Relaxation Treatment for Insomnia: A Component Analysis.
Woolfolk, Robert L.; McNulty, Terrence F.
1983-01-01
Compared four relaxation treatments for sleep onset insomnia with a waiting-list control. Treatments varied in presence or absence of muscular tension-release instructions and in foci of attention. Results showed all treatment conditions reduced latency of sleep onset and fatigue; visual focusing best reduced the number of nocturnal awakenings.…
Control of relaxation cracking in austenitic high temperature components
Wortel, J.C. van
2007-01-01
The degradation mechanism "relaxation cracking" is acting in austenitic components operating between 550°C (1020°F) and 750°C (1380°F). The brittle failures are always located in cold formed areas or in welded joints and are mostly addressed within 1 year service. More than 10 different names can be
Control of relaxation cracking in austenitic high temperature components
Wortel, J.C. van
2007-01-01
The degradation mechanism "relaxation cracking" is acting in austenitic components operating between 550°C (1020°F) and 750°C (1380°F). The brittle failures are always located in cold formed areas or in welded joints and are mostly addressed within 1 year service. More than 10 different names can be
13C NMR relaxation studies on cartilage and cartilage components.
Naji, L; Kaufmann, J; Huster, D; Schiller, J; Arnold, K
2000-08-07
We have investigated the molecular motions of polysaccharides of bovine nasal and pig articular cartilage by measuring the 13C NMR relaxation times (T1 and T2). Both types of cartilage differ significantly towards their collagen/glycosaminoglycan ratio, leading to different NMR spectra. As chondroitin sulfate is the main constituent of cartilage, aqueous solutions of related poly- and monosaccharides (N-acetylglucosamine and glucuronic acid) were also investigated. Although there are only slight differences in T1 relaxation of the mono- and the polysaccharides, T2 decreases about one order of magnitude, when glucuronic acid or N-acetylglucosamine and chondroitin sulfate are compared. It is concluded that the ring carbons are motion-restricted primarily by the embedment in the rigid pyranose structure and, thus, additional limitations of mobility do not more show a major effect. Significant differences were observed between bovine nasal and pig articular cartilage, resulting in a considerable line-broadening and a lower signal to noise ratio in the spectra of pig articular cartilage. This is most likely caused by the higher collagen content of articular cartilage in comparison to the polysaccharide-rich bovine nasal cartilage.
Efficient and robust relaxation procedures for multi-component mixtures including phase transition
Han, Ee, E-mail: eehan@math.uni-bremen.de [Zentrum für Technomathematik, Universität Bremen, Bibliothekstraße 1, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Hantke, Maren, E-mail: maren.hantke@ovgu.de [Institut für Analysis und Numerik, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, PSF 4120, D-39016 Magdeburg (Germany); Müller, Siegfried, E-mail: mueller@igpm.rwth-aachen.de [Institut für Geometrie und Praktische Mathematik, RWTH Aachen University, Templergraben 55, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)
2017-06-01
We consider a thermodynamic consistent multi-component model in multi-dimensions that is a generalization of the classical two-phase flow model of Baer and Nunziato. The exchange of mass, momentum and energy between the phases is described by additional source terms. Typically these terms are handled by relaxation procedures. Available relaxation procedures suffer from efficiency and robustness resulting in very costly computations that in general only allow for one-dimensional computations. Therefore we focus on the development of new efficient and robust numerical methods for relaxation processes. We derive exact procedures to determine mechanical and thermal equilibrium states. Further we introduce a novel iterative method to treat the mass transfer for a three component mixture. All new procedures can be extended to an arbitrary number of inert ideal gases. We prove existence, uniqueness and physical admissibility of the resulting states and convergence of our new procedures. Efficiency and robustness of the procedures are verified by means of numerical computations in one and two space dimensions. - Highlights: • We develop novel relaxation procedures for a generalized, thermodynamically consistent Baer–Nunziato type model. • Exact procedures for mechanical and thermal relaxation procedures avoid artificial parameters. • Existence, uniqueness and physical admissibility of the equilibrium states are proven for special mixtures. • A novel iterative method for mass transfer is introduced for a three component mixture providing a unique and admissible equilibrium state.
The thermal characterization of multi-component systems by enthalpy relaxation
Brinke, Gerrit ten; Oudhuis, Lizette; Ellis, Thomas S.
1994-01-01
The phenomenon of enthalpy relaxation of amorphous glassy polymers has been developed into an analytical tool which can be applied to elucidate phase behavior and morphologically related phenomena of multi-component systems. We have both reviewed the experimental details concerning its application,
Structure Analysis of Network Traffic Matrix Based on Relaxed Principal Component Pursuit
Wang, Zhe; Xu, Ke; Yin, Baolin
2011-01-01
The network traffic matrix is a kind of flow-level Internet traffic data and is widely applied to network operation and management. It is a crucial problem to analyze the composition and structure of traffic matrix; some mathematical approaches such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used to handle that problem. In this paper, we first argue that PCA performs poorly for analyzing traffic matrixes polluted by large volume anomalies, then propose a new composition model of the network traffic matrix. According to our model, structure analysis can be formally defined as decomposing a traffic matrix into low-rank, sparse, and noise sub-matrixes, which is equal to the Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) problem defined in [13]. Based on the Relaxed Principal Component Pursuit (Relaxed PCP) method and the Accelerated Proximal Gradient (APG) algorithm, an iterative algorithm for decomposing a traffic matrix is presented, and our experiment results demonstrate its efficiency and flexibility. At last, f...
Esposito, Fabio; Cè, Emiliano; Rampichini, Susanna; Limonta, Eloisa; Venturelli, Massimo; Monti, Elena; Bet, Luciano; Fossati, Barbara; Meola, Giovanni
2016-01-01
The electromechanical delay during muscle contraction and relaxation can be partitioned into mainly electrochemical and mainly mechanical components by an EMG, mechanomyographic, and force combined approach. Component duration and measurement reliability were investigated during contraction and relaxation in a group of patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1, n = 13) and in healthy controls (n = 13). EMG, mechanomyogram, and force were recorded in DM1 and in age- and body-matched controls from tibialis anterior (distal muscle) and vastus lateralis (proximal muscle) muscles during maximum voluntary and electrically-evoked isometric contractions. The electrochemical and mechanical components of the electromechanical delay during muscle contraction and relaxation were calculated off-line. Maximum strength was significantly lower in DM1 than in controls under both experimental conditions. All electrochemical and mechanical components were significantly longer in DM1 in both muscles. Measurement reliability was very high in both DM1 and controls. The high reliability of the measurements and the differences between DM1 patients and controls suggest that the EMG, mechanomyographic, and force combined approach could be utilized as a valid tool to assess the level of neuromuscular dysfunction in this pathology, and to follow the efficacy of pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions.
Efficient and robust relaxation procedures for multi-component mixtures including phase transition
Han, Ee; Hantke, Maren; Müller, Siegfried
2017-06-01
We consider a thermodynamic consistent multi-component model in multi-dimensions that is a generalization of the classical two-phase flow model of Baer and Nunziato. The exchange of mass, momentum and energy between the phases is described by additional source terms. Typically these terms are handled by relaxation procedures. Available relaxation procedures suffer from efficiency and robustness resulting in very costly computations that in general only allow for one-dimensional computations. Therefore we focus on the development of new efficient and robust numerical methods for relaxation processes. We derive exact procedures to determine mechanical and thermal equilibrium states. Further we introduce a novel iterative method to treat the mass transfer for a three component mixture. All new procedures can be extended to an arbitrary number of inert ideal gases. We prove existence, uniqueness and physical admissibility of the resulting states and convergence of our new procedures. Efficiency and robustness of the procedures are verified by means of numerical computations in one and two space dimensions.
Antonio Barbon
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR is a powerful technique that is suitable to study graphene-related materials. The challenging ability requested to the spectroscopy is its capability to resolve the variety of structures, relatively similar, that are obtained in materials produced through different methods, but that also coexist inside a single sample. In general, because of the intrinsic inhomogeneity of the samples, the EPR spectra are therefore a superposition of spectra coming from different structures. We show that by pulse EPR techniques (echo-detected EPR, ESEEM and Mims ENDOR we can identify and characterize species with slow spin relaxing properties. These species are generally called molecular states, and are likely small pieces of graphenic structures of limited dimensions, thus conveniently described by a molecular approach. We have studied commercial reduced graphene oxide and chemically exfoliated graphite, which are characterized by different EPR spectra. Hyperfine spectroscopies enabled us to characterize the molecular components of the different materials, especially in terms of the interaction of the unpaired electrons with protons (number of protons and hyperfine coupling constants. We also obtained useful precious information about extent of delocalization of the molecular states.
Townsend, Elizabeth A; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Carrie; Wakita, Ryo; Emala, Charles W
2014-01-01
β-Agonists are the first-line therapy to alleviate asthma symptoms by acutely relaxing the airway. Purified components of ginger relax airway smooth muscle (ASM), but the mechanisms are unclear. By elucidating these mechanisms, we can explore the use of phytotherapeutics in combination with traditional asthma therapies. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine if 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, or 6-shogaol potentiate β-agonist-induced ASM relaxation; and (2) define the mechanism(s) of action responsible for this potentiation. Human ASM was contracted in organ baths. Tissues were relaxed dose dependently with β-agonist, isoproterenol, in the presence of vehicle, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, or 6-shogaol (100 μM). Primary human ASM cells were used for cellular experiments. Purified phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4D or phospholipase C β enzyme was used to assess inhibitory activity of ginger components using fluorescent assays. A G-LISA assay was used to determine the effects of ginger constituents on Ras homolog gene family member A activation. Significant potentiation of isoproterenol-induced relaxation was observed with each of the ginger constituents. 6-Shogaol showed the largest shift in isoproterenol half-maximal effective concentration. 6-Gingerol, 8-gingerol, or 6-shogaol significantly inhibited PDE4D, whereas 8-gingerol and 6-shogaol also inhibited phospholipase C β activity. 6-Shogaol alone inhibited Ras homolog gene family member A activation. In human ASM cells, these constituents decreased phosphorylation of 17-kD protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitory protein of type 1 protein phosphatase and 8-gingerol decreased myosin light chain phosphorylation. Isolated components of ginger potentiate β-agonist-induced relaxation in human ASM. This potentiation involves PDE4D inhibition and cytoskeletal regulatory proteins. Together with β-agonists, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, or 6-shogaol may augment existing asthma therapy, resulting in relief of symptoms through
Roberts, R.E., E-mail: Richard.roberts@nottingham.ac.uk; Allen, S.; Chang, A.P.Y.; Henderson, H.; Hobson, G.C.; Karania, B.; Morgan, K.N.; Pek, A.S.Y.; Raghvani, K.; Shee, C.Y.; Shikotra, J.; Street, E.; Abbas, Z.; Ellis, K.; Heer, J.K.; Alexander, S.P.H., E-mail: steve.alexander@nottingham.ac.uk
2013-11-01
German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), a widely-used herbal medicine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological effects, including smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of representative compounds from chamomile (apigenin, luteolin, (−)-α-bisabolol, farnesene, umbelliferone; 3–30 μM) on vascular tone using porcine coronary and splenic arteries mounted for isometric tension recording in isolated tissue baths and precontracted with the thromboxane-mimetic U46619. Apigenin, luteolin, and (−)-α-bisabolol produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in both the coronary and splenic arteries that were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase or potassium channels. Removal of extracellular calcium inhibited the relaxations to all three compounds, and these compounds also inhibited calcium re-addition-evoked contractions, indicating that the relaxation response may be mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Apigenin and luteolin, but not (−)-α-bisabolol, enhanced the relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, indicating that apigenin and luteolin may act to regulate cyclic GMP levels. Umbelliferone produced a rapid, transient relaxation in the splenic artery, but not the coronary artery, that was inhibited by L-NAME and removal of the endothelium, suggesting an influence on nitric oxide production. Farnesene, at concentrations up to 30 μM, was without effect in either blood vessel. In conclusion, hydroxylated compounds (apigenin, luteolin and (−)-α-bisabolol) found in chamomile all caused a slow relaxation of isolated blood vessels through an effect on calcium influx. Umbelliferone, on the other hand, produced a rapid, transient relaxation dependent upon release of nitric oxide from the endothelium. - Highlights: • Apigenin, luteolin, and (-)-α-bisabolol are present in chamomile. • They produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in arteries. • These
MECHANICAL RELAXATION TIME OF A TWO-COMPONENT EPOXY NETWORK-LiClO4 POLYMER ELECTROLYTE
PENG Xinsheng; WU Shuyun; CHEN Donglin
1993-01-01
The mechanical relaxation time of a two-component epoxy network-LiClO4 system as a polymer electrolyte was investigated.The network is composed of diglycidyl ether of polyethylene glycol (DGEPEG) and triglycidyl ether of glycerol (TGEG),wherein LiClO4 was incorporated and acts as both the ionic carrier and the curing catalyst.As the relaxation time is informative to the segmental mobility,which is known to be essential for ionic conductivity,the average relaxation times of the specimens were determined through master curve construction.Experimental results showed that the salt concentration,molecular weight of PEG in DGEPEG and DGEPEG/TGEG ratio have profound effect on the relaxation time of the specimen.Among these factors,the former reinforces the network hains,leading to lengthen the relaxation time,whereas the latter two are in favour of the chain flexibility and show an opposite effect.The findings was rationalized in terms of the free volume concept.
Wan Xuewen; Kossler, William J.; Stronach, Carey E.; Noakes, David R. [College of William and Mary, Physics Department (United States)
1999-11-15
Zero-field muon spin relaxation (ZF-{mu}SR) data for dilute spin magnetic systems have been widely interpreted with what is called a Kubo-Toyabe form based on a Lorentzian distribution of local field components. We derive here the proper magnetic field magnitude distribution using independent and uncorrelated component distributions. Our result is then compared to the previously accepted formula for ZF-{mu}SR. We discuss the origins of the magnetic field component and magnitude distributions. Further, we found that after rescaling the magnetic field, the differences that are amenable to experimental examination are quite small, although the interpretations behind them are quite different.
Martínez-García, Julio C; Tamarit, Josep Ll; Pardo, Luis C; Barrio, María; Rzoska, Sylwester J; Droz-Rzoska, Aleksandra
2010-05-13
The dynamics of the pure compounds and mixed crystals formed between cycloheptanol (cC7-ol) and cyclooctanol (cC8-ol) has been studied by means of broadband dielectric spectroscopy at temperatures near and above the orientational glass transition temperature. Both compounds are known to display at least one orientationally disordered (OD) phase of simple cubic symmetry, and within this phase, a continuous formation of mixed crystals was demonstrated in the past (Rute, M. A. et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2003, 107, 5914). The dielectric loss spectra of cC7-ol and cC8-ol show, in addition to the well-pronounced alpha-relaxation peaks with a continuous temperature shift (characteristic of the freezing of the molecular dynamics), secondary relaxations (beta and gamma for cC8-ol and gamma for cC7-ol) which are intramolecular in nature. The dynamics of several OD mixed crystals was recently studied (Singh, L. P.; Murthy, S. S. N. J. Phys. Chem. B 2008, 112, 2606), and surprisingly enough one of the secondary relaxations was not evidenced. We show here by means of a careful set of measurements for several mixed crystals and of a detailed analysis procedure the existence of the secondary relaxations for the mixed crystals. The results, moreover, doubtless reinforce the physical origin of each of the secondary relaxations.
Lamarre, Neil S; Parry, Tom; Tallarida, Ronald J
2011-11-16
In this communication we show that the same principle that underlies the use of the isobolograph for assessing agonist interactions also leads to a method for analyzing the opposing effects of a single agonist. This is the principle of dose equivalence whose application is illustrated here and applied to the endothelium-dependent relaxing component of two putative vasoconstrictor peptides. These studies, employing angiotensin II and endothelin-1, were conducted with isolated preparations of rat aorta that were measured for agonist-induced isometric tension development in both endothelial-denuded and -intact vessels. The dose-effect relation of the relaxing component of each agonist, which should not be calculated from simple effect subtraction, was derived by the method described here.
Saxena, Vikrant, E-mail: vikrant.saxena@desy.de [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Center for Ultrafast Imaging, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Ziaja, Beata, E-mail: ziaja@mail.desy.de [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Center for Ultrafast Imaging, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland)
2016-01-15
The irradiation of an atomic cluster with a femtosecond x-ray free-electron laser pulse results in a nanoplasma formation. This typically occurs within a few hundred femtoseconds. By this time the x-ray pulse is over, and the direct photoinduced processes no longer contributing. All created electrons within the nanoplasma are thermalized. The nanoplasma thus formed is a mixture of atoms, electrons, and ions of various charges. While expanding, it is undergoing electron impact ionization and three-body recombination. Below we present a hydrodynamic model to describe the dynamics of such multi-component nanoplasmas. The model equations are derived by taking the moments of the corresponding Boltzmann kinetic equations. We include the equations obtained, together with the source terms due to electron impact ionization and three-body recombination, in our hydrodynamic solver. Model predictions for a test case, expanding spherical Ar nanoplasma, are obtained. With this model, we complete the two-step approach to simulate x-ray created nanoplasmas, enabling computationally efficient simulations of their picosecond dynamics. Moreover, the hydrodynamic framework including collisional processes can be easily extended for other source terms and then applied to follow relaxation of any finite non-isothermal multi-component nanoplasma with its components relaxed into local thermodynamic equilibrium.
Kuribayashi, Ryuma; Nittono, Hiroshi
2017-01-01
sound sources in which such components are artificially cut off, suggesting that high-resolution audio with inaudible high-frequency components induces a relaxed attentional state without conscious awareness. PMID:28203213
Kuribayashi, Ryuma; Nittono, Hiroshi
2017-01-01
sources in which such components are artificially cut off, suggesting that high-resolution audio with inaudible high-frequency components induces a relaxed attentional state without conscious awareness.
Fantazzini, Paola; Galassi, Francesca; Bortolotti, Villiam; Brown, Robert J. S.; Vittur, Franco
2011-06-01
When inverting nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation data in order to obtain quasi-continuous distributions of relaxation times for fluids in porous media, it is common practice to impose a non-negative (NN) constraint on the distributions. While this approach can be useful in reducing the effects of data distortion and/or preventing wild oscillations in the distributions, it may give misleading results in the presence of real negative amplitude components. Here, some examples of valid negative components for articular cartilage and hydrated collagen are given. Articular cartilage is a connective tissue, consisting mainly of collagen, proteoglycans and water, which can be considered, in many aspects, as a porous medium. Separate T1 relaxation data are obtained for low-mobility ('solid') macromolecular 1H and for higher-mobility ('liquid') 1H by the separation of these components in free induction decays, with α denoting the solid/liquid 1H ratio. When quasi-continuous distributions of relaxation times (T1) of the solid and liquid signal components of cartilage or collagen are computed from experimental relaxation data without imposing the usual NN constraint, valid negative peaks may appear. The features of the distributions, in particular negative peaks, and the fact that peaks at longer times for macromolecular and water protons are at essentially the same T1, are interpreted as the result of a magnetization exchange between these two spin pools. For the only-slightly-hydrated collagen samples, with α>1, the exchange leads to small negative peaks at short T1 times for the macromolecular component. However, for the cartilage, with substantial hydration or for a strongly hydrated collagen sample, both with αLt1, the behavior is reversed, with a negative peak for water at short times. The validity of a negative peak may be accepted (dismissed) by a high (low) cost of NN in error of fit. Computed distributions for simulated data using observed signal
Fantazzini, Paola; Galassi, Francesca [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Bortolotti, Villiam [Department of DICAM, University of Bologna, Viale del Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Brown, Robert J S [953 West Bonita Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711-4193 (United States); Vittur, Franco, E-mail: paola.fantazzini@unibo.it [Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste, via Giorgeri 1, 24137 (Italy)
2011-06-15
When inverting nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation data in order to obtain quasi-continuous distributions of relaxation times for fluids in porous media, it is common practice to impose a non-negative (NN) constraint on the distributions. While this approach can be useful in reducing the effects of data distortion and/or preventing wild oscillations in the distributions, it may give misleading results in the presence of real negative amplitude components. Here, some examples of valid negative components for articular cartilage and hydrated collagen are given. Articular cartilage is a connective tissue, consisting mainly of collagen, proteoglycans and water, which can be considered, in many aspects, as a porous medium. Separate T{sub 1} relaxation data are obtained for low-mobility ('solid') macromolecular {sup 1}H and for higher-mobility ('liquid') {sup 1}H by the separation of these components in free induction decays, with {alpha} denoting the solid/liquid {sup 1}H ratio. When quasi-continuous distributions of relaxation times (T{sub 1}) of the solid and liquid signal components of cartilage or collagen are computed from experimental relaxation data without imposing the usual NN constraint, valid negative peaks may appear. The features of the distributions, in particular negative peaks, and the fact that peaks at longer times for macromolecular and water protons are at essentially the same T{sub 1}, are interpreted as the result of a magnetization exchange between these two spin pools. For the only-slightly-hydrated collagen samples, with {alpha}>1, the exchange leads to small negative peaks at short T{sub 1} times for the macromolecular component. However, for the cartilage, with substantial hydration or for a strongly hydrated collagen sample, both with {alpha}<<1, the behavior is reversed, with a negative peak for water at short times. The validity of a negative peak may be accepted (dismissed) by a high (low) cost of NN in error of fit
Schmollngruber, Michael; Braun, Daniel; Steinhauser, Othmar
2016-12-01
In this computational study, we present molecular dynamics simulations of water/aerosol-OT/isooctane reverse micelles with different water loading. We compare these systems in terms of a detailed analysis of dielectric relaxation spectra and water librations in the THz region. The spectra are decomposed into contributions by molecular species and contributions from individual water solvation shells. Additionally, micellar tumbling motion is shown to have a profound influence on the observed dielectric relaxation spectra, if relaxation by internal reorganization and micellar tumbling occurs within similar time scales. A formalism to directly quantify the effect of micellar tumbling motion on a recorded dielectric spectrum is developed. Since micellar rotational diffusion obeys the laws of hydrodynamics, this method is applicable in an experimental context as well, only knowing the viscosity of the outside medium and the average volume of the reverse micelle.
Saxena, Vikrant
2016-01-01
The irradiation of an atomic cluster with a femtosecond x-ray free-electron laser pulse results in a nanoplasma formation. This typically occurs within a few hundreds femtoseconds. By this time the x-ray pulse is over, and the direct photoinduced processes no longer contributing. All created electrons within the nanoplasma are thermalized. The nanoplasma thus formed is a mixture of atoms, electrons and ions of various charges. While expanding, it is undergoing electron impact ionization and three-body recombination. Below we present a hydrodynamic model to describe the dynamics of such multi-component nanoplasma. The model equations are derived by taking the moments of the corresponding Boltzmann kinetic equations. We include the equations obtained, together with the source terms due to electron impact ionization and three-body recombination, in our hydrodynamic solver. Model predictions for a test case: expanding spherical Ar nanoplasma are obtained. With this model we complete the two-step approach to simul...
Tibor Tot
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A unique case of metaplastic breast carcinoma with an epithelial component showing tumoral necrosis and neuroectodermal stromal component is described. The tumor grew rapidly and measured 9 cm at the time of diagnosis. No lymph node metastases were present. The disease progressed rapidly and the patient died two years after the diagnosis from a hemorrhage caused by brain metastases. The morphology and phenotype of the tumor are described in detail and the differential diagnostic options are discussed.
Richardson, P. M.; Voice, A. M.; Ward, I. M.
2013-12-01
Longitudinal relaxation (T1) measurements of 19F, 7Li, and 1H in propylene carbonate/LiBF4 liquid electrolytes are reported. Comparison of T1 values with those for the transverse relaxation time (T2) confirm that the measurements are in the high temperature (low correlation time) limit of the T1 minimum. Using data from pulsed field gradient measurements of self-diffusion coefficients and measurements of solution viscosity measured elsewhere, it is concluded that although in general there are contributions to T1 from both translational and rotational motions. For the lithium ions, this is mainly translational, and for the fluorine ions mainly rotational.
Dreher, Wolfgang; Bardenhagen, Ingo; Huang, Li; Bäumer, Marcus
2016-04-01
Modern NMR imaging systems used for biomedical research are equipped with B0 gradient systems with strong maximum gradient strength and short switching time enabling (1)H NMR measurements of samples with very short transverse relaxation times. However, background signal originating from non-optimized RF coils may hamper experiments with ultrashort delays between RF excitation and signal reception. We demonstrate that two simple means, outer volume suppression and the use of shaped B0 fields produced by higher-order shim coils, allow a considerable suppression of disturbing background signals. Thus, the quality of NMR images acquired at ultrashort or zero echo time is improved and systematic errors in quantitative data evaluation are avoided. Fields of application comprise MRI with ultrashort echo time or relaxation time analysis, for both biomedical research and characterizing porous media filled with liquids or gases.
Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti
2016-11-01
Motivated by natural inflation, we propose a relaxation mechanism consistent with inflationary cosmology that explains the hierarchy between the electroweak scale and Planck scale. This scenario is based on a selection mechanism that identifies the low-scale dynamics as the one that is screened from UV physics. The scenario also predicts the near-criticality and metastability of the Standard Model (SM) vacuum state, explaining the Higgs boson mass observed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Once Majorana right-handed neutrinos are introduced to provide a viable reheating channel, our framework yields a corresponding mass scale that allows for the seesaw mechanism as well as for standard thermal leptogenesis. We argue that considering singlet scalar dark matter extensions of the proposed scenario could solve the vacuum stability problem and discuss how the cosmological constant problem is possibly addressed.
Jeworrek, Christoph; Pühse, Matthias; Winter, Roland
2008-10-21
By using the pressure-jump relaxation technique in combination with time-resolved synchrotron small-angle X-ray diffraction (TRSAXS), the kinetics of lipid phase transformations of ternary lipid mixtures serving as model systems of heterogeneous raftlike membranes were investigated. To this end, we first established the temperature-pressure phase diagram of a model lipid raft mixture, 1,2-dioleoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC)/1,2-dipalmitoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/cholesterol (1:2:1), using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and SAXS, covering the pressure range from 1 bar to 10 kbar at temperatures in the range from 7 to 80 degrees C. We then studied the kinetics of interlamellar phase transitions of the ternary lipid system involving transitions from the fluidlike (liquid-disordered, l d) phase to the liquid-ordered (l o)/liquid-disordered (l d) two-phase coexistence region as well as between the two- and three-phase coexistence regions of the system, where also solid-ordered phases (s o) are involved. The phase transition from the all-fluid l d phase to the l o+l d two-phase coexistence region turns out to be rather rapid. Phases appear or disappear within the 25 ms time resolution of the technique, followed by a slow lattice relaxation process, which, depending on the pressure-jump amplitude, takes several seconds. Contrary to many one-component phospholipid phase transitions, the kinetics of the l d l o+l d transition follows a similar time scale and mechanism for the pressurization and depressurization direction. A similar behavior is observed for the phase transition kinetics of the s o+l o+l d l o+l d transformation and even for the s o+l o+l d l d transformation, jumping across the l o+l d two-phase region. All transitions are fully reversible, and no intermediate states are populated. As indicated by the complex relaxation profiles observed, the overall rates observed seem to reflect the effect of coupling of various
Utilizing RELAX NG Schemas in XML Editors
Schmied, Martin
2008-01-01
This thesis explores the possibilities of utilizing RELAX NG schemata in the process of editing XML documents. The ultimate goal of this thesis is to prototype a system supporting user while editing XML document with bound RELAX NG schema inside the Eclipse IDE. Such a system comprises two major components -- an integration of RELAX NG validator and an autocompletion engine. Design of the autocompletion engine represents the main contribution of this thesis, because similar systems are almost...
Magnetization Transfer Induced Biexponential Longitudinal Relaxation
Prantner, Andrew M.; Bretthorst, G. Larry; Neil, Jeffrey J.; Garbow, Joel R.; Ackerman, Joseph J.H.
2009-01-01
Longitudinal relaxation of brain water 1H magnetization in mammalian brain in vivo is typically analyzed on a per voxel basis using a monoexponential model, thereby assigning a single relaxation time constant to all 1H magnetization within a given voxel. This approach was tested by obtaining inversion recovery data from grey matter of rats at 64 exponentially-spaced recovery times. Using Bayesian probability for model selection, brain water data were best represented by a biexponential function characterized by fast and slow relaxation components. At 4.7 T, the amplitude fraction of the rapidly relaxing component is 3.4 ± 0.7 % with a rate constant of 44 ± 12 s-1 (mean ± SD; 174 voxels from 4 rats). The rate constant of the slow relaxing component is 0.66 ± 0.04 s-1. At 11.7 T, the corresponding values are 6.9 ± 0.9 %, 19 ± 5 s-1, and 0.48 ± 0.02 s-1 (151 voxels from 4 rats). Several putative mechanisms for biexponential relaxation behavior were evaluated, and magnetization transfer between bulk water protons and non-aqueous protons was determined to be the source of biexponential longitudinal relaxation. MR methods requiring accurate quantification of longitudinal relaxation may need to take this effect explicitly into account. PMID:18759367
Dynamical theory of spin relaxation
Field, Timothy R.; Bain, Alex D.
2013-02-01
The dynamics of a spin system is usually calculated using the density matrix. However, the usual formulation in terms of the density matrix predicts that the signal will decay to zero, and does not address the issue of individual spin dynamics. Using stochastic calculus, we develop a dynamical theory of spin relaxation, the origins of which lie in the component spin fluctuations. This entails consideration of random pure states for individual protons, and how these pure states are correctly combined when the density matrix is formulated. Both the lattice and the spins are treated quantum mechanically. Such treatment incorporates both the processes of spin-spin and (finite temperature) spin-lattice relaxation. Our results reveal the intimate connections between spin noise and conventional spin relaxation.
Relaxation Techniques for Health
... R S T U V W X Y Z Relaxation Techniques for Health Share: On This Page What’s the ... Bottom Line? How much do we know about relaxation techniques? A substantial amount of research has been done ...
Kobayashi, M; Irisawa, H
1961-10-27
The latent period of relaxation of molluscan myocardium due to anodal current is much longer than that of contraction. Although the rate and the grade of relaxation are intimately related to both the stimulus condition and the muscle tension, the latent period of relaxation remains constant, except when the temperature of the bathing fluid is changed.
2016-01-01
Over recent years, several alternative relaxed clock models have been proposed in the context of Bayesian dating. These models fall in two distinct categories: uncorrelated and autocorrelated across branches. The choice between these two classes of relaxed clocks is still an open question. More fundamentally, the true process of rate variation may have both long-term trends and short-term fluctuations, suggesting that more sophisticated clock models unfolding over multiple time scales should ultimately be developed. Here, a mixed relaxed clock model is introduced, which can be mechanistically interpreted as a rate variation process undergoing short-term fluctuations on the top of Brownian long-term trends. Statistically, this mixed clock represents an alternative solution to the problem of choosing between autocorrelated and uncorrelated relaxed clocks, by proposing instead to combine their respective merits. Fitting this model on a dataset of 105 placental mammals, using both node-dating and tip-dating approaches, suggests that the two pure clocks, Brownian and white noise, are rejected in favour of a mixed model with approximately equal contributions for its uncorrelated and autocorrelated components. The tip-dating analysis is particularly sensitive to the choice of the relaxed clock model. In this context, the classical pure Brownian relaxed clock appears to be overly rigid, leading to biases in divergence time estimation. By contrast, the use of a mixed clock leads to more recent and more reasonable estimates for the crown ages of placental orders and superorders. Altogether, the mixed clock introduced here represents a first step towards empirically more adequate models of the patterns of rate variation across phylogenetic trees. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’. PMID:27325829
Relaxing Chosen-Ciphertext Security
Canetti, Ran; Krawczyk, Hugo; Nielsen, Jesper Buus
2003-01-01
Security against adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks (or, CCA security) has been accepted as the standard requirement from encryption schemes that need to withstand active attacks. In particular, it is regarded as the appropriate security notion for encryption schemes used as components within...... “for most practical purposes.” We propose a relaxed variant of CCA security, called Replayable CCA (RCCA) security. RCCA security accepts as secure the non-CCA (yet arguably secure) schemes mentioned above; furthermore, it suffices for most existing applications of CCA security. We provide three...
Lisovaya E. V.; Victorova E. P.; Agafonov O. S.; Kornen N. N.; Shahray T. A.
2015-01-01
The article presents a comparative assessment and peculiarities of nuclear magnetic relaxation characteristics of rapeseed and sunflower lecithin. It was established, that lecithin’s nuclear magnetic relaxation characteristics, namely, protons’ spin-spin relaxation time and amplitudes of nuclear magnetic relaxation signals of lecithin components, depend on content of oil’s fat acids and phospholipids, contained in the lecithin. Comparative assessment of protons’ spin-spin relaxation time of r...
The mechanics of mouse skeletal muscle when shortening during relaxation.
Barclay, C J; Lichtwark, G A
2007-01-01
The dynamic properties of relaxing skeletal muscle have not been well characterised but are important for understanding muscle function during terrestrial locomotion, during which a considerable fraction of muscle work output can be produced during relaxation. The purpose of this study was to characterise the force-velocity properties of mouse skeletal muscle during relaxation. Experiments were performed in vitro (21 degrees C) using bundles of fibres from mouse soleus and EDL muscles. Isovelocity shortening was applied to muscles during relaxation following short tetanic contractions. Using data from different contractions with different shortening velocities, curves relating force output to shortening velocity were constructed at intervals during relaxation. The velocity component included contributions from shortening of both series elastic component (SEC) and contractile component (CC) because force output was not constant. Early in relaxation force-velocity relationships were linear but became progressively more curved as relaxation progressed. Force-velocity curves late in relaxation had the same curvature as those for the CC in fully activated muscles but V(max) was reduced to approximately 50% of the value in fully activated muscles. These results were the same for slow- and fast-twitch muscles and for relaxation following maximal tetani and brief, sub-maximal tetani. The measured series elastic compliance was used to partition shortening velocity between SEC and CC. The curvature of the CC force-velocity relationship was constant during relaxation. The SEC accounted for most of the shortening and work output during relaxation and its power output during relaxation exceeded the maximum CC power output. It is proposed that unloading the CC, without any change in its overall length, accelerated cross-bridge detachment when shortening was applied during relaxation.
Smith, Jonathan C; Karmin, Aaron D
2002-12-01
This study examined idiosyncratic reality claims, that is, irrational or paranormal beliefs often claimed to enhance relaxation and happiness and reduce stress. The Smith Idiosyncratic Reality Claims Inventory and the Smith Relaxation Dispositions Inventory (which measures relaxation and stress dispositions, or enduring states of mind frequently associated with relaxation or stress) were given to 310 junior college student volunteers. Principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation identified five idiosyncratic reality claim factors: belief in Literal Christianity; Magic; Space Aliens: After Death experiences; and Miraculous Powers of Meditation, Prayer, and Belief. No factor correlated with increased relaxation dispositions Peace, Energy, or Joy, or reduced dispositional somatic stress, worry, or negative emotion on the Smith Relaxation Dispositions Inventory. It was concluded that idiosyncratic reality claims may not be associated with reported relaxation, happiness, or stress. In contrast, previous research strongly supported self-affirming beliefs with few paranormal assumptions display such an association.
Indentation load relaxation test
Hannula, S.P.; Stone, D.; Li, C.Y. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))
Most of the models that are used to describe the nonelastic behavior of materials utilize stress-strain rate relations which can be obtained by a load relaxation test. The conventional load relaxation test, however, cannot be performed if the volume of the material to be tested is very small. For such applications the indentation type of test offers an attractive means of obtaining data necessary for materials characterization. In this work the feasibility of the indentation load relaxation test is studied. Experimental techniques are described together with results on Al, Cu and 316 SS. These results are compared to those of conventional uniaxial load relaxation tests, and the conversion of the load-indentation rate data into the stress-strain rate data is discussed.
Relaxation techniques for stress
... problems such as high blood pressure, stomachaches, headaches, anxiety, and depression. Using relaxation techniques can help you feel calm. These exercises can also help you manage stress and ease the effects of stress on your body.
Perturbations and quantum relaxation
Kandhadai, Adithya
2016-01-01
We investigate whether small perturbations can cause relaxation to quantum equilibrium over very long timescales. We consider in particular a two-dimensional harmonic oscillator, which can serve as a model of a field mode on expanding space. We assume an initial wave function with small perturbations to the ground state. We present evidence that the trajectories are highly confined so as to preclude relaxation to equilibrium even over very long timescales. Cosmological implications are briefly discussed.
Relaxation Training and Expectation in the Treatment of Postpartum Distress.
Halonen, Jane S.; Passman, Richard H.
1985-01-01
Examined the effectiveness of relaxation training in reducing postpartum distress for 48 first-time mothers-to-be via a treatment-component strategy. Compared with nonrelaxation conditions, relaxation treatments reduced reported postpartal distress. Expectations about treatment effectiveness were not significant factors in treatment outcome.…
Molecular Relaxation in Liquids
Bagchi, Biman
2012-01-01
This book brings together many different relaxation phenomena in liquids under a common umbrella and provides a unified view of apparently diverse phenomena. It aligns recent experimental results obtained with modern techniques with recent theoretical developments. Such close interaction between experiment and theory in this area goes back to the works of Einstein, Smoluchowski, Kramers' and de Gennes. Development of ultrafast laser spectroscopy recently allowed study of various relaxation processes directly in the time domain, with time scales going down to picosecond (ps) and femtosecond (fs
Mitsutake, Ayori
2015-01-01
It is important to extract reaction coordinates or order parameters from protein simulations in order to investigate the local-minimum-energy states and the transition between them. The most popular method is principal component analysis, which extracts modes with large conformational fluctuation around an average structure. For protein systems, we recently have applied relaxation mode analysis, which investigate dynamics properties of structural fluctuations of proteins and extract slow relaxation modes. In this article, we apply relaxation mode analysis to extract reaction coordinates for the system, in which there are large conformational changes such as folding/unfolding simulation. We have performed a 750 ns simulation of chignolin at a transition temperature and observed many transitions between the most stable, misfolded and unfolded states. Here, we apply principal component analysis and relaxation mode analysis to the system. In relaxation mode analysis, we extract good reaction coordinates automatic...
Relaxing Chosen-Ciphertext Security
Canetti, Ran; Krawczyk, Hugo; Nielsen, Jesper Buus
2003-01-01
Security against adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks (or, CCA security) has been accepted as the standard requirement from encryption schemes that need to withstand active attacks. In particular, it is regarded as the appropriate security notion for encryption schemes used as components within...... general protocols and applications. Indeed, CCA security was shown to suffice in a large variety of contexts. However, CCA security often appears to be somewhat too strong: there exist encryption schemes (some of which come up naturally in practice) that are not CCA secure, but seem sufficiently secure...... “for most practical purposes.” We propose a relaxed variant of CCA security, called Replayable CCA (RCCA) security. RCCA security accepts as secure the non-CCA (yet arguably secure) schemes mentioned above; furthermore, it suffices for most existing applications of CCA security. We provide three...
... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...
Kinetic Actviation Relaxation Technique
Béland, Laurent Karim; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand
2011-01-01
We present a detailed description of the kinetic Activation-Relaxation Technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si, self-interstitial diffusion in Fe and structural relaxation in amorphous silicon.
Nonlinear fractional relaxation
A Tofighi
2012-04-01
We deﬁne a nonlinear model for fractional relaxation phenomena. We use -expansion method to analyse this model. By studying the fundamental solutions of this model we ﬁnd that when → 0 the model exhibits a fast decay rate and when → ∞ the model exhibits a power-law decay. By analysing the frequency response we ﬁnd a logarithmic enhancement for the relative ratio of susceptibility.
Relaxation and Diffusion for the Kicked Rotor
Khodas, M A
2000-01-01
The dynamics of the kicked-rotor, that is a paradigm for a mixed system, where the motion in some parts of phase space is chaotic and in other parts is regular is studied statistically. The evolution (Frobenius-Perron) operator of phase space densities in the chaotic component is calculated in presence of noise, and the limit of vanishing noise is taken is taken in the end of calculation. The relaxation rates (related to the Ruelle resonances) to the invariant equilibrium density are calculated analytically within an approximation that improves with increasing stochasticity. The results are tested numerically. The global picture of relaxation to the equilibrium density in the chaotic component when the system is bounded and of diffusive behavior when it is unbounded is presented.
Hypnotizability modulates the cardiovascular correlates of subjective relaxation.
Santarcangelo, Enrica L; Paoletti, Giulia; Balocchi, Rita; Carli, Giancarlo; Morizzo, Carmela; Palombo, Carlo; Varanini, Maurizio
2012-01-01
Mean values and the spectral variability of heart rate (HRV), blood pressure, and skin blood flow were studied in high and low hypnotizable subjects during simple relaxation. Similar subjective relaxation was reported by highs and lows. A parasympathetic prevalence (indicated by a higher High-Frequency component of HRV and a lower High/Low-Frequency ratio) and lower renin-angiotensin activity (indicated by a lower Very-Low-Frequency component of HRV) could be attributed to highs with respect to lows. Hypnotizability did not affect blood pressure and its variability and modulated the skin blood flow across the session only in lows. The findings confirm that relaxation cannot be defined solely on cardiovascular parameters and also indicate that hypnotizability modulates cardiovascular activity during simple relaxation and suggest it may have a protective role against cardiovascular disease.
Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy
Wang, Lidai; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Lihong V.
2014-01-01
The temperature-dependent property of the Grueneisen parameter has been employed in photoacoustic imaging mainly to measure tissue temperature. Here we explore this property using a different approach and develop Grueneisen-relaxation photoacoustic microscopy (GR-PAM), a technique that images non-radiative absorption with confocal optical resolution. GR-PAM sequentially delivers two identical laser pulses with a micro-second-scale time delay. The first laser pulse generates a photoacoustic signal and thermally tags the in-focus absorbers. Owing to the temperature dependence of the Grueneisen parameter, when the second laser pulse excites the tagged absorbers within the thermal relaxation time, a photoacoustic signal stronger than the first one is produced. GR-PAM detects the amplitude difference between the two co-located photoacoustic signals, confocally imaging the non-radiative absorption. We greatly improved axial resolution from 45 µm to 2.3 µm and at the same time slightly improved lateral resolution from 0.63 µm to 0.41 µm. In addition, the optical sectioning capability facilitates the measurement of the absolute absorption coefficient without fluence calibration. PMID:25379919
Relaxation cracking in the process industry, an underestimated problem
Wortel, J.C. van [TNO Institute of Industrial Technology, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)
1998-12-31
Austenitic components, operating between 500 and 750 deg C, can fail within 1 year service while the ordinary mechanical properties after failure are still within the code requirements. The intergranular brittle failures are situated in the welded or cold deformed areas. This type of cracking has many names, showing the uncertainty concerning the mechanism for the (catastrophical) failures. A just finished investigation showed that it is a relaxation crack problem, introduced by manufacturing processes, especially welding and cold rolling. Cracking/failures can be expected after only 0.1- 0.2 % relaxation strain. These low strain values can already be generated during relaxation of the welding stresses. Especially coarse grained `age hardening` materials are susceptible. Stabilising and Postweld Heat Treatments are very effective to avoid relaxation crack problems during operation. After these heat treatments the components can withstand more than 2 % relaxation strain. At temperatures between 500 and 750 deg C relaxation cracking is the predominant factor for the safety and lifetime of welded austenitic components. (orig.) 12 refs.
Magnetoviscosity and relaxation in ferrofluids
Felderhof
2000-09-01
The increase in viscosity of a ferrofluid due to an applied magnetic field is discussed on the basis of a phenomenological relaxation equation for the magnetization. The relaxation equation was derived earlier from irreversible thermodynamics, and differs from that postulated by Shliomis. The two relaxation equations lead to a different dependence of viscosity on magnetic field, unless the relaxation rates are related in a specific field-dependent way. Both planar Couette flow and Poiseuille pipe flow in parallel and perpendicular magnetic field are discussed. The entropy production for these situations is calculated and related to the magnetoviscosity.
Rupp, Wolf; Simon, Karl-Heinz; Bohnert, Michael
2009-01-01
Complete relaxation can be achieved by floating in a darkened, sound-proof relaxation tank filled with salinated water kept at body temperature. Under these conditions, meditation exercises up to self-hypnosis may lead to deep relaxation with physical and mental revitalization. A user manipulated his tank, presumably to completely cut off all optical and acoustic stimuli and accidentally also covered the ventilation hole. The man was found dead in his relaxation tank. The findings suggested lack of oxygen as the cause of death.
Cortex phellodendri Extract Relaxes Airway Smooth Muscle
Qiu-Ju Jiang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Cortex phellodendri is used to reduce fever and remove dampness and toxin. Berberine is an active ingredient of C. phellodendri. Berberine from Argemone ochroleuca can relax airway smooth muscle (ASM; however, whether the nonberberine component of C. phellodendri has similar relaxant action was unclear. An n-butyl alcohol extract of C. phellodendri (NBAECP, nonberberine component was prepared, which completely inhibits high K+- and acetylcholine- (ACH- induced precontraction of airway smooth muscle in tracheal rings and lung slices from control and asthmatic mice, respectively. The contraction induced by high K+ was also blocked by nifedipine, a selective blocker of L-type Ca2+ channels. The ACH-induced contraction was partially inhibited by nifedipine and pyrazole 3, an inhibitor of TRPC3 and STIM/Orai channels. Taken together, our data demonstrate that NBAECP can relax ASM by inhibiting L-type Ca2+ channels and TRPC3 and/or STIM/Orai channels, suggesting that NBAECP could be developed to a new drug for relieving bronchospasm.
Relaxing Behavioural Inheritance
Nuno Amálio
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Object-oriented (OO inheritance allows the definition of families of classes in a hierarchical way. In behavioural inheritance, a strong version, it should be possible to substitute an object of a subclass for an object of its superclass without any observable effect on the system. Behavioural inheritance is related to formal refinement, but, as observed in the literature, the refinement constraints are too restrictive, ruling out many useful OO subclassings. This paper studies behavioural inheritance in the context of ZOO, an object-oriented style for Z. To overcome refinement's restrictions, this paper proposes relaxations to the behavioural inheritance refinement rules. The work is presented for Z, but the results are applicable to any OO language that supports design-by-contract.
Magnetic relaxation in anisotropic magnets
Lindgård, Per-Anker
1971-01-01
The line shape and the kinematic and thermodynamic slowing down of the critical and paramagnetic relaxation in axially anisotropic materials are discussed. Kinematic slowing down occurs only in the longitudinal relaxation function. The thermodynamic slowing down occurs in either the transverse or...
Kretzschmar, M.; Hainc, N.; Studler, U. [University Hospital Basel, Department of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Bieri, O. [University Hospital Basel, Division of Radiological Physics, Basel (Switzerland); Miska, M. [University Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Heidelberg (Germany); Wiewiorski, M.; Valderrabano, V. [University Hospital Basel, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Basel (Switzerland)
2015-04-01
The purpose of this study was to characterize the collagen component of repair tissue (RT) of the talus after autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC) using quantitative T2 and diffusion-weighted imaging. Mean T2 values and diffusion coefficients of AMIC-RT and normal cartilage of the talus of 25 patients with posttraumatic osteochondral lesions and AMIC repair were compared in a cross-sectional design using partially spoiled steady-state free precession (pSSFP) for T2 quantification, and diffusion-weighted double-echo steady-state (dwDESS) for diffusion measurement. RT and cartilage were graded with modified Noyes and MOCART scores on morphological sequences. An association between follow-up interval and quantitative MRI measures was assessed using multivariate regression, after stratifying the cohort according to time interval between surgery and MRI. Mean T2 of the AMIC-RT and cartilage were 43.1 ms and 39.1 ms, respectively (p = 0.26). Mean diffusivity of the RT (1.76 μm{sup 2}/ms) was significantly higher compared to normal cartilage (1.46 μm{sup 2}/ms) (p = 0.0092). No correlation was found between morphological and quantitative parameters. RT diffusivity was lowest in the subgroup with follow-up >28 months (p = 0.027). Compared to T2-mapping, dwDESS demonstrated greater sensitivity in detecting differences in the collagen matrix between AMIC-RT and cartilage. Decreased diffusivity in patients with longer follow-up times may indicate an increased matrix organization of RT. (orig.)
Integrating Biosystem Models Using Waveform Relaxation
Stephen Baigent
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Modelling in systems biology often involves the integration of component models into larger composite models. How to do this systematically and efficiently is a significant challenge: coupling of components can be unidirectional or bidirectional, and of variable strengths. We adapt the waveform relaxation (WR method for parallel computation of ODEs as a general methodology for computing systems of linked submodels. Four test cases are presented: (i a cascade of unidirectionally and bidirectionally coupled harmonic oscillators, (ii deterministic and stochastic simulations of calcium oscillations, (iii single cell calcium oscillations showing complex behaviour such as periodic and chaotic bursting, and (iv a multicellular calcium model for a cell plate of hepatocytes. We conclude that WR provides a flexible means to deal with multitime-scale computation and model heterogeneity. Global solutions over time can be captured independently of the solution techniques for the individual components, which may be distributed in different computing environments.
Effect of relaxation on adiabatic following
Nayfeh, M.H.
1976-09-01
A solution is presented for the damped optical Bloch equations under the excitation of a smooth pulse by first deriving three independent third-order equations of the Bloch vector components. Each equation is reduced to quadratures by assuming that the logarithmic time derivative of the field amplitude is small compared to the Rabi frequency. This results in an approximate summation of the infinite-order time-dependent perturbation in the field amplitude. The relaxation-dependent induced damping of the population inversion is calculated. Also calculated are additional relaxation-dependent contributions to the intensity-dependent refractive index. The time-integrated intensity contribution tends to cause line asymmetry, which becomes, at later times, linear in ..gamma../sub 2/ when ..gamma../sub 2/ very-much-greater-than ..gamma../sub 1/ and zero when 2..gamma../sub 2/ = ..gamma../sub 1/, where ..gamma../sub 1/ and ..gamma../sub 2/ are the atomic energy and phase-changing relaxations, respectively. The dependence of the spectral broadening on pulse length, pressure, and length of the sample is discussed. (AIP)
Tension and relaxation in the individual.
Newbury, C R
1979-06-01
Increasing materialism in society is resulting in more wide spread nervous tension in all age groups. While some degree of nervous tension is necessary in everyday living, its adverse effects require that we must learn to bring it under control. Total tension is shown to have two components: a controllable element arising from factors in the environment and the inbuilt uncontrollable residue which is basic in the individual temperament. The effects of excessive or uncontrolled stress can be classified as 1) emotional reactions such as neurotic behaviour (anxiety hypochondria, hysteria, phobia, depression obsessions and compulsions) or psychotic behaviour and 2) psychosomatic reactions (nervous asthma, headache, insomnia, heart attack). Nervous energy can be wastefully expended by such factors as loss of temper, wrong attitudes to work, job frustration and marital strains. Relaxation is the only positive way to control undesirable nervous tension and its techniques require to be learned. A number of techniques (progressive relaxation, differential relaxation, hypnosis, the use of biofeedback, Yoga and Transcendental Meditation) are described and their application to dental practice is discussed.
Extended MHD Modeling of Tearing-Driven Magnetic Relaxation
Sauppe, Joshua
2016-10-01
Driven plasma pinch configurations are characterized by the gradual accumulation and episodic release of free energy in discrete relaxation events. The hallmark of this relaxation in a reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasma is flattening of the parallel current density profile effected by a fluctuation-induced dynamo emf in Ohm's law. Nonlinear two-fluid modeling of macroscopic RFP dynamics has shown appreciable coupling of magnetic relaxation and the evolution of plasma flow. Accurate modeling of RFP dynamics requires the Hall effect in Ohm's law as well as first order ion finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects, represented by the Braginskii ion gyroviscous stress tensor. New results find that the Hall dynamo effect from / ne can counter the MHD effect from - in some of the relaxation events. The MHD effect dominates these events and relaxes the current profile toward the Taylor state, but the opposition of the two dynamos generates plasma flow in the direction of equilibrium current density, consistent with experimental measurements. Detailed experimental measurements of the MHD and Hall emf terms are compared to these extended MHD predictions. Tracking the evolution of magnetic energy, helicity, and hybrid helicity during relaxation identifies the most important contributions in single-fluid and two-fluid models. Magnetic helicity is well conserved relative to the magnetic energy during relaxation. The hybrid helicity is dominated by magnetic helicity in realistic low-beta pinch conditions and is also well conserved. Differences of less than 1 % between magnetic helicity and hybrid helicity are observed with two-fluid modeling and result from cross helicity evolution through ion FLR effects, which have not been included in contemporary relaxation theories. The kinetic energy driven by relaxation in the computations is dominated by velocity components perpendicular to the magnetic field, an effect that had not been predicted. Work performed at University of Wisconsin
Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?
Solodukhin, S. N.
2005-03-01
We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the worm-hole modification. In the latter case the entropy comes out correctly as well.
Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?
Solodukhin, Sergey N.
2004-01-01
We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the...
Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?
Solodukhin, S N
2004-01-01
We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the worm-hole modification. In the latter case the entropy comes out correctly as well.
An Exact Relaxation of Clustering
Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai
2009-01-01
of clustering problems such as the K-means objective and pairwise clustering as well as graph partition problems, e.g., for community detection in complex networks. In particular we show that a relaxation to the simplex can be given for which the extreme solutions are stable hard assignment solutions and vice......Continuous relaxation of hard assignment clustering problems can lead to better solutions than greedy iterative refinement algorithms. However, the validity of existing relaxations is contingent on problem specific fuzzy parameters that quantify the level of similarity between the original...... versa. Based on the new relaxation we derive the SR-clustering algorithm that has the same complexity as traditional greedy iterative refinement algorithms but leading to significantly better partitions of the data. A Matlab implementation of the SR-clustering algorithm is available for download....
The relaxation & stress reduction workbook
Davis, Martha; Eshelman, Elizabeth Robbins; McKay, Matthew
2008-01-01
"The Relaxation & Stress Reduction Workbook broke new ground when it was first published in 1980, detailing easy, step-by-step techniques for calming the body and mind in an increasingly overstimulated world...
Relaxation Dynamics in Heme Proteins.
Scholl, Reinhard Wilhelm
A protein molecule possesses many conformational substates that are likely arranged in a hierarchy consisting of a number of tiers. A hierarchical organization of conformational substates is expected to give rise to a multitude of nonequilibrium relaxation phenomena. If the temperature is lowered, transitions between substates of higher tiers are frozen out, and relaxation processes characteristic of lower tiers will dominate the observational time scale. This thesis addresses the following questions: (i) What is the energy landscape of a protein? How does the landscape depend on the environment such as pH and viscosity, and how can it be connected to specific structural parts? (ii) What relaxation phenomena can be observed in a protein? Which are protein specific, and which occur in other proteins? How does the environment influence relaxations? (iii) What functional form best describes relaxation functions? (iv) Can we connect the motions to specific structural parts of the protein molecule, and are these motions important for the function of the protein?. To this purpose, relaxation processes after a pressure change are studied in carbonmonoxy (CO) heme proteins (myoglobin-CO, substrate-bound and substrate-free cytochrome P450cam-CO, chloroperoxidase-CO, horseradish peroxidase -CO) between 150 K and 250 K using FTIR spectroscopy to monitor the CO bound to the heme iron. Two types of p -relaxation experiments are performed: p-release (200 to ~eq40 MPa) and p-jump (~eq40 to 200 MPa) experiments. Most of the relaxations fall into one of three groups and are characterized by (i) nonexponential time dependence and non-Arrhenius temperature dependence (FIM1( nu), FIM1(Gamma)); (ii) exponential time dependence and non-Arrhenius temperature dependence (FIM0(A_{i}to A_{j})); exponential time dependence and Arrhenius temperature dependence (FIMX( nu)). The influence of pH is studied in myoglobin-CO and shown to have a strong influence on the substate population of the
Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors
Krasnoperov E.P.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.
