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Sample records for relaxed cap specificity

  1. The CAP Theorem Versus Databases with Relaxed ACID properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Lars; Pedersen, Rasmus Ulslev; Havnø Frank, Christian

    2014-01-01

    data from different locations can have at most two of the three desirable CAP properties [5]. The NoSQL movement has applied the CAP theorem as an argument against tradi- tional ACID (atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durabil- ity) databases, which prioritize consistency and partition- tolerance...

  2. T2 relaxation time mapping of the cartilage cap of osteochondromas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Horn, Paul; Laor, Tal [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati (United States); Daedzinski, Bernard J. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Kim, Dong Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Pharmacology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Our aim was to evaluate the cartilage cap of osteochondromas using T2 maps and to compare these values to those of normal patellar cartilage, from age and gender matched controls. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and request for informed consent was waived. Eleven children (ages 5-17 years) with osteochondromas underwent MR imaging, which included T2-weighted fat suppressed and T2 relaxation time mapping (echo time = 9-99/repetition time = 1500 msec) sequences. Lesion origins were femur (n = 5), tibia (n = 3), fibula (n = 2), and scapula (n = 1). Signal intensity of the cartilage cap, thickness, mean T2 relaxation times, and T2 spatial variation (mean T2 relaxation times as a function of distance) were evaluated. Findings were compared to those of patellar cartilage from a group of age and gender matched subjects. The cartilage caps showed a fluid-like high T2 signal, with mean thickness of 4.8 mm. The mean value of mean T2 relaxation times of the osteochondromas was 264.0 ± 80.4 msec (range, 151.0-366.0 msec). Mean T2 relaxation times were significantly longer than the values from patellar cartilage (39.0 msec) (p < 0.0001). These findings were observed with T2 spatial variation plots across the entire distance of the cartilage cap, with the most pronounced difference in the middle section of the cartilage. Longer T2 relaxation times of the cartilage caps of osteochondromas should be considered as normal, and likely to reflect an increased water content, different microstructure and component.

  3. T2 relaxation time mapping of the cartilage cap of osteochondromas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Horn, Paul; Laor, Tal; Daedzinski, Bernard J.; Kim, Dong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the cartilage cap of osteochondromas using T2 maps and to compare these values to those of normal patellar cartilage, from age and gender matched controls. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and request for informed consent was waived. Eleven children (ages 5-17 years) with osteochondromas underwent MR imaging, which included T2-weighted fat suppressed and T2 relaxation time mapping (echo time = 9-99/repetition time = 1500 msec) sequences. Lesion origins were femur (n = 5), tibia (n = 3), fibula (n = 2), and scapula (n = 1). Signal intensity of the cartilage cap, thickness, mean T2 relaxation times, and T2 spatial variation (mean T2 relaxation times as a function of distance) were evaluated. Findings were compared to those of patellar cartilage from a group of age and gender matched subjects. The cartilage caps showed a fluid-like high T2 signal, with mean thickness of 4.8 mm. The mean value of mean T2 relaxation times of the osteochondromas was 264.0 ± 80.4 msec (range, 151.0-366.0 msec). Mean T2 relaxation times were significantly longer than the values from patellar cartilage (39.0 msec) (p < 0.0001). These findings were observed with T2 spatial variation plots across the entire distance of the cartilage cap, with the most pronounced difference in the middle section of the cartilage. Longer T2 relaxation times of the cartilage caps of osteochondromas should be considered as normal, and likely to reflect an increased water content, different microstructure and component

  4. T2 Relaxation Time Mapping of the Cartilage Cap of Osteochondromas

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Horn, Paul; Dardzinski, Bernard J.; Kim, Dong Hoon; Laor, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to evaluate the cartilage cap of osteochondromas using T2 maps and to compare these values to those of normal patellar cartilage, from age and gender matched controls. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and request for informed consent was waived. Eleven children (ages 5-17 years) with osteochondromas underwent MR imaging, which included T2-weighted fat suppressed and T2 relaxation time mapping (echo time = 9-99/repetition tim...

  5. Ultrafast relaxation dynamics of electrons in Au clusters capped with dodecanethiol molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamanaka, Y.; Fukagawa, K.; Tai, Y.; Murakami, J.; Nakamura, A.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated electron relaxation dynamics of size-selected Au clusters capped by dodecanethiol molecules in the cluster sizes of 28-142 atoms using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. Absorption spectra of 28-71-atom clusters show discrete peaks due to the optical transitions between quantized states, while an absorption band due to the surface plasmon is observed in 142-atom clusters. In the differential absorption spectra measured by the pump-probe experiments, a large redshift of 140 meV lasting over 10 ps and absorption bleaching decaying within 2 ps are observed at the absorption peaks of 28-atom clusters. The redshift is ascribed to a charge transfer between Au clusters and dodecanethiol molecules adsorbed on the cluster surface, and the bleaching is due to blocking of the optical transitions between the ground state and the occupied electronic states due to the Pauli's-exclusion principle. Such behavior is in contrast to the 142-atom clusters, where the cooling of hot electrons generated by photo-excitation determines the relaxation dynamics. These results indicate molecular properties of the 28-atom Au cluster-dodecanethiol system

  6. A Linearized Relaxing Algorithm for the Specific Nonlinear Optimization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mio Horai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new method for the specific nonlinear and nonconvex global optimization problem by using a linear relaxation technique. To simplify the specific nonlinear and nonconvex optimization problem, we transform the problem to the lower linear relaxation form, and we solve the linear relaxation optimization problem by the Branch and Bound Algorithm. Under some reasonable assumptions, the global convergence of the algorithm is certified for the problem. Numerical results show that this method is more efficient than the previous methods.

  7. 49 CFR 178.318 - Specification MC 201; container for detonators and percussion caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification MC 201; container for detonators and percussion caps. 178.318 Section 178.318 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE....318 Specification MC 201; container for detonators and percussion caps. ...

  8. Development, genetic mapping and QTL association of cotton PHYA, PHYB, and HY5-specific CAPS and dCAPS markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among SNP markers that become increasingly valuable in molecular breeding of crop plants are the CAP and dCAP markers derived from the genes of interest. To date, the number of such gene-based markers is small in polyploid crop plants such as tetraploid cotton that has A and D subgenomes. The obje...

  9. Site-specific multipoint fluorescence measurement system with end-capped optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Woosub; Moon, Sucbei; Lee, Byoung-Cheol; Park, Chul-Seung; Kim, Dug Young; Kwon, Hyuk Sang

    2011-07-10

    We present the development and implementation of a spatially and spectrally resolved multipoint fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) system utilizing multiple end-capped optical fibers and an inexpensive laser source. Specially prepared end-capped optical fibers placed in an image plane were used to both collect fluorescence signals from the sample and to deliver signals to the detectors. The placement of independently selected optical fibers on the image plane was done by monitoring the end-capped fiber tips at the focus using a CCD, and fluorescence from specific positions of a sample were collected by an end-capped fiber, which could accurately represent light intensities or spectral data without incurring any disturbance. A fast multipoint spectroscopy system with a time resolution of ∼1.5 ms was then implemented using a prism and an electron multiplying charge coupled device with a pixel binning for the region of interest. The accuracy of our proposed system was subsequently confirmed by experimental results, based on an FCS analysis of microspheres in distilled water. We expect that the proposed multipoint site-specific fluorescence measurement system can be used as an inexpensive fluorescence measurement tool to study many intracellular and molecular dynamics in cell biology. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  10. Effects of the strain relaxation of an AlGaN barrier layer induced by various cap layers on the transport properties in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zi-Yang; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Duan Huan-Tao; Xue Jun-Shuai; Lin Zhi-Yu; Ma Jun-Cai; Xue Xiao-Yong; Hao Yue

    2011-01-01

    The strain relaxation of an AlGaN barrier layer may be influenced by a thin cap layer above, and affects the transport properties of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. Compared with the slight strain relaxation found in AlGaN barrier layer without cap layer, it is found that a thin cap layer can induce considerable changes of strain state in the AlGaN barrier layer. The degree of relaxation of the AlGaN layer significantly influences the transport properties of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. It is observed that electron mobility decreases with the increasing degree of relaxation of the AlGaN barrier, which is believed to be the main cause of the deterioration of crystalline quality and morphology on the AlGaN/GaN interface. On the other hand, both GaN and AlN cap layers lead to a decrease in 2DEG density. The reduction of 2DEG caused by the GaN cap layer may be attributed to the additional negative polarization charges formed at the interface between GaN and AlGaN, while the reduction of the piezoelectric effect in the AlGaN layer results in the decrease of 2DEG density in the case of AlN cap layer. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  11. Anomalous strain relaxation and light-hole character enhancement in GaAs capped InAs/In0.53Ga0.47As quantum ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Pilkyung; Park, Kwangmin; Yoon, Euijoon; Leburton, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    We theoretically investigated the strain profiles and the electronic structures of InAs/In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As quantum dot and GaAs capped quantum ring. In contrast to the intuitive expectation that the GaAs layer applies a strong compressive strain along the lateral directions of InAs, the GaAs embedded in the In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As matrix provides enough space for the InAs relaxation. The GaAs embedded in In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As acts as potential barrier for both electrons and heavy-holes, and as potential well for light-holes. Each hole state of the quantum ring exhibits two to eight times larger light-hole character than that of a quantum dot. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Is it more effective group relaxation than individual to reduce anxiety in specific phobias?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Carretero Román

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Relaxation is a standard technique used by nurses to reduce the level of anxiety. It seems that their implementation on a group can bring certain benefits compared with individual relaxation. This outline is intended to raise this hypothesis in caring for individuals diagnosed with specific phobia, by approaching the problem from the cognitive behavioural therapy perspective. In addition, it seeks to evaluate the usefulness of the nurse intervention relaxation to reduce the level of anxiety, in turn comparing the results obtained using an indicator of the scale of results NOC and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale. The phobia is a specific entity underdiagnosed, whose prevalence is about 10%. Those affected can live a really limited and debilitating, deteriorating quality of life. The community mental health nurses are in a unique position to participate in the cognitive behavioural therapy through relaxation, which will allow them to reduce the level of anxiety when people establish contact with the phobic stimulus. Methodology: quasi-experimental study in specific phobia diagnosed, 20 to 40 years old adults attending for the first time to the mental health facility derived from primary care. Both the control group as the pilot will be treated by conducted cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy individualized according to the therapeutic protocol MSC, except in terms of relaxation, which in the experimental group will be conducted at the group level. The effectiveness of treatment will be assessed with the Hamilton anxiety scale and the likert type scale of outcome indicators NOC "stress level" with 3 measurements, before starting, immediately after completing the sessions of relaxation and three months later, checking the decline in the average level of anxiety.

  13. Comparisons of CAP88PC version 2.0 default parameters to site specific inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, M. A.; Courtney, J. C.; Charter, N.; Egan, T.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of varying the input for the CAP88PC Version 2.0 program on the total effective dose equivalents (TEDEs) were determined for hypothetical releases from the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) located at the Argonne National Laboratory site on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Values for site specific meteorological conditions and agricultural production parameters were determined for the 80 km radius surrounding the HFEF. Four nuclides, 3 H, 85 Kr, 129 I, and 137 Cs (with its short lived progeny, 137m Ba) were selected for this study; these are the radioactive materials most likely to be released from HFEF under normal or abnormal operating conditions. Use of site specific meteorological parameters of annual precipitation, average temperature, and the height of the inversion layer decreased the TEDE from 137 Cs- 137m Ba up to 36%; reductions for other nuclides were less than 3%. Use of the site specific agricultural parameters reduced TEDE values between 7% and 49%, depending on the nuclide. Reductions are associated with decreased committed effective dose equivalents (CEDEs) from the ingestion pathway. This is not surprising since the HFEF is located well within the INEEL exclusion area, and the surrounding area closest to the release point is a high desert with limited agricultural diversity. Livestock and milk production are important in some counties at distances greater than 30 km from the HFEF

  14. Effective delivery of a nematode-repellent peptide using a root-cap-specific promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Catherine J; Wang, Dong; Atkinson, Howard J; Urwin, Peter E

    2011-02-01

    The potential of the MDK4-20 promoter of Arabidopsis thaliana to direct effective transgenic expression of a secreted nematode-repellent peptide was investigated. Its expression pattern was studied in both transgenic Arabidopsis and Solanum tuberosum (potato) plants. It directed root-specific β-glucuronidase expression in both species that was chiefly localized to cells of the root cap. Use of the fluorescent timer protein dsRED-E5 established that the MDK4-20 promoter remains active for longer than the commonly used constitutive promoter CaMV35S in separated potato root border cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines that expressed the nematode-repellent peptide under the control of either AtMDK4-20 or CaMV35S reduced the establishment of the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. The best line using the AtMDK4-20 promoter displayed a level of resistance >80%, comparable to that of lines using the CaMV35S promoter. In transgenic potato plants, 94.9 ± 0.8% resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida was achieved using the AtMDK4-20 promoter, compared with 34.4 ± 8.4% resistance displayed by a line expressing the repellent peptide from the CaMV35S promoter. These results establish the potential of the AtMDK4-20 promoter to limit expression of a repellent peptide whilst maintaining or even improving the efficacy of the cyst-nematode defence. © 2010 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2010 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. 5'-Phospho-RNA Acceptor Specificity of GDP Polyribonucleotidyltransferase of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus in mRNA Capping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Minako; Ogino, Tomoaki

    2017-03-15

    The GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) domain of the multifunctional L protein of rhabdoviruses, such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies virus, catalyzes the transfer of 5'-phospho-RNA (pRNA) from 5'-triphospho-RNA (pppRNA) to GDP via a covalent enzyme-pRNA intermediate to generate a 5'-cap structure (GpppA). Here, using an improved oligo-RNA capping assay with the VSV L protein, we showed that the Michaelis constants for GDP and pppAACAG (VSV mRNA-start sequence) are 0.03 and 0.4 μM, respectively. A competition assay between GDP and GDP analogues in the GpppA formation and pRNA transfer assay using GDP analogues as pRNA acceptors indicated that the PRNTase domain recognizes the C-2-amino group, but not the C-6-oxo group, N-1-hydrogen, or N-7-nitrogen, of GDP for the cap formation. 2,6-Diaminopurine-riboside (DAP), 7-deazaguanosine (7-deaza-G), and 7-methylguanosine (m 7 G) diphosphates efficiently accepted pRNA, resulting in the formation of DAPpppA, 7-deaza-GpppA, and m 7 GpppA (cap 0), respectively. Furthermore, either the 2'- or 3'-hydroxyl group of GDP was found to be required for efficient pRNA transfer. A 5'-diphosphate form of antiviral ribavirin weakly inhibited the GpppA formation but did not act as a pRNA acceptor. These results indicate that the PRNTase domain has a unique guanosine-binding mode different from that of eukaryotic mRNA capping enzyme, guanylyltransferase. IMPORTANCE mRNAs of nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA viruses, such as VSV, possess a fully methylated cap structure, which is required for mRNA stability, efficient translation, and evasion of antiviral innate immunity in host cells. GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) is an unconventional mRNA capping enzyme of NNS RNA viruses that is distinct from the eukaryotic mRNA capping enzyme, guanylyltransferase. In this study, we studied the pRNA acceptor specificity of VSV PRNTase using various GDP analogues and identified chemical groups of GDP as

  16. 5′-Phospho-RNA Acceptor Specificity of GDP Polyribonucleotidyltransferase of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus in mRNA Capping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Minako

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) domain of the multifunctional L protein of rhabdoviruses, such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies virus, catalyzes the transfer of 5′-phospho-RNA (pRNA) from 5′-triphospho-RNA (pppRNA) to GDP via a covalent enzyme-pRNA intermediate to generate a 5′-cap structure (GpppA). Here, using an improved oligo-RNA capping assay with the VSV L protein, we showed that the Michaelis constants for GDP and pppAACAG (VSV mRNA-start sequence) are 0.03 and 0.4 μM, respectively. A competition assay between GDP and GDP analogues in the GpppA formation and pRNA transfer assay using GDP analogues as pRNA acceptors indicated that the PRNTase domain recognizes the C-2-amino group, but not the C-6-oxo group, N-1-hydrogen, or N-7-nitrogen, of GDP for the cap formation. 2,6-Diaminopurine-riboside (DAP), 7-deazaguanosine (7-deaza-G), and 7-methylguanosine (m7G) diphosphates efficiently accepted pRNA, resulting in the formation of DAPpppA, 7-deaza-GpppA, and m7GpppA (cap 0), respectively. Furthermore, either the 2′- or 3′-hydroxyl group of GDP was found to be required for efficient pRNA transfer. A 5′-diphosphate form of antiviral ribavirin weakly inhibited the GpppA formation but did not act as a pRNA acceptor. These results indicate that the PRNTase domain has a unique guanosine-binding mode different from that of eukaryotic mRNA capping enzyme, guanylyltransferase. IMPORTANCE mRNAs of nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA viruses, such as VSV, possess a fully methylated cap structure, which is required for mRNA stability, efficient translation, and evasion of antiviral innate immunity in host cells. GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) is an unconventional mRNA capping enzyme of NNS RNA viruses that is distinct from the eukaryotic mRNA capping enzyme, guanylyltransferase. In this study, we studied the pRNA acceptor specificity of VSV PRNTase using various GDP analogues and identified chemical groups

  17. High Temperature Uniaxial Compression and Stress-Relaxation Behavior of India-Specific RAFM Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naimish S.; Sunil, Saurav; Sarkar, Apu

    2018-05-01

    India-specific reduced activity ferritic martensitic steel (INRAFM), a modified 9Cr-1Mo grade, has been developed by India as its own structural material for fabrication of the Indian Test Blanket Module (TBM) to be installed in the International Thermonuclear Energy Reactor (ITER). The extensive study on mechanical and physical properties of this material has been currently going on for appraisal of this material before being put to use in the ITER. High temperature compression, stress-relaxation, and strain-rate change behavior of the INRAFM steel have been investigated. The optical microscopic and scanning electron microscopic characterizations were carried out to observe the microstructural changes that occur during uniaxial compressive deformation test. Comparable true plastic stress values at 300 °C and 500 °C and a high drop in true plastic stress at 600 °C were observed during the compression test. Stress-relaxation behaviors were investigated at 500 °C, 550 °C, and 600 °C at a strain rate of 10-3 s-1. The creep properties of the steel at different temperatures were predicted from the stress-relaxation test. The Norton's stress exponent (n) was found to decrease with the increasing temperature. Using Bird-Mukherjee-Dorn relationship, the temperature-compensated normalized strain rate vs stress was plotted. The stress exponent (n) value of 10.05 was obtained from the normalized plot. The increasing nature of the strain rate sensitivity (m) with the test temperature was found from strain-rate change test. The low plastic stability with m 0.06 was observed at 600 °C. The activation volume (V *) values were obtained in the range of 100 to 300 b3. By comparing the experimental values with the literature, the rate-controlling mechanisms at the thermally activated region of high temperature were found to be the nonconservative movement of jogged screw dislocations and thermal breaking of attractive junctions.

  18. Communication: High pressure specific heat spectroscopy reveals simple relaxation behavior of glass forming molecular liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Lisa Anita; Niss, Kristine; Jakobsen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The frequency dependent specific heat has been measured under pressure for the molecular glass forming liquid 5-polyphenyl-4-ether in the viscous regime close to the glass transition. The temperature and pressure dependences of the characteristic time scale associated with the specific heat...... is compared to the equivalent time scale from dielectric spectroscopy performed under identical conditions. It is shown that the ratio between the two time scales is independent of both temperature and pressure. This observation is non-trivial and demonstrates the existence of specially simple molecular...... liquids in which different physical relaxation processes are both as function of temperature and pressure/density governed by the same underlying “inner clock.” Furthermore, the results are discussed in terms of the recent conjecture that van der Waals liquids, like the measuredliquid, comply...

  19. Cervical Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español The Cervical Cap KidsHealth / For Teens / The Cervical Cap What's in ... Call the Doctor? Print What Is a Cervical Cap? A cervical cap is a small cup made ...

  20. State-specific Multi-reference Perturbation Theories with Relaxed Coefficients: Molecular Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Mukherjee

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We present in this paper two new versions of Rayleigh-Schr¨odinger (RS and the Brillouin-Wigner (BW state-specific multi-reference perturbative theories (SSMRPT which stem from our state-specific multi-reference coupled-cluster formalism (SS-MRCC, developed with a complete active space (CAS. They are manifestly sizeextensive and are designed to avoid intruders. The combining coefficients cμ for the model functions φμ are completely relaxed and are obtained by diagonalizing an effective operator in the model space, one root of which is the target eigenvalue of interest. By invoking suitable partitioning of the hamiltonian, very convenient perturbative versions of the formalism in both the RS and the BW forms are developed for the second order energy. The unperturbed hamiltonians for these theories can be chosen to be of both Mφller-Plesset (MP and Epstein-Nesbet (EN type. However, we choose the corresponding Fock operator fμ for each model function φμ, whose diagonal elements are used to define the unperturbed hamiltonian in the MP partition. In the EN partition, we additionally include all the diagonal direct and exchange ladders. Our SS-MRPT thus utilizes a multi-partitioning strategy. Illustrative numerical applications are presented for potential energy surfaces (PES of the ground (1Σ+ and the first delta (1Δ states of CH+ which possess pronounced multi-reference character. Comparison of the results with the corresponding full CI values indicates the efficacy of our formalisms.

  1. Cervical Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... giving birth vaginally, which means the cervical cap may not fit as well. Inconsistent or incorrect use of the cervical cap increases your risk of pregnancy. For example, you may get pregnant when using the cervical cap if: ...

  2. TFIIH and P-TEFb coordinate transcription with capping enzyme recruitment at specific genes in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viladevall, Laia; St Amour, Courtney V; Rosebrock, Adam; Schneider, Susanne; Zhang, Chao; Allen, Jasmina J; Shokat, Kevan M; Schwer, Beate; Leatherwood, Janet K; Fisher, Robert P

    2009-03-27

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are subunits of transcription factor (TF) IIH and positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). To define their functions, we mutated the TFIIH-associated kinase Mcs6 and P-TEFb homologs Cdk9 and Lsk1 of fission yeast, making them sensitive to inhibition by bulky purine analogs. Selective inhibition of Mcs6 or Cdk9 blocks cell division, alters RNA polymerase (Pol) II carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) phosphorylation, and represses specific, overlapping subsets of transcripts. At a common target gene, both CDKs must be active for normal Pol II occupancy, and Spt5-a CDK substrate and regulator of elongation-accumulates disproportionately to Pol II when either kinase is inhibited. In contrast, Mcs6 activity is sufficient-and necessary-to recruit the Cdk9/Pcm1 (mRNA cap methyltransferase) complex. In vitro, phosphorylation of the CTD by Mcs6 stimulates subsequent phosphorylation by Cdk9. We propose that TFIIH primes the CTD and promotes recruitment of P-TEFb/Pcm1, serving to couple elongation and capping of select pre-mRNAs.

  3. TFIIH and P-TEFb Coordinate Transcription with Capping Enzyme Recruitment at Specific Genes in Fission Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viladevall, Laia; St. Amour, Courtney V.; Rosebrock, Adam; Schneider, Susanne; Zhang, Chao; Allen, Jasmina J.; Shokat, Kevan M.; Schwer, Beate; Leatherwood, Janet K.; Fisher, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are subunits of transcription factor (TF) IIH and positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). To define their functions, we mutated the TFIIH-associated kinase Mcs6 and P-TEFb homologs Cdk9 and Lsk1 of fission yeast, making them sensitive to bulky purine analogs. Selective inhibition of Mcs6 or Cdk9 blocks cell division, alters RNA polymerase (Pol) II carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) phosphorylation and represses specific, overlapping subsets of transcripts. At a common target gene, both CDKs must be active for normal Pol II occupancy, and Spt5—a CDK substrate and regulator of elongation—accumulates disproportionately to Pol II when either kinase is inhibited. In contrast, Mcs6 activity is sufficient, and necessary, to recruit the Cdk9/Pcm1 (mRNA cap methyltransferase) complex. In vitro, phosphorylation of the CTD by Mcs6 stimulates subsequent phosphorylation by Cdk9. We propose that TFIIH primes the CTD and promotes recruitment of P-TEFb/Pcm1, serving to couple elongation and capping of select pre-mRNAs. PMID:19328067

  4. EFFICACY OF POST ISOMETRIC RELAXATION VERSUS STATIC STRECHING IN SUBJECTS WITH CHRONIC NON SPECIFIC NECK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Haritha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neck pain is a common problem within our society. Upper trapezius sternocleidomastoid and the levator scapulae are the most common postural muscles that tends to get shorten leading to restricted neck mobility. There is lack of evidence to allow conclusions to be drawn about the effectiveness of post isometric relaxation when compared with static stretching exercises. The aim is to find out the effectiveness of Post isometric relaxation Versus Static stretching in the subjects with chronic nonspecific neck pain. To evaluate the effectiveness of post isometric relaxation technique on pain by using Visual analoge scale, range of motion by using Universal Goniometry, and functional disability by using Neck Disability Index in chronic nonspecific neck pain. Methods: A convenient sample of thirty seven subjects was diagnosed with nonspecific neck pain was randomly allocated to one of the two treatment groups on the basis of the inclusion criteria. The experimental group (n=15 received three sessions of post isometric relaxation technique for trapezius, sternocleidomastoid and the levator scapulae and control group (n=15 received the three sessions of static stretching for trapezius, sternocliedomastiod and levator scapulae for four weeks. Results: Non parametric tests demonstrated a statistically significant difference with experimental group showing greater improvement in ROM, VAS, and NDI than the control group and significant difference within the group also. Conclusion: This study concluded and the results reflected that post isometric relaxation technique group had better improvement in reduction of pain, improvement in the range of motion, and increased neck functional activities than the static stretching group.

  5. Origin of two maxima in specific heat in enthalpy relaxation under thermal history composed of cooling, annealing, and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakatsuji, Waki; Konishi, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-12-01

    The origin of two maxima in specific heat observed at the higher and the lower temperatures in the glass-transition region in the heating process has been studied for polymethyl methacrylate and polyvinyl chloride using differential scanning calorimetry, and the calculation was done using the phenomenological model equation under a thermal history of the typical annealing experiment composed of cooling, annealing, and heating. The higher maximum is observed above the glass-transition temperature, and it remains almost unchanged independent of annealing time t_{a}, while the lower one is observed above an annealing temperature T_{a} and shifts toward the higher one, increasing its magnitude with t_{a}. The analysis by the phenomenological model equation proposed in order to interpret the memory effect in the glassy state clarifies that under a typical annealing history, two maxima in specific heat essentially appear. The shift of the lower maximum toward higher temperatures from above T_{a} is caused by an increase in the amount of relaxation during annealing with t_{a}. The annealing temperature and the amount of relaxation during annealing play a major role in the determination of the number of maxima in the specific heat.

  6. Increased CEST specificity for amide and fast-exchanging amine protons using exchange-dependent relaxation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Feng; Xu, Junzhong; Gochberg, Daniel F; Gore, John C; Zu, Zhongliang

    2018-02-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging of amides at 3.5 ppm and fast-exchanging amines at 3 ppm provides a unique means to enhance the sensitivity of detection of, for example, proteins/peptides and neurotransmitters, respectively, and hence can provide important information on molecular composition. However, despite the high sensitivity relative to conventional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), in practice, CEST often has relatively poor specificity. For example, CEST signals are typically influenced by several confounding effects, including direct water saturation (DS), semi-solid non-specific magnetization transfer (MT), the influence of water relaxation times (T 1w ) and nearby overlapping CEST signals. Although several editing techniques have been developed to increase the specificity by removing DS, semi-solid MT and T 1w influences, it is still challenging to remove overlapping CEST signals from different exchanging sites. For instance, the amide proton transfer (APT) signal could be contaminated by CEST effects from fast-exchanging amines at 3 ppm and intermediate-exchanging amines at 2 ppm. The current work applies an exchange-dependent relaxation rate (R ex ) to address this problem. Simulations demonstrate that: (1) slowly exchanging amides and fast-exchanging amines have distinct dependences on irradiation powers; and (2) R ex serves as a resonance frequency high-pass filter to selectively reduce CEST signals with resonance frequencies closer to water. These characteristics of R ex provide a means to isolate the APT signal from amines. In addition, previous studies have shown that CEST signals from fast-exchanging amines have no distinct features around their resonance frequencies. However, R ex gives Lorentzian lineshapes centered at their resonance frequencies for fast-exchanging amines and thus can significantly increase the specificity of CEST imaging for amides and fast-exchanging amines. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons

  7. A technical basis to relax the dew point specification for the environment in the vapor space in DWPF canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1995-05-01

    This memorandum establishes the technical basis to conclude that relaxing, from 0 C to 20 C, the dew point specification for the atmosphere in the vapor space (free volume) of a DWPF canister will not provide an environment that will cause significant amounts of corrosion induced degradation of the canister wall. The conclusion is based on engineering analysis, experience and review of the corrosion literature. The basic assumptions underlying the conclusion are: (1) the canister was fabricated from Type 304L stainless steel; (2) the corrosion behavior of the canister material, including base metal, fusion zones and heat effected zones, is typified by literature data for, and industrial experience with, 300 series austenitic stainless steels; and (3) the glass-metal crevices created during the pouring operation will not alter the basic corrosion resistance of the steel although such crevices might serve as sites for the initiation of minor amounts of corrosion on the canister wall

  8. Casein-Coated Fe5C2 Nanoparticles with Superior r2 Relaxivity for Liver-Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowger, Taku A; Tang, Wei; Zhen, Zipeng; Hu, Kai; Rink, David E; Todd, Trever J; Wang, Geoffrey D; Zhang, Weizhong; Chen, Hongmin; Xie, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have been extensively used as T2 contrast agents for liver-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The applications, however, have been limited by their mediocre magnetism and r2 relaxivity. Recent studies show that Fe5C2 nanoparticles can be prepared by high temperature thermal decomposition. The resulting nanoparticles possess strong and air stable magnetism, suggesting their potential as a novel type of T2 contrast agent. To this end, we improve the synthetic and surface modification methods of Fe5C2 nanoparticles, and investigated the impact of size and coating on their performances for liver MRI. Specifically, we prepared 5, 14, and 22 nm Fe5C2 nanoparticles and engineered their surface by: 1) ligand addition with phospholipids, 2) ligand exchange with zwitterion-dopamine-sulfonate (ZDS), and 3) protein adsorption with casein. It was found that the size and surface coating have varied levels of impact on the particles' hydrodynamic size, viability, uptake by macrophages, and r2 relaxivity. Interestingly, while phospholipid- and ZDS-coated Fe5C2 nanoparticles showed comparable r2, the casein coating led to an r2 enhancement by more than 2 fold. In particular, casein coated 22 nm Fe5C2 nanoparticle show a striking r2 of 973 mM(-1)s(-1), which is one of the highest among all of the T2 contrast agents reported to date. Small animal studies confirmed the advantage of Fe5C2 nanoparticles over iron oxide nanoparticles in inducing hypointensities on T2-weighted MR images, and the particles caused little toxicity to the host. The improvements are important for transforming Fe5C2 nanoparticles into a new class of MRI contrast agents. The observations also shed light on protein-based surface modification as a means to modulate contrast ability of magnetic nanoparticles.

  9. NESHAP Area-Specific Dose-Release Factors for Potential Onsite Member-of-the-Public Locations at SRS using CAP88-PC Version 4.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimor, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-09

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the use of the computer model CAP88-PC to estimate the total effective doses (TED) for demonstrating compliance with 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (EPA 2006), the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulations. As such, CAP88 Version 4.0 was used to calculate the receptor dose due to routine atmospheric releases at the Savannah River Site (SRS). For estimation, NESHAP dose-release factors (DRFs) have been supplied to Environmental Compliance and Area Closure Projects (EC&ACP) for many years. DRFs represent the dose to a maximum receptor exposed to 1 Ci of a specified radionuclide being released into the atmosphere. They are periodically updated to include changes in the CAP88 version, input parameter values, site meteorology, and location of the maximally exposed individual (MEI). In this report, the DRFs were calculated for potential radionuclide atmospheric releases from 13 SRS release points. The three potential onsite MEI locations to be evaluated are B-Area, Three Rivers Landfill (TRL), and Savannah River Ecology Lab Conference Center (SRELCC) with TRL’s onsite workers considered as members-of-the-public, and the potential future constructions of dormitories at SRELCC and Barracks at B-Area. Each MEI location was evaluated at a specified compass sector with different area to receptor distances and was conducted for both ground-level and elevated release points. The analysis makes use of area-specific meteorological data (Viner 2014). The resulting DRFs are compared to the 2014 NESHAP offsite MEI DRFs for three operational areas; A-Area, H-Area, and COS for a release rate of 1 Ci of tritium oxide at 0 ft. elevation. CAP88 was executed again using the 2016 NESHAP MEI release rates for 0 and 61 m stack heights to determine the radionuclide dose at TRL from the center-of-site (COS).

  10. Cradle Cap (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cradle Cap (Infantile Seborrheic Dermatitis) KidsHealth / For Parents / Cradle Cap ( ... many babies develop called cradle cap. About Cradle Cap Cradle cap is the common term for seborrheic ...

  11. Death cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbæk, Torsten R; Kofoed, Pernille Bouteloup; Bove, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    Death cap (Amanita phalloides) is commonly found and is one of the five most toxic fungi in Denmark. Toxicity is due to amatoxin, and poisoning is a serious medical condition, causing organ failure with potential fatal outcome. Acknowledgement and clarification of exposure, symptomatic and focused...

  12. Apical cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLoud, T.C.; Isler, R.J.; Novelline, R.A.; Putman, C.E.; Simeone, J.; Stark, P.

    1981-01-01

    Apical caps, either unilateral or bilateral, are a common feature of advancing age and are usually the result of subpleural scarring unassociated with other diseases. Pancoast (superior sulcus) tumors are a well recognized cause of unilateral asymmetric apical density. Other lesions arising in the lung, pleura, or extrapleural space may produce unilateral or bilateral apical caps. These include: (1) inflammatory: tuberculosis and extrapleural abscesses extending from the neck; (2) post radiation fibrosis after mantle therapy for Hodgkin disease or supraclavicular radiation in the treatment of breast carcinoma; (3) neoplasm: lymphoma extending from the neck or mediastinum, superior sulcus bronchogenic carcinoma, and metastases; (4) traumatic: extrapleural dissection of blood from a ruptured aorta, fractures of the ribs or spine, or hemorrhage due to subclavian line placement; (5) vascular: coarctation of the aorta with dilated collaterals over the apex, fistula between the subclavian artery and vein; and (6) miscellaneous: mediastinal lipomatosis with subcostal fat extending over the apices

  13. Molecular beacon based biosensor for the sequence-specific detection of DNA using DNA-capped gold nanoparticles-streptavidin conjugates for signal amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Xian; Jiang, Wei; Han, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yuzhong

    2013-01-01

    We describe a highly sensitive and selective molecular beacon-based electrochemical impedance biosensor for the sequence-specific detection of DNA. DNA-capped conjugates between gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) and streptavidin are used for signal amplification. The molecular beacon was labeled with a thiol at its 5′ end and with biotin at its 3′ end, and then immobilized on the surface of a bare gold electrode through the formation of Au-S bonds. Initially, the molecular beacon is present in the “closed” state, and this shields the biotin from being approached by streptavidin due to steric hindrance. In the presence of the target DNA, the target DNA molecules hybridize with the loop and cause a conformational change that moves the biotin away from the surface of the electrode. The biotin thereby becomes accessible for the reporter (the DNA-streptavidin capped Au-NPs), and this results in a distinct increase in electron transfer resistance. Under optimal conditions, the increase in resistance is linearly related to the logarithm of the concentration of complementary target DNA in the range from 1.0 fM to 0.1 μM, with a detection limit of 0.35 fM (at an S/N of 3). This biosensor exhibits good selectivity, and acceptable stability and reproducibility. (author)

  14. Conformation-specific spectroscopy of capped glutamine-containing peptides: role of a single glutamine residue on peptide backbone preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Patrick S; Dean, Jacob C; McBurney, Carl; Kang, Hyuk; Gellman, Samuel H; Zwier, Timothy S

    2016-04-28

    The conformational preferences of a series of short, aromatic-capped, glutamine-containing peptides have been studied under jet-cooled conditions in the gas phase. This work seeks a bottom-up understanding of the role played by glutamine residues in directing peptide structures that lead to neurodegenerative diseases. Resonant ion-dip infrared (RIDIR) spectroscopy is used to record single-conformation infrared spectra in the NH stretch, amide I and amide II regions. Comparison of the experimental spectra with the predictions of calculations carried out at the DFT M05-2X/6-31+G(d) level of theory lead to firm assignments for the H-bonding architectures of a total of eight conformers of four molecules, including three in Z-Gln-OH, one in Z-Gln-NHMe, three in Ac-Gln-NHBn, and one in Ac-Ala-Gln-NHBn. The Gln side chain engages actively in forming H-bonds with nearest-neighbor amide groups, forming C8 H-bonds to the C-terminal side, C9 H-bonds to the N-terminal side, and an amide-stacked geometry, all with an extended (C5) peptide backbone about the Gln residue. The Gln side chain also stabilizes an inverse γ-turn in the peptide backbone by forming a pair of H-bonds that bridge the γ-turn and stabilize it. Finally, the entire conformer population of Ac-Ala-Gln-NHBn is funneled into a single structure that incorporates the peptide backbone in a type I β-turn, stabilized by the Gln side chain forming a C7 H-bond to the central amide group in the β-turn not otherwise involved in a hydrogen bond. This β-turn backbone structure is nearly identical to that observed in a series of X-(AQ)-Y β-turns in the protein data bank, demonstrating that the gas-phase structure is robust to perturbations imposed by the crystalline protein environment.

  15. Genetic ablation of root cap cells in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsugeki, Ryuji; Fedoroff, Nina V.

    1999-01-01

    The root cap is increasingly appreciated as a complex and dynamic plant organ. Root caps sense and transmit environmental signals, synthesize and secrete small molecules and macromolecules, and in some species shed metabolically active cells. However, it is not known whether root caps are essential for normal shoot and root development. We report the identification of a root cap-specific promoter and describe its use to genetically ablate root caps by directing root cap-specific expression of...

  16. Specific IgE Antibodies in Young Children with Atopic Dermatitis--Correlation of Multiple Allergen Simultaneous Immunoblot Test and ImmunoCap System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Ewa; Ceregra, Aldona; Maciorkowska, Elzbieta; Surowska, Barbara; Trojanowska, Ilona; Roszko-Kirpsza, Izabela; Cukrowska, Bozena

    2016-01-01

    Sensitization to food allergens is a common condition in pediatric atopic dermatitis (AD). Recently, the multiple allergen simultaneous test (MAST) allowing for a comprehensive assessment of atopy has been developed, but the usefulness in young AD children is not known. The aim of this study was to determine IgE specificity in AD children using MAST and to compare the results for selected food allergens with the reference ImmunoCap system. The study enrolled 50 children up to 2 years old with a diagnosis of AD. IgE antibodies were measured with the MAST-immunoblots. Children with specific IgE levels ≥ 0.35 kU/L were identified as sensitized to allergens. Most often children were sensitized to food allergens (egg white and yolk, hazelnuts, potato, cow's milk proteins, wheat flour, codfish, and soybean), but a high percentage of them also had IgE antibodies against house dust mites (12%), grass (10%), and birch (10%). Eight percent of children were sensitized to domestic animals (cats and dogs). Almost perfect (kappa index 0.8 - 1.0) and substantial (kappa index 0.6 - 0.8) agreement between MAST and ImmunoCap was found for food allergens except codfish. Pearson's analysis of antibody classes showed a very strong correlation between two methods (r = 0.8 - 1.0) for egg white, hazelnuts, potato, cow's milk proteins, wheat flour, and soybean, and a strong correlation (r = 0.6 - 0.79) was observed for peanut, egg yolk, and codfish. The study showed the frequent occurrence of IgE antibodies against food and airborne and animal allergens in young AD children and confirmed the usefulness of MAST-immunoblots for screening of sensitization in pediatric patients.

  17. The Effects of Progressive Relaxation and Music on Attention, Relaxation, and Stress Responses: An Investigation of the Cognitive-Behavioral Model of Relaxation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scheufele, Peter

    1999-01-01

    ...) suggested that stress management techniques have specific effects A compromise position suggests that the specific effects of relaxation techniques are superimposed upon a general relaxation response...

  18. Comparison of immunoglobulin E measurements on IMMULITE and ImmunoCAP in samples consisting of allergen-specific mouse-human chimeric monoclonal antibodies towards allergen extracts and four recombinant allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal B; Stender, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody in vitro tests are performed on enzyme immunoassay systems. Poor agreement among systems has been reported and comparisons have been made exclusively with allergen extracts - not with recombinant allergens. Here we compare the ImmunoCAP and the IMMULITE sy...

  19. Pressure dependence of thermal conductivity and specific heat in CeRh2Si2 measured by an extended thermal relaxation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigori, Shijo; Seida, Osamu

    2018-05-01

    We have developed a new technique for measuring thermal conductivity and specific heat under pressure by improving a thermal relaxation method. In this technique, a cylindrical sample with a small disc heater is embedded in the pressure-transmitting medium, then temperature variations of the sample and heater were directly measured by thermocouples during a heating and cooling process. Thermal conductivity and specific heat are estimated by comparing the experimental data with temperature variations simulated by a finite element method. The obtained thermal conductivity and specific heat of the test sample CeRh2Si2 exhibit a small enhancement and a clear peak arising from antiferromagnetic transition, respectively. The observation of these typical behaviors for magnetic compounds indicate that the technique is valid for the study on thermal properties under pressure.

  20. Relaxation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Environ Corporation's relaxation system is built around a body lounge, a kind of super easy chair that incorporates sensory devices. Computer controlled enclosure provides filtered ionized air to create a feeling of invigoration, enhanced by mood changing aromas. Occupant is also surrounded by multidimensional audio and the lighting is programmed to change colors, patterns, and intensity periodically. These and other sensory stimulators are designed to provide an environment in which the learning process is stimulated, because research has proven that while an individual is in a deep state of relaxation, the mind is more receptive to new information.

  1. Computer Code for Interpreting 13C NMR Relaxation Measurements with Specific Models of Molecular Motion: The Rigid Isotropic and Symmetric Top Rotor Models and the Flexible Symmetric Top Rotor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    top rotor superimposes an effective correlation time, τe, onto a symmetric top rotor to account for internal motion. 2. THEORY The purpose...specifically describe how simple 13C relaxation theory is used to describe quantitatively simple molecular 3 motions. More-detailed accounts ...of nuclear magnetic relaxation can be found in a number of basic textbooks (i.e., Farrar and Becker, 1971; Fukushima and Roeder, 1981; Harris, 1986

  2. The cervical cap (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cervical cap is a flexible rubber cup-like device that is filled with spermicide and self-inserted over the cervix ... left in place several hours after intercourse. The cap is a prescribed device fitted by a health ...

  3. Cradle Cap: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradle cap Treatment Cradle cap usually doesn't require medical treatment. It clears up on its own within a few months. In the meantime, wash ... tips can help you control and manage cradle cap. Gently rub your baby's scalp with your fingers ...

  4. Tomato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases 1A and 1B: Relaxed double bond specificity leads to a plenitude of dialdehydes, mono-apocarotenoids and isoprenoid volatiles

    KAUST Repository

    Ilg, Andrea; Bruno, Mark; Beyer, Peter; Al-Babili, Salim

    2014-01-01

    The biosynthetic processes leading to many of the isoprenoid volatiles released by tomato fruits are still unknown, though previous reports suggested a clear correlation with the carotenoids contained within the fruit. In this study, we investigated the activity of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (SlCCD1B), which is highly expressed in fruits, and of its homolog SlCCD1A. Using in vitro assays performed with purified recombinant enzymes and by analyzing products formed by the two enzymes in carotene-accumulating Escherichia coli strains, we demonstrate that SlCCD1A and, to a larger extent, SlCCD1B, have a very relaxed specificity for both substrate and cleavage site, mediating the oxidative cleavage of cis- and all-. trans-carotenoids as well as of different apocarotenoids at many more double bonds than previously reported. This activity gives rise to a plenitude of volatiles, mono-apocarotenoids and dialdehyde products, including cis-pseudoionone, neral, geranial, and farnesylacetone. Our results provide a direct evidence for a carotenoid origin of these compounds and point to CCD1s as the enzymes catalyzing the formation of the vast majority of tomato isoprenoid volatiles, many of which are aroma constituents. © 2014 The Authors.

  5. Tomato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases 1A and 1B: Relaxed double bond specificity leads to a plenitude of dialdehydes, mono-apocarotenoids and isoprenoid volatiles

    KAUST Repository

    Ilg, Andrea

    2014-06-25

    The biosynthetic processes leading to many of the isoprenoid volatiles released by tomato fruits are still unknown, though previous reports suggested a clear correlation with the carotenoids contained within the fruit. In this study, we investigated the activity of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (SlCCD1B), which is highly expressed in fruits, and of its homolog SlCCD1A. Using in vitro assays performed with purified recombinant enzymes and by analyzing products formed by the two enzymes in carotene-accumulating Escherichia coli strains, we demonstrate that SlCCD1A and, to a larger extent, SlCCD1B, have a very relaxed specificity for both substrate and cleavage site, mediating the oxidative cleavage of cis- and all-. trans-carotenoids as well as of different apocarotenoids at many more double bonds than previously reported. This activity gives rise to a plenitude of volatiles, mono-apocarotenoids and dialdehyde products, including cis-pseudoionone, neral, geranial, and farnesylacetone. Our results provide a direct evidence for a carotenoid origin of these compounds and point to CCD1s as the enzymes catalyzing the formation of the vast majority of tomato isoprenoid volatiles, many of which are aroma constituents. © 2014 The Authors.

  6. Tomato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases 1A and 1B: Relaxed double bond specificity leads to a plenitude of dialdehydes, mono-apocarotenoids and isoprenoid volatiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ilg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biosynthetic processes leading to many of the isoprenoid volatiles released by tomato fruits are still unknown, though previous reports suggested a clear correlation with the carotenoids contained within the fruit. In this study, we investigated the activity of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (SlCCD1B, which is highly expressed in fruits, and of its homolog SlCCD1A. Using in vitro assays performed with purified recombinant enzymes and by analyzing products formed by the two enzymes in carotene-accumulating Escherichia coli strains, we demonstrate that SlCCD1A and, to a larger extent, SlCCD1B, have a very relaxed specificity for both substrate and cleavage site, mediating the oxidative cleavage of cis- and all-trans-carotenoids as well as of different apocarotenoids at many more double bonds than previously reported. This activity gives rise to a plenitude of volatiles, mono-apocarotenoids and dialdehyde products, including cis-pseudoionone, neral, geranial, and farnesylacetone. Our results provide a direct evidence for a carotenoid origin of these compounds and point to CCD1s as the enzymes catalyzing the formation of the vast majority of tomato isoprenoid volatiles, many of which are aroma constituents.

  7. gamma. -relaxation process in crystallizable polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindiyarov, Kh G; Zelenev, Yu V; Bartenev, G M [Birskij Gosudarstvennyj Pedagogicheskij Inst. (USSR)

    1975-07-01

    In the present paper, with the aid of radiothermoluminescence technique ..gamma..-relaxation processes are investigated, which are conditioned by molecular mobility and are associated with defects in the crystalline structure of polymers PEh, PP, and elastomers PIB, NK, SKD, SKI exposed to ..gamma..-rays of Co/sup 60/ at a dose rate of 1 Mrad. The shape of the thermoluminescence curve, i.e. the luminescence intensity in the ..cap alpha.. - ..gamma..-maxima, their relationship, position with respect to temperature are strongly dependent on the degree of crystallinity, on the thermal and mechanical prehistory. In highly crystalline samples of PEh and PP ..cap alpha..-maximum may be absent. Dependence has been studied of the luminescence intensity in the ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-maxima (Isub(..cap alpha..)/Isub(..gamma..)) on the crystallization temperature; the curve passes through the minimum when the crystallization rate is maximum. The relationship Isub(..gamma..)re of crystallinity degree.

  8. Capturing molecular multimode relaxation processes in excitable gases based on decomposition of acoustic relaxation spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Kesheng

    2017-08-01

    Existing two-frequency reconstructive methods can only capture primary (single) molecular relaxation processes in excitable gases. In this paper, we present a reconstructive method based on the novel decomposition of frequency-dependent acoustic relaxation spectra to capture the entire molecular multimode relaxation process. This decomposition of acoustic relaxation spectra is developed from the frequency-dependent effective specific heat, indicating that a multi-relaxation process is the sum of the interior single-relaxation processes. Based on this decomposition, we can reconstruct the entire multi-relaxation process by capturing the relaxation times and relaxation strengths of N interior single-relaxation processes, using the measurements of acoustic absorption and sound speed at 2N frequencies. Experimental data for the gas mixtures CO2-N2 and CO2-O2 validate our decomposition and reconstruction approach.

  9. Microtubule's conformational cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, H.

    1999-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that allow elongation of the unstable microtubule lattice remain unclear. It is usually thought that the GDP-liganded tubulin lattice is capped by a small layer of GTP- or GDP-P(i)-liganded molecules, the so called "GTP-cap". Here, we point-out that the elastic properties...

  10. Mapping of p140Cap phosphorylation sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Repetto, Daniele; Aramu, Simona; Boeri Erba, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    phosphorylation and tunes its interactions with other regulatory molecules via post-translation modification. In this work, using mass spectrometry, we found that p140Cap is in vivo phosphorylated on tyrosine (Y) within the peptide GEGLpYADPYGLLHEGR (from now on referred to as EGLYA) as well as on three serine...... residues. Consistently, EGLYA has the highest score of in silico prediction of p140Cap phosphorylation. To further investigate the p140Cap function, we performed site specific mutagenesis on tyrosines inserted in EGLYA and EPLYA, a second sequence with the same highest score of phosphorylation. The mutant...

  11. CENTRIFUGE END CAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beams, J.W.; Snoddy, L.B.

    1960-08-01

    An end cap for ultra-gas centrifuges is designed to impart or remove angular momentum to or from the gas and to bring the entering gas to the temperature of the gas inside the centrifuge. The end cap is provided with slots or fins for adjusting the temperature and the angular momentum of the entering gas to the temperature and momentum of the gas in the centrifuge and is constructed to introduce both the inner and the peripheral stream into the centrifuge.

  12. CAPS Simulation Environment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Douglas G.; Hoffman, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The final design for an effective Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS) will likely come after a number of competing designs have been simulated and evaluated. Because of the large number of design parameters involved in a system capable of detecting an object, accurately determining its orbit, and diverting the impact threat, a comprehensive simulation environment will be an extremely valuable tool for the CAPS designers. A successful simulation/design tool will aid the user in identifying the critical parameters in the system and eventually allow for automatic optimization of the design once the relationships of the key parameters are understood. A CAPS configuration will consist of space-based detectors whose purpose is to scan the celestial sphere in search of objects likely to make a close approach to Earth and to determine with the greatest possible accuracy the orbits of those objects. Other components of a CAPS configuration may include systems for modifying the orbits of approaching objects, either for the purpose of preventing a collision or for positioning the object into an orbit where it can be studied or used as a mineral resource. The Synergistic Engineering Environment (SEE) is a space-systems design, evaluation, and visualization software tool being leveraged to simulate these aspects of the CAPS study. The long-term goal of the SEE is to provide capabilities to allow the user to build and compare various CAPS designs by running end-to-end simulations that encompass the scanning phase, the orbit determination phase, and the orbit modification phase of a given scenario. Herein, a brief description of the expected simulation phases is provided, the current status and available features of the SEE software system is reported, and examples are shown of how the system is used to build and evaluate a CAPS detection design. Conclusions and the roadmap for future development of the SEE are also presented.

  13. Characterization of cap binding proteins associated with the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzelt, E.

    1986-04-01

    Eucaryotic mRNAs a carry 7-methylguanosine triphosphate residue (called cap structure) at their 5' terminus. The cap plays an important role in RNA recognition. Cap binding proteins (CBP) of HeLa cells were identified by photoaffinity labelling using the cap analogue γ-( 32 P)-(4-(benzoyl-phenyl)methylamido)-7-methylguanosine-5'-triphosphate (BP-m 7 GTP). Photoreaction of this cap analogue with HeLa cell initiation factors resulted in specific labelling of two polypeptides of Msub(r) 37000 and 26000. The latter was also labelled in crude initiation factors prepared from reticulocytes and is identical to the cap binding protein CBP I previously identified. These cap binding proteins were also affinity labelled in poliovirus infected cell extracts. Photoaffinity reaction with BP-m 7 GTP of whole HeLa cell homogenate showed three additional polypeptides with Msub(r) 120000, 89000 and 80000. These cap binding proteins were found to be associated with the nucleus and are therefore referred to as nuclear cap binding proteins, i.e. NCBP 1, NCBP 2 and NCBP 3. They were also present in splicing extracts. Photoaffinity labelling in these nuclear extracts was differentially inhibited by various cap analogues and capped mRNAs. Affinity chromatography on immobilized globin mRNA led to a partial separation of the three nuclear cap binding proteins. Chromatography on m 7 GTP-Sepharose resulted in a specific binding of NCBP 3. The different behaviour of the cap binding proteins suggests that they are functionally distinct and that they might be involved in different processes requiring cap recognition. (Author)

  14. CROSS-COMPLIANCE Facilitating the CAP reform: Compliance and competitiveness of European agriculture : Specific Targeted Research or Innovation Project (STREP) Integrating and Strengthening the European Research Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, R.A.; Bezlepkina, I.; Winsten, J.; Fox, G.

