Sample records for relaxed arakawa-schubert scheme

  1. Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert - A parameterization of moist convection for general circulation models

    Moorthi, Shrinivas; Suarez, Max J.


    A simple implementation of the Arakawa and Schubert (1974) cumulus parameterization is presented. The major simplification made is to 'relax' the state toward equilibrium each time the parameterization is invoked, rather than requiring that the final state be balanced, as in the original Arakawa-Schubert implementation. This relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS) scheme is evaluated in off-line tests using the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) Phase III data. The results show that RAS is equivalent to the standard implementation of Arakawa-Schubert but is more economical and simpler to code. RAS also avoids the ill-posed problem that occurs in Arakawa-Schubert as a result of having to solve for a balanced state.

  2. Design, Evaluation and GCM-Performance of a New Parameterization for Microphysics of Clouds with Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert Scheme (McRas)

    Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.


    A prognostic cloud scheme named McRAS (Microphysics of clouds with Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert Scheme) was developed with the aim of improving cloud-microphysics, and cloud-radiation interactions in GCMs. McRAS distinguishes convective, stratiform, and boundary-layer clouds. The convective clouds merge into stratiform clouds on an hourly time-scale, while the boundary-layer clouds do so instantly. The cloud condensate transforms into precipitation following the auto-conversion relations of Sundqvist that contain a parametric adaptation for the Bergeron-Findeisen process of ice crystal growth and collection of cloud condensate by precipitation. All clouds convect, advect, and diffuse both horizontally and vertically with a fully active cloud-microphysics throughout its life-cycle, while the optical properties of clouds are derived from the statistical distribution of hydrometeors and idealized cloud geometry. An evaluation of McRAS in a single column model (SCM) with the GATE Phase III data has shown that McRAS can simulate the observed temperature, humidity, and precipitation without discernible systematic errors. An evaluation with the ARM-CART SCM data in a cloud model intercomparison exercise shows reasonable but not an outstanding accurate simulation. Such a discrepancy is common to almost all models and is related, in part, to the input data quality. McRAS was implemented in the GEOS II GCM. A 50 month integration that was initialized with the ECMWF analysis of observations for January 1, 1987 and forced with the observed sea-surface temperatures and sea-ice distribution and vegetation properties (biomes, and soils), with prognostic soil moisture, snow-cover, and hydrology showed a very realistic simulation of cloud process, incloud water and ice, and cloud-radiative forcing (CRF). The simulated ITCZ showed a realistic time-mean structure and seasonal cycle, while the simulated CRF showed sensitivity to vertical distribution of cloud water which can be easily

  3. Global Modeling and Data Assimilation. Volume 11; Documentation of the Tangent Linear and Adjoint Models of the Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert Moisture Parameterization of the NASA GEOS-1 GCM; 5.2

    Suarez, Max J. (Editor); Yang, Wei-Yu; Todling, Ricardo; Navon, I. Michael


    A detailed description of the development of the tangent linear model (TLM) and its adjoint model of the Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert moisture parameterization package used in the NASA GEOS-1 C-Grid GCM (Version 5.2) is presented. The notational conventions used in the TLM and its adjoint codes are described in detail.

  4. The impact of revised simplified Arakawa-Schubert convection parameterization scheme in CFSv2 on the simulation of the Indian summer monsoon

    Ganai, Malay; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Krishna, R. Phani Murali; Mahakur, M.


    Keeping the systematic bias of the climate forecast system model version 2 (CFSv2) in mind, an attempt is made to improve the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall variability in the model from diurnal through daily to seasonal scale. Experiments with default simplified Arakawa-Schubert (SAS) and a revised SAS schemes are carried out to make 15 years climate run (free run) to evaluate the model fidelity with revised SAS as compared to default SAS. It is clearly seen that the revised SAS is able to reduce some of the biases of CFSv2 with default SAS. Improvement is seen in the annual seasonal cycle, onset and withdrawal but most importantly the rainfall probability distribution function (PDF) has improved significantly. To understand the reason behind the PDF improvement, the diurnal rainfall simulation is analysed and it is found that the PDF of diurnal rainfall has significantly improved with respect to even a high resolution CFSv2 T382 version. In the diurnal run with revised SAS, the PDF of rainfall over central India has remarkably improved. The improvement of diurnal cycle of total rainfall has actually been contributed by the improvement of diurnal cycle of convection and associated convective rainfall. This is reflected in outgoing longwave radiation and high cloud diurnal cycle. This improvement of convective cycle has resolved a long standing problem of dry bias by CFSv2 over Indian land mass and wet bias over equatorial Indian Ocean. Besides the improvement, there are some areas where there are still scopes for further development. The cold tropospheric temperature bias, low cloud fractions need further improvement. To check the role of shallow convection, another free run is made with revised SAS along with shallow convection (SC). The major difference between the new and old SC schemes lies in the heating and cooling behavior in lower-atmospheric layers above the planetary boundary layer. However, the inclusion of revised SC scheme could not show much

  5. The impact of revised simplified Arakawa-Schubert scheme on the simulation of mean and diurnal variability associated with active and break phases of Indian summer monsoon using CFSv2

    Ganai, Malay; Krishna, R. Phani Murali; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Mahakur, M.


    The impact of revised simplified Arakawa-Schubert (RSAS) convective parameterization scheme in Climate Forecast System (CFS) version 2 (CFSv2) on the simulation of active and break phases of Indian summer monsoon (ISM) has been investigated. The results revealed that RSAS showed better fidelity in simulating monsoon features from diurnal to daily scales during active and break periods as compared to SAS simulation. Prominent improvement can be noted in simulating diurnal phase of precipitation in RSAS over central India (CI) and equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO) region during active periods. The spatial distribution of precipitation largely improved in RSAS simulation during active and break episodes. CFSv2 with SAS simulation has noticeable dry bias over CI and wet bias over EIO region which appeared to be largely reduced in RSAS simulation during both phases of the intraseasonal oscillation (ISO). During active periods, RSAS simulates more realistic probability distribution function (PDF) in good agreement with the observation. The relative improvement has been identified in outgoing longwave radiation, monsoon circulations, and vertical velocities in RSAS over SAS simulation. The improvement of rainfall distribution appears to be contributed by proper simulation of convective rainfall in RSAS. CFSv2 with RSAS simulation is able to simulate observed diurnal cycle of rainfall over CI. It correctly reproduces the time of maximum rainfall over CI. It is found that the improved feedback between moisture and convective processes in RSAS may be attributed to its improved simulation. Besides improvement, RSAS could not reproduce proper tropospheric temperature, cloud hydrometeors over ISM domain which shows the scope for future development.

  6. New Concepts for Refinement of Cumulus Parameterization in GCM's the Arakawa-Schubert Framework

    Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.; Lau, William (Technical Monitor)


    parameterization schemes so far. We introduced them into the DAO-GEOS-2 GCM with McRAS (Microphysics of Clouds with Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert Scheme).

  7. Semiprognostic tests of the Arakawa-Schubert cumulus parameterization using simulated data

    Xu, Kuan-Man; Arakawa, Akio


    Semiprognostic tests are performed against data simulated by a cumulus ensemble model to evaluate the Arakawa-Schubert (A-S) cumulus parametrization. It is found that the A-S cumulus parametrization is generally valid despite the existence of mesoscale organization in cumulus convection. The nondiagnostic and nondeterministic aspects of the A-S cumulus parametrization are examined by testing the sensitivity of the parametrization to the horizontal grid resolution. It is also shown that the inclusion of convective-scale downdrafts improves the results of semiprognostic tests.

  8. Contributions to the implementation of the Arakawa-Schubert cumulus parameterization in the GLA GCM

    Sud, Y. C.; Chao, Winston C.; Walker, G. K.


    The roles of the Critical Cloud Work Function (CCWF) data set and the upper and lower bounds on entrainment by cumulus plumes in the Arakawa-Schubert cumulus parameterization (ASCP) in the GLA GCM (Geller et al., 1988) were investigated in two sets of experiments. It was found that the horizontal and vertical distribution of cumulus heating can be altered in ASCP by adjusting these parameters. These changes can have a strong influence on the vertical structure of condensation heating, water vapor distribution, temperature, and rainfall. The CCWF is an important limiting parameter that controls the onset of different cloud types; increasing the threshold values of CCWF for all clouds tends to concentrate the rainfall into a narrower ITCZ and affects the rainfall during the initial adjustment period.

  9. An analysis of the operational GFS simplified Arakawa Schubert parameterization within a WRF framework: A Hurricane Sandy (2012) long-term track forecast perspective

    Bassill, Nick P.


    Sandy (2012) is known as an incredibly destructive storm and one defined meteorologically by its large size, and its significant forecast track spreads among various operational models roughly 1 week before landfall. While the operational European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts model accurately depicted a northeastern United States landfall, the Global Forecasting System (GFS) model consistently forecast a track toward the North Atlantic Ocean. Using a Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model framework, Bassill suggested that these differences were primarily a function of differences between the two models' cumulus parameterization (CP). This study also uses a WRF model framework to examine the simplified Arakawa Schubert CP used in the GFS model. It is found that increasing the deep convective entrainment coefficient produces more realistic forecast tracks for forecasts initialized roughly 1 week before landfall. This occurs through a reorientation of the precipitation (and associated latent heating) around Sandy during a critical time period in which it was interacting with a series of upper troughs to its west and northwest. Reorienting the latent heating reshapes the upper tropospheric steering pattern toward the one that is more negatively tilted and consistent with observations.

  10. Effective control parameters in a deep convection scheme for improved simulation of the Madden-Julian oscillation

    Choi, Jin-Ho; Seo, Kyong-Hwan


    This work seeks to find the most effective parameters in a deep convection scheme (relaxed Arakawa-Schubert scheme) of the National Centers of Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System model for improved simulation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). A suite of sensitivity experiments are performed by changing physical components such as the relaxation parameter of mass flux for adjustment of the environment, the evaporation rate from large-scale precipitation, the moisture trigger threshold using relative humidity of the boundary layer, and the fraction of re-evaporation of convective (subgrid-scale) rainfall. Among them, the last two parameters are found to produce a significant improvement. Increasing the strength of these two parameters reduces light rainfall that inhibits complete formation of the tropical convective system or supplies more moisture that help increase a potential energy to large-scale environment in the lower troposphere (especially at 700 hPa), leading to moisture preconditioning favorable for further development and eastward propagation of the MJO. In a more humid environment, more organized MJO structure (i.e., space-time spectral signal, eastward propagation, and tilted vertical structure) is produced.

  11. Parameterization of aerosol indirect effect to complement McRAS cloud scheme and its evaluation with the 3-year ARM-SGP analyzed data for single column models

    Sud, Y. C.; Lee, Dongmin


    Microphysics of clouds with the Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert Scheme (McRAS) was upgraded for simulating the Aerosol Indirect Effects (AIE) for water clouds. The AIE comprises of i) Fountoukis and Nenes aerosol activation module for obtaining cloud condensation nuclei; ii) Seifert and Beheng algorithms for precipitation microphysics but with modified accretion constant for the coarse vertical-resolution typical of a global general circulation model (GCM); and iii) Khvorostyanov and Curry parameterization for computing the effective radius ( re) of cloud drops. The upgraded package, named McRAS-AC, was evaluated using the 3-year ARM-SGP Single Column Model (SCM) data. Invoking only the most dominant sulfate aerosols over the region, McRAS-AC simulated realistic annual mean and annual cycles of cloud water, cloud optical thicknesses, cloud drop number concentration, and re. The follow-on SCM-sensitivity simulations showed that accretion of cloud water is sensitive to i) the terminal velocity of hydrometeors produced by autoconversion and ii) cloud height increases due to in-cloud condensation heating. The impact of aerosol mass concentration on the resultant column cloud water, and bulk optical properties of clouds were assessed by using 1/8 to 8 times the average monthly aerosol mass concentration estimates of GOCART aerosol climatology. A log-linear relation between cloud-radiative forcing and aerosol-mass concentration emerged in the simulated data.

  12. Performance of Two Cloud-Radiation Parameterization Schemes in the Finite Volume General Circulation Model for Anomalously Wet May and June 2003 Over the Continental United States and Amazonia

    Sud, Y. C.; Mocko, David M.; Lin, S. J.


    An objective assessment of the impact of a new cloud scheme, called Microphysics of Clouds with Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert Scheme (McRAS) (together with its radiation modules), on the finite volume general circulation model (fvGCM) was made with a set of ensemble forecasts that invoke performance evaluation over both weather and climate timescales. The performance of McRAS (and its radiation modules) was compared with that of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (NCAR CCM3) cloud scheme (with its NCAR physics radiation). We specifically chose the boreal summer months of May and June 2003, which were characterized by an anomalously wet eastern half of the continental United States as well as northern regions of Amazonia. The evaluation employed an ensemble of 70 daily 10-day forecasts covering the 61 days of the study period. Each forecast was started from the analyzed initial state of the atmosphere and spun-up soil moisture from the first-day forecasts with the model. Monthly statistics of these forecasts with up to 10-day lead time provided a robust estimate of the behavior of the simulated monthly rainfall anomalies. Patterns of simulated versus observed rainfall, 500-hPa heights, and top-of-the-atmosphere net radiation were recast into regional anomaly correlations. The correlations were compared among the simulations with each of the schemes. The results show that fvGCM with McRAS and its radiation package performed discernibly better than the original fvGCM with CCM3 cloud physics plus its radiation package. The McRAS cloud scheme also showed a reasonably positive response to the observed sea surface temperature on mean monthly rainfall fields at different time leads. This analysis represents a method for helpful systematic evaluation prior to selection of a new scheme in a global model.


    Hua-zhong Tang


    In this first paper we present a central relaxing scheme for scalar conservation laws, based on using the local relaxation approximation. Our scheme is obtained without using linear or nonlinear Riemann solvers. A cell entropy inequality is studied for the semidiscrete central relaxing scheme, and a second order MUSCL scheme is shown to be TVD in the zero relaxation limit. The next paper will extend the central relaxing scheme to multi-dimensional systems of conservation laws in curvilinear coordinates, including numerical experiments for 1D and 2D problems.


    Hua-zhong Tang; Hua-mu Wu


    Hamilton-Jacobiequation appears frequently in applications, e.g., in differential games and control theory, and is closely related to hyperbolic conservation laws[3, 4, 12]. This is helpful in the design of difference approximations for Hamilton-Jacobi equation and hyperbolic conservation laws. In this paper we present the relaxing system for HamiltonJacobiequations in arbitrary space dimensions, and high resolution relaxing schemes for Hamilton-Jacobi equation, based on using the local relaxation approximation. The schemes are numerically tested on a variety of 1D and 2D problems, including a problem related to optimal control problem. High-order accuracy in smooth regions, good resolution of discontinuities, and convergence to viscosity solutions are observed.

  15. China summer precipitation simulations using an optimal ensemble of cumulus schemes

    Shuyan LIU; Wei GAO; Min XU; Xueyuan WANG; Xin-Zhong LIANG


    RegCM3 (REGional Climate Model) simulations of precipitation in China in 1991 and 1998 are very sensitive to the cumulus parameterization. Among the four schemes available, none has superior skills over the whole of China, but each captures certain observed signals in distinct regions. The Grell scheme with the FritschChappell closure produces the smallest biases over the North; the Grell scheme with the Arakawa-Schubert closure performs the best over the southeast of 100°E;the Anthes-Kuo scheme is superior over the northeast; and the Emanuel scheme is more realistic over the southwest of 100~E and along the Yangtze River Basin. These differences indicate a strong degree of independence and complementarity between the parameterizations. As such,an ensemble is developed from the four schemes, whose relative contributions or weights are optimized locally to yield overall minimum root-mean-square errors from observed daily precipitation. The skill gain is evaluated by applying the identical distribution of the weights in a different period. It is shown that the ensemble always produces gross biases that are smaller than the individual schemes in both 1991 and 1998. The ensemble, however,cannot eliminate the large rainfall deficits over the southwest of 100°E and along the Yangtze River Basin that are systematic across all schemes. Further improvements can be made by a super-ensemble based on more cumulus schemes and/or multiple models.

  16. Relativistic frozen core potential scheme with relaxation of core electrons

    Nakajima, Yuya; Seino, Junji; Hayami, Masao; Nakai, Hiromi


    This letter proposes a relaxation scheme for core electrons based on the frozen core potential method at the infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess level, called FCP-CR. The core electrons are self-consistently relaxed using frozen molecular valence potentials after the valence SCF calculation is performed. The efficiency of FCP-CR is confirmed by calculations of gold clusters. Furthermore, FCP-CR reproduces the results of the all-electron method for the energies of coinage metal dimers and the core ionization energies and core level shifts of vinyl acetate and three tungsten complexes at the Hartree-Fock and/or symmetry-adapted cluster configuration interaction levels.


    Hua-zhong Tang; Hua-mo Wu


    In this paper we study a cell entropy inequality for a class of the local relaxation approximation -The Relaxing Schemes for scalar conservation laws presented by Jin and Xin in [1], which implies convergence for the one-dimensional scalar case.

  18. Role of Cumulus Parameterization Scheme on the Diurnal Cycle of Precipitation over Southeast Asia in RegCM4

    Lui, Yuk Sing; Tam, Chi Yung Francis; Au-Yeung, Yee Man


    This study examines the sensitivity of precipitation simulations over the CORDEX-Southeast Asia (SEA) domain to the cumulus convection scheme used in the Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4). With the ERA-interim reanalysis as lateral boundary conditions, model integrations using the MIT-Emanuel cumulus parameterization scheme, and those using a "mixed convection scheme" (namely with the MIT-Emanuel scheme over ocean and the Grell scheme with Arakawa Schubert-type closure over land), have been carried out for the 2001-2010 period. On the seasonal average, the use of the mixed convection scheme, in comparison to MIT-Emanuel scheme everywhere, improves rainfall simulations over the South China Sea (SCS) by reducing the summer-time wet bias there. On the other hand, runs with the mixed convection scheme under(over)-estimate rainfall over land in Southeastern China (western coastlines of Indochina and the Philippines). For the diurnal variation of precipitation, it is found that the RegCM4 can reproduce well the characteristics of the diurnal cycle (DC) in SEA. Compared with the mixed convection scheme, the MIT-Emanual scheme performs better in reproducing the amplitude and phase of DC over the landside coastal area of Indochina during summer. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis indicates that switching from the MIT-Emanuel scheme to the mixed convection scheme leads to a reduction in importance of the second EOF mode, which corresponds to rainfall peaked in the afternoon (local time). Further analyses reveal that such underestimation is related to increased cloud cover in RegCM4 using the mixed convection scheme; enhanced cloudiness in turn leads to reduced surface air temperature over land and thus reduced convective instability at 1200 and 1500 local time in the model simulations.

  19. Improved magnetization alignment schemes for spin-lock relaxation experiments

    Hansen, D. Flemming; Kay, Lewis E. [University of Toronto, Departments of Medical Genetics, Biochemistry and Chemistry (Canada)], E-mail:


    A pair of pulse schemes that spin-lock magnetization efficiently are presented. The design of the sequences benefited from a particularly simple relation that is derived describing to first order the evolution of any magnetization component due to the application of an off-resonance 90{sup o} pulse. The sequences are shown theoretically and experimentally to significantly outperform the 90{sup o}-delay-90{sup o} element that is often used in current applications. It is shown that alignment of magnetization to within 1{sup o} of the effective field can be obtained over a bandwidth extending between [-{omega}{sub SL}, {omega}{sub SL}], where {omega}{sub SL} is the strength of the spin-lock field using a simple scheme that is an order of magnitude shorter than an adiabatic pulse that might also be used for a similar purpose.

  20. Stability and Convergence of Relaxation Schemes to Hyperbolic Balance Laws via a Wave Operator

    Miroshnikov, Alexey; Trivisa, Konstantina


    This article deals with relaxation approximations of nonlinear systems of hyperbolic balance laws. We introduce a class of relaxation schemes and establish their stability and convergence to the solution of hyperbolic balance laws before the formation of shocks, provided that we are within the framework of the compensated compactness method. Our analysis treats systems of hyperbolic balance laws with source terms satisfying a special mechanism which induces weak dissipation in the spirit of D...


    Hua-zhong Tang; Hua-mo Wu


    In this paper we study the cell entropy inequality for two classes of the fully discrete relaxing schemes approximating scalar conservation laws presented by Jin and Xin in [7], and Tang in [14], which implies convergence for the one-dimensional scalar case.

  2. Box relaxation schemes in staggered discretizations for the dual formulation of total variation minimization.

    Garamendi, Juan Francisco; Gaspar, Francisco José; Malpica, Norberto; Schiavi, Emanuele


    In this paper, we propose some new box relaxation numerical schemes on staggered grids to solve the stationary system of partial differential equations arising from the dual minimization problem associated with the total variation operator. We present in detail the numerical schemes for the scalar case and its generalization to multichannel (vectorial) images. Then, we discuss their implementation in digital image denoising. The results outperform the resolution of the dual equation based on the gradient descent approach and pave the way for more advanced numerical strategies.

  3. Extended dielectric relaxation scheme for fluid transport simulations of high density plasma discharges

    Kwon, Deuk-Chul; Song, Mi-Young; Yoon, Jung-Sik


    It is well known that the dielectric relaxation scheme (DRS) can efficiently overcome the limitation on the simulation time step for fluid transport simulations of high density plasma discharges. By imitating a realistic and physical shielding process of electric field perturbation, the DRS overcomes the dielectric limitation on time step. However, the electric field was obtained with assuming the drift-diffusion approximation. Although the drift-diffusion expressions are good approximations for both the electrons and ions at high pressure, the inertial term cannot be neglected in the ion momentum equation for low pressure. Therefore, in this work, we developed the extended DRS by introducing an effective electric field. To compare the extended DRS with the previous method, two-dimensional fluid simulations for inductively coupled plasma discharges were performed. This work was supported by the Industrial Strategic Technology Development Program (10041637, Development of Dry Etch System for 10 nm class SADP Process) funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy (MKE, Korea).

  4. Analysis of a Relaxation Scheme for a Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation Occurring in Plasma Physics

    Oelz, Dietmar


    This paper is devoted to the analysis of a relaxation-type numerical scheme for a nonlinear Schrödinger equation arising in plasma physics. The scheme is shown to be preservative in the sense that it preserves mass and energy. We prove the well-posedness of the semidiscretized system and prove convergence to the solution of the time-continuous model. © 2014 © Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, 2014.

  5. Evaluating the impacts of cumulus, land surface and ocean surface schemes on summertime rainfall simulations over East-to-southeast Asia and the western north Pacific by RegCM4

    Li, Yu-Bin; Tam, Chi-Yung; Huang, Wan-Ru; Cheung, Kevin K. W.; Gao, Zhiqiu


    This study evaluates the sensitivity of summertime rainfall simulations over East-to-southeast Asia and the western north Pacific in the regional climate model version 4 (RegCM4) to cumulus (including Grell with Arakawa-Schubert type closure, Grell with Fritsch-Chappell type closure, and Emanuel), land surface (Biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme or BATS, and the community land model or CLM) and ocean surface (referred to as Zeng1, Zeng2 and BATS1e in the model) schemes by running the model with different combinations of these parameterization packages. For each of these experiments, ensemble integration of the model was carried out in the extended boreal summer of May-October from 1998 to 2007. The simulated spatial distribution, intensity and inter-annual variation of the precipitation, latent heat flux, position of the subtropical high and tropical cyclone genesis patterns from these numerical experiments were analyzed. Examinations show that the combination of Emanuel, CLM and Zeng2 (E-C-Z2) yields the best overall results, consistent with the fact that physical mechanisms considered in E-C-Z2 tend to be more comprehensive in comparison with the others. Additionally, the rainfall quantity is found very sensitive to sea surface roughness length, and the reduction of the roughness length constant (from 2 × 10-4 to 5 × 10-5 m) in our modified BATS1e mitigates the drastic overestimation of latent heat flux and rainfall, and is therefore preferable to the default value for simulations in the western north Pacific region in RegCM4.

  6. Comparing the Gauss-Seidel and Jacobi Relaxation Schemes in the Solution of the EHL Line Contact Problem Using a Multigrid solver

    Janakiraman, Shravan; Klit, Peder

    The solution to the EHL line contact problem has been computed by building a multigrid solver. There are two types of relaxation schemes used in the solver, a Gauss -Seidel scheme and a combination of the Gauss- Seidel scheme and the Distributive Jacobi scheme. The differences in the convergence...

  7. All-stages-implicit and strong-stability-preserving implicit-explicit Runge-Kutta time discretization schemes for hyperbolic systems with stiff relaxation terms

    Duan, Shu-Chao


    We construct eight implicit-explicit (IMEX) Runge-Kutta (RK) schemes up to third order of the type in which all stages are implicit so that they can be used in the zero relaxation limit in a unified and convenient manner. These all-stages-implicit (ASI) schemes attain the strong-stability-preserving (SSP) property in the limiting case, and two are SSP for not only the explicit part but also the implicit part and the entire IMEX scheme. Three schemes can completely recover to the designed accuracy order in two sides of the relaxation parameter for both equilibrium and non-equilibrium initial conditions. Two schemes converge nearly uniformly for equilibrium cases. These ASI schemes can be used for hyperbolic systems with stiff relaxation terms or differential equations with some type constraints.

  8. Interaction of a cumulus cloud ensemble with the large-scale environment. III - Semi-prognostic test of the Arakawa-Schubert cumulus parameterization

    Lord, S. J.


    The verification of the Arakawa and Schubert (1974) cumulus parameterization is continued using a semiprognostic approach. Observed data from Phase III of GATE are used to provide estimates of the large-scale forcing of a cumulus ensemble at each observation time. Instantaneous values of the precipitation and the warming and drying due to cumulus convection are calculated using the parameterization. The results show that the calculated precipitation agrees very well with estimates from the observed large-scale moisture budget and from radar observations. The calculated vertical profiles of cumulus warming and drying also are quite similar to the observed. It is shown that the closure assumption adopted in the parameterization (the cloud-work function quasi-equilibrium) results in errors of generally less than 10% in the calculated precipitation. The sensitivity of the parameterization to some assumptions of the cloud ensemble model and the solution method for the cloud-base mass flux is investigated.

  9. New iterative load balancing scheme with multi-grid level relaxation technique toward a large scale geodynamical granular simulation

    Furuichi, M.; Nishiura, D.


    The complex dynamics of granular system is an essential part of natural processes such as crystal rich magma flow, accretion prism formation or tsunami sedimentation. Numerical modeling with Discrete Element Method (DEM) is an effective approach for understanding granular dynamics especially when the contact between particles induces strongly non-linear rheology (e.g. DEM-CFD simulation for magma reservoir [Bergantz, Nature geo, 2015, Furuichi and Nishiura, G-cubed, 2014]). In Moving Lagrangian particle methods like DEM, a large number of particles is required to obtain an accurate solution. Therefore, an efficient parallelization of the code is important to handle huge particles system on HPC. However, since particles move around during the simulation, the workload between the different MPI processes becomes imbalance when using static sub-domains. To overcome this limitation, we present a new dynamic load balancing algorithms applicable to particle simulation methods such as DEM and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) [Furuichi and Nishiura submitted to Comput. Phys. Comm.]. Our method utilizes flexible orthogonal domain decomposition in which the domain is divided into columns, each of which independently defines rectangle sub-domains by rows. We regard the difference of the executed time between neighbor logical processes as the residual of nonlinear problem of the domain change. The load balancing is attained by minimizing the residual within the framework of the iterative non-linear solver combined with the multi-grid level technique for the local relaxation. Scalability tests attest that the algorithm demonstrates close-to-optimal strong and weak scalability on the K-computer and the Earth Simulator. This result holds for even as well as uneven particle distribution, including different types of particles and heterogeneous computer architecture. We performed a DEM simulation with over 2 billion particles for demonstrating the proposed scheme. The

  10. Single and Double ITCZ in Aqua-Planet Models with Globally and Temporally Uniform Sea Surface Temperature and Solar Insolation: An Interpretation

    Chao, Winston C.; Chen, Baode; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)


    Previous studies (Chao 2000, Chao and Chen 2001, Kirtman and Schneider 2000, Sumi 1992) have shown that, by means of one of several model design changes, the structure of the ITCZ in an aqua-planet model with globally uniform SST and solar angle (U-SST-SA) can change between a single ITCZ at the equator and a double ITCZ straddling the equator. These model design changes include switching to a different cumulus parameterization scheme (e.g., from relaxed Arakawa Schubert scheme (RAS) to moist convective adjustment scheme (MCA)), changes within the cumulus parameterization scheme, and changes in other aspects of the model, such as horizontal resolution. Sometimes only one component of the double ITCZ shows up; but still this is an ITCZ away from the equator, quite distinct from a single ITCZ over the equator. Since these model results were obtained by different investigators using different models which have yielded reasonable general circulation, they are considered as reliable. Chao and Chen (2001; hereafter CC01) have made an initial attempt to interpret these findings based on the concept of rotational ITCZ attractors that they introduced. The purpose of this paper is to offer a more complete interpretation.

  11. Sensitivity analysis and determination of free relaxation parameters for the weakly-compressible MRT-LBM schemes

    Xu, Hui; Sagaut, Pierre


    It is well-known that there exist several free relaxation parameters in the MRT-LBM. Although these parameters have been tuned via linear analysis, the sensitivity analysis of these parameters and other related parameters are still not sufficient for detecting the behaviors of the dispersion and dissipation relations of the MRT-LBM. Previous researches have shown that the bulk dissipation in the MRT-LBM induces a significant over-damping of acoustic disturbances. This indicates that MRT-LBM cannot be used to obtain the correct behavior of pressure fluctuations because of the fixed bulk relaxation parameter. In order to cure this problem, an effective algorithm has been proposed for recovering the linearized Navier-Stokes equations from the linearized MRT-LBM. The recovered L-NSE appear as in matrix form with arbitrary order of the truncation errors with respect to ${\\delta}t$. Then, in wave-number space, the first/second-order sensitivity analyses of matrix eigenvalues are used to address the sensitivity of t...

  12. Finite Boltzmann schemes

    Sman, van der R.G.M.


    In the special case of relaxation parameter = 1 lattice Boltzmann schemes for (convection) diffusion and fluid flow are equivalent to finite difference/volume (FD) schemes, and are thus coined finite Boltzmann (FB) schemes. We show that the equivalence is inherent to the homology of the

  13. Inclusion of Linearized Moist Physics in Nasa's Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation Tools

    Holdaway, Daniel; Errico, Ronald; Gelaro, Ronaldo; Kim, Jong G.


