elastic constants correspond to the long-wavelength limit. We compare the elastic constants we measure to those from Brillouin scattering experiments and to values reported for pure PbTiO3. We show that while the values of C44 are quite similar, those for C11 and C12 are significantly less in PMN and result in a softening of (C11-C12) over PbTiO3. The elastic constants also show an increased elastic anisotropy [2C44/(C11-C12)] in PMN versus that in PbTiO3. These results are suggestive of an instability to TA2 acoustic fluctuations in PMN and other relaxor ferroelectrics. We discuss our results in the context of the current debate over the “waterfall” effect and show that they are inconsistent with

  18. Effect of cerium addition on the microstructure, electrical and relaxor behavior of Sr{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velayutham, T.S., E-mail: t_selvi@um.edu.my; Salim, N.I.F.; Gan, W.C.; Abd Majid, W.H.

    2016-05-05

    Sr{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (SBN50) ceramic doped with different concentrations of Cerium (Ce) according to the stoichiometry formulation of Sr{sub 0.5-3y/2}Ba{sub 0.5}Ce{sub y}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (Ce-SBN) with y = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05 was prepared using the conventional solid state reaction method. The morphology, structure, and electrical properties of the samples were studied using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ferroelectric and dielectric spectroscopy, respectively. The FESEM images reveal a strong influence of cerium on the SBN microstructure. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that all compositions of SBN ceramic exhibit tetragonal tungsten bronze structure. As the dopant concentration, y increased, both unit cell volume and axial ratio c/a decreased gradually. In addition, dopant incorporation lowers the phase transition temperature, T{sub m}. As a result, all practical parameters are sufficiently increased, i.e. the dielectric constant and remnant polarization. SBN50 doped with a 3% Ce sample is most attractive for practical applications due to its high remnant polarization, P{sub r} = 58.6 μC/cm{sup 2} and dielectric constant, ε’ ≈ 8000 (10 kHz) at room temperature, respectively. - Highlights: • Sr{sub 0.5-3y/2}Ba{sub 0.5}Ce{sub y}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} synthesized using solid-state reaction method. • Cerium dopant improved the overall properties of SBN. • Dopant incorporation lowers the phase transition temperature, T{sub m}. • 3% Ce dopant exhibits best functional properties among the rest of the composition. • The P{sub r} of 3%Ce-doped SBN is 58.6 μC/cm{sup 2} and ε’ ≈ 8000 (10 kHz) at room temperature.

  19. Evolution of phase transformation behavior and dielectric temperature stability of BaTiO3–Bi(Zn0.5Zr0.5)O3 ceramics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yiliang; Chen, Xiuli; Zhou, Huanfu; Fang, Liang; Liu, Laijun; Zhang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► (1 − x)BaTiO 3 –xBi(Zn 0.5 Zr 0.5 )O 3 ceramics were synthesized. ► A systematic structural change was observed near x = 0.07 and x = 0.4. ► A change from a normal ferroelectric behavior to diffusive and dispersive relaxor-like characteristic was also observed. ► (1 − x)BT–xBZZ ceramics show good dielectric temperature stability over a wide temperature range. - Abstract: (1 − x)BaTiO 3 –xBi(Zn 0.5 Zr 0.5 )O 3 [(1 − x)BT–xBZZ, 0.01 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.6] ceramics were synthesized by solid-state reaction technique. Based on the X-ray diffraction data analysis, a systematic structure change from the ferroelectric tetragonal phase to pseudocubic phase and the pseudocubic phase to orthorhombic phase was observed near x = 0.07 and x = 0.4 at room temperature, respectively. Dielectric measurements show a dielectric anomaly, over the temperature range from 50 to 200 °C for the compositions with 0.03 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.09. A change from a normal ferroelectric behavior to diffusive and dispersive relaxor-like characteristic was also observed. Moreover, (1 − x)BT–xBZZ ceramics show good dielectric temperature stability over a wide temperature range, which indicates that these ceramics can be applied in the temperature stability devices.

  20. Large Displacement in Relaxor Ferroelectric Terpolymer Blend Derived Actuators Using Al Electrode for Braille Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, S. G.; Chen, X.; Levard, T.; Diglio, P. J.; Gorny, L. J.; Rahn, C. D.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2015-06-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) based polymers are attractive for applications for artificial muscles, high energy density storage devices etc. Recently these polymers have been found great potential for being used as actuators for refreshable full-page Braille displays for visually impaired people in terms of light weight, miniaturized size, and larger displacement, compared with currently used lead zirconate titanate ceramic actuators. The applied voltages of published polymer actuators, however, cannot be reduced to meet the requirements of using city power. Here, we report the polymer actuator generating quite large displacement and blocking force at a voltage close to the city power. Our embodiments also show good self-healing performance and disuse of lead-containing material, which makes the Braille device safer, more reliable and more environment-friendly.

  1. Two-dimensional ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinov, L M; Fridkin, Vladimir M; Palto, Sergei P [A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federaion (Russian Federation); Bune, A V; Dowben, P A; Ducharme, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Behlen Laboratory of Physics, Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska-Linkoln, Linkoln, NE (United States)

    2000-03-31

    The investigation of the finite-size effect in ferroelectric crystals and films has been limited by the experimental conditions. The smallest demonstrated ferroelectric crystals had a diameter of {approx}200 A and the thinnest ferroelectric films were {approx}200 A thick, macroscopic sizes on an atomic scale. Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of films one monolayer at a time has produced high quality ferroelectric films as thin as 10 A, made from polyvinylidene fluoride and its copolymers. These ultrathin films permitted the ultimate investigation of finite-size effects on the atomic thickness scale. Langmuir-Blodgett films also revealed the fundamental two-dimensional character of ferroelectricity in these materials by demonstrating that there is no so-called critical thickness; films as thin as two monolayers (1 nm) are ferroelectric, with a transition temperature near that of the bulk material. The films exhibit all the main properties of ferroelectricity with a first-order ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition: polarization hysteresis (switching); the jump in spontaneous polarization at the phase transition temperature; thermal hysteresis in the polarization; the increase in the transition temperature with applied field; double hysteresis above the phase transition temperature; and the existence of the ferroelectric critical point. The films also exhibit a new phase transition associated with the two-dimensional layers. (reviews of topical problems)

  2. Atomic resolution imaging of ferroelectric domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Electron optical principles involved in obtaining atomic resolution images of ferroelectric domains are reviewed, including the methods available to obtain meaningful interpretation and analysis of the image detail in terms of the atomic structures. Recent work is concerned with establishing the relationship between the essentially static chemical nanodomains and the spatial and temporal fluctuations of the nanoscale polar domains present in the relaxor class of materials, including lead scandium tantalate (PST) and lead magnesium niobate (PMN). Correct interpretation of the images required use of Next Nearest Neighbour Ising model simulations for the chemical domain textures upon which we must superimpose the polar domain textures; an introduction to this work is presented. A thorough analysis of the atomic scale chemical inhomogeneities, based upon the HRTEM results, has lead to an improved formulation of the theory of the dielectric response of PMN and PST, which is capable to predict the observed temperature and frequency dependence. HRTEM may be combined with solid state and statistical physics principles to provide a deeper understanding of structure/property relationships. 15 refs., 6 figs

  3. A quaternary lead based perovskite structured materials with diffuse phase transition behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puli, Venkata Sreenivas; Martínez, R.; Kumar, Ashok; Scott, J.F.; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) Curie–Weiss plot for the inverse of the relative dielectric permittivity and (b) log (1/ε − 1/ε m ) as function of log (T − T m ) for ceramics at 1 kHz. Highlights: ► Retaining phase pure structure with quaternary complex stoichiometric compositions. ► P–E loops with good saturation polarization (P s ∼ 30.7 μC/cm 2 ). ► Diffused relaxor phase transition behavior with γ estimated is ∼1.65. -- Abstract: A lead based quaternary compound composed of 0.25(PbZr 0.52 Ti 0.48 O 3 ) + 0.25(PbFe 0.5 Ta 0.5 O 3 ) + 0.25 (PbF 0.67 W 0.33 O 3 ) + 0.25(PbFe 0.5 Nb 0.5 O 3 ) – (PZT–PFT–PFW–PFN) was synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction techniques. It showed moderate high dielectric constant, low dielectric loss, and two diffuse phase transitions, one below the room temperature ∼261 K and other above ∼410 K. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed a tetragonal crystal structure at room temperature where as scanning electron micrograph (SEM) indicates inhomogeneous surface with an average grain size of 500 nm–3 μm. Well saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loops with good saturation polarization (spontaneous polarization, P s ∼ 30.68 μC/cm 2 ) were observed. Temperature-dependent ac conductivity displayed low conductivity with kink in spectra near the phase transition. In continuing search for developing new ferroelectric materials, in the present study we report stoichiometric compositions of complex perovskite ceramic materials: (PZT–PFT–PFW–PFN) with diffuse phase transition behavior. The crystal structure, dielectric properties, and ferroelectric properties were characterized by XRD, SEM, dielectric spectroscopy, and polarization. 1/ε versus (T) plots revealed diffuse relaxor phase transition (DPT) behavior. The compositional variation on the phase transition temperature, dielectric constant, and ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transitions are discussed.

  4. A quaternary lead based perovskite structured materials with diffuse phase transition behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puli, Venkata Sreenivas, E-mail: pvsri123@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nano Materials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00936 (United States); Martinez, R.; Kumar, Ashok [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nano Materials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00936 (United States); Scott, J.F. [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nano Materials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00936 (United States); Cavendish Laboratory, Dept. Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB0 3HE (United Kingdom); Katiyar, Ram S., E-mail: rkatiyar@uprrp.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nano Materials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00936 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: (a) Curie-Weiss plot for the inverse of the relative dielectric permittivity and (b) log (1/{epsilon} - 1/{epsilon}{sub m}) as function of log (T - T{sub m}) for ceramics at 1 kHz. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Retaining phase pure structure with quaternary complex stoichiometric compositions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P-E loops with good saturation polarization (P{sub s} {approx} 30.7 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diffused relaxor phase transition behavior with {gamma} estimated is {approx}1.65. -- Abstract: A lead based quaternary compound composed of 0.25(PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3}) + 0.25(PbFe{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}) + 0.25 (PbF{sub 0.67}W{sub 0.33}O{sub 3}) + 0.25(PbFe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}) - (PZT-PFT-PFW-PFN) was synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction techniques. It showed moderate high dielectric constant, low dielectric loss, and two diffuse phase transitions, one below the room temperature {approx}261 K and other above {approx}410 K. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed a tetragonal crystal structure at room temperature where as scanning electron micrograph (SEM) indicates inhomogeneous surface with an average grain size of 500 nm-3 {mu}m. Well saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loops with good saturation polarization (spontaneous polarization, P{sub s} {approx} 30.68 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}) were observed. Temperature-dependent ac conductivity displayed low conductivity with kink in spectra near the phase transition. In continuing search for developing new ferroelectric materials, in the present study we report stoichiometric compositions of complex perovskite ceramic materials: (PZT-PFT-PFW-PFN) with diffuse phase transition behavior. The crystal structure, dielectric properties, and ferroelectric properties were characterized by XRD, SEM, dielectric spectroscopy, and polarization. 1/{epsilon} versus (T) plots revealed diffuse relaxor phase transition (DPT) behavior. The

  5. Quantum switching of polarization in mesoscopic ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa de Melo, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    A single domain of a uniaxial ferroelectric grain may be thought of as a classical permanent memory. At the mesoscopic level this system may experience considerable quantum fluctuations due to tunneling between two possible memory states, thus destroying the classical permanent memory effect. To study these quantum effects the concrete example of a mesoscopic uniaxial ferroelectric grain is discussed, where the orientation of the electric polarization determines two possible memory states. The possibility of quantum switching of the polarization in mesoscopic uniaxial ferroelectric grains is thus proposed. To determine the degree of memory loss, the tunneling rate between the two polarization states is calculated at zero temperature both in the absence and in the presence of an external static electric field. In addition, a discussion of crossover temperature between thermally activated behavior and quantum tunneling behavior is presented. And finally, environmental effects (phonons, defects, and surfaces) are also considered. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. Influence of Fe{sup 3+} substitution on the dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics of Lead Indium Niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divya, A.S.; Kumar, V., E-mail: vkumar10@yahoo.com

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Prepared phase-pure Fe{sup 3+}-substituted Lead Indium Niobate, Pb[(In{sub 0.50−x}Fe{sub x})Nb{sub 0.50}]O{sub 3} by sol–gel method. • Spontaneous Relaxor (R) → Ferroelectric (FE) transition observed for the composition with x = 0.20. • Local structural rearrangement responsible for R → FE transition has been confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. - Abstract: Lead Indium Niobate, Pb(In{sub 0.50}Nb{sub 0.50})O{sub 3} (PIN) is a complex perovskite that exhibits Relaxor (R) characteristics. In this study, we report the synthesis of phase-pure compositions in the system Pb[(In{sub 0.50−x}Fe{sub x})Nb{sub 0.50}]O{sub 3} by sol–gel method and discuss the influence of isovalent substitution of Indium by Iron on the dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics. Spontaneous transition to the Ferroelectric (FE) phase has been observed for the composition having x = 0.20. Local structural rearrangements responsible for R → FE transition have also been studied by Raman spectroscopy and are discussed in detail.

  7. Ferroelectric switching of elastin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanming; Cai, Hong-Ling; Zelisko, Matthew; Wang, Yunjie; Sun, Jinglan; Yan, Fei; Ma, Feiyue; Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Zheng, Hairong; Meng, Xiangjian; Sharma, Pradeep; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu

    2014-01-01

    Ferroelectricity has long been speculated to have important biological functions, although its very existence in biology has never been firmly established. Here, we present compelling evidence that elastin, the key ECM protein found in connective tissues, is ferroelectric, and we elucidate the molecular mechanism of its switching. Nanoscale piezoresponse force microscopy and macroscopic pyroelectric measurements both show that elastin retains ferroelectricity at 473 K, with polarization on the order of 1 μC/cm2, whereas coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations predict similar polarization with a Curie temperature of 580 K, which is higher than most synthetic molecular ferroelectrics. The polarization of elastin is found to be intrinsic in tropoelastin at the monomer level, analogous to the unit cell level polarization in classical perovskite ferroelectrics, and it switches via thermally activated cooperative rotation of dipoles. Our study sheds light onto a long-standing question on ferroelectric switching in biology and establishes ferroelectricity as an important biophysical property of proteins. This is a critical first step toward resolving its physiological significance and pathological implications. PMID:24958890

  8. Ferroelectricity at the nanoscale basics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fridkin, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This book examines a wide range of ferroelectric materials. It explains the theoretical background of ultrathin ferroelectric films,  presents applications of ferroelectric materials, and displays the mechanism of switching of nanosized ferroelectric films.

  9. Flexible graphene–PZT ferroelectric nonvolatile memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wonho; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Kahya, Orhan; Toh, Chee Tat; Özyilmaz, Barbaros

    2013-01-01

    We report the fabrication of a flexible graphene-based nonvolatile memory device using Pb(Zr 0.35 ,Ti 0.65 )O 3 (PZT) as the ferroelectric material. The graphene and PZT ferroelectric layers were deposited using chemical vapor deposition and sol–gel methods, respectively. Such PZT films show a high remnant polarization (P r ) of 30 μC cm −2 and a coercive voltage (V c ) of 3.5 V under a voltage loop over ±11 V. The graphene–PZT ferroelectric nonvolatile memory on a plastic substrate displayed an on/off current ratio of 6.7, a memory window of 6 V and reliable operation. In addition, the device showed one order of magnitude lower operation voltage range than organic-based ferroelectric nonvolatile memory after removing the anti-ferroelectric behavior incorporating an electrolyte solution. The devices showed robust operation in bent states of bending radii up to 9 mm and in cycling tests of 200 times. The devices exhibited remarkable mechanical properties and were readily integrated with plastic substrates for the production of flexible circuits. (paper)

  10. Impact induced depolarization of ferroelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Vinamra; Bhattacharya, Kaushik

    2018-06-01

    We study the large deformation dynamic behavior and the associated nonlinear electro-thermo-mechanical coupling exhibited by ferroelectric materials in adiabatic environments. This is motivated by a ferroelectric generator which involves pulsed power generation by loading the ferroelectric material with a shock, either by impact or a blast. Upon impact, a shock wave travels through the material inducing a ferroelectric to nonpolar phase transition giving rise to a large voltage difference in an open circuit situation or a large current in a closed circuit situation. In the first part of this paper, we provide a general continuum mechanical treatment of the situation assuming a sharp phase boundary that is possibly charged. We derive the governing laws, as well as the driving force acting on the phase boundary. In the second part, we use the derived equations and a particular constitutive relation that describes the ferroelectric to nonpolar phase transition to study a uniaxial plate impact problem. We develop a numerical method where the phase boundary is tracked but other discontinuities are captured using a finite volume method. We compare our results with experimental observations to find good agreement. Specifically, our model reproduces the observed exponential rise of charge as well as the resistance dependent Hugoniot. We conclude with a parameter study that provides detailed insight into various aspects of the problem.

  11. Flexible graphene-PZT ferroelectric nonvolatile memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonho; Kahya, Orhan; Toh, Chee Tat; Ozyilmaz, Barbaros; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2013-11-29

    We report the fabrication of a flexible graphene-based nonvolatile memory device using Pb(Zr0.35,Ti0.65)O3 (PZT) as the ferroelectric material. The graphene and PZT ferroelectric layers were deposited using chemical vapor deposition and sol–gel methods, respectively. Such PZT films show a high remnant polarization (Pr) of 30 μC cm−2 and a coercive voltage (Vc) of 3.5 V under a voltage loop over ±11 V. The graphene–PZT ferroelectric nonvolatile memory on a plastic substrate displayed an on/off current ratio of 6.7, a memory window of 6 V and reliable operation. In addition, the device showed one order of magnitude lower operation voltage range than organic-based ferroelectric nonvolatile memory after removing the anti-ferroelectric behavior incorporating an electrolyte solution. The devices showed robust operation in bent states of bending radii up to 9 mm and in cycling tests of 200 times. The devices exhibited remarkable mechanical properties and were readily integrated with plastic substrates for the production of flexible circuits.

  12. Effects of criticality and disorder on piezoelectric properties of ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porta, Marcel; Lookman, Turab; Saxena, Avadh

    2010-01-01

    The piezoelectric response of BaTiO 3 is studied in the vicinity of the cubic to tetragonal phase transition, as a function of temperature and the applied electric field in the polar direction. We also investigate the influence of disorder. In the clean limit we obtain the divergence of the piezoelectric tensor at the critical point. The effect of a small amount of disorder is to translate the critical point in the temperature-electric field phase diagram. For large values of the disorder, the paraelectric to ferroelectric phase transition becomes diffuse but a maximum of the piezoelectric tensor is still obtained even though the divergence of the piezoelectric response is lost. These results are in agreement with experimental observations for the relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -PbTiO 3 . We use a Ginzburg-Landau model which explicitly includes the coupling of the polarization to the strain, the electrostatic interaction between polarizations, and a quenched random compressional stress field generated by point defects. The strain field and its associated elastic energy are written in terms of the stress field and the electric polarization by energy minimization subject to elastic compatibility.

  13. Quantum mechanical studies of complex ferroelectric perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramer, Nicholas John

    In many electronic device applications, there is a need to interconvert electrical energy and other types of energy. Ferroelectric materials, which possess a voltage-dependent polarization, can enable this energy conversion process. Because of the broad interest in ferroelectric materials for these devices, there is a critical research effort, both experimental and theoretical, to understand these materials and aid in the development of materials with improved properties. This thesis presents detailed quantum mechanical investigations of the behavior of a complex ferroelectric perovskite under applied stress. In particular, we have chosen to study the solid solution PbZr1-xTix O3 (PZT). Since the study of ferroelectricity involves understanding both its structural and electronic signatures in materials, it has necessitated the development of a novel theoretical technique which improves the accuracy of the pseudopotentials used in our density functional theory calculations as well as a new method for constructing three-dimensional atomistic responses to small amounts of external stress. To examine the material's behavior under larger amounts of stress, we have studied the behavior of a composition of PZT lying near a structural phase boundary. On either side of the phase boundary, the material is characterized by a different polarization direction and may easily be switched between phases by applying external stress. In addition to stress-induced phase transitions, most ferroelectric materials also have composition dependent phase boundaries. Since different compositions of PZT would require increased computational effort, we have formulated an improved virtual crystal approach that makes tractable the study of the entire composition range. Using this method, we have been able to show for the first time via first-principles calculations, a composition dependent phase transition in a ferroelectric material. This thesis has accomplished three important goals: new

  14. Weak ferromagnetism and magnetoelectric effect in multiferroic xBa{sub 0.95}Sr{sub 0.05}TiO{sub 3}–(1−x)BiFe{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 3} relaxors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M.J. [Department of Physics, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (Bangladesh); Department of Physics, Comilla University, Comilla (Bangladesh); Khan, M.N.I. [Materials Science Division, Atomic Energy Center, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Hossain, A.K.M. Akther, E-mail: akmhossain@phy.buet.ac.bd [Department of Physics, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (Bangladesh)

    2016-03-01

    Multiferroic xBa{sub 0.95}Sr{sub 0.05}TiO{sub 3}–(1−x)BiFe{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 3} [xBST–(1−x)BFGO], where x=0.00−0.40, have been synthesized by the conventional solid-state reaction method. The crystalline phase, microstructure, relaxor behavior, ac conductivity, impedance spectroscopy, dc magnetic properties, complex initial permeability and magnetoelectric coefficient of these solid solutions have been investigated. The crystal structure is found to change from rhombohedral in BFGO rich compositions to cubic when x≥0.30. Room temperature dielectric properties are investigated within the frequency range from 1 kHz to 1 MHz and found to increase with BST content. The frequency dependence of high temperature dielectric measurements indicated that the composites with x≥0.20, exhibit relaxor ferroelectric behavior. The ac conductivity obeys the Jonscher’s universal power law and BST helps to enhance the electrical conductivity of the composites. Studies of impedance spectroscopy suggest that only grains have the contribution to the conductivity mechanism in this material. Magnetizations as a function of applied magnetic field measurements show weak ferromagnetism for 0.10≤x≤0.30 composites. The maximum value of remnant magnetization is found to be 0.565×10{sup 3} A/m (=0.08 emu/g) for x=0.25 which is better than previously reported BaTiO{sub 3}–BiFeO{sub 3} systems. The complex initial permeability is found to improve with the increase in BST concentration due to the reduction of oxygen vacancies. In addition, an enhanced magnetoelectric (ME) coupling is also observed and determined by the ME coefficient. The maximum value of ME coefficient is found to be 21.71×10{sup −4} V/A (=1.67 mV/cm Oe) for the x=0.25 composition. The BST–BFGO solid solutions show high-performance multiferroic properties and can be selected for further investigation. - Highlights: • Phase pure multiferroic xBa{sub 0.95}Sr{sub 0.05}TiO{sub 3}–(1−x)BiFe{sub 0

  15. The influence of the coexistence of ferroelectric and antiferroelectric states on the lead lanthanum zirconate titanate crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishchuk, V M; Baumer, V N; Sobolev, V L

    2005-01-01

    We present results of detailed investigation of the crystal structure of Pb 1-3x/2 La x (Zr 1-y Ti y )O 3 solid solutions. In this letter our attention is concentrated on the series of solid solutions with x = 6% usually referred to as relaxor ferroelectrics. We have established the reasons for the non-cubic crystal structure of these solid solutions at the temperatures below T C . It is demonstrated that the peculiarities of the properties of Pb 1-3x/2 La x (Zr 1-y Ti y )O 3 depend on the position of a particular solid solution with respect to the hysteresis ferroelectric-antiferroelectric region in the 'Ti-content-temperature' phase diagram. (letter to the editor)

  16. Comment on "Interesting Evidence for Template-Induced Ferroelectric Behavior in Ultra-Thin Titanium Dioxide Films Grown on (110) Neodymium Gallium Oxide Substrates"

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skiadopoulou, Styliani; Kamba, Stanislav; Drahokoupil, Jan; Kroupa, Jan; Deepak, N.; Pemble, M.E.; Whatmore, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2016), s. 642-646 ISSN 1616-301X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-08389S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 607521 - NOTEDEV Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ferroelectrics * soft modes * phase transitions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 12.124, year: 2016

  17. Far-infrared soft-mode behavior in PbSc.sub.1/2./sub.Ta.sub.1/2./sub.O.sub.3./sub. thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamba, Stanislav; Berta, Milan; Kempa, Martin; Hlinka, Jiří; Petzelt, Jan; Brinkman, K.; Setter, N.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 98, - (2005), 074103/1-074103/5 ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010213; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/04/0993; GA MŠk(CZ) OC 525.20 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : relaxor ferroelectric * slim films * ferroelectric soft mode * central mode Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.498, year: 2005

  18. Ferroelectrics principles, structure and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Merchant, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Ferroelectric physics is a theory on ferroelectric phase transition for explaining various related phenomena, which is different from dielectric physics. Ferroelectric materials are important functional materials for various applications such as NVRAMs, high energy density capacitors, actuators, MEMs, sonar sensors, microphones and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). This book investigates the dielectric, ferroelectric and energy storage properties of barium zirconate-titanate/barium calcium-titanate (BZT-BCT) based ceramic for high energy density capacitors. It also compares the energy storage capabilities of ceramic powders with polymer-ceramic nanocomposites; and discusses dielectric properties of ferroelectricity in composition distributions.

  19. Ferroelectric glass of spheroidal dipoles with impurities: polar nanoregions, response to applied electric field, and ergodicity breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takae, Kyohei; Onuki, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulation, we study dipolar glass in crystals composed of slightly spheroidal, polar particles and spherical, apolar impurities between metal walls. We present physical pictures of ferroelectric glass, which have been observed in relaxors, mixed crystals (such as KCN x KBr 1−x ), and polymers. Our systems undergo a diffuse transition in a wide temperature range, where we visualize polar nanoregions (PNRs) surrounded by impurities. In our simulation, the impurities form clusters and their space distribution is heterogeneous. The polarization fluctuations are enhanced at relatively high T depending on the size of the dipole moment. They then form frozen PNRs as T is further lowered into the nonergodic regime. As a result, the dielectric permittivity exhibits the characteristic features of relaxor ferroelectrics. We also examine nonlinear response to cyclic applied electric field and nonergodic response to cyclic temperature changes (ZFC/FC), where the polarization and the strain change collectively and heterogeneously. We also study antiferroelectric glass arising from molecular shape asymmetry. We use an Ewald scheme of calculating the dipolar interaction in applied electric field. (paper)

  20. Effects of the sintering temperature on the diffused phase transition and the spin-glassy behavior in Pb0.95La0.05(Fe2/3W1/3)0.65Ti0.35O3 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Cheng-Shong; Chu, Sheng-Yuan; Hsu, Chi-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of the sintering temperature on the low-field dielectric behavior of nonstoichiometric Pb 0.95 La 0.05 (Fe 2/3 W 1/3 ) 0.65 Ti 0.35 O 3 relaxor ferroelectrics is investigated. The x-ray patterns and the scanning electron microscope images are used to detect the pyrochlore phase and the perovskite structure. The electric properties of the resistivity, the space charge polarization, the temperature-dependent dielectric constant and dielectric loss are discussed. The diffused phase transition and the ordering state are fitted and discussed by using the empirical law and two ordering models. Furthermore, the glassy behavior is determined by using the Curie-Weiss law and the spin-glass model. According to the experimental data and fitting results, the dielectric picture is changed from the short range order relaxorlike behavior to the long range order normal ferroelectric state as increasing the sintering temperature and the glassy behavior is weakened at the lowest and highest sintering temperature at which the pyrochlore phase PWO 4 is induced. Therefore, it is suggested that the 1:1 ordered domain is enhanced by increasing the sintering temperature and the glassy behavior is related to not only the ordering degree also the polar defect pairs. For more ordering degree and polar defect pairs, the glassy is weakened and the correlation of neighboring polar microregions is enhanced.

  1. Influence of lanthanum distribution on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of BaBi4-xLaxTi4O15 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, Anita; Goyal, Parveen K.; Thakur, O.P.; Shukla, A.K.; Sreenivas, K.

    2015-01-01

    Structural and electrical properties of Lanthanum substituted barium bismuth titanate BaBi 4-x La x Ti 4 O 15 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.50) ceramics prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method have been investigated. Raman spectra reveals the distribution of lanthanum into the perovskite layers and (Bi 2 O 2 ) 2+ layers of BaBi 4 Ti 4 O 15 ceramics. Room temperature dielectric constant (ε′) increases and considerable reduction in the low frequency (10 −2 to 10 Hz) dielectric losses and in dc conductivity (σ dc ) are seen with lanthanum substitution. A critical La content of x ∼0.20 in BaBi 4-x La x Ti 4 O 15 exhibits a well-defined relaxor behavior as seen from the temperature and frequency dependence of the dielectric parameters ε′(T) and ε″(T). The dielectric data fit well to the modified Curie–Weiss law and the Lorentz-type relation and show increasing diffuseness in the phase transition with increasing La content. The temperature dependence of the characteristic relaxation time obtained from the Cole–Cole model shows a good fit to the non-linear Vogel–Fulcher relation. Improvements in the remnant polarization and a stable piezoelectric charge coefficient are seen up to a La content of x ∼0.20. The observed increase in dielectric loss and σ dc in addition to the diminished ferroelectric/piezoelectric properties for higher La content are explained in terms of changing oxygen vacancy concentration and structural relaxation due to the preferential incorporation of La into the (Bi 2 O 2 ) 2+ layers as evidenced through the Raman spectroscopy. - Highlights: • La distribution in BaBi 4-x La x Ti 4 O 15 ceramics is analyzed through Raman spectroscopy. • Low and a nearly constant loss over wide frequency range (10 −2 –10 7  Hz) obtained. • Critical La content x = 0.2 identified for high resistivity and ideal relaxor characteristics. • Improved P-E hysteresis loops and large remnant polarization measured. • Changes in the

  2. Raman analysis of ferroelectric switching in niobium-doped lead zirconate titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, P.; Ramos-Moore, E.; Guitar, M.A.; Cabrera, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    Characteristic Raman vibration modes of niobium-doped lead zirconate titanate (PNZT) are studied as a function of ferroelectric domain switching. The microstructure of PNZT is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Ferroelectric switching is achieved by applying voltages between the top (Au) and bottom (Pt) electrodes, while acquiring the Raman spectra in situ. Vibrational active modes associated with paraelectric and ferroelectric phases are identified after measuring above and below the ferroelectric Curie temperature, respectively. Changes in the relative intensities of the Raman peaks are observed as a function of the switching voltage. The peak area associated with the ferroelectric modes is analyzed as a function of the applied voltage within one ferroelectric polarization loop, showing local maxima around the coercive voltage. This behavior can be understood in terms of the correlation between vibrational and structural properties, since ferroelectric switching modifies the interaction between the body-centered atom (Zr, Ti or Nb) and the Pb–O lattice. - Highlights: • Electric fields induce structural distortions on ferroelectric perovskites. • Ferroelectric capacitor was fabricated to perform hysteresis loops. • Raman analysis was performed in situ during ferroelectric switching. • Raman modes show hysteresis and inflections around the coercive voltages. • Data can be understood in terms of vibrational–structural correlations

  3. On bistable states retention in ferroelectric Langmuir-Blodgett films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geivandov, A. R.; Palto, S. P.; Yudin, S. G.; Fridkin, V. M.; Blinov, L. M.; Ducharme, S.

    2003-08-01

    A new insight into the nature of ferroelectricity is emerging from the study of ultra-thin ferroelectric films prepared of poly(vinylidene fluoride with trifluoroethylene) copolymer using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. Unique properties of these films indicate the existence of two-dimensional ferroelectricity. The retention of two polarized states in ferroelectric polymer LB films is studied using nonlinear dielectric spectroscopy. The technique is based on phase sensitive measurements of nonlinear dielectric spectroscopy. The amplitude of the current response at the 2nd harmonic of the applied voltage is proportional to the magnitude of the remnant polarization, while its phase gives the sign. We have found that 10 - 20 mm thick LB films can show fast switching time and long retention of the two polarized states. Nevertheless, LB films show a pronounced asymmetry in switching to the opposite states. Possible mechanisms of such behavior are discussed.

  4. Study of the structure and ferroelectric behavior of BaBi{sub 4-x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khokhar, Anita, E-mail: mails4anita@gmail.com; Sreenivas, K. [Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110 007 (India); Goyal, Parveen K. [Department of Physics, ARSD College, University of Delhi, Dhaula Kuan, New Delhi-110 021 (India); Thakur, O. P. [Electroceramics Group, Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Delhi 110 054 (India)

    2015-06-24

    The structure and ferroelectric properties of Lanthanum substituted barium bismuth titanate BaBi{sub 4-x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) ceramics prepared by solid-state reaction method have been investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of a single phase material. The distribution of lanthanum into the perovskite layers and (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}){sup 2+} layers of BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} ceramics have been revealed through Raman spectroscopy. At lower value of x, it is seen that La{sup 3+} ions prefer to substitute A-site Bi{sup 3+} ions in the perovskite layers while for higher x values, La{sup 3+} ions get incorporated into the (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}){sup 2+} layers. A critical La content of x ∼ 0.2 in BaBi{sub 4-x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} is seen to exhibit a large remnant polarization (P{sub r}) with low coercive field (E{sub c}). The improvement in the ferroelectric properties of La substituted BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} ceramics has been explained in terms of changing oxygen vacancy concentration and structural relaxation. Tunable ferroelectric materials can be obtained by manipulating the doping amount of lanthanum ion.

  5. Hierarchy and scaling behavior of multi-rank domain patterns in ferroelectric K0.9Na0.1NbO3 strained films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Dorothee; Schmidbauer, Martin; Hanke, Michael; Schwarzkopf, Jutta

    2018-01-01

    The formation process of a ferroelectric multi-rank domain pattern in the thickness range of 7-52 nm is investigated for monoclinic K0.9Na0.1NbO3 strained epitaxial films on (110) NdScO3 substrates. Although the elastic strain energy density is degenerated for two pseudocubic orientations, a distinctive hierarchy of domain evolution is observed with exclusive in-plane a1a2 domains for very thin films and the retarded onset of a ferroelectric MC phase at larger film thickness. This is accompanied by a thickness dependent transformation from stripe domains to a herringbone pattern and, eventually, for the thickest film, to a checkerboard-like structure. These transformations in the domain arrangement and width are correlated to energetic aspects as depolarization field and anisotropic strain relaxation in the film. While for the MC domains plastic strain relaxation is throughout observed, the a1a2 domains show a two-step strain relaxation mechanism starting with an in-plane elastic shearing, which is followed by plastic lattice relaxation. Our results highlight a pathway for engineering and patterning of periodic ferroelectric domain structures.

  6. Role of oxygen disorder in the ferroelectric phase transitions for various materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasciak, Marek; Goossens, Darren J.; Welberry, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The nature of ferroelectric phase transitions in many materials have been questioned for many years. Whereas some methods provide definitive evidence of mode softening, other methods, such as local structure probes, indicate the existence of disorder in the paraelectric phase [1]. It is now widely accepted, that the ferroelectric phase transition usually has two components - soft-mode displacive and order-disorder. The latter leads inevitably to some form of pretransitional clusters in the paraelectric phase [2]. In relaxor ferroelectrics, in which disorder drives the transformation, such polar clusters can exist over a wide range of temperatures. Diffuse scattering is a powerful tool for studying such disorder and also for studying short-range order correlations in atomic displacements [3]. In this work we concentrate on the role of oxygens in various materials. By different means of molecular simulations we build models in which the oxygens constitute a framework for short range order correlations. This leads to a discussion of the differences between x-ray and neutron diffuse scattering patterns that may arise due to the disorder of oxygens.

  7. Dimensional scaling of perovskite ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keech, Ryan R.

    Dimensional size reduction has been the cornerstone of the exponential improvement in silicon based logic devices for decades. However, fundamental limits in the device physics were reached ˜2003, halting further reductions in clock speed without significant penalties in power consumption. This has motivated the research into next generation transistors and switching devices to reinstate the scaling laws for clock speed. This dissertation aims to support the scaling of devices that are based on ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity and to provide a roadmap for the corresponding materials performance. First, a scalable growth process to obtain highly {001}-oriented lead magnesium niobate - lead titanate (PMN-PT) thin films was developed, motivated by the high piezoelectric responses observed in bulk single crystals. It was found that deposition of a 2-3 nm thick PbO buffer layer on {111} Pt thin film bottom electrodes, prior to chemical solution deposition of PMN-PT reduces the driving force for Pb diffusion from the PMN-PT to the bottom electrode, and facilitates nucleation of {001}-oriented perovskite grains. Energy dispersive spectroscopy demonstrated that up to 10% of the Pb from a PMN-PT precursor solution may diffuse into the bottom electrode. PMN-PT grains with a mixed {101}/{111} orientation in a matrix of Pb-deficient pyrochlore phase were then promoted near the interface. When this is prevented, phase pure films with {001} orientation with Lotgering factors of 0.98-1.0, can be achieved. The resulting films of only 300 nm in thickness exhibit longitudinal effective d33,f coefficients of ˜90 pm/V and strain values of ˜1% prior to breakdown. 300 nm thick epitaxial and polycrystalline lead magnesium niobate - lead titanate (70PMN-30PT) blanket thin films were studied for the relative contributions to property thickness dependence from interfacial and grain boundary low permittivity layers. Epitaxial PMN-PT films were grown on SrRuO 3 /(001)SrTiO3, while

  8. Ferroelectric tunneling element and memory applications which utilize the tunneling element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, Sergei V [Knoxville, TN; Christen, Hans M [Knoxville, TN; Baddorf, Arthur P [Knoxville, TN; Meunier, Vincent [Knoxville, TN; Lee, Ho Nyung [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-07-20

    A tunneling element includes a thin film layer of ferroelectric material and a pair of dissimilar electrically-conductive layers disposed on opposite sides of the ferroelectric layer. Because of the dissimilarity in composition or construction between the electrically-conductive layers, the electron transport behavior of the electrically-conductive layers is polarization dependent when the tunneling element is below the Curie temperature of the layer of ferroelectric material. The element can be used as a basis of compact 1R type non-volatile random access memory (RAM). The advantages include extremely simple architecture, ultimate scalability and fast access times generic for all ferroelectric memories.

  9. Molecular ferroelectrics: where electronics meet biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangyu; Liu, Yuanming; Zhang, Yanhang; Cai, Hong-Ling; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2013-12-28

    In the last several years, we have witnessed significant advances in molecular ferroelectrics, with the ferroelectric properties of molecular crystals approaching those of barium titanate. In addition, ferroelectricity has been observed in biological systems, filling an important missing link in bioelectric phenomena. In this perspective, we will present short historical notes on ferroelectrics, followed by an overview of the fundamentals of ferroelectricity. The latest developments in molecular ferroelectrics and biological ferroelectricity will then be highlighted, and their implications and potential applications will be discussed. We close by noting molecular ferroelectric as an exciting frontier between electronics and biology, and a number of challenges ahead are also described.

  10. Ferroelectric materials and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Y

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the basic physical properties, structure, fabrication methods and applications of ferroelectric materials. These are widely used in various devices, such as piezoelectric/electrostrictive transducers and actuators, pyroelectric infrared detectors, optical integrated circuits, optical data storage, display devices, etc. The ferroelectric materials described in this book include a relatively complete list of practical and promising ferroelectric single crystals, bulk ceramics and thin films. Included are perovskite-type, lithium niobate, tungsten-bronze-type, water-soluable

  11. Ferroelectricity the fundamentals collection

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Basilio

    2008-01-01

    This indispensable collection of seminal papers on ferroelectricity provides an overview over almost a hundred years of basic and applied research. Containing historic contributions from renowned authors, this book presents developments in an area of science that is still rapidly growing. Although primarily aimed at scientists and academics involved in research, this will also be of use to students as well as newcomers to the field.

  12. Domain switching of fatigued ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak Lim, Yun; Yeog Son, Jong; Shin, Young-Han

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the domain wall speed of a ferroelectric PbZr0.48Ti0.52O3 (PZT) thin film using an atomic force microscope incorporated with a mercury-probe system to control the degree of electrical fatigue. The depolarization field in the PZT thin film decreases with increasing the degree of electrical fatigue. We find that the wide-range activation field previously reported in ferroelectric domains result from the change of the depolarization field caused by the electrical fatigue. Domain wall speed exhibits universal behavior to the effective electric field (defined by an applied electric field minus the depolarization field), regardless of the degree of the electrical fatigue.

  13. Domain switching of fatigued ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tak Lim, Yun; Yeog Son, Jong; Shin, Young-Han

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the domain wall speed of a ferroelectric PbZr 0.48 Ti 0.52 O 3 (PZT) thin film using an atomic force microscope incorporated with a mercury-probe system to control the degree of electrical fatigue. The depolarization field in the PZT thin film decreases with increasing the degree of electrical fatigue. We find that the wide-range activation field previously reported in ferroelectric domains result from the change of the depolarization field caused by the electrical fatigue. Domain wall speed exhibits universal behavior to the effective electric field (defined by an applied electric field minus the depolarization field), regardless of the degree of the electrical fatigue

  14. Surface-screening mechanisms in ferroelectric thin films and their effect on polarization dynamics and domain structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kim, Yunseok; Fong, Dillon D.; Morozovska, Anna N.

    2018-03-01

    For over 70 years, ferroelectric materials have been one of the central research topics for condensed matter physics and material science, an interest driven both by fundamental science and applications. However, ferroelectric surfaces, the key component of ferroelectric films and nanostructures, still present a significant theoretical and even conceptual challenge. Indeed, stability of ferroelectric phase per se necessitates screening of polarization charge. At surfaces, this can lead to coupling between ferroelectric and semiconducting properties of material, or with surface (electro) chemistry, going well beyond classical models applicable for ferroelectric interfaces. In this review, we summarize recent studies of surface-screening phenomena in ferroelectrics. We provide a brief overview of the historical understanding of the physics of ferroelectric surfaces, and existing theoretical models that both introduce screening mechanisms and explore the relationship between screening and relevant aspects of ferroelectric functionalities starting from phase stability itself. Given that the majority of ferroelectrics exist in multiple-domain states, we focus on local studies of screening phenomena using scanning probe microscopy techniques. We discuss recent studies of static and dynamic phenomena on ferroelectric surfaces, as well as phenomena observed under lateral transport, light, chemical, and pressure stimuli. We also note that the need for ionic screening renders polarization switching a coupled physical–electrochemical process and discuss the non-trivial phenomena such as chaotic behavior during domain switching that stem from this. ).

  15. Surface-screening mechanisms in ferroelectric thin films and their effect on polarization dynamics and domain structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kim, Yunseok; Fong, Dillon D.; Morozovska, Anna N.

    2018-01-25

    For over 70 years, ferroelectric materials have been one of the central research topics for condensed matter physics and material science, an interest driven both by fundamental science and applications. However, ferroelectric surfaces, the key component of ferroelectric films and nanostructures, still present a significant theoretical and even conceptual challenge. Indeed, stability of ferroelectric phase per se necessitates screening of polarization charge. At surfaces, this can lead to coupling between ferroelectric and semiconducting properties of material, or with surface (electro) chemistry, going well beyond classical models applicable for ferroelectric interfaces. In this review, we summarize recent studies of surface-screening phenomena in ferroelectrics. We provide a brief overview of the historical understanding of the physics of ferroelectric surfaces, and existing theoretical models that both introduce screening mechanisms and explore the relationship between screening and relevant aspects of ferroelectric functionalities starting from phase stability itself. Given that the majority of ferroelectrics exist in multiple-domain states, we focus on local studies of screening phenomena using scanning probe microscopy techniques. We discuss recent studies of static and dynamic phenomena on ferroelectric surfaces, as well as phenomena observed under lateral transport, light, chemical, and pressure stimuli. We also note that the need for ionic screening renders polarization switching a coupled physical-electrochemical process and discuss the non-trivial phenomena such as chaotic behavior during domain switching that stem from this.