    2008-01-01

    The prime aim or the project was on assessing the impacts of compliance with standards, more specifically those part of cross-compliance, on EU’s external competitiveness. This is why in several deliverables and also in the main text of this Deliverable 13 a lot of attention is given to the EU and

  15. Automated sequence- and stereo-specific assignment of methyl-labeled proteins by paramagnetic relaxation and methyl–methyl nuclear overhauser enhancement spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venditti, Vincenzo; Fawzi, Nicolas L.; Clore, G. Marius

    2011-01-01

    Methyl-transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopy is rapidly becoming the preferred NMR technique for probing structure and dynamics of very large proteins up to ∼1 MDa in molecular size. Data interpretation, however, necessitates assignment of methyl groups which still presents a very challenging and time-consuming process. Here we demonstrate that, in combination with a known 3D structure, paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE), induced by nitroxide spin-labels incorporated at only a few surface-exposed engineered cysteines, provides fast, straightforward and robust access to methyl group resonance assignments, including stereoassignments for the methyl groups of leucine and valine. Neither prior assignments, including backbone assignments, for the protein, nor experiments that transfer magnetization between methyl groups and the protein backbone, are required. PRE-derived assignments are refined by 4D methyl–methyl nuclear Overhauser enhancement data, eliminating ambiguities and errors that may arise due to the high sensitivity of PREs to the potential presence of sparsely-populated transient states.

  16. Automated sequence- and stereo-specific assignment of methyl-labeled proteins by paramagnetic relaxation and methyl-methyl nuclear overhauser enhancement spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, Vincenzo; Fawzi, Nicolas L.; Clore, G. Marius, E-mail: mariusc@mail.nih.gov [National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Methyl-transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopy is rapidly becoming the preferred NMR technique for probing structure and dynamics of very large proteins up to {approx}1 MDa in molecular size. Data interpretation, however, necessitates assignment of methyl groups which still presents a very challenging and time-consuming process. Here we demonstrate that, in combination with a known 3D structure, paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE), induced by nitroxide spin-labels incorporated at only a few surface-exposed engineered cysteines, provides fast, straightforward and robust access to methyl group resonance assignments, including stereoassignments for the methyl groups of leucine and valine. Neither prior assignments, including backbone assignments, for the protein, nor experiments that transfer magnetization between methyl groups and the protein backbone, are required. PRE-derived assignments are refined by 4D methyl-methyl nuclear Overhauser enhancement data, eliminating ambiguities and errors that may arise due to the high sensitivity of PREs to the potential presence of sparsely-populated transient states.

  17. Dual Recognition Strategy for Specific and Sensitive Detection of Bacteria Using Aptamer-Coated Magnetic Beads and Antibiotic-Capped Gold Nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dan; Yu, Mengqun; Fu, Fei; Han, Weiye; Li, Gan; Xie, Jianping; Song, Yang; Swihart, Mark T; Song, Erqun

    2016-01-05

    Food poisoning and infectious diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (SA) are serious public health concerns. A method of specific, sensitive, and rapid detection of such bacteria is essential and important. This study presents a strategy that combines aptamer and antibiotic-based dual recognition units with magnetic enrichment and fluorescent detection to achieve specific and sensitive quantification of SA in authentic specimens and in the presence of much higher concentrations of other bacteria. Aptamer-coated magnetic beads (Apt-MB) were employed for specific capture of SA. Vancomycin-stabilized fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs@Van) were prepared by a simple one-step process and used for sensitive quantification of SA in the range of 32-10(8) cfu/mL with the detection limit of 16 cfu/mL via a fluorescence intensity measurement. And using this strategy, about 70 cfu/mL of SA in complex samples (containing 3 × 10(8) cfu/mL of other different contaminated bacteria) could be successfully detected. In comparison to prior studies, the developed strategy here not only simplifies the preparation procedure of the fluorescent probes (AuNCs@Van) to a great extent but also could sensitively quantify SA in the presence of much higher concentrations of other bacteria directly with good accuracy. Moreover, the aptamer and antibiotic used in this strategy are much less expensive and widely available compared to common-used antibodies, making it cost-effective. This general aptamer- and antibiotic-based dual recognition strategy, combined with magnetic enrichment and fluorescent detection of trace bacteria, shows great potential application in monitoring bacterial food contamination and infectious diseases.

  18. Breathing and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Doctor Relaxation is the absence of tension in muscle groups and a minimum or absence ... Drill Meditation Progressive Muscle Relaxation Minimizing Shortness of Breath Visualization This information has been approved by Shelby ...

  19. North Polar Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour. In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime. The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, Longitude 64.5 East (295.5 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen

  20. Designing Smart Charter School Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Erin

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, Andrew J. Rotherham proposed a new approach to the contentious issue of charter school caps, the statutory limits on charter school growth in place in several states. Rotherham's proposal, termed "smart charter school caps," called for quality sensitive caps that allow the expansion of high-performing charter schools while also…

  1. Radioimmunological determination of. cap alpha. -MSH and ACTH in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usategui Echeverria, R; Oliver, C; Vaudry, H; Lombardi, G; Rozenberg, I; Vague, J [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de la Timone, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1975-09-01

    Specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay methods for ..cap alpha..-MSH and ACTH are reported. They make possible specific measurements of each hormone in rat plasma or pituitary extracts. Endogenous ..cap alpha..-MSH and ACTH extracted from plasma or pituitary show the same immunoreactivity than synthetic ..cap alpha..-MSH and ACTH. ..cap alpha..-MSH and ACTH levels vary independently from each other in the following conditions: circadian rythm, corticoid treatment, adrenalectomy, ether stress, haloperidol injection.

  2. Mechanical relaxation in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiki, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The basic properties of glasses and the characteristics of mechanical relaxation in glasses were briefly reviewed, and then our studies concerned were presented. Experimental methods adopted were viscosity, internal friction, ultrasonic attenuation, and Brillouin scattering measurements. The specimens used were several kinds of inorganic, organic, and metallic glasses. The measurements were mainly carried out from the room temperature up to the glass transition temperature, and the relaxation time was determined as a function of temperature. The 'double relaxation' composed of two Arrhenius-type relaxations was observed in many materials. In both relaxations, the 'compensation effect' showing a correlation of the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy was observed. These results were explained by considering the 'complex relaxation' due to cooperative motions of atoms or group of atoms. Values of activation energy near the glass transition determined by the various experimental methods were compared with each other

  3. Increased 5. cap alpha. -reductase activity in idiopathic hirsutism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, P.; Lobo, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro, genital skin 5..cap alpha..-reductase activity (5..cap alpha..-RA) was measured in ten hirsute women with normal androgen levels (idiopathic hirsutism (IH)) and in ten hirsute women with elevated androgen levels (polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO)) in order to determine the influence of secreted androgens on 5..cap alpha..-RA. In vitro 5..cap alpha..-RA was assessed by incubations of skin with /sup 14/C-testosterone (T) for 2 hours, after which steroids were separated and the radioactivity of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5..cap alpha..-androstane 3..cap alpha..-17..beta..-estradiol (3..cap alpha..-diol) in specific eluates were determined. All androgens were normal in IH with the exception of higher levels of 3..cap alpha..-diol glucuronide which were similar to the levels of PCO. The conversion ratio (CR) of T to DHT in IH and PCO were similar, yet significantly greater than the CR of control subjects. The CR of T to 3..cap alpha..-diol in IH and PCO were similar, yet higher than in control subjects. Serum androgens showed no correlation with 5..cap alpha..-RA, while the CR of T to DHT showed a significant positive correlation with the Ferriman and Gallwey score. The increased 5..cap alpha..-RA in IH appears to be independent of serum androgen levels and is, therefore, an inherent abnormality. The term idiopathic is a misnomer, because hirsutism in these patients may be explained on the basis of increased skin 5..cap alpha..-RA.

  4. Enzymatic synthesis of RNAs capped with nucleotide analogues reveals the molecular basis for substrate selectivity of RNA capping enzyme: impacts on RNA metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moheshwarnath Issur

    Full Text Available RNA cap binding proteins have evolved to specifically bind to the N7-methyl guanosine cap structure found at the 5' ends of eukaryotic mRNAs. The specificity of RNA capping enzymes towards GTP for the synthesis of this structure is therefore crucial for mRNA metabolism. The fact that ribavirin triphosphate was described as a substrate of a viral RNA capping enzyme, raised the possibility that RNAs capped with nucleotide analogues could be generated in cellulo. Owing to the fact that this prospect potentially has wide pharmacological implications, we decided to investigate whether the active site of the model Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus-1 RNA capping enzyme was flexible enough to accommodate various purine analogues. Using this approach, we identified several key structural determinants at each step of the RNA capping reaction and generated RNAs harboring various different cap analogues. Moreover, we monitored the binding affinity of these novel capped RNAs to the eIF4E protein and evaluated their translational properties in cellulo. Overall, this study establishes a molecular rationale for the specific selection of GTP over other NTPs by RNA capping enzyme It also demonstrates that RNAs can be enzymatically capped with certain purine nucleotide analogs, and it also describes the impacts of modified RNA caps on specific steps involved in mRNA metabolism. For instance, our results indicate that the N7-methyl group of the classical N7-methyl guanosine cap is not always indispensable for binding to eIF4E and subsequently for translation when compensatory modifications are present on the capped residue. Overall, these findings have important implications for our understanding of the molecular determinants involved in both RNA capping and RNA metabolism.

  5. Relaxation characteristics of hastelloy X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko

    1980-02-01

    Relaxation diagrams of Hastelloy X (relaxation curves, relaxation design diagrams, etc.) were generated from the creep constitutive equation of Hastelloy X, using inelastic stress analysis code TEPICC-J. These data are in good agreement with experimental relaxation data of ORNL-5479. Three typical inelastic stress analyses were performed for various relaxation behaviors of the high-temperature structures. An attempt was also made to predict these relaxation behaviors by the relaxation curves. (author)

  6. TEACHING NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NORRIS, JEANNE E.; STEINHAUS, ARTHUR H.

    THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED TO FIND OUT WHETHER (1) THE METHODS FOR ATTAINING NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION THAT HAVE PROVED FRUITFUL IN THE ONE-TO-ONE RELATIONSHIP OF THE CLINIC CAN BE SUCCESSFULLY ADAPTED TO THE TEACHER-CLASS RELATIONSHIP OF THE CLASSROOM AND GYMNASIUM, AND (2) NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION CAN BE TAUGHT SUCCESSFULLY BY AN APPROPRIATELY TRAINED…

  7. Relaxation of Anisotropic Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deubener, Joachim; Martin, Birgit; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2004-01-01

    . When the load was removed at room temperature a permanent optical anisotropy (birefringence) was observed only perpendicular to cylinder axis and the pressure direction indicating complete elimination of thermal stresses. Relaxation of structural anisotropy was studied from reheating experiments using...... the energy release, thermo-mechanical and optical relaxation behaviour are drawn....

  8. Relaxation techniques for stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... raise your heart rate. This is called the stress response. Relaxation techniques can help your body relax and lower your blood pressure ... also many other types of breathing techniques you can learn. In many cases, you do not need much ... including those that cause stress. Meditation has been practiced for thousands of years, ...

  9. ImmunoCAP assays: Pros and cons in allergology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hage, Marianne; Hamsten, Carl; Valenta, Rudolf

    2017-10-01

    Allergen-specific IgE measurements and the clinical history are the cornerstones of allergy diagnosis. During the past decades, both characterization and standardization of allergen extracts and assay technology have improved. Here we discuss the uses, advantages, misinterpretations, and limitations of ImmunoCAP IgE assays (Thermo Fisher Scientific/Phadia, Uppsala, Sweden) in the field of allergology. They can be performed as singleplex (ImmunoCAP) and, for the last decade, as multiplex (Immuno Solid-phase Allergen Chip [ISAC]). The major benefit of ImmunoCAP is the obtained quantified allergen-specific IgE antibody level and the lack of interference from allergen-specific IgG antibodies. However, ImmunoCAP allergen extracts are limited to the composition of the extract. The introduction of allergen molecules has had a major effect on analytic specificity and allergy diagnosis. They are used in both singleplex ImmunoCAP and multiplex ImmunoCAP ISAC assays. The major advantage of ISAC is the comprehensive IgE pattern obtained with a minute amount of serum. The shortcomings are its semiquantitative measurements, lower linear range, and cost per assay. With respect to assay performance, ImmunoCAP allergen extracts are good screening tools, but allergen molecules dissect the IgE response on a molecular level and put allergy research on the map of precision medicine. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Corroborative evidences of TV γ -scaling of the α-relaxation originating from the primitive relaxation/JG β relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, K. L.; Paluch, M.

    2017-12-01

    Successful thermodynamic scaling of the structural alpha-relaxation time or transport coefficients of glass-forming liquids determined at various temperatures T and pressures P means the data conform to a single function of the product variable TVgamma, where V is the specific volume and gamma is a material specific constant. In the past two decades we have witnessed successful TVgamma-scaling in many molecular, polymeric, and even metallic glass-formers, and gamma is related to the slope of the repulsive part of the intermolecular potential. The advances made indicate TVgamma-scaling is an important aspect of the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of glass-formers. In this paper we show the origin of TVgamma-scaling is not from the structural alpha-relaxation time. Instead it comes from its precursor, the Johari-Goldstein beta-relaxation or the primitive relaxation of the Coupling Model and their relaxation times or tau_0 respectively. It is remarkable that all relaxation times are functions of TVgamma with the same gama, as well as the fractional exponent of the Kohlrausch correlation function of the structural alpha-relaxation. We arrive at this conclusion convincingly based on corroborative evidences from a number of experiments and molecular dynamics simulations performed on a wide variety of glass-formers and in conjunction with consistency with the predictions of the Coupling Model.

  11. Diagnostic criteria for cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuemmerle-Deschner, Jasmin B; Ozen, Seza; Tyrrell, Pascal N; Kone-Paut, Isabelle; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Lachmann, Helen; Blank, Norbert; Hoffman, Hal M; Weissbarth-Riedel, Elisabeth; Hugle, Boris; Kallinich, Tilmann; Gattorno, Marco; Gul, Ahmet; Ter Haar, Nienke; Oswald, Marlen; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Cantarini, Luca; Benseler, Susanne M

    2017-06-01

    Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is a rare, heterogeneous disease entity associated with NLRP3 gene mutations and increased interleukin-1 (IL-1) secretion. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of IL-1 inhibition prevent organ damage. The aim of the study was to develop and validate diagnostic criteria for CAPS. An innovative process was followed including interdisciplinary team building, item generation: review of CAPS registries, systematic literature review, expert surveys, consensus conferences for item refinement, item reduction and weighting using 1000Minds decision software. Resulting CAPS criteria were tested in large cohorts of CAPS cases and controls using correspondence analysis. Diagnostic models were explored using sensitivity analyses. The international team included 16 experts. Systematic literature and registry review identified 33 CAPS-typical items; the consensus conferences reduced these to 14. 1000Minds exercises ranked variables based on importance for the diagnosis. Correspondence analysis determined variables consistently associated with the diagnosis of CAPS using 284 cases and 837 controls. Seven variables were significantly associated with CAPS (pCAPS-typical symptoms: urticaria-like rash, cold-triggered episodes, sensorineural hearing loss, musculoskeletal symptoms, chronic aseptic meningitis and skeletal abnormalities. Sensitivity was 81%, specificity 94%. It performed well for all CAPS subtypes and regardless of NLRP3 mutation. The novel approach integrated traditional methods of evidence synthesis with expert consensus, web-based decision tools and innovative statistical methods and may serve as model for other rare diseases. These criteria will enable a rapid diagnosis for children and adults with CAPS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Preliminary Test for Constitutive Models of CAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yeon Joon; Hong, Soon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Keo Hyung; Kim, Min Ki; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Tech., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sang Jun; Choi, Hoon [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. As a part of this project, CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been developing for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (vapor, continuous liquid and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by assessment capabilities in multi-dimensional and lumped parameter thermal hydraulic cell. Thermal hydraulics solver was developed and has a significant progress now. Implementation of the well proven constitutive models and correlations are essential in other for a containment code to be used with the generalized or optimized purposes. Generally, constitutive equations are composed of interfacial and wall transport models and correlations. These equations are included in the source terms of the governing field equations. In order to develop the best model and correlation package of the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, such as GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0 and CONTEMPT-LT are reviewed. Several models and correlations were incorporated for the preliminary test of CAP's performance and test results and future plans to improve the level of execution besides will be discussed in this paper

  13. Immunoprecipitation of Tri-methylated Capped RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Karen E; Barr, Jamie A; Xie, Mingyi; Steitz, Joan A; Martinez, Ivan

    2018-02-05

    Cellular quiescence (also known as G 0 arrest) is characterized by reduced DNA replication, increased autophagy, and increased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase p27 Kip1 . Quiescence is essential for wound healing, organ regeneration, and preventing neoplasia. Previous findings indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulating cellular quiescence. Our recent publication demonstrated the existence of an alternative miRNA biogenesis pathway in primary human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells during quiescence. Indeed, we have identified a group of pri-miRNAs (whose mature miRNAs were found induced during quiescence) modified with a 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine (TMG)-cap by the trimethylguanosine synthase 1 (TGS1) protein and transported to the cytoplasm by the Exportin-1 (XPO1) protein. We used an antibody against (TMG)-caps (which does not cross-react with the (m 7 G)-caps that most pri-miRNAs or mRNAs contain [Luhrmann et al ., 1982]) to perform RNA immunoprecipitations from total RNA extracts of proliferating or quiescent HFFs. The novelty of this assay is the specific isolation of pri-miRNAs as well as other non-coding RNAs containing a TMG-cap modification.

  14. Preliminary Test for Constitutive Models of CAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yeon Joon; Hong, Soon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Keo Hyung; Kim, Min Ki; Lee, Byung Chul; Ha, Sang Jun; Choi, Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. As a part of this project, CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been developing for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (vapor, continuous liquid and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by assessment capabilities in multi-dimensional and lumped parameter thermal hydraulic cell. Thermal hydraulics solver was developed and has a significant progress now. Implementation of the well proven constitutive models and correlations are essential in other for a containment code to be used with the generalized or optimized purposes. Generally, constitutive equations are composed of interfacial and wall transport models and correlations. These equations are included in the source terms of the governing field equations. In order to develop the best model and correlation package of the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, such as GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0 and CONTEMPT-LT are reviewed. Several models and correlations were incorporated for the preliminary test of CAP's performance and test results and future plans to improve the level of execution besides will be discussed in this paper

  15. ATLAS end-cap detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Three scientists from the Institute of Nuclear Phyiscs at Novossibirsk with one of the end-caps of the ATLAS detector. The end-caps will be used to detect particles produced in the proton-proton collisions at the heart of the ATLAS experiment that are travelling close to the axis of the two beams.

  16. The relaxation time approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gairola, R.P.; Indu, B.D.

    1991-01-01

    A plausible approximation has been made to estimate the relaxation time from a knowledge of the transition probability of phonons from one state (r vector, q vector) to other state (r' vector, q' vector), as a result of collision. The relaxation time, thus obtained, shows a strong dependence on temperature and weak dependence on the wave vector. In view of this dependence, relaxation time has been expressed in terms of a temperature Taylor's series in the first Brillouin zone. Consequently, a simple model for estimating the thermal conductivity is suggested. the calculations become much easier than the Callaway model. (author). 14 refs

  17. The North Zealand CAP Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Minna; Ravn, Pernille; Notander Clausen, Lise

    with CAP. We started with 34 audit variables. Through repeated cycles of testing, feedback and discussions, we reduced the number of indicators to 22 and time per audit from 20 to 10 minutes. Strategy for change To link the monitoring system with our patient pathway for CAP we established an improvement...... Designing a database Designing and testing a dashboard to present indicators in a balanced way Messages for others Auditing patients with a common disease as CAP is useful to identify areas for improvement for a large group of patients. The baseline audit can serve as a basis for a monitoring system......Contect We describe how we developed a monitoring system for community acquired pneumonia (CAP) at North Zealand Regional hospital. We serve 310.000 inhabitants and annually around 3200 patients with CAP are admitted. As part of a program of clinical pathways for common conditions, a pathway...

  18. Characterization of a mimivirus RNA cap guanine-N2 methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarroch, Delphine; Qiu, Zhicheng R; Schwer, Beate; Shuman, Stewart

    2009-04-01

    A 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine (TMG) cap is a signature feature of eukaryal snRNAs, telomerase RNAs, and trans-spliced nematode mRNAs. TMG and 2,7-dimethylguanosine (DMG) caps are also present on mRNAs of two species of alphaviruses (positive strand RNA viruses of the Togaviridae family). It is presently not known how viral mRNAs might acquire a hypermethylated cap. Mimivirus, a giant DNA virus that infects amoeba, encodes many putative enzymes and proteins implicated in RNA transactions, including the synthesis and capping of viral mRNAs and the promotion of cap-dependent translation. Here we report the identification, purification, and characterization of a mimivirus cap-specific guanine-N2 methyltransferase (MimiTgs), a monomeric enzyme that catalyzes a single round of methyl transfer from AdoMet to an m(7)G cap substrate to form a DMG cap product. MimiTgs, is apparently unable to convert a DMG cap to a TMG cap, and is thereby distinguished from the structurally homologous yeast and human Tgs1 enzymes. Nonetheless, we show genetically that MimiTgs is a true ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tgs1. Our results hint that DMG caps can satisfy many of the functions of TMG caps in vivo. We speculate that DMG capping of mimivirus mRNAs might favor viral protein synthesis in the infected host.

  19. Regularities of intermediate adsorption complex relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manukova, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental data, characterizing the regularities of intermediate adsorption complex relaxation in the polycrystalline Mo-N 2 system at 77 K are given. The method of molecular beam has been used in the investigation. The analytical expressions of change regularity in the relaxation process of full and specific rates - of transition from intermediate state into ''non-reversible'', of desorption into the gas phase and accumUlation of the particles in the intermediate state are obtained

  20. Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndromes (CAPS) - Juvenile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all ethnic groups can be affected. What are CAPS? Cryopyrin-associated autoinflammatory syndromes (CAPS) consist of three ... ears by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). How is CAPS treated? Medications that target interleukin-1 are very ...

  1. NATURE MANAGEMENT, LANDSCAPE AND THE CAP

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, Floor M.; Godeschalk, Frans E.

    2004-01-01

    The integration of nature management, landscape and environmental concerns into the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has gained momentum with the CAP reforms adopted in June 2003. The report explores instruments and approaches that contribute to the inte-gration of nature conservation and landscape concerns into the CAP. A broader use of the CAP instruments might help to achieve nature types in the Netherlands.

  2. 47 CFR 54.623 - Cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cap. 54.623 Section 54.623 Telecommunication... Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers § 54.623 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. The annual cap on federal universal service support for health care providers shall be $400 million per funding...

  3. 47 CFR 54.507 - Cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cap. 54.507 Section 54.507 Telecommunication... Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.507 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. The annual funding cap on federal universal service support for schools and libraries shall be $2.25 billion per...

  4. Relaxed Binaural LCMV Beamforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutrouvelis, A.; Hendriks, R.C.; Heusdens, R.; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new binaural beamforming technique, which can be seen as a relaxation of the linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) framework. The proposed method can achieve simultaneous noise reduction and exact binaural cue preservation of the target source, similar to the

  5. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  6. Interfacial and Wall Transport Models for SPACE-CAP Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Soon Joon; Choo, Yeon Joon; Han, Tae Young; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Byung Chul; Choi, Hoon; Ha, Sang Jun

    2009-01-01

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. And CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been also developed for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (gas, continuous liquid, and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by its multidimensional assessment capabilities. Thermal hydraulics solver was already developed and now under testing of its stability and soundness. As a next step, interfacial and wall transport models was setup. In order to develop the best model and correlation package for the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, which are GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0, and CONTEMPT-LT, have been reviewed. The origins of the selected models used in these codes have also been examined to find out if the models have not conflict with a proprietary right. In addition, a literature survey of the recent studies has been performed in order to incorporate the better models for the CAP code. The models and correlations of SPACE were also reviewed. CAP models and correlations are composed of interfacial heat/mass, and momentum transport models, and wall heat/mass, and momentum transport models. This paper discusses on those transport models in the CAP code

  7. Interfacial and Wall Transport Models for SPACE-CAP Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Soon Joon; Choo, Yeon Joon; Han, Tae Young; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Tech., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hoon; Ha, Sang Jun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. And CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been also developed for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (gas, continuous liquid, and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by its multidimensional assessment capabilities. Thermal hydraulics solver was already developed and now under testing of its stability and soundness. As a next step, interfacial and wall transport models was setup. In order to develop the best model and correlation package for the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, which are GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0, and CONTEMPT-LT, have been reviewed. The origins of the selected models used in these codes have also been examined to find out if the models have not conflict with a proprietary right. In addition, a literature survey of the recent studies has been performed in order to incorporate the better models for the CAP code. The models and correlations of SPACE were also reviewed. CAP models and correlations are composed of interfacial heat/mass, and momentum transport models, and wall heat/mass, and momentum transport models. This paper discusses on those transport models in the CAP code.

  8. Experiments in paramagnetic relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijphart, E.E.

    1976-01-01

    This thesis presents two attempts to improve the resolving power of the relaxation measurement technique. The first attempt reconsiders the old technique of steady state saturation. When used in conjunction with the pulse technique, it offers the possibility of obtaining additional information about the system in which all-time derivatives are zero; in addition, non-linear effects may be distinguished from each other. The second attempt involved a systematic study of only one system: Cu in the Tutton salts (K and Rb). The systematic approach, the high accuracy of the measurement and the sheer amount of experimental data for varying temperature, magnetic field and concentration made it possible in this case to separate the prevailing relaxation mechanisms reliably

  9. Relaxation from particle production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hook, Anson; Marques-Tavares, Gustavo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    We consider using particle production as a friction force by which to implement a “Relaxion” solution to the electroweak hierarchy problem. Using this approach, we are able to avoid superplanckian field excursions and avoid any conflict with the strong CP problem. The relaxation mechanism can work before, during or after inflation allowing for inflationary dynamics to play an important role or to be completely decoupled.

  10. Magnetic relaxation in anisotropic magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1971-01-01

    The line shape and the kinematic and thermodynamic slowing down of the critical and paramagnetic relaxation in axially anisotropic materials are discussed. Kinematic slowing down occurs only in the longitudinal relaxation function. The thermodynamic slowing down occurs in either the transverse...... or longitudinal relaxation function depending on the sign of the axial anisotropy....

  11. Momentum constraint relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marronetti, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Full relativistic simulations in three dimensions invariably develop runaway modes that grow exponentially and are accompanied by violations of the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints. Recently, we introduced a numerical method (Hamiltonian relaxation) that greatly reduces the Hamiltonian constraint violation and helps improve the quality of the numerical model. We present here a method that controls the violation of the momentum constraint. The method is based on the addition of a longitudinal component to the traceless extrinsic curvature A ij -tilde, generated by a vector potential w i , as outlined by York. The components of w i are relaxed to solve approximately the momentum constraint equations, slowly pushing the evolution towards the space of solutions of the constraint equations. We test this method with simulations of binary neutron stars in circular orbits and show that it effectively controls the growth of the aforementioned violations. We also show that a full numerical enforcement of the constraints, as opposed to the gentle correction of the momentum relaxation scheme, results in the development of instabilities that stop the runs shortly

  12. Improved optical properties of InAs quantum dots for intermediate band solar cells by suppression of misfit strain relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, H. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6106 (United States); Prioli, R. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Departamento de Física, Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Marques de São Vicente 225, Rio de Janeiro 22452-900 RJ (Brazil); Fischer, A. M.; Ponce, F. A., E-mail: ponce@asu.edu [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Kawabata, R. M. S.; Pinto, L. D.; Souza, P. L. [LabSem, CETUC, Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Marques de São Vicente 225, Rio de Janeiro 22452-900 RJ (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Nanodispositivos Semicondutores – DISSE – PUC-Rio, RJ (Brazil); Jakomin, R. [Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Nanodispositivos Semicondutores – DISSE – PUC-Rio, RJ (Brazil); Campus de Xerem, UFRJ, Duque de Caxias-RJ (Brazil); Pires, M. P. [Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Nanodispositivos Semicondutores – DISSE – PUC-Rio, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Física, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-21

    The properties of InAs quantum dots (QDs) have been studied for application in intermediate band solar cells. It is found that suppression of plastic relaxation in the QDs has a significant effect on the optoelectronic properties. Partial capping plus annealing is shown to be effective in controlling the height of the QDs and in suppressing plastic relaxation. A force balancing model is used to explain the relationship between plastic relaxation and QD height. A strong luminescence has been observed from strained QDs, indicating the presence of localized states in the desired energy range. No luminescence has been observed from plastically relaxed QDs.

  13. From Blogs to Bottle Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Ted

    2012-01-01

    There is a wonderful community of art educators connecting a once-isolated profession through blogging. Art educators around the world are sharing ideas and communicating with their peers through this amazing resource. In this article, the author describes the bottle cap mural at Tulip Grove Elementary School which was inspired by this exchange of…

  14. Variational formulation of relaxed and multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, R. L.; Yoshida, Z.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Hudson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    > Ideal magnetohydrodynamics (IMHD) is strongly constrained by an infinite number of microscopic constraints expressing mass, entropy and magnetic flux conservation in each infinitesimal fluid element, the latter preventing magnetic reconnection. By contrast, in the Taylor relaxation model for formation of macroscopically self-organized plasma equilibrium states, all these constraints are relaxed save for the global magnetic fluxes and helicity. A Lagrangian variational principle is presented that leads to a new, fully dynamical, relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (RxMHD), such that all static solutions are Taylor states but also allows state with flow. By postulating that some long-lived macroscopic current sheets can act as barriers to relaxation, separating the plasma into multiple relaxation regions, a further generalization, multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) is developed.

  15. Analyses of hydraulic performance of velocity caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Degn Eskesen, Mark Chr.; Buhrkall, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    The hydraulic performance of a velocity cap has been investigated. Velocity caps are often used in connection with offshore intakes. CFD (computational fluid dynamics) examined the flow through the cap openings and further down into the intake pipes. This was combined with dimension analyses...

  16. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that fits over the cervix to...

  17. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a mushroom...

  18. The antimicrobial propeptide hCAP-18 plasma levels in neutropenia of various aetiologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Ying; Carlsson, Göran; Karlsson-Sjöberg, Jenny M T

    2015-01-01

    The underlying cause of neutropenia may be difficult to determine due to similar clinical presentation in many neutropenic conditions. The neutrophil protein hCAP-18 (pro-LL-37) is a major component of neutrophil secondary granules and in this prospective study we assessed the use of hCAP-18 levels...... in blood plasma for differential diagnosis of neutropenic patients (n = 133) of various aetiologies. Plasma levels of hCAP-18 were determined using immunoblot and ELISA. Patients with severe congenital neutropenia (n = 23) presented with the lowest levels of plasma hCAP-18 and differential diagnostic...... diagnostic value in differential diagnosis of chronic neutropenia. Neutropenic patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, Barth syndrome, Cohen syndrome, acute myeloid leukaemia and specific granule deficiency presented with reduced plasma hCAP-18 levels as well. The blood plasma level of hCAP-18 was thus low...

  19. Dynamics of relaxed inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangarife, Walter; Tobioka, Kohsaku; Ubaldi, Lorenzo; Volansky, Tomer

    2018-02-01

    The cosmological relaxation of the electroweak scale has been proposed as a mechanism to address the hierarchy problem of the Standard Model. A field, the relaxion, rolls down its potential and, in doing so, scans the squared mass parameter of the Higgs, relaxing it to a parametrically small value. In this work, we promote the relaxion to an inflaton. We couple it to Abelian gauge bosons, thereby introducing the necessary dissipation mechanism which slows down the field in the last stages. We describe a novel reheating mechanism, which relies on the gauge-boson production leading to strong electro-magnetic fields, and proceeds via the vacuum production of electron-positron pairs through the Schwinger effect. We refer to this mechanism as Schwinger reheating. We discuss the cosmological dynamics of the model and the phenomenological constraints from CMB and other experiments. We find that a cutoff close to the Planck scale may be achieved. In its minimal form, the model does not generate sufficient curvature perturbations and additional ingredients, such as a curvaton field, are needed.

  20. 75 FR 70654 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; System Cap Trading Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ..., 2001, and August 16, 2007, that create and amend the System Cap Trading (SCT) Program at Title 30 of... of the SCT program because the program lacks several necessary components for emissions trading... submitted by the State of Texas on May 1, 2001, and August 16, 2007, specific to the System Cap Trading (SCT...

  1. Cadmium plated steel caps seal anodized aluminum fittings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padden, J.

    1971-01-01

    Cadmium prevents fracturing of hard anodic coating under torquing to system specification requirements, prevents galvanic coupling, and eliminates need for crush washers, which, though commonly used in industry, do not correct leakage problem experienced when anodized aluminum fittings and anodized aluminum cap assemblies are joined.

  2. Vogel-Fulcher dependence of relaxation rates in a nematic monomer and elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, D.; Filippov, S.; Aliev, F.; Keller, P.; Thomsen, D.; Ratna, B.

    2000-12-01

    Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy is used to study the relaxation processes in a nematic monomer and the corresponding cross-linked polymer nematic liquid crystal (elastomer). In the frequency window 10 mHz to 2 GHz the monomer liquid crystal shows a single relaxation whereas the polymer exhibits three relaxation processes, two of which are quantitatively analyzed. The temperature dependence of relaxation times in both the monomer and polymer follows a Vogel-Fulcher behavior. The relaxation processes are identified with specific molecular motions and activation energies are calculated in a linear approximation for comparison with literature data.

  3. Polar cap contraction and expansion during a period of substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikio, Anita; Pitkänen, Timo; Honkonen, Ilja; Palmroth, Minna; Amm, Olaf

    We have studied the variations in the polar cap area and related parameters during a period of four substorms on February 18, 2004, following an extended quiet period. The measurements were obtained by the EISCAT incoherent scatter radars, MIRACLE magnetometers, Geotail and solar wind satellites. In addition, the event is modeled by the GUMICS-4 MHD simulation. By using the measured and modeled data, the dayside and nightside reconnection voltages are calculated. The results show a good general agreement in the polar cap boundary (PCB) location as estimated by the EISCAT radars and the GUMICS simulation. Deviations are found, too, like shorter durations of expansion phases in the simulation. Geotail measurements of the inclination angle of the magnetic field in the tail (Xgsm= -22 Re) agree with the PCB latitude variations measured by EISCAT at a different MLT. We conclude that a large polar cap corresponds to a stretched tail configuration in the near-Earth tail and a small polar cap to a more dipolar configuration. The substorm onsets took place during southward IMF. A specific feature is that the substorm expansion phases were not associated with significant contractions of the polar cap. Even though nightside reconnection voltages started to increase during expansion phases, maximum closure of open flux took place in the recovery phases. We shortly discuss implications of the observation to the definition of the recovery phase.

  4. Adenovirus DNA binding protein inhibits SrCap-activated CBP and CREB-mediated transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiequn; Tarakanova, Vera; Chrivia, John; Yaciuk, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The SNF2-related CBP activator protein (SrCap) is a potent activator of transcription mediated by CBP and CREB. We have previously demonstrated that the Adenovirus 2 DNA Binding Protein (DBP) binds to SrCap and inhibits the transcription mediated by the carboxyl-terminal region of SrCap (amino acids 1275-2971). We report here that DBP inhibits the ability of full-length SrCap (1-2971) to activate transcription mediated by Gal-CREB and Gal-CBP. In addition, DBP also inhibits the ability of SrCap to enhance Protein Kinase A (PKA) activated transcription of the enkaphalin promoter. DBP was found to dramatically inhibit transcription of a mammalian two-hybrid system that was dependent on the interaction of SrCap and CBP binding domains. We also found that DBP has no effect on transcription mediated by a transcriptional activator that is not related to SrCap, indicating that our reported transcriptional inhibition is specific for SrCap and not due to nonspecific effects of DBP's DNA binding activity on the CAT reporter plasmid. Taken together, these results suggest a model in which DBP inhibits cellular transcription mediated by the interaction between SrCap and CBP

  5. The rebirth of the cervical cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappiello, J D; Grainger-Harrison, M

    1981-01-01

    In an effort to dispel myths surrounding the cervical cap, the historical and political factors affecting the cap's use in the U.S. are described. Clinical aspects of cap fitting are also included. The cervical cap has found only limited acceptance in the U.S. Skepticisms on the part of physicians may be the result of 2 factors: confusion of the cervical cap with intracervical devices used for artificial insemination and confusion with stem pessaries; and the lack of clinical research and statistical evaluation of efficacy rates. The latter factor prompted Tietze et al. to conduct the only U.S. statistical study of the cap in 1953. Of the 143 women studied, the pregnancy rate was 7.6/100 years of use. Of the 28 unplanned pregnancies, 6 were related to faulty technique or omission of a spermicide and 10 were instances of admittedly irregular use. When these failures are omitted, the theoretical effectiveness rate is about 98%. Some practitioners are concerned about an increased incidence of cervical erosion with cap use. Possibly currently conducted studies will show that cap and spermicide users have a lower incidence of cervical erosion than women using no contraceptive method. Study findings suggest that the cervical cap may afford protection without any spermicidal supplement, but the use of spermicides continues to be recommended to clients. Advantages of the cervical cap include the following: it can be left in place longer than a diaphragm without additional applications of spermicide in the vagina; and the insertion of the cap is unrelated to the time of intercourse. Despite research on toleration of the cap for 3 weeks at a time, it is recommended that the cap be worn for only a few days at a time. At this time there are no manufacturers of cervical caps for contraceptive use in the U.S. The cap is now being imported from England and it costs $6.00. A factor that has made the cap unpopular with many physicians is the lengthy time required for fitting. An

  6. Cap stabilization for reclaimed uranium sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, S.R.; Nelson, J.D.; Johnson, T.L.; Hawkins, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    The reclamation and stabilization of uranium-mill tailings sites requires engineering designs to protect against the disruption of tailings and the potential release of radioactive materials. The reclamation design is to be effective for 200-1000 years. This paper presents recently developed or refined techniques and methodologies used to evaluate uranium-tailings-reclamation plans designed to provide long-term stability against failure modes. Specific cap-design aspects presented include design flood selection, influence of fluvial geomorphology on site stabilization, stable slope prediction, slope stabilization using riprap, and riprap selection relative to rock quality and durability. Design relationships are presented for estimating flow through riprap, sizing riprap, and estimating riprap flow resistance for overtopping conditions. Guidelines for riprap-layer thickness and gradation are presented. A riprap-rating procedure for estimating rock quality and durability is also presented

  7. ATLAS electromagnetic end-cap detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    After the insertion of the first end-cap into this cryostat, the team proceed to the wiring operations. Millions of wires are connected to the electromagnetic calorimeter on this end-cap, whch must be carefully fed out from the detector so that data can be read out. The energy of photons, electrons and positrons will be measured as they pass through the end-cap having been created along the line of the beams in the proton-proton collisions.

  8. Relaxed states with plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avinash, K.; Taylor, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    In the theory of relaxation, a turbulent plasma reaches a state of minimum energy subject to constant magnetic helicity. In this state the plasma velocity is zero. Attempts have been made by introducing a number of different constraints, to obtain relaxed states with plasma flow. It is shown that these alternative constraints depend on two self-helicities, one for ions, and one for electrons. However, whereas there are strong arguments for the effective invariance of the original magnetic-helicity, these arguments do not apply to the self-helicities. Consequently the existence of relaxed states with flow remains in doubt. (author)

  9. Incorporating Cold Cap Behavior in a Joule-heated Waste Glass Melter Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varija Agarwal; Donna Post Guillen

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, an overview of Joule-heated waste glass melters used in the vitrification of high level waste (HLW) is presented, with a focus on the cold cap region. This region, in which feed-to-glass conversion reactions occur, is critical in determining the melting properties of any given glass melter. An existing 1D computer model of the cold cap, implemented in MATLAB, is described in detail. This model is a standalone model that calculates cold cap properties based on boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the cold cap. Efforts to couple this cold cap model with a 3D STAR-CCM+ model of a Joule-heated melter are then described. The coupling is being implemented in ModelCenter, a software integration tool. The ultimate goal of this model is to guide the specification of melter parameters that optimize glass quality and production rate.

  10. Simulation studies on structural and thermal properties of alkane thiol capped gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, J Meena

    2017-06-01

    The structural and thermal properties of the passivated gold nanoparticles were explored employing molecular dynamics simulation for the different surface coverage densities of the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of alkane thiol. The structural properties of the monolayer protected gold nanoparticles such us overall shape, organization and conformation of the capping alkane thiol chains were found to be influenced by the capping density. The structural order of the thiol capped gold nanoparticles enhances with the increase in the surface coverage density. The specific heat capacity of the alkane thiol capped gold nanoparticles was found to increase linearly with the thiol coverage density. This may be attributed to the enhancement in the lattice vibrational energy. The present simulation results suggest, that the structural and thermal properties of the alkane thiol capped gold nanoparticles may be modified by the suitable selection of the SAM coverage density. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Limiting conditions for operation relaxation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to assess the impact of system maintenance unavailability on plant risk to provide technical justification for the relaxation of system limiting conditions for operation from three to seven days. The primary goal of the relaxation program is to allow for more thorough equipment maintenance. A potential increase in out-of-service time for a particular outage caused by the performance of more effective repairs will be counterbalanced by a probable decrease in the frequency in the outage rate of a component. Benefits resulting from an increase in allowed outage time include: (a) a potential reduction in total system out-of-service time, (b) a minimization of challenges to plant systems, and (c) a reduction in the number of emergency technical specification change requests. This program therefore offers an opportunity to more effectively manage plant maintenance and operation

  12. Relaxed states of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucinski, M.Y.; Okano, V.

    1993-01-01

    The relaxed states of tokamak plasmas are studied. It is assumed that the plasma relaxes to a quasi-steady state which is characterized by a minimum entropy production rate, compatible with a number of prescribed conditions and pressure balance. A poloidal current arises naturally due to the anisotropic resistivity. The minimum entropy production theory is applied, assuming the pressure equilibrium as fundamental constraint on the final state. (L.C.J.A.)

  13. Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoperov E.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.

  14. Relaxation effects in ferrous complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolini, C.; Mathieu, J.P.; Chappert, J.

    1976-01-01

    The slow relaxation mechanism of the Fe 2+ ion in the tri-fluorinated TF(acac) and hexafluorinated HF(acac) complexes of Fe(II) acetylacetonate was investigated. The 300K and 77K Moessbauer spectra for TF(acac) consist in a slightly asymmetric quadrupole doublet. On the contrary, at 4.2K the higher energy line is strongly widened; that is typical of a slowing down in the electron relaxation frequency [fr

  15. Does uncertainty justify intensity emission caps?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirion, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Environmental policies often set 'relative' or 'intensity' emission caps, i.e. emission limits proportional to the polluting firm's output. One of the arguments put forth in favour of relative caps is based on the uncertainty on business-as-usual output: if the firm's production level is higher than expected, so will be business-as-usual emissions, hence reaching a given level of emissions will be more costly than expected. As a consequence, it is argued, a higher emission level should be allowed if the production level is more important than expected. We assess this argument with a stochastic analytical model featuring two random variables: the business-as-usual emission level, proportional to output, and the slope of the marginal abatement cost curve. We compare the relative cap to an absolute cap and to a price instrument, in terms of welfare impact. It turns out that in most plausible cases, either a price instrument or an absolute cap yields a higher expected welfare than a relative cap. Quantitatively, the difference in expected welfare is typically very small between the absolute and the relative cap but may be significant between the relative cap and the price instrument. (author)

  16. Microtubule dynamics: Caps, catastrophes, and coupled hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, H.; Holy, T.E.; Leibler, S.

    1996-01-01

    An effective theory is formulated for the dynamics of the guanosine triphosphate (GTP) cap believed to stabilize growing microtubules. The theory provides a ''coarse-grained'' description of the cap's dynamics. ''Microscopic'' details, such as the microtubule lattice structure and the fate of its...

  17. Durability of Capped Wood Plastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Mankowski; Mark J. Manning; Damien P. Slowik

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers of wood plastic composites (WPCs) have recently introduced capped decking to their product lines. These new materials have begun to take market share from the previous generation of uncapped products that possessed a homogenous composition throughout the thickness of their cross-section. These capped offerings have been introduced with claims that the...

  18. Theoretical model of polar cap auroral arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, J.R.; Burke, W.J.; USAF, Bedford, MA)

    1985-01-01

    A theory of the polar cap auroral arcs is proposed under the assumption that the magnetic field reconnection occurs in the cusp region on tail field lines during northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. Requirements of a convection model during northward IMF are enumerated based on observations and fundamental theoretical considerations. The theta aurora can be expected to occur on the closed field lines convecting sunward in the central polar cap, while the less intense regular polar cap arcs can occur either on closed or open field lines. The dynamo region for the polar cap arcs is required to be on closed field lines convecting tailward in the plasma sheet which is magnetically connected to the sunward convection in the central polar cap. 43 references

  19. Convection flow structure in the central polar cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    A previous study of spatially averaged flow velocity in the central polar cap [Bristow et al., 2015] observed under steady IMF conditions found that it was extremely rare for the average to exceed 850 m/s (less than 0.2 % of the time). Anecdotally, however it is not uncommon to observe line-of-sight velocities in excess of 100 m/s in the McMurdo radar field of view directly over the magnetic pole. This discrepancy motivated this study, which examines the conditions under which high-velocity flows are observed at latitudes greater than 80° magnetic latitude. It was found that highly structured flows are common in the central polar cap, which leads to the flow within regions to have significant deviation from the average. In addition, the high-speed flow regions are usually directed away from the earth-sun line. No specific set of driving conditions was identified to be associated with high-speed flows. The study did conclude that 1)Polar cap velocities are generally highly structured. 2)Flow patterns typically illustrate narrow channels, vortical flow regions, and propagating features. 3) Persistent waves are a regular occurrence. 3)Features are observed to propagate from day side to night side, and from night side to day side.. 4)Convection often exhibits significant difference between the two hemispheres. And 5)About 10% of the time the velocity somewhere in the cap exceeds 1 Km/s The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the physical reasons for the flow structure. Bristow, W. A., E. Amata, J. Spaleta, and M. F. Marcucci (2015), Observations of the relationship between ionospheric central polar cap and dayside throat convection velocities, and solar wind/IMF driving, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, doi:10.1002/2015JA021199.

  20. Nicotinic cholinergic receptor in brain detected by binding of. cap alpha. -(/sup 3/H)bungarotoxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eterovic, V A; Bennett, E L

    1974-01-01

    ..cap alpha..-(/sup 3/H)bungarotoxin was prepared by catalytic reduction of iodinated ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin with tritium gas. Crude mitochondrial fraction from rat cerebral cortex bound 40 x 10/sup -15/ to 60 x 10/sup -15/ moles of ..cap alpha..-(/sup 3/H)bungarotoxin per mg of protein. This binding was reduced by 50% in the presence of approx. 10/sup -6/ M d-tubocurarine or nicotine, 10/sup -5/ M acetylcholine, 10/sup -4/ M carbamylcholine or decamethonium or 10/sup -3/ M atropine. Hexamethonium and eserine were the least effective of the drugs tested. Crude mitochondrial fraction was separated into myelin, nerve endings, and mitochondria. The highest binding of toxin per mg of protein was found in nerve endings, as well as the greatest inhibition of toxin binding by d-tubocurarine. Binding of ..cap alpha..-(/sup 3/H)bungarotoxin to membranes obtained by osmotic shock of the crude mitochondrial fraction indicates that the receptor for the toxin is membrane bound. /sup 125/I-labeled ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin, prepared with Na/sup 125/I and chloramine T, was highly specific for the acetylcholine receptor in diaphragm, however, it was less specific and less reliable than ..cap alpha..-(/sup 3/H)bungarotoxin in brain. It is concluded that a nicotinic cholinergic receptor exists in brain, and that ..cap alpha..-(/sup 3/H)bungarotoxin is a suitable probe for this receptor.

  1. Edge of polar cap patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2016-04-01

    On the night of 4 December 2013, a sequence of polar cap patches was captured by an all-sky airglow imager (ASI) in Longyearbyen, Norway (78.1°N, 15.5°E). The 630.0 nm airglow images from the ASI of 4 second exposure time, oversampled the emission of natural lifetime (with quenching) of at least ˜30 sec, introduce no observational blurring effects. By using such high-quality ASI images, we succeeded in visualizing an asymmetry in the gradients between the leading/trailing edges of the patches in a 2-D fashion. The gradient in the leading edge was found to be 2-3 times steeper than that in the trailing edge. We also identified fingerlike structures, appearing only along the trailing edge of the patches, whose horizontal scale size ranged from 55 to 210 km. These fingers are considered to be manifestations of plasma structuring through the gradient-drift instability (GDI), which is known to occur only along the trailing edge of patches. That is, the current 2-D observations visualized, for the first time, how GDI stirs the patch plasma and such a mixing process makes the trailing edge more gradual. This result strongly implies a close connection between the GDI-driven plasma stirring and the asymmetry in the large-scale shape of patches and then suggests that the fingerlike structures can be used as markers to estimate the fine-scale structure in the plasma flow within patches.

  2. Identification and subcellular localization of a 21-kilodalton molecule using affinity-purified antibodies against. cap alpha. -transforming growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, P.; Pardue, R.L.; Earls, R.; Dedman, J.R.

    1987-04-07

    Monospecific antibodies were generated against each of six different peptide sequences derived from rat and human ..cap alpha..-transforming growth factor (..cap alpha..-TGF). The affinity-purified antibody to the 17 amino acid carboxyl-terminal portion of the molecule proved most useful in detecting ..cap alpha..-TGF. When used in a peptide-based radioimmunoassay, it was possible to measure nanogram quantities of native ..cap alpha..-TGF in conditioned cell culture media. When used to analyze cell lysate, these antibodies specifically recognized a 21-kilodalton protein species. Indirect immunofluorescence localization procedures revealed a high concentration of ..cap alpha..-TCF in a perinuclear ring with a diffuse cytoplasmic distribution. These results suggest that a precursor form of ..cap alpha..-TGF has a cellular role beyond that of an autocrine growth factor.

  3. CAP FUTURE: WHAT DO STAKEHOLDERS WANT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr BLIZKOVSKY

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP is at the crossroads of several policy interests. It is scrutinised by farming and environmental communities as well as by the food industry, regional authorities, research and public sector. The paper analyses the recent consultation process undertaken by the European Commission. The paper concludes that among the key reform issues are: the level of the financial support to the CAP; the continued environmental and other public goods orientation of the CAP and generational renewal. In addition, the focus on result orientation and reduction of the administrative burden can be expected. The relevant European Commission proposals are foreseen around summer 2018.

  4. The pharmaceutical vial capping process: Container closure systems, capping equipment, regulatory framework, and seal quality tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Buettiker, Jean-Pierre; Roehl, Holger; Lam, Philippe; Brown, Helen; Luemkemann, Joerg; Adler, Michael; Huwyler, Joerg; Streubel, Alexander; Mohl, Silke

    2016-02-01

    Parenteral drug products are protected by appropriate primary packaging to protect against environmental factors, including potential microbial contamination during shelf life duration. The most commonly used CCS configuration for parenteral drug products is the glass vial, sealed with a rubber stopper and an aluminum crimp cap. In combination with an adequately designed and controlled aseptic fill/finish processes, a well-designed and characterized capping process is indispensable to ensure product quality and integrity and to minimize rejections during the manufacturing process. In this review, the health authority requirements and expectations related to container closure system quality and container closure integrity are summarized. The pharmaceutical vial, the rubber stopper, and the crimp cap are described. Different capping techniques are critically compared: The most common capping equipment with a rotating capping plate produces the lowest amount of particle. The strength and challenges of methods to control the capping process are discussed. The residual seal force method can characterize the capping process independent of the used capping equipment or CCS. We analyze the root causes of several cosmetic defects associated with the vial capping process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Peeling mode relaxation ELM model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimblett, C. G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses an approach to modelling Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) in which toroidal peeling modes are envisaged to initiate a constrained relaxation of the tokamak outer region plasma. Relaxation produces both a flattened edge current profile (which tends to further destabilise a peeling mode), and a plasma-vacuum negative current sheet which has a counteracting stabilising influence; the balance that is struck between these two effects determines the radial extent (rE) of the ELM relaxed region. The model is sensitive to the precise position of the mode rational surfaces to the plasma surface and hence there is a 'deterministic scatter' in the results that has an accord with experimental data. The toroidal peeling stability criterion involves the edge pressure, and using this in conjunction with predictions of rE allows us to evaluate the ELM energy losses and compare with experiment. Predictions of trends with the edge safety factor and collisionality are also made

  6. C-CAP Niihau 2005 Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land cover derived from high resolution imagery according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol. This data set utilized 1...