    Inclusion of moist physics in the linearized version of a weather forecast model is beneficial in terms of variational data assimilation. Further, it improves the capability of important tools, such as adjoint-based observation impacts and sensitivity studies. A linearized version of the relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS) convection scheme has been developed and tested in NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System data assimilation tools. A previous study of the RAS scheme showed it to exhibit reasonable linearity and stability. This motivates the development of a linearization of a near-exact version of the RAS scheme. Linearized large-scale condensation is included through simple conversion of supersaturation into precipitation. The linearization of moist physics is validated against the full nonlinear model for 6- and 24-h intervals, relevant to variational data assimilation and observation impacts, respectively. For a small number of profiles, sudden large growth in the perturbation trajectory is encountered. Efficient filtering of these profiles is achieved by diagnosis of steep gradients in a reduced version of the operator of the tangent linear model. With filtering turned on, the inclusion of linearized moist physics increases the correlation between the nonlinear perturbation trajectory and the linear approximation of the perturbation trajectory. A month-long observation impact experiment is performed and the effect of including moist physics on the impacts is discussed. Impacts from moist-sensitive instruments and channels are increased. The effect of including moist physics is examined for adjoint sensitivity studies. A case study examining an intensifying Northern Hemisphere Atlantic storm is presented. The results show a significant sensitivity with respect to moisture.

  14. Performance of McRAS-AC in the GEOS-5 AGCM: aerosol-cloud-microphysics, precipitation, cloud radiative effects, and circulation

    Y. C. Sud


    Full Text Available A revised version of the Microphysics of clouds with Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert and Aerosol-Cloud interaction scheme (McRAS-AC including, among others, a new ice nucleation parameterization, is implemented in the GEOS-5 AGCM. Various fields from a 10-yr-long integration of the AGCM with McRAS-AC are compared with their counterparts from an integration of the baseline GEOS-5 AGCM, as well as satellite observations. Generally McRAS-AC simulations have smaller biases in cloud fields and cloud radiative effects over most of the regions of the Earth than the baseline GEOS-5 AGCM. Two systematic biases are identified in the McRAS-AC runs: one is underestimation of cloud particle numbers around 40° S–60° S, and one is overestimate of cloud water path during the Northern Hemisphere summer over the Gulf Stream and North Pacific. Sensitivity tests show that these biases potentially originate from biases in the aerosol input. The first bias is largely eliminated in a test run using 50% smaller radius of sea-salt aerosol particles, while the second bias is substantially reduced when interactive aerosol chemistry is turned on. The main weakness of McRAS-AC is the dearth of low-level marine stratus clouds, a probable outcome of lack of explicit dry-convection in the cloud scheme. Nevertheless, McRAS-AC largely simulates realistic clouds and their optical properties that can be improved further with better aerosol input. An assessment using the COSP simulator in a 1-yr integration provides additional perspectives for understanding cloud optical property differences between the baseline and McRAS-AC simulations and biases against satellite data. Overall, McRAS-AC physically couples aerosols, the microphysics and macrophysics of clouds, and their radiative effects and thereby has better potential to be a valuable tool for climate modeling research.

  15. Estudo da energética modal para episódios de ZCAS. Parte II: impacto da resolução do modelo e da parametrização de convecção Study of the modal energetics for SACZ episodes. Part II: Impact of the model resolution and the convection parameterization

    Renata Weissmann Borges Mendonça


    Full Text Available O desempenho do Modelo Global do Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC em simular a energética modal para um composto de sete episódios de Zona de Convergência do Atlântico Sul (ZCAS é avaliado, enfatizando-se a influência da resolução espacial do modelo e de três diferentes parametrizações de convecção profunda: Kuo, Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS e Grell na partição vertical de energia entre os modos externos e internos, e as trocas de energia entre os modos horizontais de oscilação Rossby, Kelvin, Misto Rossby-Gravidade, Gravidade Oeste e Leste. Os resultados mostraram que as previsões utilizando os esquemas de convecção profunda Kuo, RAS e Grell foram semelhantes entre si e apresentaram uma boa concordância em relação aos padrões obtidos na parte observacional (Parte I deste artigo. O emprego de diferentes esquemas de convecção profunda não apresentou impactos significativos na partição e interação de energia entre os modos verticais e horizontais. Um impacto maior foi obtido com o aumento da resolução vertical das análises e do modelo, de 28 para 42 níveis, em que um maior número de modos internos apresenta um papel relevante nas trocas horizontais e verticais de energia.The performance of the CPTEC Global Model in simulating the modal energetics for a composite of seven South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ episodes was evaluated, emphasizing the influence of the model resolution and the three different deep convection parameterizations: Kuo, Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS and Grell on the vertical energy partition between external and internal modes and on the energy interactions within and between various horizontal oscillation modes: Rossby, Kelvin, Mixed Rossby-Gravity and West and East Gravity. The results showed that the model predictions using the Kuo, RAS and Grell deep convection schemes were similar with each other, and had a good agreement with the patterns obtained in the

  16. Sensitivity of Tropical Cyclones to Parameterized Convection in the NASA GEOS5 Model

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Reale, Oreste; Lee, Myong-In; Molod, Andrea M.; Suarez, Max J.


    The sensitivity of tropical cyclones (TCs) to changes in parameterized convection is investigated to improve the simulation of TCs in the North Atlantic. Specifically, the impact of reducing the influence of the Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS) scheme-based parameterized convection is explored using the Goddard Earth Observing System version5 (GEOS5) model at 0.25 horizontal resolution. The years 2005 and 2006 characterized by very active and inactive hurricane seasons, respectively, are selected for simulation. A reduction in parameterized deep convection results in an increase in TC activity (e.g., TC number and longer life cycle) to more realistic levels compared to the baseline control configuration. The vertical and horizontal structure of the strongest simulated hurricane shows the maximum lower-level (850-950hPa) wind speed greater than 60 ms and the minimum sea level pressure reaching 940mb, corresponding to a category 4 hurricane - a category never achieved by the control configuration. The radius of the maximum wind of 50km, the location of the warm core exceeding 10 C, and the horizontal compactness of the hurricane center are all quite realistic without any negatively affecting the atmospheric mean state. This study reveals that an increase in the threshold of minimum entrainment suppresses parameterized deep convection by entraining more dry air into the typical plume. This leads to cooling and drying at the mid- to upper-troposphere, along with the positive latent heat flux and moistening in the lower-troposphere. The resulting increase in conditional instability provides an environment that is more conducive to TC vortex development and upward moisture flux convergence by dynamically resolved moist convection, thereby increasing TC activity.

  17. Performance of McRAS-AC in the GEOS-5 AGCM: aerosol-cloud-microphysics, precipitation, cloud radiative effects, and circulation

    Y. C. Sud


    Full Text Available A revised version of the Microphysics of clouds with Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert and Aerosol-Cloud interaction scheme (McRAS-AC including, among others, the Barahona and Nenes ice nucleation parameterization, is implemented in the GEOS-5 AGCM. Various fields from a 10-yr long integration of the AGCM with McRAS-AC were compared with their counterparts from an integration of the baseline GEOS-5 AGCM using satellite data as observations. Generally McRAS-AC simulations have smaller biases in cloud fields and cloud radiative effects over most of the regions of the Earth than the baseline GEOS-5 AGCM. Two systematic biases are identified in the McRAS-AC runs: one under-prediction of cloud particles around 40° S–60° S, and one over-prediction of cloud water path during Northern Hemisphere summer over the Gulf Stream and North Pacific. Sensitivity analyses show that these biases potentially originate from biases in the aerosol input. The first bias is largely eliminated in a sensitivity test using 50% smaller sea-salt aerosol particles, while the second bias is much reduced when interactive aerosol chemistry was turned on. The main drawback of McRAS-AC is dearth of low-level marine stratus clouds, probably due to lack of boundary-layer clouds that is an outcome of explicit dry-convection not yet implemented into the cloud model. Nevertheless, McRAS-AC simulates realistic clouds and their optical properties that can further improve with better aerosol-input. Thereby, McRAS-AC has the potential to be a valuable tool for climate modeling research because of its superior simulation capabilities that physically couple aerosols, cloud microphysics, cloud macrophysics, and cloud-radiation interaction for all clouds.

  18. Relaxing Chosen-Ciphertext Security

    Canetti, Ran; Krawczyk, Hugo; Nielsen, Jesper Buus


    Security against adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks (or, CCA security) has been accepted as the standard requirement from encryption schemes that need to withstand active attacks. In particular, it is regarded as the appropriate security notion for encryption schemes used as components within...... “for most practical purposes.” We propose a relaxed variant of CCA security, called Replayable CCA (RCCA) security. RCCA security accepts as secure the non-CCA (yet arguably secure) schemes mentioned above; furthermore, it suffices for most existing applications of CCA security. We provide three...

  19. Relaxing Chosen-Ciphertext Security

    Canetti, Ran; Krawczyk, Hugo; Nielsen, Jesper Buus


    Security against adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks (or, CCA security) has been accepted as the standard requirement from encryption schemes that need to withstand active attacks. In particular, it is regarded as the appropriate security notion for encryption schemes used as components within...... general protocols and applications. Indeed, CCA security was shown to suffice in a large variety of contexts. However, CCA security often appears to be somewhat too strong: there exist encryption schemes (some of which come up naturally in practice) that are not CCA secure, but seem sufficiently secure...... “for most practical purposes.” We propose a relaxed variant of CCA security, called Replayable CCA (RCCA) security. RCCA security accepts as secure the non-CCA (yet arguably secure) schemes mentioned above; furthermore, it suffices for most existing applications of CCA security. We provide three...

  20. Natural relaxation

    Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti


    Motivated by natural inflation, we propose a relaxation mechanism consistent with inflationary cosmology that explains the hierarchy between the electroweak scale and Planck scale. This scenario is based on a selection mechanism that identifies the low-scale dynamics as the one that is screened from UV physics. The scenario also predicts the near-criticality and metastability of the Standard Model (SM) vacuum state, explaining the Higgs boson mass observed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Once Majorana right-handed neutrinos are introduced to provide a viable reheating channel, our framework yields a corresponding mass scale that allows for the seesaw mechanism as well as for standard thermal leptogenesis. We argue that considering singlet scalar dark matter extensions of the proposed scenario could solve the vacuum stability problem and discuss how the cosmological constant problem is possibly addressed.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting with short relaxation intervals.

    Amthor, Thomas; Doneva, Mariya; Koken, Peter; Sommer, Karsten; Meineke, Jakob; Börnert, Peter


    The aim of this study was to investigate a technique for improving the performance of Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) in repetitive sampling schemes, in particular for 3D MRF acquisition, by shortening relaxation intervals between MRF pulse train repetitions. A calculation method for MRF dictionaries adapted to short relaxation intervals and non-relaxed initial spin states is presented, based on the concept of stationary fingerprints. The method is applicable to many different k-space sampling schemes in 2D and 3D. For accuracy analysis, T1 and T2 values of a phantom are determined by single-slice Cartesian MRF for different relaxation intervals and are compared with quantitative reference measurements. The relevance of slice profile effects is also investigated in this case. To further illustrate the capabilities of the method, an application to in-vivo spiral 3D MRF measurements is demonstrated. The proposed computation method enables accurate parameter estimation even for the shortest relaxation intervals, as investigated for different sampling patterns in 2D and 3D. In 2D Cartesian measurements, we achieved a scan acceleration of more than a factor of two, while maintaining acceptable accuracy: The largest T1 values of a sample set deviated from their reference values by 0.3% (longest relaxation interval) and 2.4% (shortest relaxation interval). The largest T2 values showed systematic deviations of up to 10% for all relaxation intervals, which is discussed. The influence of slice profile effects for multislice acquisition is shown to become increasingly relevant for short relaxation intervals. In 3D spiral measurements, a scan time reduction of 36% was achieved, maintaining the quality of in-vivo T1 and T2 maps. Reducing the relaxation interval between MRF sequence repetitions using stationary fingerprint dictionaries is a feasible method to improve the scan efficiency of MRF sequences. The method enables fast implementations of 3D spatially resolved

  2. Colour schemes

    van Leeuwen, Theo


    This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation....

  3. Relaxation Techniques for Health

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Relaxation Techniques for Health Share: On This Page What’s the ... Bottom Line? How much do we know about relaxation techniques? A substantial amount of research has been done ...

  4. Latent Period of Relaxation.

    Kobayashi, M; Irisawa, H


    The latent period of relaxation of molluscan myocardium due to anodal current is much longer than that of contraction. Although the rate and the grade of relaxation are intimately related to both the stimulus condition and the muscle tension, the latent period of relaxation remains constant, except when the temperature of the bathing fluid is changed.


    Mohammed Sea(l)d


    We construct and implement a non-oscillatory relaxation scheme for multidimensional hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. The method transforms the nonlinear hyperbolic system to a semilinear model with a relaxation source term and linear characteristics which can be solved numerically without using either Riemann solver or linear iterations.To discretize the relaxation system we consider a high-resolution reconstruction in space and a TVD Runge-Kutta time integration. Detailed formulation of the scheme is given for problems in three space dimensions and numerical experiments are implemented in both scalar and system cases to show the effectiveness of the method.

  6. Indentation load relaxation test

    Hannula, S.P.; Stone, D.; Li, C.Y. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    Most of the models that are used to describe the nonelastic behavior of materials utilize stress-strain rate relations which can be obtained by a load relaxation test. The conventional load relaxation test, however, cannot be performed if the volume of the material to be tested is very small. For such applications the indentation type of test offers an attractive means of obtaining data necessary for materials characterization. In this work the feasibility of the indentation load relaxation test is studied. Experimental techniques are described together with results on Al, Cu and 316 SS. These results are compared to those of conventional uniaxial load relaxation tests, and the conversion of the load-indentation rate data into the stress-strain rate data is discussed.

  7. Relaxation techniques for stress

    ... problems such as high blood pressure, stomachaches, headaches, anxiety, and depression. Using relaxation techniques can help you feel calm. These exercises can also help you manage stress and ease the effects of stress on your body.

  8. Perturbations and quantum relaxation

    Kandhadai, Adithya


    We investigate whether small perturbations can cause relaxation to quantum equilibrium over very long timescales. We consider in particular a two-dimensional harmonic oscillator, which can serve as a model of a field mode on expanding space. We assume an initial wave function with small perturbations to the ground state. We present evidence that the trajectories are highly confined so as to preclude relaxation to equilibrium even over very long timescales. Cosmological implications are briefly discussed.

  9. Accelerating convergence of molecular dynamics-based structural relaxation

    Christensen, Asbjørn


    We describe strategies to accelerate the terminal stage of molecular dynamics (MD)based relaxation algorithms, where a large fraction of the computational resources are used. First, we analyze the qualitative and quantitative behavior of the QuickMin family of MD relaxation algorithms and explore...... the influence of spectral properties and dimensionality of the molecular system on the algorithm efficiency. We test two algorithms, the MinMax and Lanczos, for spectral estimation from an MD trajectory, and use this to derive a practical scheme of time step adaptation in MD relaxation algorithms to improve...

  10. Convexity-preserving Bernstein–Bézier quartic scheme

    Maria Hussain


    Full Text Available A C1 convex surface data interpolation scheme is presented to preserve the shape of scattered data arranged over a triangular grid. Bernstein–Bézier quartic function is used for interpolation. Lower bound of the boundary and inner Bézier ordinates is determined to guarantee convexity of surface. The developed scheme is flexible and involves more relaxed constraints.

  11. An improvement in mass flux convective parameterizations and its impact on seasonal simulations using a coupled model

    Elsayed Yousef, Ahmed; Ehsan, M. Azhar; Almazroui, Mansour; Assiri, Mazen E.; Al-Khalaf, Abdulrahman K.


    A new closure and a modified detrainment for the simplified Arakawa-Schubert (SAS) cumulus parameterization scheme are proposed. In the modified convective scheme which is named as King Abdulaziz University (KAU) scheme, the closure depends on both the buoyancy force and the environment mean relative humidity. A lateral entrainment rate varying with environment relative humidity is proposed and tends to suppress convection in a dry atmosphere. The detrainment rate also varies with environment relative humidity. The KAU scheme has been tested in a single column model (SCM) and implemented in a coupled global climate model (CGCM). Increased coupling between environment and clouds in the KAU scheme results in improved sensitivity of the depth and strength of convection to environmental humidity compared to the original SAS scheme. The new scheme improves precipitation simulation with better representations of moisture and temperature especially during suppressed convection periods. The KAU scheme implemented in the Seoul National University (SNU) CGCM shows improved precipitation over the tropics. The simulated precipitation pattern over the Arabian Peninsula and Northeast African region is also improved.

  12. Molecular Relaxation in Liquids

    Bagchi, Biman


    This book brings together many different relaxation phenomena in liquids under a common umbrella and provides a unified view of apparently diverse phenomena. It aligns recent experimental results obtained with modern techniques with recent theoretical developments. Such close interaction between experiment and theory in this area goes back to the works of Einstein, Smoluchowski, Kramers' and de Gennes. Development of ultrafast laser spectroscopy recently allowed study of various relaxation processes directly in the time domain, with time scales going down to picosecond (ps) and femtosecond (fs

  13. Efficient Scheme for Optimizing Quantum Fourier Circuits

    JIANG Min; ZHANG Zengke; Tzyh-Jong Tarn


    In quantum circuits, importing of additional qubits can reduce the operation time and prevent de-coherence induced by the environment. However, excessive qubits may make the quantum system vulner-able. This paper describes how to relax existing qubits without additional qubits to significantly reduce the operation time of the quantum Fourier circuit compared to a circuit without optimization. The results indicate that this scheme makes full use of the qubits relaxation. The concepts can be applied to improve similar quantum circuits and guide the physical implementations of quantum algorithms or devices.

  14. Relaxation time estimation in surface NMR

    Grunewald, Elliot D.; Walsh, David O.


    NMR relaxation time estimation methods and corresponding apparatus generate two or more alternating current transmit pulses with arbitrary amplitudes, time delays, and relative phases; apply a surface NMR acquisition scheme in which initial preparatory pulses, the properties of which may be fixed across a set of multiple acquisition sequence, are transmitted at the start of each acquisition sequence and are followed by one or more depth sensitive pulses, the pulse moments of which are varied across the set of multiple acquisition sequences; and apply processing techniques in which recorded NMR response data are used to estimate NMR properties and the relaxation times T.sub.1 and T.sub.2* as a function of position as well as one-dimensional and two-dimension distributions of T.sub.1 versus T.sub.2* as a function of subsurface position.

  15. Relaxation time estimation in surface NMR

    Grunewald, Elliot D.; Walsh, David O.


    NMR relaxation time estimation methods and corresponding apparatus generate two or more alternating current transmit pulses with arbitrary amplitudes, time delays, and relative phases; apply a surface NMR acquisition scheme in which initial preparatory pulses, the properties of which may be fixed across a set of multiple acquisition sequence, are transmitted at the start of each acquisition sequence and are followed by one or more depth sensitive pulses, the pulse moments of which are varied across the set of multiple acquisition sequences; and apply processing techniques in which recorded NMR response data are used to estimate NMR properties and the relaxation times T.sub.1 and T.sub.2* as a function of position as well as one-dimensional and two-dimension distributions of T.sub.1 versus T.sub.2* as a function of subsurface position.

  16. Proton magnetic relaxation dispersion in aqueous biopolymer systems

    Conti, S.

    Investigation of the magnetic field dependence of proton spin-lattice relaxation in solutions of bovine fibrinogen has been performed for Larmor frequencies between 50 Hz and 60 MHz, and complemented with measurements of spin-spin relaxation rates at 2 kHz and 25 MHz. A thorough analysis of experimental data, including the effects of protein concentration, temperature, pH and isotopic dilution, leads to an overall relaxation scheme consistent with T1 and T2 values at both low and high magnetic fields. The scheme involves water molecules slightly anisotropically bound on proteins as well as slow exchanging protein protons magnetically coupled to solute nuclei. A coherent picture, reminiscent of the traditional hydration layer, can be obtained for bound water. A major conclusion is that transfer of single protons may contribute substantially to the chemical exchange between free and bound water.

  17. Readout of relaxation rates by nonadiabatic pumping spectroscopy

    Riwar, Roman-Pascal; Roche, Benoît; Jehl, Xavier; Splettstoesser, Janine


    We put forward nonadiabatic charge pumping as a method for accessing the different charge relaxation rates as well as the relaxation rates of excited orbital states in double-quantum-dot setups, based on extremely size-limited quantum dots and dopant systems. The rates are obtained in a well-separated manner from plateaus, occurring when comparing the steady-state current for reversed driving cycles. This yields a reliable readout independent of any fitting parameters. Importantly, the nonadiabatic pumping spectroscopy essentially exploits the same driving scheme that the operation of these devices generally employs. We provide a detailed analysis of the working principle of the readout scheme as well as of possible errors, thereby demonstrating its broad applicability. The precise knowledge of relaxation rates is highly relevant for the implementation of time-dependently operated devices, such as electron pumps for metrology or qubits in quantum information.

  18. Impacts of Convective Triggering on Convective Variability in a Climate Model

    Wang, Y. C.


    In this study, we investigated the impacts of the triggering designs of the deep convection scheme on convective variability from diurnal rainfall cycle to intraseasonal rainfall variability by using NCAR CAM5 model. Using single-column simulations at the Southern Great Plains site, we found that the underestimated nighttime rainfall of diurnal cycle can be greatly improved when two convective triggering designs from the Simplified Arakawa-Schubert scheme (SAS) are implemented into the default Zhang-Mcfarlane (ZM) scheme. We further conducted AMIP-type climate simulations with this modified ZM scheme (ZMMOD), and found that improvements can also be seen for the diurnally propagating convection over topographical regions, such as Maritime Continent and the western coast of Columbia. We further examined the rainfall variability from synoptic to intraseasonal scales, and found that using ZMMOD scheme increases rainfall variability of 2-10-day over South America and Africa land regions. However, this improvement does not seem to transfer to the intraseasonal convective organization (20-100 days), such as the MJO. This study demonstrates the importance of convective triggering and its impacts on convective variability. This work is still on-going to understand the physical processes of such impacts and how they might affect climate systems through multiscale interactions.

  19. A positive and entropy-satisfying finite volume scheme for the Baer-Nunziato model

    Coquel, Frédéric; Hérard, Jean-Marc; Saleh, Khaled


    We present a relaxation scheme for approximating the entropy dissipating weak solutions of the Baer-Nunziato two-phase flow model. This relaxation scheme is straightforwardly obtained as an extension of the relaxation scheme designed in [16] for the isentropic Baer-Nunziato model and consequently inherits its main properties. To our knowledge, this is the only existing scheme for which the approximated phase fractions, phase densities and phase internal energies are proven to remain positive without any restrictive condition other than a classical fully computable CFL condition. For ideal gas and stiffened gas equations of state, real values of the phasic speeds of sound are also proven to be maintained by the numerical scheme. It is also the only scheme for which a discrete entropy inequality is proven, under a CFL condition derived from the natural sub-characteristic condition associated with the relaxation approximation. This last property, which ensures the non-linear stability of the numerical method, is satisfied for any admissible equation of state. We provide a numerical study for the convergence of the approximate solutions towards some exact Riemann solutions. The numerical simulations show that the relaxation scheme compares well with two of the most popular existing schemes available for the Baer-Nunziato model, namely Schwendeman-Wahle-Kapila's Godunov-type scheme [39] and Tokareva-Toro's HLLC scheme [44]. The relaxation scheme also shows a higher precision and a lower computational cost (for comparable accuracy) than a standard numerical scheme used in the nuclear industry, namely Rusanov's scheme. Finally, we assess the good behavior of the scheme when approximating vanishing phase solutions.

  20. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  1. Mimetic Methods for Lagrangian Relaxation of Magnetic Fields

    Candelaresi, Simon; Hornig, Gunnar


    We present a new code that performs a relaxation of a magnetic field towards a force-free state (Beltrami field) using a Lagrangian numerical scheme. Beltrami fields are of interest for the dynamics of many technical and astrophysical plasmas as they are the lowest energy states that the magnetic field can reach. The numerical method strictly preserves the magnetic flux and the topology of magnetic field lines. In contrast to other implementations we use mimetic operators for the spatial derivatives in order to improve accuracy for high distortions of the grid. Compared with schemes using direct derivatives we find that the final state of the simulation approximates a force-free state with a significantly higher accuracy. We implement the scheme in a code which runs on graphical processing units (GPU), which leads to an enhanced computing speed compared to previous relaxation codes.

  2. Kinetic Actviation Relaxation Technique

    Béland, Laurent Karim; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand


    We present a detailed description of the kinetic Activation-Relaxation Technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si, self-interstitial diffusion in Fe and structural relaxation in amorphous silicon.

  3. Nonlinear fractional relaxation

    A Tofighi


    We define a nonlinear model for fractional relaxation phenomena. We use -expansion method to analyse this model. By studying the fundamental solutions of this model we find that when → 0 the model exhibits a fast decay rate and when → ∞ the model exhibits a power-law decay. By analysing the frequency response we find a logarithmic enhancement for the relative ratio of susceptibility.

  4. Phase-Field Relaxation of Topology Optimization with Local Stress Constraints

    Stainko, Roman; Burger, Martin


    We introduce a new relaxation scheme for structural topology optimization problems with local stress constraints based on a phase-field method. In the basic formulation we have a PDE-constrained optimization problem, where the finite element and design analysis are solved simultaneously...... parameter decreases to zero. A major advantage of this kind of relaxation opposed to standard approaches is a uniform constraint qualification that is satisfied for any positive value of the penalization parameter. The relaxation scheme yields a large-scale optimization problem with a high number of linear...

  5. Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy

    Wang, Lidai; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Lihong V.


    The temperature-dependent property of the Grueneisen parameter has been employed in photoacoustic imaging mainly to measure tissue temperature. Here we explore this property using a different approach and develop Grueneisen-relaxation photoacoustic microscopy (GR-PAM), a technique that images non-radiative absorption with confocal optical resolution. GR-PAM sequentially delivers two identical laser pulses with a micro-second-scale time delay. The first laser pulse generates a photoacoustic signal and thermally tags the in-focus absorbers. Owing to the temperature dependence of the Grueneisen parameter, when the second laser pulse excites the tagged absorbers within the thermal relaxation time, a photoacoustic signal stronger than the first one is produced. GR-PAM detects the amplitude difference between the two co-located photoacoustic signals, confocally imaging the non-radiative absorption. We greatly improved axial resolution from 45 µm to 2.3 µm and at the same time slightly improved lateral resolution from 0.63 µm to 0.41 µm. In addition, the optical sectioning capability facilitates the measurement of the absolute absorption coefficient without fluence calibration. PMID:25379919

  6. Generalized Group Signature Scheme


    The concept of generalized group signature scheme will bepresent. Based on the generalized secret sharing scheme proposed by Lin and Ha rn, a non-interactive approach is designed for realizing such generalized group signature scheme. Using the new scheme, the authorized subsets of the group in w hich the group member can cooperate to produce the valid signature for any messa ge can be randomly specified

  7. Magnetoviscosity and relaxation in ferrofluids



    The increase in viscosity of a ferrofluid due to an applied magnetic field is discussed on the basis of a phenomenological relaxation equation for the magnetization. The relaxation equation was derived earlier from irreversible thermodynamics, and differs from that postulated by Shliomis. The two relaxation equations lead to a different dependence of viscosity on magnetic field, unless the relaxation rates are related in a specific field-dependent way. Both planar Couette flow and Poiseuille pipe flow in parallel and perpendicular magnetic field are discussed. The entropy production for these situations is calculated and related to the magnetoviscosity.

  8. [Death in a relaxation tank].

    Rupp, Wolf; Simon, Karl-Heinz; Bohnert, Michael


    Complete relaxation can be achieved by floating in a darkened, sound-proof relaxation tank filled with salinated water kept at body temperature. Under these conditions, meditation exercises up to self-hypnosis may lead to deep relaxation with physical and mental revitalization. A user manipulated his tank, presumably to completely cut off all optical and acoustic stimuli and accidentally also covered the ventilation hole. The man was found dead in his relaxation tank. The findings suggested lack of oxygen as the cause of death.

  9. MIDI Programming in Scheme

    Nørmark, Kurt


    A Scheme representation of Standard MIDI Files is proposed. The Scheme expressions are defined and constrained by an XML-language, which in the starting point is inspired by a MIDI XML event language made by the MIDI Manufactures Association. The representation of Standard MIDI Files in Scheme ma...

  10. MIDI Programming in Scheme

    Nørmark, Kurt


    A Scheme representation of Standard MIDI Files is proposed. The Scheme expressions are defined and constrained by an XML-language, which in the starting point is inspired by a MIDI XML event language made by the MIDI Manufactures Association. The representation of Standard MIDI Files in Scheme ma...

  11. Impact of parameterization of physical processes on simulation of track and intensity of tropical cyclone Nargis (2008) with WRF-NMM model.

    Pattanayak, Sujata; Mohanty, U C; Osuri, Krishna K


    The present study is carried out to investigate the performance of different cumulus convection, planetary boundary layer, land surface processes, and microphysics parameterization schemes in the simulation of a very severe cyclonic storm (VSCS) Nargis (2008), developed in the central Bay of Bengal on 27 April 2008. For this purpose, the nonhydrostatic mesoscale model (NMM) dynamic core of weather research and forecasting (WRF) system is used. Model-simulated track positions and intensity in terms of minimum central mean sea level pressure (MSLP), maximum surface wind (10 m), and precipitation are verified with observations as provided by the India Meteorological Department (IMD) and Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM). The estimated optimum combination is reinvestigated with six different initial conditions of the same case to have better conclusion on the performance of WRF-NMM. A few more diagnostic fields like vertical velocity, vorticity, and heat fluxes are also evaluated. The results indicate that cumulus convection play an important role in the movement of the cyclone, and PBL has a crucial role in the intensification of the storm. The combination of Simplified Arakawa Schubert (SAS) convection, Yonsei University (YSU) PBL, NMM land surface, and Ferrier microphysics parameterization schemes in WRF-NMM give better track and intensity forecast with minimum vector displacement error.

  12. Relaxing Behavioural Inheritance

    Nuno Amálio


    Full Text Available Object-oriented (OO inheritance allows the definition of families of classes in a hierarchical way. In behavioural inheritance, a strong version, it should be possible to substitute an object of a subclass for an object of its superclass without any observable effect on the system. Behavioural inheritance is related to formal refinement, but, as observed in the literature, the refinement constraints are too restrictive, ruling out many useful OO subclassings. This paper studies behavioural inheritance in the context of ZOO, an object-oriented style for Z. To overcome refinement's restrictions, this paper proposes relaxations to the behavioural inheritance refinement rules. The work is presented for Z, but the results are applicable to any OO language that supports design-by-contract.

  13. Relaxation techniques for three-dimensional transonic flow about wings.

    Bailey, F. R.; Steger, J. L.


    A relaxation procedure has been developed to treat the three-dimensional, transonic small perturbation equations about finite lifting wings. A combination of two schemes is employed. For flow forward of the wing trailing edge the equations are written in terms of a velocity potential in order to minimize computer algebra and storage. For the remaining flow field the equations are written in terms of the velocity components in order to simplify the enforcement of the Kutta condition. Difference equations and relaxation procedures are described for both schemes. The computational method automatically captures the imbedded shock wave in the three-dimensional flow field. Computed results are given and compared to experiment and other inviscid methods.