  16. Giant Electrocaloric Effect in Ferroelectrics with Tailored Polaw-Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qiming [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2015-06-24

    Electrocaloric effect (ECE) is the temperature and/or entropy change in a dielectric material caused by an electric field induced polarization change. Although ECE has been studied since 1930s, the very small ECE observed in earlier studies in bulk materials before 2007 makes it not attractive for practical cooling applications. The objectives of this DOE program are to carry out a systematical scientific research on the entropy change and ECE in polar-dielectrics, especially ferroelectrics based on several fundamental hypotheses and to search for answers on a few scientific questions. Especially, this research program developed a series of polar-dielectric materials with controlled nano- and meso-structures and carried out studies on how these structures affect the polar-ordering, correlations, energy landscapes, and consequently the entropy states at different phases and ECE. The key hypotheses of the program include: (i) Whether a large ECE can be obtained near the ferroelectric-paraelectric (FE-PE) transition in properly designed ferroelectrics which possess large polarization P and large ß (the coefficient in the thermodynamic Landau theory where the Gibbs free energy G = G = G0+ ½ a P2 +1/4 b P4 + 1/6 c P6 – EP, and a = ß (T-Tc), where b,c,ß and Tc are constants)? (ii) What determines/determine ß? Whether a ferroelectric material with built-in disorders, which disrupt the polar-correlations and enabling a large number of local polar-states, such as a properly designed ferroelectric relaxor, can achieve a large ECE? (iii) How to design a ferroelectric material which has flat energy landscape so that the energy barriers for switching among different phases are vanishingly small? What are the necessary conditions to maximize the number of coexisting phases? (iv) How to design ferroelectric materials with a large tunable dielectric response? That is, at zero electric field, the material possesses very

  17. Nanoscale organic ferroelectric resistive switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khikhlovskyi, V.; Wang, R.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Gelinck, G.H.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Kemerink, M.

    2014-01-01

    Organic ferroelectric resistive switches function by grace of nanoscale phase separation in a blend of a semiconducting and a ferroelectric polymer that is sandwiched between metallic electrodes. In this work, various scanning probe techniques are combined with numerical modeling to unravel their

  18. Physical aspects of ferroelectric semiconductors for photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Varo, Pilar [Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de Computadores, CITIC-UGR, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Bertoluzzi, Luca [Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM), Universitat Jaume I, 12006 Castelló (Spain); Bisquert, Juan, E-mail: bisquert@uji.es [Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM), Universitat Jaume I, 12006 Castelló (Spain); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Alexe, Marin [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Coll, Mariona [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193, Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Huang, Jinsong [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering and Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0656 (United States); Jimenez-Tejada, Juan Antonio [Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de Computadores, CITIC-UGR, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Kirchartz, Thomas [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Faculty of Engineering and CENIDE, University of Duisburg–Essen, Carl-Benz-Str. 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Nechache, Riad; Rosei, Federico [INRS—Center Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, Boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec, J3X 1S2 (Canada); Yuan, Yongbo [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering and Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0656 (United States)

    2016-10-07

    Solar energy conversion using semiconductors to fabricate photovoltaic devices relies on efficient light absorption, charge separation of electron–hole pair carriers or excitons, and fast transport and charge extraction to counter recombination processes. Ferroelectric materials are able to host a permanent electrical polarization which provides control over electrical field distribution in bulk and interfacial regions. In this review, we provide a critical overview of the physical principles and mechanisms of solar energy conversion using ferroelectric semiconductors and contact layers, as well as the main achievements reported so far. In a ferroelectric semiconductor film with ideal contacts, the polarization charge would be totally screened by the metal layers and no charge collection field would exist. However, real materials show a depolarization field, smooth termination of polarization, and interfacial energy barriers that do provide the control of interface and bulk electric field by switchable spontaneous polarization. We explore different phenomena as the polarization-modulated Schottky-like barriers at metal/ferroelectric interfaces, depolarization fields, vacancy migration, and the switchable rectifying behavior of ferroelectric thin films. Using a basic physical model of a solar cell, our analysis provides a general picture of the influence of ferroelectric effects on the actual power conversion efficiency of the solar cell device, and we are able to assess whether these effects or their combinations are beneficial or counterproductive. We describe in detail the bulk photovoltaic effect and the contact layers that modify the built-in field and the charge injection and separation in bulk heterojunction organic cells as well as in photocatalytic and water splitting devices. We also review the dominant families of ferroelectric materials that have been most extensively investigated and have provided the best photovoltaic performance.

  19. Physical aspects of ferroelectric semiconductors for photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Varo, Pilar; Bertoluzzi, Luca; Bisquert, Juan; Alexe, Marin; Coll, Mariona; Huang, Jinsong; Jimenez-Tejada, Juan Antonio; Kirchartz, Thomas; Nechache, Riad; Rosei, Federico; Yuan, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy conversion using semiconductors to fabricate photovoltaic devices relies on efficient light absorption, charge separation of electron–hole pair carriers or excitons, and fast transport and charge extraction to counter recombination processes. Ferroelectric materials are able to host a permanent electrical polarization which provides control over electrical field distribution in bulk and interfacial regions. In this review, we provide a critical overview of the physical principles and mechanisms of solar energy conversion using ferroelectric semiconductors and contact layers, as well as the main achievements reported so far. In a ferroelectric semiconductor film with ideal contacts, the polarization charge would be totally screened by the metal layers and no charge collection field would exist. However, real materials show a depolarization field, smooth termination of polarization, and interfacial energy barriers that do provide the control of interface and bulk electric field by switchable spontaneous polarization. We explore different phenomena as the polarization-modulated Schottky-like barriers at metal/ferroelectric interfaces, depolarization fields, vacancy migration, and the switchable rectifying behavior of ferroelectric thin films. Using a basic physical model of a solar cell, our analysis provides a general picture of the influence of ferroelectric effects on the actual power conversion efficiency of the solar cell device, and we are able to assess whether these effects or their combinations are beneficial or counterproductive. We describe in detail the bulk photovoltaic effect and the contact layers that modify the built-in field and the charge injection and separation in bulk heterojunction organic cells as well as in photocatalytic and water splitting devices. We also review the dominant families of ferroelectric materials that have been most extensively investigated and have provided the best photovoltaic performance.

  20. Dielectric and Ferroelectric Properties of SrTiO3-Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-BaAl0.5Nb0.5O3 Lead-Free Ceramics for High-Energy-Storage Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Yang, Haibo; Lin, Ying; Wang, Tong

    2017-11-06

    Pulsed capacitors require high-recoverable energy-storage density (W rec ) and high energy-storage efficiency (η), which can be realized through the selection and adjustment of the composition. In this work, (1 - x)SrTiO 3 -x(0.95Bi 0.5 Na 0.5 TiO 3 -0.05BaAl 0.5 Nb 0.5 O 3 ) [(1 - x)ST-x(BNT-BAN)] ceramics were successfully prepared via the pressureless solid-state reaction method. The dielectric constant increases gradually with the introduction of BNT-BAN and obtains a maximum value of 3430 with the composition of 0.4ST-0.6(BNT-BAN) at 100 Hz, which is 10.39 times higher than that of the pure ST sample (∼330). Dispersive relaxor behaviors and ferroelectric performances can be enhanced with the introduction of BNT-BAN. The composition of 0.5ST-0.5(BNT-BAN) exhibits a high W rec of 1.89 J/cm 3 as well as a high η of 77%. Therefore, the (1 - x)ST-x(BNT-BAN) systems are candidate materials for pulsed capacitor applications.

  1. Reliability improvement of PMZNT relaxor ferroelectrics through surface modification by MnO2 doping against electroplating-induced degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jiangli; Li Longtu; Gui Zhilun

    2003-01-01

    Electroplating treatment, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were conducted to investigate the reliability improvement of lead magnesium niobate-based ceramics (PMZNT) through MnO 2 vaporous doping against hydrogen reduction during electroplating. The results showed that manganese dopant was reduced to be +3 oxidation state during the sintering and Mn 3+ was incorporated into the perovskite lattice; however, only the outermost ceramics surface was doped while 50 μm beneath kept unchanged. This technique proved to enhance the reliability of PMZNT against electroplating significantly without changing the dielectric properties of ceramics body. Based on the above results, the modification mechanism of MnO 2 vaporous doping was analyzed from the viewpoint of defect chemistry

  2. Influence of lanthanum distribution on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of BaBi{sub 4-x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khokhar, Anita [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Goyal, Parveen K., E-mail: goyalphy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, ARSD College, University of Delhi, Dhaula Kuan, New Delhi 110 021 (India); Thakur, O.P. [Electroceramics Group, Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Delhi 110 054 (India); Shukla, A.K. [Department of Physics, Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, Amity University, Noida 201301 (India); Sreenivas, K., E-mail: kondepudysreenivas@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India)

    2015-02-15

    Structural and electrical properties of Lanthanum substituted barium bismuth titanate BaBi{sub 4-x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.50) ceramics prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method have been investigated. Raman spectra reveals the distribution of lanthanum into the perovskite layers and (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}){sup 2+} layers of BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} ceramics. Room temperature dielectric constant (ε′) increases and considerable reduction in the low frequency (10{sup −2} to 10 Hz) dielectric losses and in dc conductivity (σ{sub dc}) are seen with lanthanum substitution. A critical La content of x ∼0.20 in BaBi{sub 4-x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} exhibits a well-defined relaxor behavior as seen from the temperature and frequency dependence of the dielectric parameters ε′(T) and ε″(T). The dielectric data fit well to the modified Curie–Weiss law and the Lorentz-type relation and show increasing diffuseness in the phase transition with increasing La content. The temperature dependence of the characteristic relaxation time obtained from the Cole–Cole model shows a good fit to the non-linear Vogel–Fulcher relation. Improvements in the remnant polarization and a stable piezoelectric charge coefficient are seen up to a La content of x ∼0.20. The observed increase in dielectric loss and σ{sub dc} in addition to the diminished ferroelectric/piezoelectric properties for higher La content are explained in terms of changing oxygen vacancy concentration and structural relaxation due to the preferential incorporation of La into the (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}){sup 2+} layers as evidenced through the Raman spectroscopy. - Highlights: • La distribution in BaBi{sub 4-x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} ceramics is analyzed through Raman spectroscopy. • Low and a nearly constant loss over wide frequency range (10{sup −2}–10{sup 7} Hz) obtained. • Critical La content x = 0.2 identified for high resistivity and ideal relaxor

  3. Characterization of a Common-Source Amplifier Using Ferroelectric Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; MacLeond, Todd C.; Ho, Pat D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents empirical data that was collected through experiments using a FeFET in the established common-source amplifier circuit. The unique behavior of the FeFET lends itself to interesting and useful operation in this widely used common-source amplifier. The paper examines the effect of using a ferroelectric transistor for the amplifier. It also examines the effects of varying load resistance, biasing, and input voltages on the output signal and gives several examples of the output of the amplifier for a given input. The difference between a commonsource amplifier using a ferroelectric transistor and that using a MOSFET is addressed.

  4. Stabilization of ferroelectric properties in Hafnia and Zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersch, Alfred [Univ. of Applied Sciences Munich (Germany). Modeling and Simulation Lab

    2016-11-01

    Experiments by our collaborators show that not only earth alkaline metals but also lanthanides and boron group metals are capable of inducing ferroelectric behavior in Hafnia. These dopants are known to form more complex defect structures due to their 3-valent nature. This requires further simulation. In some cases computationally more expensive density functionals will be required.

  5. Heterogeneous Ferroelectric Solid Solutions Phases and Domain States

    CERN Document Server

    Topolov, Vitaly

    2012-01-01

    The book deals with perovskite-type ferroelectric solid solutions for modern materials science and applications, solving problems of complicated heterophase/domain structures near the morphotropic phase boundary and applications to various systems with morphotropic phases. In this book domain state–interface diagrams are presented for the interpretation of heterophase states in perovskite-type ferroelectric solid solutions. It allows to describe the stress relief in the presence of polydomain phases, the behavior of unit-cell parameters of coexisting phases and the effect of external electric fields. The novelty of the book consists in (i) the first systematization of data about heterophase states and their evolution in ferroelectric solid solutions (ii) the general interpretation of heterophase and domain structures at changing temperature, composition or electric field (iii) the complete analysis of interconnection domain structures, unit-cell parameters changes, heterophase structures and stress relief.

  6. Ferroelectric capacitor with reduced imprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jr., Joseph T.; Warren, William L.; Tuttle, Bruce A.; Dimos, Duane B.; Pike, Gordon E.

    1997-01-01

    An improved ferroelectric capacitor exhibiting reduced imprint effects in comparison to prior art capacitors. A capacitor according to the present invention includes top and bottom electrodes and a ferroelectric layer sandwiched between the top and bottom electrodes, the ferroelectric layer comprising a perovskite structure of the chemical composition ABO.sub.3 wherein the B-site comprises first and second elements and a dopant element that has an oxidation state greater than +4. The concentration of the dopant is sufficient to reduce shifts in the coercive voltage of the capacitor with time. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the ferroelectric element comprises Pb in the A-site, and the first and second elements are Zr and Ti, respectively. The preferred dopant is chosen from the group consisting of Niobium, Tantalum, and Tungsten. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the dopant occupies between 1 and 8% of the B-sites.

  7. Programmable ferroelectric tunnel memristor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy eQuindeau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report an analogously programmable memristor based on genuine electronic resistive switching combining ferroelectric switching and electron tunneling. The tunnel current through an 8 unit cell thick epitaxial Pb(Zr[0.2]Ti[0.8]O[3] film sandwiched between La[0.7]Sr[0.3]MnO[3] and cobalt electrodes obeys the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi model for bidimensional growth with a characteristic switching time in the order of 10^-7 seconds. The analytical description of switching kinetics allows us to develop a characteristic transfer function that has only one parameter viz. the characteristic switching time and fully predicts the resistive states of this type of memristor.

  8. Effects of doping on ferroelectric properties and leakage current behavior of KNN-LT-LS thin films on SrTiO3 substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazari, M.; Safari, A.

    2009-05-01

    We report the effects of Ba, Ti, and Mn dopants on ferroelectric polarization and leakage current of (K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)(Nb0.84Ta0.1Sb0.06)O3 (KNN-LT-LS) thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition. It is shown that donor dopants such as Ba2+, which increased the resistivity in bulk KNN-LT-LS, had an opposite effect in the thin film. Ti4+ as an acceptor B-site dopant reduces the leakage current by an order of magnitude, while the polarization values showed a slight degradation. Mn4+, however, was found to effectively suppress the leakage current by over two orders of magnitude while enhancing the polarization, with 15 and 23 μC/cm2 remanent and saturated polarization, whose values are ˜70% and 82% of the reported values for bulk composition. This phenomenon has been associated with the dual effect of Mn4+ in KNN-LT-LS thin film, by substituting both A- and B-site cations. A detailed description on how each dopant affects the concentrations of vacancies in the lattice is presented. Mn-doped KNN-LT-LS thin films are shown to be a promising candidate for lead-free thin films and applications.

  9. Synthesis of ferroelectric nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roervik, Per Martin

    2008-12-15

    The increasing miniaturization of electric and mechanical components makes the synthesis and assembly of nanoscale structures an important step in modern technology. Functional materials, such as the ferroelectric perovskites, are vital to the integration and utility value of nanotechnology in the future. In the present work, chemical methods to synthesize one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures of ferroelectric perovskites have been studied. To successfully and controllably make 1D nanostructures by chemical methods it is very important to understand the growth mechanism of these nanostructures, in order to design the structures for use in various applications. For the integration of 1D nanostructures into devices it is also very important to be able to make arrays and large-area designed structures from the building blocks that single nanostructures constitute. As functional materials, it is of course also vital to study the properties of the nanostructures. The characterization of properties of single nanostructures is challenging, but essential to the use of such structures. The aim of this work has been to synthesize high quality single-crystalline 1D nanostructures of ferroelectric perovskites with emphasis on PbTiO3 , to make arrays or hierarchical nanostructures of 1D nanostructures on substrates, to understand the growth mechanisms of the 1D nanostructures, and to investigate the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the 1D nanostructures. In Paper I, a molten salt synthesis route, previously reported to yield BaTiO3 , PbTiO3 and Na2Ti6O13 nanorods, was re-examined in order to elucidate the role of volatile chlorides. A precursor mixture containing barium (or lead) and titanium was annealed in the presence of NaCl at 760 degrees Celsius or 820 degrees Celsius. The main products were respectively isometric nanocrystalline BaTiO3 and PbTiO3. Nanorods were also detected, but electron diffraction revealed that the composition of the nanorods was

  10. Fast polarization mechanisms in the uniaxial tungsten-bronze relaxor strontium barium niobate SBN-81

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buixaderas, Elena; Kadlec, Christelle; Kempa, Martin; Bovtun, Viktor; Savinov, Maxim; Bednyakov, Petr; Hlinka, Jiří; Dec, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, Dec (2017), s. 1-11, č. článku 18034. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-09142S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15014 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : relaxor * tungsten-bronzes * dielectric response * phonons * broad-band spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  11. Texture and anisotropy in ferroelectric lead metaniobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Benjamin John

    Ferroelectric lead metaniobate, PbNb2O6, is a piezoelectric ceramic typically used because of its elevated Curie temperature and anisotropic properties. However, the piezoelectric constant, d33, is relatively low in randomly oriented ceramics when compared to other ferroelectrics. Crystallographic texturing is often employed to increase the piezoelectric constant because the spontaneous polarization axes of grains are better aligned. In this research, crystallographic textures induced through tape casting are distinguished from textures induced through electrical poling. Texture is described using multiple quantitative approaches utilizing X-ray and neutron time-of-flight diffraction. Tape casting lead metaniobate with an inclusion of acicular template particles induces an orthotropic texture distribution. Templated grain growth from seed particles oriented during casting results in anisotropic grain structures. The degree of preferred orientation is directly linked to the shear behavior of the tape cast slurry. Increases in template concentration, slurry viscosity, and casting velocity lead to larger textures by inducing more particle orientation in the tape casting plane. The maximum 010 texture distributions were two and a half multiples of a random distribution. Ferroelectric texture was induced by electrical poling. Electric poling increases the volume of material oriented with the spontaneous polarization direction in the material. Samples with an initial paraelectric texture exhibit a greater change in the domain volume fraction during electrical poling than randomly oriented ceramics. In tape cast samples, the resulting piezoelectric response is proportional to the 010 texture present prior to poling. This results in property anisotropy dependent on initial texture. Piezoelectric properties measured on the most textured ceramics were similar to those obtained with a commercial standard.

  12. Solvent-Dependent Delamination, Restacking, and Ferroelectric Behavior in a New Charge-Separated Layered Compound: [NH4 ][Ag3 (C9 H5 NO4 S)2 (C13 H14 N2 )2 ]⋅8 H2 O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushrutha, Sringeri Ramesh; Mohana, Shivanna; Pal, Somnath; Natarajan, Srinivasan

    2017-01-03

    A new anionic coordination polymer, [NH 4 ][Ag 3 (C 9 H 5 NO 4 S) 2 (C 13 H 14 N 2 ) 2 ]⋅8 H 2 O, with a two-dimensional structure, has been synthesized by a reaction between silver nitrate, 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (HQS), and 4,4'-trimethylene dipyridine (TMDP). The compound stabilizes in a noncentrosymmetric space group, and the lattice water molecules and the charge-compensating [NH 4 ] + group occupy the inter-lamellar spaces. The lattice water molecules can be fully removed and reinserted, which is accompanied by a crystalline-amorphous-crystalline transformation. This transformation resembles the collapse/delamination and restacking of the layers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first observation of delamination and restacking in an inorganic coordination polymer that contains silver. The presence of a natural dipole (the anionic framework and cationic ammonium ions) along with the noncentrosymmetric space group gives rise to the room-temperature ferroelectric behavior of the compound. The ferroelectric behavior is also water-dependent and exhibits a ferroelectric-paraelectric transformation. The temperature-dependent dielectric measurements indicate that the ferroelectric/ paraelectric transformation occurs at 320 K. This transformation has also been investigated by using in-situ IR spectroscopy and PXRD studies. The second-harmonic generation (SHG) study indicated values that are comparable to some of the known SHG solids, such as potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) and urea. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Ferroelectricity in undoped hafnium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polakowski, Patrick; Müller, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    We report the observation of ferroelectric characteristics in undoped hafnium oxide thin films in a thickness range of 4–20 nm. The undoped films were fabricated using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and embedded into titanium nitride based metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors for electrical evaluation. Structural as well as electrical evidence for the appearance of a ferroelectric phase in pure hafnium oxide was collected with respect to film thickness and thermal budget applied during titanium nitride electrode formation. Using grazing incidence X-Ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis, we observed an enhanced suppression of the monoclinic phase fraction in favor of an orthorhombic, potentially, ferroelectric phase with decreasing thickness/grain size and for a titanium nitride electrode formation below crystallization temperature. The electrical presence of ferroelectricity was confirmed using polarization measurements. A remanent polarization P r of up to 10 μC cm −2 as well as a read/write endurance of 1.6 × 10 5 cycles was measured for the pure oxide. The experimental results reported here strongly support the intrinsic nature of the ferroelectric phase in hafnium oxide and expand its applicability beyond the doped systems

  14. Monte Carlo Simulation of Ferroelectric Domain Structure and Applied Field Response in Two Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Jr., B.G.; Tikare, V.; Tuttle, B.A.

    1999-06-30

    A 2-D, lattice-Monte Carlo approach was developed to simulate ferroelectric domain structure. The model currently utilizes a Hamiltonian for the total energy based only upon electrostatic terms involving dipole-dipole interactions, local polarization gradients and the influence of applied electric fields. The impact of boundary conditions on the domain configurations obtained was also examined. In general, the model exhibits domain structure characteristics consistent with those observed in a tetragonally distorted ferroelectric. The model was also extended to enable the simulation of ferroelectric hysteresis behavior. Simulated hysteresis loops were found to be very similar in appearance to those observed experimentally in actual materials. This qualitative agreement between the simulated hysteresis loop characteristics and real ferroelectric behavior was also confirmed in simulations run over a range of simulation temperatures and applied field frequencies.

  15. Phase diagrams of ferroelectric nanocrystals strained by an elastic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitchenko, A. I.; Azovtsev, A. V.; Pertsev, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    Ferroelectric crystallites embedded into a dielectric matrix experience temperature-dependent elastic strains caused by differences in the thermal expansion of the crystallites and the matrix. Owing to the electrostriction, these lattice strains may affect polarization states of ferroelectric inclusions significantly, making them different from those of a stress-free bulk crystal. Here, using a nonlinear thermodynamic theory, we study the mechanical effect of elastic matrix on the phase states of embedded single-domain ferroelectric nanocrystals. Their equilibrium polarization states are determined by minimizing a special thermodynamic potential that describes the energetics of an ellipsoidal ferroelectric inclusion surrounded by a linear elastic medium. To demonstrate the stability ranges of such states for a given material combination, we construct a phase diagram, where the inclusion’s shape anisotropy and temperature are used as two parameters. The ‘shape-temperature’ phase diagrams are calculated numerically for PbTiO3 and BaTiO3 nanocrystals embedded into representative dielectric matrices generating tensile (silica glass) or compressive (potassium silicate glass) thermal stresses inside ferroelectric inclusions. The developed phase maps demonstrate that the joint effect of thermal stresses and matrix-induced elastic clamping of ferroelectric inclusions gives rise to several important features in the polarization behavior of PbTiO3 and BaTiO3 nanocrystals. In particular, the Curie temperature displays a nonmonotonic variation with the ellipsoid’s aspect ratio, being minimal for spherical inclusions. Furthermore, the diagrams show that the polarization orientation with respect to the ellipsoid’s symmetry axis is controlled by the shape anisotropy and the sign of thermal stresses. Under certain conditions, the mechanical inclusion-matrix interaction qualitatively alters the evolution of ferroelectric states on cooling, inducing a structural transition

  16. CuInP₂S₆ Room Temperature Layered Ferroelectric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belianinov, A; He, Q; Dziaugys, A; Maksymovych, P; Eliseev, E; Borisevich, A; Morozovska, A; Banys, J; Vysochanskii, Y; Kalinin, S V

    2015-06-10

    We explore ferroelectric properties of cleaved 2-D flakes of copper indium thiophosphate, CuInP2S6 (CITP), and probe size effects along with limits of ferroelectric phase stability, by ambient and ultra high vacuum scanning probe microscopy. CITP belongs to the only material family known to display ferroelectric polarization in a van der Waals, layered crystal at room temperature and above. Our measurements directly reveal stable, ferroelectric polarization as evidenced by domain structures, switchable polarization, and hysteresis loops. We found that at room temperature the domain structure of flakes thicker than 100 nm is similar to the cleaved bulk surfaces, whereas below 50 nm polarization disappears. We ascribe this behavior to a well-known instability of polarization due to depolarization field. Furthermore, polarization switching at high bias is also associated with ionic mobility, as evidenced both by macroscopic measurements and by formation of surface damage under the tip at a bias of 4 V-likely due to copper reduction. Mobile Cu ions may therefore also contribute to internal screening mechanisms. The existence of stable polarization in a van-der-Waals crystal naturally points toward new strategies for ultimate scaling of polar materials, quasi-2D, and single-layer materials with advanced and nonlinear dielectric properties that are presently not found in any members of the growing "graphene family".

  17. Electrical properties of niobium doped Bi4Ti3O12-SrBi4Ti4O15 intergrowth ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parida, Geetanjali; Bera, J.

    2013-01-01

    Bismuth layer structured ferroelectrics (BLSFs) have attracted much attention because of their potential applications in non-volatile ferroelectric random access memories and high temperature piezoelectric. They are very attractive for these applications due to their fatigue free nature and environment friendly lead-free composition. BLSF crystal structure has layers of bismuth oxide and pseudo perovskite block stacked alternately along their c-direction, For commercial application, numerous efforts have been made to improve the electrical properties of BLSFs. Some effective approaches are: (i) doping at A-site, (ii) high valentcation doping at B-site and (iii) formation of intergrowth between different BLSFs. The intergrowth BLSFs are consist of regular stacking of one half the unit cell of m-member structure and one half the unit cell of (m+1) member BLSF structure along their c-axis. In this report, Nb-doped Bi 4 Ti 3 O 12 -SrBi 4 Ti 4 O 15 intergrowth ceramics have been prepared by modified oxalate route. XRD phase analysis confirmed the formation of single phase compound. Nb-doping does not affect the basic crystal structure of the intergrowth. SEM micrographs showed that the grain size of the ceramics decreases with Nb-doping. The temperature dependence of dielectric constant and losses was investigated in the temperature range 30 to 800℃ and frequency range 1 kHz to 1 MHz. With Nb-doping, the T c of the ferroelectrics reduces and peak permittivity increases. Doping also introduces small relaxor behaviour in the ferroelectrics. The dc conductivity of the ceramics decreases with doping. The remnant polarization (Pr) of the intergrowth ferroelectrics is increased with Nb doping. (author)

  18. "Negative capacitance" in resistor-ferroelectric and ferroelectric-dielectric networks: Apparent or intrinsic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Atanu K.; Datta, Suman; Gupta, Sumeet K.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we describe and analytically substantiate an alternate explanation for the negative capacitance (NC) effect in ferroelectrics (FE). We claim that the NC effect previously demonstrated in resistance-ferroelectric (R-FE) networks does not necessarily validate the existence of "S" shaped relation between polarization and voltage (according to Landau theory). In fact, the NC effect can be explained without invoking the "S"-shaped behavior of FE. We employ an analytical model for FE (Miller model) in which the steady state polarization strictly increases with the voltage across the FE and show that despite the inherent positive FE capacitance, reduction in FE voltage with the increase in its charge is possible in a R-FE network as well as in a ferroelectric-dielectric (FE-DE) stack. This can be attributed to a large increase in FE capacitance near the coercive voltage coupled with the polarization lag with respect to the electric field. Under certain conditions, these two factors yield transient NC effect. We analytically derive conditions for NC effect in R-FE and FE-DE networks. We couple our analysis with extensive simulations to explain the evolution of NC effect. We also compare the trends predicted by the aforementioned Miller model with Landau-Khalatnikov (L-K) model (static negative capacitance due to "S"-shape behaviour) and highlight the differences between the two approaches. First, with an increase in external resistance in the R-FE network, NC effect shows a non-monotonic behavior according to Miller model but increases according to L-K model. Second, with the increase in ramp-rate of applied voltage in the FE-DE stack, NC effect increases according to Miller model but decreases according to L-K model. These results unveil a possible way to experimentally validate the actual reason of NC effect in FE.

  19. Graded ferroelectrics, transpacitors and transponents

    CERN Document Server

    Mantese, Joseph V

    2005-01-01

    The text details the experimental and theoretical aspects of newly emerging ferroelectric devices, and their extensions to other ferroic systems such as: ferromagnetics, ferroelastics, piezoelectrics, etc. The theory and experimental results pertaining to non-homogeneous active ferroic devices and structures are presented.

  20. Surface Acoustic Waves in ferroelectrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarasenko A., Nataliya; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Tarasenko, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 298, - (2004), s. 325-333 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS1010203 Keywords : Rayleigh waves * ferroelectric films * phase transition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.517, year: 2004

  1. Structural and ferroelectric properties of Sr1−xBaxBi2Nb2O9 thin films obtained by dip-coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. González-Abreu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the structural and ferroelectric results for Sr1−xBaxBi2Nb2O9(x=0.30; 0.85 thin films, which were obtained by using dip-coating. The solutions containing the desirable ions were prepared from the powders of the previous studied ceramic samples. The films were deposited at room temperature on Fluorine-doped Tin Oxide (FTO substrates and submitted to a heat treatment for crystallization. The films were characterized by using scanning microscopy electronic, energy dispersive spectroscopy and ellipsometry. Hysteresis ferroelectric loops were obtained, at room temperature, by using a Sawyer-Tower circuit at several frequencies. A well-defined grain structure was observed for both compositions. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS measurements revealed the presence of the corresponding elements from the chemical composition of the ceramic systems. The band-gap energy was around 3.3eV for both samples. Typical hysteresis loops for normal and relaxor ferroelectrics were obtained for x=0.30 and 0.85, respectively.

  2. Hybrid dual gate ferroelectric memory for multilevel information storage

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Yasser; Caraveo-Frescas, Jesus Alfonso; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report hybrid organic/inorganic ferroelectric memory with multilevel information storage using transparent p-type SnO semiconductor and ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) polymer. The dual gate devices include a top ferroelectric field

  3. Percolation Magnetism in Ferroelectric Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovina, Iryna S.; Lemishko, Serhii V.; Morozovska, Anna N.

    2017-06-01

    Nanoparticles of potassium tantalate (KTaO3) and potassium niobate (KNbO3) were synthesized by oxidation of metallic tantalum in molten potassium nitrate with the addition of potassium hydroxide. Magnetization curves obtained on these ferroelectric nanoparticles exhibit a weak ferromagnetism, while these compounds are nonmagnetic in a bulk. The experimental data are used as a start point for theoretical calculations. We consider a microscopic mechanism that leads to the emerging of a ferromagnetic ordering in ferroelectric nanoparticles. Our approach is based on the percolation of magnetic polarons assuming the dominant role of the oxygen vacancies. It describes the formation of surface magnetic polarons, in which an exchange interaction between electrons trapped in oxygen vacancies is mediated by magnetic impurity Fe3+ ions. The dependences of percolation radius on concentration of the oxygen vacancies and magnetic defects are determined in the framework of percolation theory.

  4. Quantum fluctuations in insulating ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riseborough, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: It has been proposed that in a ferroelectric insulator, an applied magnetic field may couple the transverse phonon modes and produce left and right circularly polarized phonon modes which are no longer degenerate. We quantize the theory and examine the effects of quantal fluctuations. In particular, we show that the zero point fluctuations result in a large diamagnetic contribution to the magnetic susceptibility. - Abstract: It has been proposed that in a ferroelectric insulator, an applied magnetic field may couple the transverse phonon modes and produce left and right circularly polarized phonon modes which are no longer degenerate. We quantize the theory and examine the effects of quantal fluctuations. In particular, we show that the zero-point fluctuations result in a large diamagnetic contribution to the magnetic susceptibility.

  5. Percolation Magnetism in Ferroelectric Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovina, Iryna S; Lemishko, Serhii V; Morozovska, Anna N

    2017-12-01

    Nanoparticles of potassium tantalate (KTaO 3 ) and potassium niobate (KNbO 3 ) were synthesized by oxidation of metallic tantalum in molten potassium nitrate with the addition of potassium hydroxide. Magnetization curves obtained on these ferroelectric nanoparticles exhibit a weak ferromagnetism, while these compounds are nonmagnetic in a bulk. The experimental data are used as a start point for theoretical calculations. We consider a microscopic mechanism that leads to the emerging of a ferromagnetic ordering in ferroelectric nanoparticles. Our approach is based on the percolation of magnetic polarons assuming the dominant role of the oxygen vacancies. It describes the formation of surface magnetic polarons, in which an exchange interaction between electrons trapped in oxygen vacancies is mediated by magnetic impurity Fe 3+ ions. The dependences of percolation radius on concentration of the oxygen vacancies and magnetic defects are determined in the framework of percolation theory.

  6. Transparent Ferroelectric Capacitors on Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Sette

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We deposited transparent ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate thin films on fused silica and contacted them via Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO transparent electrodes with an interdigitated electrode (IDE design. These layers, together with a TiO2 buffer layer on the fused silica substrate, are highly transparent (>60% in the visible optical range. Fully crystallized Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT films are dielectrically functional and exhibit a typical ferroelectric polarization loop with a remanent polarization of 15 μC/cm2. The permittivity value of 650, obtained with IDE AZO electrodes is equivalent to the one measured with Pt electrodes patterned with the same design, which proves the high quality of the developed transparent structures.

  7. Room temperature p-type conductivity and coexistence of ferroelectric order in ferromagnetic Li doped ZnO nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Awan, Saif Ullah

    2014-10-28

    Memory and switching devices acquired new materials which exhibit ferroelectric and ferromagnetic order simultaneously. We reported multiferroic behavior in Zn1-yLiyO(0.00≤y≤0.10) nanoparticles. The analysis of transmission electron micrographs confirmed the hexagonal morphology and wurtzite crystalline structure. We investigated p-type conductivity in doped samples and measured hole carriers in range 2.4×1017/cc to 7.3×1017/cc for different Li contents. We found that hole carriers are responsible for long range order ferromagnetic coupling in Li doped samples. Room temperature ferroelectric hysteresis loops were observed in 8% and 10% Li doped samples. We demonstrated ferroelectric coercivity (remnant polarization) 2.5kV/cm (0.11 μC/cm2) and 2.8kV/cm (0.15 μC/cm2) for y=0.08 and y=0.10 samples. We propose that the mechanism of Li induced ferroelectricity in ZnO is due to indirect dipole interaction via hole carriers. We investigated that if the sample has hole carriers ≥5.3×1017/cc, they can mediate the ferroelectricity. Ferroelectric and ferromagnetic measurements showed that higher electric polarization and larger magnetic moment is attained when the hole concentration is larger and vice versa. Our results confirmed the hole dependent coexistence of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric behavior at room temperature, which provide potential applications for switchable and memory devices.

  8. Guest Editoria, Ferroelectrics, 323, 1

    OpenAIRE

    Krupanidhi, SB

    2005-01-01

    The Fourth Asian Meeting on Ferroelectricity (AMF-4)was organized at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, INDIA during December 12–15, 2003. The organization of the conferencewas cosponsored by various agencies which included the Department of Science & Technology (DST), Defense R&D Organization (DRDO), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Materials Research Society of India (MRSI), Indian Institute of Science (IISC), IEEE UFFC (USA), Taylor and Francis Scientific P...

  9. Development and application of an empirical formula for the high temperature behavior of ferroelectric ceramics switched by electric field at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Won Ji

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The strain changes during temperature rise of a poled lead titanate zirconate rectangular parallelepiped switched by electric field at room temperature are obtained by integrating thermal expansion coefficients that are measured using an invar-specimen. By estimating and analyzing pyroelectric and thermal expansion coefficients, first-order differential equations are constructed for polarization and strain changes during temperature increase. The solutions to the differential equations are found and used to calculate the high temperature behavior of the materials. It is shown that the predictions are well compared with measured responses. Finally, the developed formulae are applied to calculate strain butterfly loops from a polarization hysteresis loop at a high temperature.

  10. Leakage current behavior in lead-free ferroelectric (K,Na)NbO3-LiTaO3-LiSbO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazari, M.; Safari, A.

    2010-12-01

    Conduction mechanisms in epitaxial (001)-oriented pure and 1 mol % Mn-doped (K0.44,Na0.52,Li0.04)(Nb0.84,Ta0.1,Sb0.06)O3 (KNN-LT-LS) thin films on SrTiO3 substrate were investigated. Temperature dependence of leakage current density was measured as a function of applied electric field in the range of 200-380 K. It was shown that the different transport mechanisms dominate in pure and Mn-doped thin films. In pure (KNN-LT-LS) thin films, Poole-Frenkel emission was found to be responsible for the leakage, while Schottky emission was the dominant mechanism in Mn-doped thin films at higher electric fields. This is a remarkable yet clear indication of effect of 1 mol % Mn on the resistive behavior of such thin films.

  11. Modeling two-phase ferroelectric composites by sequential laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idiart, Martín I

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical estimates are given for the overall dissipative response of two-phase ferroelectric composites with complex particulate microstructures under arbitrary loading histories. The ferroelectric behavior of the constituent phases is described via a stored energy density and a dissipation potential in accordance with the theory of generalized standard materials. An implicit time-discretization scheme is used to generate a variational representation of the overall response in terms of a single incremental potential. Estimates are then generated by constructing sequentially laminated microgeometries of particulate type whose overall incremental potential can be computed exactly. Because they are realizable, by construction, these estimates are guaranteed to conform with any material constraints, to satisfy all pertinent bounds and to exhibit the required convexity properties with no duality gap. Predictions for representative composite and porous systems are reported and discussed in the light of existing experimental data. (paper)

  12. Polymer Ferroelectric Memory for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohd Adnan

    2013-11-01

    With the projected growth of the flexible and plastic electronics industry, there is renewed interest in the research community to develop high performance all-polymeric memory which will be an essential component of any electronic circuit. Some of the efforts in polymer memories are based on different mechanisms such as filamentary conduction, charge trapping effects, dipole alignment, and reduction-oxidation to name a few. Among these the leading candidate are those based on the mechanism of ferroelectricity. Polymer ferroelectric memory can be used in niche applications like smart cards, RFID tags, sensors etc. This dissertation will focus on novel material and device engineering to fabricate high performance low temperature polymeric ferroelectric memory for flexible electronics. We address and find solutions to some fundamental problems affecting all polymer ferroelectric memory like high coercive fields, fatigue and thermal stability issues, poor breakdown strength and poor p-type hole mobilities. Some of the strategies adopted in this dissertation are: Use of different flexible substrates, electrode engineering to improve charge injection and fatigue properties of ferroelectric polymers, large area ink jet printing of ferroelectric memory devices, use of polymer blends to improve insulating properties of ferroelectric polymers and use of oxide semiconductors to fabricate high mobility p-type ferroelectric memory. During the course of this dissertation we have fabricated: the first all-polymer ferroelectric capacitors with solvent modified highly conducting polymeric poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) [PEDOT:PSS] electrodes on plastic substrates with performance as good as devices with metallic Platinum-Gold electrodes on silicon substrates; the first all-polymer high performance ferroelectric memory on banknotes for security applications; novel ferroelectric capacitors based on blends of ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride

  13. Polymer Ferroelectric Memory for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohd Adnan

    2013-01-01

    With the projected growth of the flexible and plastic electronics industry, there is renewed interest in the research community to develop high performance all-polymeric memory which will be an essential component of any electronic circuit. Some of the efforts in polymer memories are based on different mechanisms such as filamentary conduction, charge trapping effects, dipole alignment, and reduction-oxidation to name a few. Among these the leading candidate are those based on the mechanism of ferroelectricity. Polymer ferroelectric memory can be used in niche applications like smart cards, RFID tags, sensors etc. This dissertation will focus on novel material and device engineering to fabricate high performance low temperature polymeric ferroelectric memory for flexible electronics. We address and find solutions to some fundamental problems affecting all polymer ferroelectric memory like high coercive fields, fatigue and thermal stability issues, poor breakdown strength and poor p-type hole mobilities. Some of the strategies adopted in this dissertation are: Use of different flexible substrates, electrode engineering to improve charge injection and fatigue properties of ferroelectric polymers, large area ink jet printing of ferroelectric memory devices, use of polymer blends to improve insulating properties of ferroelectric polymers and use of oxide semiconductors to fabricate high mobility p-type ferroelectric memory. During the course of this dissertation we have fabricated: the first all-polymer ferroelectric capacitors with solvent modified highly conducting polymeric poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) [PEDOT:PSS] electrodes on plastic substrates with performance as good as devices with metallic Platinum-Gold electrodes on silicon substrates; the first all-polymer high performance ferroelectric memory on banknotes for security applications; novel ferroelectric capacitors based on blends of ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride

  14. A concept of ferroelectric microparticle propulsion thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmolich, D.; Vekselman, V.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2008-01-01

    A space propulsion concept using charged ferroelectric microparticles as a propellant is suggested. The measured ferroelectric plasma source thrust, produced mainly by microparticles emission, reaches ∼9x10 -4 N. The obtained trajectories of microparticles demonstrate that the majority of the microparticles are positively charged, which permits further improvement of the thruster

  15. Structure-Function Relationships of Ferroelectric Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlopoulou, Eleni; Maiz, Jon; Spampinato, Nicoletta; Maglione, Mario; Hadziioannou, Georges

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, and its copolymers with trifluoroethylene, P(VDF-co-TrFE) have been long appreciated for their excellent ferroelectric properties. Although they have been mainly studied in the 80s and 90s, understanding their performance is still lacking. Yet the increasing use of P(VDF-co-TrFE) thin films in organic electronic devices during the last ten years revives the need for apprehending the function of these materials. In this work we investigate the structure of P(VDF-co-TrFE) films and correlate it to their ferroelectric properties. Our results show that ferroelectric performance is solely driven by the fraction of polymer that has been crystallized in the ferroelectric phases of PVDF. The relations between remnant polarization, coercive field and dipole switching rate of P(VDF-co-TrFE) with the ferroelectric crystallinity are demonstrated. The French Research Agency (ANR), the Aquitaine Region, Arkema and STMicroelectronics are kindly acknowledged for financial support.

  16. Photoelectron spectroscopic and microspectroscopic probes of ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tǎnase, Liviu C.; Abramiuc, Laura E.; Teodorescu, Cristian M.

    2017-12-01

    This contribution is a review of recent aspects connected with photoelectron spectroscopy of free ferroelectric surfaces, metals interfaced with these surfaces, graphene-like layers together with some exemplifications concerning molecular adsorption, dissociations and desorptions occurring from ferroelectrics. Standard photoelectron spectroscopy is used nowadays in correlation with other characterization techniques, such as piezoresponse force microscopy, high resolution transmission electron spectroscopy, and ferroelectric hysteresis cycles. In this work we will concentrate mainly on photoelectron spectroscopy and spectro-microscopy characterization of ferroelectric thin films, starting from atomically clean ferroelectric surfaces of lead zirco-titanate, then going towards heterostructures using this material in combination with graphene-like carbon layers or with metals. Concepts involving charge accumulation and depolarization near surface will be revisited by taking into account the newest findings in this area.