  7. C-CAP Land Cover, Kauai, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  8. Recessed floating pier caps for highway bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Presented are alternate designs for two existing bridges in Virginia - one with steel beams and the other with prestressed concrete beams - whereby the pier caps are recessed within the depth of the longitudinal beams. The purpose of this recession i...

  9. C-CAP Land Cover, Niihau, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  10. Civil Air Patrol (CAP) Aircraft Requirement Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mercher, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    The Air Force Audit Agency (AFAA) concluded in its Report of Audit EB0980013 (13 May 98), Air Force Oversight of CY 1996 Civil Air Patrol Corporation Activities, CAP-USAF, Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-6323...

  11. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS (PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  12. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  13. Circumpolar Active-Layer Permafrost System (CAPS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Circumpolar Active-Layer Permafrost System (CAPS) contains over 100 data sets pertaining to permafrost and frozen ground topics. It also contains detailed...

  14. Eddy intrusion of hot plasma into the polar cap and formation of polar-cap arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Y.T.; Gorney, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    We present plasma and electric field data obtained by the S3-3 satellite over the polar caps. We demonstrate that: (1) plasma signatures in the polar cap arc formation region near 5000 km altitude show clear intrusions of plasma sheet (approx.keV) and magneto sheath (approx.100 eV) plasma into a background of low-energy polar cap plasma; (2) the combined plasma and electric field signatures (electron inverted-V, ion beam and delxE<0) are exactly the same as in the evening discrete arc. We interpret this equivalence of polar cap and evening discrete arc signatures as indication that their formation processes are identical. The spatial structures of polar cap electric fields and the associated plasma signatures are consistent with the hypothesis that plasma intrusion into the polar cap takes the form of multiple cellular eddies. This hypothesis provides a unifying view of arc formation and arc configurations

  15. Modeling active capping efficacy. 1. Metal and organometal contaminated sediment remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Priscilla Z; Yin, Ke; Rockne, Karl J

    2008-12-01

    Cd, Cr, Pb, Ag, As, Ba, Hg, CH3Hg, and CN transport through sand, granular activated carbon (GAC), organoclay, shredded tires, and apatite caps was modeled by deterministic and Monte Carlo methods. Time to 10% breakthrough, 30 and 100 yr cumulative release were metrics of effectiveness. Effective caps prevented above-cap concentrations from exceeding USEPA acute criteria at 100 yr assuming below-cap concentrations at solubility. Sand caps performed best under diffusion due to the greater diffusive path length. Apatite had the best advective performance for Cd, Cr, and Pb. Organoclay performed best for Ag, As, Ba, CH3Hg, and CN. Organoclay and apatite were equally effective for Hg. Monte Carlo analysis was used to determine output sensitivity. Sand was effective under diffusion for Cr within the 50% confidence interval (CI), for Cd and Pb (75% CI), and for As, Hg, and CH3Hg (95% CI). Under diffusion and advection, apatite was effective for Cd, Pb, and Hg (75% CI) and organoclay was effective for Hg and CH3Hg (50% CI). GAC and shredded tires performed relatively poorly. Although no single cap is a panacea, apatite and organoclay have the broadest range of effectiveness. Cap performance is most sensitive to the partitioning coefficient and hydraulic conductivity, indicating the importance of accurate site-specific measurement for these parameters.

  16. Truncated Dual-Cap Nucleation Site Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Douglas M.; Sander, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    During heterogeneous nucleation within a metastable mushy-zone, several geometries for nucleation site development must be considered. Traditional spherical dual cap and crevice models are compared to a truncated dual cap to determine the activation energy and critical cluster growth kinetics in ternary Fe-Cr-Ni steel alloys. Results of activation energy results indicate that nucleation is more probable at grain boundaries within the solid than at the solid-liquid interface.

  17. Corrective action program (CAP) in United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Koji; Kobayashi, Masahide

    2008-01-01

    The Corrective Action Process (CAP) is one of the most important key issues on the Nuclear Reactor Safety. The experiences on the nuclear power plant operations, including safety culture, maintenance, and so on, should be continuously evaluated and influenced to the KAIZEN (improvement) of the NPP operations. The review of the CAP system in US will be useful for the NPP safety in Japan. (author)

  18. A nucleation theory of cell surface capping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutsias, E.A.; Wester, M.J.; Perelson, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    We propose a new theory of cell surface capping based on the principles of nucleation. When antibody interacts with cell surface molecules, the molecules initially form small aggregates called patches that later coalesce into a large aggregate called a cap. While a cap can form by patches being pulled together by action of the cell''s cytoskeleton, in the case of some molecules, disruption of the cytoskeleton does not prevent cap formation. Diffusion of large aggregates on a cell surface is slow, and thus we propose that a cap can form solely through the diffusion of small aggregates containing just one or a few cell surface molecules. Here we consider the extreme case in which single molecules are mobile, but aggregates of all larger sizes are immobile. We show that a set of patches in equilibrium with a open-quotes seaclose quotes of free cell surface molecules can undergo a nucleation-type phase transition in which the largest patch will bind free cell surface molecules, deplete the concentration of such molecules in the open-quotes seaclose quotes and thus cause the other patches to shrink in size. We therefore show that a cap can form without patches having to move, collide with each other, and aggregate

  19. Relaxation properties in classical diamagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carati, A.; Benfenati, F.; Galgani, L.

    2011-06-01

    It is an old result of Bohr that, according to classical statistical mechanics, at equilibrium a system of electrons in a static magnetic field presents no magnetization. Thus a magnetization can occur only in an out of equilibrium state, such as that produced through the Foucault currents when a magnetic field is switched on. It was suggested by Bohr that, after the establishment of such a nonequilibrium state, the system of electrons would quickly relax back to equilibrium. In the present paper, we study numerically the relaxation to equilibrium in a modified Bohr model, which is mathematically equivalent to a billiard with obstacles, immersed in a magnetic field that is adiabatically switched on. We show that it is not guaranteed that equilibrium is attained within the typical time scales of microscopic dynamics. Depending on the values of the parameters, one has a relaxation either to equilibrium or to a diamagnetic (presumably metastable) state. The analogy with the relaxation properties in the Fermi Pasta Ulam problem is also pointed out.

  20. Onsager relaxation of toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samain, A.; Nguyen, F.

    1997-01-01

    The slow relaxation of isolated toroidal plasmas towards their thermodynamical equilibrium is studied in an Onsager framework based on the entropy metric. The basic tool is a variational principle, equivalent to the kinetic equation, involving the profiles of density, temperature, electric potential, electric current. New minimization procedures are proposed to obtain entropy and entropy production rate functionals. (author)

  1. Anisotropic spin relaxation in graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tombros, N.; Tanabe, S.; Veligura, A.; Jozsa, C.; Popinciuc, M.; Jonkman, H. T.; van Wees, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    Spin relaxation in graphene is investigated in electrical graphene spin valve devices in the nonlocal geometry. Ferromagnetic electrodes with in-plane magnetizations inject spins parallel to the graphene layer. They are subject to Hanle spin precession under a magnetic field B applied perpendicular

  2. Stochastic and Chaotic Relaxation Oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasman, J.; Roerdink, J.B.T.M.

    1988-01-01

    For relaxation oscillators stochastic and chaotic dynamics are investigated. The effect of random perturbations upon the period is computed. For an extended system with additional state variables chaotic behavior can be expected. As an example, the Van der Pol oscillator is changed into a

  3. Tensions relaxation in Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuniberti, A.M.; Picasso, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    Traction and stress relaxation studies were performed on polycrystalline Zry-4 at room temperature. The effect of loading velocity on the plastic behaviour of the material is discussed, analysing log σ vs. log dε/dt at different deformation levels. The contribution introduced by the testing machine was taken into account in data evaluation. (Author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Sleep, Stress & Relaxation: Rejuvenate Body & Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, Stress & Relaxation: Rejuvenate Body & Mind; Relieve Stress; best ways to relieve stress; best way to relieve stress; different ways to relieve stress; does smoking relieve stress; does tobacco relieve stress; how can I relieve stress; how can you relieve stress; how do I relieve stress; reduce stress; does smoking reduce stress; how can I reduce stress; how to reduce stress; reduce stress; reduce stress levels; reducing stress; smoking reduce stress; smoking reduces stress; stress reducing techniques; techniques to reduce stress; stress relief; best stress relief; natural stress relief; need stress relief; relief for stress; relief from stress; relief of stress; smoking and stress relief; smoking for stress relief; smoking stress relief; deal with stress; dealing with stress; dealing with anger; dealing with stress; different ways of dealing with stress; help dealing with stress; how to deal with anger; how to deal with stress; how to deal with stress when quitting smoking; stress management; free stress management; how can you manage stress; how do you manage stress; how to manage stress; manage stress; management of stress; management stress; managing stress; strategies for managing stress; coping with stress; cope with stress; copeing with stress; coping and stress; coping skills for stress; coping strategies for stress; coping strategies with stress; coping strategy for stress; coping with stress; coping with stress and anxiety; emotional health; emotional health; emotional health article; emotional health articles; deep relaxation; deep breathing relaxation techniques; deep muscle relaxation; deep relaxation; deep relaxation meditation; deep relaxation technique; deep relaxation techniques; meditation exercises; mindful exercises; mindful meditation exercises; online relaxation exercises; relaxation breathing exercises; relaxation exercise; relaxation exercises; stress relaxation; methods of relaxation for stress; relax stress; relax techniques stress

  5. Specific interactions between DNA and regulatory protein controlled by ligand-binding: Ab initio molecular simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Y.; Murakawa, T.; Shimamura, K.; Oishi, M.; Ohyama, T.; Kurita, N.

    2015-01-01

    The catabolite activator protein (CAP) is one of the regulatory proteins controlling the transcription mechanism of gene. Biochemical experiments elucidated that the complex of CAP with cyclic AMP (cAMP) is indispensable for controlling the mechanism, while previous molecular simulations for the monomer of CAP+cAMP complex revealed the specific interactions between CAP and cAMP. However, the effect of cAMP-binding to CAP on the specific interactions between CAP and DNA is not elucidated at atomic and electronic levels. We here considered the ternary complex of CAP, cAMP and DNA in solvating water molecules and investigated the specific interactions between them at atomic and electronic levels using ab initio molecular simulations based on classical molecular dynamics and ab initio fragment molecular orbital methods. The results highlight the important amino acid residues of CAP for the interactions between CAP and cAMP and between CAP and DNA

  6. Specific interactions between DNA and regulatory protein controlled by ligand-binding: Ab initio molecular simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, Y., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp; Murakawa, T., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp; Shimamura, K., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp; Oishi, M., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp; Ohyama, T., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp; Kurita, N., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi, 441-8580 (Japan)

    2015-02-27

    The catabolite activator protein (CAP) is one of the regulatory proteins controlling the transcription mechanism of gene. Biochemical experiments elucidated that the complex of CAP with cyclic AMP (cAMP) is indispensable for controlling the mechanism, while previous molecular simulations for the monomer of CAP+cAMP complex revealed the specific interactions between CAP and cAMP. However, the effect of cAMP-binding to CAP on the specific interactions between CAP and DNA is not elucidated at atomic and electronic levels. We here considered the ternary complex of CAP, cAMP and DNA in solvating water molecules and investigated the specific interactions between them at atomic and electronic levels using ab initio molecular simulations based on classical molecular dynamics and ab initio fragment molecular orbital methods. The results highlight the important amino acid residues of CAP for the interactions between CAP and cAMP and between CAP and DNA.

  7. /sup 58,60,62/Ni (. cap alpha. ,p) three--nucleon transfer reactions and. cap alpha. optical potential ambiguities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuanda, Wang; Xiuming, Bao; Zhiqiang, Mao; Rongfang, Yuan; Keling, Wen; Binyin, Huang; Zhifu, Wang; Shuming, Li; Jianan, Wang; Zuxun, Sun; others, and

    1985-11-01

    The differential cross sections are measured using 26.0 MeV ..cap alpha.. particle for /sup 58,62/Ni(..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..) /sup 58,62/Ni and /sup 58,62/Ni(..cap alpha..,p) /sup 61,65/Cu reactions as well as 25.4 MeV ..cap alpha.. particle for /sup 60/Ni(..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..)/sup 69/Ni and /sup 60/Ni(..cap alpha.., p)/sup 63/Cu reactions. Consistent calculations with optical model and ZR DWBA are made for (..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..) and (..cap alpha.., p) reactions by using of single, two, three and four nucleon optical potential parameters. For elastic scattering due to the ..cap alpha.. optical potential ambiguities, all the above optical potential can reproduce the experimental angular distributions. However, the single, two and three nucleon potential, including the Baird's mass systematics and the Chang's energy systematics of ..cap alpha.. potentials, obviously can not provide a reasonable fitting with the (..cap alpha..,p) reaction experimental data. Only the results from the four nucleon potential is in good agreement with the (..cap alpha..,p) reaction experimental data. This reveals that in the ..cap alpha..-particle induced transfer reactions, the real depth of the ..cap alpha..-nucleus optical potential should be rather deep.

  8. 49 CFR 230.41 - Flexible staybolts with caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flexible staybolts with caps. 230.41 Section 230... Appurtenances Staybolts § 230.41 Flexible staybolts with caps. (a) General. Flexible staybolts with caps shall have their caps removed during every 5th annual inspection for the purpose of inspecting the bolts for...

  9. Anti-pp,. cap alpha cap alpha. and p. cap alpha. elastic scattering at high energies and Chou-Yang conjecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem; Rifique, M.

    1987-03-01

    The recent experimental measurements for anti-pp and ..cap alpha cap alpha.. elastic scattering at high energies have shown that the Chou-Yang conjecture regarding the relationship between the electromagnetic and the hadronic form factor of a particle is only an approximation. A new ansatz has been proposed to obtain hadronic form factors of proton and the ..cap alpha..-particle. These form factors have been used to explain the various characteristics of anti-pp, ..cap alpha cap alpha.. and p..cap alpha.. elastic scattering at high energies.

  10. Influence of microgravity on cellular differentiation in root caps of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; Fondren, W. M.; McClelen, C. E.; Wang, C. L.

    1987-01-01

    We launched imbibed seeds of Zea mays into outer space aboard the space shuttle Columbia to determine the influence of microgravity on cellular differentiation in root caps. The influence of microgravity varied with different stages of cellular differentiation. Overall, microgravity tended to 1) increase relative volumes of hyaloplasm and lipid bodies, 2) decrease the relative volumes of plastids, mitochondria, dictyosomes, and the vacuome, and 3) exert no influence on the relative volume of nuclei in cells comprising the root cap. The reduced allocation of dictyosomal volume in peripheral cells of flight-grown seedlings correlated positively with their secretion of significantly less mucilage than peripheral cells of Earth-grown seedlings. These results indicate that 1) microgravity alters the patterns of cellular differentiation and structures of all cell types comprising the root cap, and 2) the influence of microgravity on cellular differentiation in root caps of Zea mays is organelle specific.

  11. A thermoelectric cap for seafloor hydrothermal vents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yu; Wu, Shi-jun; Yang, Can-jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a thermoelectric cap (TC) to harvest hydrothermal energy. • The TC was deployed at a hydrothermal vent site near Kueishantao islet, Taiwan. • The TC monitored the temperature of the hydrothermal fluids during the field test. • The TC could make the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids a viable power source. - Abstract: Long-term in situ monitoring is crucial to seafloor scientific investigations. One of the challenges of operating sensors in seabed is the lifespan of the sensors. Such sensors are commonly powered by batteries when other alternatives, such as tidal or solar energy, are unavailable. However, the batteries have a limited lifespan and must be recharged or replaced periodically, which is costly and impractical. A thermoelectric cap, which harvests the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids through a conduction pipe and converts the heat to electrical energy by using thermoelectric generators, was developed to avoid these inconveniences. The thermoelectric cap was combined with a power and temperature measurement system that enables the thermoelectric cap to power a light-emitting diode lamp, an electronic load (60 Ω), and 16 thermocouples continuously. The thermoelectric cap was field tested at a shallow hydrothermal vent site near Kueishantao islet, which is located offshore of northeastern Taiwan. By using the thermal gradient between hydrothermal fluids and seawater, the thermoelectric cap obtained a sustained power of 0.2–0.5 W during the field test. The thermoelectric cap successfully powered the 16 thermocouples and recorded the temperature of the hydrothermal fluids during the entire field test. Our results show that the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids can be an alternative renewable power source for oceanographic research.

  12. Variations in the polar cap area during two substorm cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This study employs observations from several sources to determine the location of the polar cap boundary, or open/closed field line boundary, at all local times, allowing the amount of open flux in the magnetosphere to be quantified. These data sources include global auroral images from the Ultraviolet Imager (UVI instrument on board the Polar spacecraft, SuperDARN HF radar measurements of the convection flow, and low altitude particle measurements from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA satellites, and the Fast Auroral SnapshoT (FAST spacecraft. Changes in the open flux content of the magnetosphere are related to the rate of magnetic reconnection occurring at the magnetopause and in the magnetotail, allowing us to estimate the day- and nightside reconnection voltages during two substorm cycles. Specifically, increases in the polar cap area are found to be consistent with open flux being created when the IMF is oriented southwards and low-latitude magnetopause reconnection is ongoing, and decreases in area correspond to open flux being destroyed at substorm breakup. The polar cap area can continue to decrease for 100 min following the onset of substorm breakup, continuing even after substorm-associated auroral features have died away. An estimate of the dayside reconnection voltage, determined from plasma drift measurements in the ionosphere, indicates that reconnection can take place at all local times along the dayside portion of the polar cap boundary, and hence presumably across the majority of the dayside magnetopause. The observation of ionospheric signatures of bursty reconnection over a wide extent of local times supports this finding.Key words. Ionosphere (plasma convection; polar ionosphere – Magnetospheric physics (magnetospheric configuration and dynamics

  13. Polar cap flow channel events: spontaneous and driven responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Sandholt

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We present two case studies of specific flow channel events appearing at the dusk and/or dawn polar cap boundary during passage at Earth of interplanetary (IP coronal mass ejections (ICMEs on 10 January and 25 July 2004. The channels of enhanced (>1 km/s antisunward convection are documented by SuperDARN radars and dawn-dusk crossings of the polar cap by the DMSP F13 satellite. The relationship with Birkeland currents (C1–C2 located poleward of the traditional R1–R2 currents is demonstrated. The convection events are manifest in ground magnetic deflections obtained from the IMAGE (International Monitor for Auroral Geomagnetic Effects Svalbard chain of ground magnetometer stations located within 71–76° MLAT. By combining the ionospheric convection data and the ground magnetograms we are able to study the temporal behaviour of the convection events. In the two ICME case studies the convection events belong to two different categories, i.e., directly driven and spontaneous events. In the 10 January case two sharp southward turnings of the ICME magnetic field excited corresponding convection events as detected by IMAGE and SuperDARN. We use this case to determine the ground magnetic signature of enhanced flow channel events (the NH-dusk/By<0 variant. In the 25 July case a several-hour-long interval of steady southwest ICME field (Bz<0; By<0 gave rise to a long series of spontaneous convection events as detected by IMAGE when the ground stations swept through the 12:00–18:00 MLT sector. From the ground-satellite conjunction on 25 July we infer the pulsed nature of the polar cap ionospheric flow channel events in this case. The typical duration of these convection enhancements in the polar cap is 10 min.

  14. Relaxation Techniques to Manage IBS Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for 15–20 seconds and then begin again. Progressive Muscle Relaxation This method of relaxation focuses on ... helpful, please consider supporting IFFGD with a small tax- deductible donation. Make Donation Adapted from IFFGD Publication # ...

  15. Relaxation and Distraction in Experimental Desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, R. O.; Marshall, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Compared experimental desensitization with a procedure that replaced relaxation with a distraction task and with an approach that combined both relaxation and distraction. Desensitization generally was more effective than the other two procedures. (Author)

  16. Relaxation as a Factor in Semantic Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, James E.; McNamara, J. Regis

    1975-01-01

    Relaxation and semantic desensitization were used to alleviate the fear of phobic females. Results showed that semantic desensitization, alone or in combination with relaxation, failed to modify the evaluative meanings evoked by the feared object. (SE)

  17. 75 FR 49527 - Caps Visual Communications, LLC; Black Dot Group; Formerly Known as Caps Group Acquisition, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,195] Caps Visual Communications, LLC; Black Dot Group; Formerly Known as Caps Group Acquisition, LLC Chicago, IL; Amended... of Caps Visual Communications, LLC, Black Dot Group, formerly known as Caps Group Acquisition, LLC...

  18. How does the antagonism between capping and anti-capping proteins affect actin network dynamics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Longhua; Papoian, Garegin A

    2011-01-01

    Actin-based cell motility is essential to many biological processes. We built a simplified, three-dimensional computational model and subsequently performed stochastic simulations to study the growth dynamics of lamellipodia-like branched networks. In this work, we shed light on the antagonism between capping and anti-capping proteins in regulating actin dynamics in the filamentous network. We discuss detailed mechanisms by which capping and anti-capping proteins affect the protrusion speed of the actin network and the rate of nucleation of filaments. We computed a phase diagram showing the regimes of motility enhancement and inhibition by these proteins. Our work shows that the effects of capping and anti-capping proteins are mainly transmitted by modulation of the filamentous network density and local availability of monomeric actin. We discovered that the combination of the capping/anti-capping regulatory network with nucleation-promoting proteins introduces robustness and redundancy in cell motility machinery, allowing the cell to easily achieve maximal protrusion speeds under a broader set of conditions. Finally, we discuss distributions of filament lengths under various conditions and speculate on their potential implication for the emergence of filopodia from the lamellipodial network.

  19. Plasmon-mediated energy relaxation in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, D. K. [School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-5706 (United States); Somphonsane, R. [Department of Physics, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology, Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Ramamoorthy, H.; Bird, J. P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, the State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14260-1500 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    Energy relaxation of hot carriers in graphene is studied at low temperatures, where the loss rate may differ significantly from that predicted for electron-phonon interactions. We show here that plasmons, important in the relaxation of energetic carriers in bulk semiconductors, can also provide a pathway for energy relaxation in transport experiments in graphene. We obtain a total loss rate to plasmons that results in energy relaxation times whose dependence on temperature and density closely matches that found experimentally.

  20. Nonlinear Relaxation in Population Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirone, Markus A.; de Pasquale, Ferdinando; Spagnolo, Bernardo

    We analyze the nonlinear relaxation of a complex ecosystem composed of many interacting species. The ecological system is described by generalized Lotka-Volterra equations with a multiplicative noise. The transient dynamics is studied in the framework of the mean field theory and with random interaction between the species. We focus on the statistical properties of the asymptotic behaviour of the time integral of the ith population and on the distribution of the population and of the local field.

  1. Structural relaxation: low temperature properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, F. de la

    1984-01-01

    We discuss the changes in transport and superconducting properties of amorphous Zr 70 Cu 30 , induced by thermal relaxation. The experimental results are used to investigate the relation between the microscopic parameters and the observed physical properties. It is shown that the density of eletronic states determines the shift Tc as well as the variation of the electrical resistivity. It is necessary to assume strong hybridization between s and d bands to understand the eletrodynamic response of the superconductor. (Author) [pt

  2. High-Pressure NMR and SAXS Reveals How Capping Modulates Folding Cooperativity of the pp32 Leucine-rich Repeat Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Berghaus, Melanie; Klein, Sean; Jenkins, Kelly; Zhang, Siwen; McCallum, Scott A; Morgan, Joel E; Winter, Roland; Barrick, Doug; Royer, Catherine A

    2018-04-27

    Many repeat proteins contain capping motifs, which serve to shield the hydrophobic core from solvent and maintain structural integrity. While the role of capping motifs in enhancing the stability and structural integrity of repeat proteins is well documented, their contribution to folding cooperativity is not. Here we examined the role of capping motifs in defining the folding cooperativity of the leucine-rich repeat protein, pp32, by monitoring the pressure- and urea-induced unfolding of an N-terminal capping motif (N-cap) deletion mutant, pp32-∆N-cap, and a C-terminal capping motif destabilization mutant pp32-Y131F/D146L, using residue-specific NMR and small-angle X-ray scattering. Destabilization of the C-terminal capping motif resulted in higher cooperativity for the unfolding transition compared to wild-type pp32, as these mutations render the stability of the C-terminus similar to that of the rest of the protein. In contrast, deletion of the N-cap led to strong deviation from two-state unfolding. In both urea- and pressure-induced unfolding, residues in repeats 1-3 of pp32-ΔN-cap lost their native structure first, while the C-terminal half was more stable. The residue-specific free energy changes in all regions of pp32-ΔN-cap were larger in urea compared to high pressure, indicating a less cooperative destabilization by pressure. Moreover, in contrast to complete structural disruption of pp32-ΔN-cap at high urea concentration, its pressure unfolded state remained compact. The contrasting effects of the capping motifs on folding cooperativity arise from the differential local stabilities of pp32, whereas the contrasting effects of pressure and urea on the pp32-ΔN-cap variant arise from their distinct mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effects of Suggestibility on Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Henry C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Selected undergraduates (N=32) on the basis of Creative Imagination Scale scores and randomly assigned high and low suggestibility subjects to progressive relaxation (PR) and suggestions of relaxation (SR) training modes. Results revealed a significant pre-post relaxation effect, and main efffects for both suggestibility and training mode. (NRB)

  4. Relaxed Poisson cure rate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Josemar; Cordeiro, Gauss M; Cancho, Vicente G; Balakrishnan, N

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to make the standard promotion cure rate model (Yakovlev and Tsodikov, ) more flexible by assuming that the number of lesions or altered cells after a treatment follows a fractional Poisson distribution (Laskin, ). It is proved that the well-known Mittag-Leffler relaxation function (Berberan-Santos, ) is a simple way to obtain a new cure rate model that is a compromise between the promotion and geometric cure rate models allowing for superdispersion. So, the relaxed cure rate model developed here can be considered as a natural and less restrictive extension of the popular Poisson cure rate model at the cost of an additional parameter, but a competitor to negative-binomial cure rate models (Rodrigues et al., ). Some mathematical properties of a proper relaxed Poisson density are explored. A simulation study and an illustration of the proposed cure rate model from the Bayesian point of view are finally presented. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Arresting relaxation in Pickering Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Tim; Burke, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Pickering emulsions consist of droplets of one fluid dispersed in a host fluid and stabilized by colloidal particles absorbed at the fluid-fluid interface. Everyday materials such as crude oil and food products like salad dressing are examples of these materials. Particles can stabilize non spherical droplet shapes in these emulsions through the following sequence: first, an isolated droplet is deformed, e.g. by an electric field, increasing the surface area above the equilibrium value; additional particles are then adsorbed to the interface reducing the surface tension. The droplet is then allowed to relax toward a sphere. If more particles were adsorbed than can be accommodated by the surface area of the spherical ground state, relaxation of the droplet is arrested at some non-spherical shape. Because the energetic cost of removing adsorbed colloids exceeds the interfacial driving force, these configurations can remain stable over long timescales. In this presentation, we present a computational study of the ordering present in anisotropic droplets produced through the mechanism of arrested relaxation and discuss the interplay between the geometry of the droplet, the dynamical process that produced it, and the structure of the defects observed.

  6. Vibrational relaxation in OCS mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, C.J.S.M.; Gait, P.D.; Simmie, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental measurements are reported of vibrational relaxation times which may be used to show whether there is near resonant vibration-rotation energy transfer between OCS and H 2 , D 2 or HD. Vibrational relaxation times have been measured in OCS and OCS mixtures over the temperature range 360 to 1000 K using a shock tube and a laser schlieren system. The effectiveness of the additives in reducing the relaxation time of OCS is in the order 4 He 3 He 2 2 and HD. Along this series the effect of an increase in temperature changes from the case of speeding up the rate with 4 He to retarding it with D 2 , HD and H 2 . There is no measurable difference in the effectiveness of n-D 2 and o-D 2 and little, or no, difference between n-H 2 and p-H 2 . Thus the experimental results do not give clear evidence for rotational-vibration energy transfer between hydrogen and OCS. This contrasts with the situation for CO 2 + H 2 mixtures. (author)

  7. Relaxed plasma-vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, G.O.; Lortz, D.; Kaiser, R.

    2001-01-01

    Taylor's theory of relaxed toroidal plasmas (states of lowest energy with fixed total magnetic helicity) is extended to include a vacuum between the plasma and the wall. In the extended variational problem, one prescribes, in addition to the helicity and the magnetic fluxes whose conservation follows from the perfect conductivity of the wall, the fluxes whose conservation follows from the assumption that the plasma-vacuum interface is also perfectly conducting (if the wall is a magnetic surface, then one has the toroidal and the poloidal flux in the vacuum). Vanishing of the first energy variation implies a pressureless free-boundary magnetohydrostatic equilibrium with a Beltrami magnetic field in the plasma, and in general with a surface current in the interface. Positivity of the second variation implies that the equilibrium is stable according to ideal magnetohydrodynamics, that it is a relaxed state according to Taylor's theory if the interface is replaced by a wall, and that the surface current is nonzero (at least if there are no closed magnetic field lines in the interface). The plane slab, with suitable boundary conditions to simulate a genuine torus, is investigated in detail. The relaxed state has the same double symmetry as the vessel if, and only if, the prescribed helicity is in an interval that depends on the prescribed fluxes. This interval is determined in the limit of a thin slab

  8. Regularized Label Relaxation Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaozhao; Xu, Yong; Li, Xuelong; Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Fang, Bingwu

    2018-04-01

    Linear regression (LR) and some of its variants have been widely used for classification problems. Most of these methods assume that during the learning phase, the training samples can be exactly transformed into a strict binary label matrix, which has too little freedom to fit the labels adequately. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a novel regularized label relaxation LR method, which has the following notable characteristics. First, the proposed method relaxes the strict binary label matrix into a slack variable matrix by introducing a nonnegative label relaxation matrix into LR, which provides more freedom to fit the labels and simultaneously enlarges the margins between different classes as much as possible. Second, the proposed method constructs the class compactness graph based on manifold learning and uses it as the regularization item to avoid the problem of overfitting. The class compactness graph is used to ensure that the samples sharing the same labels can be kept close after they are transformed. Two different algorithms, which are, respectively, based on -norm and -norm loss functions are devised. These two algorithms have compact closed-form solutions in each iteration so that they are easily implemented. Extensive experiments show that these two algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of the classification accuracy and running time.

  9. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS): Descriptive analysis of 500 patients from the International CAPS Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pintó, Ignasi; Moitinho, Marta; Santacreu, Irene; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Erkan, Doruk; Espinosa, Gerard; Cervera, Ricard

    2016-12-01

    To analyze the clinical and immunologic manifestations of patients with catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) from the "CAPS Registry". The demographic, clinical and serological features of 500 patients included in the website-based "CAPS Registry" were analyzed. Frequency distribution and measures of central tendency were used to describe the cohort. Comparison between groups regarding qualitative variables was undertaken by chi-square or Fisher exact test while T-test for independent variables was used to compare groups regarding continuous variables. 500 patients (female: 343 [69%]; mean age 38±17) accounting for 522 episodes of CAPS were included in the analysis. Forty percent of patients had an associated autoimmune disease, mainly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (75%). The majority of CAPS episodes were triggered by a precipitating factor (65%), mostly infections (49%). Clinically, CAPS was characterized by several organ involvement affecting kidneys (73%), lungs (60%), brain (56%), heart (50%), and skin (47%). Lupus anticoagulant, IgG anticardiolipin and IgG anti-β2-glycprotein antibodies were the most often implicated antiphospholipid antibodies (83%, 81% and 78% respectively). Mortality accounted for 37% of episodes of CAPS. Several clinical differences could be observed based on the age of presentation and its association to SLE. Those cases triggered by a malignancy tended to occur in older patients, while CAPS episodes in young patients were associated with an infectious trigger and peripheral vessels involvement. Additionally, CAPS associated with SLE were more likely to have severe cardiac and brain involvement leading to a higher mortality (48%). Although the presentation of CAPS is characterized by multiorgan thrombosis and failure, clinical differences among patients exist based on age and underlying chronic diseases, e.g. malignancy and SLE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Medicare program; hospital inpatient prospective payment systems for acute care hospitals and the long-term care hospital prospective payment system and fiscal year 2013 rates; hospitals' resident caps for graduate medical education payment purposes; quality reporting requirements for specific providers and for ambulatory surgical centers. final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. Some of the changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act) and other legislation. These changes will be applicable to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2012, unless otherwise specified in this final rule. We also are updating the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits. The updated rate-of-increase limits will be effective for cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 2012. We are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) and implementing certain statutory changes made by the Affordable Care Act. Generally, these changes will be applicable to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2012, unless otherwise specified in this final rule. In addition, we are implementing changes relating to determining a hospital's full-time equivalent (FTE) resident cap for the purpose of graduate medical education (GME) and indirect medical education (IME) payments. We are establishing new requirements or revised requirements for quality reporting by specific providers (acute care hospitals, PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, LTCHs, and inpatient psychiatric facilities (IPFs)) that are participating in Medicare. We also are establishing new administrative, data completeness, and extraordinary circumstance waivers or extension requests requirements, as well as a reconsideration process, for quality reporting by ambulatory surgical centers

  11. Proton relaxation relationships of human and animal tissues in vitro. Changes due to autolysis and fixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodd, W.; Schmitt, W.G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The results of measurements of proton relaxation times of various tissues from rats, pigs and humans are reported; these were obtained by a resonance spectroscope at 20 MHz and 40 0 C. There were specific differences in both relaxation times (T 1 and T 2 ) of the liver and spleen. There was a difference of more than 150 ms in the longitudinal relaxation time between grey and white cerebral tissue. Autolytic changes show an increase in both relaxation times. Fixation produced a reduction in T 1 only. The significance of these findings for NMR tomography is discussed. (orig.) [de

  12. Relaxation Dynamics of a Granular Pile on a Vertically Vibrating Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Daisuke; Otsuki, Michio; Katsuragi, Hiroaki

    2018-03-01

    Nonlinear relaxation dynamics of a vertically vibrated granular pile is experimentally studied. In the experiment, the flux and slope on the relaxing pile are measured by using a high-speed laser profiler. The relation of these quantities can be modeled by the nonlinear transport law assuming the uniform vibrofluidization of an entire pile. The fitting parameter in this model is only the relaxation efficiency, which characterizes the energy conversion rate from vertical vibration into horizontal transport. We demonstrate that this value is a constant independent of experimental conditions. The actual relaxation is successfully reproduced by the continuity equation with the proposed model. Finally, its specific applicability toward an astrophysical phenomenon is shown.

  13. Low temperature dielectric relaxation and charged defects in ferroelectric thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Artemenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a dielectric relaxation in BaTiO3-based ferroelectric thin films of different composition and with several growth modes: sputtering (with and without magnetron and sol-gel. The relaxation was observed at cryogenic temperatures (T < 100 K for frequencies from 100 Hz up to 10 MHz. This relaxation activation energy is always lower than 200 meV and is very similar to the relaxation that we reported in the parent bulk perovskites. Based on our Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR investigation, we ascribe this dielectric relaxation to the hopping of electrons among Ti3+-V(O charged defects. Being dependent on the growth process and on the amount of oxygen vacancies, this relaxation can be a useful probe of defects in actual integrated capacitors with no need for specific shaping.

  14. Photoactivable caps for reactive metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashish

    The synthesis and stabilization of reactive metal nanoparticles is often challenging under normal atmospheric conditions. This problem can be alleviated by capping and passivation. Our lab has focused on forming polymer coatings on the surface of reactive metal nanoparticles. We discovered a convenient and effective route for stabilization of aluminum nanoparticles (Al NPs), which uses the nascent metal core as a polymerization initiator for various organic monomers. In our previous work, we used this method to passivate the Al NPs using variety of epoxides and copolymers of epoxides and alkenes. These products have demonstrated air stability for weeks to months with little to no degradation in the active Al content. Since our previously synthesized Al NP's were not beneficial for rapid and efficient thermodynamic access to the active Al core, our goal was find polymers that could easily be photochemically activated to enhance such access. Since poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) has photodegrading properties, we used PMMA as a capping agent to passivate Al NPs. In this work, we present capping and stabilization of Al NPs with PMMA, and also with 1,2-epoxyhexane/ PMMA. In our previous work, we increased the stability of Al NP capped with 1,2-epoxy-9-decene by adding 1,13-tetradecadiene as a cross-linker. Here, we used the methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer as cross-linker for Al NP capped with 1,2-epoxy-9-decene. We have also used the MMA as capping agent. We use powder x-ray diffractametry (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravity analysis (TGA) to confirm the presence of elemental Al and ATR-FTIR to confirm the presence of polymers.

  15. Study of the relaxation of electron velocity distributions in gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braglia, G L [Parma Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Caraffini, G L; Diligenti, M [Parma Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica

    1981-03-11

    The Fokker-Planck equation governing the relaxation of the electron speed (energy) distribution in gases is solved in a number of cases of special interest. The solution is given in terms of eigenfunctions of the Fokker-Planck operator, satisfying an orthonormalization condition in which the steady-state distribution is the weight function. The real cross-sections of the noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe, together with model collision frequencies of the form ..nu..(v) = ..cap alpha..vsup(n) with n = 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3 and 3.5, are used to calculate eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. The first fifteen eigenvalues are obtained in each case both in the absence and in the presence of a d.c. electric field and, in the latter case, both with atoms at rest and atoms in motion. Calculations of relaxation times and examples of evolutions towards their steady-state forms of given initial distributions are reported in several particular cases.

  16. Characterization of the transverse relaxation rates in lipid bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watnick, P.I.; Dea, P.; Chan, S.I.

    1990-01-01

    The 2H NMR transverse relaxation rates of a deuterated phospholipid bilayer reflect slow motions in the bilayer membrane. A study of dimyristoyl lecithin specifically deuterated at several positions of the hydrocarbon chains indicates that these motions are cooperative and are confined to the hydrocarbon chains of the lipid bilayer. However, lipid head group interactions do play an important role in modulating the properties of the cooperative fluctuations of the hydrocarbon chains (director fluctuations), as evidenced by the effects of various lipid additives on the 2H NMR transverse relaxation rates of the dimyristoyl lecithin bilayer

  17. A nanobody targeting the F-actin capping protein CapG restrains breast cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Impe, Katrien; Bethuyne, Jonas; Cool, Steven; Impens, Francis; Ruano-Gallego, David; De Wever, Olivier; Vanloo, Berlinda; Van Troys, Marleen; Lambein, Kathleen; Boucherie, Ciska; Martens, Evelien; Zwaenepoel, Olivier; Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh, Gholamreza; Vandekerckhove, Joël; Gevaert, Kris; Fernández, Luis Ángel; Sanders, Niek N; Gettemans, Jan

    2013-12-13

    Aberrant turnover of the actin cytoskeleton is intimately associated with cancer cell migration and invasion. Frequently however, evidence is circumstantial, and a reliable assessment of the therapeutic significance of a gene product is offset by lack of inhibitors that target biologic properties of a protein, as most conventional drugs do, instead of the corresponding gene. Proteomic studies have demonstrated overexpression of CapG, a constituent of the actin cytoskeleton, in breast cancer. Indirect evidence suggests that CapG is involved in tumor cell dissemination and metastasis. In this study, we used llama-derived CapG single-domain antibodies or nanobodies in a breast cancer metastasis model to address whether inhibition of CapG activity holds therapeutic merit. We raised single-domain antibodies (nanobodies) against human CapG and used these as intrabodies (immunomodulation) after lentiviral transduction of breast cancer cells. Functional characterization of nanobodies was performed to identify which biochemical properties of CapG are perturbed. Orthotopic and tail vein in vivo models of metastasis in nude mice were used to assess cancer cell spreading. With G-actin and F-actin binding assays, we identified a CapG nanobody that binds with nanomolar affinity to the first CapG domain. Consequently, CapG interaction with actin monomers or actin filaments is blocked. Intracellular delocalization experiments demonstrated that the nanobody interacts with CapG in the cytoplasmic environment. Expression of the nanobody in breast cancer cells restrained cell migration and Matrigel invasion. Notably, the nanobody prevented formation of lung metastatic lesions in orthotopic xenograft and tail-vein models of metastasis in immunodeficient mice. We showed that CapG nanobodies can be delivered into cancer cells by using bacteria harboring a type III protein secretion system (T3SS). CapG inhibition strongly reduces breast cancer metastasis. A nanobody-based approach offers

  18. Seismic explosion sources on an ice cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shulgin, Alexey; Thybo, Hans

    2015-01-01

    crustal model can be modelled. A crucial challenge for applying the technique is to control the sources. Here, we present data that describe the efficiency of explosive sources in the ice cover. Analysis of the data shows, that the ice cap traps a significant amount of energy, which is observed......Controlled source seismic investigation of crustal structure below ice covers is an emerging technique. We have recently conducted an explosive refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic experiment on the ice cap in east-central Greenland. The data-quality is high for all shot points and a full...

  19. Assembling the CMS yoke end-caps

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    A crane is used to piece together one of the end-caps that will provide the path for magnetic flux return on the CMS experiment. A total of six end-cap discs will be assembled before being positioned on the barrel yoke to complete the huge 12 500 tonne cylinder yoke. The magnetic field produced will be greater than any other solenoid created to date at 4 T, 100 000 times greater than the Earth's natural magnetic field, and will store enough energy to melt 18 tonnes of gold.

  20. Sandpile model for relaxation in complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, A.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.; Brouers, F.

    1997-10-01

    The relaxation in complex systems is, in general, nonexponential. After an initial rapid decay the system relaxes slowly following a long time tail. In the present paper a sandpile moderation of the relaxation in complex systems is analysed. Complexity is introduced by a process of avalanches in the Bethe lattice and a feedback mechanism which leads to slower decay with increasing time. In this way, some features of relaxation in complex systems: long time tails relaxation, aging, and fractal distribution of characteristic times, are obtained by simple computer simulations. (author)

  1. The Rabies Virus L Protein Catalyzes mRNA Capping with GDP Polyribonucleotidyltransferase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minako Ogino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The large (L protein of rabies virus (RABV plays multiple enzymatic roles in viral RNA synthesis and processing. However, none of its putative enzymatic activities have been directly demonstrated in vitro. In this study, we expressed and purified a recombinant form of the RABV L protein and verified its guanosine 5′-triphosphatase and GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase activities, which are essential for viral mRNA cap formation by the unconventional mechanism. The RABV L protein capped 5′-triphosphorylated but not 5′-diphosphorylated RABV mRNA-start sequences, 5′-AACA(C/U, with GDP to generate the 5′-terminal cap structure G(5′ppp(5′A. The 5′-AAC sequence in the substrate RNAs was found to be strictly essential for RNA capping with the RABV L protein. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis showed that some conserved amino acid residues (G1112, T1170, W1201, H1241, R1242, F1285, and Q1286 in the PRNTase motifs A to E of the RABV L protein are required for cap formation. These findings suggest that the putative PRNTase domain in the RABV L protein catalyzes the rhabdovirus-specific capping reaction involving covalent catalysis of the pRNA transfer to GDP, thus offering this domain as a target for developing anti-viral agents.

  2. The Rabies Virus L Protein Catalyzes mRNA Capping with GDP Polyribonucleotidyltransferase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Minako; Ito, Naoto; Sugiyama, Makoto; Ogino, Tomoaki

    2016-05-21

    The large (L) protein of rabies virus (RABV) plays multiple enzymatic roles in viral RNA synthesis and processing. However, none of its putative enzymatic activities have been directly demonstrated in vitro. In this study, we expressed and purified a recombinant form of the RABV L protein and verified its guanosine 5'-triphosphatase and GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) activities, which are essential for viral mRNA cap formation by the unconventional mechanism. The RABV L protein capped 5'-triphosphorylated but not 5'-diphosphorylated RABV mRNA-start sequences, 5'-AACA(C/U), with GDP to generate the 5'-terminal cap structure G(5')ppp(5')A. The 5'-AAC sequence in the substrate RNAs was found to be strictly essential for RNA capping with the RABV L protein. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis showed that some conserved amino acid residues (G1112, T1170, W1201, H1241, R1242, F1285, and Q1286) in the PRNTase motifs A to E of the RABV L protein are required for cap formation. These findings suggest that the putative PRNTase domain in the RABV L protein catalyzes the rhabdovirus-specific capping reaction involving covalent catalysis of the pRNA transfer to GDP, thus offering this domain as a target for developing anti-viral agents.

  3. Glutathione-capped CdTe nanocrystals as probe for the determination of fenbendazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Tan, Xuanping; Li, Jin; Pan, Li; Liu, Xiaorong

    2015-04-01

    Water-soluble glutathione (GSH)-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized. In pH 7.1 PBS buffer solution, the interaction between GSH-capped CdTe QDs and fenbendazole (FBZ) was investigated by spectroscopic methods, including fluorescence spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, and resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) spectroscopy. In GSH-capped CdTe QDs solution, the addition of FBZ results in the fluorescence quenching and RRS enhancement of GSH-capped CdTe QDs. And the quenching intensity (enhanced RRS intensity) was proportional to the concentration of FBZ in a certain range. Investigation of the interaction mechanism, proved that the fluorescence quenching and RRS enhancement of GSH-capped CdTe QDs by FBZ is the result of electrostatic attraction. Based on the quenching of fluorescence (enhancement of RRS) of GSH-capped CdTe QDs by FBZ, a novel, simple, rapid and specific method for FBZ determination was proposed. The detection limit for FBZ was 42 ng mL-1 (3.4 ng mL-1) and the quantitative determination range was 0-2.8 μg mL-1 with a correlation of 0.9985 (0.9979). The method has been applied to detect FBZ in real simples and with satisfactory results.

  4. Validation test for CAP88 predictions of tritium dispersion at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelotti, Erika; Green, Andrew; Whicker, Jeffrey; Eisele, William; Fuehne, David; McNaughton, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Gaussian plume models, such as CAP88, are used regularly for estimating downwind concentrations from stack emissions. At many facilities, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) requires that CAP88 be used to demonstrate compliance with air quality regulations for public protection from emissions of radionuclides. Gaussian plume models have the advantage of being relatively simple and their use pragmatic; however, these models are based on simplifying assumptions and generally they are not capable of incorporating dynamic meteorological conditions or complex topography. These limitations encourage validation tests to understand the capabilities and limitations of the model for the specific application. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has complex topography but is required to use CAP88 for compliance with the Clean Air Act Subpart H. The purpose of this study was to test the accuracy of the CAP88 predictions against ambient air measurements using released tritium as a tracer. Stack emissions of tritium from two LANL stacks were measured and the dispersion modeled with CAP88 using local meteorology. Ambient air measurements of tritium were made at various distances and directions from the stacks. Model predictions and ambient air measurements were compared over the course of a full year's data. Comparative results were consistent with other studies and showed the CAP88 predictions of downwind tritium concentrations were on average about three times higher than those measured, and the accuracy of the model predictions were generally more consistent for annual averages than for bi-weekly data.

  5. Temperature dependence of the kinetics of isometric myocardium relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izakov, V.Ya.; Bykov, B.L.; Kimmelman, I.Ya.

    1981-11-01

    The dependence of the exponential decay constant expressing the isometric relaxation of the myocardium on temperature is investigated in animals with various specific contents of myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum. Experiments were performed on cardiac ventricles and atria isolated from rabbits, frogs and turtles and electrically stimulated to produce maximal contraction at temperatures from 10 to 35 C. Arrhenius plots derived from the data are found to be linear in the myocardia of the rabbit and frog, with a greater activation energy for the relaxation found in the rabbit. The Arrhenius plot for the turtle, which has a sarcoplasmic reticulum content intermediate between those of the frog and rabbit, corresponds to two straight lines with different activation energies. Results thus support the hypothesis of two separate mechanisms of calcium removal, involving the sarcoplasmic reticulum and cellular membrane, in muscle relaxation.

  6. Physiological blunting during pregnancy extends to induced relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, Janet A; Mendelson, Tamar; Williams, Erica L; Costigan, Kathleen A

    2012-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that pregnancy is accompanied by hyporesponsivity to physical, cognitive, and psychological challenges. This study evaluates whether observed autonomic blunting extends to conditions designed to decrease arousal. Physiological and psychological responsivity to an 18-min guided imagery relaxation protocol in healthy pregnant women during the 32nd week of gestation (n=54) and non-pregnant women (n=28) was measured. Data collection included heart period (HP), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), tonic and phasic measures of skin conductance (SCL and NS-SCR), respiratory period (RP), and self-reported psychological relaxation. As expected, responses to the manipulation included increased HP, RSA, and RP and decreased SCL and NS-SCR, followed by post-manipulation recovery. However, responsivity was attenuated for all physiological measures except RP in pregnant women, despite no difference in self-reported psychological relaxation. Findings support non-specific blunting of physiological responsivity during pregnancy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Interface relaxation and band gap shift in epitaxial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziming Zhu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although it is well known that the interface relaxation plays the crucial role for the electronic properties in semiconductor epitaxial layers, there is lack of a clear definition of relationship between interfacial bond-energy variation and interface bond-nature-factor (IBNF in epitaxial layers before and after relaxation. Here we establish an analytical method to shed light on the relationship between the IBNF and the bond-energy change, as well as the relation with band offset in epitaxial layers from the perspective of atomic-bond-relaxation consideration and continuum mechanics. The theoretical predictions are consistent with the available evidences, which provide an atomistic understanding on underlying mechanism of interface effect in epitaxial nanostructures. Thus, it will be helpful for opening up to tailor physical-chemical properties of the epitaxial nanostructures to the desired specifications.

  8. The relationships between suggestibility, influenceability, and relaxability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Frey, Olga; Szpitalak, Malwina

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the relationships between relaxability and various aspects of suggestibility and influenceability. The Jacobson Progressive Muscle Relaxation procedure was used to induce relaxation. Tests of direct suggestibility, relating to the susceptibility of overt suggestions, and indirect suggestibility, referring to indirect hidden influence, as well as self-description questionnaires on suggestibility and the tendency to comply were used. Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List, measuring various kinds of activation and used as a pre- and posttest, determined the efficacy of the relaxation procedure. Indirect, direct, and self-measured suggestibility proved to be positively related to the ability to relax, measured by Thayer's subscales relating to emotions. Compliance was not related to relaxability. The results are discussed in terms of the aspects of relaxation training connected with suggestibility.

  9. Compaction and relaxation of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, R.

    2015-06-18

    Operation of membrane systems for water treatment can be seriously hampered by biofouling. A better characterization of biofilms in membrane systems and their impact on membrane performance may help to develop effective biofouling control strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence, extent and timescale of biofilm compaction and relaxation (decompaction), caused by permeate flux variations. The impact of permeate flux changes on biofilm thickness, structure and stiffness was investigated in situ and non-destructively with optical coherence tomography using membrane fouling monitors operated at a constant crossflow velocity of 0.1 m s−1 with permeate production. The permeate flux was varied sequentially from 20 to 60 and back to 20 L m−2 h−1. The study showed that the average biofilm thickness on the membrane decreased after elevating the permeate flux from 20 to 60 L m−2 h−1 while the biofilm thickness increased again after restoring the original flux of 20 L m−2 h−1, indicating the occurrence of biofilm compaction and relaxation. Within a few seconds after the flux change, the biofilm thickness was changed and stabilized, biofilm compaction occurred faster than the relaxation after restoring the original permeate flux. The initial biofilm parameters were not fully reinstated: the biofilm thickness was reduced by 21%, biofilm stiffness had increased and the hydraulic biofilm resistance was elevated by 16%. Biofilm thickness was related to the hydraulic biofilm resistance. Membrane performance losses are related to the biofilm thickness, density and morphology, which are influenced by (variations in) hydraulic conditions. A (temporarily) permeate flux increase caused biofilm compaction, together with membrane performance losses. The impact of biofilms on membrane performance can be influenced (increased and reduced) by operational parameters. The article shows that a (temporary) pressure increase leads to more

  10. Preventing Thin Film Dewetting via Graphene Capping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Peigen; Bai, Peter; Omrani, Arash A; Xiao, Yihan; Meaker, Kacey L; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Yan, Aiming; Jung, Han Sae; Khajeh, Ramin; Rodgers, Griffin F; Kim, Youngkyou; Aikawa, Andrew S; Kolaczkowski, Mattew A; Liu, Yi; Zettl, Alex; Xu, Ke; Crommie, Michael F; Xu, Ting

    2017-09-01

    A monolayer 2D capping layer with high Young's modulus is shown to be able to effectively suppress the dewetting of underlying thin films of small organic semiconductor molecule, polymer, and polycrystalline metal, respectively. To verify the universality of this capping layer approach, the dewetting experiments are performed for single-layer graphene transferred onto polystyrene (PS), semiconducting thienoazacoronene (EH-TAC), gold, and also MoS 2 on PS. Thermodynamic modeling indicates that the exceptionally high Young's modulus and surface conformity of 2D capping layers such as graphene and MoS 2 substantially suppress surface fluctuations and thus dewetting. As long as the uncovered area is smaller than the fluctuation wavelength of the thin film in a dewetting process via spinodal decomposition, the dewetting should be suppressed. The 2D monolayer-capping approach opens up exciting new possibilities to enhance the thermal stability and expands the processing parameters for thin film materials without significantly altering their physical properties. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Added Mass of a Spherical Cap Body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimčík, Miroslav; Punčochář, Miroslav; Růžička, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, OCT 18 (2014), s. 1-8 ISSN 0009-2509 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13018 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : spherical cap * added mass * single particle Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.337, year: 2014

  12. A world first to cap them all

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.J.