  14. Scheme Program Documentation Tools

    Nørmark, Kurt


    This paper describes and discusses two different Scheme documentation tools. The first is SchemeDoc, which is intended for documentation of the interfaces of Scheme libraries (APIs). The second is the Scheme Elucidator, which is for internal documentation of Scheme programs. Although the tools...... are separate and intended for different documentation purposes they are related to each other in several ways. Both tools are based on XML languages for tool setup and for documentation authoring. In addition, both tools rely on the LAML framework which---in a systematic way---makes an XML language available...

  15. Velocity and energy relaxation in two-phase flows

    Meyapin, Yannick; Gisclon, Marguerite


    In the present study we investigate analytically the process of velocity and energy relaxation in two-phase flows. We begin our exposition by considering the so-called six equations two-phase model [Ishii1975, Rovarch2006]. This model assumes each phase to possess its own velocity and energy variables. Despite recent advances, the six equations model remains computationally expensive for many practical applications. Moreover, its advection operator may be non-hyperbolic which poses additional theoretical difficulties to construct robust numerical schemes |Ghidaglia et al, 2001]. In order to simplify this system, we complete momentum and energy conservation equations by relaxation terms. When relaxation characteristic time tends to zero, velocities and energies are constrained to tend to common values for both phases. As a result, we obtain a simple two-phase model which was recently proposed for simulation of violent aerated flows [Dias et al, 2010]. The preservation of invariant regions and incompressible li...

  16. Accelerating convergence of molecular dynamics-based structural relaxation

    Christensen, Asbjørn


    We describe strategies to accelerate the terminal stage of molecular dynamics (MD)based relaxation algorithms, where a large fraction of the computational resources are used. First, we analyze the qualitative and quantitative behavior of the QuickMin family of MD relaxation algorithms and explore...... the influence of spectral properties and dimensionality of the molecular system on the algorithm efficiency. We test two algorithms, the MinMax and Lanczos, for spectral estimation from an MD trajectory, and use this to derive a practical scheme of time step adaptation in MD relaxation algorithms to improve...... efficiency. We also discuss the implementation aspects. Secondly, we explore the final state refinement acceleration by a combination with the conjugate gradient technique, where the key ingredient is an implicit corrector step. Finally, we test the feasibility of passive Hessian matrix accumulation from...

  17. A Block-Asynchronous Relaxation Method for Graphics Processing Units

    Antz, Hartwig [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Tomov, Stanimire [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Dongarra, Jack [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Heuveline, Vincent [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany)


    In this paper, we analyze the potential of asynchronous relaxation methods on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). For this purpose, we developed a set of asynchronous iteration algorithms in CUDA and compared them with a parallel implementation of synchronous relaxation methods on CPU-based systems. For a set of test matrices taken from the University of Florida Matrix Collection we monitor the convergence behavior, the average iteration time and the total time-to-solution time. Analyzing the results, we observe that even for our most basic asynchronous relaxation scheme, despite its lower convergence rate compared to the Gauss-Seidel relaxation (that we expected), the asynchronous iteration running on GPUs is still able to provide solution approximations of certain accuracy in considerably shorter time then Gauss- Seidel running on CPUs. Hence, it overcompensates for the slower convergence by exploiting the scalability and the good fit of the asynchronous schemes for the highly parallel GPU architectures. Further, enhancing the most basic asynchronous approach with hybrid schemes – using multiple iterations within the ”subdomain” handled by a GPU thread block and Jacobi-like asynchronous updates across the ”boundaries”, subject to tuning various parameters – we manage to not only recover the loss of global convergence but often accelerate convergence of up to two times (compared to the effective but difficult to parallelize Gauss-Seidel type of schemes), while keeping the execution time of a global iteration practically the same. This shows the high potential of the asynchronous methods not only as a stand alone numerical solver for linear systems of equations fulfilling certain convergence conditions but more importantly as a smoother in multigrid methods. Due to the explosion of parallelism in todays architecture designs, the significance and the need for asynchronous methods, as the ones described in this work, is expected to grow.

  18. Magnetic relaxation in anisotropic magnets

    Lindgård, Per-Anker


    The line shape and the kinematic and thermodynamic slowing down of the critical and paramagnetic relaxation in axially anisotropic materials are discussed. Kinematic slowing down occurs only in the longitudinal relaxation function. The thermodynamic slowing down occurs in either the transverse or...

  19. Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi method: Improvements and applications

    Adsuara, J. E.; Cordero-Carrión, I.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Aloy, M. A.


    Elliptic partial differential equations (ePDEs) appear in a wide variety of areas of mathematics, physics and engineering. Typically, ePDEs must be solved numerically, which sets an ever growing demand for efficient and highly parallel algorithms to tackle their computational solution. The Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi (SRJ) is a promising class of methods, atypical for combining simplicity and efficiency, that has been recently introduced for solving linear Poisson-like ePDEs. The SRJ methodology relies on computing the appropriate parameters of a multilevel approach with the goal of minimizing the number of iterations needed to cut down the residuals below specified tolerances. The efficiency in the reduction of the residual increases with the number of levels employed in the algorithm. Applying the original methodology to compute the algorithm parameters with more than 5 levels notably hinders obtaining optimal SRJ schemes, as the mixed (non-linear) algebraic-differential system of equations from which they result becomes notably stiff. Here we present a new methodology for obtaining the parameters of SRJ schemes that overcomes the limitations of the original algorithm and provide parameters for SRJ schemes with up to 15 levels and resolutions of up to 215 points per dimension, allowing for acceleration factors larger than several hundreds with respect to the Jacobi method for typical resolutions and, in some high resolution cases, close to 1000. Most of the success in finding SRJ optimal schemes with more than 10 levels is based on an analytic reduction of the complexity of the previously mentioned system of equations. Furthermore, we extend the original algorithm to apply it to certain systems of non-linear ePDEs.

  20. Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi method: improvements and applications

    Adsuara, J E; Cerdá-Durán, P; Aloy, M A


    Elliptic partial differential equations (ePDEs) appear in a wide variety of areas of mathematics, physics and engineering. Typically, ePDEs must be solved numerically, which sets an ever growing demand for efficient and highly parallel algorithms to tackle their computational solution. The Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi (SRJ) is a promising class of methods, atypical for combining simplicity and efficiency, that has been recently introduced for solving linear Poisson-like ePDEs. The SRJ methodology relies on computing the appropriate parameters of a multilevel approach with the goal of minimizing the number of iterations needed to cut down the residuals below specified tolerances. The efficiency in the reduction of the residual increases with the number of levels employed in the algorithm. Applying the original methodology to compute the algorithm parameters with more than 5 levels notably hinders obtaining optimal SRJ schemes, as the mixed (non-linear) algebraic-differential equations from which they result bec...

  1. Convertible Proxy Signcryption Scheme

    李继国; 李建中; 曹珍富; 张亦辰


    In 1996, Mambo et al introduced the concept of proxy signature. However, proxy signature can only provide the delegated authenticity and cannot provide confidentiality. Recently, Gamage et al and Chan and Wei proposed different proxy signcryption schemes respectively, which extended the concept of proxy signature.However, only the specified receiver can decrypt and verify the validity of proxy signcryption in their schemes.To protect the receiver' s benefit in case of a later dispute, Wu and Hsu proposed a convertible authenticated encryption scheme, which carn enable the receiver to convert signature into an ordinary one that can be verified by anyone. Based on Wu and Hsu' s scheme and improved Kim' s scheme, we propose a convertible proxy signcryption scheme. The security of the proposed scheme is based on the intractability of reversing the one-way hash function and solving the discrete logarithm problem. The proposed scheme can satisfy all properties of strong proxy signature and withstand the public key substitution attack and does not use secure channel. In addition, the proposed scheme can be extended to convertible threshold proxy signcryption scheme.

  2. Performance of ICTP's RegCM4 in Simulating the Rainfall Characteristics over the CORDEX-SEA Domain

    Neng Liew, Ju; Tangang, Fredolin; Tieh Ngai, Sheau; Chung, Jing Xiang; Narisma, Gemma; Cruz, Faye Abigail; Phan Tan, Van; Thanh, Ngo-Duc; Santisirisomboon, Jerasron; Milindalekha, Jaruthat; Singhruck, Patama; Gunawan, Dodo; Satyaningsih, Ratna; Aldrian, Edvin


    The performance of the RegCM4 in simulating rainfall variations over the Southeast Asia regions was examined. Different combinations of six deep convective parameterization schemes, namely i) Grell scheme with Arakawa-Schubert closure assumption, ii) Grell scheme with Fritch-Chappel closure assumption, iii) Emanuel MIT scheme, iv) mixed scheme with Emanuel MIT scheme over the Ocean and the Grell scheme over the land, v) mixed scheme with Grell scheme over the land and Emanuel MIT scheme over the ocean and (vi) Kuo scheme, and three ocean flux treatments were tested. In order to account for uncertainties among the observation products, four different gridded rainfall products were used for comparison. The simulated climate is generally drier over the equatorial regions and slightly wetter over the mainland Indo-China compare to the observation. However, simulation with MIT cumulus scheme used over the land area consistently produces large amplitude of positive rainfall biases, although it simulates more realistic annual rainfall variations. The simulations are found less sensitive to treatment of ocean fluxes. Although the simulations produced the rainfall climatology well, all of them simulated much stronger interannual variability compare to that of the observed. Nevertheless, the time evolution of the inter-annual variations was well reproduced particularly over the eastern part of maritime continent. Over the mainland Southeast Asia (SEA), unrealistic rainfall anomalies processes were simulated. The lacking of summer season air-sea interaction results in strong oceanic forcings over the regions, leading to positive rainfall anomalies during years with warm ocean temperature anomalies. This incurs much stronger atmospheric forcings on the land surface processes compare to that of the observed. A score ranking system was designed to rank the simulations according to their performance in reproducing different aspects of rainfall characteristics. The result suggests

  3. Difference Schemes and Applications


    of the shallow water equations that is well suited for complex geometries and moving boundaries. Another (similar) regularization of...the solid wall extrapolation followed by the interpolation in the phase space (by solving the Riemann problem between the internal cell averages and...scheme. This Godunov-type scheme enjoys all major advantages of Riemann -problem-solver-free, non-oscillatory central schemes and, at the same time, have

  4. Efficient Threshold Signature Scheme

    Sattar J Aboud


    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a new threshold signature RSA-typed scheme. The proposed scheme has the characteristics of un-forgeable and robustness in random oracle model. Also, signature generation and verification is entirely non-interactive. In addition, the length of the entity signature participate is restricted by a steady times of the length of the RSA signature modulus. Also, the signing process of the proposed scheme is more efficient in terms of time complexity and interaction.

  5. Stateless Transitive Signature Schemes

    MA Chun-guang; CAI Man-chun; YANG Yi-xian


    A new practical method is introduced to transform the stateful transitive signature scheme to stateless one without the loss of security. According to the approach, two concrete stateless transitive signature schemes based on Factoring and RSA are presented respectively. Under the assumption of the hardness of factoring and one-more- RSA-inversion problem, both two schemes are secure under the adaptive chosen-message attacks in random oracle model.

  6. A mass flux closure function in a GCM based on the Richardson number

    Yang, Young-Min; Kang, In-Sik; Almazroui, Mansour


    A mass flux closure in a general circulation model (GCM) was developed in terms of the mean gradient Richardson number (GRN), which is defined as the ratio between the buoyancy and the shear-driven kinetic energy in the planetary boundary layer. The cloud resolving model (CRM) simulations using the tropical ocean and global atmosphere-coupled ocean-atmosphere response experiment forcing show that cloud-base mass flux is well correlated with the GRN. Using the CRM simulations, a mass flux closure function is formulated as an exponential function of the GRN and it is implemented in the Arakawa-Schubert convective scheme. The GCM simulations with the new mass flux closure are compared to those of the GCM with the conventional mass flux closure based on convective available potential energy. Because of the exponential function, the new closure permits convective precipitation only when the GRN has a sufficiently large value. When the GRN has a relatively small value, the convection is suppressed while the convective instability is released by large-scale precipitation. As a result, the ratio of convective precipitation to total precipitation is reduced and there is an increase in the frequency of heavy precipitation, more similar to the observations. The new closure also improves the diurnal cycle of precipitation due to a time delay of the large GRN with respect to convective instability.

  7. The heated condensation framework as a convective trigger in the NCEP Climate Forecast System version 2

    Bombardi, Rodrigo J.; Tawfik, Ahmed B.; Manganello, Julia V.; Marx, Lawrence; Shin, Chul-Su; Halder, Subhadeep; Schneider, Edwin K.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Kinter, James L.


    An updated version of the Heated Condensation Framework (HCF) is implemented as a convective triggering criterion into the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2). The new trigger replaces the original criteria in both the deep (Simplified Arakawa-Schubert - SAS) and shallow (SAS based) convective schemes. The performance of the original and new triggering criteria is first compared against radiosonde observations. Then, a series of hindcasts are performed to evaluate the influence of the triggering criterion in the CFSv2 representation of summer precipitation, the diurnal cycle of precipitation, and hurricanes that made landfall. The observational analysis shows that the HCF trigger better captures the frequency of convection, where the original SAS trigger initiates convection too often. When implemented in CFSv2, the HCF trigger improves the seasonal forecast of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall, including the representation of the onset dates of the rainy season over India. On the other hand, the HCF trigger increases error in the seasonal forecast of precipitation over the eastern United States. The HCF trigger also improves the representation of the intensity of hurricanes. Moreover, the simulation of hurricanes provides insights on the mechanism whereby the HCF trigger impacts the representation of convection.

  8. Novel scheme for simple label-swapping employing XOR logic in an integrated interferometric wavelength converter

    Fjelde, Tina; Kloch, Allan; Wolfson, David;


    We present a novel scheme for all-optical label swapping that relies on logic exclusive-OR (XOR) in an integrated SOA-based Michelson interferometer. The scheme allows simple, efficient and mechanically stable operation, while relaxing the requirements on packet format and simplifying switch...

  9. Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?

    Solodukhin, S. N.


    We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the worm-hole modification. In the latter case the entropy comes out correctly as well.

  10. Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?

    Solodukhin, Sergey N.


    We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the...

  11. Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?

    Solodukhin, S N


    We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the worm-hole modification. In the latter case the entropy comes out correctly as well.

  12. An Exact Relaxation of Clustering

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai


    of clustering problems such as the K-means objective and pairwise clustering as well as graph partition problems, e.g., for community detection in complex networks. In particular we show that a relaxation to the simplex can be given for which the extreme solutions are stable hard assignment solutions and vice......Continuous relaxation of hard assignment clustering problems can lead to better solutions than greedy iterative refinement algorithms. However, the validity of existing relaxations is contingent on problem specific fuzzy parameters that quantify the level of similarity between the original...... versa. Based on the new relaxation we derive the SR-clustering algorithm that has the same complexity as traditional greedy iterative refinement algorithms but leading to significantly better partitions of the data. A Matlab implementation of the SR-clustering algorithm is available for download....

  13. The relaxation & stress reduction workbook

    Davis, Martha; Eshelman, Elizabeth Robbins; McKay, Matthew


    "The Relaxation & Stress Reduction Workbook broke new ground when it was first published in 1980, detailing easy, step-by-step techniques for calming the body and mind in an increasingly overstimulated world...

  14. Multiresolution signal decomposition schemes

    J. Goutsias (John); H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk)


    textabstract[PNA-R9810] Interest in multiresolution techniques for signal processing and analysis is increasing steadily. An important instance of such a technique is the so-called pyramid decomposition scheme. This report proposes a general axiomatic pyramid decomposition scheme for signal analysis

  15. Multiresolution signal decomposition schemes

    Goutsias, J.; Heijmans, H.J.A.M.


    [PNA-R9810] Interest in multiresolution techniques for signal processing and analysis is increasing steadily. An important instance of such a technique is the so-called pyramid decomposition scheme. This report proposes a general axiomatic pyramid decomposition scheme for signal analysis and synthes

  16. Relaxation Dynamics in Heme Proteins.

    Scholl, Reinhard Wilhelm

    A protein molecule possesses many conformational substates that are likely arranged in a hierarchy consisting of a number of tiers. A hierarchical organization of conformational substates is expected to give rise to a multitude of nonequilibrium relaxation phenomena. If the temperature is lowered, transitions between substates of higher tiers are frozen out, and relaxation processes characteristic of lower tiers will dominate the observational time scale. This thesis addresses the following questions: (i) What is the energy landscape of a protein? How does the landscape depend on the environment such as pH and viscosity, and how can it be connected to specific structural parts? (ii) What relaxation phenomena can be observed in a protein? Which are protein specific, and which occur in other proteins? How does the environment influence relaxations? (iii) What functional form best describes relaxation functions? (iv) Can we connect the motions to specific structural parts of the protein molecule, and are these motions important for the function of the protein?. To this purpose, relaxation processes after a pressure change are studied in carbonmonoxy (CO) heme proteins (myoglobin-CO, substrate-bound and substrate-free cytochrome P450cam-CO, chloroperoxidase-CO, horseradish peroxidase -CO) between 150 K and 250 K using FTIR spectroscopy to monitor the CO bound to the heme iron. Two types of p -relaxation experiments are performed: p-release (200 to ~eq40 MPa) and p-jump (~eq40 to 200 MPa) experiments. Most of the relaxations fall into one of three groups and are characterized by (i) nonexponential time dependence and non-Arrhenius temperature dependence (FIM1( nu), FIM1(Gamma)); (ii) exponential time dependence and non-Arrhenius temperature dependence (FIM0(A_{i}to A_{j})); exponential time dependence and Arrhenius temperature dependence (FIMX( nu)). The influence of pH is studied in myoglobin-CO and shown to have a strong influence on the substate population of the

  17. Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors

    Krasnoperov E.P.


    Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.

  18. Relaxation spectra and dipolar correlations for flexible polymers with bulky side groups

    Diaz-Calleja, R. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain); Riande, E.; Roman, J.S. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros (CSIC), Madrid (Spain)


    This paper discusses how relaxation spectra and dipolar correlations for flexible polymers with bulky side groups (PBPA chains) suggest that intermolecular correlations are not very important in this polymer and that {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} absorptions exist. TSDC techniques reveal that the {gamma} peak has a smaller activation energy than the {beta}, and the coupling scheme is used to interpret the complex dielectric and mechanical {alpha} relaxations. The anomalous temperature dependence of the glass-rubber relaxation is discussed in terms of the bulkiness of the side group. 23 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. A Genuinely Two-Dimensional Scheme for the Compressible Euler Equations

    Sidilkover, David


    We present a new genuinely multidimensional discretization for the compressible Euler equations. It is the only high-resolution scheme known to us where Gauss-Seidel relaxation is stable when applied as a smoother directly to the resulting high-resolution scheme. This allows us to construct a very simple and highly efficient multigrid steady-state solver. The scheme is formulated on triangular (possibly unstructured) meshes.

  20. A Fuzzy Commitment Scheme

    Al-saggaf, Alawi A


    This paper attempt has been made to explain a fuzzy commitment scheme. In the conventional Commitment schemes, both committed string m and valid opening key are required to enable the sender to prove the commitment. However there could be many instances where the transmission involves noise or minor errors arising purely because of the factors over which neither the sender nor the receiver have any control. The fuzzy commitment scheme presented in this paper is to accept the opening key that is close to the original one in suitable distance metric, but not necessarily identical. The concept itself is illustrated with the help of simple situation.

  1. CSR schemes in agribusiness

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Haas, Rainer; Balzarova, Michaela


    Purpose – The rise of CSR followed a demand for CSR standards and guidelines. In a sector already characterized by a large number of standards, the authors seek to ask what CSR schemes apply to agribusiness, and how they can be systematically compared and analysed. Design....../methodology/approach – Following a deductive-inductive approach the authors develop a model to compare and analyse CSR schemes based on existing studies and on coding qualitative data on 216 CSR schemes. Findings – The authors confirm that CSR standards and guidelines have entered agribusiness and identify a complex landscape...... of schemes that can be categorized on focus areas, scales, mechanisms, origins, types and commitment levels. Research limitations/implications – The findings contribute to conceptual and empirical research on existing models to compare and analyse CSR standards. Sampling technique and depth of analysis limit...

  2. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J


    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  3. Dynamical theory of spin relaxation

    Field, Timothy R.; Bain, Alex D.


    The dynamics of a spin system is usually calculated using the density matrix. However, the usual formulation in terms of the density matrix predicts that the signal will decay to zero, and does not address the issue of individual spin dynamics. Using stochastic calculus, we develop a dynamical theory of spin relaxation, the origins of which lie in the component spin fluctuations. This entails consideration of random pure states for individual protons, and how these pure states are correctly combined when the density matrix is formulated. Both the lattice and the spins are treated quantum mechanically. Such treatment incorporates both the processes of spin-spin and (finite temperature) spin-lattice relaxation. Our results reveal the intimate connections between spin noise and conventional spin relaxation.

  4. [Evaluation of muscle relaxant requirement for hospital anesthesia].

    Shchegolev, A V; Levshankov, A I; Bogomolov, B N; Pereloma, V I; Dumnov, A G


    The rationale for cost-effectiveness of modern muscle relaxants (MR) administration in general anesthesia was evaluated. New MRs are more expensive than traditionally used pipecuronium and succinylcholine. However, the old MRs are often required as a block reversion with anticholinesterase medicines at the end of surgery, the longer artificial lung ventilation and observation in patients during recovery in intensive care unit. It was found that the district military hospital had done an annual average of about 900 general anesthesia assisted with artificial ventilation and muscle relaxation. About 2% of all anesthesias accrue to short-term anesthesia, the 27% to medium-term and 71% to long-term. 81% of the medium-term anesthesia accrue small hospitals. According to cost/effectiveness the most optimal muscle relaxants administration scheme for short-term (up to 30 min) anesthesia was mivacurium, for the operation of medium duration (30-120 min)--rocuronium, for long-term (120 min)--pipecuronium. An electronic form of annual report, which allows to obtain the necessary data for calculation of annual muscle relaxants demand and costs both in hospital and in the whole of the armed forces quickly, was developed.

  5. A mixed relaxed clock model


    Over recent years, several alternative relaxed clock models have been proposed in the context of Bayesian dating. These models fall in two distinct categories: uncorrelated and autocorrelated across branches. The choice between these two classes of relaxed clocks is still an open question. More fundamentally, the true process of rate variation may have both long-term trends and short-term fluctuations, suggesting that more sophisticated clock models unfolding over multiple time scales should ultimately be developed. Here, a mixed relaxed clock model is introduced, which can be mechanistically interpreted as a rate variation process undergoing short-term fluctuations on the top of Brownian long-term trends. Statistically, this mixed clock represents an alternative solution to the problem of choosing between autocorrelated and uncorrelated relaxed clocks, by proposing instead to combine their respective merits. Fitting this model on a dataset of 105 placental mammals, using both node-dating and tip-dating approaches, suggests that the two pure clocks, Brownian and white noise, are rejected in favour of a mixed model with approximately equal contributions for its uncorrelated and autocorrelated components. The tip-dating analysis is particularly sensitive to the choice of the relaxed clock model. In this context, the classical pure Brownian relaxed clock appears to be overly rigid, leading to biases in divergence time estimation. By contrast, the use of a mixed clock leads to more recent and more reasonable estimates for the crown ages of placental orders and superorders. Altogether, the mixed clock introduced here represents a first step towards empirically more adequate models of the patterns of rate variation across phylogenetic trees. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’. PMID:27325829


    IGA Prima Dewi AP


    Full Text Available Aromatherapy is a kind of treatment that used aroma with aromatherapy essential oil. Extraction process from essential oil generally doing in three methods, there are distilling with water (boiled, distilling with water and steam, and distilling with steam. One of the most favorite aroma is lavender. The main content from lavender is linalyl acetate and linalool (C10H18O. Linalool is main active contents in lavender which can use for anti-anxiety (relaxation. Based on some research, the conclusion indicates that essential oil from lavender can give relaxation (carminative, sedative, reduce anxiety level and increasing mood.

  7. Statistical mechanics of violent relaxation

    Spergel, David N.; Hernquist, Lars


    We propose a functional that is extremized through violent relaxation. It is based on the Ansatz that the wave-particle scattering during violent dynamical processes can be approximated as a sequence of discrete scattering events that occur near a particle's perigalacticon. This functional has an extremum whose structure closely resembles that of spheroidal stellar systems such as elliptical galaxies. The results described here, therefore, provide a simple framework for understanding the physical nature of violent relaxation and support the view that galaxies are structured in accord with fundamental statistical principles.

  8. Active optomechanics through relaxation oscillations

    Princepe, Debora; Frateschi, Newton


    We propose an optomechanical laser based on III-V compounds which exhibits self-pulsation in the presence of a dissipative optomechanical coupling. In such a laser cavity, radiation pressure drives the mechanical degree of freedom and its back-action is caused by the mechanical modulation of the cavity loss rate. Our numerical analysis shows that even in a wideband gain material, such dissipative coupling couples the mechanical oscillation with the laser relaxation oscillations process. Laser self-pulsation is observed for mechanical frequencies below the laser relaxation oscillation frequency under sufficiently high optomechanical coupling factor.

  9. Thermal relaxation and mechanical relaxation of rice gel

    丁玉琴; 赵思明; 熊善柏


    Rice gel was prepared by simulating the production processes of Chinese local rice noodles,and the properties of thermal relaxation and mechanical relaxation during gelatinization were studied by differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) measurement and dynamic rheometer.The results show that during gelatinization,the molecular chains of rice starch undergo the thermal relaxation and mechanical relaxation.During the first heating and high temperature holding processes,the starch crystallites in the rice slurry melt,and the polymer chains stretch and interact,then viscoelastic gel forms.The cooling and low temperatures holding processes result in reinforced networks and decrease the viscoelasticity of the gel.During the second heating,the remaining starch crystallites further melt,the network is reinforced,and the viscoelasticity increases.The viscoelasticity,the molecular conformation and texture of the gel are adjusted by changing the temperature,and finally construct the gel with the textural characteristics of Chinese local rice noodle.

  10. Active open boundary forcing using dual relaxation time-scales in downscaled ocean models

    Herzfeld, M.; Gillibrand, P. A.


    Regional models actively forced with data from larger scale models at their open boundaries often contain motion at different time-scales (e.g. tidal and low frequency). These motions are not always individually well specified in the forcing data, and one may require a more active boundary forcing while the other exert less influence on the model interior. If a single relaxation time-scale is used to relax toward these data in the boundary equation, then this may be difficult. The method of fractional steps is used to introduce dual relaxation time-scales in an open boundary local flux adjustment scheme. This allows tidal and low frequency oscillations to be relaxed independently, resulting in a better overall solution than if a single relaxation parameter is optimized for tidal (short relaxation) or low frequency (long relaxation) boundary forcing. The dual method is compared to the single relaxation method for an idealized test case where a tidal signal is superimposed on a steady state low frequency solution, and a real application where the low frequency boundary forcing component is derived from a global circulation model for a region extending over the whole Great Barrier Reef, and a tidal signal subsequently superimposed.

  11. Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in nitroxide spin-label EPR

    Marsh, Derek


    Nuclear relaxation is a sensitive monitor of rotational dynamics in spin-label EPR. It also contributes competing saturation transfer pathways in T1-exchange spectroscopy, and the determination of paramagnetic relaxation enhancement in site-directed spin labelling. A survey shows that the definition of nitrogen nuclear relaxation rate Wn commonly used in the CW-EPR literature for 14N-nitroxyl spin labels is inconsistent with that currently adopted in time-resolved EPR measurements of saturation recovery. Redefinition of the normalised 14N spin-lattice relaxation rate, b = Wn/(2We), preserves the expressions used for CW-EPR, whilst rendering them consistent with expressions for saturation recovery rates in pulsed EPR. Furthermore, values routinely quoted for nuclear relaxation times that are deduced from EPR spectral diffusion rates in 14N-nitroxyl spin labels do not accord with conventional analysis of spin-lattice relaxation in this three-level system. Expressions for CW-saturation EPR with the revised definitions are summarised. Data on nitrogen nuclear spin-lattice relaxation times are compiled according to the three-level scheme for 14N-relaxation: T1n = 1/Wn. Results are compared and contrasted with those for the two-level 15N-nitroxide system.

  12. XTR-Kurosawa-Desmedt Scheme



    This paper proposes an XTR version of the Kurosawa-Desmedt scheme. Our scheme is secure against adaptive choeen-ciphertext attack under the XTR version of the Decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption in the standard model. Comparing efficiency between the Kurosawa-Desmedt scheme and the proposed XTR-Kurosawa-Desmedt scheme, we find that the proposed scheme is more efficient than the Kurosawa-Desmedt scheme both in communication and computation without compromising security.

  13. Waveform relaxation for the computational homogenization of multiscale magnetoquasistatic problems

    Niyonzima, I.; Geuzaine, C.; Schöps, S.


    This paper proposes the application of the waveform relaxation method to the homogenization of multiscale magnetoquasistatic problems. In the monolithic heterogeneous multiscale method, the nonlinear macroscale problem is solved using the Newton-Raphson scheme. The resolution of many mesoscale problems per Gauß point allows to compute the homogenized constitutive law and its derivative by finite differences. In the proposed approach, the macroscale problem and the mesoscale problems are weakly coupled and solved separately using the finite element method on time intervals for several waveform relaxation iterations. The exchange of information between both problems is still carried out using the heterogeneous multiscale method. However, the partial derivatives can now be evaluated exactly by solving only one mesoscale problem per Gauß point.

  14. 3-channel double relaxation oscillation SQUID magnetometer system with simple readout electronics

    Lee, Y.H.; Kim, J.M.; Kwon, H.C.; Park, Y.K.; Park, J.C.; Duuren, van M.J.; Adelerhof, D.J.; Flokstra, J.; Rogalla, H.


    Recently several approaches have been made to simplify the readout scheme of the standard dc SQUID. A double relaxation oscillation SQUID(DROS) consisting of a hysteretic dc SQUID and a reference junction in series shunted by an inductor and a resistor can provide a very large flux-to-voltage transf

  15. A stable and accurate relaxation technique using multiple penalty terms in space and time

    Frenander, Hannes; Nordström, Jan


    A new method for data relaxation based on weak imposition of external data is introduced. The technique is simple, easy to implement, and the resulting numerical scheme is unconditionally stable. Numerical experiments show that the error growth naturally present in long term simulations can be prevented by using the new technique.