  17. Ferroelectric Electron Emission Principles and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Riege, H

    1997-01-01

    The spontaneous electrical polarization of ferroelectric materials can be changed either by reversal or by phase transition from a ferroelectric into a non-ferroelectric state or vice versa. If spontaneous polarization changes are induced with fast heat, mechanical pressure, laser or electric field pulses on a submicrosecond time scale, strong uncompensated surface charge densities and related polarization fields are generated, which may lead to the intense self-emission of electrons from the negatively charged free surface areas of the ferroelectric sample. Hence, electron guns can be built with extraction-field-free ferroelectric cathodes, which may be easily separated from the high-field regions of post-accelerating gap structures. The intensity, the energy, the temporal and spatial distribution, and the repetitition rate of the emitted electron beams can be controlled within wide limits via the excitation pulses and external focusing and accelerating electromagnetic fields. The technological advantages an...

  18. Simulation of fatigue damage in ferroelectric polycrystals under mechanical/electrical loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozinov, S.; Kuna, M.

    2018-07-01

    The reliability of smart-structures made of ferroelectric ceramics is essentially reduced by the formation of cracks under the action of external electrical and/or mechanical loading. In the current research a numerical model for low-cycle fatigue in ferroelectric mesostructures is proposed. In the finite element simulations a combination of two user element routines is utilized. The first one is used to model a micromechanical ferroelectric domain switching behavior inside the grains. The second one is used to simulate fatigue damage of grain boundaries by a cohesive zone model (EMCCZM) based on an electromechanical cyclic traction-separation law (TSL). For numerical simulations a scanning electron microscope image of the ceramic's grain structure was digitalized and meshed. The response of this mesostructure to cyclic electrical or mechanical loading is systematically analyzed. As a result of the simulations, the distribution of electric potential, field, displacement and polarization as well as mechanical stresses and deformations inside the grains are obtained. At the grain boundaries, the formation and evolution of damage are analyzed until final failure and induced degradation of electric permittivity. It is found that the proposed model correctly mimics polycrystalline behavior during poling processes and progressive damage under cyclic electromechanical loading. To the authors' knowledge, it is the first model and numerical analysis of ferroelectric polycrystals taking into account both domain reorientation and cohesive modeling of intergranular fracture. It can help to understand failure mechanisms taking place in ferroelectrics during fatigue processes.

  19. Prospects and applications near ferroelectric quantum phase transitions: a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, P.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Rowley, S. E.; Scott, J. F.

    2017-11-01

    The emergence of complex and fascinating states of quantum matter in the neighborhood of zero temperature phase transitions suggests that such quantum phenomena should be studied in a variety of settings. Advanced technologies of the future may be fabricated from materials where the cooperative behavior of charge, spin and current can be manipulated at cryogenic temperatures. The progagating lattice dynamics of displacive ferroelectrics make them appealing for the study of quantum critical phenomena that is characterized by both space- and time-dependent quantities. In this key issues article we aim to provide a self-contained overview of ferroelectrics near quantum phase transitions. Unlike most magnetic cases, the ferroelectric quantum critical point can be tuned experimentally to reside at, above or below its upper critical dimension; this feature allows for detailed interplay between experiment and theory using both scaling and self-consistent field models. Empirically the sensitivity of the ferroelectric T c’s to external and to chemical pressure gives practical access to a broad range of temperature behavior over several hundreds of Kelvin. Additional degrees of freedom like charge and spin can be added and characterized systematically. Satellite memories, electrocaloric cooling and low-loss phased-array radar are among possible applications of low-temperature ferroelectrics. We end with open questions for future research that include textured polarization states and unusual forms of superconductivity that remain to be understood theoretically.

  20. An investigation on phase transition behaviors in MgO-doped Pb{sub 0.99}(Zr{sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05}){sub 0.98}Nb{sub 0.02}O{sub 3} ferroelectric ceramics by Raman and dielectric measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junxia, E-mail: wjunxia2002@163.com [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Wang, Genshui; Chen, Xuefeng [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Hu, Zhigao [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Nie, Hengchang; Cao, Fei [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Dong, Xianlin, E-mail: xldong@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The phase transition behaviors were strongly dependent on MgO concentration. • The F{sub R(LT)}–F{sub R(HT)} phase transition temperature obviously shifted toward a lower temperature with increasing MgO addition. • The F{sub R(HT)}–cubic paraelectric (P{sub C}) phase transition changed to a higher temperature with increasing MgO addition. • The distortion of BO{sub 6} oxygen octahedron caused by B-site replacement of Mg{sup 2+} ions is proposed to explain the observed behaviors. • Superior room-temperature pyroelectric properties were obtained in 0.1 wt% MgO-modified PZTN 95/5 ceramics during F{sub R(LT)}–F{sub R(HT)} phase transition. - Abstract: The phase transition behaviors of Pb{sub 0.99}(Zr{sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05}){sub 0.98}Nb{sub 0.02}O{sub 3} ferroelectric ceramics doped with different MgO concentrations (0–0.2 wt%) were systematically investigated by Raman and dielectric measurements. Raman results showed that the phase transitions were strongly dependent on MgO concentration. It was found that the low temperature rhombohedral (F{sub R(LT)})–high temperature rhombohedral (F{sub R(HT)}) ferroelectric phase transition shifted toward a lower temperature with increasing MgO concentration up to 0.1 wt%, while the F{sub R(HT)}–cubic paraelectric (P{sub C}) phase transition changed to a higher temperature. The Raman results were in good agreement with phase transition determined by dielectric measurements. Moreover, it was indicated that the changes of Raman active modes were related to distortion of BO{sub 6} octahedra during the phase transitions. Then, the distortion of BO{sub 6} octahedron caused by B-site replacement of Mg{sup 2+} ions was proposed to explain the observed behaviors. In addition, the effects of MgO doping on the dielectric, ferroelectric and pyroelectric properties were also discussed.

  1. Structural Consequences of Ferroelectric Nanolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Young Jo; P Chen; R Sichel; S Bake; R Smith; N Balke; S Kalinin; M Holt; J Maser; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Domains of remnant polarization can be written into ferroelectrics with nanoscale precision using scanning probe nanolithography techniques such as piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). Understanding the structural effects accompanying this process has been challenging due to the lack of appropriate structural characterization tools. Synchrotron X-ray nanodiffraction provides images of the domain structure written by PFM into an epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} thin film and simultaneously reveals structural effects arising from the writing process. A coherent scattering simulation including the superposition of the beams simultaneously diffracted by multiple mosaic blocks provides an excellent fit to the observed diffraction patterns. Domains in which the polarization is reversed from the as-grown state have a strain of up to 0.1% representing the piezoelectric response to unscreened surface charges. An additional X-ray microdiffraction study of the photon-energy dependence of the difference in diffracted intensity between opposite polarization states shows that this contrast has a crystallographic origin. The sign and magnitude of the intensity contrast between domains of opposite polarization are consistent with the polarization expected from PFM images and with the writing of domains through the entire thickness of the ferroelectric layer. The strain induced by writing provides a significant additional contribution to the increased free energy of the written domain state with respect to a uniformly polarized state.

  2. Chemical segregation and self polarisation in ferroelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard E. Watts

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical partitioning or segregation is commonly encountered in solid-state syntheses. It is driven by compositional, thermal and electric field gradients. These phenomena can be quite extreme in thin films and lead to notable effects on the electrical properties of ferroelectrics. The segregation in ferroelectric thin films will be illustrated and the mechanisms explained in terms of diffusion processes driven by a potential gradient of the oxygen. The hypothesis can also explain self polarisation and imprint in ferroelectric hysteresis.

  3. Probing nanoscale ferroelectricity by ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenne, D A; Bruchhausen, A; Lanzillotti-Kimura, N D; Fainstein, A; Katiyar, R S; Cantarero, A; Soukiassian, A; Vaithyanathan, V; Haeni, J H; Tian, W; Schlom, D G; Choi, K J; Kim, D M; Eom, C B; Sun, H P; Pan, X Q; Li, Y L; Chen, L Q; Jia, Q X; Nakhmanson, S M; Rabe, K M; Xi, X X

    2006-09-15

    We demonstrated that ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy is an effective technique to measure the transition temperature (Tc) in ferroelectric ultrathin films and superlattices. We showed that one-unit-cell-thick BaTiO3 layers in BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices are not only ferroelectric (with Tc as high as 250 kelvin) but also polarize the quantum paraelectric SrTiO3 layers adjacent to them. Tc was tuned by approximately 500 kelvin by varying the thicknesses of the BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 layers, revealing the essential roles of electrical and mechanical boundary conditions for nanoscale ferroelectricity.

  4. Static Characteristics of the Ferroelectric Transistor Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cody; Laws, crystal; MacLeond, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2010-01-01

    The inverter is one of the most fundamental building blocks of digital logic, and it can be used as the foundation for understanding more complex logic gates and circuits. This paper presents the characteristics of an inverter circuit using a ferroelectric field-effect transistor. The voltage transfer characteristics are analyzed with respect to varying parameters such as supply voltage, input voltage, and load resistance. The effects of the ferroelectric layer between the gate and semiconductor are examined, and comparisons are made between the inverters using ferroelectric transistors and those using traditional MOSFETs.

  5. Ultrafast Photovoltaic Response in Ferroelectric Nanolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daranciang, Dan

    2012-02-15

    We show that light drives large-amplitude structural changes in thin films of the prototypical ferroelectric PbTiO3 via direct coupling to its intrinsic photovoltaic response. Using time-resolved x-ray scattering to visualize atomic displacements on femtosecond timescales, photoinduced changes in the unit-cell tetragonality are observed. These are driven by the motion of photogenerated free charges within the ferroelectric and can be simply explained by a model including both shift and screening currents, associated with the displacement of electrons first antiparallel to and then parallel to the ferroelectric polarization direction.

  6. Ultrafast Photovoltaic Response in Ferroelectric Nanolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daranciang, Dan

    2012-01-01

    We show that light drives large-amplitude structural changes in thin films of the prototypical ferroelectric PbTiO3 via direct coupling to its intrinsic photovoltaic response. Using time-resolved x-ray scattering to visualize atomic displacements on femtosecond timescales, photoinduced changes in the unit-cell tetragonality are observed. These are driven by the motion of photogenerated free charges within the ferroelectric and can be simply explained by a model including both shift and screening currents, associated with the displacement of electrons first antiparallel to and then parallel to the ferroelectric polarization direction.

  7. On the relationship between field cycling and imprint in ferroelectric Hf0.5Zr0.5O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengler, F. P. G.; Hoffmann, M.; Slesazeck, S.; Mikolajick, T.; Schroeder, U.

    2018-05-01

    Manifold research has been done to understand the detailed mechanisms behind the performance instabilities of ferroelectric capacitors based on hafnia. The wake-up together with the imprint might be the most controversially discussed phenomena so far. Among crystallographic phase change contributions and oxygen vacancy diffusion, electron trapping as the origin has been discussed recently. In this publication, we provide evidence that the imprint is indeed caused by electron trapping into deep states at oxygen vacancies. This impedes the ferroelectric switching and causes a shift of the hysteresis. Moreover, we show that the wake-up mechanism can be caused by a local imprint of the domains in the pristine state by the very same root cause. The various domain orientations together with an electron trapping can cause a constriction of the hysteresis and an internal bias field in the pristine state. Additionally, we show that this local imprint can even cause almost anti-ferroelectric like behavior in ferroelectric films.

  8. Experimental studies on the nonlinear dynamics of ferroelectric thin films and layered ferroelectricum/semiconductor structures in oscillating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barz, Kay

    2010-01-01

    In this work experimental techniques for characterization of ferroelectric nm-thin films and ferroelectric/semiconductor structures by means of nonlinear phenomena are discussed. The thin film sample is applied in a series resonant circuit. By recording time series data and amplitude-frequency-characteristics (resonance frequency shift), the nonlinear behavior can be analyzed with respect to the theoretical aspects of these effects in the framework of nonlinear dynamics. The evolving ferroelectric hysteresis is represented by the amplitude-frequency-characteristic in a very detailed form. Interpretations are presented on how transient alterations like fatigue or retention loss, affect the amplitude-frequency-characteristics. Time series analysis allows to separate the specific influence of the nonlinear components and their corresponding time constants. The work closes with suggestions for a systematic application of the presented techniques for an extended characterization of ferroelectric thin films. (orig.)

  9. Physical aspects of electron emission spectra shape for ferroelectrics-electrets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesnikov, V.V.; Kozakov, A.T.

    2002-01-01

    One introduces a theoretical approach establishing a link between the peculiarities of spectrum of electron emission from ferroelectrics-electrets and the behavior of potential at a specimen surface. From these points of view one analyzes physical nature of the key peculiarities in the experimental spectra. One points out strong effect of electret charge relaxation on their shape due to bifurcation (branching) of peculiarities in a spectrum. A complex shape of spectrum of electron emission from ferroelectrics-electrets results from peculiarities of distribution of electrical field and polarization along their surface [ru

  10. Transport and Fatigue Properties of Ferroelectric Polymer P(VDF-TrFE) For Nonvolatile Memory Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir

    2012-01-01

    injection and transport are believed to affect various properties of ferroelectric films such as remnant polarization values and polarization fatigue behavior.. Thus, this thesis aims to study charge injection in P(VDF-TrFE) and its transport properties as a

  11. Universal ferroelectric switching dynamics of vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene copolymer films

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Weijin

    2014-04-24

    In this work, switching dynamics of poly(vinylidene fluoride- trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer films are investigated over unprecedentedly wide ranges of temperature and electric field. Remarkably, domain switching of copolymer films obeys well the classical domain nucleation and growth model although the origin of ferroelectricity in organic ferroelectric materials inherently differs from the inorganic counterparts. A lower coercivity limit of 50 ...MV/m and 180 domain wall energy of 60 ...mJ/m 2 are determined for P(VDF-TrFE) films. Furthermore, we discover in copolymer films an anomalous temperature-dependent crossover behavior between two power-law scaling regimes of frequency-dependent coercivity, which is attributed to the transition between flow and creep motions of domain walls. Our observations shed new light on the switching dynamics of semi-crystalline ferroelectric polymers, and such understandings are critical for realizing their reliable applications.

  12. Cooperative Couplings between Octahedral Rotations and Ferroelectricity in Perovskites and Related Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Teng; Scarbrough, Timothy; Yang, Yurong; Íñiguez, Jorge; Bellaiche, L.; Xiang, H. J.

    2018-05-01

    The structure of AB O 3 perovskites is dominated by two types of unstable modes, namely, the oxygen octahedral rotation (AFD) and ferroelectric (FE) mode. It is generally believed that such AFD and FE modes tend to compete and suppress each other. Here we use first-principles methods to show that a dual nature of the FE-AFD coupling, which turns from competitive to cooperative as the AFD mode strengthens, occurs in numerous perovskite oxides. We provide a unified model of such a dual interaction by introducing novel high-order coupling terms and explain the atomistic origin of the resulting new form of ferroelectricity in terms of universal steric mechanisms. We also predict that such a novel form of ferroelectricity leads to atypical behaviors, such as an enhancement of all the three Cartesian components of the electric polarization under hydrostatic pressure and compressive epitaxial strain.

  13. Universal ferroelectric switching dynamics of vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene copolymer films

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Weijin; Juo, Deng-Ming; You, Lu; Wang, Junling; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chu, Ying-Hao; Wu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    In this work, switching dynamics of poly(vinylidene fluoride- trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer films are investigated over unprecedentedly wide ranges of temperature and electric field. Remarkably, domain switching of copolymer films obeys well the classical domain nucleation and growth model although the origin of ferroelectricity in organic ferroelectric materials inherently differs from the inorganic counterparts. A lower coercivity limit of 50 ...MV/m and 180 domain wall energy of 60 ...mJ/m 2 are determined for P(VDF-TrFE) films. Furthermore, we discover in copolymer films an anomalous temperature-dependent crossover behavior between two power-law scaling regimes of frequency-dependent coercivity, which is attributed to the transition between flow and creep motions of domain walls. Our observations shed new light on the switching dynamics of semi-crystalline ferroelectric polymers, and such understandings are critical for realizing their reliable applications.

  14. Ferroelectric and electrical characterization of multiferroic BiFeO3 at the single nanoparticle level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, Rama K [ORNL; Bogle, K A [University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Kumar, Amit [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Magaraggia, R [University of Glasgow; Stamps, R [University of Glasgow; Ogale, S [National Chemical Laboratory, India; Potdar, H S [National Chemical Laboratory, India

    2011-01-01

    Ferroelectric BiFeO3 (BFO) nanoparticles deposited on epitaxial substrates of SrRuO3 (SRO) and La1xSrxMnO3 (LSMO) were studied using band excitation piezoresponse spectroscopy (BEPS), piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). BEPS confirms that the nanoparticles are ferroelectric in nature. Switching behavior of nanoparticle clusters were studied and showed evidence for inhomogeneous switching. The dimensionality of domains within nanoparticles was found to be fractal in nature, with a dimensionality constant of 1.4, on par with ferroelectric BFO thin-films under 100 nm in thickness. Ferromagnetic resonance studies indicate BFO nanoparticles only weakly affect the magnetic response of LSMO.

  15. Electric field and temperature scaling of polarization reversal in silicon doped hafnium oxide ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dayu; Guan, Yan; Vopson, Melvin M.; Xu, Jin; Liang, Hailong; Cao, Fei; Dong, Xianlin; Mueller, Johannes; Schenk, Tony; Schroeder, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    HfO 2 -based binary lead-free ferroelectrics show promising properties for non-volatile memory applications, providing that their polarization reversal behavior is fully understood. In this work, temperature-dependent polarization hysteresis measured over a wide applied field range has been investigated for Si-doped HfO 2 ferroelectric thin films. Our study indicates that in the low and medium electric field regimes (E < twofold coercive field, 2E c ), the reversal process is dominated by the thermal activation on domain wall motion and domain nucleation; while in the high-field regime (E > 2E c ), a non-equilibrium nucleation-limited-switching mechanism dominates the reversal process. The optimum field for ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) applications was determined to be around 2.0 MV/cm, which translates into a 2.0 V potential applied across the 10 nm thick films

  16. Dynamic Observation of Brain-Like Learning in a Ferroelectric Synapse Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Yu; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Ueda, Michihito; Fujii, Eiji; Tsujimura, Ayumu

    2013-04-01

    A brain-like learning function was implemented in an electronic synapse device using a ferroelectric-gate field effect transistor (FeFET). The FeFET was a bottom-gate type FET with a ZnO channel and a ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) gate insulator. The synaptic weight, which is represented by the channel conductance of the FeFET, is updated by applying a gate voltage through a change in the ferroelectric polarization in the PZT. A learning function based on the symmetric spike-timing dependent synaptic plasticity was implemented in the synapse device using the multilevel weight update by applying a pulse gate voltage. The dynamic weighting and learning behavior in the synapse device was observed as a change in the membrane potential in a spiking neuron circuit.

  17. Ferroelectric and electrical characterization of multiferroic BiFeO3 at the single nanoparticle level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, R. K.; Bogle, K. A.; Kumar, A.; Jesse, S.; Magaraggia, R.; Stamps, R.; Ogale, S. B.; Potdar, H. S.; Nagarajan, V.

    2011-12-01

    Ferroelectric BiFeO3 (BFO) nanoparticles deposited on epitaxial substrates of SrRuO3 (SRO) and La1-xSrxMnO3 (LSMO) were studied using band excitation piezoresponse spectroscopy (BEPS), piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). BEPS confirms that the nanoparticles are ferroelectric in nature. Switching behavior of nanoparticle clusters were studied and showed evidence for inhomogeneous switching. The dimensionality of domains within nanoparticles was found to be fractal in nature, with a dimensionality constant of ˜1.4, on par with ferroelectric BFO thin-films under 100 nm in thickness. Ferromagnetic resonance studies indicate BFO nanoparticles only weakly affect the magnetic response of LSMO.

  18. Characterization of a Common-Gate Amplifier Using Ferroelectric Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the empirical data collected through experiments performed using a FeFET in the common-gate amplifier circuit is presented. The FeFET common-gate amplifier was characterized by varying all parameters in the circuit, such as load resistance, biasing of the transistor, and input voltages. Due to the polarization of the ferroelectric layer, the particular behavior of the FeFET common-gate amplifier presents interesting results. Furthermore, the differences between a FeFET common-gate amplifier and a MOSFET common-gate amplifier are examined.

  19. Modeling of Toroidal Ordering in Ferroelectric Nanodots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crone, Joshua C; Chung, Peter W

    2007-01-01

    .... Beginning with an introduction of basic concepts, the report reviews the current state-of-the-art of ferroelectric nanodot technology through a literature review and identifies areas of need for continued study...

  20. Negative capacitance in a ferroelectric capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif Islam; Chatterjee, Korok; Wang, Brian; Drapcho, Steven; You, Long; Serrao, Claudy; Bakaul, Saidur Rahman; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2015-02-01

    The Boltzmann distribution of electrons poses a fundamental barrier to lowering energy dissipation in conventional electronics, often termed as Boltzmann Tyranny. Negative capacitance in ferroelectric materials, which stems from the stored energy of a phase transition, could provide a solution, but a direct measurement of negative capacitance has so far been elusive. Here, we report the observation of negative capacitance in a thin, epitaxial ferroelectric film. When a voltage pulse is applied, the voltage across the ferroelectric capacitor is found to be decreasing with time--in exactly the opposite direction to which voltage for a regular capacitor should change. Analysis of this 'inductance'-like behaviour from a capacitor presents an unprecedented insight into the intrinsic energy profile of the ferroelectric material and could pave the way for completely new applications.

  1. Four-state ferroelectric spin-valve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Quindeau, A.; Fina, I.; Martí, Xavier; Apachitei, G.; Ferrer, P.; Nicklin, C.; Pippel, E.; Hesse, D.; Alexe, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, May (2015), 09749 ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electronic and spintronic devices * ferroelectrics and multiferroics Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2015

  2. Ultrafast Photovoltaic Response in Ferroelectric Nanolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-19

    the free energy of the system [3,4,8]. Intensive research has been aimed at bypassing the intrinsic size limits imposed by the depolarization field...Page 1 of 21   Ultrafast photovoltaic response in ferroelectric nanolayers Dan Daranciang1,2, Matthew J. Highland3, Haidan Wen4, Steve M. Young5...ferroelectric PbTiO3 via direct coupling to its intrinsic photovoltaic response. Using time-resolved x-ray scattering to visualize atomic displacements on

  3. Ferroelectric Phase Diagram of PVDF:PMMA

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Mengyuan; Stingelin, Natalie; Michels, Jasper J.; Spijkman, Mark-Jan; Asadi, Kamal; Feldman, Kirill; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the ferroelectric phase diagram of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The binary nonequilibrium temperature composition diagram was determined and melting of alpha- and beta-phase PVDF was identified. Ferroelectric beta-PVDF:PMMA blend films were made by melting, ice quenching, and subsequent annealing above the glass transition temperature of PMMA, close to the melting temperature of PVDF. Addition of PMMA suppresses the crystallizatio...

  4. Enhanced performance of ferroelectric materials under hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Aditya; Patel, Satyanarayan; Wang, Shuai; Novak, Nikola; Xu, Bai-Xiang; Lv, Peng; Vaish, Rahul; Lynch, Christopher S.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical confinement or restricted degrees of freedom have been explored for its potential to enhance the performance of ferroelectric devices. It presents an easy and reversible method to tune the response for specific applications. However, such studies have been mainly limited to uni- or bi-axial stress. This study investigates the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the ferroelectric behavior of bulk polycrystalline Pb0.99Nb0.02(Zr0.95Ti0.05)0.98O3. Polarization versus electric field hysteresis plots were generated as a function of hydrostatic pressure for a range of operating temperatures (298-398 K). The application of hydrostatic pressure was observed to induce anti-ferroelectric like double hysteresis loops. This in turn enhances the piezoelectric, energy storage, energy harvesting, and electrocaloric effects. The hydrostatic piezoelectric coefficient (dh) was increased from 50 pCN-1 (0 MPa) to ˜900 pC N-1 (265 MPa) and ˜3200 pCN-1 (330 MPa) at 298 K. Energy storage density was observed to improve by more than 4 times under pressure, in the whole temperature range. The relative change in entropy was also observed to shift from ˜0 to 4.8 J kg-1 K-1 under an applied pressure of 325 MPa. This behavior can be attributed to the evolution of pinched hysteresis loops that have been explained using a phenomenological model. All values represent an improvement of several hundred percent compared to unbiased performance, indicating the potential benefits of the proposed methodology.

  5. Minimization of pyroelectric effects in relaxor-PbTiO3 crystals for piezoelectric sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yanxue; Shen, Zongyang; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Wenhua; Luo, Jun; Shrout, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    To minimize pyroelectric effects while keeping high piezoelectric effects in relaxor-PbTiO 3 single crystals, the crystallographic orientation dependence of the pyroelectric and piezoelectric coefficients were investigated for binary (1 − x)Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 –xPbTiO 3 (PMN–PT), ternary (1 − x − y)Pb(In 1/2 Nb 1/2 )O 3 –yPb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 –xPbTiO 3 (PIN–PMN–PT) and Mn-doped PIN–PMN–PT single crystals with the “4R” multidomain state. The secondary pyroelectric coefficients were calculated from the thermodynamic inter-relationship between the piezoelectric, elastic, and thermal expansion coefficients, being on the order of (1.16–1.23) × 10 −4  C m −2  K −1 for binary crystals and (0.97–2.03) × 10 −4  C m −2  K −1 for ternary ones. The primary pyroelectric coefficients were –(6.73–6.84) × 10 −4  C m −2  K −1 and −(5.44–6.43) × 10 −4  C m −2  K −1 for binary and ternary crystals, respectively. The pyroelectric coefficients could be reduced by matrix rotation, but at the cost of decreasing longitudinal piezoelectric coefficients d 33 . Of particular interest is that the maximum piezoelectric coefficients d 24 ∗ at θ = ±55 o and d 34 ∗ at θ = ±35 o by a counterclockwise rotation of θ about the X axis (θ is the rotation angle about the coordinate axes), or d 15 ∗ at θ = ±55 o , and d 35 ∗ at θ = ±35 o by a counterclockwise rotation the Y axis, were found on the order of 3000 pC N −1 . The corresponding pyroelectric coefficients could be reduced by ∼20%. The reduced pyroelectric coefficients that can contribute to decrease undesirable output signals, together with the high piezoelectric coefficients, enable relaxor-PT crystals as favorable candidates for high-sensitivity piezoelectric sensors. - Highlights: • Primary/secondary pyroelectric coefficients were determined for relaxor-PT crystals. • Pyroelectric coefficients could be reduced by

  6. Investigation of the relaxor behavior of sol gel processed lanthanum lead titanium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limame, K.; Sayouri, S.; Yahyaoui, M.M.; Housni, A.; Jaber, B.

    2016-01-01

    A series of La doped lead titanate samples, with composition Pb_1_−_xLa_xTi_1_−_x_/_4O_3 (PLTx), where x=0.00; 0.02; 0.04; 0.06; 0.07; 0.08; 0.10; 0.12; 0.14; 0.16; 0.18; 0.21 and 0.22 was prepared using the sol–gel process. Addition of La gives rise to the two well-known phenomena: diffuseness and relaxation around the ferro-to-paraelectric transition; the two parameters related to these phenomena, and which give a satisfactory interpretation of them, have been estimated using the Uchino's quadratic law. This diffuse phase transition (DPT) has been investigated with the help of the Landau–Devonshire cluster theory and the model of Cheng et al., to show that polar regions may be generated around the DPT and far from the temperature, T_m, of the maximum of the dielectric permittivity, which have as a direct consequence a non vanishing polarization even if T>T_m.

  7. Investigation of the relaxor behavior of sol gel processed lanthanum lead titanium ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limame, K. [Centre Régional des Metiers de l' Education et de la Formation (CRMEF) de Fès, Rue deKuwait, BP 49, Fès (Morocco); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Appliquée, (LPTA), FSDM, B.P. 1796, Fès-Atlas, Fès (Morocco); Sayouri, S., E-mail: ssayouri@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Appliquée, (LPTA), FSDM, B.P. 1796, Fès-Atlas, Fès (Morocco); Yahyaoui, M.M. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Appliquée, (LPTA), FSDM, B.P. 1796, Fès-Atlas, Fès (Morocco); Housni, A. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Appliquée, (LPTA), FSDM, B.P. 1796, Fès-Atlas, Fès (Morocco); Institut Supérieur des Professions Infirmières et Techniques de Santé (ISPITS), Fès (Morocco); Jaber, B. [Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique et Technique (CNRST), Angle Avenue Allal El Fassi avenue des FAR, Quartie Hay Ryad, BP8027 Nation Unies, Rabat (Morocco)

    2016-08-01

    A series of La doped lead titanate samples, with composition Pb{sub 1−x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 1−x/4}O{sub 3} (PLTx), where x=0.00; 0.02; 0.04; 0.06; 0.07; 0.08; 0.10; 0.12; 0.14; 0.16; 0.18; 0.21 and 0.22 was prepared using the sol–gel process. Addition of La gives rise to the two well-known phenomena: diffuseness and relaxation around the ferro-to-paraelectric transition; the two parameters related to these phenomena, and which give a satisfactory interpretation of them, have been estimated using the Uchino's quadratic law. This diffuse phase transition (DPT) has been investigated with the help of the Landau–Devonshire cluster theory and the model of Cheng et al., to show that polar regions may be generated around the DPT and far from the temperature, T{sub m}, of the maximum of the dielectric permittivity, which have as a direct consequence a non vanishing polarization even if T>T{sub m}.

  8. Relaxor behavior in spin glass perovskite Sr2CoRuO6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phatak, Rohan; Sali, S.K.; Mishra, S.K.; Das, A.

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric properties of Sr 2 CoRuO 6 perovskite have been investigated. The compound crystallizes in monoclinic I2/c space group, with random distribution of Co and Ru ion on B site. From our previous study, we showed this compound to be magnetic spin glass with transition at 95K, and was investigated using neutron diffraction and depolarization, ac magnetization and time dependent magnetization

  9. Organic ferroelectric/semiconducting nanowire hybrid layer for memory storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, R.; Kassa, H.G.; Haouari, R.; Marrani, A.; Geerts, Y.H.; Ruzié, C.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Gelinck, G.H.; Nysten, B.; Hu, Z.; Jonas, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials are important components of sensors, actuators and non-volatile memories. However, possible device configurations are limited due to the need to provide screening charges to ferroelectric interfaces to avoid depolarization. Here we show that, by alternating ferroelectric and

  10. Fringing field effects in negative capacitance field-effect transistors with a ferroelectric gate insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Junichi; Fukuda, Koichi; Ikegami, Tsutomu; Ota, Hiroyuki; Migita, Shinji; Asai, Hidehiro; Toriumi, Akira

    2018-04-01

    We study the effects of fringing electric fields on the behavior of negative-capacitance (NC) field-effect transistors (FETs) with a silicon-on-insulator body and a gate stack consisting of an oxide film, an internal metal film, a ferroelectric film, and a gate electrode using our own device simulator that can properly handle the complicated relationship between the polarization and the electric field in ferroelectric materials. The behaviors of such NC FETs and the corresponding metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) FETs are simulated and compared with each other to evaluate the effects of the NC of the ferroelectric film. Then, the fringing field effects are evaluated by comparing the NC effects in NC FETs with and without gate spacers. The fringing field between the gate stack, especially the internal metal film, and the source/drain region induces more charges at the interface of the film with the ferroelectric film. Accordingly, the function of the NC to modulate the gate voltage and the resulting function to improve the subthreshold swing are enhanced. We also investigate the relationships of these fringing field effects to the drain voltage and four design parameters of NC FETs, i.e., gate length, gate spacer permittivity, internal metal film thickness, and oxide film thickness.

  11. Observation and analysis of nanodomain textures in dielectric relaxor lead magnesium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursill, L A; Qian, Hua; Peng, Julin; Fan, X D

    1995-10-01

    High-resolution (0.2nm) images are used to locate chemical domains occurring with length scales of 1-5nm in the dielectric relaxor lead magnesium niobate (PMN). The experimental HRTEM images are analysed using computer-simulations and image matching in order to clarify and characterize the nature of the chemical ordering. Madelung electrostatic energy calculations are used to rank a set of structural models for possible ordered and disordered distributions of Nb and Mg over the B-sites of perovskite ABO{sub 3}. Next, the chemical domain textures are modelled using next-nearest-neighbour Ising (NNNI) models and Monte Carlo methods. This results in a preferred model for the B-site distribution (the extended NNN-Ising model), which is used for image simulations. Both HRTEM many-beam bright-and dark-field and single-beam dark-field TEM images are obtained and compared with the experimental images. The final result is a realistic atomic model for the Nb, Mg distribution of PMN. 42 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  12. Observation and analysis of nanodomain textures in dielectric relaxor lead magnesium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.; Qian, Hua; Peng, Julin; Fan, X.D.

    1995-01-01

    High-resolution (0.2nm) images are used to locate chemical domains occurring with length scales of 1-5nm in the dielectric relaxor lead magnesium niobate (PMN). The experimental HRTEM images are analysed using computer-simulations and image matching in order to clarify and characterize the nature of the chemical ordering. Madelung electrostatic energy calculations are used to rank a set of structural models for possible ordered and disordered distributions of Nb and Mg over the B-sites of perovskite ABO 3 . Next, the chemical domain textures are modelled using next-nearest-neighbour Ising (NNNI) models and Monte Carlo methods. This results in a preferred model for the B-site distribution (the extended NNN-Ising model), which is used for image simulations. Both HRTEM many-beam bright-and dark-field and single-beam dark-field TEM images are obtained and compared with the experimental images. The final result is a realistic atomic model for the Nb, Mg distribution of PMN. 42 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  13. Structural stability and depolarization of manganese-doped (Bi₀.₅Na₀.₅){sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}TiO₃ relaxor ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Sheng-Fen [Department of Physics, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan (China); Tu, Chi-Shun, E-mail: 039611@mail.fju.edu.tw [Department of Physics, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Lun; Chen, Pin-Yi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ming-Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan (China); Chen, Cheng-Sao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hwa-Hsia University of Technology, New Taipei City 23567, Taiwan (China); Hugo Schmidt, V. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717 (United States); Anthoniappen, J. [Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-21

    This work reveals that 0.5 mol. % manganese (Mn) doping in (Bi₀.₅Na₀.₅){sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}TiO₃ (x = 0 and 0.075) solid solutions can increase structural thermal stability, depolarization temperature (T{sub d}), piezoelectric coefficient (d₃₃), and electromechanical coupling factor (kₜ). High-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reveal coexistence of rhombohedral (R) R3c and tetragonal (T) P4bm phases in (Bi₀.₅Na₀.₅)₀.₉₂₅Ba₀.₀₇₅TiO₃ (BN7.5BT) and 0.5 mol. % Mn-doped BN7.5BT (BN7.5BT-0.5Mn). (Bi₀.₅Na₀.₅)TiO₃ (BNT) and BN7.5BT show an R − R + T phase transition, which does not occur in 0.5 mol. % Mn-doped BNT (BNT-0.5Mn) and BN7.5BT-0.5Mn. Dielectric permittivity (ε′) follows the Curie-Weiss equation, ε′ = C/(T − T{sub o}), above the Burns temperature (TB), below which polar nanoregions begin to develop. The direct piezoelectric coefficient (d₃₃) and electromechanical coupling factor (kₜ) of BN7.5BT-0.5Mn reach 190 pC/N and 47%.

  14. 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity and 9th International Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (RCBJSF–2014–FM and NT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternberg, Andris; Grinberga, Liga; Sarakovskis, Anatolijs; Rutkis, Martins

    2015-01-01

    The joint International Symposium RCBJSF–2014–FM and NT successfully has united two international events – 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity (RCBJSF-12) and 9th International Conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM and NT-2014). The RCBJSF symposium is a continuation of series of meetings on ferroelectricity, the first of which took place in Novosibirsk (USSR) in 1976. FM and NT conferences started in 2006 and have been organized by Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia in Riga. In 2012 the International program committee decided to transform this conference into a traveling Baltic State conference and the FM and NT-2013 was organized by the Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia. In 2014 the joint international symposium RCBJSF–2014–FM and NT was organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia and was part of Riga – 2014, the European Capital of Culture event. The purpose of the joint Symposium was to bring together scientists, students and high-level experts in solid state physics, materials science, engineering and related disciplines. The number of the registered participants from 26 countries was over 350. During the Symposium 128 high quality scientific talks (5 plenary, 42 invited, 81 oral) and over 215 posters were presented. All presentations were divided into 4 parallel sessions according to 4 main topics of the Symposium: Ferroelectricity, including ferroelectrics and multiferroics, pyroelectrics, piezoelectrics and actuators, integrated ferroelectrics, relaxors, phase transitions and critical phenomena. Multifunctional Materials, including theory, multiscale and multiphenomenal material modeling and simulation, advanced inorganic, organic and hybrid materials. Nanotechnologies, including progressive methods, technologies and design for production, investigation of nano- particles, composites, structures, thin films and coatings. Energy, including

  15. PREFACE: 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity and 9th International Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Andris; Grinberga, Liga; Sarakovskis, Anatolijs; Rutkis, Martins

    2015-03-01

    The joint International Symposium RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT successfully has united two international events - 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity (RCBJSF-12) and 9th International Conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2014). The RCBJSF symposium is a continuation of series of meetings on ferroelectricity, the first of which took place in Novosibirsk (USSR) in 1976. FM&NT conferences started in 2006 and have been organized by Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia in Riga. In 2012 the International program committee decided to transform this conference into a traveling Baltic State conference and the FM&NT-2013 was organized by the Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia. In 2014 the joint international symposium RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT was organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia and was part of Riga - 2014, the European Capital of Culture event. The purpose of the joint Symposium was to bring together scientists, students and high-level experts in solid state physics, materials science, engineering and related disciplines. The number of the registered participants from 26 countries was over 350. During the Symposium 128 high quality scientific talks (5 plenary, 42 invited, 81 oral) and over 215 posters were presented. All presentations were divided into 4 parallel sessions according to 4 main topics of the Symposium: Ferroelectricity, including ferroelectrics and multiferroics, pyroelectrics, piezoelectrics and actuators, integrated ferroelectrics, relaxors, phase transitions and critical phenomena. Multifunctional Materials, including theory, multiscale and multiphenomenal material modeling and simulation, advanced inorganic, organic and hybrid materials. Nanotechnologies, including progressive methods, technologies and design for production, investigation of nano- particles, composites, structures, thin films and coatings. Energy, including perspective materials and

  16. Magnetic enhancement of ferroelectric polarization in a self-grown ferroelectric-ferromagnetic composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Narayan, Bastola; Pachat, Rohit; Ranjan, Rajeev

    2018-02-01

    Ferroelectric-ferromagnetic multiferroic composites are of great interest both from the scientific and technological standpoints. The extent of coupling between polarization and magnetization in such two-phase systems depends on how efficiently the magnetostrictive and electrostrictive/piezoelectric strain gets transferred from one phase to the other. This challenge is most profound in the easy to make 0-3 ferroelectric-ferromagnetic particulate composites. Here we report a self-grown ferroelectric-ferromagnetic 0-3 particulate composite through controlled spontaneous precipitation of ferrimagnetic barium hexaferrite phase (BaF e12O19 ) amid ferroelectric grains in the multiferroic alloy system BiFe O3-BaTi O3 . We demonstrate that a composite specimen exhibiting merely ˜1% hexaferrite phase exhibits ˜34% increase in saturation polarization in a dc magnetic field of ˜10 kOe. Using modified Rayleigh analysis of the polarization field loop in the subcoercive field region we argue that the substantial enhancement in the ferroelectric switching is associated with the reduction in the barrier heights of the pinning centers of the ferroelectric-ferroelastic domain walls in the stress field generated by magnetostriction in the hexaferrite grains when the magnetic field is turned on. Our study proves that controlled precipitation of the magnetic phase is a good strategy for synthesis of 0-3 ferroelectric-ferromagnetic particulate multiferroic composite as it not only helps in ensuring a good electrical insulating character of the composite, enabling it to sustain high enough electric field for ferroelectric switching, but also the factors associated with the spontaneity of the precipitation process ensure efficient transfer of the magnetostrictive strain/stress to the surrounding ferroelectric matrix making domain wall motion easy.

  17. Uncooled monolithic ferroelectric IRFPA technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, James F.; Hanson, Charles M.; Beratan, Howard R.; Udayakumar, K. R.; Soch, Kevin L.

    1998-10-01

    Once relegated to expensive military platforms, occasionally to civilian platforms, and envisioned for individual soldiers, uncooled thermal imaging affords cost-effective solutions for police cars, commercial surveillance, driving aids, and a variety of other industrial and consumer applications. System prices are continuing to drop, and swelling production volume will soon drive prices substantially lower. The impetus for further development is to improve performance. Hybrid barium strontium titanate (BST) detectors currently in production are relatively inexpensive, but have limited potential for improved performance. The MTF at high frequencies is limited by thermal conduction through the optical coating. Microbolometer arrays in development at Raytheon have recently demonstrated performance superior to hybrid detectors. However, microbolometer technology lacks a mature, low-cost system technology and an abundance of upgradable, deployable system implementations. Thin-film ferroelectric (TFFE) detectors have all the performance potential of microbolometers. They are also compatible with numerous fielded and planned system implementations. Like the resistive microbolometer, the TFFE detector is monolithic; i.e., the detector material is deposited directly on the readout IC rather than being bump bonded to it. Imaging arrays of 240 X 320 pixels have been produced, demonstrating the feasibility of the technology.

  18. Electrostatic micromotor based on ferroelectric ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginsky, I. L.; Kostsov, E. G.

    2004-11-01

    A new electrostatic micromotor is described that utilizes the electromechanical energy conversion principle earlier described by the authors. The electromechanical energy conversion is based on reversible electrostatic rolling of thin metallic films (petals) on a ferroelectric surface. The motor's active media are layers of ferroelectric ceramics (about 100 µm in thickness). The characteristics of the electrostatic rolling of the petals on different ceramic surfaces are studied, as well as the dynamic characteristics of the micromotors. It is shown that the use of antiferroelectric material allows one to reach a specific energy capacitance comparable to that of the micromotors based on ferroelectric films and to achieve a specific power of 30-300 µW mm-2.

  19. Ferroelectric domain continuity over grain boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantri, Sukriti; Oddershede, Jette; Damjanovic, Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Formation and mobility of domain walls in ferroelectric materials is responsible for many of their electrical and mechanical properties. Domain wall continuity across grain boundaries has been observed since the 1950's and is speculated to affect the grain boundary-domain interactions, thereby...... impacting macroscopic ferroelectric properties in polycrystalline systems. However detailed studies of such correlated domain structures across grain boundaries are limited. In this work, we have developed the mathematical requirements for domain wall plane matching at grain boundaries of any given...... orientation. We have also incorporated the effect of grain boundary ferroelectric polarization charge created when any two domains meet at the grain boundary plane. The probability of domain wall continuity for three specific grain misorientations is studied. Use of this knowledge to optimize processing...