Orientational relaxation in semiflexible dendrimers.
Kumar, Amit; Biswas, Parbati
2013-12-14
The orientational relaxation dynamics of semiflexible dendrimers are theoretically calculated within the framework of optimized Rouse-Zimm formalism. Semiflexibility is modeled through appropriate restrictions in the direction and orientation of the respective bond vectors, while the hydrodynamic interactions are included via the preaveraged Oseen tensor. The time autocorrelation function M(i)(1)(t) and the second order orientational autocorrelation function P(i)(2)(t) are analyzed as a function of the branch-point functionality and the degree of semiflexibility. Our approach of calculating M(i)(1)(t) is completely different from that of the earlier studies (A. Perico and M. Guenza J. Chem. Phys., 1985, 83, 3103; J. Chem. Phys., 1986, 84, 510), where the expression of M(i)(1)(t) obtained from earlier studies does not demarcate the flexible dendrimers from the semiflexible ones. The component of global motion of the time autocorrelation function exhibits a strong dependence on both degree of semiflexibility and branch-point functionality, while the component of pulsation motion depends only on the degree of semiflexibility. But it is difficult to distinguish the difference in the extent of pulsation motion among the compressed (0 qualitative behavior of P(i)(2)(t) obtained from our calculations closely matches with the expression for P(exact)(2)(t) in the earlier studies. Theoretically calculated spectral density, J(ω), is found to depend on the degree of semiflexibility and the branch-point functionality for the compressed and expanded conformations of semiflexible dendrimers as a function of frequency, especially in the high frequency regime, where J(ω) decays with frequency for both compressed and expanded conformations of semiflexible dendrimers. This decay of the spectral density occurs after displaying a cross-over behavior with the variation in the degree of semiflexibility in the intermediate frequency regime. The characteristic area increases with the
Intestinal, Airway, and Cardiovascular Relaxant Activities of Thymoquinone
Muhammad Nabeel Ghayur
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Thymoquinone (TQ is a bioactive component found in many medicinal herbs. In this study, we report the smooth and cardiac muscle relaxant activities of this compound. TQ concentration dependently suppressed spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum while also relaxed high K+-(80 mM induced contractions in jejunum and guinea-pig ileum, indicating activity at voltage-operated Ca++ channels (VOCC. Further, TQ displaced Ca++ concentration-response curves, obtained in a Ca++-free environment, to the right, showing blockade of VOCC. Similar activity was observed with verapamil, a standard VOCC blocker. TQ also exhibited nonadrenergic relaxation of agonist-induced contractions in guinea-pig trachea. When tested in fluo-4-loaded mouse lung slices, TQ inhibited ACh-induced airway narrowing and Ca++ signalling in airway smooth muscle cells. In endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded rat aorta, TQ inhibited high K+-induced contractions at significantly lower concentrations than phenylephrine-(PE- (1 microM induced contractions. Relaxation of PE-induced contractions was resistant to blockade by L-NAME and atropine. In guinea-pig atria, TQ showed noncholinergic relaxation of atrial force and rate of contractions. These data suggest smooth and cardiac muscle relaxant activity of TQ possibly mediated, in part, via blockade of VOCC. The results also justify the use of TQ containing plants in related health disorders like colic, diarrhoea, cough, and asthma.
THE THERMAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MULTICOMPONENT SYSTEMS BY ENTHALPY RELAXATION
TENBRINKE, G; OUDHUIS, L; ELLIS, TS
1994-01-01
The phenomenon of enthalpy relaxation of amorphous glassy polymers has been developed into an analytical tool which can be applied to elucidate phase behavior and morphologically related phenomena of multi-component systems. We have both reviewed the experimental details concerning its application,
THE THERMAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MULTICOMPONENT SYSTEMS BY ENTHALPY RELAXATION
TENBRINKE, G; OUDHUIS, L; ELLIS, TS
1994-01-01
The phenomenon of enthalpy relaxation of amorphous glassy polymers has been developed into an analytical tool which can be applied to elucidate phase behavior and morphologically related phenomena of multi-component systems. We have both reviewed the experimental details concerning its application,
The cosmological constant and the relaxed universe
Bauer, Florian
2010-01-01
We study the role of the cosmological constant (CC) as a component of dark energy (DE). It is argued that the cosmological term is in general unavoidable and it should not be ignored even when dynamical DE sources are considered. From the theoretical point of view quantum zero-point energy and phase transitions suggest a CC of large magnitude in contrast to its tiny observed value. Simply relieving this disaccord with a counterterm requires extreme fine-tuning which is referred to as the old CC problem. To avoid it, we discuss some recent approaches for neutralising a large CC dynamically without adding a fine-tuned counterterm. This can be realised by an effective DE component which relaxes the cosmic expansion by counteracting the effect of the large CC. Alternatively, a CC filter is constructed by modifying gravity to make it insensitive to vacuum energy.
Dynamic isotope effects on relaxation of quadrupolar nuclei in 12 simple organic molecules
毛希安; andM.Holz
1995-01-01
Dynamic isotope effects on relaxation rate of quadrupolar nuclei are preliminarily reported. The relaxation rates of 17O and 14N in 12 simple organic molecules and their 18 corresponding deuterated species have been systematically measured. The principal components of the molecular inertia tensors have been calculated. The results show that there is an intrinsic correlation between the dynamic isotope effects of the relaxation rate and the static isotope effects of the molecular inertia. The concepts of molecular collision frequency and translation-rotation coupling have been introduced into the NMR relaxation theory. Therefore, a reasonable explanation of the experimental results has been given.
LAVENDER AROMATERAPHY AS A RELAXANT
IGA Prima Dewi AP
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Aromatherapy is a kind of treatment that used aroma with aromatherapy essential oil. Extraction process from essential oil generally doing in three methods, there are distilling with water (boiled, distilling with water and steam, and distilling with steam. One of the most favorite aroma is lavender. The main content from lavender is linalyl acetate and linalool (C10H18O. Linalool is main active contents in lavender which can use for anti-anxiety (relaxation. Based on some research, the conclusion indicates that essential oil from lavender can give relaxation (carminative, sedative, reduce anxiety level and increasing mood.
Statistical mechanics of violent relaxation
Spergel, David N.; Hernquist, Lars
1992-01-01
We propose a functional that is extremized through violent relaxation. It is based on the Ansatz that the wave-particle scattering during violent dynamical processes can be approximated as a sequence of discrete scattering events that occur near a particle's perigalacticon. This functional has an extremum whose structure closely resembles that of spheroidal stellar systems such as elliptical galaxies. The results described here, therefore, provide a simple framework for understanding the physical nature of violent relaxation and support the view that galaxies are structured in accord with fundamental statistical principles.
Active optomechanics through relaxation oscillations
Princepe, Debora; Frateschi, Newton
2014-01-01
We propose an optomechanical laser based on III-V compounds which exhibits self-pulsation in the presence of a dissipative optomechanical coupling. In such a laser cavity, radiation pressure drives the mechanical degree of freedom and its back-action is caused by the mechanical modulation of the cavity loss rate. Our numerical analysis shows that even in a wideband gain material, such dissipative coupling couples the mechanical oscillation with the laser relaxation oscillations process. Laser self-pulsation is observed for mechanical frequencies below the laser relaxation oscillation frequency under sufficiently high optomechanical coupling factor.
Thermal relaxation and mechanical relaxation of rice gel
丁玉琴; 赵思明; 熊善柏
2008-01-01
Rice gel was prepared by simulating the production processes of Chinese local rice noodles,and the properties of thermal relaxation and mechanical relaxation during gelatinization were studied by differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) measurement and dynamic rheometer.The results show that during gelatinization,the molecular chains of rice starch undergo the thermal relaxation and mechanical relaxation.During the first heating and high temperature holding processes,the starch crystallites in the rice slurry melt,and the polymer chains stretch and interact,then viscoelastic gel forms.The cooling and low temperatures holding processes result in reinforced networks and decrease the viscoelasticity of the gel.During the second heating,the remaining starch crystallites further melt,the network is reinforced,and the viscoelasticity increases.The viscoelasticity,the molecular conformation and texture of the gel are adjusted by changing the temperature,and finally construct the gel with the textural characteristics of Chinese local rice noodle.
Alem, Naziha; Beezer, Anthony E; Gaisford, Simon
2010-10-31
While the use of isothermal calorimetry to quantify the rate of relaxation of one-phase amorphous pharmaceuticals, through application of models, is well documented, the resolution of the models to detect and quantify relaxation in systems containing two independent amorphous phases is not known. Addressing this knowledge gap is the focus of this work. Two fitting models were tested; the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts model (KWW) and the modified-stretch exponential (MSE). The ability of each model to resolve relaxation processes in binary systems was determined with simulated calorimetric data. It was found that as long as the relaxation time constants of the relaxation processes were with 10(3) of each other, the models could determine that two events were occurring and could quantify the correct reaction parameters of each. With greater differences in the time constants, the faster process always dominates the data and the resolving power of the models is lost. Real calorimetric data were then obtained for two binary amorphous systems (sucrose-lactose and sucrose-indomethacin mixtures). The relaxation behaviour of all the single components was characterised as they relaxed individually to provide reference data. The ability of the KWW model to recover the expected relaxation parameters for two component data was impaired because of their inherently noisy nature. The MSE model reasonably recovered the expected parameters for each component for the sucrose-indomethacin system but not for the sucrose-lactose system, which may indicate a possible interaction in that case.
Relaxation of polymers modeled by generalized Husimi cacti
Galiceanu, M.
2010-07-01
We focus on the generalized Husimi cacti, which are dual structures to the dendrimers but, distinct from the latter, contain loops. We determine their complete spectra by making use of the normal mode analysis. These spectra have been used in computing some physical quantities, such as the averaged monomer displacement and the mechanical relaxation moduli with its two components: the storage and the loss modulus. We also study the dynamics of Husimi cacti in solutions, introducing the hydrodynamic interactions in a preaveraged Oseen fashion, the so-called Zimm model. We observe that the relaxation quantities mentioned above do not scale, in the presence or in the absence of the hydrodynamic interactions. Our results show that all the relaxation forms depend on the number of monomers in the networks in the absence of the hydrodynamic interactions (Rouse model), while by taking into account the hydrodynamic interactions the results do not vary too much.
Relaxation of polymers modeled by generalized Husimi cacti
Galiceanu, M, E-mail: mircea@fisica.ufpr.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, 81531-990 Curitiba (Brazil)
2010-07-30
We focus on the generalized Husimi cacti, which are dual structures to the dendrimers but, distinct from the latter, contain loops. We determine their complete spectra by making use of the normal mode analysis. These spectra have been used in computing some physical quantities, such as the averaged monomer displacement and the mechanical relaxation moduli with its two components: the storage and the loss modulus. We also study the dynamics of Husimi cacti in solutions, introducing the hydrodynamic interactions in a preaveraged Oseen fashion, the so-called Zimm model. We observe that the relaxation quantities mentioned above do not scale, in the presence or in the absence of the hydrodynamic interactions. Our results show that all the relaxation forms depend on the number of monomers in the networks in the absence of the hydrodynamic interactions (Rouse model), while by taking into account the hydrodynamic interactions the results do not vary too much.
Collective and molecular relaxation in ferroelectric liquid crystals
Wrobel, S.; Marzec, M.; Godlewska, Malgorzata; Gestblom, B.; Hiller, Steffen; Haase, Wolfgang
1995-08-01
Ferroelectric liquid crystals are molecular ferroelectrics showing up in the tilted liquid crystalline systems (SmC*, SmI*, SmF*) composed of chiral molecules. In this work, we present the dielectric, electro-optic, and calorimetric studies of a single component system: 3-octyloxy-6[2-fluor-4-(2-fluoroctyloxy)phenyl]-pyridine showing interesting ferroelectric properties. The compound exhibits a first order N*- SmC* phase transition which leads to a qualitatively new behavior, for instance the relaxation frequency of the soft mode below TC seems to be temperature independent. The high frequency relaxation process, connected with the reorientation around the long axis, is practically undisturbed at the N*-SmC* transition. Yet, it was found that in the SmC* phase, the best fit was obatined with two Cole-Cole functions yielding two relaxation times to describe a biased reorientation of molecules in the SmC* phase.
Dielectric relaxation of samarium aluminate
Sakhya, Anup Pradhan; Dutta, Alo; Sinha, T.P. [Bose Institute, Department of Physics, Kolkata (India)
2014-03-15
A ceramic SmAlO{sub 3} (SAO) sample is synthesized by the solid-state reaction technique. The Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction pattern has been done to find the crystal symmetry of the sample at room temperature. An impedance spectroscopy study of the sample has been performed in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 1 MHz and in the temperature range from 313 K to 573 K. Dielectric relaxation peaks are observed in the imaginary parts of the spectra. The Cole-Cole model is used to analyze the dielectric relaxation mechanism in SAO. The temperature-dependent relaxation times are found to obey the Arrhenius law having an activation energy of 0.29 eV, which indicates that polaron hopping is responsible for conduction or dielectric relaxation in this material. The complex impedance plane plot of the sample indicates the presence of both grain and grain-boundary effects and is analyzed by an electrical equivalent circuit consisting of a resistance and a constant-phase element. The frequency-dependent conductivity spectra follow a double-power law due to the presence of two plateaus. (orig.)
Choosing a skeletal muscle relaxant.
See, Sharon; Ginzburg, Regina
2008-08-01
Skeletal muscle relaxants are widely used in treating musculoskeletal conditions. However, evidence of their effectiveness consists mainly of studies with poor methodologic design. In addition, these drugs have not been proven to be superior to acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses support using skeletal muscle relaxants for short-term relief of acute low back pain when nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen are not effective or tolerated. Comparison studies have not shown one skeletal muscle relaxant to be superior to another. Cyclobenzaprine is the most heavily studied and has been shown to be effective for various musculoskeletal conditions. The sedative properties of tizanidine and cyclobenzaprine may benefit patients with insomnia caused by severe muscle spasms. Methocarbamol and metaxalone are less sedating, although effectiveness evidence is limited. Adverse effects, particularly dizziness and drowsiness, are consistently reported with all skeletal muscle relaxants. The potential adverse effects should be communicated clearly to the patient. Because of limited comparable effectiveness data, choice of agent should be based on side-effect profile, patient preference, abuse potential, and possible drug interactions.
Onsager relaxation of toroidal plasmas
Samain, A.; Nguyen, F.
1997-01-01
The slow relaxation of isolated toroidal plasmas towards their thermodynamical equilibrium is studied in an Onsager framework based on the entropy metric. The basic tool is a variational principle, equivalent to the kinetic equation, involving the profiles of density, temperature, electric potential, electric current. New minimization procedures are proposed to obtain entropy and entropy production rate functionals. (author). 36 refs.
Relaxation properties in classical diamagnetism
Carati, A.; Benfenati, F.; Galgani, L.
2011-06-01
It is an old result of Bohr that, according to classical statistical mechanics, at equilibrium a system of electrons in a static magnetic field presents no magnetization. Thus a magnetization can occur only in an out of equilibrium state, such as that produced through the Foucault currents when a magnetic field is switched on. It was suggested by Bohr that, after the establishment of such a nonequilibrium state, the system of electrons would quickly relax back to equilibrium. In the present paper, we study numerically the relaxation to equilibrium in a modified Bohr model, which is mathematically equivalent to a billiard with obstacles, immersed in a magnetic field that is adiabatically switched on. We show that it is not guaranteed that equilibrium is attained within the typical time scales of microscopic dynamics. Depending on the values of the parameters, one has a relaxation either to equilibrium or to a diamagnetic (presumably metastable) state. The analogy with the relaxation properties in the Fermi Pasta Ulam problem is also pointed out.
Dielectric relaxation of CdO nanoparticles
Tripathi, Ramna; Dutta, Alo; Das, Sayantani; Kumar, Akhilesh; Sinha, T. P.
2016-02-01
Nanoparticles of cadmium oxide have been synthesized by soft chemical route using thioglycerol as the capping agent. The crystallite size is determined by X-ray diffraction technique and the particle size is obtained by transmission electron microscope. The band gap of the material is obtained using Tauc relation to UV-visible absorption spectrum. The photoluminescence emission spectra of the sample are measured at various excitation wavelengths. The molecular components in the material have been analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy. The dielectric dispersion of the material is investigated in the temperature range from 313 to 393 K and in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz by impedance spectroscopy. The Cole-Cole model is used to describe the dielectric relaxation of the system. The scaling behavior of imaginary part of impedance shows that the relaxation describes the same mechanism at various temperatures. The frequency-dependent electrical data are also analyzed in the framework of conductivity and electrical modulus formalisms. The frequency-dependent conductivity spectra are found to obey the power law.
Relaxation to the Invariant Density for Kicked Rotor
Khodas, M A
1999-01-01
The relaxation rates to the invariant density in the chaotic phase space component of the kicked rotor (standard map) are calculated analytically for a large stochasticity parameter, K. For hyperbolic systems these are the logarithms of the poles of the matrix elements of the resolvent $ These poles are inside the unit circle. For hyperbolic systems it is a rigorous result, while very little is known about mixed systems such as the kicked rotor, that is studied in this work. Here the relaxation rates are calculated in presence of noise, in powers of $1/\\sqrt{K}$, then the limit of vanishing noise is taken and the rates are found to be non vanishing, corresponding to poles inside the unit circle. It is found that the slow relaxation rates reduce to the ones found for diffusion in the momentum direction. The fast relaxation modes are related to relaxation of inhomogeneities in the angle direction. The analytical results are compared with numerical simulations, and small deviations from the analytical formulas r...
Muscle relaxant activity of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. fruit seeds in mice.
Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Ramezani, Mohammad; Namjo, Nazanin
2003-02-01
Muscle relaxant effect of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. (Elaeagnaceae) fruit seeds was studied in mice using traction test. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts (i.p) induced a muscle relaxant effect in a dose dependent manner as effective as diazepam (1 mg/kg). The aqueous extract was partitioned with methanol-chloroform (MeCh) and n-butanol (Bu.) saturated with water. The MeCh and Bu. fractions did not show activity. Preliminary phytochemical tests showed that the extract contains flavonoid. The results suggested that E. angustifolia fruit seeds exerted muscle relaxant activity via flavonoid component(s).
Equivalent Relaxations of Optimal Power Flow
Bose, S; Low, SH; Teeraratkul, T; Hassibi, B
2015-03-01
Several convex relaxations of the optimal power flow (OPF) problem have recently been developed using both bus injection models and branch flow models. In this paper, we prove relations among three convex relaxations: a semidefinite relaxation that computes a full matrix, a chordal relaxation based on a chordal extension of the network graph, and a second-order cone relaxation that computes the smallest partial matrix. We prove a bijection between the feasible sets of the OPF in the bus injection model and the branch flow model, establishing the equivalence of these two models and their second-order cone relaxations. Our results imply that, for radial networks, all these relaxations are equivalent and one should always solve the second-order cone relaxation. For mesh networks, the semidefinite relaxation and the chordal relaxation are equally tight and both are strictly tighter than the second-order cone relaxation. Therefore, for mesh networks, one should either solve the chordal relaxation or the SOCP relaxation, trading off tightness and the required computational effort. Simulations are used to illustrate these results.
Organic semiconductors: What makes the spin relax?
Bobbert, Peter A.
2010-04-01
Spin relaxation in organic materials is expected to be slow because of weak spin-orbit coupling. The effects of deuteration and coherent spin excitation show that the spin-relaxation time is actually limited by hyperfine fields.
Relaxation Techniques to Manage IBS Symptoms
... the Day Art of IBS Gallery Contact Us Relaxation Techniques to Manage IBS Symptoms Details Content Last Updated: ... Topic Psychological Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS You’ve been to the doctor ...
Plasmon-mediated energy relaxation in graphene
Ferry, D. K. [School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-5706 (United States); Somphonsane, R. [Department of Physics, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology, Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Ramamoorthy, H.; Bird, J. P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, the State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14260-1500 (United States)
2015-12-28
Energy relaxation of hot carriers in graphene is studied at low temperatures, where the loss rate may differ significantly from that predicted for electron-phonon interactions. We show here that plasmons, important in the relaxation of energetic carriers in bulk semiconductors, can also provide a pathway for energy relaxation in transport experiments in graphene. We obtain a total loss rate to plasmons that results in energy relaxation times whose dependence on temperature and density closely matches that found experimentally.
Collisionless Relaxation of Stellar Systems
Kandrup, H E
1998-01-01
The objective of the work summarised here has been to exploit and extend ideas from plasma physics and accelerator dynamics to formulate a unified description of collisionless relaxation that views violent relaxation, Landau damping, and phase mixing as (manifestations of) a single phenomenon. This approach embraces the fact that the collisionless Boltzmann equation (CBE), the basic object of the theory, is an infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian system, with the distribution function f playing the role of the fundamental dynamical variable, and that, interpreted appropriately, an evolution described by the other Hamiltonian system. Equilibrium solutions correspond to extremal points of the Hamiltonian subject to the constraints associated with Liouville's Theorem. Stable equilibria correspond to energy minima. The evolution of a system out of equilibrium involves (in general nonlinear) phase space oscillations which may -- or may not -- interfere destructively so as to damp away.
Collisionless Relaxation of Stellar Systems
Kandrup, Henry E.
1999-08-01
The objective of the work summarized here has been to exploit and extend ideas from plasma physics and accelerator dynamics to formulate a unified description of collisionless relaxation of stellar systems that views violent relaxation, Landau damping, and phase mixing as (manifestations of) a single phenomenon. This approach embraces the fact that the collisionless Boltzmann equation (CBE), the basic object of the theory, is an infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian system, with the distribution function f playing the role of the fundamental dynamical variable, and that, interpreted appropriately, an evolution described by the CBE is no different fundamentally from an evolution described by any other Hamiltonian system. Equilibrium solutions f0 correspond to extremal points of the Hamiltonian subject to the constraints associated with Liouville's Theorem. Stable equilibria correspond to energy minima. The evolution of a system out of equilibrium involves (in general nonlinear) phase space oscillations which may - or may not - interfere destructively so as to damp away.
Kinetic activation-relaxation technique
Béland, Laurent Karim; Brommer, Peter; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand
2011-10-01
We present a detailed description of the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si (crystalline silicon), self-interstitial diffusion in Fe, and structural relaxation in a-Si (amorphous silicon).
Kinetic activation-relaxation technique.
Béland, Laurent Karim; Brommer, Peter; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand
2011-10-01
We present a detailed description of the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si (crystalline silicon), self-interstitial diffusion in Fe, and structural relaxation in a-Si (amorphous silicon).
Brief relaxation training program for hospital employees.
Balk, Judith L; Chung, Sheng-Chia; Beigi, Richard; Brooks, Maria
2009-01-01
Employee stress leads to attrition, burnout, and increased medical costs. We aimed to assess if relaxation training leads to decreased stress levels based on questionnaire and thermal biofeedback. Thirty-minute relaxation training sessions were conducted for hospital employees and for cancer patients. Perceived Stress levels and skin temperature were analyzed before and after relaxation training.
POS Tagging Using Relaxation Labelling
Padro, L
1995-01-01
Relaxation labelling is an optimization technique used in many fields to solve constraint satisfaction problems. The algorithm finds a combination of values for a set of variables such that satisfies -to the maximum possible degree- a set of given constraints. This paper describes some experiments performed applying it to POS tagging, and the results obtained. It also ponders the possibility of applying it to word sense disambiguation.
Structural relaxation of acridine orange dimer in bulk water and inside a single live lung cell
Chowdhury, Rajdeep; Nandi, Somen; Halder, Ritaban; Jana, Biman; Bhattacharyya, Kankan
2016-02-01
Structural relaxation of the acridine orange (AO) dimer in bulk water and inside a single live lung cell is studied using time resolved confocal microscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The emission maxima ( λem max ˜ 630 nm) of AO in a lung cancer cell (A549) and a non-cancer lung fibroblast cell (WI38) suggest that AO exists as a dimer inside the cell. Time-dependent red shift in emission maximum indicates dynamic relaxation of the AO dimer (in the excited state) with a time constant of 500-600 ps, both in bulk water and inside the cell. We have calculated the equilibrium relaxation dynamics of the AO dimer in the ground state using MD simulations and found a slow component of time scale ˜350 ps. The intra- and inter-molecular components of the total relaxation dynamics of the AO dimer reveal the presence of a slow component of the order of a few hundred picoseconds. Upon restricting intra-molecular dye dynamics by harmonic constraint between AO monomers, the slow component vanishes. Combining the experimental observations and MD simulation results, we ascribe the slow component of the dynamic relaxation of the AO dimer to the structural relaxation, namely, fluctuations in the distance between the two monomers and associated fluctuation in the number of water molecules.
Spin relaxation in metallic ferromagnets
Berger, L.
2011-02-01
The Elliott theory of spin relaxation in metals and semiconductors is extended to metallic ferromagnets. Our treatment is based on the two-current model of Fert, Campbell, and Jaoul. The d→s electron-scattering process involved in spin relaxation is the inverse of the s→d process responsible for the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). As a result, spin-relaxation rate 1/τsr and AMR Δρ are given by similar formulas, and are in a constant ratio if scattering is by solute atoms. Our treatment applies to nickel- and cobalt-based alloys which do not have spin-up 3d states at the Fermi level. This category includes many of the technologically important magnetic materials. And we show how to modify the theory to apply it to bcc iron-based alloys. We also treat the case of Permalloy Ni80Fe20 at finite temperature or in thin-film form, where several kinds of scatterers exist. Predicted values of 1/τsr and Δρ are plotted versus resistivity of the sample. These predictions are compared to values of 1/τsr and Δρ derived from ferromagnetic-resonance and AMR experiments in Permalloy.
Arresting relaxation in Pickering Emulsions
Atherton, Tim; Burke, Chris
2015-03-01
Pickering emulsions consist of droplets of one fluid dispersed in a host fluid and stabilized by colloidal particles absorbed at the fluid-fluid interface. Everyday materials such as crude oil and food products like salad dressing are examples of these materials. Particles can stabilize non spherical droplet shapes in these emulsions through the following sequence: first, an isolated droplet is deformed, e.g. by an electric field, increasing the surface area above the equilibrium value; additional particles are then adsorbed to the interface reducing the surface tension. The droplet is then allowed to relax toward a sphere. If more particles were adsorbed than can be accommodated by the surface area of the spherical ground state, relaxation of the droplet is arrested at some non-spherical shape. Because the energetic cost of removing adsorbed colloids exceeds the interfacial driving force, these configurations can remain stable over long timescales. In this presentation, we present a computational study of the ordering present in anisotropic droplets produced through the mechanism of arrested relaxation and discuss the interplay between the geometry of the droplet, the dynamical process that produced it, and the structure of the defects observed.
Relaxation response in femoral angiography.
Mandle, C L; Domar, A D; Harrington, D P; Leserman, J; Bozadjian, E M; Friedman, R; Benson, H
1990-03-01
Immediately before they underwent femoral angiography, 45 patients were given one of three types of audiotapes: a relaxation response tape recorded for this study, a tape of contemporary instrumental music, or a blank tape. All patients were instructed to listen to their audiotape during the entire angiographic procedure. Each audiotape was played through earphones. Radiologists were not told the group assignment or tape contents. The patients given the audiotape with instructions to elicit the relaxation response (n = 15) experienced significantly less anxiety (P less than .05) and pain (P less than .001) during the procedure, were observed by radiology nurses to exhibit significantly less pain (P less than .001) and anxiety (P less than .001), and requested significantly less fentanyl citrate (P less than .01) and diazepam (P less than .01) than patients given either the music (n = 14) or the blank (n = 16) control audiotapes. Elicitation of the relaxation response is a simple, inexpensive, efficacious, and practical method to reduce pain, anxiety, and medication during femoral angiography and may be useful in other invasive procedures.
Characterization of structural relaxation in inorganic glasses using length dilatometry
Koontz, Erick
The processes that govern how a glass relaxes towards its thermodynamic quasi-equilibrium state are major factors in understanding glass behavior near the glass transition region, as characterized by the glass transition temperature (Tg). Intrinsic glass properties such as specific volume, enthalpy, entropy, density, etc. are used to map the behavior of the glass network below in and near the transition region. The question of whether a true thermodynamic second order phase transition takes place in the glass transition region is another pending question. Linking viscosity behavior to entropy, or viewing the glass configuration as an energy landscape are just a couple of the most prevalent methods used for attempting to understand the glass transition. The structural relaxation behavior of inorganic glasses is important for more than scientific reasons, many commercial glass processing operations including glass melting and certain forms of optical fabrication include significant time spent in the glass transition region. For this reason knowledge of structural relaxation processes can, at a minimum, provide information for annealing duration of melt-quenched glasses. The development of a predictive model for annealing time prescription has the potential to save glass manufacturers significant time and money as well as increasing volume throughput. In optical hot forming processes such as precision glass molding, molded optical components can significantly change in shape upon cooling through the glass transition. This change in shape is not scientifically predictable as of yet though manufacturers typically use empirical rules developed in house. The classification of glass behavior in the glass transition region would allow molds to be accurately designed and save money for the producers. The work discussed in this dissertation is comprised of the development of a dilatometric measurement and characterization method of structural relaxation. The measurement and
Zhu, Ming; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Kesheng
2017-08-01
Existing two-frequency reconstructive methods can only capture primary (single) molecular relaxation processes in excitable gases. In this paper, we present a reconstructive method based on the novel decomposition of frequency-dependent acoustic relaxation spectra to capture the entire molecular multimode relaxation process. This decomposition of acoustic relaxation spectra is developed from the frequency-dependent effective specific heat, indicating that a multi-relaxation process is the sum of the interior single-relaxation processes. Based on this decomposition, we can reconstruct the entire multi-relaxation process by capturing the relaxation times and relaxation strengths of N interior single-relaxation processes, using the measurements of acoustic absorption and sound speed at 2N frequencies. Experimental data for the gas mixtures CO2-N2 and CO2-O2 validate our decomposition and reconstruction approach.
Time of relaxation in dusty plasma model
Timofeev, A. V.
2015-11-01
Dust particles in plasma may have different values of average kinetic energy for vertical and horizontal motion. The partial equilibrium of the subsystems and the relaxation processes leading to this asymmetry are under consideration. A method for the relaxation time estimation in nonideal dusty plasma is suggested. The characteristic relaxation times of vertical and horizontal motion of dust particles in gas discharge are estimated by analytical approach and by analysis of simulation results. These relaxation times for vertical and horizontal subsystems appear to be different. A single hierarchy of relaxation times is proposed.
5 Things To Know About Relaxation Techniques for Stress
... X Y Z 5 Things To Know About Relaxation Techniques for Stress Share: When you’re under stress, ... creating the relaxation response through regular use of relaxation techniques could counteract the negative effects of stress. Relaxation ...
Resonant relaxation near a massive black hole: the dependence on eccentricity
Gürkan, M Atakan
2007-01-01
The orbits of stars close to a massive black hole are nearly Keplerian ellipses. Such orbits exert long term torques on each other, which lead to an enhanced angular momentum relaxation known as resonant relaxation. Under certain conditions, this process can modify the angular momentum distribution and affect the interaction rates of the stars with the massive black hole more efficiently than non-resonant relaxation. The torque on an orbit exerted by the cluster depends on the eccentricity of the orbit. In this paper, we calculate this dependence and determine the resonant relaxation timescale as a function of eccentricity. In particular, we show that the component of the torque that changes the magnitude of the angular momentum is linearly proportional to eccentricity, so resonant relaxation is much more efficient on eccentric orbits than on circular orbits.
Compaction and relaxation of biofilms
Valladares Linares, R.
2015-06-18
Operation of membrane systems for water treatment can be seriously hampered by biofouling. A better characterization of biofilms in membrane systems and their impact on membrane performance may help to develop effective biofouling control strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence, extent and timescale of biofilm compaction and relaxation (decompaction), caused by permeate flux variations. The impact of permeate flux changes on biofilm thickness, structure and stiffness was investigated in situ and non-destructively with optical coherence tomography using membrane fouling monitors operated at a constant crossflow velocity of 0.1 m s−1 with permeate production. The permeate flux was varied sequentially from 20 to 60 and back to 20 L m−2 h−1. The study showed that the average biofilm thickness on the membrane decreased after elevating the permeate flux from 20 to 60 L m−2 h−1 while the biofilm thickness increased again after restoring the original flux of 20 L m−2 h−1, indicating the occurrence of biofilm compaction and relaxation. Within a few seconds after the flux change, the biofilm thickness was changed and stabilized, biofilm compaction occurred faster than the relaxation after restoring the original permeate flux. The initial biofilm parameters were not fully reinstated: the biofilm thickness was reduced by 21%, biofilm stiffness had increased and the hydraulic biofilm resistance was elevated by 16%. Biofilm thickness was related to the hydraulic biofilm resistance. Membrane performance losses are related to the biofilm thickness, density and morphology, which are influenced by (variations in) hydraulic conditions. A (temporarily) permeate flux increase caused biofilm compaction, together with membrane performance losses. The impact of biofilms on membrane performance can be influenced (increased and reduced) by operational parameters. The article shows that a (temporary) pressure increase leads to more
Plasma Relaxation in Hall Magnetohydrodynamics
Shivamoggi, B K
2011-01-01
Parker's formulation of isotopological plasma relaxation process in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is extended to Hall MHD. The torsion coefficient alpha in the Hall MHD Beltrami condition turns out now to be proportional to the "potential vorticity." The Hall MHD Beltrami condition becomes equivalent to the "potential vorticity" conservation equation in two-dimensional hydrodynamics if the Hall MHD Lagrange multiplier beta is taken to be proportional to the "potential vorticity" as well. The winding pattern of the magnetic field lines in Hall MHD then appears to evolve in the same way as "potential vorticity" lines in 2D hydrodynamics.
Spectral Estimation of NMR Relaxation
Naugler, David G.; Cushley, Robert J.
2000-08-01
In this paper, spectral estimation of NMR relaxation is constructed as an extension of Fourier Transform (FT) theory as it is practiced in NMR or MRI, where multidimensional FT theory is used. nD NMR strives to separate overlapping resonances, so the treatment given here deals primarily with monoexponential decay. In the domain of real error, it is shown how optimal estimation based on prior knowledge can be derived. Assuming small Gaussian error, the estimation variance and bias are derived. Minimum bias and minimum variance are shown to be contradictory experimental design objectives. The analytical continuation of spectral estimation is constructed in an optimal manner. An important property of spectral estimation is that it is phase invariant. Hence, hypercomplex data storage is unnecessary. It is shown that, under reasonable assumptions, spectral estimation is unbiased in the context of complex error and its variance is reduced because the modulus of the whole signal is used. Because of phase invariance, the labor of phasing and any error due to imperfect phase can be avoided. A comparison of spectral estimation with nonlinear least squares (NLS) estimation is made analytically and with numerical examples. Compared to conventional sampling for NLS estimation, spectral estimation would typically provide estimation values of comparable precision in one-quarter to one-tenth of the spectrometer time when S/N is high. When S/N is low, the time saved can be used for signal averaging at the sampled points to give better precision. NLS typically provides one estimate at a time, whereas spectral estimation is inherently parallel. The frequency dimensions of conventional nD FT NMR may be denoted D1, D2, etc. As an extension of nD FT NMR, one can view spectral estimation of NMR relaxation as an extension into the zeroth dimension. In nD NMR, the information content of a spectrum can be extracted as a set of n-tuples (ω1, … ωn), corresponding to the peak maxima
Modelling of diffusion and conductivity relaxation of oxide ceramics
Preis, Wolfgang
2016-12-01
A two-dimensional square grain model has been applied to simulate simultaneously the diffusion process and relaxation of the dc conduction of polycrystalline oxide materials due to a sudden change of the oxygen partial pressure of the surrounding gas phase. The numerical calculations are performed by employing the finite element approach. The grains are squares of equal side length (average grain size) and the grain boundaries may consist of thin slabs of uniform thickness. An additional (space charge) layer adjacent to the grain boundary cores (thin slabs) either blocking (depletion layer) or highly conductive for electronic charge carriers may surround the grains. The electronic transport number of the mixed ionic-electronic conducting oxide ceramics may be close to unity (predominant electronic conduction). If the chemical diffusion coefficient of the neutral mobile component (oxygen) of the grain boundary core regions is assumed to be higher by many orders of magnitude than that in the bulk, the simulated relaxation curves for mass transport (diffusion) and dc conduction can deviate remarkably from each other. Deviations between the relaxation of mass transport and dc conduction are found in the case of considerably different electronic conductivities of grain boundary core regions, space charge layers, and bulk. On the contrary, the relaxation curves of mass transport and electronic conductivity are in perfect coincidence, when either effective medium diffusion occurs or the effective conductivity is unaffected by the individual conductivities of core regions and possible space charge layers, i.e. the grain boundary resistivity is negligible.
Active open boundary forcing using dual relaxation time-scales in downscaled ocean models
Herzfeld, M.; Gillibrand, P. A.
2015-05-01
Regional models actively forced with data from larger scale models at their open boundaries often contain motion at different time-scales (e.g. tidal and low frequency). These motions are not always individually well specified in the forcing data, and one may require a more active boundary forcing while the other exert less influence on the model interior. If a single relaxation time-scale is used to relax toward these data in the boundary equation, then this may be difficult. The method of fractional steps is used to introduce dual relaxation time-scales in an open boundary local flux adjustment scheme. This allows tidal and low frequency oscillations to be relaxed independently, resulting in a better overall solution than if a single relaxation parameter is optimized for tidal (short relaxation) or low frequency (long relaxation) boundary forcing. The dual method is compared to the single relaxation method for an idealized test case where a tidal signal is superimposed on a steady state low frequency solution, and a real application where the low frequency boundary forcing component is derived from a global circulation model for a region extending over the whole Great Barrier Reef, and a tidal signal subsequently superimposed.
Kim, Daeun; Doyle, Eamon K; Wisnowski, Jessica L; Kim, Joong Hee; Haldar, Justin P
2017-03-19
To propose and evaluate a novel multidimensional approach for imaging subvoxel tissue compartments called Diffusion-Relaxation Correlation Spectroscopic Imaging. Multiexponential modeling of MR diffusion or relaxation data is commonly used to infer the many different microscopic tissue compartments that contribute signal to macroscopic MR imaging voxels. However, multiexponential estimation is known to be difficult and ill-posed. Observing that this ill-posedness is theoretically reduced in higher dimensions, diffusion-relaxation correlation spectroscopic imaging uses a novel multidimensional imaging experiment that jointly encodes diffusion and relaxation information, and then uses a novel constrained reconstruction technique to generate a multidimensional diffusion-relaxation correlation spectrum for every voxel. The peaks of the multidimensional spectrum are expected to correspond to the distinct tissue microenvironments that are present within each macroscopic imaging voxel. Using numerical simulations, experiment data from a custom-built phantom, and experiment data from a mouse model of traumatic spinal cord injury, diffusion-relaxation correlation spectroscopic imaging is demonstrated to provide substantially better multicompartment resolving power compared to conventional diffusion- and relaxation-based methods. The diffusion-relaxation correlation spectroscopic imaging approach provides powerful new capabilities for resolving the different components of multicompartment tissue models, and can be leveraged to significantly expand the insights provided by MRI in studies of tissue microstructure. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Influence of carriers on magnetization relaxation in (Cd,Mn)Te quantum wells
Goryca, M.; Nawrocki, M. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Ferrand, D.; Tatarenko, S. [Joined group ' ' Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs' ' , CNRS, CEA, Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble, Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, BP 87, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres cedex (France); Kossacki, P.; Pacuski, W.; Maslana, W. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Joined group ' ' Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs' ' , CNRS, CEA, Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble, Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, BP 87, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres cedex (France); Wojtowicz, T.; Karczewski, G. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Cibert, J. [Laboratoire Louis Neel, CNRS, BP166, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)
2007-07-01
The relaxation of the magnetization after a short pulse of magnetic field in n-doped and p-doped (Cd,Mn)Te quantum wells is determined from the giant Zeeman shift of the photoluminescence and transmission lines. This technique allows us to investigate the magnetization dynamics in zero field. In n-doped samples the magnetization relaxation is found to be faster than 20 ns. In case of p-doped samples two components of relaxation are observed. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Zhang Xingyi; Zhou Jun; Zhou Youhe [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Ministry of Education (China); Liang Xinwen [Department of Finance, School of Economics of Sichuan University, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)
2009-02-15
We present an experimental study of the relaxation of vertical and horizontal force components in an unsymmetrical high-temperature superconducting levitation system, with different initial cooling processes, after fixing the levitated body statically in a given position. It was found that the values of the relaxation measurements of the levitation force and lateral force remained constant or increased with time after vertical and horizontal traverses. The phenomenon has been theoretically described based on the Bean model and the thermally activated flux creep theory. The criterion developed in the present work is considered to be suitable for providing qualitative predictions of the relaxation properties in the levitation force and lateral force.
Zhang, Xing-Yi; Zhou, Jun; Zhou, You-He; Liang, Xin-Wen
2009-02-01
We present an experimental study of the relaxation of vertical and horizontal force components in an unsymmetrical high-temperature superconducting levitation system, with different initial cooling processes, after fixing the levitated body statically in a given position. It was found that the values of the relaxation measurements of the levitation force and lateral force remained constant or increased with time after vertical and horizontal traverses. The phenomenon has been theoretically described based on the Bean model and the thermally activated flux creep theory. The criterion developed in the present work is considered to be suitable for providing qualitative predictions of the relaxation properties in the levitation force and lateral force.
Relaxation of liquid bridge after droplets coalescence
Jiangen Zheng
2016-11-01
Full Text Available We investigate the relaxation of liquid bridge after the coalescence of two sessile droplets resting on an organic glass substrate both experimentally and theoretically. The liquid bridge is found to relax to its equilibrium shape via two distinct approaches: damped oscillation relaxation and underdamped relaxation. When the viscosity is low, damped oscillation shows up, in this approach, the liquid bridge undergoes a damped oscillation process until it reaches its stable shape. However, if the viscous effects become significant, underdamped relaxation occurs. In this case, the liquid bridge relaxes to its equilibrium state in a non-periodic decay mode. In depth analysis indicates that the damping rate and oscillation period of damped oscillation are related to an inertial-capillary time scale τc. These experimental results are also testified by our numerical simulations with COMSOL Multiphysics.
Cross relaxation in nitroxide spin labels
Marsh, Derek
2016-11-01
Cross relaxation, and mI -dependence of the intrinsic electron spin-lattice relaxation rate We , are incorporated explicitly into the rate equations for the electron-spin population differences that govern the saturation behaviour of 14N- and 15N-nitroxide spin labels. Both prove important in spin-label EPR and ELDOR, particularly for saturation recovery studies. Neither for saturation recovery, nor for CW-saturation EPR and CW-ELDOR, can cross relaxation be described simply by increasing the value of We , the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate. Independence of the saturation recovery rates from the hyperfine line pumped or observed follows directly from solution of the rate equations including cross relaxation, even when the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate We is mI -dependent.
Muon spin relaxation investigation of tetranuclear iron(III) Fe_4(OCH_3)_6(dpm)_6 molecular cluster
Procissi, D.; P. Arosio; Orsini, F.; Marinone, M.; Cornia, A.; Lascialfari, A.
2009-01-01
We present a study of the spin dynamics of Fe_4(OCH_3)_6(dpm)_6 single molecule magnet by means of SQUID magnetization and muon relaxation (µ^(+)SR) measurements. In longitudinal field µ^+SR experiments performed at magnetic fields H=200, 1000 Oe, the muon asymmetry P(t) could be fitted by means of three components, the first constant, the second fast relaxing through a quasiexponential decay, and the third, the slowest relaxing, showing an exponential decay. The slowest muon relaxation rate ...
Chang, Zhiwei; Halle, Bertil
2013-10-01
In complex biological or colloidal samples, magnetic relaxation dispersion (MRD) experiments using the field-cycling technique can characterize molecular motions on time scales ranging from nanoseconds to microseconds, provided that a rigorous theory of nuclear spin relaxation is available. In gels, cross-linked proteins, and biological tissues, where an immobilized macromolecular component coexists with a mobile solvent phase, nuclear spins residing in solvent (or cosolvent) species relax predominantly via exchange-mediated orientational randomization (EMOR) of anisotropic nuclear (electric quadrupole or magnetic dipole) couplings. The physical or chemical exchange processes that dominate the MRD typically occur on a time scale of microseconds or longer, where the conventional perturbation theory of spin relaxation breaks down. There is thus a need for a more general relaxation theory. Such a theory, based on the stochastic Liouville equation (SLE) for the EMOR mechanism, is available for a single quadrupolar spin I = 1. Here, we present the corresponding theory for a dipole-coupled spin-1/2 pair. To our knowledge, this is the first treatment of dipolar MRD outside the motional-narrowing regime. Based on an analytical solution of the spatial part of the SLE, we show how the integral longitudinal relaxation rate can be computed efficiently. Both like and unlike spins, with selective or non-selective excitation, are treated. For the experimentally important dilute regime, where only a small fraction of the spin pairs are immobilized, we obtain simple analytical expressions for the auto-relaxation and cross-relaxation rates which generalize the well-known Solomon equations. These generalized results will be useful in biophysical studies, e.g., of intermittent protein dynamics. In addition, they represent a first step towards a rigorous theory of water 1H relaxation in biological tissues, which is a prerequisite for unravelling the molecular basis of soft
Temperature relaxation in dense plasma mixtures
Faussurier, Gérald; Blancard, Christophe
2016-09-01
We present a model to calculate temperature-relaxation rates in dense plasma mixtures. The electron-ion relaxation rates are calculated using an average-atom model and the ion-ion relaxation rates by the Landau-Spitzer approach. This method allows the study of the temperature relaxation in many-temperature electron-ion and ion-ion systems such as those encountered in inertial confinement fusion simulations. It is of interest for general nonequilibrium thermodynamics dealing with energy flows between various systems and should find broad use in present high energy density experiments.
Baryogenesis via Elementary Goldstone Higgs Relaxation
Gertov, Helene; Pearce, Lauren; Yang, Louis
2016-01-01
We extend the relaxation mechanism to the Elementary Goldstone Higgs frame- work. Besides studying the allowed parameter space of the theory we add the minimal ingredients needed for the framework to be phenomenologically viable. The very nature of the extended Higgs sector allows to consider very flat scalar potential directions along which the relaxation mechanism can be implemented. This fact translates into wider regions of applicability of the relaxation mechanism when compared to the Standard Model Higgs case. Our results show that, if the electroweak scale is not fundamental but radiatively generated, it is possible to generate the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry via the relaxation mechanism.
Dielectric relaxation studies in polyvinyl butyral
Mehendru, P. C.; Kumar, Naresh; Arora, V. P.; Gupta, N. P.
1982-10-01
Dielectric measurements have been made in thick films (˜100 μm) of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) having degree of polymerization n=1600, in the frequency range 100 Hz-100 KHz and temperature range 300-373 K. The results indicated that PVB was in the amorphous phase and observed dielectric dispersion has been assigned as the β-relaxation process. The β relaxation is of Debye type with symmetrical distribution of relaxation times. The dielectric relaxation strength Δɛ and the distribution parameters β¯ increase with temperature. The results can be qualitatively explained by assuming the hindered rotation of the side groups involving hydroxyl/acetate groups.
Relaxation and Visualization Strategies for Story Telling
冯灵林
2012-01-01
The importance of training students to tell or retell story is self - evident for mastering English language. The following activity introduces relaxation and visualization strategies for story telling.
Nuclear relaxation via paramagnetic impurities
Dzheparov, F S; Jacquinot, J F
2002-01-01
First part of the work contains a calculation of the kinetics of nuclear relaxation via paramagnetic impurities for systems with arbitrary (including fractal) space dimension d basing on ideas, which run current for 3d objects now. A new mean-field-type theory is constructed in the second part of the work. It reproduces all results of the first part for integer d and gives a possibility to describe the process for longer time, when a crossover to Balagurov-Waks asymptotics starts to develop. Solutions of the equations of the new theory are constructed for integer d. To obtain the solutions a method of calculation of the low-energy and long-wave asymptotics for T matrix of potential scattering out of the mass shell for singular repulsive potentials is developed
Relaxation techniques for three-dimensional transonic flow about wings.
Bailey, F. R.; Steger, J. L.
1972-01-01
A relaxation procedure has been developed to treat the three-dimensional, transonic small perturbation equations about finite lifting wings. A combination of two schemes is employed. For flow forward of the wing trailing edge the equations are written in terms of a velocity potential in order to minimize computer algebra and storage. For the remaining flow field the equations are written in terms of the velocity components in order to simplify the enforcement of the Kutta condition. Difference equations and relaxation procedures are described for both schemes. The computational method automatically captures the imbedded shock wave in the three-dimensional flow field. Computed results are given and compared to experiment and other inviscid methods.
Superparamagnetic relaxation of weakly interacting particles
Mørup, Steen; Tronc, Elisabeth
1994-01-01
The influence of particle interactions on the superparamagnetic relaxation time has been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy in samples of maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) particles with different particle sizes and particle separations. It is found that the relaxation time decreases with decreasing particl...
Postextrasystolic relaxation in the dog heart
Kuijer, P.J.P.; Heethaar, R.M.; Herbschleb, J.N.; Zimmerman, A.N.E.; Meijler, F.L.
1978-01-01
Left ventricular relaxation was studied in 8 dogs using parameters derived from the left ventricular pressure: the fastest pressure fall and the time constant of pressure decline. Effects of extrasystolic rhythm interventions were examined on the relaxation parameters of the post-relative to the pre
Superparamagnetic relaxation in alpha-Fe particles
Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen; Pedersen, Michael Stanley;
1998-01-01
The superparamagnetic relaxation time of carbon-supported alpha-Fe particles with an average size of 3.0 Mm has been studied over a large temperature range by the use of Mossbauer spectroscopy combined with AC and DC magnetization measurements. It is found that the relaxation time varies with tem...
Cross relaxation in nitroxide spin labels
Marsh, Derek
2016-01-01
-label EPR and ELDOR, particularly for saturation recovery studies. Neither for saturation recovery, nor for CW-saturation EPR and CW-ELDOR, can cross relaxation be described simply by increasing the value of We, the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate. Independence of the saturation recovery rates from...
Windowing Waveform Relaxation of Initial Value Problems
Yao-lin Jiang
2006-01-01
We present a windowing technique of waveform relaxation for dynamic systems. An effective estimation on window length is derived by an iterative error expression provided here. Relaxation processes can be speeded up if one takes the windowing technique in advance. Numerical experiments are given to further illustrate the theoretical analysis.
Stress Relaxation in Entangled Polymer Melts
Hou, Ji-Xuan; Svaneborg, Carsten; Everaers, Ralf
2010-01-01
We present an extensive set of simulation results for the stress relaxation in equilibrium and step-strained bead-spring polymer melts. The data allow us to explore the chain dynamics and the shear relaxation modulus, G(t), into the plateau regime for chains with Z=40 entanglements and into the t......We present an extensive set of simulation results for the stress relaxation in equilibrium and step-strained bead-spring polymer melts. The data allow us to explore the chain dynamics and the shear relaxation modulus, G(t), into the plateau regime for chains with Z=40 entanglements...... and into the terminal relaxation regime for Z=10. Using the known (Rouse) mobility of unentangled chains and the melt entanglement length determined via the primitive path analysis of the microscopic topological state of our systems, we have performed parameter-free tests of several different tube models. We find...
Stress and Relaxation in Relation to Personality
Harish Kumar Sharma
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Relaxation plays a significant role in facing stress. The aim of the present study is to see whether personality patterns determine an individual’s ability to relax. As a reaction to stress, coping is the best way to handle stress, which requires rational and conscious thinking. Does this ability to relax anyway facilitate coping reactions? A study was conducted on 100 college students. Results revealed that extraverts relax easily than introverts. In addition, if intelligence level is average or above average, relaxation does play a role in facilitating coping reactions. It suggests that in designing techniques of stress management, the personality and intelligence level must be taken into consideration to make techniques effective.
Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting with short relaxation intervals.
Amthor, Thomas; Doneva, Mariya; Koken, Peter; Sommer, Karsten; Meineke, Jakob; Börnert, Peter
2017-09-01
The aim of this study was to investigate a technique for improving the performance of Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) in repetitive sampling schemes, in particular for 3D MRF acquisition, by shortening relaxation intervals between MRF pulse train repetitions. A calculation method for MRF dictionaries adapted to short relaxation intervals and non-relaxed initial spin states is presented, based on the concept of stationary fingerprints. The method is applicable to many different k-space sampling schemes in 2D and 3D. For accuracy analysis, T1 and T2 values of a phantom are determined by single-slice Cartesian MRF for different relaxation intervals and are compared with quantitative reference measurements. The relevance of slice profile effects is also investigated in this case. To further illustrate the capabilities of the method, an application to in-vivo spiral 3D MRF measurements is demonstrated. The proposed computation method enables accurate parameter estimation even for the shortest relaxation intervals, as investigated for different sampling patterns in 2D and 3D. In 2D Cartesian measurements, we achieved a scan acceleration of more than a factor of two, while maintaining acceptable accuracy: The largest T1 values of a sample set deviated from their reference values by 0.3% (longest relaxation interval) and 2.4% (shortest relaxation interval). The largest T2 values showed systematic deviations of up to 10% for all relaxation intervals, which is discussed. The influence of slice profile effects for multislice acquisition is shown to become increasingly relevant for short relaxation intervals. In 3D spiral measurements, a scan time reduction of 36% was achieved, maintaining the quality of in-vivo T1 and T2 maps. Reducing the relaxation interval between MRF sequence repetitions using stationary fingerprint dictionaries is a feasible method to improve the scan efficiency of MRF sequences. The method enables fast implementations of 3D spatially resolved
Colwell, Morris A
1976-01-01
Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful
Domain Relaxation in Langmuir Films
Bernoff, Andrew J.; Alexander, James C.; Mann, Elizabeth K.; Mann, J. Adin; Zou, Lu; Wintersmith, Jacob R.
2007-11-01
We report on an experimental, theoretical and computational study of a molecularly thin polymer Langmuir layer domain on the surface of a subfluid. When stretched (by a transient stagnation flow), the Langmuir layer takes the form of a bola consisting of two roughly circular reservoirs connected by a thin tether. This shape relaxes to the circular minimum energy configuration. The tether is never observed to rupture, even when it is more than a hundred times as long as it is thin. We model these experiments as a free boundary problem where motion is driven by the line tension of the domain and damped by the viscosity of the subfluid. We process the digital images of the experiment to extract the domain shape, use one of these shapes as an initial condition for the numerical solution of a boundary-integral model of the underlying hydrodynamics, and compare the subsequent images of the experiment to the numerical simulation. The numerical evolutions verify that our hydrodynamical model can reproduce the observed dynamics. They also allow us to deduce the magnitude of the line tension in the system, often to within 1%.
Supervised Discrete Hashing With Relaxation.