  16. Succesful labelling schemes

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia


    It is usual practice to evaluate the success of a labelling scheme by looking at the awareness percentage, but in many cases this is not sufficient. The awareness percentage gives no indication of which of the consumer segments that are aware of and use labelling schemes and which do not. In the ......It is usual practice to evaluate the success of a labelling scheme by looking at the awareness percentage, but in many cases this is not sufficient. The awareness percentage gives no indication of which of the consumer segments that are aware of and use labelling schemes and which do not....... In the spring of 2001 MAPP carried out an extensive consumer study with special emphasis on the Nordic environmentally friendly label 'the swan'. The purpose was to find out how much consumers actually know and use various labelling schemes. 869 households were contacted and asked to fill in a questionnaire...... it into consideration when I go shopping. The respondent was asked to pick the most suitable answer, which described her use of each label. 29% - also called 'the labelling blind' - responded that they basically only knew the recycling label and the Government controlled organic label 'Ø-mærket'. Another segment of 6...

  17. Dielectric relaxation of samarium aluminate

    Sakhya, Anup Pradhan; Dutta, Alo; Sinha, T.P. [Bose Institute, Department of Physics, Kolkata (India)


    A ceramic SmAlO{sub 3} (SAO) sample is synthesized by the solid-state reaction technique. The Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction pattern has been done to find the crystal symmetry of the sample at room temperature. An impedance spectroscopy study of the sample has been performed in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 1 MHz and in the temperature range from 313 K to 573 K. Dielectric relaxation peaks are observed in the imaginary parts of the spectra. The Cole-Cole model is used to analyze the dielectric relaxation mechanism in SAO. The temperature-dependent relaxation times are found to obey the Arrhenius law having an activation energy of 0.29 eV, which indicates that polaron hopping is responsible for conduction or dielectric relaxation in this material. The complex impedance plane plot of the sample indicates the presence of both grain and grain-boundary effects and is analyzed by an electrical equivalent circuit consisting of a resistance and a constant-phase element. The frequency-dependent conductivity spectra follow a double-power law due to the presence of two plateaus. (orig.)

  18. Choosing a skeletal muscle relaxant.

    See, Sharon; Ginzburg, Regina


    Skeletal muscle relaxants are widely used in treating musculoskeletal conditions. However, evidence of their effectiveness consists mainly of studies with poor methodologic design. In addition, these drugs have not been proven to be superior to acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses support using skeletal muscle relaxants for short-term relief of acute low back pain when nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen are not effective or tolerated. Comparison studies have not shown one skeletal muscle relaxant to be superior to another. Cyclobenzaprine is the most heavily studied and has been shown to be effective for various musculoskeletal conditions. The sedative properties of tizanidine and cyclobenzaprine may benefit patients with insomnia caused by severe muscle spasms. Methocarbamol and metaxalone are less sedating, although effectiveness evidence is limited. Adverse effects, particularly dizziness and drowsiness, are consistently reported with all skeletal muscle relaxants. The potential adverse effects should be communicated clearly to the patient. Because of limited comparable effectiveness data, choice of agent should be based on side-effect profile, patient preference, abuse potential, and possible drug interactions.

  19. Onsager relaxation of toroidal plasmas

    Samain, A.; Nguyen, F.


    The slow relaxation of isolated toroidal plasmas towards their thermodynamical equilibrium is studied in an Onsager framework based on the entropy metric. The basic tool is a variational principle, equivalent to the kinetic equation, involving the profiles of density, temperature, electric potential, electric current. New minimization procedures are proposed to obtain entropy and entropy production rate functionals. (author). 36 refs.

  20. Relaxation properties in classical diamagnetism

    Carati, A.; Benfenati, F.; Galgani, L.


    It is an old result of Bohr that, according to classical statistical mechanics, at equilibrium a system of electrons in a static magnetic field presents no magnetization. Thus a magnetization can occur only in an out of equilibrium state, such as that produced through the Foucault currents when a magnetic field is switched on. It was suggested by Bohr that, after the establishment of such a nonequilibrium state, the system of electrons would quickly relax back to equilibrium. In the present paper, we study numerically the relaxation to equilibrium in a modified Bohr model, which is mathematically equivalent to a billiard with obstacles, immersed in a magnetic field that is adiabatically switched on. We show that it is not guaranteed that equilibrium is attained within the typical time scales of microscopic dynamics. Depending on the values of the parameters, one has a relaxation either to equilibrium or to a diamagnetic (presumably metastable) state. The analogy with the relaxation properties in the Fermi Pasta Ulam problem is also pointed out.

  1. Compact Spreader Schemes

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J. -Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C.


    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  2. Towards Symbolic Encryption Schemes

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.; Zenner, Erik


    Symbolic encryption, in the style of Dolev-Yao models, is ubiquitous in formal security models. In its common use, encryption on a whole message is specified as a single monolithic block. From a cryptographic perspective, however, this may require a resource-intensive cryptographic algorithm......, namely an authenticated encryption scheme that is secure under chosen ciphertext attack. Therefore, many reasonable encryption schemes, such as AES in the CBC or CFB mode, are not among the implementation options. In this paper, we report new attacks on CBC and CFB based implementations of the well......-known Needham-Schroeder and Denning-Sacco protocols. To avoid such problems, we advocate the use of refined notions of symbolic encryption that have natural correspondence to standard cryptographic encryption schemes....

  3. Labeling Schemes with Queries


    We study the question of ``how robust are the known lower bounds of labeling schemes when one increases the number of consulted labels''. Let $f$ be a function on pairs of vertices. An $f$-labeling scheme for a family of graphs $\\cF$ labels the vertices of all graphs in $\\cF$ such that for every graph $G\\in\\cF$ and every two vertices $u,v\\in G$, the value $f(u,v)$ can be inferred by merely inspecting the labels of $u$ and $v$. This paper introduces a natural generalization: the notion of $f$-...

  4. Smoothing Analysis of Distributive Red-Black Jacobi Relaxation for Solving 2D Stokes Flow by Multigrid Method

    Xingwen Zhu


    Full Text Available Smoothing analysis process of distributive red-black Jacobi relaxation in multigrid method for solving 2D Stokes flow is mainly investigated on the nonstaggered grid by using local Fourier analysis (LFA. For multigrid relaxation, the nonstaggered discretizing scheme of Stokes flow is generally stabilized by adding an artificial pressure term. Therefore, an important problem is how to determine the zone of parameter in adding artificial pressure term in order to make stabilization of the algorithm for multigrid relaxation. To end that, a distributive red-black Jacobi relaxation technique for the 2D Stokes flow is established. According to the 2h-harmonics invariant subspaces in LFA, the Fourier representation of the distributive red-black Jacobi relaxation for discretizing Stokes flow is given by the form of square matrix, whose eigenvalues are meanwhile analytically computed. Based on optimal one-stage relaxation, a mathematical relation of the parameter in artificial pressure term between the optimal relaxation parameter and related smoothing factor is well yielded. The analysis results show that the numerical schemes for solving 2D Stokes flow by multigrid method on the distributive red-black Jacobi relaxation have a specified convergence parameter zone of the added artificial pressure term.

  5. Equivalent Relaxations of Optimal Power Flow

    Bose, S; Low, SH; Teeraratkul, T; Hassibi, B


    Several convex relaxations of the optimal power flow (OPF) problem have recently been developed using both bus injection models and branch flow models. In this paper, we prove relations among three convex relaxations: a semidefinite relaxation that computes a full matrix, a chordal relaxation based on a chordal extension of the network graph, and a second-order cone relaxation that computes the smallest partial matrix. We prove a bijection between the feasible sets of the OPF in the bus injection model and the branch flow model, establishing the equivalence of these two models and their second-order cone relaxations. Our results imply that, for radial networks, all these relaxations are equivalent and one should always solve the second-order cone relaxation. For mesh networks, the semidefinite relaxation and the chordal relaxation are equally tight and both are strictly tighter than the second-order cone relaxation. Therefore, for mesh networks, one should either solve the chordal relaxation or the SOCP relaxation, trading off tightness and the required computational effort. Simulations are used to illustrate these results.

  6. Implicit numerical schemes for the stochastic Liouville equation in Langevin form.

    Håkansson, Pär; Nair, Prasanth B


    We present and numerically test implicit as well as explicit numerical schemes for solving the Stochastic Liouville Equation in Langevin form. It is found that implicit schemes provide significant gain in robustness, for example, when nonsecular Hamiltonian terms cannot be ignored in electron and nuclear spin resonance. Implicit schemes open up several spectroscopic relaxation problems for direct interpretation using the Stochastic Liouville Equation. To illustrate the proposed numerical schemes, studies are presented for an electron paramagnetic resonance problem involving a coordinated copper complex and a fluorescence problem.

  7. Alternative health insurance schemes

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.


    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  8. Organic semiconductors: What makes the spin relax?

    Bobbert, Peter A.


    Spin relaxation in organic materials is expected to be slow because of weak spin-orbit coupling. The effects of deuteration and coherent spin excitation show that the spin-relaxation time is actually limited by hyperfine fields.

  9. Relaxation Techniques to Manage IBS Symptoms

    ... the Day Art of IBS Gallery Contact Us Relaxation Techniques to Manage IBS Symptoms Details Content Last Updated: ... Topic Psychological Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS You’ve been to the doctor ...

  10. Future changes in precipitation of the baiu season under RCP scenarios

    Okada, Y.; Takemi, T.; Ishikawa, H.


    Recently, the relationship between global warming and rainfall during the rainy season, which called the baiu in Japan, has been attracting attention in association with heavy rainfall in this period. In the Innovative Program of Climate Change Projection for the 21st Century, many studies show a delay in the northward march of the baiu front, and significant increase of daily precipitation amounts around western Japan during the late baiu season (e.g., Kusunoki et al. 2011, Kanada et al. 2012). The future climate experiment in these studies was performed under the IPCC SRES A1B scenarios for global warming conditions. In this study, we discuss the future changes in precipitation using calculated 60km-mesh model (MRI-AGCM3.2H) under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios. Support of this dataset is provided by the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI). These dataset are calculated by setting the Yoshimura (YS) scheme mainly.Seasonal progression of future precipitation generally indicates the northward in RCP2.6 and 4.5 scenarios, around western Japan. In RCP6.0 scenario, precipitation intensity is weak compared to the other scenarios. RCP8.5 scenario is calculated by setting three different cumulus schemes (YS, Arakawa-Schubert (AS), and Kain-Fritsch (KF) schemes). RCP8.5 configured in YS scheme showed that the rainband associated with the baiu front is not clear. Moreover, peak is remarkable during late June. In AS scheme, the precipitation area stagnates around 30 N until August. And it in KF scheme shows gradual northward migration.This work was conducted under the Program for Risk Information on Climate Change supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology-Japan (MEXT).

  11. Impact of absorbing aerosols on the simulation of climate over the Indian region in an atmospheric general circulation model

    A. Chakraborty


    Full Text Available The impact of anthropogenic absorbing aerosols (such as soot on the climate over the Indian region has been studied using the NCMRWF general circulation model. The absorbing aerosols increase shortwave radiative heating of the lower troposphere and reduce the heating at the surface. These effects have been incorporated as heating of the lower troposphere (up to 700hPa and cooling over the continental surface based on INDOEX measurements. The heating effect is constant in the pre-monsoon season and reduces to zero during the monsoon season. It is shown that even in the monsoon season when the aerosol forcing is zero, there is an overall increase in rainfall and a reduction in surface temperature over the Indian region. The rainfall averaged over the Tropics shows a small reduction in most of the months during the January to September period. The impact of aerosol forcing, the model's sensitivity to this forcing and its interaction with model-physics has been studied by changing the cumulus parameterization from the Simplified Arakawa-Schubert (SAS scheme to the Kuo scheme. During the pre-monsoon season the major changes in precipitation occur in the oceanic Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ, where both the schemes show an increase in precipitation. This result is similar to that reported in Chung2002. On the other hand, during the monsoon season the changes in precipitation in the continental region are different in the SAS and Kuo schemes. It is shown that the heating due to absorbing aerosols changes the vertical moist-static stability of the atmosphere. The difference in the precipitation changes in the two cumulus schemes is on account of the different responses in the two parameterization schemes to changes in vertical stability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (tropical meteorology; precipitation

  12. Plasmon-mediated energy relaxation in graphene

    Ferry, D. K. [School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-5706 (United States); Somphonsane, R. [Department of Physics, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology, Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Ramamoorthy, H.; Bird, J. P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, the State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14260-1500 (United States)


    Energy relaxation of hot carriers in graphene is studied at low temperatures, where the loss rate may differ significantly from that predicted for electron-phonon interactions. We show here that plasmons, important in the relaxation of energetic carriers in bulk semiconductors, can also provide a pathway for energy relaxation in transport experiments in graphene. We obtain a total loss rate to plasmons that results in energy relaxation times whose dependence on temperature and density closely matches that found experimentally.

  13. Collisionless Relaxation of Stellar Systems

    Kandrup, H E


    The objective of the work summarised here has been to exploit and extend ideas from plasma physics and accelerator dynamics to formulate a unified description of collisionless relaxation that views violent relaxation, Landau damping, and phase mixing as (manifestations of) a single phenomenon. This approach embraces the fact that the collisionless Boltzmann equation (CBE), the basic object of the theory, is an infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian system, with the distribution function f playing the role of the fundamental dynamical variable, and that, interpreted appropriately, an evolution described by the other Hamiltonian system. Equilibrium solutions correspond to extremal points of the Hamiltonian subject to the constraints associated with Liouville's Theorem. Stable equilibria correspond to energy minima. The evolution of a system out of equilibrium involves (in general nonlinear) phase space oscillations which may -- or may not -- interfere destructively so as to damp away.

  14. Collisionless Relaxation of Stellar Systems

    Kandrup, Henry E.


    The objective of the work summarized here has been to exploit and extend ideas from plasma physics and accelerator dynamics to formulate a unified description of collisionless relaxation of stellar systems that views violent relaxation, Landau damping, and phase mixing as (manifestations of) a single phenomenon. This approach embraces the fact that the collisionless Boltzmann equation (CBE), the basic object of the theory, is an infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian system, with the distribution function f playing the role of the fundamental dynamical variable, and that, interpreted appropriately, an evolution described by the CBE is no different fundamentally from an evolution described by any other Hamiltonian system. Equilibrium solutions f0 correspond to extremal points of the Hamiltonian subject to the constraints associated with Liouville's Theorem. Stable equilibria correspond to energy minima. The evolution of a system out of equilibrium involves (in general nonlinear) phase space oscillations which may - or may not - interfere destructively so as to damp away.

  15. Kinetic activation-relaxation technique

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Brommer, Peter; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand


    We present a detailed description of the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si (crystalline silicon), self-interstitial diffusion in Fe, and structural relaxation in a-Si (amorphous silicon).

  16. Kinetic activation-relaxation technique.

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Brommer, Peter; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand


    We present a detailed description of the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si (crystalline silicon), self-interstitial diffusion in Fe, and structural relaxation in a-Si (amorphous silicon).

  17. Brief relaxation training program for hospital employees.

    Balk, Judith L; Chung, Sheng-Chia; Beigi, Richard; Brooks, Maria


    Employee stress leads to attrition, burnout, and increased medical costs. We aimed to assess if relaxation training leads to decreased stress levels based on questionnaire and thermal biofeedback. Thirty-minute relaxation training sessions were conducted for hospital employees and for cancer patients. Perceived Stress levels and skin temperature were analyzed before and after relaxation training.

  18. POS Tagging Using Relaxation Labelling

    Padro, L


    Relaxation labelling is an optimization technique used in many fields to solve constraint satisfaction problems. The algorithm finds a combination of values for a set of variables such that satisfies -to the maximum possible degree- a set of given constraints. This paper describes some experiments performed applying it to POS tagging, and the results obtained. It also ponders the possibility of applying it to word sense disambiguation.

  19. Spin relaxation in metallic ferromagnets

    Berger, L.


    The Elliott theory of spin relaxation in metals and semiconductors is extended to metallic ferromagnets. Our treatment is based on the two-current model of Fert, Campbell, and Jaoul. The d→s electron-scattering process involved in spin relaxation is the inverse of the s→d process responsible for the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). As a result, spin-relaxation rate 1/τsr and AMR Δρ are given by similar formulas, and are in a constant ratio if scattering is by solute atoms. Our treatment applies to nickel- and cobalt-based alloys which do not have spin-up 3d states at the Fermi level. This category includes many of the technologically important magnetic materials. And we show how to modify the theory to apply it to bcc iron-based alloys. We also treat the case of Permalloy Ni80Fe20 at finite temperature or in thin-film form, where several kinds of scatterers exist. Predicted values of 1/τsr and Δρ are plotted versus resistivity of the sample. These predictions are compared to values of 1/τsr and Δρ derived from ferromagnetic-resonance and AMR experiments in Permalloy.

  20. Arresting relaxation in Pickering Emulsions

    Atherton, Tim; Burke, Chris


    Pickering emulsions consist of droplets of one fluid dispersed in a host fluid and stabilized by colloidal particles absorbed at the fluid-fluid interface. Everyday materials such as crude oil and food products like salad dressing are examples of these materials. Particles can stabilize non spherical droplet shapes in these emulsions through the following sequence: first, an isolated droplet is deformed, e.g. by an electric field, increasing the surface area above the equilibrium value; additional particles are then adsorbed to the interface reducing the surface tension. The droplet is then allowed to relax toward a sphere. If more particles were adsorbed than can be accommodated by the surface area of the spherical ground state, relaxation of the droplet is arrested at some non-spherical shape. Because the energetic cost of removing adsorbed colloids exceeds the interfacial driving force, these configurations can remain stable over long timescales. In this presentation, we present a computational study of the ordering present in anisotropic droplets produced through the mechanism of arrested relaxation and discuss the interplay between the geometry of the droplet, the dynamical process that produced it, and the structure of the defects observed.

  1. Relaxation response in femoral angiography.

    Mandle, C L; Domar, A D; Harrington, D P; Leserman, J; Bozadjian, E M; Friedman, R; Benson, H


    Immediately before they underwent femoral angiography, 45 patients were given one of three types of audiotapes: a relaxation response tape recorded for this study, a tape of contemporary instrumental music, or a blank tape. All patients were instructed to listen to their audiotape during the entire angiographic procedure. Each audiotape was played through earphones. Radiologists were not told the group assignment or tape contents. The patients given the audiotape with instructions to elicit the relaxation response (n = 15) experienced significantly less anxiety (P less than .05) and pain (P less than .001) during the procedure, were observed by radiology nurses to exhibit significantly less pain (P less than .001) and anxiety (P less than .001), and requested significantly less fentanyl citrate (P less than .01) and diazepam (P less than .01) than patients given either the music (n = 14) or the blank (n = 16) control audiotapes. Elicitation of the relaxation response is a simple, inexpensive, efficacious, and practical method to reduce pain, anxiety, and medication during femoral angiography and may be useful in other invasive procedures.

  2. On Converting Secret Sharing Scheme to Visual Secret Sharing Scheme

    Wang Daoshun


    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Secret Sharing (SS schemes reconstruct secret exactly the same as the original one but involve complex computation. Visual Secret Sharing (VSS schemes decode the secret without computation, but each share is m times as big as the original and the quality of the reconstructed secret image is reduced. Probabilistic visual secret sharing (Prob.VSS schemes for a binary image use only one subpixel to share the secret image; however the probability of white pixels in a white area is higher than that in a black area in the reconstructed secret image. SS schemes, VSS schemes, and Prob. VSS schemes have various construction methods and advantages. This paper first presents an approach to convert (transform a -SS scheme to a -VSS scheme for greyscale images. The generation of the shadow images (shares is based on Boolean XOR operation. The secret image can be reconstructed directly by performing Boolean OR operation, as in most conventional VSS schemes. Its pixel expansion is significantly smaller than that of VSS schemes. The quality of the reconstructed images, measured by average contrast, is the same as VSS schemes. Then a novel matrix-concatenation approach is used to extend the greyscale -SS scheme to a more general case of greyscale -VSS scheme.

  3. Capturing molecular multimode relaxation processes in excitable gases based on decomposition of acoustic relaxation spectra

    Zhu, Ming; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Kesheng


    Existing two-frequency reconstructive methods can only capture primary (single) molecular relaxation processes in excitable gases. In this paper, we present a reconstructive method based on the novel decomposition of frequency-dependent acoustic relaxation spectra to capture the entire molecular multimode relaxation process. This decomposition of acoustic relaxation spectra is developed from the frequency-dependent effective specific heat, indicating that a multi-relaxation process is the sum of the interior single-relaxation processes. Based on this decomposition, we can reconstruct the entire multi-relaxation process by capturing the relaxation times and relaxation strengths of N interior single-relaxation processes, using the measurements of acoustic absorption and sound speed at 2N frequencies. Experimental data for the gas mixtures CO2-N2 and CO2-O2 validate our decomposition and reconstruction approach.

  4. Time of relaxation in dusty plasma model

    Timofeev, A. V.


    Dust particles in plasma may have different values of average kinetic energy for vertical and horizontal motion. The partial equilibrium of the subsystems and the relaxation processes leading to this asymmetry are under consideration. A method for the relaxation time estimation in nonideal dusty plasma is suggested. The characteristic relaxation times of vertical and horizontal motion of dust particles in gas discharge are estimated by analytical approach and by analysis of simulation results. These relaxation times for vertical and horizontal subsystems appear to be different. A single hierarchy of relaxation times is proposed.

  5. 5 Things To Know About Relaxation Techniques for Stress

    ... X Y Z 5 Things To Know About Relaxation Techniques for Stress Share: When you’re under stress, ... creating the relaxation response through regular use of relaxation techniques could counteract the negative effects of stress. Relaxation ...

  6. A Fast Implicit Integration Scheme to Solve Highly Nonlinear System

    Siddiquee, Saiful

    Now-a-days researchers are formulating new generation of soil-models based on combined theory. That means researchers are trying to put forward a unified material model, which would predict at least the behaviour of all types of soils under all types of stress and time paths. So the solution techniques so far being used by the nonlinear Finite Element packages no longer can meet the huge demand of computational speed created by those models. It was necessary to develop a new type of solution scheme for the sophisticated models. Usually material nonlinearity makes it difficult to create a robust solution technique. So it is important to develop a solution scheme which will be very robust at the same time. That means the solution scheme should not break-down even for a notoriously complicated unified model. In this paper, we have developed an implicit solution scheme, which solves the resulting nonlinear equations of motion by implicit dynamic relaxation. There are a myriad number of implicit schemes for the use. Here a relatively less used method—called "Houbolt's integration scheme" has been used. It is very similar to the central difference scheme only difference is the use of the higher-order terms in the definition of velocity and acceleration. In order to make it faster, sparse-matrix solution scheme is used with partial pivoting and reordering of matrix elements to minimize the fill-ins. The combined effect is quite dramatic. It provides the main two traits of a good nonlinear solution technique—i.e., speed and robustness of solution. The solution scheme is applied to trace the full loading path of an elasto-visco-plastically defined material behaviour of a Plane Strain Compression (PSC) test sample. There is a huge gain in speed and robustness compared to the other techniques of solution.

  7. Compaction and relaxation of biofilms

    Valladares Linares, R.


    Operation of membrane systems for water treatment can be seriously hampered by biofouling. A better characterization of biofilms in membrane systems and their impact on membrane performance may help to develop effective biofouling control strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence, extent and timescale of biofilm compaction and relaxation (decompaction), caused by permeate flux variations. The impact of permeate flux changes on biofilm thickness, structure and stiffness was investigated in situ and non-destructively with optical coherence tomography using membrane fouling monitors operated at a constant crossflow velocity of 0.1 m s−1 with permeate production. The permeate flux was varied sequentially from 20 to 60 and back to 20 L m−2 h−1. The study showed that the average biofilm thickness on the membrane decreased after elevating the permeate flux from 20 to 60 L m−2 h−1 while the biofilm thickness increased again after restoring the original flux of 20 L m−2 h−1, indicating the occurrence of biofilm compaction and relaxation. Within a few seconds after the flux change, the biofilm thickness was changed and stabilized, biofilm compaction occurred faster than the relaxation after restoring the original permeate flux. The initial biofilm parameters were not fully reinstated: the biofilm thickness was reduced by 21%, biofilm stiffness had increased and the hydraulic biofilm resistance was elevated by 16%. Biofilm thickness was related to the hydraulic biofilm resistance. Membrane performance losses are related to the biofilm thickness, density and morphology, which are influenced by (variations in) hydraulic conditions. A (temporarily) permeate flux increase caused biofilm compaction, together with membrane performance losses. The impact of biofilms on membrane performance can be influenced (increased and reduced) by operational parameters. The article shows that a (temporary) pressure increase leads to more

  8. Plasma Relaxation in Hall Magnetohydrodynamics

    Shivamoggi, B K


    Parker's formulation of isotopological plasma relaxation process in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is extended to Hall MHD. The torsion coefficient alpha in the Hall MHD Beltrami condition turns out now to be proportional to the "potential vorticity." The Hall MHD Beltrami condition becomes equivalent to the "potential vorticity" conservation equation in two-dimensional hydrodynamics if the Hall MHD Lagrange multiplier beta is taken to be proportional to the "potential vorticity" as well. The winding pattern of the magnetic field lines in Hall MHD then appears to evolve in the same way as "potential vorticity" lines in 2D hydrodynamics.

  9. Spectral Estimation of NMR Relaxation

    Naugler, David G.; Cushley, Robert J.


    In this paper, spectral estimation of NMR relaxation is constructed as an extension of Fourier Transform (FT) theory as it is practiced in NMR or MRI, where multidimensional FT theory is used. nD NMR strives to separate overlapping resonances, so the treatment given here deals primarily with monoexponential decay. In the domain of real error, it is shown how optimal estimation based on prior knowledge can be derived. Assuming small Gaussian error, the estimation variance and bias are derived. Minimum bias and minimum variance are shown to be contradictory experimental design objectives. The analytical continuation of spectral estimation is constructed in an optimal manner. An important property of spectral estimation is that it is phase invariant. Hence, hypercomplex data storage is unnecessary. It is shown that, under reasonable assumptions, spectral estimation is unbiased in the context of complex error and its variance is reduced because the modulus of the whole signal is used. Because of phase invariance, the labor of phasing and any error due to imperfect phase can be avoided. A comparison of spectral estimation with nonlinear least squares (NLS) estimation is made analytically and with numerical examples. Compared to conventional sampling for NLS estimation, spectral estimation would typically provide estimation values of comparable precision in one-quarter to one-tenth of the spectrometer time when S/N is high. When S/N is low, the time saved can be used for signal averaging at the sampled points to give better precision. NLS typically provides one estimate at a time, whereas spectral estimation is inherently parallel. The frequency dimensions of conventional nD FT NMR may be denoted D1, D2, etc. As an extension of nD FT NMR, one can view spectral estimation of NMR relaxation as an extension into the zeroth dimension. In nD NMR, the information content of a spectrum can be extracted as a set of n-tuples (ω1, … ωn), corresponding to the peak maxima

  10. A genuinely multidimensional upwind scheme and efficient multigrid solver for the compressible Euler equations

    Sidilkover, David


    We present a new approach towards the construction of a genuinely multidimensional high-resolution scheme for computing steady-state solutions of the Euler equations of gas dynamics. The unique advantage of this approach is that the Gauss-Seidel relaxation is stable when applied directly to the high-resolution discrete equations, thus allowing us to construct a very efficient and simple multigrid steady-state solver. This is the only high-resolution scheme known to us that has this property. The two-dimensional scheme is presented in detail. It is formulated on triangular (structured and unstructured) meshes and can be interpreted as a genuinely two-dimensional extension of the Roe scheme. The quality of the solutions obtained using this scheme and the performance of the multigrid algorithm are illustrated by the numerical experiments. Construction of the three dimensional scheme is outlined briefly as well.

  11. A New Deferred Sentencing Scheme

    N. K. Chakravarti


    Full Text Available A new deferred sentencing scheme resembling double sampling scheme has been suggested from viewpoint of operational and administrative. It is recommended particularly when the inspection is destructive. The O.C. curves of the scheme for two sample sizes of 5 and 10 have been given.

  12. Bonus schemes and trading activity

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; ter Horst, J.R.; Tobler, P.N.


    Little is known about how different bonus schemes affect traders' propensity to trade and which bonus schemes improve traders' performance. We study the effects of linear versus threshold bonus schemes on traders' behavior. Traders buy and sell shares in an experimental stock market on the basis of

  13. Bonus Schemes and Trading Activity

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Tobler, P.N.


    Abstract: Little is known about how different bonus schemes affect traders’ propensity to trade and which bonus schemes improve traders’ performance. We study the effects of linear versus threshold (convex) bonus schemes on traders’ behavior. Traders purchase and sell shares in an experimental stock

  14. Bonus schemes and trading activity

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; ter Horst, J.R.; Tobler, P.N.


    Little is known about how different bonus schemes affect traders' propensity to trade and which bonus schemes improve traders' performance. We study the effects of linear versus threshold bonus schemes on traders' behavior. Traders buy and sell shares in an experimental stock market on the basis of

  15. Two Improved Digital Signature Schemes


    In this paper, two improved digital signature schemes are presented based on the design of directed signaturescheme [3]. The peculiarity of the system is that only if the scheme is specific recipient, the signature is authenticated.Since the scheme adds the screen of some information parameters, the difficulty of deciphered keys and the security ofdigital signature system are increased.




    Full Text Available When a large withdrawal from banks occurs, customers withdraw their deposits, so banks are likely to go bankrupt because of liquidity problems. There are several mechanisms that allow the banking system to avoid the phenomenon of massive withdrawals from banks. The most effective one is the deposit insurance. The deposit insurance is seen primarily as a means of protecting depositors of credit institutions, and secondly as a means of ensuring the stability of the banking system. This article described deposit guarantee scheme in Romania and other country.

  17. Secure mediated certificateless signature scheme

    YANG Chen; MA Wen-ping; WANG Xin-mei


    Ju et al proposed a certificateless signature scheme with instantaneous revocation by introducing security mediator (SEM) mechanism. This article presents a detailed cryptoanalysis of this scheme and shows that, in their proposed scheme, once a valid signature has been produced, the signer can recover his private key information and the instantaneous revocation property will be damaged. Furthermore, an improved mediated signature scheme, which can eliminate these disadvantages, is proposed, and security proof of the improved scheme under elliptic curve factorization problem (ECFP) assumption and bilinear computational diffie-hellman problem (BCDH) assumption is also proposed.

  18. Relaxation of liquid bridge after droplets coalescence

    Jiangen Zheng


    Full Text Available We investigate the relaxation of liquid bridge after the coalescence of two sessile droplets resting on an organic glass substrate both experimentally and theoretically. The liquid bridge is found to relax to its equilibrium shape via two distinct approaches: damped oscillation relaxation and underdamped relaxation. When the viscosity is low, damped oscillation shows up, in this approach, the liquid bridge undergoes a damped oscillation process until it reaches its stable shape. However, if the viscous effects become significant, underdamped relaxation occurs. In this case, the liquid bridge relaxes to its equilibrium state in a non-periodic decay mode. In depth analysis indicates that the damping rate and oscillation period of damped oscillation are related to an inertial-capillary time scale τc. These experimental results are also testified by our numerical simulations with COMSOL Multiphysics.