  20. Tensile strain effect in ferroelectric perovskite oxide thin films on spinel magnesium aluminum oxide substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolan

    Ferroelectrics are used in FeRAM (Ferroelectric random-access memory). Currently (Pb,Zr)TiO3 is the most common ferroelectric material. To get lead-free and high performance ferroelectric material, we investigated perovskite ferroelectric oxides (Ba,Sr)TiO3 and BiFeO3 films with strain. Compressive strain has been investigated intensively, but the effects of tensile strain on the perovskite films have yet to be explored. We have deposited (Ba,Sr)TiO3, BiFeO3 and related films by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and analyzed the films by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), etc. To obtain inherently fully strained films, the selection of the appropriate substrates is crucial. MgAl2O4 matches best with good quality and size, yet the spinel structure has an intrinsic incompatibility to that of perovskite. We introduced a rock-salt structure material (Ni 1-xAlxO1+delta) as a buffer layer to mediate the structural mismatch for (Ba,Sr)TiO3 films. With buffer layer Ni1-xAlxO1+delta, we show that the BST films have high quality crystallization and are coherently epitaxial. AFM images show that the films have smoother surfaces when including the buffer layer, indicating an inherent compatibility between BST-NAO and NAO-MAO. In-plane Ferroelectricity measurement shows double hysteresis loops, indicating an antiferroelectric-like behavior: pinned ferroelectric domains with antiparallel alignments of polarization. The Curie temperatures of the coherent fully strained BST films are also measured. It is higher than 900°C, at least 800°C higher than that of bulk. The improved Curie temperature makes the use of BST as FeRAM feasible. We found that the special behaviors of ferroelectricity including hysteresis loop and Curie temperature are due to inherent fully tensile strain. This might be a clue of physics inside ferroelectric stain engineering. An out-of-plane ferroelectricity measurement would provide a full whole story of the tensile strain. However, a

  1. Ferroelectric Cathodes in Transverse Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander Dunaevsky; Yevgeny Raitses; Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2002-01-01

    Experimental investigations of a planar ferroelectric cathode in a transverse magnetic field up to 3 kGs are presented. It is shown that the transverse magnetic field affects differently the operation of ferroelectric plasma cathodes in ''bright'' and ''dark'' modes in vacuum. In the ''bright'' mode, when the surface plasma is formed, the application of the transverse magnetic field leads to an increase of the surface plasma density. In the ''dark'' mode, the magnetic field inhibits the development of electron avalanches along the surface, as it does similarly in other kinds of surface discharges in the pre-breakdown mode

  2. Composition driven structural instability in perovskite ferroelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Xu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ferroelectric solid solutions usually exhibit enhanced functional properties at the morphotropic phase boundary separating two ferroelectric phases with different orientations of polarization. The underlying mechanism is generally associated with polarization rotational instability and the flattened free energy profile. In this work we show that the polarization extensional instability can also be induced at the morphotropic phase boundary beyond the reported polar-nonpolar phase boundary. The piezoelectricity enhanced by this mechanism exhibits excellent thermal stability, which helps to develop high performance piezoelectric materials with good temperature stability.

  3. Switching Characteristics of Ferroelectric Transistor Inverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Crystal; Mitchell, Coey; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the switching characteristics of an inverter circuit using a ferroelectric field effect transistor, FeFET. The propagation delay time characteristics, phl and plh are presented along with the output voltage rise and fall times, rise and fall. The propagation delay is the time-delay between the V50% transitions of the input and output voltages. The rise and fall times are the times required for the output voltages to transition between the voltage levels V10% and V90%. Comparisons are made between the MOSFET inverter and the ferroelectric transistor inverter.

  4. Giant flexoelectric polarization in a micromachined ferroelectric diaphragm

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhihong

    2012-08-14

    The coupling between dielectric polarization and strain gradient, known as flexoelectricity, becomes significantly large on the micro- and nanoscale. Here, it is shown that giant flexoelectric polarization can reverse remnant ferroelectric polarization in a bent Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48) O3 (PZT) diaphragm fabricated by micromachining. The polarization induced by the strain gradient and the switching behaviors of the polarization in response to an external electric field are investigated by observing the electromechanical coupling of the diaphragm. The method allows determination of the absolute zero polarization state in a PZT film, which is impossible using other existing methods. Based on the observation of the absolute zero polarization state and the assumption that bending of the diaphragm is the only source of the self-polarization, the upper bound of flexoelectric coefficient of PZT film is calculated to be as large as 2.0 × 10-4 C m -1. The strain gradient induced by bending the diaphragm is measured to be on the order of 102 m-1, three orders of magnitude larger than that obtained in the bulk material. Because of this large strain gradient, the estimated giant flexoelectric polarization in the bent diaphragm is on the same order of magnitude as the normal remnant ferroelectric polarization of PZT film. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Characterization of current transport in ferroelectric polymer devices

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir

    2014-01-01

    We report the charge injection characteristics in poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene), P(VDF-TrFE), as a function of electrode material in metal/ferroelectric/metal device structures. Symmetric and asymmetric devices with Al, Ag, Au and Pt electrodes were fabricated to determine the dominant carrier type, injection current density, and to propose transport mechanisms in the ferroelectric polymer. Higher work function metals such as Pt are found to inject less charges compared to lower work function metals, implying n-type conduction behavior for P(VDF-TrFE) with electrons as the dominant injected carrier. Two distinct charge transport regimes were identified in the P(VDF-TrFE) devices; a Schottky-limited conduction regime for low to intermediate fields (E < 20 MV/m), and a space-charge limited conduction (SCLC) regime for high fields (20 < E < 120 MV/m). Implication of these results for degradation in P(VDF-TrFE) memory performance are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity of cellular polypropylene electrets films characterized by piezoresponse force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Hongchen; Sun, Yao; Zhou, Xilong; Li, Yingwei [LTCS and Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Faxin, E-mail: lifaxin@pku.edu.cn [LTCS and Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); HEDPS and Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2014-08-14

    Cellular electrets polymer is a new ferroelectret material exhibiting large piezoelectricity and has attracted considerable attentions in researches and industries. Property characterization is very important for this material and current investigations are mostly on macroscopic properties. In this work, we conduct nanoscale piezoelectric and ferroelectric characterizations of cellular polypropylene (PP) films using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). First, both the single-frequency PFM and dual-frequency resonance-tracking PFM testings were conducted on the cellular PP film. The localized piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} is estimated to be 7–11pC/N by correcting the resonance magnification with quality factor and it is about one order lower than the macroscopic value. Next, using the switching spectroscopy PFM (SS-PFM), we studied polarization switching behavior of the cellular PP films. Results show that it exhibits the typical ferroelectric-like phase hysteresis loops and butterfly-shaped amplitude loops, which is similar to that of a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) ferroelectric polymer film. However, both the phase and amplitude loops of the PP film are intensively asymmetric, which is thought to be caused by the nonzero remnant polarization after poling. Then, the D-E hysteresis loops of both the cellular PP film and PVDF film were measured by using the same wave form as that used in the SS-PFM, and the results show significant differences. Finally, we suggest that the ferroelectric-like behavior of cellular electrets films should be distinguished from that of typical ferroelectrics, both macroscopically and microscopically.

  7. Appearance of ferroelectricity by suppressing superconductivity in nanoparticle dispersed glassy precursor for high Tc superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Soma; Chaudhuri, B.K.; Sakata, H.

    2003-01-01

    The multicomponent Bi 1.8 Pb 0.3 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 2.8 K 0.2 O δ (FG) glass is found to show ferroelectric (FE) transition around T fc = 530K. Microstructural (TEM) studies of these glasses indicated the presence of nano-crystalline particles/ clusters (∼10-30 nm size). In this glass-nanoparticle composite (GNC), presence of ferroelectric nano-particles/ islands is considered to be responsible for the FE behavior. The K-free FG type glasses showing no dielectric anomaly (or ferroelectricity) are precursors of high T c superconductors which become superconductors (T c ∼80K) by annealing around 840 degC. The K-doped (FG) GNC is, however, not superconducting in the corresponding annealed phase which indicates suppression of superconductivity due to the presence of K or by the appearance of ferroelectricity. Transport and dielectric properties of both K doped and undoped GNC have been studied and they are found to be semiconducting and follow non-adiabatic small polaron hopping conduction mechanism. (author)

  8. Organic ferroelectric opto-electronic memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asadi, K.; Li, M.; Blom, P.W.M.; Kemerink, M.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2011-01-01

    Memory is a prerequisite for many electronic devices. Organic non-volatile memory devices based on ferroelectricity are a promising approach towards the development of a low-cost memory technology based on a simple cross-bar array. In this review article we discuss the latest developments in this

  9. Ferroelectrics under the Synchrotron Light: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Cobas, Luis E.; Montero-Cabrera, María E.; Pardo, Lorena; Fuentes-Montero, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Currently, an intensive search for high-performance lead-free ferroelectric materials is taking place. ABO3 perovskites (A = Ba, Bi, Ca, K and Na; B = Fe, Nb, Ti, and Zr) appear as promising candidates. Understanding the structure–function relationship is mandatory, and, in this field, the roles of long- and short-range crystal orders and interactions are decisive. In this review, recent advances in the global and local characterization of ferroelectric materials by synchrotron light diffraction, scattering and absorption are analyzed. Single- and poly-crystal synchrotron diffraction studies allow high-resolution investigations regarding the long-range average position of ions and subtle global symmetry break-downs. Ferroelectric materials, under the action of electric fields, undergo crystal symmetry, crystallite/domain orientation distribution and strain condition transformations. Methodological aspects of monitoring these processes are discussed. Two-dimensional diffraction clarify larger scale ordering: polycrystal texture is measured from the intensities distribution along the Debye rings. Local order is investigated by diffuse scattering (DS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) experiments. DS provides information about thermal, chemical and displacive low-dimensional disorders. XAFS investigation of ferroelectrics reveals local B-cation off-centering and oxidation state. This technique has the advantage of being element-selective. Representative reports of the mentioned studies are described. PMID:28787814

  10. Ferroelectrics under the Synchrotron Light: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Fuentes-Cobas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, an intensive search for high-performance lead-free ferroelectric materials is taking place. ABO3 perovskites (A = Ba, Bi, Ca, K and Na; B = Fe, Nb, Ti, and Zr appear as promising candidates. Understanding the structure–function relationship is mandatory, and, in this field, the roles of long- and short-range crystal orders and interactions are decisive. In this review, recent advances in the global and local characterization of ferroelectric materials by synchrotron light diffraction, scattering and absorption are analyzed. Single- and poly-crystal synchrotron diffraction studies allow high-resolution investigations regarding the long-range average position of ions and subtle global symmetry break-downs. Ferroelectric materials, under the action of electric fields, undergo crystal symmetry, crystallite/domain orientation distribution and strain condition transformations. Methodological aspects of monitoring these processes are discussed. Two-dimensional diffraction clarify larger scale ordering: polycrystal texture is measured from the intensities distribution along the Debye rings. Local order is investigated by diffuse scattering (DS and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS experiments. DS provides information about thermal, chemical and displacive low-dimensional disorders. XAFS investigation of ferroelectrics reveals local B-cation off-centering and oxidation state. This technique has the advantage of being element-selective. Representative reports of the mentioned studies are described.

  11. Distribution of correlation radii in disordered ferroelectrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Glinchuk, M. D.; Eliseev, E. A.; Stepanovich, V. A.; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 25 (2002), s. 4808-4810 ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : disordered ferroelectrics * distribution of correlation radii * polar nanoregions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.207, year: 2002

  12. Organic Nonvolatile Memory Devices Based on Ferroelectricity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, Ronald C. G.; Asadi, Kamal; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.; de Boer, Bert

    2010-01-01

    A memory functionality is a prerequisite for many applications of electronic devices. Organic nonvolatile memory devices based on ferroelectricity are a promising approach toward the development of a low-cost memory technology. In this Review Article we discuss the latest developments in this area

  13. Organic nonvolatile memory devices based on ferroelectricity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, R.C.G.; Asadi, K.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de; Boer, B. de

    2010-01-01

    A memory functionality is a prerequisite for many applications of electronic devices. Organic nonvolatile memory devices based on ferroelectricity are a promising approach toward the development of a low-cost memory technology. In this Review Article we discuss the latest developments in this area

  14. Giant electrocaloric effect in a cracked ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Yang, Hai-Bing; Gao, Cun-Fa

    2018-04-01

    The electrocaloric effect (ECE) is the temperature change in a material induced by electrical field variation under adiabatic condition. Considering an external electric load applied on a cracked ferroelectric solid, a non-uniform electric field would be induced at the crack tip, and thus, incompatible strain field and local stress concentration would be generated around it. Furthermore, the enormous strain energy and the electrostatic energy would affect the polarization switching of the ferroelectric solid, important for the electrocaloric response. In this paper, the large negative and positive ECEs in a ferroelectric sheet with a conducting crack are investigated by the phase field method with the consideration of time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation. The numerical calculations indicated that the polarization field generates a sharp rise during the domain transition from polydomain to monodomain under a certain electric load. Large negative ECEs, about -10.21 K and -7.55 K, are obtained at 135 °C and 85 °C, respectively. The domain transition temperature is much lower than the Curie temperature, which enlarges the existence scope of the large ECE in ferroelectrics. The results also imply that the domain transition from a multi-domain state to a single domain takes place with the minimization of total free energy, which involves the courses of the electric field, stress field, temperature, and polarization interaction. Therefore, the non-uniform distributions of the stress-electric fields induced by the crack play an important role in ECE.

  15. From antiferroelectricity to ferroelectricity in smectic mesophases ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    are not ferroelectric in the ground state, but upon alignment within an electric field .... Figure 3. Molecular organisation within polar smectic phases and possible ways to escape from a macroscopic polarisation in mesophases built up by polar layers. .... in which the molecules adapt a twisted orientation from the top to bottom.

  16. A hybrid ferroelectric-flash memory cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyo; Byun, Chang Woo; Seok, Ki Hwan; Kim, Hyung Yoon; Chae, Hee Jae; Lee, Sol Kyu; Son, Se Wan; Ahn, Donghwan; Joo, Seung Ki

    2014-09-01

    A ferroelectric-flash (F-flash) memory cells having a metal-ferroelectric-nitride-oxynitride-silicon structure are demonstrated, and the ferroelectric materials were perovskite-dominated Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) crystallized by Pt gate electrode. The PZT thin-film as a blocking layer improves electrical and memorial performance where programming and erasing mechanism are different from the metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor device or the conventional silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon device. F-flash cells exhibit not only the excellent electrical transistor performance, having 442.7 cm2 V-1 s-1 of field-effect mobility, 190 mV dec-1 of substhreshold slope, and 8 × 105 on/off drain current ratio, but also a high reliable memory characteristics, having a large memory window (6.5 V), low-operating voltage (0 to -5 V), faster P/E switching speed (50/500 μs), long retention time (>10 years), and excellent fatigue P/E cycle (>105) due to the boosting effect, amplification effect, and energy band distortion of nitride from the large polarization. All these characteristics correspond to the best performances among conventional flash cells reported so far.

  17. Data retention in organic ferroelectric resistive switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khikhlovskyi, V.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Janssen, R.A.J.; Gelinck, G.H.; Kemerink, M.

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processed organic ferroelectric resistive switches could become the long-missing non-volatile memory elements in organic electronic devices. To this end, data retention in these devices should be characterized, understood and controlled. First, it is shown that the measurement protocol can

  18. Electrical characterization of thin film ferroelectric capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelman, M.P.J.; Reimann, K.; Klee, M.; Beelen, D.; Keur, W.; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    2006-01-01

    Tunable capacitors can be used to facilitate the reduction of components in wireless technologies. The tunability of the capacitors is caused by the sensitivity of the relative dielectric constant to a change in polarization with electric field. Thin film ferroelectric MIM capacitors on silicon

  19. Nonlinear dielectric response in ferroelectric thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lente, M. H.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrical permittivity dependence on electric external bias field was investigated in PZT thin films. The results revealed the existence of two mechanisms contributing to the electrical permittivity. The first one was related to the domain reorientation, which was responsible for a strong no linear dielectric behavior, acting only during the poling process. The second mechanism was associated with the domain wall vibrations, which presented a reasonable linear electrical behavior with the applied bias field, contributing always to the permittivity independently of the poling state of the sample. The results also indicated that the gradual reduction of the permittivity with the increase of the bias field strength may be related to the gradual bending of the domain walls. It is believed that the domain wall bending induces a hardening and/or a thinning of the walls, thus reducing the electrical permittivity. A reinterpretation of the model proposed in the literature to explain the dielectric characteristics of ferroelectric materials at high electric field regime is proposed.

    Se ha estudiado la dependencia de la permitividad eléctrica con un campo bias externo en láminas delgadas de PZT. Los resultados revelaron la existencia de dos mecanismos que contribuyen a la permitividad eléctrica. El primero está relacionado con la reorientación de dominios, actúa sólo durante el proceso de polarización y es responsable de un comportamiento dieléctrico fuertemente no lineal. El segundo mecanismo se asocia a las vibraciones de las paredes de dominio, presentando un comportamiento eléctrico razonablemente lineal con el campo bias aplicado, contribuyendo siempre a la permitividad independientemente del estado de polarización de la muestra. Los resultados indicaron también que la reducción gradual de la permitividad con el aumento de la fuerza del campo bias podría estar relacionada con el “bending” gradual de las paredes de dominio

  20. Misfit strain dependence of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of clamped (001) epitaxial Pb(Zr0.52,Ti0.48)O3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh D.; Dekkers, Matthijn; Houwman, Evert; Steenwelle, Ruud; Wan, Xin; Roelofs, Andreas; Schmitz-Kempen, Thorsten; Rijnders, Guus

    2011-12-01

    A study on the effects of the residual strain in Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) thin films on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties is presented. Epitaxial (001)-oriented PZT thin film capacitors are sandwiched between SrRuO3 electrodes. The thin film stacks are grown on different substrate-buffer-layer combinations by pulsed laser deposition. Compressive or tensile strain caused by the difference in thermal expansion of the PZT film and substrate influences the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. All the PZT stacks show ferroelectric and piezoelectric behavior that is consistent with the theoretical model for strained thin films in the ferroelectric r-phase. We conclude that clamped (001) oriented Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 thin films strained by the substrate always show rotation of the polarization vector.

  1. Dynamics of space and polarization charges of ferroelectric thin films measured by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Y.J.; Lee, J.H.; Jo, W.

    2006-01-01

    Retention behavior and local hysteresis characteristics in Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PZT) thin films on Pt electrodes have been investigated by electrostatic force microscopy (EFM). A sol-gel method is used to synthesize PZT thin films and drying conditions are carefully explored over a wide range of temperature. Decay and retention mechanisms of single-poled and reverse-poled regions of the ferroelectric thin films are explained by space charge redistribution. Trapping behavior of space charges is dependent on the nature of interface between ferroelectric thin films and bottom electrodes. Local measurement of polarization-electric field curves by EFM shows inhomogeneous space charge entrapment

  2. Relaxor behaviour of (Ba0⋅5Sr0⋅5)(Ti0⋅6Zr0⋅4)O3 ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    The dielectric study revealed diffuse phase transition of second order. A broad dielectric anomaly coupled with the shift ... racterized by diffuse phase transition, has been studied extensively both theoretically as well as ..... relaxor behaviours in the systems are analogous to that of a dipolar glass with polarization fluctuations ...

  3. Are lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) and lithium tantalate (LiTaO{sub 3}) ferroelectrics bioactive?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilarinho, Paula Maria, E-mail: paula.vilarinho@ua.pt; Barroca, Nathalie; Zlotnik, Sebastian; Félix, Pedro; Fernandes, Maria Helena

    2014-06-01

    The use of functional materials, such as ferroelectrics, as platforms for tissue growth in situ or ex situ, is new and holds great promise. But the usage of materials in any bioapplication requires information on biocompatibility and desirably on bioactive behavior when bone tissue engineering is envisaged. Both requirements are currently unknown for many ferroelectrics. Herein the bioactivity of LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3} is reported. The formation of apatite-like structures on the surface of LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3} powders after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for different soaking periods indicates their bioactive potential. The mechanism of apatite formation is suggested. In addition, the significant release of lithium ions from the ferroelectric powders in the very first minutes of soaking in SBF is examined and ways to overcome this likely hurdle addressed. - Highlights: • LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3} are bioactive ferroelectrics. • Cauliflower apatite type structures indicative of in-vitro bioactivity of LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3.} • Negative surface charges anchor Ca{sup 2+} to which PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} attracts forming apatite structure nuclei. • Use of ferroelectrics as platforms for tissue growth in situ or ex situ is new and holds great promise.

  4. Monoclinic Cc-phase stabilization in magnetically diluted lead free Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3—Evolution of spin glass like behavior with enhanced ferroelectric and dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavelu, Karthik; Asthana, Saket

    2015-09-01

    The effect of magnetic cation substitution on the phase stabilization, ferroelectric, dielectric and magnetic properties of a lead free Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) system prepared by O2 atmosphere solid state sintering were studied extensively. Cobalt (Co) was chosen as the magnetic cation to substitute at the Ti-site of NBT with optimized 2.5 mol%. Rietveld analysis of x-ray diffraction data favours the monoclinic Cc phase stabilization strongly rather than the parent R3c phase. FE-SEM micrograph supports the single phase characteristics without phase segregation at the grain boundaries. The stabilized Cc space group was explained based on the collective local distortion effects due to spin-orbit stabilization at Co3+ and Co2+ functional centres. The phonon mode changes as observed in the TiO6 octahedral modes also support the Cc phase stabilization. The major Co3+-ion presence was revealed from corresponding crystal field transitions observed through solid state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The enhanced spontaneous polarization (Ps) from ≅38 μC cm-2 to 45 μC cm-2 could be due to the easy rotation of polarization vector along the {(1\\bar{1}0)}{{pc}} in Cc phase. An increase in static dielectric response (ɛ) from ɛ ≅ 42 to 60 along with enhanced diffusivity from γ ≅ 1.53 to 1.75 was observed. Magneto-thermal irreversibility and their magnetic field dependent ZFC/FC curves suggest the possibility of a spin glass like behaviour below 50 K. The monoclinic Cc phase stabilization as confirmed from structural studies was well correlated with the observed ferroic properties in magnetically diluted NBT.

  5. Ferroelectric domain engineering by focused infrared femtosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xin; Shvedov, Vladlen; Sheng, Yan, E-mail: yan.sheng@anu.edu.au [Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Karpinski, Pawel [Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego, Wroclaw (Poland); Koynov, Kaloian [Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Wang, Bingxia; Trull, Jose; Cojocaru, Crina [Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi, 08222 Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain); Krolikowski, Wieslaw [Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Texas A& M University at Qatar, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-10-05

    We demonstrate infrared femtosecond laser-induced inversion of ferroelectric domains. This process can be realised solely by using tightly focused laser pulses without application of any electric field prior to, in conjunction with, or subsequent to the laser irradiation. As most ferroelectric crystals like LiNbO{sub 3}, LiTaO{sub 3}, and KTiOPO{sub 4} are transparent in the infrared, this optical poling method allows one to form ferroelectric domain patterns much deeper inside a ferroelectric crystal than by using ultraviolet light and hence can be used to fabricate practical devices. We also propose in situ diagnostics of the ferroelectric domain inversion process by monitoring the Čerenkov second harmonic signal, which is sensitive to the appearance of ferroelectric domain walls.

  6. Ferroelectric devices using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Young Hun; Kojori, Hossein Shokri; Kim, Sung Jin

    2016-02-19

    We successfully demonstrate the synthesis of lead zirconate titanate nanoparticles (PZT NPs) and a ferroelectric device using the synthesized PZT NPs. The crystalline structure and the size of the nanocrystals are studied using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. We observe PZT NPs and this result matches dynamic light scattering measurements. A solution-based low-temperature process is used to fabricate PZT NP-based devices on an indium tin oxide substrate. The fabricated ferroelectric devices are characterized using various optical and electrical measurements and we verify ferroelectric properties including ferroelectric hysteresis and the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect. Our approach enables low-temperature solution-based processes that could be used for various applications. To the best of our knowledge, this low-temperature solution processed ferroelectric device using PZT NPs is the first successful demonstration of its kind.

  7. Patterned piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity of poled polymer electrets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Xunlin

    2010-01-01

    Polymers with strong piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity are attractive for a wide range of applications. In particular, semicrystalline ferroelectric polymers are suitable for a large variety of piezo- and pyroelectric transducers or sensors, while amorphous polymers containing chromophore molecules are particularly interesting for photonic devices. Recently, a new class of polymer materials has been added to this family: internally charged cellular space-charge polymer electrets (so-called “ferroelectrets”), whose piezoelectricity can be orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional ferroelectric polymers. Suitable patterning of these materials leads to improved or unusual macroscopic piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectric or nonlinear optical properties that may be particularly useful for advanced transducer or waveguide applications. In the present paper, the piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity of poled polymers is briefly introduced, an overview on the preparation of polymer electrets with patterned piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity is provided and a survey of selected applications is presented.

  8. Electrical characterisation of ferroelectric field effect transistors based on ferroelectric HfO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurchuk, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric field effect transistor (FeFET) memories based on a new type of ferroelectric material (silicon doped hafnium oxide) were studied within the scope of the present work. Utilisation of silicon doped hafnium oxide (Si:HfO 2 ) thin films instead of conventional perovskite ferroelectrics as a functional layer in FeFETs provides compatibility to the CMOS process as well as improved device scalability. The influence of different process parameters on the properties of Si:HfO 2 thin films was analysed in order to gain better insight into the occurrence of ferroelectricity in this system. A subsequent examination of the potential of this material as well as its possible limitations with the respect to the application in non-volatile memories followed. The Si:HfO 2 -based ferroelectric transistors that were fully integrated into the state-of-the-art high-k metal gate CMOS technology were studied in this work for the first time. The memory performance of these devices scaled down to 28 nm gate length was investigated. Special attention was paid to the charge trapping phenomenon shown to significantly affect the device behaviour.

  9. Ferroelectric devices, interconnects, and methods of manufacture thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-12-12

    A doped electroconductive organic polymer is used for forming the electrode of a ferroelectric device or an interconnect. An exemplary ferroelectric device is a ferrelectric capacitor comprising: a substrate (101); a first electrode (106) disposed on the substrate; a ferroelectric layer (112) disposed on and in contact with the first electrode; and a second electrode (116) disposed on and in contact with the ferroelectric layer, wherein at least one of the first electrode and the second electrode is an organic electrode comprising a doped electroconductive organic polymer, for example DMSO-doped PEDOT-PSS.

  10. Ferroelectric devices, interconnects, and methods of manufacture thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.; Unnat, Bhansali; Khan, Mohd Adnan; Saleh, Moussa M.; Odeh, Ihab N.

    2013-01-01

    A doped electroconductive organic polymer is used for forming the electrode of a ferroelectric device or an interconnect. An exemplary ferroelectric device is a ferrelectric capacitor comprising: a substrate (101); a first electrode (106) disposed on the substrate; a ferroelectric layer (112) disposed on and in contact with the first electrode; and a second electrode (116) disposed on and in contact with the ferroelectric layer, wherein at least one of the first electrode and the second electrode is an organic electrode comprising a doped electroconductive organic polymer, for example DMSO-doped PEDOT-PSS.

  11. Ferroelectric nanostructure having switchable multi-stable vortex states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Ivan I [Fayetteville, AR; Bellaiche, Laurent M [Fayetteville, AR; Prosandeev, Sergey A [Fayetteville, AR; Ponomareva, Inna V [Fayetteville, AR; Kornev, Igor A [Fayetteville, AR

    2009-09-22

    A ferroelectric nanostructure formed as a low dimensional nano-scale ferroelectric material having at least one vortex ring of polarization generating an ordered toroid moment switchable between multi-stable states. A stress-free ferroelectric nanodot under open-circuit-like electrical boundary conditions maintains such a vortex structure for their local dipoles when subject to a transverse inhomogeneous static electric field controlling the direction of the macroscopic toroidal moment. Stress is also capable of controlling the vortex's chirality, because of the electromechanical coupling that exists in ferroelectric nanodots.

  12. Structural transitions in hybrid improper ferroelectric C a3T i2O7 tuned by site-selective isovalent substitutions: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. F.; Zheng, S. H.; Wang, H. W.; Gong, J. J.; Li, X.; Zhang, Y.; Yang, K. L.; Lin, L.; Yan, Z. B.; Dong, Shuai; Liu, J.-M.

    2018-05-01

    C a3T i2O7 is an experimentally confirmed hybrid improper ferroelectric material, in which the electric polarization is induced by a combination of the coherent Ti O6 octahedral rotation and tilting. In this work, we investigate the tuning of ferroelectricity of C a3T i2O7 using isovalent substitutions on Ca sites. Due to the size mismatch, larger/smaller alkaline earths prefer A'/A sites, respectively, allowing the possibility for site-selective substitutions. Without extra carriers, such site-selected isovalent substitutions can significantly tune the Ti O6 octahedral rotation and tilting, and thus change the structure and polarization. Using the first-principles calculations, our study reveals that three substituted cases (Sr, Mg, and Sr+Mg) show divergent physical behaviors. In particular, (CaTiO3) 2SrO becomes nonpolar, which can reasonably explain the suppression of polarization upon Sr substitution observed in experiment. In contrast, the polarization in (MgTiO3) 2CaO is almost doubled upon substitutions, while the estimated coercivity for ferroelectric switching does not change. The (MgTiO3) 2SrO remains polar but its structural space group changes, with moderate increased polarization and possible different ferroelectric switching paths. Our study reveals the subtle ferroelectricity in the A3T i2O7 family and suggests one more practical route to tune hybrid improper ferroelectricity, in addition to the strain effect.

  13. R-curve behaviour of ferroelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, N.Ya.; Kramarov, S.O.

    2004-01-01

    The attempt's made to identify and evaluate the regularities of developing the fractures in the ferroelectric ceramics and also-study the effect of the polishing operation on the strength characteristics of the piezoceramics. The R-curve behaviour in the ferroelectric ceramics is studied on the samples of the barium titanate and lead zirconate-titanate by the four-point bending with controlled surface fractures. It is established that increasing curve of resistance to the fracture growth is observed in the piezoceramics under the conditions of the fracture stable growth. The results obtained on the polished samples prove that the mechanical processing introduces the compression surface stresses into the piezoceramic materials [ru

  14. High-Tc ferroelectrics and superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    The meaning of the title refers to transition temperatures T c in ferroelectrics (FE) and superconductors (S). The highest T c 's in either field are observed in oxides: 1770 K in the ferroelectric La 2 TiO 7 and 125 K in the superconductor Tl 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 . Therefore, the question can be asked whether the observed high T c 's in oxide FE and S are a pure coincidence or whether there may be an underlying reason for it. This question is addressed first by recalling recent advances concerning anharmonic FE-properties and then by reviewing S-findings in the new compounds related to these properties

  15. A ferroelectric memory technology for embedded LSI

    CERN Document Server

    Kunio, T

    1999-01-01

    We have developed an FeRAM (Ferroelectric Random Access Memory) embedded smart card LSI by using double metal 0.8- mu m CMOS technology. The smart-card has a 256-byte FeRAM macro and an 8-bit microcontroller. The FeRAM macro has the $9 performance of 10/sup 8/ endurance cycles and is half the size of an EEPROM macro. We have also developed a new CMVP (Capacitor on Meta/Via Stacked Plug) cell for an advanced FeRAM embedded LSI by using 0.25- mu m CMOS technology. $9 The ferroelectric capacitors of this cell are fabricated after the multiple interconnect is formed, and a cell area of 3.2 mu m/sup 2/ is obtained. (8 refs).

  16. Fast Ferroelectric L-band Tuner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, S. Yu.; Yakovlev, V. P.; Hirshfield, J. L.; Kanareykin, A. D.; Nenasheva, E. A.

    2006-01-01

    Description is given of a preliminary conceptual design for a tuner that employs a new ferroelectric ceramic that allows fast changes in coupling between the SRF acceleration structure of a linac and the external RF feeding line. The switching time of this device is in the range of a few microseconds. Utilization of this tuner is predicted to decrease Ohmic losses in the acceleration structure and thereby to reduce the power consumption of the linac. Using parameters of the TESLA-800 collider as an example, it is shown that it may be possible to reduce the ac mains power consumption by 12 MW, or about by 10%. The design of the tuner that is described allows reduced pulsed and average heating of the ferroelectric ceramics

  17. Fracture mechanics of piezoelectric and ferroelectric solids

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Daining

    2013-01-01

    Fracture Mechanics of Piezoelectric and Ferroelectric Solids presents a systematic and comprehensive coverage of the fracture mechanics of piezoelectric/ferroelectric materials, which includes the theoretical analysis, numerical computations and experimental observations. The main emphasis is placed on the mechanics description of various crack problems such static, dynamic and interface fractures as well as the physical explanations for the mechanism of electrically induced fracture. The book is intended for postgraduate students, researchers and engineers in the fields of solid mechanics, applied physics, material science and mechanical engineering. Dr. Daining Fang is a professor at the School of Aerospace, Tsinghua University, China; Dr. Jinxi Liu is a professor at the Department of Engineering Mechanics, Shijiazhuang Railway Institute, China.

  18. Light-Activated Gigahertz Ferroelectric Domain Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Hirofumi; Yuan, Yakun; Stoica, Vladimir A.; Stone, Greg; Yang, Tiannan; Hong, Zijian; Lei, Shiming; Zhu, Yi; Haislmaier, Ryan C.; Freeland, John W.; Chen, Long-Qing; Wen, Haidan; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2018-03-01

    Using time- and spatially resolved hard x-ray diffraction microscopy, the striking structural and electrical dynamics upon optical excitation of a single crystal of BaTiO3 are simultaneously captured on subnanoseconds and nanoscale within individual ferroelectric domains and across walls. A large emergent photoinduced electric field of up to 20 ×106 V /m is discovered in a surface layer of the crystal, which then drives polarization and lattice dynamics that are dramatically distinct in a surface layer versus bulk regions. A dynamical phase-field modeling method is developed that reveals the microscopic origin of these dynamics, leading to gigahertz polarization and elastic waves traveling in the crystal with sonic speeds and spatially varying frequencies. The advances in spatiotemporal imaging and dynamical modeling tools open up opportunities for disentangling ultrafast processes in complex mesoscale structures such as ferroelectric domains.

  19. TaN interface properties and electric field cycling effects on ferroelectric Si-doped HfO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomenzo, Patrick D.; Nishida, Toshikazu; Takmeel, Qanit; Zhou, Chuanzhen; Fancher, Chris M.; Jones, Jacob L.; Lambers, Eric; Rudawski, Nicholas G.; Moghaddam, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric HfO 2 -based thin films, which can exhibit ferroelectric properties down to sub-10 nm thicknesses, are a promising candidate for emerging high density memory technologies. As the ferroelectric thickness continues to shrink, the electrode-ferroelectric interface properties play an increasingly important role. We investigate the TaN interface properties on 10 nm thick Si-doped HfO 2 thin films fabricated in a TaN metal-ferroelectric-metal stack which exhibit highly asymmetric ferroelectric characteristics. To understand the asymmetric behavior of the ferroelectric characteristics of the Si-doped HfO 2 thin films, the chemical interface properties of sputtered TaN bottom and top electrodes are probed with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Ta-O bonds at the bottom electrode interface and a significant presence of Hf-N bonds at both electrode interfaces are identified. It is shown that the chemical heterogeneity of the bottom and top electrode interfaces gives rise to an internal electric field, which causes the as-grown ferroelectric domains to preferentially polarize to screen positively charged oxygen vacancies aggregated at the oxidized bottom electrode interface. Electric field cycling is shown to reduce the internal electric field with a concomitant increase in remanent polarization and decrease in relative permittivity. Through an analysis of pulsed transient switching currents, back-switching is observed in Si-doped HfO 2 thin films with pinched hysteresis loops and is shown to be influenced by the internal electric field

  20. High temperature phases in PZT ferroelectric films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deineka, Alexander; Suchaneck, G.; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Gerlach, G.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 293, - (2003), s. 111-118 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP202/02/D078; GA MŠk LN00A015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : ferroelectric film * phase transition * film profile Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.406, year: 2003

  1. Resonant tunneling across a ferroelectric domain wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Tao, L. L.; Velev, J. P.; Tsymbal, E. Y.

    2018-04-01

    Motivated by recent experimental observations, we explore electron transport properties of a ferroelectric tunnel junction (FTJ) with an embedded head-to-head ferroelectric domain wall, using first-principles density-functional theory calculations. We consider a FTJ with L a0.5S r0.5Mn O3 electrodes separated by a BaTi O3 barrier layer and show that an in-plane charged domain wall in the ferroelectric BaTi O3 can be induced by polar interfaces. The resulting V -shaped electrostatic potential profile across the BaTi O3 layer creates a quantum well and leads to the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas, which stabilizes the domain wall. The confined electronic states in the barrier are responsible for resonant tunneling as is evident from our quantum-transport calculations. We find that the resonant tunneling is an orbital selective process, which leads to sharp spikes in the momentum- and energy-resolved transmission spectra. Our results indicate that domain walls embedded in FTJs can be used to control the electron transport.

  2. Ferroelectricity with Ferromagnetic Moment in Orthoferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Yusuke

    2010-03-01

    Exotic multiferroics with gigantic magnetoelectric (ME) coupling have recently been attracting broad interests from the viewpoints of both fundamental physics and possible technological application to next-generation spintronic devices. To attain a strong ME coupling, it would be preferable that the ferroelectric order is induced by the magnetic order. Nevertheless, the magnetically induced ferroelectric state with the spontaneous ferromagnetic moment is still quite rare apart from a few conical-spin multiferroics. To further explore multiferroic materials with both the strong ME coupling and spontaneous magnetization, we focused on materials with magnetic structures other than conical structure. In this talk we present that the most orthodox perovskite ferrite systems DyFeO3 and GdFeO3 have ``ferromagnetic-ferroelectric,'' i.e., genuinely multiferroic states in which weak ferromagnetic moment is induced by Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction working on Fe spins and electric polarization originates from the striction due to symmetric exchange interaction between Fe and Dy (Gd) spins [1] [2]. Both materials showed large electric polarization (>0.1 μC/cm^2) and strong ME coupling. In addition, we succeeded in mutual control of magnetization and polarization with electric- and magnetic-fields in GdFeO3, and attributed the controllability to novel, composite domain wall structure. [4pt] [1] Y. Tokunaga et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 097205 (2008). [0pt] [2] Y. Tokunaga et al., Nature Mater. 8, 558 (2009).

  3. The effect of rotational viscosity on the memory effect in ferroelectric liquid crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, S.; Thakur, A.K.; Chauhan, R.; Bawa, S.S.; Biradar, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Memory effect in deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal (DHFLC) is not a new phenomenon. Although it was reported 12 years ago yet its exact physical behavior is not explained. It has been thought by various researchers all over the world that it might be a transient memory effect. In the present study, it has been observed and predicted that memory effect is of long duration and shows remarkable dependencies on the voltage and frequency of the driving electrical pulse, which is entirely different from the memory effect in surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal (SSFLC). The memory effect in SSFLC is primarily due to surface effect but in DHFLC, its ultra-short pitch plays a dominant role. So, it has been observed that the memory effect in DHFLC is due to its high viscosity and inter/intra layer dipolar interactions

  4. Strain Engineering of Ferroelectric Domains in KxNa1−xNbO3 Epitaxial Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Schwarzkopf

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The application of lattice strain through epitaxial growth of oxide films on lattice mismatched perovskite-like substrates strongly influences the structural properties of ferroelectric domains and their corresponding piezoelectric behavior. The formation of different ferroelectric phases can be understood by a strain-phase diagram, which is calculated within the framework of the Landau–Ginzburg–Devonshire theory. In this paper, we illustrate the opportunity of ferroelectric domain engineering in the KxNa1−xNbO3 lead-free material system. In particular, the following examples are discussed in detail: (i Different substrates (NdGaO3, SrTiO3, DyScO3, TbScO3, and GdScO3 are used to systematically tune the incorporated epitaxial strain from compressive to tensile. This can be exploited to adjust the NaNbO3 thin film surface orientation and, concomitantly, the vector of electrical polarization, which rotates from mainly vertical to exclusive in-plane orientation. (ii In ferroelectric NaNbO3, thin films grown on rare-earth scandate substrates, highly regular stripe domain patterns are observed. By using different film thicknesses, these can be tailored with regard to domain periodicity and vertical polarization component. (iii A featured potassium concentration of x = 0.9 of KxNa1−xNbO3 thin films grown on (110 NdScO3 substrates favors the coexistence of two equivalent, monoclinic, but differently oriented ferroelectric phases. A complicated herringbone domain pattern is experimentally observed which consists of alternating MC and a1a2 domains. The coexistence of different types of ferroelectric domains leads to polarization discontinuities at the domain walls, potentially enabling high piezoelectric responses. In each of these examples, the experimental results are in excellent agreement with predictions based on the linear elasticity theory.

  5. The operational mechanism of ferroelectric-driven organic resistive switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemerink, M.; Asadi, K.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2012-01-01

    The availability of a reliable memory element is crucial for the fabrication of 'plastic' logic circuits. We use numerical simulations to show that the switching mechanism of ferroelectric-driven organic resistive switches is the stray field of the polarized ferroelectric phase. The stray field

  6. The operational mechanism of ferroelectric-driven organic resistive switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemerink, M.; Asadi, K. (Kamal); Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, de D.M.

    2012-01-01

    The availability of a reliable memory element is crucial for the fabrication of ‘plastic’ logic circuits. We use numerical simulations to show that the switching mechanism of ferroelectric-driven organic resistive switches is the stray field of the polarized ferroelectric phase. The stray field

  7. The operational mechanism of ferroelectric-driven organic resistive switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemerink, Martijn; Asadi, Kamal; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    The availability of a reliable memory element is crucial for the fabrication of 'plastic' logic circuits. We use numerical simulations to show that the switching mechanism of ferroelectric-driven organic resistive switches is the stray field of the polarized ferroelectric phase. The stray field

  8. Dynamic Control of Tunneling Conductance in Ferroelectric Tunnel Junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Ya-Yi; Zhou Yan; Chew Khian-Hooi

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the dynamic characteristics of electric polarization P(t) in a ferroelectric junction under ac applied voltage and stress, and calculate the frequency response and the cut-off frequency f 0 , which provides a reference for the upper limit of the working frequency. Our study might be significant for sensor and memory applications of nanodevices based on ferroelectric junctions

  9. Geometric shape control of thin film ferroelectrics and resulting structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    2000-01-01

    A monolithic crystalline structure and a method of making involves a semiconductor substrate, such as silicon, and a ferroelectric film, such as BaTiO.sub.3, overlying the surface of the substrate wherein the atomic layers of the ferroelectric film directly overlie the surface of the substrate. By controlling the geometry of the ferroelectric thin film, either during build-up of the thin film or through appropriate treatment of the thin film adjacent the boundary thereof, the in-plane tensile strain within the ferroelectric film is relieved to the extent necessary to permit the ferroelectric film to be poled out-of-plane, thereby effecting in-plane switching of the polarization of the underlying substrate material. The method of the invention includes the steps involved in effecting a discontinuity of the mechanical restraint at the boundary of the ferroelectric film atop the semiconductor substrate by, for example, either removing material from a ferroelectric film which has already been built upon the substrate, building up a ferroelectric film upon the substrate in a mesa-shaped geometry or inducing the discontinuity at the boundary by ion beam deposition techniques.

  10. Ferroelectrics: A pathway to switchable surface chemistry and catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakekhani, Arvin; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Altman, Eric I.

    2016-08-01

    It has been known for more than six decades that ferroelectricity can affect a material's surface physics and chemistry thereby potentially enhancing its catalytic properties. Ferroelectrics are a class of materials with a switchable electrical polarization that can affect surface stoichiometry and electronic structure and thus adsorption energies and modes; e.g., molecular versus dissociative. Therefore, ferroelectrics may be utilized to achieve switchable surface chemistry whereby surface properties are not fixed but can be dynamically controlled by, for example, applying an external electric field or modulating the temperature. Several important examples of applications of ferroelectric and polar materials in photocatalysis and heterogeneous catalysis are discussed. In photocatalysis, the polarization direction can control band bending at water/ferroelectric and ferroelectric/semiconductor interfaces, thereby facilitating charge separation and transfer to the electrolyte and enhancing photocatalytic activity. For gas-surface interactions, available results suggest that using ferroelectrics to support catalytically active transition metals and oxides is another way to enhance catalytic activity. Finally, the possibility of incorporating ferroelectric switching into the catalytic cycle itself is described. In this scenario, a dynamic collaboration of two polarization states can be used to drive reactions that have been historically challenging to achieve on surfaces with fixed chemical properties (e.g., direct NOx decomposition and the selective partial oxidation of methane). These predictions show that dynamic modulation of the polarization can help overcome some of the fundamental limitations on catalytic activity imposed by the Sabatier principle.