    1981-05-01

    A new, more powerful cap lamp has a sealed lead-acid battery which never needs refilling and which will not spill liquid, even if the case is damaged. The plastic case is flame resistant and meets South African requirements for use underground. A new type of cable lock prevents accidental disconnection.

  13. Survey of Enabling Technologies for CAPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antol, Jeffrey; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Koons, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    The enabling technologies required for the development of a viable Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS) can be divided into two principal areas: detection and deflection/orbit modification. With the proper funding levels, many of the technologies needed to support a CAPS architecture could be achievable within the next 15 to 20 years. In fact, many advanced detection technologies are currently in development for future in-space telescope systems such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), formerly known as the Next Generation Space Telescope. It is anticipated that many of the JWST technologies would be available for application for CAPS detection concepts. Deflection/orbit modification technologies are also currently being studied as part of advanced power and propulsion research. However, many of these technologies, such as extremely high-output power systems, advanced propulsion, heat rejection, and directed energy systems, would likely be farther term in availability than many of the detection technologies. Discussed subsequently is a preliminary examination of the main technologies that have been identified as being essential to providing the element functionality defined during the CAPS conceptual study. The detailed requirements for many of the technology areas are still unknown, and many additional technologies will be identified as future in-depth studies are conducted in this area.

  14. The Effectiveness of Caps on Political Lobbying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matejka, M.; Onderstal, A.M.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze a lobby game, modelled as an all-pay auction in which interest groups submit bids in order to obtain a political prize.The bids are restricted to be below a cap imposed by the government.For both an incomplete and a complete information setting we show the following

  15. CAP Reform and the Doha Development Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, P.; Faber, G.

    2004-01-01

    The CAP reforms that the EU accepted in June 2003 will partially decouple direct income payments to farmers from production and make these payments conditional on cross-compliance. The reforms are driven by enlargement of EU membership, budgetary constraints, mounting pressures from diverse animal

  16. Nuclear Waste Vitrification Efficiency: Cold Cap Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Hrma, P.R.; Pokorny, R.

    2011-01-01

    The cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization are greatly affected by the rate of glass production. Various factors influence the performance of a waste-glass melter. One of the most significant, and also one of the least understood, is the process of batch melting. Studies are being conducted to gain fundamental understanding of the batch reactions, particularly those that influence the rate of melting, and models are being developed to link batch makeup and melter operation to the melting rate. Batch melting takes place within the cold cap, i.e., a batch layer floating on the surface of molten glass. The conversion of batch to glass consists of various chemical reactions, phase transitions, and diffusion-controlled processes. These include water evaporation (slurry feed contains as high as 60% water), gas evolution, the melting of salts, the formation of borate melt, reactions of borate melt with molten salts and with amorphous oxides (Fe 2 O 3 and Al 2 O 3 ), the formation of intermediate crystalline phases, the formation of a continuous glass-forming melt, the growth and collapse of primary foam, and the dissolution of residual solids. To this list we also need to add the formation of secondary foam that originates from molten glass but accumulates on the bottom of the cold cap. This study presents relevant data obtained for a high-level-waste melter feed and introduces a one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model of the cold cap as a step toward an advanced three-dimensional (3D) version for a complete model of the waste glass melter. The 1D model describes the batch-to-glass conversion within the cold cap as it progresses in a vertical direction. With constitutive equations and key parameters based on measured data, and simplified boundary conditions on the cold-cap interfaces with the glass melt and the plenum space of the melter, the model provides sensitivity analysis of the response of the cold cap to the batch makeup and melter

  17. Sediment Capping and Natural Recovery, Contaminant Transport Fundamentals With Applications to Sediment Caps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrovski, David M; Corcoran, Maureen K; May, James H; Patrick, David M

    2005-01-01

    Engineered sediment caps and natural recovery are in situ remedial alternatives for contaminated sediments, which consist of the artificial or natural placement of a layer of material over a sediment...

  18. Ultrasonic relaxations in borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, G.; Tripodo, G.; Carini, G.; Cosio, E.; Bartolotta, A.; Di Marco, G.

    2004-01-01

    The attenuation and velocity of ultrasonic waves of frequencies in the range from 10 to 70 MHz have been measured in M 2 O-B 2 O 3 borate glasses (M: Li or Ag) as a function of temperature between 15 and 350 K. The velocity of sound waves decreases with increasing temperature in all the glasses, the decrease as the temperature is increased is larger in glasses containing silver than in those with lithium. A broad relaxation peak characterises the attenuation behaviour of the lithium and silver borate glasses at temperatures below 100 K and is paralleled by a corresponding dispersive behaviour of the sound velocity. Above 100 K, the ultrasonic velocity shows a nearly linear behaviour regulated by the vibrational anharmonicity, which decreases with increasing content of modifier oxide and is smaller in lithium than in silver borates. These results suggest that the relaxation of structural defects and the anharmonicity of borate glasses are strongly affected by two parameters: the number of bridging bonds per network forming ion and the polarising power of network modifier ions which occupy sites in the existing interstices

  19. Statistical mechanics of violent relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    We reexamine the foundations of Lynden-Bell's statistical mechanical discussion of violent relaxation in collisionless stellar systems. We argue that Lynden-Bell's formulation in terms of a continuum description introduces unnecessary complications, and we consider a more conventional formulation in terms of particles. We then find the exclusion principle discovered by Lynden-Bell to be quantitatively important only at phase densities where two-body encounters are no longer negligible. Since the edynamical basis for the exclusion principle vanishes in such cases anyway, Lynden-Bell statistics always reduces in practice to Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics when applied to stellar systems. Lynden-Bell also found the equilibrium distribution function generally to be a sum of Maxwellians with velocity dispersions dependent on the phase density at star formation. We show that this difficulty vanishes in the particulate description for an encounterless stellar system as long as stars of different masses are initially well mixed in phase space. Our methods also demonstrate the equivalence between Gibbs's formalism which uses the microcanonical ensemble and Boltzmann's formalism which uses a coarse-grained continuum description. In addition, we clarify the concept of irreversible behavior on a macroscopic scale for an encounterless stellar system. Finally, we comment on the use of unusual macroscopic constraints to simulate the effects of incomplete relaxation

  20. DNA-PKcs is critical for telomere capping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilley, David; Tanaka, Hiromi; Hande, M. Prakash; Kurimasa,Akihiro; Li, Gloria C.; Chen, David J.

    2001-04-10

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is critical for DNA repair via the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. Previously, it was reported that bone marrow cells and spontaneously transformed fibroblasts from SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice have defects in telomere maintenance. The genetically defective SCID mouse arose spontaneously from its parental strain CB17. One known genomic alteration in SCID mice is a truncation of the extreme carboxyl-terminus of DNA-PKcs, but other as yet unidentified alterations may also exist. We have used a defined system, the DNA-PKcs knockout mouse, to investigate specifically the role DNA-PKcs specifically plays in telomere maintenance. We report that primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and primary cultured kidney cells from 6-8 month old DNA-PKcs deficient mice accumulate a large number of telomere fusions, yet still retain wildtype telomere length. Thus, the phenotype of this defect separates the two-telomere related phenotypes, capping and length maintenance. DNA-PKcs deficient MEFs also exhibit elevated levels of chromosome fragments and breaks, which correlate with increased telomere fusions. Based on the high levels of telomere fusions observed in DNA-PKcs deficient cells, we conclude that DNA-PKcs plays an important capping role at the mammalian telomere.

  1. Facially amphiphilic thiol capped gold and silver nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A series of bile acid-derived facially amphiphilic thiols have been used to cap sliver and gold nanoparticles. The self-assembling properties of these steroid-capped nanoparticles have been investigated and reported in this article.

  2. Paramagnetic relaxation effects in perturbed angular correlations for arbitrary electronic relaxation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopin, C.; Spanjaard, D.; Hartmann-Boutron, F.

    1975-01-01

    Previous perturbation treatments of paramagnetic relaxation effects in γγ PAC were limited to the case of very short electronic relaxation times. This limitation is circumvented by invoking a new perturbation theory recently elaborated by Hirst and others for handling relaxation effects in Moessbauer spectra. Under the assumption of spherical electronic relaxation the perturbation factors are computed as functions of certain relaxation parameters which are directly related to the microscopic relaxation Hamiltonian. The results are compared to those of the stochastic theory of Scherer and Blume [fr

  3. Cross relaxation in nitroxide spin labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Cross relaxation, and mI-dependence of the intrinsic electron spin-lattice relaxation rate We, are incorporated explicitly into the rate equations for the electron-spin population differences that govern the saturation behaviour of 14N- and 15N-nitroxide spin labels. Both prove important in spin......-label EPR and ELDOR, particularly for saturation recovery studies. Neither for saturation recovery, nor for CW-saturation EPR and CW-ELDOR, can cross relaxation be described simply by increasing the value of We, the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate. Independence of the saturation recovery rates from...... the hyperfine line pumped or observed follows directly from solution of the rate equations including cross relaxation, even when the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate We is mI-dependent....

  4. CAPS Activity in Priming Vesicle Exocytosis Requires CK2 Phosphorylation*

    OpenAIRE

    Nojiri, Mari; Loyet, Kelly M.; Klenchin, Vadim A.; Kabachinski, Gregory; Martin, Thomas F. J.

    2009-01-01

    CAPS (Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion) functions in priming Ca2+-dependent vesicle exocytosis, but the regulation of CAPS activity has not been characterized. Here we show that phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2 is required for CAPS activity. Dephosphorylation eliminated CAPS activity in reconstituting Ca2+-dependent vesicle exocytosis in permeable and intact PC12 cells. Ser-5, -6, and -7 and Ser-1281 were identified by mass spectrometry as the major phosphorylation sites in...

  5. Characterization of structural relaxation in inorganic glasses using length dilatometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Erick

    The processes that govern how a glass relaxes towards its thermodynamic quasi-equilibrium state are major factors in understanding glass behavior near the glass transition region, as characterized by the glass transition temperature (Tg). Intrinsic glass properties such as specific volume, enthalpy, entropy, density, etc. are used to map the behavior of the glass network below in and near the transition region. The question of whether a true thermodynamic second order phase transition takes place in the glass transition region is another pending question. Linking viscosity behavior to entropy, or viewing the glass configuration as an energy landscape are just a couple of the most prevalent methods used for attempting to understand the glass transition. The structural relaxation behavior of inorganic glasses is important for more than scientific reasons, many commercial glass processing operations including glass melting and certain forms of optical fabrication include significant time spent in the glass transition region. For this reason knowledge of structural relaxation processes can, at a minimum, provide information for annealing duration of melt-quenched glasses. The development of a predictive model for annealing time prescription has the potential to save glass manufacturers significant time and money as well as increasing volume throughput. In optical hot forming processes such as precision glass molding, molded optical components can significantly change in shape upon cooling through the glass transition. This change in shape is not scientifically predictable as of yet though manufacturers typically use empirical rules developed in house. The classification of glass behavior in the glass transition region would allow molds to be accurately designed and save money for the producers. The work discussed in this dissertation is comprised of the development of a dilatometric measurement and characterization method of structural relaxation. The measurement and

  6. Structural relaxation in annealed hyperquenched basaltic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoju; Mauro, John C.; Potuzak, M.

    2012-01-01

    The enthalpy relaxation behavior of hyperquenched (HQ) and annealed hyperquenched (AHQ) basaltic glass is investigated through calorimetric measurements. The results reveal a common onset temperature of the glass transition for all the HQ and AHQ glasses under study, indicating that the primary...... relaxation is activated at the same temperature regardless of the initial departure from equilibrium. The analysis of secondary relaxation at different annealing temperatures provides insights into the enthalpy recovery of HQ glasses....

  7. Relaxations to Sparse Optimization Problems and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skau, Erik West

    Parsimony is a fundamental property that is applied to many characteristics in a variety of fields. Of particular interest are optimization problems that apply rank, dimensionality, or support in a parsimonious manner. In this thesis we study some optimization problems and their relaxations, and focus on properties and qualities of the solutions of these problems. The Gramian tensor decomposition problem attempts to decompose a symmetric tensor as a sum of rank one tensors.We approach the Gramian tensor decomposition problem with a relaxation to a semidefinite program. We study conditions which ensure that the solution of the relaxed semidefinite problem gives the minimal Gramian rank decomposition. Sparse representations with learned dictionaries are one of the leading image modeling techniques for image restoration. When learning these dictionaries from a set of training images, the sparsity parameter of the dictionary learning algorithm strongly influences the content of the dictionary atoms.We describe geometrically the content of trained dictionaries and how it changes with the sparsity parameter.We use statistical analysis to characterize how the different content is used in sparse representations. Finally, a method to control the structure of the dictionaries is demonstrated, allowing us to learn a dictionary which can later be tailored for specific applications. Variations of dictionary learning can be broadly applied to a variety of applications.We explore a pansharpening problem with a triple factorization variant of coupled dictionary learning. Another application of dictionary learning is computer vision. Computer vision relies heavily on object detection, which we explore with a hierarchical convolutional dictionary learning model. Data fusion of disparate modalities is a growing topic of interest.We do a case study to demonstrate the benefit of using social media data with satellite imagery to estimate hazard extents. In this case study analysis we

  8. Impacts of Base-Case and Post-Contingency Constraint Relaxations on Static and Dynamic Operational Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ahmed

    Constraint relaxation by definition means that certain security, operational, or financial constraints are allowed to be violated in the energy market model for a predetermined penalty price. System operators utilize this mechanism in an effort to impose a price-cap on shadow prices throughout the market. In addition, constraint relaxations can serve as corrective approximations that help in reducing the occurrence of infeasible or extreme solutions in the day-ahead markets. This work aims to capture the impact constraint relaxations have on system operational security. Moreover, this analysis also provides a better understanding of the correlation between DC market models and AC real-time systems and analyzes how relaxations in market models propagate to real-time systems. This information can be used not only to assess the criticality of constraint relaxations, but also as a basis for determining penalty prices more accurately. Constraint relaxations practice was replicated in this work using a test case and a real-life large-scale system, while capturing both energy market aspects and AC real-time system performance. System performance investigation included static and dynamic security analysis for base-case and post-contingency operating conditions. PJM peak hour loads were dynamically modeled in order to capture delayed voltage recovery and sustained depressed voltage profiles as a result of reactive power deficiency caused by constraint relaxations. Moreover, impacts of constraint relaxations on operational system security were investigated when risk based penalty prices are used. Transmission lines in the PJM system were categorized according to their risk index and each category was as-signed a different penalty price accordingly in order to avoid real-time overloads on high risk lines. This work also extends the investigation of constraint relaxations to post-contingency relaxations, where emergency limits are allowed to be relaxed in energy market models

  9. 7 CFR 1714.7 - Interest rate cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate cap. 1714.7 Section 1714.7 Agriculture... PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR INSURED ELECTRIC LOANS General § 1714.7 Interest rate cap. Except... section, or both the rate disparity test for the interest rate cap and the consumer income test set forth...

  10. CMS end-cap yoke at the detector's assembly site.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic flux generated by the superconducting coil in the CMS detector is returned via an iron yoke comprising three end-cap discs at each end (end-cap yoke) and five concentric cylinders (barrel yoke). This picture shows the first of three end-cap discs (red) seen through the outer cylinder of the vacuum tank which will house the superconducting coil.

  11. 20 CFR 606.22 - Application for cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for cap. 606.22 Section 606.22... Reduction § 606.22 Application for cap. (a) Application. (1) The Governor of the State shall make... a State requests a cap on tax credit reduction. The Governor is required to notify the Department on...

  12. 47 CFR 61.41 - Price cap requirements generally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price cap requirements generally. 61.41 Section... (CONTINUED) TARIFFS General Rules for Dominant Carriers § 61.41 Price cap requirements generally. (a... companies shall not bar a carrier from electing price cap regulation provided the carrier is otherwise...

  13. Dielectric Relaxation of Water: Theory and Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Narayan Prasad; Paudyal, Harihar; Johri, Manoj

    2010-06-01

    We have studied the hydrogen bond dynamics and methods for evaluation of probability and relaxation time for hydrogen bond network. Further, dielectric relaxation time has been calculated by using a diagonalization procedure by obtaining eigen values (inverse of relaxation time) of a master equation framed on the basis of Fokker-Planck equations. Microwave cavity spectrometer has been described to make measurements of relaxation time. Slater's perturbation equations are given for the analysis of the data. A comparison of theoretical and experimental data shows that there is a need for improvements in the theoretical model and experimental techniques to provide exact information about structural properties of water. (author)

  14. Ability of combined Near-Infrared Spectroscopy-Intravascular Ultrasound (NIRS-IVUS) imaging to detect lipid core plaques and estimate cap thickness in human autopsy coronary arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, S. J.; Su, J. L.; Greiner, C. A.; Saybolt, M. D.; Wilensky, R. L.; Raichlen, J. S.; Madden, S. P.; Muller, J. E.

    2016-03-01

    The ability to determine plaque cap thickness during catheterization is thought to be of clinical importance for plaque vulnerability assessment. While methods to compositionally assess cap integrity are in development, a method utilizing currently available tools to measure cap thickness is highly desirable. NIRS-IVUS is a commercially available dual imaging method in current clinical use that may provide cap thickness information to the skilled reader; however, this is as yet unproven. Ten autopsy hearts (n=15 arterial segments) were scanned with the multimodality NIRS-IVUS catheter (TVC Imaging System, Infraredx, Inc.) to identify lipid core plaques (LCPs). Skilled readers made predictions of cap thickness over regions of chemogram LCP, using NIRS-IVUS. Artery segments were perfusion fixed and cut into 2 mm serial blocks. Thin sections stained with Movat's pentachrome were analyzed for cap thickness at LCP regions. Block level predictions were compared to histology, as classified by a blinded pathologist. Within 15 arterial segments, 117 chemogram blocks were found by NIRS to contain LCP. Utilizing NIRSIVUS, chemogram blocks were divided into 4 categories: thin capped fibroatheromas (TCFA), thick capped fibroatheromas (ThCFA), pathological intimal thickening (PIT)/lipid pool (no defined cap), and calcified/unable to determine cap thickness. Sensitivities/specificities for thin cap fibroatheromas, thick cap fibroatheromas, and PIT/lipid pools were 0.54/0.99, 0.68/0.88, and 0.80/0.97, respectively. The overall accuracy rate was 70.1% (including 22 blocks unable to predict, p = 0.075). In the absence of calcium, NIRS-IVUS imaging provided predictions of cap thickness over LCP with moderate accuracy. The ability of this multimodality imaging method to identify vulnerable coronary plaques requires further assessment in both larger autopsy studies, and clinical studies in patients undergoing NIRS-IVUS imaging.

  15. Pair plasma relaxation time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, A G; Ruffini, R; Vereshchagin, G V

    2010-04-01

    By numerically solving the relativistic Boltzmann equations, we compute the time scale for relaxation to thermal equilibrium for an optically thick electron-positron plasma with baryon loading. We focus on the time scales of electromagnetic interactions. The collisional integrals are obtained directly from the corresponding QED matrix elements. Thermalization time scales are computed for a wide range of values of both the total-energy density (over 10 orders of magnitude) and of the baryonic loading parameter (over 6 orders of magnitude). This also allows us to study such interesting limiting cases as the almost purely electron-positron plasma or electron-proton plasma as well as intermediate cases. These results appear to be important both for laboratory experiments aimed at generating optically thick pair plasmas as well as for astrophysical models in which electron-positron pair plasmas play a relevant role.

  16. Relaxing Chosen-Ciphertext Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canetti, Ran; Krawczyk, Hugo; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2003-01-01

    Security against adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks (or, CCA security) has been accepted as the standard requirement from encryption schemes that need to withstand active attacks. In particular, it is regarded as the appropriate security notion for encryption schemes used as components within...... general protocols and applications. Indeed, CCA security was shown to suffice in a large variety of contexts. However, CCA security often appears to be somewhat too strong: there exist encryption schemes (some of which come up naturally in practice) that are not CCA secure, but seem sufficiently secure...... “for most practical purposes.” We propose a relaxed variant of CCA security, called Replayable CCA (RCCA) security. RCCA security accepts as secure the non-CCA (yet arguably secure) schemes mentioned above; furthermore, it suffices for most existing applications of CCA security. We provide three...

  17. A Weighted Difference of Anisotropic and Isotropic Total Variation for Relaxed Mumford-Shah Image Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    norm does not cap - ture the geometry completely. The L1−L2 in (c) does a better job than TV while L1 in (b) and L1−0.5L2 in (d) capture the squares most...and isotropic total variation (TV) norms into a relaxed formu- lation of the two phase Mumford-Shah (MS) model for image segmentation. We show...results exceeding those obtained by the MS model when using the standard TV norm to regular- ize partition boundaries. In particular, examples illustrating

  18. Central Air-Conditioning Plant (CAP) extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, P.S.; Kaul, S.K.; Mishra, H.

    2017-01-01

    Central Air-Conditioning Plant (CAP) and its associated chilled water network of BARC is one among the largest central plants in India for such application. The plant was planned in 1960s to cater to the air-conditioning and process water requirements of laboratories, workshops and buildings spread over a distance of 1.5 Km in three directions from CAP through underground network of chilled water pipelines. The plant was designed for a total capacity of 6600 TR. The present installed capacity of the plant is 7250 TR. The connected load at present is 9800 TR. After the XII plan capacity will be augmented to 7650 TR. The connected load is expected to cross 11,000 TR after the commissioning of new Engg. Halls 9, 10 and 11

  19. Greening CAP payments: a missed opportunity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Alan

    2013-01-15

    At an important point in the current reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), a new IIEA policy brief by Professor Alan Matthews, one of the EU’s foremost experts on the topic, considers proposals to green direct farm payments. Professor Matthews argues that proposed greening of direct payments – the key innovation in the current round of CAP Reform – look likely to fail. While greening may survive as a concept, the likely outcome of the negotiations between Agriculture Ministers and the European Parliament will deliver little practical environmental benefit. The paper examines the rationale underpinning greening, arguing that it exists to justify the continuation of a large agricultural budget, explores reasons for the apparent failure of the proposals, and reflects on the implications for future efforts to better integrate environmental objectives into EU agriculture policy. This is the first in a series of Environment Nexus policy briefs by leading experts in the fields of agriculture, energy, climate change and water.

  20. X. cap alpha. method with pseudopotentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szasz, L. (Fordham Univ., New York (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1980-06-01

    The X..cap alpha.. method for an atom or molecule is transformed into an all-electron pseudopotential formalism. The equations of the X..cap alpha.. method are exactly transformed into pseudo-orbital equations and the resulting pseudopotentials are replaced by simple density-dependent potentials derived from Thomas-Fermi model. It is shown that the new formalism satisfies the virial theorem. As the first application, it is shown that the model explains the shell-structure of atoms by the property that the pseudo-orbitals for the (ns), (np), (nd), etc. electrons are, in a very good approximation, the solutions of the same equation and have their maxima at the same point thereby creating the peaks in the radial density characterizing the shell structure.

  1. Vibrational energy transfer in selectively excited diatomic molecules. [Relaxation rates, self-relaxation, upper limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasch, C.J.

    1978-09-01

    Single rovibrational states of HCl(v=2), HBr(v=2), DCl(v=2), and CO(v=2) were excited with a pulsed optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Total vibrational relaxation rates near - resonance quenchers were measured at 295/sup 0/K using time resolved infrared fluorescence. These rates are attributed primarily to V - V energy transfer, and they generally conform to a simple energy gap law. A small deviation was found for the CO(v) + DCl(v') relaxation rates. Upper limits for the self relaxation by V - R,T of HCl(v=2) and HBr(v=2) and for the two quantum exchange between HCl and HBr were determined. The HF dimer was detected at 295/sup 0/K and 30 torr HF pressure with an optoacoustic spectrometer using the OPO. Pulsed and chopped, resonant and non-resonant spectrophones are analyzed in detail. From experiments and first order perturbation theory, these V - V exchange rates appear to behave as a first order perturbation in the vibrational coordinates. The rotational dynamics are known to be complicated however, and the coupled rotational - vibrational dynamics were investigated theoreticaly in infinite order by the Dillon and Stephenson and the first Magnus approximations. Large ..delta..J transitions appear to be important, but these calculations differ by orders of magnitude on specific rovibrational transition rates. Integration of the time dependent semiclassical equations by a modified Gordon method and a rotationally distorted wave approximation are discussed as methods which would treat the rotational motion more accurately. 225 references.

  2. ATLAS End-cap Part II

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The epic journey of the ATLAS magnets is drawing to an end. On Thursday 12 July, the second end-cap of the ATLAS toroid magnet was lowered into the cavern of the experiment with the same degree of precision as the first (see Bulletin No. 26/2007). This spectacular descent of the 240-tonne component, is one of the last transport to be completed for ATLAS.

  3. Particle Entrainment in Spherical-Cap Wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warncke, Norbert G W; Delfos, Rene; Ooms, Gijs; Westerweel, Jerry, E-mail: n.g.w.warncke@tudelft.nl [Laboratory for Aero- and Hydrodynamics, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2011-12-22

    In this work we study the preferential concentration of small particles in the turbulent wake behind a spherical-cap object. We present a model predicting the mean particle concentration in the near-wake as a function of the characteristic Stokes number of the problem, the turbulence level and the Froude number. We compare the model with our experimental results on this flow, measured in a vertical water tunnel.

  4. Are CAP Decoupling Policies Really Production Neutral?

    OpenAIRE

    Katranidis, Stelios D.; Kotakou, Christina A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of decoupling policies on Greek cotton production. We estimate a system of cotton supply and input derived demand functions under the hypothesis that producers face uncertainty about prices. Using our estimation results we simulate the effects on cotton production under four alternative policy scenarios: the ‘Old’ CAP regime (i.e. the policy practiced until 2005), the Mid Term Review regime, a fully decoupled policy regime and a free trade-no policy scenario. O...

  5. Carbon mitigation in the electric power sector under cap-and-trade and renewables policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delarue, Erik; Van den Bergh, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, CO_2 emissions from the electric power sector and energy intensive industries are capped under a cap-and-trade system (i.e., the EU ETS). When other indirect measures are taken to impact emissions in a specific sector under the cap (such as a push for renewables in the electric power sector), this has implications on the overall allowance price, and on CO_2 emissions both from this specific sector and the other sectors under the cap. The central contribution of this paper is the derivation of impact curves, which describe these interactions, i.e., the impact on allowance price and the shift of emissions across sectors. From a set of detailed simulations of the electric power system operation, a so-called “emission plane” is obtained, from which impact curves can be derived. Focus is on interactions between CO_2 abatement through fuel switching and measures affecting the residual electricity demand (such as deployment of renewables) in the electric power sector, as well as on interactions with other sectors, both in a short-term framework. A case study for Central-Western Europe is presented. The analysis reveals a substantial impact of renewables on CO_2 emissions, and hence on emissions shifts across sectors and/or on the CO_2 price. - Highlights: •CO_2 cap-and-trade interacts with policies targeting one specific sector under cap. •Interaction creates emission displacement and/or impacts CO_2 price. •The central contribution is the derivation of impact curves from the emission plane. •The method is applied to a case study of Central-Western Europe. •The analysis reveals a large impact of renewables on CO_2 displacement and/or price.

  6. Protein synthesis in geostimulated root caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    A study is presented of the processes occurring in the root cap of corn which are requisite for the formation of root cap inhibitor and which can be triggered or modulated by both light and gravity. The results of this study indicate the importance of protein synthesis for light-induced gravitropic bending in roots. Root caps in which protein synthesis is prevented are unable to induce downward bending. This suggests that light acts by stimulating proteins which are necessary for the translation of the gravitropic stimulus into a growth response (downward bending). The turnover of protein with time was also examined in order to determine whether light acts by stimulating the synthesis of unique proteins required for downward growth. It is found that auxin in combination with light allows for the translation of the gravitropic stimulus into a growth response at least in part through the modification of protein synthesis. It is concluded that unique proteins are stimulated by light and are involved in promoting the downward growth in roots which are responding to gravity.

  7. Comparison of Detector Technologies for CAPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockum, Jana L.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, several different detectors are examined for use in a Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS), a conceptual study for a possible future space-based system. Each detector will be examined for its future (25 years or more in the future) ability to find and track near-Earth Objects (NEOs) from a space-based detection platform. Within the CAPS study are several teams of people who each focus on different aspects of the system concept. This study s focus is on detection devices. In particular, evaluations on the following devices have been made: charge-coupled devices (CCDs), charge-injected devices (CIDs), superconducting tunneling junctions (STJs), and transition edge sensors (TESs). These devices can be separated into two main categories; the first category includes detectors that are currently being widely utilized, such as CCDs and CIDs. The second category includes experimental detectors, such as STJs and TESs. After the discussion of the detectors themselves, there will be a section devoted to the explicit use of these detectors with CAPS.

  8. Dynamics of the quiet polar cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, H.C. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Work in the past has established that a few percent of the time, under northward interplanetary magnetic field and thus magnetically quiet conditions, sun aligned arcs are found in the polar cap with intensities greater than the order of a kilo Rayleigh in the visible. Here we extend this view. We first note that imaging systems with sensitivity down to tens of Rayleighs in the visible find sun aligned arcs in the polar cap far more often, closer to half the time than a few percent. Furthermore, these sun aligned arcs have simple electrodynamics. They mark boundaries between rapid antisunward flow of ionospheric plasma on their dawn side and significantly slower flow, or even sunward flow, on their dusk side. Since the sun aligned arcs are typically the order of 1000 km to transpolar in the sun-earth direction, and the order of 100 km or less in the dawn-dusk direction, they demarcate lines of strongly anisotropic ionospheric flow shears or convection cells. The very quiet polar cap (strongly northward IMF) is in fact characterized by the presence of sun aligned arcs and multiple highly anisotropic ionospheric flow shears. Sensitive optical images are a valuable diagnostic with which to study polar ionospheric convection under these poorly understood conditions. (author)

  9. MycoCAP - Mycobacterium Comparative Analysis Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Siew Woh; Ang, Mia Yang; Dutta, Avirup; Tan, Shi Yang; Siow, Cheuk Chuen; Heydari, Hamed; Mutha, Naresh V R; Wee, Wei Yee; Wong, Guat Jah

    2015-12-15

    Mycobacterium spp. are renowned for being the causative agent of diseases like leprosy, Buruli ulcer and tuberculosis in human beings. With more and more mycobacterial genomes being sequenced, any knowledge generated from comparative genomic analysis would provide better insights into the biology, evolution, phylogeny and pathogenicity of this genus, thus helping in better management of diseases caused by Mycobacterium spp.With this motivation, we constructed MycoCAP, a new comparative analysis platform dedicated to the important genus Mycobacterium. This platform currently provides information of 2108 genome sequences of at least 55 Mycobacterium spp. A number of intuitive web-based tools have been integrated in MycoCAP particularly for comparative analysis including the PGC tool for comparison between two genomes, PathoProT for comparing the virulence genes among the Mycobacterium strains and the SuperClassification tool for the phylogenic classification of the Mycobacterium strains and a specialized classification system for strains of Mycobacterium abscessus. We hope the broad range of functions and easy-to-use tools provided in MycoCAP makes it an invaluable analysis platform to speed up the research discovery on mycobacteria for researchers. Database URL: http://mycobacterium.um.edu.my.

  10. Pulp-Capping with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peycheva Kalina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are two considerations for direct pulp capping - accidental mechanical pulp exposure and exposure caused by caries. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA was used as pulp-capping material to preserve the vitality of the pulpal tissues. Follow-up examinations revealed that treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality and continued development of the tooth. On the basis of available information, it appears that MTA is the material of choice for some clinical applications. Material and methods: Cases 18 - 8 teeth with grey MTA, 10 teeth with white MTA; diagnose: Pulpitis chronica ulcerosa, Electro pulpal test (EOD - 30-35 μA, pre-clinical X-ray - without changes in the structures, follow ups for 4 years. Successful treatments: without clinical symptoms and changes in the X-rays: 5 teeth with grey MTA, 8 teeth with white MTA for period of 4 years. Unsuccessful treatments: Clinical symptoms and sometimes changes in the X-ray: 3 with grey MTA, 2 with white MTA. MTA is an appropriate material for pulp-capping and follow-up examinations revealed that the treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality.

  11. Estimated release from the saltstone landfill effect of landfill caps and landfill-cap/monolith-liner combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of capping the entire saltstone landfill is dependent on the effectiveness of the clay cap in preventing infiltration. A cap that is 99% effective will reduce releases from the saltstone landfill by a factor of 7.7. Several combinations of landfill design alterations will result in meeting ground water standards

  12. 75 FR 82335 - Airworthiness Directives; APEX Aircraft Model CAP 10 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... accident occurred to a CAP 10C, in which the pilot lost control of the aeroplane. The following investigation has revealed that the probable cause of the accident was the improper locking of a turnbuckle... specifically invite comments on the overall regulatory, economic, environmental, and energy aspects of this...

  13. Distributional effects and structural change induced by various CAP Pillar 1 proposals; the case of the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Ratinger, Tomas; Foltyn, Ivan; Jelinek, Ladislav; Kristkova, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the potential effects of the CAP pillar 1 on farm incomes and structural changes. It uses a dynamic Computable General Equilibrium model and a specific analysis on distributional effects. The effect of payments ceiling in the current CAP 2020 proposal with subtracting labour costs will bring only insignificant payment reduction for most farmers except large extensive beef breeders whose direct payments will drop by 13% on average. However, if the condition on labour cost...

  14. Exaggerated Cap-Dependent Translation as a Mechanism for Corticostriatal Dysfunction in Fragile X Syndrome Model Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0361 TITLE: “Exaggerated Cap-Dependent Translation as a Mechanism for Corticostriatal Dysfunction in Fragile X...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 19Oct2016 - 18Oct2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER “Exaggerated Cap-Dependent Translation as a Mechanism for... translation inhibitors. Our specific tasks are centered on a proteomic study of FXS striatal synapses by using a transgenic mouse model that allows to

  15. Infiltration experiment for closure cap evaluation at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roddy, N.S.; Cook, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    This document discusses several large waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site which are being closed. These facilities include two seepage basins and the low-level waste disposal facility. The key element of the closures is the construction of a cap system to limit the infiltration of water which might reach the disposed waste. Cap designs have been modeled using the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) computer code. This code was developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers for the Environmental Protection Agency to model the effects of various cap and liner designs on the water balance at landfills. A field experiment has been set up which will allow the results of the HELP Code to be verified at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by measuring the actual water balance created by closure cap configurations which will be used in waste site closures at SRS. Two of the caps will be similar to those used for the planned closure activities. Each one has a specific closure arrangement. Once operational, the experiment will be evaluated for a five-year period

  16. Microstructural stress relaxation mechanics in functionally different tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screen, H R C; Toorani, S; Shelton, J C

    2013-01-01

    Tendons experience widely varying loading conditions in vivo. They may be categorised by their function as either positional tendons, which are used for intricate movements and experience lower stress, or as energy storage tendons which act as highly stressed springs during locomotion. Structural and compositional differences between tendons are thought to enable an optimisation of their properties to suit their functional environment. However, little is known about structure-function relationships in tendon. This study adopts porcine flexor and extensor tendon fascicles as examples of high stress and low stress tendons, comparing their mechanical behaviour at the micro-level in order to understand their stress relaxation response. Stress-relaxation was shown to occur predominantly through sliding between collagen fibres. However, in the more highly stressed flexor tendon fascicles, more fibre reorganisation was evident when the tissue was exposed to low strains. By contrast, the low load extensor tendon fascicles appears to have less capacity for fibre reorganisation or shearing than the energy storage tendon, relying more heavily on fibril level relaxation. The extensor fascicles were also unable to sustain loads without rapid and complete stress relaxation. These findings highlight the need to optimise tendon repair solutions for specific tendons, and match tendon properties when using grafts in tendon repairs. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization and application of a radioimmunoassay for reduced, carboxymethylated human luteinizing hormone. cap alpha. -subunit. [/sup 125/I tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keutmann, H.T.; Beitins, I.Z.; Johnson, L.; McArthur, J.W.

    1978-12-01

    We have established a double antibody RIA using a rabbit antiserum prepared against reduced, carboxymethylated (RCXM) human LH ..cap alpha..-subunit, with RCXM-..cap alpha.. as tracer and standard. This antiserum did not cross-react with any native gonadotropins or subunit, and reacted only weakly with RCXM-..cap alpha... A tryptic digest of RCXM ..cap alpha..-subunit was completely reactive, while chymotryptic digestion abolished all immunoreactivity. By testing with separate tryptic fragments, the recognition site could be localized to a segment close to the amino-terminus of the peptide chain. When applied to measurement of serum and urine, an immunoreactive species, parallel to RCXM ..cap alpha..-subunit by serial dilution, was found in concentrations of 1-2 ng/ml in serum and 3-4 ng/ml in urine. Similar levels of the immunoreactive component were found in conditions of elevated gonadotropins (e.g. pregnancy) as well as gonadotropin deficiency (panhypopituitarism and Kallmann's syndrome). After stimulation with LHRH, no rise was noted at times up to 6 h despite the fact that both LH and LH-..cap alpha.. were elevated. The data indicate that the sequence-specific antiserum may be detecting an immunoreactive form of ..cap alpha..-subunit of LH whose kinetics of appearance and disappearance differs from those of the native subunit.

  18. Relaxation property of the fractional Brownian particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Litan; Lung, C.W.

    1988-08-01

    Dynamic susceptibility of a diffusion system associated with the fractional Brownian motion (fBm) was examined for the fractal property of the Non-Debye relaxation process. The comparisons between fBm and other approaches were made. Anomalous diffusion and the Non-Debye relaxation processes were discussed with this approach. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig

  19. Lifshitz quasinormal modes and relaxation from holography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sybesma, Watse|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369283074; Vandoren, Stefan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830739

    2015-01-01

    We obtain relaxation times for field theories with Lifshitz scaling and with holographic duals Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton gravity theories. This is done by computing quasinormal modes of a bulk scalar field in the presence of Lifshitz black branes. We determine the relation between relaxation time and

  20. Superparamagnetic relaxation of weakly interacting particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Tronc, Elisabeth

    1994-01-01

    The influence of particle interactions on the superparamagnetic relaxation time has been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy in samples of maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) particles with different particle sizes and particle separations. It is found that the relaxation time decreases with decreasing particl...

  1. Models of Flux Tubes from Constrained Relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    J. Astrophys. Astr. (2000) 21, 299 302. Models of Flux Tubes from Constrained Relaxation. Α. Mangalam* & V. Krishan†, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala,. Bangalore 560 034, India. *e mail: mangalam @ iiap. ernet. in. † e mail: vinod@iiap.ernet.in. Abstract. We study the relaxation of a compressible plasma to ...

  2. Superparamagnetic relaxation in alpha-Fe particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen; Pedersen, Michael Stanley

    1998-01-01

    The superparamagnetic relaxation time of carbon-supported alpha-Fe particles with an average size of 3.0 Mm has been studied over a large temperature range by the use of Mossbauer spectroscopy combined with AC and DC magnetization measurements. It is found that the relaxation time varies...

  3. Baryogenesis via Elementary Goldstone Higgs Relaxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertov, Helene; Pearce, Lauren; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We extend the relaxation mechanism to the Elementary Goldstone Higgs framework. Besides studying the allowed parameter space of the theory we add the minimal ingredients needed for the framework to be phenomenologically viable. The very nature of the extended Higgs sector allows to consider very ...... but radiatively generated, it is possible to generate the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry via the relaxation mechanism....

  4. Stress relaxation under cyclic electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystrov, L.N.; Reznitskij, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The kinetics of deformation process in a relaxating sample under 2 MeV electron cyclic irradiation was studied experimentally. The Al-Mg alloys with controllable and different (in dislocation density precipitate presence and their character) structure were used in experiments. It was established that after the beam was switched on the deformation rate increased sharply and then, during prolonged irradiation, in a gradual manner. After the switching-off the relaxation rate decreases by jumps up to values close to extrapolated rates of pre-radiation relaxation. The exhibition of these effects with radiation switching-off and switchin-on is dependent on the initial rate of thermal relaxation, the test temperature, the preliminary cold deformation and the dominating deformation dislocation mechanism. The preliminary cold deformation and test temperature elevation slightly decrease the effect of instantaneous relaxation acceleration with the irradiation switch-on. 17 refs., 5 figs

  5. Relaxation dynamics following transition of solvated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, R.B.; Landman, U.; Nitzan, A.

    1989-01-01

    Relaxation dynamics following an electronic transition of an excess solvated electron in clusters and in bulk water is studied using an adiabatic simulation method. In this method the solvent evolves classically and the electron is constrained to a specified state. The coupling between the solvent and the excess electron is evaluated via the quantum expectation value of the electron--water molecule interaction potential. The relaxation following excitation (or deexcitation) is characterized by two time scales: (i) a very fast (/similar to/20--30 fs) one associated with molecular rotations in the first solvation shell about the electron, and (ii) a slower stage (/similar to/200 fs), which is of the order of the longitudinal dielectric relaxation time. The fast relaxation stage exhibits an isotope effect. The spectroscopical consequences of the relaxation dynamics are discussed

  6. Anomalous enthalpy relaxation in vitreous silica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng

    2015-01-01

    scans. It is known that the liquid fragility (i.e., the speed of the viscous slow-down of a supercooled liquid at its Tg during cooling) has impact on enthalpy relaxation in glass. Here, we find that vitreous silica (as a strong system) exhibits striking anomalies in both glass transition and enthalpy...... relaxation compared to fragile oxide systems. The anomalous enthalpy relaxation of vitreous silica is discovered by performing the hyperquenching-annealing-calorimetry experiments. We argue that the strong systems like vitreous silica and vitreous Germania relax in a structurally cooperative manner, whereas...... the fragile ones do in a structurally independent fashion. We discuss the origin of the anomalous enthalpy relaxation in the HQ vitreous silica....

  7. Vibrational and Rotational Energy Relaxation in Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jakob

    Vibrational and rotational energy relaxation in liquids are studied by means of computer simulations. As a precursor for studying vibrational energy relaxation of a solute molecule subsequent to the formation of a chemical bond, the validity of the classical Bersohn-Zewail model for describing......, the vibrational energy relaxation of I2 subsequent to photodissociation and recombination in CCl4 is studied using classical Molecular Dynamics simulations. The vibrational relaxation times and the time-dependent I-I pair distribution function are compared to new experimental results, and a qualitative agreement...... is found in both cases. Furthermore, the rotational energy relaxation of H2O in liquid water is studied via simulations and a power-and-work analysis. The mechanism of the energy transfer from the rotationally excited H2O molecule to its water neighbors is elucidated, i.e. the energy-accepting degrees...

  8. Cross-relaxation solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipenko, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    Cross-relaxation functional diagrams provide a high quantum efficiency for pumping bands of solid state laser media and a low waste heat. A large number of the cross-relaxation mechanisms for decay rare earth excited states in crystals have been investigated. These investigations have been a starting-point for development of the cross-relaxation solid state lasers. For example, the cross-relaxation interactions, have been used for the laser action development of LiYF 4 :Gd-Tb. These interactions are important elements of the functional diagrams of the 2 μm Ho-doped media sensitized with Er and Tm and the 3 μm Er-doped media. Recently, new efficient 2 μm laser media with cross-relaxation pumping diagrams have been developed. Physical aspects of these media are the subject of this paper. A new concept of the Er-doped medium, sensitized with Yb, is illustrated

  9. Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting with short relaxation intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amthor, Thomas; Doneva, Mariya; Koken, Peter; Sommer, Karsten; Meineke, Jakob; Börnert, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a technique for improving the performance of Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) in repetitive sampling schemes, in particular for 3D MRF acquisition, by shortening relaxation intervals between MRF pulse train repetitions. A calculation method for MRF dictionaries adapted to short relaxation intervals and non-relaxed initial spin states is presented, based on the concept of stationary fingerprints. The method is applicable to many different k-space sampling schemes in 2D and 3D. For accuracy analysis, T 1 and T 2 values of a phantom are determined by single-slice Cartesian MRF for different relaxation intervals and are compared with quantitative reference measurements. The relevance of slice profile effects is also investigated in this case. To further illustrate the capabilities of the method, an application to in-vivo spiral 3D MRF measurements is demonstrated. The proposed computation method enables accurate parameter estimation even for the shortest relaxation intervals, as investigated for different sampling patterns in 2D and 3D. In 2D Cartesian measurements, we achieved a scan acceleration of more than a factor of two, while maintaining acceptable accuracy: The largest T 1 values of a sample set deviated from their reference values by 0.3% (longest relaxation interval) and 2.4% (shortest relaxation interval). The largest T 2 values showed systematic deviations of up to 10% for all relaxation intervals, which is discussed. The influence of slice profile effects for multislice acquisition is shown to become increasingly relevant for short relaxation intervals. In 3D spiral measurements, a scan time reduction of 36% was achieved, maintaining the quality of in-vivo T1 and T2 maps. Reducing the relaxation interval between MRF sequence repetitions using stationary fingerprint dictionaries is a feasible method to improve the scan efficiency of MRF sequences. The method enables fast implementations of 3D spatially

  10. Structural changes of eIF4E upon binding to the mRNA 5' monomethylguanosine and trimethylguanosine Cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska-Wlodarczyk, Izabela; Stepinski, Janusz; Dadlez, Michal; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Stolarski, Ryszard; Niedzwiecka, Anna

    2008-03-04

    Recognition of the 5' cap by the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is the rate-limiting step in the ribosome recruitment to mRNAs. The regular cap consists of 7-monomethylguanosine (MMG) linked by a 5'-5' triphosphate bridge to the first transcribed nucleoside, while some primitive eukaryotes possess a N (2), N (2),7-trimethylguanosine (TMG) cap structure as a result of trans splicing. Mammalian eIF4E is highly specific to the MMG form of the cap in terms of association constants and thermodynamic driving force. We have investigated conformational changes of eIF4E induced by interaction with two cap analogues, 7-methyl-GTP and N (2), N (2),7-trimethyl-GTP. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange and electrospray mass spectrometry were applied to probe local dynamics of murine eIF4E in the apo and cap-bound forms. The data show that the cap binding induces long-range conformational changes in the protein, not only in the cap-binding pocket but also in a distant region of the 4E-BP/eIF4G binding site. Formation of the complex with 7-methyl-GTP makes the eIF4E structure more compact, while binding of N (2), N (2),7-trimethyl-GTP leads to higher solvent accessibility of the protein backbone in comparison with the apo form. The results suggest that the additional double methylation at the N (2)-amino group of the cap causes sterical effects upon binding to mammalian eIF4E which influence the overall solution dynamics of the protein, thus precluding formation of a tight complex.

  11. Effects of local anesthetics on cholinergic agonist binding affinity of central nervous system. cap alpha. -bungarotoxin receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukas, R.L.; Bennett, E.L.

    1979-12-01

    In general, pharmacological effects of local anesthetics may be attributed to their ability to reversibly block the propagation of nerve and muscle action potentials. At physiologically potent concentrations, local anesthetics (LA) also act as noncompetitive antagonists of the physiological response of post-synaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) to cholinergic agonists, and increase agonist binding affinities of nAChR from electric organ. It is postulated that the primary site of LA action on nAChR function is at the receptor-coupled ionophore. Furthermore, LA-nAChR ionophore interactions are thought to accelerate physiological desensitization of nAChR, manifest biochemically as increased affinity of nAChR for agonist. Specific receptors for ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin (..cap alpha..-Bgt), a potent competitive antagonist at nAChR sites in the periphery, have been detected in rat central nervous system membrane preparations. The affinity of these central ..cap alpha..-Bgt receptors (..cap alpha..-BgtR) for cholinergic agonists is found to increase on exposure to agonist. Nevertheless, on the basis of inconsistent pharmacological and physiological results, uncertainty remains regarding the relationship between ..cap alpha..-BgtR and authentic nAChR in the CNS, despite a wide body of biochemical and histological evidence consistent with their identity. Reasoning that if CNS ..cap alpha..-BgtR are true in nAChR, coupled to functional ion channels, LA might be expected to cause biochemically measurable increases in ..cap alpha..-BgtR affinity for cholinergic agonists, we have undertaken a study of the effects of LA on the ability of acetylcholine (ACh) to inhibit interaction of ..cap alpha..-BgtR with /sup 3/H-labeled ..cap alpha..-Bgt.

  12. Relaxing a large cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Florian; Sola, Joan; Stefancic, Hrvoje

    2009-01-01

    The cosmological constant (CC) problem is the biggest enigma of theoretical physics ever. In recent times, it has been rephrased as the dark energy (DE) problem in order to encompass a wider spectrum of possibilities. It is, in any case, a polyhedric puzzle with many faces, including the cosmic coincidence problem, i.e. why the density of matter ρ m is presently so close to the CC density ρ Λ . However, the oldest, toughest and most intriguing face of this polyhedron is the big CC problem, namely why the measured value of ρ Λ at present is so small as compared to any typical density scale existing in high energy physics, especially taking into account the many phase transitions that our Universe has undergone since the early times, including inflation. In this Letter, we propose to extend the field equations of General Relativity by including a class of invariant terms that automatically relax the value of the CC irrespective of the initial size of the vacuum energy in the early epochs. We show that, at late times, the Universe enters an eternal de Sitter stage mimicking a tiny positive cosmological constant. Thus, these models could be able to solve the big CC problem without fine-tuning and have also a bearing on the cosmic coincidence problem. Remarkably, they mimic the ΛCDM model to a large extent, but they still leave some characteristic imprints that should be testable in the next generation of experiments.

  13. The effects of progressive muscle relaxation and autogenic relaxation on young soccer players' mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hairul Anuar; Hanafi Ahmad Yusof, Hazwani

    2011-06-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of two different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and autogenic relaxation (AGR) on moods of young soccer players. sixteen adolescent athletes (mean age: 14.1 ± 1.3) received either PMR or AGR training. Using Profile of Mood States- Adolescents, their mood states were measured one week before relaxation training, before the first relaxation session, and after the twelfth relaxation session. Mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction effects and no significant main effects in any of the subscales. However, significant main effects for testing sessions were found for confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscales. Post hoc tests revealed post-intervention reductions in the confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscale scores. These two relaxation techniques induce equivalent mood responses and may be used to regulate young soccer players' mood states.

  14. The Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Autogenic Relaxation on Young Soccer Players’ Mood States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hairul Anuar; Hanafi@Ahmad Yusof, Hazwani

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to compare the effects of two different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and autogenic relaxation (AGR) on moods of young soccer players. Methods Sixteen adolescent athletes (mean age: 14.1 ± 1.3) received either PMR or AGR training. Using Profile of Mood States- Adolescents, their mood states were measured one week before relaxation training, before the first relaxation session, and after the twelfth relaxation session. Results Mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction effects and no significant main effects in any of the subscales. However, significant main effects for testing sessions were found for confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscales. Post hoc tests revealed post-intervention reductions in the confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscale scores. Conclusion These two relaxation techniques induce equivalent mood responses and may be used to regulate young soccer players’ mood states. PMID:22375225

  15. Relaxation Dynamics of Nanoparticle-Tethered Polymer Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Sung A

    2015-09-08

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Relaxation dynamics of nanoparticle-tethered cis-1,4-polyisoprene (PI) are investigated using dielectric spectroscopy and rheometry. A model system composed of polymer chains densely grafted to spherical SiO2 nanoparticles to form self-suspended suspensions facilitates detailed studies of slow global chain and fast segmental mode dynamics under surface and geometrical confinement-from experiments performed in bulk materials. We report that unentangled polymer molecules tethered to nanoparticles relax far more slowly than their tethered entangled counterparts. Specifically, at fixed grafting density we find, counterintuitively, that increasing the tethered polymer molecular weight up to values close to the entanglement molecular weight speeds up chain relaxation dynamics. Decreasing the polymer grafting density for a fixed molecular weight has the opposite effect: it dramatically slows down chain relaxation, increases interchain coupling, and leads to a transition in rheological response from simple fluid behavior to viscoelastic fluid behavior for tethered PI chains that are unentangled by conventional measures. Increasing the measurement temperature produces an even stronger elastic response and speeds up molecular relaxation at a rate that decreases with grafting density and molecular weight. These observations are discussed in terms of chain confinement driven by crowding between particles and by the existence of an entropic attractive force produced by the space-filling constraint on individual chains in a self-suspended material. Our results indicate that the entropic force between densely grafted polymer molecules couples motions of individual chains in an analogous manner to reversible cross-links in associating polymers.