  19. Cross relaxation in nitroxide spin labels

    Marsh, Derek


    Cross relaxation, and mI -dependence of the intrinsic electron spin-lattice relaxation rate We , are incorporated explicitly into the rate equations for the electron-spin population differences that govern the saturation behaviour of 14N- and 15N-nitroxide spin labels. Both prove important in spin-label EPR and ELDOR, particularly for saturation recovery studies. Neither for saturation recovery, nor for CW-saturation EPR and CW-ELDOR, can cross relaxation be described simply by increasing the value of We , the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate. Independence of the saturation recovery rates from the hyperfine line pumped or observed follows directly from solution of the rate equations including cross relaxation, even when the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate We is mI -dependent.

  20. Utilizing RELAX NG Schemas in XML Editors

    Schmied, Martin


    This thesis explores the possibilities of utilizing RELAX NG schemata in the process of editing XML documents. The ultimate goal of this thesis is to prototype a system supporting user while editing XML document with bound RELAX NG schema inside the Eclipse IDE. Such a system comprises two major components -- an integration of RELAX NG validator and an autocompletion engine. Design of the autocompletion engine represents the main contribution of this thesis, because similar systems are almost...

  1. Microscale simulations of NMR relaxation in porous media

    Mohnke, Oliver; Klitzsch, Norbert


    In petrophysical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the measured relaxation signals originate from the fluid filled pore space. Hence, in rocks or sediments the water content directly corresponds to the initial amplitude of the recorded NMR relaxation signals. The relaxation rate (longitudinal/transversal decay time T1, T2) is sensitive to pore sizes and physiochemical properties of rock-fluid interfaces (surface relaxivity), as well as the concentration of paramagnetic ions in the fluid phases (bulk relaxivity). In the subproject A2 of the TR32 we aim at improving the basic understanding of these processes at the pore scale and thereby advancing the interpretation of NMR data by reducing the application of restrictive approximated interpretation schemes, e.g. for deriving pore size distributions, connectivity or permeability. In this respect we numerically simulate NMR relaxation data at the micro sale to study the impact of physical and hydrological parameters such as internal field gradients or pore connectivities on NMR signals. Joint numerical simulations of the NMR relaxation behavior (Bloch equations) in the presence of internal gradients (Ampere's law) and fluid flow (Navier-Stokes) on a pore scale dimension have been implemented in a finite element (FE) model using Comsol Multiphysics. Processes governing the time and spatial behavior of the nuclear magnetization density in a porous medium are diffusion and surface interactions at the rock-fluid interface. Based on Fick's law of diffusive motion Brownstein and Tarr (1979) introduced differential equations that describe the relaxation behavior of the Spin magnetization in single isolated pores and derived analytical solutions for simple geometries, i.e. spherical, cylindrical and planar. However, by numerically solving these equations in a general way using a FE algorithm this approach can be applied to study and simulate coupled complex pore systems, e.g. derived from computer tomography (CT

  2. Temperature relaxation in dense plasma mixtures

    Faussurier, Gérald; Blancard, Christophe


    We present a model to calculate temperature-relaxation rates in dense plasma mixtures. The electron-ion relaxation rates are calculated using an average-atom model and the ion-ion relaxation rates by the Landau-Spitzer approach. This method allows the study of the temperature relaxation in many-temperature electron-ion and ion-ion systems such as those encountered in inertial confinement fusion simulations. It is of interest for general nonequilibrium thermodynamics dealing with energy flows between various systems and should find broad use in present high energy density experiments.

  3. Baryogenesis via Elementary Goldstone Higgs Relaxation

    Gertov, Helene; Pearce, Lauren; Yang, Louis


    We extend the relaxation mechanism to the Elementary Goldstone Higgs frame- work. Besides studying the allowed parameter space of the theory we add the minimal ingredients needed for the framework to be phenomenologically viable. The very nature of the extended Higgs sector allows to consider very flat scalar potential directions along which the relaxation mechanism can be implemented. This fact translates into wider regions of applicability of the relaxation mechanism when compared to the Standard Model Higgs case. Our results show that, if the electroweak scale is not fundamental but radiatively generated, it is possible to generate the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry via the relaxation mechanism.

  4. Dielectric relaxation studies in polyvinyl butyral

    Mehendru, P. C.; Kumar, Naresh; Arora, V. P.; Gupta, N. P.


    Dielectric measurements have been made in thick films (˜100 μm) of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) having degree of polymerization n=1600, in the frequency range 100 Hz-100 KHz and temperature range 300-373 K. The results indicated that PVB was in the amorphous phase and observed dielectric dispersion has been assigned as the β-relaxation process. The β relaxation is of Debye type with symmetrical distribution of relaxation times. The dielectric relaxation strength Δɛ and the distribution parameters β¯ increase with temperature. The results can be qualitatively explained by assuming the hindered rotation of the side groups involving hydroxyl/acetate groups.

  5. Relaxation and Visualization Strategies for Story Telling



    The importance of training students to tell or retell story is self - evident for mastering English language. The following activity introduces relaxation and visualization strategies for story telling.

  6. Fast modulation scheme for a two laterally coupled laser diode array

    Carpintero, G.; Lamela, H.; Leones, M.; Simmendinger, C.; Hess, O.


    The present letter reports a modulation scheme that takes advantage of the unique characteristics of a two laterally coupled laser diode (also known as twin stripe array) to overcome the limit on the modulation imposed by the laser{close_quote}s relaxation oscillation frequency. Through the use of the rate equation description of the device we uncover the device dynamics behind the modulation scheme generating 35 ps (full width at half maximum) laser pulses at 8 Gb/s modulation rate. Our scheme relies on the fast dynamics of the phase difference, controlled by means of the current injection on each stripe. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  7. Pretzel scheme for CEPC

    Geng, Huiping


    CEPC was proposed as an electron and positron collider ring with a circumference of 50-100 km to study the Higgs boson. Since the proposal was made, the lattice design for CEPC has been carried out and a preliminary conceptual design report has been written at the end of 2014. In this paper, we will describe the principles of pretzel scheme design, which is one of most important issues in CEPC lattice design. Then, we will show the modification of the lattice based on the lattice design shown in the Pre-CDR. The latest pretzel orbit design result will also be shown. The issues remained to be solved in the present design will be discussed and a brief summary will be given at the end.

  8. Nuclear relaxation via paramagnetic impurities

    Dzheparov, F S; Jacquinot, J F


    First part of the work contains a calculation of the kinetics of nuclear relaxation via paramagnetic impurities for systems with arbitrary (including fractal) space dimension d basing on ideas, which run current for 3d objects now. A new mean-field-type theory is constructed in the second part of the work. It reproduces all results of the first part for integer d and gives a possibility to describe the process for longer time, when a crossover to Balagurov-Waks asymptotics starts to develop. Solutions of the equations of the new theory are constructed for integer d. To obtain the solutions a method of calculation of the low-energy and long-wave asymptotics for T matrix of potential scattering out of the mass shell for singular repulsive potentials is developed

  9. Explicit Group Testing Scheme that Identifies Almost All Defective Configurations

    Mazumdar, Arya


    In a group testing scheme a set of tests is designed to identify a small number t of defective items among a large set (of size N) of items. In the non-adaptive scenario the set of tests has to be designed in one-shot. In this setting designing a testing scheme is equivalent to the construction of a disjunct matrix, an M x N matrix where the union of supports of any t columns does not contain the support of any other column. In principle, one wants to have such a matrix with minimum possible number M of rows (tests). In this paper we relax the definition of disjunct matrix. The new definition allows one to come up with group testing schemes where almost all (as opposed to all) possible sets of defective items are identifiable. Our main contribution is to show that, it is possible to explicitly construct disjunct matrices with the relaxed definition with much smaller number of rows than possible with the original definition. As a consequence of our result, for any absolute constant \\epsilon >0 and t proportion...

  10. Temperature dependence of the spin relaxation in highly degenerate ZnO thin films

    Prestgard, M. C.; Siegel, G.; Tiwari, A., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Roundy, R.; Raikh, M. [Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)


    Zinc oxide is considered a potential candidate for fabricating next-generation transparent spintronic devices. However, before this can be achieved, a thorough scientific understanding of the various spin transport and relaxation processes undergone in this material is essential. In the present paper, we are reporting our investigations into these processes via temperature dependent Hanle experiments. ZnO thin films were deposited on c-axis sapphire substrates using a pulsed laser deposition technique. Careful structural, optical, and electrical characterizations of the films were performed. Temperature dependent non-local Hanle measurements were carried out using an all-electrical scheme for spin injection and detection over the temperature range of 20–300 K. From the Hanle data, spin relaxation time in the films was determined at different temperatures. A detailed analysis of the data showed that the temperature dependence of spin relaxation time follows the linear-in-momentum Dyakonov-Perel mechanism.

  11. Improvement of nonlinear diffusion equation using relaxed geometric mean filter for low PSNR images

    Nadernejad, Ehsan


    A new method to improve the performance of low PSNR image denoising is presented. The proposed scheme estimates edge gradient from an image that is regularised with a relaxed geometric mean filter. The proposed method consists of two stages; the first stage consists of a second order nonlinear...... anisotropic diffusion equation with new neighboring structure and the second is a relaxed geometric mean filter, which processes the output of nonlinear anisotropic diffusion equation. The proposed algorithm enjoys the benefit of both nonlinear PDE and relaxed geometric mean filter. In addition, the algorithm...... will not introduce any artefacts, and preserves image details, sharp corners, curved structures and thin lines. Comparison of the results obtained by the proposed method, with those of other methods, shows that a noticeable improvement in the quality of the denoised images, that were evaluated subjectively...

  12. Numerical methods for TVD transport and coupled relaxing processes in gases and plasmas

    Cambier, Jean-Luc


    The construction of second-order upwind schemes for nonequilibrium plasmas, for both one- and two-fluid formulations is demonstrated. Coupled relaxation processes, including ionization kinetics and radiative processes and their algorithms for nonequilibrium, multiple temperature conditions are described as well. The paper applies the numerical techniques on some simple test cases, points out critical problems and their solutions, and makes qualitative comparisons with known results, whenever possible.

  13. Superparamagnetic relaxation of weakly interacting particles

    Mørup, Steen; Tronc, Elisabeth


    The influence of particle interactions on the superparamagnetic relaxation time has been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy in samples of maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) particles with different particle sizes and particle separations. It is found that the relaxation time decreases with decreasing particl...

  14. Postextrasystolic relaxation in the dog heart

    Kuijer, P.J.P.; Heethaar, R.M.; Herbschleb, J.N.; Zimmerman, A.N.E.; Meijler, F.L.


    Left ventricular relaxation was studied in 8 dogs using parameters derived from the left ventricular pressure: the fastest pressure fall and the time constant of pressure decline. Effects of extrasystolic rhythm interventions were examined on the relaxation parameters of the post-relative to the pre

  15. Superparamagnetic relaxation in alpha-Fe particles

    Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen; Pedersen, Michael Stanley;


    The superparamagnetic relaxation time of carbon-supported alpha-Fe particles with an average size of 3.0 Mm has been studied over a large temperature range by the use of Mossbauer spectroscopy combined with AC and DC magnetization measurements. It is found that the relaxation time varies with tem...

  16. Cross relaxation in nitroxide spin labels

    Marsh, Derek


    -label EPR and ELDOR, particularly for saturation recovery studies. Neither for saturation recovery, nor for CW-saturation EPR and CW-ELDOR, can cross relaxation be described simply by increasing the value of We, the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate. Independence of the saturation recovery rates from...

  17. Magnetization Transfer Induced Biexponential Longitudinal Relaxation

    Prantner, Andrew M.; Bretthorst, G. Larry; Neil, Jeffrey J.; Garbow, Joel R.; Ackerman, Joseph J.H.


    Longitudinal relaxation of brain water 1H magnetization in mammalian brain in vivo is typically analyzed on a per voxel basis using a monoexponential model, thereby assigning a single relaxation time constant to all 1H magnetization within a given voxel. This approach was tested by obtaining inversion recovery data from grey matter of rats at 64 exponentially-spaced recovery times. Using Bayesian probability for model selection, brain water data were best represented by a biexponential function characterized by fast and slow relaxation components. At 4.7 T, the amplitude fraction of the rapidly relaxing component is 3.4 ± 0.7 % with a rate constant of 44 ± 12 s-1 (mean ± SD; 174 voxels from 4 rats). The rate constant of the slow relaxing component is 0.66 ± 0.04 s-1. At 11.7 T, the corresponding values are 6.9 ± 0.9 %, 19 ± 5 s-1, and 0.48 ± 0.02 s-1 (151 voxels from 4 rats). Several putative mechanisms for biexponential relaxation behavior were evaluated, and magnetization transfer between bulk water protons and non-aqueous protons was determined to be the source of biexponential longitudinal relaxation. MR methods requiring accurate quantification of longitudinal relaxation may need to take this effect explicitly into account. PMID:18759367

  18. Windowing Waveform Relaxation of Initial Value Problems

    Yao-lin Jiang


    We present a windowing technique of waveform relaxation for dynamic systems. An effective estimation on window length is derived by an iterative error expression provided here. Relaxation processes can be speeded up if one takes the windowing technique in advance. Numerical experiments are given to further illustrate the theoretical analysis.

  19. Improved Ternary Subdivision Interpolation Scheme

    WANG Huawei; QIN Kaihuai


    An improved ternary subdivision interpolation scheme was developed for computer graphics applications that can manipulate open control polygons unlike the previous ternary scheme, with the resulting curve proved to be still C2-continuous. Parameterizations of the limit curve near the two endpoints are given with expressions for the boundary derivatives. The split joint problem is handled with the interpolating ternary subdivision scheme. The improved scheme can be used for modeling interpolation curves in computer aided geometric design systems, and provides a method for joining two limit curves of interpolating ternary subdivisions.

  20. Formal Verification of NTRUEncrypt Scheme

    Gholam Reza Moghissi


    Full Text Available In this paper we explore a mechanized verification of the NTRUEncrypt scheme, with the formal proof system Isabelle/HOL. More precisely, the functional correctness of this algorithm, in its reduced form, is formally verified with computer support. We show that this scheme is correct what is a necessary condition for the usefulness of any cryptographic encryption scheme. Besides, we present a convenient and application specific formalization of the NTRUEncrypt scheme in the Isabelle/HOL system that can be used in further study around the functional and security analysis of NTRUEncrypt family.

  1. Stress Relaxation in Entangled Polymer Melts

    Hou, Ji-Xuan; Svaneborg, Carsten; Everaers, Ralf


    We present an extensive set of simulation results for the stress relaxation in equilibrium and step-strained bead-spring polymer melts. The data allow us to explore the chain dynamics and the shear relaxation modulus, G(t), into the plateau regime for chains with Z=40 entanglements and into the t......We present an extensive set of simulation results for the stress relaxation in equilibrium and step-strained bead-spring polymer melts. The data allow us to explore the chain dynamics and the shear relaxation modulus, G(t), into the plateau regime for chains with Z=40 entanglements...... and into the terminal relaxation regime for Z=10. Using the known (Rouse) mobility of unentangled chains and the melt entanglement length determined via the primitive path analysis of the microscopic topological state of our systems, we have performed parameter-free tests of several different tube models. We find...

  2. Stress and Relaxation in Relation to Personality

    Harish Kumar Sharma


    Full Text Available Relaxation plays a significant role in facing stress. The aim of the present study is to see whether personality patterns determine an individual’s ability to relax. As a reaction to stress, coping is the best way to handle stress, which requires rational and conscious thinking. Does this ability to relax anyway facilitate coping reactions? A study was conducted on 100 college students. Results revealed that extraverts relax easily than introverts. In addition, if intelligence level is average or above average, relaxation does play a role in facilitating coping reactions. It suggests that in designing techniques of stress management, the personality and intelligence level must be taken into consideration to make techniques effective.

  3. Isotropy conditions for lattice Boltzmann schemes. Application to D2Q9*

    Graille Benjamin


    Full Text Available In this paper, we recall the linear version of the lattice Boltzmann schemes in the framework proposed by d’Humières. According to the equivalent equations we introduce a definition for a scheme to be isotropic at some order. This definition is chosen such that the equivalent equations are preserved by orthogonal transformations of the frame. The property of isotropy can be read through a group operation and then implies a sequence of relations on relaxation times and equilibrium states that characterizes a lattice Boltzmann scheme. We propose a method to select the parameters of the scheme according to the desired order of isotropy. Applying it to the D2Q9 scheme yields the classical constraints for the first and second orders and some non classical for the third and fourth orders.

  4. Lagrangian Relaxation Applied to Sparse Global Network Alignment

    El-Kebir, Mohammed; Klau, Gunnar W


    Data on molecular interactions is increasing at a tremendous pace, while the development of solid methods for analyzing this network data is lagging behind. This holds in particular for the field of comparative network analysis, where one wants to identify commonalities between biological networks. Since biological functionality primarily operates at the network level, there is a clear need for topology-aware comparison methods. In this paper we present a method for global network alignment that is fast and robust, and can flexibly deal with various scoring schemes taking both node-to-node correspondences as well as network topologies into account. It is based on an integer linear programming formulation, generalizing the well-studied quadratic assignment problem. We obtain strong upper and lower bounds for the problem by improving a Lagrangian relaxation approach and introduce the software tool natalie 2.0, a publicly available implementation of our method. In an extensive computational study on protein inte...

  5. Field theory of bicritical and tetracritical points. II. Relaxational dynamics.

    Folk, R; Holovatch, Yu; Moser, G


    We calculate the relaxational dynamical critical behavior of systems of O(n_||)(plus sign in circle)O(n_perpendicular) symmetry by renormalization group method within the minimal subtraction scheme in two-loop order. The three different bicritical static universality classes previously found for such systems correspond to three different dynamical universality classes within the static borderlines. The Heisenberg and the biconical fixed point lead to strong dynamic scaling whereas in the region of stability of the decoupled fixed point weak dynamic scaling holds. Due to the neighborhood of the stability border between the strong and the weak scaling dynamic fixed point to the dynamical stable fixed point a very small dynamic transient exponent of omega(Beta)_(v) =0.0044 is present in the dynamics for the physically important case n_|| =1 and n_perpendicular =2 in d=3 .


    Dragan LUKIC


    Full Text Available The present article sets forth the theoretical grounds which make the basis for the organizational scheme of the autistic persons social protection. This protection consists of the below listed forms of work:· Health service with the role of an early detection and participation in the creation of rehabilitation programs;· Social protection with its programs of work from the diagnostics where the defectologist makes a team together with the physician and the psychologists to the systems of rehabilitation institutions where the defectologist’s is the main responsibility.The present article underlines two facts, namely:· that an autistic person requires to be followed and every spare moment used to promote and advance the activities the doer commenced himself instead of having him carry out the programs which are beyond his internal motivations and which he finds emotionally inaccessible;· that and form of work organization with autistic persons must subordinate its administrative part to the basic professional requirements this kind of disorder (handicap sets in front of each professional.

  7. Evaluation of Convective Transport in the GEOS-5 Chemistry and Climate Model

    Pickering, Kenneth E.; Ott, Lesley E.; Shi, Jainn J.; Tao. Wei-Kuo; Mari, Celine; Schlager, Hans


    The NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Chemistry and Climate Model (CCM) consists of a global atmospheric general circulation model and the combined stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry package from the NASA Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemical transport model. The subgrid process of convective tracer transport is represented through the Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert parameterization in the GEOS-5 CCM. However, substantial uncertainty for tracer transport is associated with this parameterization, as is the case with all global and regional models. We have designed a project to comprehensively evaluate this parameterization from the point of view of tracer transport, and determine the most appropriate improvements that can be made to the GEOS-5 convection algorithm, allowing improvement in our understanding of the role of convective processes in determining atmospheric composition. We first simulate tracer transport in individual observed convective events with a cloud-resolving model (WRF). Initial condition tracer profiles (CO, CO2, O3) are constructed from aircraft data collected in undisturbed air, and the simulations are evaluated using aircraft data taken in the convective anvils. A single-column (SCM) version of the GEOS-5 GCM with online tracers is then run for the same convective events. SCM output is evaluated based on averaged tracer fields from the cloud-resolving model. Sensitivity simulations with adjusted parameters will be run in the SCM to determine improvements in the representation of convective transport. The focus of the work to date is on tropical continental convective events from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA) field mission in August 2006 that were extensively sampled by multiple research aircraft.

  8. Domain Relaxation in Langmuir Films

    Bernoff, Andrew J.; Alexander, James C.; Mann, Elizabeth K.; Mann, J. Adin; Zou, Lu; Wintersmith, Jacob R.


    We report on an experimental, theoretical and computational study of a molecularly thin polymer Langmuir layer domain on the surface of a subfluid. When stretched (by a transient stagnation flow), the Langmuir layer takes the form of a bola consisting of two roughly circular reservoirs connected by a thin tether. This shape relaxes to the circular minimum energy configuration. The tether is never observed to rupture, even when it is more than a hundred times as long as it is thin. We model these experiments as a free boundary problem where motion is driven by the line tension of the domain and damped by the viscosity of the subfluid. We process the digital images of the experiment to extract the domain shape, use one of these shapes as an initial condition for the numerical solution of a boundary-integral model of the underlying hydrodynamics, and compare the subsequent images of the experiment to the numerical simulation. The numerical evolutions verify that our hydrodynamical model can reproduce the observed dynamics. They also allow us to deduce the magnitude of the line tension in the system, often to within 1%.

  9. Supervised Discrete Hashing With Relaxation.

    Gui, Jie; Liu, Tongliang; Sun, Zhenan; Tao, Dacheng; Tan, Tieniu


    Data-dependent hashing has recently attracted attention due to being able to support efficient retrieval and storage of high-dimensional data, such as documents, images, and videos. In this paper, we propose a novel learning-based hashing method called ''supervised discrete hashing with relaxation'' (SDHR) based on ''supervised discrete hashing'' (SDH). SDH uses ordinary least squares regression and traditional zero-one matrix encoding of class label information as the regression target (code words), thus fixing the regression target. In SDHR, the regression target is instead optimized. The optimized regression target matrix satisfies a large margin constraint for correct classification of each example. Compared with SDH, which uses the traditional zero-one matrix, SDHR utilizes the learned regression target matrix and, therefore, more accurately measures the classification error of the regression model and is more flexible. As expected, SDHR generally outperforms SDH. Experimental results on two large-scale image data sets (CIFAR-10 and MNIST) and a large-scale and challenging face data set (FRGC) demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of SDHR.

  10. Spin relaxation in organic semiconductors

    Bobbert, Peter


    Intriguing magnetic field effects in organic semiconductor devices have been reported: anomalous magnetoresistance in organic spin valves and large effects of small magnetic fields on the current and luminescence of organic light-emitting diodes. Influences of isotopic substitution on these effects points at the role of hyperfine coupling. We performed studies of spin relaxation in organic semiconductors based on (i) coherent spin precession of the electron spin in an effective magnetic field consisting of a random hyperfine field and an applied magnetic field and (ii) incoherent hopping of charges. These ingredients are incorporated in a stochastic Liouville equation for the dynamics of the spin density matrix of single charges as well as pairs of charges. For single charges we find a spin diffusion length that depends on the magnetic field, explaining anomalous magnetoresistance in organic spin valves. For pairs of charges we show that the magnetic field influences formation of singlet bipolarons, in the case of like charges, and singlet and triplet excitons, in the case of opposite charges. We can reproduce different line shapes of reported magnetic field effects, including recently found effects at ultra-small fields.

  11. Effective rotational correlation times of proteins from NMR relaxation interference

    Lee, Donghan; Hilty, Christian; Wider, Gerhard; Wüthrich, Kurt


    Knowledge of the effective rotational correlation times, τc, for the modulation of anisotropic spin-spin interactions in macromolecules subject to Brownian motion in solution is of key interest for the practice of NMR spectroscopy in structural biology. The value of τc enables an estimate of the NMR spin relaxation rates, and indicates possible aggregation of the macromolecular species. This paper reports a novel NMR pulse scheme, [ 15N, 1H]-TRACT, which is based on transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy and permits to determine τc for 15N- 1H bonds without interference from dipole-dipole coupling of the amide proton with remote protons. [ 15N, 1H]-TRACT is highly efficient since only a series of one-dimensional NMR spectra need to be recorded. Its use is suggested for a quick estimate of the rotational correlation time, to monitor sample quality and to determine optimal parameters for complex multidimensional NMR experiments. Practical applications are illustrated with the 110 kDa 7,8-dihydroneopterin aldolase from Staphylococcus aureus, the uniformly 15N-labeled Escherichia coli outer membrane protein X (OmpX) in 60 kDa mixed OmpX/DHPC micelles with approximately 90 molecules of unlabeled 1,2-dihexanoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC), and the 16 kDa pheromone-binding protein from Bombyx mori, which cover a wide range of correlation times.

  12. Submodular Function Maximization via the Multilinear Relaxation and Contention Resolution Schemes

    Chekuri, Chandra; Zenklusen, Rico


    We consider the problem of maximizing a non-negative submodular set function $f:2^N \\rightarrow \\mathbb{R}_+$ over a ground set $N$ subject to a variety of packing type constraints. In this paper we develop a general framework leading to a number of new results, in particular when $f$ may be a {\\em non-monotone} function. Our algorithms are based on (approximately) maximizing the multilinear extension $F$ of $f$ \\cite{CCPV07} over a polytope $P$ that represents the constraints, and then effectively rounding the fractional solution. Although this approach has been used quite successfully in some settings \\cite{CCPV09,KulikST09,LeeMNS09,CVZ10,BansalKNS10}, it has been limited in some important ways. We overcome these limitations as follows. First, we give constant factor approximation algorithms to maximize $F$ over any down-closed polytope $P$ that has an efficient separation oracle. Previously this was known only for monotone functions \\cite{Vondrak08}. For non-monotone functions, a constant factor was known ...

  13. High-Order Kinetic Relaxation Schemes as High-Accuracy Poisson Solvers

    Mendoza, M; Herrmann, H J


    We present a new approach to find accurate solutions to the Poisson equation, as obtained from the steady-state limit of a diffusion equation with strong source terms. For this purpose, we start from Boltzmann's kinetic theory and investigate the influence of higher order terms on the resulting macroscopic equations. By performing an appropriate expansion of the equilibrium distribution, we provide a method to remove the unnecessary terms up to a desired order and show that it is possible to find, with high level of accuracy, the steady-state solution of the diffusion equation for sizeable Knudsen numbers. In order to test our kinetic approach, we discretise the Boltzmann equation and solve the Poisson equation, spending up to six order of magnitude less computational time for a given precision than standard lattice Boltzmann methods.

  14. Chaotic communication scheme with multiplication

    Bobreshov, A. M.; Karavaev, A. A.


    A new scheme of data transmission with nonlinear admixing is described, in which the two mutually inverse operations (multiplication and division) ensure multiplicative mixing of the informative and chaotic signals that provides a potentially higher degree of security. A special feature of the proposed scheme is the absence of limitations (related to the division by zero) imposed on the types of informative signals.

  15. Homographic scheme for Riccati equation

    Dubois, François


    In this paper we present a numerical scheme for the resolution of matrix Riccati equation, usualy used in control problems. The scheme is unconditionnaly stable and the solution is definite positive at each time step of the resolution. We prove the convergence in the scalar case and present several numerical experiments for classical test cases.

  16. Differential operators and automorphism schemes


    The ring of global differential operators of a variety is in closed and deep relation with its automorphism scheme.This relation can be applied to the study of homogeneous schemes,giving some criteria of homogeneity,a generalization of Serre-Lang theorem,and some consequences about abelian varieties.

  17. Relaxation of a 1-D gravitational system

    Valageas, P


    We study the relaxation towards thermodynamical equilibrium of a 1-D gravitational system. This OSC model shows a series of critical energies $E_{cn}$ where new equilibria appear and we focus on the homogeneous ($n=0$), one-peak ($n=\\pm 1$) and two-peak ($n=2$) states. Using numerical simulations we investigate the relaxation to the stable equilibrium $n=\\pm 1$ of this $N-$body system starting from initial conditions defined by equilibria $n=0$ and $n=2$. We find that in a fashion similar to other long-range systems the relaxation involves a fast violent relaxation phase followed by a slow collisional phase as the system goes through a series of quasi-stationary states. Moreover, in cases where this slow second stage leads to a dynamically unstable configuration (two peaks with a high mass ratio) it is followed by a new sequence ``violent relaxation/slow collisional relaxation''. We obtain an analytical estimate of the relaxation time $t_{2\\to \\pm 1}$ through the mean escape time of a particle from its potent...

  18. Plasma Relaxation Dynamics Moderated by Current Sheets

    Dewar, Robert; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Yoshida, Zensho


    Ideal magnetohydrodynamics (IMHD) is strongly constrained by an infinite number of microscopic constraints expressing mass, entropy and magnetic flux conservation in each infinitesimal fluid element, the latter preventing magnetic reconnection. By contrast, in the Taylor-relaxed equilibrium model all these constraints are relaxed save for global magnetic flux and helicity. A Lagrangian is presented that leads to a new variational formulation of magnetized fluid dynamics, relaxed MHD (RxMHD), all static solutions of which are Taylor equilibrium states. By postulating that some long-lived macroscopic current sheets can act as barriers to relaxation, separating the plasma into multiple relaxation regions, a further generalization, multi-relaxed MHD (MRxMHD), is developed. These concepts are illustrated using a simple two-region slab model similar to that proposed by Hahm and Kulsrud--the formation of an initial shielding current sheet after perturbation by boundary rippling is calculated using MRxMHD and the final island state, after the current sheet has relaxed through a reconnection sequence, is calculated using RxMHD. Australian Research Council Grant DP110102881.

  19. Le Chatelier's principle with multiple relaxation channels

    Gilmore, R.; Levine, R. D.


    Le Chatelier's principle is discussed within the constrained variational approach to thermodynamics. The formulation is general enough to encompass systems not in thermal (or chemical) equilibrium. Particular attention is given to systems with multiple constraints which can be relaxed. The moderation of the initial perturbation increases as additional constraints are removed. This result is studied in particular when the (coupled) relaxation channels have widely different time scales. A series of inequalities is derived which describes the successive moderation as each successive relaxation channel opens up. These inequalities are interpreted within the metric-geometry representation of thermodynamics.