Gui, Jie; Liu, Tongliang; Sun, Zhenan; Tao, Dacheng; Tan, Tieniu
2016-12-29
Data-dependent hashing has recently attracted attention due to being able to support efficient retrieval and storage of high-dimensional data, such as documents, images, and videos. In this paper, we propose a novel learning-based hashing method called ''supervised discrete hashing with relaxation'' (SDHR) based on ''supervised discrete hashing'' (SDH). SDH uses ordinary least squares regression and traditional zero-one matrix encoding of class label information as the regression target (code words), thus fixing the regression target. In SDHR, the regression target is instead optimized. The optimized regression target matrix satisfies a large margin constraint for correct classification of each example. Compared with SDH, which uses the traditional zero-one matrix, SDHR utilizes the learned regression target matrix and, therefore, more accurately measures the classification error of the regression model and is more flexible. As expected, SDHR generally outperforms SDH. Experimental results on two large-scale image data sets (CIFAR-10 and MNIST) and a large-scale and challenging face data set (FRGC) demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of SDHR.
Spin relaxation in organic semiconductors
Bobbert, Peter
2011-03-01
Intriguing magnetic field effects in organic semiconductor devices have been reported: anomalous magnetoresistance in organic spin valves and large effects of small magnetic fields on the current and luminescence of organic light-emitting diodes. Influences of isotopic substitution on these effects points at the role of hyperfine coupling. We performed studies of spin relaxation in organic semiconductors based on (i) coherent spin precession of the electron spin in an effective magnetic field consisting of a random hyperfine field and an applied magnetic field and (ii) incoherent hopping of charges. These ingredients are incorporated in a stochastic Liouville equation for the dynamics of the spin density matrix of single charges as well as pairs of charges. For single charges we find a spin diffusion length that depends on the magnetic field, explaining anomalous magnetoresistance in organic spin valves. For pairs of charges we show that the magnetic field influences formation of singlet bipolarons, in the case of like charges, and singlet and triplet excitons, in the case of opposite charges. We can reproduce different line shapes of reported magnetic field effects, including recently found effects at ultra-small fields.
Blue Sky Catastrophe in Systems with Non-classical Relaxation Oscillations
S. D. Glyzin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The feasibility of a known blue-sky bifurcation in a class of three-dimensional singularly perturbed systems of ordinary differential equations with one fast and two slow variables is studied. A characteristic property of the considered systems is that they permit so-called nonclassic relaxation oscillations, that is, oscillations with slow components asymptotically close to time-discontinuous functions and a δ-like fast component. Cases when blue-sky bifurcation leads to a relaxation cycle or stable two-dimensional torus are analyzed. Also the question of homoclinic structure emergence is considered.
Seeger, H M; Heimburg, T; Gudmundsson, Marie L.; Heimburg, Thomas; Seeger, Heiko M.
2007-01-01
In the proximity of melting transitions of artificial and biological membranes fluctuations in enthalpy, area, volume and concentration are enhanced. This results in domain formation, changes of the elastic constants, changes in permeability and slowing down of relaxation processes. In this study we used pressure perturbation calorimetry to investigate the relaxation time scale after a jump into the melting transition regime of artificial lipid membranes. This time corresponds to the characteristic rate of domain growth. The studies were performed on single-component large unilamellar and multilamellar vesicle systems with and without the addition of small molecules such as general anesthetics, neurotransmitters and antibiotics. These drugs interact with membranes and affect melting points and profiles. In all systems we found that heat capacity and relaxation times are related to each other in a simple manner. The maximum relaxation time depends on the cooperativity of the heat capacity profile and decreases...
Relaxation of a 1-D gravitational system
Valageas, P
2006-01-01
We study the relaxation towards thermodynamical equilibrium of a 1-D gravitational system. This OSC model shows a series of critical energies $E_{cn}$ where new equilibria appear and we focus on the homogeneous ($n=0$), one-peak ($n=\\pm 1$) and two-peak ($n=2$) states. Using numerical simulations we investigate the relaxation to the stable equilibrium $n=\\pm 1$ of this $N-$body system starting from initial conditions defined by equilibria $n=0$ and $n=2$. We find that in a fashion similar to other long-range systems the relaxation involves a fast violent relaxation phase followed by a slow collisional phase as the system goes through a series of quasi-stationary states. Moreover, in cases where this slow second stage leads to a dynamically unstable configuration (two peaks with a high mass ratio) it is followed by a new sequence ``violent relaxation/slow collisional relaxation''. We obtain an analytical estimate of the relaxation time $t_{2\\to \\pm 1}$ through the mean escape time of a particle from its potent...
Plasma Relaxation Dynamics Moderated by Current Sheets
Dewar, Robert; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Yoshida, Zensho
2014-10-01
Ideal magnetohydrodynamics (IMHD) is strongly constrained by an infinite number of microscopic constraints expressing mass, entropy and magnetic flux conservation in each infinitesimal fluid element, the latter preventing magnetic reconnection. By contrast, in the Taylor-relaxed equilibrium model all these constraints are relaxed save for global magnetic flux and helicity. A Lagrangian is presented that leads to a new variational formulation of magnetized fluid dynamics, relaxed MHD (RxMHD), all static solutions of which are Taylor equilibrium states. By postulating that some long-lived macroscopic current sheets can act as barriers to relaxation, separating the plasma into multiple relaxation regions, a further generalization, multi-relaxed MHD (MRxMHD), is developed. These concepts are illustrated using a simple two-region slab model similar to that proposed by Hahm and Kulsrud--the formation of an initial shielding current sheet after perturbation by boundary rippling is calculated using MRxMHD and the final island state, after the current sheet has relaxed through a reconnection sequence, is calculated using RxMHD. Australian Research Council Grant DP110102881.
Stable Principal Component Pursuit
Zhou, Zihan; Wright, John; Candes, Emmanuel; Ma, Yi
2010-01-01
In this paper, we study the problem of recovering a low-rank matrix (the principal components) from a high-dimensional data matrix despite both small entry-wise noise and gross sparse errors. Recently, it has been shown that a convex program, named Principal Component Pursuit (PCP), can recover the low-rank matrix when the data matrix is corrupted by gross sparse errors. We further prove that the solution to a related convex program (a relaxed PCP) gives an estimate of the low-rank matrix that is simultaneously stable to small entrywise noise and robust to gross sparse errors. More precisely, our result shows that the proposed convex program recovers the low-rank matrix even though a positive fraction of its entries are arbitrarily corrupted, with an error bound proportional to the noise level. We present simulation results to support our result and demonstrate that the new convex program accurately recovers the principal components (the low-rank matrix) under quite broad conditions. To our knowledge, this is...
Relaxing incision for control of postoperative astigmatism following keratoplasty.
Troutman, R C; Swinger, C
1980-02-01
A new technique has been presented which provides a second surgical approach to correct excessive residual astigmatism following keratoplasty. The relaxing incision procedure has advantages over wedge resection in that it can be performed at the slit lamp, it gives no initial overcorrection, and it has a much shorter postoperative course while giving rapid results without suturing. Since this technique does not appear to produce significant hyperopia and may produce a tendency toward myopia, the corneal surgeon would thus have alternative techniques from which to choose, depending, in part, on the spherical component of the refraction.
Le Chatelier's principle with multiple relaxation channels
Gilmore, R.; Levine, R. D.
1986-05-01
Le Chatelier's principle is discussed within the constrained variational approach to thermodynamics. The formulation is general enough to encompass systems not in thermal (or chemical) equilibrium. Particular attention is given to systems with multiple constraints which can be relaxed. The moderation of the initial perturbation increases as additional constraints are removed. This result is studied in particular when the (coupled) relaxation channels have widely different time scales. A series of inequalities is derived which describes the successive moderation as each successive relaxation channel opens up. These inequalities are interpreted within the metric-geometry representation of thermodynamics.
Neural control of muscle relaxation in echinoderms.
Elphick, M R; Melarange, R
2001-03-01
Smooth muscle relaxation in vertebrates is regulated by a variety of neuronal signalling molecules, including neuropeptides and nitric oxide (NO). The physiology of muscle relaxation in echinoderms is of particular interest because these animals are evolutionarily more closely related to the vertebrates than to the majority of invertebrate phyla. However, whilst in vertebrates there is a clear structural and functional distinction between visceral smooth muscle and skeletal striated muscle, this does not apply to echinoderms, in which the majority of muscles, whether associated with the body wall skeleton and its appendages or with visceral organs, are made up of non-striated fibres. The mechanisms by which the nervous system controls muscle relaxation in echinoderms were, until recently, unknown. Using the cardiac stomach of the starfish Asterias rubens as a model, it has been established that the NO-cGMP signalling pathway mediates relaxation. NO also causes relaxation of sea urchin tube feet, and NO may therefore function as a 'universal' muscle relaxant in echinoderms. The first neuropeptides to be identified in echinoderms were two related peptides isolated from Asterias rubens known as SALMFamide-1 (S1) and SALMFamide-2 (S2). Both S1 and S2 cause relaxation of the starfish cardiac stomach, but with S2 being approximately ten times more potent than S1. SALMFamide neuropeptides have also been isolated from sea cucumbers, in which they cause relaxation of both gut and body wall muscle. Therefore, like NO, SALMFamides may also function as 'universal' muscle relaxants in echinoderms. The mechanisms by which SALMFamides cause relaxation of echinoderm muscle are not known, but several candidate signal transduction pathways are discussed here. The SALMFamides do not, however, appear to act by promoting release of NO, and muscle relaxation in echinoderms is therefore probably regulated by at least two neuronal signalling systems acting in parallel. Recently, other
Stress Relaxation in Entangled Polymer Melts
Hou, Ji-Xuan; Svaneborg, Carsten; Everaers, Ralf
2010-01-01
and into the terminal relaxation regime for Z=10. Using the known (Rouse) mobility of unentangled chains and the melt entanglement length determined via the primitive path analysis of the microscopic topological state of our systems, we have performed parameter-free tests of several different tube models. We find......We present an extensive set of simulation results for the stress relaxation in equilibrium and step-strained bead-spring polymer melts. The data allow us to explore the chain dynamics and the shear relaxation modulus, G(t), into the plateau regime for chains with Z=40 entanglements...
Spin relaxation in nanowires by hyperfine coupling
Echeverria-Arrondo, C. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Sherman, E.Ya. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain)
2012-08-15
Hyperfine interactions establish limits on spin dynamics and relaxation rates in ensembles of semiconductor quantum dots. It is the confinement of electrons which determines nonzero hyperfine coupling and leads to the spin relaxation. As a result, in nanowires one would expect the vanishing of this effect due to extended electron states. However, even for relatively clean wires, disorder plays a crucial role and makes electron localization sufficient to cause spin relaxation on the time scale of the order of 10 ns. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Compact vs. Exponential-Size LP Relaxations
Carr, R.D.; Lancia, G.
2000-09-01
In this paper we introduce by means of examples a new technique for formulating compact (i.e. polynomial-size) LP relaxations in place of exponential-size models requiring separation algorithms. In the same vein as a celebrated theorem by Groetschel, Lovasz and Schrijver, we state the equivalence of compact separation and compact optimization. Among the examples used to illustrate our technique, we introduce a new formulation for the Traveling Salesman Problem, whose relaxation we show equivalent to the subtour elimination relaxation.
Relaxation time in disordered molecular systems
Rocha, Rodrigo P. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis-SC (Brazil); Freire, José A., E-mail: jfreire@fisica.ufpr.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-990 Curitiba-PR (Brazil)
2015-05-28
Relaxation time is the typical time it takes for a closed physical system to attain thermal equilibrium. The equilibrium is brought about by the action of a thermal reservoir inducing changes in the system micro-states. The relaxation time is intuitively expected to increase with system disorder. We derive a simple analytical expression for this dependence in the context of electronic equilibration in an amorphous molecular system model. We find that the disorder dramatically enhances the relaxation time but does not affect its independence of the nature of the initial state.
Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation in multiple sclerosis
Larsson, H B; Barker, G J; MacKay, A
1998-01-01
OBJECTIVES: The theory of relaxation processes and their measurements are described. An overview is presented of the literature on relaxation time measurements in the normal and the developing brain, in experimental diseases in animals, and in patients with multiple sclerosis. RESULTS...... AND CONCLUSION: Relaxation time measurements provide insight into development of multiple sclerosis plaques, especially the occurrence of oedema, demyelination, and gliosis. There is also evidence that normal appearing white matter in patients with multiple sclerosis is affected. What is now needed are fast...
1H relaxation dispersion in solutions of nitroxide radicals: Influence of electron spin relaxation
Kruk, D.; Korpała, A.; Kubica, A.; Kowalewski, J.; Rössler, E. A.; Moscicki, J.
2013-03-01
The work presents a theory of nuclear (1H) spin-lattice relaxation dispersion for solutions of 15N and 14N radicals, including electron spin relaxation effects. The theory is a generalization of the approach presented by Kruk et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 137, 044512 (2012)], 10.1063/1.4736854. The electron spin relaxation is attributed to the anisotropic part of the electron spin-nitrogen spin hyperfine interaction modulated by rotational dynamics of the paramagnetic molecule, and described by means of Redfield relaxation theory. The 1H relaxation is caused by electron spin-proton spin dipole-dipole interactions which are modulated by relative translational motion of the solvent and solute molecules. The spectral density characterizing the translational dynamics is described by the force-free-hard-sphere model. The electronic relaxation influences the 1H relaxation by contributing to the fluctuations of the inter-molecular dipolar interactions. The developed theory is tested against 1H spin-lattice relaxation dispersion data for glycerol solutions of 4-oxo-TEMPO-d16-15N and 4-oxo-TEMPO-d16-14N covering the frequency range of 10 kHz-20 MHz. The studies are carried out as a function of temperature starting at 328 K and going down to 290 K. The theory gives a consistent overall interpretation of the experimental data for both 14N and 15N systems and explains the features of 1H relaxation dispersion resulting from the electron spin relaxation.
Hydrogen sulfide and vascular relaxation
SUN Yan; TANG Chao-shu; DU Jun-bao; JIN Hong-fang
2011-01-01
Objective To review the vasorelaxant effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in arterial rings in the cardiovascular system under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions and the possible mechanisms involved.Data sources The data in this review were obtained from Medline and Pubmed sources from 1997 to 2011 using the search terms "hydrogen sulfide" and ""vascular relaxation".Study selection Articles describing the role of hydrogen sulfide in the regulation of vascular activity and its vasorelaxant effects were selected.Results H2S plays an important role in the regulation of cardiovascular tone.The vasomodulatory effects of H2S depend on factors including concentration,species and tissue type.The H2S donor,sodium hydrosulfide (NarS),causes vasorelaxation of rat isolated aortic rings in a dose-dependent manner.This effect was more pronounced than that observed in pulmonary arterial rings.The expression of KATP channel proteins and mRNA in the aortic rings was increased compared with pulmonary artery rings.H2S is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of cardiovascular diseases.Downregulation of the endogenous H2S pathway is an important factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases.The vasorelaxant effects of H2S have been shown to be mediated by activation of KATP channels in vascular smooth muscle cells and via the induction of acidification due to activation of the CI/HCO3 exchanger.It is speculated that the mechanisms underlying the vasoconstrictive function of H2S in the aortic rings involves decreased NO production and inhibition of cAMP accumulation.Conclusion H2S is an important endogenous gasotransmitter in the cardiovascular system and acts as a modulator of vascular tone in the homeostatic regulation of blood pressure.
Cooking effects on water distribution in potatoes using nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation.
Mortensen, Margit; Thybo, Anette K; Bertram, Hanne C; Andersen, Henrik J; Engelsen, Søren B
2005-07-27
Continuous low-field (LF) (1)H NMR relaxometry was used to monitor the structural changes during cooking of potatoes with two different dry matter (DM) contents. A principal component analysis of the relaxation decay curves revealed major events related to water mobility during cooking, which occur at 53 and 60 degrees C for potatoes with medium and low DM contents, respectively. Exponential analysis of the relaxation decays reveals two major water populations in the potato: a slow-relaxing (assigned to water in cytoplasm and extracellular cavities) water component, T(22) ( approximately 350-550 ms), and a fast-relaxing component (primarily assigned to water associated with starch and cell walls), T(21) ( approximately 45-65 ms). Significant DM dependent shifts in both the T(21) and T(22) relaxation time constants were observed during cooking, indicating that starch gelatinizes between 53 and 70 degrees C with water exchanging with the hydroxyls of starch (transition in T(21)) and cells start to disrupt with an increase in diffusion volumes at approximately 60 degrees C (transition in T(22)). The study reveals that continuous LF NMR measurement is an excellent and highly sensitive method to study changes in water mobility and water populations during the cooking of potatoes.
“I think relax, relax and it flows a lot easier”: Exploring client-generated relax strategies
Dianne Cirone
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Background. Some adult stroke survivors participating in Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP treatment programs self-generated relax strategies that have not been explored in previous CO-OP publications. The objective of this study was to describe the process by which adults with stroke used relax strategies and to explore the outcomes associated with their use. Methods. Secondary analysis of transcripts of intervention sessions from five participants was conducted. Results. All five participants applied relax strategies after initially observing a breakdown in performance that was attributed to increased fatigue or tension. The relax strategies used by the participants during their occupations included general relaxation, physical modifications to reduce tension, mental preparation, and pacing. The application of these strategies seemed to result in improved skill performance, reduced fatigue, and transfer to other activities. Conclusion. The relax strategy warrants further investigation as a potentially important therapeutic tool to improve occupational performance in individuals who have had a stroke.
Slow spin relaxation in dipolar spin ice.
Orendac, Martin; Sedlakova, Lucia; Orendacova, Alzbeta; Vrabel, Peter; Feher, Alexander; Pajerowski, Daniel M.; Cohen, Justin D.; Meisel, Mark W.; Shirai, Masae; Bramwell, Steven T.
2009-03-01
Spin relaxation in dipolar spin ice Dy2Ti2O7 and Ho2Ti2O7 was investigated using the magnetocaloric effect and susceptibility. The magnetocaloric behavior of Dy2Ti2O7 at temperatures where the orientation of spins is governed by ``ice rules`` (T Tice) revealed thermally activated relaxation; however, the resulting temperature dependence of the relaxation time is more complicated than anticipated by a mere extrapolation of the corresponding high temperature data [1]. A susceptibility study of Ho2Ti2O7 was performed at T > Tice and in high magnetic fields, and the results suggest a slow relaxation of spins analogous to the behavior reported in a highly polarized cooperative paramagnet [2]. [1] J. Snyder et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 (2003) 107201. [2] B. G. Ueland et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 027216.
Energy landscape of relaxed amorphous silicon
Valiquette, Francis; Mousseau, Normand
2003-09-01
We analyze the structure of the energy landscape of a well-relaxed 1000-atom model of amorphous silicon using the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau). Generating more than 40 000 events starting from a single minimum, we find that activated mechanisms are local in nature, that they are distributed uniformly throughout the model, and that the activation energy is limited by the cost of breaking one bond, independently of the complexity of the mechanism. The overall shape of the activation-energy-barrier distribution is also insensitive to the exact details of the configuration, indicating that well-relaxed configurations see essentially the same environment. These results underscore the localized nature of relaxation in this material.
Precession Relaxation of Viscoelastic Oblate Rotators
Frouard, Julien
2016-01-01
Various perturbations (collisions, close encounters, YORP) destabilise the rotation of a small body, leaving it in a non-principal spin state. Then the body experiences alternating stresses generated by the inertial forces. The ensuing inelastic dissipation reduces the kinetic energy, without influencing the angular momentum. This yields nutation relaxation, i.e., evolution of the spin towards rotation about the maximal-inertia axis. Knowledge of the timescales needed to damp the nutation is crucial in studies of small bodies' dynamics. In the past, nutation relaxation has been described by an empirical quality factor introduced to parameterise the dissipation rate and to evade the discussion of the actual rheological parameters and their role in dissipation. This approach is unable to describe the dependence of the relaxation rate upon the nutation angle, because we do not know the quality factor's dependence on the frequency (which is a function of the nutation angle). This leaves open the question of relax...
Two-Body Relaxation in Cosmological Simulations
Binney, J; Binney, James; Knebe, Alexander
2002-01-01
The importance of two-body relaxation in cosmological simulations is explored with simulations in which there are two species of particles. The cases of mass ratio sqrt(2):1 and 4:1 are investigated. Simulations are run with both a fixed softening length and adaptive softening using the publicly available codes GADGET and MLAPM, respectively. The effects of two-body relaxation are detected in both the density profiles of halos and the mass function of halos. The effects are more pronounced with a fixed softening length, but even in this case they are not so large as to suggest that results obtained with one mass species are significantly affected by two-body relaxation. The simulations that use adaptive softening are slightly less affected by two-body relaxation and produce slightly higher central densities in the largest halos. They run about three times faster than the simulations that use a fixed softening length.
Structural relaxation in annealed hyperquenched basaltic glasses
Guo, Xiaoju; Mauro, John C.; Potuzak, M.
2012-01-01
The enthalpy relaxation behavior of hyperquenched (HQ) and annealed hyperquenched (AHQ) basaltic glass is investigated through calorimetric measurements. The results reveal a common onset temperature of the glass transition for all the HQ and AHQ glasses under study, indicating that the primary r...... relaxation is activated at the same temperature regardless of the initial departure from equilibrium. The analysis of secondary relaxation at different annealing temperatures provides insights into the enthalpy recovery of HQ glasses.......The enthalpy relaxation behavior of hyperquenched (HQ) and annealed hyperquenched (AHQ) basaltic glass is investigated through calorimetric measurements. The results reveal a common onset temperature of the glass transition for all the HQ and AHQ glasses under study, indicating that the primary...
Vibrational energy relaxation in liquid oxygen
Everitt, K. F.; Egorov, S. A.; Skinner, J. L.
1998-09-01
We consider theoretically the relaxation from the first excited vibrational state to the ground state of oxygen molecules in neat liquid oxygen. The relaxation rate constant is related in the usual way to the Fourier transform of a certain quantum mechanical force-force time-correlation function. A result from Egelstaff allows one instead to relate the rate constant (approximately) to the Fourier transform of a classical force-force time-correlation function. This Fourier transform is then evaluated approximately by calculating three equilibrium averages from a classical molecular dynamics simulation. Our results for the relaxation times (at two different temperatures) are within a factor of 5 of the experimental relaxation times, which are in the ms range.
Analytical representations for relaxation functions of glasses
Hilfer, R.
2002-01-01
Analytical representations in the time and frequency domains are derived for the most frequently used phenomenological fit functions for non-Debye relaxation processes. In the time domain the relaxation functions corresponding to the complex frequency dependent Cole-Cole, Cole-Davidson and Havriliak-Negami susceptibilities are also represented in terms of $H$-functions. In the frequency domain the complex frequency dependent susceptibility function corresponding to the time dependent stretche...
Vibrational relaxation in very high temperature nitrogen
Hansen, C. Frederick
1991-01-01
Vibrational relaxation of N2 molecules is considered at temperatures up to 40,000 K in gas mixtures that contain electrons as well as heavy collision partners. The theory of vibrational relaxation due to N2-N2 collisions is fit to experimental data to 10,000 K by choice of the shape of the intermolecular potential and size of the collision cross section. These values are then used to extrapolate the theory to 40,000 K.
Anomalous enthalpy relaxation in vitreous silica
Yue, Yuanzheng
2015-01-01
scans. It is known that the liquid fragility (i.e., the speed of the viscous slow-down of a supercooled liquid at its Tg during cooling) has impact on enthalpy relaxation in glass. Here, we find that vitreous silica (as a strong system) exhibits striking anomalies in both glass transition and enthalpy...... the fragile ones do in a structurally independent fashion. We discuss the origin of the anomalous enthalpy relaxation in the HQ vitreous silica....
Message passing with relaxed moment matching
Qi, Yuan; Guo, Yandong
2012-01-01
Bayesian learning is often hampered by large computational expense. As a powerful generalization of popular belief propagation, expectation propagation (EP) efficiently approximates the exact Bayesian computation. Nevertheless, EP can be sensitive to outliers and suffer from divergence for difficult cases. To address this issue, we propose a new approximate inference approach, relaxed expectation propagation (REP). It relaxes the moment matching requirement of expectation propagation by addin...
Protein dynamics from nuclear magnetic relaxation.
Charlier, Cyril; Cousin, Samuel F; Ferrage, Fabien
2016-05-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance is a ubiquitous spectroscopic tool to explore molecules with atomic resolution. Nuclear magnetic relaxation is intimately connected to molecular motions. Many methods and models have been developed to measure and interpret the characteristic rates of nuclear magnetic relaxation in proteins. These approaches shed light on a rich and diverse range of motions covering timescales from picoseconds to seconds. Here, we introduce some of the basic concepts upon which these approaches are built and provide a series of illustrations.
Lagrange relaxation and Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
1989-01-01
The paper concerns a large-scale linear programming problem having a block-diagonal structure with coupling constraints. It is shown that there are deep connections between the Lagrange relaxation techniques and the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition methods......The paper concerns a large-scale linear programming problem having a block-diagonal structure with coupling constraints. It is shown that there are deep connections between the Lagrange relaxation techniques and the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition methods...
Lagrange relaxation and Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
1989-01-01
The paper concerns a large-scale linear programming problem having a block-diagonal structure with coupling constraints. It is shown that there are deep connections between the Lagrange relaxation techniques and the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition methods......The paper concerns a large-scale linear programming problem having a block-diagonal structure with coupling constraints. It is shown that there are deep connections between the Lagrange relaxation techniques and the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition methods...
Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy of phlogopite mica
Kaur, Navjeet; Singh, Mohan; Singh, Anupinder [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India); Awasthi, A.M. [Thermodynamics Laboratory, UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore 452001 (India); Singh, Lakhwant, E-mail: lakhwant@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India)
2012-11-15
An in-depth investigation of the dielectric characteristics of annealed phlogopite mica has been conducted in the frequency range 0.1 Hz-10 MHz and over the temperature range 653-873 K through the framework of dielectric permittivity, electric modulus and conductivity formalisms. These formalisms show qualitative similarities in relaxation processes. The frequency dependence of the M Double-Prime and dc conductivity is found to obey an Arrhenius law and the activation energy of the phlogopite mica calculated both from dc conductivity and the modulus spectrum is similar, indicating that same type of charge carriers are involved in the relaxation phenomena. The electric modulus and conductivity data have been fitted with the Havriliak-Negami function. Scaling of M Prime , M Double-Prime , ac conductivity has also been performed in order to obtain insight into the relaxation mechanisms. The scaling behaviour indicates that the relaxation describes the same mechanism at different temperatures. The relaxation mechanism was also examined using the Cole-Cole approach. The study elaborates that the investigation regarding the temperature and frequency dependence of dielectric relaxation in the phlogopite mica will be helpful for various cutting edge applications of this material in electrical engineering.
Dielectric relaxation of gamma irradiated muscovite mica
Kaur, Navjeet [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India); Singh, Mohan, E-mail: mohansinghphysics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India); Singh, Lakhwant [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India); Awasthi, A.M. [Thermodynamics Laboratory, UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore 452001 (India); Lochab, S.P. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)
2015-03-15
Highlights: • The present article reports the effect of gamma irradiation on the dielectric relaxation characteristics of muscovite mica. • Dielectric and electrical relaxations have been analyzed in the framework of dielectric permittivity, electric modulus and Cole–Cole formalisms. • The frequency dependent electrical conductivity has been rationalized using Johnsher’s universal power law. • The experimentally measured electric modulus and conductivity data have been fitted using Havriliak–Negami dielectric relaxation function. - Abstract: In the present research, the dielectric relaxation of gamma irradiated muscovite mica was studied in the frequency range of 0.1 Hz–10 MHz and temperature range of 653–853 K, using the dielectric permittivity, electric modulus and conductivity formalisms. The dielectric constants (ϵ′ and ϵ′′) are found to be high for gamma irradiated muscovite mica as compared to the pristine sample. The frequency dependence of the imaginary part of complex electric modulus (M′′) and dc conductivity data conforms Arrhenius law with single value of activation energy for pristine sample and two values of activation energy for gamma irradiated mica sample. The experimentally assessed electric modulus and conductivity information have been interpreted by the Havriliak–Negami dielectric relaxation explanation. Using the Cole–Cole framework, an analysis of real and imaginary characters of the electric modulus for pristine and gamma irradiated sample was executed which reflects the non-Debye relaxation mechanism.
Rounded stretched exponential for time relaxation functions.
Powles, J G; Heyes, D M; Rickayzen, G; Evans, W A B
2009-12-01
A rounded stretched exponential function is introduced, C(t)=exp{(tau(0)/tau(E))(beta)[1-(1+(t/tau(0))(2))(beta/2)]}, where t is time, and tau(0) and tau(E) are two relaxation times. This expression can be used to represent the relaxation function of many real dynamical processes, as at long times, t>tau(0), the function converges to a stretched exponential with normalizing relaxation time, tau(E), yet its expansion is even or symmetric in time, which is a statistical mechanical requirement. This expression fits well the shear stress relaxation function for model soft soft-sphere fluids near coexistence, with tau(E)Cole-Cole plots for dielectric and shear stress relaxation (both the modulus and viscosity forms). It is shown that both the dielectric spectra and dynamic shear modulus imaginary parts approach the real axis with a slope equal to 0 at high frequency, whereas the dynamic viscosity has an infinite slope in the same limit. This indicates that inertial effects at high frequency are best discerned in the modulus rather than the viscosity Cole-Cole plot. As a consequence of the even expansion in time of the shear stress relaxation function, the value of the storage modulus derived from it at very high frequency exceeds that in the infinite frequency limit (i.e., G(infinity)).
Stress relaxation in viscous soft spheres.
Boschan, Julia; Vasudevan, Siddarth A; Boukany, Pouyan E; Somfai, Ellák; Tighe, Brian P
2017-09-27
We report the results of molecular dynamics simulations of stress relaxation tests in athermal viscous soft sphere packings close to their unjamming transition. By systematically and simultaneously varying both the amplitude of the applied strain step and the pressure of the initial condition, we access both linear and nonlinear response regimes and control the distance to jamming. Stress relaxation in viscoelastic solids is characterized by a relaxation time τ* that separates short time scales, where viscous loss is substantial, from long time scales, where elastic storage dominates and the response is essentially quasistatic. We identify two distinct plateaus in the strain dependence of the relaxation time, one each in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The height of both plateaus scales as an inverse power law with the distance to jamming. By probing the time evolution of particle velocities during relaxation, we further identify a correlation between mechanical relaxation in the bulk and the degree of non-affinity in the particle velocities on the micro scale.
On convex relaxation of graph isomorphism.
Aflalo, Yonathan; Bronstein, Alexander; Kimmel, Ron
2015-03-10
We consider the problem of exact and inexact matching of weighted undirected graphs, in which a bijective correspondence is sought to minimize a quadratic weight disagreement. This computationally challenging problem is often relaxed as a convex quadratic program, in which the space of permutations is replaced by the space of doubly stochastic matrices. However, the applicability of such a relaxation is poorly understood. We define a broad class of friendly graphs characterized by an easily verifiable spectral property. We prove that for friendly graphs, the convex relaxation is guaranteed to find the exact isomorphism or certify its inexistence. This result is further extended to approximately isomorphic graphs, for which we develop an explicit bound on the amount of weight disagreement under which the relaxation is guaranteed to find the globally optimal approximate isomorphism. We also show that in many cases, the graph matching problem can be further harmlessly relaxed to a convex quadratic program with only n separable linear equality constraints, which is substantially more efficient than the standard relaxation involving n2 equality and n2 inequality constraints. Finally, we show that our results are still valid for unfriendly graphs if additional information in the form of seeds or attributes is allowed, with the latter satisfying an easy to verify spectral characteristic.
Nicotine impairs cyclooxygenase-2-dependent kinin-receptor-mediated murine airway relaxations
Xu, Yuan, E-mail: yuan.xu@ki.se; Cardell, Lars-Olaf
2014-02-15
Introduction: Cigarette smoke induces local inflammation and airway hyperreactivity. In asthmatics, it worsens the symptoms and increases the risk for exacerbation. The present study investigates the effects of nicotine on airway relaxations in isolated murine tracheal segments. Methods: Segments were cultured for 24 h in the presence of vehicle, nicotine (10 μM) and/or dexamethasone (1 μM). Airway relaxations were assessed in myographs after pre-contraction with carbachol (1 μM). Kinin receptors, cyclooxygenase (COX) and inflammatory mediator expressions were assessed by real-time PCR and confocal-microscopy-based immunohistochemistry. Results: The organ culture procedure markedly increased bradykinin- (selective B{sub 2} receptor agonist) and des-Arg{sup 9}-bradykinin- (selective B{sub 1} receptor agonist) induced relaxations, and slightly increased relaxation induced by isoprenaline, but not that induced by PGE{sub 2}. The kinin receptor mediated relaxations were epithelium-, COX-2- and EP2-receptor-dependent and accompanied by drastically enhanced mRNA levels of kinin receptors, as well as inflammatory mediators MCP-1 and iNOS. Increase in COX-2 and mPGES-1 was verified both at mRNA and protein levels. Nicotine selectively suppressed the organ-culture-enhanced relaxations induced by des-Arg{sup 9}-bradykinin and bradykinin, at the same time reducing mPGES-1 mRNA and protein expressions. α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitors α-bungarotoxin and MG624 both blocked the nicotine effects on kinin B{sub 2} receptors, but not those on B{sub 1}. Dexamethasone completely abolished kinin-induced relaxations. Conclusion: It is tempting to conclude that a local inflammatory process per se could have a bronchoprotective component by increasing COX-2 mediated airway relaxations and that nicotine could impede this safety mechanism. Dexamethasone further reduced airway inflammation together with relaxations. This might contribute to the steroid resistance seen in
Biswas, Swarup; Bhattacharya, Subhratanu
2017-10-01
The effect of stannic oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles on the electrical conductivity relaxation and distribution of relaxation times within the 4-Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) doped polyaniline (Pani) was investigated using electrical impedance spectroscopy. A temperature dependent Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) type temporal relaxation function in the time domain was generated from the analysis of the frequency dependence of the dielectric modulus (imaginary component). The thermal evolution of the characteristics parameters of the KWW function was evaluated and using these parameters the temperature dependent average conductivity relaxation time and associated macroscopic conductivity of different samples were estimated. The study revealed that SnO2 nanoparticles within the polyaniline matrix induced faster relaxation of charge carriers that essentially enhanced the conductivity of the nanocomposite. The observed phenomena were well supported by the observed improvement of the localization length of the charge carriers within the nanocomposite.
Spurious haloes and discreteness-driven relaxation in cosmological simulations
Power, C.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Obreschkow, D.; Hobbs, A.; Lewis, G. F.
2016-10-01
There is strong evidence that cosmological N-body simulations dominated by warm dark matter (WDM) contain spurious or unphysical haloes, most readily apparent as regularly spaced low-mass haloes strung along filaments. We show that spurious haloes are a feature of traditional N-body simulations of cosmological structure formation models, including WDM and cold dark matter models, in which gravitational collapse proceeds in an initially anisotropic fashion, and arises naturally as a consequence of discreteness-driven relaxation. We demonstrate this using controlled N-body simulations of plane-symmetric collapse and show that spurious haloes are seeded at shell crossing by localized velocity perturbations induced by the discrete nature of the density field, and that their characteristic separation should be approximately the mean inter-particle separation of the N-body simulation, which is fixed by the mass resolution within the volume. Using cosmological N-body simulations in which particles are split into two collisionless components of fixed mass ratio, we find that the spatial distribution of the two components show signatures of discreteness-driven relaxation on both large and small scales. Adopting a spline kernel gravitational softening that is of order the comoving mean inter-particle separation helps to suppress the effect of discreteness-driven relaxation, but cannot eliminate it completely. These results provide further motivation for recent developments of new algorithms, which include, for example, revisions of the traditional N-body approach by means of spatially adaptive anistropric gravitational softenings or explicit solution of the evolution of dark matter in phase space.
Dielectric and specific heat relaxations in vapor deposited glycerol
Kasina, A., E-mail: angeline.kasina@fys.kuleuven.be, E-mail: wubbenhorst@fys.kuleuven.be; Putzeys, T.; Wübbenhorst, M., E-mail: angeline.kasina@fys.kuleuven.be, E-mail: wubbenhorst@fys.kuleuven.be [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Soft Matter and Biophysics Section, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)
2015-12-28
existence of rigid polar clusters (RPCs) and conclusively explains the extraordinary high kinetic stability of the MROL state, its specific calorimetric signature, the enhanced strength, and apparent slow-down of the dielectric α-relaxation. In this new picture, the incredibly slow and strengthened dielectric response is ascribed to driven rotational diffusion of whole RPCs, a mechanism that perfectly couples to the relaxation time of the “normal” glycerol fraction. First considerations based on the strength and the retardation of the dielectric RPCs’ response yield independently a size estimate for the RPCs in the order of 4-5 nm. Finally, we have discussed possible crystallisation and reorganisation effects, which give rise to pronounced out-of phase components of the specific heat at higher temperatures.
Influence of hydroxypropyl cellulose on molecular relaxations of epoxy-amine networks
Maria Inez G. Miranda
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A dynamic mechanical analysis (DMTA study was conducted on epoxy-amine networks crosslinked in the presence of low contents of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC. The epoxy resin chosen was diglycidylether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA and the crosslinker was 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (DDM. In the glassy region, primary (α and secondary (β, γ relaxations originating from the epoxy and HPC components were well detected. Two primary relaxations of neat epoxy and epoxy/HPC systems, referred to as αepoxy and α'epoxy, could be detected, showing a particular glassy behavior for the systems studied in comparison with systems cured in bulk. The main relaxation temperature Tα (at the peak of αepoxy relaxation of the epoxy systems increased slightly with the addition of HPC. The activation energy for this transition (Tα of the epoxy-amine networks was determined both from tan δ and the peak temperatures for the loss modulus measured at various frequencies. The activation energy of the αepoxy relaxation determined from the loss modulus was more reliable than that based on tan δ. The addition of HPC lowered the activation energy of this αepoxy relaxation.
Immune modulation in response to stress and relaxation.
Mahbub-E-Sobhani; Haque, N; Salma, U; Ahmed, A
2011-03-15
Traditional medical science has kept the mind separate from the body. Recently people realize the effect of mind on health and psychoneuroimmunology is the new evolved science that describes the interactions between psyche and soma. In this review through a typical psycho-neuro-endocrino-immune network the effects of psychological stress (acute, brief naturalistic and chronic) and relaxation on immune modulation has been shown. From this network Corticotrophin Releasing Factor (CRF), Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH), Glucocorticoids (GC), alpha-endorphin and Met-enkephalin are found as important endocrine components and T cells, B cells, monocytes/macrophages, Natural Killer (NK) cells and their cytokines that is Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), Interferon Gamma (IFN-alpha) and interleukins such as IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 etc. are found as important immune components. Finally, it has been shown that, acute, brief naturalistic and chronic stress have different immune modulatory activities which are harmful to one's homeostasis and relaxation can help to maintain that homeostasis.
Hydration Dependence of Energy Relaxation Time for Cytochrome C
Ye, Shuji; Chen, Jing-Yin; Knab, Joseph R.; Markelz, Andrea
2006-03-01
Hydration plays a critical role in protein dynamics. Here we consider the effects of hydration on energy relaxation for an electronically excited heme protein cytochrome c. We measure the hydration dependence of energy relaxation time of cytochrome C films after photoexcitation in the Soret regionusing two-color pump/probe time resolved transmission measurements. Thin films were prepared from cytochrome C/ Trizma buffer solutions and mounted in a hydration controlled cell. We used 400nm (˜3 mW) to pump the B band and 800 nm (˜1 mW) to probe the III band. The III band corresponds to the charge-transfer transition between heme π and iron d orbital, and is assigned to the ground electronic state of the heme. Therefore this band can be used to probe the ground state population. Three separate dynamic components were observed: a very fast transient τ1 ˜ 200 fs; a several hundred femtosecond component (τ2); and a recovery of the ground state absorption(τ3). We find τ3 apparently decreases with decreasing hydration while τ1 and τ2 are independent of hydration.
To What Extent Are School Counselors Using Meditation and Relaxation Techniques?
Laselle, Kevin M.; Russell, Todd T.
1993-01-01
Examined extent to which meditation and relaxation techniques are used by secondary school counselors as group counseling component for treating adolescents with behavior problems. Findings from 57 secondary school counselors revealed that few respondents used such techniques. Recommends that counselors change their roles, enhance counseling…
New evidence disclosed for networking in natural rubber by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy.
Liu, Jie; Wu, Siwu; Tang, Zhenghai; Lin, Tengfei; Guo, Baochun; Huang, Guangsu
2015-03-21
Resolving the structure of natural rubber (NR) has been an important issue for a long time and essential progress has been made. It is well established that non-rubber components have significant effects on the performance of NR. A detailed discussion on the effects of proteins and phospholipids on the chain dynamics of NR will be crucial for the in-depth understanding of the role of proteins and phospholipids in NR. However, to date, there is still a lack of elaborate studies on the dielectric spectroscopy of NR. In the present study, we performed detailed dielectric relaxation analysis, together with rheological measurements, to reveal the effects of proteins and phospholipids on the chain dynamics of NR. Distinctly different from the widely accepted segmental mode (SM) and normal mode (NM), a new relaxation mode in deproteinized NR (DPNR) was identified for the first time, which cannot be found either in NR or in transesterified DPNR (TE-DPNR). Because this new mode relaxation process behaves as a thermally activated process and it is about four orders of magnitude slower than NM, it could be rationally attributed to the relaxation of the phospholipids core of DPNR, named branch mode (BM) relaxation. When further conversion of DPNR to TE-DPNR was conducted, the phospholipids were removed and BM disappeared. In addition, a new relaxation mode, which occurs at considerably lower temperature than that for SM, was revealed in TE-DPNR, and may be related to the relaxation of free mono- or di-phosphate groups at the α ends in TE-DPNR. Hence, the identification of the new relaxation modes in DPNR and TE-DPNR provide new evidence for the natural networking structure linked by protein-based ω ends and phospholipids-based α ends.
The use of (double) relaxation oscillation SQUIDs as a sensor
Duuren, van M.J.; Brons, G.C.S.; Kattouw, H.; Flokstra, J.; Rogalla, H.
1997-01-01
Relaxation Oscillation SQUIDs (ROSs) and Double Relaxation Oscillation SQUIDs (DROSs) are based on relaxation oscillations that are induced in hysteretic dc SQUIDs by an external L-R shunt. The relaxation frequency of a ROS varies with the applied flux Φ, whereas the output of a DROS is a dc voltage
The use of (double) relaxation oscillation SQUIDs as a sensor
van Duuren, M.J.; Brons, G.C.S.; Kattouw, H.; Flokstra, Jakob; Rogalla, Horst
1997-01-01
Relaxation Oscillation SQUIDs (ROSs) and Double Relaxation Oscillation SQUIDs (DROSs) are based on relaxation oscillations that are induced in hysteretic dc SQUIDs by an external L-R shunt. The relaxation frequency of a ROS varies with the applied flux Φ, whereas the output of a DROS is a dc
Schlüter, Steffen [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon USA; Department Soil Physics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Halle Germany; Berg, Steffen [Shell Global Solutions International B.V., Rijswijk Netherlands; Li, Tianyi [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon USA; Vogel, Hans-Jörg [Department Soil Physics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Halle Germany; Institut für Agrar- und Ernährungswissenschaften, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Halle Germany; Wildenschild, Dorthe [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon USA
2017-06-01
The relaxation dynamics toward a hydrostatic equilibrium after a change in phase saturation in porous media is governed by fluid reconfiguration at the pore scale. Little is known whether a hydrostatic equilibrium in which all interfaces come to rest is ever reached and which microscopic processes govern the time scales of relaxation. Here we apply fast synchrotron-based X-ray tomography (X-ray CT) to measure the slow relaxation dynamics of fluid interfaces in a glass bead pack after fast drainage of the sample. The relaxation of interfaces triggers internal redistribution of fluids, reduces the surface energy stored in the fluid interfaces, and relaxes the contact angle toward the equilibrium value while the fluid topology remains unchanged. The equilibration of capillary pressures occurs in two stages: (i) a quick relaxation within seconds in which most of the pressure drop that built up during drainage is dissipated, a process that is to fast to be captured with fast X-ray CT, and (ii) a slow relaxation with characteristic time scales of 1–4 h which manifests itself as a spontaneous imbibition process that is well described by the Washburn equation for capillary rise in porous media. The slow relaxation implies that a hydrostatic equilibrium is hardly ever attained in practice when conducting two-phase experiments in which a flux boundary condition is changed from flow to no-flow. Implications for experiments with pressure boundary conditions are discussed.
Anomalous Enthalpy Relaxation in Vitreous Silica
Yuanzheng eYue
2015-08-01
Full Text Available It is a challenge to calorimetrically determine the glass transition temperature (Tg of vitreous silica. Here we demonstrate that this challenge mainly arises from the extreme sensitivity of the Tg to the hydroxyl content in vitreous silica, but also from the irreversibility of its glass transition when repeating the calorimetric scans. It is known that the liquid fragility (i.e., the speed of the viscous slow-down of a supercooled liquid at its Tg during cooling has impact on enthalpy relaxation in glass. Here we find that vitreous silica (as a strong system exhibits striking anomalies in both glass transition and enthalpy relaxation compared to fragile oxide systems. The anomalous enthalpy relaxation of vitreous silica is discovered by performing the hperquenching-annealing-calorimetry experiments. We argue that the strong systems like vitreous silica and vitreous Germania relax in a structurally cooperative manner, whereas the fragile ones do in a structurally independent fashion. We discuss the origin of the anomalous enthalpy relaxation in the HQ vitreous silica.
Motional Spin Relaxation in Large Electric Fields
Schmid, Riccardo; Filippone, B W
2008-01-01
We discuss the precession of spin-polarized Ultra Cold Neutrons (UCN) and $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ atoms in uniform and static magnetic and electric fields and calculate the spin relaxation effects from motional $v\\times E$ magnetic fields. Particle motion in an electric field creates a motional $v\\times E$ magnetic field, which when combined with collisions, produces variations of the total magnetic field and results in spin relaxation of neutron and $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ samples. The spin relaxation times $T_{1}$ (longitudinal) and $T_{2}$ (transverse) of spin-polarized UCN and $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ atoms are important considerations in a new search for the neutron Electric Dipole Moment at the SNS \\emph{nEDM} experiment. We use a Monte Carlo approach to simulate the relaxation of spins due to the motional $v\\times E$ field for UCN and for $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ atoms at temperatures below $600 \\mathrm{mK}$. We find the relaxation times for the neutron due to the $v\\times E$ effect to be long compared to the neutron lifetime, ...
Doppler effect induced spin relaxation boom
Zhao, Xinyu; Huang, Peihao; Hu, Xuedong
2016-03-01
We study an electron spin qubit confined in a moving quantum dot (QD), with our attention on both spin relaxation, and the product of spin relaxation, the emitted phonons. We find that Doppler effect leads to several interesting phenomena. In particular, spin relaxation rate peaks when the QD motion is in the transonic regime, which we term a spin relaxation boom in analogy to the classical sonic boom. This peak indicates that a moving spin qubit may have even lower relaxation rate than a static qubit, pointing at the possibility of coherence-preserving transport for a spin qubit. We also find that the emitted phonons become strongly directional and narrow in their frequency range as the qubit reaches the supersonic regime, similar to Cherenkov radiation. In other words, fast moving excited spin qubits can act as a source of non-classical phonons. Compared to classical Cherenkov radiation, we show that quantum dot confinement produces a small but important correction on the Cherenkov angle. Taking together, these results have important implications to both spin-based quantum information processing and coherent phonon dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures.
Reduced-Complexity Semidefinite Relaxations of Optimal Power Flow Problems
Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Hansson, Anders; Vandenberghe, Lieven
2014-01-01
We propose a new method for generating semidefinite relaxations of optimal power flow problems. The method is based on chordal conversion techniques: by dropping some equality constraints in the conversion, we obtain semidefinite relaxations that are computationally cheaper, but potentially weaker......, than the standard semidefinite relaxation. Our numerical results show that the new relaxations often produce the same results as the standard semidefinite relaxation, but at a lower computational cost....
Mozart versus new age music: relaxation states, stress, and ABC relaxation theory.
Smith, Jonathan C; Joyce, Carol A
2004-01-01
Smith's (2001) Attentional Behavioral Cognitive (ABC) relaxation theory proposes that all approaches to relaxation (including music) have the potential for evoking one or more of 15 factor-analytically derived relaxation states, or "R-States" (Sleepiness, Disengagement, Rested / Refreshed, Energized, Physical Relaxation, At Ease/Peace, Joy, Mental Quiet, Childlike Innocence, Thankfulness and Love, Mystery, Awe and Wonder, Prayerfulness, Timeless/Boundless/Infinite, and Aware). The present study investigated R-States and stress symptom-patterns associated with listening to Mozart versus New Age music. Students (N = 63) were divided into three relaxation groups based on previously determined preferences. Fourteen listened to a 28-minute tape recording of Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik and 14 listened to a 28-minute tape of Steven Halpern's New Age Serenity Suite. Others (n = 35) did not want music and instead chose a set of popular recreational magazines. Participants engaged in their relaxation activity at home for three consecutive days for 28 minutes a session. Before and after each session, each person completed the Smith Relaxation States Inventory (Smith, 2001), a comprehensive questionnaire tapping 15 R-States as well as the stress states of somatic stress, worry, and negative emotion. Results revealed no differences at Session 1. At Session 2, those who listened to Mozart reported higher levels of At Ease/Peace and lower levels of Negative Emotion. Pronounced differences emerged at Session 3. Mozart listeners uniquely reported substantially higher levels of Mental Quiet, Awe and Wonder, and Mystery. Mozart listeners reported higher levels, and New Age listeners slightly elevated levels, of At Ease/Peace and Rested/Refreshed. Both Mozart and New Age listeners reported higher levels of Thankfulness and Love. In summary, those who listened to Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik reported more psychological relaxation and less stress than either those who listened to
Asymptotic representation of relaxation oscillations in lasers
Grigorieva, Elena V
2017-01-01
In this book we analyze relaxation oscillations in models of lasers with nonlinear elements controlling light dynamics. The models are based on rate equations taking into account periodic modulation of parameters, optoelectronic delayed feedback, mutual coupling between lasers, intermodal interaction and other factors. With the aim to study relaxation oscillations we present the special asymptotic method of integration for ordinary differential equations and differential-difference equations. As a result, they are reduced to discrete maps. Analyzing the maps we describe analytically such nonlinear phenomena in lasers as multistability of large-amplitude relaxation cycles, bifurcations of cycles, controlled switching of regimes, phase synchronization in an ensemble of coupled systems and others. The book can be fruitful for students and technicians in nonlinear laser dynamics and in differential equations.
On topological relaxations of chromatic conjectures
Simonyi, Gábor
2010-01-01
There are several famous unsolved conjectures about the chromatic number that were relaxed and already proven to hold for the fractional chromatic number. We discuss similar relaxations for the topological lower bound(s) of the chromatic number. In particular, we prove that such a relaxed version is true for the Behzad-Vizing conjecture and also discuss the conjectures of Hedetniemi and of Hadwiger from this point of view. For the latter, a similar statement was already proven in an earlier paper of the first author with G. Tardos, our main concern here is that the so-called odd Hadwiger conjecture looks much more difficult in this respect. We prove that the statement of the odd Hadwiger conjecture holds for large enough Kneser graphs and Schrijver graphs of any fixed chromatic number.
Vibrational and Rotational Energy Relaxation in Liquids
Petersen, Jakob
the intramolecular dynamics during photodissociation is investigated. The apparent agreement with quantum mechanical calculations is shown to be in contrast to the applicability of the individual approximations used in deriving the model from a quantum mechanical treatment. In the spirit of the Bersohn-Zewail model......, the vibrational energy relaxation of I2 subsequent to photodissociation and recombination in CCl4 is studied using classical Molecular Dynamics simulations. The vibrational relaxation times and the time-dependent I-I pair distribution function are compared to new experimental results, and a qualitative agreement...... is found in both cases. Furthermore, the rotational energy relaxation of H2O in liquid water is studied via simulations and a power-and-work analysis. The mechanism of the energy transfer from the rotationally excited H2O molecule to its water neighbors is elucidated, i.e. the energy-accepting degrees...
Relaxation and Diffusion in Complex Systems
Ngai, K L
2011-01-01
Relaxation and Diffusion in Complex Systems comprehensively presents a variety of experimental evidences of universal relaxation and diffusion properties in complex materials and systems. The materials discussed include liquids, glasses, colloids, polymers, rubbers, plastic crystals and aqueous mixtures, as well as carbohydrates, biomolecules, bioprotectants and pharmaceuticals. Due to the abundance of experimental data, emphasis is placed on glass-formers and the glass transition problem, a still unsolved problem in condensed matter physics and chemistry. The evidence for universal properties of relaxation and diffusion dynamics suggests that a fundamental physical law is at work. The origin of the universal properties is traced to the many-body effects of the interaction, rigorous theory of which does not exist at the present time. However, using solutions of simplified models as guides, key quantities have been identified and predictions of the universal properties generated. These predictions from Ngai’...
Substrate stress relaxation regulates cell spreading
Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Gu, Luo; Darnell, Max; Klumpers, Darinka; Bencherif, Sidi A.; Weaver, James C.; Huebsch, Nathaniel; Mooney, David J.
2015-02-01
Studies of cellular mechanotransduction have converged upon the idea that cells sense extracellular matrix (ECM) elasticity by gauging resistance to the traction forces they exert on the ECM. However, these studies typically utilize purely elastic materials as substrates, whereas physiological ECMs are viscoelastic, and exhibit stress relaxation, so that cellular traction forces exerted by cells remodel the ECM. Here we investigate the influence of ECM stress relaxation on cell behaviour through computational modelling and cellular experiments. Surprisingly, both our computational model and experiments find that spreading for cells cultured on soft substrates that exhibit stress relaxation is greater than cells spreading on elastic substrates of the same modulus, but similar to that of cells spreading on stiffer elastic substrates. These findings challenge the current view of how cells sense and respond to the ECM.
Nonlinear Model of non-Debye Relaxation
Zon, Boris A
2010-01-01
We present a simple nonlinear relaxation equation which contains the Debye equation as a particular case. The suggested relaxation equation results in power-law decay of fluctuations. This equation contains a parameter defining the frequency dependence of the dielectric permittivity similarly to the well-known one-parameter phenomenological equations of Cole-Cole, Davidson-Cole and Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts. Unlike these models, the obtained dielectric permittivity (i) obeys to the Kramers-Kronig relation; (ii) has proper behaviour at large frequency; (iii) its imaginary part, conductivity, shows a power-law frequency dependence \\sigma ~ \\omega^n where n1 is also observed in several experiments. The nonlinear equation proposed may be useful in various fields of relaxation theory.
Excited-state relaxation of some aminoquinolines
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The absorption and fluorescence spectra, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes, and fluorescence rate constants ( k f of 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzoxazolylquinoline (I, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzothiazolylquinoline (II, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -methoxybenzothiazolyl-quinoline (III, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzothiazolylbenzoquinoline (IV at different temperatures have been measured. The shortwavelength shift of fluorescence spectra of compounds studied (23–49 nm in ethanol as the temperature decreases (the solvent viscosity increases points out that the excited-state relaxation process takes place. The rate of this process depends essentially on the solvent viscosity, but not the solvent polarity. The essential increasing of fluorescence rate constant k f (up to about 7 times as the solvent viscosity increases proves the existence of excited-state structural relaxation consisting in the mutual internal rotation of molecular fragments of aminoquinolines studied, followed by the solvent orientational relaxation.