  16. Customizable cap implants for neurophysiological experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonde, Jackson D; Roussy, Megan; Luna, Rogelio; Mahmoudian, Borna; Gulli, Roberto A; Barker, Kevin C; Lau, Jonathan C; Martinez-Trujillo, Julio C

    2018-04-22

    Several primate neurophysiology laboratories have adopted acrylic-free, custom-fit cranial implants. These implants are often comprised of titanium or plastic polymers, such as polyether ether ketone (PEEK). Titanium is favored for its mechanical strength and osseointegrative properties whereas PEEK is notable for its lightweight, machinability, and MRI compatibility. Recent titanium/PEEK implants have proven to be effective in minimizing infection and implant failure, thereby prolonging experiments and optimizing the scientific contribution of a single primate. We created novel, customizable PEEK 'cap' implants that contour to the primate's skull. The implants were created using MRI and/or CT data, SolidWorks software and CNC-machining. Three rhesus macaques were implanted with a PEEK cap implant. Head fixation and chronic recordings were successfully performed. Improvements in design and surgical technique solved issues of granulation tissue formation and headpost screw breakage. Primate cranial implants have traditionally been fastened to the skull using acrylic and anchor screws. This technique is prone to skin recession, infection, and implant failure. More recent methods have used imaging data to create custom-fit titanium/PEEK implants with radially extending feet or vertical columns. Compared to our design, these implants are more surgically invasive over time, have less force distribution, and/or do not optimize the utilizable surface area of the skull. Our PEEK cap implants served as an effective and affordable means to perform electrophysiological experimentation while reducing surgical invasiveness, providing increased strength, and optimizing useful surface area. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Laboratory testing of closure cap repair techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persoff, P.; Moridis, G.; Tuck, D.M.

    1996-10-01

    Landfill design requires a low permeability closure cap as well as a low permeability liner. The Savannah River Site, in South Carolina, has approximately 85 acres of mixed waste landfills covered with compacted kaolin clay. Maintaining low permeability of the clay cap requires both that the permeability of the compacted clay itself remain low and that the integrity of the barrier be maintained. Barrier breaches typically result from penetration by roots or animals, and especially cracks caused by uneven settling or desiccation. In this study, clay layers, 0.81 m in diameter and 7.6 cm thick, were compacted in 7 lysimeters to simulate closure caps. The hydraulic conductivity of each layer was measured, and the compacted clay layers (CCL's) were cracked by drying. Then various repair techniques were applied and the effectiveness of each repair was assessed by remeasuring the hydraulic conductivity. Finally the repaired CCL was again dried and measured to determine how the repair responded to the conditions that caused the original failure. For a full report of this investigation see Persoff et al. Six repair techniques have been tested, four of which involve the use of injectable barrier liquids colloidal silica (CS) and polysiloxane (PSX) described below: (I) covering the crack with a bentonite geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), (ii) recompaction of new kaolinite at STD+3 moisture content joined to existing kaolinite that had dried and shrunk, (iii) direct injection of colloidal silica to a crack, (iv) injection of colloidal silica (CS) to wells in an overlying sand layer, (v) direct injection of polysiloxane to a crack, and (vi), injection of polysiloxane (PSX) to wells in an overlying soil layer

  18. IAA transport in corn roots includes the root cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenstein, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    In earlier reports we concluded that auxin is the growth regulator that controls gravicurvature in roots and that the redistribution of auxin occurs within the root cap. Since other reports did not detect auxin in the root cap, we attempted to confirm the IAA does move through the cap. Agar blocks containing 3 H-IAA were applied to the cut surface of 5 mm long apical segments of primary roots of corn (mo17xB73). After 30 to 120 min radioactivity (RA) of the cap and root tissue was determined. While segments suspended in water-saturated air accumulated very little RA in the cap, application of 0.5 μ1 of dist. water to the cap (=controls) increased RA of the cap dramatically. Application to the cap of 0.5 μ1 of sorbitol or the Ca 2+ chelator EGTA reduced cap RA to 46% and 70% respectively compared to water, without affecting uptake. Control root segments gravireacted faster than non-treated or osmoticum or EGTA treated segments. The data indicate that both the degree of hydration and calcium control the amount of auxin moving through the cap

  19. Polar cap deflation during magnetospheric substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, J. J.; Siscoe, G. L.; Heelis, R. A.; Winningham, J. D.

    1989-01-01

    The expanding/contracting polar cap model has been used to simulate DE-2 ion drift data during substorms as determined using the AL index. Of the 39 cases modeled, 57 percent required the opening of a nightside gap which maps to where reconnection occurs in the tail; 75 percent of the 16 recovery phase cases required a nightside gap, while only 29 percent of the 17 expansion phase cases required a nightside gap. On the basis of this result, it is concluded that if a nightside gap implies tail reconnection, then reconnection probably occurs after expansion phase onset and continues throughout most of the recovery phase of a substorm.

  20. MARK II end cap calorimeter electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jared, R.C.; Haggerty, J.S.; Herrup, D.A.; Kirsten, F.A.; Lee, K.L.; Olson, S.R.; Wood, D.R.

    1985-10-01

    An end cap calorimeter system has been added to the MARK II detector in preparation for its use at the SLAC Linear Collider. The calorimeter uses 8744 rectangular proportional counter tubes. This paper describes the design features of the data acquisition electronics that has been installed on the calorimeter. The design and use of computer-based test stands for the amplification and signal-shaping components is also covered. A portion of the complete system has been tested in a beam at SLAC. In these initial tests, using only the calibration provided by the test stands, a resolution of 18%/√E was achieved

  1. The effect of build-up cap materials on the response of an ionization chamber to 60Co gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, M.P.O.; Almeida, C.E. de

    1993-01-01

    Knowledge of the effect of wall and build-up cap materials on ionization chamber response is necessary to determine absorbed dose in a medium using a calibration factor based on exposure or kerma in air. Attenuation and scattering effects of 60 Co gamma rays in the ionization chamber wall and build-up cap, as well as their non-equivalence to air, were studied with an OFS ionization chamber (Delrin wall) and a set of build-up caps specially built for this purpose. Results for a specific material were plotted as functions of wall and cap total thickness, extrapolated to zero wall thickness, then corrected for mean centre of electron production in the wall (= 0.136 g cm -2 ). Correction factors for a specific thickness were analysed in relation to cap material, and to relative responses compared with values calculated by using AAPM, SEFM and IAEA formalisms for cap effects. A Monte Carlo calculation was performed to compare the experimental and theoretical values. Calculations showed an agreement within 0.1% with experimental values and a wall effect of approximately 1.6%. (Author)

  2. Relaxation of polarized nuclei in superconducting rhodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuuttila, T.A.; Tuoriniemi, J.T.; Lefmann, K.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear spin lattice relaxation rates were measured in normal and superconducting (sc) rhodium with nuclear polarizations up to p = 0.55. This was sufficient to influence the sc state of Rh, whose T, and B-c, are exceptionally low. Because B-c ... is unchanged, the nuclear spin entropy was fully sustained across the sc transition. The relaxation in the sc state was slower at all temperatures without the coherence enhancement close to T-c. Nonzero nuclear polarization strongly reduced the difference between the relaxation rates in the sc and normal...

  3. Spin relaxation in nanowires by hyperfine coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverria-Arrondo, C.; Sherman, E.Ya.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperfine interactions establish limits on spin dynamics and relaxation rates in ensembles of semiconductor quantum dots. It is the confinement of electrons which determines nonzero hyperfine coupling and leads to the spin relaxation. As a result, in nanowires one would expect the vanishing of this effect due to extended electron states. However, even for relatively clean wires, disorder plays a crucial role and makes electron localization sufficient to cause spin relaxation on the time scale of the order of 10 ns. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Le Chatelier's principle with multiple relaxation channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, R.; Levine, R. D.

    1986-05-01

    Le Chatelier's principle is discussed within the constrained variational approach to thermodynamics. The formulation is general enough to encompass systems not in thermal (or chemical) equilibrium. Particular attention is given to systems with multiple constraints which can be relaxed. The moderation of the initial perturbation increases as additional constraints are removed. This result is studied in particular when the (coupled) relaxation channels have widely different time scales. A series of inequalities is derived which describes the successive moderation as each successive relaxation channel opens up. These inequalities are interpreted within the metric-geometry representation of thermodynamics.

  5. Universal Mechanism of Spin Relaxation in Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene

    2006-03-01

    Conventional elastic theory ignores internal local twists and torques. Meantime, spin-lattice relaxation is inherently coupled with local elastic twists through conservation of the total angular momentum (spin + lattice). This coupling gives universal lower bound (free of fitting parameters) on the relaxation of the atomic or molecular spin in a solid [1] and on the relaxation of the electron spin in a quantum dot [2]. [1] E. M. Chudnovsky, D. A. Garanin, and R. Schilling, Phys. Rev. B 72, 094426 (2005). [2] C. Calero, E. M. Chudnovsky, and D. A. Garanin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 166603 (2005).

  6. Collisional relaxation of electron tail distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagiwa, Mitsuru; Okamoto, Masao.

    1985-05-01

    Relaxation due to the Coulomb collisions of the electron velocity distribution function with a high energy tail is investigated in detail. In the course of the relaxation, a 'saddle' point can be created in velocity space owing to upsilon -3 dependence of the deflection rate and a positive slope or a 'dip' appears in the tail direction. The time evolution of the electron tail is studied analytically. A comparison is made with numerical results by using a Fokker-Planck code. Also discussed is the kinetic instability concerned with the positive slope during the relaxation. (author)

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Barker, G J; MacKay, A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The theory of relaxation processes and their measurements are described. An overview is presented of the literature on relaxation time measurements in the normal and the developing brain, in experimental diseases in animals, and in patients with multiple sclerosis. RESULTS...... AND CONCLUSION: Relaxation time measurements provide insight into development of multiple sclerosis plaques, especially the occurrence of oedema, demyelination, and gliosis. There is also evidence that normal appearing white matter in patients with multiple sclerosis is affected. What is now needed are fast...

  8. Stress Relaxation in Entangled Polymer Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Ji-Xuan; Svaneborg, Carsten; Everaers, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    We present an extensive set of simulation results for the stress relaxation in equilibrium and step-strained bead-spring polymer melts. The data allow us to explore the chain dynamics and the shear relaxation modulus, G(t), into the plateau regime for chains with Z=40 entanglements...... and into the terminal relaxation regime for Z=10. Using the known (Rouse) mobility of unentangled chains and the melt entanglement length determined via the primitive path analysis of the microscopic topological state of our systems, we have performed parameter-free tests of several different tube models. We find...

  9. Slow relaxation in weakly open rational polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokshenev, Valery B; Vicentini, Eduardo

    2003-07-01

    The interplay between the regular (piecewise-linear) and irregular (vertex-angle) boundary effects in nonintegrable rational polygonal billiards (of m equal sides) is discussed. Decay dynamics in polygons (of perimeter P(m) and small opening Delta) is analyzed through the late-time survival probability S(m) approximately equal t(-delta). Two distinct slow relaxation channels are established. The primary universal channel exhibits relaxation of regular sliding orbits, with delta=1. The secondary channel is given by delta>1 and becomes open when m>P(m)/Delta. It originates from vertex order-disorder dual effects and is due to relaxation of chaoticlike excitations.

  10. [A study on Korean concepts of relaxation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J S

    1992-01-01

    Relaxation technique is an independent nursing intervention used in various stressful situations. The concept of relaxation must be explored for the meaning given by the people in their traditional thought and philosophy. Korean relaxation technique, wanting to become culturally acceptable and effective, is learning to recognize and develop Korean concepts, experiences, and musics of relaxation. This study was aimed at discovering Korean concepts, experiences and musics of relaxation and contributing the development of the relaxation technique for Korean people. The subjects were 59 nursing students, 39 hospitalized patients, 61 housewives, 21 rural residents and 16 researchers. Data were collected from September 4th to October 24th, 1991 by interviews or questionnaires. The data analysis was done by qualitative research method, and validity assured by conformation of the concept and category by 2 nursing scientists who had written a Master's thesis on the relaxation technique. The results of the study were summarized as follows; 1. The meaning of the relaxation concept; From 298 statements, 107 concepts were extracted and then 5 categories "Physical domain", "Psychological domain", "Complex domain", "Situation", and "environment" were organized. 'Don't have discomforts, 'don't have muscle tension', 'don't have energy (him in Korean)', 'don't have activities' subcategories were included in "Physical domain". 'Don't have anxiety', 'feel good', 'emotional stability', 'don't have wordly thoughts', 'feel one's brain muddled', 'loss of desire' subcategories were included in "physical domain" 'Comfort body and mind', 'don't have tension of body and mind', 'be sagged' 'liveliness of thoughts' subcategories were included in "Complex domain". 'Rest', 'sleep', 'others' subcategories were included in "Situation domain". And 'quite environment' & 'comfortable environment' subcategories were included in "Environmental domain". 2. The experiences of the relaxation; From 151

  11. NMR relaxation studies with MnDPDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southon, T.E.; Grant, D.; Bjoernerud, A.; Moen, O.M.; Spilling, B.; Martinsen, I.; Refsum, H.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Our studies were designed to compare the efficacy of mangafodipir trisodium (MnDPDP, Teslascan) as a tissue-specific MR agent with that of manganese chloride (MnCl 2 ), to compare the efficacy of different doses and rates of administration of MnDPDP, and to collect the data needed for predicting optimum pulse sequences. Material and Methods: The dose response for the relaxation rates R1 and R2 at 0.47 T, and the manganese (Mn) concentrations in rat liver and in the liver, pancreas, heart and adrenals of pigs was determined for both MnDPDP and MnCl 2 administered i.v. Computer simulations were carried out to model the effects of different tissue Mn concentrations and TR on signal intensities and contrast-to-noise ratios. Results: In rat liver and pig organs both compounds produced a positive dose-response in R1 and tissue Mn concentration, and only small or no response in R2. The Mn concentration in rat liver was positively correlated with R1, regardless of the form in which Mn was given, or the rate of administration. Optimal imaging parametes are therefore expected to be different pre- and post-MnDPDP administration. (orig./AJ)

  12. Macrophage Capping Protein CapG Is a Putative Oncogene Involved in Migration and Invasiveness in Ovarian Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Glaser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The actin binding protein CapG modulates cell motility by interacting with the cytoskeleton. CapG is associated with tumor progression in different nongynecologic tumor entities and overexpression in breast cancer cell lines correlates with a more invasive phenotype in vitro. Here, we report a significant CapG overexpression in 18/47 (38% of ovarian carcinomas (OC analyzed by qRealTime-PCR analyses. Functional analyses in OC cell lines through siRNA mediated CapG knockdown and CapG overexpression showed CapG-dependent cell migration and invasiveness. A single nucleotide polymorphism rs6886 inside the CapG gene was identified, affecting a CapG phosphorylation site and thus potentially modifying CapG function. The minor allele frequency (MAF of SNP rs6886 (c.1004A/G was higher and the homozygous (A/A, His335 genotype was significantly more prevalent in patients with fallopian tube carcinomas (50% as in controls (10%. With OC being one of the most lethal cancer diseases, the detection of novel biomarkers such as CapG could reveal new diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Moreover, in-depth analyses of SNP rs6886 related to FTC and OC will contribute to a better understanding of carcinogenesis and progression of OC.

  13. MFTF-. cap alpha. + T progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, W.D. (ed.)

    1985-04-01

    Early in FY 1983, several upgrades of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) were proposed to the fusion community. The one most favorably received was designated MFTF-..cap alpha..+T. The engineering design of this device, guided by LLNL, has been a principal activity of the Fusion Engineering Design Center during FY 1983. This interim progress report represents a snapshot of the device design, which was begun in FY 1983 and will continue for several years. The report is organized as a complete design description. Because it is an interim report, some parts are incomplete; they will be supplied as the design study proceeds. As described in this report, MFTF-..cap alpha..+T uses existing facilities, many MFTF-B components, and a number of innovations to improve on the physics parameters of MFTF-B. It burns deuterium-tritium and has a central-cell Q of 2, a wall loading GAMMA/sub n/ of 2 MW/m/sup 2/ (with a central-cell insert module), and an availability of 10%. The machine is fully shielded, allows hands-on maintenance of components outside the vacuum vessel 24 h after shutdown, and has provisions for repair of all operating components.

  14. DID THE 2004 CAP REFORM AFFECT PRODUCTION PRACTICES OF CEREALS? INSIGHTS FROM THE AGRICULTURAL INPUT SUPPLIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros MARKOPOULOS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mid-term review of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003/2004 has strengthened the multifunctional role of agriculture by implementing “decoupling”, “modulation” and “cross-compliance” and created a number of significant changes in agricultural production in all EU member states. Specifically, the reform shifted emphasis away from commodity support towards environmental contracts, diversified production practices and rural development. In the case of cereals, a full decoupling was applied in subsidies and integration through rights in the Single Payment Scheme, except rice, which was one of the few crop cases in which part of the subsidy remained coupled, particular in countries with significant production like Greece. Within this context, the present study aims to analyze the impact that the reformed CAP measures had on agricultural production and more specifically variations in production diversification. The novelty of this study is that instead of focusing on the producers, it targeted the agricultural input stores, so as to get better insights of the CAP reform impacts on a larger scale of the regional economy. Accordingly, primary data were collected through personal interviews (structured questionnaire from 209 owners of agricultural input stores in the region of Anatoliki Makedonia and Thraki and were analyzed through multivariate data analysis. The results identify important antecedents for the regional economy and the viability of agricultural input stores, which include factors of the reformed CAP, environmental issues, financial measures and CAP effects on cereal production and marketing.

  15. Agonist-induced affinity alterations of a central nervous system. cap alpha. -bungarotoxin receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukas, R.J.; Bennett, E.L.

    1979-01-01

    The ability of cholinergic agonists to block the specific interaction of ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin (..cap alpha..-Bgt) with membrane-bound sites derived from rat brain is enhanced when membranes are preincubated with agonist. Thus, pretreatment of ..cap alpha..-Bgt receptors with agonist (but not antagonist) causes transformation of sites to a high-affinity form toward agonist. This change in receptor state occurs with a half-time on the order of minutes, and is fully reversible on dilution of agonist. The results are consistent with the identity of ..cap alpha..-Bgt binding sites as true central nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Furthermore, this agonist-induced alteration in receptor state may represent an in vitro correlate of physiological desensitization. As determined from the effects of agonist on toxin binding isotherms, and on the rate of toxin binding to specific sites, agonist inhibition of toxin binding to the high-affinity state is non-competitive. This result suggests that there may exist discrete toxin-binding and agonist-binding sites on central toxin receptors.

  16. Acoustic Monitoring of the Arctic Ice Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, D. L.; Goemmer, S. A.; Chayes, D. N.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction The monitoring of the Arctic Ice Cap is important economically, tactically, and strategically. In the scenario of ice cap retreat, new paths of commerce open, e.g. waterways from Northern Europe to the Far East. Where ship-going commerce is conducted, the U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard have always stood guard and been prepared to assist from acts of nature and of man. It is imperative that in addition to measuring the ice from satellites, e.g. Icesat, that we have an ability to measure the ice extent, its thickness, and roughness. These parameters play an important part in the modeling of the ice and the processes that control its growth or shrinking and its thickness. The proposed system consists of three subsystems. The first subsystem is an acoustic source, the second is an array of geophones and the third is a system to supply energy and transmit the results back to the analysis laboratory. The subsystems are described below. We conclude with a plan on how to tackle this project and the payoff to the ice cap modeler and hence the users, i.e. commerce and defense. System Two historically tested methods to generate a large amplitude multi-frequency sound source include explosives and air guns. A new method developed and tested by the University of Texas, ARL is a combustive Sound Source [Wilson, et al., 1995]. The combustive sound source is a submerged combustion chamber that is filled with the byproducts of the electrolysis of sea water, i.e. Hydrogen and Oxygen, an explosive mixture which is ignited via a spark. Thus, no additional compressors, gases, or explosives need to be transported to the Arctic to generate an acoustic pulse capable of the sediment and the ice. The second subsystem would be geophones capable of listening in the O(10 Hz) range and transmitting that data back to the laboratory. Thus two single arrays of geophones arranged orthogonal to each other with a range of 1000's of kilometers and a combustive sound source where the two

  17. On black hole thermodynamics with a momentum relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chanyong

    2016-01-01

    We investigate black hole thermodynamics involving a scalar hair which is dual to a momentum relaxation of the dual field theory. This black hole geometry is able to be classified by two parameters. One is a momentum relaxation and the other is a mass density of another matter localized at the center. Even though all parameters are continuous, there exists a specific point where its thermodynamic interpretation is not continuously connected to the one defined in the other parameter regime. The similar feature also appears in a topological AdS black hole. In this work, we show why such an unusual thermodynamic feature happens and provide a unified way to understand such an exotic black hole thermodynamically in the entire parameter range. (paper)

  18. Relaxation labelling-the principle of least disturbance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, A

    1983-07-01

    Relaxation labelling may be an important method of programming parallel array processors. Work on image recognition systems makes it clear that extraction of primitive descriptions of objects from image data is a processing bottleneck. Badly needed processing power could be obtained from special hardware but the parallel array processor is a flexible source of power because it is programmable, and should become cheaper as it continues to be developed. Parallel array processors perform local operations like convolution and thresholding very efficiently. However, extraction of lines and curves, as primitives for object description, involve operations which are not local, because the edges are long and must be examined over their entire length. Relaxation labelling achieves a global effect by repeated application of a local operation. The way of deriving that local operation from a problem specification, and the relationship to constrained optimisation, is the subject of the paper. 18 references.

  19. Lowering the YE+1 end-cap for CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    On 9 January 2007, the massive YE+1 end-cap was lowered into the CMS cavern. This is a very precise process as the crane must lower the end-cap through minimal clearance without tilt or sway. Once in the cavern, the end-cap is then positioned over the end of the barrel to detect particles produced in collisions that travel close to the axis of the beams.

  20. Preform spar cap for a wind turbine rotor blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Jamie T [Simpsonville, SC; Driver, Howard D [Greer, SC; van Breugel, Sjef [Enschede, NL; Jenkins, Thomas B [Cantonment, FL; Bakhuis, Jan Willem [Nijverdal, NL; Billen, Andrew J [Daarlerveen, NL; Riahi, Amir [Pensacola, FL

    2011-07-12

    A spar cap for a wind turbine rotor blade. The spar cap may include multiple preform components. The multiple preform components may be planar sheets having a swept shape with a first end and a second end. The multiple preform components may be joined by mating the first end of a first preform component to the second end of a next preform component, forming the spar cap.

  1. Relaxation processes during amorphous metal alloys heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinochka, E.Ya.; Durachenko, A.M.; Borisov, V.T.

    1982-01-01

    Behaviour of Te+15 at.%Ge and Fe+13 at.%P+7 at.%C amorphous metal alloys during heating has been studied using the method of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the most convenient one for determination of the value of heat effects, activation energies, temperature ranges of relaxation processes. Thermal effects corresponding to high-temperature relaxation processes taking place during amorphous metal alloys (AMA) heating are detected. The change of ratio of relaxation peaks values on DSC curves as a result of AMA heat treatment can be explained by the presence of a number of levels of inner energy in amorphous system, separated with potential barriers, the heights of which correspond to certain activation energies of relaxation processes

  2. The relaxation of plasmas with dust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chutov, Yu.I.; Kravchenko, A.Yu.; Schram, P.P.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Various parameters of relaxing plasmas with dust particles including the electron and ion energy distributions function are numerically simulated at various parameters of the dust particles using the PIC method and taking into account the dynamics of the dust particle charge without the assumption about the equilibrium of electrons and ions. Coulomb collisions are taken into account in the framework of the method of stochastic differential equations. The relaxation of bounded plasma clouds expanding into a vacuum as well as the relaxation of a uniform plasma, in which dust particles appear at some initial time, are investigated. The obtained results show that the relaxation of plasmas can be accompanied by a deviation of the ion distribution function from equilibrium as well as a change of the mean energy of electrons and ions because of the dependence of the collection of electrons and ions by dust particles on their energy. (author)

  3. Multiscale dipole relaxation in dielectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    Dipole relaxation from thermally induced perturbations is investigated on different length scales for dielectric materials. From the continuum dynamical equations for the polarisation, expressions for the transverse and longitudinal dipole autocorrelation functions are derived in the limit where ...

  4. Generalized approach to non-exponential relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Non-exponential relaxation is a universal feature of systems as diverse as glasses, spin ... which changes from a simple exponential to a stretched exponential and a power law by increasing the constraints in the system. ... Current Issue

  5. Oxygen-17 relaxation in aqueous agarose gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablett, S.; Lillford, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic relaxation of oxygen-17 in H 2 17 O enriched agarose gels shows that existing explanations of water behaviour are oversimplified. Satisfactory models must include at least three proton phases, two of which involve water molecules. (Auth.)

  6. Contabilidad de Costos II. - Capítulo 4. Respuestas

    OpenAIRE

    Morillo Moreno, Marysela C.

    2008-01-01

    ÍNDICE Presentación Orientaciones para el usuario Capítulo 1: Contabilidad de costos por procesos Sistemas de Contabilidad de Costos por Proceso Costos de Producción Conjunta. Productos Principales y Secundarios Capítulo 2: Contabilidad de costos predeterminados Presupuesto Estático y Presupuesto Flexible Sistema de Costos Estándar Capítulo 3: Sistema de costos variables Capítulo 4: Respuestas Bibliografía recomendada Pr...

  7. Analyses of Current And Wave Forces on Velocity Caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Buhrkall, Jeppe; Eskesen, Mark C. D.

    2015-01-01

    Velocity caps are often used in connection with for instance offshore intake sea water for the use of for cooling water for power plants or as a source for desalinization plants. The intakes can also be used for river intakes. The velocity cap is placed on top of a vertical pipe. The vertical pipe......) this paper investigates the current and wave forces on the velocity cap and the vertical cylinder. The Morison’s force model was used in the analyses of the extracted force time series in from the CFD model. Further the distribution of the inlet velocities around the velocity cap was also analyzed in detail...

  8. Who's (Still) Above the Social Security Payroll Tax Cap?

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Woo; Janelle Jones; John Schmitt

    2012-01-01

    The Social Security payroll tax cap is the earnings level above which no further Social Security taxes are collected. The cap is currently at $110,100, though legislation has been introduced in Congress to apply the Social Security payroll tax to earnings above $250,000 (but not between the current cap and this level). This issue brief updates earlier work, finding that 5.8 percent of workers would be affected if the Social Security cap were eliminated entirely and 1.4 percent would be affect...

  9. Relaxation and hypnosis in pediatric dental patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, B

    1996-01-01

    Relaxation and hypnosis are methods which, may solve the problem of extreme dental anxiety, when all other methods, behavioral or pharmacological may not be used. A simple definition of hypnosis is suggestion and repetition. Suggestion is the process whereby an individual accepts a proposition put to him by another, without having the slightest logical reason for doing so. Relaxation is one method of inducing hypnosis. A case of using hypnosis on an 11-year-old boy is described.

  10. Ghost lines in Moessbauer relaxation spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    The appearance in Moessbauer relaxation spectra of 'ghost' lines, which are narrow lines that do not correspond to transitions between real hyperfine energy levels of the resonant system, is examined. It is shown that in many cases of interest, the appearance of these 'ghost' lines can be interpreted in terms of the relaxational averaging of one or more of the static interactions of the ion. (orig.)

  11. Dynamics of helicity transport and Taylor relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, P.H.; Malkov, M.

    2003-01-01

    A simple model of the dynamics of Taylor relaxation is derived using symmetry principles alone. No statistical closure approximations are invoked or detailed plasma model properties assumed. Notably, the model predicts several classes of nondiffusive helicity transport phenomena, including traveling nonlinear waves and superdiffusive turbulent pulses. A universal expression for the scaling of the effective magnetic Reynolds number of a system undergoing Taylor relaxation is derived. Some basic properties of intermittency in helicity transport are examined

  12. Synthesis of tritium or deuterium labelled 19-nor-3. cap alpha. -hydroxy-5. cap alpha. -androstan-17-one from nortestosterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protiva, J; Klinotova, E [Karlova Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia). Prirodovedecka Fakulta; Filip, J [Ustav pro Vyzkum, Vyrobu a Vyuziti Radioisotopu, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Hampl, R [Research Inst. of Endocrinology, Praha (Czechoslovakia)

    1982-10-20

    Tritium and/or deuterium (5-H) labelled 19-nor-3..cap alpha..-hydroxy-5..cap alpha..-androstan-17-one (norandrosterone) was prepared from nortestosterone in view to use it as a radioligand for radioimmunoassay of the main nortestosterone metabolites. Based upon model experiments using testosterone and deuterium labelling, the following four step procedure was established: nortestosterone was oxidized with pyridine chlorochromate and the resulting 19-nor-4-androsten-3,17-dione was tritiated with tritium gas under catalysis with tris(triphenylphosphine)rhodium chloride to give (4,5..cap alpha..-/sup 3/H)19-nor-5..cap alpha..-androstan-3,17-dione. A selective reduction of the latter compound yielded (5-/sup 3/H)19-nor-3..cap alpha..-hydroxy-5..cap alpha..-androstan-17-one of the molar radioactivity 0.3 TBq (8.15 Ci)/mmol.

  13. Alternate Reductant Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace Phase II Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models; Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste

  14. Relaxation of synchronization on complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong; Hong, Hyunsuk

    2008-07-01

    We study collective synchronization in a large number of coupled oscillators on various complex networks. In particular, we focus on the relaxation dynamics of the synchronization, which is important from the viewpoint of information transfer or the dynamics of system recovery from a perturbation. We measure the relaxation time tau that is required to establish global synchronization by varying the structural properties of the networks. It is found that the relaxation time in a strong-coupling regime (K>Kc) logarithmically increases with network size N , which is attributed to the initial random phase fluctuation given by O(N-1/2) . After elimination of the initial-phase fluctuation, the relaxation time is found to be independent of the system size; this implies that the local interaction that depends on the structural connectivity is irrelevant in the relaxation dynamics of the synchronization in the strong-coupling regime. The relaxation dynamics is analytically derived in a form independent of the system size, and it exhibits good consistency with numerical simulations. As an application, we also explore the recovery dynamics of the oscillators when perturbations enter the system.

  15. Stress relaxation in viscous soft spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschan, Julia; Vasudevan, Siddarth A; Boukany, Pouyan E; Somfai, Ellák; Tighe, Brian P

    2017-10-04

    We report the results of molecular dynamics simulations of stress relaxation tests in athermal viscous soft sphere packings close to their unjamming transition. By systematically and simultaneously varying both the amplitude of the applied strain step and the pressure of the initial condition, we access both linear and nonlinear response regimes and control the distance to jamming. Stress relaxation in viscoelastic solids is characterized by a relaxation time τ* that separates short time scales, where viscous loss is substantial, from long time scales, where elastic storage dominates and the response is essentially quasistatic. We identify two distinct plateaus in the strain dependence of the relaxation time, one each in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The height of both plateaus scales as an inverse power law with the distance to jamming. By probing the time evolution of particle velocities during relaxation, we further identify a correlation between mechanical relaxation in the bulk and the degree of non-affinity in the particle velocities on the micro scale.

  16. Relaxation strain measurements in cellular dislocation structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, C.Y.; Quesnel, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The conventional picture of what happens during a stress relaxation usually involves imagining the response of a single dislocation to a steadily decreasing stress. The velocity of this dislocation decreases with decreasing stress in such a way that we can measure the stress dependence of the dislocation velocity. Analysis of the data from a different viewpoint enables us to calculate the apparent activation volume for the motion of the dislocation under the assumption of thermally activated glie. Conventional thinking about stress relaxation, however, does not consider the eventual fate of this dislocation. If the stress relaxes to a low enough level, it is clear that the dislocation must stop. This is consistent with the idea that we can determine the stress dependence of the dislocation velocity from relaxation data only for those cases where the dislocation's velocity is allowed to approach zero asymptotically, in short, for those cases where the dislocation never stops. This conflict poses a dilemma for the experimentalist. In real crystals, however, obstacles impede the dislocation's progress so that those dislocations which are stopped at a given stress will probably never resume motion under the influence of the steadily declining stress present during relaxation. Thus one could envision stress relaxation as a process of exhaustion of mobile dislocations, rather than a process of decreasing dislocation velocity. Clearly both points of view have merit and in reality both mechanisms contribute to the phenomena

  17. indCAPS: A tool for designing screening primers for CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgens, Charles; Nimchuk, Zachary L; Kieber, Joseph J

    2017-01-01

    Genetic manipulation of organisms using CRISPR/Cas9 technology generally produces small insertions/deletions (indels) that can be difficult to detect. Here, we describe a technique to easily and rapidly identify such indels. Sequence-identified mutations that alter a restriction enzyme recognition site can be readily distinguished from wild-type alleles using a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) technique. If a restriction site is created or altered by the mutation such that only one allele contains the restriction site, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by a restriction digest can be used to distinguish the two alleles. However, in the case of most CRISPR-induced alleles, no such restriction sites are present in the target sequences. In this case, a derived CAPS (dCAPS) approach can be used in which mismatches are purposefully introduced in the oligonucleotide primers to create a restriction site in one, but not both, of the amplified templates. Web-based tools exist to aid dCAPS primer design, but when supplied sequences that include indels, the current tools often fail to suggest appropriate primers. Here, we report the development of a Python-based, species-agnostic web tool, called indCAPS, suitable for the design of PCR primers used in dCAPS assays that is compatible with indels. This tool should have wide utility for screening editing events following CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis as well as for identifying specific editing events in a pool of CRISPR-mediated mutagenesis events. This tool was field-tested in a CRISPR mutagenesis experiment targeting a cytokinin receptor (AHK3) in Arabidopsis thaliana. The tool suggested primers that successfully distinguished between wild-type and edited alleles of a target locus and facilitated the isolation of two novel ahk3 null alleles. Users can access indCAPS and design PCR primers to employ dCAPS to identify CRISPR/Cas9 alleles at http://indcaps.kieber.cloudapps.unc.edu/.

  18. Mitigating IPMC back relaxation through feedforward and feedback control of patterned electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, Maxwell J; Leang, Kam K; Kim, Kwang J

    2012-01-01

    With low driving voltage ( < 5 V) and the ability to be operated in aqueous environments, ionic polymer–metal composite (IPMC) materials are quickly gaining attention for use in many applications including soft bio-inspired actuators and sensors. There are, however, drawbacks to IPMC actuators, including the ‘back relaxation’ effect. Specifically, when subjected to an excessively slow input, the IPMC actuator will slowly relax back toward its original position. There is debate over the physical mechanism of back relaxation, although one prevalent theory describes an initial current, caused by the electrostatic forces of the charging electrodes, which drives water molecules across the ion exchange membrane and deforms the IPMC. Once the electrodes are fully charged, however, the dominant element of the motion is the osmotic pressure, driving the water molecules back to equilibrium, thus causing back relaxation. A new method to mitigate back relaxation is proposed, taking advantage of controlled activation of patterned (sectored) electrodes on the IPMC. By actuating sectors in opposing directions, back relaxation can be effectively canceled out. An integrated feedforward and feedback controller is employed based on this concept, and is shown to minimize back relaxation, while reducing the input voltage required, as compared to the case of the non-sectored IPMC. Experimental results show nearly an order of magnitude reduction in the tracking error compared to the uncompensated case, and that the IPMC’s position can be maintained over a period of 60 and 1200 s with minimal evidence of back relaxation. (paper)

  19. Drucker-Prager-Cap creep modelling of pebble beds in fusion blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, D.; Kamlah, M.

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of thermal and mechanical behaviour of pebble beds for fusion blankets is an important issue to understand the interaction of solid breeder and beryllium pebble beds with the surrounding structural material. Especially the differing coefficients of thermal expansion of these materials cause high stresses and strains during irradiation induced volumetric heating. To describe this process, the coupled thermomechanical behaviour of both pebble bed materials has to be modelled. Additionally, creep has to be considered contributing to bed deformations and stress relaxation. Motivated by experiments, we use a continuum mechanical approach called Drucker-Prager/Cap theory to model the macroscopic pebble bed behaviour. The model accounts for pressure dependent shear failure, inelastic hardening, and volumetric creep. The elastic part is described by a nonlinear elasticity law. The model has been implemented by user-defined routines in the commercial finite-element code ABAQUS. To check the numerics, the implementation is compared to an analytical solution. Furthermore, the Drucker-Prager/Cap tool is applied to a single ceramic breeder bed subject to creep under volumetric heating

  20. THE TURN OF THE MONTH EFFECT CONTINUED: A COMPARISON OF SMALL CAP STOCKS AND LARGE CAP STOCKS

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsundhar, Shamman

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the turn of the month effect occurs in small cap and large cap stocks and if it occurs in both categories, to determine whether there is a difference in the magnitude. My research, for the period of 1963-2008, based on the CRSP value weighted index, shows that there is a significant turn of the month effect in small and large cap stocks, however the effect is larger in small cap stocks. Furthermore, this effect is not limited to a short time...

  1. Alternate cap designs under RCRA regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrod, W.E. III; Yager, R.E.; Craig, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste and mixed wastes have been disposed of in several sites in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Tennessee. Most of these materials have been placed in shallow land burial pits (SLB). Closure plans have been developed and approved by appropriate regulatory agencies for several of these sites. A variety of cap (final cover) designs for closure of these sites were investigated to determine their ability to inhibit infiltration of precipitation to the waste. The most effective designs are those that use synthetic materials as drainage layers and/or impermeable liners. The more complex, multi-layer systems perform no better than simpler covers and would complicate construction and increase costs. Despite the successful analytical results described in this paper, additional considerations must be factored into use of geosynthetic as well as natural materials

  2. Glaciers and ice caps outside Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Marin; Wolken, G.; Burgess, D.; Cogley, J.G.; Copland, L.; Thomson, L.; Arendt, A.; Wouters, B.; Kohler, J.; Andreassen, L.M.; O'Neel, Shad; Pelto, M.

    2015-01-01

    Mountain glaciers and ice caps cover an area of over 400 000 km2 in the Arctic, and are a major influence on global sea level (Gardner et al. 2011, 2013; Jacob et al. 2012). They gain mass by snow accumulation and lose mass by meltwater runoff. Where they terminate in water (ocean or lake), they also lose mass by iceberg calving. The climatic mass balance (Bclim, the difference between annual snow accumulation and annual meltwater runoff) is a widely used index of how glaciers respond to climate variability and change. The total mass balance (ΔM) is defined as the difference between annual snow accumulation and annual mass losses (by iceberg calving plus runoff).

  3. Viscoplastic augmentation of the smooth cap model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwer, Leonard E.

    1994-01-01

    The most common numerical viscoplastic implementations are formulations attributed to Perzyna. Although Perzyna-type algorithms are popular, they have several disadvantages relating to the lack of enforcement of the consistency condition in plasticity. The present work adapts a relatively unknown viscoplastic formulation attributed to Duvaut and Lions and generalized to multi-surface plasticity by Simo et al. The attraction of the Duvaut-Lions formulation is its ease of numerical implementation in existing elastoplastic algorithms. The present work provides a motivation for the Duvaut-Lions viscoplastic formulation, derivation of the algorithm and comparison with the Perzyna algorithm. A simple uniaxial strain numerical simulation is used to compare the results of the Duvaut-Lions algorithm, as adapted to the ppercase[dyna3d] smooth cap model with results from a Perzyna algorithm adapted by Katona and Muleret to an implicit code. ((orig.))

  4. Mechanisms of Coupled Vibrational Relaxation and Dissociation in Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenise, Iole; Kustova, Elena

    2018-05-21

    A complete vibrational state-specific kinetic scheme describing dissociating carbon dioxide mixtures is proposed. CO 2 symmetric, bending and asymmetric vibrations and dissociation-recombination are strongly coupled through inter-mode vibrational energy transfers. Comparative study of state-resolved rate coefficients is carried out; the effect of different transitions may vary considerably with temperature. A non-equilibrium 1-D boundary layer flow typical to hypersonic planetary entry is studied in the state-to-state approach. To assess the sensitivity of fluid-dynamic variables and heat transfer to various vibrational transitions and chemical reactions, corresponding processes are successively included to the kinetic scheme. It is shown that vibrational-translational (VT) transitions in the symmetric and asymmetric modes do not alter the flow and can be neglected whereas the VT 2 exchange in the bending mode is the main channel of vibrational relaxation. Inter-mode vibrational exchanges affect the flow implicitly, through energy redistribution enhancing VT relaxation; the dominating role belongs to near-resonant transitions between symmetric and bending modes as well as between CO molecules and CO 2 asymmetric mode. Strong coupling between VT 2 relaxation and chemical reactions is emphasized. While vibrational distributions and average vibrational energy show strong dependence on the kinetic scheme, the heat flux is more sensitive to chemical reactions.

  5. Sexual selection halts the relaxation of protamine 2 among rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Lüke

    Full Text Available Sexual selection has been proposed as the driving force promoting the rapid evolutionary changes observed in some reproductive genes including protamines. We test this hypothesis in a group of rodents which show marked differences in the intensity of sexual selection. Levels of sperm competition were not associated with the evolutionary rates of protamine 1 but, contrary to expectations, were negatively related to the evolutionary rate of cleaved- and mature-protamine 2. Since both domains were found to be under relaxation, our findings reveal an unforeseen role of sexual selection: to halt the degree of degeneration that proteins within families may experience due to functional redundancy. The degree of relaxation of protamine 2 in this group of rodents is such that in some species it has become dysfunctional and it is not expressed in mature spermatozoa. In contrast, protamine 1 is functionally conserved but shows directed positive selection on specific sites which are functionally relevant such as DNA-anchoring domains and phosphorylation sites. We conclude that in rodents protamine 2 is under relaxation and that sexual selection removes deleterious mutations among species with high levels of sperm competition to maintain the protein functional and the spermatozoa competitive.

  6. Avian keratin disorder of Alaska black-capped chickadees is associated with Poecivirus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylberberg, Maxine; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Handel, Colleen M.; DeRisi, Joseph L.

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundAvian keratin disorder (AKD) is an epizootic of debilitating beak deformities, first documented in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in Alaska during the late 1990s. Similar deformities have now been recorded in dozens of species of birds across multiple continents. Despite this, the etiology of AKD has remained elusive, making it difficult to assess the impacts of this disease on wild populations. We previously identified an association between infection with a novel picornavirus, Poecivirus, and AKD in a small cohort of black-capped chickadees.MethodsTo test if the association between Poecivirus and AKD holds in a larger study population, we used targeted PCR followed by Sanger sequencing to screen 124 symptomatic and asymptomatic black-capped chickadees for Poecivirus infection. We further compared the efficacy of multiple non-terminal field sampling methods (buccal swabs, cloacal swabs, fecal samples, and blood samples) for Poecivirus screening. Finally, we used both in situ hybridization and a strand-specific expression assay to localize Poecivirus to beak tissue of AKD-positive individuals and to determine if virus is actively replicating in beak tissue.ResultsPoecivirus was detected in 28/28 (100%) individuals with AKD, but only 9/96 (9.4%) asymptomatic individuals with apparently normal beaks (p capped chickadee. Poecivirus continues to warrant further investigation as a candidate agent of AKD.

  7. A simplified model of polar cap electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, N.

    1977-01-01

    A simple-minded 'model' is used in order to visualize the gross features of polar cap electric fields, in particular the 'diode' effect which had emerged already from earlier observations and the asymmetry between the electric fields observed on the dawn and dusk sides of the polar cap, which depends on Bsub(y)

  8. Preparing an ATLAS toroid magnet end-cap for lowering

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2007-01-01

    One of the two 13-m high toroid magnet end-caps for the ATLAS experiment being transported from the construction hall to the experimental area. The end-cap will be lowered into the ATLAS cavern and attached to an end of the detector.

  9. IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS - ACTIVE CAPPING TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, A.; Roberts, J.; Paller, M.; Reible, D.

    2010-09-02

    Active capping is a relatively new approach for treating contaminated sediments. It involves applying chemically reactive amendments to the sediment surface. The main role of active caps is to stabilize contaminants in contaminated sediments, lower the bioavailable pool of contaminants, and reduce the release of contaminants to the water column. Metals are common contaminants in many marine and fresh water environments as a result of industrial and military activities. The mobile, soluble forms of metals are generally considered toxic. Induced chemical precipitation of these metals can shift toxic metals from the aqueous phase to a solid, precipitated phase which is often less bioavailable. This approach can be achieved through application of sequestering agents such as rock phosphates, organoclays, zeolites, clay minerals, and biopolymers (e.g., chitosan) in active capping technology. Active capping holds great potential for a more permanent solution that avoids residual risks resulting from contaminant migration through the cap or breaching of the cap. In addition to identifying superior active capping agents, research is needed to optimize application techniques, application rates, and amendment combinations that maximize sequestration of contaminants. A selected set of active capping treatment technologies has been demonstrated at a few sites, including a field demonstration at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. This demonstration has provided useful information on the effects of sequestering agents on metal immobilization, bioavailability, toxicity, and resistance to mechanical disturbance.

  10. In Situ Remediation Of Contaminated Sediments - Active Capping Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, A.; Roberts, J.; Paller, M.; Reible, D.

    2010-01-01

    Active capping is a relatively new approach for treating contaminated sediments. It involves applying chemically reactive amendments to the sediment surface. The main role of active caps is to stabilize contaminants in contaminated sediments, lower the bioavailable pool of contaminants, and reduce the release of contaminants to the water column. Metals are common contaminants in many marine and fresh water environments as a result of industrial and military activities. The mobile, soluble forms of metals are generally considered toxic. Induced chemical precipitation of these metals can shift toxic metals from the aqueous phase to a solid, precipitated phase which is often less bioavailable. This approach can be achieved through application of sequestering agents such as rock phosphates, organoclays, zeolites, clay minerals, and biopolymers (e.g., chitosan) in active capping technology. Active capping holds great potential for a more permanent solution that avoids residual risks resulting from contaminant migration through the cap or breaching of the cap. In addition to identifying superior active capping agents, research is needed to optimize application techniques, application rates, and amendment combinations that maximize sequestration of contaminants. A selected set of active capping treatment technologies has been demonstrated at a few sites, including a field demonstration at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. This demonstration has provided useful information on the effects of sequestering agents on metal immobilization, bioavailability, toxicity, and resistance to mechanical disturbance.

  11. 20 CFR 606.21 - Criteria for cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criteria for cap. 606.21 Section 606.21 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TAX CREDITS UNDER THE... Reduction § 606.21 Criteria for cap. (a) Reduction in unemployment tax effort. (1) For purposes of paragraph...

  12. Devon island ice cap: core stratigraphy and paleoclimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, R M

    1977-04-01

    Valuable paleoclimatic information can be gained by studying the distribution of melt layers in deep ice cores. A profile representing the percentage of ice in melt layers in a core drilled from the Devon Island ice cap plotted against both time and depth shows that the ice cap has experienced a period of very warm summers since 1925, following a period of colder summers between about 1600 and 1925. The earlier period was coldest between 1680 and 1730. There is a high correlation between the melt-layer ice percentage and the mass balance of the ice cap. The relation between them suggests that the ice cap mass balance was zero (accumulation equaled ablation) during the colder period but is negative in the present warmer one. There is no firm evidence of a present cooling trend in the summer conditions on the ice cap. A comparison with the melt-layer ice percentage in cores from the other major Canadian Arctic ice caps shows that the variation of summer conditions found for the Devon Island ice cap is representative for all the large ice caps for about 90 percent of the time. There is also a good correlation between melt-layer percentage and summer sea-ice conditions in the archipelago. This suggests that the search for the northwest passage was influenced by changing climate, with the 19th-century peak of the often tragic exploration coinciding with a period of very cold summers.

  13. ATLAS end-caps 
on the move

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Two delicate and spectacular transport operations have been performed for ATLAS in recent weeks: the first end-cap tracker was installed in its final position, and one of the huge end-caps of the toroid magnet was moved to the top of the experiment’s shaft.

  14. Chemical synthesis of highly size-confined triethylamine-capped ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-03-23

    Mar 23, 2018 ... TiO2 nanoparticles and its dye-sensitized solar cell performance .... Figure 5. Formation mechanism of TEA-capped and uncapped TiO2 nanoparticles. ... this research work, synthesized TEA-capped TiO2 nanopar- ticles were ...

  15. 20 CFR 606.20 - Cap on tax credit reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cap on tax credit reduction. 606.20 Section 606.20 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TAX CREDITS... Tax Credit Reduction § 606.20 Cap on tax credit reduction. (a) Applicability. Subsection (f) of...

  16. Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to bottle caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Anderson; William C. Miller

    1973-01-01

    Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to aluminum resealable caps during distribution. A study at bottling plants and distribution warehouses showed that an average of 1 bottle out of 4,000 has cap damage. Most of the damage was attributed to handling at the warehouse and in transit. Some recommendations are given for improvement of wooden beverage cases to prevent...

  17. Use of relaxation skills in differentially skilled athletes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kudlackova, K.; Eccles, D. W.; Dieffenbach, K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the use of relaxation skills by differentially skilled athletes in relation to the deliberate practice framework. Design: Differentially skilled athletes completed a survey about their use of relaxation skills. Method: 150 athletes representing three skill levels (recreational, college, and professional) completed the deliberate relaxation for sport survey, which assessed relaxation on three deliberate practice dimensions (relevancy, concentration, and ...

  18. The use of (double) relaxation oscillation SQUIDs as a sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duuren, M.J.; Brons, G.C.S.; Kattouw, H.; Flokstra, Jakob; Rogalla, Horst

    1997-01-01

    Relaxation Oscillation SQUIDs (ROSs) and Double Relaxation Oscillation SQUIDs (DROSs) are based on relaxation oscillations that are induced in hysteretic dc SQUIDs by an external L-R shunt. The relaxation frequency of a ROS varies with the applied flux Φ, whereas the output of a DROS is a dc

  19. Progress in LAr EndCap Calorimetry: News from the Hadronic EndCap Group.

    CERN Multimedia

    Oram, C.J.

    With module production and testing completed for the Hadronic EndCap calorimeter, the attention of the HEC group is heavily directed towards wheel assembly in building 180. Three of the four HEC wheels are now assembled and rotated, and work is progressing on assembling the final wheel. This year has been a busy year for the installation of components in the EndCap C cryostat: the signal feedthrough installation was completed April 22nd, the pre-sampler shortly thereafter and the Electro-Magnetic EndCap August 13th. This allowed the HEC group to start transferring the HEC wheels from the T6A storage cradle into the cryostat. The operation started in mid-September and has progressed, on or ahead of schedule, since then with the major milestones being: Insertion of 67 ton front HEC wheel October 3rd Insertion of 90 ton rear HEC wheel October 22nd. The wheel alignment has proved to be excellent, with the position of the centre of the front(rear) wheel with respect to the nominal position being displaced b...

  20. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE I TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.

    2014-04-22

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a heating

  1. A hierarchy of functionally important relaxations within myoglobin based on solvent effects, mutations and kinetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantsker, David; Samuni, Uri; Friedman, Joel M; Agmon, Noam

    2005-06-01

    Geminate CO rebinding in myoglobin is studied for two viscous solvents, trehalose and sol-gel (bathed in 100% glycerol) at several temperatures. Mutations in key distal hemepocket residues are used to eliminate or enhance specific relaxation modes. The time-resolved data are analyzed with a modified Agmon-Hopfield model which is capable of providing excellent fits in cases where a single relaxation mode is dominant. Using this approach, we determine the relaxation rate constants of specific functionally important modes, obtaining also their Arrhenius activation energies. We find a hierarchy of distal pocket modes controlling the rebinding kinetics. The "heme access mode" (HAM) is responsible for the major slow-down in rebinding. It is a solvent-coupled cooperative mode which restricts ligand return from the xenon cavities. Bulky side-chains, like those His64 and Trp29 (in the L29W mutant), operate like overdamped pendulums which move over and block the binding site. They may be either unslaved (His64) or moderately slaved (Trp29) to the solvent. Small side-chain relaxations, most notably of leucines, are revealed in some mutants (V68L, V68A). They are conjectured to facilitate inter-cavity ligand motion. When all relaxations are arrested (H64L in trehalose), we observe pure inhomogeneous kinetics with no temperature dependence, suggesting that proximal relaxation is not a factor on the investigated timescale.