  20. Neural control of muscle relaxation in echinoderms.

    Elphick, M R; Melarange, R


    Smooth muscle relaxation in vertebrates is regulated by a variety of neuronal signalling molecules, including neuropeptides and nitric oxide (NO). The physiology of muscle relaxation in echinoderms is of particular interest because these animals are evolutionarily more closely related to the vertebrates than to the majority of invertebrate phyla. However, whilst in vertebrates there is a clear structural and functional distinction between visceral smooth muscle and skeletal striated muscle, this does not apply to echinoderms, in which the majority of muscles, whether associated with the body wall skeleton and its appendages or with visceral organs, are made up of non-striated fibres. The mechanisms by which the nervous system controls muscle relaxation in echinoderms were, until recently, unknown. Using the cardiac stomach of the starfish Asterias rubens as a model, it has been established that the NO-cGMP signalling pathway mediates relaxation. NO also causes relaxation of sea urchin tube feet, and NO may therefore function as a 'universal' muscle relaxant in echinoderms. The first neuropeptides to be identified in echinoderms were two related peptides isolated from Asterias rubens known as SALMFamide-1 (S1) and SALMFamide-2 (S2). Both S1 and S2 cause relaxation of the starfish cardiac stomach, but with S2 being approximately ten times more potent than S1. SALMFamide neuropeptides have also been isolated from sea cucumbers, in which they cause relaxation of both gut and body wall muscle. Therefore, like NO, SALMFamides may also function as 'universal' muscle relaxants in echinoderms. The mechanisms by which SALMFamides cause relaxation of echinoderm muscle are not known, but several candidate signal transduction pathways are discussed here. The SALMFamides do not, however, appear to act by promoting release of NO, and muscle relaxation in echinoderms is therefore probably regulated by at least two neuronal signalling systems acting in parallel. Recently, other

  1. Stress Relaxation in Entangled Polymer Melts

    Hou, Ji-Xuan; Svaneborg, Carsten; Everaers, Ralf


    and into the terminal relaxation regime for Z=10. Using the known (Rouse) mobility of unentangled chains and the melt entanglement length determined via the primitive path analysis of the microscopic topological state of our systems, we have performed parameter-free tests of several different tube models. We find......We present an extensive set of simulation results for the stress relaxation in equilibrium and step-strained bead-spring polymer melts. The data allow us to explore the chain dynamics and the shear relaxation modulus, G(t), into the plateau regime for chains with Z=40 entanglements...

  2. Spin relaxation in nanowires by hyperfine coupling

    Echeverria-Arrondo, C. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Sherman, E.Ya. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain)


    Hyperfine interactions establish limits on spin dynamics and relaxation rates in ensembles of semiconductor quantum dots. It is the confinement of electrons which determines nonzero hyperfine coupling and leads to the spin relaxation. As a result, in nanowires one would expect the vanishing of this effect due to extended electron states. However, even for relatively clean wires, disorder plays a crucial role and makes electron localization sufficient to cause spin relaxation on the time scale of the order of 10 ns. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Compact vs. Exponential-Size LP Relaxations

    Carr, R.D.; Lancia, G.


    In this paper we introduce by means of examples a new technique for formulating compact (i.e. polynomial-size) LP relaxations in place of exponential-size models requiring separation algorithms. In the same vein as a celebrated theorem by Groetschel, Lovasz and Schrijver, we state the equivalence of compact separation and compact optimization. Among the examples used to illustrate our technique, we introduce a new formulation for the Traveling Salesman Problem, whose relaxation we show equivalent to the subtour elimination relaxation.

  4. Relaxation time in disordered molecular systems

    Rocha, Rodrigo P. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis-SC (Brazil); Freire, José A., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-990 Curitiba-PR (Brazil)


    Relaxation time is the typical time it takes for a closed physical system to attain thermal equilibrium. The equilibrium is brought about by the action of a thermal reservoir inducing changes in the system micro-states. The relaxation time is intuitively expected to increase with system disorder. We derive a simple analytical expression for this dependence in the context of electronic equilibration in an amorphous molecular system model. We find that the disorder dramatically enhances the relaxation time but does not affect its independence of the nature of the initial state.

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation in multiple sclerosis

    Larsson, H B; Barker, G J; MacKay, A


    OBJECTIVES: The theory of relaxation processes and their measurements are described. An overview is presented of the literature on relaxation time measurements in the normal and the developing brain, in experimental diseases in animals, and in patients with multiple sclerosis. RESULTS...... AND CONCLUSION: Relaxation time measurements provide insight into development of multiple sclerosis plaques, especially the occurrence of oedema, demyelination, and gliosis. There is also evidence that normal appearing white matter in patients with multiple sclerosis is affected. What is now needed are fast...

  6. 1H relaxation dispersion in solutions of nitroxide radicals: Influence of electron spin relaxation

    Kruk, D.; Korpała, A.; Kubica, A.; Kowalewski, J.; Rössler, E. A.; Moscicki, J.


    The work presents a theory of nuclear (1H) spin-lattice relaxation dispersion for solutions of 15N and 14N radicals, including electron spin relaxation effects. The theory is a generalization of the approach presented by Kruk et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 137, 044512 (2012)], 10.1063/1.4736854. The electron spin relaxation is attributed to the anisotropic part of the electron spin-nitrogen spin hyperfine interaction modulated by rotational dynamics of the paramagnetic molecule, and described by means of Redfield relaxation theory. The 1H relaxation is caused by electron spin-proton spin dipole-dipole interactions which are modulated by relative translational motion of the solvent and solute molecules. The spectral density characterizing the translational dynamics is described by the force-free-hard-sphere model. The electronic relaxation influences the 1H relaxation by contributing to the fluctuations of the inter-molecular dipolar interactions. The developed theory is tested against 1H spin-lattice relaxation dispersion data for glycerol solutions of 4-oxo-TEMPO-d16-15N and 4-oxo-TEMPO-d16-14N covering the frequency range of 10 kHz-20 MHz. The studies are carried out as a function of temperature starting at 328 K and going down to 290 K. The theory gives a consistent overall interpretation of the experimental data for both 14N and 15N systems and explains the features of 1H relaxation dispersion resulting from the electron spin relaxation.

  7. Hydrogen sulfide and vascular relaxation

    SUN Yan; TANG Chao-shu; DU Jun-bao; JIN Hong-fang


    Objective To review the vasorelaxant effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in arterial rings in the cardiovascular system under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions and the possible mechanisms involved.Data sources The data in this review were obtained from Medline and Pubmed sources from 1997 to 2011 using the search terms "hydrogen sulfide" and ""vascular relaxation".Study selection Articles describing the role of hydrogen sulfide in the regulation of vascular activity and its vasorelaxant effects were selected.Results H2S plays an important role in the regulation of cardiovascular tone.The vasomodulatory effects of H2S depend on factors including concentration,species and tissue type.The H2S donor,sodium hydrosulfide (NarS),causes vasorelaxation of rat isolated aortic rings in a dose-dependent manner.This effect was more pronounced than that observed in pulmonary arterial rings.The expression of KATP channel proteins and mRNA in the aortic rings was increased compared with pulmonary artery rings.H2S is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of cardiovascular diseases.Downregulation of the endogenous H2S pathway is an important factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases.The vasorelaxant effects of H2S have been shown to be mediated by activation of KATP channels in vascular smooth muscle cells and via the induction of acidification due to activation of the CI/HCO3 exchanger.It is speculated that the mechanisms underlying the vasoconstrictive function of H2S in the aortic rings involves decreased NO production and inhibition of cAMP accumulation.Conclusion H2S is an important endogenous gasotransmitter in the cardiovascular system and acts as a modulator of vascular tone in the homeostatic regulation of blood pressure.

  8. The Occupational Pension Schemes Survey 2006

    Sarah Levy; David Miller


    Presents findings on the number of schemes, their membership and contributions to schemes by employers and employeesThis article presents findings on the number of occupational pension schemes in 2006, their membership and contributions to schemes by employers and employees. It is based on the Occupational Pension Schemes Annual Report (2006 edition). The findings distinguish between public and private sector schemes and include breakdowns by scheme status (open, closed, frozen or winding up)...

  9. “I think relax, relax and it flows a lot easier”: Exploring client-generated relax strategies

    Dianne Cirone


    Full Text Available Background. Some adult stroke survivors participating in Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP treatment programs self-generated relax strategies that have not been explored in previous CO-OP publications. The objective of this study was to describe the process by which adults with stroke used relax strategies and to explore the outcomes associated with their use. Methods. Secondary analysis of transcripts of intervention sessions from five participants was conducted. Results. All five participants applied relax strategies after initially observing a breakdown in performance that was attributed to increased fatigue or tension. The relax strategies used by the participants during their occupations included general relaxation, physical modifications to reduce tension, mental preparation, and pacing. The application of these strategies seemed to result in improved skill performance, reduced fatigue, and transfer to other activities. Conclusion. The relax strategy warrants further investigation as a potentially important therapeutic tool to improve occupational performance in individuals who have had a stroke.

  10. Slow spin relaxation in dipolar spin ice.

    Orendac, Martin; Sedlakova, Lucia; Orendacova, Alzbeta; Vrabel, Peter; Feher, Alexander; Pajerowski, Daniel M.; Cohen, Justin D.; Meisel, Mark W.; Shirai, Masae; Bramwell, Steven T.


    Spin relaxation in dipolar spin ice Dy2Ti2O7 and Ho2Ti2O7 was investigated using the magnetocaloric effect and susceptibility. The magnetocaloric behavior of Dy2Ti2O7 at temperatures where the orientation of spins is governed by ``ice rules`` (T Tice) revealed thermally activated relaxation; however, the resulting temperature dependence of the relaxation time is more complicated than anticipated by a mere extrapolation of the corresponding high temperature data [1]. A susceptibility study of Ho2Ti2O7 was performed at T > Tice and in high magnetic fields, and the results suggest a slow relaxation of spins analogous to the behavior reported in a highly polarized cooperative paramagnet [2]. [1] J. Snyder et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 (2003) 107201. [2] B. G. Ueland et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 027216.

  11. Energy landscape of relaxed amorphous silicon

    Valiquette, Francis; Mousseau, Normand


    We analyze the structure of the energy landscape of a well-relaxed 1000-atom model of amorphous silicon using the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau). Generating more than 40 000 events starting from a single minimum, we find that activated mechanisms are local in nature, that they are distributed uniformly throughout the model, and that the activation energy is limited by the cost of breaking one bond, independently of the complexity of the mechanism. The overall shape of the activation-energy-barrier distribution is also insensitive to the exact details of the configuration, indicating that well-relaxed configurations see essentially the same environment. These results underscore the localized nature of relaxation in this material.

  12. Precession Relaxation of Viscoelastic Oblate Rotators

    Frouard, Julien


    Various perturbations (collisions, close encounters, YORP) destabilise the rotation of a small body, leaving it in a non-principal spin state. Then the body experiences alternating stresses generated by the inertial forces. The ensuing inelastic dissipation reduces the kinetic energy, without influencing the angular momentum. This yields nutation relaxation, i.e., evolution of the spin towards rotation about the maximal-inertia axis. Knowledge of the timescales needed to damp the nutation is crucial in studies of small bodies' dynamics. In the past, nutation relaxation has been described by an empirical quality factor introduced to parameterise the dissipation rate and to evade the discussion of the actual rheological parameters and their role in dissipation. This approach is unable to describe the dependence of the relaxation rate upon the nutation angle, because we do not know the quality factor's dependence on the frequency (which is a function of the nutation angle). This leaves open the question of relax...

  13. Two-Body Relaxation in Cosmological Simulations

    Binney, J; Binney, James; Knebe, Alexander


    The importance of two-body relaxation in cosmological simulations is explored with simulations in which there are two species of particles. The cases of mass ratio sqrt(2):1 and 4:1 are investigated. Simulations are run with both a fixed softening length and adaptive softening using the publicly available codes GADGET and MLAPM, respectively. The effects of two-body relaxation are detected in both the density profiles of halos and the mass function of halos. The effects are more pronounced with a fixed softening length, but even in this case they are not so large as to suggest that results obtained with one mass species are significantly affected by two-body relaxation. The simulations that use adaptive softening are slightly less affected by two-body relaxation and produce slightly higher central densities in the largest halos. They run about three times faster than the simulations that use a fixed softening length.

  14. Structural relaxation in annealed hyperquenched basaltic glasses

    Guo, Xiaoju; Mauro, John C.; Potuzak, M.


    The enthalpy relaxation behavior of hyperquenched (HQ) and annealed hyperquenched (AHQ) basaltic glass is investigated through calorimetric measurements. The results reveal a common onset temperature of the glass transition for all the HQ and AHQ glasses under study, indicating that the primary r...... relaxation is activated at the same temperature regardless of the initial departure from equilibrium. The analysis of secondary relaxation at different annealing temperatures provides insights into the enthalpy recovery of HQ glasses.......The enthalpy relaxation behavior of hyperquenched (HQ) and annealed hyperquenched (AHQ) basaltic glass is investigated through calorimetric measurements. The results reveal a common onset temperature of the glass transition for all the HQ and AHQ glasses under study, indicating that the primary...

  15. Vibrational energy relaxation in liquid oxygen

    Everitt, K. F.; Egorov, S. A.; Skinner, J. L.


    We consider theoretically the relaxation from the first excited vibrational state to the ground state of oxygen molecules in neat liquid oxygen. The relaxation rate constant is related in the usual way to the Fourier transform of a certain quantum mechanical force-force time-correlation function. A result from Egelstaff allows one instead to relate the rate constant (approximately) to the Fourier transform of a classical force-force time-correlation function. This Fourier transform is then evaluated approximately by calculating three equilibrium averages from a classical molecular dynamics simulation. Our results for the relaxation times (at two different temperatures) are within a factor of 5 of the experimental relaxation times, which are in the ms range.

  16. Schemes for Deterministic Polynomial Factoring

    Ivanyos, Gábor; Saxena, Nitin


    In this work we relate the deterministic complexity of factoring polynomials (over finite fields) to certain combinatorial objects we call m-schemes. We extend the known conditional deterministic subexponential time polynomial factoring algorithm for finite fields to get an underlying m-scheme. We demonstrate how the properties of m-schemes relate to improvements in the deterministic complexity of factoring polynomials over finite fields assuming the generalized Riemann Hypothesis (GRH). In particular, we give the first deterministic polynomial time algorithm (assuming GRH) to find a nontrivial factor of a polynomial of prime degree n where (n-1) is a smooth number.

  17. Coordinated renewable energy support schemes

    Morthorst, P.E.; Jensen, S.G.


    This paper illustrates the effect that can be observed when support schemes for renewable energy are regionalised. Two theoretical examples are used to explain interactive effects on, e.g., the price of power, conditions for conventional power producers, and changes in import and export of power...... RES-E support schemes already has a common liberalised power market. In this case the introduction of a common support scheme for renewable technologies will lead to more efficient sitings of renewable plants, improving economic and environmental performance of the total power system...

  18. Analytical representations for relaxation functions of glasses

    Hilfer, R.


    Analytical representations in the time and frequency domains are derived for the most frequently used phenomenological fit functions for non-Debye relaxation processes. In the time domain the relaxation functions corresponding to the complex frequency dependent Cole-Cole, Cole-Davidson and Havriliak-Negami susceptibilities are also represented in terms of $H$-functions. In the frequency domain the complex frequency dependent susceptibility function corresponding to the time dependent stretche...

  19. Vibrational relaxation in very high temperature nitrogen

    Hansen, C. Frederick


    Vibrational relaxation of N2 molecules is considered at temperatures up to 40,000 K in gas mixtures that contain electrons as well as heavy collision partners. The theory of vibrational relaxation due to N2-N2 collisions is fit to experimental data to 10,000 K by choice of the shape of the intermolecular potential and size of the collision cross section. These values are then used to extrapolate the theory to 40,000 K.

  20. Anomalous enthalpy relaxation in vitreous silica

    Yue, Yuanzheng


    scans. It is known that the liquid fragility (i.e., the speed of the viscous slow-down of a supercooled liquid at its Tg during cooling) has impact on enthalpy relaxation in glass. Here, we find that vitreous silica (as a strong system) exhibits striking anomalies in both glass transition and enthalpy...... the fragile ones do in a structurally independent fashion. We discuss the origin of the anomalous enthalpy relaxation in the HQ vitreous silica....

  1. Message passing with relaxed moment matching

    Qi, Yuan; Guo, Yandong


    Bayesian learning is often hampered by large computational expense. As a powerful generalization of popular belief propagation, expectation propagation (EP) efficiently approximates the exact Bayesian computation. Nevertheless, EP can be sensitive to outliers and suffer from divergence for difficult cases. To address this issue, we propose a new approximate inference approach, relaxed expectation propagation (REP). It relaxes the moment matching requirement of expectation propagation by addin...

  2. Protein dynamics from nuclear magnetic relaxation.

    Charlier, Cyril; Cousin, Samuel F; Ferrage, Fabien


    Nuclear magnetic resonance is a ubiquitous spectroscopic tool to explore molecules with atomic resolution. Nuclear magnetic relaxation is intimately connected to molecular motions. Many methods and models have been developed to measure and interpret the characteristic rates of nuclear magnetic relaxation in proteins. These approaches shed light on a rich and diverse range of motions covering timescales from picoseconds to seconds. Here, we introduce some of the basic concepts upon which these approaches are built and provide a series of illustrations.

  3. Lagrange relaxation and Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui


    The paper concerns a large-scale linear programming problem having a block-diagonal structure with coupling constraints. It is shown that there are deep connections between the Lagrange relaxation techniques and the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition methods......The paper concerns a large-scale linear programming problem having a block-diagonal structure with coupling constraints. It is shown that there are deep connections between the Lagrange relaxation techniques and the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition methods...

  4. Lagrange relaxation and Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui


    The paper concerns a large-scale linear programming problem having a block-diagonal structure with coupling constraints. It is shown that there are deep connections between the Lagrange relaxation techniques and the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition methods......The paper concerns a large-scale linear programming problem having a block-diagonal structure with coupling constraints. It is shown that there are deep connections between the Lagrange relaxation techniques and the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition methods...

  5. Provable Secure Identity Based Generalized Signcryption Scheme

    Yu, Gang; Shen, Yong; Han, Wenbao


    According to actual needs, generalized signcryption scheme can flexibly work as an encryption scheme, a signature scheme or a signcryption scheme. In this paper, firstly, we give a security model for identity based generalized signcryption which is more complete than existing model. Secondly, we propose an identity based generalized signcryption scheme. Thirdly, we give the security proof of the new scheme in this complete model. Comparing with existing identity based generalized signcryption, the new scheme has less implementation complexity. Moreover, the new scheme has comparable computation complexity with the existing normal signcryption schemes.

  6. Orientational relaxation in semiflexible dendrimers.

    Kumar, Amit; Biswas, Parbati


    The orientational relaxation dynamics of semiflexible dendrimers are theoretically calculated within the framework of optimized Rouse-Zimm formalism. Semiflexibility is modeled through appropriate restrictions in the direction and orientation of the respective bond vectors, while the hydrodynamic interactions are included via the preaveraged Oseen tensor. The time autocorrelation function M(i)(1)(t) and the second order orientational autocorrelation function P(i)(2)(t) are analyzed as a function of the branch-point functionality and the degree of semiflexibility. Our approach of calculating M(i)(1)(t) is completely different from that of the earlier studies (A. Perico and M. Guenza J. Chem. Phys., 1985, 83, 3103; J. Chem. Phys., 1986, 84, 510), where the expression of M(i)(1)(t) obtained from earlier studies does not demarcate the flexible dendrimers from the semiflexible ones. The component of global motion of the time autocorrelation function exhibits a strong dependence on both degree of semiflexibility and branch-point functionality, while the component of pulsation motion depends only on the degree of semiflexibility. But it is difficult to distinguish the difference in the extent of pulsation motion among the compressed (0 qualitative behavior of P(i)(2)(t) obtained from our calculations closely matches with the expression for P(exact)(2)(t) in the earlier studies. Theoretically calculated spectral density, J(ω), is found to depend on the degree of semiflexibility and the branch-point functionality for the compressed and expanded conformations of semiflexible dendrimers as a function of frequency, especially in the high frequency regime, where J(ω) decays with frequency for both compressed and expanded conformations of semiflexible dendrimers. This decay of the spectral density occurs after displaying a cross-over behavior with the variation in the degree of semiflexibility in the intermediate frequency regime. The characteristic area increases with the

  7. Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy of phlogopite mica

    Kaur, Navjeet; Singh, Mohan; Singh, Anupinder [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India); Awasthi, A.M. [Thermodynamics Laboratory, UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore 452001 (India); Singh, Lakhwant, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India)


    An in-depth investigation of the dielectric characteristics of annealed phlogopite mica has been conducted in the frequency range 0.1 Hz-10 MHz and over the temperature range 653-873 K through the framework of dielectric permittivity, electric modulus and conductivity formalisms. These formalisms show qualitative similarities in relaxation processes. The frequency dependence of the M Double-Prime and dc conductivity is found to obey an Arrhenius law and the activation energy of the phlogopite mica calculated both from dc conductivity and the modulus spectrum is similar, indicating that same type of charge carriers are involved in the relaxation phenomena. The electric modulus and conductivity data have been fitted with the Havriliak-Negami function. Scaling of M Prime , M Double-Prime , ac conductivity has also been performed in order to obtain insight into the relaxation mechanisms. The scaling behaviour indicates that the relaxation describes the same mechanism at different temperatures. The relaxation mechanism was also examined using the Cole-Cole approach. The study elaborates that the investigation regarding the temperature and frequency dependence of dielectric relaxation in the phlogopite mica will be helpful for various cutting edge applications of this material in electrical engineering.

  8. Dielectric relaxation of gamma irradiated muscovite mica

    Kaur, Navjeet [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India); Singh, Mohan, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India); Singh, Lakhwant [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India); Awasthi, A.M. [Thermodynamics Laboratory, UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore 452001 (India); Lochab, S.P. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)


    Highlights: • The present article reports the effect of gamma irradiation on the dielectric relaxation characteristics of muscovite mica. • Dielectric and electrical relaxations have been analyzed in the framework of dielectric permittivity, electric modulus and Cole–Cole formalisms. • The frequency dependent electrical conductivity has been rationalized using Johnsher’s universal power law. • The experimentally measured electric modulus and conductivity data have been fitted using Havriliak–Negami dielectric relaxation function. - Abstract: In the present research, the dielectric relaxation of gamma irradiated muscovite mica was studied in the frequency range of 0.1 Hz–10 MHz and temperature range of 653–853 K, using the dielectric permittivity, electric modulus and conductivity formalisms. The dielectric constants (ϵ′ and ϵ′′) are found to be high for gamma irradiated muscovite mica as compared to the pristine sample. The frequency dependence of the imaginary part of complex electric modulus (M′′) and dc conductivity data conforms Arrhenius law with single value of activation energy for pristine sample and two values of activation energy for gamma irradiated mica sample. The experimentally assessed electric modulus and conductivity information have been interpreted by the Havriliak–Negami dielectric relaxation explanation. Using the Cole–Cole framework, an analysis of real and imaginary characters of the electric modulus for pristine and gamma irradiated sample was executed which reflects the non-Debye relaxation mechanism.

  9. Rounded stretched exponential for time relaxation functions.

    Powles, J G; Heyes, D M; Rickayzen, G; Evans, W A B


    A rounded stretched exponential function is introduced, C(t)=exp{(tau(0)/tau(E))(beta)[1-(1+(t/tau(0))(2))(beta/2)]}, where t is time, and tau(0) and tau(E) are two relaxation times. This expression can be used to represent the relaxation function of many real dynamical processes, as at long times, t>tau(0), the function converges to a stretched exponential with normalizing relaxation time, tau(E), yet its expansion is even or symmetric in time, which is a statistical mechanical requirement. This expression fits well the shear stress relaxation function for model soft soft-sphere fluids near coexistence, with tau(E)Cole-Cole plots for dielectric and shear stress relaxation (both the modulus and viscosity forms). It is shown that both the dielectric spectra and dynamic shear modulus imaginary parts approach the real axis with a slope equal to 0 at high frequency, whereas the dynamic viscosity has an infinite slope in the same limit. This indicates that inertial effects at high frequency are best discerned in the modulus rather than the viscosity Cole-Cole plot. As a consequence of the even expansion in time of the shear stress relaxation function, the value of the storage modulus derived from it at very high frequency exceeds that in the infinite frequency limit (i.e., G(infinity)).

  10. Stress relaxation in viscous soft spheres.

    Boschan, Julia; Vasudevan, Siddarth A; Boukany, Pouyan E; Somfai, Ellák; Tighe, Brian P


    We report the results of molecular dynamics simulations of stress relaxation tests in athermal viscous soft sphere packings close to their unjamming transition. By systematically and simultaneously varying both the amplitude of the applied strain step and the pressure of the initial condition, we access both linear and nonlinear response regimes and control the distance to jamming. Stress relaxation in viscoelastic solids is characterized by a relaxation time τ* that separates short time scales, where viscous loss is substantial, from long time scales, where elastic storage dominates and the response is essentially quasistatic. We identify two distinct plateaus in the strain dependence of the relaxation time, one each in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The height of both plateaus scales as an inverse power law with the distance to jamming. By probing the time evolution of particle velocities during relaxation, we further identify a correlation between mechanical relaxation in the bulk and the degree of non-affinity in the particle velocities on the micro scale.

  11. On convex relaxation of graph isomorphism.

    Aflalo, Yonathan; Bronstein, Alexander; Kimmel, Ron


    We consider the problem of exact and inexact matching of weighted undirected graphs, in which a bijective correspondence is sought to minimize a quadratic weight disagreement. This computationally challenging problem is often relaxed as a convex quadratic program, in which the space of permutations is replaced by the space of doubly stochastic matrices. However, the applicability of such a relaxation is poorly understood. We define a broad class of friendly graphs characterized by an easily verifiable spectral property. We prove that for friendly graphs, the convex relaxation is guaranteed to find the exact isomorphism or certify its inexistence. This result is further extended to approximately isomorphic graphs, for which we develop an explicit bound on the amount of weight disagreement under which the relaxation is guaranteed to find the globally optimal approximate isomorphism. We also show that in many cases, the graph matching problem can be further harmlessly relaxed to a convex quadratic program with only n separable linear equality constraints, which is substantially more efficient than the standard relaxation involving n2 equality and n2 inequality constraints. Finally, we show that our results are still valid for unfriendly graphs if additional information in the form of seeds or attributes is allowed, with the latter satisfying an easy to verify spectral characteristic.

  12. Multiple anisotropic collisions for advection-diffusion Lattice Boltzmann schemes

    Ginzburg, Irina


    This paper develops a symmetrized framework for the analysis of the anisotropic advection-diffusion Lattice Boltzmann schemes. Two main approaches build the anisotropic diffusion coefficients either from the anisotropic anti-symmetric collision matrix or from the anisotropic symmetric equilibrium distribution. We combine and extend existing approaches for all commonly used velocity sets, prescribe most general equilibrium and build the diffusion and numerical-diffusion forms, then derive and compare solvability conditions, examine available anisotropy and stable velocity magnitudes in the presence of advection. Besides the deterioration of accuracy, the numerical diffusion dictates the stable velocity range. Three techniques are proposed for its elimination: (i) velocity-dependent relaxation entries; (ii) their combination with the coordinate-link equilibrium correction; and (iii) equilibrium correction for all links. Two first techniques are also available for the minimal (coordinate) velocity sets. Even then, the two-relaxation-times model with the isotropic rates often gains in effective stability and accuracy. The key point is that the symmetric collision mode does not modify the modeled diffusion tensor but it controls the effective accuracy and stability, via eigenvalue combinations of the opposite parity eigenmodes. We propose to reduce the eigenvalue spectrum by properly combining different anisotropic collision elements. The stability role of the symmetric, multiple-relaxation-times component, is further investigated with the exact von Neumann stability analysis developed in diffusion-dominant limit.

  13. Underground hydro scheme for Ullapool


    Scoltish and Southern Energy has awarded a contract for a new hydropower plant Scotland, the company's first hydro project since the 1960s. The S6 million scheme will be built by Miller Civil Engineering Services Ltd.

  14. New Ideas on Labeling Schemes

    Rotbart, Noy Galil

    evaluation of fully dynamic labeling schemes. Due to a connection between adjacency labeling schemes and the graph theoretical study of induced universal graphs, we study these in depth and show novel results for bounded degree graphs and power-law graphs. We also survey and make progress on the related......With ever increasing size of graphs, many distributed graph systems emerged to store, preprocess and analyze them. While such systems ease up congestion on servers, they incur certain penalties compared to centralized data structure. First, the total storage required to store a graph...... in a distributed fashion increases. Second, attempting to answer queries on vertices of a graph stored in a distributed fashion can be significantly more complicated. In order to lay theoretical foundations to the first penalty mentioned a large body of work concentrated on labeling schemes. A labeling scheme...

  15. Capacity-achieving CPM schemes

    Perotti, Alberto; Benedetto, Sergio; Montorsi, Guido


    The pragmatic approach to coded continuous-phase modulation (CPM) is proposed as a capacity-achieving low-complexity alternative to the serially-concatenated CPM (SC-CPM) coding scheme. In this paper, we first perform a selection of the best spectrally-efficient CPM modulations to be embedded into SC-CPM schemes. Then, we consider the pragmatic capacity (a.k.a. BICM capacity) of CPM modulations and optimize it through a careful design of the mapping between input bits and CPM waveforms. The so obtained schemes are cascaded with an outer serially-concatenated convolutional code to form a pragmatic coded-modulation system. The resulting schemes exhibit performance very close to the CPM capacity without requiring iterations between the outer decoder and the CPM demodulator. As a result, the receiver exhibits reduced complexity and increased flexibility due to the separation of the demodulation and decoding functions.

  16. Good governance for pension schemes

    Thornton, Paul


    Regulatory and market developments have transformed the way in which UK private sector pension schemes operate. This has increased demands on trustees and advisors and the trusteeship governance model must evolve in order to remain fit for purpose. This volume brings together leading practitioners to provide an overview of what today constitutes good governance for pension schemes, from both a legal and a practical perspective. It provides the reader with an appreciation of the distinctive characteristics of UK occupational pension schemes, how they sit within the capital markets and their social and fiduciary responsibilities. Providing a holistic analysis of pension risk, both from the trustee and the corporate perspective, the essays cover the crucial role of the employer covenant, financing and investment risk, developments in longevity risk hedging and insurance de-risking, and best practice scheme administration.

  17. A Novel Iris Segmentation Scheme

    Chen-Chung Liu


    Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.

  18. An arbitrated quantum signature scheme

    Zeng, G; Zeng, Guihua; Keitel, Christoph H.


    The general principle for a quantum signature scheme is proposed and investigated based on ideas from classical signature schemes and quantum cryptography. The suggested algorithm is implemented by a symmetrical quantum key cryptosystem and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) triplet states and relies on the availability of an arbitrator. We can guarantee the unconditional security of the algorithm, mostly due to the correlation of the GHZ triplet states and the use of quantum one-time pads.