  11. Guest–host interaction in ferroelectric liquid crystal–nanoparticle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ferroelectric Cu-doped ZnO (Cu–ZnO) nanoparticles have been added to the pure ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) Felix 17/100. The nanoparticles are bigger in size as compared to FLC molecules; therefore, they distort the existing geometry of FLC matrix and set up an antiparallel correlation with the dipole moments of the ...

  12. Functional Properties of Polydomain Ferroelectric Oxide Thin Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwman, Evert Pieter; Vergeer, Kurt; Koster, Gertjan; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Nishikawa, H.; Iwata, N.; Endo, T.; Takamura, Y.; Lee, G-H.; Mele, P.

    2017-01-01

    The properties of a ferroelectric, (001)-oriented, thin film clamped to a substrate are investigated analytically and numerically. The emphasis is on the tetragonal, polydomain, ferroelectric phase, using a three domain structure, as is observed experimentally, instead of the two-domain structure

  13. Temperature dependence of electronic transport property in ferroelectric polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, X.L.; Wang, J.L., E-mail: jlwang@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Tian, B.B.; Liu, B.L.; Zou, Y.H.; Wang, X.D.; Sun, S.; Sun, J.L., E-mail: jlsun@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Meng, X.J.; Chu, J.H.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The ferroelectric polymer was fabricated by Langmuir–Blodgett method. • The electrons as the dominant injected carrier were conformed in the ferroelectric polymer films. • The leakage current conduction mechanisms in ferroelectric polymer were investigated. - Abstract: The leakage current mechanism of ferroelectric copolymer of polyvinylidene fluoride with trifluoroethylene prepared by Langmuir–Blodgett was investigated in the temperature range from 100 K to 350 K. The electron as the dominant injected carrier was observed in the ferroelectric copolymer films. The transport mechanisms in copolymer strongly depend on the temperature and applied voltage. From 100 K to 200 K, Schottky emission dominates the conduction. With temperature increasing, the Frenkel–Poole emission instead of the Schottky emission to conduct the carrier transport. When the temperature gets to 260 K, the leakage current becomes independent of temperature, and the space charge limited current conduction was observed.

  14. An Automated Ab Initio Framework for Identifying New Ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidt, Tess; Reyes-Lillo, Sebastian E.; Jain, Anubhav; Neaton, Jeffrey B.

    Ferroelectric materials have a wide-range of technological applications including non-volatile RAM and optoelectronics. In this work, we present an automated first-principles search for ferroelectrics. We integrate density functional theory, crystal structure databases, symmetry tools, workflow software, and a custom analysis toolkit to build a library of known and proposed ferroelectrics. We screen thousands of candidates using symmetry relations between nonpolar and polar structure pairs. We use two search strategies 1) polar-nonpolar pairs with the same composition and 2) polar-nonpolar structure type pairs. Results are automatically parsed, stored in a database, and accessible via a web interface showing distortion animations and plots of polarization and total energy as a function of distortion. We benchmark our results against experimental data, present new ferroelectric candidates found through our search, and discuss future work on expanding this search methodology to other material classes such as anti-ferroelectrics and multiferroics.

  15. Ferroelectric switching in epitaxial PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3/ZnO/GaN heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Salev, Pavel; Grigoriev, Alexei

    As a wide-bandgap semiconductor, ZnO has gained substantial interest due to its favorable properties including high electron mobility, strong room-temperature luminescence, etc. The main obstacle of its application is the lack of reproducible and low-resistivity p-type ZnO. P-type doping of ZnO through the interface charge injection, which can be achieved by the polarization switching of ferroelectric films, is a tempting solution. We explored ferroelectric switching behavior of PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3/ZnO/GaN heterostructures epitaxially grown on Sapphire substrates by RF sputtering. The electrical measurements of Pt/PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3/ZnO/GaN ferroelectric-semiconductor capacitors revealed unusual behavior that is a combination of polarization switching and a diode I-V characteristics.

  16. Tailoring the piezoelectric and relaxor properties of (Bi1/2 Na1/2) TiO3- BaTiO3 via zirconium doping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaum, Julia; Simons, Hugh; Acosta, Matias

    2013-01-01

    This article details the influence of zirconium doping on the piezoelectric properties and relaxor characteristics of 94(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-6Ba(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (BNT-6BZT) bulk ceramics. Neutron diffraction measurements of BNT-6BZT doped with 0%-15% Zr revealed an electric-field-induced transition...

  17. Voltage Drop in a Ferroelectric Single Layer Capacitor by Retarded Domain Nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Jin; Park, Hyeon Woo; Hyun, Seung Dam; Kim, Han Joon; Kim, Keum Do; Lee, Young Hwan; Moon, Taehwan; Lee, Yong Bin; Park, Min Hyuk; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2017-12-13

    Ferroelectric (FE) capacitor is a critical electric component in microelectronic devices. Among many of its intriguing properties, the recent finding of voltage drop (V-drop) across the FE capacitor while the positive charges flow in is especially eye-catching. This finding was claimed to be direct evidence that the FE capacitor is in negative capacitance (NC) state, which must be useful for (infinitely) high capacitance and ultralow voltage operation of field-effect transistors. Nonetheless, the NC state corresponds to the maximum energy state of the FE material, so it has been widely accepted in the community that the material alleviates that state by forming ferroelectric domains. This work reports a similar V-drop effect from the 150 nm thick epitaxial BaTiO 3 ferroelectric thin film, but the interpretation was completely disparate; the V-drop can be precisely simulated by the reverse domain nucleation and propagation of which charge effect cannot be fully compensated for by the supplied charge from the external charge source. The disappearance of the V-drop effect was also observed by repeated FE switching only up to 10 cycles, which can hardly be explained by the involvement of the NC effect. The retained reverse domain nuclei even after the subsequent poling can explain such behavior.

  18. Three-dimensional imaging of vortex structure in a ferroelectric nanoparticle driven by an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, D; Liu, Z; Rolo, T Dos Santos; Harder, R; Balachandran, P V; Xue, D; Lookman, T; Fohtung, E

    2017-08-17

    Topological defects of spontaneous polarization are extensively studied as templates for unique physical phenomena and in the design of reconfigurable electronic devices. Experimental investigations of the complex topologies of polarization have been limited to surface phenomena, which has restricted the probing of the dynamic volumetric domain morphology in operando. Here, we utilize Bragg coherent diffractive imaging of a single BaTiO 3 nanoparticle in a composite polymer/ferroelectric capacitor to study the behavior of a three-dimensional vortex formed due to competing interactions involving ferroelectric domains. Our investigation of the structural phase transitions under the influence of an external electric field shows a mobile vortex core exhibiting a reversible hysteretic transformation path. We also study the toroidal moment of the vortex under the action of the field. Our results open avenues for the study of the structure and evolution of polar vortices and other topological structures in operando in functional materials under cross field configurations.Imaging of topological states of matter such as vortex configurations has generally been limited to 2D surface effects. Here Karpov et al. study the volumetric structure and dynamics of a vortex core mediated by electric-field induced structural phase transition in a ferroelectric BaTiO 3 nanoparticle.

  19. Raman scattering study of the ferroelectric phase transition in BaT i2O5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Shinya; Fujii, Yasuhiro; Yoneda, Yasuhiro; Moriwake, Hiroki; Konishi, Ayako; Akishige, Yukikuni

    2018-02-01

    Uniaxial ferroelectric BaT i2O5 with a Curie temperature TC of 743 K was investigated to clarify its paraelectric-ferroelectric phase-transition behavior. The mechanism is discussed on the basis of the structure from short to long ranges determined by synchrotron x-ray diffraction and the lattice dynamics probed by Raman spectroscopy. BaT i2O5 is regarded as a homogeneous system, and the lattice dynamics can be interpreted by the selection rules and tensor properties of the homogeneous structure. Angle-resolved polarized Raman spectroscopy clearly shows that an A -mode-type overdamped phonon plays the key role in the phase transition. Using a combination of experimental results and first-principles calculations, we explain the phase transition as follows: In one of three Ti O6 octahedral units, Ti vibrates along the b axis opposite an oxygen octahedral unit with large damping in the paraelectric phase, whereas this vibration is frozen in the ferroelectric phase, leading to a change in the space group from nonpolar C 2 /m to polar C 2 .

  20. Structural and electronic parameters of ferroelectric KWOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuchin, V. V.; Gavrilova, T. A.; Kesler, V. G.; Molokeev, M. S.; Aleksandrov, K. S.

    2010-11-01

    The low-temperature ferroelectric G2 polymorph of K 3WO 3F 3 oxyfluoride is formed by chemical synthesis. The electronic parameters of G2-K 3WO 3F 3 have been measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under excitation with Al Kα radiation (1486.6 eV). Detailed spectra have been recorded for all element core levels and Auger lines. The chemical bonding effects in the WO 3F 3 and WO 6 octahedrons are considered by using the binding energy difference ΔBE(O-W)=BE(O 1s)-BE(W 4f).

  1. Transformable ferroelectric control of dynamic magnetic permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Changjun; Jia, Chenglong; Wang, Fenglong; Zhou, Cai; Xue, Desheng

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic permeability, which measures the response of a material to an applied magnetic field, is crucial to the performance of magnetic devices and related technologies. Its dynamic value is usually a complex number with real and imaginary parts that describe, respectively, how much magnetic power can be stored and lost in the material. Control of permeability is therefore closely related to energy redistribution within a magnetic system or energy exchange between magnetic and other degrees of freedom via certain spin-dependent interactions. To avoid a high power consumption, direct manipulation of the permeability with an electric field through magnetoelectric coupling leads to high efficiency and simple operation, but remains a big challenge in both the fundamental physics and material science. Here we report unambiguous evidence of ferroelectric control of dynamic magnetic permeability in a Co /Pb (Mg1/3Nb2/3) 0.7Ti0.3O3 (Co/PMN-PT) heterostructure, in which the ferroelectric PMN-PT acts as an energy source for the ferromagnetic Co film via an interfacial linear magnetoelectric interaction. The electric field tuning of the magnitude and line shape of the permeability offers a highly localized means of controlling magnetization with ultralow power consumption. Additionally, the emergence of negative permeability promises a new way of realizing functional nanoscale metamaterials with adjustable refraction index.

  2. Elastic recoil detection analysis of ferroelectric films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stannard, W.B.; Johnston, P.N.; Walker, S.R.; Bubb, I.F. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Scott, J.F. [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia); Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    There has been considerable progress in developing SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (SBT) and Ba{sub O.7}Sr{sub O.3}TiO{sub 3} (BST) ferroelectric films for use as nonvolatile memory chips and for capacitors in dynamic random access memories (DRAMs). Ferroelectric materials have a very large dielectric constant ( {approx} 1000), approximately one hundred times greater than that of silicon dioxide. Devices made from these materials have been known to experience breakdown after a repeated voltage pulsing. It has been suggested that this is related to stoichiometric changes within the material. To accurately characterise these materials Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) is being developed. This technique employs a high energy heavy ion beam to eject nuclei from the target and uses a time of flight and energy dispersive (ToF-E) detector telescope to detect these nuclei. The recoil nuclei carry both energy and mass information which enables the determination of separate energy spectra for individual elements or for small groups of elements In this work ERDA employing 77 MeV {sup 127}I ions has been used to analyse Strontium Bismuth Tantalate thin films at the heavy ion recoil facility at ANSTO, Lucas Heights. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Elastic recoil detection analysis of ferroelectric films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stannard, W B; Johnston, P N; Walker, S R; Bubb, I F [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Scott, J F [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia); Cohen, D D; Dytlewski, N [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    There has been considerable progress in developing SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (SBT) and Ba{sub O.7}Sr{sub O.3}TiO{sub 3} (BST) ferroelectric films for use as nonvolatile memory chips and for capacitors in dynamic random access memories (DRAMs). Ferroelectric materials have a very large dielectric constant ( {approx} 1000), approximately one hundred times greater than that of silicon dioxide. Devices made from these materials have been known to experience breakdown after a repeated voltage pulsing. It has been suggested that this is related to stoichiometric changes within the material. To accurately characterise these materials Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) is being developed. This technique employs a high energy heavy ion beam to eject nuclei from the target and uses a time of flight and energy dispersive (ToF-E) detector telescope to detect these nuclei. The recoil nuclei carry both energy and mass information which enables the determination of separate energy spectra for individual elements or for small groups of elements In this work ERDA employing 77 MeV {sup 127}I ions has been used to analyse Strontium Bismuth Tantalate thin films at the heavy ion recoil facility at ANSTO, Lucas Heights. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Mechanisms of aging and fatigue in ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genenko, Yuri A. [Sonderforschungsbereich 595, Institut für Materialwissenschaft, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Glaum, Julia [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia); Hoffmann, Michael J. [Institut für keramische Werkstoffe, Haid-und-Neu Str. 7, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Albe, Karsten, E-mail: albe@mm.tu-darmstadt.de [Sonderforschungsbereich 595, Institut für Materialwissenschaft, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Experiments on aging and fatigue of bulk ferroelectrics are thoroughly reviewed. • Lead-based PZT and lead-free BNT–BT and KNN materials are covered. • Various fatigue regimes and factors are classified. • Defect associate formation and alignment are analyzed by density functional theory. • Emerging of internal bias field is studied within drift-diffusion approach. - Abstract: A comprehensive review of aging and fatigue phenomena in bulk polycrystalline ferroelectrics is presented. Three material classes are covered, namely the most widely used Pb[Zr{sub 1−x}Ti{sub x}]O{sub 3} (PZT) ceramics and lead-free materials, including those based on bismuth sodium titanate Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} (BNT) and alkali niobate [K{sub x}Na{sub 1−x}]NbO{sub 3} (KNN). Aging is studied in poled and unpoled states both experimentally and theoretically. The variety of different loading regimes for fatigue includes DC electric field, unipolar, sesquipolar and bipolar cycling and all these differently combined with mechanical loading at different frequencies and temperatures. The role of device geometries and electrode materials is addressed and models describing charge migration and defect dipole re-orientation are discussed in the context of recent experimental studies.

  5. Mechanisms of aging and fatigue in ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genenko, Yuri A.; Glaum, Julia; Hoffmann, Michael J.; Albe, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experiments on aging and fatigue of bulk ferroelectrics are thoroughly reviewed. • Lead-based PZT and lead-free BNT–BT and KNN materials are covered. • Various fatigue regimes and factors are classified. • Defect associate formation and alignment are analyzed by density functional theory. • Emerging of internal bias field is studied within drift-diffusion approach. - Abstract: A comprehensive review of aging and fatigue phenomena in bulk polycrystalline ferroelectrics is presented. Three material classes are covered, namely the most widely used Pb[Zr 1−x Ti x ]O 3 (PZT) ceramics and lead-free materials, including those based on bismuth sodium titanate Bi 1/2 Na 1/2 TiO 3 (BNT) and alkali niobate [K x Na 1−x ]NbO 3 (KNN). Aging is studied in poled and unpoled states both experimentally and theoretically. The variety of different loading regimes for fatigue includes DC electric field, unipolar, sesquipolar and bipolar cycling and all these differently combined with mechanical loading at different frequencies and temperatures. The role of device geometries and electrode materials is addressed and models describing charge migration and defect dipole re-orientation are discussed in the context of recent experimental studies

  6. Ultrahigh piezoelectricity in ferroelectric ceramics by design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Lin, Dabin; Chen, Zibin; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Wang, Jianli; Li, ChunChun; Xu, Zhuo; Huang, Qianwei; Liao, Xiaozhou; Chen, Long-Qing; Shrout, Thomas R.; Zhang, Shujun

    2018-03-01

    Piezoelectric materials, which respond mechanically to applied electric field and vice versa, are essential for electromechanical transducers. Previous theoretical analyses have shown that high piezoelectricity in perovskite oxides is associated with a flat thermodynamic energy landscape connecting two or more ferroelectric phases. Here, guided by phenomenological theories and phase-field simulations, we propose an alternative design strategy to commonly used morphotropic phase boundaries to further flatten the energy landscape, by judiciously introducing local structural heterogeneity to manipulate interfacial energies (that is, extra interaction energies, such as electrostatic and elastic energies associated with the interfaces). To validate this, we synthesize rare-earth-doped Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT), as rare-earth dopants tend to change the local structure of Pb-based perovskite ferroelectrics. We achieve ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients d33 of up to 1,500 pC N-1 and dielectric permittivity ɛ33/ɛ0 above 13,000 in a Sm-doped PMN-PT ceramic with a Curie temperature of 89 °C. Our research provides a new paradigm for designing material properties through engineering local structural heterogeneity, expected to benefit a wide range of functional materials.

  7. Ferroelectric based catalysis: Switchable surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakekhani, Arvin; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    2015-03-01

    We describe a new class of catalysts that uses an epitaxial monolayer of a transition metal oxide on a ferroelectric substrate. The ferroelectric polarization switches the surface chemistry between strongly adsorptive and strongly desorptive regimes, circumventing difficulties encountered on non-switchable catalytic surfaces where the Sabatier principle dictates a moderate surface-molecule interaction strength. This method is general and can, in principle, be applied to many reactions, and for each case the choice of the transition oxide monolayer can be optimized. Here, as a specific example, we show how simultaneous NOx direct decomposition (into N2 and O2) and CO oxidation can be achieved efficiently on CrO2 terminated PbTiO3, while circumventing oxygen (and sulfur) poisoning issues. One should note that NOx direct decomposition has been an open challenge in automotive emission control industry. Our method can expand the range of catalytically active elements to those which are not conventionally considered for catalysis and which are more economical, e.g., Cr (for NOx direct decomposition and CO oxidation) instead of canonical precious metal catalysts. Primary support from Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing, North America, Inc.

  8. Nanopolar reorientation in ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, C.; Levy, J.; Rivkin, T. V.; Carlson, C.; Parilla, P. A.; Perkins, J. D.; Ginley, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of varying oxygen pressure P(O 2 ) during the growth of Ba 0.4 Sr 0.6 TiO 3 thin films is investigated using dielectric and local optical probes. A transition from in-plane to out-of-plane ferroelectricity is observed with increasing P(O 2 ). Signatures of in-plane and out-of-plane ferroelectricity are identified using dielectric response and time-resolved confocal scanning optical microscopy (TRCSOM). At the crossover pressure between in-plane and out-of-plane polarization (P c =85 mTorr), TRCSOM measurements reveal a soft, highly dispersive out-of-plane polarization that reorients in plane under modest applied electric fields. At higher deposition pressures, the out-of-plane polarization is hardened and is less dispersive at microwave frequencies, and the dielectric tuning is suppressed. Nanopolar reorientation is believed to be responsible for the marked increase in dielectric tuning at P(O 2 )=P c

  9. Ferroelectric properties of tungsten bronze morphotropic phase boundary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, J.R.; Neurgaonkar, R.R.; Cross, L.E.; Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA

    1989-01-01

    Tungsten bronze ferroelectrics which have a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) can have a number or enhanced dielectric, piezoelectric, and electrooptic properties compared to more conventional ferroelectric materials. The structural and ferroelectric properties of several MPB bronze systems are presented, including data from sintered and hot-pressed ceramics, epitaxial thin films, and bulk single crystals. Included among these are three systems which had not been previously identified as morphotropic. The potential advantages and limitations of these MPB systems are discussed, along with considerations of the appropriate growth methods for their possible utilization in optical, piezoelectric, or pyroelectric device applications

  10. Structural, dielectric and ferroelectric characterization of PZT thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo E.B.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work ferroelectric thin films of PZT were prepared by the oxide precursor method, deposited on Pt/Si substrate. Films of 0.5 mm average thickness were obtained. Electrical and ferroelectric characterization were carried out in these films. The measured value of the dielectric constant for films was 455. Ferroelectricity was confirmed by Capacitance-Voltage (C-V characteristics and P-E hysteresis loops. Remanent polarization for films presented value around 5.0 µC/cm2 and a coercive field of 88.8 kV/cm.

  11. Radiation-damage-assisted ferroelectric domain structuring in magnesium-doped lithium niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentjens, L.; Peithmann, K.; Maier, K.; Steigerwald, H.; Jungk, T.

    2009-06-01

    Irradiation of 5% magnesium-doped lithium niobate crystals (LiNbO3:Mg) with high-energy, low-mass 3He ions, which are transmitted through the crystal, changes the domain reversal properties of the material. This enables easier domain engineering compared to non-irradiated material and assists the formation of small-sized periodically poled domains in LiNbO3:Mg. Periodic domain structures exhibiting a width of ≈520 nm are obtained in radiation-damaged sections of the crystals. The ferroelectric poling behavior between irradiated and non-treated material is compared.

  12. Fast Ferroelectric L-Band Tuner for ILC Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2010-03-15

    Design, analysis, and low-power tests are described on a 1.3 GHz ferroelectric tuner that could find application in the International Linear Collider or in Project X at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The tuner configuration utilizes a three-deck sandwich imbedded in a WR-650 waveguide, in which ferroelectric bars are clamped between conducting plates that allow the tuning bias voltage to be applied. Use of a reduced one-third structure allowed tests of critical parameters of the configuration, including phase shift, loss, and switching speed. Issues that were revealed that require improvement include reducing loss tangent in the ferroelectric material, development of a reliable means of brazing ferroelectric elements to copper parts of the tuner, and simplification of the mechanical design of the configuration.

  13. Hybrid dual gate ferroelectric memory for multilevel information storage

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report hybrid organic/inorganic ferroelectric memory with multilevel information storage using transparent p-type SnO semiconductor and ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) polymer. The dual gate devices include a top ferroelectric field-effect transistor (FeFET) and a bottom thin-film transistor (TFT). The devices are all fabricated at low temperatures (∼200°C), and demonstrate excellent performance with high hole mobility of 2.7 cm2 V-1 s-1, large memory window of ∼18 V, and a low sub-threshold swing ∼-4 V dec-1. The channel conductance of the bottom-TFT and the top-FeFET can be controlled independently by the bottom and top gates, respectively. The results demonstrate multilevel nonvolatile information storage using ferroelectric memory devices with good retention characteristics.

  14. Field-effect transistor memories based on ferroelectric polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujia; Wang, Haiyang; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xiaomeng; Guo, Yu; Sun, Huabin; Li, Yun

    2017-11-01

    Field-effect transistors based on ferroelectrics have attracted intensive interests, because of their non-volatile data retention, rewritability, and non-destructive read-out. In particular, polymeric materials that possess ferroelectric properties are promising for the fabrications of memory devices with high performance, low cost, and large-area manufacturing, by virtue of their good solubility, low-temperature processability, and good chemical stability. In this review, we discuss the material characteristics of ferroelectric polymers, providing an update on the current development of ferroelectric field-effect transistors (Fe-FETs) in non-volatile memory applications. Program supported partially by the NSFC (Nos. 61574074, 61774080), NSFJS (No. BK20170075), and the Open Partnership Joint Projects of NSFC-JSPS Bilateral Joint Research Projects (No. 61511140098).

  15. Concurrent transition of ferroelectric and magnetic ordering near room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyung-Tae; Jung, Min Hwa; He, Qing; Lee, Jin Hong; Woo, Chang Su; Chu, Kanghyun; Seidel, Jan; Jeon, Byung-Gu; Oh, Yoon Seok; Kim, Kee Hoon; Liang, Wen-I; Chen, Hsiang-Jung; Chu, Ying-Hao; Jeong, Yoon Hee; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Park, Jae-Hoon; Yang, Chan-Ho

    2011-11-29

    Strong spin-lattice coupling in condensed matter gives rise to intriguing physical phenomena such as colossal magnetoresistance and giant magnetoelectric effects. The phenomenological hallmark of such a strong spin-lattice coupling is the manifestation of a large anomaly in the crystal structure at the magnetic transition temperature. Here we report that the magnetic Néel temperature of the multiferroic compound BiFeO(3) is suppressed to around room temperature by heteroepitaxial misfit strain. Remarkably, the ferroelectric state undergoes a first-order transition to another ferroelectric state simultaneously with the magnetic transition temperature. Our findings provide a unique example of a concurrent magnetic and ferroelectric transition at the same temperature among proper ferroelectrics, taking a step toward room temperature magnetoelectric applications.

  16. A prediction of rate-dependent behaviour in ferroelectric polycrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Joo

    2007-01-01

    Rate-dependent behaviour of a polycrystalline ferroelectric material is predicted based on thermal activation theory and a representative volume element model. First, the behaviour of a ferroelectric single crystal is calculated from a recently proposed three-dimensional free energy model [S.J. Kim, S. Seelecke, Int. J. Solids Struct. 44 (2007) 1196-1209]. Then, from the calculated single crystal responses, poling behaviour of a ferroelectric polycrystal is obtained in three different ways, two representative volume element models and Gaussian integration method. It is found that a dodecahedron representative volume element consisting of 210 crystallites is the best choice among the three methods. Finally, the behaviour of a ferroelectric polycrystal under various electric and stress loads is calculated using the chosen RVE model. The calculated responses are compared qualitatively with experimental observations, and the effects of crystal orientation and polycrystallinity are discussed

  17. Differential geometric aspects of the theory of ferroelectricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosiainov, V.T.

    1988-11-01

    In connection with the problem of the ferroelectricity a differential formalism is developed as a tool to describe the fine electronic properties in solids. This includes the gauge invariant definition of the differentiation in k-space (position operator), the notion of holonomy group and characteristic gauge field in k-space of electron states. A variational principle and possible solutions of resulting field equations are discussed. A criterion for the appearance of the ferroelectricity is proposed. (author). 5 refs

  18. Effects of Bi doping on dielectric and ferroelectric properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Pb0.95(La1−Bi)0.05][Zr0.53Ti0.47]O3 (PLBZT) ferroelectric thin films have been synthesized on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass by sol–gel processing. PLBZT thin films were annealed at a relatively low temperature of 550 °C in oxygen ambient. Effects of Bi doping on structure, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of ...

  19. Magnetoelectric properties of magnetic/ferroelectric multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung-Ok; Eum, You-Jeong; Koo, Chang-Young; Lee, Hee-Young [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung-Min [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Ryu, Jung-Ho [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Magnetic/ferroelectric multilayer thin films using PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3} (PZT) and two different magnetic materials, i.e., Terfenol-D and CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (CuFO) layers, were fabricated, and their magnetoelectric (ME) coupling behavior was investigated. The PZT layer was first coated onto Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate by sol-gel spin coating method. Pt layer, which served as an electrode and a diffusion barrier, was grown on the PZT layer by using the ion-beam sputtering method. The ME voltage coefficients were calculated from the ME voltage data measured utilizing a magnetoelectric test system. The Terfenol-D/Pt/PZT films were found to show a higher in-plane ME voltage coefficient than that the CuFO/Pt/PZT films due primarily to the higher magnetostriction coefficient of Terfenol-D.

  20. Bending-Induced Giant Polarization in Ferroelectric MEMS Diaphragm

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhihong

    2016-09-09

    The polarization induced by the strain gradient, i.e. the flexoelectric effect, has been observed in a micromachined Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) diaphragms. Applying air pressure to bend a flat diaphragm which initially does not exhibit any electromechanical coupling can induce a resonance peak in its impedance spectrum. This result supposes that bending, thus the strain gradient in the diaphragm causes polarization in PZT film. We also investigated the switching behaviors of the polarization in response to an external electric field in a bent diaphragm and further quantified the polarization induced by the strain gradient. The effective flexoelectric coefficient of the PZT film has been calculated as large as 2.0 × 10−4 C/m. A giant flexoelectric polarization of the order of 1 μC/cm2 was characterized which is of the same order of magnitude as the normal remnant ferroelectric polarization of PZT film. The suggested explanation for the giant polarization is the large strain gradient in the diaphragm and the strain gradient induced reorientation of the polar nanodomains.

  1. Improper ferroelectrics as high-efficiency energy conversion materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakamatsu, Toru; Tanabe, Kenji; Terasaki, Ichiro; Taniguchi, Hiroki [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    An improper ferroelectric is a certain type of ferroelectrics whose primary order parameter is not polarization but another physical quantity such as magnetization. In contrast to a conventional proper ferroelectrics as represented by Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} and BaTiO{sub 3}, the improper ferroelectrics has been inconceivable for practical applications thus far. Herein, we illustrate the great potential of improper ferroelectrics for efficient conversion of temperature fluctuation to electric energy, as demonstrated with (Ca{sub 0.84}Sr{sub 0.16}){sub 8}[AlO{sub 2}]{sub 12}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} (CSAM-16). The present study has experimentally proven that CSAM-16 achieves an excellent electrothermal coupling factor and high electric field sensitivity for pyroelectric energy conversion that approach a practical level for application to self-powered autonomous electronic devices for rapidly spreading wireless sensor networks. The present results provide a novel approach to developing innovative pyroelectric energy harvesting devices using improper ferroelectrics. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Removable polytetrafluoroethylene template based epitaxy of ferroelectric copolymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Chen, Qiusong; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Hui; Cheng, Qian; Jiang, Yulong; Zhu, Guodong

    2018-04-01

    In recent years ferroelectric polymers have shown their great potentials in organic and flexible electronics. To meet the requirements of high-performance and low energy consumption of novel electronic devices and systems, structural and electrical properties of ferroelectric polymer thin films are expected to be further optimized. One possible way is to realize epitaxial growth of ferroelectric thin films via removable high-ordered polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) templates. Here two key parameters in epitaxy process, annealing temperature and applied pressure, are systematically studied and thus optimized through structural and electrical measurements of ferroelectric copolymer thin films. Experimental results indicate that controlled epitaxial growth is realized via suitable combination of both parameters. Annealing temperature above the melting point of ferroelectric copolymer films is required, and simultaneously moderate pressure (around 2.0 MPa here) should be applied. Over-low pressure (around 1.0 MPa here) usually results in the failure of epitaxy process, while over-high pressure (around 3.0 MPa here) often results in residual of PTFE templates on ferroelectric thin films.

  3. Second harmonic generation in generalized Thue-Morse ferroelectric superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Longxiang; Yang Xiangbo; Chen Tongsheng

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the second harmonic generation (SHG) in generalized Thue-Morse (GTM(m, n)) ferroelectric superlattices is studied. Under the small-signal approximation, the SHG spectra in both real and reciprocal spaces are investigated. It is found that: (1) only when the structure parameters l, l A , and l B are all chosen to be proper, can SHG in GTM(m, n) ferroelectric superlattices be generated; (2) for Family A of generalized Thue-Morse, GTM(m, 1) ferroelectric systems, with the increase of parameter m, the intense peaks of SHG concentrate on the long wavelength 1.4-1.5μm (the fundamental beam (FB) wavelength is within 0.8-1.5μm), but for Family B of generalized Thue-Morse, GTM(1, n) ferroelectric superlattices, with the increase of parameter n, the intense peaks of SHG concentrate on the middle wavelength 1.1-1.2μm; and (3) for GTM(m, 1) ferroelectric superlattices, the bigger the m, the stronger the relative integral intensity (RII) of SHG would be, but for GTM(1, n) ferroelectric systems, the bigger the n, the weaker the RII of SHG would be.

  4. Improper ferroelectrics as high-efficiency energy conversion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakamatsu, Toru; Tanabe, Kenji; Terasaki, Ichiro; Taniguchi, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    An improper ferroelectric is a certain type of ferroelectrics whose primary order parameter is not polarization but another physical quantity such as magnetization. In contrast to a conventional proper ferroelectrics as represented by Pb(Zr,Ti)O_3 and BaTiO_3, the improper ferroelectrics has been inconceivable for practical applications thus far. Herein, we illustrate the great potential of improper ferroelectrics for efficient conversion of temperature fluctuation to electric energy, as demonstrated with (Ca_0_._8_4Sr_0_._1_6)_8[AlO_2]_1_2(MoO_4)_2 (CSAM-16). The present study has experimentally proven that CSAM-16 achieves an excellent electrothermal coupling factor and high electric field sensitivity for pyroelectric energy conversion that approach a practical level for application to self-powered autonomous electronic devices for rapidly spreading wireless sensor networks. The present results provide a novel approach to developing innovative pyroelectric energy harvesting devices using improper ferroelectrics. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Characterization Of Graphene-Ferroelectric Superlattice Hybrid Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mohammed; Du, Xu; Dawber, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    Ferroelectric materials possess a spontaneous electrical polarization, which can be controlled by an electric field. A good interface between ferroelectric surface and graphene sheets can introduce a new generation of multifunctional devices, in which the ferroelectric material can be used to control the properties of graphene. In our approach, problems encountered in previous efforts to combine ferroelectric/carbon systems are overcome by the use of artificially layered superlattice materials grown in the form of epitaxial thin films. In these materials the phase transition temperature and dielectric response of the material can be tailored, allowing us to avoid polarization screening by surface absorbates, whilst maintaining an atomically smooth surface and optimal charge doping properties. Using ferroelectric PbTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices, we have shown ultra-low-voltage operation of graphene field effect devices within +/- 1 V at room temperature. The switching of the graphene field effect transistors is characterized by pronounced resistance hysteresis, suitable for ultra-fast non-volatile electronics. Low temperature characterization confirmed that the coercive field required for the ferroelectric domain switching increases significantly with decreasing temperatures. National Science Foundation (NSF) (grant number 1105202)

  6. Modelling of creep hysteresis in ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuan; Wang, Dan; Wang, Linxiang; Melnik, Roderick

    2018-05-01

    In the current paper, a macroscopic model is proposed to simulate the hysteretic dynamics of ferroelectric ceramics with creep phenomenon incorporated. The creep phenomenon in the hysteretic dynamics is attributed to the rate-dependent characteristic of the polarisation switching processes induced in the materials. A non-convex Helmholtz free energy based on Landau theory is proposed to model the switching dynamics. The governing equation of single-crystal model is formulated by applying the Euler-Lagrange equation. The polycrystalline model is obtained by combining the single crystal dynamics with a density function which is constructed to model the weighted contributions of different grains with different principle axis orientations. In addition, numerical simulations of hysteretic dynamics with creep phenomenon are presented. Comparison of the numerical results and their experimental counterparts is also presented. It is shown that the creep phenomenon is captured precisely, validating the capability of the proposed model in a range of its potential applications.

  7. Efficient photoemission from robust ferroelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscolo, I.; Castellano, M.; Catani, L.; Ferrario, M.; Tazzioli, F.; Giannessi, L.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental results on photoemission by ferroelectric ceramic disks, with a possible interpretation, are present. Two types of lead zirconate titanate lanthanum doped, PLZT, ceramics have been used for tests. 25 ps light pulses of 532 and 355 nm were used for excitation. The intensity ranged within the interval 0.1-3 GW/cm 2. The upper limit of the intensity was established by the damage threshold tested by the onset of ion emission. At low value of the intensity the yield was comparable at the two wavelengths. At the highest intensity of green light the emitted charge was 1 nC per 10 mm 2, but it was limited by the space charge effect. In fact, the applied field was only 20 kV/cm, allowed both by the mechanical design of the apparatus and the poor vacuum, 10 - 4 mbar. No surface processing was required. The measurement of the electron pulse length under way

  8. Lithium niobate. Defects, photorefraction and ferroelectric switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, Tatyana [Russian Academy of Sciences, Inst. for Crystallography, Moscow (Russian Federation); Woehlecke, Manfred [Osnabrueck Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    2008-07-01

    The book presents the current state of studies of point defects, both intrinsic and extrinsic (impurities, radiation centers, etc.), in LiNbO{sub 3}. The contribution of intrinsic defects to photoinduced charge transport, i.e. to the photorefraction, is explained. The photorefractive and optical properties of LiNbO{sub 3} crystals with different stoichiometry and of those doped with so-called ''optical-damage resistant'' impurities controlling the intrinsic defect structure are described in detail. Applications included are to the problem of non-erasable recording of photorefractive holograms in LiNbO{sub 3} and the current situation of studies in the ferroelectric switching and domain structure of LiNbO{sub 3}, as well as the creation of periodically-poled structures for the optical frequency conversion. (orig.)

  9. Radiation evaluation of commercial ferroelectric nonvolatile memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetto, J.M.; DeLancey, W.M.; Oldham, T.R.; McGarrity, J.M.; Tipton, C.W.; Brassington, M.; Fisch, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on ferroelectric (FE) on complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) 4-kbit nonvolatile memories, 8-bit octal latches (with and without FE), and process control test chips that were used to establish a baseline characterization of the radiation response of CMOS/FE integrated devices and to determine whether the additional FE processing caused significant degradation to the baseline CMOS process. Functional failure of all 4-kbit memories and octal latches occurred at total doses of between 2 and 4 krad(Si), most likely due to field- oxide effects in the underlying CMOS. No significant difference was observed between the radiation responses of devices with and without the FE film in this commercial process

  10. Reversible Polarization Rotation in Epitaxial Ferroelectric Bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Guangqing; Zhang, Qi; Huang, Hsin-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Polarization rotation engineering is a promising path to giant dielectric and electromechanical responses in ferroelectric materials and devices. This work demonstrates robust and reversible in- to out-of-plane polarization rotation in ultrathin (nanoscale) epitaxial (001) tetragonal PbZr0.3Ti0.7O3...... large-scale polarization rotation switching (≈60 μC cm−2) and an effective d 33 response 500% (≈250 pm V−1) larger than the PZT-R layer alone. Furthermore, this enhancement is stable for more than 107 electrical switching cycles. These bilayers present a simple and highly controllable means to design...... and optimize rotational polar systems as an alternate to traditional composition-based approaches. The precise control of the subtle interface-driven interactions between the lattice and the external factors that control polarization opens a new door to enhanced—or completely new—functional properties....

  11. Tunable Microwave Filter Design Using Thin-Film Ferroelectric Varactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridasan, Vrinda

    Military, space, and consumer-based communication markets alike are moving towards multi-functional, multi-mode, and portable transceiver units. Ferroelectric-based tunable filter designs in RF front-ends are a relatively new area of research that provides a potential solution to support wideband and compact transceiver units. This work presents design methodologies developed to optimize a tunable filter design for system-level integration, and to improve the performance of a ferroelectric-based tunable bandpass filter. An investigative approach to find the origins of high insertion loss exhibited by these filters is also undertaken. A system-aware design guideline and figure of merit for ferroelectric-based tunable band- pass filters is developed. The guideline does not constrain the filter bandwidth as long as it falls within the range of the analog bandwidth of a system's analog to digital converter. A figure of merit (FOM) that optimizes filter design for a specific application is presented. It considers the worst-case filter performance parameters and a tuning sensitivity term that captures the relation between frequency tunability and the underlying material tunability. A non-tunable parasitic fringe capacitance associated with ferroelectric-based planar capacitors is confirmed by simulated and measured results. The fringe capacitance is an appreciable proportion of the tunable capacitance at frequencies of X-band and higher. As ferroelectric-based tunable capac- itors form tunable resonators in the filter design, a proportionally higher fringe capacitance reduces the capacitance tunability which in turn reduces the frequency tunability of the filter. Methods to reduce the fringe capacitance can thus increase frequency tunability or indirectly reduce the filter insertion-loss by trading off the increased tunability achieved to lower loss. A new two-pole tunable filter topology with high frequency tunability (> 30%), steep filter skirts, wide stopband

  12. Compositional Design of Dielectric, Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Properties of (K, Na)NbO₃ and (Ba, Na)(Ti, Nb)O₃ Based Ceramics Prepared by Different Sintering Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, José A; Gerbasi, Rosimeire B Z; Rosso, Jaciele M; Silva, Daniel M; Cótica, Luiz F; Santos, Ivair A; Souza, Camila A; Lente, Manuel H

    2016-03-08

    Lead free piezoelectric materials are being intensively investigated in order to substitute lead based ones, commonly used in many different applications. Among the most promising lead-free materials are those with modified NaNbO₃, such as (K, Na)NbO₃ (KNN) and (Ba, Na)(Ti, Nb)O₃ (BTNN) families. From a ceramic processing point of view, high density single phase KNN and BTNN ceramics are very difficult to sinter due to the volatility of the alkaline elements, the narrow sintering temperature range and the anomalous grain growth. In this work, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) and high-energy ball milling (HEBM), following heat treatments (calcining and sintering), in oxidative (O₂) atmosphere have been used to prepare single phase highly densified KNN ("pure" and Cu 2+ or Li 1+ doped), with theoretical densities ρ th > 97% and BTNN ceramics (ρ th - 90%), respectively. Using BTTN ceramics with a P 4 mm perovskite-like structure, we showed that by increasing the NaNbO₃ content, the ferroelectric properties change from having a relaxor effect to an almost "normal" ferroelectric character, while the tetragonality and grain size increase and the shear piezoelectric coefficients ( k 15 , g 15 and d 15 ) improve. For KNN ceramics, the results reveal that the values for remanent polarization as well as for most of the coercive field are quite similar among all compositions. These facts evidenced that Cu 2+ may be incorporated into the A and/or B sites of the perovskite structure, having both hardening and softening effects.

  13. Compositional Design of Dielectric, Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Properties of (K, NaNbO3 and (Ba, Na(Ti, NbO3 Based Ceramics Prepared by Different Sintering Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Eiras

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead free piezoelectric materials are being intensively investigated in order to substitute lead based ones, commonly used in many different applications. Among the most promising lead-free materials are those with modified NaNbO3, such as (K, NaNbO3 (KNN and (Ba, Na(Ti, NbO3 (BTNN families. From a ceramic processing point of view, high density single phase KNN and BTNN ceramics are very difficult to sinter due to the volatility of the alkaline elements, the narrow sintering temperature range and the anomalous grain growth. In this work, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS and high-energy ball milling (HEBM, following heat treatments (calcining and sintering, in oxidative (O2 atmosphere have been used to prepare single phase highly densified KNN (“pure” and Cu2+ or Li1+ doped, with theoretical densities ρth > 97% and BTNN ceramics (ρth - 90%, respectively. Using BTTN ceramics with a P4mm perovskite-like structure, we showed that by increasing the NaNbO3 content, the ferroelectric properties change from having a relaxor effect to an almost “normal” ferroelectric character, while the tetragonality and grain size increase and the shear piezoelectric coefficients (k15, g15 and d15 improve. For KNN ceramics, the results reveal that the values for remanent polarization as well as for most of the coercive field are quite similar among all compositions. These facts evidenced that Cu2+ may be incorporated into the A and/or B sites of the perovskite structure, having both hardening and softening effects.

  14. Compositional Design of Dielectric, Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Properties of (K, Na)NbO3 and (Ba, Na)(Ti, Nb)O3 Based Ceramics Prepared by Different Sintering Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, José A.; Gerbasi, Rosimeire B. Z.; Rosso, Jaciele M.; Silva, Daniel M.; Cótica, Luiz F.; Santos, Ivair A.; Souza, Camila A.; Lente, Manuel H.

    2016-01-01

    Lead free piezoelectric materials are being intensively investigated in order to substitute lead based ones, commonly used in many different applications. Among the most promising lead-free materials are those with modified NaNbO3, such as (K, Na)NbO3 (KNN) and (Ba, Na)(Ti, Nb)O3 (BTNN) families. From a ceramic processing point of view, high density single phase KNN and BTNN ceramics are very difficult to sinter due to the volatility of the alkaline elements, the narrow sintering temperature range and the anomalous grain growth. In this work, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) and high-energy ball milling (HEBM), following heat treatments (calcining and sintering), in oxidative (O2) atmosphere have been used to prepare single phase highly densified KNN (“pure” and Cu2+ or Li1+ doped), with theoretical densities ρth > 97% and BTNN ceramics (ρth ~ 90%), respectively. Using BTTN ceramics with a P4mm perovskite-like structure, we showed that by increasing the NaNbO3 content, the ferroelectric properties change from having a relaxor effect to an almost “normal” ferroelectric character, while the tetragonality and grain size increase and the shear piezoelectric coefficients (k15, g15 and d15) improve. For KNN ceramics, the results reveal that the values for remanent polarization as well as for most of the coercive field are quite similar among all compositions. These facts evidenced that Cu2+ may be incorporated into the A and/or B sites of the perovskite structure, having both hardening and softening effects. PMID:28773304

  15. High-accuracy determination for optical indicatrix rotation in ferroelectric DTGS

    OpenAIRE

    O.S.Kushnir; O.A.Bevz; O.G.Vlokh

    2000-01-01

    Optical indicatrix rotation in deuterated ferroelectric triglycine sulphate is studied with the high-accuracy null-polarimetric technique. The behaviour of the effect in ferroelectric phase is referred to quadratic spontaneous electrooptics.