Improved memristor-based relaxation oscillator
Mosad, Ahmed G.
2013-09-01
This paper presents an improved memristor-based relaxation oscillator which offers higher frequency and wider tunning range than the existing reactance-less oscillators. It also has the capability of operating on two positive supplies or alternatively a positive and negative supply. Furthermore, it has the advantage that it can be fully integrated on-chip providing an area-efficient solution. On the other hand, The oscillation concept is discussed then a complete mathematical analysis of the proposed oscillator is introduced. Furthermore, the power consumption of the new relaxation circuit is discussed and validated by the PSPICE circuit simulations showing an excellent agreement. MATLAB results are also introduced to demonstrate the resistance range and the corresponding frequency range which can be obtained from the proposed relaxation oscillator. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Interactive Image Enhancement by Fuzzy Relaxation
Shang-Ming Zhou; John Q.Can; Li-Da Xu; Robert John
2007-01-01
In this paper, an interactive image enhancement (HE) technique based on fuzzy relaxation is presented, which allows the user to select different intensity levels for enhancement and intermit the enhancement process according to his/her preference in applications. First, based on an analysis of the convergence of a fuzzy relaxation algorithm for image contrast enhancement, an improved version of this algorithm, which is called FuzzIIE Method 1, is suggested by deriving a relationship between the convergence regions and the parameters in the transformations defined in the algorithm. Then a method called FuzzIIE Method 2 is introduced by using a different fuzzy relaxation function, in which there is no need to re-select the parameter values for interactive image enhancement. Experimental results are presented demonstrating the enhancement capabilities of the proposed methods under different conditions.
A mixed relaxed singular maximum principle for linear SDEs with random coefficients
Andersson, Daniel
2008-01-01
We study singular stochastic control of a two dimensional stochastic differential equation, where the first component is linear with random and unbounded coefficients. We derive existence of an optimal relaxed control and necessary conditions for optimality in the form of a mixed relaxed-singular maximum principle in a global form. A motivating example is given in the form of an optimal investment and consumption problem with transaction costs, where we consider a portfolio with a continuum of bonds and where the portfolio weights are modeled as measure-valued processes on the set of times to maturity.
Smith, M S; Womack, W M
1987-11-01
Many childhood and adolescent stress-related symptoms have a psychophysiological component that involves muscular tension and/or autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Examples of this include recurrent headache, chest pain, abdominal pain, syncope, and dizziness. After a careful medical and psychosocial evaluation, the clinician may identify many patients who are appropriate for the application of stress reduction techniques such as progressive muscular relaxation, meditation, biofeedback, and relaxation/mental imagery (self-hypnosis). This review describes these techniques and their application with selected children and adolescents.
Semi-convergence and relaxation parameters for a class of SIRT algorithms
Elfving, Tommy; Nikazad, Touraj; Hansen, Per Christian
2010-01-01
This paper is concerned with the Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT) class of iterative methods for solving inverse problems. Based on a careful analysis of the semi-convergence behavior of these methods, we propose two new techniques to specify the relaxation parameters...... adaptively during the iterations, so as to control the propagated noise component of the error. The advantage of using this strategy for the choice of relaxation parameters on noisy and ill-conditioned problems is demonstrated with an example from tomography (image reconstruction from projections)....
Relaxation Dynamics of Semiflexible Fractal Macromolecules
Jonas Mielke
2016-07-01
Full Text Available We study the dynamics of semiflexible hyperbranched macromolecules having only dendritic units and no linear spacers, while the structure of these macromolecules is modeled through T-fractals. We construct a full set of eigenmodes of the dynamical matrix, which couples the set of Langevin equations. Based on the ensuing relaxation spectra, we analyze the mechanical relaxation moduli. The fractal character of the macromolecules reveals itself in the storage and loss moduli in the intermediate region of frequencies through scaling, whereas at higher frequencies, we observe the locally-dendritic structure that is more pronounced for higher stiffness.
Dynamics of cosmological relaxation after reheating
Choi, Kiwoon; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu
2016-01-01
We examine if the cosmological relaxation mechanism, which was proposed recently as a new solution to the hierarchy problem, can be compatible with high reheating temperature well above the weak scale. As the barrier potential disappears at high temperature, the relaxion rolls down further after the reheating, which may ruin the successful implementation of the relaxation mechanism. It is noted that if the relaxion is coupled to a dark gauge boson, the new frictional force arising from dark gauge boson production can efficiently slow down the relaxion motion, which allows the relaxion to be stabilized after the electroweak phase transition for a wide range of model parameters, while satisfying the known observational constraints.
Synthetic aperture radar autofocus via semidefinite relaxation.
Liu, Kuang-Hung; Wiesel, Ami; Munson, David C
2013-06-01
The autofocus problem in synthetic aperture radar imaging amounts to estimating unknown phase errors caused by unknown platform or target motion. At the heart of three state-of-the-art autofocus algorithms, namely, phase gradient autofocus, multichannel autofocus (MCA), and Fourier-domain multichannel autofocus (FMCA), is the solution of a constant modulus quadratic program (CMQP). Currently, these algorithms solve a CMQP by using an eigenvalue relaxation approach. We propose an alternative relaxation approach based on semidefinite programming, which has recently attracted considerable attention in other signal processing problems. Experimental results show that our proposed methods provide promising performance improvements for MCA and FMCA through an increase in computational complexity.
Depicting Vortex Stretching and Vortex Relaxing Mechanisms
符松; 李启兵; 王明皓
2003-01-01
Different from many existing studies on the paranetrization of vortices, we investigate the effectiveness of two new parameters for identifying the vortex stretching and vortex relaxing mechanisms. These parameters are invariants and identify three-dimensional flow structures only, i.e. they diminish in two-dimensional flows. This is also unlike the existing vortex identification approaches which deliver information in two-dimensional flows. The present proposals have been successfully applied to identify the stretching and relaxing vortices in compressible mixing layers and natural convection flows.
Thermal relaxation in a dense liquid under shock compression
Tsai, D. H.; Trevino, S. F.
1981-11-01
We have studied by means of molecular dynamics the propagation of a planar shock wave in a dense, three-dimensional column of a simple modified Lennard-Jones liquid. The column is 49.37σ2 in cross section, and 238.5σ in length, where σ is the length parameter in the potential. The column contains approximately 10 000 atoms. It is initially in equilibrium at a density of 0.85σ-3 and temperature of 1.16ɛk, where ɛ is the energy parameter in the potential. Shock compression is effected by causing the column to move in the longitudinal direction with a velocity of - Up and to collide with its mirror image across a mirror located at the origin. From the motion of the atoms in response to this kind of excitation, we calculate the shock velocity and the shock-front structure in the liquid, as well as the profiles of mass density, stress distribution, and energy density behind the shock front. Our shock-front structure agrees well with that obtained from the Navier-Stokes equations, but we also find important differences between our shock profiles and those postulated or computed from the continuum theory. In particular, we find that in 4×10-11 s, the longest time of our calculations, the stress components did not relax to a hydrostatic condition, and the corresponding kinetic temperature profile showed a relaxation process similar to what we found earlier in a crystalline solid. We examine the atomistic mechanisms of the various relaxation processes, and discuss their implications on the shock compression of dense systems of solids and liquids as opposed to rarefield systems of gases.
Korchuganov, Denis S.; Gagnidze, Ivan E.; Tkach, Elena N.; Schulga, Alexey A.; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P.; Arseniev, Alexander S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation)], E-mail: aars@nmr.ru
2004-12-15
An accurate determination of the overall rotation of a protein plays a crucial role in the investigation of its internal motions by NMR. In the present work, an innovative approach to the determination of the protein rotational correlation time {tau}{sub R} from the heteronuclear relaxation data is proposed. The approach is based on a joint fit of relaxation data acquired at several viscosities of a protein solution. The method has been tested on computer simulated relaxation data as compared to the traditional {tau}{sub R} determination method from T{sub 1}/T{sub 2} ratio. The approach has been applied to ribonuclease barnase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens dissolved in an aqueous solution and deuterated glycerol as a viscous component. The resulting rotational correlation time of 5.56 {+-} 0.01 ns and other rotational diffusion tensor parameters are in good agreement with those determined from T{sub 1}/T{sub 2} ratio.
Relaxation transition due to different cooling processes in a superconducting levitation system
Zhou, You-He; Zhang, Xing-Yi; Zhou, Jun
2008-06-01
We present an experimental study of relaxation of vertical and horizontal force components in a high-temperature superconducting levitation system, with different initial cooling process after fixing the levitated body in an expected position statically. In the experiment, the bulk YBaCuO cylinder superconductor and the permanent magnet disk are employed. For a selected levitation height (LH) and a lateral displacement (LD) of the system, the experimental results show that the relaxations of the vertical and horizontal forces are strongly dependent on the initial cooling height (CH). With CH decreasing, the transition of the lateral force from repulsion to attraction is found as well as the changing characteristics with time from decrease to increase. Additionally, when LH is fixed at the CH, the transition phenomenon is also observed in the levitation force behavior and their relaxation under different LDs.
Collection Development: Relaxation & Meditation, September 1, 2010
Lettus, Dodi
2010-01-01
One of the first books to document the relationship between stress and physical and emotional health was "The Relaxation Response" by Herbert Benson, M.D., with Miriam Z. Klipper. Originally published in 1975, the book grew out of Benson's observations as a cardiologist and his research as a fellow at Harvard Medical School. Benson's study of…
BRIEF REPORT: The colour relaxation equation
Xiaofei, Zhang; Jiarong, Li
1996-03-01
Colour diffusion in quark - gluon plasma (QGP) is investigated from the transport equations of QGP. The pure non-Abelian collision term describing the colour diffusion in QGP is obtained, the expression for colour relaxation time is derived and the physical picture of the colour diffusion in QGP is shown.
Control linearity and jitter of relaxation oscillators
Gierkink, Sander Laurentius Johannes
1999-01-01
The body of this thesis (chapters 3,4 and 5) deals with the analysis and improvement of a specific class of voltage- or current controlled oscillators (VCO’s respectively CCO’s) called relaxation oscillators. Before going into detail on this particular class of oscillators, first the function and ap
Relaxation for Children. (Revised and Expanded Edition.)
Rickard, Jenny
Intended as a guide to reduce negative stress in children, this book suggests relaxation and meditation techniques to help children cope with stressful events. Part 1 provides an introduction to the format of the book. Part 2 contains summaries of the 10 sessions that make up the program. Each session has six sequential stages in which students…
Relaxation Processes in Nonlinear Optical Polymer Films
S.N. Fedosov
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Dielectric properties of the guest-host polystyrene/DR1 system have been studied by the AC dielectric spectroscopy method at frequencies from 1 Hz to 0,5 MHz and by the thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC method from – 160 to 0 °C. The relaxation peaks at infra-low frequencies from 10 – 5to 10–2 Hz were also calculated using the Hamon’s approximation. Three relaxation processes, namely, α, β and δ ones were identified from the TSDC peaks, while the ε''(fdependence showed a non-Debye ρ-peak narrowing with temperature. The activation energy of the α-relaxation appeared to be 2,57 eV, while that of the γ-process was 0,52 eV. Temperature dependence of the relaxation time is agreed with the Williams-Landel-Ferry model. The ε''(fpeaks were fitted to Havriliak-Negami’s expression and the corresponding distribution parameters were obtained.
Relaxation of polarized nuclei in superconducting rhodium
Knuuttila, T.A.; Tuoriniemi, J.T.; Lefmann, K.
2000-01-01
Nuclear spin lattice relaxation rates were measured in normal and superconducting (sc) rhodium with nuclear polarizations up to p = 0.55. This was sufficient to influence the sc state of Rh, whose T, and B-c, are exceptionally low. Because B-c
Collection Development: Relaxation & Meditation, September 1, 2010
Lettus, Dodi
2010-01-01
One of the first books to document the relationship between stress and physical and emotional health was "The Relaxation Response" by Herbert Benson, M.D., with Miriam Z. Klipper. Originally published in 1975, the book grew out of Benson's observations as a cardiologist and his research as a fellow at Harvard Medical School. Benson's study of…
Redheffer representations and relaxed commutant lifting
ter Horst, S.
2011-01-01
It is well known that the solutions of a (relaxed) commutant lifting problem can be described via a linear fractional representation of the Redheffer type. The coefficients of such Redheffer representations are analytic operator-valued functions defined on the unit disc D of the complex plane. In th
Vibrational relaxation of pure liquid water
Lindner, J; Vohringer, P; Pshenichnikov, MS; Cringus, D; Wiersma, DA; Mostovoy, M; Vöhringer, Peter; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.
2006-01-01
Multicolor infrared ultrafast spectroscopy is applied to investigate the vibrational relaxation dynamics in liquid water at room temperature. In a sequence of experiments, both the stretching and the bending mode are photoexcited and probed. A unified model, capable of the reproduction of as much as
Generalized approach to non-exponential relaxation
R M Pickup; R Cywinski; C Pappas; P Fouquet; B Farago; P Falus
2008-11-01
Non-exponential relaxation is a universal feature of systems as diverse as glasses, spin glasses, earthquakes, financial markets and the universe. Complex relaxation results from hierarchically constrained dynamics with the strength of the constraints being directly related to the form of the relaxation, which changes from a simple exponential to a stretched exponential and a power law by increasing the constraints in the system. A global and unified approach to non-exponentiality was first achieved by Weron and was further generalized by Brouers and Sotolongo-Costa, who applied the concept of non-extensive entropy introduced by Tsallis to the relaxation of disordered systems. These concepts are now confronted with experimental results on the classical metallic spin glasses CuMn, AuFe and the insulating system EuSrS. The revisited data have also be complemented by new results on several compositions of the classical CuMn spin glass and on systems, like CoGa and CuCo, the magnetic behaviour of which is believed to arise from magnetic clusters and should be characteristic for superparamagnetism.
Relaxation dynamics of multilayer triangular Husimi cacti
Galiceanu, Mircea; Jurjiu, Aurel
2016-09-01
We focus on the relaxation dynamics of multilayer polymer structures having, as underlying topology, the Husimi cactus. The relaxation dynamics of the multilayer structures is investigated in the framework of generalized Gaussian structures model using both Rouse and Zimm approaches. In the Rouse type-approach, we determine analytically the complete eigenvalues spectrum and based on it we calculate the mechanical relaxation moduli (storage and loss modulus) and the average monomer displacement. First, we monitor these physical quantities for structures with a fixed generation number and we increase the number of layers, such that the linear topology will smoothly come into play. Second, we keep constant the size of the structures, varying simultaneously two parameters: the generation number of the main layer, G, and the number of layers, c. This fact allows us to study in detail the crossover from a pure Husimi cactus behavior to a predominately linear chain behavior. The most interesting situation is found when the two limiting topologies cancel each other. For this case, we encounter in the intermediate frequency/time domain regions of constant slope for different values of the parameter set (G, c) and we show that the number of layers follows an exponential-law of G. In the Zimm-type approach, which includes the hydrodynamic interactions, the quantities that describe the mechanical relaxation dynamics do not show scaling behavior as in the Rouse model, except the limiting case, namely, a very high number of layers and low generation number.
Noise in (double) relaxation oscillation SQUIDs
Adelerhof, Derk Jan; Adelerhof, Derk Jan; Flokstra, Jakob; Rogalla, Horst
1994-01-01
We have modelled the effect of two intrinsic noise sources on the flux noise spectral density of (Double) Relaxation Oscillation SQUIDs ((D)ROSs) based on hysteretic Josephson tunnel junctions. An important noise source is the spread in the critical current of the SQUID due to thermal fluctuations.
Reactor flush time correction in relaxation experiments
den Otter, M.W.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.; Boukamp, Bernard A.; Verweij, H.
2001-01-01
The present paper deals with the analysis of experimental data from conductivity relaxation experiments. It is shown that evaluation of the chemical diffusion and surface transfer coefficients for oxygen by use of this technique is possible only if accurate data for the conductivity transient can be
Acrolein relaxes mouse isolated tracheal smooth muscle via a TRPA1-dependent mechanism.
Cheah, Esther Y; Burcham, Philip C; Mann, Tracy S; Henry, Peter J
2014-05-01
Airway sensory C-fibres express TRPA1 channels which have recently been identified as a key chemosensory receptor for acrolein, a toxic and highly prevalent component of smoke. TRPA1 likely plays an intermediary role in eliciting a range of effects induced by acrolein including cough and neurogenic inflammation. Currently, it is not known whether acrolein-induced activation of TRPA1 produces other airway effects including relaxation of mouse airway smooth muscle. The aims of this study were to examine the effects of acrolein on airway smooth muscle tone in mouse isolated trachea, and to characterise the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning the effects of acrolein. Isometric tension recording studies were conducted on mouse isolated tracheal segments to characterise acrolein-induced relaxation responses. Release of the relaxant PGE₂ was measured by EIA to examine its role in the response. Use of selective antagonists/inhibitors permitted pharmacological characterisation of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this relaxation response. Acrolein induced dose-dependent relaxation responses in mouse isolated tracheal segments. Importantly, these relaxation responses were significantly inhibited by the TRPA1 antagonists AP-18 and HC-030031, an NK₁ receptor antagonist RP-67580, and the EP₂ receptor antagonist PF-04418948, whilst completely abolished by the non-selective COX inhibitor indomethacin. Acrolein also caused rapid PGE₂ release which was suppressed by HC-030031. In summary, acrolein induced a novel bronchodilator response in mouse airways. Pharmacologic studies indicate that acrolein-induced relaxation likely involves interplay between TRPA1-expressing airway sensory C-fibres, NK₁ receptor-expressing epithelial cells, and EP₂-receptor expressing airway smooth muscle cells.
Collisionless relaxation in beam-plasma systems
Backhaus, Ekaterina Yu. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2001-01-01
This thesis reports the results from the theoretical investigations, both numerical and analytical, of collisionless relaxation phenomena in beam-plasma systems. Many results of this work can also be applied to other lossless systems of plasma physics, beam physics and astrophysics. Different aspects of the physics of collisionless relaxation and its modeling are addressed. A new theoretical framework, named Coupled Moment Equations (CME), is derived and used in numerical and analytical studies of the relaxation of second order moments such as beam size and emittance oscillations. This technique extends the well-known envelope equation formalism, and it can be applied to general systems with nonlinear forces. It is based on a systematic moment expansion of the Vlasov equation. In contrast to the envelope equation, which is derived assuming constant rms beam emittance, the CME model allows the emittance to vary through coupling to higher order moments. The CME model is implemented in slab geometry in the absence of return currents. The CME simulation yields rms beam sizes, velocity spreads and emittances that are in good agreement with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for a wide range of system parameters. The mechanism of relaxation is also considered within the framework of the CME system. It is discovered that the rapid relaxation or beam size oscillations can be attributed to a resonant coupling between different modes of the system. A simple analytical estimate of the relaxation time is developed. The final state of the system reached after the relaxation is complete is investigated. New and accurate analytical results for the second order moments in the phase-mixed state are obtained. Unlike previous results, these connect the final values of the second order moments with the initial beam mismatch. These analytical estimates are in good agreement with the CME model and PIC simulations. Predictions for the final density and temperature are developed that show
Load Relaxation of Olivine Single Crystals
Cooper, R. F.; Stone, D. S.; Plookphol, T.
2016-12-01
Single crystals of ferromagnesian olivine (San Carlos, AZ, peridot; Fo90-92) have been deformed in both uniaxial creep and load relaxation under conditions of ambient pressure, T = 1500ºC and pO2 = 10-10 atm; creep stresses were in the range 40 ≤ σ1 (MPa) ≤ 220. The crystals were oriented such that the applied stress was parallel to [011]c, which promotes single slip on the slowest slip system in olivine, (010)[001]. The creep rates at steady state match well the results of earlier investigators, as does the stress sensitivity (a power-law exponent of n = 3.6). Dislocation microstructures, including spatial distribution of low-angle (subgrain) boundaries, additionally confirm previous investigations. Inverted primary creep (an accelerating strain rate with an increase in stress) was observed. Load-relaxation, however, produced a singular response—a single hardness curve—regardless of the magnitude of creep stress or total accumulated strain preceding relaxation. The log-stress v. log-strain rate data from load-relaxation and creep experiments overlap to within experimental error. The load-relaxation behavior is distinctly different that that described for other crystalline solids, where the flow stress is affected strongly by work hardening such that a family of distinct hardness curves is generated, which are related by a scaling function. The response of olivine for the conditions studied, thus, indicates flow that is rate-limited by dislocation glide, reflecting specifically a high intrinsic lattice resistance (Peierls stress).
Ziv, Naomi; Rotem, Tomer; Arnon, Zahi; Haimov, Iris
2008-01-01
A large percentage of older people suffer from chronic insomnia, affecting many aspects of life quality and well-being. Although insomnia is most often treated with medication, a growing number of studies demonstrate the efficiency of various relaxation techniques. The present study had three aims: first, to compare two relaxation techniques--music relaxation and progressive muscular relaxation--on various objective and subjective measures of sleep quality; second, to examine the effect of these techniques on anxiety and depression; and finally, to explore possible relationships between the efficiency of both techniques and personality variables. Fifteen older adults took part in the study. Following one week of base-line measurements of sleep quality, participants followed one week of music relaxation and one week of progressive muscular relaxation before going to sleep. Order of relaxation techniques was controlled. Results show music relaxation was more efficient in improving sleep. Sleep efficiency was higher after music relaxation than after progressive muscular relaxation. Moreover, anxiety was lower after music relaxation. Progressive muscular relaxation was related to deterioration of sleep quality on subjective measures. Beyond differences between the relaxation techniques, extraverts seemed to benefit more from both music and progressive muscular relaxation. The advantage of non-pharmacological means to treat insomnia, and the importance of taking individual differences into account are discussed.
Relaxation effect of a novel Danshensu/tetramethylpyrazine derivative on rat mesenteric arteries.
Li, Rachel Wai-Sum; Yang, C; Shan, Luchen; Zhang, Zaijun; Wang, Yuqiang; Kwan, Y W; Lee, Simon M Y; Hoi, Maggie P M; Chan, S W; Cheung, Alex Chun; Cheung, K H; Leung, George P H
2015-08-15
Danshen (Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae) and ChuanXiong (Ligusticum wallichii) are two traditional herbal medicines commonly used in China for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The active components in Danshen and ChuanXiong are Danshensu (DSS, (R)-3, 4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid) and tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), respectively. In the present study, a new compound named ADTM, which is a conjugation of DSS and TMP, was synthesized and its effect on the contractility of rat mesenteric arteries was examined. The relaxation effect of ADTM on rat mesenteric arteries was studied using myography. The effects of ADTM on Ca(2+) channels were measured by Ca(2+) imaging and patch-clamp techniques. The results showed that ADTM caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of rat mesenteric arteries. This relaxation effect was not affected by the removal of endothelium or inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase, guanylyl cyclase and adenylyl cyclase. Potassium channel blockers including tetraethylammonium, iberiotoxin, apamin, 4-aminopyridine, BaCl2 and glibenclamide also failed to inhibit the relaxation response to ADTM. ADTM inhibited CaCl2-induced contractions and reduced the Ca(2+) influx in isolated mesenteric arterial muscle cells. Our results suggest that ADTM may be a novel relaxing agent. Its mechanism of action involves the direct blockade of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells, resulting in a decrease in Ca(2+) influx into the cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kirtil, Emrah; Dag, Damla; Guner, Selen; Unal, Kubra; Oztop, Mecit H
2017-09-01
Liposomes are lipid bilayer vesicles that can be used as encapsulation systems for bioactive agents to provide increased protection against environmental stresses (such as pH or temperature extremes). Time Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (TD-NMR) that is based on differentiation of specimen contents with respect to magnetic relaxation rates provides detailed information on amount, state and distribution of water and oil and provide reproducible results on the samples. These make TD-NMR particularly suitable for time-dependent monitoring of emulsion system dynamics. In this study, spin-spin (T2) relaxation times and relaxation spectra were used for characterizing green tea extract loaded and unloaded liposomes prepared with soy (S75) and egg lecithins (E80) by different preparation methods (such as homogenization type, pressure and solvent type). Mean particle sizes of liposomes were found to be the most influential factor in shaping mono-exponential T2 relaxation times. The differences in particle sizes of E80 and S75 samples along with samples with different homogenization pressures could be monitored with T2 relaxation times. Additionally, T2 relaxation times were found to be correlated with particle shape irregularity, and chemical instability of samples due to lipid oxidation. With relaxation spectrum analysis, particular components in the sample could be distinguished (internal/external water and lipid bilayers), which gave more elaborate results on mechanisms of instability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meihaus, Katie R; Rinehart, Jeffrey D; Long, Jeffrey R
2011-09-05
Magnetically dilute samples of complexes Dy(H(2)BPz(Me2)(2))(3) (1) and U(H(2)BPz(2))(3) (3) were prepared through cocrystallization with diamagnetic Y(H(2)BPz(Me2)(2))(3) (2) and Y(H(2)BPz(2))(3). Alternating current (ac) susceptibility measurements performed on these samples reveal magnetic relaxation behavior drastically different from their concentrated counterparts. For concentrated 1, slow magnetic relaxation is not observed under zero or applied dc fields of several hundred Oersteds. However, a 1:65 (Dy:Y) molar dilution results in a nonzero out-of-phase component to the magnetic susceptibility under zero applied dc field, characteristic of a single-molecule magnet. The highest dilution of 3 (1:90, U:Y) yields a relaxation barrier U(eff) = 16 cm(-1), double that of the concentrated sample. These combined results highlight the impact of intermolecular interactions in mononuclear single-molecule magnets possessing a highly anisotropic metal center. Finally, dilution elucidates the previously observed secondary relaxation process for concentrated 3. This process is slowed down drastically upon a 1:1 molar dilution, leading to butterfly magnetic hysteresis at temperatures as high as 3 K. The disappearance of this process for higher dilutions reveals it to be relaxation dictated by short-range intermolecular interactions, and it stands as the first direct example of an intermolecular relaxation process competing with single-molecule-based slow magnetic relaxation.
Chang, Zhiwei; Halle, Bertil
2015-12-01
A system of three dipole-coupled spins exhibits a surprisingly intricate relaxation behavior. Following Hubbard's pioneering 1958 study, many authors have investigated different aspects of this problem. Nevertheless, on revisiting this classic relaxation problem, we obtain several new results, some of which are at variance with conventional wisdom. Most notably from a fundamental point of view, we find that the odd-valued spectral density function influences longitudinal relaxation. We also show that the effective longitudinal relaxation rate for a non-isochronous three-spin system can exhibit an unusual inverted dispersion step. To clarify these and other issues, we present a comprehensive theoretical treatment of longitudinal relaxation in a three-spin system of arbitrary geometry and with arbitrary rotational dynamics. By using the Liouville-space formulation of Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield theory and a basis of irreducible spherical tensor operators, we show that the number of relaxation components in the different cases can be deduced from symmetry arguments. For the isochronous case, we present the relaxation matrix in analytical form, whereas, for the non-isochronous case, we employ a computationally efficient approach based on the stochastic Liouville equation.
Chang, Zhiwei; Halle, Bertil, E-mail: bertil.halle@bpc.lu.se [Department of Chemistry, Division of Biophysical Chemistry, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)
2015-12-21
A system of three dipole-coupled spins exhibits a surprisingly intricate relaxation behavior. Following Hubbard’s pioneering 1958 study, many authors have investigated different aspects of this problem. Nevertheless, on revisiting this classic relaxation problem, we obtain several new results, some of which are at variance with conventional wisdom. Most notably from a fundamental point of view, we find that the odd-valued spectral density function influences longitudinal relaxation. We also show that the effective longitudinal relaxation rate for a non-isochronous three-spin system can exhibit an unusual inverted dispersion step. To clarify these and other issues, we present a comprehensive theoretical treatment of longitudinal relaxation in a three-spin system of arbitrary geometry and with arbitrary rotational dynamics. By using the Liouville-space formulation of Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield theory and a basis of irreducible spherical tensor operators, we show that the number of relaxation components in the different cases can be deduced from symmetry arguments. For the isochronous case, we present the relaxation matrix in analytical form, whereas, for the non-isochronous case, we employ a computationally efficient approach based on the stochastic Liouville equation.
Ultrafast Librational Relaxation of H2O in Liquid Water
Petersen, Jakob; Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Rey, Rossend
2013-01-01
The ultrafast librational (hindered rotational) relaxation of a rotationally excited H2O molecule in pure liquid water is investigated by means of classical nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and a power and work analysis. This analysis allows the mechanism of the energy transfer from...... the excited H2O to its water neighbors, which occurs on a sub-100 fs time scale, to be followed in molecular detail, i.e., to determine which water molecules receive the energy and in which degrees of freedom. It is found that the dominant energy flow is to the four hydrogen-bonded water partners in the first...... hydration shell, dominated by those partners’ rotational motion, in a fairly symmetric fashion over the hydration shell. The minority component of the energy transfer, to these neighboring waters’ translational motion, exhibits an asymmetry in energy reception between hydrogen-bond-donating and -accepting...
Mechanical Properties of Plant Cell Walls Probed by Relaxation Spectra
Hansen, Steen Laugesen; Ray, Peter Martin; Karlsson, Anders Ola
2011-01-01
Transformants and mutants with altered cell wall composition are expected to display a biomechanical phenotype due to the structural role of the cell wall. It is often quite difficult, however, to distinguish the mechanical behavior of a mutant's or transformant's cell walls from that of the wild...... type. This may be due to the plant’s ability to compensate for the wall modification or because the biophysical method that is often employed, determination of simple elastic modulus and breakstrength, lacks the resolving power necessary for detecting subtle mechanical phenotypes. Here, we apply...... a method, determination of relaxation spectra, which probes, and can separate, the viscoelastic properties of different cell wall components (i.e. those properties that depend on the elastic behavior of load-bearing wall polymers combined with viscous interactions between them). A computer program, Bayes...
Mechanical Properties of Plant Cell Walls Probed by Relaxation Spectra
Hansen, Steen Laugesen; Ray, Peter Martin; Karlsson, Anders Ola
2011-01-01
Transformants and mutants with altered cell wall composition are expected to display a biomechanical phenotype due to the structural role of the cell wall. It is often quite difficult, however, to distinguish the mechanical behavior of a mutant's or transformant's cell walls from that of the wild...... type. This may be due to the plant’s ability to compensate for the wall modification or because the biophysical method that is often employed, determination of simple elastic modulus and breakstrength, lacks the resolving power necessary for detecting subtle mechanical phenotypes. Here, we apply...... a method, determination of relaxation spectra, which probes, and can separate, the viscoelastic properties of different cell wall components (i.e. those properties that depend on the elastic behavior of load-bearing wall polymers combined with viscous interactions between them). A computer program, Bayes...
Dielectric relaxation and hopping conduction in reduced graphite oxide
Wei, Guidan; Yu, Ji; Gu, Min; Tang, Tong B.
2016-06-01
Graphite oxide reduced by sodium borohydride was characterised and its electrical conduction investigated with impedance spectroscopy. Thermal dependence of electrical modulus (instead of permittivity, its inverse) was calculated from complex impedance spectra, an approach that prevents any peak in dielectric loss (imaginary component) from being swarmed by large dc conductivity. Two loss peaks appeared at each tested frequency, in a sample of either degree of reduction. The set of weaker peak should arise from the relaxation of some polar bonds, as proposed earlier by us. The stronger loss peaks may correspond to the hopping of conduction electrons; variable range hopping is also consistent with the observed thermal dependence of conductivity. However, nearer ambient temperature there is a change in mechanism, to band transport, with an activation energy of fairly similar values as derived from both loss peaks and conductivity.
Nonlinear optical studies of relaxation in semiconductor microstructures
Remillard, Jeffrey Thomas
1990-11-01
Exposing a semiconductor to optical radiation near the fundamental band gap results in the creation of populations or elementary excitations including electrons, holes, and excitons, and also results in the creation of a superposition state between the ground and excited state of the solid. The relaxation of optically generated excitons and carriers in semiconductor microstructures was studied using four wave mixing (FWM) spectroscopy. The systems studied include CdSSe microcrystallite doped glasses and GaA/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures (MQWS). First, the nonlinear optical response of simple two level systems is examined in order to provide insight into the types of line shapes expected from semiconductors. It is shown that the line shape is strongly dependent on how the system is coupled to the reservoir and the consequences of coupling to a reservoir are examined in a FWM measurement made in atomic sodium. The first semiconductor system studied is CdSSe microcrystallite doped glass. This system is shown to have a very slow component to the nonlinear response which has an optical intensity dependence and temperature dependence which suggests that the FWM response in these materials is trap mediated. Room temperature FWM measurements in GaAs MQWS enables the measurement of the carrier recombination time and the ambipolar diffusion coefficient. Using the technique of correlated optical fields, a slow component to the nonlinear response was measured showing an interference profile which suggests a possible shift of the exciton resonance due to the optically generated carriers. At low temperatures, measurements of the exciton line shape and relaxation time were made and evidence for exciton spectral diffusion was found. The low temperature line shapes can be qualitatively reproduced using Modified Optical Bloch equations which include the effects of spectral diffusion.
[Brain activity during different stages of the relaxation process].
gorev, A S; Kovaleva, A V; Panova, E N; Gorbacheva, A K
2012-01-01
A group of adults participated in experiment in which they were asked to reach relaxed state by using relaxation techniques (active relaxation) and to maintain this state without any technique (passive relaxation). Some changes of EEG-characteristics during relaxation were analyzed. This experiment includes four situations (different functional states): baselinel, active relaxation, passive relaxation, baseline2. EEG was recorded from 10 cortical leads: O1, O2, TPO (left and right), P3, P4, C3, C4, F3 and F4. A comparative EEG analysis was done for 10 frequency bands from 5 to 40 Hz. In each experimental situation we revealed general trends for EEG parameters and also some specific changes in EEG, which characterized brain organization during passive and active relaxed states.
Effects of ginger and its constituents on airway smooth muscle relaxation and calcium regulation.
Townsend, Elizabeth A; Siviski, Matthew E; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Carrie; Hoonjan, Bhupinder; Emala, Charles W
2013-02-01
The prevalence of asthma has increased in recent years, and is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Many patients report using alternative therapies to self-treat asthma symptoms as adjuncts to short-acting and long-acting β-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). As many as 40% of patients with asthma use herbal therapies to manage asthma symptoms, often without proven efficacy or known mechanisms of action. Therefore, investigations of both the therapeutic and possible detrimental effects of isolated components of herbal treatments on the airway are important. We hypothesized that ginger and its active components induce bronchodilation by modulating intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) in airway smooth muscle (ASM). In isolated human ASM, ginger caused significant and rapid relaxation. Four purified constituents of ginger were subsequently tested for ASM relaxant properties in both guinea pig and human tracheas: [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol induced rapid relaxation of precontracted ASM (100-300 μM), whereas [10]-gingerol failed to induce relaxation. In human ASM cells, exposure to [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol, but not [10]-gingerol (100 μM), blunted subsequent Ca(2+) responses to bradykinin (10 μM) and S-(-)-Bay K 8644 (10 μM). In A/J mice, the nebulization of [8]-gingerol (100 μM), 15 minutes before methacholine challenge, significantly attenuated airway resistance, compared with vehicle. Taken together, these novel data show that ginger and its isolated active components, [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol, relax ASM, and [8]-gingerol attenuates airway hyperresponsiveness, in part by altering [Ca(2+)](i) regulation. These purified compounds may provide a therapeutic option alone or in combination with accepted therapeutics, including β(2)-agonists, in airway diseases such as asthma.
Characteristics of the secondary relaxation process in soft colloidal suspensions
Saha, Debasish; Joshi, Yogesh M.; Bandyopadhyay, Ranjini
2015-11-01
A universal secondary relaxation process, known as the Johari-Goldstein (J-G) β-relaxation process, appears in glass formers. It involves all parts of the molecule and is particularly important in glassy systems because of its very close relationship with the α-relaxation process. However, the absence of a J-G β-relaxation mode in colloidal glasses raises questions regarding its universality. In the present work, we study the microscopic relaxation processes in Laponite suspensions, a model soft glassy material, by dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments. α- and β-relaxation timescales are estimated from the autocorrelation functions obtained by DLS measurements for Laponite suspensions with different concentrations, salt concentrations and temperatures. Our experimental results suggest that the β-relaxation process in Laponite suspensions involves all parts of the constituent Laponite particle. The ergodicity breaking time is also seen to be correlated with the characteristic time of the β-relaxation process for all Laponite concentrations, salt concentrations and temperatures. The width of the primary relaxation process is observed to be correlated with the secondary relaxation time. The secondary relaxation time is also very sensitive to the concentration of Laponite. We measure primitive relaxation timescales from the α-relaxation time and the stretching exponent (β) by applying the coupling model for highly correlated systems. The order of magnitude of the primitive relaxation time is very close to the secondary relaxation time. These observations indicate the presence of a J-G β-relaxation mode for soft colloidal suspensions of Laponite.
Relaxation of Magnetic Nanoparticle Chain without Applied Field*
HE Liang-Ming
2011-01-01
The relaxation ofa one-dimensional magnetic nanoparticle linear chain with lattice constant a is investigated in absence of applied field. There is an equilibrium state (or steady state) where all magnetic moments of particles lie along the chain (x-axis), back to which the magnetic nanoparticle chain at other state will relax. It is found that the relaxation time Tx is determined by Tx = 10β × a3. This relaxation is compared with that of single magnetic nanoparticle system.
Hasaneen, Nadia A; Foda, Hussein D; Said, Sami I
2003-09-01
Both vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and nitric oxide (NO) relax airway smooth muscle and are potential co-transmitters of neurogenic airway relaxation. The availability of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) knockout mice (nNOS-/-) provides a unique opportunity for evaluating NO. To evaluate the relative importance of NO, especially that generated by nNOS, and VIP as transmitters of the inhibitory nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) system. In this study, we compared the neurogenic (tetrodotoxin-sensitive) NANC relaxation of tracheal segments from nNOS-/- mice and control wild-type mice (nNOS(+/+)), induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS). We also examined the tracheal contractile response to methacholine and its relaxant response to VIP. EFS (at 60 V for 2 ms, at 10, 15, or 20 Hz) dose-dependently reduced tracheal tension, and the relaxations were consistently smaller (approximately 40%) in trachea from nNOS-/- mice than from control wild-type mice (p 0.05). Our data suggest that, in mouse trachea, NO is probably responsible for mediating a large (approximately 60%) component of neurogenic NANC relaxation, and a similar (approximately 50%) component of the relaxant effect of VIP. The results imply that NO contributes significantly to neurogenic relaxation of mouse airway smooth muscle, whether due to neurogenic stimulation or to the neuropeptide VIP.
Two-temperature reaction and relaxation rates
Kolesnichenko, E.; Gorbachev, Yu.
2016-09-01
Within the method of solving the kinetic equations for gas mixtures with internal degrees of freedom developed by the authors and based on the approximate summational invariants (ASI) concept, gas-dynamic equations for a multi-temperature model for the spatially inhomogeneous case are derived. For the two-temperature case, the expressions for the non-equilibrium reaction and relaxation rates are obtained. Special attention is drawn to corresponding thermodynamic equations. Different possibilities of introducing the gas-dynamic variables related to the internal degrees of freedom are considered. One is based on the choice of quantum numbers as the ASI, while the other is based on the choice of internal (vibrational) energy as the ASI. Limits to a one-temperature situation are considered in all the cases. For the cutoff harmonic oscillator model, explicit expressions for the reaction and relaxation rates are derived.
Microplastic relaxations of single and polycrystalline molybdenum
Pichl, W.; Weiss, B. [Wien Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Materialphysik; Chen, D.L.
1998-05-01
The microplasticity of high-purity molybdenum single crystals and of Mo polycrystals of technical purity has been investigated by relaxation step tests in uniaxial compression. A new model for the evaluation of relaxation tests in the microplastic range of b.c.c metals is presented which takes into account the decrease of the mobile dislocation density due to exhaustion of non-screw dislocations. The model allows an independent determination of the activation volume and of the microstructure parameters controlling dislocation exhaustion. The results indicate that in the high-purity single crystals the deformation rate is controlled by interactions of non-screw dislocations with the grown-in network. In the polycrystals additional interactions with impurity atoms seem to occur. In the single crystals the activity and subsequent exhaustion of two different glide systems was observed, followed by a gradual onset of screw dislocation motion. (orig.) 26 refs.
Electron-vibration relaxation in oxygen plasmas
Laporta, V.; Heritier, K. L.; Panesi, M.
2016-06-01
An ideal chemical reactor model is used to study the vibrational relaxation of oxygen molecules in their ground electronic state, X3Σg-, in presence of free electrons. The model accounts for vibrational non-equilibrium between the translational energy mode of the gas and the vibrational energy mode of individual molecules. The vibrational levels of the molecules are treated as separate species, allowing for non-Boltzmann distributions of their population. The electron and vibrational temperatures are varied in the range [0-20,000] K. Numerical results show a fast energy transfer between oxygen molecules and free electron, which causes strong deviation of the vibrational distribution function from Boltzmann distribution, both in heating and cooling conditions. Comparison with Landau-Teller model is considered showing a good agreement for electron temperature range [2000-12,000] K. Finally analytical fit of the vibrational relaxation time is given.
Modeling aftershocks as a stretched exponential relaxation
Mignan, A.
2015-11-01
The decay rate of aftershocks has been modeled as a power law since the pioneering work of Omori in the late nineteenth century. Although other expressions have been proposed in recent decades to describe the temporal behavior of aftershocks, the number of model comparisons remains limited. After reviewing the aftershock models published from the late nineteenth century until today, I solely compare the power law, pure exponential and stretched exponential expressions defined in their simplest forms. By applying statistical methods recommended recently in applied mathematics, I show that all aftershock sequences tested in three regional earthquake catalogs (Southern and Northern California, Taiwan) and with three declustering techniques (nearest-neighbor, second-order moment, window methods) follow a stretched exponential instead of a power law. These results infer that aftershocks are due to a simple relaxation process, in accordance with most other relaxation processes observed in Nature.
Relaxation time estimation in surface NMR
Grunewald, Elliot D.; Walsh, David O.
2017-03-21
NMR relaxation time estimation methods and corresponding apparatus generate two or more alternating current transmit pulses with arbitrary amplitudes, time delays, and relative phases; apply a surface NMR acquisition scheme in which initial preparatory pulses, the properties of which may be fixed across a set of multiple acquisition sequence, are transmitted at the start of each acquisition sequence and are followed by one or more depth sensitive pulses, the pulse moments of which are varied across the set of multiple acquisition sequences; and apply processing techniques in which recorded NMR response data are used to estimate NMR properties and the relaxation times T.sub.1 and T.sub.2* as a function of position as well as one-dimensional and two-dimension distributions of T.sub.1 versus T.sub.2* as a function of subsurface position.
Relaxation Based Electrical Simulation for VLSI Circuits
S. Rajkumar
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Electrical circuit simulation was one of the first CAD tools developed for IC design. The conventional circuit simulators like SPICE and ASTAP were designed initially for the cost effective analysis of circuits containing a few hundred transistors or less. A number of approaches have been used to improve the performances of congenital circuit simulators for the analysis of large circuits. Thereafter relaxation methods was proposed to provide more accurate waveforms than standard circuit simulators with up to two orders of magnitude speed improvement for large circuits. In this paper we have tried to highlights recently used waveform and point relaxation techniques for simulation of VLSI circuits. We also propose a simple parallelization technique and experimentally demonstrate that we can solve digital circuits with tens of million transistors in a few hours.
Electrochemical relaxation at electrically conducting polymers
Nateghi, M. R.; zarandi, M. B.
2008-08-01
In this study, slow relaxation (SR) associated with the electroreduction of polyaniline (PAn) films during polarization to high cathodic potentials was investigated by cyclic voltammetry technique. Anodic voltammetric currents were used as experimental variable to indicate the relaxation occurring in PAn films deposited electrochemically on the Pt electrode surface. The dependence of SR on polymer film thickness, waiting potential, and mobility of the doped anion was investigated. Percolation threshold potential for heteropolyanion doped PAn was estimated to be between 150 and 200 mV depending on polymer thickness on the electrode surface. A new model of the conducting to insulating conversion is described by the percolation theory and mobility gap changes during the process.
Electrochemical relaxation at electrically conducting polymers
Nateghi, M R [Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, Yazd-Branch, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zarandi, M B [Department of physics, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2008-08-15
In this study, slow relaxation (SR) associated with the electroreduction of polyaniline (PAn) films during polarization to high cathodic potentials was investigated by cyclic voltammetry technique. Anodic voltammetric currents were used as experimental variable to indicate the relaxation occurring in PAn films deposited electrochemically on the Pt electrode surface. The dependence of SR on polymer film thickness, waiting potential, and mobility of the doped anion was investigated. Percolation threshold potential for heteropolyanion doped PAn was estimated to be between 150 and 200 mV depending on polymer thickness on the electrode surface. A new model of the conducting to insulating conversion is described by the percolation theory and mobility gap changes during the process.
Relaxation time estimation in surface NMR
Grunewald, Elliot D.; Walsh, David O.
2017-03-21
NMR relaxation time estimation methods and corresponding apparatus generate two or more alternating current transmit pulses with arbitrary amplitudes, time delays, and relative phases; apply a surface NMR acquisition scheme in which initial preparatory pulses, the properties of which may be fixed across a set of multiple acquisition sequence, are transmitted at the start of each acquisition sequence and are followed by one or more depth sensitive pulses, the pulse moments of which are varied across the set of multiple acquisition sequences; and apply processing techniques in which recorded NMR response data are used to estimate NMR properties and the relaxation times T.sub.1 and T.sub.2* as a function of position as well as one-dimensional and two-dimension distributions of T.sub.1 versus T.sub.2* as a function of subsurface position.
Multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics with flow
Dennis, G R; Dewar, R L; Hole, M J
2014-01-01
We present an extension of the multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) equilibrium model that includes plasma flow. This new model is a generalization of Woltjer's model of relaxed magnetohydrodynamics equilibria with flow. We prove that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite our extension of MRxMHD reduces to ideal MHD with flow. We also prove that some solutions to MRxMHD with flow are not time-independent in the laboratory frame, and instead have 3D structure which rotates in the toroidal direction with fixed angular velocity. This capability gives MRxMHD potential application to describing rotating 3D MHD structures such as 'snakes' and long-lived modes.
Multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics with flow
Dennis, G. R., E-mail: graham.dennis@anu.edu.au; Dewar, R. L.; Hole, M. J. [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Hudson, S. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2014-04-15
We present an extension of the multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) equilibrium model that includes plasma flow. This new model is a generalization of Woltjer's model of relaxed magnetohydrodynamics equilibria with flow. We prove that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite, our extension of MRxMHD reduces to ideal MHD with flow. We also prove that some solutions to MRxMHD with flow are not time-independent in the laboratory frame, and instead have 3D structure which rotates in the toroidal direction with fixed angular velocity. This capability gives MRxMHD potential application to describing rotating 3D MHD structures such as 'snakes' and long-lived modes.
Braided magnetic fields: equilibria, relaxation and heating
Pontin, D I; Russell, A J B; Hornig, G
2015-01-01
We examine the dynamics of magnetic flux tubes containing non-trivial field line braiding (or linkage), using mathematical and computational modelling. The key results obtained from recent modelling efforts are summarised, in the context of testable predictions for the laboratory. We discuss the existence of braided force-free equilibria, and demonstrate that for a field anchored at perfectly-conducting plates, these equilibria exist and contain current sheets whose thickness scales inversely with the braid complexity - as measured for example by the topological entropy. By contrast, for a periodic domain braided exact equilibria typically do not exist, while approximate equilibria contain thin current sheets. In the presence of resistivity, reconnection is triggered at the current sheets and a turbulent relaxation ensues. We discuss the properties of this relaxation, and in particular the existence of constraints that may mean that the final state is not the linear force-free field predicted by Taylor's hypo...
Relaxation matching algorithm for moving photogrammetry
Guo, Lei; Liu, Ke; Miao, Yinxiao; Zhu, Jigui
2015-02-01
Moving photogrammetry is an application of close range photogrammetry in industrial measurement to realize threedimensional coordinate measurement within large-scale volume. This paper describes an approach of relaxation matching algorithm applicable to moving photogrammetry according to the characteristics of accurate matching result of different measuring images. This method uses neighborhood matching support to improve the matching rate after coarse matching based on epipolar geometry constraint and precise matching using three images. It reflects the overall matching effect of all points, that means when a point is matched correctly, the matching results of those points round it must be correct. So for one point considered, the matching results of points round it are calculated to judge whether its result is correct. Analysis indicates that relaxation matching can eliminate the mismatching effectively and acquire 100% rate of correct matching. It will play a very important role in moving photogrammetry to ensure the following implement of ray bundle adjustment.
Modeling Aftershocks as a Stretched Exponential Relaxation
Mignan, Arnaud
2015-01-01
The decay rate of aftershocks has been modeled as a power law since the pioneering work of Omori in the late nineteenth century. Considered the second most fundamental empirical law after the Gutenberg-Richter relationship, the power law paradigm has rarely been challenged by the seismological community. By taking a view of aftershock research not biased by prior conceptions of Omori power law decay and by applying statistical methods recommended in applied mathematics, I show that all aftershock sequences tested in three regional earthquake catalogs (Southern and Northern California, Taiwan) and with three declustering techniques (nearest-neighbor, second-order moment, window methods) follow a stretched exponential instead of a power law. These results infer that aftershocks are due to a simpler relaxation process than originally thought, in accordance with most other relaxation processes observed in Nature.
Relaxation in Technique Leading to New Beginnings().
Koritar, Endre
2016-12-01
This paper explores how standard analytic technique may result in a repetition of past traumatic experiences in the transference and countertransference analytic situation. Relaxation and elasticity of technique can lead to re-integration of previously fragmented ego functions, and in remembering and re-experiencing of previously repressed symbolic representations of fragmenting past traumatic experiences, resulting in neocatharsis and working through, thus healing wounds and scars sustained in self development. This healing process will be described through a detailed depiction of an analytic process introducing relaxation of technique, in a response by the analyst, to the patient's Orpha (self-protective) function. Responsiveness to the patient's implicitly or explicitly expressed needs, in the analytic space, may require a departure from standard technique for a deeper level of dynamic work where symbolization of unrepresented emotional experiences becomes possible.
RELAXATION TIME LIMITS PROBLEM FOR HYDRODYNAMIC MODELS IN SEMICONDUCTOR SCIENCE
无
2007-01-01
In this article, two relaxation time limits, namely, the momentum relaxation time limit and the energy relaxation time limit are considered. By the compactness argument, it is obtained that the smooth solutions of the multidimensional nonisentropic Euler-Poisson problem converge to the solutions of an energy transport model or a drift diffusion model, respectively, with respect to different time scales.
Relaxation Techniques for Handicapped Children: A Review of Literature.
Zipkin, Dvora
1985-01-01
The paper discusses four major relaxation training approaches used with handicapped children: progressive muscle relaxation, biofeedback, yoga, and mental relaxation, which includes guided fantasy, imagery, and meditation. Descriptions of these techniques, the effects of their use with various populations, and reviews of recent studies of their…
Relaxation Criteria for Iterated Traffic Simulations
Kelly, Terence; Nagel, Kai
Iterative transportation microsimulations adjust traveler route plans by iterating between a microsimulation and a route planner. At each iteration, the route planner adjusts individuals' route choices based on the preceding microsimulations. Empirically, this process yields good results, but it is usually unclear when to stop the iterative process when modeling real-world traffic. This paper investigates several criteria to judge relaxation of the iterative process, emphasizing criteria related to traveler decision-making.
Dimension reduction for systems with slow relaxation
Venkataramani, Shankar C; Restrepo, Juan M
2016-01-01
We develop reduced, stochastic models for high dimensional, dissipative dynamical systems that relax very slowly to equilibrium and can encode long term memory. We present a variety of empirical and first principles approaches for model reduction, and build a mathematical framework for analyzing the reduced models. We introduce the notions of universal and asymptotic filters to characterize `optimal' model reductions. We discuss how our methods apply to the practically important problem of modeling oil spills.
p-q growth via relaxation methods
Irene Benedetti
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Local Lipschitz continuity of local minimizers of vectorial integrals ∫Ω f(x,Dudx is proved when f satisfies p-q growth condition and ξ↦f(x,ξ is not convex. The uniform convexity and the radial structure condition with respect to the last variable are assumed only at infinity. In the proof, we use semicontinuity and relaxation results for functionals with nonstandard growth.
Models of Flux Tubes from Constrained Relaxation
Α. Mangalam; V. Krishan
2000-09-01
We study the relaxation of a compressible plasma to an equilibrium with flow. The constraints of conservation of mass, energy, angular momentum, cross-helicity and relative magnetic helicity are imposed. Equilibria corresponding to the energy extrema while conserving these invariants for parallel flows yield three classes of solutions and one of them with an increasing radial density profile, relevant to solar flux tubes is presented.
Active nematic gels as active relaxing solids
Turzi, Stefano S
2017-01-01
I put forward a continuum theory for active nematic gels, defined as fluids or suspensions of orientable rodlike objects endowed with active dynamics, that is based on symmetry arguments and compatibility with thermodynamics. The starting point is our recent theory that models (passive) nematic liquid crystals as relaxing nematic elastomers. The interplay between viscoelastic response and active dynamics of the microscopic constituents is naturally taken into account. By contrast with standar...
Relaxation time measurements by an electronic method.
Brousseau, R.; Vanier, J.
1973-01-01
Description of a simple electronic system that permits the direct measurement of time constants of decaying signals. The system was used in connection with relaxation experiments on hydrogen and rubidium masers and was found to operate well. The use of a computing counter in the systems gives the possibility of making averages on several experiments and obtaining the standard deviation of the results from the mean. The program for the computing counter is given.
Controlling spin relaxation with a cavity
Bienfait, A.; Pla, J. J.; Kubo, Y.; Zhou, X.; Stern, M.; Lo, C. C.; Weis, C. D.; Schenkel, T.; Vion, D.; Esteve, D.; Morton, J. J. L.; Bertet, P.
2016-03-01
Spontaneous emission of radiation is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which an excited quantum system returns to equilibrium. For spins, however, spontaneous emission is generally negligible compared to other non-radiative relaxation processes because of the weak coupling between the magnetic dipole and the electromagnetic field. In 1946, Purcell realized that the rate of spontaneous emission can be greatly enhanced by placing the quantum system in a resonant cavity. This effect has since been used extensively to control the lifetime of atoms and semiconducting heterostructures coupled to microwave or optical cavities, and is essential for the realization of high-efficiency single-photon sources. Here we report the application of this idea to spins in solids. By coupling donor spins in silicon to a superconducting microwave cavity with a high quality factor and a small mode volume, we reach the regime in which spontaneous emission constitutes the dominant mechanism of spin relaxation. The relaxation rate is increased by three orders of magnitude as the spins are tuned to the cavity resonance, demonstrating that energy relaxation can be controlled on demand. Our results provide a general way to initialize spin systems into their ground state and therefore have applications in magnetic resonance and quantum information processing. They also demonstrate that the coupling between the magnetic dipole of a spin and the electromagnetic field can be enhanced up to the point at which quantum fluctuations have a marked effect on the spin dynamics; as such, they represent an important step towards the coherent magnetic coupling of individual spins to microwave photons.