  19. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Lars Rönnegård


    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  20. Application of kinetic flux vector splitting scheme for solving multi-dimensional hydrodynamical models of semiconductor devices

    Nisar, Ubaid Ahmed; Ashraf, Waqas; Qamar, Shamsul

    In this article, one and two-dimensional hydrodynamical models of semiconductor devices are numerically investigated. The models treat the propagation of electrons in a semiconductor device as the flow of a charged compressible fluid. It plays an important role in predicting the behavior of electron flow in semiconductor devices. Mathematically, the governing equations form a convection-diffusion type system with a right hand side describing the relaxation effects and interaction with a self consistent electric field. The proposed numerical scheme is a splitting scheme based on the kinetic flux-vector splitting (KFVS) method for the hyperbolic step, and a semi-implicit Runge-Kutta method for the relaxation step. The KFVS method is based on the direct splitting of macroscopic flux functions of the system on the cell interfaces. The second order accuracy of the scheme is achieved by using MUSCL-type initial reconstruction and Runge-Kutta time stepping method. Several case studies are considered. For validation, the results of current scheme are compared with those obtained from the splitting scheme based on the NT central scheme. The effects of various parameters such as low field mobility, device length, lattice temperature and voltage are analyzed. The accuracy, efficiency and simplicity of the proposed KFVS scheme validates its generic applicability to the given model equations. A two dimensional simulation is also performed by KFVS method for a MESFET device, producing results in good agreement with those obtained by NT-central scheme.

  1. Spin-orbit coupling and paramagnetic relaxation in micellized triplet radical pairs. Determination of relaxation parameters from magnetic field dependences of the decay kinetics

    Levin, P. P.; Kuzmin, V. A.


    The geminate recombination kinetics of the radical pairs produced by quenching of triplet benzophenone or 4-bromobenzophenone by 4-phenylphenol and 4-phenylaniline in aqueous micellar solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate has been examined using the laser flash technique. Application of an external magnetic field results in the retardation of geminate recombination up to 20 times. The magnetic field dependences are considered in terms of a simple kinetic scheme, which includes the singlet-triplet evolution in the separated states of a pair due to hyperfine coupling and relaxation mechanisms as well as intersystem recombination process due to the spin-orbit coupling in the contact states of a pair.

  2. The use of (double) relaxation oscillation SQUIDs as a sensor

    Duuren, van M.J.; Brons, G.C.S.; Kattouw, H.; Flokstra, J.; Rogalla, H.


    Relaxation Oscillation SQUIDs (ROSs) and Double Relaxation Oscillation SQUIDs (DROSs) are based on relaxation oscillations that are induced in hysteretic dc SQUIDs by an external L-R shunt. The relaxation frequency of a ROS varies with the applied flux Φ, whereas the output of a DROS is a dc voltage

  3. The use of (double) relaxation oscillation SQUIDs as a sensor

    van Duuren, M.J.; Brons, G.C.S.; Kattouw, H.; Flokstra, Jakob; Rogalla, Horst


    Relaxation Oscillation SQUIDs (ROSs) and Double Relaxation Oscillation SQUIDs (DROSs) are based on relaxation oscillations that are induced in hysteretic dc SQUIDs by an external L-R shunt. The relaxation frequency of a ROS varies with the applied flux Φ, whereas the output of a DROS is a dc

  4. Provable Secure Identity Based Generalized Signcryption Scheme

    Yu, Gang; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Shen, Yong; Han, Wenbao


    According to actual needs, generalized signcryption scheme can flexibly work as an encryption scheme, a signature scheme or a signcryption scheme. In this paper, firstly, we give a security model for identity based generalized signcryption which is more complete than existing model. Secondly, we propose an identity based generalized signcryption scheme. Thirdly, we give the security proof of the new scheme in this complete model. Comparing with existing identity based generalized signcryption...

  5. A splitting scheme based on the space-time CE/SE method for solving multi-dimensional hydrodynamical models of semiconductor devices

    Nisar, Ubaid Ahmed; Ashraf, Waqas; Qamar, Shamsul


    Numerical solutions of the hydrodynamical model of semiconductor devices are presented in one and two-space dimension. The model describes the charge transport in semiconductor devices. Mathematically, the models can be written as a convection-diffusion type system with a right hand side describing the relaxation effects and interaction with a self consistent electric field. The proposed numerical scheme is a splitting scheme based on the conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method for hyperbolic step, and a semi-implicit scheme for the relaxation step. The numerical results of the suggested scheme are compared with the splitting scheme based on Nessyahu-Tadmor (NT) central scheme for convection step and the same semi-implicit scheme for the relaxation step. The effects of various parameters such as low field mobility, device length, lattice temperature and voltages for one-space dimensional hydrodynamic model are explored to further validate the generic applicability of the CE/SE method for the current model equations. A two dimensional simulation is also performed by CE/SE method for a MESFET device, producing results in good agreement with those obtained by NT-central scheme.

  6. Time scales of relaxation dynamics during transient conditions in two-phase flow: RELAXATION DYNAMICS

    Schlüter, Steffen [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon USA; Department Soil Physics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Halle Germany; Berg, Steffen [Shell Global Solutions International B.V., Rijswijk Netherlands; Li, Tianyi [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon USA; Vogel, Hans-Jörg [Department Soil Physics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Halle Germany; Institut für Agrar- und Ernährungswissenschaften, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Halle Germany; Wildenschild, Dorthe [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon USA


    The relaxation dynamics toward a hydrostatic equilibrium after a change in phase saturation in porous media is governed by fluid reconfiguration at the pore scale. Little is known whether a hydrostatic equilibrium in which all interfaces come to rest is ever reached and which microscopic processes govern the time scales of relaxation. Here we apply fast synchrotron-based X-ray tomography (X-ray CT) to measure the slow relaxation dynamics of fluid interfaces in a glass bead pack after fast drainage of the sample. The relaxation of interfaces triggers internal redistribution of fluids, reduces the surface energy stored in the fluid interfaces, and relaxes the contact angle toward the equilibrium value while the fluid topology remains unchanged. The equilibration of capillary pressures occurs in two stages: (i) a quick relaxation within seconds in which most of the pressure drop that built up during drainage is dissipated, a process that is to fast to be captured with fast X-ray CT, and (ii) a slow relaxation with characteristic time scales of 1–4 h which manifests itself as a spontaneous imbibition process that is well described by the Washburn equation for capillary rise in porous media. The slow relaxation implies that a hydrostatic equilibrium is hardly ever attained in practice when conducting two-phase experiments in which a flux boundary condition is changed from flow to no-flow. Implications for experiments with pressure boundary conditions are discussed.

  7. Anomalous Enthalpy Relaxation in Vitreous Silica

    Yuanzheng eYue


    Full Text Available It is a challenge to calorimetrically determine the glass transition temperature (Tg of vitreous silica. Here we demonstrate that this challenge mainly arises from the extreme sensitivity of the Tg to the hydroxyl content in vitreous silica, but also from the irreversibility of its glass transition when repeating the calorimetric scans. It is known that the liquid fragility (i.e., the speed of the viscous slow-down of a supercooled liquid at its Tg during cooling has impact on enthalpy relaxation in glass. Here we find that vitreous silica (as a strong system exhibits striking anomalies in both glass transition and enthalpy relaxation compared to fragile oxide systems. The anomalous enthalpy relaxation of vitreous silica is discovered by performing the hperquenching-annealing-calorimetry experiments. We argue that the strong systems like vitreous silica and vitreous Germania relax in a structurally cooperative manner, whereas the fragile ones do in a structurally independent fashion. We discuss the origin of the anomalous enthalpy relaxation in the HQ vitreous silica.

  8. Motional Spin Relaxation in Large Electric Fields

    Schmid, Riccardo; Filippone, B W


    We discuss the precession of spin-polarized Ultra Cold Neutrons (UCN) and $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ atoms in uniform and static magnetic and electric fields and calculate the spin relaxation effects from motional $v\\times E$ magnetic fields. Particle motion in an electric field creates a motional $v\\times E$ magnetic field, which when combined with collisions, produces variations of the total magnetic field and results in spin relaxation of neutron and $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ samples. The spin relaxation times $T_{1}$ (longitudinal) and $T_{2}$ (transverse) of spin-polarized UCN and $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ atoms are important considerations in a new search for the neutron Electric Dipole Moment at the SNS \\emph{nEDM} experiment. We use a Monte Carlo approach to simulate the relaxation of spins due to the motional $v\\times E$ field for UCN and for $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ atoms at temperatures below $600 \\mathrm{mK}$. We find the relaxation times for the neutron due to the $v\\times E$ effect to be long compared to the neutron lifetime, ...

  9. Doppler effect induced spin relaxation boom

    Zhao, Xinyu; Huang, Peihao; Hu, Xuedong


    We study an electron spin qubit confined in a moving quantum dot (QD), with our attention on both spin relaxation, and the product of spin relaxation, the emitted phonons. We find that Doppler effect leads to several interesting phenomena. In particular, spin relaxation rate peaks when the QD motion is in the transonic regime, which we term a spin relaxation boom in analogy to the classical sonic boom. This peak indicates that a moving spin qubit may have even lower relaxation rate than a static qubit, pointing at the possibility of coherence-preserving transport for a spin qubit. We also find that the emitted phonons become strongly directional and narrow in their frequency range as the qubit reaches the supersonic regime, similar to Cherenkov radiation. In other words, fast moving excited spin qubits can act as a source of non-classical phonons. Compared to classical Cherenkov radiation, we show that quantum dot confinement produces a small but important correction on the Cherenkov angle. Taking together, these results have important implications to both spin-based quantum information processing and coherent phonon dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures.

  10. Reduced-Complexity Semidefinite Relaxations of Optimal Power Flow Problems

    Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Hansson, Anders; Vandenberghe, Lieven


    We propose a new method for generating semidefinite relaxations of optimal power flow problems. The method is based on chordal conversion techniques: by dropping some equality constraints in the conversion, we obtain semidefinite relaxations that are computationally cheaper, but potentially weaker......, than the standard semidefinite relaxation. Our numerical results show that the new relaxations often produce the same results as the standard semidefinite relaxation, but at a lower computational cost....

  11. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad


    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. Optimal probabilistic dense coding schemes

    Kögler, Roger A.; Neves, Leonardo


    Dense coding with non-maximally entangled states has been investigated in many different scenarios. We revisit this problem for protocols adopting the standard encoding scheme. In this case, the set of possible classical messages cannot be perfectly distinguished due to the non-orthogonality of the quantum states carrying them. So far, the decoding process has been approached in two ways: (i) The message is always inferred, but with an associated (minimum) error; (ii) the message is inferred without error, but only sometimes; in case of failure, nothing else is done. Here, we generalize on these approaches and propose novel optimal probabilistic decoding schemes. The first uses quantum-state separation to increase the distinguishability of the messages with an optimal success probability. This scheme is shown to include (i) and (ii) as special cases and continuously interpolate between them, which enables the decoder to trade-off between the level of confidence desired to identify the received messages and the success probability for doing so. The second scheme, called multistage decoding, applies only for qudits ( d-level quantum systems with d>2) and consists of further attempts in the state identification process in case of failure in the first one. We show that this scheme is advantageous over (ii) as it increases the mutual information between the sender and receiver.

  13. Energy partitioning schemes: a dilemma.

    Mayer, I


    Two closely related energy partitioning schemes, in which the total energy is presented as a sum of atomic and diatomic contributions by using the "atomic decomposition of identity", are compared on the example of N,N-dimethylformamide, a simple but chemically rich molecule. Both schemes account for different intramolecular interactions, for instance they identify the weak C-H...O intramolecular interactions, but give completely different numbers. (The energy decomposition scheme based on the virial theorem is also considered.) The comparison of the two schemes resulted in a dilemma which is especially striking when these schemes are applied for molecules distorted from their equilibrium structures: one either gets numbers which are "on the chemical scale" and have quite appealing values at the equilibrium molecular geometries, but exhibiting a counter-intuitive distance dependence (the two-center energy components increase in absolute value with the increase of the interatomic distances)--or numbers with too large absolute values but "correct" distance behaviour. The problem is connected with the quick decay of the diatomic kinetic energy components.

  14. Mozart versus new age music: relaxation states, stress, and ABC relaxation theory.

    Smith, Jonathan C; Joyce, Carol A


    Smith's (2001) Attentional Behavioral Cognitive (ABC) relaxation theory proposes that all approaches to relaxation (including music) have the potential for evoking one or more of 15 factor-analytically derived relaxation states, or "R-States" (Sleepiness, Disengagement, Rested / Refreshed, Energized, Physical Relaxation, At Ease/Peace, Joy, Mental Quiet, Childlike Innocence, Thankfulness and Love, Mystery, Awe and Wonder, Prayerfulness, Timeless/Boundless/Infinite, and Aware). The present study investigated R-States and stress symptom-patterns associated with listening to Mozart versus New Age music. Students (N = 63) were divided into three relaxation groups based on previously determined preferences. Fourteen listened to a 28-minute tape recording of Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik and 14 listened to a 28-minute tape of Steven Halpern's New Age Serenity Suite. Others (n = 35) did not want music and instead chose a set of popular recreational magazines. Participants engaged in their relaxation activity at home for three consecutive days for 28 minutes a session. Before and after each session, each person completed the Smith Relaxation States Inventory (Smith, 2001), a comprehensive questionnaire tapping 15 R-States as well as the stress states of somatic stress, worry, and negative emotion. Results revealed no differences at Session 1. At Session 2, those who listened to Mozart reported higher levels of At Ease/Peace and lower levels of Negative Emotion. Pronounced differences emerged at Session 3. Mozart listeners uniquely reported substantially higher levels of Mental Quiet, Awe and Wonder, and Mystery. Mozart listeners reported higher levels, and New Age listeners slightly elevated levels, of At Ease/Peace and Rested/Refreshed. Both Mozart and New Age listeners reported higher levels of Thankfulness and Love. In summary, those who listened to Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik reported more psychological relaxation and less stress than either those who listened to

  15. Asymptotic representation of relaxation oscillations in lasers

    Grigorieva, Elena V


    In this book we analyze relaxation oscillations in models of lasers with nonlinear elements controlling light dynamics. The models are based on rate equations taking into account periodic modulation of parameters, optoelectronic delayed feedback, mutual coupling between lasers, intermodal interaction and other factors. With the aim to study relaxation oscillations we present the special asymptotic method of integration for ordinary differential equations and differential-difference equations. As a result, they are reduced to discrete maps. Analyzing the maps we describe analytically such nonlinear phenomena in lasers as multistability of large-amplitude relaxation cycles, bifurcations of cycles, controlled switching of regimes, phase synchronization in an ensemble of coupled systems and others. The book can be fruitful for students and technicians in nonlinear laser dynamics and in differential equations.

  16. On topological relaxations of chromatic conjectures

    Simonyi, Gábor


    There are several famous unsolved conjectures about the chromatic number that were relaxed and already proven to hold for the fractional chromatic number. We discuss similar relaxations for the topological lower bound(s) of the chromatic number. In particular, we prove that such a relaxed version is true for the Behzad-Vizing conjecture and also discuss the conjectures of Hedetniemi and of Hadwiger from this point of view. For the latter, a similar statement was already proven in an earlier paper of the first author with G. Tardos, our main concern here is that the so-called odd Hadwiger conjecture looks much more difficult in this respect. We prove that the statement of the odd Hadwiger conjecture holds for large enough Kneser graphs and Schrijver graphs of any fixed chromatic number.

  17. Vibrational and Rotational Energy Relaxation in Liquids

    Petersen, Jakob

    the intramolecular dynamics during photodissociation is investigated. The apparent agreement with quantum mechanical calculations is shown to be in contrast to the applicability of the individual approximations used in deriving the model from a quantum mechanical treatment. In the spirit of the Bersohn-Zewail model......, the vibrational energy relaxation of I2 subsequent to photodissociation and recombination in CCl4 is studied using classical Molecular Dynamics simulations. The vibrational relaxation times and the time-dependent I-I pair distribution function are compared to new experimental results, and a qualitative agreement...... is found in both cases. Furthermore, the rotational energy relaxation of H2O in liquid water is studied via simulations and a power-and-work analysis. The mechanism of the energy transfer from the rotationally excited H2O molecule to its water neighbors is elucidated, i.e. the energy-accepting degrees...

  18. Relaxation and Diffusion in Complex Systems

    Ngai, K L


    Relaxation and Diffusion in Complex Systems comprehensively presents a variety of experimental evidences of universal relaxation and diffusion properties in complex materials and systems. The materials discussed include liquids, glasses, colloids, polymers, rubbers, plastic crystals and aqueous mixtures, as well as carbohydrates, biomolecules, bioprotectants and pharmaceuticals. Due to the abundance of experimental data, emphasis is placed on glass-formers and the glass transition problem, a still unsolved problem in condensed matter physics and chemistry. The evidence for universal properties of relaxation and diffusion dynamics suggests that a fundamental physical law is at work. The origin of the universal properties is traced to the many-body effects of the interaction, rigorous theory of which does not exist at the present time. However, using solutions of simplified models as guides, key quantities have been identified and predictions of the universal properties generated. These predictions from Ngai’...

  19. Substrate stress relaxation regulates cell spreading

    Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Gu, Luo; Darnell, Max; Klumpers, Darinka; Bencherif, Sidi A.; Weaver, James C.; Huebsch, Nathaniel; Mooney, David J.


    Studies of cellular mechanotransduction have converged upon the idea that cells sense extracellular matrix (ECM) elasticity by gauging resistance to the traction forces they exert on the ECM. However, these studies typically utilize purely elastic materials as substrates, whereas physiological ECMs are viscoelastic, and exhibit stress relaxation, so that cellular traction forces exerted by cells remodel the ECM. Here we investigate the influence of ECM stress relaxation on cell behaviour through computational modelling and cellular experiments. Surprisingly, both our computational model and experiments find that spreading for cells cultured on soft substrates that exhibit stress relaxation is greater than cells spreading on elastic substrates of the same modulus, but similar to that of cells spreading on stiffer elastic substrates. These findings challenge the current view of how cells sense and respond to the ECM.

  20. Nonlinear Model of non-Debye Relaxation

    Zon, Boris A


    We present a simple nonlinear relaxation equation which contains the Debye equation as a particular case. The suggested relaxation equation results in power-law decay of fluctuations. This equation contains a parameter defining the frequency dependence of the dielectric permittivity similarly to the well-known one-parameter phenomenological equations of Cole-Cole, Davidson-Cole and Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts. Unlike these models, the obtained dielectric permittivity (i) obeys to the Kramers-Kronig relation; (ii) has proper behaviour at large frequency; (iii) its imaginary part, conductivity, shows a power-law frequency dependence \\sigma ~ \\omega^n where n1 is also observed in several experiments. The nonlinear equation proposed may be useful in various fields of relaxation theory.

  1. Excited-state relaxation of some aminoquinolines


    Full Text Available The absorption and fluorescence spectra, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes, and fluorescence rate constants ( k f of 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzoxazolylquinoline (I, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzothiazolylquinoline (II, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -methoxybenzothiazolyl-quinoline (III, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzothiazolylbenzoquinoline (IV at different temperatures have been measured. The shortwavelength shift of fluorescence spectra of compounds studied (23–49 nm in ethanol as the temperature decreases (the solvent viscosity increases points out that the excited-state relaxation process takes place. The rate of this process depends essentially on the solvent viscosity, but not the solvent polarity. The essential increasing of fluorescence rate constant k f (up to about 7 times as the solvent viscosity increases proves the existence of excited-state structural relaxation consisting in the mutual internal rotation of molecular fragments of aminoquinolines studied, followed by the solvent orientational relaxation.

  2. Improved memristor-based relaxation oscillator

    Mosad, Ahmed G.


    This paper presents an improved memristor-based relaxation oscillator which offers higher frequency and wider tunning range than the existing reactance-less oscillators. It also has the capability of operating on two positive supplies or alternatively a positive and negative supply. Furthermore, it has the advantage that it can be fully integrated on-chip providing an area-efficient solution. On the other hand, The oscillation concept is discussed then a complete mathematical analysis of the proposed oscillator is introduced. Furthermore, the power consumption of the new relaxation circuit is discussed and validated by the PSPICE circuit simulations showing an excellent agreement. MATLAB results are also introduced to demonstrate the resistance range and the corresponding frequency range which can be obtained from the proposed relaxation oscillator. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Interactive Image Enhancement by Fuzzy Relaxation

    Shang-Ming Zhou; John Q.Can; Li-Da Xu; Robert John


    In this paper, an interactive image enhancement (HE) technique based on fuzzy relaxation is presented, which allows the user to select different intensity levels for enhancement and intermit the enhancement process according to his/her preference in applications. First, based on an analysis of the convergence of a fuzzy relaxation algorithm for image contrast enhancement, an improved version of this algorithm, which is called FuzzIIE Method 1, is suggested by deriving a relationship between the convergence regions and the parameters in the transformations defined in the algorithm. Then a method called FuzzIIE Method 2 is introduced by using a different fuzzy relaxation function, in which there is no need to re-select the parameter values for interactive image enhancement. Experimental results are presented demonstrating the enhancement capabilities of the proposed methods under different conditions.

  4. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben


    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta......(log(n)) bits for constant ε> 0. (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes with polylogarithmic label size have previously been established for doubling dimension graphs by Talwar [Talwar, STOC, 2004]. In addition, we present matching upper and lower bounds for distance labeling for caterpillars, showing that labels...

  5. Relaxation Dynamics of Semiflexible Fractal Macromolecules

    Jonas Mielke


    Full Text Available We study the dynamics of semiflexible hyperbranched macromolecules having only dendritic units and no linear spacers, while the structure of these macromolecules is modeled through T-fractals. We construct a full set of eigenmodes of the dynamical matrix, which couples the set of Langevin equations. Based on the ensuing relaxation spectra, we analyze the mechanical relaxation moduli. The fractal character of the macromolecules reveals itself in the storage and loss moduli in the intermediate region of frequencies through scaling, whereas at higher frequencies, we observe the locally-dendritic structure that is more pronounced for higher stiffness.

  6. Dynamics of cosmological relaxation after reheating

    Choi, Kiwoon; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu


    We examine if the cosmological relaxation mechanism, which was proposed recently as a new solution to the hierarchy problem, can be compatible with high reheating temperature well above the weak scale. As the barrier potential disappears at high temperature, the relaxion rolls down further after the reheating, which may ruin the successful implementation of the relaxation mechanism. It is noted that if the relaxion is coupled to a dark gauge boson, the new frictional force arising from dark gauge boson production can efficiently slow down the relaxion motion, which allows the relaxion to be stabilized after the electroweak phase transition for a wide range of model parameters, while satisfying the known observational constraints.

  7. Synthetic aperture radar autofocus via semidefinite relaxation.

    Liu, Kuang-Hung; Wiesel, Ami; Munson, David C


    The autofocus problem in synthetic aperture radar imaging amounts to estimating unknown phase errors caused by unknown platform or target motion. At the heart of three state-of-the-art autofocus algorithms, namely, phase gradient autofocus, multichannel autofocus (MCA), and Fourier-domain multichannel autofocus (FMCA), is the solution of a constant modulus quadratic program (CMQP). Currently, these algorithms solve a CMQP by using an eigenvalue relaxation approach. We propose an alternative relaxation approach based on semidefinite programming, which has recently attracted considerable attention in other signal processing problems. Experimental results show that our proposed methods provide promising performance improvements for MCA and FMCA through an increase in computational complexity.

  8. Depicting Vortex Stretching and Vortex Relaxing Mechanisms

    符松; 李启兵; 王明皓


    Different from many existing studies on the paranetrization of vortices, we investigate the effectiveness of two new parameters for identifying the vortex stretching and vortex relaxing mechanisms. These parameters are invariants and identify three-dimensional flow structures only, i.e. they diminish in two-dimensional flows. This is also unlike the existing vortex identification approaches which deliver information in two-dimensional flows. The present proposals have been successfully applied to identify the stretching and relaxing vortices in compressible mixing layers and natural convection flows.

  9. Electrical Injection Schemes for Nanolasers

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten


    Three electrical injection schemes based on recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers have been numerically investigated: 1) a vertical p-i-n junction through a post structure; 2) a lateral p-i-n junction with a homostructure; and 3) a lateral p-i-n junction....... For this analysis, the properties of different schemes, i.e., electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current, and internal efficiency as energy requirements for optical interconnects are compared and the physics behind the differences is discussed....

  10. Small-scale classification schemes

    Hertzum, Morten


    . While coordination mechanisms focus on how classification schemes enable cooperation among people pursuing a common goal, boundary objects embrace the implicit consequences of classification schemes in situations involving conflicting goals. Moreover, the requirements specification focused on functional...... requirements and provided little information about why these requirements were considered relevant. This stands in contrast to the discussions at the project meetings where the software engineers made frequent use of both abstract goal descriptions and concrete examples to make sense of the requirements....... This difference between the written requirements specification and the oral discussions at the meetings may help explain software engineers’ general preference for people, rather than documents, as their information sources....

  11. Accuracy and Numerical Stabilty Analysis of Lattice Boltzmann Method with Multiple Relaxation Time for Incompressible Flows

    Pradipto; Purqon, Acep


    Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is the novel method for simulating fluid dynamics. Nowadays, the application of LBM ranges from the incompressible flow, flow in the porous medium, until microflows. The common collision model of LBM is the BGK with a constant single relaxation time τ. However, BGK suffers from numerical instabilities. These instabilities could be eliminated by implementing LBM with multiple relaxation time. Both of those scheme have implemented for incompressible 2 dimensions lid-driven cavity. The stability analysis has done by finding the maximum Reynolds number and velocity for converged simulations. The accuracy analysis is done by comparing the velocity profile with the benchmark results from Ghia, et al and calculating the net velocity flux. The tests concluded that LBM with MRT are more stable than BGK, and have a similar accuracy. The maximum Reynolds number that converges for BGK is 3200 and 7500 for MRT respectively.

  12. Control of magnetic relaxation by electric-field-induced ferroelectric phase transition and inhomogeneous domain switching

    Nan, Tianxiang; Emori, Satoru; Wang, Xinjun; Hu, Zhongqiang; Xie, Li; Gao, Yuan; Lin, Hwaider; Sun, Nian, E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Peng, Bin; Liu, Ming, E-mail: [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Jiao, Jie; Luo, Haosu [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Budil, David [Department of Chemistry, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Jones, John G.; Howe, Brandon M.; Brown, Gail J. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States)


    Electric-field modulation of magnetism in strain-mediated multiferroic heterostructures is considered a promising scheme for enabling memory and magnetic microwave devices with ultralow power consumption. However, it is not well understood how electric-field-induced strain influences magnetic relaxation, an important physical process for device applications. Here, we investigate resonant magnetization dynamics in ferromagnet/ferroelectric multiferroic heterostructures, FeGaB/PMN-PT and NiFe/PMN-PT, in two distinct strain states provided by electric-field-induced ferroelectric phase transition. The strain not only modifies magnetic anisotropy but also magnetic relaxation. In FeGaB/PMN-PT, we observe a nearly two-fold change in intrinsic Gilbert damping by electric field, which is attributed to strain-induced tuning of spin-orbit coupling. By contrast, a small but measurable change in extrinsic linewidth broadening is attributed to inhomogeneous ferroelastic domain switching during the phase transition of the PMN-PT substrate.

  13. Control of magnetic relaxation by electric-field-induced ferroelectric phase transition and inhomogeneous domain switching

    Nan, Tianxiang; Emori, Satoru; Peng, Bin; Wang, Xinjun; Hu, Zhongqiang; Xie, Li; Gao, Yuan; Lin, Hwaider; Jiao, Jie; Luo, Haosu; Budil, David; Jones, John G.; Howe, Brandon M.; Brown, Gail J.; Liu, Ming; Sun, Nian


    Electric-field modulation of magnetism in strain-mediated multiferroic heterostructures is considered a promising scheme for enabling memory and magnetic microwave devices with ultralow power consumption. However, it is not well understood how electric-field-induced strain influences magnetic relaxation, an important physical process for device applications. Here, we investigate resonant magnetization dynamics in ferromagnet/ferroelectric multiferroic heterostructures, FeGaB/PMN-PT and NiFe/PMN-PT, in two distinct strain states provided by electric-field-induced ferroelectric phase transition. The strain not only modifies magnetic anisotropy but also magnetic relaxation. In FeGaB/PMN-PT, we observe a nearly two-fold change in intrinsic Gilbert damping by electric field, which is attributed to strain-induced tuning of spin-orbit coupling. By contrast, a small but measurable change in extrinsic linewidth broadening is attributed to inhomogeneous ferroelastic domain switching during the phase transition of the PMN-PT substrate.

  14. A relaxation technique for the parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations

    Kaul, Upender K.


    A rapidly converging relaxation technique for the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations has been devised. The scheme is applicable in both supersonic and subsonic flows, but it is discussed here in the context of supersonic flows. The upstream propagating acoustic influence in the subsonic part of the flow is introduced semi-implicitly through the streamwise momentum equation applied on the body, and through a forward-differencing on the streamwise pressure gradient term in the interior. This procedure yields a new boundary condition on the energy in the total energy equation. The pressure-velocity system in the subsonic layer is coupled, but the positive time-like marching characteristic of the governing equations is still maintained. The relaxation technique is demontrated to work for a three-dimensional flow over a cone-flare in supersonic flight.

  15. On the equivalence between the Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi method and Richardson's non-stationary method

    Adsuara, J. E.; Cordero-Carrión, I.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Mewes, V.; Aloy, M. A.


    The Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi (SRJ) method is an extension of the classical Jacobi iterative method to solve linear systems of equations (Au = b) associated with elliptic problems. It inherits its robustness and accelerates its convergence rate computing a set of P relaxation factors that result from a minimization problem. In a typical SRJ scheme, the former set of factors is employed in cycles of M consecutive iterations until a prescribed tolerance is reached. We present the analytic form for the optimal set of relaxation factors for the case in which all of them are strictly different, and find that the resulting algorithm is equivalent to a non-stationary generalized Richardson's method where the matrix of the system of equations is preconditioned multiplying it by D = diag (A). Our method to estimate the weights has the advantage that the explicit computation of the maximum and minimum eigenvalues of the matrix A (or the corresponding iteration matrix of the underlying weighted Jacobi scheme) is replaced by the (much easier) calculation of the maximum and minimum frequencies derived from a von Neumann analysis of the continuous elliptic operator. This set of weights is also the optimal one for the general problem, resulting in the fastest convergence of all possible SRJ schemes for a given grid structure. The amplification factor of the method can be found analytically and allows for the exact estimation of the number of iterations needed to achieve a desired tolerance. We also show that with the set of weights computed for the optimal SRJ scheme for a fixed cycle size it is possible to estimate numerically the optimal value of the parameter ω in the Successive Overrelaxation (SOR) method in some cases. Finally, we demonstrate with practical examples that our method also works very well for Poisson-like problems in which a high-order discretization of the Laplacian operator is employed (e.g., a 9- or 17-points discretization). This is of interest since the

  16. Ionization of pyridine: Interplay of orbital relaxation and electron correlation

    Trofimov, A. B.; Holland, D. M. P.; Powis, I.; Menzies, R. C.; Potts, A. W.; Karlsson, L.; Gromov, E. V.; Badsyuk, I. L.; Schirmer, J.