  16. Electric-field-induced paraelectric to ferroelectric phase transformation in prototypical polycrystalline BaTiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhiyang; Hinterstein, Manuel; Daniels, John E.; Webber, Kyle G.; Hudspeth, Jessica M.

    2014-01-01

    An electric-field-induced paraelectric cubic to ferroelectric tetragonal phase transformation has been directly observed in prototypical polycrystalline BaTiO 3 at temperatures above the Curie point (T C ) using in situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The transformation persisted to a maximum temperature of 4 °C above T C . The nature of the observed field-induced transformation and the resulting development of domain texture within the induced phase were dependent on the proximity to the transition temperature, corresponding well to previous macroscopic measurements. The transition electric field increased with increasing temperature above T C , while the magnitude of the resultant tetragonal domain texture at the maximum electric field (4 kV mm −1 ) decreased at higher temperatures. These results provide insights into the phase transformation behavior of a prototypical ferroelectric and have important implications for the development of future large-strain phase-change actuator materials.

  17. Ferroelectric switching of band alignments in LSMO/PZT/Co multiferroic tunnel junctions: an ab initio study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, M; Stojić, N; Binggeli, N

    2017-08-04

    Band alignments in ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) are expected to play a critical role in determining the charge transport across the tunneling barrier. In general, however, the interface band discontinuities and their polarization dependence are not well known in these systems. Using a first-principles density-functional-theory approach, we explore the ferroelectric (FE) polarization dependence of the band alignments in [Formula: see text] (LSMO/PZT/Co) multiferroic tunnel junctions, for which recent experiments indicated an ON/OFF conductivity behavior upon switching the PZT FE polarization. Our results on the pseudomorphic defect-free LSMO/PZT/Co FTJs evidence a major FE switching effect on the band discontinuities at both interfaces. Based on the changes in the band alignments, we provide a possible explanation for the observed trends in the resistive switching.

  18. A novel readout integrated circuit for ferroelectric FPA detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Piji; Li, Lihua; Ji, Yulong; Zhang, Jia; Li, Min; Liang, Yan; Hu, Yanbo; Li, Songying

    2017-11-01

    Uncooled infrared detectors haves some advantages such as low cost light weight low power consumption, and superior reliability, compared with cryogenically cooled ones Ferroelectric uncooled focal plane array(FPA) are being developed for its AC response and its high reliability As a key part of the ferroelectric assembly the ROIC determines the performance of the assembly. A top-down design model for uncooled ferroelectric readout integrated circuit(ROIC) has been developed. Based on the optical thermal and electrical properties of the ferroelectric detector the RTIA readout integrated circuit is designed. The noise bandwidth of RTIA readout circuit has been developed and analyzed. A novel high gain amplifier, a high pass filter and a low pass filter circuits are designed on the ROIC. In order to improve the ferroelectric FPA package performance and decrease of package cost a temperature sensor is designed on the ROIC chip At last the novel RTIA ROIC is implemented on 0.6μm 2P3M CMOS silicon techniques. According to the experimental chip test results the temporal root mean square(RMS)noise voltage is about 1.4mV the sensitivity of the on chip temperature sensor is 0.6 mV/K from -40°C to 60°C the linearity performance of the ROIC chip is better than 99% Based on the 320×240 RTIA ROIC, a 320×240 infrared ferroelectric FPA is fabricated and tested. Test results shows that the 320×240 RTIA ROIC meets the demand of infrared ferroelectric FPA.

  19. Dielectric response and pyroelectric properties of lead-free ferroelectric Ba3(VO42

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Pati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents results of dielectric response, pyroelectric behavior and conductivity study of lead-free ferroelectric barium orthovanadate (Ba3(VO42 or Ba3V2O8 ceramic, for a wide range of temperature and frequency. An X-ray diffraction study suggests the formation of a single-phase compound in trigonal crystal system. The SEM micrograph of gold-coated pellet sample shows well-defined and homogeneous morphology. Detailed studies of dielectric parameters (εr and tan δ of the compound as a function of temperature and frequency reveal their independence over a wide range of temperature and frequency. The nature of Polarization versus electric field (P–E hysteresis loop of Ba3V2O8 at room temperature suggests its ferroelectric nature. The temperature dependence of pyroelectric coefficient and figure of merits of the sample support its dielectric response. The nature of variation of dc conductivity with temperature confirms the Arrhenius and negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR behavior of the material.

  20. Multistate storage nonvolatile memory device based on ferroelectricity and resistive switching effects of SrBi2Ta2O9 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhiwei; Li, Gang; Xiong, Ying; Cheng, Chuanpin; Zhang, Wanli; Tang, Minghua; Li, Zheng; He, Jiangheng

    2018-05-01

    A memory device with a Pt/SrBi2Ta2O9(SBT)/Pt(111) structure was shown to have excellent combined ferroelectricity and resistive switching properties, leading to higher multistate storage memory capacity in contrast to ferroelectric memory devices. In this device, SBT polycrystalline thin films with significant (115) orientation were fabricated on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates using CVD (chemical vapor deposition) method. Measurement results of the electric properties exhibit reproducible and reliable ferroelectricity switching behavior and bipolar resistive switching effects (BRS) without an electroforming process. The ON/OFF ratio of the resistive switching was found to be about 103. Switching mechanisms for the low resistance state (LRS) and high resistance state (HRS) currents are likely attributed to the Ohmic and space charge-limited current (SCLC) behavior, respectively. Moreover, the ferroelectricity and resistive switching effects were found to be mutually independent, and the four logic states were obtained by controlling the periodic sweeping voltage. This work holds great promise for nonvolatile multistate memory devices with high capacity and low cost.

  1. Alignment structures in ferroelectric liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, N.U

    1998-07-01

    Although for many years liquid crystals were of purely scientific interest, they have now become ubiquitous in everyday life. The use of the nematic liquid crystal phase in flat panel display applications has been the main factor in this popularity. However, with the advent of the SuperTwist Nematic (STN) device, the limits to which this phase could be exploited for display applications was perhaps reached. With the discovery by Clark et al. of the Surface Stabilised Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal (SSFLC) configuration, the possibility arose of using chiral smectic liquid crystals to create large area, passively addressed, fast switching, flat panel displays. Unfortunately, the structures that form within smectic liquid crystals, and the dynamics of the switching within these, are still not fully understood. In this thesis we address the former of these, making a detailed the study of the structures that form within tilted smectic liquid crystal devices. We present here the first complete theoretical and experimental study of various different ferroelectric liquid crystal materials, where we employed theoretical models based on a simple set of assumptions to understand the behaviour of a set of increasingly complex experimental systems. We started with the simplest of these, Freely Suspended Smectic Films (FSSFs) and then worked with progressively more realistic systems in the form of homeotropically, and later, homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cells. The equilibrium structures that form get particularly complex in the last case, taking the form of tilted and chevron layering structures. In each of these cases, the predictions of the modelling are compared with our experimental results. Further, we present here the first model of the chevron cusp that seeks to include the effects of biaxiality in the S{sub C} phase. We also present a model that seeks to analyse the stability of the chevron layering structure and its relationship with tilted layers. This includes

  2. Alignment structures in ferroelectric liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, N.U.

    1998-01-01

    Although for many years liquid crystals were of purely scientific interest, they have now become ubiquitous in everyday life. The use of the nematic liquid crystal phase in flat panel display applications has been the main factor in this popularity. However, with the advent of the SuperTwist Nematic (STN) device, the limits to which this phase could be exploited for display applications was perhaps reached. With the discovery by Clark et al. of the Surface Stabilised Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal (SSFLC) configuration, the possibility arose of using chiral smectic liquid crystals to create large area, passively addressed, fast switching, flat panel displays. Unfortunately, the structures that form within smectic liquid crystals, and the dynamics of the switching within these, are still not fully understood. In this thesis we address the former of these, making a detailed the study of the structures that form within tilted smectic liquid crystal devices. We present here the first complete theoretical and experimental study of various different ferroelectric liquid crystal materials, where we employed theoretical models based on a simple set of assumptions to understand the behaviour of a set of increasingly complex experimental systems. We started with the simplest of these, Freely Suspended Smectic Films (FSSFs) and then worked with progressively more realistic systems in the form of homeotropically, and later, homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cells. The equilibrium structures that form get particularly complex in the last case, taking the form of tilted and chevron layering structures. In each of these cases, the predictions of the modelling are compared with our experimental results. Further, we present here the first model of the chevron cusp that seeks to include the effects of biaxiality in the S C phase. We also present a model that seeks to analyse the stability of the chevron layering structure and its relationship with tilted layers. This includes an

  3. Giant electrode effect on tunnelling electroresistance in ferroelectric tunnel junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Rohit; Petraru, Adrian; Meuffels, Paul; Vavra, Ondrej; Ziegler, Martin; Kim, Seong Keun; Jeong, Doo Seok; Pertsev, Nikolay A; Kohlstedt, Hermann

    2014-11-17

    Among recently discovered ferroelectricity-related phenomena, the tunnelling electroresistance (TER) effect in ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) has been attracting rapidly increasing attention owing to the emerging possibilities of non-volatile memory, logic and neuromorphic computing applications of these quantum nanostructures. Despite recent advances in experimental and theoretical studies of FTJs, many questions concerning their electrical behaviour still remain open. In particular, the role of ferroelectric/electrode interfaces and the separation of the ferroelectric-driven TER effect from electrochemical ('redox'-based) resistance-switching effects have to be clarified. Here we report the results of a comprehensive study of epitaxial junctions comprising BaTiO(3) barrier, La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO(3) bottom electrode and Au or Cu top electrodes. Our results demonstrate a giant electrode effect on the TER of these asymmetric FTJs. The revealed phenomena are attributed to the microscopic interfacial effect of ferroelectric origin, which is supported by the observation of redox-based resistance switching at much higher voltages.

  4. Organic non-volatile memories from ferroelectric phase separated blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Kamal; de Leeuw, Dago; de Boer, Bert; Blom, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Ferroelectric polarisation is an attractive physical property for non-volatile binary switching. The functionality of the targeted memory should be based on resistive switching. Conductivity and ferroelectricity however cannot be tuned independently. The challenge is to develop a storage medium in which the favourable properties of ferroelectrics such as bistability and non-volatility can be combined with the beneficial properties provided by semiconductors such as conductivity and rectification. In this contribution we present an integrated solution by blending semiconducting and ferroelectric polymers into phase separated networks. The polarisation field of the ferroelectric modulates the injection barrier at the semiconductor--metal contact. This combination allows for solution-processed non-volatile memory arrays with a simple cross-bar architecture that can be read-out non-destructively. Based on this general concept a non-volatile, reversible switchable Schottky diode with relatively fast programming time of shorter than 100 microseconds, long information retention time of longer than 10^ days, and high programming cycle endurance with non-destructive read-out is demonstrated.

  5. Reversible optical control of macroscopic polarization in ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Marcos, Fernando; Ochoa, Diego A.; Del Campo, Adolfo; García, Miguel A.; Castro, Germán R.; Fernández, José F.; García, José E.

    2018-01-01

    The optical control of ferroic properties is a subject of fascination for the scientific community, because it involves the establishment of new paradigms for technology1-9. Domains and domain walls are known to have a great impact on the properties of ferroic materials1-24. Progress is currently being made in understanding the behaviour of the ferroelectric domain wall, especially regarding its dynamic control10-12,17,19. New research is being conducted to find effective methodologies capable of modulating ferroelectric domain motion for future electronics. However, the practical use of ferroelectric domain wall motion should be both stable and reversible (rewritable) and, in particular, be able to produce a macroscopic response that can be monitored easily12,17. Here, we show that it is possible to achieve a reversible optical change of ferroelectric domains configuration. This effect leads to the tuning of macroscopic polarization and its related properties by means of polarized light, a non-contact external control. Although this is only the first step, it nevertheless constitutes the most crucial one in the long and complex process of developing the next generation of photo-stimulated ferroelectric devices.

  6. Controlling the properties of ferroelectric-nickelate interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Matthew S. J.; Malashevich, Andrei; Disa, Ankit; Han, Myung-Geun; Zhu, Yimei; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Walker, Frederick; Ahn, Charles

    2015-03-01

    Ferroelectrics are a class of materials that exhibit a stable, reversible polarization making them useful for non-volatile electronic devices. In devices consisting of thin film ferroelectric PZT acting as a gate and a thin film of the conductive oxide LaNiO3 grown on LaAlO3(001) acting as a channel, we have realized a large change in room temperature channel resistance by switching the ferroelectric polarization. The effect of switching the polarization of the ferroelectric is to modify the electronic structure of the interface between the gate and channel, resulting in conduction in the otherwise insulating ferroelectric. Here, we discuss how changing the epitaxial strain and interface termination of LaNiO3 can result in larger changes in resistivity. The epitaxial strain is varied by growing the devices on LaAlO3 for tensile strain and SrTiO3 for compressive strain. An interface termination of either an atomic layer of NiO2 or LaO is achieved via atomic layering using oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE).

  7. Electron beam diodes using ferroelectric cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivers, J.D.; Schaechter, L.; Nation, J.A.; Kerslick, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    A new high current density electron source is investigated. The source consists of a polarized ceramic disk with aluminum electrodes coated on both faces. The front electrode is etched in a periodic grid to expose the ceramic beneath. A rapid change in the polarization state of the ceramic results in the emission of a high density electron cloud into a 1 to 10mm diode gap. The anode potential is maintained by a charged transmission line. Some of the emitted electrons traverse the gap and an electron current flows. The emitted electron current has been measured as a function of the gap spacing and the anode potential. Current densities in excess of 70 A/cm 2 have been measured. The current is found to vary linearly with the anode voltage for gaps < 10 mm, and exceeds the Child-Langmuir current by at least two orders of magnitude. The experimental data will be compared with predictions from a model based on the emission of a cloud of electrons from the ferroelectric which in turn reflex in the diode gap

  8. Doping effect on ferromagnetism, ferroelectricity and dielectric constant in sol-gel derived Bi1-xNdxFe1-yCoyO3 nanoceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sananda; Sahoo, R. C.; Bera, K. P.; Nath, T. K.

    2018-04-01

    Doping at the post-transition metal site by trivalent rare-earth ions and 3d transition metal site by transition metal ions in perovskite lattice has observed a variety of magnetic and electronic orders with spatially correlated charge, spin and orbital degrees of freedom. Here, we report large ferromagnetism and enhanced dielectric constant (at ∼100 Hz) in chemically synthesized single phase multiferroic Bi1-xNdxFe1-yCoyO3 (x = 0, 0.10; y = 0, 0.10) nanoparticles (average particles size ∼45 nm). We have also examined the ferroelectric nature of our chemically synthesized samples. The Rietveld refinement of the XRD data reveals the structural symmetry breaking from distorted rhombohedral R3c structure of BiFeO3 to the triclinic P1 structure in Bi0.9Nd0.1Fe0.9Co0.1O3 (BNFCO) without having any iron rich impurity phase. The magnetization in these nanoceramics most likely originates from the coexistence of mixed valence states of Fe ion (Fe2+ and Fe3+). A high room temperature dielectric constant (∼1050) has been observed at 100 Hz of BNFCO sample. The frequency dependent anomalies near Neel temperature of antiferromagnet in temperature variation of dielectric study have been observed for all the doped and co-doped samples exhibiting typical characteristic of relaxor ferroelectrics. A spectacular enhancement of remanent magnetization MR (∼7.2 emu/gm) and noticeably large coercivity HC (∼17.4 kOe) at 5 K have been observed in this BNFCO sample. Such emergence of ferromagnetic ordering indicates the canting of the surface spins at the surface boundaries because of the reduction of particle size in nanodimension. We have also observed P-E hysteresis loops with a remanent polarization of 26 μC/cm2 and coercive field of 5.6 kV/cm of this sample at room temperature. From impedance spectroscopy study the estimated activation energy of 0.41 eV suggests the semiconducting nature of our nanoceramic BNCFO sample.

  9. Polar modes in relaxor PbMg.sub.1/3./sub.Nb.sub.2/3./sub.O.sub.3./sub. by hyper-Raman scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hehlen, B.; Simon, G.; Hlinka, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 5 (2007), 052104/1-052104/3 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : relaxor * hyper -Raman scattering * lattice vibration * phonon spectra Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.172, year: 2007

  10. Electrical characterisation of ferroelectric field effect transistors based on ferroelectric HfO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurchuk, Ekaterina

    2015-02-06

    Ferroelectric field effect transistor (FeFET) memories based on a new type of ferroelectric material (silicon doped hafnium oxide) were studied within the scope of the present work. Utilisation of silicon doped hafnium oxide (Si:HfO{sub 2}) thin films instead of conventional perovskite ferroelectrics as a functional layer in FeFETs provides compatibility to the CMOS process as well as improved device scalability. The influence of different process parameters on the properties of Si:HfO{sub 2} thin films was analysed in order to gain better insight into the occurrence of ferroelectricity in this system. A subsequent examination of the potential of this material as well as its possible limitations with the respect to the application in non-volatile memories followed. The Si:HfO{sub 2}-based ferroelectric transistors that were fully integrated into the state-of-the-art high-k metal gate CMOS technology were studied in this work for the first time. The memory performance of these devices scaled down to 28 nm gate length was investigated. Special attention was paid to the charge trapping phenomenon shown to significantly affect the device behaviour.

  11. Ferroelectric Polarization in Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Thin Films on Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, S. B.; Tofail, S. A. M.; Kholkin, A. L.; Wojtaś, M.; Gregor, M.; Gandhi, A. A.; Wang, Y.; Bauer, S.; Krause, M.; Plecenik, A.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals in natural form are a major component of bone- a known piezoelectric material. Synthetic hydroxyapatite is widely used in bone grafts and prosthetic pyroelectric coatings as it binds strongly with natural bone. Nanocrystalline synthetic hydroxyapatite films have recently been found to exhibit strong piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity. While a spontaneous polarization in hydroxyapatite has been predicted since 2005, the reversibility of this polarization (i.e. ferroelectricity) requires experimental evidence. Here we use piezoresponse force microscopy to demonstrate that nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite indeed exhibits ferroelectricity: a reversal of polarization under an electrical field. This finding will strengthen investigations on the role of electrical polarization in biomineralization and bone-density related diseases. As hydroxyapatite is one of the most common biocompatible materials, our findings will also stimulate systematic exploration of lead and rare-metal free ferroelectric devices for potential applications in areas as diverse as in vivo and ex vivo energy harvesting, biosensing and electronics. PMID:23884324

  12. Fast Ferroelectric L-Band Tuner for Superconducting Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2011-03-01

    Analysis and modeling is presented for a fast microwave tuner to operate at 700 MHz which incorporates ferroelectric elements whose dielectric permittivity can be rapidly altered by application of an external voltage. This tuner could be used to correct unavoidable fluctuations in the resonant frequency of superconducting cavities in accelerator structures, thereby greatly reducing the RF power needed to drive the cavities. A planar test version of the tuner has been tested at low levels of RF power, but at 1300 MHz to minimize the physical size of the test structure. This test version comprises one-third of the final version. The tests show performance in good agreement with simulations, but with losses in the ferroelectric elements that are too large for practical use, and with issues in bonding of ferroelectric elements to the metal walls of the tuner structure.

  13. A study of radiation vulnerability of ferroelectric material and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiec, Y.M.; Musseau, O.; Leray, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation effects on ferroelectric material and devices are presented, based on commercially available samples. After recalling the background, effects in ferroelectric PZT capacitors are presented, concerning dose, neutrons and fatigue associated with dose effects. Physical implications and interpretations are sketched. In a second stage, effects are studied at the complete non-volatile RAM device level. Vulnerability in dose, dose rate and neutron fluence of commercial 4 kbit ferroelectric RAM is addressed. 64 kbit results are mentioned in dose rate. These results are compared to previously published data from other manufacturers or laboratories and supplement them. In the appendix, equivalence between rad(Si) and rad (PZT) is discussed in the case of low energy ''10 keV Aracor'' x-rays and 60 Co gamma rays

  14. A study of radiation vulnerability of ferroelectric material and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coic, Y M; Musseau, O; Leray, J L [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)

    1994-12-31

    The radiation effects on ferroelectric material and devices are presented, based on commercially available samples. After recalling the background, effects in ferroelectric PZT capacitors are presented, concerning dose, neutrons and fatigue associated with dose effects. Physical implications and interpretations are sketched. In a second stage, effects are studied at the complete non-volatile RAM device level. Vulnerability in dose, dose rate and neutron fluence of commercial 4 kbit ferroelectric RAM is addressed. 64 kbit results are mentioned in dose rate. These results are compared to previously published data from other manufacturers or laboratories and supplement them. In the appendix, equivalence between rad (Si) and rad (PZT) is discussed in the case of low energy ``10 keV Aracor`` s-rays and {sup 60}Co gamma rays. (author). 24 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. A study of radiation vulnerability of ferroelectric material and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coic, Y.M.; Musseau, O.; Leray, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation effects on ferroelectric material and devices are presented, based on commercially available samples. After recalling the background, effects in ferroelectric PZT capacitors are presented, concerning dose, neutrons and fatigue associated with dose effects. Physical implications and interpretations are sketched. In a second stage, effects are studied at the complete non-volatile RAM device level. Vulnerability in dose, dose rate and neutron fluence of commercial 4 kbit ferroelectric RAM is addressed. 64 kbit results are mentioned in dose rate. These results are compared to previously published data from other manufacturers or laboratories and supplement them. In the appendix, equivalence between rad (Si) and rad (PZT) is discussed in the case of low energy ''10 keV Aracor'' s-rays and 60 Co gamma rays. (author). 24 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Graphene Dirac point tuned by ferroelectric polarization field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xudong; Chen, Yan; Wu, Guangjian; Wang, Jianlu; Tian, Bobo; Sun, Shuo; Shen, Hong; Lin, Tie; Hu, Weida; Kang, Tingting; Tang, Minghua; Xiao, Yongguang; Sun, Jinglan; Meng, Xiangjian; Chu, Junhao

    2018-04-01

    Graphene has received numerous attention for future nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. The Dirac point is a key parameter of graphene that provides information about its carrier properties. There are lots of methods to tune the Dirac point of graphene, such as chemical doping, impurities, defects, and disorder. In this study, we report a different approach to tune the Dirac point of graphene using a ferroelectric polarization field. The Dirac point can be adjusted to near the ferroelectric coercive voltage regardless its original position. We have ensured this phenomenon by temperature-dependent experiments, and analyzed its mechanism with the theory of impurity correlation in graphene. Additionally, with the modulation of ferroelectric polymer, the current on/off ratio and mobility of graphene transistor both have been improved. This work provides an effective method to tune the Dirac point of graphene, which can be readily used to configure functional devices such as p-n junctions and inverters.

  17. Controlling the spin-torque efficiency with ferroelectric barriers

    KAUST Repository

    Useinov, A.; Chshiev, M.; Manchon, Aurelien

    2015-01-01

    Nonequilibrium spin-dependent transport in magnetic tunnel junctions comprising a ferroelectric barrier is theoretically investigated. The exact solutions of the free electron Schrödinger equation for electron tunneling in the presence of interfacial screening are obtained by combining Bessel and Airy functions. We demonstrate that the spin transfer torque efficiency, and more generally the bias dependence of tunneling magneto- and electroresistance, can be controlled by switching the ferroelectric polarization of the barrier. In particular, the critical voltage at which the in-plane torque changes sign can be strongly enhanced or reduced depending on the direction of the ferroelectric polarization of the barrier. This effect provides a supplementary way to electrically control the current-driven dynamic states of the magnetization and related magnetic noise in spin transfer devices.

  18. Fast Ferroelectric L-Band Tuner for Superconducting Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis and modeling is presented for a fast microwave tuner to operate at 700 MHz which incorporates ferroelectric elements whose dielectric permittivity can be rapidly altered by application of an external voltage. This tuner could be used to correct unavoidable fluctuations in the resonant frequency of superconducting cavities in accelerator structures, thereby greatly reducing the RF power needed to drive the cavities. A planar test version of the tuner has been tested at low levels of RF power, but at 1300 MHz to minimize the physical size of the test structure. This test version comprises one-third of the final version. The tests show performance in good agreement with simulations, but with losses in the ferroelectric elements that are too large for practical use, and with issues in bonding of ferroelectric elements to the metal walls of the tuner structure.

  19. Ferroelectric capped magnetization in multiferroic PZT/LSMO tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ashok, E-mail: ashok553@nplindia.org; Shukla, A. K. [National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110012 (India); Barrionuevo, D.; Ortega, N.; Katiyar, Ram S. [Department of Physics and Institute of Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931-3343 (United States); Shannigrahi, Santiranjan [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering - IMRE, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A-STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Scott, J. F. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 ST (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-30

    Self-poled ultra-thin ferroelectric PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3} (PZT) (5 and 7 nm) films have been grown by pulsed laser deposition technique on ferromagnetic La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) (30 nm) to check the effect of polar capping on magnetization for ferroelectric tunnel junction devices. PZT/LSMO heterostructures with thick polar PZT (7 nm) capping show nearly 100% enhancement in magnetization compared with thin polar PZT (5 nm) films, probably due to excess hole transfer from the ferroelectric to the ferromagnetic layers. Core-level x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed the presence of larger Mn 3s exchange splitting and higher Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} ion ratio in the LSMO with 7 nm polar capping.

  20. Structural, magnetic and electrical properties of ferromagnetic/ferroelectric multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirena, M.; Kaul, E.; Guimpel, J.; Steren, L. B.; Pedreros, M. B.; Rodriguez, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    The La 0.75 Sr 0.25 MnO 3 (LSMO)/Ba 0.7 Sr 0.3 TiO 3 (BSTO) superlattices and bilayers, where LSMO is ferromagnetic and BSTO is ferroelectric, were grown by dc sputtering. X-ray diffraction indicates that the samples present a textured growth with the c axis perpendicular to the substrate. Magnetization measurements show a decrease of the sample's magnetization for decreasing ferromagnetic thickness. This effect could be related to the presence of biaxial strain and a magnetic dead layer in the samples. Conductive atomic force microscopy indicates that the samples present a total covering of the ferromagnetic layer for a ferroelectric thickness higher than four unit cells. Transport tunneling of the carriers seems to be the preferred conduction mechanism through the ferroelectric layer. These are promising results for the development of multiferroic tunnel junctions.

  1. Controlling the spin-torque efficiency with ferroelectric barriers

    KAUST Repository

    Useinov, A.

    2015-02-11

    Nonequilibrium spin-dependent transport in magnetic tunnel junctions comprising a ferroelectric barrier is theoretically investigated. The exact solutions of the free electron Schrödinger equation for electron tunneling in the presence of interfacial screening are obtained by combining Bessel and Airy functions. We demonstrate that the spin transfer torque efficiency, and more generally the bias dependence of tunneling magneto- and electroresistance, can be controlled by switching the ferroelectric polarization of the barrier. In particular, the critical voltage at which the in-plane torque changes sign can be strongly enhanced or reduced depending on the direction of the ferroelectric polarization of the barrier. This effect provides a supplementary way to electrically control the current-driven dynamic states of the magnetization and related magnetic noise in spin transfer devices.

  2. Photonic Heterostructures with Properties of Ferroelectrics and Light Polarizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palto, S. P., E-mail: palto@online.ru; Draginda, Yu A [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2010-11-15

    The optical and electro-optical properties of a new type of photonic heterostructure composed of alternating ferroelectric molecular layers and optically anisotropic layers of another material are considered. A numerical simulation of the real prototype of this heterostructure, which can be prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett method from layers of a ferroelectric copolymer (polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) and an azo dye with photoinduced optical anisotropy, has been performed. It is shown that this heterostructure has pronounced polarization optical properties and yields a significant change in the polarization state of light at the photonic band edges in the ranges of the maximum density of photon states. The latter property can be used to obtain an enhanced electro-optic effect at small spectral shifts of the photonic band (the latter can be provided by the piezoelectric effect in ferroelectric layers).

  3. Room temperature ferroelectricity in continuous croconic acid thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xuanyuan; Lu, Haidong; Yin, Yuewei; Ahmadi, Zahra; Costa, Paulo S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Zhang, Xiaozhe [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Department of Physics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, Xiao; Yu, Le; Cheng, Xuemei [Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010 (United States); DiChiara, Anthony D. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Gruverman, Alexei, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu; Enders, Axel, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu; Xu, Xiaoshan, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

    2016-09-05

    Ferroelectricity at room temperature has been demonstrated in nanometer-thin quasi 2D croconic acid thin films, by the polarization hysteresis loop measurements in macroscopic capacitor geometry, along with observation and manipulation of the nanoscale domain structure by piezoresponse force microscopy. The fabrication of continuous thin films of the hydrogen-bonded croconic acid was achieved by the suppression of the thermal decomposition using low evaporation temperatures in high vacuum, combined with growth conditions far from thermal equilibrium. For nominal coverages ≥20 nm, quasi 2D and polycrystalline films, with an average grain size of 50–100 nm and 3.5 nm roughness, can be obtained. Spontaneous ferroelectric domain structures of the thin films have been observed and appear to correlate with the grain patterns. The application of this solvent-free growth protocol may be a key to the development of flexible organic ferroelectric thin films for electronic applications.

  4. Enhanced magnetic and ferroelectric properties in scandium doped nano Bi2Fe4O9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Dimple P.; Sudakar, C.; Mocherla, Pavana S.V.; Mandal, Balaji P.; Jayakumar, Onnatu D.; Tyagi, Avesh K.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we report the synthesis of undoped and Sc 3+ doped Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 nanoparticles using sonochemical technique. X-ray diffraction reveals that all samples are single phase with no impurities detected. EDS analysis was done to confirm the extent of Sc 3+ doping in the samples. The size and morphology of the nanoparticles have been analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 nanoparticles show a weak ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature, which is quite different from the linear M–H relationship reported for bulk Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 . A magnetization of 0.144 μB/f.u. is obtained at 300 K, which is mainly attributed to the uncompensated moments at the disordered particle surface resulting from the reduced coordination of the surface spins, arising due to lattice strain or oxygen deficiency. Addition of Sc 3+ dopant in varying concentrations in these Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 nanoparticles, improves their magnetic as well as ferroelectric properties. The leakage current is considerably reduced and electric polarization increases significantly in case of Bi 2 Fe 4(1−x) Sc x O 9 (x = 0.1) nanoparticles. Thus it can be inferred that Sc 3+ doped Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 nanoparticles shows promise as good multiferroic materials. -- Graphical abstract: Undoped and Sc 3+ doped Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 nanoparticles have been synthesized using sonochemical technique. The bi-functionalities of Sc 3+ doped Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 nanoparticles have been demonstrated. The Bi 2 Fe 4(1−x) Sc x O 9 (x = 0.1) nanoparticles showed enhanced magnetic and ferroelectric properties with considerably less lossy characteristics compared to the bulk Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 . Highlights: ► Phase pure Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 nanostructures synthesized using a facile sonochemical technique. ► Nanoparticles show a weak ferromagnetic order at room temperature. ► Sc 3+ doping in Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 nanoparticles alters their magnetic and ferroelectric properties. ► A

  5. Modeling and Implementation of HfO2-based Ferroelectric Tunnel Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Spencer Allen

    HfO2-based ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) represent a unique opportunity as both a next-generation digital non-volatile memory and as synapse devices in braininspired logic systems, owing to their higher reliability compared to filamentary resistive random-access memory (ReRAM) and higher speed and lower power consumption compared to competing devices, including phase-change memory (PCM) and state-of-the-art FTJ. Ferroelectrics are often easier to deposit and have simpler material structure than films for magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). Ferroelectric HfO2 also enables complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatibility, since lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and BaTiO3-based FTJs often are not. No other groups have yet demonstrated a HfO2-based FTJ (to best of the author's knowledge) or applied it to a suitable system. For such devices to be useful, system designers require models based on both theoretical physical analysis and experimental results of fabricated devices in order to confidently design control systems. Both the CMOS circuitry and FTJs must then be designed in layout and fabricated on the same die. This work includes modeling of proposed device structures using a custom python script, which calculates theoretical potential barrier heights as a function of material properties and corresponding current densities (ranging from 8x103 to 3x10-2 A/cm 2 with RHRS/RLRS ranging from 5x105 to 6, depending on ferroelectric thickness). These equations were then combined with polynomial fits of experimental timing data and implemented in a Verilog-A behavioral analog model in Cadence Virtuoso. The author proposes tristate CMOS control systems, and circuits, for implementation of FTJ devices as digital memory and presents simulated performance. Finally, a process flow for fabrication of FTJ devices with CMOS is presented. This work has therefore enabled the fabrication of FTJ devices at RIT and the continued investigation of them as applied to any

  6. Ferroelectric, magnetic and structural studies of the Bi4LaSmFe2Ti3O18 multiferroic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarcón-Suesca, C.E.; Cardona-Vásquez, J.A.; Salcedo-Fontecha, J.P.; Vargas-Jiménez, A.; Landínez-Téllez, D.A.; Roa-Rojas, J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of the new Bi 4 LaSmFe 2 Ti 3 O 18 ferroelectric ceramic. X-ray characterization reveals reflections for layered perovskite Aurivillius system. Rietveld analyses of the powder pattern shows that Bi 4 LaSmFe 2 Ti 3 O 18 crystallizes in orthorhombic structure, which corresponds to the space group F2/mm (#42), with lattice parameters a=5.4240(16) Ǻ, b=5.4078(23) Ǻ and c=50.2440(12) Ǻ. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals the formation of dense material with plate-like morphology. Electric polarization curves were measured by means of a radiant ferroelectric tester, at room temperature in bulk samples and exhibit an intrinsic ferroelectric response, even at low applied fields. Measurements of the magnetization as a function of temperature after Zero field cooling and field cooling were carried out by using a MPMS Quantum Design SQUID magnetometer. We found an effective magnetic moment of 7.95 µB, which is 95.8% in agreement with the expected value calculated from Hund's rules. Magnetization curves as the function of applied fields reveal an incipient hysteretic behavior at room temperature

  7. Bulk dielectric and magnetic properties of PFW-PZT ceramics: absence of magnetically switched-off polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempa, M; Kamba, S; Savinov, M; Maryško, M; Frait, Z; Vaněk, P; Tomczyk, M; Vilarinho, P M

    2010-11-10

    We investigated ceramics samples of solid solutions of [PbFe(2/3)W(1/3)O(3)](x)-[PbZr(0.53)Ti(0.47)O(3)](1 - x) (PFW(x)-PZT(1 - x), x = 0.2 and 0.3) by means of broad-band dielectric spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and SQUID magnetometry. We did not confirm the observations of Kumar et al (2009 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 382204), who reported on reversible suppression of ferroelectric polarization in polycrystalline PFW(x)-PZT(1 - x) thin films for magnetic fields above 0.5 T. We did not observe any change of ferroelectric polarization with external magnetic fields up to 3.2 T. Pirc et al (2009 Phys. Rev. B 79 214114) developed a theory explaining the reported large magnetoelectric effect in PFW(x)-PZT(1 - x), taking into account relaxor magnetic and relaxor ferroelectric properties of the system. Our data revealed classical ferroelectric properties below 525 K and 485 K in samples with x = 0.2 and 0.3, respectively. Moreover, paramagnetic behavior was observed down to 4.5 K instead of previously reported relaxor magnetic behavior. It seems that the reported switching-off of ferroelectric polarization in PFW(x)-PZT(1 - x) thin films is not an intrinsic property, but probably an effect of electrodes, interlayers, grain boundaries or second phases presented in polycrystalline thin films.

  8. Preisach modeling of temperature-dependent ferroelectric response of piezoceramics at sub-switching regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Diego Alejandro; García, Jose Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    The Preisach model is a classical method for describing nonlinear behavior in hysteretic systems. According to this model, a hysteretic system contains a collection of simple bistable units which are characterized by an internal field and a coercive field. This set of bistable units exhibits a statistical distribution that depends on these fields as parameters. Thus, nonlinear response depends on the specific distribution function associated with the material. This model is satisfactorily used in this work to describe the temperature-dependent ferroelectric response in PZT- and KNN-based piezoceramics. A distribution function expanded in Maclaurin series considering only the first terms in the internal field and the coercive field is proposed. Changes in coefficient relations of a single distribution function allow us to explain the complex temperature dependence of hard piezoceramic behavior. A similar analysis based on the same form of the distribution function shows that the KNL-NTS properties soften around its orthorhombic to tetragonal phase transition.

  9. Enhancement of the saturation mobility in a ferroelectric-gated field-effect transistor by the surface planarization of ferroelectric film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo Young, E-mail: semigumi@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Gwang-Jae; Kang, In-Ku; Shim, Hyun Bin; Lee, Hee Chul [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-30

    Ferroelectricity refers to the property of a dielectric material to undergo spontaneous polarization which originates from the crystalline phase. Hence, ferroelectric materials have a certain degree of surface roughness when they are formed as a thin film. A high degree of surface roughness may cause unintended phenomena when the ferroelectric material is used in electronic devices. Specifically, the quality of subsequently deposited film could be affected by the rough surface. The present study reports that the surface roughness of ferroelectric polymer film can be reduced by a double-spin-coating method of a solution, with control of the solubility of the solution. At an identical thickness of 350 nm, double-spin-coated ferroelectric film has a root-mean-square roughness of only 3 nm, while for single-spin-coated ferroelectric film this value is approximately 16 nm. A ferroelectric-gated field-effect transistor was fabricated using the proposed double-spin-coating method, showing a maximum saturation mobility as much as seven-fold than that of a transistor fabricated with single-spin-coated ferroelectric film. The enhanced saturation mobility could be explained by the Poole–Frenkel conduction mechanism. The proposed method to reduce the surface roughness of ferroelectric film would be useful for high performance organic electronic devices, including crystalline-phase dielectric film. - Highlights: • Single and double-layer solution-processed polymer ferroelectric films were obtained. • Adjusting the solvent solubility allows making double-layer ferroelectric (DF) films. • The DF film has a smoother surface than single-layer ferroelectric (SF) film. • DF-gated transistor has faster saturation mobility than SF-based transistor. • Solvent solubility adjustment led to higher performance organic devices.

  10. Nonlinear piezoelectricity in epitaxial ferroelectrics at high electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Alexei; Sichel, Rebecca; Lee, Ho Nyung; Landahl, Eric C; Adams, Bernhard; Dufresne, Eric M; Evans, Paul G

    2008-01-18

    Nonlinear effects in the coupling of polarization with elastic strain have been predicted to occur in ferroelectric materials subjected to high electric fields. Such predictions are tested here for a PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 ferroelectric thin film at electric fields in the range of several hundred MV/m and strains reaching up to 2.7%. The piezoelectric strain exceeds predictions based on constant piezoelectric coefficients at electric fields from approximately 200 to 400 MV/m, which is consistent with a nonlinear effect predicted to occur at corresponding piezoelectric distortions.

  11. Ferroelectric and ferroelastic domain structures in piezoelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.; Julin Peng.

    1990-01-01

    A discussion of the results of conventional and high-resolution high-voltage electron microscopic studies of two ferroelectrics, barium sodium niobate and lead zirconium titanate is presented. It is shown that a rich variety of information such as ferroelectric and/or ferroelastic domains discommensurations versus antiphase boundaries, extended versus localized chemical defects and multiphase versus grain boundaries, become accessible in both single crystal and polycrystalline piezoelectrics, when a combination of high-resolution and conventional electron optical techniques is used. 15 refs., 8 figs

  12. Ferroelectric-antiferroelectric mixed systems. Equation of state, thermodynamic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A.Korynevskii

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of equation of state for ferroelectric-antiferroelectric mixed systems in the whole region of a concentration change (0≤n≤1 is discussed. The main peculiarity of the presented model turns out to be the possibility for the site dipole momentum to be oriented ferroelectrically in z-direction and antiferroelectrically in x-direction. Such a situation takes place in mixed compounds of KDP type. The different phases (ferro-, antiferro-, paraelectric, dipole glass and some combinations of them have been found and analyzed.

  13. Theoretical study of ferroelectric nanoparticles using phase reconstructed electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, C.; Petford-Long, A. K.; Beleggia, M.; De Graef, M.

    2014-06-01

    Ferroelectric nanostructures are important for a variety of applications in electronic and electro-optical devices, including nonvolatile memories and thin-film capacitors. These applications involve stability and switching of polarization using external stimuli, such as electric fields. We present a theoretical model describing how the shape of a nanoparticle affects its polarization in the absence of screening charges, and quantify the electron-optical phase shift for detecting ferroelectric signals with phase-sensitive techniques in a transmission electron microscope. We provide an example phase shift computation for a uniformly polarized prolate ellipsoid with varying aspect ratio in the absence of screening charges.

  14. Acoustic emission mechanism at switching of ferroelectric crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, V.V.; Morozova, G.P.; Serdobol'skaya, O.Yu.

    1986-01-01

    Process of acoustic emission (AE) in lead germanate (PGO) representing pure ferroelectric, and gadolinium molybdate (GMO) representing ferroelectric-ferroelastic, for which switching may be conducted both by the field and pressure, were studied. A conclusion has been drawn that piezoelectric excitation of a crystal from the surface by pulses of overpolarization current in the process of domain coalescence is the main AE source in PGO. Not only piezoresponse, but also direct sound generation in the moment of domain penetration and collapse is considered as AE mechanism in GMO

  15. Acoustic emission mechanism at switching of ferroelectric crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belov, V V; Morozova, G P; Serdobol' skaya, O Yu

    1986-01-01

    Process of acoustic emission (AE) in lead germanate (PGO) representing pure ferroelectric, and gadolinium molybdate (GMO) representing ferroelectric-ferroelastic, for which switching may be conducted both by the field and pressure, were studied. A conclusion has been drawn that piezoelectric excitation of a crystal from the surface by pulses of overpolarization current in the process of domain coalescence is the main AE source in PGO. Not only piezoresponse, but also direct sound generation in the moment of domain penetration and collapse is considered as AE mechanism in GMO.

  16. Voltage tunability of thermal conductivity in ferroelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Hopkins, Patrick Edward

    2016-02-09

    A method to control thermal energy transport uses mobile coherent interfaces in nanoscale ferroelectric films to scatter phonons. The thermal conductivity can be actively tuned, simply by applying an electrical potential across the ferroelectric material and thereby altering the density of these coherent boundaries to directly impact thermal transport at room temperature and above. The invention eliminates the necessity of using moving components or poor efficiency methods to control heat transfer, enabling a means of thermal energy control at the micro- and nano-scales.

  17. Ferroelectric tunnel junctions with multi-quantum well structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhijun; Zhang, Tianjin, E-mail: zhangtj@hubu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Liang, Kun; Qi, Yajun; Wang, Duofa; Wang, Jinzhao; Jiang, Juan [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China)

    2014-06-02

    Ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) with multi-quantum well structures are proposed and the tunneling electroresistance (TER) effect is investigated theoretically. Compared with conventional FTJs with monolayer ferroelectric barriers, FTJs with single-well structures provide TER ratio improvements of one order of magnitude, while FTJs with optimized multi-well structures can enhance this improvement by another order of magnitude. It is believed that the increased resonant tunneling strength combined with appropriate asymmetry in these FTJs contributes to the improvement. These studies may help to fabricate FTJs with large TER ratio experimentally and put them into practice.