Fingerprinting Molecular Relaxation in Deformed Polymers
Wang, Zhe; Lam, Christopher N.; Chen, Wei-Ren; Wang, Weiyu; Liu, Jianning; Liu, Yun; Porcar, Lionel; Stanley, Christopher B.; Zhao, Zhichen; Hong, Kunlun; Wang, Yangyang
2017-07-01
The flow and deformation of macromolecules is ubiquitous in nature and industry, and an understanding of this phenomenon at both macroscopic and microscopic length scales is of fundamental and practical importance. Here, we present the formulation of a general mathematical framework, which could be used to extract, from scattering experiments, the molecular relaxation of deformed polymers. By combining and modestly extending several key conceptual ingredients in the literature, we show how the anisotropic single-chain structure factor can be decomposed by spherical harmonics and experimentally reconstructed from its cross sections on the scattering planes. The resulting wave-number-dependent expansion coefficients constitute a characteristic fingerprint of the macromolecular deformation, permitting detailed examinations of polymer dynamics at the microscopic level. We apply this approach to survey a long-standing problem in polymer physics regarding the molecular relaxation in entangled polymers after a large step deformation. The classical tube theory of Doi and Edwards predicts a fast chain retraction process immediately after the deformation, followed by a slow orientation relaxation through the reptation mechanism. This chain retraction hypothesis, which is the keystone of the tube theory for macromolecular flow and deformation, is critically examined by analyzing the fine features of the two-dimensional anisotropic spectra from small-angle neutron scattering by entangled polystyrenes. We show that the unique scattering patterns associated with the chain retraction mechanism are not experimentally observed. This result calls for a fundamental revision of the current theoretical picture for nonlinear rheological behavior of entangled polymeric liquids.
Graph Matching: Relax at Your Own Risk.
Lyzinski, Vince; Fishkind, Donniell E; Fiori, Marcelo; Vogelstein, Joshua T; Priebe, Carey E; Sapiro, Guillermo
2016-01-01
Graph matching-aligning a pair of graphs to minimize their edge disagreements-has received wide-spread attention from both theoretical and applied communities over the past several decades, including combinatorics, computer vision, and connectomics. Its attention can be partially attributed to its computational difficulty. Although many heuristics have previously been proposed in the literature to approximately solve graph matching, very few have any theoretical support for their performance. A common technique is to relax the discrete problem to a continuous problem, therefore enabling practitioners to bring gradient-descent-type algorithms to bear. We prove that an indefinite relaxation (when solved exactly) almost always discovers the optimal permutation, while a common convex relaxation almost always fails to discover the optimal permutation. These theoretical results suggest that initializing the indefinite algorithm with the convex optimum might yield improved practical performance. Indeed, experimental results illuminate and corroborate these theoretical findings, demonstrating that excellent results are achieved in both benchmark and real data problems by amalgamating the two approaches.
Probing relaxation times in graphene quantum dots
Volk, Christian; Neumann, Christoph; Kazarski, Sebastian; Fringes, Stefan; Engels, Stephan; Haupt, Federica; Müller, André; Stampfer, Christoph
2013-01-01
Graphene quantum dots are attractive candidates for solid-state quantum bits. In fact, the predicted weak spin-orbit and hyperfine interaction promise spin qubits with long coherence times. Graphene quantum dots have been extensively investigated with respect to their excitation spectrum, spin-filling sequence and electron-hole crossover. However, their relaxation dynamics remain largely unexplored. This is mainly due to challenges in device fabrication, in particular concerning the control of carrier confinement and the tunability of the tunnelling barriers, both crucial to experimentally investigate decoherence times. Here we report pulsed-gate transient current spectroscopy and relaxation time measurements of excited states in graphene quantum dots. This is achieved by an advanced device design that allows to individually tune the tunnelling barriers down to the low megahertz regime, while monitoring their asymmetry. Measuring transient currents through electronic excited states, we estimate a lower bound for charge relaxation times on the order of 60–100 ns. PMID:23612294
Relaxation strategies for patients during dermatologic surgery.
Shenefelt, Philip D
2010-07-01
Patient stress and anxiety are common preoperatively and during dermatologic procedures and surgeries. Stress and anxiety can occasionally interfere with performance of procedures or surgery and can induce hemodynamic instability, such as elevated blood pressure or syncope, as well as producing considerable discomfort for some patients. Detection of excess stress and anxiety in patients can allow the opportunity for corrective or palliative measures. Slower breathing, biofeedback, progressive muscular relaxation, guided imagery, hypnosis, meditation and music can help calm and rebalance the patient's autonomic nervous system and immune functioning. Handheld miniaturized heart rate variability biofeedback devices are now available. The relaxation response can easily be taught. Guided imagery can be recorded or live. Live rapid induction hypnosis followed by deepening and then self-guided imagery requires no experience on the part of the patient but does require training and experience on the part of a provider. Recorded hypnosis inductions may also be used. Meditation generally requires more prior experience and training, but is useful when the patient already is skilled in it. Live, guided meditation or meditation recordings may be used. Relaxing recorded music from speakers or headphones or live performance music may also be employed to ease discomfort and improve the patient's attitude for dermatologic procedures and surgeries.
Ideal relaxation of the Hopf fibration
Smiet, Christopher Berg; Candelaresi, Simon; Bouwmeester, Dirk
2017-07-01
Ideal magnetohydrodynamics relaxation is the topology-conserving reconfiguration of a magnetic field into a lower energy state where the net force is zero. This is achieved by modeling the plasma as perfectly conducting viscous fluid. It is an important tool for investigating plasma equilibria and is often used to study the magnetic configurations in fusion devices and astrophysical plasmas. We study the equilibrium reached by a localized magnetic field through the topology conserving relaxation of a magnetic field based on the Hopf fibration in which magnetic field lines are closed circles that are all linked with one another. Magnetic fields with this topology have recently been shown to occur in non-ideal numerical simulations. Our results show that any localized field can only attain equilibrium if there is a finite external pressure, and that for such a field a Taylor state is unattainable. We find an equilibrium plasma configuration that is characterized by a lowered pressure in a toroidal region, with field lines lying on surfaces of constant pressure. Therefore, the field is in a Grad-Shafranov equilibrium. Localized helical magnetic fields are found when plasma is ejected from astrophysical bodies and subsequently relaxes against the background plasma, as well as on earth in plasmoids generated by, e.g., a Marshall gun. This work shows under which conditions an equilibrium can be reached and identifies a toroidal depression as the characteristic feature of such a configuration.
Lehrer, Paul M.
1978-01-01
Compared physiological effects of progressive relaxation, alpha feedback, and a no-treatment condition. Nonpatients showed more psychophysiological habituation than patients in response to hearing very loud tones and to reaction time tasks. Patients showed greater physiological response to relaxation than nonpatients. After relaxation, autonomic…
LOW-FREQUENCY DIELECTRIC RELAXATION IN SILVER STEARATE LAYERS
Smirnov, A.P.
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The low-frequency dielectric relaxation process in silver stearate layers was studied. The increasing of dielectric permittivity with frequency decreasing and temperature increasing in studied sample are associated with the dipole-relaxation polarization mechanisms. The dispersion of loss factor could be connected with the contribution of relaxation mechanism and conductivity. The shape of the Cole-Cole diagram shows that silver stearate is a non-Debye dielectric material characterized by a wide distribution of relaxators, according to the Cole-Cole relaxation model.
ON THE CENTRAL RELAXING SCHEMES I:SINGLE CONSERVATION LAWS
Hua-zhong Tang
2000-01-01
In this first paper we present a central relaxing scheme for scalar conservation laws, based on using the local relaxation approximation. Our scheme is obtained without using linear or nonlinear Riemann solvers. A cell entropy inequality is studied for the semidiscrete central relaxing scheme, and a second order MUSCL scheme is shown to be TVD in the zero relaxation limit. The next paper will extend the central relaxing scheme to multi-dimensional systems of conservation laws in curvilinear coordinates, including numerical experiments for 1D and 2D problems.
T2 relaxation time mapping of the cartilage cap of osteochondromas
Kim, Hee Kyung; Horn, Paul; Laor, Tal [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati (United States); Daedzinski, Bernard J. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Kim, Dong Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Pharmacology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2016-02-15
Our aim was to evaluate the cartilage cap of osteochondromas using T2 maps and to compare these values to those of normal patellar cartilage, from age and gender matched controls. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and request for informed consent was waived. Eleven children (ages 5-17 years) with osteochondromas underwent MR imaging, which included T2-weighted fat suppressed and T2 relaxation time mapping (echo time = 9-99/repetition time = 1500 msec) sequences. Lesion origins were femur (n = 5), tibia (n = 3), fibula (n = 2), and scapula (n = 1). Signal intensity of the cartilage cap, thickness, mean T2 relaxation times, and T2 spatial variation (mean T2 relaxation times as a function of distance) were evaluated. Findings were compared to those of patellar cartilage from a group of age and gender matched subjects. The cartilage caps showed a fluid-like high T2 signal, with mean thickness of 4.8 mm. The mean value of mean T2 relaxation times of the osteochondromas was 264.0 ± 80.4 msec (range, 151.0-366.0 msec). Mean T2 relaxation times were significantly longer than the values from patellar cartilage (39.0 msec) (p < 0.0001). These findings were observed with T2 spatial variation plots across the entire distance of the cartilage cap, with the most pronounced difference in the middle section of the cartilage. Longer T2 relaxation times of the cartilage caps of osteochondromas should be considered as normal, and likely to reflect an increased water content, different microstructure and component.
Control of Decoherence and Relaxation by Frequency Modulation of Heat Bath
Agarwal, G S
2000-01-01
We demonstrate in a very general fashion, considerable slowing down of decoherence and relaxation by fast frequency modulation of the system heat bath coupling. The slowing occurs as the decoherence rates are now determined by the spectral components of bath correlations which are shifted due to fast modulation. We present several examples including the slowing down of the heating of a trapped ion, where the system - bath interaction is not necessarily Markovian.
A suite of Mathematica notebooks for the analysis of protein main chain 15N NMR relaxation data.
Spyracopoulos, Leo
2006-12-01
A suite of Mathematica notebooks has been designed to ease the analysis of protein main chain 15N NMR relaxation data collected at a single magnetic field strength. Individual notebooks were developed to perform the following tasks: nonlinear fitting of 15N-T1 and -T2 relaxation decays to a two parameter exponential decay, calculation of the principal components of the inertia tensor from protein structural coordinates, nonlinear optimization of the principal components and orientation of the axially symmetric rotational diffusion tensor, model-free analysis of 15N-T1, -T2, and {1H}-15N NOE data, and reduced spectral density analysis of the relaxation data. The principle features of the notebooks include use of a minimal number of input files, integrated notebook data management, ease of use, cross-platform compatibility, automatic visualization of results and generation of high-quality graphics, and output of analyses in text format.
Magneto-dependent stress relaxation of magnetorheological gels
Xu, Yangguang
2017-09-01
The stress relaxation behaviors of magnetorheological (MR) gels under stepwise shear loading are systematically investigated. The particle-enhanced effect, the magneto-induced effect, and the temperature-enhanced effect on the stress relaxation of MR gels are discussed. For further analysis of the magneto-induced stress relaxation mechanism in MR gels, a phenomenological model is established to describe the stress relaxation behavior of the matrix and the magnetic particle chains. All characteristic parameters introduced in the model, i.e. relaxation time, instantaneous modulus, and stable modulus, have well-defined physical meanings and are fitted based on the experimental results. The influence of each parameter on the macroscopic response is discussed and it is found that the relaxation stress induced by the magneto-mechanical coupling effect plays an important role in the stress relaxation process of MR gels.
High Relaxivity Gd(III)–DNA Gold Nanostars: Investigation of Shape Effects on Proton Relaxation
Rotz, Matthew W.; Culver, Kayla S. B.; Parigi, Giacomo; MacRenaris, Keith W.; Luchinat, Claudio; Odom, Teri W.; Meade, Thomas J.
2015-01-01
Gadolinium(III) nanoconjugate contrast agents (CAs) have distinct advantages over their small-molecule counterparts in magnetic resonance imaging. In addition to increased Gd(III) payload, a significant improvement in proton relaxation efficiency, or relaxivity (r1), is often observed. In this work, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a nanoconjugate CA created by covalent attachment of Gd(III) to thiolated DNA (Gd(III)–DNA), followed by surface conjugation onto gold nanostars (DNA–Gd@stars). These conjugates exhibit remarkable r1 with values up to 98 mM−1 s−1. Additionally, DNA–Gd@stars show efficient Gd(III) delivery and biocompatibility in vitro and generate significant contrast enhancement when imaged at 7 T. Using nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion analysis, we attribute the high performance of the DNA–Gd@stars to an increased contribution of second-sphere relaxivity compared to that of spherical CA equivalents (DNA–Gd@spheres). Importantly, the surface of the gold nanostar contains Gd(III)–DNA in regions of positive, negative, and neutral curvature. We hypothesize that the proton relaxation enhancement observed results from the presence of a unique hydrophilic environment produced by Gd(III)–DNA in these regions, which allows second-sphere water molecules to remain adjacent to Gd(III) ions for up to 10 times longer than diffusion. These results establish that particle shape and second-sphere relaxivity are important considerations in the design of Gd(III) nanoconjugate CAs. PMID:25723190
Lu, Zijie; Manias, Evangelos; MacDonald, Digby D.; Lanagan, Michael
2009-10-01
Dielectric spectra of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/water mixtures, over the entire concentration range, have been measured using the transmission line method at frequencies from 45 MHz to 26 GHz and at temperatures of 298-318 K. The relaxation times of the mixtures show a maximum at an intermediate molar fraction of DMSO. The specific structure of mixtures in different concentration regions was determined by the dielectric relaxation dynamics, obtained from the effect of temperature on the relaxation time. A water structure "breaking effect" is observed in dilute aqueous solutions. The average number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule in these mixtures is found to be reduced compared to pure water. The increase in the dielectric relaxation time in DMSO/water mixtures is attributed to the spatial (steric) constraints of DMSO molecules on the hydrogen-bond network, rather than being due to hydrophobic hydration of the methyl groups. The interaction between water and DMSO by hydrogen bonding reaches a maximum at a DMSO molar fraction of 0.33, reflected by the maximum activation enthalpy for dielectric relaxation in this concentration, suggesting the formation of a stoichiometric compound, H2O-DMSO-H2O. In highly concentrated solutions, negative activation entropies are observed, indicating the presence of aggregates of DMSO molecules. A distinct antiparallel arrangement of dipoles is obtained for neat DMSO in the liquid state according to the Kirkwood correlation factor (gK = 0.5), calculated from the static permittivity. The similarity of the dielectric behavior of pure DMSO and DMSO-rich mixtures suggests that dipole-dipole interactions contribute significantly to the rotational relaxation process in these solutions.
Relaxation techniques for pain management in labour.
Smith, Caroline A; Levett, Kate M; Collins, Carmel T; Crowther, Caroline A
2011-12-07
Many women would like to avoid pharmacological or invasive methods of pain management in labour and this may contribute towards the popularity of complementary methods of pain management. This review examined currently available evidence supporting the use of relaxation therapies for pain management in labour. To examine the effects of relaxation methods for pain management in labour on maternal and perinatal morbidity. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 November 2010), The Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field's Trials Register (November 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1966 to 30 November 2010), CINAHL (1980 to 30 November 2010), the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (30 November 2010), Chinese Clinical Trial Register (30 November 2010), Current Controlled Trials (30 November 2010), ClinicalTrials.gov, (30 November 2010) ISRCTN Register (30 November 2010), National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) (30 November 2010) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (30 November 2010). Randomised controlled trials comparing relaxation methods with standard care, no treatment, other non-pharmacological forms of pain management in labour or placebo. Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality. We attempted to contact study authors for additional information. We included 11 studies (1374 women) in the review. Relaxation was associated with a reduction in pain intensity during the latent phase (mean difference (MD) -1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.97 to -0.53, one trial, 40 women) and active phase of labour (MD -2.48, 95% CI -3.13 to 0.83, two trials, 74 women). There was evidence of improved outcomes from relaxation instruction with increased satisfaction with pain
Mikicin, Mirosław; Kowalczyk, Marek
2015-09-01
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of regular audio-visual relaxation combined with Schultz's autogenic training on: (1) the results of behavioral tests that evaluate work performance during burdensome cognitive tasks (Kraepelin test), (2) changes in classical EEG alpha frequency band, neocortex (frontal, temporal, occipital, parietal), hemisphere (left, right) versus condition (only relaxation 7-12 Hz). Both experimental (EG) and age-and skill-matched control group (CG) consisted of eighteen athletes (ten males and eight females). After 7-month training EG demonstrated changes in the amplitude of mean electrical activity of the EEG alpha bend at rest and an improvement was significantly changing and an improvement in almost all components of Kraepelin test. The same examined variables in CG were unchanged following the period without the intervention. Summing up, combining audio-visual relaxation with autogenic training significantly improves athlete's ability to perform a prolonged mental effort. These changes are accompanied by greater amplitude of waves in alpha band in the state of relax. The results suggest usefulness of relaxation techniques during performance of mentally difficult sports tasks (sports based on speed and stamina, sports games, combat sports) and during relax of athletes.
Structural relaxation in viscous metallic liquids
Meyer, A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (BFRL), Gaithersburg, MD (United States)]|[Technische Univ. Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Wuttke, J.; Petry, W. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Schober, H. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Randl, O.G. [Manufacture Michelin, Clermont-Ferrand (France)
1999-11-01
Recently, metallic alloys have been found that exhibit extremely large viscosities in the liquid state. These liquids can be quenched into bulk metallic glasses at relatively modest cooling rates. In contrast to simple metals the structural relaxation of these systems show a two step decay in the liquid state. This behaviour has long been known for molecular or ionic glass formers in their under-cooled liquid state. Applying an analysis previously used for the glass formers (mode-coupling theory) a full quantitative description of the neutron data is obtained for these metallic liquids. (authors) 3 refs., 2 figs.
Nondepolarizing relaxants: new concepts and new drugs.
Kopman, A
1993-01-01
Less than a decade ago, the only nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs available to the anesthetist were traditional long-acting drugs such as pancuronium and d-tubocurarine. The revolution that began 10 years ago in our use of relaxants promises to continue unabated into the next decade. Changes in our clinical use of these drugs will be sparked not just by the introduction of new drugs but also by a greater understanding of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic principles that govern onset and recovery.
Thermal Stress Relaxation of Nonhomogeneous Coatings
无
1999-01-01
Nonhomogeneous coatings (NCs) are new type of engineering structures that is not yet fully understood. One important aspect in the mechanical analysis of NCs is to determine the gradient distribution that creates the maximum thermal stress relaxation. This paper employs numerical analysis using the finite element metho d and experimental analysis using moire interference to study the stress distrib ution in NCs. Attention focused on the edge effect stresses in the coating/subst rate structures and their dependence on the different gradient distributions of this new kind of composite structure.
Reflexogenic relaxation gastroduodenography by the acupuncture method
Rabkin, I.Kh.; Tsibulyak, V.N.; Mnatsakyan, K.A.; Kondorskaya, I.L.; Galkina, T.V.
The communication is based upon the results of x-ray examination of the stomach and duodenum in 63 patients with stenoses of the pyloroduodenal zone, cicatrical deformities of the duodenal bulb, bulbar ulcer, duodenal organic lesions, and functional stenosis of the loop. First a routine X-ray examination of the stomach and duodenum was performed using barium-water mixture, then followed acupuncture aimed at hypotension in the definite points of the floor of the auricle where branches of the vagus innervating the stomach and duodenum are located. As distinct from pharmacological relaxation this method produces a purpose-oriented selective effect.
Compatible Relaxation and Coarsening in Algebraic Multigrid
Brannick, J J; Falgout, R D
2009-09-22
We introduce a coarsening algorithm for algebraic multigrid (AMG) based on the concept of compatible relaxation (CR). The algorithm is significantly different from standard methods, most notably because it does not rely on any notion of strength of connection. We study its behavior on a number of model problems, and evaluate the performance of an AMG algorithm that incorporates the coarsening approach. Lastly, we introduce a variant of CR that provides a sharper metric of coarse-grid quality and demonstrate its potential with two simple examples.
Relaxed Operational Semantics of Concurrent Programming Languages
Gustavo Petri
2012-08-01
Full Text Available We propose a novel, operational framework to formally describe the semantics of concurrent programs running within the context of a relaxed memory model. Our framework features a "temporary store" where the memory operations issued by the threads are recorded, in program order. A memory model then specifies the conditions under which a pending operation from this sequence is allowed to be globally performed, possibly out of order. The memory model also involves a "write grain," accounting for architectures where a thread may read a write that is not yet globally visible. Our formal model is supported by a software simulator, allowing us to run litmus tests in our semantics.
Magnetic Relaxation Study on Single Crystals of Ni4 Single-Molecule Magnets
LI Yan-Rong; LIU Hai-Qing; LIU Ying; SU Shao-Kui; WANG Yun-Ping
2009-01-01
The ac susceptibility of single crystals of Nia single-molecule magnets is measured by a compensation measurement setup. The magnetic relaxation time calculated from the peak of the out-phase component of the susceptibility fits the Arrhenius law well and gives an effective spin-flipping energy barrier of Ueff = 7.2 K. This value is far below the classical activation energy barrier of U = 14 K, whereas it is close to the energy gap between the Sz = ±4 and Sz = ±3 doublets, which indicates that quantum tunneling between the Sz ＝ 3 and Sz = -3 states plays a key role in the magnetic relaxation. Therefore the relaxation process combines thermal activation and quantum tunneling. Also we deduce that the blocking temperature of Ni4 single-molecule magnets is lower than 0.3 K by extrapolating the relaxation time plot, which ensures that this single-molecule magnet material enters a long-range magnetic ordered state instead of a spin glass state at 0.91 K.
Cheah, Esther Y; Mann, Tracy S; Burcham, Philip C; Henry, Peter J
2015-02-15
The airway epithelium is an important source of relaxant mediators, and damage to the epithelium caused by respiratory tract viruses may contribute to airway hyperreactivity. The aim of this study was to determine whether influenza A-induced epithelial damage would modulate relaxation responses evoked by acrolein, a toxic and prevalent component of smoke. Male BALB/c mice were inoculated intranasally with influenza A/PR-8/34 (VIRUS-infected) or allantoic fluid (SHAM-infected). On day 4 post-inoculation, isometric tension recording studies were conducted on carbachol pre-contracted tracheal segments isolated from VIRUS and SHAM mice. Relaxant responses to acrolein (30 μM) were markedly smaller in VIRUS segments compared to SHAM segments (2 ± 1% relaxation vs. 28 ± 5%, n=14, pacrolein and SP were reduced in VIRUS segments (>35% reduction, n=6, pacrolein were profoundly diminished in tracheal segments isolated from influenza A-infected mice. The mechanism through which influenza A infection attenuates this response appears to involve reduced production of PGE2 in response to SP due to epithelial cell loss, and may provide insight into the airway hyperreactivity observed with influenza A infection.
Static tensioning promotes hamstring tendons force relaxation more reliably than cycling tensioning.
Piedade, Sérgio Rocha; Dal Fabbro, Inácio Maria; Mischan, Martha Maria; Piedade, Cezar; Maffulli, Nicola
2017-08-01
Graft elongation might be a major reason for increased anterior laxity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. This study analyzed the force relaxation values and their stabilization when single strands of the gracilis and semitendinosus tendons underwent cyclic and static tensioning at 2.5% strain level, and compared the efficiency of static and cyclic tensioning in promoting force relaxation. Eighteen gracilis tendons and 18 semitendinosus tendons from nine male cadavers (mean age: 22.44years) were subjected to 10 in vitro cyclic loads at 2.5% strain level, or to a static load at 2.5% strain level. During cyclic loading, the reduction in force values tended to stabilize after the sixth cyclic load, while, in the case of static loading, this stabilization occurred by the second minute. Comparing static and cyclic loading, the gracilis tendon had similar mechanical responses in both conditions, while the semitendinosus tendon showed greater force relaxation in static compared with cyclic loading. Considering that the semitendinosus tendon is the main component of the hamstring graft, its biomechanical response to loading should guide the tensioning protocol. Therefore, static tensioning seems more effective for promoting force relaxation of the semitendinosus tendon than cyclic tensioning. The gracilis tendon showed a similar mechanical response to either tensioning protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dielectric relaxations investigation of a synthesized epoxy resin polymer
Jilani, Wissal; Mzabi, Nissaf; Gallot-Lavallée, Olivier; Fourati, Najla; Zerrouki, Chouki; Zerrouki, Rachida; Guermazi, Hajer
2015-04-01
A diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy resin was synthesized, and cured with 3,3'-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS) at a curing temperature of 120 °C. The relaxation properties of the realized polymers were studied by two complementary techniques: dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS), in the temperature range 173-393K and in the frequency interval 10-1-106 Hz, and thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) with a windowing polarization process. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were also carried out to study interfacial relaxations. Dielectric data were analyzed in terms of permittivity and electric modulus variations. Three relaxation processes ( γ, β and α) have been identified. They were found to be frequency and temperature dependent and were interpreted in terms of the Havriliak-Negami approach. Relaxation parameters were determined by fitting the experimental data. The temperature dependence of the relaxation time was well fitted by the Arrhenius law for secondary relaxations, while the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamann model was found to better fit the τ( T) variations for α relaxation. We found τ 0 = 4.9 10-12 s, 9.6 10-13 s and 1.98 10-7 s for γ, β and α relaxations, respectively. The obtained results were found to be consistent with those reported in the literature. Due to the calculation of the low-frequency data of dielectric loss by the Hamon approximation, the Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars (MWS) relaxation was highlighted.
Relaxation training after stroke: potential to reduce anxiety.
Kneebone, Ian; Walker-Samuel, Natalie; Swanston, Jennifer; Otto, Elisabeth
2014-01-01
To consider the feasibility of setting up a relaxation group to treat symptoms of post stroke anxiety in an in-patient post-acute setting; and to explore the effectiveness of relaxation training in reducing self-reported tension. A relaxation group protocol was developed in consultation with a multidisciplinary team and a user group. Over a period of 24 months, 55 stroke patients attended group autogenic relaxation training on a rehabilitation ward. Attendance ranged between one and eleven sessions. Self-reported tension was assessed pre and post relaxation training using the Tension Rating Circles (TRCs). The TRCs identified a significant reduction in self-reported tension from pre to post training, irrespective of the number of sessions attended; z = -3.656, p stroke rehabilitation shows potential. Self-reported tension decreased after attendance at relaxation training. The TRCs proved acceptable to group members, but should be validated against standard anxiety measures. Further exploration of the application of relaxation techniques in clinical practice is desirable. Implications for Rehabilitation Anxiety is prevalent after stroke and likely affects rehabilitation outcomes. Relaxation training is a well proven treatment for anxiety in the non-stroke population. A significant within session reduction in tension, a hallmark symptom of anxiety, was evidenced via group relaxation training delivered in a post-acute, in-patient stroke unit setting. Relaxation training a shows promise as a treatment for anxiety after stroke.
Kruk, D.; Hoffmann, S. K.; Goslar, J.; Lijewski, S.; Kubica-Misztal, A.; Korpała, A.; Oglodek, I.; Kowalewski, J.; Rössler, E. A.; Moscicki, J.
2013-12-01
Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation Dispersion (NMRD) experiments are reported for propylene glycol solutions of the nitroxide radical: 4-oxo-TEMPO-d16 containing 15N and 14N isotopes. The NMRD experiments refer to 1H spin-lattice relaxation measurements in a broad frequency range (10 kHz-20 MHz). A joint analysis of the ESR and NMRD data is performed. The ESR lineshapes give access to the nitrogen hyperfine tensor components and the rotational correlation time of the paramagnetic molecule. The NMRD data are interpreted in terms of the theory of paramagnetic relaxation enhancement in solutions of nitroxide radicals, recently presented by Kruk et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 124506 (2013)]. The theory includes the effect of the electron spin relaxation on the 1H relaxation of the solvent. The 1H relaxation is caused by dipole-dipole interactions between the electron spin of the radical and the proton spins of the solvent molecules. These interactions are modulated by three dynamic processes: relative translational dynamics of the involved molecules, molecular rotation, and electron spin relaxation. The sensitivity to rotation originates from the non-central positions of the interacting spin in the molecules. The electronic relaxation is assumed to stem from the electron spin-nitrogen spin hyperfine coupling, modulated by rotation of the radical molecule. For the interpretation of the NMRD data, we use the nitrogen hyperfine coupling tensor obtained from ESR and fit the other relevant parameters. The consistency of the unified analysis of ESR and NMRD, evaluated by the agreement between the rotational correlation times obtained from ESR and NMRD, respectively, and the agreement of the translation diffusion coefficients with literature values obtained for pure propylene glycol, is demonstrated to be satisfactory.
Bertram, Hanne Christine; Rasmussen, Marianne; Busk, Hans; Oksbjerg, Niels; Karlsson, Anders Hans; Andersen, Henrik Jørgen
2002-08-01
This study investigates the effects of developmental stage and muscle type on the mobility and distribution of water within skeletal muscles, using low-field 1H-NMR transverse relaxation measurements in vitro on four different porcine muscles ( M. longissimus dorsi, M. semitendinosus, M. biceps femoris, M. vastus intermedius) from a total of 48 pigs slaughtered at various weight classes between 25 kg and 150 kg. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed effects of both slaughter weight and muscle type on the transverse relaxation decay. Independent of developmental stage and muscle type, distributed exponential analysis of the NMR T 2 relaxation data imparted the existence of three distinct water populations, T 2b, T 21, and T 22, with relaxation times of approximately 1-10, 45-120, and 200-500 ms, respectively. The most profound change during muscle growth was a shift toward faster relaxation in the intermediate time constant, T 21. It decreased by approx. 24% in all four muscle types during the period from 25 to 150 kg live weight. Determination of dry matter, fat, and protein content in the muscles showed that the changes in relaxation time of the intermediate time constant, T 21, during growth should be ascribed mainly to a change in protein content, as the protein content explained 77% of the variation in the T 21 time constant. Partial least squares (PLS) regression revealed validated correlations in the region of 0.58 to 0.77 between NMR transverse relaxation data and muscle development for all the four muscle types, which indicates that NMR relaxation measurements may be used in the prediction of muscle developmental stage.
Transverse relaxation of scalar-coupled protons.
Segawa, Takuya F; Baishya, Bikash; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey
2010-10-25
In a preliminary communication (B. Baishya, T. F. Segawa, G. Bodenhausen, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 17538-17539), we recently demonstrated that it is possible to obtain clean echo decays of protons in biomolecules despite the presence of homonuclear scalar couplings. These unmodulated decays allow one to determine apparent transverse relaxation rates R(2) (app) of individual protons. Herein, we report the observation of R(2) (app) for three methyl protons, four amide H(N) protons, and all 11 backbone H(α) protons in cyclosporin A. If the proton resonances overlap, their R(2) (app) rates can be measured by transferring their magnetization to neighboring (13)C nuclei, which are less prone to overlap. The R(2) (app) rates of protons attached to (13)C are faster than those attached to (12)C because of (13)C-(1)H dipolar interactions. The differences of these rates allow the determination of local correlation functions. Backbone H(N) and H(α) protons that have fast decay rates R(2) (app) also feature fast longitudinal relaxation rates R(1) and intense NOESY cross peaks that are typical of crowded environments. Variations of R(2) (app) rates of backbone H(α) protons in similar amino acids reflect differences in local environments.
Relaxing effect of rose oil on humans.
Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee
2009-02-01
One increasingly popular type of alternative therapy is aromatherapy, but scientific validation in this field is still rare. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rose oil (Rosa damascena Mill, Rosaceae) on human autonomic parameters and emotional responses in healthy subjects after transdermal absorption. In order to exclude any olfactory stimulation the inhalation of the fragrances was prevented by breathing masks. Forty healthy volunteers participated in the experiments. Five autonomic parameters, i.e. blood pressure, breathing rate, blood oxygen saturation, pulse rate, and skin temperature, were recorded. Emotional responses were assessed by means of rating scales. Compared to placebo, rose oil caused significant decreases of breathing rate, blood oxygen saturation and systolic blood pressure, which indicate a decrease of autonomic arousal. At the emotional level, subjects in the rose oil group rated themselves as more calm, more relaxed and less alert than subjects in the control group. These findings are likely to represent a relaxing effect of the rose oil and provide some evidence for the use of rose oil in aromatherapy, such as causing relief of depression and stress in humans.
Viscosity bound versus the universal relaxation bound
Hod, Shahar
2017-10-01
For gauge theories with an Einstein gravity dual, the AdS/CFT correspondence predicts a universal value for the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density, η / s = 1 / 4 π. The holographic calculations have motivated the formulation of the celebrated KSS conjecture, according to which all fluids conform to the lower bound η / s ≥ 1 / 4 π. The bound on η / s may be regarded as a lower bound on the relaxation properties of perturbed fluids and it has been the focus of much recent attention. In particular, it was argued that for a class of field theories with Gauss-Bonnet gravity dual, the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, η / s, could violate the conjectured KSS bound. In the present paper we argue that the proposed violations of the KSS bound are strongly constrained by Bekenstein's generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics. In particular, it is shown that physical consistency of the Gauss-Bonnet theory with the GSL requires its coupling constant to be bounded by λGB ≲ 0 . 063. We further argue that the genuine physical bound on the relaxation properties of physically consistent fluids is ℑω(k > 2 πT) > πT, where ω and k are respectively the proper frequency and the wavenumber of a perturbation mode in the fluid.
A Simple Holographic Superconductor with Momentum Relaxation
Kim, Keun-Young; Park, Miok
2015-01-01
We study a holographic superconductor model with momentum relaxation due to massless scalar fields linear to spatial coordinates($\\psi_I = \\beta \\delta_{Ii} x^i$), where $\\beta$ is the strength of momentum relaxation. In addition to the original superconductor induced by the chemical potential($\\mu$) at $\\beta=0$, there exists a new type of superconductor induced by $\\beta$ even at $\\mu=0$. It may imply a new `pairing' mechanism of particles and antiparticles interacting with $\\beta$, which may be interpreted as `impurity'. Two parameters $\\mu$ and $\\beta$ compete in forming superconducting phase. As a result, the critical temperature behaves differently depending on $\\beta/\\mu$. It decreases when $\\beta/\\mu$ is small and increases when $\\beta/\\mu$ is large, which is a novel feature compared to other models. After analysing ground states and phase diagrams for various $\\beta/\\mu$, we study optical electric($\\sigma$), thermoelectric($\\alpha$), and thermal($\\bar{\\kappa}$) conductivities. When the system undergo...
Petrov, Oleg V.; Stapf, Siegfried
2017-06-01
This work addresses the problem of a compact and easily comparable representation of multi-exponential relaxation data. It is often convenient to describe such data in a few parameters, all being of physical significance and easy to interpret, and in such a way that enables a model-free comparison between different groups of samples. Logarithmic moments (LMs) of the relaxation time constitute a set of parameters which are related to the characteristic relaxation time on the log-scale, the width and the asymmetry of an underlying distribution of exponentials. On the other hand, the calculation of LMs does not require knowing the actual distribution function and is reduced to a numerical integration of original data. The performance of this method has been tested on both synthetic and experimental NMR relaxation data which differ in a signal-to-noise ratio, the sampling range and the sampling rate. The calculation of two lower-order LMs, the log-mean time and the log-variance, has proved robust against deficiencies of the experiment such as scattered data point and incomplete sampling. One may consider using them as such to monitor formation of a heterogeneous structure, e.g., in phase separation, vitrification, polymerization, hydration, aging, contrast agent propagation processes. It may also assist in interpreting frequency and temperature dependences of relaxation, revealing a crossover from slow to fast exchange between populations. The third LM was found to be a less reliable quantity due to its susceptibility to the noise and must be used with caution.
Andersen, D.; Hull, R.
2017-02-01
The effect of asymmetric interfacial strain configurations upon the generation of misfit dislocation arrays in lattice mismatched epitaxy is considered. For example, elastic strain relaxation for Si1-xGex/Si(110) films is uniaxial, assuming glide on {111} planes as expected for the diamond cubic system, which leads to asymmetric strain relief. Here, we extend our previously developed relaxation model for generation of dislocation arrays in SiGe/Si, by accounting for how the different energetics of asymmetrically strained films affect the kinetics of the relaxation process. Similarly, non-polar III-nitride epitaxial films have asymmetric strain from the outset of growth due to the different c/a lattice parameter ratios. In both systems, the asymmetric strain is represented by an additional term in the misfit dislocation applied stress equation. In SiGe/Si(110), a simple elasticity analysis of the strain produced by the uniaxial array of dislocations predicts that the relaxation orthogonal to the dislocation line direction occurs at a faster rate than predicted by purely biaxial strain relief due to the contributions of the strain parallel to the dislocations. This difference is because the strain parallel to the dislocation line directions continues to resolve stress onto the misfit dislocations even as the orthogonal strain is minimized. As a result, the minimum strain energy is predicted to occur for a dislocation spacing, which produces tensile layer strain in the orthogonal direction. Such tensile strain may modify the (opto)electronic properties of a Si, Ge, or GeSi epilayer but is only predicted to occur for advanced stages of relaxation. These asymmetric derivations are applicable to any thin film system where strain is not strictly biaxial.
Immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann model based on multiple relaxation times.
Lu, Jianhua; Han, Haifeng; Shi, Baochang; Guo, Zhaoli
2012-01-01
As an alterative version of the lattice Boltzmann models, the multiple relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann model introduces much less numerical boundary slip than the single relaxation time (SRT) lattice Boltzmann model if some special relationship between the relaxation time parameters is chosen. On the other hand, most current versions of the immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann method, which was first introduced by Feng and improved by many other authors, suffer from numerical boundary slip as has been investigated by Le and Zhang. To reduce such a numerical boundary slip, an immerse boundary lattice Boltzmann model based on multiple relaxation times is proposed in this paper. A special formula is given between two relaxation time parameters in the model. A rigorous analysis and the numerical experiments carried out show that the numerical boundary slip reduces dramatically by using the present model compared to the single-relaxation-time-based model.
Nuclear spin relaxation in liquids theory, experiments, and applications
Kowalewski, Jozef
2006-01-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is widely used across many fields because of the rich data it produces, and some of the most valuable data come from the study of nuclear spin relaxation in solution. While described to varying degrees in all major NMR books, spin relaxation is often perceived as a difficult, if not obscure, topic, and an accessible, cohesive treatment has been nearly impossible to find.Collecting relaxation theory, experimental techniques, and illustrative applications into a single volume, this book clarifies the nature of the phenomenon, shows how to study it, and explains why such studies are worthwhile. Coverage ranges from basic to rigorous theory and from simple to sophisticated experimental methods, and the level of detail is somewhat greater than most other NMR texts. Topics include cross-relaxation, multispin phenomena, relaxation studies of molecular dynamics and structure, and special topics such as relaxation in systems with quadrupolar nuclei and paramagnetic systems.Avoiding ove...
Hyperfine relaxation of an optically pumped cesium vapor
Tornos, J.; Amare, J.C.
1986-07-01
The relaxation of hyperfine orientation indirectly induced by optical pumping with a sigma-polarized D/sub 1/-light in a cesium vapor in the presence of Ar is experimentally studied. The detection technique ensures the absence of quadrupole relaxation contributions in the relaxation signals. The results from the dependences of the hyperfine relaxation rate on the temperature and argon pressure are: diffusion coefficient of Cs in Ar, D/sub 0/ = 0.101 +- 0.010 cm/sup 2/s/sup -1/ at 0/sup 0/C and 760 Torr; relaxation cross section by Cs-Ar collisions, sigma/sub c/ = (104 +- 5) x 10/sup -23/ cm/sup 2/; relaxation cross section by Cs-Cs (spin exchange) collisions, sigma/sub e//sub x/ = (1.63 +- 0.13) x 10/sup -14/ cm/sup 2/.
Cross-relaxation in multiple pulse NQR spin-locking
Beltjukov, P. A.; Kibrik, G. E. [Perm State University, Physics Department (Russian Federation); Furman, G. B., E-mail: gregoryf@bgu.ac.il; Goren, S. D. [Ben Gurion University, Physics Department (Israel)
2008-01-15
The experimental and theoretical NQR multiple-pulse spin locking study of cross-relaxation process in solids containing nuclei of two different sorts I > 1/2 and S = 1/2 coupled by the dipole-dipole interactions and influenced by an external magnetic field. Two coupled equations for the inverse spin temperatures of the both spin systems describing the mutual spin lattice relaxation and the cross-relaxation were obtained using the method of the nonequilibrium state operator. It is shown that the relaxation process is realized with non-exponential time dependence describing by a sum of two exponents. The cross relaxation time is calculated as a function of the multiple-pulse field parameters which agree with the experimental data. The calculated magnetization cross relaxation time vs the strength of the applied magnetic field agrees well with the obtained experimental data.
Intraband Relaxation and Its Influences on Quantum Dot Lasers
DENG Sheng-Ling; HUANG Yong-Zhen; YU Li-Juan
2005-01-01
@@ A comprehensive two-level numerical model is developed to describe carrier distribution in a quantum-dot laser. Light-emission spectra with different intraband relaxation rates (2ps, 7.5ps and 20ps) are calculated and analysed to investigate the influence of relaxation rates on performance of the quantum-dot laser. The results indicate that fast intraband relaxation favours not only the ground state single mode operation but also the higher injection efficiency.
Relaxation of quadrupole orientation in an optically pumped alkali vapour
Bernabeu, E.; Tornos, J.
1985-04-01
The relaxation of quadrupole orientation (alignment) in an optically pumped alkali vapour is theoretically studied by taking into account the relaxation processes by alkali-buffer gas, alkali-alkali with spin exchange and alkali-cell wall (diffusion process) collisions. The relaxation transients of the quadrupole orientation are obtained by introducing a first-order weak-pumping approximation (intermediate pumping) less restrictive than the usually considered (zeroth order) one.
Measuring Propellant Stress Relaxation Modulus Using Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer
2017-03-29
P. N., Singh, P. P., and Bhattacharya, B., “Determination of Activation Energy of Relaxation Events in Composite Solid Propellants by Dynamic...Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 04 August 2016 – 29 March 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Measuring Propellant Stress Relaxation Modulus Using Dynamic...ERC 14. ABSTRACT A method for determining the stress relaxation master curve of solid rocket propellants was developed. The propellant was tested in
On the Relaxation Dynamics of Disordered Systems
Dobramysl, Ulrich
We investigate the properties of two distinct disordered systems: the two-species predator-prey Lotka-Volterra model with rate variability, and an elastic line model to simulate vortex lines in type-II superconductors. We study the effects of intrinsic demographic variability with inheritance in the reaction rates of the Lotka-Volterra model via zero-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations as well as two-dimensional lattice simulations. Individuals of each species are assigned inheritable predation efficiencies during their creation, leading to evolutionary dynamics and thus population-level optimization. We derive an effective subspecies mean-field theory and compare its results to our numerical data. Furthermore, we introduce environmental variability via quenched spatial reaction-rate randomness. We investigate the competing effects and relative importance of the two types of variability, and find that both lead to a remarkable enhancement of the species densities, while the aforementioned optimization effects are essentially neutral in the densities. Additionally, we collected extinction time histograms for small systems and find a marked increase in the stability of the populations against extinction due to the presence of variability. We employ an elastic line model to investigate the steady-state properties and non-equilibrium relaxation kinetics of magnetic vortex lines in disordered type-II superconductors. To this end, we developed a versatile and efficient Langevin molecular dynamics simulation code, allowing us to do a careful study of samples with or without vortex-vortex interactions or disorder allows us to disentangle the various complex relaxational features present in this system and investigate their origin. In particular, we compare disordered samples with randomly distributed point defects versus correlated columnar defects. We extract two-time quantities such as the mean-square displacement, the height and density correlations, to investigate the
Relaxation Behaviour of Lithium-Borosilicate Glasses
D. B. Thombre
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Three systems of lithium borosilicate (LBS glasses namely SI 42.5Li2O: (57.5-x B2O3: xSiO2, SII 42.5Li2O: xB2O3 :( 57.5-x SiO2 where x=0, 5, 10, 20, and 30, and SIII (100-2x Li2O: xB2O3: xSiO2 where x=30, 28.75, 27.5, 25, and 22.5, are prepared using conventional melt quenching technique. Functional dependence of conductivity on temperature in the range from 523- 673K and frequency in the range from 10Hz to 13 MHz is studied. In order to analyze electrical conductivity the microscopic parameters such as ionic jump distance and barrier height are necessary. These parameters can be understood properly on the basis of the models proposed by Almond and Elliott. As frequency increases from 1MHz to 13MHz, the Tmin shifts towards low temperature side. According to this model the charge transfer is a thermally activated process and provides a correlation between the barrier height (W and the hopping length (R. The fitting of conductivity data into Almond-West type power law behavior σ = σ(o + Aωs yielded power law exponent(s. Electrical conductivity data fitted well in Elliott’s model, which is true only for amorphous materials. The temperature dependence of frequency exponent s exhibits a minimum (smin at a particular temperature (Tmin . . From the scaling behavior of the ac conductivity it is seen that all the curves scaled better, suggesting that s is temperature independent. It is observed that smin shifts to lower temperature, which shows that electrical conductivity of glassy solid electrolytes is the manifestation of ionic dynamic processes. The superposition of the reduced conductivity at all temperatures shows relaxation mechanism is temperature independent. Analysis of modulus formalism with a distribution of relaxation times using KWW stretched exponential function, the stretching exponent, β, is depend on temperature. The analysis of the temperature variation of the M″ peak indicates the relaxation process is thermally activated
Electrical Relaxation in ULTEM® and ULTEM® Containing Mesoporous Silica
Turo, Andrew; Edmondson, Charles E.; Lomax, Joseph F.; Bendler, John T.; Fontanella, John J.; Wintersgill, Mary C.
2008-08-01
Mesoporous silica has been added to Ultem® 1000 polyetherimide using solution casting. The mesoporous silica that was added was either uncoated or coated with polystyrene. Audio frequency dielectric relaxation studies were then carried out over the temperature range 5.5 to 550 K. Several interesting results were obtained. First, the uncoated mesoporous silica caused essentially no change in the relaxation spectrum of pure Ultem®. The polystyrene coated mesoporous silica caused rather large changes. The most striking example is the introduction of a new relaxation. This relaxation occurs at about 150 K and 1000 Hz as showing in fig. 1 via the open circles.
Importance of relaxation techniques in cognitive therapy for anxiety
Alice Rodrigues Willhelm; Ilana Andretta; Mariana Steiger Ungaretti
2015-01-01
.... The CBT treatment for anxiety disorders suggests cognitive techniques of restructuring and cognitive flexibilization and behavioral techniques such as exposure, systematic desensitization and body relaxation techniques...
肖立志; 杜有如; 叶朝辉
1996-01-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation of fluids in porous media is affected by the solid-liquid interface. Quantitative determination of the surface relaxivity is significantly important for both investigation and application of relaxation mechanisms in porous media. A method to estimate the surface relaxivity with the combination of relaxation and diffusion measurements is proposed. According to this method, a criterion for testing the current diffusion and relaxation theory for porous media is available.
Acquista, C.; Narducci, L. M.
1980-01-01
An approach for measuring the non-Markoffian component in the relaxation mechanism of a Brownian particle is proposed which combines desirable features of both the shock wave experiment and conventional light scattering experiments. It is suggested that the radiation pressure generated by a C.W. laser be used to guide an individual spherical particle to terminal velocity. At an appropriate time, the beam intensity is suddenly lowered to a value at which the radiation pressure is negligible, and the ensuing velocity relaxation is measured directly.
Motwani, Tanuj
-sugar-containing starch slurries, which suggested that conductivity was mostly associated with starch. Glucose or maltose did not exert any differential effect on the swelling behavior or dielectric relaxation parameters of starch-water-sugar slurries. This project presents novel insights into the starch-water interactions occurring in the gelatinization temperature range. The results of this project can be used to develop a dielectric relaxation based technique to monitor water mobility during industrial processing of starch-based foods. Dielectric response was not unique to any of the solids used in the study suggesting that dielectric spectroscopy could be used for monitoring state of water in food systems containing different types of solids. Also, the dielectric relaxation parameters obtained in this study can be used to predict water mobility in simple food systems having water, sugar and starch as major components, and hence, can possibly be used to estimate shelf life of food products.
Chloride channels mediate sodium sulphide-induced relaxation in rat uteri.
Mijušković, Ana; Kokić, Aleksandra Nikolić; Dušić, Zorana Oreščanin; Slavić, Marija; Spasić, Mihajlo B; Blagojević, Duško
2015-07-01
Hydrogen sulphide reduces uterine contractility and is of potential interest as a treatment for uterine disorders. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism of sodium sulphide (Na2 S)-induced relaxation of rat uterus, investigate the importance of redox effects and ion channel-mediated mechanisms, and any interactions between these two mechanisms. Organ bath studies were employed to assess the pharmacological effects of Na2 S in uterine strips by exposing them to Na2 S with or without Cl(-) channel blockers (DIDS, NFA, IAA-94, T16Ainh-A01, TA), raised KCl (15 and 75 mM), K(+) channel inhibitors (glibenclamide, TEA, 4-AP), L-type Ca(2+) channel activator (S-Bay K 8644), propranolol and methylene blue. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in homogenates of treated uteri. The expression of bestrophin channel 1 (BEST-1) was determined by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Na2 S caused concentration-dependent reversible relaxation of spontaneously active and calcium-treated uteri, affecting both amplitude and frequency of contractions. Uteri exposed to 75 mM KCl were less sensitive to Na2 S compared with uteri in 15 mM KCl. Na2 S-induced relaxations were abolished by DIDS, but unaffected by other modulators or by the absence of extracellular HCO3 (-) , suggesting the involvement of chloride ion channels. Na2 S in combination with different modulators provoked specific changes in the anti-oxidant profiles of uteri. The expression of BEST-1, both mRNA and protein, was demonstrated in rat uteri. The relaxant effects of Na2 S in rat uteri are mediated mainly via a DIDS-sensitive Cl(-) -pathway. Components of the relaxation are redox- and Ca(2+) -dependent. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.
Relaxed selective pressure on an essential component of pheromone transduction in primate evolution
2003-01-01
The vomeronasal organ (VNO) detects pheromones in many vertebrate species but is likely to be vestigial in humans. TRPC2(TRP2), a gene that is essential for VNO function in the mouse, is a pseudogene in humans. Because TRPC2 is expressed only in the VNO, the loss of selective pressure on this gene can serve as a molecular marker for the time at which the VNO became vestigial. By analyzing sequence data from the TRPC2 gene of 15 extant primate species, we provide evidence that the VNO was most...
2010-01-01
The dynamics of the pure compounds and mixed crystals formed between cycloheptanol (cC7-ol) and cyclooctanol (cC8-ol) has been studied by means of broadband dielectric spectroscopy at temperatures near and above the orientational glass transition temperature. Both compounds are known to display at least one orientationally disordered (OD) phase of simple cubic symmetry, and within this phase, a continuous formation of mixed crystals was demonstrated in the past (Rute, M. A. et al. J. Phys. Ch...
Distinct mechanical relaxation components in pairs of erythrocyte ghosts undergoing fusion.
Wu, Y; Sjodin, R A; Sowers, A E
1994-01-01
It was previously reported (Chernomordik and Sowers, 1991) that erythrocyte ghosts which were exposed to a 42 degrees C, 10-min heat treatment would, upon electrofusion, produce over 15-20 s a fusion product with an "open lumen" (i.e., the fusion product became converted to one large sphere), while electrofusion of ghost membranes not so exposed would lead to chains of polyghosts. In phase optics the chains of polyghosts showed a "flat diaphragm" at virtually every ghost-ghost junction (i.e., the ghosts do not appear to be fused even though fluorescent-labeled lipid analogs can laterally diffuse from a labeled ghost to an adjacent unlabeled ghost). In the present study we found that the diameter increase in open lumen- and flat diaphragm-producing fusion processes both had a rapid but short early phase (0-5 s after fusion) which was exponential or nearly so and a slow but long late phase (5-120 s after fusion) which was essentially linear. Heat treatments at 39 or 42 degrees C caused a minor acceleration in only the late phase, while temperatures of 45 or 50 degrees C caused an immediate and dramatic acceleration in the rate of diameter increase (spheres in 1-2 s). Ghost membranes in the presence of glycerol at 20% (v/v) did not form open lumens when exposed to the 42 degrees C (but not the > or = 45 degrees C) heat treatment. This suggested that the heat treatment was denaturing a critical protein. Both of these observations are consistent with the involvement of the spectrin network since it is the only protein in the erythrocyte membrane which is known (Brandts et al., 1977) to have a calorimetric transition over the same temperature range used in our heat treatments. The diameter versus time curves were sensitive to: (i) the residual effects of the fusogenic electric pulse only up to about 1 s after the pulse, (ii) the strength of the dielectrophoretic field after the pulse, but not before the pulse,(iii) the ambient temperature during the measurement.
Nonlinear nonequilibrium quasiparticle relaxation in Josephson junctions.
Krasnov, V M
2009-11-27
I solve numerically a full set of nonlinear kinetic balance equations for stacked Josephson junctions, which allows analysis of strongly nonequilibrium phenomena. It is shown that nonlinearity becomes significant already at very small disequilibrium. The following new, nonlinear effects are obtained: (i) At even-gap voltages V = 2nDelta/e (n = 2, 3, ...) nonequilibrium bosonic bands overlap. This leads to enhanced emission of Omega = 2Delta bosons and to the appearance of dips in tunnel conductance. (ii) A new type of radiative solution is found at strong disequilibrium. It is characterized by the fast stimulated relaxation of quasiparticles. A stack in this state behaves as a light emitting diode and directly converts electric power to boson emission, without utilization of the ac-Josephson effect. The phenomenon can be used for realization of a new type of superconducting cascade laser in the THz frequency range.
Internal relaxation time in immersed particulate materials
Rognon, P; Gay, C
2009-01-01
We study the dynamics of the solid to liquid transition for a model material made of elastic particles immersed in a viscous fluid. The interaction between particle surfaces includes their viscous lubrication, a sharp repulsion when they get closer than a tuned steric length and their elastic deflection induced by those two forces. We use Soft Dynamics to simulate the dynamics of this material when it experiences a step increase in the shear stress and a constant normal stress. We observe a long creep phase before a substantial flow eventually establishes. We find that the typical creep time relies on an internal relaxation process, namely the separation of two particles driven by the applied stress and resisted by the viscous friction. This mechanism should be relevant for granular pastes, living cells, emulsions and wet foams.
Spirooxazine Photoisomerization and Relaxation in Polymer Matrices
Maria Larkowska
2011-01-01
Full Text Available 9′-Hydroxy-1,3,3-trimethylspiro[indoline-2,3′[3H]naphtha[2,1-b]-1,4oxazine] (SPO-7OH was used in studies of photochromic transformations in polymer matrices. Illumination with UV lamp caused opening the spirostructure of the oxazine with formation of open merocyanine species absorbing at ca. 610 nm. The kinetic studies of thermal relaxation of the open form showed that this process can be described with a biexponential function including both photochemical reaction and rheological behaviour of the polymeric environment. Basing on Arrhenius plot of the rate constant ascribed to the photochemical reaction, the activation energy was determined, which was 66.1 and 84.7 kJ/mole for poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl methacrylate and poly(vinylpyrrolidone matrix, respectively.
Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi method: improvements and applications
Adsuara, J E; Cerdá-Durán, P; Aloy, M A
2015-01-01
Elliptic partial differential equations (ePDEs) appear in a wide variety of areas of mathematics, physics and engineering. Typically, ePDEs must be solved numerically, which sets an ever growing demand for efficient and highly parallel algorithms to tackle their computational solution. The Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi (SRJ) is a promising class of methods, atypical for combining simplicity and efficiency, that has been recently introduced for solving linear Poisson-like ePDEs. The SRJ methodology relies on computing the appropriate parameters of a multilevel approach with the goal of minimizing the number of iterations needed to cut down the residuals below specified tolerances. The efficiency in the reduction of the residual increases with the number of levels employed in the algorithm. Applying the original methodology to compute the algorithm parameters with more than 5 levels notably hinders obtaining optimal SRJ schemes, as the mixed (non-linear) algebraic-differential equations from which they result bec...
Relaxation and resonances in fluctuating dielectric systems
Garcia-Colin, L. S.; del Castillo, L. F.
1989-09-01
In this paper we show how the ideas behind extended irreversible thermodynamics are used to generate a systematic treatment of the relaxation and resonance phenomena in the propagation and absorption of electromagnetic energy in dielectric materials in a nonequilibrium state. Two cases are discussed: the first, in which the forced oscillations arising from the correlation between the fluctuations of the polarization vector and the electric field are neglected, and the second, in which this term is taken into account. In both cases we show how the main equations serve to make a connection between the macroscopic approach followed here and a number of results obtained for both, gases and polar liquids using molecular models. The results obtained here are compared with previous work on this problem, and new effects arising from the second case are pointed out.
Endothelium-dependent relaxation of blood vessels
Hynes, M.R.
1987-01-01
Dilation of blood vessels in response to a large number of agents has been shown to be dependent on an intact vascular endothelium. The present studies examine some aspects of endothelium-dependent vasodilation in blood vessels of the rabbit and rat. Using the rabbit ear artery and the subtype-selective muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine, muscarinic receptors of the endothelium and smooth muscle cells were shown to be of the low affinity M/sub 2/ subtype. Inhibition of (/sup 3/H)(-)quinuclidinyl benzilate was used to determine affinity for the smooth muscle receptors while antagonism of methacholine induced vasodilation yielded the endothelial cell receptor affinity. The effect of increasing age (1-27 months) on endothelium-dependent relaxation was studied in aortic rings, perfused tail artery and perfused mesenteric bed of the Fisher 344 rat. The influence of endothelium on contractile responses was examined using the perfused caudal artery.
Occupational stress, relaxation therapies, exercise and biofeedback.
Stein, Franklin
2001-01-01
Occupational stress is a widespread occurrence in the United States. It is a contributing factor to absenteeism, disease, injury and lowered productivity. In general stress management programs in the work place that include relaxation therapies, exercise, and biofeedback have been shown to reduce the physiological symptoms such as hypertension, and increase job satisfaction and job performance. Strategies to implement a successful stress management program include incorporating the coping activities into one's daily schedule, monitoring one's symptoms and stressors, and being realistic in setting up a schedule that is relevant and attainable. A short form of meditation, daily exercise program and the use of heart rate or thermal biofeedback can be helpful to a worker experiencing occupational stress.
Vibrational energy relaxation pathways of water
Pakoulev, Andrei; Wang, Zhaohui; Pang, Yoonsoo; Dlott, Dana D.
2003-10-01
Vibrational energy relaxation (VR) of the OH stretch νOH and bend δH 2O in water is studied by the mid-IR pump with anti-Stokes Raman probe technique. The broad νOH band in water consists of two inhomogeneously broadened subbands. VR in the larger red-shifted subband νOHR, with T1=0.55 ps, is shown to occur by the mechanism νOH→ δH 2O (1/3) and νOH → ground state (2/3). VR in the smaller longer-lived blue-shifted subband νOHB, with T1=0.75 ps, occurs by the mechanism νOH → ground state. The bending fundamental δH 2O decays directly to the ground state with T1=1.4 ps.
Holographic thermal relaxation in superfluid turbulence
Du, Yiqiang [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); Niu, Chao [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); Tian, Yu [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang, Hongbao [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875 (China); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)
2015-12-02
Holographic duality provides a first-principles approach to investigate real time processes in quantum many-body systems, in particular at finite temperature and far-from-equilibrium. We use this approach to study the dynamical evolution of vortex number in a two-dimensional (2D) turbulent superfluid through numerically solving its gravity dual. We find that the temporal evolution of the vortex number can be well fit statistically by two-body decay due to the vortex pair annihilation featured relaxation process, thus confirm the previous suspicion based on the experimental data for turbulent superfluid in highly oblate Bose-Einstein condensates. Furthermore, the decay rate near the critical temperature is in good agreement with the recently developed effective theory of 2D superfluid turbulence.
Multiscale dipole relaxation in dielectric materials
Hansen, Jesper Schmidt
2016-01-01
the cross coupling between the electric field fluctuations and dipole moment fluctuations can be ignored. The peak frequencies in the spectra of the autocorrelation functions are also derived. They depend on the wave vector squared which is a fingerprint of the underlying dipole diffusion mechanism....... For the longitudinal direction the simulation results show that the cross coupling between the electric field and the dipole moment is non-negligible compromising the theoretical predictions. The underlying mechanism for this coupling is not clear.......Dipole relaxation from thermally induced perturbations is investigated on different length scales for dielectric materials. From the continuum dynamical equations for the polarisation, expressions for the transverse and longitudinal dipole autocorrelation functions are derived in the limit where...
Relaxed Half-Stochastic Belief Propagation
Leduc-Primeau, François; Mannor, Shie; Gross, Warren J
2012-01-01
Low-density parity-check codes are attractive for high throughput applications because of their low decoding complexity per bit, but also because all the codeword bits can be decoded in parallel. However, achieving this in a circuit implementation is complicated by the number of wires required to exchange messages between processing nodes. Decoding algorithms that exchange binary messages are interesting for fully-parallel implementations because they can reduce the number and the length of the wires, and increase logic density. This paper introduces the Relaxed Half-Stochastic (RHS) decoding algorithm, a binary message belief propagation (BP) algorithm that achieves a coding gain comparable to the best known BP algorithms that use real-valued messages. We derive the RHS algorithm by starting from the well-known Sum-Product algorithm, and then derive a low-complexity version suitable for circuit implementation. We present extensive simulation results on two standardized codes having different rates and constr...
Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy in vivo
Ma, Jun; Shi, Junhui; Hai, Pengfei; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V.
2016-06-01
Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy (GR-PAM) can achieve optically defined axial resolution, but it has been limited to ex vivo demonstrations so far. Here, we present the first in vivo image of a mouse brain acquired with GR-PAM. To induce the GR effect, an intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser was employed to heat absorbing objects. In phantom experiments, an axial resolution of 12.5 μm was achieved, which is sixfold better than the value achieved by conventional optical-resolution PAM. This axial-resolution improvement was further demonstrated by imaging a mouse brain in vivo, where significantly narrower axial profiles of blood vessels were observed. The in vivo demonstration of GR-PAM shows the potential of this modality for label-free and high-resolution anatomical and functional imaging of biological tissues.
Degravitation and the relaxed Einstein equations
Dirkes, Alain
2016-01-01
The general idea to modify Einstein's field equations by promoting Newton's constant $G$ to a covariant differential operator $G_\\Lambda(\\Box_g)$ was apparently outlined for the first time in [12-15]. The modification itself originates from the quest of finding a mechanism which is able to degravitate the vacuum energy on cosmological scales. We present in this article a precise covariant coupling model which acts like a high-pass filter with a macroscopic distance filter scale $\\sqrt{\\Lambda}$. In the context of this particular theory of gravity we work out the effective relaxed Einstein equations as well as the effective 1.5 post-Newtonian total near-zone mass of a many body system. We observe that at any step of computation we recover in the limit of vanishing modification parameters the corresponding general relativistic result.
Relaxed excited states of color centers
Baldacchini, G.
1992-12-31
Color centers in alkali halides display an optical cycle which has been, and it is still today, a model case for similar processes in other materials. Moreover, the luminescence of some color centers is so efficient that it has been used in laser applications. However, the quantum state from which the emission of light is originated, the so called relaxed excited state (RES), is not very well known. Indeed, in spite of the wealth of experimental results collected and of the theoretical approaches attempted, an exact description of the RES is still missing. This paper, confined mainly to F centers which are the simplest point defects in crystals, contains a review of the main experimental evidences which has some light on the nature of the RES, with special emphasis on the latest magneto-optical experiments. Also, a description of the theoretical models is attempted whenever required by a particular argument.
Using relaxational dynamics to reduce network congestion
Piontti, Ana L. Pastore y.; La Rocca, Cristian E.; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Braunstein, Lidia A.; Macri, Pablo A.; López, Eduardo
2008-09-01
We study the effects of relaxational dynamics on congestion pressure in scale-free (SF) networks by analyzing the properties of the corresponding gradient networks (Toroczkai and Bassler 2004 Nature 428 716). Using the Family model (Family and Bassler 1986 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 19 L441) from surface-growth physics as single-step load-balancing dynamics, we show that the congestion pressure considerably drops on SF networks when compared with the same dynamics on random graphs. This is due to a structural transition of the corresponding gradient network clusters, which self-organize so as to reduce the congestion pressure. This reduction is enhanced when lowering the value of the connectivity exponent λ towards 2.
Fast Heterogeneous Relaxation Near The Glass Transition
Russina, Margarita
2000-03-01
More than a decade ago inelastic neutron scattering studies revealed a surprising characteristic feature in the atomic dynamics near the glass transition, which was often called the betta-process, with reference to predictions of the mode coupling theory (MCT). This process appears on the ps time scale, i.e. fast compared to the ordinary flow viscosity governed relaxation and slow compared to usual atomic vibrations, and its nature remained a puzzle over the years. Although inelastic neutron scattering is ideally suited to observe dynamics on microscopic time and length scales, experimental difficulties due to strong multiple scattering effects prevented the exploration of the spatial character of this process. By a new experimental approach to correct for these spurious contributions with a high precision, we were now able to extend the spatial domain of our observations from just about nearest neighbor atomic distances by close to an order of magnitude larger ones, which length scale includes that of the intermediate range order, which can be expected to reveal most sensitively collective, as opposed to the local, behavior. Our results in the fragile glass forming liquid Ca-K-NO3 show, that the betta-process is a first fast step of the structural relaxation, which confirms a most fundamental prediction of MCT. Furthermore, by investigating the Debye-Waller factor associated with this process, we found that its geometrical nature corresponds to quasi-rigid, correlated displacement of mobile groups of atoms, which move much faster than the ordinary flow of the bulk of the supercooled liquid. This is the first direct experimental evidence for the existence of heterogeneous fast flow processes similar to the string-flow motion recently observed in molecular dynamic simulations of model liquids close to the glass transition.
Uterus-Relaxing Study of a Sudanese Herb (El-Hazha
Aimun A.E. Ahmed
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study is to investigate the pharmacological effects of the Methanolic-extract (AH2 of El-Hazha and its sub-fractions. Approach: These investigations were carried out on in vitro isolated uterus preparations from Non-Pregnant (NP and Late-Pregnant rats (LP. In parallel displacement radio-ligand binding assay was performed for â-Adrenergic Receptors (â-ADR. Results: Showed that the herb and its different fractions produced dose-dependent relaxant effect (pConclusion: We validate the fractionation effect on its relaxant activity and found partial role for â-ADR on mediating this activity. Future study was recommended to isolate and investigate its active components to enhance this activity or to discover a new novel natural therapeutic agent(s.
Magnetic relaxation induced by transverse flux shaking in MgB2 superconductors
Luzuriaga, J.; Badía-Majós, A.; Nieva, G.; Giordano, J. L.; López, C.; Serquis, A.; Serrano, G.
2009-01-01
We report on measurements and numerical simulations of the behavior of MgB2 superconductors when magnetic field components are applied along mutually perpendicular directions. By closely matching the geometry in simulations and measurements, full quantitative agreement is found. The critical state theory and a single phenomenological law, i.e. the field dependence of the critical current density Jc(B), are sufficient for a full quantitative description of the measurements. These were performed in thick strips of carbon nanotube doped MgB2 samples. Magnetization was measured in two orthogonal directions using a SQUID magnetometer. Magnetic relaxation effects induced by the application of an oscillatory perpendicular field were observed and simulated numerically. The measurements confirm the numerical predictions, that two relaxation regimes appear, depending on the amplitude of the applied magnetic field. The overall agreement constitutes a convincing validation of the critical state model and the numerical procedures used.
Inelastic fast relaxation in a weakly fragile polymer glass near Tg
Frick, B.; Richter, D.; Trevino, S.
1993-12-01
Incoherent inelastic neutron scattering experiments on the weakly fragile polymer glass polyisobutylene (PIB) show a fast inelastic relaxation component at temperatures exceeding the glass transition temperature, Tg = 200 K. The temperature dependence of the inelastic excess excitation is similar to that of the quasielastic relaxation observed usually in other glass formers near Tg. We are investigating the elastic and inelastic form factors for Q values up to 6 Å -1 and for the temperature range Tg - 200 K < T < Tg + 100 K. We interpret our observations as being due to changes of the torsional librations of the polymer backbone. Furthermore we calculate the hydrogen weighted vibrational density of states up to 100 meV. In the low frequency range we find an intensity contribution which does not follow a Q2 dependence.
A subzero 1H NMR relaxation investigation of water dynamics in tomato pericarp.
Foucat, Loïc; Lahaye, Marc
2014-09-01
(1)H NMR relaxation times (T1 and T2) were measured at low field (0.47 T) in pericarp tissues of three tomato genotypes (Ferum, LA0147 and Levovil) at subzero temperature (-20 °C) and two ripening stages (mature green and red). The unfrozen water dynamics was characterised by two T1 and three T2 components. The relaxation time values and their associated relative populations allowed differentiating the ripening stage of only LA0147 and Levovil lines. But the three genotypes were unequivocally discriminated at the red ripe stage. The unfrozen water distribution was discussed in terms of specific interactions, especially with sugars, in relation with their osmoprotectant effects.
[Mydeton: a centrally acting muscle relaxant drug from Gedeon Richter LTD].
Kocsis, Pál; Tarnawa, István; Kovács, Gyula; Szombathelyi, Zsolt; Farkas, Sándor
2002-01-01
Since its introduction in 1959 tolperisone hydrochloride (Mydeton) is still one of the leading products of Gedeon Richter Ltd. It has been successfully applied for treating different painful muscle spasms. The compound is successfully marketed also by several foreign, mostly Japanese, pharmaceutical companies, as a central muscle relaxant agent. The present summary overviews the pharmacology of tolperisone, with special emphasize on its still partly understood way of action. Data from the scientific literature as well as our own experimental results strongly support the hypothesis that inhibition of voltage gated sodium channels is a major component of the mechanism of action of tolperisone. The paper also summarizes the clinical results with tolperisone and the perspectives of the therapeutic use of centrally acting muscle relaxants.
Relaxation dynamics of a polymer network modeled by a multihierarchical structure.
Jurjiu, A; Volta, A; Beu, T
2011-07-01
We numerically analyze the scaling behavior of experimentally accessible dynamical relaxation forms for polymer networks modeled by a finite multihierarchical structure. In the framework of generalized Gaussian structures, by making use of the eigenvalue spectrum of the connectivity matrix, we determine the averaged monomer displacement under local external forces as well as the mechanical relaxation quantities (storage and loss moduli). Hence we generalize the known analysis for both classes of fractals to the case of multihierarchical structure, for which even though we have a mixed growth algorithm, the above cited observables still give information about the two different underlying topologies. For very large lattices, reached via an algebraic procedure that avoids the numerical diagonalizations of the corresponding connectivity matrices, we depict the scaling of both component fractals in the intermediate time (frequency) domain, which manifests two different slopes.
Leite, L.N. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Laboratório de Farmacologia, Departamento de Enfermagem Psiquiátrica e Ciências Humanas, Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Gonzaga, N.A. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Tirapelli, D.P.C.; Tirapelli, L.F. [Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Tirapelli, C.R. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Departamento de Enfermagem Psiquiátrica e Ciências Humanas, Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)
2014-08-15
The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanisms underlying the relaxant effect of adrenomedullin (AM) in rat cavernosal smooth muscle (CSM) and the expression of AM system components in this tissue. Functional assays using standard muscle bath procedures were performed in CSM isolated from male Wistar rats. Protein and mRNA levels of pre-pro-AM, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR), and Subtypes 1, 2 and 3 of the receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) family were assessed by Western immunoblotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Nitrate and 6-keto-prostaglandin F{sub 1α} (6-keto-PGF{sub 1α}; a stable product of prostacyclin) levels were determined using commercially available kits. Protein and mRNA of AM, CRLR, and RAMP 1, -2, and -3 were detected in rat CSM. Immunohistochemical assays demonstrated that AM and CRLR were expressed in rat CSM. AM relaxed CSM strips in a concentration-dependent manner. AM{sub 22-52}, a selective antagonist for AM receptors, reduced the relaxation induced by AM. Conversely, CGRP{sub 8-37}, a selective antagonist for calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors, did not affect AM-induced relaxation. Preincubation of CSM strips with N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, quanylyl cyclase inhibitor), Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS (cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor), SC560 [5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-trifluoromethyl pyrazole, selective cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor], and 4-aminopyridine (voltage-dependent K{sup +} channel blocker) reduced AM-induced relaxation. On the other hand, 7-nitroindazole (selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), wortmannin (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor), H89 (protein kinase A inhibitor), SQ22536 [9-(tetrahydro-2-furanyl)-9H-purin-6-amine, adenylate cyclase inhibitor], glibenclamide (selective blocker of ATP-sensitive K{sup +} channels), and
Effect of pressure relaxation during the laser heating and electron-ion relaxation stages
Chimier, B.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.; Hallo, L. [Univ Bordeaux 1, CEA, CNRS, CELIA, UMR 5107, 33 - Talence (France)
2008-09-15
The multi-phase equation of state by Bushman et al. (Sov. Tech. Rev. 5:1-44, 2008) is modified to describe states with different electron and ion temperatures and it is applied to the non-equilibrium evolution of an aluminum sample heated by a subpicosecond laser pulse. The sample evolution is described by the two-temperature model for the electron and ion temperatures, while the pressure and density are described by a simplified relaxation equation. The pressure relaxation in the heating stage reduces the binding energy and facilitates the electron-driven ablation. The model is applied to estimate the ablation depth of an Al target irradiated by a subpicosecond laser pulse. It improves the agreement with the experimental data and provides a new explanation of the ablation process. (authors)
A fast determination method for transverse relaxation of spin-exchange-relaxation-free magnetometer.
Lu, Jixi; Qian, Zheng; Fang, Jiancheng
2015-04-01
We propose a fast and accurate determination method for transverse relaxation of the spin-exchange-relaxation-free (SERF) magnetometer. This method is based on the measurement of magnetic resonance linewidth via a chirped magnetic field excitation and the amplitude spectrum analysis. Compared with the frequency sweeping via separate sinusoidal excitation, our method can realize linewidth determination within only few seconds and meanwhile obtain good frequency resolution. Therefore, it can avoid the drift error in long term measurement and improve the accuracy of the determination. As the magnetic resonance frequency of the SERF magnetometer is very low, we include the effect of the negative resonance frequency caused by the chirp and achieve the coefficient of determination of the fitting results better than 0.998 with 95% confidence bounds to the theoretical equation. The experimental results are in good agreement with our theoretical analysis.
Implicit-correction-based immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method with two relaxation times
Seta, Takeshi; Rojas, Roberto; Hayashi, Kosuke; Tomiyama, Akio
2014-02-01
In the present paper, we verify the effectiveness of the two-relaxation-time (TRT) collision operator in reducing boundary slip computed by the immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM). In the linear collision operator of the TRT, we decompose the distribution function into symmetric and antisymmetric components and define the relaxation parameters for each part. The Chapman-Enskog expansion indicates that one relaxation time for the symmetric component is related to the kinematic viscosity. Rigorous analysis of the symmetric shear flows reveals that the relaxation time for the antisymmetric part controls the velocity gradient, the boundary velocity, and the boundary slip velocity computed by the IB-LBM. Simulation of the symmetric shear flows, the symmetric Poiseuille flows, and the cylindrical Couette flows indicates that the profiles of the numerical velocity calculated by the TRT collision operator under the IB-LBM framework exactly agree with those of the multirelaxation time (MRT). The TRT is as effective in removing the boundary slip as the MRT. We demonstrate analytically and numerically that the error of the boundary velocity is caused by the smoothing technique using the δ function used in the interpolation method. In the simulation of the flow past a circular cylinder, the IB-LBM based on the implicit correction method with the TRT succeeds in preventing the flow penetration through the solid surface as well as unphysical velocity distortion. The drag coefficient, the wake length, and the separation points calculated by the present IB-LBM agree well with previous studies at Re = 10, 20, and 40.
Basic MR relaxation mechanisms and contrast agent design.
De León-Rodríguez, Luis M; Martins, André F; Pinho, Marco C; Rofsky, Neil M; Sherry, A Dean
2015-09-01
The diagnostic capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have undergone continuous and substantial evolution by virtue of hardware and software innovations and the development and implementation of exogenous contrast media. Thirty years since the first MRI contrast agent was approved for clinical use, a reliance on MR contrast media persists, largely to improve image quality with higher contrast resolution and to provide additional functional characterization of normal and abnormal tissues. Further development of MR contrast media is an important component in the quest for continued augmentation of diagnostic capabilities. In this review we detail the many important considerations when pursuing the design and use of MR contrast media. We offer a perspective on the importance of chemical stability, particularly kinetic stability, and how this influences one's thinking about the safety of metal-ligand-based contrast agents. We discuss the mechanisms involved in MR relaxation in the context of probe design strategies. A brief description of currently available contrast agents is accompanied by an in-depth discussion that highlights promising MRI contrast agents in the development of future clinical and research applications. Our intention is to give a diverse audience an improved understanding of the factors involved in developing new types of safe and highly efficient MR contrast agents and, at the same time, provide an appreciation of the insights into physiology and disease that newer types of responsive agents can provide.
Stellar Dynamics around a Massive Black Hole II: Resonant Relaxation
Sridhar, S
2015-01-01
We present a first-principles theory of Resonant Relaxation (RR) of stellar systems orbiting within the sphere of influence of massive black holes in galactic nuclei. We extend the rigorous kinetic theory of Gilbert (1968) to include the Keplerian field of a black hole of mass $M_\\bullet$, and specialize to a (Keplerian) stellar system of mass $M \\ll M_\\bullet$. Using the results of the secular collisionless theory of Paper I, we orbit-average the kinetic equation through perturbative development in the small parameter $\\varepsilon = M/M_\\bullet$. This is supplemented with contributions from general relativistic corrections up to 1.5 post-Newtonian order and external gravitational sources. The result is a kinetic equation for a secular distribution function (DF) in 5-dim (Gaussian Ring) space, with explicit forms for the fluctuation and dissipation components of the collision integral. For general DFs, both apsidal and nodal precessions contribute to RR; so the traditional, physically-motivated distinction be...
Development and optimization of hardware for delta relaxation enhanced MRI.
Harris, Chad T; Handler, William B; Araya, Yonathan; Martínez-Santiesteban, Francisco; Alford, Jamu K; Dalrymple, Brian; Van Sas, Frank; Chronik, Blaine A; Scholl, Timothy J
2014-10-01
Delta relaxation enhanced magnetic resonance (dreMR) imaging requires an auxiliary B0 electromagnet capable of shifting the main magnetic field within a clinical 1.5 Tesla (T) MR system. In this work, the main causes of interaction between an actively shielded, insertable resistive B0 electromagnet and a 1.5T superconducting system are systematically identified and mitigated. The effects of nonideal fabrication of the field-shifting magnet are taken into consideration through careful measurement during winding and improved accuracy in the design of the associated active shield. The shielding performance of the resultant electromagnet is compared against a previously built system in which the shield design was based on an ideal primary coil model. Hardware and software approaches implemented to eliminate residual image artifacts are presented in detail. The eddy currents produced by the newly constructed dreMR system are shown to have a significantly smaller "long-time-constant" component, consistent with the hypothesis that less energy is deposited into the cryostat of the MR system. With active compensation, the dreMR imaging system is capable of 0.22T field shifts within a clinical 1.5T MRI with no significant residual eddy-current fields. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Relaxation in x-space magnetic particle imaging.
Croft, Laura R; Goodwill, Patrick W; Conolly, Steven M
2012-12-01
Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new imaging modality that noninvasively images the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs). MPI has demonstrated high contrast and zero attenuation with depth, and MPI promises superior safety compared to current angiography methods, X-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging angiography. Nanoparticle relaxation can delay the SPIO magnetization, and in this work we investigate the open problem of the role relaxation plays in MPI scanning and its effect on the image. We begin by amending the x-space theory of MPI to include nanoparticle relaxation effects. We then validate the amended theory with experiments from a Berkeley x-space relaxometer and a Berkeley x-space projection MPI scanner. Our theory and experimental data indicate that relaxation reduces SNR and asymmetrically blurs the image in the scanning direction. While relaxation effects can have deleterious effects on the MPI scan, we show theoretically and experimentally that x-space reconstruction remains robust in the presence of relaxation. Furthermore, the role of relaxation in x-space theory provides guidance as we develop methods to minimize relaxation-induced blurring. This will be an important future area of research for the MPI community.
Energy relaxation in optically excited Si and Ge nanocrystals
S. Saeed
2014-01-01
The scientific objective of the research presented in this thesis is to explore energy relaxation processes of optically excited Si and Ge nanocrystals. The identification and deeper understanding of unique energy relaxation paths in these materials will open a new window of opportunity for these ma
Stress relaxation of bi-disperse polystyrene melts
Hengeller, Ludovica; Huang, Qian; Dorokhin, Andriy
2016-01-01
We present start-up of uniaxial extension followed by stress relaxation experiments of a bi-disperse 50 % by weight blend of 95k and 545k molecular weight polystyrene. We also show, for comparison, stress relaxation measurements of the polystyrene melts with molecular weight 95k and 545k, which a...
Evolving fuzzy rules for relaxed-criteria negotiation.
Sim, Kwang Mong
2008-12-01
In the literature on automated negotiation, very few negotiation agents are designed with the flexibility to slightly relax their negotiation criteria to reach a consensus more rapidly and with more certainty. Furthermore, these relaxed-criteria negotiation agents were not equipped with the ability to enhance their performance by learning and evolving their relaxed-criteria negotiation rules. The impetus of this work is designing market-driven negotiation agents (MDAs) that not only have the flexibility of relaxing bargaining criteria using fuzzy rules, but can also evolve their structures by learning new relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules to improve their negotiation outcomes as they participate in negotiations in more e-markets. To this end, an evolutionary algorithm for adapting and evolving relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules was developed. Implementing the idea in a testbed, two kinds of experiments for evaluating and comparing EvEMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are evolved using the evolutionary algorithm) and EMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are manually constructed) were carried out through stochastic simulations. Empirical results show that: 1) EvEMDAs generally outperformed EMDAs in different types of e-markets and 2) the negotiation outcomes of EvEMDAs generally improved as they negotiated in more e-markets.
Experimental study of 199Hg spin anti-relaxation coatings
Chowdhuri, Z; Horras, M; Kirch, K; Krempel, J; Lauss, B; Mtchedlishvili, A; Rebreyend, D; Roccia, S; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Zsigmond, G
2013-01-01
We report on a comparison of spin relaxation rates in a $^{199}$Hg magnetometer using different wall coatings. A compact mercury magnetometer was built for this purpose. Glass cells coated with fluorinated materials show longer spin coherence times than if coated with their hydrogenated homologues. The longest spin relaxation time of the mercury vapor was measured with a fluorinated paraffin wall coating.
Noninteracting control of nonlinear systems based on relaxed control
Jayawardhana, B.
2010-01-01
In this paper, we propose methodology to solve noninteracting control problem for general nonlinear systems based on the relaxed control technique proposed by Artstein. For a class of nonlinear systems which cannot be stabilized by smooth feedback, a state-feedback relaxed control can be designed to
Relaxation towards phase-locked dynamics in long Josephson junctions
Salerno, M.; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm
1995-01-01
We study the relaxation phenomenon towards phase-locked dynamics in long Josephson junctions. In particular the dependence of the relaxation frequency for the equal time of flight solution on the junction parameters is derived. The analysis is based on a phase-locked map and is compared with dire...
Increasing Mathematical Problem-Solving Performance through Relaxation Training.
Sharp, Conni; Coltharp, Hazel; Hurford, David; Cole, AmyKay
2000-01-01
Studies two intact classes of 30 undergraduate students enrolled in a mathematics course; however, one group received relaxation training during an initial class meeting and during the first 5-7 minutes of each subsequent class. The group which received the relaxation training had significantly lower mathematics anxiety and significantly higher…
Definition, evaluation, and management of brain relaxation during craniotomy.
Li, J; Gelb, A W; Flexman, A M; Ji, F; Meng, L
2016-06-01
The term 'brain relaxation' is routinely used to describe the size and firmness of the brain tissue during craniotomy. The status of brain relaxation is an important aspect of neuroanaesthesia practice and is relevant to the operating conditions, retraction injury, and likely patient outcomes. Brain relaxation is determined by the relationship between the volume of the intracranial contents and the capacity of the intracranial space (i.e. a content-space relationship). It is a concept related to, but distinct from, intracranial pressure. The evaluation of brain relaxation should be standardized to facilitate clinical communication and research collaboration. Both advantageous and disadvantageous effects of the various interventions for brain relaxation should be taken into account in patient care. The outcomes that matter the most to patients should be emphasized in defining, evaluating, and managing brain relaxation. To date, brain relaxation has not been reviewed specifically, and the aim of this manuscript is to discuss the current approaches to the definition, evaluation, and management of brain relaxation, knowledge gaps, and targets for future research.
A digital Double Relaxation Oscillation SQUID for particle detector readout
Podt, M.; Keizer, D.; Flokstra, Jakob; Rogalla, Horst
2000-01-01
Double Relaxation Oscillation SQUIDs (DROSs) are based on relaxation oscillations that are generated in hysteretic dc SQUIDs by an external L–R shunt. We realized a DROS with the complete flux-locked loop circuitry on one single chip, the Smart DROS. The pulsed output of the Smart DROS enables a
High sensitivity double relaxation oscillation superconducting quantum interference devices
Adelerhof, Derk Jan; Adelerhof, Derk Jan; Kawai, Jun; Uehara, Gen; Kado, Hisashi
1994-01-01
Double relaxation oscillationsuperconducting quantum interference devices(SQUIDs) (DROSs) have been fabricated with estimated relaxation frequencies up to 14 GHz. Both the intrinsic flux noise and the performance in a flux locked loop with direct voltage readout have been studied. In flux locked
Determination of Relaxation Time of a Josephson Tunnel Junction
WEN Xue-Da; YU Yang
2008-01-01
We propose a non-stationary method to measure the energy relaxation time of Josephson tunnel junctions from microwave enhanced escape phenomena.Compared with the previous methods,our method possesses simple and accurate features.Moreover,having determined the energy relaxation time,we can further obtain the coupling strength between the microwave source and the junction by changing the microwave power.
An experiment in multispectral, multitemporal crop classification using relaxation techniques
Davis, L. S.; Wang, C.-Y.; Xie, H.-C
1983-01-01
The paper describes the result of an experimental study concerning the use of probabilistic relaxation for improving pixel classification rates. Two LACIE sites were used in the study and in both cases, relaxation resulted in a marked improvement in classification rates.
Microscopic origin of shear relaxation in a model viscoelastic liquid.
Ashwin, J; Sen, Abhijit
2015-02-01
An atomistic description of shear stress relaxation in a viscoelastic liquid is developed from first principles through accurate molecular dynamic simulations in a model Yukawa system. It is shown that the relaxation time τ(M)(ex) of the excess part of the shear stress autocorrelation function provides a correct measure of the relaxation process. Below a certain critical value Γ(c) of the Coulomb coupling strength, the lifetime of local atomic connectivity τ(LC) converges to τ(M)(ex) and is the microscopic origin of the relaxation. At Γ≫Γ(c), i.e., in the potential energy dominated regime, τ(M)(ex)→τ(M) (the Maxwell relaxation time) and can, therefore, fully account for the elastic or "solidlike" behavior. Our results can help provide a better fundamental understanding of viscoelastic behavior in a variety of strongly coupled systems such as dusty plasmas, colloids, and non-Newtonian fluids.
Surface hopping investigation of the relaxation dynamics in radical cations
Assmann, Mariana; Matsika, Spiridoula, E-mail: smatsika@temple.edu [Department of Chemistry, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States); Weinacht, Thomas [Department of Physics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)
2016-01-21
Ionization processes can lead to the formation of radical cations with population in several ionic states. In this study, we examine the dynamics of three radical cations starting from an excited ionic state using trajectory surface hopping dynamics in combination with multiconfigurational electronic structure methods. The efficiency of relaxation to the ground state is examined in an effort to understand better whether fragmentation of cations is likely to occur directly on excited states or after relaxation to the ground state. The results on cyclohexadiene, hexatriene, and uracil indicate that relaxation to the ground ionic state is very fast in these systems, while fragmentation before relaxation is rare. Ultrafast relaxation is facilitated by the close proximity of electronic states and the presence of two- and three-state conical intersections. Examining the properties of the systems in the Franck-Condon region can give some insight into the subsequent dynamics.
Correlation of transverse relaxation time with structure of biological tissue
Furman, Gregory B.; Meerovich, Victor M.; Sokolovsky, Vladimir L.
2016-09-01
Transverse spin-spin relaxation of liquids entrapped in nanocavities with different orientational order is theoretically investigated. Based on the bivariate normal distribution of nanocavities directions, we have calculated the anisotropy of the transverse relaxation time for biological systems, such as collagenous tissues, articular cartilage, and tendon. In the framework of the considered model, the dipole-dipole interaction is determined by a single coupling constant. The calculation results for the transverse relaxation time explain the angular dependence observed in MRI experiments with biological objects. The good agreement with the experimental data is obtained by adjustment of only one parameter which characterizes the disorder in fiber orientations. The relaxation time is correlated with the degree of ordering in biological tissues. Thus, microstructure of the tissues can be revealed from the measurement of relaxation time anisotropy. The clinical significance of the correlation, especially in the detection of damage must be evaluated in a large prospective clinical trials.
Theoretical model of intravascular paramagnetic tracers effect on tissue relaxation
Kjølby, Birgitte Fuglsang; Østergaard, Leif; Kiselev, Valerij G
2006-01-01
that the relaxivity of intravascular contrast agents depends significantly on the host tissue. This agrees with experimental data by Johnson et al. (Magn Reson Med 2000;44:909). In particular, the present results suggest a several-fold increase in the relaxivity of Gd-based contrast agents in brain tissue compared...... with bulk blood. The enhancement of relaxation in tissue is due to the contrast in magnetic susceptibility between blood vessels and parenchyma induced by the presence of paramagnetic tracer. Beyond the perfusion measurements, the results can be applied to quantitation of functional MRI and to vessel size......The concentration of MRI tracers cannot be measured directly by MRI and is commonly evaluated indirectly using their relaxation effect. This study develops a comprehensive theoretical model to describe the transverse relaxation in perfused tissue caused by intravascular tracers. The model takes...
Microscopic Origin of Shear Relaxation in a Model Viscoelastic Liquid
Ashwin, J.; Sen, Abhijit
2015-02-01
An atomistic description of shear stress relaxation in a viscoelastic liquid is developed from first principles through accurate molecular dynamic simulations in a model Yukawa system. It is shown that the relaxation time τMex of the excess part of the shear stress autocorrelation function provides a correct measure of the relaxation process. Below a certain critical value Γc of the Coulomb coupling strength, the lifetime of local atomic connectivity τLC converges to τMex and is the microscopic origin of the relaxation. At Γ ≫Γc, i.e., in the potential energy dominated regime, τMex→τM (the Maxwell relaxation time) and can, therefore, fully account for the elastic or "solidlike" behavior. Our results can help provide a better fundamental understanding of viscoelastic behavior in a variety of strongly coupled systems such as dusty plasmas, colloids, and non-Newtonian fluids.
Relaxing effect of eugenol and essential oils in Pomacea canaliculata
Adriane Erbice Bianchini
2017-08-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the potential relaxing and/or molluscicidal effects of eugenol and essential oils of Origanum majorana, Ocimum americanum, Hesperozygis ringens, and Piper gaudichaudianum in the gastropod Pomacea canaliculata. Compounds were tested at concentrations of 100, 250, 500, and 750µL L-1 to evaluate the relaxing effects. In the second experiment, animals were exposed to 10, 25, and 50µL L-1 of essential oils of H. ringens and P. gaudichaudianum for a period of 24h for the evaluation of molluscicidal effects. Eugenol and essential oils of O. majorana and O. americanum showed relaxing effects at ≥250µL L-1, but the essential oils of H. ringens and P. gaudichaudianum did not promote relaxing or molluscicidal effects within the times and concentrations studied. Therefore, only eugenol and the essential oils of O. majorana and O. americanum can be used for relaxation purposes in P. canaliculata.
Chennupati, R.; Lamers, W. H.; Koehler, S. E.
2013-01-01
of saphenous arteries were analysed by wire myography in the absence and presence of stimuli of the endothelium, inhibitors of NOS, and inhibitors and stimulants of small (K(Ca)2.3) and intermediate (K(Ca)3.1) conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. KEY RESULTS Arterial relaxing responses to sodium...... pronounced ACh-induced relaxation, which was significantly reduced in 34- and 64-week-old mice of both sexes. The EDH-related component of ACh-induced relaxations was abolished by TRAM-34 (K(Ca)3.1 blocker) or UCL 1684 (K(Ca)2.3 blocker). Although the maximal relaxation induced by NS309 (K-Ca activator......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We investigated the effects of aging on the contributions of NO and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH) to endothelium-dependent relaxation in saphenous arteries of male and female C57BL/6J mice aged 12, 34 and 64 weeks. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Vasomotor responses...
Kurauskas, Vilius; Weber, Emmanuelle; Hessel, Audrey; Ayala, Isabel; Marion, Dominique; Schanda, Paul
2016-09-01
Transverse relaxation rate measurements in magic-angle spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance provide information about molecular motions occurring on nanosecond-to-millisecond (ns-ms) time scales. The measurement of heteronuclear ((13)C, (15)N) relaxation rate constants in the presence of a spin-lock radiofrequency field (R1ρ relaxation) provides access to such motions, and an increasing number of studies involving R1ρ relaxation in proteins have been reported. However, two factors that influence the observed relaxation rate constants have so far been neglected, namely, (1) the role of CSA/dipolar cross-correlated relaxation (CCR) and (2) the impact of fast proton spin flips (i.e., proton spin diffusion and relaxation). We show that CSA/D CCR in R1ρ experiments is measurable and that the CCR rate constant depends on ns-ms motions; it can thus provide insight into dynamics. We find that proton spin diffusion attenuates this CCR due to its decoupling effect on the doublet components. For measurements of dynamics, the use of R1ρ rate constants has practical advantages over the use of CCR rates, and this article reveals factors that have so far been disregarded and which are important for accurate measurements and interpretation.
Okishio, Y; Niioka, S; Takeuchi, T; Nishio, H; Hata, F; Takatsuji, K
2000-01-24
Participation of nitric oxide and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in electrical field stimulation-induced nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) relaxation of longitudinal muscle and in balloon distension-induced descending NANC relaxation of circular muscle were studied in the distal colon of Wistar-ST and Sprague-Dawley rats. The extent of the nitric oxide-mediated component was approximately 50% in longitudinal and circular muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats, whereas this component was absent in both muscles of Wistar-ST rats. The extent of the VIP-mediated component was approximately 40% in longitudinal muscle of Wistar-ST rats and circular muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats, whereas this component was absent in circular muscle of Wistar-ST rats and longitudinal muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats. In circular muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats, in which participation of both nitric oxide and VIP in the relaxation was suggested, inhibition of descending relaxation by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) together with VIP-(10-28) was similar to that by either of the antagonists, and exogenous VIP-induced relaxation was not affected by L-NOARG, but exogenous nitric oxide-induced relaxation was partly inhibited by VIP-(10-28). These results suggest a linkage of the pathways mediated by nitric oxide and VIP. In the immunohistochemical studies, nitric oxide synthase or VIP immunoreactive neurons were seen in the ganglia, primary internodal strands of the myenteric plexus and in the circular muscle layer. However, the overall appearance of immunoreactive cell bodies in the myenteric plexus and the numbers of immunoreactive fibers in the circular muscle layer appeared to be similar in Wistar-ST and Sprague-Dawley rats. These results suggest that mediators of NANC relaxation in the distal colon are different in different strains of rats, i.e., Wistar-ST and Sprague-Dawley, although no such difference was seen in immunohistochemical studies.
Variability and component composition
Storm, T. van der
2004-01-01
In component-based product populations, feature models have to be described at the component level to be able to benefit from a product family approach. As a consequence, composition of components becomes very complex. We describe how component-level variability can be managed in the face of compone
Longo, David J.
A within-subjects, three condition design was employed to examine the effects of three relaxation techniques on blood pressures, pulse rates, and self-report measures of relaxation for 12 college students. Respiratory Manipulation Training incorporated instructions to exhale and not to inhale for as long as possible. When breathing could no longer…
Closure conditions for non-equilibrium multi-component models
Müller, S.; Hantke, M.; Richter, P.
2016-07-01
A class of non-equilibrium models for compressible multi-component fluids in multi-dimensions is investigated taking into account viscosity and heat conduction. These models are subject to the choice of interfacial pressures and interfacial velocity as well as relaxation terms for velocity, pressure, temperature and chemical potentials. Sufficient conditions are derived for these quantities that ensure meaningful physical properties such as a non-negative entropy production, thermodynamical stability, Galilean invariance and mathematical properties such as hyperbolicity, subcharacteristic property and existence of an entropy-entropy flux pair. For the relaxation of chemical potentials, a two-component and a three-component models for vapor-water and gas-water-vapor, respectively, are considered.
Biswas, Rajib; Chakraborti, Tamaghna; Bagchi, Biman; Ayappa, K G
2012-07-07
Layer-wise, distance-dependent orientational relaxation of water confined in reverse micelles (RM) is studied using theoretical and computational tools. We use both a newly constructed "spins on a ring" (SOR) Ising-type model (with Shore-Zwanzig rotational dynamics) and atomistic simulations with explicit water. Our study explores the effect of reverse micelle size and role of intermolecular correlations, compromised by the presence of a highly polar surface, on the distance (from the interface) dependence of water relaxation. The "spins on a ring" model can capture some aspects of distance dependence of relaxation, such as acceleration of orientational relaxation at intermediate layers. In atomistic simulations, layer-wise decomposition of hydrogen bond formation pattern clearly reveals that hydrogen bond arrangement of water at a certain distance away from the surface can remain frustrated due to the interaction with the polar surface head groups. This layer-wise analysis also reveals the presence of a non-monotonic slow relaxation component which can be attributed to this frustration effect and which is accentuated in small to intermediate size RMs. For large size RMs, the long time component decreases monotonically from the interface to the interior of the RMs with slowest relaxation observed at the interface.
Four-component united-atom model of bitumen
Hansen, Jesper S; Nielsen, Erik; Dyre, Jeppe C; Schrøder, Thomas B
2013-01-01
We propose a four-component molecular model of bitumen. The model includes realistic chemical constituents and introduces a coarse-graining level that suppresses the highest frequency modes. Molecular dynamics simulations of the model are being carried out using Graphic-Processor-Units based software in time spans in order of microseconds, and this enables the study of slow relaxation processes characterizing bitumen. This paper focuses on the high-temperature dynamics as expressed through the mean-square displacement, the stress autocorrelation function, and rotational relaxation. The diffusivity of the individual molecules changes little as a function of temperature and reveals distinct dynamical time scales as a result of the different constituents in the system. Different time scales are also observed for the rotational relaxation. The stress autocorrelation function features a slow non-exponential decay for all temperatures studied. From the stress autocorrelation function, the shear viscosity and shear ...
Viscous relaxation of Ganymede's impact craters: Constraints on heat flux
Bland, Michael; Singer, Kelsi N.; McKinnon, William B.; Schenk, Paul M.
2017-01-01
Measurement of crater depths in Ganymede’s dark terrain have revealed substantial numbers of unusually shallow craters indicative of viscous relaxation [see companion paper: Singer, K.N., Schenk, P. M., Bland, M.T., McKinnon, W.B., (2017). Relaxed impact craters on Ganymede: Regional variations and high heat flow. Icarus, submitted]. These viscously relaxed craters provide insight into the thermal history of the dark terrain: the rate of relaxation depends on the size of the crater and the thermal structure of the lithosphere. Here we use finite element simulations of crater relaxation to constrain the heat flux within the dark terrain when relaxation occurred. We show that the degree of viscous relaxation observed cannot be achieved through radiogenic heating alone, even if all of the relaxed craters are ancient and experienced the high radiogenic fluxes present early in the satellite’s history. For craters with diameter ≥ 10 km, heat fluxes of 40–50 mW m-2−2"> can reproduce the observed crater depths, but only if the fluxes are sustained for ∼1 Gyr. These craters can also be explained by shorter-lived “heat pulses” with magnitudes of ∼100 mW m-2−2"> and timescales of 10–100 Myr. At small crater diameters (4 km) the observed shallow depths are difficult to achieve even when heat fluxes as high as 150 mW m-2−2"> are sustained for 1 Gyr. The extreme thermal conditions required to viscously relax small craters may indicate that mechanisms other than viscous relaxation, such as topographic degradation, are also in play at small crater diameters. The timing of the relaxation event(s) is poorly constrained due to the sparsity of adequate topographic information, though it likely occurred in Ganymede’s middle history (neither recently, nor shortly after satellite formation). The consistency between the timing and magnitude of the heat fluxes derived here and those inferred from other tectonic features suggests that a single event
Structural changes and relaxations monitored by luminescence.
Wang, Y; Yang, B; Townsend, P D
2013-01-01
Luminescence data have often been used to study imperfections and to characterize lattice distortions because the signals are sensitive to changes of structure and composition. Previous studies have included intentionally added probe ions such as rare earth ions to sense distortions in local crystal fields caused by modified structural environments. An under-exploited extension of this approach was to use luminescence to monitor crystalline phase changes. A current overview of this new and powerful technique shows that continuous scanning of the sample temperatures immediately offered at least three types of signatures for phase transitions. Because of high sensitivity, luminescence signals were equally responsive to structural changes from inclusions and nanoparticles. These coupled to the host material via long-range interactions and modified the host signals. Two frequently observed examples that are normally overlooked are from nanoparticle inclusions of water and CO2. Examples also indicated that phase transitions were detected in more diverse materials such as superconductors and fullerenes. Finally, luminescence studies have shown that in some crystalline examples, high dose ion implantation of surface layers could induce relaxations and/or structural changes of the entire underlying bulk material. This was an unexpected result and therefore such a possibility has not previously been explored. However, the implications for ion implication are significant and could be far more general than the examples mentioned here.
Anelastic Relaxation Mechanisms Characterization by Moessbauer Spectroscopy
Soberon Mobarak, Martin Jesus, E-mail: msoberon@sep.gob.mx [Secretaria de Educacion Publica (Mexico)
2005-02-15
Anelastic behavior of crystalline solids is generated by several microstructural processes. Its experimental study yields valuable information about materials, namely: modulus, dissipation mechanisms and activation enthalpies. However, conventional techniques to evaluate it are complicated, expensive, time consuming and not easily replicated. As a new approach, in this work a Moessbauer spectrum of an iron specimen is obtained with the specimen at repose being its parameters the 'base parameters'. After that, the same specimen is subjected to an alternated stress-relaxation cycle at frequency {omega}{sub 1} and a new Moessbauer spectrum is obtained under this excited condition; doing the same at several increasing frequencies {omega}{sub n} in order to scan a wide frequencies spectrum. The differences between the Moessbauer parameters obtained at each excitation frequency and the base parameters are plotted against frequency, yielding an 'anelastic spectrum' that reveals the different dissipation mechanisms involved, its characteristic frequency and activation energy. Results are in good agreement with the obtained with other techniques
Dielectric relaxation in Sr modified PST ceramics
Sen, S.; Choudhary, R. N. P.
2007-06-01
Nanocrystalline powders of strontium modified PbSn0.15Ti0.85O3 (PST) having the formula Pb0.94Sr0.06Sn0.15 have been synthesized by a precursor solution method. The electrical behavior of Pb0.94Sr0.06Sn0.15Ti0.85O3 sintered pellets has been studied by complex impedance spectroscopy analysis. The plot of the real and imaginary parts of the impedance shows that the semicircle exhibits a depression degree with a distribution of relaxation time. The modulus curve indicates the possibility of non-exponential type conductivity. The values of the activation energy calculated from both plots of Z” and M”, are 1.06 and 1.09 eV, which reveals that the species responsible for conduction are same. It also confirms that oxygen vacancies play an important role in conduction. The non-overlapping of the peaks in the plot of M”/M”max and Z”/Z”max as a function of logarithmic frequency measured at 350 °C indicates short-range conduction. The compounds exhibit a negative temperature coefficient of resistance with an α value of -5×10-2 °C at 375 °C. The frequency (ω) dependence of conductivity satisfies the ωn power law. The variation of n with temperature suggests that ac conduction is due to small polaron tunneling.
Relaxed acceleration tolerance in female pilot trainees.
Navathe, P D; Gomez, G; Krishnamurthy, A
2002-11-01
Female pilots now fly many types of aircraft including military fighters capable of maneuvers that produce high, sustained acceleration in the +Gz axis. Although women have participated as subjects in various centrifuge studies, little is known about the acceleration tolerance of female pilots. Between April 1995 and December 1997, 17 female pilot trainees were studied at the Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Bangalore, India. The subjects were 23.2 +/- 1.4 yr old and led physically active lives. Their relaxed +Gz tolerance limits (defined as peripheral light loss) were tested using the High G and Disorientation Demonstrator. The protocol included a series of rapid onset runs (RORs) to tolerance followed by a single gradual onset run (GOR) to tolerance. The mean ROR tolerance was 4.2 +/- 0.4 G. The mean GOR tolerance was 5.2 +/- 0.6 G. Three of the subjects were unable to complete the GOR due to severe nausea. Two women reported breast discomfort at levels of 3.5 G and beyond. No other problems were reported. The acceleration tolerances for the female pilot trainees were comparable to those for male pilots previously studied in our laboratory.
Ideal Relaxation of the Hopf Fibration
Smiet, Christopber Berg; Bouwmeester, Dirk
2016-01-01
We study the topology conserving relaxation of a magnetic field based on the Hopf fibration in which magnetic field lines are closed circles that are all linked with one another. In order to find a stable plasma configuration in which the pressure gradient balances the Lorentz forces, and the magnetic field preserves its Hopf topology we take the following steps. First, we take the magnetic Hopf fibration at constant pressure as initial condition. Second, we let the system evolve under a non-resistive evolution in order to preserve the magnetic field topology while balancing pressure gradients can build up. Third, we add viscosity to damp any oscillatory fluid motion. In this way we find an equilibrium plasma configuration, characterized by a lowered pressure in a toroidal region, with field lines lying on surfaces of constant pressure, and as such the field is in a Grad-Shafranov equilibrium. Such a field configuration is of interest to astrophysical plasma and earth-based fusion plasma.
Mixing, ergodicity and slow relaxation phenomena
Costa, I. V. L.; Vainstein, M. H.; Lapas, L. C.; Batista, A. A.; Oliveira, F. A.
2006-11-01
Investigations on diffusion in systems with memory [I.V.L. Costa, R. Morgado, M.V.B.T. Lima, F.A. Oliveira, Europhys. Lett. 63 (2003) 173] have established a hierarchical connection between mixing, ergodicity, and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT). This hierarchy means that ergodicity is a necessary condition for the validity of the FDT, and mixing is a necessary condition for ergodicity. In this work, we compare those results with recent investigations using the Lee recurrence relations method [M.H. Lee, Phys. Rev. B 26 (1982) 2547; M.H. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001) 250601; M.H. Lee, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 (2006) 4651]. Lee shows that ergodicity is violated in the dynamics of the electron gas [M.H. Lee, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 (2006) 4651]. This reinforces both works and implies that the results of [I.V.L. Costa, R. Morgado, M.V.B.T. Lima, F.A. Oliveira, Europhys. Lett. 63 (2003) 173] are more general than the framework in which they were obtained. Some applications to slow relaxation phenomena are discussed.
Vertical dimonsion changes after muscle relaxation
Shahroodi MH
1998-09-01
Full Text Available In this study, 116 edentulous patients in the age group 37-90 yrs were selected. Out of the above,"n12 patients had visited the dept. Of prosthodontics for the first time for treatment. Other 34 of them were"npatients of the dental school and the rest were from Kahrizak and Nikan sanatoriums."nInitially, the V.D. of rest was measured as usual for all the patients. After subjecting them to the excercises of completely opening and closing of the mouth for 15 no. of times, the rest position was measured again. Results show that the changes in V.D.R. after, excercises, relaxing the elevator and depressor muscles and the duration of usage of prosthesis, the following conclusions are obtained."n1. There is an increase in V.D.R. after tiring out the elevator and depressor muscles of the jaws."n2. There is a direct co - relation between the increased V.D.R. and duration of use of prosthesis after excercises."n3. Change in the V.D.R. after excercise is notably more in women."n4. No definite conclusion is obtained in the relationship between changes in V.D.R. after excercises and use of prosthesis during sleep."n5. As above no conclusions as yet can be deduced between changes in V.D.R. and different operators.
Relaxing music counters heightened consolidation of emotional memory.
Rickard, Nikki S; Wong, Wendy Wing; Velik, Lauren
2012-02-01
Emotional events tend to be retained more strongly than other everyday occurrences, a phenomenon partially regulated by the neuromodulatory effects of arousal. Two experiments demonstrated the use of relaxing music as a means of reducing arousal levels, thereby challenging heightened long-term recall of an emotional story. In Experiment 1, participants (N=84) viewed a slideshow, during which they listened to either an emotional or neutral narration, and were exposed to relaxing or no music. Retention was tested 1 week later via a forced choice recognition test. Retention for both the emotional content (Phase 2 of the story) and material presented immediately after the emotional content (Phase 3) was enhanced, when compared with retention for the neutral story. Relaxing music prevented the enhancement for material presented after the emotional content (Phase 3). Experiment 2 (N=159) provided further support to the neuromodulatory effect of music by post-event presentation of both relaxing music and non-relaxing auditory stimuli (arousing music/background sound). Free recall of the story was assessed immediately afterwards and 1 week later. Relaxing music significantly reduced recall of the emotional story (Phase 2). The findings provide further insight into the capacity of relaxing music to attenuate the strength of emotional memory, offering support for the therapeutic use of music for such purposes.
Relaxation dynamics of a protein solution investigated by dielectric spectroscopy.