  2. Analysis of Dynamic Stiffness of Bridge Cap-Pile System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Chu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the applicability of dynamic stiffness for bridge cap-pile system, a laboratory test was performed. A numerical model was also built for this type of system. The impact load was applied on the cap top and the dynamic stiffness was analysed. Then, the effect of the effective friction area between pile and soil was also considered. Finally, the dynamic stiffness relationship between the single pile and the cap-pile system was also compared. The results show that the dynamic stiffness is a sensitive index and can well reflect the static characteristics of the pile at the elastic stage. There is a significant positive correlation between the vertical dynamic stiffness index and bearing capacity of the cap-pile system in the similar formation environment. For the cap-pile system with four piles, the dynamic stiffness is about four times as large as the single pile between 10 and 20 Hz.

  3. Mass balance of the Amitsulôq ice cap, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Bøggild, Carl Egede; Olesen, Ole B.

    2007-01-01

    We present detailed mass balance measurements from the Amitsulôq ice cap in West Greenland spanning from 1982 to 1990. The data includes summer and winter balances from 26 stake locations distributed over five transects covering the whole ice cap. The mass balance measurements are combined...... with a recent satellite-derived digital elevation model to calculate the specific balance, which is in turn compared to discharge data from the adjacent Tasersiaq basin. The correlation between specific summer balance and discharge is R2 = 0.93 indicating that the basin discharge is dominated by glacial...... meltwater, linking the hydropower potential of the basin closely to the fate of the adjoining Greenland ice-sheet margin....

  4. Perinatal development influences mechanisms of bradykinin-induced relaxations in pulmonary resistance and conduit arteries differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boels, P J; Deutsch, J; Gao, B; Haworth, S G

    2001-07-01

    prostaglandin- and NO-synthesis whereas those to SP (at all ages) and ACH (in the adult) do not. In RPA, BYK-relaxations develop from being completely dependant on the sole release of NO (foetus) to being almost completely independent of it (adult), a situation mimicked partially by SP but not by ACH, which, in new-born RPA is completely dependent on NO. BYK-relaxations in postnatal RPA depend on the release of a hyperpolarising factor generated through an SKF525a-sensitive pathway in conjunction with NO. The mechanisms of endothelium-dependent BYK-relaxations in the pulmonary vascular bed undergo diverging alterations, depending on the stage of development and arterial size/function. These changes are specific for BYK as they differ from those obtained from ACH or SP.

  5. 30 CFR 250.1157 - How do I receive approval to produce gas-cap gas from an oil reservoir with an associated gas cap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I receive approval to produce gas-cap gas from an oil reservoir with an associated gas cap? 250.1157 Section 250.1157 Mineral Resources... do I receive approval to produce gas-cap gas from an oil reservoir with an associated gas cap? (a...

  6. Mozart versus new age music: relaxation states, stress, and ABC relaxation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathan C; Joyce, Carol A

    2004-01-01

    Smith's (2001) Attentional Behavioral Cognitive (ABC) relaxation theory proposes that all approaches to relaxation (including music) have the potential for evoking one or more of 15 factor-analytically derived relaxation states, or "R-States" (Sleepiness, Disengagement, Rested / Refreshed, Energized, Physical Relaxation, At Ease/Peace, Joy, Mental Quiet, Childlike Innocence, Thankfulness and Love, Mystery, Awe and Wonder, Prayerfulness, Timeless/Boundless/Infinite, and Aware). The present study investigated R-States and stress symptom-patterns associated with listening to Mozart versus New Age music. Students (N = 63) were divided into three relaxation groups based on previously determined preferences. Fourteen listened to a 28-minute tape recording of Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik and 14 listened to a 28-minute tape of Steven Halpern's New Age Serenity Suite. Others (n = 35) did not want music and instead chose a set of popular recreational magazines. Participants engaged in their relaxation activity at home for three consecutive days for 28 minutes a session. Before and after each session, each person completed the Smith Relaxation States Inventory (Smith, 2001), a comprehensive questionnaire tapping 15 R-States as well as the stress states of somatic stress, worry, and negative emotion. Results revealed no differences at Session 1. At Session 2, those who listened to Mozart reported higher levels of At Ease/Peace and lower levels of Negative Emotion. Pronounced differences emerged at Session 3. Mozart listeners uniquely reported substantially higher levels of Mental Quiet, Awe and Wonder, and Mystery. Mozart listeners reported higher levels, and New Age listeners slightly elevated levels, of At Ease/Peace and Rested/Refreshed. Both Mozart and New Age listeners reported higher levels of Thankfulness and Love. In summary, those who listened to Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik reported more psychological relaxation and less stress than either those who listened to

  7. Asymptotic representation of relaxation oscillations in lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Grigorieva, Elena V

    2017-01-01

    In this book we analyze relaxation oscillations in models of lasers with nonlinear elements controlling light dynamics. The models are based on rate equations taking into account periodic modulation of parameters, optoelectronic delayed feedback, mutual coupling between lasers, intermodal interaction and other factors. With the aim to study relaxation oscillations we present the special asymptotic method of integration for ordinary differential equations and differential-difference equations. As a result, they are reduced to discrete maps. Analyzing the maps we describe analytically such nonlinear phenomena in lasers as multistability of large-amplitude relaxation cycles, bifurcations of cycles, controlled switching of regimes, phase synchronization in an ensemble of coupled systems and others. The book can be fruitful for students and technicians in nonlinear laser dynamics and in differential equations.

  8. Relaxation of the magnetization in magnetic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretta, S.; Bianchi, A.; Liviotti, E.; Santini, P.; Amoretti, G.

    2006-04-01

    Several mechanisms characterize the relaxation dynamics in magnetic molecules. We investigate two of them, spin-lattice coupling and incoherent quantum tunneling. The effect of the phonon heat bath is studied by analyzing the exponential time decay of the autocorrelation of the magnetization. We show that in ferromagnetic (Cu6) and antiferromagnetic (Fe6) molecular rings this decay is characterized by a single characteristic time. At very low temperature, relaxation through incoherent quantum tunneling may occur in nanomagnets such as Fe8 or Ni4. The mixing between levels with different values of the total spin (S mixing) greatly influences this mechanism. In particular, we demonstrate that a fourth-order anisotropy term O44, required to interpret experimental electron paramagnetic resonance and relaxation data in Ni4, naturally arises when S mixing is considered in calculations.

  9. Excited-state relaxation of some aminoquinolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The absorption and fluorescence spectra, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes, and fluorescence rate constants ( k f of 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzoxazolylquinoline (I, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzothiazolylquinoline (II, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -methoxybenzothiazolyl-quinoline (III, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzothiazolylbenzoquinoline (IV at different temperatures have been measured. The shortwavelength shift of fluorescence spectra of compounds studied (23–49 nm in ethanol as the temperature decreases (the solvent viscosity increases points out that the excited-state relaxation process takes place. The rate of this process depends essentially on the solvent viscosity, but not the solvent polarity. The essential increasing of fluorescence rate constant k f (up to about 7 times as the solvent viscosity increases proves the existence of excited-state structural relaxation consisting in the mutual internal rotation of molecular fragments of aminoquinolines studied, followed by the solvent orientational relaxation.

  10. Relaxation oscillation logic in Josephson junction circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    A dc powered, self-resetting Josephson junction logic circuit relying on relaxation oscillations is described. A pair of Josephson junction gates are connected in series, a first shunt is connected in parallel with one of the gates, and a second shunt is connected in parallel with the series combination of gates. The resistance of the shunts and the dc bias current bias the gates so that they are capable of undergoing relaxation oscillations. The first shunt forms an output line whereas the second shunt forms a control loop. The bias current is applied to the gates so that, in the quiescent state, the gate in parallel with the second shunt is at V O, and the other gate is undergoing relaxation oscillations. By controlling the state of the first gate with the current in the output loop of another identical circuit, the invert function is performed

  11. Muon spin relaxation in ferromagnets. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovesey, S.W.; Karlsson, E.B.

    1991-04-01

    Expressions for the dipolar and hyperfine contributions to the relaxation rate of muons implanted in a ferromagnet are presented and analysed using the Heisenberg model of spin-waves including dipolar and Zeeman energies. Calculations for EuO indicate that relaxation is likely to be dominated by the hyperfine mechanism, even if the ratio of the hyperfine and dipolar coupling constants is small. The hyperfine mechanism is sensitive to the dipolar energy of the atomic spins, whereas the dipolar mechanisms depend essentially on the exchange energy. For both mechanisms there is an almost quadratic dependence on temperature, throughout much of the ordered magnetic phase, which reflects two-spin-wave difference events from the Raman-type relaxation processes. (author)

  12. Improved memristor-based relaxation oscillator

    KAUST Repository

    Mosad, Ahmed G.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents an improved memristor-based relaxation oscillator which offers higher frequency and wider tunning range than the existing reactance-less oscillators. It also has the capability of operating on two positive supplies or alternatively a positive and negative supply. Furthermore, it has the advantage that it can be fully integrated on-chip providing an area-efficient solution. On the other hand, The oscillation concept is discussed then a complete mathematical analysis of the proposed oscillator is introduced. Furthermore, the power consumption of the new relaxation circuit is discussed and validated by the PSPICE circuit simulations showing an excellent agreement. MATLAB results are also introduced to demonstrate the resistance range and the corresponding frequency range which can be obtained from the proposed relaxation oscillator. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Relaxation and Diffusion in Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ngai, K L

    2011-01-01

    Relaxation and Diffusion in Complex Systems comprehensively presents a variety of experimental evidences of universal relaxation and diffusion properties in complex materials and systems. The materials discussed include liquids, glasses, colloids, polymers, rubbers, plastic crystals and aqueous mixtures, as well as carbohydrates, biomolecules, bioprotectants and pharmaceuticals. Due to the abundance of experimental data, emphasis is placed on glass-formers and the glass transition problem, a still unsolved problem in condensed matter physics and chemistry. The evidence for universal properties of relaxation and diffusion dynamics suggests that a fundamental physical law is at work. The origin of the universal properties is traced to the many-body effects of the interaction, rigorous theory of which does not exist at the present time. However, using solutions of simplified models as guides, key quantities have been identified and predictions of the universal properties generated. These predictions from Ngai’...

  14. Electron relaxation properties of Ar magnetron plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinjing, CAI; Xinxin, WANG; Xiaobing, ZOU

    2018-03-01

    An understanding of electron relaxation properties in plasmas is of importance in the application of magnetrons. An improved multi-term approximation of the Boltzmann equation is employed to study electron transport and relaxation properties in plasmas. Elastic, inelastic and nonconservative collisions between electrons and neutral particles are considered. The expressions for the transport coefficients are obtained using the expansion coefficients and the collision operator term. Numerical solutions of the matrix equations for the expansion coefficients are also investigated. Benchmark calculations of the Reid model are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the improved multi-term approximation. It is shown that the two-term approximation is generally not accurate enough and the magnetic fields can reduce the anisotropy of the velocity distribution function. The electron relaxation properties of Ar plasmas in magnetrons for various magnetic fields are studied. It is demonstrated that the energy parameters change more slowly than the momentum parameters.

  15. Polar Ice Caps: a Canary for the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honsaker, W.; Lowell, T. V.; Sagredo, E.; Kelly, M. A.; Hall, B. L.

    2010-12-01

    Ice caps are glacier masses that are highly sensitive to climate change. Because of their hypsometry they can have a binary state. When relatively slight changes in the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) either intersect or rise above the land the ice can become established or disappear. Thus these upland ice masses have a fast response time. Here we consider a way to extract the ELA signal from independent ice caps adjacent to the Greenland Ice Sheet margin. It may be that these ice caps are sensitive trackers of climate change that also impact the ice sheet margin. One example is the Istorvet Ice Cap located in Liverpool Land, East Greenland (70.881°N, 22.156°W). The ice cap topography and the underlying bedrock surface dips to the north, with peak elevation of the current ice ranging in elevation from 1050 to 745 m.a.s.l. On the eastern side of the ice mass the outlet glaciers extending down to sea level. The western margin has several small lobes in topographic depressions, with the margin reaching down to 300 m.a.s.l. Topographic highs separate the ice cap into at least 5 main catchments, each having a pair of outlet lobes toward either side of the ice cap. Because of the regional bedrock slope each catchment has its own elevation range. Therefore, as the ELA changes it is possible for some catchments of the ice cap to experience positive mass balance while others have a negative balance. Based on weather observations we estimate the present day ELA to be ~1000 m.a.s.l, meaning mass balance is negative for the majority of the ice cap. By tracking glacier presence/absence in these different catchments, we can reconstruct small changes in the ELA. Another example is the High Ice Cap (informal name) in Milne Land (70.903°N, 25.626°W, 1080 m), East Greenland. Here at least 4 unconformities in ice layers found near the southern margin of the ice cap record changing intervals of accumulation and ablation. Therefore, this location may also be sensitive to slight

  16. North-Polar Martian Cap as Habitat for Elementary Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, M. K.; Wickramasinghe, J. T.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    2008-09-01

    through the dirt-encrusted ice cliff [7]. Thermal conduction through the dirt crust limits sublimation of underlying ice. This allows use of the thermal wave solution: where the thermal diffusivity α combining conductivity and specific heat is taken constant and τ0 = 1.88 yr is the martian year. As in [6] we adopt a sinusoidal temperature variation and take α = 0.0001 m²/hour. Like the martian ground ice case, the transition from dirt to ice is quite sharp. The surface temperature variation at the polar cap determined from local radiative balance is largely determined by albedo, while sublimation losses from a south-facing cliff are concentrated in the summer months. For fresh frost, the albedo is close to unity but values 0.6-0.8 allow for varying amounts of exposed dirt or dust, as explored in Figure 1. This shows the integrated ice loss over one martian year (687 Earth days) using the thermal wave solution and the Clausius-Clapeyron equation for ice sublimation: for T in degrees Kelvin. The solutions in Fig. 1 indicate a 10-15cm dirt crust develops quite quickly, within a few decades, becoming thick enough to choke back the sublimation rate to under 1mm/yr, compatible with the age of the cliffs. Less steep slopes develop rather thinner crusts. The seasonal thermal wave of Equ.1 applies for depths exceeding ~5cm (two diurnal skin depths). For A of 0.6, Fig. 1 shows a 10 cm thick crust builds up in ~30yr; this thick a crust may plausibly be maintained against weathering processes. If A10 cm within a few years and the self-sealing (deposition) and flow-retarding (adsorption/desorption) properties become significant in the thicker and hotter crust [5]. For A>0.7, a 5 cm crust cuts the sublimation rate to law to Δ > 10 m and gives a functional fit Ψ = 1.5 x 10-12 Δ-3.1 / km2.yr from Δ = 10 m to 100 m. (3) The volume integral of the excavated mass equates to an average `gardening' rate ~1 cm / Myr, dominated by the smallest craters ~ 0.3m deep. The craters are sparse

  17. User's Manual for the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil

    1996-01-01

    This user's manual provides detailed instructions for the installation and the application of version 4.1 of the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA). Also provides simulation of flow field in thermochemical nonequilibrium around vehicles traveling at hypersonic velocities through the atmosphere. Earlier versions of LAURA were predominantly research codes, and they had minimal (or no) documentation. This manual describes UNIX-based utilities for customizing the code for special applications that also minimize system resource requirements. The algorithm is reviewed, and the various program options are related to specific equations and variables in the theoretical development.

  18. Abrupt relaxation in high-spin molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-R.; Cheng, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    Mean-field model suggests that the rate of resonant quantum tunneling in high-spin molecules is not only field-dependent but also time-dependent. The relaxation-assisted resonant tunneling in high-spin molecules produces an abrupt magnetization change during relaxation. When the applied field is very close to the resonant field, a time-dependent interaction field gradually shifts the energies of different collective spin states, and magnetization tunneling is observed as two energies of the spin states coincide

  19. Relaxed plasmas in external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, G.O.; Li, J.

    1991-08-01

    The well-known theory of relaxed plasmas (Taylor states) is extended to external magnetic fields whose field lines intersect the conducting toroidal boundary. Application to an axially symmetric, large-aspect-ratio torus with circular cross section shows that the maximum pinch ratio, and hence the phenomenon of current saturation, is independent of the external field. The relaxed state is explicitly given for an external octupole field. In this case, field reversal is inhibited near parts of the boundary if the octupole generates magnetic x-points within the plasma. (orig.)

  20. Spin transport and relaxation in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Wei; McCreary, K.M.; Pi, K.; Wang, W.H.; Li Yan; Wen, H.; Chen, J.R.; Kawakami, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    We review our recent work on spin injection, transport and relaxation in graphene. The spin injection and transport in single layer graphene (SLG) were investigated using nonlocal magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. Spin injection was performed using either transparent contacts (Co/SLG) or tunneling contacts (Co/MgO/SLG). With tunneling contacts, the nonlocal MR was increased by a factor of ∼1000 and the spin injection/detection efficiency was greatly enhanced from ∼1% (transparent contacts) to ∼30%. Spin relaxation was investigated on graphene spin valves using nonlocal Hanle measurements. For transparent contacts, the spin lifetime was in the range of 50-100 ps. The effects of surface chemical doping showed that for spin lifetimes in the order of 100 ps, charged impurity scattering (Au) was not the dominant mechanism for spin relaxation. While using tunneling contacts to suppress the contact-induced spin relaxation, we observed the spin lifetimes as long as 771 ps at room temperature, 1.2 ns at 4 K in SLG, and 6.2 ns at 20 K in bilayer graphene (BLG). Furthermore, contrasting spin relaxation behaviors were observed in SLG and BLG. We found that Elliot-Yafet spin relaxation dominated in SLG at low temperatures whereas Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation dominated in BLG at low temperatures. Gate tunable spin transport was studied using the SLG property of gate tunable conductivity and incorporating different types of contacts (transparent and tunneling contacts). Consistent with theoretical predictions, the nonlocal MR was proportional to the SLG conductivity for transparent contacts and varied inversely with the SLG conductivity for tunneling contacts. Finally, bipolar spin transport in SLG was studied and an electron-hole asymmetry was observed for SLG spin valves with transparent contacts, in which nonlocal MR was roughly independent of DC bias current for electrons, but varied significantly with DC bias current for holes. These results are very important for

  1. Nonlocal and collective relaxation in stellar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Martin D.

    1993-01-01

    The modal response of stellar systems to fluctuations at large scales is presently investigated by means of analytic theory and n-body simulation; the stochastic excitation of these modes is shown to increase the relaxation rate even for a system which is moderately far from instability. The n-body simulations, when designed to suppress relaxation at small scales, clearly show the effects of large-scale fluctuations. It is predicted that large-scale fluctuations will be largest for such marginally bound systems as forming star clusters and associations.

  2. NMR relaxation times of natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harun, S.; Aziz, H.; Basir, Z.

    1994-01-01

    NMR relaxation times T sub 1 and T sub 2 of natural rubber latex have been measured at 25 degree C on a pulsed NMR spectrometer. The work focuses on the variation of the relaxation times with the amount of water content from 0% to 50%. The water content was adjusted by centrifuging and removing a certain amount of water from the sample. The data were analysed using a biexponential fitting procedure which yields simultaneously either T sub 1a and T sub 1b or T sub 2a and T sub 2b. The amount of solid was compared with the known amount of dry rubber content

  3. Green--Kubo formula for collisional relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visscher, P.B.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we generalize the Green--Kubo method (usually used for obtaining formulas for transport coefficients involving conserved densities) to relaxation processes occurring during collisions, such as the transfer of energy from vibrational to translational modes in a molecular fluid. We show that the relaxation rate can be calculated without evaluating time correlation functions over long times, and can in fact be written as a sum over collisions which makes the relation between the Green--Kubo method and approximate independent-collision models much clearer

  4. Exciton-relaxation dynamics in lead halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanaga, Masanobu; Hayashi, Tetsusuke

    2003-01-01

    We survey recent comprehensive studies of exciton relaxation in the crystals of lead halides. The luminescence and electron-spin-resonance studies have revealed that excitons in lead bromide spontaneously dissociate and both electrons and holes get self-trapped individually. Similar relaxation has been also clarified in lead chloride. The electron-hole separation is ascribed to repulsive correlation via acoustic phonons. Besides, on the basis of the temperature profiles of self-trapped states, we discuss the origin of luminescence components which are mainly induced under one-photon excitation into the exciton band in lead fluoride, lead chloride, and lead bromide

  5. Point defect relaxation volumes for copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.M.

    1979-11-01

    The methods used for the determination of point defect relaxation volumes are discussed and it is shown that a previous interatomic potential derived for copper is inaccurate and results obtained using it are invalid. A new interatomic potential has been produced for copper and a computer simulation of point and planar defects carried out. A vacancy relaxation volume of -0.33 atomic volumes has been found with interstitial values in the range 1.7 to 2.0 atomic volumes. It is shown that these values in current theories of irradiation induced swelling lead to an anomalously high value for dislocation bias compared with that determined experimentally. (author)

  6. Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpaitoon, Tanachai

    This dissertation presents an equilibrium framework for analyzing the impact of cap-and-trade regulation on transmission-constrained electricity market. The cap-and-trade regulation of greenhouse gas emissions has gained momentum in the past decade. The impact of the regulation and its efficacy in the electric power industry depend on interactions of demand elasticity, transmission network, market structure, and strategic behavior of firms. I develop an equilibrium model of an oligopoly electricity market in conjunction with a market for tradable emissions permits to study the implications of such interactions. My goal is to identify inefficiencies that may arise from policy design elements and to avoid any unintended adverse consequences on the electric power sector. I demonstrate this modeling framework with three case studies examining the impact of carbon cap-and-trade regulation. In the first case study, I study equilibrium results under various scenarios of resource ownership and emission targets using a 24-bus IEEE electric transmission system. The second and third case studies apply the equilibrium model to a realistic electricity market, Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) 225-bus system with a detailed representation of the California market. In the first and second case studies, I examine oligopoly in electricity with perfect competition in the permit market. I find that under a stringent emission cap and a high degree of concentration of non-polluting firms, the electricity market is subject to potential abuses of market power. Also, market power can occur in the procurement of non-polluting energy through the permit market when non-polluting resources are geographically concentrated in a transmission-constrained market. In the third case study, I relax the competitive market structure assumption of the permit market by allowing oligopolistic competition in the market through a conjectural variation approach. A short-term equilibrium

  7. Temperature Distribution within a Cold Cap during Nuclear Waste Vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Derek R; Schweiger, Michael J; Riley, Brian J; Pokorny, Richard; Hrma, Pavel

    2015-07-21

    The kinetics of the feed-to-glass conversion affects the waste vitrification rate in an electric glass melter. The primary area of interest in this conversion process is the cold cap, a layer of reacting feed on top of the molten glass. The work presented here provides an experimental determination of the temperature distribution within the cold cap. Because direct measurement of the temperature field within the cold cap is impracticable, an indirect method was developed in which the textural features in a laboratory-made cold cap with a simulated high-level waste feed were mapped as a function of position using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The temperature distribution within the cold cap was established by correlating microstructures of cold-cap regions with heat-treated feed samples of nearly identical structures at known temperatures. This temperature profile was compared with a mathematically simulated profile generated by a cold-cap model that has been developed to assess the rate of glass production in a melter.

  8. Influence of pH on luminescence from water-soluble colloidal Mn-doped ZnSe quantum dots capped with different mercaptoacids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardzei, Maryia; Artemyev, Mikhail

    2012-01-01

    Water-soluble ZnSe/ZnS core–shell quantum dots with ZnSe core doped by manganese ions show different luminescence response to pH changes in aqueous solutions depending on the type of solubilizing agents (thioglycolic acid, mercaptoundecanoic acid, sodium mercaptopropylsulfonate). In the case of long-chain mercaptoundecanoic acid only excitonic emission is affected by pH changes. Short-chain thioglycolic acid brings about equal excitonic/Mn emission variations with pH, while mercaptopropylsulfonate-stabilized quantum dots are insensitive to pH. The mechanism discussed here is based on the competition between different relaxation channels for excited excitons in ZnSe: excitonic radiative recombination, energy transfer to Mn ion and the photogenerated electron trapping due to the presence of protonated carboxyl group. ZnSe:Mn/ZnS quantum dots stabilized with long-chain mercaptoacids may be used as a new type of fluorescence ratiometric pH-sensor or indicator. - Highlights: ► Prepared ZnSe:Mn/ZnS quantum dots capped with different mercaptoacids in water. ► Photoluminescence intensity of ZnSe:Mn/ZnS quantum dots varied with pH. ► Character of luminescence variations depends on the sort of mercaptoacid capping. ► Competition between different excitonic relaxation channels for different caps.

  9. State-of-the-art synthetic membrane for capping landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriofske, K.P.; Gagle, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Very Low Density Polyethylene (VLDPE) has emerged as a superior capping material for landfill closures. Landfills must be capped by a material which will undergo substantial deformation in areas of localized settlement prior to rupture. Methane and hydrogen sulfide gases must be contained and directed to collection points without permeating the landfill cap. Vegetative growth in the cover sods will be protected by the gas impermeability of the geosynthetic membrane. VLDPE compounded with carbon black is minimally affected by radiation and is inert to ultraviolet rays. This property sustains VLDPE's ability to retard gas permeation at levels superior to other geosynthetics. Cover soil stability on long cap slopes in all weather conditions is crucial. It has been demonstrated in the laboratory and in full-scale, on-site test conditions that VLDPE exhibits friction characteristics equaling or exceeding other synthetics used for this purpose without diminishing physical and chemical properties. Large-scale, multiaxial stress tests have demonstrated the ability of VLDPE to deflect substantially in all directions of a potential settlement area. Only PVC can equal the elastic deformation properties of VLDPE, but PVC is more gas-permeable susceptible to degradation due to natural soil radiation or ultraviolet light and heat. Test results are presented to illustrate these points. The geosynthetic cap membrane must prevent water percolation into the landfill to prevent the formation of hazardous leachates. The use of a VLDPE cap reduces the depth of cap soils, thus increasing landfill volume. The economics and reduction in long-term liabilities of closure costs are enhanced by the use of VLDPE in the cap system. Since the expected half-life of polyethylene exceeds hundreds of years, the inclusion of VLDPE in the cap system will provide pollution security for many generations

  10. /sup 56/Fe (. gamma. ,. cap alpha. /sub 0/) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamae, T; Sugawara, M [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Lab. of Nuclear Science; Tsubota, H

    1974-12-01

    The reaction cross section of /sup 56/Fe (..gamma.., ..cap alpha../sub 0/) was measured from the electron energy of 15 to 25 MeV. The measured data were compared with the calculated ones based on statistic theory. Both agreed with each other. Therefore, the affirmative result was obtained for the presumption that the reaction of (..gamma.., ..cap alpha../sub 0/) of the nuclei around these energy levels can be explained by the statistical theory. The angular distribution of /sup 56/Fe (..gamma.., ..cap alpha../sub 0/) with 17 MeV electron energy was also measured, and the E2/E1 ratio was obtained. In the measurement of the /sup 56/Fe ( Gamma , ..cap alpha../sub 0/) reaction cross section, a natural target of 2.69 mg/cm/sup 2/ was irradiated with an electron beam with energy from 15 MeV to 25 MeV at intervals of 0.5 MeV, and the emitted ..cap alpha.. particles were detected by a broad band magnetic distribution meter. The measured cross section of the (..gamma.., ..cap alpha../sub 0/) reaction agreed with the calculated one based on statistical theory. If this fact is recognized in many nuclei, the cross section of the (..gamma.., ..cap alpha../sub 0/) reaction on those nuclei has the following characteristics. When the increasing rate of the product of a complex nucleus formation cross section and ..cap alpha../sub 0/ penetration factor is larger than that of the sum of all penetration factors of possible channels, the cross section of the (..gamma.., ..cap alpha../sub 0/) reaction increases, and takes a peak value when the above two increasing rates agree with each other.

  11. Bulk fill restoratives: to cap or not to cap--that is the question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Iwona M; Kearns, Jennifer O; Ilie, Nicoleta; Fleming, Garry J P

    2015-03-01

    To assess the cuspal deflection and cervical microleakage scores of standardised large mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) cavities filled with different restoration protocols: (1) conventional resin restoratives, (2) bulk fill flowable base materials 'capped' with a conventional dimethacrylate resin-based composite (RBC) or (3) bulk fill resin restorative materials. Standardised MOD cavities were prepared in sixty-four sound maxillary premolar teeth and randomly allocated to eight groups. Restorations were placed in conjunction with a universal bonding system and resin restorative materials were irradiated with a quartz-tungsten-halogen light-curing-unit. Restoration protocol (eight oblique increments of conventional resin restorative, bulk fill flowable base and two occlusal 'capping' RBC increments (three increments in total) or bulk fill resin restorative (two increments)) was the dependent variable. A twin channel deflection measuring gauge measured the buccal and palatal cuspal deflections. Teeth were thermally fatigued, immersed in a 0.2% basic fuchsin dye for 24h, sectioned and examined for cervical microleakage score. Post hoc Tukey's tests highlighted significant differences in the mean total cuspal deflection values between resin restoratives (p fill flowable base materials with occlusal 'capping' RBC increments (restoration protocol 2) compared with bulk fill resin restoratives (restoration protocol 3). Not all bulk fill flowable materials or bulk fill resin restoratives behave in a similar fashion when used to restore standardised MOD cavities in maxillary premolar teeth and material selection is vital in the absence of clinical data. Poorly performing bulk fill flowable materials or bulk fill restoratives can be identified using the cuspal deflection and cervical microleakage protocol which could save the complications encountered clinically when restoring Class II restorations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Extracting protein dynamics information from overlapped NMR signals using relaxation dispersion difference NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konuma, Tsuyoshi; Harada, Erisa; Sugase, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    Protein dynamics plays important roles in many biological events, such as ligand binding and enzyme reactions. NMR is mostly used for investigating such protein dynamics in a site-specific manner. Recently, NMR has been actively applied to large proteins and intrinsically disordered proteins, which are attractive research targets. However, signal overlap, which is often observed for such proteins, hampers accurate analysis of NMR data. In this study, we have developed a new methodology called relaxation dispersion difference that can extract conformational exchange parameters from overlapped NMR signals measured using relaxation dispersion spectroscopy. In relaxation dispersion measurements, the signal intensities of fluctuating residues vary according to the Carr-Purcell-Meiboon-Gill pulsing interval, whereas those of non-fluctuating residues are constant. Therefore, subtraction of each relaxation dispersion spectrum from that with the highest signal intensities, measured at the shortest pulsing interval, leaves only the signals of the fluctuating residues. This is the principle of the relaxation dispersion difference method. This new method enabled us to extract exchange parameters from overlapped signals of heme oxygenase-1, which is a relatively large protein. The results indicate that the structural flexibility of a kink in the heme-binding site is important for efficient heme binding. Relaxation dispersion difference requires neither selectively labeled samples nor modification of pulse programs; thus it will have wide applications in protein dynamics analysis.

  13. Extracting protein dynamics information from overlapped NMR signals using relaxation dispersion difference NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konuma, Tsuyoshi [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Structural and Chemical Biology (United States); Harada, Erisa [Suntory Foundation for Life Sciences, Bioorganic Research Institute (Japan); Sugase, Kenji, E-mail: sugase@sunbor.or.jp, E-mail: sugase@moleng.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kyoto University, Department of Molecular Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Protein dynamics plays important roles in many biological events, such as ligand binding and enzyme reactions. NMR is mostly used for investigating such protein dynamics in a site-specific manner. Recently, NMR has been actively applied to large proteins and intrinsically disordered proteins, which are attractive research targets. However, signal overlap, which is often observed for such proteins, hampers accurate analysis of NMR data. In this study, we have developed a new methodology called relaxation dispersion difference that can extract conformational exchange parameters from overlapped NMR signals measured using relaxation dispersion spectroscopy. In relaxation dispersion measurements, the signal intensities of fluctuating residues vary according to the Carr-Purcell-Meiboon-Gill pulsing interval, whereas those of non-fluctuating residues are constant. Therefore, subtraction of each relaxation dispersion spectrum from that with the highest signal intensities, measured at the shortest pulsing interval, leaves only the signals of the fluctuating residues. This is the principle of the relaxation dispersion difference method. This new method enabled us to extract exchange parameters from overlapped signals of heme oxygenase-1, which is a relatively large protein. The results indicate that the structural flexibility of a kink in the heme-binding site is important for efficient heme binding. Relaxation dispersion difference requires neither selectively labeled samples nor modification of pulse programs; thus it will have wide applications in protein dynamics analysis.

  14. The Effect of Relaxation Interventions on Cortisol Levels in HIV-Sero-Positive Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah; Owens, Mary; Kumar, Mahendra; Cook, Ryan; Weiss, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, assessed in terms of cortisol levels, may enhance the ability of HIV to infect lymphocytes and downregulate the immune system, accelerating disease progression. This study sought to determine the effects of relaxation techniques on cortisol levels in HIV-sero-positive women. Methods Women (n = 150) were randomized to a group cognitive–behavioral stress management (CBSM) condition or an individual information condition and underwent 3 types of relaxation training (progressive muscle relaxation, imagery, and autogenic training). Cortisol levels were obtained pre- and postrelaxation. Results Guided imagery was effective in reducing cortisol in the group condition (t = 3.90, P < .001), and muscle relaxation reduced cortisol in the individual condition (t = 3.11, P = .012). Among participants in the group condition attending all sessions, the magnitude of pre- to postsession reduction became greater over time. Conclusions Results suggest that specific relaxation techniques may be partially responsible for cortisol decreases associated with relaxation and CBSM. PMID:23715264

  15. Polar cap index as a proxy for hemispheric Joule heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, F.K.; Knipp, D.J.; McHarg, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The polar cap (PC) index measures the level of geomagnetic activity in the polar cap based on magnetic perturbations from overhead ionospheric currents and distant field-aligned currents on the poleward edge of the nightside auroral oval. Because PC essentially measures the main sources of energy...... input into the polar cap, we propose to use PC as a proxy for the hemispheric Joule heat production rate (JH). In this study, JH is estimated from the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) procedure. We fit hourly PC values to hourly averages of JH. Using a data base approximately...

  16. Involvement of prostaglandins F/sub 2. cap alpha. / and E/sub 1/ with rabbit endometrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlicky, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Several growth factors and hormones are thought to play a role in the growth control of endometrial cells. The authors have shown that prostaglandin F/sub 2..-->../ (PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../) is a growth factor for primary cultures of rabbit endometrium cultured in chemically-defined serum-free medium and that prostaglandin E/sub 1/ (PGE/sub 1/) antagonizes the PGF/sub 2..-->../ induction of growth. Both (/sup 3/H)PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ and (/sup 3/H)PGE/sub 1/ bind in a time and temperature dependent, dissociable, saturable and specific manner. The binding of (/sup 3/H)PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ and (/sup 3/H)PGE/sub 1/ can be both down and up regulated and is enzyme sensitive. PGE /sub 1/ stimulates intracellular cAMP synthesis and accumulation in a time and concentration dependent manner. PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ probably exerts its effects through an amiloride-sensitive intermediate. Both PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ and PGE/sub 1/ are constitutively synthesized by these primary cultures, and they have shown this synthesis to be both drug and hormone sensitive. They hypothesize that it is the ratio, rather than the absolute quantities, of PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ and PGE/sub 1/ which is of more importance in the regulation of endometrial cell growth. Furthermore, they believe this regulation of endometrial growth plays a role in control of proliferation during the decidual response and that a derangement in the ratio of these prostaglandins may lead to either infertility or hyperplasia. The ability of these cultures to synthesize prostaglandins in a hormonally regulatable manner may be of importance in the study of dysmenorrhea and uterine cramping as caused by the myometrial contracting prostaglandin, PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../.

  17. Relaxation of inservice test frequency requirement for Kori 1 ASME code pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Gap Heon; Choi, Hae Yoon; Min, Kyung Sung; Rim, Nam Jin

    1994-08-01

    The objective of this investigation is to evaluate the technical and regulational requirements to justify the relaxation of the test frequency of Kori 1 pumps through reviewing the related rules and codes and standards, technical specifications of Kori 1 and other similar plants, standard technical specifications, research results for tech. spec. improvements and site test records. It is concluded that the relaxation of test frequency to quarterly be justified based on the conformance with rules and codes and standard, quarterly test cases in similar plants and standard tech. spec., recommendations of research result and stable site test records. (Author) 16 refs., 26 figs., 13 tabs

  18. Prolonged bone marrow T1-relaxation in patients with polycythemia vera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K E; Grube, T; Thomsen, C

    1988-01-01

    In vitro as well as in vivo studies have shown prolonged T1 relaxation times in patients with acute leukemia. The mechanism behind this finding is not known. In order to evaluate if this was specific for leukemia we examined eight patients with polycythemia vera, representing a condition with a r......In vitro as well as in vivo studies have shown prolonged T1 relaxation times in patients with acute leukemia. The mechanism behind this finding is not known. In order to evaluate if this was specific for leukemia we examined eight patients with polycythemia vera, representing a condition...

  19. Capítulo I: Contabilidad de costos - Capítulo II : Costos estimados

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Medina, Ricardo Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Me permito poner a su consideración los capítulos I y II del libro titulado: Costos un enfoque administrativo y de gerencia, contenido que fue realizado para mejorar y reestructurar el libro titulado Sistemas de costos un proceso para su implementación, que tuvo gran acogida dado el volumen de consulta y descarga del repositorio de la UN. En la primera unidad se trabaja lo referente a costos para la toma de decisiones, presentado un marco teórico y los fundamentos básicos del costeo direct...

  20. Nonmaxwell relaxation in disordered media: Physical mechanisms and fractional relaxation equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhincheev, V.E.

    2004-12-01

    The problem of charge relaxation in disordered systems has been solved. It is shown, that due to the inhomogeneity of the medium the charge relaxation has a non-Maxwell character. The two physical mechanisms of a such behavior have been founded. The first one is connected with the 'fractality' of conducting ways. The second mechanism of nonexponential non-Maxwell behavior is connected with the frequency dispersion of effective conductivity of heterogeneous medium, initially consisting of conducting phases without dispersion. The new generalized relaxation equations in the form of fractional temporal integro-differential equations are deduced. (author)

  1. Electron-lattice energy relaxation in laser-excited thin-film Au-insulator heterostructures studied by ultrafast MeV electron diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski-Tinten, K; Shen, X; Zheng, Q; Chase, T; Coffee, R; Jerman, M; Li, R K; Ligges, M; Makasyuk, I; Mo, M; Reid, A H; Rethfeld, B; Vecchione, T; Weathersby, S P; Dürr, H A; Wang, X J

    2017-09-01

    We apply time-resolved MeV electron diffraction to study the electron-lattice energy relaxation in thin film Au-insulator heterostructures. Through precise measurements of the transient Debye-Waller-factor, the mean-square atomic displacement is directly determined, which allows to quantitatively follow the temporal evolution of the lattice temperature after short pulse laser excitation. Data obtained over an extended range of laser fluences reveal an increased relaxation rate when the film thickness is reduced or the Au-film is capped with an additional insulator top-layer. This behavior is attributed to a cross-interfacial coupling of excited electrons in the Au film to phonons in the adjacent insulator layer(s). Analysis of the data using the two-temperature-model taking explicitly into account the additional energy loss at the interface(s) allows to deduce the relative strength of the two relaxation channels.

  2. Hydrogen bond network relaxation in aqueous polyelectrolyte solutions: the effect of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarti, S; Bordi, F; Truzzolillo, D

    2012-01-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy data over the range 100 MHz-40 GHz allow for a reliable analysis of two of the major relaxation phenomena for polyelectrolytes (PE) in water. Within this range, the dielectric relaxation of pure water is dominated by a near-Debye process at ν = 18.5 GHz corresponding to a relaxation time of τ = 8.4 ps at 25 °C. This mode is commonly attributed to the cooperative relaxation specific to liquids forming a hydrogen bond network (HBN) and arising from long range H-bond-mediated dipole-dipole interactions. The presence of charged polymers in water partially modifies the dielectric characteristics of the orientational water molecule relaxation due to a change of the dielectric constant of water surrounding the charges on the polyion chain. We report experimental results on the effect of the presence of a standard flexible polyelectrolyte (sodium polyacrylate) on the HBN relaxation in water for different temperatures, showing that the HBN relaxation time does not change by increasing the polyelectrolyte density in water, even if relatively high concentrations are reached (0.02 monomol l -1 ≤ C ≤ 0.4 monomol l -1 ). We also find that the effect of PE addition on the HBN relaxation is not even a broadening of its distribution, rather a decrease of the spectral weight that goes beyond the pure volume fraction effect. This extra decrease is larger at low T and less evident at high T, supporting the idea that the correlation length of the water is less affected by the presence of charged flexible chains at high temperatures. (paper)

  3. Dynamical relaxation in 2HDM models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalak, Zygmunt; Markiewicz, Adam

    2018-03-01

    Dynamical relaxation provides an interesting solution to the hierarchy problem in face of the missing signatures of any new physics in recent experiments. Through a dynamical process taking place in the inflationary phase of the Universe it manages to achieve a small electroweak scale without introducing new states observable in current experiments. Appropriate approximation makes it possible to derive an explicit formula for the final vevs in the double-scanning scenario extended to a model with two Higgs doublets (2HDM). Analysis of the relaxation in the 2HDM confirms that in a general case it is impossible to keep vevs of both scalars small, unless fine-tuning is present or additional symmetries are cast upon the Lagrangian. Within the slightly constrained variant of the 2HDM, where odd powers of the fields’ expectation values are not present (which can be easily enforced by requiring that the doublets have different gauge transformations or by imposing a global symmetry) it is shown that the difference between the vevs of two scalars tends to be proportional to the cutoff. The analysis of the relaxation in 2HDM indicates that in a general case the relaxation would be stopped by the first doublet that gains a vev, with the other one remaining vevless with a mass of the order of the cutoff. This happens to conform with the inert doublet model.

  4. Relaxation of coupled nuclear spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenigsberger, E.

    1985-05-01

    The subject of the present work is the relaxation behaviour of scalarly coupled spin-1/2 systems. In the theoretical part the semiclassical Redfield equations are used. Dipolar (D), Chemical Shift Anisotropy (CSA) and Random Field (RF) interactions are considered as relaxation mechanisms. Cross correlations of dipolar interactions of different nuclei pairs and those between the D and the CSA mechanisms are important. The model of anisotropic molecular rotational relaxation and the extreme narrowing approximation are used to obtain the spectral density functions. The longitudinal relaxation data are analyzed into normal modes following Werbelow and Grant. The time evolution of normal modes is derived for the AX system with D-CSA cross terms. In the experimental part the hypothesis of dimerization in the cinnamic acid and the methyl cinnamate - AMX systems with DD cross terms - is corroborated by T 1 -time measurements and a calculation of the diffusion constants. In pentachlorobenzene - an AX system - taking into account of D-CSA cross terms enables the complete determination of movements anosotropy and the determination of the sign of the indirect coupling constant 1 Jsub(CH). (G.Q.)

  5. Quantization by stochastic relaxation processes and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschner, R.

    1984-01-01

    We show the supersymmetry mechanism resposible for the quantization by stochastic relaxation processes and for the effective cancellation of the additional time dimension against the two Grassmann dimensions. We give a non-perturbative proof of the validity of this quantization procedure. (author)

  6. Charge Relaxation Dynamics of an Electrolytic Nanocapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Understanding ion relaxation dynamics in overlapping electric double layers (EDLs) is critical for the development of efficient nanotechnology-based electrochemical energy storage, electrochemomechanical energy conversion, and bioelectrochemical sensing devices as well as the controlled synthesis of nanostructured materials. Here, a lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is employed to simulate an electrolytic nanocapacitor subjected to a step potential at t = 0 for various degrees of EDL overlap, solvent viscosities, ratios of cation-to-anion diffusivity, and electrode separations. The use of a novel continuously varying and Galilean-invariant molecular-speed-dependent relaxation time (MSDRT) with the LB equation recovers a correct microscopic description of the molecular-collision phenomena and enhances the stability of the LB algorithm. Results for large EDL overlaps indicated oscillatory behavior for the ionic current density, in contrast to monotonic relaxation to equilibrium for low EDL overlaps. Further, at low solvent viscosities and large EDL overlaps, anomalous plasmalike spatial oscillations of the electric field were observed that appeared to be purely an effect of nanoscale confinement. Employing MSDRT in our simulations enabled modeling of the fundamental physics of the transient charge relaxation dynamics in electrochemical systems operating away from equilibrium wherein Nernst–Einstein relation is known to be violated. PMID:25678941

  7. Relaxation dynamics of multilayer triangular Husimi cacti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiceanu, Mircea; Jurjiu, Aurel

    2016-09-01

    We focus on the relaxation dynamics of multilayer polymer structures having, as underlying topology, the Husimi cactus. The relaxation dynamics of the multilayer structures is investigated in the framework of generalized Gaussian structures model using both Rouse and Zimm approaches. In the Rouse type-approach, we determine analytically the complete eigenvalues spectrum and based on it we calculate the mechanical relaxation moduli (storage and loss modulus) and the average monomer displacement. First, we monitor these physical quantities for structures with a fixed generation number and we increase the number of layers, such that the linear topology will smoothly come into play. Second, we keep constant the size of the structures, varying simultaneously two parameters: the generation number of the main layer, G, and the number of layers, c. This fact allows us to study in detail the crossover from a pure Husimi cactus behavior to a predominately linear chain behavior. The most interesting situation is found when the two limiting topologies cancel each other. For this case, we encounter in the intermediate frequency/time domain regions of constant slope for different values of the parameter set (G, c) and we show that the number of layers follows an exponential-law of G. In the Zimm-type approach, which includes the hydrodynamic interactions, the quantities that describe the mechanical relaxation dynamics do not show scaling behavior as in the Rouse model, except the limiting case, namely, a very high number of layers and low generation number.

  8. Waveform relaxation methods for implicit differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van der Houwen; W.A. van der Veen

    1996-01-01

    textabstractWe apply a Runge-Kutta-based waveform relaxation method to initial-value problems for implicit differential equations. In the implementation of such methods, a sequence of nonlinear systems has to be solved iteratively in each step of the integration process. The size of these systems

  9. Collection Development: Relaxation & Meditation, September 1, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettus, Dodi

    2010-01-01

    One of the first books to document the relationship between stress and physical and emotional health was "The Relaxation Response" by Herbert Benson, M.D., with Miriam Z. Klipper. Originally published in 1975, the book grew out of Benson's observations as a cardiologist and his research as a fellow at Harvard Medical School. Benson's study of…

  10. Relaxation time in confined disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamati, H.; Korutcheva, E.

    2006-05-01

    The dynamic critical behavior of a quenched hypercubic sample of linear size L is considered within the 'random T c ' field theoretical model with purely relaxation dynamic (Model A). The dynamic finite size scaling behavior is established and analyzed when the system is quenched from a homogeneous phase towards its critical temperature. The obtained results are compared to those reported in the literature. (author)

  11. Stretched Exponential relaxation in pure Se glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, S.; Ravindren, S.; Boolchand, P.

    A universal feature of glasses is the stretched exponential relaxation, f (t) = exp[ - t / τ ] β . The model of diffusion of excitations to randomly distributed traps in a glass by Phillips1 yields the stretched exponent β = d[d +2] where d, the effective dimensionality. We have measured the enthalpy of relaxation ΔHnr (tw) at Tg of Se glass in modulated DSC experiments as glasses age at 300K and find β = 0.43(2) for tw in the 0 relaxation is a narrowing of the glass transition width from 7.1°C to 1.4°C, and the ΔHnr term increasing from 0.21 cal/gm to 0.92 cal/gm. In bulk GexSe100-x glasses as x increases to 20%, the length of the polymeric Sen chains between the Ge-crosslinks decreases to n = 2. and the striking relaxation effects nearly vanish. J.C. Phillips, Rep.Prog.Phys. 59 , 1133 (1996). Supported by NSF Grant DMR 08-53957.

  12. Structural relaxation monitored by instantaneous shear modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe; Christensen, Tage Emil

    1998-01-01

    time definition based on a recently proposed expression for the relaxation time, where G [infinity] reflects the fictive temperature. All parameters entering the reduced time were determined from independent measurements of the frequency-dependent shear modulus of the equilibrium liquid....

  13. Comparison of the FDA and ASCO/CAP Criteria for HER2 Immunohistochemistry in Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilhyang Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 is one of the known oncogenes in urothelial carcinoma. However, the association between HER2 and the prognosis of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUTUC has not yet been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate HER2 expression using the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA criteria and American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP criteria and compare their prognostic significance in UUTUC. Methods HER2 expression was evaluated in 144 cases of UUTUC by immunohistochemistry (IHC using tissue microarrays. We separately analyzed HER2 expression using the FDA and ASCO/CAP criteria. The IHC results were categorized into low (0, 1+ and high (2+, 3+ groups. Results Using the FDA criteria, 94 cases were negative, 38 cases were 1+, nine cases were 2+, and three cases were 3+. Using the ASCO/CAP criteria, 94 cases were negative, 34 cases were 1+, 13 cases were 2+, and three cases were 3+. Four cases showing 2+ according to the ASCO/CAP criteria were reclassified as 1+ by the FDA criteria. High HER2 expression by both the FDA criteria and ASCO/CAP criteria was significantly associated with International Society of Urological Pathology high grade (p = .001 and p < .001. The high HER2 expression group classified with the FDA criteria showed significantly shorter cancer-specific survival (p = .004, but the HER2 high and low expression groups classified with the ASCO/CAP criteria did not show significant differences (p = .161 in cancer-specific survival. Conclusions HER2 high expression groups were significantly associated with shorter cancer-specific survival, and our study revealed that the FDA criteria are more suitable for determining HER2 expression in UUTUC.

  14. Effects of rooting and tree growth of selected woodland species on cap integrity in a mineral capped landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, T R; Moffat, A J; Kemp, R A

    2001-06-01

    The above and below ground growth of three tree species (Alnus glutinosa, Pinus nigra var. maritima and Acer pseudoplatanus) was studied on a containment landfill site at Waterford, Hertfordshire, UK. Tree root architecture was studied using soil inspection pits excavated next to 12 trees of each species and mapped in detail. Tree height was related to soil thickness over the compacted mineral cap. No roots entered the cap where soil thickness was 1.3 m, but a few roots, especially of alder, were observed within it when the soil cover was 1.0 m or less. Micromorphological analysis of undisturbed samples of the mineral cap suggested that roots exploited weaknesses in the cap rather than actively causing penetration into it. Alder roots were more tolerant of anaerobic conditions within the cap than the other species examined. The results confirm that mineral caps should be covered by 1.5 m of soil or soil-forming material if tree establishment is intended over a restored landfill site, unless protected by other parts of a composite capping system.

  15. An Evaluation of Usefulness of Prostate Specific Antigen and Digital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal examination (DRE) in the diagnosis of cancer of the prostate (CaP) amongst unscreened patients. Patients, Materials ans Methods: A prospective study168 unscreened men who were referred for evaluation for CaP. They all had a ...

  16. Electron spin-lattice relaxation in fractals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, K.N.

    1986-08-01

    We have developed the theory of the spin-fracton interaction for paramagnetic ions in fractal structures. The interaction is exponentially damped by the self-similarity length of the fractal and by the range dimensionality d Φ . The relaxation time of the spin due to the absorption and emission of the fracton has been calculated for a general dimensionality called the Raman dimensionality d R , which for the fractons differs from the Hausdorff (fractal) dimensionality, D, as well as from the Euclidean dimensionality, d. The exponent of the energy level separation in the relaxation rate varies with d R d Φ /D. We have calculated the spin relaxation rate due to a new type of Raman process in which one fracton is absorbed to affect a spin transition from one electronic level to another and later another fracton is emitted along with a spin transition such that the difference in the energies of the two fractons is equal to the electronic energy level separation. The temperature and the dimensionality dependence of such a process has been found in several approximations. In one of the approximations where the van Vleck relaxation rate for a spin in a crystal is known to vary with temperature as T 9 , our calculated variation for fractals turns out to be T 6.6 , whereas the experimental value for Fe 3+ in frozen solutions of myoglobin azide is T 6.3 . Since we used d R =4/3 and the fracton range dimensionality d Φ =D/1.8, we expect to measure the dimensionalities of the problem by measuring the temperature dependence of the relaxation times. We have also calculated the shift of the paramagnetic resonance transition for a spin in a fractal for general dimensionalities. (author)

  17. Cassini CAPS-ELS observations of carbon-based anions and aerosol growth in Titan's ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Ravindra; Coates, Andrew; Wellbrock, Anne; Kataria, Dhiren; Jones, Geraint; Lewis, Gethyn; Waite, J.