  18. Giant electroresistance of super-tetragonal BiFeO3-based ferroelectric tunnel junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Garcia, Vincent; Fusil, Stéphane; Boyn, Sören; Marinova, Maya; Gloter, Alexandre; Xavier, Stéphane; Grollier, Julie; Jacquet, Eric; Carrétéro, Cécile; Deranlot, Cyrile; Bibes, Manuel; Barthélémy, Agnès

    2013-06-25

    Ferroelectric tunnel junctions enable a nondestructive readout of the ferroelectric state via a change of resistance induced by switching the ferroelectric polarization. We fabricated submicrometer solid-state ferroelectric tunnel junctions based on a recently discovered polymorph of BiFeO3 with giant axial ratio ("T-phase"). Applying voltage pulses to the junctions leads to the highest resistance changes (OFF/ON ratio >10,000) ever reported with ferroelectric tunnel junctions. Along with the good retention properties, this giant effect reinforces the interest in nonvolatile memories based on ferroelectric tunnel junctions. We also show that the changes in resistance scale with the nucleation and growth of ferroelectric domains in the ultrathin BiFeO3 (imaged by piezoresponse force microscopy), thereby suggesting potential as multilevel memory cells and memristors.

  19. Surface engineering of ferroelectric polymer for the enhanced electrical performance of organic transistor memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Kyung; Lee, Gyu-Jeong; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Min-Hoi; Bae, Jin-Hyuk

    2018-05-01

    We suggest a viable surface control method to improve the electrical properties of organic nonvolatile memory transistors. For viable surface control, the surface of the ferroelectric insulator in the memory field-effect transistors was modified using a smooth-contact-curing process. For the modification of the ferroelectric polymer, during the curing of the ferroelectric insulators, the smooth surface of a soft elastomer contacts intimately with the ferroelectric surface. This smooth-contact-curing process reduced the surface roughness of the ferroelectric insulator without degrading its ferroelectric properties. The reduced roughness of the ferroelectric insulator increases the mobility of the organic field-effect transistor by approximately eight times, which results in a high memory on–off ratio and a low-voltage reading operation.

  20. Impact of semiconducting electrodes on the electroresistance of ferroelectric tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa, M.; Bertacco, R.

    2018-02-01

    Ferroelectric tunnel junctions are promising candidates for the realization of energy-efficient digital memories and analog memcomputing devices. In this work, we investigate the impact of a semiconducting layer in series to the junction on the sign of electroresistance. To this scope, we compare tunnel junctions fabricated out of Pt/BaTiO3/La1/3Sr2/3MnO3 (LSMO) and Pt/BaTiO3/Nb:SrTiO3 (Nb:STO) heterostructures, displaying an opposite sign of the electroresistance. By capacitance-voltage profiling, we observe a behavior typical of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor tunnel devices in both cases but compatible with the opposite sign of charge carriers in the semiconducting layer. While Nb:STO displays the expected n-type semiconducting character, metallic LSMO develops an interfacial p-type semiconducting layer. The different types of carriers at the semiconducting interfaces and the modulation of the depleted region by the ferroelectric charge have a deep impact on electroresistance, possibly accounting for the different sign observed in the two systems.

  1. Ferroelectric polymer dielectrics: Emerging materials for future electrostatic energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Maheswar

    2018-05-01

    In this manuscript, the dielectric behavior of a variety of ferroelectric polymer dielectrics (FPD), which may bethe materials for future electrostatic energy storage application shave been discussed. The variety of polymer dielectrics, comprising of ferroelectric polymer[polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)]/non-polarpolymer [low density polyethylene (LDPE)] and different sizes of metal particles (Ni, quasicrystal of Al-Cu-Fe) as filler, were prepared through different process conditions (cold press/hot press) and are investigated experimentally. Very high values of effective dielectric constants (ɛeff) with low loss tangent (Tan δ) were observed forall the prepared FPD at their respective percolation thresholds (fc). The enhancement of ɛeff and Tan δ at the insulator to metal transition (IMT) is explained through the boundary layer capacitor effect and the percolation theory respectively. The non-universal fc/critical exponents across the IMT have been explained through percolation theory andis attributed to the fillerparticle size& shape, interaction between the components, method of their preparation, adhesiveness, connectivity and homogeneity, etc. of the samples. Recent results on developed FPD with high ɛeff and low Tan δ prepared through cold press have proven themselves to be the better candidates for low frequency and static dielectric applications.

  2. Ferroelectric and magnetic properties in high-pressure synthesized BiFeO3 compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, L.; Shi, Y.G.; Gao, J.L.; Tang, S.L.; Du, Y.W.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A high-density polycrystalline BiFeO 3 compound was synthesized by high-pressure annealing method. → The sample showed weak ferromagnetic at room temperature, which could be attributed to the lattice distortion induced by the high-pressure annealing. → Irregular domains were observed on the surface of the sample by piezoresponse force microscopy, and a typical hysteresis loop was obtained. - Abstract: High-density polycrystalline BiFeO 3 compound was synthesized by high-pressure annealing. Measurements of crystal structure, magnetic, and ferroelectric properties were made on the sample. It was found that the sample was almost single phase with a distorted R3c structure. The results of the X-ray photoelectron spectra demonstrate that the oxidation state of Fe in the sample is Fe 3+ . The room-temperature field dependence of magnetization for BiFeO 3 exhibits a hysteretic behavior. The observed weak ferromagnetism could be ascribed to the lattice distortion induced by the high-pressure annealing. In addition, the local ferroelectric performance of the sample was studied by piezoresponse force microscopy.

  3. Ferroelectric BaTiO3 and LiNbO3 Nanoparticles Dispersed in Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Mixtures: Electrooptic and Dielectric (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-14

    strength for non- doped LF4 and LiNbO3/LF4 nanocolloids at temperature 30C. 146 R. K . SHUKLA ET AL. 6 Distribution A. Approved for public release (PA...AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0210 FERROELECTRIC BaTiO3 AND LiNbO3 NANOPARTICLES DISPERSED IN FERROELECTRIC LIQUID CRYSTAL MIXTURES: ELECTROOPTIC...COMMAND UNITED STATES AIR FORCE Ferroelectric BaTiO3 and LiNbO3 nanoparticles dispersed in ferroelectric liquid crystal mixtures: Electrooptic and

  4. Scalability of Ferroelectric Tunnel Junctions to Sub-100 nm Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuwasib, Mohammad

    The ferroelectric tunnel junction (FTJ) is an emerging low-power device that has potential application as a non-volatile memory and logic element in beyond-CMOS circuits. As a beyond- CMOS device, it is necessary to investigate the device scaling limit of FTJs to sub-50 nm dimensions. In addition to the fabrication of scaled FTJs, the integration challenges and CMOS compatibility of the device needs to be addressed. FTJ device performance including ON/OFF ratio, memory retention time, switching endurance, write /read speed and power dissipation need to be characterized for benchmarking of this emerging device, compared to its charge-based counterparts such as DRAM, NAND/NOR flash, as well as to other emerging memory devices. In this dissertation, a detailed investigation of scaling of BaTiO3 (BTO) based FTJs was performed, from full-scale integration to electrical characterization. Two types of FTJs with La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) and SrRuO3 (SRO) bottom electrodes were investigated in this work namely; Co/BTO/LSMO and Co/BTO/SRO. A CMOS compatible fabrication process for integration of Co/BTO/LSMO FTJ devices ( 3x3 microm 2) was demonstrated for the first time using standard photolithography and self-aligned RIE technique. The fabricated FTJ device showed switching behavior, however, degradation of the LSMO contact was observed during the fabrication process. A detailed investigation of the contact properties of bottom electrode materials (LSMO, SRO) for BTO-based FTJs was performed. The process and thermal stability of different contact overlayers (Ti, Pt) was explained to understand the nature of the ohmic contacts for metal to SRO and LSMO layers. Noble metals-to-SRO was found to form the most stable contacts for FTJs. Based on this study, a systematic scalability study of Co/BTO/SRO FTJs was carried out from micron ( 3x3 microm2) to submicron ( 200x200 nm2) dimensions. Positive UP Negative Down (PUND) measurement confirms the ferroelectric properties of the BTO

  5. Molecular dynamics simulations of ferroelectric domain formation by oxygen vacancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; You, Jeong Ho; Chen, Jinghong; Yeo, Changdong

    2018-05-01

    An oxygen vacancy, known to be detrimental to ferroelectric properties, has been investigated numerically for the potential uses to control ferroelectric domains in films using molecular dynamics simulations based on the first-principles effective Hamiltonian. As an electron donor, an oxygen vacancy generates inhomogeneous electrostatic and displacement fields which impose preferred polarization directions near the oxygen vacancy. When the oxygen vacancies are placed at the top and bottom interfaces, the out-of-plane polarizations are locally developed near the interfaces in the directions away from the interfaces. These polarizations from the interfaces are in opposite directions so that the overall out-of-plane polarization becomes significantly reduced. In the middle of the films, the in-plane domains are formed with containing 90° a 1/a 2 domain walls and the films are polarized along the [1 1 0] direction even when no electric field is applied. With oxygen vacancies placed at the top interface only, the films exhibit asymmetric hysteresis loops, confirming that the oxygen vacancies are one of the possible sources of ferroelectric imprint. It has been qualitatively demonstrated that the domain structures in the imprint films can be turned on and off by controlling an external field along the thickness direction. This study shows qualitatively that the oxygen vacancies can be utilized for tuning ferroelectric domain structures in films.

  6. Observation of domain patterns on a ferroelectric ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.C.; Zavaglia, C.A.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this work ferroelectric domain patterns are observed on a PZT-like ceramic material produced in Brazil. This material has tetragonal unit cell composing a perovskite type structure. The samples, after grinding and polishing, were chemically etched and observed on optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. (author)

  7. Mechanism of negative ion emission from surfaces of ferroelectrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šroubek, Zdeněk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 606, 15-16 (2012), s. 1327-1330 ISSN 0039-6028 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Surface of ferroelectrics * Ion emission Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0039602812001525#gts0005

  8. Reversible spin texture in ferroelectric Hf O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, L. L.; Paudel, Tula R.; Kovalev, Alexey A.; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    2017-06-01

    Spin-orbit coupling effects occurring in noncentrosymmetric materials are known to be responsible for nontrivial spin configurations and a number of emergent physical phenomena. Ferroelectric materials may be especially interesting in this regard due to reversible spontaneous polarization making possible a nonvolatile electrical control of the spin degrees of freedom. Here, we explore a technologically relevant oxide material, Hf O2 , which has been shown to exhibit robust ferroelectricity in a noncentrosymmetric orthorhombic phase. Using theoretical modelling based on density-functional theory, we investigate the spin-dependent electronic structure of the ferroelectric Hf O2 and demonstrate the appearance of chiral spin textures driven by spin-orbit coupling. We analyze these spin configurations in terms of the Rashba and Dresselhaus effects within the k .p Hamiltonian model and find that the Rashba-type spin texture dominates around the valence-band maximum, while the Dresselhaus-type spin texture prevails around the conduction band minimum. The latter is characterized by a very large Dresselhaus constant λD= 0.578 eV Å, which allows using this material as a tunnel barrier to produce tunneling anomalous and spin Hall effects that are reversible by ferroelectric polarization.

  9. Effect of domains configuration on crystal structure in ferroelectric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-09

    Sep 9, 2017 ... It is well known that domains and crystal structure control the physical properties of ferroelectrics. ... The as-prepared ceramics were crushed to fine pow- ders. ..... [1] Gao J, Xue D, Wang Y, Wang D, Zhang L, Wu H et al 2011.

  10. Phase transition properties of a cylindrical ferroelectric nanowire

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Based on the transverse Ising model (TIM) and using the mean-field theory, we inves- ... workers [11–13] to study the static and dynamic properties of ferroelectric superlattices. ... The mean-field expressions is usually used for a qualitative.

  11. Guest–host interaction in ferroelectric liquid crystal–nanoparticle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    nanoparticles have been added to the pure ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) Felix 17/100. The nanoparticles .... To prepare the NPs, doped-FLC sample, an appropriate amount (in the .... permittivity and f the frequency while n, m and k are the.

  12. Effects of Nb doping on the microstructure, ferroelectric and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ·cm) and the poor piezoelectric performance and weak ferroelectricity are observed after the addition of .... 9.81–13.88% (<15%) and the goodness-of-fit indicator S ..... the Open Project of State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin. Films and ...

  13. Strain-induced structural, magnetic and ferroelectric properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-07-25

    Jul 25, 2017 ... deposited on the composite film surface by DC sputtering techniques. The magnetic measurements of these composite films were performed using a vibratory sample magnetometer. (VSM). Ferroelectric properties of films were measured using a Precision multiferroic analyser. All measurements were per-.

  14. Dielectric properties of KDP-type ferroelectric crystals in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hamiltonian for KDP-type ferroelectrics, expressions for field-dependent shift, width, ... For the calculation, method of statistical double-time temperature- ... roelectric phase transition and dielectric behaviour of KDP and its isomorphs is .... The dissipation of power in dielectric material can conveniently be expressed as.

  15. Theoretical study of ferroelectric nanoparticles using phase reconstructed electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phatak, C.; Petford-Long, A. K.; Beleggia, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Ferroelectric nanostructures are important for a variety of applications in electronic and electro-optical devices, including nonvolatile memories and thin-film capacitors. These applications involve stability and switching of polarization using external stimuli, such as electric fields. We prese...

  16. Optical properties of self-polarized PZT ferroelectric films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deineka, Alexander; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Suchaneck, G.; Gerlach, G.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 273, - (2002), s. 155-160 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015; GA ČR GA202/00/1425 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : ferroelectric film * phase transition * band gap Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.408, year: 2002

  17. Nondestructive investigatons of the depth profile of PZT ferroelectric films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deineka, Alexander; Glinchuk, M. D.; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Suchaneck, G.; Gerlach, G.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 264, - (2001), s. 151-156 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015; GA ČR GA202/00/1425 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : ferroelectric film * depth profile * interface Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.471, year: 2001

  18. Bidimensional distortion in ferroelectric liquid crystals with strong ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    characterized by bistability and optical memory in the surface-stabilized bookshelf [2,3] ... tic layers, which lies in a plane parallel to the cell walls (see figure 1). Up to now ... Theory. We consider a liquid crystalline material exhibiting ferroelectric phase organized in book- ... By applying an external electric field Eext along.

  19. Concurrent bandgap narrowing and polarization enhancement in epitaxial ferroelectric nanofilms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tyunina, Marina; Yao, L.; Chvostová, Dagmar; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kocourek, Tomáš; Jelínek, Miroslav; Trepakov, Vladimír; van Dijken, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2015), 026002 ISSN 1468-6996 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/1941 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : epitaxial growth * ferroelectric nanofilms Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.433, year: 2015

  20. Flexible NAND-Like Organic Ferroelectric Memory Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kam, B.; Ke, T.H.; Chasin, A.; Tyagi, M.; Cristoferi, C.; Tempelaars, K.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Myny, K.; Schols, S.; Genoe, J.; Gelinck, G.H.; Heremans, P.

    2014-01-01

    We present a memory array of organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors (OFeFETs) on flexible substrates. The OFeFETs are connected serially, similar to the NAND architecture of flash memory, which offers the highest memory density of transistor memories. We demonstrate a reliable addressing

  1. Nanocharacterization of the negative stiffness of ferroelectric materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skandani, A.A.; Čtvrtlík, Radim; Al-Haik, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 8 (2014), "082906-1"-"082906-5" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA03010743 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ferroelectric materials * negative stiffness * thermomechanical environments Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2014

  2. On the Structural and Electrical Properties of Metal-Ferroelectric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    6

    Click here to view linked References. 1 ... memory applications due to their unique electrical properties [1-2]. ... considerable attention for their application as the gate material for MFeIS ... and precisely controlled for a particular ferroelectric layer. ..... leading to decrease in the net polarization and memory retention capacity.

  3. Operation of Ferroelectric Plasma Sources in a Gas Discharge Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunaevsky, A.; Fisch, N.J.

    2004-01-01

    Ferroelectric plasma sources in vacuum are known as sources of ablative plasma, formed due to surface discharge. In this paper, observations of a gas discharge mode of operation of the ferroelectric plasma sources (FPS) are reported. The gas discharge appears at pressures between approximately 20 and approximately 80 Torr. At pressures of 1-20 Torr, there is a transition from vacuum surface discharge to the gas discharge, when both modes coexist and the surface discharges sustain the gas discharge. At pressures between 20 and 80 Torr, the surface discharges are suppressed, and FPS operate in pure gas discharge mode, with the formation of almost uniform plasma along the entire surface of the ceramics between strips. The density of the expanding plasma is estimated to be about 1013 cm-3 at a distance of 5.5 mm from the surface. The power consumption of the discharge is comparatively low, making it useful for various applications. This paper also presents direct measurements of the yield of secondary electron emission from ferroelectric ceramics, which, at low energies of primary electrons, is high and dependent on the polarization of the ferroelectric material

  4. Characterization of current transport in ferroelectric polymer devices

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir; Bhansali, Unnat Sampatraj; Khan, Yasser; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2014-01-01

    We report the charge injection characteristics in poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene), P(VDF-TrFE), as a function of electrode material in metal/ferroelectric/metal device structures. Symmetric and asymmetric devices with Al, Ag, Au and Pt

  5. Anti-Ferroelectric Ceramics for High Energy Density Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Chauhan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With an ever increasing dependence on electrical energy for powering modern equipment and electronics, research is focused on the development of efficient methods for the generation, storage and distribution of electrical power. In this regard, the development of suitable dielectric based solid-state capacitors will play a key role in revolutionizing modern day electronic and electrical devices. Among the popular dielectric materials, anti-ferroelectrics (AFE display evidence of being a strong contender for future ceramic capacitors. AFE materials possess low dielectric loss, low coercive field, low remnant polarization, high energy density, high material efficiency, and fast discharge rates; all of these characteristics makes AFE materials a lucrative research direction. However, despite the evident advantages, there have only been limited attempts to develop this area. This article attempts to provide a focus to this area by presenting a timely review on the topic, on the relevant scientific advancements that have been made with respect to utilization and development of anti-ferroelectric materials for electric energy storage applications. The article begins with a general introduction discussing the need for high energy density capacitors, the present solutions being used to address this problem, and a brief discussion of various advantages of anti-ferroelectric materials for high energy storage applications. This is followed by a general description of anti-ferroelectricity and important anti-ferroelectric materials. The remainder of the paper is divided into two subsections, the first of which presents various physical routes for enhancing the energy storage density while the latter section describes chemical routes for enhanced storage density. This is followed by conclusions and future prospects and challenges which need to be addressed in this particular field.

  6. Ferroelectricity-induced resistive switching in Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3/Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3/Nb-doped SrTiO3 epitaxial heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md. Sadaf, Sharif; Mostafa Bourim, El; Liu, Xinjun; Hasan Choudhury, Sakeb; Kim, Dong-Wook; Hwang, Hyunsang

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the effect of a ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) thin film on the generation of resistive switching in a stacked Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (PCMO)/Nb-doped SrTiO3 (Nb:STO) heterostructure forming a p-n junction. To promote the ferroelectric effect, the thin PZT active layer was deposited on an epitaxially grown p-type PCMO film on a lattice-matched n-type Nb:STO single crystal. It was concluded that the observed resistive switching behavior in the all-perovskite Pt/PZT/PCMO/Nb:STO heterostructure was related to the modulation of PCMO/Nb:STO p-n junction's depletion width, which was caused either by the PZT ferroelectric polarization field effect, the electrochemical drift of oxygen ions under an electric field, or both simultaneously.

  7. Transport and Fatigue Properties of Ferroelectric Polymer P(VDF-TrFE) For Nonvolatile Memory Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir

    2012-06-01

    Organic ferroelectrics polymers have recently received much interest for use in nonvolatile memory devices. The ferroelectric copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride- trifluoroethylene) , P(VDF-TrFE), is a promising candidate due to its relatively high remnant polarization, low coercive field, fast switching times, easy processability, and low Curie transition. However, no detailed study of charge injection and current transport properties in P(VDF-TrFE) have been reported in the literature yet. Charge injection and transport are believed to affect various properties of ferroelectric films such as remnant polarization values and polarization fatigue behavior.. Thus, this thesis aims to study charge injection in P(VDF-TrFE) and its transport properties as a function of electrode material. Injection was studied for Al, Ag, Au and Pt electrodes. Higher work function metals such as Pt have shown less leakage current compared to lower work function metals such as Al for more than an order of magnitude. That implied n-type conduction behavior for P(VDF-TrFE), as well as electrons being the dominant injected carrier type. Charge transport was also studied as a function of temperature, and two major transport regimes were identified: 1) Thermionic emission over a Schottky barrier for low fields (E < 25 MV/m). 2) Space-Charge-Limited regime at higher fields (25 < E <120 MV/m). We have also studied the optical imprint phenomenon, the polarization fatigue resulting from a combination of broad band optical illumination and DC bias near the switching field. A setup was designed for the experiment, and validated by reproducing the reported effect in polycrystalline Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 , PZT, film. On the other hand, P(VDF-TrFE) film showed no polarization fatigue as a result of optical imprint test, which could be attributed to the large band gap of the material, and the low intensity of the UV portion of the arc lamp white light used for the experiment. Results suggest using high work

  8. Nanoscopic studies of domain structure dynamics in ferroelectric La:HfO2 capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buragohain, P.; Richter, C.; Schenk, T.; Lu, H.; Mikolajick, T.; Schroeder, U.; Gruverman, A.

    2018-05-01

    Visualization of domain structure evolution under an electrical bias has been carried out in ferroelectric La:HfO2 capacitors by a combination of Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) and pulse switching techniques to study the nanoscopic mechanism of polarization reversal and the wake-up process. It has been directly shown that the main mechanism behind the transformation of the polarization hysteretic behavior and an increase in the remanent polarization value upon the alternating current cycling is electrically induced domain de-pinning. PFM imaging and local spectroscopy revealed asymmetric switching in the La:HfO2 capacitors due to a significant imprint likely caused by the different boundary conditions at the top and bottom interfaces. Domain switching kinetics can be well-described by the nucleation limited switching model characterized by a broad distribution of the local switching times. It has been found that the domain velocity varies significantly throughout the switching process indicating strong interaction with structural defects.

  9. Effect of smectic A temperature width on the soft mode in ferroelectric liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, A.; Kaur, S.; Prakash, J.; Sreenivas, K.; Bawa, S. S.; Biradar, A. M.

    2008-08-01

    The behavior of soft mode range with respect to the temperature width of smectic A (Sm A) phase has been studied in four different ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) materials in the frequency range 10Hz-10MHz. The studies have been carried out in a planarly well aligned cells at different temperatures and different bias fields in Sm C* and Sm A phases. Dielectric studies of these FLCs near Sm C*-Sm A phase transition show that the temperature range of soft mode relaxation frequency phenomenon varies with the temperature width of Sm A phase. The dependence of tilt angle on temperature shows the nature of the order of transition at Sm C*-Sm A phase. The coupling between order parameters of Sm C* and Sm A phase influences the soft mode and phase transition in Sm C* and Sm A phases.

  10. Indentation plasticity of barium titanate single crystals: Dislocation influence on ferroelectric domain walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)]. E-mail: duo.liu@mail.uh.edu; Chelf, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); White, K.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The plastic behaviors of barium titanate (001) and (110) single crystals are studied with atomic force microscopy and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) following nanoindendation damage. Plastic deformation mechanisms of ferroelectric barium titanate single crystals are discussed with a focus on the interaction between PFM response and dislocation activities. Nanoindentation tests indicate that the theoretical strength is approached prior to the first pop-in event, consistent with the creation of dislocation nucleation sites required for the onset of plasticity. Surface topographic and piezoelectric analyses indicate that pile-ups around indents result from dislocation activities on the primary slip system, {l_brace}110{r_brace}{sub pc}<11-bar 0>{sub pc}. The more complex indentation-induced domain patterns observed on (110) barium titanate are also discussed.

  11. Indentation plasticity of barium titanate single crystals: Dislocation influence on ferroelectric domain walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.; Chelf, M.; White, K.W.

    2006-01-01

    The plastic behaviors of barium titanate (001) and (110) single crystals are studied with atomic force microscopy and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) following nanoindendation damage. Plastic deformation mechanisms of ferroelectric barium titanate single crystals are discussed with a focus on the interaction between PFM response and dislocation activities. Nanoindentation tests indicate that the theoretical strength is approached prior to the first pop-in event, consistent with the creation of dislocation nucleation sites required for the onset of plasticity. Surface topographic and piezoelectric analyses indicate that pile-ups around indents result from dislocation activities on the primary slip system, {110} pc pc . The more complex indentation-induced domain patterns observed on (110) barium titanate are also discussed

  12. A Diagram of the Structure Evolution of Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3 O3-9%PbTiO3 Relaxor Ferroelectric Crystals with Excellent Piezoelectric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric properties are of significant importance to medical ultrasound, actuators, sensors, and countless other device applications. The mechanism of piezoelectric properties can be deeply understood in light of structure evolutions. In this paper, we report a diagram of the structure evolutions of Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/30.91Ti0.09O3 (PZN-9PT crystals with excellent piezoelectric properties among orthorhombic, tetragonal, and cubic phases, with a temperature increasing from room temperature to 220 °C. Through fitting the temperature-dependent XRD curves with Gauss and Lorenz functions, we obtained the evolutions of the content ratio of three kinds of phases (orthorhombic, tetragonal and cubic and the lattice parameters of the PZN-9PT system with the changes of temperature. The XRD fitting results together with Raman and dielectric spectra show that the phase transitions of PZN-9PT are a typical continuous evolution process. Additionally, resonance and anti-resonance spectra show the excellent piezoelectric properties of these crystals, which probably originate from the nano twin domains, as demonstrated by TEM images. Of particular attention is that the thickness electromechanical coupling factor kt is up to 72%.

  13. Theoretical model for thin ferroelectric films and the multilayer structures based on them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkov, A. S.; Pakhomov, O. V.; Starkov, I. A.

    2013-01-01

    A modified Weiss mean-field theory is used to study the dependence of the properties of a thin ferroelectric film on its thickness. The possibility of introducing gradient terms into the thermodynamic potential is analyzed using the calculus of variations. An integral equation is introduced to generalize the well-known Langevin equation to the case of the boundaries of a ferroelectric. An analysis of this equation leads to the existence of a transition layer at the interface between ferroelectrics or a ferroelectric and a dielectric. The permittivity of this layer is shown to depend on the electric field direction even if the ferroelectrics in contact are homogeneous. The results obtained in terms of the Weiss model are compared with the results of the models based on the correlation effect and the presence of a dielectric layer at the boundary of a ferroelectric and with experimental data

  14. Theoretical model for thin ferroelectric films and the multilayer structures based on them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkov, A. S.; Pakhomov, O. V.; Starkov, I. A.

    2013-06-01

    A modified Weiss mean-field theory is used to study the dependence of the properties of a thin ferroelectric film on its thickness. The possibility of introducing gradient terms into the thermodynamic potential is analyzed using the calculus of variations. An integral equation is introduced to generalize the well-known Langevin equation to the case of the boundaries of a ferroelectric. An analysis of this equation leads to the existence of a transition layer at the interface between ferroelectrics or a ferroelectric and a dielectric. The permittivity of this layer is shown to depend on the electric field direction even if the ferroelectrics in contact are homogeneous. The results obtained in terms of the Weiss model are compared with the results of the models based on the correlation effect and the presence of a dielectric layer at the boundary of a ferroelectric and with experimental data.

  15. Theoretical model for thin ferroelectric films and the multilayer structures based on them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkov, A. S., E-mail: starkov@iue.tuwien.ac.at; Pakhomov, O. V. [St. Petersburg National Research Univeristy ITMO, Institute of Refrigeration and Biotechnologies (Russian Federation); Starkov, I. A. [Vienna University of Technology, Institute for Microelectronics (Austria)

    2013-06-15

    A modified Weiss mean-field theory is used to study the dependence of the properties of a thin ferroelectric film on its thickness. The possibility of introducing gradient terms into the thermodynamic potential is analyzed using the calculus of variations. An integral equation is introduced to generalize the well-known Langevin equation to the case of the boundaries of a ferroelectric. An analysis of this equation leads to the existence of a transition layer at the interface between ferroelectrics or a ferroelectric and a dielectric. The permittivity of this layer is shown to depend on the electric field direction even if the ferroelectrics in contact are homogeneous. The results obtained in terms of the Weiss model are compared with the results of the models based on the correlation effect and the presence of a dielectric layer at the boundary of a ferroelectric and with experimental data.

  16. Ferroelectric-gate field effect transistor memories device physics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ishiwara, Hiroshi; Okuyama, Masanori; Sakai, Shigeki; Yoon, Sung-Min

    2016-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the materials characteristics, process technologies, and device operations for memory field-effect transistors employing inorganic or organic ferroelectric thin films. This transistor-type ferroelectric memory has interesting fundamental device physics and potentially large industrial impact. Among the various applications of ferroelectric thin films, the development of nonvolatile ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) has progressed most actively since the late 1980s and has achieved modest mass production levels for specific applications since 1995. There are two types of memory cells in ferroelectric nonvolatile memories. One is the capacitor-type FeRAM and the other is the field-effect transistor (FET)-type FeRAM. Although the FET-type FeRAM claims ultimate scalability and nondestructive readout characteristics, the capacitor-type FeRAMs have been the main interest for the major semiconductor memory companies, because the ferroelectric FET has fatal handic...

  17. Pyroelectric and dielectric properties of lead-free ferroelectric Ba3Nb2O8 ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pati, Biswajit; Choudhary, R.N.P.; Das, Piyush R.; Parida, B.N.; Padhee, R.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Barium orthoniobate (lead-free perovskite) crystallizes as palmierite with structural stability. • The material exhibits ferroelectric phase transition of diffuse-type suitable for devices. • The low values of ε r and tan δ at high frequencies makes it a potential candidate for microwave applications. • The material has very good pyroelectric properties for detector application. • The material exhibits smaller value of dc activation energy. - Abstract: The present study highlights ferroelectric phase transition, dielectric, pyroelectric properties and conduction mechanism of highly crystallized barium orthoniobate (Ba 3 Nb 2 O 8 ) ceramic, prepared by a solid-state reaction technique. X-ray diffraction studies show the formation of a single-phase compound in hexagonal crystal system. Detailed studies of dielectric parameters (ε r and tan δ) of the compound as a function of temperature and frequency reveal their independence over a wide range of temperature and frequency. An anomaly in ε r suggests the possible existence of a ferroelectric–paraelectric phase transition of diffuse-type in the material. The low dielectric loss and moderate relative permittivity make this material (with certain modification) a potential candidate for microwave applications. Studies of pyroelectric properties reveal that the materials have reasonably high figure of merit useful for fabrication of pyroelectric detectors. The low-leakage current and negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) behavior of the sample have been verified from J–E plots. The nature of variation of dc conductivity with temperature confirms the Arrhenius and NTCR behavior of the material

  18. A qualitative test for intrinsic size effect on ferroelectric phase transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jin; Tagantsev, Alexander K.; Setter, Nava

    2010-01-01

    The size effect in ferroelectrics is treated as a competition between the geometrical symmetry of the ferroelectric sample and its crystalline symmetry. The manifestation of this competition is shown to be polarization rotation, which is driven by temperature and/or size variations, thus providing a qualitative indication of intrinsic finite size effect on ferroelectrics. The concept is demonstrated in a simple case of PbTiO3 nanowires having their axis parallel to [111]C direction, where the...

  19. Determination of ferroelectric contributions to electromechanical response by frequency dependent piezoresponse force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Daehee; Park, Seongjae; Varenyk, Olexandr V; Lee, Shinbuhm; Lee, Ho Nyung; Morozovska, Anna N; Kim, Yunseok

    2016-07-28

    Hysteresis loop analysis via piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) is typically performed to probe the existence of ferroelectricity at the nanoscale. However, such an approach is rather complex in accurately determining the pure contribution of ferroelectricity to the PFM. Here, we suggest a facile method to discriminate the ferroelectric effect from the electromechanical (EM) response through the use of frequency dependent ac amplitude sweep with combination of hysteresis loops in PFM. Our combined study through experimental and theoretical approaches verifies that this method can be used as a new tool to differentiate the ferroelectric effect from the other factors that contribute to the EM response.

  20. Critical properties of a ferroelectric superlattice described by a transverse spin-1/2 Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabyaoui, A; Saber, M; Baerner, K; Ainane, A

    2007-01-01

    The phase transition properties of a ferroelectric superlattice with two alternating layers A and B described by a transverse spin-1/2 Ising model have been investigated using the effective field theory within a probability distribution technique that accounts for the self spin correlation functions. The Curie temperature T c , polarization and susceptibility have been obtained. The effects of the transverse field and the ferroelectric and antiferroelectric interfacial coupling strength between two ferroelectric materials are discussed. They relate to the physical properties of antiferroelectric/ferroelectric superlattices

  1. Direct evidence of strong local ferroelectric ordering in a thermoelectric semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, Leena; Sekhon, Jagmeet S.; Arora, Ashima; Sheet, Goutam, E-mail: goutam@iisermohali.ac.in [Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali (IISER M), Sector 81, S. A. S. Nagar, Manauli PO-140306 (India); Guin, Satya N.; Negi, Devendra S.; Datta, Ranjan; Biswas, Kanishka, E-mail: kanishka@jncasr.ac.in [New Chemistry Unit and International Centre for Materials Science, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR), Jakkur, Bangalore 560064 (India)

    2014-09-15

    It is thought that the proposed new family of multi-functional materials, namely, the ferroelectric thermoelectrics may exhibit enhanced functionalities due to the coupling of the thermoelectric parameters with ferroelectric polarization in solids. Therefore, the ferroelectric thermoelectrics are expected to be of immense technological and fundamental significance. As a first step towards this direction, it is most important to identify the existing high performance thermoelectric materials exhibiting ferroelectricity. Herein, through the direct measurement of local polarization switching, we show that the recently discovered thermoelectric semiconductor AgSbSe{sub 2} has local ferroelectric ordering. Using piezo-response force microscopy, we demonstrate the existence of nanometer scale ferroelectric domains that can be switched by external electric field. These observations are intriguing as AgSbSe{sub 2} crystalizes in cubic rock-salt structure with centro-symmetric space group (Fm–3m), and therefore, no ferroelectricity is expected. However, from high resolution transmission electron microscopy measurement, we found the evidence of local superstructure formation which, we believe, leads to local distortion of the centro-symmetric arrangement in AgSbSe{sub 2} and gives rise to the observed ferroelectricity. Stereochemically active 5S{sup 2} lone-pair of Sb may also give rise to local structural distortion thereby creating ferroelectricity in AgSbSe{sub 2}.

  2. Investigation of the switching characteristics in ferroelectrics by first-order reversal curve diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancu, Alexandru; Mitoseriu, Liliana; Stoleriu, Laurentiu; Piazza, Daniele; Galassi, Carmen; Ricinschi, Dan; Okuyama, Masanori

    2006-01-01

    First-order reversal curves (FORC) diagrams are proposed for describing the switching properties in ferroelectric materials. The method is applied for Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT) ferroelectric ceramics and films with different P(E) hysteresis and microstructural characteristics. The separation of the reversible and irreversible contributions to the ferroelectric polarization is explained in terms of microstructural characteristics of the investigated samples. The influence of parameters as field frequency, crystallite orientation, ferroelectric fatigue and porosity degree on the FORC diagrams is discussed

  3. Space-charge-mediated anomalous ferroelectric switching in P(VDF-TrEE) polymer films

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Weijin

    2014-11-12

    We report on the switching dynamics of P(VDF-TrEE) copolymer devices and the realization of additional substable ferroelectric states via modulation of the coupling between polarizations and space charges. The space-charge-limited current is revealed to be the dominant leakage mechanism in such organic ferroelectric devices, and electrostatic interactions due to space charges lead to the emergence of anomalous ferroelectric loops. The reliable control of ferroelectric switching in P(VDF-TrEE) copolymers opens doors toward engineering advanced organic memories with tailored switching characteristics.

  4. Depolarization corrections to the coercive field in thin-film ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawber, M; Chandra, P; Littlewood, P B; Scott, J F

    2003-01-01

    Empirically, the coercive field needed to reverse the polarization in a ferroelectric increases with decreasing film thickness. For ferroelectric films of 100 μm to 100 nm in thickness the coercive field has been successfully described by a semi-empirical scaling law. Accounting for depolarization corrections, we show that this scaling behaviour is consistent with field measurements of ultrathin ferroelectric capacitors down to one nanometre in film thickness. Our results also indicate that the minimum film thickness, determined by a polarization instability, can be tuned by the choice of electrodes, and recommendations for next-generation ferroelectric devices are discussed. (letter to the editor)

  5. Depolarization corrections to the coercive field in thin-film ferroelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Dawber, M; Littlewood, P B; Scott, J F

    2003-01-01

    Empirically, the coercive field needed to reverse the polarization in a ferroelectric increases with decreasing film thickness. For ferroelectric films of 100 mu m to 100 nm in thickness the coercive field has been successfully described by a semi-empirical scaling law. Accounting for depolarization corrections, we show that this scaling behaviour is consistent with field measurements of ultrathin ferroelectric capacitors down to one nanometre in film thickness. Our results also indicate that the minimum film thickness, determined by a polarization instability, can be tuned by the choice of electrodes, and recommendations for next-generation ferroelectric devices are discussed. (letter to the editor)

  6. Effect of extrapolation length on the phase transformation of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Z.S.; Tang, M.H.; Wang, J.B.; Zheng, X.J.; Zhou, Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of extrapolation length on the phase transformation of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films on dissimilar cubic substrates have been studied on the basis of the mean-field Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire (LGD) thermodynamic theory by taking an uneven distribution of the interior stress with thickness into account. It was found that the polarization of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films is strongly dependent on the extrapolation length of films. The physical origin of the extrapolation length during the phase transformation from paraelectric to ferroelectric was revealed in the case of ferroelectric thin films

  7. Interrelationship between flexoelectricity and strain gradient elasticity in ferroelectric nanofilms: A phase field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Limei; Xu, Xiaofei; Zhou, Yichun

    2016-12-01

    With the development of the integrated circuit technology and decreasing of the device size, ferroelectric films used in nano ferroelectric devices become thinner and thinner. Along with the downscaling of the ferroelectric film, there is an increasing influence of two strain gradient related terms. One is the strain gradient elasticity and the other one is flexoelectricity. To investigate the interrelationship between flexoelectricity and strain gradient elasticity and their combined effect on the domain structure in ferroelectric nanofilms, a phase field model of flexoelectricity and strain gradient elasticity on the ferroelectric domain evolution is developed based on Mindlin's theory of strain-gradient elasticity. Weak form is derived and implemented in finite element formulations for numerically solving the model equations. The simulation results show that upper bounds for flexoelectric coefficients can be enhanced by increasing strain gradient elasticity coefficients. While a large flexoelectricity that exceeds the upper bound can induce a transition from a ferroelectric state to a modulated/incommensurate state, a large enough strain gradient elasticity may lead to a conversion from an incommensurate state to a ferroelectric state. Strain gradient elasticity and the flexoelectricity have entirely opposite effects on polarization. The observed interrelationship between the strain gradient elasticity and flexoelectricity is rationalized by an analytical solution of the proposed theoretical model. The model proposed in this paper could help us understand the mechanism of phenomena observed in ferroelectric nanofilms under complex electromechanical loads and provide some guides on the practical application of ferroelectric nanofilms.

  8. Non-volatile memory based on the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; You, Lu; Zhou, Yang; Shiuh Lim, Zhi; Zou, Xi; Chen, Lang; Ramesh, R.; Wang, Junling

    2013-01-01

    The quest for a solid state universal memory with high-storage density, high read/write speed, random access and non-volatility has triggered intense research into new materials and novel device architectures. Though the non-volatile memory market is dominated by flash memory now, it has very low operation speed with ~10 μs programming and ~10 ms erasing time. Furthermore, it can only withstand ~105 rewriting cycles, which prevents it from becoming the universal memory. Here we demonstrate that the significant photovoltaic effect of a ferroelectric material, such as BiFeO3 with a band gap in the visible range, can be used to sense the polarization direction non-destructively in a ferroelectric memory. A prototype 16-cell memory based on the cross-bar architecture has been prepared and tested, demonstrating the feasibility of this technique. PMID:23756366

  9. Ferroelectric nanoparticle-embedded sponge structure triboelectric generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daehoon; Shin, Sung-Ho; Yoon, Ick-Jae; Nah, Junghyo

    2018-05-01

    We report high-performance triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) employing ferroelectric nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in a sponge structure. The ferroelectric BaTiO3 NPs inside the sponge structure play an important role in increasing surface charge density by polarized spontaneous dipoles, enabling the packaging of TENGs even with a minimal separation gap. Since the friction surfaces are encapsulated in the packaged device structure, it suffers negligible performance degradation even at a high relative humidity of 80%. The TENGs also demonstrated excellent mechanical durability due to the elasticity and flexibility of the sponge structure. Consequently, the TENGs can reliably harvest energy even under harsh conditions. The approach introduced here is a simple, effective, and reliable way to fabricate compact and packaged TENGs for potential applications in wearable energy-harvesting devices.

  10. One-dimensional thermodynamical model for poling of ferroelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassiouny, E.

    1990-11-01

    In this work, we use a model developed to deduce a one-dimensional model for the description of the poling of ferroelectric ceramics. This is built within the scheme of the thermodynamical theory of internal variables. The model produces both plastic and electric hysteresis effects in the form of ''plasticity'', i.e., rate-independent evolution equations for the plastic strain, and the residual electric polarization and both mechanical and electric hardenings. The influence of stresses on ferroelectric hysteresis loops through piezoelectricity and electrostriction is a natural outcome of this model. Some simple experimental methods for the determination of the material coefficients of the considered ceramics are suggested. (author). 21 refs, 3 figs

  11. Critical properties of symmetric nanoscale metal-ferroelectric-metal capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yue; Cai, M.Q.; Woo, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    The size, surface and interface effects on the magnitude and stability of spontaneous polarization in a symmetric nanoscale ferroelectric capacitor were studied by analyzing its evolutionary trajectory based on a thermodynamic model. Analytic expressions of the Curie temperature, spontaneous polarization, critical thickness and the Curie-Weiss relation were derived, taking into account the effects of the depolarization field, built-in electric field, interfaces and surfaces. Our results show that the critical properties are not only functions of the ambient temperature, misfit strain and electromechanical boundary conditions, but also depend on the characteristics of electrodes, surfaces and interfaces, through the incomplete charge compensation, near-surface variation of polarization and work function steps of ferroelectric-electrode interfaces, which are adjustable.

  12. Ferroelectric inverse opals with electrically tunable photonic band gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bo; Zhou Ji; Li Longtu; Wang Xingjun; Liu Xiaohan; Zi Jian

    2003-01-01

    We present a scheme for tuning the photonic band gap (PBG) by an external electric field in a ferroelectric inverse opal structure. The inverse opals, consisting of ferroelectric (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PLZT) ceramics, were synthesized by a sol-gel process. Optical reflection spectra show that the PBG of the PLZT inverse opals shifts continuously with the change in the applied electric field. As the photonic crystals (PCs) consist of the high-refractive-index constituent and possess an 'all-solid' structure, it should supply a more reliable mode to tune the PBG by the electric field for the superprism effect in PCs. It should be of high interest in device applications

  13. High T(sub c) superconductor/ferroelectric heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Daniel F., Jr.

    1994-12-01

    Thin films of the ferroelectric perovskite, Ba(x) Sr(1-x) TiO3 (BST), were deposited on superconducting (100)YBa2Cu3O(x)(YBCO)/ (100)Yttria-stabilized zirconia(YSZ) substrates and (100)Si by ion-beam sputtering. Microstructural and compositional features of the ceramic bilayer were assessed by a combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy. The films were smooth and featureless, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) data indicated that film composition closely matched target composition. XRD analysis showed that films deposited on YBCO substrates were highly c-axis textured, while the films deposited on (100)Si did not exhibit any preferred growth morphology. The superconducting properties of the YBCO substrate layer were maintained throughout the processing stages and, as such, it was demonstrated that ion beam sputtering is a viable method for the deposition of Ferroelectric/YBCO heterostructures.