Wolf, M; Gulich, R; Lunkenheimer, P; Loidl, A
2012-05-01
In the present work, we provide a dielectric study on two differently concentrated aqueous lysozyme solutions in the frequency range from 1MHz to 40GHz and for temperatures from 275 to 330K. We analyze the three dispersion regions, commonly found in protein solutions, usually termed β-, γ-, and δ-relaxations. The β-relaxation, occurring in the frequency range around 10MHz and the γ-relaxation around 20GHz (at room temperature) can be attributed to the rotation of the polar protein molecules in their aqueous medium and the reorientational motion of the free water molecules, respectively. The nature of the δ-relaxation, which is often ascribed to the motion of bound water molecules, is not yet fully understood. Here we provide data on the temperature dependence of the relaxation times and relaxation strengths of all three detected processes and on the dc conductivity arising from ionic charge transport. The temperature dependences of the β- and γ-relaxations are closely correlated. We found a significant temperature dependence of the dipole moment of the protein, indicating conformational changes. Moreover we find a breakdown of the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relation in this protein solution, i.e., the dc conductivity is not completely governed by the mobility of the solvent molecules. Instead it seems that the dc conductivity is closely connected to the hydration shell dynamics.
Stochastic tools hidden behind the empirical dielectric relaxation laws
Stanislavsky, Aleksander; Weron, Karina
2017-03-01
The paper is devoted to recent advances in stochastic modeling of anomalous kinetic processes observed in dielectric materials which are prominent examples of disordered (complex) systems. Theoretical studies of dynamical properties of ‘structures with variations’ (Goldenfield and Kadanoff 1999 Science 284 87–9) require application of such mathematical tools—by means of which their random nature can be analyzed and, independently of the details distinguishing various systems (dipolar materials, glasses, semiconductors, liquid crystals, polymers, etc), the empirical universal kinetic patterns can be derived. We begin with a brief survey of the historical background of the dielectric relaxation study. After a short outline of the theoretical ideas providing the random tools applicable to modeling of relaxation phenomena, we present probabilistic implications for the study of the relaxation-rate distribution models. In the framework of the probability distribution of relaxation rates we consider description of complex systems, in which relaxing entities form random clusters interacting with each other and single entities. Then we focus on stochastic mechanisms of the relaxation phenomenon. We discuss the diffusion approach and its usefulness for understanding of anomalous dynamics of relaxing systems. We also discuss extensions of the diffusive approach to systems under tempered random processes. Useful relationships among different stochastic approaches to the anomalous dynamics of complex systems allow us to get a fresh look at this subject. The paper closes with a final discussion on achievements of stochastic tools describing the anomalous time evolution of complex systems.
Ultrafast energy relaxation in single light-harvesting complexes.
Malý, Pavel; Gruber, J Michael; Cogdell, Richard J; Mančal, Tomáš; van Grondelle, Rienk
2016-03-15
Energy relaxation in light-harvesting complexes has been extensively studied by various ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, the fastest processes being in the sub-100-fs range. At the same time, much slower dynamics have been observed in individual complexes by single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy (SMS). In this work, we use a pump-probe-type SMS technique to observe the ultrafast energy relaxation in single light-harvesting complexes LH2 of purple bacteria. After excitation at 800 nm, the measured relaxation time distribution of multiple complexes has a peak at 95 fs and is asymmetric, with a tail at slower relaxation times. When tuning the excitation wavelength, the distribution changes in both its shape and position. The observed behavior agrees with what is to be expected from the LH2 excited states structure. As we show by a Redfield theory calculation of the relaxation times, the distribution shape corresponds to the expected effect of Gaussian disorder of the pigment transition energies. By repeatedly measuring few individual complexes for minutes, we find that complexes sample the relaxation time distribution on a timescale of seconds. Furthermore, by comparing the distribution from a single long-lived complex with the whole ensemble, we demonstrate that, regarding the relaxation times, the ensemble can be considered ergodic. Our findings thus agree with the commonly used notion of an ensemble of identical LH2 complexes experiencing slow random fluctuations.
Analysis of 2D NMR relaxation data using Chisholm approximations
Huber, S.; Haase, A.; Gleich, B.
2017-08-01
To analyze 2D NMR relaxation data based on a discrete delta-like relaxation map we extended the Padé-Laplace method to two dimensions. We approximate the forward Laplace image of the time domain signal by a Chisholm approximation, i.e. a rational polynomial in two dimensions. The poles and residues of this approximation correspond to the relaxation rates and weighting factors of the underlying relaxation map. In this work we explain the principle ideas of our algorithm and demonstrate its applicability. Therefore we compare the inversion results of the Chisholm approximation and Tikhonov regularization method as a function of SNR when the investigated signal is based on a given discrete relaxation map. Our algorithm proved to be reliable for SNRs larger than 50 and is able to compete with the Tikhonov regularization method. Furthermore we show that our method is also able to detect the simulated relaxation compartments of narrow Gaussian distributions with widths less or equal than 0.05 s-1. Finally we investigate the resolution limit with experimental data. For a SNR of 750 the Chisholm approximation method was able to resolve two relaxation compartments in 8 of 10 cases when both compartments differ by a factor of 1.7.
Shear stress relaxation of dental ceramics determined from creep behavior.
DeHoff, Paul H; Anusavice, Kenneth J
2004-10-01
To test the hypothesis that shear stress relaxation functions of dental ceramics can be determined from creep functions measured in a beam-bending viscometer. Stress relaxation behavior was determined from creep data for the following materials: (1) a veneering ceramic-IPS Empress2 body ceramic (E2V); (2) an experimental veneering ceramic (EXV); (3) a low expansion body porcelain-Vita VMK 68 feldspathic body porcelain (VB); (4) a high expansion body porcelain-Will Ceram feldspathic body porcelain (WCB); (5) a medium expansion opaque porcelain-Vita feldspathic opaque porcelain (VO); and (6) a high expansion opaque porcelain-Will Ceram feldspathic opaque porcelain (WCO). Laplace transform techniques were used to relate shear stress relaxation functions to creep functions for an eight-parameter, discrete viscoelastic model. Nonlinear regression analysis was performed to fit a four-term exponential relaxation function for each material at each temperature. The relaxation functions were utilized in the ANSYS finite element program to simulate creep behavior in three-point bending for each material at each temperature. Shear stress relaxation times at 575 degrees C ranged from 0.03 s for EXV to 195 s for WCO. Knowledge of the shear relaxation functions for dental ceramics at high temperatures is required input for the viscoelastic element in the ANSYS finite element program, which can used to determine transient and residual stresses in dental prostheses during fabrication.
State resolved vibrational relaxation modeling for strongly nonequilibrium flows
Boyd, Iain D.; Josyula, Eswar
2011-05-01
Vibrational relaxation is an important physical process in hypersonic flows. Activation of the vibrational mode affects the fundamental thermodynamic properties and finite rate relaxation can reduce the degree of dissociation of a gas. Low fidelity models of vibrational activation employ a relaxation time to capture the process at a macroscopic level. High fidelity, state-resolved models have been developed for use in continuum gas dynamics simulations based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). By comparison, such models are not as common for use with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. In this study, a high fidelity, state-resolved vibrational relaxation model is developed for the DSMC technique. The model is based on the forced harmonic oscillator approach in which multi-quantum transitions may become dominant at high temperature. Results obtained for integrated rate coefficients from the DSMC model are consistent with the corresponding CFD model. Comparison of relaxation results obtained with the high-fidelity DSMC model shows significantly less excitation of upper vibrational levels in comparison to the standard, lower fidelity DSMC vibrational relaxation model. Application of the new DSMC model to a Mach 7 normal shock wave in carbon monoxide provides better agreement with experimental measurements than the standard DSMC relaxation model.
Izabela Facco Caliman
Full Text Available The studies on hormone replacement therapy (HRT in females with estrogen deficiency are not conclusive. Thus, non-estrogen therapies, such as atorvastatin (ATO, could be new strategies to substitute or complement HRT. This study evaluated the effects of ATO on mesenteric vascular bed (MVB function from ovariectomized (OVX female rats. Female rats were divided into control SHAM, OVX, and OVX treated with 17β-estradiol (EST or ATO groups. The MVB reactivity was determined in organ chambers, vascular oxidative stress by dihydroethidine staining, and the expression of target proteins by western blot. The reduction in acetylcholine-induced relaxation in OVX rats was restored by ATO or EST treatment. The endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO component was reduced in OVX rats, whereas the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF component or prostanoids were not altered in the MVBs. Endothelial dysfunction in OVX rats was associated with oxidative stress, an up-regulation of iNOS and NADPH oxidase expression and a down-regulation of eNOS expression. Treatment with ATO or EST improved the NO component of the relaxation and normalized oxidative stress and the expression of those signaling pathways enzymes. Thus, the protective effect of ATO on endothelial dysfunction caused by estrogen deficiency highlights a significant therapeutic benefit for statins independent of its effects on cholesterol, thus providing evidence that non-estrogen therapy could be used for cardiovascular benefit in an estrogen-deficient state, such as menopause.
Dasch, C.J.
1978-09-01
Single rovibrational states of HCl(v=2), HBr(v=2), DCl(v=2), and CO(v=2) were excited with a pulsed optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Total vibrational relaxation rates near - resonance quenchers were measured at 295/sup 0/K using time resolved infrared fluorescence. These rates are attributed primarily to V - V energy transfer, and they generally conform to a simple energy gap law. A small deviation was found for the CO(v) + DCl(v') relaxation rates. Upper limits for the self relaxation by V - R,T of HCl(v=2) and HBr(v=2) and for the two quantum exchange between HCl and HBr were determined. The HF dimer was detected at 295/sup 0/K and 30 torr HF pressure with an optoacoustic spectrometer using the OPO. Pulsed and chopped, resonant and non-resonant spectrophones are analyzed in detail. From experiments and first order perturbation theory, these V - V exchange rates appear to behave as a first order perturbation in the vibrational coordinates. The rotational dynamics are known to be complicated however, and the coupled rotational - vibrational dynamics were investigated theoreticaly in infinite order by the Dillon and Stephenson and the first Magnus approximations. Large ..delta..J transitions appear to be important, but these calculations differ by orders of magnitude on specific rovibrational transition rates. Integration of the time dependent semiclassical equations by a modified Gordon method and a rotationally distorted wave approximation are discussed as methods which would treat the rotational motion more accurately. 225 references.
Effects of different "relaxing" music styles on the autonomic nervous system
Santiago Pérez-Lloret
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects on heart rate variability (HRV of exposure to different styles of "relaxing" music. Autonomic responses to musical stimuli were correlated with subjective preferences regarding the relaxing properties of each music style. Linear and nonlinear HRV analysis was conducted in 25 healthy subjects exposed to silence or to classical, new age or romantic melodies in a random fashion. At the end of the study, subjects were asked to choose the melody that they would use to relax. The low-to-high-frequency ratio was significantly higher when subjects were exposed to "new age" music when compared with silence (3.4 ± 0.3 vs. 2.6 ± 0.3, respectively, P < 0.02, while no differences were found with "classical" or "romantic" melodies (2.1 ± 0.4 and 2.2 ± 0.3. These results were related to a reduction in the high frequency component with "new age" compared to silence (17.4 ± 1.9 vs. 23.1 ± 1.1, respectively P < 0.004. Significant differences across melodies were also found for nonlinear HRV indexes. Subjects′ preferences did not correlate with autonomic responses to melodies. The results suggest that "new age" music induced a shift in HRV from higher to lower frequencies, independently on the music preference of the listener.
Measurement of the Electron-Ion Temperature Relaxation Rate in a Dense Plasma
Taccetti, J. M.; Shurter, R. P.; Goodwin, P. M.; Benage, J. F., Jr.
2008-11-01
Current theoretical approaches to temperature relaxation, which can be categorized as binary-collision and many-body approaches, disagree. Existing experimental evidence infers a lower relaxation rate compared to the binary-collision approach, but is insufficient to determine which approach is correct. We present the most recent results from an experiment aimed at obtaining the temperature relaxation rate between ions and electrons in a dense, strongly coupled plasma by directly measuring the temperature of each component. The plasma is formed by heating a gas jet with a 10 ps laser pulse. The electrons are preferentially heated by the short pulse laser (Te 100 eV), while the ions, after undergoing very rapid (sub-ps time-scale) disorder-induced heating, should only reach a temperature of 10-15 eV. This results in a strongly coupled ion plasma with an ion-ion coupling parameter γii 3-5. We plan to measure the electron and ion temperatures of the resulting plasma independently during and after heating, using collective Thomson scattering for electrons and a high-resolution x-ray spectrometer for the ions (measuring Doppler-broadened absorption lines).
Effects of different "relaxing" music styles on the autonomic nervous system.
Perez-Lloret, Santiago; Diez, Joaquín; Domé, María Natalia; Delvenne, Andrea Alvarez; Braidot, Nestor; Cardinali, Daniel P; Vigo, Daniel Eduardo
2014-01-01
The objective of this study was to assess the effects on heart rate variability (HRV) of exposure to different styles of "relaxing" music. Autonomic responses to musical stimuli were correlated with subjective preferences regarding the relaxing properties of each music style. Linear and nonlinear HRV analysis was conducted in 25 healthy subjects exposed to silence or to classical, new age or romantic melodies in a random fashion. At the end of the study, subjects were asked to choose the melody that they would use to relax. The low-to-high-frequency ratio was significantly higher when subjects were exposed to "new age" music when compared with silence (3.4 ± 0.3 vs. 2.6 ± 0.3, respectively, P romantic" melodies (2.1 ± 0.4 and 2.2 ± 0.3). These results were related to a reduction in the high frequency component with "new age" compared to silence (17.4 ± 1.9 vs. 23.1 ± 1.1, respectively P music induced a shift in HRV from higher to lower frequencies, independently on the music preference of the listener.
Dynamical theory of spin noise and relaxation - prospects for real time NMR measurements
Field, Timothy
2014-03-01
The dynamics of a spin system is usually calculated using the density matrix. However, the usual formulation in terms of the density matrix predicts that the signal will decay to zero, and does not address the stochastic dynamics of individual spins. Spin fluctuations are to be viewed as an intrinsic quantum mechanical property of such systems immersed in random magnetic environments, and are observed as ``spin noise'' in the absence of any radio frequency (RF) excitation. Using stochastic calculus we develop a dynamical theory of spin noise and relaxation whose origins lie in the component spin fluctuations. This entails consideration of random pure states for individual protons, and how these pure states are correctly combined when the density matrix is formulated. Both the lattice and the spins are treated quantum mechanically. Such treatment incorporates both the processes of spin-spin and (finite temperature) spin-lattice relaxation. Our results reveal the intimate connections between spin noise and conventional spin relaxation, in terms of a modified spin density (MSD), distinct from the density matrix, which is necessary to describe non-ensemble averaged properties of spin systems. With the prospect of ultra-fast digitization, the role of spin noise in real time parameter extraction for (NMR) spin systems, and the advantage over standard techniques, is of essential importance, especially for systems containing a small number of spins. In this presentation we outline prospects for harnessing the recent dynamical theory in terms of spin noise measurement, with attention to real time properties.
Resonance fluorescence as a probe to elucidate mechanisms of intramolecular relaxation processes
Chen, K.; Yeung, E.S.
1979-12-15
Density matrix formalism is used to study resonance fluorescence processes of isolated gaseous molecules. The Wangsness--Bloch--Fano theory is applied to the irreversible intramolecular relaxation process. In the present treatment, it is assumed that the rotational angular momentum J is a constant of motion in the zeroth order approximation. Thus intramolecular interactions can be classified as tensor operators with respect to J. The fluorescence decay patterns depend on excitation bandwidths and monitoring conditions. Under narrow band excitation, the population (monopole), orientation (dipole), and alignment (quadrupole) of the excited state density matrix rho/sub e/ can be prepared. For a sharply prepared angular momentum state under pulsed excitation, the population does not undergo radiationless decay and the resonance fluorescence intensity is a sum of three exponentials in general. For cw experiments, where lifetime limited linewidth or polarized fluorescence intensities are measured, the population can decay via an intramolecular relaxation channel providing the orientation component is initially prepared. Explicit J dependences of lifetimes are given for pulsed experiments. Under broad band excitation, quantum beats due to the coherence of rho/sub e/ are derived from the Liouville equation. Most important of all, the population can decay under pulsed, broad-band excitation conditions. The scalar part of the nonadiabatic coupling becomes an additional contributor to the intramolecular relaxation process in this last case.
Relaxant effect of essential oil of Melissa officinalis and citral on rat ileum contractions.
Sadraei, H; Ghannadi, A; Malekshahi, K
2003-07-01
The relaxant effect of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis and its main component, citral, on rat isolated ileum contractions was evaluated. M. officinalis essential oil (MOEO) inhibited the response to KCl (80 mM), ACh (320 nM) and 5-HT (1.28 microM) in a concentration-dependent manner with a IC(50) of approximately 20 ng/ml. Citral also had a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on contraction of rat ileum with IC(50)s comparable to that of MOEO.
Yue, Grace Gar-Lee; Chan, Kar-Man; To, Ming-Ho; Cheng, Ling; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Lau, Clara Bik-San
2014-04-25
The dried roots of Cynanchum stauntonii in having cough-relieving efficacy are commonly included in traditional antitussive formulas. The active components in a C. stauntonii root extract responsible for airway relaxation were isolated using an ex vivo bioassay-guided fractionation method, in which subfractions were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the contraction of isolated rat tracheal rings by isometric tension measurements. A steroidal glycoside, cynatratoside B (1), identified by LC-MS and NMR spectroscopic analysis, was shown to have potent inhibition on acetylcholine- and carbachol-induced tracheal contractions. The present data provide scientific evidence to support the traditional use of C. stauntonii as an antitussive herbal medicine.
Measurements of Brownian relaxation of magnetic nanobeads using planar Hall effect bridge sensors
Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Zardán Gómez de la Torre, T.
2013-01-01
We compare measurements of the Brownian relaxation response of magnetic nanobeads in suspension using planar Hall effect sensors of cross geometry and a newly proposed bridge geometry. We find that the bridge sensor yields six times as large signals as the cross sensor, which results in a more ac...... performed in a commercial AC susceptometer. The presented bridge sensor is, thus, a promising component in future lab-on-a-chip biosensors for detection of clinically relevant analytes, including bacterial genomic DNA and proteins....
Flat-response spin-exchange relaxation free atomic magnetometer under negative feedback.
Lee, Hyun Joon; Shim, Jeong Hyun; Moon, Han Seb; Kim, Kiwoong
2014-08-25
We demonstrate that the use of negative feedback extends the detection bandwidth of an atomic magnetometer in a spin-exchange relaxation free (SERF) regime. A flat-frequency response from zero to 190 Hz was achieved, which is nearly a three-fold enhancement while maintaining sensitivity, 3 fT/Hz1/2 at 100 Hz. With the extension of the bandwidth, the linear correlation between measured signals and a magne-tocardiographic field synthesized for comparison was increased from 0.21 to 0.74. This result supports the feasibility of measuring weak biomagnetic signals containing multiple frequency components using a SERF atomic magnetometer under negative feedback.
Ultrafast vibrational energy relaxation of the water bridge.
Piatkowski, Lukasz; Wexler, Adam D; Fuchs, Elmar C; Schoenmaker, Hinco; Bakker, Huib J
2012-05-14
We report the energy relaxation of the OH stretch vibration of HDO molecules contained in an HDO:D(2)O water bridge using femtosecond mid-infrared pump-probe spectroscopy. We found that the vibrational lifetime is shorter (~630 ± 50 fs) than for HDO molecules in bulk HDO:D(2)O (~740 ± 40 fs). In contrast, the thermalization dynamics following the vibrational relaxation are much slower (~1.5 ± 0.4 ps) than in bulk HDO:D(2)O (~250 ± 90 fs). These differences in energy relaxation dynamics strongly indicate that the water bridge and bulk water differ on a molecular scale.
Chemical relaxation times in a hadron gas at finite temperature
Goity, J L
1993-01-01
The relaxation times of particle numbers in hot hadronic matter with vanishing baryon number are estimated using the ideal gas approximation and taking into account resonance decays and annihilation processes as the only sources of particle number fluctuations. Near the QCD critical temperature the longest relaxation times turn out to be of the order of 10 fm and grow roughly exponentially to become of the order of $10^{3}$ fm at temperatures around 100 MeV. As a consequence of such long relaxation times, a clear departure from chemical equilibrium must be observed in the momentum distribution of secondary particles produced in high energy nuclear collisions.
The β relaxation in metallic glasses: an overview
Hai-Bin Yu
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Metallic glasses, combining metallic bonding and disordered atomic structures, are at the cutting edge of metallic materials research. Recent advances in this field have revealed that many key questions in glassy physics are inherently connected to one important relaxation mode: the so-called secondary (β relaxation. Here, in metallic glasses, we review the features of β relaxations and their relations to other processes and properties. Special emphasis is put on their current roles and future promise in understanding the glass transition phenomenon, mechanical properties and mechanisms of plastic deformation, diffusion, physical aging, as well as the stability and crystallization of metallic glasses.
On semidefinite programming relaxations of the traveling salesman problem
de Klerk, Etienne; Sotirov, Renata; 10.1137/070711141
2009-01-01
We consider a new semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxation of the symmetric traveling salesman problem (TSP) that may be obtained via an SDP relaxation of the more general quadratic assignment problem (QAP). We show that the new relaxation dominates the one in [D. Cvetkovic, M. Cangalovic, and V. Kovacevic-Vujcic, Semidefinite programming methods for the symmetric traveling salesman problem, in Proc. 7th Int. IPCO Conference, Springer, London, 1999, pp. 126--136]. Unlike the bound of Cvetkovic et al., the new SDP bound is not dominated by the Held-Karp linear programming bound, or vice versa.
Relaxation dynamics of amorphous dibucaine using dielectric studies
Sahra, M.; Jumailath, K.; Thayyil, M. Shahin; Capaccioli, S.
2015-06-01
Using broadband dielectric spectroscopy the molecular mobility of dibucaine is investigated in the supercooled liquid and gassy states, over a wide temperature range for some test frequencies. Above the glass transition temperature Tg, the presence of structural α- relaxation peak was observed due to the cooperative motions of the molecule and upon cooling frozen kinetically to form the glass. The secondary relaxation process was perceivable below Tg due to localized motions. The peak loss frequency of α-relaxation process shows non-Arrhenius behavior and obeys Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation over the measured temperature range whereas the β- process shows Arrhenius behavior.
MULTIDIMENSIONAL RELAXATION APPROXIMATIONS FOR HYPERBOLIC SYSTEMS OF CONSERVATION LAWS
Mohammed Sea(l)d
2007-01-01
We construct and implement a non-oscillatory relaxation scheme for multidimensional hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. The method transforms the nonlinear hyperbolic system to a semilinear model with a relaxation source term and linear characteristics which can be solved numerically without using either Riemann solver or linear iterations.To discretize the relaxation system we consider a high-resolution reconstruction in space and a TVD Runge-Kutta time integration. Detailed formulation of the scheme is given for problems in three space dimensions and numerical experiments are implemented in both scalar and system cases to show the effectiveness of the method.
Anelastic Relaxation of Point Defects in Cubic Crystals
Weller, M.
1996-01-01
Point defects in solids can give rise to anelastic relaxation provided that the defects behave as elastic dipoles. Experiments with single crystals give information on the atomic configuration of the point defects. Measurements of the orientation dependence of the relaxation strength allow determination of the defect symmetry and the dipole shape factor δλ=|λ1-λ2|. This is demonstrated for two examples : (i) The Snoek relaxation of O and N in Nb and Ta single crystals : The δλ values for O an...
Mechanism of latency relaxation in frog skeletal muscle.
Yagi, N
2011-05-01
The latency relaxation is a small drop of tension before skeletal muscle begins to develop active tension. This phenomenon was found nearly one century ago but its origin has not been clarified. In this review, the hypotheses for its mechanism are discussed in terms of the recent experimental results using X-ray diffraction. The latency relaxation takes place almost simultaneously as the structural change of the regulatory protein troponin, an unspecified structural change of the thick filament, and increase in stiffness. It seems difficult to associate all of these with the latency relaxation by assuming a simple mechanism. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Developing a Learning Algorithm-Generated Empirical Relaxer
Mitchell, Wayne [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Applied Math; Kallman, Josh [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Toreja, Allen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gallagher, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jiang, Ming [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Laney, Dan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2016-03-30
One of the main difficulties when running Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) simulations is determining how much to relax the mesh during the Eulerian step. This determination is currently made by the user on a simulation-by-simulation basis. We present a Learning Algorithm-Generated Empirical Relaxer (LAGER) which uses a regressive random forest algorithm to automate this decision process. We also demonstrate that LAGER successfully relaxes a variety of test problems, maintains simulation accuracy, and has the potential to significantly decrease both the person-hours and computational hours needed to run a successful ALE simulation.
Diffusive mesh relaxation in ALE finite element numerical simulations
Dube, E.I.
1996-06-01
The theory for a diffusive mesh relaxation algorithm is developed for use in three-dimensional Arbitary Lagrange/Eulerian (ALE) finite element simulation techniques. This mesh relaxer is derived by a variational principle for an unstructured 3D grid using finite elements, and incorporates hourglass controls in the numerical implementation. The diffusive coefficients are based on the geometric properties of the existing mesh, and are chosen so as to allow for a smooth grid that retains the general shape of the original mesh. The diffusive mesh relaxation algorithm is then applied to an ALE code system, and results from several test cases are discussed.
Accelerating convergence of molecular dynamics-based structural relaxation
Christensen, Asbjørn
2005-01-01
We describe strategies to accelerate the terminal stage of molecular dynamics (MD)based relaxation algorithms, where a large fraction of the computational resources are used. First, we analyze the qualitative and quantitative behavior of the QuickMin family of MD relaxation algorithms and explore...... the influence of spectral properties and dimensionality of the molecular system on the algorithm efficiency. We test two algorithms, the MinMax and Lanczos, for spectral estimation from an MD trajectory, and use this to derive a practical scheme of time step adaptation in MD relaxation algorithms to improve...
Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi method: Improvements and applications
Adsuara, J. E.; Cordero-Carrión, I.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Aloy, M. A.
2016-09-01
Elliptic partial differential equations (ePDEs) appear in a wide variety of areas of mathematics, physics and engineering. Typically, ePDEs must be solved numerically, which sets an ever growing demand for efficient and highly parallel algorithms to tackle their computational solution. The Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi (SRJ) is a promising class of methods, atypical for combining simplicity and efficiency, that has been recently introduced for solving linear Poisson-like ePDEs. The SRJ methodology relies on computing the appropriate parameters of a multilevel approach with the goal of minimizing the number of iterations needed to cut down the residuals below specified tolerances. The efficiency in the reduction of the residual increases with the number of levels employed in the algorithm. Applying the original methodology to compute the algorithm parameters with more than 5 levels notably hinders obtaining optimal SRJ schemes, as the mixed (non-linear) algebraic-differential system of equations from which they result becomes notably stiff. Here we present a new methodology for obtaining the parameters of SRJ schemes that overcomes the limitations of the original algorithm and provide parameters for SRJ schemes with up to 15 levels and resolutions of up to 215 points per dimension, allowing for acceleration factors larger than several hundreds with respect to the Jacobi method for typical resolutions and, in some high resolution cases, close to 1000. Most of the success in finding SRJ optimal schemes with more than 10 levels is based on an analytic reduction of the complexity of the previously mentioned system of equations. Furthermore, we extend the original algorithm to apply it to certain systems of non-linear ePDEs.
Silperisone: a centrally acting muscle relaxant.
Farkas, Sándor
2006-01-01
Silperisone is a tolperisone like organosilicon compound with centrally acting muscle relaxant properties. Studies in mice showed that silperisone may have less propensity to cause CNS depressant or motor side effects than tolperisone or other antispastic drugs. In cats and rats, silperisone was an effective suppressant of monosynaptic and polysynaptic spinal reflexes and decerebrate rigidity. Its suppressant effect on the spinal reflexes was also demonstrated in the isolated hemisected rat spinal cord in vitro. The in vivo potency and efficacy of silperisone by i.v administration were similar to those of tolperisone and eperisone. However, in cats by intraduodenal administration and in mice by oral administration its duration of action was much longer and its functional bioavailability much higher than of the other two drugs. With regard to its profile of actions silperisone was similar to tolperisone with minor differences. The most striking difference was in pontine facilitation and bulbar inhibition of the patellar reflex. Tolperisone depressed both, whereas silperisone inhibited only the former. The mechanism underlying the spinal reflex depressant effects of silperisone involves the blockade of voltage gated neuronal sodium and calcium channels leading to a decreased release of excitatory transmitter and reduced neuronal excitability. In addition, silperisone has potassium channel blocking effect, which is stronger than that of tolperisone. Silperisone is absorbed rapidly and is extensively metabolized in rats. However, its metabolism in dogs and particularly in humans is much less extensive. The elimination half-life of silperisone in humans is 12 to 16 h, so that it can be administered once or twice daily. Phase I clinical studies with silperisone at doses up to 150 mg/day failed to detect any adverse effects at plasma concentrations considered to be effective in the preclinical tests. These findings suggested that silperisone might be a useful antispastic
Blum-Johnston, Carla; Thorpe, Richard B.; Wee, Chelsea; Romero, Monica; Brunelle, Alexander; Blood, Quintin; Blood, Arlin B.; Francis, Michael; Taylor, Mark S.; Longo, Lawrence D.; Pearce, William J.; Wilson, Sean M.
2015-01-01
Bradykinin-induced activation of the pulmonary endothelium triggers nitric oxide production and other signals that cause vasorelaxation, including stimulation of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels in myocytes that hyperpolarize the plasma membrane and decrease intracellular Ca2+. Intrauterine chronic hypoxia (CH) may reduce vasorelaxation in the fetal-to-newborn transition and contribute to pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Thus we examined the effects of maturation and CH on the role of BKCa channels during bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation by examining endothelial Ca2+ signals, wire myography, and Western immunoblots on pulmonary arteries isolated from near-term fetal (∼140 days gestation) and newborn, 10- to 20-day-old, sheep that lived in normoxia at 700 m or in CH at high altitude (3,801 m) for >100 days. CH enhanced bradykinin-induced relaxation of fetal vessels but decreased relaxation in newborns. Endothelial Ca2+ responses decreased with maturation but increased with CH. Bradykinin-dependent relaxation was sensitive to 100 μM nitro-l-arginine methyl ester or 10 μM 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, supporting roles for endothelial nitric oxide synthase and soluble guanylate cyclase activation. Indomethacin blocked relaxation in CH vessels, suggesting upregulation of PLA2 pathways. BKCa channel inhibition with 1 mM tetraethylammonium reduced bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation in the normoxic newborn and fetal CH vessels. Maturation reduced whole cell BKCa channel α1-subunit expression but increased β1-subunit expression. These results suggest that CH amplifies the contribution of BKCa channels to bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation in fetal sheep but stunts further development of this vasodilatory pathway in newborns. This involves complex changes in multiple components of the bradykinin-signaling axes. PMID:26637638
Werbeck, Nicolas D; Hansen, D. Flemming
2014-01-01
The equations that describe the time-evolution of transverse and longitudinal 15N magnetisations in tetrahedral ammonium ions, 15NH4 +, are derived from the Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield density operator relaxation theory. It is assumed that the relaxation of the spin-states is dominated by (1) the intra-molecular 15N–1H and 1H–1H dipole–dipole interactions and (2) interactions of the ammonium protons with remote spins, which also include the contribution to the relaxations that arise from the exc...
Irradiation creep relaxation of void swelling-driven stresses
Hall, M.M., E-mail: hallmm63@comcast.net [MacRay Consulting, 1366 Hillsdale Drive, Monroeville, PA (United States)
2013-01-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Irradiation void swelling can cause distortion of reactor core components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constrained swelling can drive stresses beyond acceptable levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compressive stresses decrease irradiation swelling rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Irradiation creep relaxes swelling-driven stresses and core restraint forces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Swelling-driven creep stresses are consistent with predictions of a proposed model. - Abstract: Swelling-driven-creep test specimens are used to measure the compressive stresses that develop due to constraint of irradiation void swelling. These specimens use a previously non-irradiated 20% CW Type 316 stainless steel holder to axially restrain two Type 304 stainless steel tubular specimens that were previously irradiated in the US Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II) at 490 Degree-Sign C. One specimen was previously irradiated to fluence levels in the void nucleation regime (9 dpa) and the other in the quasi-steady void growth regime (28 dpa). A lift-off compliance measurement technique was used post-irradiation to determine compressive stresses developed during reirradiation of the two specimen assemblies in Row 7 of EBR-II at temperatures of 547 Degree-Sign C and 504 Degree-Sign C, respectively, to additional damage levels each of about 5 dpa. Results obtained on the higher fluence swelling-driven-creep specimen show that compressive stress due to constraint of swelling retards void swelling to a degree that is consistent with active load uniaxial compression specimens that were irradiated as part of a previously reported multiaxial in-reactor creep experiment. Swelling results obtained on the lower fluence swelling-driven creep specimen show a much larger effect of compressive stress in reducing swelling, demonstrating that the larger effect of stress on swelling is on void nucleation as compared to void growth. Test results are
Cole-Cole broadening in dielectric relaxation and strange kinetics.
Puzenko, Alexander; Ishai, Paul Ben; Feldman, Yuri
2010-07-16
We present a fresh appraisal of the Cole-Cole (CC) description of dielectric relaxation. While the approach is phenomenological, it demonstrates a fundamental connection between the parameters of the CC dispersion. Based on the fractal nature of the time set representing the interaction of the relaxing dipole with its encompassing matrix, and the Kirkwood-Froehlich correlation factor, a new 3D phase space linking together the kinetic and structural properties is proposed. The evolution of the relaxation process is represented in this phase space by a trajectory, which is determined by the variation of external macroscopic parameters. As an example, the validity of the approach is demonstrated on two porous silica glasses exhibiting a CC relaxation process.
CONSEQUENCES OF COLE-COLE RELAXATION IN SPIN GLASSES
Baalbergen, J.; Ong, T; Van Duyneveldt, A.; Verstelle, J.
1988-01-01
Ac susceptibility measurements in spin glasses over an extended frequency range indicate a Cole-Cole behaviour at temperatures from well above to far below the freezing temperature. The consequences of this kind of relaxation are discussed.
Relaxation Dynamics of Non-Power-Law Fluids
Min, Qi; Duan, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Liang, Zhan-Peng; Lee, Duu-Jong
2013-12-01
The relaxation of non-Newtonian liquids with non-power-law rheology on partially wetted surfaces is rarely investigated. This study assesses the relaxation behavior of 14 partial wetting systems with non-power-law fluids by sessile drop method. These systems are two carboxymethylcellulose sodium solutions on two kinds of slides, cover glass, and silicon wafer surfaces; three polyethylene glycol (PEG400) + silica nanoparticle suspensions on polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene surfaces. The dynamic contact angle and moving velocity of contact line relationship data for relaxation drops of the 14 tested systems demonstrate a power-law fluid-like behavior, and the equivalent power exponent for a certain fluid on different solid substrates are uniform. By analyzing the relationship between the equivalent power exponent and shear rate, it is proposed that a fluid regime with shear rates of a few tens of s controls relaxation dynamics.
Relaxation Dynamics in Condensation on Weighted Scale-Free Networks
MENG Xin-He; TANG Ming; WANG Peng; LIU Zong-Hua
2008-01-01
Most of the realistic networks are weighted scale-free networks. How this structure influences the conden-sation on it is a challenging problem. Recently, we make a first step to discuss its condensation [Phys. Rev. E 74 (2006) 036101] and here we focus on its evolutionary process of phase transition. In order to show how the weighted transport influences the dynamical properties, we study the relaxation dynamics in a zero range process on weighted scale-free networks. We find that there is a hierarchical relaxation dynamics in the evolution and there is a scaling relation between the relaxation time and the jumping exponent. The relaxation dynamics can be illustrated by a mean-field equation. The theoretical predictions are confirmed by our numerical simulations.
Multi-region relaxed Hall magnetohydrodynamics with flow
Lingam, Manasvi; Hudson, Stuart R
2016-01-01
The recent formulations of multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) have generalized the famous Woltjer-Taylor states by incorporating a collection of "ideal barriers" that prevent global relaxation, and flow. In this paper, we generalize MRxMHD with flow to include Hall effects (MRxHMHD), and thereby obtain the partially relaxed counterparts of the famous double Beltrami states as a special subset. The physical and mathematical consequences arising from the introduction of the Hall term are also presented. We demonstrate that our results (in the ideal MHD limit) constitute an important subset of ideal MHD equilibria, and we compare our approach against other variational principles proposed for deriving the relaxed states.
TENSILE STRESS RELAXATION OF TURBINE BOLT STEELS AT HIGH TEMPERATURE
G.Q. Jia; H.W. Shen; Y.M. Zhu
2004-01-01
Stress relaxation behavior of two turbine bolt steels was evaluated by the manualcontrolled tensile stress relaxation test (TSRT) at high temperature. First, feasibility and the procedure of the manual-controlled tensile stress relaxation test (TSRT) is discussed and carried out on a general creep testing machine. And then, the experimental results from such type of test were compared to the existing data provided by certain Laboratory U.K. Overall good agreement between the results of manualcontrolled TSRT method and the existing data provides confidence in the use of the proposed method in practice. Finally, the experimental results of turbine bolt steels from TSRT were compared with that of bending test. It is observed that great difference exists between the results from two different type stress relaxation tests. It is therefore suggested that the results from TSRT method be adopted in turbine bolt design in engineering.
Multi-region relaxed Hall magnetohydrodynamics with flow
Lingam, Manasvi; Abdelhamid, Hamdi M.; Hudson, Stuart R.
2016-08-01
The recent formulations of multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) have generalized the famous Woltjer-Taylor states by incorporating a collection of "ideal barriers" that prevent global relaxation and flow. In this paper, we generalize MRxMHD with flow to include Hall effects, and thereby obtain the partially relaxed counterparts of the famous double Beltrami states as a special subset. The physical and mathematical consequences arising from the introduction of the Hall term are also presented. We demonstrate that our results (in the ideal MHD limit) constitute an important subset of ideal MHD equilibria, and we compare our approach against other variational principles proposed for deriving the partially relaxed states.
Spin relaxation of radicals in low and zero magnetic field
Fedin, M. V.; Purtov, P. A.; Bagryanskaya, E. G.
2003-01-01
Spin relaxation of radicals in solution in low and zero magnetic field has been studied theoretically. The main relaxation mechanisms in low magnetic field [modulation of anisotropic and isotropic hyperfine interaction, and modulation of spin-rotational interaction] are considered within a Redfield theory. The analytical results for a radical with one magnetic nucleus (I=1/2) and for a radical with two equivalent magnetic nuclei (I=1/2) are obtained and analyzed. It is shown that the probabilities of relaxational transitions in low and zero magnetic fields differ significantly from the probabilities in high magnetic fields. The use of high-field expressions in low and zero magnetic fields is not correct. Taking exact account of spin relaxation is important in calculations of much low-field magnetic resonance data.
Levitation force relaxation under reloading in a HTS Maglev system
He, Qingyong; Wang, Jiasu; Wang, Suyu; Wang, Jiansi; Dong, Hao; Wang, Yuxin; Shao, Senhao
2009-02-01
The loading capacity of the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev vehicle is an important parameter in the practical application. It is closely related to the levitation force of the HTS bulk. Many papers reported that the levitation force showed the relaxation characteristic. Because different loads cause different levitation gaps and different applied magnetic fields, the levitation force relaxations under the different loads are not the same. In terms of cylindrical YBCO bulk levitated over the permanent magnetic guideway, the relationship between the levitation force relaxation and the reloading is investigated experimentally in this paper. The decrement, the decrement rate and the relaxation rate of the levitation force are calculated, respectively. This work might be helpful for studying the loading capacity of the HTS Maglev vehicle.
Dynamics of Sulfonated Polystyrene Ionomers by Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy
Castagna, Alicia; Wang, Wenqin; Winey, Karen; Runt, James
2010-03-01
Broadband dielectric spectroscopy was used to investigate the dynamics of sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) ionomers, in both the acid and neutralized form. This study seeks to elucidate the role of counter ion type (Zn, Na, and Cs), degree of sulfonation (9 and 6%), and ion cluster morphology on the relaxation phenomena of SPS. Degree of neutralization and ion type have been found to significantly impact the breadth and time scale of the segmental relaxation process. High temperature relaxation processes, tentatively proposed to arise from Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars interfacial polarization and a hydrogen bonding relaxation, have also been identified. Bands in the sulfonate stretching region of FTIR spectra reveal information about ion coordination in the local aggregate environment. A combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and X-ray scattering confirmed the presence of homogeneously distributed, nearly monodisperse spherical ionic aggregates in the polymer matrix.
Ferrohydrodynamic evaluation of rotational viscosity and relaxation in certain ferrofluids.
Patel, Rajesh
2012-07-01
A significant effect of aggregation dynamics for aqueous ferrofluid (AF) and kerosene based ferrofluid (KF) using magnetic field dependent capillary viscosity and magneto-optical relaxation measurements is studied. For better comparison parameters of AF and KF are kept similar. Ferrohydrodynamic equations of chain forming ferrofluids, dilute ferrofluids, and Brownian dynamic simulations are compared. It is observed that the rotational viscosity of AF is larger than that of KF due to field induced aggregates in it and strong dipolar interactions. It is also observed that at Ωτ ~ 0.04 both AF and KF viscosity becomes almost similar, suggesting similar behavior at that shear rate. The magneto-optical relaxation in AF exhibits nonexponential behavior when relaxed from higher magnetic field and follows irreversible thermodynamics, whereas for KF the relaxation is exponential and follows the effective field method. This discrepancy is explained based on aggregation dynamics of magnetic particles. Results are well described by the corresponding theoretical models.
Local fluctuations in the relaxation rate in a glassy system
Pandit, Rajib; Flenner, Elijah; Castillo, Horacio E.
We numerically study the equilibrium dynamics of a glass-forming binary hard-sphere mixture, for different packing fractions. We extract a correlator that probes the integrated fluctuations in the local relaxation rate in the system. We find that the strength of this correlator at t =τα (the α-relaxation time) grows with packing fraction approximately as a power of τα. We also find that for a fixed packing fraction, the correlator grows as a power of time, for very long times, with an exponent that depends on the packing fraction. This exponent probes the time correlations of the relaxation rate fluctuations. We find that the exponent is around 3 for very low packing fractions, and gradually decreases to a value below 2 as the glass transition is approached. We conclude that a description of fluctuations in terms of local relaxation rates is only applicable at long times and for packing fractions close to the glass transition.
Electron Spin Relaxation in Intrinsic Bulk InP Semiconductor
Ma, Hong; Wang, Lihua; Ma, Guohong
2010-01-01
Electron spin dynamics is studied by time resolved pump probe reflectivity (TRPPR) technique using the co- and counter-circularly polarized femtosecond pulses in intrinsic bulk Indium Phosphide (InP) crystal at room temperature and 70 K. The reflectivity change from bleaching into absorption enhancement is observed with increasing pump photon energy. This phenomenon can be explained in terms of the spin sensitive band filling and band gap renormalization effects. Although electron spin relaxation process at room temperature is much faster than that at 70K, carrier density dependence of electron spin relaxation shows similar tendency. With increasing carrier density, the electron spin relaxation time increases initially and then decreases after reaching a maximum value. Our experimental results agree well with the recent theoretical prediction and D'yakonov-Perel' mechanism is considered as a dominating contribution to the electron spin relaxation in intrinsic bulk InP semiconductor.
Ber analysis of the box relaxation for BPSK signal recovery
Thrampoulidis, Christos
2016-06-24
We study the problem of recovering an n-dimensional BPSK signal from m linear noise-corrupted measurements using the box relaxation method which relaxes the discrete set {±1}n to the convex set [-1,1]n to obtain a convex optimization algorithm followed by hard thresholding. When the noise and measurement matrix have iid standard normal entries, we obtain an exact expression for the bit-wise probability of error Pe in the limit of n and m growing and m/n fixed. At high SNR our result shows that the Pe of box relaxation is within 3dB of the matched filter bound (MFB) for square systems, and that it approaches the (MFB) as m grows large compared to n. Our results also indicate that as m, n → ∞, for any fixed set of size k, the error events of the corresponding k bits in the box relaxation method are independent.
Cosmology and Astrophysics from Relaxed Galaxy Clusters I: Sample Selection
Mantz, Adam B; Morris, R Glenn; Schmidt, Robert W; von der Linden, Anja; Urban, Ondrej
2015-01-01
This is the first in a series of papers studying the astrophysics and cosmology of massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters. Here we present a new, automated method for identifying relaxed clusters based on their morphologies in X-ray imaging data. While broadly similar to others in the literature, the morphological quantities that we measure are specifically designed to provide a fair basis for comparison across a range of data quality and cluster redshifts, to be robust against missing data due to point-source masks and gaps between detectors, and to avoid strong assumptions about the cosmological background and cluster masses. Based on three morphological indicators - Symmetry, Peakiness and Alignment - we develop the SPA criterion for relaxation. This analysis was applied to a large sample of cluster observations from the Chandra and ROSAT archives. Of the 361 clusters which received the SPA treatment, 57 (16 per cent) were subsequently found to be relaxed according to our criterion. We compare our me...
Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on the Adverse ...
less in subjects practicing relaxation exercises, as compared to subjects only on ... be associated with mood and eating disorders. ... mental state, reduce anticipatory anxiety, reduce anxiety as .... A higher degree and longer duration.
Modified relaxation technique for treating hypertension in Thai postmenopausal women
Saensak, Suprawita; Vutyavanich, Teraporn; Somboonporn, Woraluk; Srisurapanont, Manit
2013-01-01
To examine the effectiveness of a modified relaxation (MR) technique in reducing blood pressure levels in Thai postmenopausal women with mild hypertension, compared with a control group who received health education...
Semiconvergence and Relaxation Parameters for Projected SIRT Algorithms
Elfving, Tommy; Hansen, Per Christian; Nikazad, Touraj
2012-01-01
We give a detailed study of the semiconverg ence behavior of projected nonstationary simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT) algorithms, including the projected Landweber algorithm. We also consider the use of a relaxation parameter strategy, proposed recently for the standard...
Dipolar relaxation of cold sodium atoms in a magnetic field
Zygelman, B
2002-01-01
A quantum mechanical close coupling theory of spin relaxation in the stretched hyperfine level of sodium is presented. We calculate the dipolar relaxation rate of magnetically trapped cold sodium atoms in the magnetic field. The influence of shape resonances and the anisotropy of the dipolar interaction on the collision dynamics are explored. We examine the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections on the choice of asymptotic atomic state basis.
Relaxation versus adiabatic quantum steady-state preparation
Venuti, Lorenzo Campos; Albash, Tameem; Marvian, Milad; Lidar, Daniel; Zanardi, Paolo
2017-04-01
Adiabatic preparation of the ground states of many-body Hamiltonians in the closed-system limit is at the heart of adiabatic quantum computation, but in reality systems are always open. This motivates a natural comparison between, on the one hand, adiabatic preparation of steady states of Lindbladian generators and, on the other hand, relaxation towards the same steady states subject to the final Lindbladian of the adiabatic process. In this work we thus adopt the perspective that the goal is the most efficient possible preparation of such steady states, rather than ground states. Using known rigorous bounds for the open-system adiabatic theorem and for mixing times, we are then led to a disturbing conclusion that at first appears to doom efforts to build physical quantum annealers: relaxation seems to always converge faster than adiabatic preparation. However, by carefully estimating the adiabatic preparation time for Lindbladians describing thermalization in the low-temperature limit, we show that there is, after all, room for an adiabatic speedup over relaxation. To test the analytically derived bounds for the adiabatic preparation time and the relaxation time, we numerically study three models: a dissipative quasifree fermionic chain, a single qubit coupled to a thermal bath, and the "spike" problem of n qubits coupled to a thermal bath. Via these models we find that the answer to the "which wins" question depends for each model on the temperature and the system-bath coupling strength. In the case of the "spike" problem we find that relaxation during the adiabatic evolution plays an important role in ensuring a speedup over the final-time relaxation procedure. Thus, relaxation-assisted adiabatic preparation can be more efficient than both pure adiabatic evolution and pure relaxation.
Relaxation of a qubit measured by a driven Duffing oscillator
Serban, I; Wilhelm, F K
2009-01-01
We investigate the relaxation of a superconducting qubit for the case when its detector, the Josephson bifurcation amplifier, remains latched in one of its two (meta)stable states of forced vibrations. The qubit relaxation rates are different in different states. They can display strong dependence on the qubit frequency and resonant enhancement, which is due to {\\em quasienergy resonances}. Coupling to the driven oscillator changes the effective temperature of the qubit.
Control of Transport-barrier relaxations by Resonant Magnetic Perturbations
Leconte, M; Garbet, X; Benkadda, S
2009-01-01
Transport-barrier relaxation oscillations in the presence of resonant magnetic perturbations are investigated using three-dimensional global fluid turbulence simulations from first principles at the edge of a tokamak. It is shown that resonant magnetic perturbations have a stabilizing effect on these relaxation oscillations and that this effect is due mainly to a modification of the pressure profile linked to the presence of both residual residual magnetic island chains and a stochastic layer.
Peace of Mind, Best-ever for Relaxation
无
2007-01-01
@@ Relaxation and peace of mind are words that come to mind when most people who have been to the region think of this country in Central Europe-the Czech Republic. They discovered that this new member of the EU has glorious countryside crisscrossed with thousands of kilometres of hiking trails, an incredible amount of cultural sites, picturesque historical towns and renowned spas where people come to receive treatment and relax.
Vibrational relaxation of guest and host in mixed molecular crystals
Hill, Jeffrey R.; Chronister, Eric L.; Chang, Ta-Chau; Kim, Hackjin; Postlewaite, Jay C.; Dlott, Dana D.
1988-02-01
Vibrational relaxation (VR) of dilute impurity molecules (naphthalene, anthracene) in crystalline host matrices (durene, naphthalene) is studied with the ps photon echo technique. The results obtained by echoes on vibrations in the electronically excited state are compared to previous ps time delayed coherent Raman studies of ground state vibrations of the pure host matrix. The relaxation channels for guest and host, and the effects of molecular and crystal structure on VR rates are determined.
Relaxation oscillations in a laser with a Gaussian mirror.
Mossakowska-Wyszyńska, Agnieszka; Witoński, Piotr; Szczepański, Paweł
2002-03-20
We present an analysis of the relaxation oscillations in a laser with a Gaussian mirror by taking into account the three-dimensional spatial field distribution of the laser modes and the spatial hole burning effect. In particular, we discuss the influence of the Gaussian mirror peak reflectivity and a Gaussian parameter on the damping rate and frequency of the relaxation oscillation for two different laser structures, i.e., with a classically unstable resonator and a classically stable resonator.
Mechanism of resveratrol-induced relaxation in the human gallbladder.
Tsai, Ching-Chung; Lee, Ming-Che; Tey, Shu-Leei; Liu, Ching-Wen; Huang, Shih-Che
2017-05-08
Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound extracted from plants and is also a constituent of red wine. Resveratrol produces relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and may prevent cardiovascular diseases. Although resveratrol has been reported to cause relaxation of the guinea pig gallbladder, limited data are available about the effect of resveratrol on the gallbladder smooth muscle in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relaxation effects of resveratrol in human gallbladder muscle strips. We studied the relaxant effects of resveratrol in human gallbladder. In addition, we also investigated mechanism of resveratrol-induced relaxation in human gallbladder by tetraethylammonium (a non-selective potassium channels blocker), iberiotoxin (an inhibitor of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel), glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker), charybdotoxin (an inhibitor of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and slowly inactivating voltage-gated potassium channels), apamine (a selective inhibitor of the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel), KT 5720 (a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A inhibitor), KT 5823 (a cGMP-dependent protein kinase G inhibitor), NG-Nitro-L-arginine (a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase), tetrodotoxin (a selective neuronal Na(+) channel blocker), and ω-conotoxin GVIA (a selective neuronal Ca(2+) channel blocker). The present study showed that resveratrol has relaxant effects in human gallbladder muscle strips. In addition, we found that resveratrol-induced relaxation in human gallbladder is associated with nitric oxide, ATP-sensitive potassium channel, and large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel pathways. This study provides the first evidence concerning the relaxant effects of resveratrol in human gallbladder muscle strips. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that resveratrol is a potential new drug or health supplement in the treatment of
Immersed Boundary-Lattice Boltzmann Method Using Two Relaxation Times
Kosuke Hayashi
2012-06-01
Full Text Available An immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM using a two-relaxation time model (TRT is proposed. The collision operator in the lattice Boltzmann equation is modeled using two relaxation times. One of them is used to set the fluid viscosity and the other is for numerical stability and accuracy. A direct-forcing method is utilized for treatment of immersed boundary. A multi-direct forcing method is also implemented to precisely satisfy the boundary conditions at the immersed boundary. Circular Couette flows between a stationary cylinder and a rotating cylinder are simulated for validation of the proposed method. The method is also validated through simulations of circular and spherical falling particles. Effects of the functional forms of the direct-forcing term and the smoothed-delta function, which interpolates the fluid velocity to the immersed boundary and distributes the forcing term to fixed Eulerian grid points, are also examined. As a result, the following conclusions are obtained: (1 the proposed method does not cause non-physical velocity distribution in circular Couette flows even at high relaxation times, whereas the single-relaxation time (SRT model causes a large non-physical velocity distortion at a high relaxation time, (2 the multi-direct forcing reduces the errors in the velocity profile of a circular Couette flow at a high relaxation time, (3 the two-point delta function is better than the four-point delta function at low relaxation times, but worse at high relaxation times, (4 the functional form of the direct-forcing term does not affect predictions, and (5 circular and spherical particles falling in liquids are well predicted by using the proposed method both for two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases.
Relaxation Mechanisms in Glassy Dynamics: the Arrhenius and Fragile Regimes
Hentschel, H. George E.; Karmakar, Smarajit; Procaccia, Itamar; Zylberg, Jacques
2012-01-01
Generic glass formers exhibit at least two characteristic changes in their relaxation behavior, first to an Arrhenius-type relaxation at some characteristic temperature, and then at a lower characteristic temperature to a super-Arrhenius (fragile) behavior. We address these transitions by studying the statistics of free energy barriers for different systems at different temperatures and space dimensions. We present a clear evidence for changes in the dynamical behavior at the transition to Ar...
Relaxation Effect of Abacavir on Rat Basilar Arteries
Li, Rachel Wai Sum; Yang, Cui; Chan, Shun Wan; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Leung, George Pak Heng
2015-01-01
Background The use of abacavir has been linked with increased cardiovascular risk in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection; however, the mechanism involved remains unclear. We hypothesize that abacavir may impair endothelial function. In addition, based on the structural similarity between abacavir and adenosine, we propose that abacavir may affect vascular contractility through endogenous adenosine release or adenosine receptors in blood vessels. Methods The relaxation effect of abacavir on rat basilar arteries was studied using the myograph technique. Cyclic GMP and AMP levels were measured by immunoassay. The effects of abacavir on nucleoside transporters were studied using radiolabeled nucleoside uptake experiments. Ecto-5′ nucleotidase activity was determined by measuring the generation of inorganic phosphate using adenosine monophosphate as the substrate. Results Abacavir induced the relaxation of rat basilar arteries in a concentration-dependent manner. This relaxation was abolished when endothelium was removed. In addition, the relaxation was diminished by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME, the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, ODQ, and the protein kinase G inhibitor, KT5820. Abacavir also increased the cGMP level in rat basilar arteries. Abacavir-induced relaxation was also abolished by adenosine A2 receptor blockers. However, abacavir had no effect on ecto-5’ nucleotidase and nucleoside transporters. Short-term and long-term treatment of abacavir did not affect acetylcholine-induced relaxation in rat basilar arteries. Conclusion Abacavir induces acute endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat basilar arteries, probably through the activation of adenosine A2 receptors in endothelial cells, which subsequently leads to the release of nitric oxide, resulting in activation of the cyclic guanosine monophosphate/protein kinase G-dependent pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells. It is speculated that abacavir-induced cardiovascular risk may
The use of relaxation, hypnosis, and imagery in sport psychiatry.