    2016-06-01

    Cassini observations of Titans ionosphere revealed an atmosphere rich in positively charged ions with masses up to > 350 amu and negatively charged ions and aerosols with mass over charge ratios as high as 13,800 amu/q. The detection of negatively charged molecules by the Cassini CAPS Electron Spectrometer (CAPS-ELS) was particularly surprising and showed how the synthesis of large aerosol-size particles takes place at altitudes much greater than previously thought. Here, we present further analysis into this CAPS-ELS dataset, through an enhanced understanding of the instrument's response function. In previous studies the intrinsic E/E energy resolution of the instrument did not allow specific species to be identified and the detections were classified into broad mass ranges. In this study we use an updated fitting procedure to show how the ELS mass spectrum can be resolved into specific peaks at multiples of carbon-based anions up to > 100 amu/q. The negatively charged ions and aerosols in Titans ionosphere increase in mass with decreasing altitude, the lightest species being observed close to Titan's exobase of ˜1,450km and heaviest species observed at altitudes < 950km. We identify key stages in this apparent growth process and report on key intermediaries which appear to trigger the rapid growth of the larger aerosol-size particles.

  18. Engineering status of the superconducting end cap toroid magnets for the ATLAS experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Baynham, D Elwyn; Carr, F S; Courthold, M J D; Cragg, D A; Densham, C J; Evans, D; Holtom, E; Rochford, J; Sole, D; Towndrow, Edwin F; Warner, G P

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at LHC, CERN will utilise a large, superconducting, air-cored toroid magnet system for precision muon measurements. The magnet system will consist of a long barrel and two end-cap toroids. Each end-cap toroid will contain eight racetrack coils mounted as a single cold mass in cryostat vessel of ~10 m diameter. The project has now moved from the design/specification stage into the fabrication phase. This paper presents the engineering status of the cold masses and vacuum vessels that are under fabrication in industry. Final designs of cold mass supports, cryogenic systems and control/protection systems are presented. Planning for toroid integration, test and installation is described. (3 refs).

  19. Hen's teeth with enamel cap: from dream to impossibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girondot Marc

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to form teeth was lost in an ancestor of all modern birds, approximately 100-80 million years ago. However, experiments in chicken have revealed that the oral epithelium can respond to inductive signals from mouse mesenchyme, leading to reactivation of the odontogenic pathway. Recently, tooth germs similar to crocodile rudimentary teeth were found in a chicken mutant. These "chicken teeth" did not develop further, but the question remains whether functional teeth with enamel cap would have been obtained if the experiments had been carried out over a longer time period or if the chicken mutants had survived. The next odontogenetic step would have been tooth differentiation, involving deposition of dental proteins. Results Using bioinformatics, we assessed the fate of the four dental proteins thought to be specific to enamel (amelogenin, AMEL; ameloblastin, AMBN; enamelin, ENAM and to dentin (dentin sialophosphoprotein, DSPP in the chicken genome. Conservation of gene synteny in amniotes allowed definition of target DNA regions in which we searched for sequence similarity. We found the full-length chicken AMEL and the only N-terminal region of DSPP, and both are invalidated genes. AMBN and ENAM disappeared after chromosomal rearrangements occurred in the candidate region in a bird ancestor. Conclusion These findings not only imply that functional teeth with enamel covering, as present in ancestral Aves, will never be obtained in birds, but they also indicate that these four protein genes were dental specific, at least in the last toothed ancestor of modern birds, a specificity which has been questioned in recent years.

  20. [Cryopyrine-associated periodic syndrome: CAPS seen from adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné-Paut, I

    2015-04-01

    Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome is a rare hereditary periodic fever syndrome for which, the genetic mechanism, mutation in the NLRP3 gene, has allowed to gather 3 clinical phenotypes (familial cold urticaria [FCAS], Muckle-Wells syndrome [MWS], and chronic infantile neurological cutaneous and articular syndrome [CINCA]) initially described independently, and to discover the NLRP3 inflammasome, a key receptor of the innate immunity, which regulates the interleukine-1β secretion into the mononuclear cells. The clinical manifestation of CAPS : urticaria-like skin rash, eyes redness, myalgia and sensory deafness are not specific, if considered separately, and that often leads to a wandering diagnosis through a complex medical journey including various specialists. The diagnostic delay is deleterious to patients compromising their quality of life and exposing them to neurosensory complications and renal failure by secondary amyloidosis. The paediatric onset of disease, the family history, the trigger of symptoms by the cold, and the recognition of the skin rash as neutrophilic are important clues before diagnostic confirmation by genetic testing. Interleukine-1 blockade is the only effective treatment of CAPS symptoms which often may stabilize (rarely regression) the sensory involvement and in some cases may allow the regression of secondary amyloidosis. Copyright © 2014 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Interleukine-1-remming in cryopyrinegeassocieerd periodiek syndroom (CAPS) en schnitzlersyndroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, H.D.; Schalkwijk, J.; van der Meer, J.W.; Simon, A.

    2012-01-01

    Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is a hereditary autoinflammatory disorder. Patients suffer from chronic systemic inflammation involving the skin (urticaria), joints arthritis) and in some cases also peritoneum (peritonitis) and meninges (meningitis). Recently, a causative mutation was

  2. Evidence that polar cap arcs occur on open field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gussenhoven, M.S.; Hardy, D.A.; Rich, F.J.; Mullen, E.G.; Redus, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The characteristics of polar cap arc occurrence are reviewed to show that the assumption of a closed magnetospheric magnetic field topology at very high latitudes when the IMF B z is strongly northward is difficult to reconcile with a wide variety of observational and theoretical considerations. In particular, we consider the implications of observations of particle entry for high and low energy electrons, magnetic flux conservation between the near and far tail, the time sequencing in polar cap arcs events, and the hemispherical differences in polar cap arc observations. These points can be explained either by excluding the need for a major topological magnetic field change from explanations of polar cap arc dynamics, or by assuming a long-tailed magnetosphere for all IMF orientations in which magnetic field lines eventually merge with solar wind field lines in either a smooth or a patchy fashion. (author)

  3. Cap-independent translation of plant viral RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Elizabeth L Pettit; Rakotondrafara, Aurélie M; Miller, W Allen

    2006-07-01

    The RNAs of many plant viruses lack a 5' cap and must be translated by a cap-independent mechanism. Here, we discuss the remarkably diverse cap-independent translation elements that have been identified in members of the Potyviridae, Luteoviridae, and Tombusviridae families, and genus Tobamovirus. Many other plant viruses have uncapped RNAs but their translation control elements are uncharacterized. Cap-independent translation elements of plant viruses differ strikingly from those of animal viruses: they are smaller (translation factors, and speculate on their mechanism of action and their roles in the virus replication cycle. Much remains to be learned about how these elements enable plant viruses to usurp the host translational machinery.

  4. An Overview of the CapDEM Integrated Engineering Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lam, Sylvia; Poursina, Shiva; Spafford, Tim

    2005-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the technology requirements to support collaborative engineering activities, the Collaborative Capability Definition, Engineering and Management (CapDEM...

  5. 2005 C-CAP Land Cover of Oahu, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land cover derived from high resolution imagery according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol. This data set utilized...

  6. C-CAP Land Cover, Kauai, Hawaii 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  7. C-CAP Land Cover, Territory of Guam 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  8. Primate numts and reticulate evolution of capped and golden leaf ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    A recent phylogenetic study of langurs and leaf monkeys of South Asia suggested a reticulate evolution of capped and golden leaf ..... Accordingly, transversions were weighted .... lineages. Most taxonomic schemes published till date place.

  9. On a randomly imperfect spherical cap pressurized by a random ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On a randomly imperfect spherical cap pressurized by a random dynamic load. ... In this paper, we investigate a dynamical system in a random setting of dual ... characterization of the random process for determining the dynamic buckling load ...

  10. 2011 C-CAP Land Cover of Oahu, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  11. C-CAP Land Cover, Big Island, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  12. Wind blade spar cap and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mansour H [Raleigh, NC

    2008-05-27

    A wind blade spar cap for strengthening a wind blade including an integral, unitary three-dimensional woven material having a first end and a second end, corresponding to a root end of the blade and a tip end of the blade, wherein the material tapers in width from the first to the second end while maintaining a constant thickness and decreasing weight therebetween, the cap being capable of being affixed to the blade for providing increased strength with controlled variation in weight from the root end to the tip end based upon the tapered width of the material thereof. The present inventions also include the method of making the wind blade spar cap and a wind blade including the wind blade spar cap.

  13. Philosophical enquiry as a pedagogical tool to implement the CAPS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    2016-02-22

    Feb 22, 2016 ... introduction to community of enquiry pedagogy, perceived its relevance to the CAPS curriculum. The research ..... Gains, at all ages, in listening skills, reasoning, perspective ... This research project was positioned within an.

  14. Structural plasticity of the N-terminal capping helix of the TPR domain of kinesin light chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Quyen Nguyen

    Full Text Available Kinesin1 plays a major role in neuronal transport by recruiting many different cargos through its kinesin light chain (KLC. Various structurally unrelated cargos interact with the conserved tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR domain of KLC. The N-terminal capping helix of the TPR domain exhibits an atypical sequence and structural features that may contribute to the versatility of the TPR domain to bind different cargos. We determined crystal structures of the TPR domain of both KLC1 and KLC2 encompassing the N-terminal capping helix and show that this helix exhibits two distinct and defined orientations relative to the rest of the TPR domain. Such a difference in orientation gives rise, at the N-terminal part of the groove, to the formation of one hydrophobic pocket, as well as to electrostatic variations at the groove surface. We present a comprehensive structural analysis of available KLC1/2-TPR domain structures that highlights that ligand binding into the groove can be specific of one or the other N-terminal capping helix orientations. Further, structural analysis reveals that the N-terminal capping helix is always involved in crystal packing contacts, especially in a TPR1:TPR1' contact which highlights its propensity to be a protein-protein interaction site. Together, these results underline that the structural plasticity of the N-terminal capping helix might represent a structural determinant for TPR domain structural versatility in cargo binding.

  15. Transport and relaxation properties of superfluid 3He. I. Kinetic equation and Bogoliubov quasiparticle relaxation rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einzel, D.; Woelfle, P.

    1978-01-01

    The kinetic equation for Bogoliubov quasiparticles for both the A and B phases of superfluid 3 He is derived from the general matrix kinetic equation. A condensed expression for the exact spin-symmetric collision integral is given. The quasiparticle relaxation rate is calculated for the BW state using the s--p approximation for the quasiparticle scattering amplitude. By using the results for the quasiparticle relaxation rate, the mean free path of Bogoliubov quasiparticles is calculated for all temperatures

  16. Exact Lagrangian caps and non-uniruled Lagrangian submanifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroglou Rizell, Georgios

    2015-04-01

    We make the elementary observation that the Lagrangian submanifolds of C n , n≥3, constructed by Ekholm, Eliashberg, Murphy and Smith are non-uniruled and, moreover, have infinite relative Gromov width. The construction of these submanifolds involve exact Lagrangian caps, which obviously are non-uniruled in themselves. This property is also used to show that if a Legendrian submanifold inside a contactisation admits an exact Lagrangian cap, then its Chekanov-Eliashberg algebra is acyclic.

  17. Density functional study of condensation in capped capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsyshin, P; Savva, N; Kalliadasis, S

    2015-07-15

    We study liquid adsorption in narrow rectangular capped capillaries formed by capping two parallel planar walls (a slit pore) with a third wall orthogonal to the two planar walls. The most important transition in confined fluids is arguably condensation, where the pore becomes filled with the liquid phase which is metastable in the bulk. Depending on the temperature T, the condensation in capped capillaries can be first-order (at T≤Tcw) or continuous (at T>Tcw), where Tcw is the capillary wetting temperature. At T>Tcw, the capping wall can adsorb mesoscopic amounts of metastable under-condensed liquid. The onset of condensation is then manifested by the continuous unbinding of the interface between the liquid adsorbed on the capping wall and the gas filling the rest of the capillary volume. In wide capped capillaries there may be a remnant of wedge filling transition, which is manifested by the adsorption of liquid drops in the corners. Our classical statistical mechanical treatment predicts a possibility of three-phase coexistence between gas, corner drops and liquid slabs adsorbed on the capping wall. In sufficiently wide capillaries we find that thick prewetting films of finite length may be nucleated at the capping wall below the boundary of the prewetting transition. Prewetting then proceeds in a continuous manner manifested by the unbinding interface between the thick and thin films adsorbed on the side walls. Our analysis is based on a detailed numerical investigation of the density functional theory for the fluid equilibria for a number of illustrative case studies.

  18. Simulation of 125I-induced DNA strand breaks in a CAP-DNA complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.; Friedland, W.; Jacob, P.

    2000-01-01

    DNA strand breakage induced by decay of 125 I incorporated into the pyrimidine of a small piece of DNA with a specific base pair sequence has been investigated theoretically and experimentally (Lobachevsky and Martin 2000a, 2000b; Nikjoo et al., 1996; Pomplun and Terrissol, 1994; Charlton and Humm, 1988). Recently an attempt was made to analyse the DNA kinks in a CAP-DNA complex with 125 I induced DNA strand breakage (Karamychev et al., 1999). This method could be used as a so called radioprobing for such DNa distortions like other chemical and biological assays, provided that it has been tested and confirmed in a corresponding theoretical simulation. In the measurement, the distribution of the first breaks on the DNA strands starting from their labeled end can be determined. Based on such first breakage distributions, the simulation calculation could then be used to derive information on the structure of a given DNA-protein complex. The biophysical model PARTRAC has been applied successfully in simulating DNA damage induced by irradiation (Friedland et al., 1998; 1999). In the present study PARTRAC is adapted to a DNA-protein complex in which a specific sequence of 30 base pairs of DNA is connected with the catabolite gene activator protein (CAP). This report presents the first step of the analysis in which the CAP-DNA model used in NIH is overlaid with electron track structures in liquid water and the strand breaks due to direct ionization and due to radical attack are simulated. The second step will be to take into account the neutralization of the heavily charged tellurium and the protective effect of the CAP protein against radical attack. (orig.)

  19. [CAP quality management system in clinical laboratory and its issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazawa, Hiromitsu

    2004-03-01

    The CAP (College of American Pathologists) was established in 1962 and, at present, CAP-accredited laboratories include about 6000 institutions all over the world, mainly in the U.S. The essential purpose of CAP accreditation is high quality reservation and improvement of clinical laboratory services for patient care, and is based on seven points, listed below. (1) Establishment of a laboratory management program and laboratory techniques to assure accuracy and improve overall quality of laboratory services. (2) Maintenance and improvement of accuracy objectively by centering on a CAP survey. (3) Thoroughness in safety and health administration. (4) Reservation of the performance of laboratory services by personnel and proficiency management. (5) Provision of appropriate information to physicians, and contribution to improved quality of patient care by close communication with physicians (improvement in patient care). (6) Reduction of running costs and personnel costs based on evidence by employing the above-mentioned criteria. (7) Reduction of laboratory error. In the future, accreditation and/or certification by organizations such as CAP, ISO, etc., may become a requirement for providing any clinical laboratory services in Japan. Taking the essence of the CAP and the characteristics of the new international standard, ISO151589, into consideration, it is important to choose the best suited accreditation and/or certification depending of the purpose of clinical laboratory.

  20. CAPS--pathogenesis, presentation and treatment of an autoinflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuemmerle-Deschner, Jasmin B

    2015-07-01

    The cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is a severity spectrum of rare diseases. CAPS comprises the three conditions previously described as familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS), Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS), and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disorder (NOMID), also known as chronic infantile neurologic, cutaneous, and articular (CINCA) syndrome. The clinical phenotype of CAPS is characterized by systemic inflammation. General symptoms are fatigue and fever. Local manifestations affect multiple tissues such as skin, joints, muscles, eyes, and the central nervous system. Distinct clinical features are characteristic for each subphenotype. In FCAS, these are cold-induced urticaria and fever, in MWS systemic amyloidosis and hearing loss and in NOMID/CINCA central nervous system inflammation and bone deformities. CAPS is caused by single heterozygous germline or somatic gain of function mutations in the NLRP3 gene encoding the protein cryopyrin. Cryopyrin nucleates an NLRP3 inflammasome, which regulates the activation and cleavage of caspase-1 that cleaves the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18. IL-1β plays the key role in the induction of inflammation in CAPS. This has been confirmed by the application of IL-1 blocking agents, which lead not only to a rapid and sustained reversal of daily symptoms but also to some extent of long-term disease sequelae. To prevent CAPS-induced organ damage, early diagnosis and swift initiation of effective treatment are mandatory.

  1. Standard and alternative landfill capping design in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Franz-Georg; Mueller, Werner W.

    2004-01-01

    Engineered capping systems are in most cases an indispensable and often the only efficient component required by the long-term safety concept for landfills, mine tailings tips and contaminated land. In Germany the composite liner is the main component of standard landfill cappings for municipal and hazardous waste landfills and the compacted clay liner (CCL) for landfills for inert or low-contamination waste. The composite liner is a technically highly effective but very expensive system. Research and experience has given rise to concern about the proper long-term performance of a conventional single CCL as a landfill capping. Therefore, alternative capping systems are discussed and applied for landfills and for the containment of contaminated sites. This paper gives an overview on various alternative engineered cappings and suitable systems for capping reflecting the state of the art and the expert view in Germany. According to the European Council Directive on the landfill of waste an impermeable mineral layer is recommended for the surface sealing of non-hazardous landfills and a composition of artificial sealing liner and impermeable mineral layer for hazardous landfills. In both cases a drainage layer thickness of at least 0.5 m is suggested. These recommendations should be interpreted flexibly and to some extent modified in the light of the experience and results presented in this paper

  2. A decision tool for selecting trench cap designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paige, G.B.; Stone, J.J.; Lane, L.J. [USDA-ARS, Tucson, AZ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A computer based prototype decision support system (PDSS) is being developed to assist the risk manager in selecting an appropriate trench cap design for waste disposal sites. The selection of the {open_quote}best{close_quote} design among feasible alternatives requires consideration of multiple and often conflicting objectives. The methodology used in the selection process consists of: selecting and parameterizing decision variables using data, simulation models, or expert opinion; selecting feasible trench cap design alternatives; ordering the decision variables and ranking the design alternatives. The decision model is based on multi-objective decision theory and uses a unique approach to order the decision variables and rank the design alternatives. Trench cap designs are evaluated based on federal regulations, hydrologic performance, cover stability and cost. Four trench cap designs, which were monitored for a four year period at Hill Air Force Base in Utah, are used to demonstrate the application of the PDSS and evaluate the results of the decision model. The results of the PDSS, using both data and simulations, illustrate the relative advantages of each of the cap designs and which cap is the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} alternative for a given set of criteria and a particular importance order of those decision criteria.

  3. Prices regulation in price-cap: the lessons of the british gas industry; Reglementations tarifaires en price-cap: les lecons de l'industrie gaziere anglaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, L.

    2003-07-01

    This article examines the problem of the price-cap regulation applied to the british gas transport. The RPI-X cap is a particular form of the price cap. This cap seems to be more remunerative for the regulatory firm than a cap calculated on the Laspeyres index because it authorizes a greater freedom of prices choice, to the prejudice of the consumers. Facing these perverse effects, Cowan proposed in 1997 a new system, not more satisfying. Another equation is analyzed in this article, proposed by Ofgem. Meanwhile this system presents no improvement of the consumers surplus facing the RPI-X cap. (A.L.B.)

  4. Vibrational Energy Relaxation in Water-Acetonitrile Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, Dan; Yeremenko, Sergey; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Wiersma, Douwe A.; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Nelson, Keith A.; Okada, Tadashi; Silvestri, Sandro De

    2004-01-01

    IR pump-probe spectroscopy is used to study the effect of hydrogen bonding on the vibrational energy relaxation pathways. Hydrogen bonding accelerates the population relaxation from 12ps in diluted acetonitrile solution to 700fs in bulk water.

  5. Exploiting Sparsity in SDP Relaxation for Sensor Network Localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kim (Sunyoung); M. Kojima; H. Waki (Hayato)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstract A sensor network localization problem can be formulated as a quadratic optimization problem (QOP). For quadratic optimization problems, semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxation by Lasserre with relaxation order 1 for general polynomial optimization problems (POPs) is known to be

  6. Exploiting Sparsity in SDP Relaxation for Sensor Network Localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kim (Sunyoung); M. Kojima; H. Waki (Hayato)

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstract A sensor network localization problem can be formulated as a quadratic optimization problem (QOP). For quadratic optimization problems, semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxation by Lasserre with relaxation order 1 for general polynomial optimization problems (POPs) is known to be

  7. Development of an ELISA assay for screening inhibitors against divalent metal ion dependent alphavirus capping enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ramanjit; Mudgal, Rajat; Narwal, Manju; Tomar, Shailly

    2018-06-26

    Alphavirus non-structural protein, nsP1 has a distinct molecular mechanism of capping the viral RNAs than the conventional capping mechanism of host. Thus, alphavirus capping enzyme nsP1 is a potential drug target. nsP1 catalyzes the methylation of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) by transferring the methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to a GTP molecule at its N7 position with the help of nsP1 methyltransferase (MTase) followed by guanylylation (GT) reaction which involves the formation of m 7 GMP-nsP1 covalent complex by nsP1 guanylyltransferase (GTase). In subsequent reactions, m 7 GMP moiety is added to the 5' end of the viral ppRNA by nsP1 GTase resulting in the formation of cap0 structure. In the present study, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) nsP1 MTase and GT reactions were confirmed by an indirect non-radioactive colorimetric assay and western blot assay using an antibody specific for the m 7 G cap, respectively. The purified recombinant CHIKV nsP1 has been used for the development of a rapid and sensitive non-radioactive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to identify the inhibitors of CHIKV nsP1. The MTase reaction is followed by GT reaction and resulted in m 7 GMP-nsP1 covalent complex formation. The developed ELISA nsP1 assay measures this m 7 GMP-nsP1 complex by utilizing anti-m 7 G cap monoclonal antibody. The mutation of a conserved residue Asp63 to Ala revealed its role in nsP1 enzyme reaction. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was used to determine the presence of magnesium ions (Mg 2+ ) in the purified nsP1 protein. The divalent metal ion selectivity and investigation show preference for Mg 2+ ion by CHIKV nsP1. Additionally, using the developed ELISA nsP1 assay, the inhibitory effects of sinefungin, aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA) and ribavirin were determined and the IC 50 values were estimated to be 2.69 µM, 5.72 µM and 1.18 mM, respectively. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics with flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, G. R., E-mail: graham.dennis@anu.edu.au; Dewar, R. L.; Hole, M. J. [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Hudson, S. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    We present an extension of the multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) equilibrium model that includes plasma flow. This new model is a generalization of Woltjer's model of relaxed magnetohydrodynamics equilibria with flow. We prove that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite, our extension of MRxMHD reduces to ideal MHD with flow. We also prove that some solutions to MRxMHD with flow are not time-independent in the laboratory frame, and instead have 3D structure which rotates in the toroidal direction with fixed angular velocity. This capability gives MRxMHD potential application to describing rotating 3D MHD structures such as 'snakes' and long-lived modes.

  9. Dissipation and the relaxation to equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Denis J; Williams, Stephen R; Searles, Debra J

    2009-01-01

    Using the recently derived dissipation theorem and a corollary of the transient fluctuation theorem (TFT), namely the second-law inequality, we derive the unique time independent, equilibrium phase space distribution function for an ergodic Hamiltonian system in contact with a remote heat bath. We prove under very general conditions that any deviation from this equilibrium distribution breaks the time independence of the distribution. Provided temporal correlations decay, we show that any nonequilibrium distribution that is an even function of the momenta eventually relaxes (not necessarily monotonically) to the equilibrium distribution. Finally we prove that the negative logarithm of the microscopic partition function is equal to the thermodynamic Helmholtz free energy divided by the thermodynamic temperature and Boltzmann's constant. Our results complement and extend the findings of modern ergodic theory and show the importance of dissipation in the process of relaxation towards equilibrium

  10. Active nematic gels as active relaxing solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turzi, Stefano S.

    2017-11-01

    I propose a continuum theory for active nematic gels, defined as fluids or suspensions of orientable rodlike objects endowed with active dynamics, that is based on symmetry arguments and compatibility with thermodynamics. The starting point is our recent theory that models (passive) nematic liquid crystals as relaxing nematic elastomers. The interplay between viscoelastic response and active dynamics of the microscopic constituents is naturally taken into account. By contrast with standard theories, activity is not introduced as an additional term of the stress tensor, but it is added as an external remodeling force that competes with the passive relaxation dynamics and drags the system out of equilibrium. In a simple one-dimensional channel geometry, we show that the interaction between nonuniform nematic order and activity results in either a spontaneous flow of particles or a self-organization into subchannels flowing in opposite directions.

  11. Relaxation in the XX quantum chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platini, Thierry; Karevski, Dragi

    2007-01-01

    We present the results obtained on the magnetization relaxation properties of an XX quantum chain in a transverse magnetic field. We first consider an initial thermal kink-like state where half of the chain is initially thermalized at a very high temperature T b while the remaining half, called the system, is put at a lower temperature T s . From this initial state, we derive analytically the Green function associated with the dynamical behaviour of the transverse magnetization. Depending on the strength of the magnetic field and on the temperature of the system, different regimes are obtained for the magnetic relaxation. In particular, with an initial droplet-like state, that is a cold subsystem of the finite size in contact at both ends with an infinite temperature environment, we derive analytically the behaviour of the time-dependent system magnetization

  12. Stress relaxation of thermally bowed fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, I.G.; Speight, M.V.

    1983-01-01

    The presence of cross-pin temperature gradients in nuclear reactor fuel pins produces differential thermal expansion which, in turn, causes the fuel pin to bow elastically. If the pin is restrained in any way, such thermal bowing causes the pin to be stressed. At high temperatures these stresses can relax by creep and it is shown here that this causes the pin to suffer an additional permanent deflection, so that when the cross-pin temperature difference is removed the pin remains bowed. By representing the cylindrical pin by an equivalent I-beam, the present work examines this effect when it takes place by secondary creep. Two restraint systems are considered, and it is demonstrated that the rate of relaxation depends mainly upon the creep equation, and hence the temperature, and also the magnitude of the initial stresses. (author)

  13. Relaxation mechanism of the hydrated electron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Madeline H; Williams, Holly L; Shreve, Alexander T; Neumark, Daniel M

    2013-12-20

    The relaxation dynamics of the photoexcited hydrated electron have been subject to conflicting interpretations. Here, we report time-resolved photoelectron spectra of hydrated electrons in a liquid microjet with the aim of clarifying ambiguities from previous experiments. A sequence of three ultrashort laser pulses (~100 femtosecond duration) successively created hydrated electrons by charge-transfer-to-solvent excitation of dissolved anions, electronically excited these electrons via the s→p transition, and then ejected them into vacuum. Two distinct transient signals were observed. One was assigned to the initially excited p-state with a lifetime of ~75 femtoseconds, and the other, with a lifetime of ~400 femtoseconds, was attributed to s-state electrons just after internal conversion in a nonequilibrated solvent environment. These assignments support the nonadiabatic relaxation model.

  14. Creep and relaxation behavior of Inconel-617

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osthoff, W.; Ennis, P.J.; Nickel, H.; Schuster, H.

    1984-01-01

    The static and dynamic creep behavior of Inconel alloy 617 has been determined in constant load creep tests, relaxation tests, and stress reduction tests in the temperature range 1023 to 1273 K. The results have been interpreted using the internal stress concept: The dependence of the internal stress on the applied stress and test temperature was determined. In a few experiments, the influence of cold deformation prior to the creep test on the magnitude of the internal stress was also investigated. It was found that the experimentally observed relaxation behavior could be more satisfactorily described using the Norton creep equation modified by incorporation of the internal stress than by the conventional Norton creep equation

  15. Effective temperature in relaxation of Coulomb glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza, A M; Ortuño, M; Caravaca, M; Pollak, M

    2008-08-01

    We study relaxation in two-dimensional Coulomb glasses up to macroscopic times. We use a kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm especially designed to escape efficiently from deep valleys around metastable states. We find that, during the relaxation process, the site occupancy follows a Fermi-Dirac distribution with an effective temperature much higher than the real temperature T. Long electron-hole excitations are characterized by T(eff), while short ones are thermalized at T. We argue that the density of states at the Fermi level is proportional to T(eff) and is a good thermometer to measure it. T(eff) decreases extremely slowly, roughly as the inverse of the logarithm of time, and it should affect hopping conductance in many experimental circumstances.

  16. Microplastic relaxations of single and polycrystalline molybdenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichl, W.; Weiss, B. [Wien Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Materialphysik; Chen, D.L.

    1998-05-01

    The microplasticity of high-purity molybdenum single crystals and of Mo polycrystals of technical purity has been investigated by relaxation step tests in uniaxial compression. A new model for the evaluation of relaxation tests in the microplastic range of b.c.c metals is presented which takes into account the decrease of the mobile dislocation density due to exhaustion of non-screw dislocations. The model allows an independent determination of the activation volume and of the microstructure parameters controlling dislocation exhaustion. The results indicate that in the high-purity single crystals the deformation rate is controlled by interactions of non-screw dislocations with the grown-in network. In the polycrystals additional interactions with impurity atoms seem to occur. In the single crystals the activity and subsequent exhaustion of two different glide systems was observed, followed by a gradual onset of screw dislocation motion. (orig.) 26 refs.

  17. Modern problems of relaxation gas dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losev, S.A.; Osipov, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    Some of the dynamical characteristics of relaxation processes are studied. Unfortunately, many dynamical characteristics of relaxation processes, necessary for the solution of important scientific and applied problems, are not known. These problems require further development of experimental methods of the study of nonequilibrium gas. It is known, that gas systems are shifted from the equilibrium by different methods: by acoustic and shock wav es, by means of gas expansion in nozzles and jets, by powerful radiations (laser, first of all), by electric discharges, in burning and combustion devices, etc. Non-equilibrium gas is produced in installations of continuum, impulse and periodic regime. Molecular beams, shock tubes (especially with nozzles), flow and jet installations, aerodynamical tubes, plasmatrons, vessels with a gas, influenced by the strong radiation, burners and combustion devices, where the study of non-euilibrium gas is helpful to solve the problems of the determination of kinetic equations and constants of physico-chemical kinetics

  18. Impulsive relaxation process in MHD driven reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitabata, H.; Hayashi, T.; Sato, T.

    1997-01-01

    Compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation is carried out in order to investigate energy relaxation process of the driven magnetic reconnection in an open finite system through a long time calculation. It is found that a very impulsive energy release occurs in an intermittent fashion through magnetic reconnection for a continuous magnetic flux injection on the boundary. We focus our attention on the detailed process in the impulsive phase, which is the reconnection rate is remarkably enhanced up. (author)

  19. Current relaxation time scales in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.

    1987-02-01

    An approximate normal mode analysis of plasma current diffusion in tokamaks is presented. The work is based on numerical solutions of the current diffusion equation in cylindrical geometry. Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are shown for a broad range of plasma conductivity profile shapes. Three classes of solutions are considered which correspond to three types of tokamak operation. Convenient approximations to the three lowest eigenvalues in each class are presented and simple formulae for the current relaxation time scales are given

  20. On real statistics of relaxation in gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzovlev, Yu. E.

    2016-02-01

    By example of a particle interacting with ideal gas, it is shown that the statistics of collisions in statistical mechanics at any value of the gas rarefaction parameter qualitatively differ from that conjugated with Boltzmann's hypothetical molecular chaos and kinetic equation. In reality, the probability of collisions of the particle in itself is random. Because of that, the relaxation of particle velocity acquires a power-law asymptotic behavior. An estimate of its exponent is suggested on the basis of simple kinematic reasons.

  1. Relaxation and kinetics in scalar field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanovsky, D.; Lawrie, I.D.; Lee, D.

    1996-01-01

    A new approach to the dynamics of relaxation and kinetics of thermalization in a scalar field theory is presented that incorporates the relevant time scales through the resummation of hard thermal loops. An alternative derivation of the kinetic equations for the open-quote open-quote quasiparticle close-quote close-quote distribution functions is obtained that allows a clear understanding of the different open-quote open-quote coarse-graining close-quote close-quote approximations usually involved in a kinetic description. This method leads to a systematic perturbative expansion to obtain the kinetic equations including hard thermal loop resummation and to an improvement including renormalization, off-shell effects, and contributions that change chemical equilibrium on short time scales. As a by-product of these methods we establish the equivalence between the relaxation time scale in the linearized equation of motion of the quasiparticles and the thermalization time scale of the quasiparticle distribution function in the open-quote open-quote relaxation time approximation close-quote close-quote including hard thermal loop effects. Hard thermal loop resummation dramatically modifies the scattering rate for long wavelength modes as compared to the usual (semi)classical estimate. Relaxation and kinetics are studied both in the unbroken and broken symmetry phases of the theory. The broken symmetry phase also provides the setting to obtain the contribution to the kinetic equations from processes that involve decay of a heavy scalar into light scalar particles in the medium. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  2. Muon spin relaxation in random spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshimitsu Yamazaki

    1981-01-01

    The longitudinal relaxation function Gsub(z)(t) of the positive muon can reflect dynamical characters of local field in a unique way even when the correlation time is longer than the Larmor period of local field. This method has been applied to studies of spin dynamics in spin glass systems, revealing sharp but continuous temperature dependence of the correlation time. Its principle and applications are reviewed. (author)

  3. Structural relaxation and thermal conductivity coefficient of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurasulov, A.

    1992-01-01

    Present article is devoted to structural relaxation and thermal conductivity coefficient of liquids. The thermoelastic properties of liquids were studied taking into account the contribution of translational and structural relaxation. The results of determination of dynamic coefficient of thermal conductivity of liquids taking into account the contribution of translational and structural relaxation are presented.

  4. The Efficacy of Relaxation Training in Treating Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesco, Pagnini; Mauro, Manzoni Gian; Gianluca, Castelnuovo; Enrico, Molinari

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a review of scientific literature about relaxation training and its effects on anxiety. Research investigating progressive relaxation, meditation, applied relaxation and autogenic training were considered. All these methods proved to be effective in reducing anxiety in all kind of samples, affected or not by physical or…

  5. 22 CFR 121.11 - Military demolition blocks and blasting caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Military demolition blocks and blasting caps... blasting caps. Military demolition blocks and blasting caps referred to in Category IV(a) do not include the following articles: (a) Electric squibs. (b) No. 6 and No. 8 blasting caps, including electric...

  6. Landscape Evolution and the Reincarnation of the Southern Residual Ice Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, S.; Zuber, M. T.

    2006-10-01

    Given the present rate of erosion on the southern residual ice cap, it is unlikely that any part of the cap is older than a few centuries. Unless we're lucky, why is there a residual cap present today for us to observe? We propose a solution involving constant destruction and renewal of the cap.

  7. Ideal relaxation of the Hopf fibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiet, Christopher Berg; Candelaresi, Simon; Bouwmeester, Dirk

    2017-07-01

    Ideal magnetohydrodynamics relaxation is the topology-conserving reconfiguration of a magnetic field into a lower energy state where the net force is zero. This is achieved by modeling the plasma as perfectly conducting viscous fluid. It is an important tool for investigating plasma equilibria and is often used to study the magnetic configurations in fusion devices and astrophysical plasmas. We study the equilibrium reached by a localized magnetic field through the topology conserving relaxation of a magnetic field based on the Hopf fibration in which magnetic field lines are closed circles that are all linked with one another. Magnetic fields with this topology have recently been shown to occur in non-ideal numerical simulations. Our results show that any localized field can only attain equilibrium if there is a finite external pressure, and that for such a field a Taylor state is unattainable. We find an equilibrium plasma configuration that is characterized by a lowered pressure in a toroidal region, with field lines lying on surfaces of constant pressure. Therefore, the field is in a Grad-Shafranov equilibrium. Localized helical magnetic fields are found when plasma is ejected from astrophysical bodies and subsequently relaxes against the background plasma, as well as on earth in plasmoids generated by, e.g., a Marshall gun. This work shows under which conditions an equilibrium can be reached and identifies a toroidal depression as the characteristic feature of such a configuration.

  8. Tension and relaxation in the individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, C R

    1979-06-01

    Increasing materialism in society is resulting in more wide spread nervous tension in all age groups. While some degree of nervous tension is necessary in everyday living, its adverse effects require that we must learn to bring it under control. Total tension is shown to have two components: a controllable element arising from factors in the environment and the inbuilt uncontrollable residue which is basic in the individual temperament. The effects of excessive or uncontrolled stress can be classified as 1) emotional reactions such as neurotic behaviour (anxiety hypochondria, hysteria, phobia, depression obsessions and compulsions) or psychotic behaviour and 2) psychosomatic reactions (nervous asthma, headache, insomnia, heart attack). Nervous energy can be wastefully expended by such factors as loss of temper, wrong attitudes to work, job frustration and marital strains. Relaxation is the only positive way to control undesirable nervous tension and its techniques require to be learned. A number of techniques (progressive relaxation, differential relaxation, hypnosis, the use of biofeedback, Yoga and Transcendental Meditation) are described and their application to dental practice is discussed.

  9. Proton NMR relaxation in hydrous melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, J.; Bacarella, A.L.; Benjamin, B.M.; Brown, L.L.; Girard, C.

    1976-01-01

    Pulse and continuous wave NMR measurements are reported for protons in hydrous melts of calcium nitrate at temperatures between -4 and 120 0 C. Although measured in different temperature ranges, spin-lattice (T 1 ) and spin-spin (T 2 ) relaxation times appear to be nearly equal to each other and proportional to the self-diffusion coefficients of solute metal cations such as Cd 2+ . At temperatures near 50 0 C, mean Arrhenius coefficients Δ H/sub T 1 / (kcal/mol) are 7.9, 7.3, and 4.8, respectively, for melts containing 2.8, 4.0, and 8.0 moles of water per mole of calcium nitrate, compared to 4.6 kcal/mol for pure water. Temperature dependence of T 1 and T 2 in Ca(NO 3 ) 2 -2.8 H 2 O between -4 and 120 0 C are non-Arrhenius and can be represented by a Fulcher-type equation with a ''zero mobility temperature'' (T 0 ) of 225 0 K, close to the value of T 0 for solute diffusion, electrical conductance and viscosity. Resolution of the relaxation rates into correlation times for intramolecular (rotational) and intermolecular (translational) diffusional motion is discussed in terms of the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound and more recent models for dipolar relaxation

  10. Direct colorimetric detection of unamplified pathogen DNA by dextrin-capped gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baetsen-Young, Amy M; Vasher, Matthew; Matta, Leann L; Colgan, Phil; Alocilja, Evangelyn C; Day, Brad

    2018-03-15

    The interaction between gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and nucleic acids has facilitated a variety of diagnostic applications, with further diversification of synthesis match bio-applications while reducing biotoxicity. However, DNA interactions with unique surface capping agents have not been fully defined. Using dextrin-capped AuNPs (d-AuNPs), we have developed a novel unamplified genomic DNA (gDNA) nanosensor, exploiting dispersion and aggregation characteristics of d-AuNPs, in the presence of gDNA, for sequence-specific detection. We demonstrate that d-AuNPs are stable in a five-fold greater salt concentration than citrate-capped AuNPs and the d-AuNPs were stabilized by single stranded DNA probe (ssDNAp). However, in the elevated salt concentrations of the DNA detection assay, the target reactions were surprisingly further stabilized by the formation of a ssDNAp-target gDNA complex. The results presented herein lead us to propose a mechanism whereby genomic ssDNA secondary structure formation during ssDNAp-to-target gDNA binding enables d-AuNP stabilization in elevated ionic environments. Using the assay described herein, we were successful in detecting as little as 2.94 fM of pathogen DNA, and using crude extractions of a pathogen matrix, as few as 18 spores/µL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Climate policies for road transport revisited (II): Closing the policy gap with cap-and-trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flachsland, Christian; Brunner, Steffen; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Creutzig, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Current policies in the road transport sector fail to deliver consistent and efficient incentives for greenhouse gas abatement (see companion article by ). Market-based instruments such as cap-and-trade systems close this policy gap and complement traditional policies that are required where specific market failures arise. Even in presence of strong existing non-market policies, cap-and-trade delivers additional abatement and efficiency by incentivizing demand side abatement options. This paper analyzes generic design options and economic impacts of including the European road transport sector into the EU ETS. Suitable points of regulation are up- and midstream in the fuel chain to ensure effectiveness (cover all emissions and avoid double-counting), efficiency (incentivize all abatement options) and low transaction costs. Based on year 2020 marginal abatement cost curves from different models and current EU climate policy objectives we show that in contrast to conventional wisdom, road transport inclusion would not change the EU ETS allowance price. Hence, industrial carbon leakage induced by adding road transport to the EU ETS may be less important than previously estimated. - Research highlights: → We analyze the rationale, design and economic impacts of including road transportation into GHG cap-and-trade systems. → Suitable points of regulation are up- and mid-stream. → Including European road transport into the EU ETS by 2020 would not change the EU allowance price.

  12. Decay of Metastable State with Account of Agglomeration and Relaxation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Kurasov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical description of the metastable phase decay kinetics in the presence of specific connections between the embryos of small sizes has been given. The theory of the decay kinetics in the presence of relaxation processes is constructed in analytical manner. The m-mers nucleation is investigated and the global kinetics of decay is also constructed in this case analytically.

  13. Multidimensional Test Assembly Based on Lagrangian Relaxation Techniques. Research Report 98-08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    In this paper, a mathematical programming approach is presented for the assembly of ability tests measuring multiple traits. The values of the variance functions of the estimators of the traits are minimized, while test specifications are met. The approach is based on Lagrangian relaxation techniques and provides good results for the two…

  14. Cap Bubble Drift Velocity in a Confined Test Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaodong Sun; Seungjin Kim; Mamoru Ishii; Lincoln, Frank W.; Beus, Stephen G.

    2002-01-01

    In the two-group interfacial area transport equation, bubbles are categorized into two groups, i.e., spherical/distorted bubbles as group 1 and cap/slug/churn-turbulent bubbles as group 2. The bubble rise velocities for both groups of bubbles may be estimated by the drift flux model by applying different distribution parameters and drift velocities for both groups. However, the drift velocity for group 2 bubbles is not always applicable (when the wall effect becomes important) as in the current test loop of interest where the flow channel is confined by two parallel flat walls, with a dimension of 200-mm in width and 10-mm in gap. The previous experiments indicated that no stable slug flow existed in this test section, which was designed to permit visualization of the flow patterns and bubble characteristics without the distortion associated with curved surfaces. In fact, distorted cap bubbly and churn-turbulent flow was observed. Therefore, it is essential to developed a correlation for cap bubble drift velocity in this confined flow channel. Since the rise velocity of a cap bubble depends on its size, a high-speed movie camera is used to capture images of cap bubbles to obtain the bubble size information. Meanwhile, the rise velocity of cap and elongated bubbles (called cap bubbles hereafter) is investigated by examining the captured images frame by frame. As a result, the conventional correlation of drift velocity for slug bubbles is modified and acceptable agreements between the measurements and correlation estimation are achieved

  15. A study of auroral activity in the nightside polar cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Q.

    1989-01-01

    Using various ground observations at South Pole, Antarctica (invariant magnetic latitude -74 degree) and its conjugate point, Frobisher Bay, Canada, the author has studied the following aspects of nightside polar cap auroral activity: the appearance and disappearance of polar cap auroras (diffuse and discrete) associated with substorms and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) variations; auroral optical emission line intensities; and the seasonal variation of auroral conjugacy. The observations show that the polar cap auroras usually fade away before the expansive phase of a substorm and bright auroral arcs reach high latitude (-74 degree) near the recovery phase. Just before the auroras fade away the discrete polar cap auroral arcs, which are usually on the poleward boundary of the diffuse aurora, intensify for 1 to 2 minutes. The observations also indicate the IMF may have stronger control over polar cap auroral activity than do substorms. A search for energy spectral variation of precipitating electrons using the intensities of 630.0 nm (0) and 427 nm (N 2 + ) auroral emission lines reveals no dramatic changes in the energy spectrum; instead, the data show possible atmospheric scattering and geometric effects on the photometric measurements while the bright auroral arc is moving into the polar cap. The conjugate observations show that the stormtime auroral electrojet current, which is associated with the bright auroral arc, in most cases reaches higher (lower) latitudes in the winter (summer) hemisphere. An asymmetric plasma sheet (with respect to the neutral sheet) is proposed, which expands deeper into the winter lobe, under a tilted geomagnetic dipole. Accordingly, the winter polar cap would have smaller area and the auroral electrojet would be at higher latitude

  16. Arginase attenuates inhibitory nonadrenergic noncholinergic nerve-induced nitric oxide generation and airway smooth muscle relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meurs Herman

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that endogenous arginase activity potentiates airway responsiveness to methacholine by attenuation of agonist-induced nitric oxide (NO production, presumably by competition with epithelial constitutive NO synthase for the common substrate, L-arginine. Using guinea pig tracheal open-ring preparations, we now investigated the involvement of arginase in the modulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS-mediated relaxation induced by inhibitory nonadrenergic noncholinergic (iNANC nerve stimulation. Methods Electrical field stimulation (EFS; 150 mA, 4 ms, 4 s, 0.5 – 16 Hz-induced relaxation was measured in tracheal preparations precontracted to 30% with histamine, in the presence of 1 μM atropine and 3 μM indomethacin. The contribution of NO to the EFS-induced relaxation was assessed by the nonselective NOS inhibitor L-NNA (0.1 mM, while the involvement of arginase activity in the regulation of EFS-induced NO production and relaxation was investigated by the effect of the specific arginase inhibitor nor-NOHA (10 μM. Furthermore, the role of substrate availability to nNOS in EFS-induced relaxation was measured in the presence of various concentrations of exogenous L-arginine. Results EFS induced a frequency-dependent relaxation, ranging from 6.6 ± 0.8% at 0.5 Hz to 74.6 ± 1.2% at 16 Hz, which was inhibited with the NOS inhibitor L-NNA by 78.0 ± 10.5% at 0.5 Hz to 26.7 ± 7.7% at 8 Hz (P Conclusion The results indicate that endogenous arginase activity attenuates iNANC nerve-mediated airway relaxation by inhibition of NO generation, presumably by limiting L-arginine availability to nNOS.

  17. Multicomponent T2 relaxation studies of the avian egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Mulkern, Robert V; Maier, Stephan E

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the tissue-like multiexponential T2 signal decays in avian eggs. Transverse relaxation studies of raw, soft-boiled and hard-boiled eggs were performed at 3 Tesla using a three-dimensional Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill imaging sequence. Signal decays over a TE range of 11 to 354 ms were fitted assuming single- and multicomponent signal decays with up to three separately decaying components. Fat saturation was used to facilitate spectral assignment of observed decay components. Egg white, yolk and the centrally located latebra all demonstrate nonmonoexponential T2 decays. Specifically, egg white exhibits two-component decays with intermediate and long T2 times. Meanwhile, yolk and latebra are generally best characterized with triexponential decays, with short, intermediate and very long T2 decay times. Fat saturation revealed that the intermediate component of yolk could be attributed to lipids. Cooking of the egg profoundly altered the decay curves. Avian egg T2 decay curves cover a wide range of decay times. Observed T2 components in yolk and latebra as short as 10 ms, may prove valuable for testing clinical sequences designed to measure short T2 components, such as myelin-associated water in the brain. Thus we propose that the egg can be a versatile and widely available MR transverse relaxation phantom. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. TURBULENCE DECAY AND CLOUD CORE RELAXATION IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yang; Law, Chung K.; Xu, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    The turbulent motion within molecular clouds is a key factor controlling star formation. Turbulence supports molecular cloud cores from evolving to gravitational collapse and hence sets a lower bound on the size of molecular cloud cores in which star formation can occur. On the other hand, without a continuous external energy source maintaining the turbulence, such as in molecular clouds, the turbulence decays with an energy dissipation time comparable to the dynamic timescale of clouds, which could change the size limits obtained from Jean's criterion by assuming constant turbulence intensities. Here we adopt scaling relations of physical variables in decaying turbulence to analyze its specific effects on the formation of stars. We find that the decay of turbulence provides an additional approach for Jeans' criterion to be achieved, after which gravitational infall governs the motion of the cloud core. This epoch of turbulence decay is defined as cloud core relaxation. The existence of cloud core relaxation provides a more complete understanding of the effect of the competition between turbulence and gravity on the dynamics of molecular cloud cores and star formation

  19. Gamma dosimetric parameters in some skeletal muscle relaxants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, H. C.

    2017-09-01

    We have studied the attenuation of gamma radiation of energy ranging from 84 keV to 1330 keV (^{170}Tm, ^{22}Na,^{137}Cs, and ^{60}Co) in some commonly used skeletal muscle relaxants such as tubocurarine chloride, gallamine triethiodide, pancuronium bromide, suxamethonium bromide and mephenesin. The mass attenuation coefficient is measured from the attenuation experiment. In the present work, we have also proposed the direct relation between mass attenuation coefficient (μ /ρ ) and mass energy absorption coefficient (μ _{en}/ρ ) based on the nonlinear fitting procedure. The gamma dosimetric parameters such as mass energy absorption coefficient (μ _{en}/ρ ), effective atomic number (Z_{eff}), effective electron density (N_{el}), specific γ-ray constant, air kerma strength and dose rate are evaluated from the measured mass attentuation coefficient. These measured gamma dosimetric parameters are compared with the theoretical values. The measured values agree with the theoretical values. The studied gamma dosimetric values for the relaxants are useful in medical physics and radiation medicine.

  20. Post-seismic relaxation theory on laterally heterogeneous viscoelastic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.F.

    2003-01-01

    Investigation was carried out into the problem of relaxation of a laterally heterogeneous viscoelastic Earth following an impulsive moment release event. The formal solution utilizes a semi-analytic solution for post-seismic deformation on a laterally homogeneous Earth constructed from viscoelastic normal modes, followed by application of mode coupling theory to derive the response on the aspherical Earth. The solution is constructed in the Laplace transform domain using the correspondence principle and is valid for any linear constitutive relationship between stress and strain. The specific implementation described in this paper is a semi-analytic discretization method which assumes isotropic elastic structure and a Maxwell constitutive relation. It accounts for viscoelastic-gravitational coupling under lateral variations in elastic parameters and viscosity. For a given viscoelastic structure and minimum wavelength scale, the computational effort involved with the numerical algorithm is proportional to the volume of the laterally heterogeneous region. Examples are presented of the calculation of post-seismic relaxation with a shallow, laterally heterogeneous volume following synthetic impulsive seismic events, and they illustrate the potentially large effect of regional 3-D heterogeneities on regional deformation patterns.

  1. Preparation and Properties of Nanoparticles of Calcium Phosphates With Various Ca/P Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Limin; Chow, Laurence C; Frukhtbeyn, Stanislav A; Bonevich, John E

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at preparing and studying the properties of nanoparticles of calcium phosphate (nCaP) with Ca/P ratios ranging from 1.0 to 1.67 using a spray-drying technique. Micro-structural analyses suggested that the nCaPs with Ca/P ratios of 1.67 to 1.33 were nano-sized amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) containing varying amounts of acid phosphate and carbonate. The nCaP with Ca/P ratio of 1 contained only nano-sized low crystalline dicalcium phosphate (DCP). BET measurements of the nCaPs showed specific surface areas of (12 ± 2 to 50 ± 1) m(2)/g, corresponding to estimated equivalent spherical diameters of (38 to 172) nm. However, dynamic light scattering measurements revealed much larger particles of (380 ± 49 to 768 ± 111) nm, owing to agglomeration of the smaller primary nano particles as revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermodynamic solubility measurements showed that the nCaPs with Ca/P ratio of 1.33 - 1.67 all have similar solubility behavior. The materials were more soluble than the crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) at pH greater than about 4.7, and more soluble than β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and DCP at pH above 5.5. Their solubility approached that of α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) at about pH 7. These nCaPs, which cannot be readily prepared by other currently available methods for nanoparticle preparation, have potential biomedical applications.