  14. A finite element model of ferroelectric/ferroelastic polycrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HWANG,STEPHEN C.; MCMEEKING,ROBERT M.

    2000-02-17

    A finite element model of polarization switching in a polycrystalline ferroelectric/ferroelastic ceramic is developed. It is assumed that a crystallite switches if the reduction in potential energy of the polycrystal exceeds a critical energy barrier per unit volume of switching material. Each crystallite is represented by a finite element with the possible dipole directions assigned randomly subject to crystallographic constraints. The model accounts for both electric field induced (i.e. ferroelectric) switching and stress induced (i.e. ferroelastic) switching with piezoelectric interactions. Experimentally measured elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric constants are used consistently, but different effective critical energy barriers are selected phenomenologically. Electric displacement versus electric field, strain versus electric field, stress versus strain, and stress versus electric displacement loops of a ceramic lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) are modeled well below the Curie temperature.

  15. Fast Ferroelectric L-Band Tuner for Superconducting Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-07-03

    Design, analysis, and low-power tests are described on a ferroelectric tuner concept that could be used for controlling external coupling to RF cavities for the superconducting Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) in the electron cooler of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The tuner configuration utilizes several small donut-shaped ferroelectric assemblies, which allow the design to be simpler and more flexible, as compared to previous designs. Design parameters for 704 and 1300 MHz versions of the tuner are given. Simulation results point to efficient performance that could reduce by a factor-of-ten the RF power levels required for driving superconducting cavities in the BNL ERL.

  16. Fast Ferroelectric L-Band Tuner for Superconducting Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2012-01-01

    Design, analysis, and low-power tests are described on a ferroelectric tuner concept that could be used for controlling external coupling to RF cavities for the superconducting Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) in the electron cooler of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The tuner configuration utilizes several small donut-shaped ferroelectric assemblies, which allow the design to be simpler and more flexible, as compared to previous designs. Design parameters for 704 and 1300 MHz versions of the tuner are given. Simulation results point to efficient performance that could reduce by a factor-of-ten the RF power levels required for driving superconducting cavities in the BNL ERL.

  17. Tunable multiband ferroelectric devices for reconfigurable RF-frontends

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yuliang

    2013-01-01

    Reconfigurable RF-frontends aim to cope with the continuous pursuit of wider frequency coverage, higher efficiency, further compactness and lower cost of ownership. They are expected to lay the foundations of future software defined or cognitive radios. As a potential enabling technology for the frontends, the tunable ferroelectric devices have shown not only enhanced performance but also new functionalities. This book explores the recent developments in the field. It provides a cross-sectional perspective on the interdisciplinary research. With attention to the devices based on ceramic thick-films and crystal thin-films, the book reviews the adapted technologies of material synthesis, film deposition and multilayer circuitry. Next, it highlights the original classes of thin-film ferroelectric devices, including stratified metal-insulator-metal varactors with suppression of acoustic resonance and programmable bi-stable high frequency capacitors. At the end the book analyzes how the frontends can be reformed b...

  18. Analysis and Optimization of Thin Film Ferroelectric Phase Shifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.; VanKeuls, Fred W.; Warner, Joseph D.; Mueller, Carl H.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Miranda, Felix A.; Qureshi, A. Haq; Romanofsky, Robert R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Microwave phase shifters have been fabricated from (YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) or Au)/SrTiO3 and Au/Ba(x)Sr(1-x)TiO3 films on LaAlO3 and MgO substrates. These coupled microstrip devices rival the performance of their semiconductor counter-parts parts at Ku- and K-band frequencies. Typical insertion loss for room temperature ferroelectric phase shifters at K-band is approximately equal 5 dB. An experimental and theoretical investigation of these novel devices explains the role of the ferroelectric film in overall device performance. A roadmap to the development of a 3 dB insertion loss phase shifter that would enable a new type of phased array antenna is discussed.

  19. Novel Photovoltaic Devices Using Ferroelectric Material and Colloidal Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Young Hun

    As the global concern for the financial and environmental costs of traditional energy resources increases, research on renewable energy, most notably solar energy, has taken center stage. Many alternative photovoltaic (PV) technologies for 'the next generation solar cell' have been extensively studied to overcome the Shockley-Queisser 31% efficiency limit as well as tackle the efficiency vs. cost issues. This dissertation focuses on the novel photovoltaic mechanism for the next generation solar cells using two inorganic nanomaterials, nanocrystal quantum dots and ferroelectric nanoparticles. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) materials are widely studied and easy to synthesize using solution based chemistry. One of the fascinating properties of the PZT material is a Bulk Photovoltaic effect (BPVE). This property has been spotlighted because it can produce very high open circuit voltage regardless of the electrical bandgap of the materials. However, the poor optical absorption of the PZT materials and the required high temperature to form the ferroelectric crystalline structure have been obstacles to fabricate efficient photovoltaic devices. Colloidal quantum dots also have fascinating optical and electrical properties such as tailored absorption spectrum, capability of the bandgap engineering due to the wide range of material selection and quantum confinement, and very efficient carrier dynamics called multiple exciton generations. In order to utilize these properties, many researchers have put numerous efforts in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic research and there has been remarkable progress in the past decade. However, several drawbacks are still remaining to achieve highly efficient photovoltaic device. Traps created on the large surface area, low carrier mobility, and lower open circuit voltage while increasing the absorption of the solar spectrum is main issues of the nanocrystal based photovoltaic effect. To address these issues and to take the advantages of

  20. Band gap engineering strategy via polarization rotation in perovskite ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fenggong; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a strategy to engineer the band gaps of perovskite oxide ferroelectrics, supported by first principles calculations. We find that the band gaps of perovskites can be substantially reduced by as much as 1.2 eV through local rhombohedral-to-tetragonal structural transition. Furthermore, the strong polarization of the rhombohedral perovskite is largely preserved by its tetragonal counterpart. The B-cation off-center displacements and the resulting enhancement of the antibonding character in the conduction band give rise to the wider band gaps of the rhombohedral perovskites. The correlation between the structure, polarization orientation, and electronic structure lays a good foundation for understanding the physics of more complex perovskite solid solutions and provides a route for the design of photovoltaic perovskite ferroelectrics

  1. Raman spectroscopy study of Na.sub.1/2./sub.Bi.sub.1/2./sub.TiO.sub.3./sub.-BaTiO.sub.3./sub. lead-free single crystal relaxor piezoelectrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gregora, Ivan; Ondrejkovič, Petr; Simon, Elizabeth; Berta, Milan; Savinov, Maxim; Hlinka, Jiří; Luo, H.; Zhang, Q.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 404, č. 1 (2010), s. 220-2 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN301370701; GA ČR GA202/06/0411; GA ČR GD202/09/H041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : bismuth sodium niobate * lead-free titanates * relaxor * Raman spectra Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.511, year: 2010

  2. THIN FILMS OF A NEW ORGANIC SINGLE-COMPONENT FERROELECTRIC 2-METHYLBENZIMIDAZOLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Balashova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.We present results of structural and dielectric study of organic ferroelectric 2-methylbenzimidazole (MBI thin films. Method. The films have been grown on substrates of leuco-sapphire, fused and crystalline silica, neodymium gallate, bismuth germanate, gold, aluminium, platinum. The films have been grown by two different methods: substrate covering by ethanol solution of MBI and subsequent ethanol evaporation; sublimation at the temperature near 375 K under atmospheric pressure. Crystallographic orientation studies have been performed by means of «DRON-3» X-ray diffractometer, block structure of the films has been determined by «LaboPol-3» polarizing microscope. Small-signal dielectric response has been received with the use of «MIT 9216A» digital LCR-meter, while strong-signal dielectric response has been studied by Sawyer-Tower circuit. Main Resuts. We have shown that the films obtained by evaporation are continuous and textured. Obtained film structure depends on the concentration of the solution. Films may consist of blocks that are splitted crystals like spherulite. Spontaneous polarization components in such films may be directed both perpendicularly and in the film plane. We have also obtained structures consisting of single-crystal blocks with spontaneous polarization components being allocated in the film plane. Block sizes vary from a few to hundreds of microns. Films obtained by sublimation are amorphous or dendritic. The dielectric properties of the films obtained by evaporation have been studied. We have shown that the dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent increase under heating. The dielectric hysteresis loops are observed at the temperature equal to 291-379 K. The remnant polarization increases with temperature for constant amplitude of the external electric field, and achieves 4.5mC/cm2, while the coercive field remains constant. We propose that such behavior is explained by increase of the

  3. Tunable and stable in time ferroelectric imprint through polarization coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, Anirban; Koster, Gertjan; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Here we demonstrate a method to tune a ferroelectric imprint, which is stable in time, based on the coupling between the non-switchable polarization of ZnO and switchable polarization of PbZrxTi(1−x)O3. SrRuO3/PbZrxTi(1−x)O3/ZnO/SrRuO3 heterostructures were grown with different ZnO thicknesses. It

  4. Organic electronic memory based on a ferroelectric polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalbitz, R; Fruebing, P; Gerhard, R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht Str., 24-25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Taylor, D M, E-mail: d.m.taylor@bangor.ac.uk [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Dean Street, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 1UT (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-23

    Measurements of the capacitance of metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors and the output characteristics of thin film transistors based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) as the active semiconductor and poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene) as the gate insulator show that ferroelectric polarisation in the insulator is stable but that its effect when poled by depletion voltages is partially neutralised by trapping of electrons at or near the semiconductor interface. Nevertheless, the combination of materials is capable of providing an adequate memory function.

  5. Complex permittivity measurements of ferroelectric employing composite dielectric resonator technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krupka, J.; Zychowicz, T.; Bovtun, Viktor; Veljko, Sergiy

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 10 (2006), s. 1883-1888 ISSN 0885-3010 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010213; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/04/0993; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : dielectric resonator * ferroelectrics * microwave measurements Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.729, year: 2006

  6. Static negative capacitance of a ferroelectric nano-domain nucleus.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sluka, T.; Mokrý, Pavel; Setter, N.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 15 (2017), č. článku 152902. ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-32228S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Ferroelectric materials * Capacitors * Bipolar transistors * Electrodes * Dielectrics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.411, year: 2016

  7. On the persistence of polar domains in ultrathin ferroelectric capacitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zubko, P.; Lu, H.; Bark, C.-W.; Martí, Xavier; Santiso, J.; Eom, C.-B.; Catalan, G.; Gruverman, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 28 (2017), s. 1-8, č. článku 284001. ISSN 1361-648X R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37427G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ultrathin barium titanate * tunnel junctions * ferroelectric domains * polarization screening * retention * negative capacitance Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.)

  8. Ferroelectric Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam Charge Neutralization

    CERN Document Server

    Efthimion, Philip; Gilson, Erik P; Grisham, Larry; Logan, B G; Waldron, William; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Plasmas are employed as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams to allow them to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length ~ 0.1-1 m would be suitable. To produce 1 meter plasma, large-volume plasma sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics are being considered. These sources have the advantage of being able to increase the length of the plasma and operate at low neutral pressures. The source will utilize the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO3 to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) will be covered with ceramic. High voltage (~ 1-5 kV) is applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramic by placing a wire grid on the front surface. A prototype ferroelectric source 20 cm long produced plasma densities ~ 5x1011 cm-3. The source was integrated into the experiment and successfully charge neutralized the K ion beam. Presently, the 1 meter source ...

  9. Why is the electrocaloric effect so small in ferroelectrics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Verri, Gian G.; Littlewood, Peter B.

    2015-03-01

    Ferroelectrics are attractive candidate materials for environmentally friendly solid state refrigeration free of greenhouse gases. Their thermal response upon variations of external electric fields is largest in the vicinity of their phase transitions, which may occur near room temperature. The magnitude of the effect, however, is too small for useful cooling applications even when they are driven close to dielectric breakdown. Insight from microscopic theory is therefore needed to characterize materials and provide guiding principles to search for new ones with enhanced electrocaloric performance. Here, we present meaningful figures of merit derived from well-known microscopic models of ferroelectricity which provide insight into the relation between the strength of the effect and the characteristic interactions of ferroelectrics such as dipole forces. We find that the long range nature of these interactions results in a small effect. A strategy is proposed to make it larger by shortening the correlation lengths of fluctuations of polarization. Work at Argonne is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  10. Rewritable ferroelectric vortex pairs in BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Jin, Yaming; Lu, Xiaomei; Yang, Jan-Chi; Chu, Ying-Hao; Huang, Fengzhen; Zhu, Jinsong; Cheong, Sang-Wook

    2017-08-01

    Ferroelectric vortex in multiferroic materials has been considered as a promising alternative to current memory cells for the merit of high storage density. However, the formation of regular natural ferroelectric vortex is difficult, restricting the achievement of vortex memory device. Here, we demonstrated the creation of ferroelectric vortex-antivortex pairs in BiFeO3 thin films by using local electric field. The evolution of the polar vortex structure is studied by piezoresponse force microscopy at nanoscale. The results reveal that the patterns and stability of vortex structures are sensitive to the poling position. Consecutive writing and erasing processes cause no influence on the original domain configuration. The Z4 proper coloring vortex-antivortex network is then analyzed by graph theory, which verifies the rationality of artificial vortex-antivortex pairs. This study paves a foundation for artificial regulation of vortex, which provides a possible pathway for the design and realization of non-volatile vortex memory devices and logical devices.

  11. Ferroelectric materials for piezoelectric actuators by optimal design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayachandran, K.P.; Guedes, J.M.; Rodrigues, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Microstructure optimization of ferroelectric materials by stochastic optimization. → Polycrystalline ferroelectrics possess better piezo actuation than single crystals. → Randomness of the grain orientations would enhance the overall piezoelectricity. - Abstract: Optimization methods provide a systematic means of designing heterogeneous materials with tailored properties and microstructures focussing on a specific objective. An optimization procedure incorporating a continuum modeling is used in this work to identify the ideal orientation distribution of ferroelectrics (FEs) for application in piezoelectric actuators. Piezoelectric actuation is dictated primarily by the piezoelectric strain coefficients d iμ . Crystallographic orientation is inextricably related to the piezoelectric properties of FEs. This suggests that piezoelectric properties can be tailored by a proper choice of the parameters which control the orientation distribution. Nevertheless, this choice is complicated and it is impossible to analyze all possible combinations of the distribution parameters or the angles themselves. Stochastic optimization combined with a generalized Monte Carlo scheme is used to optimize the objective functions, the effective piezoelectric coefficients d 31 and d 15 . The procedure is applied to heterogeneous, polycrystalline, FE ceramics which are essentially an aggregate of variously oriented grains (crystallites). Global piezoelectric properties are calculated using the homogenization method at each grain configuration chosen by the optimization algorithm. Optimal design variables and microstructure that would generate polycrystalline configurations that multiply the macroscopic piezoelectricity are identified.

  12. Nanodomain Engineering in Ferroelectric Capacitors with Graphene Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haidong; Wang, Bo; Li, Tao; Lipatov, Alexey; Lee, Hyungwoo; Rajapitamahuni, Anil; Xu, Ruijuan; Hong, Xia; Farokhipoor, Saeedeh; Martin, Lane W; Eom, Chang-Beom; Chen, Long-Qing; Sinitskii, Alexander; Gruverman, Alexei

    2016-10-12

    Polarization switching in ferroelectric capacitors is typically realized by application of an electrical bias to the capacitor electrodes and occurs via a complex process of domain structure reorganization. As the domain evolution in real devices is governed by the distribution of the nucleation centers, obtaining a domain structure of a desired configuration by electrical pulsing is challenging, if not impossible. Recent discovery of polarization reversal via the flexoelectric effect has opened a possibility for deterministic control of polarization in ferroelectric capacitors. In this paper, we demonstrate mechanical writing of arbitrary-shaped nanoscale domains in thin-film ferroelectric capacitors with graphene electrodes facilitated by a strain gradient induced by a tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM). A phase-field modeling prediction of a strong effect of graphene thickness on the threshold load required to initiate mechanical switching has been confirmed experimentally. Deliberate voltage-free domain writing represents a viable approach for development of functional devices based on domain topology and electronic properties of the domains and domain walls.

  13. Above-room-temperature ferroelectricity and antiferroelectricity in benzimidazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Sachio; Kagawa, Fumitaka; Hatahara, Kensuke; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Kumai, Reiji; Murakami, Youichi; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2012-12-01

    The imidazole unit is chemically stable and ubiquitous in biological systems; its proton donor and acceptor moieties easily bind molecules into a dipolar chain. Here we demonstrate that chains of these amphoteric molecules can often be bistable in electric polarity and electrically switchable, even in the crystalline state, through proton tautomerization. Polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis experiments reveal a high electric polarization ranging from 5 to 10 μC cm-2 at room temperature. Of these molecules, 2-methylbenzimidazole allows ferroelectric switching in two dimensions due to its pseudo-tetragonal crystal symmetry. The ferroelectricity is also thermally robust up to 400 K, as is that of 5,6-dichloro-2-methylbenzimidazole (up to ~373 K). In contrast, three other benzimidazoles exhibit double P-E hysteresis curves characteristic of antiferroelectricity. The diversity of imidazole substituents is likely to stimulate a systematic exploration of various structure-property relationships and domain engineering in the quest for lead- and rare-metal-free ferroelectric devices.

  14. Intensive up-conversion photoluminescence of Er3+-doped Bi7Ti4NbO21 ferroelectric ceramics and its temperature sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The intensive up-conversion (UC photoluminescence and temperature sensing behavior of Er3+-doped Bi7Ti4NbO21(BTN ferroelectric ceramics prepared by a conventional solid-state reaction technique have been investigated. The X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscope analyses demonstrated that the Er3+-doped BTN ceramics are single phase and uniform flake-like structure. With the Er3+ ions doping, the intensive UC emission was observed without obviously changing the properties of ferroelectric. The optimal emission intensity was obtained when Er doping level was 15 mol.%. The temperature sensing behavior was studied by fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR technique of two green UC emission bands, and the experimental data fitted very well with the function of temperature in a range of 133–573 K. It suggested that the Er3+-doped BTN ferroelectric ceramics are very good candidates for applications such as optical thermometry, electro-optical devices and bio-imaging ceramics.

  15. Polarization fatigue in ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3-SrBi2Nb2O9 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namsar, Orapim; Pojprapai, Soodkhet; Watcharapasorn, Anucha; Jiansirisomboon, Sukanda

    2015-09-01

    Ferroelectric fatigue induced by cyclic electric loading of the (1- x)PZT- xSBN ceramics (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.3) have been investigated in comparison with pure PZT and SBN ceramics. The results showed that pure PZT ceramic possessed severe polarization fatigue after long bipolar switching pulses. This was mainly attributed to the appearance of microstructural damage at the near-electrode regions. Whereas, pure SBN ceramic exhibited no fatigue at least up to 1 × 106 switching cycles. The fatigue-free behavior of SBN ceramics was due primarily to weak domain wall pinning. PZT-SBN ceramics showed less polarization fatigue up to 1 × 106 switching cycles than pure PZT. This could be attributed to their low oxygen vacancy concentration. Therefore, this new ceramic PZT-SBN system seems to be an alternative material for replacing PZT in ferroelectric memory applications. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Anisotropic thermal properties and ferroelectric phase transitions in layered CuInP2S6 and CuInP2Se6 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubachko, V.; Shvalya, V.; Oleaga, A.; Salazar, A.; Kohutych, A.; Pogodin, A.; Vysochanskii, Yu. M.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity have been studied for the layered crystals CuInP2S6, CuInP2Se6 from 30 K to 350 K, showing a relevant thermal anisotropy. Heat is much more efficiently transferred within the layers than perpendicular to them. The ferrielectric transition in CuInP2S6 is proven to be clearly first order while the ferroelectric one in CuInP2Se6 has a weak first order character. The behavior of the thermal conductivity as a function of temperature in the ferroelectric phases shows that heat conduction is phonon driven. Disorder in the paraelectric phases due to hopping motions of Cu ions significantly reduces the thermal conductivity to extremely low values.

  17. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  18. Crystal structure, dielectric, ferroelectric and energy storage properties of La-doped BaTiO3 semiconducting ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Sreenivas Puli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline La-doped BaTiO3 (Ba(1-xLax\tTiO3 [x=0,0.0005,0.001,0.003] ceramics (denoted as BTO,BLT1,BLT2,BLT3 were synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and Raman spectroscopy. XRD and Raman spectra revealed single-phase tetragonal perovskite crystalline structure. Well-saturated polarization–electric field (P–E hysteresis loops were observed with the measurement frequency of 50 Hz at room temperature and confirmed ferroelectric nature of these ceramics and a high recoverable electrical energy storage density of 0.350 J/cm3 with energy efficiency (n∼9%, which is useful in energy storage capacitor applications. Dielectric studies revealed anomalies around 415–420 K and near the Curie temperature. The latter is attributed to the ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition. Better dielectric performances were obtained for La-doped samples sintered at 1350°C for 4 h. Grain growth is inhibited with lanthanum (La incorporation into the BTO lattice. Room temperature semiconducting behavior with positive temperature coefficient of resistivity (PTCR behavior at TC is attributed to electron compensation mechanism.

  19. Nonlinear modeling of ferroelectric-ferromagnetic composites based on condensed and finite element approaches (Presentation Video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricoeur, Andreas; Lange, Stephan; Avakian, Artjom

    2015-04-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) coupling is an inherent property of only a few crystals exhibiting very low coupling coefficients at low temperatures. On the other hand, these materials are desirable due to many promising applications, e.g. as efficient data storage devices or medical or geophysical sensors. Efficient coupling of magnetic and electric fields in materials can only be achieved in composite structures. Here, ferromagnetic (FM) and ferroelectric (FE) phases are combined e.g. including FM particles in a FE matrix or embedding fibers of the one phase into a matrix of the other. The ME coupling is then accomplished indirectly via strain fields exploiting magnetostrictive and piezoelectric effects. This requires a poling of the composite, where the structure is exposed to both large magnetic and electric fields. The efficiency of ME coupling will strongly depend on the poling process. Besides the alignment of local polarization and magnetization, it is going along with cracking, also being decisive for the coupling properties. Nonlinear ferroelectric and ferromagnetic constitutive equations have been developed and implemented within the framework of a multifield, two-scale FE approach. The models are microphysically motivated, accounting for domain and Bloch wall motions. A second, so called condensed approach is presented which doesn't require the implementation of a spatial discretisation scheme, however still considering grain interactions and residual stresses. A micromechanically motivated continuum damage model is established to simulate degradation processes. The goal of the simulation tools is to predict the different constitutive behaviors, ME coupling properties and lifetime of smart magnetoelectric devices.

  20. Interaction between depolarization effects, interface layer, and fatigue behavior in PZT thin film capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttger, U.; Waser, R.

    2017-07-01

    The existence of non-ferroelectric regions in ferroelectric thin films evokes depolarization effects leading to a tilt of the P(E) hysteresis loop. The analysis of measured hysteresis of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films is used to determine a depolarization factor which contains quantitative information about interfacial layers as well as ferroelectrically passive zones in the bulk. The derived interfacial capacitance is smaller than that estimated from conventional extrapolation techniques. In addition, the concept of depolarization is used for the investigation of fatigue behavior of PZT thin films indicating that the mechanism of seed inhibition, which is responsible for the effect, occurs in the entire film.

  1. Electromechanical properties of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-SrTiO3-PbTiO3 solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirskas, Šarūnas; Dunce, Marija; Birks, Eriks; Sternberg, Andris; Banys, Jūras

    2018-03-01

    Thorough studies of electric field-induced strain are presented in 0.4Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3-(0.6-x)SrTiO3-xPbTiO3 (NBT-ST-PT) ternary solid solutions. The increase of concentration of lead x induces crossover from relaxor to ferroelectric. Strain in a relaxor state can be described by electrostrictive behavior. The electrostrictive coefficients correspond to other well-known relaxor ferroelectrics. The concentration region with a stable ferroelectric phase revealed that the polarization dependence of strain does not exhibit nonlinearity, although they are inherent to the electric field dependence of strain. In this case, electric field dependence of strain is described in terms of the Rayleigh law and the role of domain wall contribution is extracted. Finally, the character of strain at the electric field-induced phase transition between the nonpolar and the ferroelectric states is studied. The data shows that in the vicinity of the electric field induced phase transition the strain vs. electric field displays electrostrictive character.

  2. High-performance solution-processed polymer ferroelectric field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, RCG; Tanase, C; Blom, PWM; Gelinck, GH; Marsman, AW; Touwslager, FJ; Setayesh, S; De Leeuw, DM; Naber, Ronald C.G.; Gelinck, Gerwin H.; Marsman, Albert W.; Touwslager, Fred J.

    We demonstrate a rewritable, non-volatile memory device with flexible plastic active layers deposited from solution. The memory device is a ferroelectric field-effect transistor (FeFET) made with a ferroelectric fluoropolymer and a bisalkoxy-substituted poly(p-phenylene vinylene) semiconductor

  3. Organic non-volatile memories from ferroelectric phase-separated blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Kamal; de Leeuw, Dago M.; de Boer, Bert; Blom, Paul W. M.

    2008-07-01

    New non-volatile memories are being investigated to keep up with the organic-electronics road map. Ferroelectric polarization is an attractive physical property as the mechanism for non-volatile switching, because the two polarizations can be used as two binary levels. However, in ferroelectric capacitors the read-out of the polarization charge is destructive. The functionality of the targeted memory should be based on resistive switching. In inorganic ferroelectrics conductivity and ferroelectricity cannot be tuned independently. The challenge is to develop a storage medium in which the favourable properties of ferroelectrics such as bistability and non-volatility can be combined with the beneficial properties provided by semiconductors such as conductivity and rectification. Here we present an integrated solution by blending semiconducting and ferroelectric polymers into phase-separated networks. The polarization field of the ferroelectric modulates the injection barrier at the semiconductor-metal contact. The combination of ferroelectric bistability with (semi)conductivity and rectification allows for solution-processed non-volatile memory arrays with a simple cross-bar architecture that can be read out non-destructively. The concept of an electrically tunable injection barrier as presented here is general and can be applied to other electronic devices such as light-emitting diodes with an integrated on/off switch.

  4. Pulse-modulated multilevel data storage in an organic ferroelectric resistive memory diode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Khikhlovskyi, V.; Kemerink, M.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Gelinck, G.H.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate multilevel data storage in organic ferroelectric resistive memory diodes consisting of a phase-separated blend of P(VDF-TrFE) and a semiconducting polymer. The dynamic behaviour of the organic ferroelectric memory diode can be described in terms of the inhomogeneous field mechanism

  5. Application of Dielectric, Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Thin Film Devices in Mobile Communication and Medical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klee, M.; Beelen, D.; Keurl, W.; Kiewitt, R.; Kumar, B.; Mauczok, R.; Reimann, K.; Renders, Ch.; Roest, A.; Roozeboom, F.; Steeneken, P.G.; Tiggelman, M.P.J.; Vanhelmont, F.; Wunnicke, O.; Lok, P.; Neumann, K.; Fraser, J.; Schmitz, G.

    2007-01-01

    Dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric thin films are getting more and more attention for next generation mobile communication and medical systems. Thin film technologies based on dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric thin films enable System-in-Package (SiP) devices, resulting in optimal

  6. Tunable Injection Barrier in Organic Resistive Switches Based on Phase-Separated Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asadi, Kamal; de Boer, Tom G.; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2009-01-01

    Organic non-volatile resistive bistable diodes based on phase-separated blends of ferroelectric and semiconducting polymers are fabricated. The polarization field of the ferroelectric modulates the injection barrier at the semiconductor-electrode contact and, hence, the resistance of the comprising

  7. Ferroelectric transistors with monolayer molybdenum disulfide and ultra-thin aluminum-doped hafnium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Wui Chung; Jiang, Hao; Liu, Jialun; Xia, Qiangfei; Zhu, Wenjuan

    2017-07-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate ferroelectric memory devices with monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as the channel material and aluminum (Al)-doped hafnium oxide (HfO2) as the ferroelectric gate dielectric. Metal-ferroelectric-metal capacitors with 16 nm thick Al-doped HfO2 are fabricated, and a remnant polarization of 3 μC/cm2 under a program/erase voltage of 5 V is observed. The capability of potential 10 years data retention was estimated using extrapolation of the experimental data. Ferroelectric transistors based on embedded ferroelectric HfO2 and MoS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition are fabricated. Clockwise hysteresis is observed at low program/erase voltages due to slow bulk traps located near the 2D/dielectric interface, while counterclockwise hysteresis is observed at high program/erase voltages due to ferroelectric polarization. In addition, the endurances of the devices are tested, and the effects associated with ferroelectric materials, such as the wake-up effect and polarization fatigue, are observed. Reliable writing/reading in MoS2/Al-doped HfO2 ferroelectric transistors over 2 × 104 cycles is achieved. This research can potentially lead to advances of two-dimensional (2D) materials in low-power logic and memory applications.

  8. Tunable injection barrier in organic resistive switches based on phase-separated ferroelectric-semiconductor blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asadi, K.; Boer, T.G. de; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2009-01-01

    Organic non-volatile resistive bistable diodes based on phase-separated blends of ferroelectric and semiconducting polymers are fabricated. The polarization field of the ferroelectric modulates the injection barrier at the semiconductor-electrode contact and, hence, the resistance of the comprising

  9. A thermally robust and thickness independent ferroelectric phase in laminated hafnium zirconium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riedel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ferroelectric properties in hafnium oxide based thin films have recovered the scaling potential for ferroelectric memories due to their ultra-thin-film- and CMOS-compatibility. However, the variety of physical phenomena connected to ferroelectricity allows a wider range of applications for these materials than ferroelectric memory. Especially mixed HfxZr1-xO2 thin films exhibit a broad compositional range of ferroelectric phase stability and provide the possibility to tailor material properties for multiple applications. Here it is shown that the limited thermal stability and thick-film capability of HfxZr1-xO2 can be overcome by a laminated approach using alumina interlayers.

  10. Giant enhancement in the ferroelectric field effect using a polarization gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Zongquan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Islam, Mohammad A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Physics, State University of New York at Oswego, Oswego, New York 13126 (United States); Spanier, Jonathan E., E-mail: spanier@drexel.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Physics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2015-10-19

    Coupling of switchable ferroelectric polarization with the carrier transport in an adjacent semiconductor enables a robust, non-volatile manipulation of the conductance in a host of low-dimensional systems, including the two-dimensional electron liquid that forms at the LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO)-SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) interface. However, strength of the gate-channel coupling is relatively weak, limited in part by the electrostatic potential difference across a ferroelectric gate. Here, through application of phenomenological Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory and self-consistent Poisson-Schrödinger model calculations, we show how compositional grading of PbZr{sub 1−x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} ferroelectric gates enables a more than twenty-five-fold increase in the LAO/STO channel conductance on/off ratios. Incorporation of polarization gradients in ferroelectric gates can enable breakthrough performance of ferroelectric non-volatile memories.

  11. Thick-film processing of Pb5Ge3O11-based ferroelectric glass-ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo, I.A.; Haun, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Processing techniques were investigated to produce c-axis orientation, or texture, of ferroelectric Pb 5 Ge 3 O 11 -based glass-ceramic compositions during crystallization of amorphous thick-film printed samples from the Pb 5 Ge 3 O 11 -PbTiO 3 (PG-PT) and Pb 5 Ge 3 O 11 -Pb(Zr 1/2 Ti 1/2 )O 3 (PG-PZT) systems. In these systems the PG crystallized into a ferroelectric phase, producing a multiple ferroelectric phase composite at low temperatures, PG-PT or PG-PZT. In this way the non-ferroelectric component of traditional ferroelectric glass-ceramics was eliminated

  12. Ferroelectric properties of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 films under ion-beam induced strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Kun; Nastasi, Michael

    2012-11-01

    The influence of an ion-beam induced biaxial stress on the ferroelectric and dielectric properties of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) films is investigated using the ion beam process as a novel approach to control external stress. Tensile stress is observed to decrease the polarization, permittivity, and ferroelectric fatigue resistance of the PZT films whose structure is monoclinic. However, a compressive stress increases all of them in monoclinic PZT films. The dependence of the permittivity on stress is found not to follow the phenomenological theory relating external forces to intrinsic properties of ferroelectric materials. Changes in the ferroelectric and dielectric properties indicate that the application of a biaxial stress modulates both extrinsic and intrinsic properties of PZT films. Different degrees of dielectric non-linearity suggests the density and mobility of non-180o domain walls, and the domain switching can be controlled by an applied biaxial stress and thereby influence the ferroelectric and dielectric properties.

  13. Theoretical Methods of Domain Structures in Ultrathin Ferroelectric Films: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyi Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This review covers methods and recent developments of the theoretical study of domain structures in ultrathin ferroelectric films. The review begins with an introduction to some basic concepts and theories (e.g., polarization and its modern theory, ferroelectric phase transition, domain formation, and finite size effects, etc. that are relevant to the study of domain structures in ultrathin ferroelectric films. Basic techniques and recent progress of a variety of important approaches for domain structure simulation, including first-principles calculation, molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo simulation, effective Hamiltonian approach and phase field modeling, as well as multiscale simulation are then elaborated. For each approach, its important features and relative merits over other approaches for modeling domain structures in ultrathin ferroelectric films are discussed. Finally, we review recent theoretical studies on some important issues of domain structures in ultrathin ferroelectric films, with an emphasis on the effects of interfacial electrostatics, boundary conditions and external loads.

  14. Complex Electric-Field Induced Phenomena in Ferroelectric/Antiferroelectric Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herchig, Ryan Christopher

    Perovskite ferroelectrics and antiferroelectrics have attracted a lot of attention owing to their potential for device applications including THz sensors, solid state cooling, ultra high density computer memory, and electromechanical actuators to name a few. The discovery of ferroelectricity at the nanoscale provides not only new and exciting possibilities for device miniaturization, but also a way to study the fundamental physics of nanoscale phenomena in these materials. Ferroelectric nanowires show a rich variety of physical characteristics which are advantageous to the design of nanoscale ferroelectric devices such as exotic dipole patterns, a strong dependence of the polarization and phonon frequencies on the electrical and mechanical boundary conditions, as well as a dependence of the transition temperatures on the diameter of the nanowire. Antiferroelectricity also exists at the nanoscale and, due to the proximity in energy of the ferroelectric and antiferroelectric phases, a phase transition from the ferroelectric to the antiferroelectric phase can be facilitated through the application of the appropriate mechanical and electrical boundary conditions. While much progress has been made over the past several decades to understand the nature of ferroelectricity/antiferroelectricity in nanowires, many questions remain unanswered. In particular, little is known about how the truncated dimensions affect the soft mode frequency dynamics or how various electrical and mechanical boundary conditions might change the nature of the phase transitions in these ferroelectric nanowires. Could nanowires offer a distinct advantage for solid state cooling applications? Few studies have been done to elucidate the fundamental physics of antiferroelectric nanowires. How the polarization in ferroelectric nanowires responds to a THz electric field remains relatively underexplored as well. In this work, the aim is to to develop and use computational tools that allow first

  15. Ferroelectric, magnetic and structural studies of the Bi{sub 4}LaSmFe{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 18} multiferroic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcón-Suesca, C.E. [Fachgebiet Synthese und Charakterisierung Innovatiert Materialien, Chemistry Department, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstrasse D-85748, Garching (Germany); Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 5997 Bogotá DC (Colombia); Cardona-Vásquez, J.A. [Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 5997 Bogotá DC (Colombia); Salcedo-Fontecha, J.P.; Vargas-Jiménez, A. [Maestría en Ciencias Física, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 5997 Bogotá DC (Colombia); Landínez-Téllez, D.A.; Roa-Rojas, J. [Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 5997 Bogotá DC (Colombia)

    2014-12-15

    We report the synthesis and characterization of the new Bi{sub 4}LaSmFe{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 18} ferroelectric ceramic. X-ray characterization reveals reflections for layered perovskite Aurivillius system. Rietveld analyses of the powder pattern shows that Bi{sub 4}LaSmFe{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 18} crystallizes in orthorhombic structure, which corresponds to the space group F2/mm (#42), with lattice parameters a=5.4240(16) Ǻ, b=5.4078(23) Ǻ and c=50.2440(12) Ǻ. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals the formation of dense material with plate-like morphology. Electric polarization curves were measured by means of a radiant ferroelectric tester, at room temperature in bulk samples and exhibit an intrinsic ferroelectric response, even at low applied fields. Measurements of the magnetization as a function of temperature after Zero field cooling and field cooling were carried out by using a MPMS Quantum Design SQUID magnetometer. We found an effective magnetic moment of 7.95 µB, which is 95.8% in agreement with the expected value calculated from Hund's rules. Magnetization curves as the function of applied fields reveal an incipient hysteretic behavior at room temperature.

  16. Upconversion luminescence, ferroelectrics and piezoelectrics of Er Doped SrBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Dengfeng [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Kyushu, 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Zou Hua; Wang Xusheng; Yao Xi [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xu Chaonan [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Kyushu, 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Lin Jian; Sun Tiantuo [School of Material Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 Cao' an Highway, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Er{sup 3+} doped SrBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} (SBT) bismuth layered-structure ferroelectric ceramics were synthesized by the traditional solid-state method, and their upconversion photoluminescent (UC) properties were investigated as a function of Er{sup 3+} concentration and incident pump power. Green (555 nm) and red (670 nm) emission bands were obtained under 980 nm excitation at room temperature, which corresponded to the radiative transitions from {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}, and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} to {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, respectively. The emission color of the samples could be changed with moderating the doping concentrations. The dependence of UC intensity on pumping power indicated a two-photon emission process. Studies on dielectric properties indicated that the introduction of Er increased the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition temperature (Tc) of SBT, thus making this ceramic suitable for piezoelectric sensor applications at higher temperatures. Piezoelectric measurement showed that the doped SBT had a relative higher piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} compared with the non-doped ceramics. The thermal annealing behaviors of the doped sample revealed a stable piezoelectric property. The doped SBT showed bright UC emission while simultaneously having increased Tc and d{sub 33}. As a multifunctional material, Er doped SBT ferroelectric oxide showed great potential in application of sensor, future optical-electro integration and coupling devices.

  17. Ferroelectric domains and phase evolution in (Fe:) KTa{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hongyang; Cai, Kang; Fan, Ziran; Huang, Zhideng [Hubei Key Laboratory of Plasma Chemistry and Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, 693 Xiongchu Road, Wuhan 430073 (China); Ma, Zhibin, E-mail: mazb@wit.edu.cn [Hubei Key Laboratory of Plasma Chemistry and Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, 693 Xiongchu Road, Wuhan 430073 (China); Jia, Tingting; Kimura, Hideo [National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Yang, Yuguo [New Materials Research Institute, Shandong Academy of Sciences, No. 19, Keyuan Road, Jinan 250014 (China); Matsumoto, Takao; Tohei, Tetsuya; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi [Institute of Engineering Innovation, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • Three phase transitions were observed: the R–O, O–T, T–C evolutions. • KTN ferroelectric domain switching is because of the nano-polar-regions. • The domain evolution showed KTN has triangle shape, but Fe: KTN has straight line. - Abstract: The domain structures and phase evolution in mixed ferroelectric (Fe): KTa{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} (KTN) crystals were investigated. Temperature dependent Raman spectra show that Curie temperatures of KTN and Fe: KTN are far below room temperature, but the ferroelectric domain switching was still visualized by scanning probe microscopy at room temperature. These observed domains origin from the nano-regions near the grain boundaries. In addition, the intrinsic domains (triangle for KTN and straight line/stripe for Fe: KTN) could only be observed at low temperature by transmission electron microscopy. Three phase transitions in Fe: KTN crystals were found by Raman spectroscopy and dielectric testing: 175 K for Rhombohedral-to-Orthorhombic (R–O), 210 K for Orthorhombic-to-Tetragonal (O–T) and 250 K for Tetragonal-to-Cubic (T–C), which is consistent with the domain behavior.

  18. Ferroelectric plasma source for heavy ion beam space charge neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik P.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Grisham, Larry; Grant Logan, B.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William; Yu, Simon S.

    2007-01-01

    Plasmas are a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing intense heavy ion beams to allow them to focus to a small spot size and compress their axial pulse length. The plasma source should be able to operate at low neutral pressures and without strong externally applied electric or magnetic fields. To produce 1 m-long plasma columns, sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics with large dielectric coefficients are being developed. The sources utilize the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO 3 to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) will be covered with ceramic material, and high voltage (∼7 kV) will be applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramics. A prototype ferroelectric source, 20 cm in length, has produced plasma densities of 5x10 11 cm -3 . It was integrated into the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX), and successfully charge neutralized the K + ion beam. A 1 m-long source comprised of five 20-cm-long sources has been tested. Simply connecting the five sources in parallel to a single pulse forming network power supply yielded non-uniform performance due to the time-dependent nature of the load that each of the five plasma sources experiences. Other circuit combinations have been considered, including powering each source by its own supply. The 1-m-long source has now been successfully characterized, producing relatively uniform plasma over the 1 m length of the source in the mid-10 10 cm -3 density range. This source will be integrated into the NDCX device for charge neutralization and beam compression experiments

  19. Nanopatterned ferroelectrics for ultrahigh density rad-hard nonvolatile memories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Stevens, Jeffrey; Scrymgeour, David; Gin, Aaron V.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew

    2010-09-01

    Radiation hard nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM) is a crucial component for DOE and DOD surveillance and defense applications. NVRAMs based upon ferroelectric materials (also known as FERAMs) are proven to work in radiation-rich environments and inherently require less power than many other NVRAM technologies. However, fabrication and integration challenges have led to state-of-the-art FERAMs still being fabricated using a 130nm process while competing phase-change memory (PRAM) has been demonstrated with a 20nm process. Use of block copolymer lithography is a promising approach to patterning at the sub-32nm scale, but is currently limited to self-assembly directly on Si or SiO{sub 2} layers. Successful integration of ferroelectrics with discrete and addressable features of {approx}15-20nm would represent a 100-fold improvement in areal memory density and would enable more highly integrated electronic devices required for systems advances. Towards this end, we have developed a technique that allows us to carry out block copolymer self-assembly directly on a huge variety of different materials and have investigated the fabrication, integration, and characterization of electroceramic materials - primarily focused on solution-derived ferroelectrics - with discrete features of {approx}20nm and below. Significant challenges remain before such techniques will be capable of fabricating fully integrated NVRAM devices, but the tools developed for this effort are already finding broader use. This report introduces the nanopatterned NVRAM device concept as a mechanism for motivating the subsequent studies, but the bulk of the document will focus on the platform and technology development.

  20. Directly patternable high refractive index ferroelectric sol–gel resist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garoli, D., E-mail: denis.garoli@iit.it [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 16, 16136 Genova (Italy); Della Giustina, G. [Industrial Engineering Department, University of Padova and INSTM, Via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    The development of a ferroelectric negative tone sol–gel resist for Ultraviolet (UV) and Electron Beam (EB) lithography is presented. A new system based on Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT, with formula PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3}) was synthesized by sol–gel method. The lithographic performances were investigated and several structures spanning from the micron range down to less than 50 nm have been achieved by UV and EB lithography. The system interaction with UV light and Electron beam was thoroughly characterized by FT-IT spectroscopy. The exposed PZT was annealed at high temperatures in order to study the crystalline phase evolution, the optical constants values and stability of patterned structures. After exposure and annealing, the refractive index of the material can vary from 1.68 up to 2.33 (@400 nm), while the ferroelectric behaviour seems to be maintained after high temperature annealing. These results suggest a possible application of PZT resist not only as ferroelectric but also as nanopatternable high refractive index material. Moreover, direct nanopatterning by means of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) lithography was verified and the potentiality for the preparation of high aspect ratio hollow nanostructures will be presented. - Highlights: • A new formula directly patternable PZT high refractive index resist is presented. • The gel is sensitive to both UV and electron beam exposure. • The refractive index can vary from 1.68 up to 2.33 (@400 nm). • Direct nanopatterning by means of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) lithography was verified. • High aspect ratio hollow nanostructures will be presented.