Newmark, Thomas S; Bogacki, David F
2005-10-01
Hypnosis is a procedure during which a mental health professional suggests that a patient experience changes in sensations, perceptions, thoughts, or behavior. The purpose of this article is to briefly describe the use of various methods of relaxation, hypnosis, and imagery techniques available to enhance athletic performance. The characteristics that these techniques have in common include relaxation, suggestibility, concentration, imaginative ability, reality testing, brain function, autonomic control, and placebo effect. Case studies are provided for illustration.
Synoptic forcing of wind relaxations at Pt. Conception, California
Fewings, Melanie R.; Washburn, Libe; Dorman, Clive E.; Gotschalk, Christopher; Lombardo, Kelly
2016-08-01
Over the California Current upwelling system in summer, the prevailing upwelling-favorable winds episodically weaken (relax) or reverse direction for a few days. Near Pt. Conception, California, the wind usually does not reverse, but wind relaxation allows poleward oceanic coastal flow with ecological consequences. To determine the offshore extent and synoptic forcing of these wind relaxations, we formed composite averages of wind stress from the QuikSCAT satellite and atmospheric pressure from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) using 67 wind relaxations during summer 2000-2009. Wind relaxations at Pt. Conception are the third stage of an event sequence that repeatedly affects the west coast of North America in summer. First, 5-7 days before the wind weakens near Pt. Conception, the wind weakens or reverses off Oregon and northern California. Second, the upwelling-favorable wind intensifies along central California. Third, the wind relaxes at Pt. Conception, and the area of weakened winds extends poleward to northern California over 3-5 days. The NARR underestimates the wind stress within ˜200 km of coastal capes by a factor of 2. Wind relaxations at Pt. Conception are caused by offshore extension of the desert heat low. This synoptic forcing is related to event cycles that cause wind reversal as in Halliwell and Allen (1987) and Mass and Bond (1996), but includes weaker events. The wind relaxations extend ˜600 km offshore, similarly to the California-scale hydraulic expansion fan shaping the prevailing winds, and ˜1000 km alongshore, limited by an opposing pressure gradient force at Cape Mendocino.
Relaxation effect of abacavir on rat basilar arteries.
Rachel Wai Sum Li
Full Text Available The use of abacavir has been linked with increased cardiovascular risk in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection; however, the mechanism involved remains unclear. We hypothesize that abacavir may impair endothelial function. In addition, based on the structural similarity between abacavir and adenosine, we propose that abacavir may affect vascular contractility through endogenous adenosine release or adenosine receptors in blood vessels.The relaxation effect of abacavir on rat basilar arteries was studied using the myograph technique. Cyclic GMP and AMP levels were measured by immunoassay. The effects of abacavir on nucleoside transporters were studied using radiolabeled nucleoside uptake experiments. Ecto-5' nucleotidase activity was determined by measuring the generation of inorganic phosphate using adenosine monophosphate as the substrate.Abacavir induced the relaxation of rat basilar arteries in a concentration-dependent manner. This relaxation was abolished when endothelium was removed. In addition, the relaxation was diminished by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME, the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, ODQ, and the protein kinase G inhibitor, KT5820. Abacavir also increased the cGMP level in rat basilar arteries. Abacavir-induced relaxation was also abolished by adenosine A2 receptor blockers. However, abacavir had no effect on ecto-5' nucleotidase and nucleoside transporters. Short-term and long-term treatment of abacavir did not affect acetylcholine-induced relaxation in rat basilar arteries.Abacavir induces acute endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat basilar arteries, probably through the activation of adenosine A2 receptors in endothelial cells, which subsequently leads to the release of nitric oxide, resulting in activation of the cyclic guanosine monophosphate/protein kinase G-dependent pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells. It is speculated that abacavir-induced cardiovascular risk may not be related to
Spin relaxation in geometrically frustrated pyrochlores
Dunsiger, Sarah Ruth
This thesis describes muSR experiments which focus on systems where the magnetic ions occupy the vertices of edge or corner sharing triangular units, in particular the pyrochlores A2B2O7. The scientific interest in pyrochlores is based on the fact that they display novel magnetic behaviour at low temperatures due to geometrical frustration. The ground state of these systems is sensitively dependent on such factors as the range of the spin-spin interactions, disorder, anisotropy, thermal and quantum fluctuations. For example, Y2Mo2O7 shows many features reminiscent of a conventional spin glass, even though this material has nominally zero chemical disorder. It is found that the muon spin polarisation obeys a time-field scaling relation which indicates that the spin-spin autocorrelation function has a power law form in time, in stark contrast with the exponential form often assumed for conventional magnets above their transition temperature. Gd2Ti2O7 shows long range order, but only at a temperature much lower than its Curie-Weiss temperature, a signature of a frustrated system. In the paramagnetic regime, it is well described by an isotropic Heisenberg Hamiltonian with nearest neighbour couplings in the presence of a Zeeman interaction, from which the spin-spin autocorrelation function may be calculated as a power series in time. The muon spin relaxation rate decreases with magnetic field as the Zeeman energy becomes comparable with the exchange coupling between Gd spins. Thus, an independent measure of the exchange coupling or equivalently the Gd spin fluctuation rate is extracted. By contrast, Tb2Ti2O7 has been identified as a type of cooperative paramagnet. Short range correlations develop below 50 K. However, there is no long range ordering down to very low temperatures (0.075 K). The Tb3+ ion is subject to strong crystal electric field effects: point charge calculations indicate that this system is Ising like at low temperatures. Thus this system may be
Anomaly diffuse and dielectric relaxation in strontium doped lanthanum molybdate
Liu, Xiao [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Fan, Huiqing, E-mail: hqfan3@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Shi, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)
2011-12-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The anomaly diffuse and dielectric relaxation behaviors are fitted by the Cole-Cole approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The peak in the LSMO is corresponding to different oxygen ion diffusion process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We first give better explanation about the strange conductivity change caused by doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oxygen ion diffusion is due to a combination of the dipolar relaxation and the motion of ions. -- Abstract: The dielectric properties of the La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9-{delta}} (x = 0-0.2) ceramics were investigated in the temperature range of 300-800 K. Dielectric measurement reveals that two dielectric anomalies, associated with the oxygen ion diffusion, exist in frequency spectrum with x = 0.5. The broad dielectric peaks in tan {delta}({omega}) can be well fitted by a modified Cole-Cole approach. When x = 0.1, only one dielectric relaxation peak is observed, corresponding to different oxygen ion diffusion processes, as distinct from the only relaxation peak in the pure La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9}. The relaxation parameters {tau}{sub 0}, the dielectric relaxation strength {Delta}, and the activation energy E{sub a} were obtained. The result of this work shows that, the conductivity change caused by doping between the two phases is due to the combination of the dipolar effects and motion of ions.
Difference and similarity of dielectric relaxation processes among polyols
Minoguchi, Ayumi; Kitai, Kei; Nozaki, Ryusuke
2003-09-01
Complex permittivity measurements were performed on sorbitol, xylitol, and sorbitol-xylitol mixture in the supercooled liquid state in an extremely wide frequency range from 10 μHz to 500 MHz at temperatures near and above the glass transition temperature. We determined detailed behavior of the relaxation parameters such as relaxation frequency and broadening against temperature not only for the α process but also for the β process above the glass transition temperature, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. Since supercooled liquids are in the quasi-equilibrium state, the behavior of all the relaxation parameters for the β process can be compared among the polyols as well as those for the α process. The relaxation frequencies of the α processes follow the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann manner and the loci in the Arrhenius diagram are different corresponding to the difference of the glass transition temperatures. On the other hand, the relaxation frequencies of the β processes, which are often called as the Johari-Goldstein processes, follow the Arrhenius-type temperature dependence. The relaxation parameters for the β process are quite similar among the polyols at temperatures below the αβ merging temperature, TM. However, they show anomalous behavior near TM, which depends on the molecular size of materials. These results suggest that the origin of the β process is essentially the same among the polyols.
STAR FORMATION AND RELAXATION IN 379 NEARBY GALAXY CLUSTERS
Cohen, Seth A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Wegner, Gary A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)
2015-06-10
We investigate the relationship between star formation (SF) and level of relaxation in a sample of 379 galaxy clusters at z < 0.2. We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to measure cluster membership and level of relaxation, and to select star-forming galaxies based on mid-infrared emission detected with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer. For galaxies with absolute magnitudes M{sub r} < −19.5, we find an inverse correlation between SF fraction and cluster relaxation: as a cluster becomes less relaxed, its SF fraction increases. Furthermore, in general, the subtracted SF fraction in all unrelaxed clusters (0.117 ± 0.003) is higher than that in all relaxed clusters (0.097 ± 0.005). We verify the validity of our SF calculation methods and membership criteria through analysis of previous work. Our results agree with previous findings that a weak correlation exists between cluster SF and dynamical state, possibly because unrelaxed clusters are less evolved relative to relaxed clusters.
Search Trees with Relaxed Balance and Near-Optimal Height
Fagerberg, Rolf; Larsen, Kim Skak; Jensen, Rune E.
2001-01-01
We introduce a relaxed k-tree, a search tree with relaxed balance and a height bound, when in balance, of (1+epsilon)log_2 n + 1, for any epsilon > 0. The number of nodes involved in rebalancing is O(1/epsilon) per update in the amortized sense, and O(log n/epsilon) in the worst case sense. This ...... constant rebalancing, which is an improvement over the current definition. World Wide Web search engines are possible applications for this line of work.......We introduce a relaxed k-tree, a search tree with relaxed balance and a height bound, when in balance, of (1+epsilon)log_2 n + 1, for any epsilon > 0. The number of nodes involved in rebalancing is O(1/epsilon) per update in the amortized sense, and O(log n/epsilon) in the worst case sense....... This is the first binary search tree with relaxed balance having a height bound better than c log_2 n for a fixed constant c. In all previous proposals, the constant is at least 1/log_2 phi>1.44, where phi is the golden ratio. As a consequence, we can also define a standard (non-relaxed) k-tree with amortized...
Stretched exponential relaxation and ac universality in disordered dielectrics
Milovanov, Alexander V.; Rypdal, Kristoffer; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
2007-01-01
This paper is concerned with the connection between the properties of dielectric relaxation and alternating-current (ac) conduction in disordered dielectrics. The discussion is divided between the classical linear-response theory and a self-consistent dynamical modeling. The key issues are stretc......This paper is concerned with the connection between the properties of dielectric relaxation and alternating-current (ac) conduction in disordered dielectrics. The discussion is divided between the classical linear-response theory and a self-consistent dynamical modeling. The key issues...... are stretched exponential character of dielectric relaxation, power-law power spectral density, and anomalous dependence of ac conduction coefficient on frequency. We propose a self-consistent model of dielectric relaxation in which the relaxations are described by a stretched exponential decay function....... Mathematically, our study refers to the expanding area of fractional calculus and we propose a systematic derivation of the fractional relaxation and fractional diffusion equations from the property of ac universality....
Thermal relaxation of molecular oxygen in collisions with nitrogen atoms
Andrienko, Daniil A.; Boyd, Iain D.
2016-07-01
Investigation of O2-N collisions is performed by means of the quasi-classical trajectory method on the two lowest ab initio potential energy surfaces at temperatures relevant to hypersonic flows. A complete set of bound-bound and bound-free transition rates is obtained for each precollisional rovibrational state. Special attention is paid to the vibrational and rotational relaxations of oxygen as a result of chemically non-reactive interaction with nitrogen atoms. The vibrational relaxation of oxygen partially occurs via the formation of an intermediate NO2 complex. The efficient energy randomization results in rapid vibrational relaxation at low temperatures, compared to other molecular systems with a purely repulsive potential. The vibrational relaxation time, computed by means of master equation studies, is nearly an order of magnitude lower than the relaxation time in N2-O collisions. The rotational nonequilibrium starts to play a significant effect at translational temperatures above 8000 K. The present work provides convenient relations for the vibrational and rotational relaxation times as well as for the quasi-steady dissociation rate coefficient and thus fills a gap in data due to a lack of experimental measurements for this system.
Weak nanoscale chaos and anomalous relaxation in DNA
Mazur, Alexey K.
2017-06-01
Anomalous nonexponential relaxation in hydrated biomolecules is commonly attributed to the complexity of the free-energy landscapes, similarly to polymers and glasses. It was found recently that the hydrogen-bond breathing of terminal DNA base pairs exhibits a slow power-law relaxation attributable to weak Hamiltonian chaos, with parameters similar to experimental data. Here, the relationship is studied between this motion and spectroscopic signals measured in DNA with a small molecular photoprobe inserted into the base-pair stack. To this end, the earlier computational approach in combination with an analytical theory is applied to the experimental DNA fragment. It is found that the intensity of breathing dynamics is strongly increased in the internal base pairs that flank the photoprobe, with anomalous relaxation quantitatively close to that in terminal base pairs. A physical mechanism is proposed to explain the coupling between the relaxation of base-pair breathing and the experimental response signal. It is concluded that the algebraic relaxation observed experimentally is very likely a manifestation of weakly chaotic dynamics of hydrogen-bond breathing in the base pairs stacked to the photoprobe and that the weak nanoscale chaos can represent an ubiquitous hidden source of nonexponential relaxation in ultrafast spectroscopy.
Repeated load relaxations of type 316 austenitic stainless steel
Hannula, S.P.; Li, C.Y.
1984-03-01
Several experiments have shown that the shape of the load relaxation curve after reloading in a logarithmic stress vs. logarithmic strain rate plot may differ from that after the initial loading. In a recent study Korhonen and Li showed that the apparent kink in a log sigma versus log epsilon plot of the stress relaxation data, after mainly elastic and anelastic loading, is due to change of the deformation mode from an anelasticity dominated one to a plasticity dominated one. According to the state variable model by Hart, the relaxation curve in reloading should overlap with the original one after this transition in the absence of structural changes. Therefore, the crossing of stress relaxation curves after an initial plastic loading and subsequent elastic and anelastic reloadings in commercially pure aluminum at room temperature was accounted for by thermally induced effects. In the same study, consecutive stress relaxation runs were conducted on 316 SS, and no cross-over behavior was observed, which was associated with the lack of thermal effects in 316 SS at room temperature. The results demonstrate that strain aging has an effect on relaxation behavior even at room temperature, the effect being more pronounced at high strains. The phenomena can be accounted for according to a state variable model by modifying the rate constant, which is affected by the amount of mobile dislocations as well as dislocation mobility.
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE RELAXATION OF BOLTS
Muhammad Abid
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Loss of pre-load with time, commonly known as ‘Relaxation’ is an established phenomena. Behaviour of a bolted joint depends upon the pre-load in the bolts in use, not the pre-load introduced by the mechanic. Loss of pre-load is expected due to the many factors such as embedment relaxation, gasket creep, elastic interactions, and vibration loosening or stress relaxation. In a gasketed joint, due to the gasket flexibility, relaxation is always substantial during preliminary passes, as 80 to 100% loss is not uncommon in almost all the bolts, resulting in a dynamic behaviour. Pre-load in a gasketed joint is stabilized and retained to certain extent in the final passes only. In a non-gasketed joint, due to no gasket and no rotation its static behaviour is concluded. This paper highlights the factors affecting the amount of relaxation with time and presents important considerations that can reduce this. Both the short and long term relaxations are recorded and a ‘best fit’ model for relaxation behaviour is derived.
Topology Synthesis of Structures Using Parameter Relaxation and Geometric Refinement
Hull, P. V.; Tinker, M. L.
2007-01-01
Typically, structural topology optimization problems undergo relaxation of certain design parameters to allow the existence of intermediate variable optimum topologies. Relaxation permits the use of a variety of gradient-based search techniques and has been shown to guarantee the existence of optimal solutions and eliminate mesh dependencies. This Technical Publication (TP) will demonstrate the application of relaxation to a control point discretization of the design workspace for the structural topology optimization process. The control point parameterization with subdivision has been offered as an alternative to the traditional method of discretized finite element design domain. The principle of relaxation demonstrates the increased utility of the control point parameterization. One of the significant results of the relaxation process offered in this TP is that direct manufacturability of the optimized design will be maintained without the need for designer intervention or translation. In addition, it will be shown that relaxation of certain parameters may extend the range of problems that can be addressed; e.g., in permitting limited out-of-plane motion to be included in a path generation problem.
Tovbin, Yu. K.
2017-08-01
The possibility of obtaining analytical estimates in a diffusion approximation of the times needed by nonequilibrium small bodies to relax to their equilibrium states based on knowledge of the mass transfer coefficient is considered. This coefficient is expressed as the product of the self-diffusion coefficient and the thermodynamic factor. A set of equations for the diffusion transport of mixture components is formulated, characteristic scales of the size of microheterogeneous phases are identified, and effective mass transfer coefficients are constructed for them. Allowing for the developed interface of coexisting and immiscible phases along with the porosity of solid phases is discussed. This approach can be applied to the diffusion equalization of concentrations of solid mixture components in many physicochemical systems: the mutual diffusion of components in multicomponent systems (alloys, semiconductors, solid mixtures of inert gases) and the mass transfer of an absorbed mobile component in the voids of a matrix consisting of slow components or a mixed composition of mobile and slow components (e.g., hydrogen in metals, oxygen in oxides, and the transfer of molecules through membranes of different natures, including polymeric).
PREFACE: Muon spin rotation, relaxation or resonance
Heffner, Robert H.; Nagamine, Kanetada
2004-10-01
To a particle physicist a muon is a member of the lepton family, a heavy electron possessing a mass of about 1/9 that of a proton and a spin of 1/2, which interacts with surrounding atoms and molecules electromagnetically. Since its discovery in 1937, the muon has been put to many uses, from tests of special relativity to deep inelastic scattering, from studies of nuclei to tests of weak interactions and quantum electrodynamics, and most recently, as a radiographic tool to see inside heavy objects and volcanoes. In 1957 Richard Garwin and collaborators, while conducting experiments at the Columbia University cyclotron to search for parity violation, discovered that spin-polarized muons injected into materials might be useful to probe internal magnetic fields. This eventually gave birth to the modern field of muSR, which stands for muon spin rotation, relaxation or resonance, and is the subject of this special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. Muons are produced in accelerators when high energy protons (generally >500 MeV) strike a target like graphite, producing pions which subsequently decay into muons. Most experiments carried out today use relatively low-energy (~4 MeV), positively-charged muons coming from pions decaying at rest in the skin of the production target. These muons have 100% spin polarization, a range in typical materials of about 180 mg cm-2, and are ideal for experiments in condensed matter physics and chemistry. Negatively-charged muons are also occasionally used to study such things as muonic atoms and muon-catalysed fusion. The muSR technique provides a local probe of internal magnetic fields and is highly complementary to inelastic neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance, for example. There are four primary muSR facilities in the world today: ISIS (Didcot, UK), KEK (Tsukuba, Japan), PSI (Villigen, Switzerland) and TRIUMF (Vancouver, Canada), serving about 500 researchers world-wide. A new facility, JPARC (Tokai, Japan
Sensitivity and resolution of two-dimensional NMR diffusion-relaxation measurements
Kausik, Ravinath; Hürlimann, Martin D.
2016-09-01
The performance of 2D NMR diffusion-relaxation measurements for fluid typing applications is analyzed. In particular, we delineate the region in the diffusion - relaxation plane that can be determined with a given gradient strength and homogeneity, and compare the performance of the single and double echo encoding with the stimulated echo diffusion encoding. We show that the diffusion editing based approach is able to determine the diffusion coefficient only if the relaxation time T2 exceeds a cutoff value T2,cutoff , that scales like T2,cutoff ∝g - 2 / 3D - 1 / 3 . For stimulated echo encoding, the optimal diffusion encoding times (Td and δ), that provide the best diffusion sensitivity, rely only on the T1 /T2 ratios and not on the diffusion coefficients of the fluids or the applied gradient strengths. Irrespective of T1 , for high enough gradients (i.e. when γ2g2 DT23 >102), the Hahn echo based encoding is superior to encoding based on the stimulated echo. For weaker gradients, the stimulated echo is superior only if the T1 /T2 ratio is much larger than 1. For single component systems, the diffusion sensitivity is not adversely impacted by the uniformity of the gradients and the diffusion distributions can be well measured. The presence of non-uniform gradients can affect the determination of the diffusion distributions when you have two fluids of comparable T2 . In such situations the effective single component diffusion coefficient is always closer to the geometric mean diffusion coefficient of the two fluids.
Detection of demyelination in multiple sclerosis by analysis of T2* relaxation at 7 T
Xiaozhen Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a relatively common cause of inflammatory demyelinating lesions of the central nervous system. In an attempt to detect and characterize ongoing demyelination in MS patient brains, we used a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI technique, involving the fitting of a three-component model to the T2* relaxation behavior at high-field (7 T. This model allowed estimation of the amount of myelin water (and thus indirectly myelin content, axonal water, and interstitial water. In this study, 25 relapsing–remitting MS patients underwent a 7 T MRI from which 12 gadolinium-enhancing lesions, 61 non-enhancing lesions, and their corresponding contralateral normal appearing white matter (NAWM regions were analyzed. In both enhancing and non-enhancing lesions, the amplitude of myelin water was significantly decreased, and interstitial and axonal water were increased relative to the contralateral NAWM. Longer relaxation time T2* of interstitial and axonal water, and lower frequency shift of axonal water, were also observed in both enhancing and non-enhancing lesions when compared to the contralateral NAWM. No significant difference was found between enhancing lesions and non-enhancing lesions. These findings suggest that the fitting of a three-component model to the T2* decay curve in MS lesions may help to quantify myelin loss.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reusable Component Services (RCS) is a super-catalog of components, services, solutions and technologies that facilitates search, discovery and collaboration in...
OUDHUIS, AACM; TENBRINKE, G
1992-01-01
A series of enthalpy relaxation measurements were carried out for the pure polymers polystyrene (PS) and poly(oxy-2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene) (PPE) and for homogeneous blends thereof. The data were analyzed using Moynihan's four-parameter approach.4 For the pure components the best fit parameter val
Relaxation lifetimes of plasmonically enhanced hybrid gold-carbon nanotubes systems
Glaeske, M.; Kumar, M.; Bisswanger, T.; Vaitiekenas, S.; Soci, C.; Narula, R.; Bruno, A.; Setaro, A.
2017-06-01
Recently, we introduced a novel hybridization route for carbon nanotubes using gold nanoparticles, whose close proximity neatly enhances their radiative emission. Here we investigate the mechanisms behind the enhancement by monitoring the de-excitation dynamics of our π-hybrids through two-color pump-probe time-resolved spectroscopy. The de-excitation process reveals a fast component and a slow component. We find that the presence of gold prominently affects the fast processes, indicating a stronger influence of the gold nanoparticle on the intra-band non-radiative relaxation than on the inter-band recombination of the single-walled carbon nanotube. By evaluating the de-excitation times, we estimate the balance between near-field pumping and the faster metal-induced de-excitation contributions, proving the enhanced pumping to be the leading mechanism.
Kiryutin, Alexey; Ivanov, Konstantin; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra; Vieth, Hans-Martin
2008-01-01
By combining magnetic field cycling in the range from 0.1mT to 7T with high-resolution NMR detection the T(1) relaxation dispersion (nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD)) of protons in the nucleotides adenosine mono-phosphate and guanosine mono-phosphate was measured in a site-specific way. While at high field the individual spins have distinctly different T(1) times, their scalar spin-spin interaction fulfills at low field the condition of strong coupling and leads to convergence of their T(1) dispersion curves. In addition, the spin-spin coupling can lead to oscillatory components in the relaxation kinetics traceable to a coupling between spin polarization and coherence in the relaxation process. As a consequence the NMRD curves do not directly reflect the spectral density function of the motional processes, but the effects of motion and spin coupling must be separated for a reliable evaluation. A theoretical approach is described allowing such an analysis.
Rambod, Masoume; Pourali-Mohammadi, Nasrin; Pasyar, Nilofar; Rafii, Forough; Sharif, Farkhondeh
2013-12-01
This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of Benson's relaxation technique in the quality of sleep of hemodialysis patients. It was a randomized controlled trial with a pre-post-test design. A total of 86 hemodialysis patients referring to hemodialysis units were assigned to either the intervention (receiving Benson's relaxation technique) or the control group (routine care) through block randomization. The study was performed in two hemodialysis units affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. The patients in the intervention group listened to the audiotape of Benson's relaxation technique twice a day each time for twenty minutes for eight weeks. The global score of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) as well as its components was computed in both the intervention and the control group before and at the 8th week of the intervention. The results of ANCOVA indicated significant differences between the two groups regarding the scores of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index subscales, such as sleep disturbance, daytime dysfunction, the use of sleep medication, and subjective sleep quality and as well as its global scores at the 8th week of the intervention (prelaxation technique in improvement of the sleep quality of the patients on hemodialysis. Thus, educational sessions are recommended to be planned on this cost effective and easy to use relaxation technique in order to improve hemodialysis patients' sleep quality. Further studies are needed to assess the effectiveness of this technique in other groups of patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ice sheet growth with laterally varying bedrock relaxation time
van der Wal, Wouter; Vizcaino Rubio, Pablo; De Boer, Bas; van de Wal, Roderik
2017-04-01
Isostatic response of the bedrock, or glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) in included in most ice sheet models. This is important because the surface elevation determines the mass balance and thereby implicitly also the strength of the mass balance feedback where higher surface elevation yields lower temperatures implying less melt and vice versa. Usually a single relaxation time or a set of relaxation times is used to model the response everywhere on Earth or at least for an entire ice sheet. In reality the viscosity in the Earth's mantle, and hence the relaxation time experienced by the ice, varies with location. Seismic studies indicate that several regions that were covered by ice during the last glacial cycle are underlain by mantle in which viscosity varies with orders of magnitude, such as Antarctica and North America. The question is whether such a variation of viscosity influences ice evolution. Several GIA models exist that can deal with 3D viscosity, but their large computation times make it nearly impossible to couple them to ice sheet models. Here we use the ANICE ice-sheet model (de Boer et al. 2013) with a simple bedrock-relaxation model in which a different relaxation time is used for separate regions. A temperature anomaly is applied to grow a schematic ice sheet on a flat earth, with other forcing mechanisms neglected. It is shown that in locations with a fast relaxation time of 300 years the equilibrium ice sheet is significantly thinner and narrower but also ice thickness in neighbouring regions (with the more standard relaxation time of 3000 years) is affected.
Fetal response to abbreviated relaxation techniques. A randomized controlled study.
Fink, Nadine S; Urech, Corinne; Isabel, Fornaro; Meyer, Andrea; Hoesli, Irène; Bitzer, Johannes; Alder, Judith
2011-02-01
stress during pregnancy can have adverse effects on the course of pregnancy and on fetal development. There are few studies investigating the outcome of stress reduction interventions on maternal well-being and obstetric outcome. this study aims (1) to obtain fetal behavioral states (quiet/active sleep, quiet/active wakefulness), (2) to investigate the effects of maternal relaxation on fetal behavior as well as on uterine activity, and (3) to investigate maternal physiological and endocrine parameters as potential underlying mechanisms for maternal-fetal relaxation-transferral. the behavior of 33 fetuses was analyzed during laboratory relaxation/quiet rest (control group, CG) and controlled for baseline fetal behavior. Potential associations between relaxation/quiet rest and fetal behavior (fetal heart rate (FHR), FHR variation, FHR acceleration, and body movements) and uterine activity were studied, using a computerized cardiotocogram (CTG) system. Maternal heart rate, blood pressure, cortisol, and norepinephrine were measured. intervention (progressive muscle relaxation, PMR, and guided imagery, GI) showed changes in fetal behavior. The intervention groups had higher long-term variation during and after relaxation compared to the CG (p=.039). CG fetuses had more FHR acceleration, especially during and after quiet rest (p=.027). Women in the PMR group had significantly more uterine activity than women in the GI group (p=.011) and than CG women. Maternal heart rate, blood pressure, and stress hormones were not associated with fetal behavior. this study indicates that the fetus might participate in maternal relaxation and suggests that GI is superior to PMR. This could especially be true for women who tend to direct their attention to body sensations such as abdominal activity. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bro, R.; Smilde, A.K.
2014-01-01
Principal component analysis is one of the most important and powerful methods in chemometrics as well as in a wealth of other areas. This paper provides a description of how to understand, use, and interpret principal component analysis. The paper focuses on the use of principal component analysis
Krylov subspace acceleration of waveform relaxation
Lumsdaine, A.; Wu, Deyun [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)
1996-12-31
Standard solution methods for numerically solving time-dependent problems typically begin by discretizing the problem on a uniform time grid and then sequentially solving for successive time points. The initial time discretization imposes a serialization to the solution process and limits parallel speedup to the speedup available from parallelizing the problem at any given time point. This bottleneck can be circumvented by the use of waveform methods in which multiple time-points of the different components of the solution are computed independently. With the waveform approach, a problem is first spatially decomposed and distributed among the processors of a parallel machine. Each processor then solves its own time-dependent subsystem over the entire interval of interest using previous iterates from other processors as inputs. Synchronization and communication between processors take place infrequently, and communication consists of large packets of information - discretized functions of time (i.e., waveforms).
Thermally induced magnetic relaxation in square artificial spin ice
Andersson, M. S.; Pappas, S. D.; Stopfel, H.; Östman, E.; Stein, A.; Nordblad, P.; Mathieu, R.; Hjörvarsson, B.; Kapaklis, V.
2016-11-01
The properties of natural and artificial assemblies of interacting elements, ranging from Quarks to Galaxies, are at the heart of Physics. The collective response and dynamics of such assemblies are dictated by the intrinsic dynamical properties of the building blocks, the nature of their interactions and topological constraints. Here we report on the relaxation dynamics of the magnetization of artificial assemblies of mesoscopic spins. In our model nano-magnetic system - square artificial spin ice – we are able to control the geometrical arrangement and interaction strength between the magnetically interacting building blocks by means of nano-lithography. Using time resolved magnetometry we show that the relaxation process can be described using the Kohlrausch law and that the extracted temperature dependent relaxation times of the assemblies follow the Vogel-Fulcher law. The results provide insight into the relaxation dynamics of mesoscopic nano-magnetic model systems, with adjustable energy and time scales, and demonstrates that these can serve as an ideal playground for the studies of collective dynamics and relaxations.
Evolutionary Pseudo-Relaxation Learning Algorithm for Bidirectional Associative Memory
Sheng-Zhi Du; Zeng-Qiang Chen; Zhu-Zhi Yuan
2005-01-01
This paper analyzes the sensitivity to noise in BAM (Bidirectional Associative Memory), and then proves the noise immunity of BAM relates not only to the minimum absolute value of net inputs (MAV) but also to the variance of weights associated with synapse connections. In fact, it is a positive monotonically increasing function of the quotient of MAV divided by the variance of weights. Besides, the performance of pseudo-relaxation method depends on learning parameters (λ and ζ), but the relation of them is not linear. So it is hard to find a best combination of λ and ζ which leads to the best BAM performance. And it is obvious that pseudo-relaxation is a kind of local optimization method, so it cannot guarantee to get the global optimal solution. In this paper, a novel learning algorithm EPRBAM (evolutionary psendo-relaxation learning algorithm for bidirectional association memory) employing genetic algorithm and pseudo-relaxation method is proposed to get feasible solution of BAM weight matrix. This algorithm uses the quotient as the fitness of each individual and employs pseudo-relaxation method to adjust individual solution when it does not satisfy constraining condition any more after genetic operation. Experimental results show this algorithm improves noise immunity of BAM greatly. At the same time, EPRBAM does not depend on learning parameters and can get global optimal solution.
Relaxation phenomena in rubber/layered silicate nanocomposites
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy (BDS is employed in order to investigate relaxation phenomena occurring in natural rubber (NR, polyurethane rubber (PUR and PUR/NR blend based nanocomposites, reinforced by 10 parts per hundred (phr Layered Silicates (LS. Nanocomposites and matrices were examined under identical conditions in a wide frequency (10–1 to 106 Hz and temperature (–100 to 50°C range. Experimental data are analyzed in terms of electric modulus formalism. The recorded relaxation phenomena include contributions from both the polymer matrices and the nanofiller. Natural rubber is a non-polar material and its performance is only slightly affected by the presence of layered silicates. Polyurethane rubber exhibits four distinct relaxation processes attributed, with ascending relaxation rate, to Interfacial Polarization (IP, glass/rubber transition (α-mode, local motions of polar side groups and small segments of the polymer chain (β, γ-mode. The same processes have been detected in all systems containing PUR. IP is present in all nanocomposites being the slowest recorded process. Finally, pronounced interfacial relaxation phenomena, occurring in the PUR+10 phr LS spectra, are attributed to nanoscale effects of intercalation and exfoliation.
Thermally induced magnetic relaxation in square artificial spin ice.
Andersson, M S; Pappas, S D; Stopfel, H; Östman, E; Stein, A; Nordblad, P; Mathieu, R; Hjörvarsson, B; Kapaklis, V
2016-11-24
The properties of natural and artificial assemblies of interacting elements, ranging from Quarks to Galaxies, are at the heart of Physics. The collective response and dynamics of such assemblies are dictated by the intrinsic dynamical properties of the building blocks, the nature of their interactions and topological constraints. Here we report on the relaxation dynamics of the magnetization of artificial assemblies of mesoscopic spins. In our model nano-magnetic system - square artificial spin ice - we are able to control the geometrical arrangement and interaction strength between the magnetically interacting building blocks by means of nano-lithography. Using time resolved magnetometry we show that the relaxation process can be described using the Kohlrausch law and that the extracted temperature dependent relaxation times of the assemblies follow the Vogel-Fulcher law. The results provide insight into the relaxation dynamics of mesoscopic nano-magnetic model systems, with adjustable energy and time scales, and demonstrates that these can serve as an ideal playground for the studies of collective dynamics and relaxations.
Ultrafast Energy Relaxation in Single Light-Harvesting Complexes
Malý, Pavel; Cogdell, Richard J; Mančal, Tomáš; van Grondelle, Rienk
2015-01-01
Energy relaxation in light-harvesting complexes has been extensively studied by various ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, the fastest processes being in the sub-100 fs range. At the same time much slower dynamics have been observed in individual complexes by single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy (SMS). In this work we employ a pump-probe type SMS technique to observe the ultrafast energy relaxation in single light-harvesting complexes LH2 of purple bacteria. After excitation at 800 nm, the measured relaxation time distribution of multiple complexes has a peak at 95 fs and is asymmetric, with a tail at slower relaxation times. When tuning the excitation wavelength, the distribution changes in both its shape and position. The observed behaviour agrees with what is to be expected from the LH2 excited states structure. As we show by a Redfield theory calculation of the relaxation times, the distribution shape corresponds to the expected effect of Gaussian disorder of the pigment transition energies. By repe...
Predictability of the large relaxations in a cellular automaton model
Tejedor, Alejandro; Ambroj, Samuel; Gomez, Javier B; Pacheco, Amalio F [Faculty of Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)
2008-09-19
A simple one-dimensional cellular automaton model with threshold dynamics is introduced. It is loaded at a uniform rate and unloaded by abrupt relaxations. The cumulative distribution of the size of the relaxations is analytically computed and behaves as a power law with an exponent equal to -1. This coincides with the phenomenological Gutenberg-Richter behavior observed in seismology for the cumulative statistics of earthquakes at the regional or global scale. The key point of the model is the zero-load state of the system after the occurrence of any relaxation, no matter what its size. This leads to an equipartition of probability between all possible load configurations in the system during the successive loading cycles. Each cycle ends with the occurrence of the greatest-or characteristic-relaxation in the system. The duration of the cycles in the model is statistically distributed with a coefficient of variation ranging from 0.5 to 1. The predictability of the characteristic relaxations is evaluated by means of error diagrams. This model illustrates the value taking into account the refractory periods to obtain a considerable gain in the quality of the predictions.
Effects of relaxation on the energy landscape of amorphous silicon
Kallel, Houssem; Mousseau, Normand; Schiettekatte, Francois
2008-03-01
Amorphous silicon is used in many devices around us, included as a thin-film transistor in most flat screens, it also serves as the reference for the study of disordered network systems. Recently, differential scanning calorimetry and nanocalorimetry measurements (DSC) ^1 have shown that the heat released as the temperature of the sample is raised following implantation, is temperature independent. To understand this behaviour, we characterize the energy landscape of model a-Si. Using the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau) with the modified Stillinger-Weber potential, we generate models at four levels of relaxation and identify the relaxation mechanisms by analysing 100 000 events for each model. We find that while the distribution of the activation barriers shifts to higher energy as the system is relaxed, the distribution of the relaxation energies is almost unchanged. The relation between these two phenomena is consistent with the DSC measurements. This work is supported, in part, by NSERC, FQRNT and the CRC Foundation. HK is grateful for a scholarship from the Tunisian Ministry of Higher Education, Scientific Research and Technology. ^1 R. Karmouch et al., Phys. Rev. B 75, 075304 (2007)
High fidelity modeling of thermal relaxation and dissociation of oxygen
Andrienko, Daniil A., E-mail: daniila@umich.edu; Boyd, Iain D. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan, 1320 Beal Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108 (United States)
2015-11-15
A master equation study of vibrational relaxation and dissociation of oxygen is conducted using state-specific O{sub 2}–O transition rates, generated by extensive trajectory simulations. Both O{sub 2}–O and O{sub 2}–O{sub 2} collisions are concurrently simulated in the evolving nonequilibrium gas system under constant heat bath conditions. The forced harmonic oscillator model is incorporated to simulate the state-to-state relaxation of oxygen in O{sub 2}–O{sub 2} collisions. The system of master equations is solved to simulate heating and cooling flows. The present study demonstrates the importance of atom-diatom collisions due to the extremely efficient energy randomization in the intermediate O{sub 3} complex. It is shown that the presence of atomic oxygen has a significant impact on vibrational relaxation time at temperatures observed in hypersonic flow. The population of highly-excited O{sub 2} vibrational states is affected by the amount of atomic oxygen when modeling the relaxation under constant heat bath conditions. A model of coupled state-to-state vibrational relaxation and dissociation of oxygen is also discussed.
Spin injection and relaxation in a mesoscopic superconductor
Aprili, Marco; Quay, Charis; Chevalier, Denis; Dutreix, Clement [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, CNRS UMR-8502, Bat. 510, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Bena, Cristina [Institut de Physique Theorique, CEA/Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Strunk, Christoph [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)
2015-07-01
Injecting spin-polarized electrons or holes into a superconductor and removing Cooper pairs creates both spin and charge imbalances. We have investigated the relaxation of the out-of-equilibrium magnetization induced by spin injection. First, we measured the spin and charge relaxation times (t{sub S} and t{sub Q}) by creating a dynamic equilibrium between continuous injection and relaxation, this leads to constant-in-time spin and charge accumulation proportional to their respective relaxation times. Using a mesoscopic ''absolute'' spin-valve, we obtained t{sub S} and t{sub Q} by probing the difference on the chemical potential between quasiparticles and Cooper pairs. We observed that spin (charge) accumulation dominates at low (high) injection current. This artificially generates spin-charge separation as theoretically first predicted by Kivelson and Rokhsar. Second, we directly measured the spin relaxation time in the frequency space and found t{sub S} = 1-10 ns consistent with results from constant current injection. Finally, we measured the spin coherence time of the out-of-equilibrium quasi-particles by performing an electron spin resonance experiment.
Control Strategies for Accurate Force Generation and Relaxation.
Ohtaka, Chiaki; Fujiwara, Motoko
2016-10-01
Characteristics and motor strategies for force generation and force relaxation were examined using graded tasks during isometric force control. Ten female college students (M age = 20.2 yr., SD = 1.1) were instructed to accurately control the force of isometric elbow flexion using their right arm to match a target force level as quickly as possible. They performed: (1) a generation task, wherein they increased their force from 0% maximum voluntary force to 20% maximum voluntary force (0%-20%), 40% maximum voluntary force (0%-40%), or 60% maximum voluntary force (0%-60%) and (2) and a relaxation task, in which they decreased their force from 60% maximum voluntary force to 40% maximum voluntary force (60%-40%), 20% maximum voluntary force (60%-20%), or to 0% maximum voluntary force (60%-0%). Produced force parameters of point of accuracy (force level, error), quickness (reaction time, adjustment time, rate of force development), and strategy (force wave, rate of force development) were analyzed. Errors of force relaxation were all greater, and reaction times shorter, than those of force generation. Adjustment time depended on the magnitude of force and peak rates of force development and force relaxation differed. Controlled relaxation of force is more difficult with low magnitude of force control.
Tunable finite-sized chains to control magnetic relaxation
Ekstrand, Paul D.; Javier, Daniel J.; Gredig, Thomas
2017-01-01
The magnetic dynamics of low-dimensional iron ion chains have been studied with regards to the tunable finite-sized chain length using iron phthalocyanine thin films. The deposition temperature varies the diffusion length during thin-film growth by limiting the average crystal size in the range from 40 to 110 nm . Using a method common for single chain magnets, the magnetic relaxation time for each chain length is determined from temporal remanence data and fit to a stretched exponential form in the temperature range below 5 K , the onset for magnetic hysteresis. A temperature-independent master curve is generated by scaling the remanence by its relaxation time to fit the energy barrier for spin reversal, and the single spin-relaxation time. The energy barrier of 95 K is found to be independent of the chain length. In contrast, the single spin-relaxation time increases with longer chains from under 1 ps to 800 ps. We show that thin films provide the nanoarchitecture to control magnetic relaxation and a testbed to study finite-size effects in low-dimensional magnetic systems.
A Graphical User Interface for RELAX3D
Jones, F. W.
1997-05-01
The Laplace/Poisson solver RELAX3D has been used extensively in cyclotron central region design and other accelerator and beam physics applications. It is typically run in an interactive mode where the user types in commands and parameters to initiate and control the solution process and to view or output the results. This paper describes a prototype graphical user interface (GUI), developed using Tcl/Tk, that eliminates most of this typing and makes for more efficient user interaction. The use of a unique package called Expect (a Tcl/Tk extension) allows the interface to be implemented as an independent front-end process that communicates with the running RELAX3D program, thus requiring minimal modifications to RELAX3D itself. Since Expect can control multiple processes, and since RELAX3D results are often sent to some subsequent program for visualization, particle tracking, etc., there are interesting opportunities to integrate these post-processing tasks into the same GUI that is used for RELAX3D.
Isochronous relaxation curves for type 304 stainless steel after monotonic and cyclic strain
Swindeman, R.W.
1978-01-01
Relaxation tests to 100 hr were performed on type 304 stainless steel in the temperature range 480 to 650/sup 0/C and were used to develop isochronous relaxation curves. Behavior after monotonic and cyclic strain was compared. Relaxation differed only slightly as a consequence of the type of previous strain, provided that plastic flow preceded the relaxation period. We observed that the short-time relaxation behavior did not manifest strong heat-to-heat variation in creep strength.
Simulating the Formation of Lunar Floor-Fracture Craters Using Elastoviscoplastic Relaxation
Dombard, A. J.; Gillis, J. J.
1999-01-01
Lunar floor-fracture craters formed during the height of mare basalt emplacement. Due to a general temporal and spatial relation with the maria, these craters, numbering some 200, may be diagnostic of the thermal structure of the crust during this time. As the name suggests, these craters exhibit brittle failure, generally limited to the central floor region. That, and a shallower depth than fresh lunar craters, has led to two main theories as to their formation: laccolith emplacement under the crater and viscous relaxation. The implications of each model for the state of the Moon's crust during this time are quite different, so the viability of each model must be checked. Laccolith emplacement has been treated elsewhere. However, previous attempts to study the relaxation of the craters have assumed only a uniform, Newtonian viscous response of the near surface to the topographic driving forces, and simply postulated that the fractures resulted from tensile stresses associated with floor uplift. Here, we use a more sophisticated rheological model that includes not only non-Newtonian viscous behavior (i.e., the viscosity is stress-dependent), but also incorporates elastic behavior and a plastic component to the rheology to directly simulate the formation of the floor fractures. The results of our simulations show that while elastoviscoplastic relaxation is potentially viable for larger floor-fracture craters, it is not viable for craters with diameters value problems, via the commercially available MARC software package. To test the viability of topographic relaxation, our goal is to prepare the simulations as to maximize the amount of relaxation. We take advantage of the natural axisymmetry of craters, simulating one radial plane. Initial shapes are based on data for fresh craters from Pike. To simplify implementation, a fourth order polynomial is used for the basin, while a third order inverse function is used for the rim. This form closely approximates the long
A Dynamic Job Shop Scheduling Method Based on Lagrangian Relaxation
无
1999-01-01
Due to the complexity of dynamic job shop scheduling in flexible manufacturing s ystem(FMS), many heuristic rules are still used today. A dynamic scheduling appr oach based on Lagrangian relaxation is proposed to improve the quality and guara ntee the real-time capability of dynamic scheduling. The proposed method makes use of the dynamic predictive optimal theory combined with Lagrangian relaxation to obtain a good solution that can be evaluated quantitatively. The Lagrangian multipliers introduced here are capable of describing machine predictive states and system capacity constraints. This approach can evaluate the suboptimality of the scheduling systems. It can also quickly obtain high quality feasible schedu les, thus enabling Lagrangian relaxation to be better used in the dynamic schedu ling of manufacturing system. The efficiency and effectiveness of this method ar e verified by numerical experiments.
Mechanisms underlying epithelium-dependent relaxation in rat bronchioles
Kroigaard, Christel; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Simonsen, Ulf
2010-01-01
This study investigated the mechanisms underlying epithelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EpDHF)-type relaxation in rat bronchioles. Immunohistochemistry was performed, and rat bronchioles and pulmonary arteries were mounted in microvascular myographs for functional studies. An opener of small...... (SK(Ca)) and intermediate (IK(Ca))-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, NS309 (6,7-dichloro-1H-indole-2,3-dione 3-oxime) was used to induce EpDHF-type relaxation. IK(Ca) and SK(Ca)3 positive immunoreactions were observed mainly in the epithelium and endothelium of bronchioles and arteries......, respectively. In 5-hydroxytryptamine (1 microM)-contracted bronchioles (828 +/- 20 microm, n = 84) and U46619 (0.03 microM)-contracted arteries (720 +/- 24 microm, n = 68), NS309 (0.001-10 microM) induced concentration-dependent relaxations that were reduced by epithelium/endothelium removal and by blocking IK...
Mindfulness meditation and relaxation training increases time sensitivity.
Droit-Volet, S; Fanget, M; Dambrun, M
2015-01-01
Two experiments examined the effect of mindfulness meditation and relaxation on time perception using a temporal bisection task. In Experiment 1, the participants performed a temporal task before and after exercises of mindfulness meditation or relaxation. In Experiment 2, the procedure was similar than that used in Experiment 1, except that the participants were trained to mediate or relax every day over a period of several weeks. The results showed that mindfulness meditation exercises increased sensitivity to time and lengthened perceived time. However, this temporal improvement with meditation exercises was primarily observed in the experienced meditators. Our results also showed the experienced meditators were less anxious than the novice participants, and that the sensitivity to time increased when the level of anxiety decreased. Our results were explained by the practice of mindfulness technique that had developed individuals' abilities in devoting more attention resources to temporal information processing.
Velocity and energy relaxation in two-phase flows
Meyapin, Yannick; Gisclon, Marguerite
2009-01-01
In the present study we investigate analytically the process of velocity and energy relaxation in two-phase flows. We begin our exposition by considering the so-called six equations two-phase model [Ishii1975, Rovarch2006]. This model assumes each phase to possess its own velocity and energy variables. Despite recent advances, the six equations model remains computationally expensive for many practical applications. Moreover, its advection operator may be non-hyperbolic which poses additional theoretical difficulties to construct robust numerical schemes |Ghidaglia et al, 2001]. In order to simplify this system, we complete momentum and energy conservation equations by relaxation terms. When relaxation characteristic time tends to zero, velocities and energies are constrained to tend to common values for both phases. As a result, we obtain a simple two-phase model which was recently proposed for simulation of violent aerated flows [Dias et al, 2010]. The preservation of invariant regions and incompressible li...
Distribution of NMR relaxations in a random Heisenberg chain.
Shiroka, T; Casola, F; Glazkov, V; Zheludev, A; Prša, K; Ott, H-R; Mesot, J
2011-04-01
NMR measurements of the (29)Si spin-lattice relaxation time T(1) were used to probe the spin-1/2 random Heisenberg chain compound BaCu(2)(Si(1-x)Ge(x))(2)O(7). Remarkable differences between the pure (x=0) and the fully random (x=0.5) cases are observed, indicating that randomness generates a distribution of local magnetic relaxations. This distribution, which is reflected in a stretched exponential NMR relaxation, exhibits a progressive broadening with decreasing temperature, caused by a growing inequivalence of magnetic sites. Compelling independent evidence for the influence of randomness is also obtained from magnetization data and Monte Carlo calculations. These results suggest the formation of random-singlet states in this class of materials, as previously predicted by theory.
STRESS RELAXATION AND RELIABILITY EVALUATION OF SODA-LIME GLASS
Y.W.Bao; Y.F.Han; F.T.Gong
2004-01-01
Stress relaxation of glass is a dualism effect, it often lead to strength degradation in strengthened glass, but on the other hand, it improves the reliability and stressuniformity of glasses. In this work, stress relaxation of soda-lime glass was investigated using three-point bending tests at 400-560℃ which is near the brittle to ductile transition temperature, for enhancing the safety of glass productions and exploring the most economic anneal process. The experimental results show that the speed of stress relaxation increases but the ultimate stress decreases with increasing temperature. The stress uniformity of the glass samples before and after anneal was examined using spherical indentation at arranged testing points. It indicates that the scatter of the local strength measured by the Hertzian indentation is smaller in the anneal glass than in initial specimen, so that the estimated Weibull modulus for the anneal specimen is higher. Furthermore, the strength evaluation by Hertzian indentation and statistical analysis was presented.
Alternating-current relaxation of a rotating metallic particle
Guo-Xi, Nie; Wen-Jia, Tian; Ji-Ping, Huang; Guo-Qing, Gu
2016-06-01
Based on a first-principles approach, we establish an alternating-current (AC) relaxation theory for a rotating metallic particle with complex dielectric constant . Here is the real part, the conductivity, ω 0 the angular frequency of an AC electric field, and . Our theory yields an accurate interparticle force, which is in good agreement with the existing experiment. The agreement helps to show that the relaxations of two kinds of charges, namely, surface polarized charges (described by ) and free charges (corresponding to ), contribute to the unusually large reduction in the attracting interparticle force. This theory can be adopted to determine the relaxation time of dynamic particles in various fields. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11222544), the Fok Ying Tung Education Foundation (Grant No. 131008), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University, China (Grant No. NCET-12-0121), and the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB922004).
Efficient relaxed-Jacobi smoothers for multigrid on parallel computers
Yang, Xiang; Mittal, Rajat
2017-03-01
In this Technical Note, we present a family of Jacobi-based multigrid smoothers suitable for the solution of discretized elliptic equations. These smoothers are based on the idea of scheduled-relaxation Jacobi proposed recently by Yang & Mittal (2014) [18] and employ two or three successive relaxed Jacobi iterations with relaxation factors derived so as to maximize the smoothing property of these iterations. The performance of these new smoothers measured in terms of convergence acceleration and computational workload, is assessed for multi-domain implementations typical of parallelized solvers, and compared to the lexicographic point Gauss-Seidel smoother. The tests include the geometric multigrid method on structured grids as well as the algebraic grid method on unstructured grids. The tests demonstrate that unlike Gauss-Seidel, the convergence of these Jacobi-based smoothers is unaffected by domain decomposition, and furthermore, they outperform the lexicographic Gauss-Seidel by factors that increase with domain partition count.
Experimental study on relaxation time in direction changing movement
Liu, Chi; Song, Weiguo; Fu, Libi; Lian, Liping; Lo, Siuming
2017-02-01
Controlled experiments were conducted to clarify the movement characteristics of pedestrians in direction changing processes. We track pedestrians' trajectories and map them into real space coordinates by the direct linear transformation method. In the acceleration process, the relaxation time and free moving speed in our experiments respectively equal 0.659 s and 1.540 m/s, which are consistent with those for Chinese participants in other experiments. Meanwhile, the values of relaxation time in the direction changing process are calculated by a derived equation from the concept of the social force model. It is observed that the relaxation time is not an invariable parameter, and tends to increase with an increase in the angular difference. Furthermore, results show that pedestrians are insensitive to a tiny angular difference between instantaneous velocity and desired velocity. These experimental results presented in this work can be applied in model development and validation.
Stress retardation versus stress relaxation in linear viscoelasticity
Christov, Ivan C
2016-01-01
We present a preliminary examination of a new approach to a long-standing problem in non-Newtonian fluid mechanics. First, we summarize how a general implicit functional relation between stress and rate of strain of a continuum with memory is reduced to the well-known linear differential constitutive relations that account for "relaxation" and "retardation." Then, we show that relaxation and retardation are asymptotically equivalent for small Deborah numbers, whence causal pure relaxation models necessarily correspond to ill-posed pure retardation models. We suggest that this dichotomy could be a possible way to reconcile the discrepancy between the theory of and certain experiments on viscoelastic liquids that are conjectured to exhibit only stress retardation.
Relaxation Characteristics of 828 DGEBA Epoxy Over Long Time Periods
Hoo, Jasmine; Reprogle, Riley C.; Wisler, Brian; Arechederra, Gabriel K.; McCoy, John D.; Kropka, Jamie M.; Long, Kevin N.
The mechanical relaxation response in uniaxial compression of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy was studied over long time periods. The epoxy, 828DEA, was Epon 828 cured with diethanolamine (DEA). A sample was compressed at constant strain rate and held at various strain levels for days to allow the sample to relax. The sample was then compressed further and held once more. The relaxation curves were fit with a stretched exponential function. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Schwarz waveform relaxation algorithm for heat equations with distributed delay
Wu Shu-Lin
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Heat equations with distributed delay are a class of mathematic models that has wide applications in many fields. Numerical computation plays an important role in the investigation of these equations, because the analytic solutions of partial differential equations with time delay are usually unavailable. On the other hand, duo to the delay property, numerical computation of these equations is time-consuming. To reduce the computation time, we analyze in this paper the Schwarz waveform relaxation algorithm with Robin transmission conditions. The Robin transmission conditions contain a free parameter, which has a significant effect on the convergence rate of the Schwarz waveform relaxation algorithm. Determining the Robin parameter is therefore one of the top-priority matters for the study of the Schwarz waveform relaxation algorithm. We provide new formula to fix the Robin parameter and we show numerically that the new Robin parameter is more efficient than the one proposed previously in the literature.