  2. Are chargemaster rates for imaging studies lower in States that cap noneconomic damages (tort reform)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Seth I; Barry, Jeffrey R; Jha, Saurabh

    2014-08-01

    To determine whether chargemaster (a list of prices for common services and procedures set by individual hospitals) rates for diagnostic imaging were lower in states that cap awards for noneconomic damages (NED) than states with unlimited awards for medical negligence. We analyzed 2011 chargemaster data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid, pertaining to 6 ambulatory patient classifications specific to imaging. The dataset includes outpatient imaging facilities and hospitals in 49 states and the District of Columbia. The association between caps on NED and chargemaster rates for imaging in a sample of 15,218 data points was analyzed using linear regression and two-sample t tests assuming unequal variances. In states that cap NED, the chargemaster rates were higher for the following modalities: Level II Echocardiogram without Contrast (mean charges: $2,015.60 versus $1,884.81, P = .0018); Level II Cardiac Imaging ($4,670.25 versus $4,398.58, P = .002); MRI & Magnetic Resonance Angiography without Contrast ($2,654.31 versus $2,526.74, P = .002); and Level III Diagnostic and Screening Ultrasound ($1,073.31 versus $1,027.32, P = .037). High charge-to-payment ratios were associated with states with the highest charges. There was a positive correlation between number of outpatient centers in the state and the average chargemaster rates for the state (mean chargemaster rate = 1727 + 0.79*Number of Outpatient Centers; R-squared = 0.23, P = .0004). Chargemaster rates for select imaging services are not lower in states that have capped NED. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Relaxation of the single-slip condition in strain-gradient plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguige, Keith; Dondl, Patrick W

    2014-09-08

    We consider the variational formulation of both geometrically linear and geometrically nonlinear elasto-plasticity subject to a class of hard single-slip conditions. Such side conditions typically render the associated boundary-value problems non-convex. We show that, for a large class of non-smooth plastic distortions, a given single-slip condition (specification of Burgers vectors) can be relaxed by introducing a microstructure through a two-stage process of mollification and lamination. The relaxed model can be thought of as an aid to simulating macroscopic plastic behaviour without the need to resolve arbitrarily fine spatial scales.

  4. Phase diagram and magnetic relaxation phenomena in Cu2OSeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, F.; Wilhelm, H.; Aqeel, A.; Palstra, T. T. M.; Lefering, A. J. E.; Brück, E. H.; Pappas, C.

    2016-08-01

    We present an investigation of the magnetic-field-temperature phase diagram of Cu2OSeO3 based on dc magnetization and ac susceptibility measurements covering a broad frequency range of four orders of magnitude, from very low frequencies reaching 0.1 Hz up to 1 kHz. The experiments were performed in the vicinity of Tc=58.2 K and around the skyrmion lattice A phase. At the borders between the different phases the characteristic relaxation times reach several milliseconds and the relaxation is nonexponential. Consequently the borders between the different phases depend on the specific criteria and frequency used and an unambiguous determination is not possible.

  5. Charge carrier relaxation model in disordered organic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Sun, Pengxiao; Liu, Ming

    2013-01-01

    The relaxation phenomena of charge carrier in disordered organic semiconductors have been demonstrated and investigated theoretically. An analytical model describing the charge carrier relaxation is proposed based on the pure hopping transport theory. The relation between the material disorder, electric field and temperature and the relaxation phenomena has been discussed in detail, respectively. The calculated results reveal that the increase of electric field and temperature can promote the relaxation effect in disordered organic semiconductors, while the increase of material disorder will weaken the relaxation. The proposed model can explain well the stretched-exponential law by adopting the appropriate parameters. The calculation shows a good agreement with the experimental data for organic semiconductors

  6. Relaxations in spin glasses: Similarities and differences from ordinary glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngai, K.L.; Rajagopal, A.K.; Huang, C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Relaxation phenomena have become a major concern in the physics of spin glasses. There are certain resemblances of these relaxation properties to those of ordinary glasses. In this work, we compare the relaxation properties of spin glasses near the freezing temperature with those of glasses near the glass transition temperature. There are similarities between the two types of glasses. Moreover, the relaxation properties of many glasses and spin glasses are in conformity with two coupled ''universality'' relations predicted by a recent model of relaxations in condensed matter

  7. Parametric study of propeller boss cap fins for container ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sang-Seop; Kim, Tae-Won; Lee, Dong-Myung; Kang, Chung-Gil; Kim, Soo-Young

    2014-06-01

    The global price of oil, which is both finite and limited in quantity, has been rising steadily because of the increasing requirements for energy in both developing and developed countries. Furthermore, regulations have been strengthened across all industries to address global warming. Many studies of hull resistance, propulsion and operation of ships have been performed to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. This study examined the design parameters of the propeller boss cap fin (PBCF) and hub cap for 6,000TEU container ships to improve the propulsion efficiency. The design parameters of PBCF have been selected based on the geometrical shape. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis with a propeller open water (POW) test was performed to check the validity of CFD analysis. The design of experiment (DOE) case was selected as a full factorial design, and the experiment was analyzed by POW and CFD analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to determine the correlation among design parameters. Four design alternatives of PBCF were selected from the DOE. The shape of a propeller hub cap was selected as a divergent shape, and the divergent angle was determined by the DOE. Four design alternatives of PBCF were attached to the divergent hub cap, and the POW was estimated by CFD. As a result, the divergent hub cap with PBCF has a negative effect on the POW, which is induced by an increase in torque coefficient. A POW test and cavitation test were performed with a divergent hub cap with PBCF to verify the CFD result. The POW test result showed that the open water efficiency was increased approximately 2% with a divergent hub cap compared to a normal cap. The POW test result was similar to the CFD result, and the divergent hub cap with the PBCF models showed lower open water efficiency. This was attributed to an increase in the torque coefficient just like the CFD results. A cavitation test was performed using the 2 models selected. The test result showed

  8. Effects of zoxazolamine and related centrally acting muscle relaxants on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, R T; McMillen, B A; Speciale, S G; Jarrah, H; Shore, P A; Sanghera, M K; Shepard, P D; German, D C

    1984-05-01

    The effects of zoxazolamine (ZOX) and related centrally acting muscle relaxants on striatal dopamine (DA) metabolism and turnover, and substantia nigra zona compacta DA neuronal impulse flow were studied in rats. ZOX, chlorzoxazone and mephenesin, but not meprobamate, chloral hydrate, diazepam, pentobarbital, ethanol or dantrolene, decreased striatal DA metabolism without affecting striatal DA concentrations. More specifically, ZOX, as a representative muscle relaxant, was shown to decrease striatal DA turnover without directly affecting DA synthesis, catabolism, reuptake, or release. ZOX decreased nigral DA neuronal firing rates and dramatically decreased firing rate variability (normally many of the cells fire with bursting firing patterns but after ZOX the cells often fired with a very regular pacemaker-like firing pattern). ZOX and related centrally acting muscle relaxants appear to decrease striatal DA turnover by decreasing both neuronal firing rate and firing rate variability. The possible relationships between DA neuronal activity and muscle tone are discussed.

  9. Evaluation of biexponential relaxation behaviour in the human brain by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L; Thomsen, C; Henriksen, O

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative estimation of individual biologic components in relaxation curves obtained in vivo may increase the specificity of tissue characterization by magnetic resonance imaging. In this study, the potential of biexponential curve analysis was evaluated in T1 and T2 measurements on the human...... brain at 1.5 tesla. Optimal experimental conditions were carefully observed, including the use of long TR values and a very small voxel size. T1 determination was based on a 12-points partial saturation inversion recovery pulse sequence. T2 determination involved a multiple spin echo sequence with 32...... echoes. No genuine biexponentiality was demonstrated in the T1 and T2 relaxation processes of white matter, cortical grey matter, or cerebrospinal fluid. Thus, a monoexponential model seems adequate for description of the relaxation behaviour in these cases. Furthermore, the results suggest...

  10. Effect of extender oils on the stress relaxation behavior of thermoplastic vulcanizates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The long term mechanical behavior of oil extended thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV based on polypropylene (PP and acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR has been characterized by means of stress relaxation experiments. The morphology of TPV and the phase specific oil distribution which depend on the content and type of oil as well as on the mixing regime have been characterized by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA and Differential Scanning Calorimetrie (DSC. The discussion of the stress relaxation behavior was carried out using the two-component model, which allows splitting the initial stress into two components: a thermal activated stress component and an athermal one. A master curve was created by shifting the relaxation curves vertically and horizontally towards the reference curve. The vertical shift factor bT is a function of the temperature dependence of the athermal stress components. It was found that the oil distribution strongly affects the athermal stress component which is related to the contribution of the structural changes, e.g. crystallinity of the PP phase and the average molecular weight between the crosslinks of the NBR phase. From the temperature dependence of the horizontal shift factor aT the main viscoelastic relaxation process was determined as the α-relaxation process of the crystalline PP phase. It is not dependent on the polarity and content of the oil as well as the mixing regime.

  11. Real-time observation of cascaded electronic relaxation processes in p-Fluorotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiaoli; Deng, Xulan; Long, Jinyou; Wang, Yanmei; Abulimiti, Bumaliya; Zhang, Bing

    2017-08-01

    Ultrafast electronic relaxation processes following two photoexcitation of 400 nm in p-Fluorotoluene (pFT) have been investigated utilizing time-resolved photoelectron imaging coupled with time-resolved mass spectroscopy. Cascaded electronic relaxation processes started from the electronically excited S2 state are directly imaged in real time and well characterized by two distinct time constants of 85 ± 10 fs and 2.4 ± 0.3 ps. The rapid component corresponds to the lifetime of the initially excited S2 state, including the structure relaxation from the Franck-Condon region to the conical intersection of S2/S1 and the subsequent internal conversion to the highly excited S1 state. While, the slower relaxation constant is attributed to the further internal conversion to the high levels of S0 from the secondarily populated S1 locating in the channel three region. Moreover, dynamical differences with benzene and toluene of analogous structures, including, specifically, the slightly slower relaxation rate of S2 and the evidently faster decay of S1, are also presented and tentatively interpreted as the substituent effects. In addition, photoelectron kinetic energy and angular distributions reveal the feature of accidental resonances with low-lying Rydberg states (the 3p, 4s and 4p states) during the multi-photon ionization process, providing totally unexpected but very interesting information for pFT.

  12. Relaxation to equilibrium following photoacid dissociation in mineral acids and buffer solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pines, D; Nibbering, E T J; Pines, E

    2007-01-01

    The relaxation to the dissociation equilibrium of a weak acid undergoing a transient pK a change in the presence of a strong mineral acid has been the subject of considerable interest both experimentally and theoretically. Here we compare this process with the analogue event taking place in a buffer solution of a weak carboxylic acid. The comparison has been performed in identical pH and ionic strength conditions and at a sufficiently short timescale where the buffer can only affect the weak acid relaxation by proton scavenging. Although the two relaxation processes have been found to differ in their temporal behaviour, they have both resulted in identical equilibrium amplitudes of the photoacid. This observation reassures the well-known chemical wisdom that pK a values measured in buffer solutions do not depend on the specific chemical reactivity of the buffer. We analyse the essentially many-body relaxation problem in terms of a re-normalized geminate recombination reaction which persists over longer times than the exponential relaxation to equilibrium of homogenously distributed populations of the reactants

  13. Magneto-dependent stress relaxation of magnetorheological gels

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yangguang; Liu, Taixiang; Liao, G J; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    The stress relaxation behaviors of magnetorheological (MR) gels under stepwise shear loading are systematically investigated. The particle-enhanced effect, the magneto-induced effect, and the temperature-enhanced effect on the stress relaxation of MR gels are discussed. For further analysis of the magneto-induced stress relaxation mechanism in MR gels, a phenomenological model is established to describe the stress relaxation behavior of the matrix and the magnetic particle chains. All characteristic parameters introduced in the model, i.e. relaxation time, instantaneous modulus, and stable modulus, have well-defined physical meanings and are fitted based on the experimental results. The influence of each parameter on the macroscopic response is discussed and it is found that the relaxation stress induced by the magneto-mechanical coupling effect plays an important role in the stress relaxation process of MR gels.

  14. Magneto-dependent stress relaxation of magnetorheological gels

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yangguang

    2017-09-01

    The stress relaxation behaviors of magnetorheological (MR) gels under stepwise shear loading are systematically investigated. The particle-enhanced effect, the magneto-induced effect, and the temperature-enhanced effect on the stress relaxation of MR gels are discussed. For further analysis of the magneto-induced stress relaxation mechanism in MR gels, a phenomenological model is established to describe the stress relaxation behavior of the matrix and the magnetic particle chains. All characteristic parameters introduced in the model, i.e. relaxation time, instantaneous modulus, and stable modulus, have well-defined physical meanings and are fitted based on the experimental results. The influence of each parameter on the macroscopic response is discussed and it is found that the relaxation stress induced by the magneto-mechanical coupling effect plays an important role in the stress relaxation process of MR gels.

  15. Stress relaxation of bi-disperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hengeller, Ludovica; Huang, Qian; Dorokhin, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    We present start-up of uniaxial extension followed by stress relaxation experiments of a bi-disperse 50 % by weight blend of 95k and 545k molecular weight polystyrene. We also show, for comparison, stress relaxation measurements of the polystyrene melts with molecular weight 95k and 545k, which...... are the components of the bi-disperse melt. The measurements show three separated relaxation regimes: a fast regime, a transition regime, and a slow regime. In the fast regime, the orientation of the long chains is frozen and the stress relaxation is due to stretch relaxation of the short chains primarily....... Conversely in the slow regime, the long chains have retracted and undergo relaxation of orientation in fully relaxed short chains....

  16. Pulsar bi-drifting: implications for polar cap geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Geoff; Weltevrede, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    For many years it has been considered puzzling how pulsar radio emission, supposedly created by a circulating carousel of sub-beams, can produce the drift bands demonstrated by PSR J0815+0939, and more recently PSR B1839-04, which simultaneously drifts in opposing directions. Here, we suggest that the carousels of these pulsars, and hence their beams, are not circular but elliptical with axes tilted with respect to the fiducial plane. We show that certain relatively unusual lines of sight can cause bi-drifting to be observed, and a simulation of the two known exemplars is presented. Although bi-drifting is rare, non-circular beams may be common among pulsars and reveal themselves by having profile centroids displaced from the fiducial plane identified by polarization position angle swings. They may also result in profiles with asymmetric- and frequency-dependent component evolution. It is further suggested that the carousels may change their tilt by specific amounts and later reverse them. This may occur suddenly, accompanying a mode change (e.g. PSR B0943+10), or more gradually and short lived as in `flare' pulsars (e.g. PSR B1859+07). A range of pulsar behaviour (e.g. the shifting drift patterns of PSRs B0818-41 and B0826-34) may also be the result of non-circular carousels with varying orientation. The underlying nature of these carousels - whether they are exclusively generated by polar cap physics or driven by magnetospheric effects - is briefly discussed.

  17. Selective reversal of muscle relaxation in general anesthesia: focus on sugammadex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin J Brull

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sorin J Brull1, Mohamed Naguib21Department of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic Hospital, Jacksonville, FL, USA; 2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center,  Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Despite the significant improvements in the pharmacology of muscle relaxants in the past six decades, the search for the ideal muscle relaxant continues, mainly because of the incomplete efficacy and persistent side effects associated with their antagonism. Clinical concerns remain about the residual paralysis and hemodynamic side effects associated with the classic pharmacologic reversal agents, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Although the development of the “ideal muscle relaxant” remains illusory, pharmacologic advancements hold promise for improved clinical care and patient safety. Recent clinical advances include the development of short-acting nondepolarizing muscle relaxant agents that have fast onset and a very rapid metabolism that allows reliable and complete recovery; and the development of selective, “designer” reversal agents that are specific for a single drug or class of drugs. This article reviews recent developments in the pharmacology of these selective reversal agents: plasma cholinesterases, cysteine, and sugammadex. Although each of the selective reversal agents is specific in its substrate, the clinical use of the combination of muscle relaxant with its specific reversal agent will allow much greater intraoperative titrating ability, decreased side effect profile, and may result in a decreased incidence of postoperative residual paralysis and improved patient safety.Keywords: selective reversal agents, cysteine, plasma cholinesterases, sugammadex

  18. The evolution of polar caps in magnetic cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, J.; Chanmugam, G.

    1986-01-01

    A simple analysis of the evolution of the size of the magnetic polar cap in accreting white dwarfs is made on the basis of current theories of the secular evolution of magnetic cataclysmic variables. For white dwarfs with dipolar fields it is shown that the size of the polar cap in DQ Her binaries is larger than in AM Her binaries. The size of the former is, however, smaller than deduced from interpretation of their X-ray light curves, while that of the latter is in rough agreement. If the dwarf contains an aligned magnetic quadrupole the size of the polar caps of the DQ Her binaries is significantly increased. Magnetic field decay of the quadrupole moment in the older AM Her binaries implies that their fields are predominantly dipolar. (author)

  19. Buy badges and help finance Cap Loisirs activities!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Please give a warm welcome to Cap Loisirs’ volunteers who will be manning a stand at the main entrance on Friday 8 February! In honour of St. Valentine’s Day, they will be selling a selection of 5 badges designed by artist Anna Sommer, depicting declarations of love by our friends from the animal kingdom. Price : Frs. 3.- per badge The aim of Fondation Cap Loisirs is to provide leisure activities for mentally handicapped children, adolescents and adults. The Foundation offers a wide range of activities which allow the mentally handicapped to enjoy quality leisure in areas as varied as culture, sport, tourism, travel and artistic expression. Fondation Cap Loisirs Rue de Monthoux 66 – 1201 Geneva – Tel: 022 731 86 00 – CCP Genève 12-5587-5 – caploisirs@caploisirs.ch – http://www.Caploisirs.ch

  20. Economic evaluation of closure cap barrier materials study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, M.G.; Bhutani, J.S.; Mead, S.M.

    1993-09-01

    Volume II of the Economic Evaluation of the Closure Cap Barrier Materials, Revision I contains detailed cost estimates for closure cap barrier materials. The cost estimates incorporate the life cycle costs for a generic hazardous waste seepage basin closure cap under the RCRA Post Closure Period of thirty years. The economic evaluation assessed six barrier material categories. Each of these categories consists of several composite cover system configurations, which were used to develop individual cost estimates. The information contained in this report is not intended to be used as a cost estimating manual. This information provides the decision makers with the ability to screen barrier materials, cover system configurations, and identify cost-effective materials for further consideration.

  1. Assessing the value of price caps and floors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This publication assesses the long-term economic and climatic effects of introducing price caps and price floors in hypothetical global climate change mitigation policy. Based on emission trends, abatement costs and equilibrium climate sensitivity from IPCC and IEA reports, this quantitative analysis confirms that price caps could significantly reduce economic uncertainty. This uncertainty stems primarily from unpredictable economic growth and energy prices, and ultimately unabated emission trends. In addition, the development of abatement technologies is uncertain. Furthermore,this analysis shows that rigid targets may entail greater economic risks with little or no comparative advantage for the climate. More ambitious emission objectives, combined with price caps and price floors, could still entail significantly lower expected costs while driving similar, or even slightly better, climatic outcomes in probabilistic terms.

  2. Controlling the Shapes of Silver Nanocrystals with Different Capping Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, J.; Tao, J.; Zheng, Y.; Rycenga, M.; Li, Z.-Y.; Zhang, Q.A.; Zhu, Y.; Xia, Y.

    2010-06-30

    This paper provides direct evidence to support the role of a capping agent in controlling the evolution of Ag seeds into nanocrystals with different shapes. Starting with single-crystal seeds (spherical or cubic in shape), we could selectively obtain Ag octahedrons enclosed by {l_brace}111{r_brace} facets and nanocubes/nanobars enclosed by {l_brace}100{r_brace} facets by adding sodium citrate (Na{sub 3}CA) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), respectively, as a capping agent while all other parameters were kept the same. This research not only offers new insights into the role played by a capping agent in shape-controlled synthesis but also provides, for the first time, Ag octahedrons as small as 40 nm in edge length for optical and spectroscopic studies.

  3. Controlling the shapes of silver nanocrystals with different capping agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jie; Zheng, Yiqun; Rycenga, Matthew; Tao, Jing; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Qiang; Zhu, Yimei; Xia, Younan

    2010-06-30

    This paper provides direct evidence to support the role of a capping agent in controlling the evolution of Ag seeds into nanocrystals with different shapes. Starting with single-crystal seeds (spherical or cubic in shape), we could selectively obtain Ag octahedrons enclosed by {111} facets and nanocubes/nanobars enclosed by {100} facets by adding sodium citrate (Na(3)CA) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), respectively, as a capping agent while all other parameters were kept the same. This research not only offers new insights into the role played by a capping agent in shape-controlled synthesis but also provides, for the first time, Ag octahedrons as small as 40 nm in edge length for optical and spectroscopic studies.

  4. Economic evaluation of closure cap barrier materials study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrato, M.G.; Bhutani, J.S.; Mead, S.M.

    1993-09-01

    Volume II of the Economic Evaluation of the Closure Cap Barrier Materials, Revision I contains detailed cost estimates for closure cap barrier materials. The cost estimates incorporate the life cycle costs for a generic hazardous waste seepage basin closure cap under the RCRA Post Closure Period of thirty years. The economic evaluation assessed six barrier material categories. Each of these categories consists of several composite cover system configurations, which were used to develop individual cost estimates. The information contained in this report is not intended to be used as a cost estimating manual. This information provides the decision makers with the ability to screen barrier materials, cover system configurations, and identify cost-effective materials for further consideration

  5. Ferroelectric capped magnetization in multiferroic PZT/LSMO tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ashok, E-mail: ashok553@nplindia.org; Shukla, A. K. [National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110012 (India); Barrionuevo, D.; Ortega, N.; Katiyar, Ram S. [Department of Physics and Institute of Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931-3343 (United States); Shannigrahi, Santiranjan [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering - IMRE, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A-STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Scott, J. F. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 ST (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-30

    Self-poled ultra-thin ferroelectric PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3} (PZT) (5 and 7 nm) films have been grown by pulsed laser deposition technique on ferromagnetic La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) (30 nm) to check the effect of polar capping on magnetization for ferroelectric tunnel junction devices. PZT/LSMO heterostructures with thick polar PZT (7 nm) capping show nearly 100% enhancement in magnetization compared with thin polar PZT (5 nm) films, probably due to excess hole transfer from the ferroelectric to the ferromagnetic layers. Core-level x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed the presence of larger Mn 3s exchange splitting and higher Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} ion ratio in the LSMO with 7 nm polar capping.

  6. Empiric penicillin monotherapy of CAP is not associated with increased mortality; experiences from the retrospective CAP-North cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baunbæk-Knudsen, Getrud; Vestergaard Jensen, Andreas; Andersen, Stine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a severe infection, with high morbidity and mortality. The antibiotic strategies for CAP differ across Europe. Objective: To assess the usage of Penicillin monotherapy in a real-life cohort and to evaluate predictors of treatment duration and the ......Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a severe infection, with high morbidity and mortality. The antibiotic strategies for CAP differ across Europe. Objective: To assess the usage of Penicillin monotherapy in a real-life cohort and to evaluate predictors of treatment duration......, and evaluated predictors of treatment duration by linear regression. Mortality of patients receiving empiric penicillin-G/V was compared to others by logistic regression analysis. The CAPNETZ database technology was used for data-capture. Results: We included 1320 patients. The incidence of hospitalized CAP...... was 3.1 per 1000 inhabitants. The median age was 71 years (IQR; 58.81). In-hospital mortality was 8%. Patients treated with penicillin-G/V as empiric monotherapy (45%) did not have a higher mortality than those treated with broader spectrum antibiotics (OR 1.30, CI 95% 0.84-2-02). The median duration...

  7. Elevation Changes of Ice Caps in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalati, W.; Krabill, W.; Frederick, E.; Manizade, S.; Martin, C.; Sonntag, J.; Swift, R.; Thomas, R.; Yungel, J.; Koerner, R.

    2004-01-01

    Precise repeat airborne laser surveys were conducted over the major ice caps in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in the spring of 1995 and 2000 in order to measure elevation changes in the region. Our measurements reveal thinning at lower elevations (below 1600 m) on most of the ice caps and glaciers, but either very little change or thickening at higher elevations in the ice cap accumulation zones. Recent increases in precipitation in the area can account for the slight thickening where it was observed, but not for the thinning at lower elevations. For the northern ice caps on the Queen Elizabeth Islands, thinning was generally less than 0.5 m/yr , which is consistent with what would be expected from the warm temperature anomalies in the region for the 5-year period between surveys and appears to be a continuation of a trend that began in the mid 1980s. Further south, however, on the Barnes and Penny ice caps on Baffin Island, this thinning was much more pronounced at over 1 m/yr in the lower elevations. Here temperature anomalies were very small, and the thinning at low elevations far exceeds any associated enhanced ablation. The observations on Barnes, and perhaps Penny are consistent with the idea that the observed thinning is part of a much longer term deglaciation, as has been previously suggested for Barnes Ice Cap. Based on the regional relationships between elevation and elevation-change in our data, the 1995-2000 mass balance for the region is estimated to be 25 cu km/yr of ice, which corresponds to a sea level increase of 0.064 mm/ yr . This places it among the more significant sources of eustatic sea level rise, though not as substantial as Greenland ice sheet, Alaskan glaciers, or the Patagonian ice fields.

  8. Relaxed Operational Semantics of Concurrent Programming Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Petri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel, operational framework to formally describe the semantics of concurrent programs running within the context of a relaxed memory model. Our framework features a "temporary store" where the memory operations issued by the threads are recorded, in program order. A memory model then specifies the conditions under which a pending operation from this sequence is allowed to be globally performed, possibly out of order. The memory model also involves a "write grain," accounting for architectures where a thread may read a write that is not yet globally visible. Our formal model is supported by a software simulator, allowing us to run litmus tests in our semantics.

  9. Reflexogenic relaxation gastroduodenography by the acupuncture method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabkin, I.Kh.; Tsibulyak, V.N.; Mnatsakyan, K.A.; Kondorskaya, I.L.; Galkina, T.V.

    The communication is based upon the results of x-ray examination of the stomach and duodenum in 63 patients with stenoses of the pyloroduodenal zone, cicatrical deformities of the duodenal bulb, bulbar ulcer, duodenal organic lesions, and functional stenosis of the loop. First a routine X-ray examination of the stomach and duodenum was performed using barium-water mixture, then followed acupuncture aimed at hypotension in the definite points of the floor of the auricle where branches of the vagus innervating the stomach and duodenum are located. As distinct from pharmacological relaxation this method produces a purpose-oriented selective effect.

  10. Reflexogenic relaxation gastroduodenography by the acupuncture method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabkin, I.Kh.; Tsibulyak, V.N.; Mnatsakyan, K.A.; Kondorskaya, I.L.; Galkina, T.V.

    1985-01-01

    The communication is based upon the results of x-ray examination of the stomach and duodenum in 63 patients with stenoses of the pyloroduodenal zone, cicatrical deformities of the duodenal bulb, bulbar ulcer, duodenal organic lesions, and functional stenosis of the loop. First a routine X-ray examination of the stomach and duodenum was performed using barium-water mixture, than followed acupuncture aimed at hypotension in the definite points of the floor of the auricle where branches of the vagus innervating the stomach and duodenum are located. As distinct from pharmacological relaxation this method produces a purpose-oriented selective effect

  11. Relaxation Processes and Time Scale Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    the response function may be immediately recognized as being 14 of the Kubo - Green type in the classical regime. Given this general framework, it is now...b as a function of temperature is 24 equivalent to the Vogel-Beuche-Fulcher empirical law for viscosity or the Williams-Landel-Ferry empirical law...relaxation times. With the weighted sum in the form of an integral , one can write exp(-(t/T)b ] = f dT’g(r’) exp[-(t/T’)], O

  12. Image charge relaxation in electrophoretic displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A novel improvement to a real time imaging system for use in electrostatic imaging is described. Present systems produce ten separate images per second and the image must be erased in preparation for the next exposure and image formation. The new design of electrostatic imaging chamber can take one of several forms which are discussed in detail; both organic and inorganic materials may be used as the photoconductor material in the discharging control layer and suitable examples are given. Values for the resistivity and the relaxation time of the discharging control layer are given. (U.K.)

  13. STRUCTURAL STRESS RELAXATION IN STAINLESS INSTABILITY STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lyabuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The approach to the description of conditions of martensitic transformation in austenitic steel is advanced. Transformation induced hardening is the result of Le Chatelier principle in instability alloys. The phase transformation in austenitic instability stainless steel is the cause of reduction of grain refining and increase of strength. It was experimentally shown that physical-mechanical characteristics of the prepared materials were defined by the structure and inhomogeneous distribution of the hardening phase within a grain. The reasons for high thermal stability of inverse austenitic were established. The factors determining the inverse austenitic relaxation resistibility and resources for its increasing were revealed.

  14. Ultra-fast relaxation kinetics in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzzi, R.

    1983-01-01

    It is presented a brief description of relaxation processes in highly excited semiconductor plasmas (HESP). Comparison with experimental data obtained by means of ultra-fast laser light spectroscopy (UFLS) is made. Some aspects of response funtion theory in systems far-from-equilibrium are reviewed in Section II. In Section III we present some comments on the question of nonequilibrium thermodynamics relevant to the problem to be considered. In last section we present a brief summary of the different aspects of the subject. (author) [pt

  15. Charge imbalance: its relaxation, diffusion and oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pethick, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    In this article, the authors use a model for charge density based on two charge components: the normal quasiparticle component and the superfluid/condensate component. Based on the quasiparticle Boltzmann equation, this two-component model, when used in nonequilibrium contexts, is fruitful in describing a variety of charge-imbalance phenomena in superconductors. The authors discuss various methods of generating charge-imbalances, charge-imbalance relaxation processes (such as phonons, impurity scattering and magnetic impurities) and applications of the two-component model of charge imbalance to spatially inhomogeneous conditions

  16. Modelling Creep (Relaxation of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravkovic Nebojsa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We first present the results of an experiment in which the passive properties of the urinary bladder were investigated using strips of rabbit bladder. Under the assumption that the urinary bladder had orthopaedic characteristics, the strips were taken in the longitudinal and in the circumferential directions. The material was subjected to uniaxial tension, and stress-stretch curves were generated for various rates of deformation. We found that the rates did not have a significantly effect on the passive response of the material. Additionally, the stress-stretch dependence during relaxation of the material when exposed to isometric conditions was determined experimentally.

  17. Ultra-fast relaxation kinetics in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzzi, R.

    1983-01-01

    It is presented a brief description of relaxation processes in highly excited semiconductor plasmas (HESP). Comparison with experimental data obtained by means of ultra-fast laser light spectroscopy (UFLS) is made. Some aspects of response function theory in systems far-from-equilibrium are reviewed in Section II. In Section III some comments on the question of nonequilibrium thermodynamics relevant to the problem to be considered are presented. In last Section a brief summary of the different aspects of the subject is also presented. (Author) [pt

  18. Deformation relaxation in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.; Gan, Z.G.; Zhang, Z.Y.; Zhang, H.F.; Li, J.Q.

    2014-01-01

    In deeply inelastic heavy-ion collisions, the quadrupole deformations of both fragments are taken as stochastic independent dynamical variables governed by the Fokker–Planck equation (FPE) under the corresponding driving potential. The mean values, variances and covariance of the fragments are analytically expressed by solving the FPE in head on collisions. The characteristics and mechanism of the deformation are discussed. It is found that both the internal structures and interactions of the colliding partners are critical for the deformation relaxation in deeply inelastic collisions.

  19. Idiosyncratic reality claims, relaxation dispositions, and ABC relaxation theory: happiness, literal christianity, miraculous powers, metaphysics, and the paranormal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathan C; Karmin, Aaron D

    2002-12-01

    This study examined idiosyncratic reality claims, that is, irrational or paranormal beliefs often claimed to enhance relaxation and happiness and reduce stress. The Smith Idiosyncratic Reality Claims Inventory and the Smith Relaxation Dispositions Inventory (which measures relaxation and stress dispositions, or enduring states of mind frequently associated with relaxation or stress) were given to 310 junior college student volunteers. Principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation identified five idiosyncratic reality claim factors: belief in Literal Christianity; Magic; Space Aliens: After Death experiences; and Miraculous Powers of Meditation, Prayer, and Belief. No factor correlated with increased relaxation dispositions Peace, Energy, or Joy, or reduced dispositional somatic stress, worry, or negative emotion on the Smith Relaxation Dispositions Inventory. It was concluded that idiosyncratic reality claims may not be associated with reported relaxation, happiness, or stress. In contrast, previous research strongly supported self-affirming beliefs with few paranormal assumptions display such an association.

  20. Efficient analysis of macromolecular rotational diffusion from heteronuclear relaxation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosset, Patrice; Hus, Jean-Christophe; Blackledge, Martin; Marion, Dominique

    2000-01-01

    A novel program has been developed for the interpretation of 15 N relaxation rates in terms of macromolecular anisotropic rotational diffusion. The program is based on a highly efficient simulated annealing/minimization algorithm, designed specifically to search the parametric space described by the isotropic, axially symmetric and fully anisotropic rotational diffusion tensor models. The high efficiency of this algorithm allows extensive noise-based Monte Carlo error analysis. Relevant statistical tests are systematically applied to provide confidence limits for the proposed tensorial models. The program is illustrated here using the example of the cytochrome c' from Rhodobacter capsulatus, a four-helix bundle heme protein, for which data at three different field strengths were independently analysed and compared

  1. Multimodal targeted high relaxivity thermosensitive liposome for in vivo imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijten, Maayke M. P.; Hannah Degeling, M.; Chen, John W.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory; Waterman, Peter; Weissleder, Ralph; Azzi, Jamil; Nicolay, Klaas; Tannous, Bakhos A.

    2015-11-01

    Liposomes are spherical, self-closed structures formed by lipid bilayers that can encapsulate drugs and/or imaging agents in their hydrophilic core or within their membrane moiety, making them suitable delivery vehicles. We have synthesized a new liposome containing gadolinium-DOTA lipid bilayer, as a targeting multimodal molecular imaging agent for magnetic resonance and optical imaging. We showed that this liposome has a much higher molar relaxivities r1 and r2 compared to a more conventional liposome containing gadolinium-DTPA-BSA lipid. By incorporating both gadolinium and rhodamine in the lipid bilayer as well as biotin on its surface, we used this agent for multimodal imaging and targeting of tumors through the strong biotin-streptavidin interaction. Since this new liposome is thermosensitive, it can be used for ultrasound-mediated drug delivery at specific sites, such as tumors, and can be guided by magnetic resonance imaging.

  2. Lower end fitting debris collector and end cap spacer grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor having fuel assemblies including an upper end fitting and spaced nuclear fuel rod spacer grids for supporting and spacing a plurality of elongated nuclear fuel rods. Each includes a hollow active portion of nuclear fuel filled cladding intermediate the rod ends and tapering end cap of solid material with a circumferential groove on the rod end which first encounters reactor coolant flow, a lower end filtering debris collector and end cap spacer grid for capturing and retaining deleterious debris carried by reactor coolant before it enters the active region of a fuel assembly and creates fuel rod cladding damage

  3. Collapse mechanisms and strength prediction of reinforced concrete pile caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe G.; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2012-01-01

    . Calculations have been compared with nearly 200 test results found in the literature. Satisfactory agreement has been found. The analyses are conducted on concentrically loaded caps supported by four piles. The paper briefly outlines how the approach may be extended to more complicated loadings and geometries......This paper describes an upper bound plasticity approach for strength prediction of reinforced concrete pile caps. A number of collapse mechanisms are identified and analysed. The procedure leads to an estimate of the load-carrying capacity and an identification of the critical collapse mechanism...

  4. Capped Lp approximations for the composite L0 regularization problem

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qia; Zhang, Na

    2017-01-01

    The composite L0 function serves as a sparse regularizer in many applications. The algorithmic difficulty caused by the composite L0 regularization (the L0 norm composed with a linear mapping) is usually bypassed through approximating the L0 norm. We consider in this paper capped Lp approximations with $p>0$ for the composite L0 regularization problem. For each $p>0$, the capped Lp function converges to the L0 norm pointwisely as the approximation parameter tends to infinity. We point out tha...

  5. Pulsar Polar Cap and Slot Gap Models: Confronting Fermi Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice K. Harding

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rotation-powered pulsars are excellent laboratories for studying particle acceleration as well as fundamental physics of strong gravity, strong magnetic fields and relativity. Particle acceleration and high-energy emission from the polar caps is expected to occur in connection with electron-positron pair cascades. I will review acceleration and gamma-ray emission from the pulsar polar cap and associated slot gap. Predictions of these models can be tested with the data set on pulsars collected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope over the last four years, using both detailed light curve fitting, population synthesis and phase-resolved spectroscopy.

  6. European quality assurance and quality control for cut-off walls and caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferis, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Cut-off walls and caps both may be seriously compromised by small areas of substandard materials or work. Quality assurance/quality control is therefore of crucial importance and the paper sets out the issues that need to be addressed when designing a quality plan for a containment. Consideration is given to the purpose of the containment, the parameters to be controlled, specifications and standards and tests on raw and manufactured materials and on the in-situ containment. It is not the purpose of the paper to give detailed test procedures but rather to identify the questions that must be answered to develop a quality plan

  7. An essential role for trimethylguanosine RNA caps in Saccharomyces cerevisiae meiosis and their requirement for splicing of SAE3 and PCH2 meiotic pre-mRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhicheng R; Shuman, Stewart; Schwer, Beate

    2011-07-01

    Tgs1 is the enzyme that converts m(7)G RNA caps to the 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine (TMG) caps characteristic of spliceosomal snRNAs. Fungi grow vegetatively without TMG caps, thereby raising the question of what cellular transactions, if any, are TMG cap-dependent. Here, we report that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tgs1 methyltransferase activity is essential for meiosis. tgs1Δ cells are specifically defective in splicing PCH2 and SAE3 meiotic pre-mRNAs. The TMG requirement for SAE3 splicing is alleviated by two intron mutations: a UAUUAAC to UACUAAC change that restores a consensus branchpoint and disruption of a stem-loop encompassing the branchpoint. The TMG requirement for PCH2 splicing is alleviated by a CACUAAC to UACUAAC change restoring a consensus branchpoint and by shortening the PCH2 5' exon. Placing the SAE3 and PCH2 introns within a HIS3 reporter confers Tgs1-dependent histidine prototrophy, signifying that the respective introns are portable determinants of TMG-dependent gene expression. Analysis of in vitro splicing in extracts of TGS1 versus tgs1Δ cells showed that SAE3 intron removal was enfeebled without TMG caps, whereas splicing of ACT1 was unaffected. Our findings illuminate a new mode of tunable splicing, a reliance on TMG caps for an essential developmental RNA transaction, and three genetically distinct meiotic splicing regulons in budding yeast.

  8. Thermal relaxation of charm in hadronic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Min, E-mail: mhe@comp.tamu.edu [Cyclotron Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Fries, Rainer J. [Cyclotron Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); RIKEN/BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Rapp, Ralf [Cyclotron Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2011-07-18

    The thermal relaxation rate of open-charm (D) mesons in hot and dense hadronic matter is calculated using empirical elastic scattering amplitudes. D-meson interactions with thermal pions are approximated by D{sup *} resonances, while scattering off other hadrons (K, {eta}, {rho}, {omega}, K{sup *}, N, {Delta}) is evaluated using vacuum scattering amplitudes as available in the literature based on effective Lagrangians and constrained by realistic spectroscopy. The thermal relaxation time of D-mesons in a hot {pi} gas is found to be around 25-50 fm/c for temperatures T=150-180 MeV, which reduces to 10-25 fm/c in a hadron-resonance gas. The latter values, argued to be conservative estimates, imply significant modifications of D-meson spectra in heavy-ion collisions. Close to the critical temperature (T{sub c}), the spatial diffusion coefficient (D{sub s}) is surprisingly similar to recent calculations for charm quarks in the Quark-Gluon Plasma using non-perturbative T-matrix interactions. This suggests a possibly continuous minimum structure of D{sub s} around T{sub c}.

  9. Relaxation methods for gauge field equilibrium equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.; Piran, T.

    1984-01-01

    This article gives a pedagogical introduction to relaxation methods for the numerical solution of elliptic partial differential equations, with particular emphasis on treating nonlinear problems with delta-function source terms and axial symmetry, which arise in the context of effective Lagrangian approximations to the dynamics of quantized gauge fields. The authors present a detailed theoretical analysis of three models which are used as numerical examples: the classical Abelian Higgs model (illustrating charge screening), the semiclassical leading logarithm model (illustrating flux confinement within a free boundary or ''bag''), and the axially symmetric Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield monopoles (illustrating the occurrence of p topological quantum numbers in non-Abelian gauge fields). They then proceed to a self-contained introduction to the theory of relaxation methods and allied iterative numerical methods and to the practical aspects of their implementation, with attention to general issues which arise in the three examples. The authors conclude with a brief discussion of details of the numerical solution of the models, presenting sample numerical results

  10. Relaxed metrics and indistinguishability operators: the relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.

    2017-07-01

    In 1982, the notion of indistinguishability operator was introduced by E. Trillas in order to fuzzify the crisp notion of equivalence relation (/cite{Trillas}). In the study of such a class of operators, an outstanding property must be pointed out. Concretely, there exists a duality relationship between indistinguishability operators and metrics. The aforesaid relationship was deeply studied by several authors that introduced a few techniques to generate metrics from indistinguishability operators and vice-versa (see, for instance, /cite{BaetsMesiar,BaetsMesiar2}). In the last years a new generalization of the metric notion has been introduced in the literature with the purpose of developing mathematical tools for quantitative models in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence (/cite{BKMatthews,Ma}). The aforementioned generalized metrics are known as relaxed metrics. The main target of this talk is to present a study of the duality relationship between indistinguishability operators and relaxed metrics in such a way that the aforementioned classical techniques to generate both concepts, one from the other, can be extended to the new framework. (Author)

  11. Relaxation creep model of impending earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgounov, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics of the Earth, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-04-01

    The alternative view of the current status and perspective of seismic prediction studies is discussed. In the problem of the ascertainment of the uncertainty relation Cognoscibility-Unpredictability of Earthquakes, priorities of works on short-term earthquake prediction are defined due to the advantage that the final stage of nucleation of earthquake is characterized by a substantial activation of the process while its strain rate increases by the orders of magnitude and considerably increased signal-to-noise ratio. Based on the creep phenomenon under stress relaxation conditions, a model is proposed to explain different images of precursors of impending tectonic earthquakes. The onset of tertiary creep appears to correspond to the onset of instability and inevitably fails unless it unloaded. At this stage, the process acquires the self-regulating character to the greatest extent the property of irreversibility, one of the important components of prediction reliability. Data in situ suggest a principal possibility to diagnose the process of preparation by ground measurements of acoustic and electromagnetic emission in the rocks under constant strain in the condition of self-relaxed stress until the moment of fracture are discussed in context. It was obtained that electromagnetic emission precedes but does not accompany the phase of macrocrak development.

  12. Hydrodynamic relaxations in dissipative particle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J. S.; Greenfield, Michael L.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the dynamics of relaxation phenomena in the standard dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) model [R. D. Groot and P. B. Warren, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4423 (1997)]. Using fluctuating hydrodynamics as the framework of the investigation, we focus on the collective transverse and longitudinal dynamics. It is shown that classical hydrodynamic theory predicts the transverse dynamics at relatively low temperatures very well when compared to simulation data; however, the theory predictions are, on the same length scale, less accurate for higher temperatures. The agreement with hydrodynamics depends on the definition of the viscosity, and here we find that the transverse dynamics are independent of the dissipative and random shear force contributions to the stress. For high temperatures, the spectrum for the longitudinal dynamics is dominated by the Brillouin peak for large length scales and the relaxation is therefore governed by sound wave propagation and is athermal. This contrasts the results at lower temperatures and small length scale, where the thermal process is clearly present in the spectra. The DPD model, at least qualitatively, re-captures the underlying hydrodynamical mechanisms, and quantitative agreement is excellent at intermediate temperatures for the transverse dynamics.

  13. Structure of a two-CAP-domain protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A., E-mail: oasojo@unmc.edu [Pathology and Microbiology Department, 986495 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-6495 (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite N. americanus refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å is presented. Major proteins secreted by the infective larval stage hookworms upon host entry include Ancylostoma secreted proteins (ASPs), which are characterized by one or two CAP (cysteine-rich secretory protein/antigen 5/pathogenesis related-1) domains. The CAP domain has been reported in diverse phylogenetically unrelated proteins, but has no confirmed function. The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite Necator americanus was refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å. The structure was solved by molecular replacement (MR) using Na-ASP-2, a one-CAP-domain ASP, as the search model. The correct MR solution could only be obtained by truncating the polyalanine model of Na-ASP-2 and removing several loops. The structure reveals two CAP domains linked by an extended loop. Overall, the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain is more similar to Na-ASP-2 than to the amino-terminal CAP domain. A large central cavity extends from the amino-terminal CAP domain to the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain, encompassing the putative CAP-binding cavity. The putative CAP-binding cavity is a characteristic cavity in the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain that contains a His and Glu pair. These residues are conserved in all single-CAP-domain proteins, but are absent in the amino-terminal CAP domain. The conserved His residues are oriented such that they appear to be capable of directly coordinating a zinc ion as observed for CAP proteins from reptile venoms. This first structure of a two-CAP-domain ASP can serve as a template for homology modeling of other two-CAP-domain proteins.

  14. Structure of a two-CAP-domain protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.

    2011-01-01

    The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite N. americanus refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å is presented. Major proteins secreted by the infective larval stage hookworms upon host entry include Ancylostoma secreted proteins (ASPs), which are characterized by one or two CAP (cysteine-rich secretory protein/antigen 5/pathogenesis related-1) domains. The CAP domain has been reported in diverse phylogenetically unrelated proteins, but has no confirmed function. The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite Necator americanus was refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å. The structure was solved by molecular replacement (MR) using Na-ASP-2, a one-CAP-domain ASP, as the search model. The correct MR solution could only be obtained by truncating the polyalanine model of Na-ASP-2 and removing several loops. The structure reveals two CAP domains linked by an extended loop. Overall, the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain is more similar to Na-ASP-2 than to the amino-terminal CAP domain. A large central cavity extends from the amino-terminal CAP domain to the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain, encompassing the putative CAP-binding cavity. The putative CAP-binding cavity is a characteristic cavity in the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain that contains a His and Glu pair. These residues are conserved in all single-CAP-domain proteins, but are absent in the amino-terminal CAP domain. The conserved His residues are oriented such that they appear to be capable of directly coordinating a zinc ion as observed for CAP proteins from reptile venoms. This first structure of a two-CAP-domain ASP can serve as a template for homology modeling of other two-CAP-domain proteins

  15. Impact Response Study on Covering Cap of Aircraft Big-Size Integral Fuel Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fusheng; Jia, Senqing; Wang, Yi; Yue, Zhufeng

    2016-10-01

    In order to assess various design concepts and choose a kind of covering cap design scheme which can meet the requirements of airworthiness standard and ensure the safety of fuel tank. Using finite element software ANSYS/LS- DYNA, the impact process of covering cap of aircraft fuel tank by projectile were simulated, in which dynamical characteristics of simple single covering cap and gland double-layer covering cap impacted by titanium alloy projectile and rubber projectile were studied, as well as factor effects on simple single covering cap and gland double-layer covering cap under impact region, impact angle and impact energy were also studied. Though the comparison of critical damage velocity and element deleted number of the covering caps, it shows that the external covering cap has a good protection effect on internal covering cap. The regions close to boundary are vulnerable to appear impact damage with titanium alloy projectile while the regions close to center is vulnerable to occur damage with rubber projectile. Equivalent strain in covering cap is very little when impact angle is less than 15°. Element deleted number in covering cap reaches the maximum when impact angle is between 60°and 65°by titanium alloy projectile. While the bigger the impact angle and the more serious damage of the covering cap will be when rubber projectile impact composite covering cap. The energy needed for occurring damage on external covering cap and internal covering cap is less than and higher than that when single covering cap occur damage, respectively. The energy needed for complete breakdown of double-layer covering cap is much higher than that of single covering cap.

  16. The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) and Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) - Application in Early Warning Systems for Natural Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendholt, Matthias; Hammitzsch, Martin; Wächter, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) [1] is an XML-based data format for exchanging public warnings and emergencies between alerting technologies. In conjunction with the Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) Distribution Element (-DE) [2] these data formats can be used for warning message dissemination in early warning systems for natural hazards. Application took place in the DEWS (Distance Early Warning System) [3] project where CAP serves as central message format containing both human readable warnings and structured data for automatic processing by message receivers. In particular the spatial reference capabilities are of paramount importance both in CAP and EDXL. Affected areas are addressable via geo codes like HASC (Hierarchical Administrative Subdivision Codes) [4] or UN/LOCODE [5] but also with arbitrary polygons that can be directly generated out of GML [6]. For each affected area standardized criticality values (urgency, severity and certainty) have to be set but also application specific key-value-pairs like estimated time of arrival or maximum inundation height can be specified. This enables - together with multilingualism, message aggregation and message conversion for different dissemination channels - the generation of user-specific tailored warning messages. [1] CAP, http://www.oasis-emergency.org/cap [2] EDXL-DE, http://docs.oasis-open.org/emergency/edxl-de/v1.0/EDXL-DE_Spec_v1.0.pdf [3] DEWS, http://www.dews-online.org [4] HASC, "Administrative Subdivisions of Countries: A Comprehensive World Reference, 1900 Through 1998" ISBN 0-7864-0729-8 [5] UN/LOCODE, http://www.unece.org/cefact/codesfortrade/codes_index.htm [6] GML, http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/gml

  17. Relaxation of soman-induced contracture of airway smooth muscle in vitro. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filbert, M.G.; Moore, D.H.; Adler, M.

    1992-12-31

    A possible role for beta-adrenergic agonists in the management of bronchoconstriction resulting from exposure to anticholinesterase compounds was investigated in vitro in canine tracheal smooth muscle. Norepinephrine, salbutamol and isoproterenol produced partial relaxation of soman-induced contractures. However, the relaxation induced was not sustained; muscle tensions returned to pretreatment levels within minutes despite the continued presence of beta-agonists. Increasing cAMP levels with the non beta-agonist bronchodilators such as thoophylline, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, or forskolin, a specific stimulator of adenylate cyclase, resulted in more complete and longer lasting relaxation, suggesting that beta-adrenoceptor desensitization may contribute to the failure by beta-agonists to produce sustained relaxation. Nerve agents, Soman, Toxicity, Airway smooth muscle, In vitro, Physiology, Effects.

  18. Integrated Modeling and Decision-Support System for Water Management in the Puget Sound Basin: Snow Caps to White Caps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yang, Zhaoqing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Voisin, Nathalie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richey, Jeff [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wang, Taiping [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taira, Randal Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Constans, Michael [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wigmosta, Mark S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Van Cleve, Frances B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tesfa, Teklu K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Final Report for the EPA-sponsored project Snow Caps to White Caps that provides data products and insight for water resource managers to support their predictions and management actions to address future changes in water resources (fresh and marine) in the Puget Sound basin. This report details the efforts of a team of scientists and engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington (UW) to examine the movement of water in the Snohomish Basin, within the watershed and the estuary, under present and future conditions, using a set of linked numerical models.

  19. Technology-derived storage solutions for stabilizing insulin in extreme weather conditions I: the ViViCap-1 device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Pesach, Gidi; Nagar, Ron

    2017-06-01

    Injectable life-saving drugs should not be exposed to temperatures 30°C/86°F. Frequently, weather conditions exceed these temperature thresholds in many countries. Insulin is to be kept at 4-8°C/~ 39-47°F until use and once opened, is supposed to be stable for up to 31 days at room temperature (exception: 42 days for insulin levemir). Extremely hot or cold external temperature can lead to insulin degradation in a very short time with loss of its glucose-lowering efficacy. Combined chemical and engineering solutions for heat protection are employed in ViViCap-1 for disposable insulin pens. The device works based on vacuum insulation and heat consumption by phase-change material. Laboratory studies with exposure of ViViCap-1 to hot outside conditions were performed to evaluate the device performance. ViViCap-1 keeps insulin at an internal temperature phase-change process and 'recharges' the device for further use. ViViCap-1 performed within its specifications. The small and convenient device maintains the efficacy and safety of using insulin even when carried under hot weather conditions.

  20. Surface morphology and dewettability of self-organized thermosets involving epoxy and POSS-capped poly(ethylene oxide) telechelics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Zheng, Sixun

    2012-01-01

    A heptaphenyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-capped poly(ethylene oxide) (POSS-capped PEO) telechelics was synthesized via the Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between 3-azidopropylheptaphenyl POSS and α,ω-dialkynyl-terminated poly(ethylene oxide). The organic–inorganic amphiphile was incorporated into epoxy to obtain the organic–inorganic nanocomposites. The morphology of the nanocomposites was investigated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). It was found that the epoxy thermosets containing POSS-capped PEO telechelics were microphase-separated. The formation of the nanophases in the thermosets followed a self-assembly mechanism. The static contact angle measurements show that the nanocomposites displayed a significant enhancement in surface hydrophobicity as well as reduction in surface free energy. The improvement in surface dewettability was ascribed to the enrichment of POSS cages at the surface of the nanocomposites and the formation of the specific surface morphology as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface atomic force microscopy (AFM). -- Highlights: ► POSS-capped PEO telechelics was synthesized via click chemistry approach. ► The organic–inorganic amphiphile can be self-assembled into the nanophases in epoxy. ► The hybrid nanocomposites were successfully prepared via a self-assembly approach. ► The nanocomposites displayed a significant enhancement in surface hydrophobicity.