    The valence shell ionization spectrum of pyridine was studied using the third-order algebraic-diagrammatic construction approximation scheme for the one-particle Green's function and the outer-valence Green's function method. The results were used to interpret angle resolved photoelectron spectra recorded with synchrotron radiation in the photon energy range of 17-120 eV. The lowest four states of the pyridine radical cation, namely, 2A2(1 a2 -1), 2A1(7 a1 -1), 2B1(2 b1 -1), and 2B2(5 b2 -1), were studied in detail using various high-level electronic structure calculation methods. The vertical ionization energies were established using the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster approach with single, double, and triple excitations (EOM-IP-CCSDT) and the complete basis set extrapolation technique. Further interpretation of the electronic structure results was accomplished using Dyson orbitals, electron density difference plots, and a second-order perturbation theory treatment for the relaxation energy. Strong orbital relaxation and electron correlation effects were shown to accompany ionization of the 7a1 orbital, which formally represents the nonbonding σ-type nitrogen lone-pair (nσ) orbital. The theoretical work establishes the important roles of the π-system (π-π* excitations) in the screening of the nσ-hole and of the relaxation of the molecular orbitals in the formation of the 7a1(nσ)-1 state. Equilibrium geometric parameters were computed using the MP2 (second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory) and CCSD methods, and the harmonic vibrational frequencies were obtained at the MP2 level of theory for the lowest three cation states. The results were used to estimate the adiabatic 0-0 ionization energies, which were then compared to the available experimental and theoretical data. Photoelectron anisotropy parameters and photoionization partial cross sections, derived from the experimental spectra, were compared to predictions obtained with the continuum

  17. Relaxed incremental variational approach for the modeling of damage-induced stress hysteresis in arterial walls.

    Schmidt, Thomas; Balzani, Daniel


    In this paper, a three-dimensional relaxed incremental variational damage model is proposed, which enables the description of complex softening hysteresis as observed in supra-physiologically loaded arterial tissues, and which thereby avoids a loss of convexity of the underlying formulation. The proposed model extends the relaxed formulation of Balzani and Ortiz [2012. Relaxed incremental variational formulation for damage at large strains with application to fiber-reinforced materials and materials with truss-like microstructures. Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng. 92, 551-570], such that the typical stress-hysteresis observed in arterial tissues under cyclic loading can be described. This is mainly achieved by constructing a modified one-dimensional model accounting for cyclic loading in the individual fiber direction and numerically homogenizing the response taking into account a fiber orientation distribution function. A new solution strategy for the identification of the convexified stress potential is proposed based on an evolutionary algorithm which leads to an improved robustness compared to solely Newton-based optimization schemes. In order to enable an efficient adjustment of the new model to experimentally observed softening hysteresis, an adjustment scheme using a surrogate model is proposed. Therewith, the relaxed formulation is adjusted to experimental data in the supra-physiological domain of the media and adventitia of a human carotid artery. The performance of the model is then demonstrated in a finite element example of an overstretched artery. Although here three-dimensional thick-walled atherosclerotic arteries are considered, it is emphasized that the formulation can also directly be applied to thin-walled simulations of arteries using shell elements or other fiber-reinforced biomembranes.

  18. All-electrical measurement of the triplet-singlet spin relaxation time in self-assembled quantum dots

    Eltrudis, K.; Al-Ashouri, A.; Beckel, A.; Ludwig, A.; Wieck, A. D.; Geller, M.; Lorke, A.


    We have measured the spin relaxation time of an excited two-electron spin-triplet state into its singlet ground state in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots. We use a time-resolved measurement scheme that combines transconductance spectroscopy with spin-to-charge conversion to address the |s ↑,p ↑ 〉 triplet state, where one electron is in the quantum dot s-shell and a second one in the p-shell. The evaluation of the state-selective tunneling times from the dots into a nearby two-dimensional electron gas allows us to determine the s- and p-shell occupation and extract the relaxation time from a rate equation model. A comparably long triplet-to-singlet spin relaxation time of 25 μs is found.

  19. Provable Data Possession Scheme based on Homomorphic Hash Function in Cloud Storage

    Li Yu


    Full Text Available Cloud storage can satisfy the demand of accessing data at anytime, anyplace. In cloud storage, only when the users can verify that the cloud storage server possesses the data correctly, users shall feel relax to use cloud storage. Provable data possession(PDP makes it easy for a third party to verify whether the data is integrity in the cloud storage server. We analyze the existing PDP schemes, find that these schemes have some drawbacks, such as computationally expensive, only performing a limited number provable data possession. This paper proposes a provable data possession scheme based on homomorphic hash function according to the problems exist in the existing algorithms. The advantage of homomorphic hash function is that it provides provable data possession and data integrity protection. The scheme is a good way to ensure the integrity of remote data and reduce redundant storage space and bandwidth consumption on the premise that users do not retrieve data. The main cost of the scheme is in the server side, it is suitable for mobile devices in the cloud storage environments. We prove that the scheme is feasible by analyzing the security and performance of the scheme.

  20. Efficient adaptive fuzzy control scheme

    Papp, Z.; Driessen, B.J.F.


    The paper presents an adaptive nonlinear (state-) feedback control structure, where the nonlinearities are implemented as smooth fuzzy mappings defined as rule sets. The fine tuning and adaption of the controller is realized by an indirect adaptive scheme, which modifies the parameters of the fuzzy

  1. Homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials

    Yang, Min


    We present a homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials that is based on reproducing the lowest orders of scattering amplitudes from a finite volume of metamaterials. This approach is noted to differ significantly from that of coherent potential approximation, which is based on adjusting the effective-medium parameters to minimize scatterings in the long-wavelength limit. With the aid of metamaterials’ eigenstates, the effective parameters, such as mass density and elastic modulus can be obtained by matching the surface responses of a metamaterial\\'s structural unit cell with a piece of homogenized material. From the Green\\'s theorem applied to the exterior domain problem, matching the surface responses is noted to be the same as reproducing the scattering amplitudes. We verify our scheme by applying it to three different examples: a layered lattice, a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and a decorated-membrane system. It is shown that the predicted characteristics and wave fields agree almost exactly with numerical simulations and experiments and the scheme\\'s validity is constrained by the number of dominant surface multipoles instead of the usual long-wavelength assumption. In particular, the validity extends to the full band in one dimension and to regimes near the boundaries of the Brillouin zone in two dimensions.

  2. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben;


    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoill...

  3. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben


    variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...

  4. Fourier analysis of iteration schemes for k-eigenvalue transport problems with flux-dependent cross sections

    Kochunas, Brendan; Fitzgerald, Andrew; Larsen, Edward


    A central problem in nuclear reactor analysis is calculating solutions of steady-state k-eigenvalue problems with thermal hydraulic feedback. In this paper we propose and utilize a model problem that permits the theoretical analysis of iterative schemes for solving such problems. To begin, we discuss a model problem (with nonlinear cross section feedback) and its justification. We proceed with a Fourier analysis for source iteration schemes applied to the model problem. Then we analyze commonly-used iteration schemes involving non-linear diffusion acceleration and feedback. For each scheme we show (1) that they are conditionally stable, (2) the conditions that lead to instability, and (3) that traditional relaxation approaches can improve stability. Lastly, we propose a new iteration scheme that theory predicts is an improvement upon the existing methods.

  5. Benchmark Numerical Simulations of Viscoelastic Fluid Flows with an Efficient Integrated Lattice Boltzmann and Finite Volume Scheme

    Shun Zou


    Full Text Available An efficient IBLF-dts scheme is proposed to integrate the bounce-back LBM and FVM scheme to solve the Navier-Stokes equations and the constitutive equation, respectively, for the simulation of viscoelastic fluid flows. In order to improve the efficiency, the bounce-back boundary treatment for LBM is introduced in to improve the grid mapping of LBM and FVM, and the two processes are also decoupled in different time scales according to the relaxation time of polymer and the time scale of solvent Newtonian effect. Critical numerical simulations have been carried out to validate the integrated scheme in various benchmark flows at vanishingly low Reynolds number with open source CFD toolkits. The results show that the numerical solution with IBLF-dts scheme agrees well with the exact solution and the numerical solution with FVM PISO scheme and the efficiency and scalability could be remarkably improved under equivalent configurations.

  6. Collection Development: Relaxation & Meditation, September 1, 2010

    Lettus, Dodi


    One of the first books to document the relationship between stress and physical and emotional health was "The Relaxation Response" by Herbert Benson, M.D., with Miriam Z. Klipper. Originally published in 1975, the book grew out of Benson's observations as a cardiologist and his research as a fellow at Harvard Medical School. Benson's study of…

  7. BRIEF REPORT: The colour relaxation equation

    Xiaofei, Zhang; Jiarong, Li


    Colour diffusion in quark - gluon plasma (QGP) is investigated from the transport equations of QGP. The pure non-Abelian collision term describing the colour diffusion in QGP is obtained, the expression for colour relaxation time is derived and the physical picture of the colour diffusion in QGP is shown.

  8. Control linearity and jitter of relaxation oscillators

    Gierkink, Sander Laurentius Johannes


    The body of this thesis (chapters 3,4 and 5) deals with the analysis and improvement of a specific class of voltage- or current controlled oscillators (VCO’s respectively CCO’s) called relaxation oscillators. Before going into detail on this particular class of oscillators, first the function and ap

  9. Relaxation for Children. (Revised and Expanded Edition.)

    Rickard, Jenny

    Intended as a guide to reduce negative stress in children, this book suggests relaxation and meditation techniques to help children cope with stressful events. Part 1 provides an introduction to the format of the book. Part 2 contains summaries of the 10 sessions that make up the program. Each session has six sequential stages in which students…

  10. Relaxation Processes in Nonlinear Optical Polymer Films

    S.N. Fedosov


    Full Text Available Dielectric properties of the guest-host polystyrene/DR1 system have been studied by the AC dielectric spectroscopy method at frequencies from 1 Hz to 0,5 MHz and by the thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC method from – 160 to 0 °C. The relaxation peaks at infra-low frequencies from 10 – 5to 10–2 Hz were also calculated using the Hamon’s approximation. Three relaxation processes, namely, α, β and δ ones were identified from the TSDC peaks, while the ε''(fdependence showed a non-Debye ρ-peak narrowing with temperature. The activation energy of the α-relaxation appeared to be 2,57 eV, while that of the γ-process was 0,52 eV. Temperature dependence of the relaxation time is agreed with the Williams-Landel-Ferry model. The ε''(fpeaks were fitted to Havriliak-Negami’s expression and the corresponding distribution parameters were obtained.

  11. Relaxation of polarized nuclei in superconducting rhodium

    Knuuttila, T.A.; Tuoriniemi, J.T.; Lefmann, K.


    Nuclear spin lattice relaxation rates were measured in normal and superconducting (sc) rhodium with nuclear polarizations up to p = 0.55. This was sufficient to influence the sc state of Rh, whose T, and B-c, are exceptionally low. Because B-c

  12. Collection Development: Relaxation & Meditation, September 1, 2010

    Lettus, Dodi


    One of the first books to document the relationship between stress and physical and emotional health was "The Relaxation Response" by Herbert Benson, M.D., with Miriam Z. Klipper. Originally published in 1975, the book grew out of Benson's observations as a cardiologist and his research as a fellow at Harvard Medical School. Benson's study of…

  13. Redheffer representations and relaxed commutant lifting

    ter Horst, S.


    It is well known that the solutions of a (relaxed) commutant lifting problem can be described via a linear fractional representation of the Redheffer type. The coefficients of such Redheffer representations are analytic operator-valued functions defined on the unit disc D of the complex plane. In th

  14. Vibrational relaxation of pure liquid water

    Lindner, J; Vohringer, P; Pshenichnikov, MS; Cringus, D; Wiersma, DA; Mostovoy, M; Vöhringer, Peter; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.


    Multicolor infrared ultrafast spectroscopy is applied to investigate the vibrational relaxation dynamics in liquid water at room temperature. In a sequence of experiments, both the stretching and the bending mode are photoexcited and probed. A unified model, capable of the reproduction of as much as

  15. Relaxation Treatment for Insomnia: A Component Analysis.

    Woolfolk, Robert L.; McNulty, Terrence F.


    Compared four relaxation treatments for sleep onset insomnia with a waiting-list control. Treatments varied in presence or absence of muscular tension-release instructions and in foci of attention. Results showed all treatment conditions reduced latency of sleep onset and fatigue; visual focusing best reduced the number of nocturnal awakenings.…

  16. Generalized approach to non-exponential relaxation

    R M Pickup; R Cywinski; C Pappas; P Fouquet; B Farago; P Falus


    Non-exponential relaxation is a universal feature of systems as diverse as glasses, spin glasses, earthquakes, financial markets and the universe. Complex relaxation results from hierarchically constrained dynamics with the strength of the constraints being directly related to the form of the relaxation, which changes from a simple exponential to a stretched exponential and a power law by increasing the constraints in the system. A global and unified approach to non-exponentiality was first achieved by Weron and was further generalized by Brouers and Sotolongo-Costa, who applied the concept of non-extensive entropy introduced by Tsallis to the relaxation of disordered systems. These concepts are now confronted with experimental results on the classical metallic spin glasses CuMn, AuFe and the insulating system EuSrS. The revisited data have also be complemented by new results on several compositions of the classical CuMn spin glass and on systems, like CoGa and CuCo, the magnetic behaviour of which is believed to arise from magnetic clusters and should be characteristic for superparamagnetism.

  17. Relaxation dynamics of multilayer triangular Husimi cacti

    Galiceanu, Mircea; Jurjiu, Aurel


    We focus on the relaxation dynamics of multilayer polymer structures having, as underlying topology, the Husimi cactus. The relaxation dynamics of the multilayer structures is investigated in the framework of generalized Gaussian structures model using both Rouse and Zimm approaches. In the Rouse type-approach, we determine analytically the complete eigenvalues spectrum and based on it we calculate the mechanical relaxation moduli (storage and loss modulus) and the average monomer displacement. First, we monitor these physical quantities for structures with a fixed generation number and we increase the number of layers, such that the linear topology will smoothly come into play. Second, we keep constant the size of the structures, varying simultaneously two parameters: the generation number of the main layer, G, and the number of layers, c. This fact allows us to study in detail the crossover from a pure Husimi cactus behavior to a predominately linear chain behavior. The most interesting situation is found when the two limiting topologies cancel each other. For this case, we encounter in the intermediate frequency/time domain regions of constant slope for different values of the parameter set (G, c) and we show that the number of layers follows an exponential-law of G. In the Zimm-type approach, which includes the hydrodynamic interactions, the quantities that describe the mechanical relaxation dynamics do not show scaling behavior as in the Rouse model, except the limiting case, namely, a very high number of layers and low generation number.

  18. Noise in (double) relaxation oscillation SQUIDs

    Adelerhof, Derk Jan; Adelerhof, Derk Jan; Flokstra, Jakob; Rogalla, Horst


    We have modelled the effect of two intrinsic noise sources on the flux noise spectral density of (Double) Relaxation Oscillation SQUIDs ((D)ROSs) based on hysteretic Josephson tunnel junctions. An important noise source is the spread in the critical current of the SQUID due to thermal fluctuations.

  19. Reactor flush time correction in relaxation experiments

    den Otter, M.W.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.; Boukamp, Bernard A.; Verweij, H.


    The present paper deals with the analysis of experimental data from conductivity relaxation experiments. It is shown that evaluation of the chemical diffusion and surface transfer coefficients for oxygen by use of this technique is possible only if accurate data for the conductivity transient can be

  20. Quantum group blind signature scheme without entanglement

    Xu, Rui; Huang, Liusheng; Yang, Wei; He, Libao


    In this paper we propose a quantum group blind signature scheme designed for distributed e-voting system. Our scheme combines the properties of group signature and blind signature to provide anonymity of voters in an e-voting system. The unconditional security of our scheme is ensured by quantum mechanics. Without employing entanglement, the proposed scheme is easier to be realized comparing with other quantum signature schemes.

  1. Fair Electronic Payment Scheme Based on DSA

    WANG Shao-bin; HONG Fan; ZHU Xian


    We present a multi-signature scheme based on DSA and describes a fair electronic payment scheme based on improved DSA signatures. The scheme makes both sides in equal positions during the course of electronic transaction. A Trusted Third Party (TTP) is involved in the scheme to guarantee the fairness of the scheme for both sides. However, only during the course of registration and dispute resolution will TTP be needed. TTP is not needed during the normal payment stage.

  2. Collisionless relaxation in beam-plasma systems

    Backhaus, Ekaterina Yu. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This thesis reports the results from the theoretical investigations, both numerical and analytical, of collisionless relaxation phenomena in beam-plasma systems. Many results of this work can also be applied to other lossless systems of plasma physics, beam physics and astrophysics. Different aspects of the physics of collisionless relaxation and its modeling are addressed. A new theoretical framework, named Coupled Moment Equations (CME), is derived and used in numerical and analytical studies of the relaxation of second order moments such as beam size and emittance oscillations. This technique extends the well-known envelope equation formalism, and it can be applied to general systems with nonlinear forces. It is based on a systematic moment expansion of the Vlasov equation. In contrast to the envelope equation, which is derived assuming constant rms beam emittance, the CME model allows the emittance to vary through coupling to higher order moments. The CME model is implemented in slab geometry in the absence of return currents. The CME simulation yields rms beam sizes, velocity spreads and emittances that are in good agreement with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for a wide range of system parameters. The mechanism of relaxation is also considered within the framework of the CME system. It is discovered that the rapid relaxation or beam size oscillations can be attributed to a resonant coupling between different modes of the system. A simple analytical estimate of the relaxation time is developed. The final state of the system reached after the relaxation is complete is investigated. New and accurate analytical results for the second order moments in the phase-mixed state are obtained. Unlike previous results, these connect the final values of the second order moments with the initial beam mismatch. These analytical estimates are in good agreement with the CME model and PIC simulations. Predictions for the final density and temperature are developed that show

  3. Load Relaxation of Olivine Single Crystals

    Cooper, R. F.; Stone, D. S.; Plookphol, T.


    Single crystals of ferromagnesian olivine (San Carlos, AZ, peridot; Fo90-92) have been deformed in both uniaxial creep and load relaxation under conditions of ambient pressure, T = 1500ºC and pO2 = 10-10 atm; creep stresses were in the range 40 ≤ σ1 (MPa) ≤ 220. The crystals were oriented such that the applied stress was parallel to [011]c, which promotes single slip on the slowest slip system in olivine, (010)[001]. The creep rates at steady state match well the results of earlier investigators, as does the stress sensitivity (a power-law exponent of n = 3.6). Dislocation microstructures, including spatial distribution of low-angle (subgrain) boundaries, additionally confirm previous investigations. Inverted primary creep (an accelerating strain rate with an increase in stress) was observed. Load-relaxation, however, produced a singular response—a single hardness curve—regardless of the magnitude of creep stress or total accumulated strain preceding relaxation. The log-stress v. log-strain rate data from load-relaxation and creep experiments overlap to within experimental error. The load-relaxation behavior is distinctly different that that described for other crystalline solids, where the flow stress is affected strongly by work hardening such that a family of distinct hardness curves is generated, which are related by a scaling function. The response of olivine for the conditions studied, thus, indicates flow that is rate-limited by dislocation glide, reflecting specifically a high intrinsic lattice resistance (Peierls stress).

  4. The effect of music relaxation versus progressive muscular relaxation on insomnia in older people and their relationship to personality traits.

    Ziv, Naomi; Rotem, Tomer; Arnon, Zahi; Haimov, Iris


    A large percentage of older people suffer from chronic insomnia, affecting many aspects of life quality and well-being. Although insomnia is most often treated with medication, a growing number of studies demonstrate the efficiency of various relaxation techniques. The present study had three aims: first, to compare two relaxation techniques--music relaxation and progressive muscular relaxation--on various objective and subjective measures of sleep quality; second, to examine the effect of these techniques on anxiety and depression; and finally, to explore possible relationships between the efficiency of both techniques and personality variables. Fifteen older adults took part in the study. Following one week of base-line measurements of sleep quality, participants followed one week of music relaxation and one week of progressive muscular relaxation before going to sleep. Order of relaxation techniques was controlled. Results show music relaxation was more efficient in improving sleep. Sleep efficiency was higher after music relaxation than after progressive muscular relaxation. Moreover, anxiety was lower after music relaxation. Progressive muscular relaxation was related to deterioration of sleep quality on subjective measures. Beyond differences between the relaxation techniques, extraverts seemed to benefit more from both music and progressive muscular relaxation. The advantage of non-pharmacological means to treat insomnia, and the importance of taking individual differences into account are discussed.

  5. Strained layer relaxation effect on current crowding and efficiency improvement of GaN based LED

    Aurongzeb, Deeder


    Efficiency droop effect of GaN based LED at high power and high temperature is addressed by several groups based on career delocalization and photon recycling effect(radiative recombination). We extend the previous droop models to optical loss parameters. We correlate stained layer relaxation at high temperature and high current density to carrier delocalization. We propose a third order model and show that Shockley-Hall-Read and Auger recombination effect is not enough to account for the efficiency loss. Several strained layer modification scheme is proposed based on the model.

  6. A continuous and prognostic convection scheme based on buoyancy, PCMT

    Guérémy, Jean-François; Piriou, Jean-Marcel


    A new and consistent convection scheme (PCMT: Prognostic Condensates Microphysics and Transport), providing a continuous and prognostic treatment of this atmospheric process, is described. The main concept ensuring the consistency of the whole system is the buoyancy, key element of any vertical motion. The buoyancy constitutes the forcing term of the convective vertical velocity, which is then used to define the triggering condition, the mass flux, and the rates of entrainment-detrainment. The buoyancy is also used in its vertically integrated form (CAPE) to determine the closure condition. The continuous treatment of convection, from dry thermals to deep precipitating convection, is achieved with the help of a continuous formulation of the entrainment-detrainment rates (depending on the convective vertical velocity) and of the CAPE relaxation time (depending on the convective over-turning time). The convective tendencies are directly expressed in terms of condensation and transport. Finally, the convective vertical velocity and condensates are fully prognostic, the latter being treated using the same microphysics scheme as for the resolved condensates but considering the convective environment. A Single Column Model (SCM) validation of this scheme is shown, allowing detailed comparisons with observed and explicitly simulated data. Four cases covering the convective spectrum are considered: over ocean, sensitivity to environmental moisture (S. Derbyshire) non precipitating shallow convection to deep precipitating convection, trade wind shallow convection (BOMEX) and strato-cumulus (FIRE), together with an entire continental diurnal cycle of convection (ARM). The emphasis is put on the characteristics of the scheme which enable a continuous treatment of convection. Then, a 3D LAM validation is presented considering an AMMA case with both observations and a CRM simulation using the same initial and lateral conditions as for the parameterized one. Finally, global


    Tetsu, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Taishi, E-mail: [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)


    Radiation is an important process of energy transport, a force, and a basis for synthetic observations, so radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) calculations have occupied an important place in astrophysics. However, although the progress in computational technology is remarkable, their high numerical cost is still a persistent problem. In this work, we compare the following schemes used to solve the nonlinear simultaneous equations of an RHD algorithm with the flux-limited diffusion approximation: the Newton–Raphson (NR) method, operator splitting, and linearization (LIN), from the perspective of the computational cost involved. For operator splitting, in addition to the traditional simple operator splitting (SOS) scheme, we examined the scheme developed by Douglas and Rachford (DROS). We solve three test problems (the thermal relaxation mode, the relaxation and the propagation of linear waves, and radiating shock) using these schemes and then compare their dependence on the time step size. As a result, we find the conditions of the time step size necessary for adopting each scheme. The LIN scheme is superior to other schemes if the ratio of radiation pressure to gas pressure is sufficiently low. On the other hand, DROS can be the most efficient scheme if the ratio is high. Although the NR scheme can be adopted independently of the regime, especially in a problem that involves optically thin regions, the convergence tends to be worse. In all cases, SOS is not practical.

  8. Multiplexed sensing based on Brownian relaxation of magnetic nanoparticles using a compact AC susceptometer

    Park, Kyoungchul; Sonkusale, Sameer [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Harrah, Tim; Goldberg, Edward B [Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Guertin, Robert P, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)


    A novel multiplexed sensing scheme based on the measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of the affinity captured target molecules on magnetic nanoparticles in liquid suspension is proposed. The AC magnetic susceptibility provides a measurement of Brownian relaxation behavior of biomolecules bound to magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) that is related to its hydrodynamic size. A room temperature, compact AC susceptometer is designed and developed to measure complex AC magnetic susceptibility of such magnetic nanoparticles. The AC susceptometer exhibits high sensitivity in magnetic fields as low as 10 {mu}T for 1 mg ml{sup -1} concentration and 5 {mu}l volume, and is fully software programmable. The capability of biological sensing using the proposed scheme has been demonstrated in proof of principle using the binding of biotinylated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to streptavidin-coated MNPs. The proposed technique and instrument are readily compatible with lab-on-chip applications for point-of-care medical applications.



    A new class of finite difference schemes--the weighted compact schemes are proposed. According to the idea of the WENO schemes, the weighted compact scheme is constructed by a combination of the approximations of derivatives on candidate stencils with properly assigned weights so that the non-oscillatory property is achieved when discontinuities appear. The primitive function reconstruction method of ENO schemes is applied to obtain the conservative form of the weighted compact scheme. This new scheme not only preserves the characteristic of standard compact schemes and achieves high order accuracy and high resolution using a compact stencil,but also can accurately capture shock waves and discontinuities without oscillation, Numerical examples show that the new scheme is very promising and successful.``

  10. Relaxation-based viscosity mapping for magnetic particle imaging

    Utkur, M.; Muslu, Y.; Saritas, E. U.


    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) has been shown to provide remarkable contrast for imaging applications such as angiography, stem cell tracking, and cancer imaging. Recently, there is growing interest in the functional imaging capabilities of MPI, where ‘color MPI’ techniques have explored separating different nanoparticles, which could potentially be used to distinguish nanoparticles in different states or environments. Viscosity mapping is a promising functional imaging application for MPI, as increased viscosity levels in vivo have been associated with numerous diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. In this work, we propose a viscosity mapping technique for MPI through the estimation of the relaxation time constant of the nanoparticles. Importantly, the proposed time constant estimation scheme does not require any prior information regarding the nanoparticles. We validate this method with extensive experiments in an in-house magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS) setup at four different frequencies (between 250 Hz and 10.8 kHz) and at three different field strengths (between 5 mT and 15 mT) for viscosities ranging between 0.89 mPa · s-15.33 mPa · s. Our results demonstrate the viscosity mapping ability of MPI in the biologically relevant viscosity range.

  11. Multiple time scale based reduction scheme for nonlinear chemical dynamics

    Das, D.; Ray, D. S.


    A chemical reaction is often characterized by multiple time scales governing the kinetics of reactants, products and intermediates. We eliminate the fast relaxing intermediates in autocatalytic reaction by transforming the original system into a new one in which the linearized part is diagonal. This allows us to reduce the dynamical system by identifying the associated time scales and subsequent adiabatic elimination of the fast modes. It has been shown that the reduced system sustains the robust qualitative signatures of the original system and at times the generic form of the return map for the chaotic system from which complex dynamics stems out in the original system can be identified. We illustrate the scheme for a three-variable cubic autocatalytic reaction and four-variable peroxidase-oxidase reaction.

  12. Dual Watermarking Scheme with Encryption

    Dhanalakshmi, R


    Digital Watermarking is used for copyright protection and authentication. In the proposed system, a Dual Watermarking Scheme based on DWT SVD with chaos encryption algorithm, will be developed to improve the robustness and protection along with security. DWT and SVD have been used as a mathematical tool to embed watermark in the image. Two watermarks are embedded in the host image. The secondary is embedded into primary watermark and the resultant watermarked image is encrypted using chaos based logistic map. This provides an efficient and secure way for image encryption and transmission. The watermarked image is decrypted and a reliable watermark extraction scheme is developed for the extraction of the primary as well as secondary watermark from the distorted image.

  13. Ion Polarization Scheme for MEIC

    Kondratenko, A M; Filatov, Yu N; Derbenev, Ya S; Lin, F; Morozov, V S; Zhang, Y


    The choice of a figure 8 shape for the booster and collider rings of MEIC opens wide possibilities for preservation of the ion polarization during beam acceleration as well as for control of the polarization at the collider's interaction points. As in the case of accelerators with Siberian snakes, the spin tune is energy independent but is equal to zero instead of one half. The figure-8 topology eliminates the effect of arcs on the spin motion. There appears a unique opportunity to control the polarization of any particle species including deuterons, using longitudinal fields of small integrated strength (weak solenoids). Contrary to existing schemes, using weak solenoids in figure-8 colliders, one can control the polarization at the interaction points without essentially any effect on the beam's orbital characteristics. A universal scheme for control of the polarization using weak solenoids provides an elegant solution to the problem of ion acceleration completely eliminating resonant beam depolarization. It...

  14. [Brain activity during different stages of the relaxation process].

    gorev, A S; Kovaleva, A V; Panova, E N; Gorbacheva, A K


    A group of adults participated in experiment in which they were asked to reach relaxed state by using relaxation techniques (active relaxation) and to maintain this state without any technique (passive relaxation). Some changes of EEG-characteristics during relaxation were analyzed. This experiment includes four situations (different functional states): baselinel, active relaxation, passive relaxation, baseline2. EEG was recorded from 10 cortical leads: O1, O2, TPO (left and right), P3, P4, C3, C4, F3 and F4. A comparative EEG analysis was done for 10 frequency bands from 5 to 40 Hz. In each experimental situation we revealed general trends for EEG parameters and also some specific changes in EEG, which characterized brain organization during passive and active relaxed states.

  15. Wrong way recollement for schemes

    Jorgensen, Peter


    A recollement of triangulated categories makes it possible to view one such category as being glued together from two others. The prototypical example is that D(X), a suitable derived category of sheaves on the topological space X, has a recollement in terms of D(Z) and D(U) when Z is a closed subset of X and U is the open complement. This note gives a different, "wrong way" recollement in the scheme case.

  16. Parabolic sheaves on logarithmic schemes

    Borne, Niels; Vistoli, Angelo


    We show how the natural context for the definition of parabolic sheaves on a scheme is that of logarithmic geometry. The key point is a reformulation of the concept of logarithmic structure in the language of symmetric monoidal categories, which might be of independent interest. Our main result states that parabolic sheaves can be interpreted as quasi-coherent sheaves on certain stacks of roots.

  17. Practical E-Payment Scheme

    Mohammad Al-Fayoumi


    Full Text Available E-payment is now one of the most central research areas in e-commerce, mainly regarding online and offline payment scenarios. Customers are generally passive in e-commerce transaction. Relied on a blind signature, this paper introduces an e-payment protocol, in which customers have more initiative, and can terminate the transaction before possible cheats, its security is enhanced. Moreover, the cost of workers and communications falls down considerably while the cost of trusted authority and protecting information is increased. As there is no trusted authority in the proposed scheme, network overcrowding and conspiracy problems can be avoided. Furthermore, the protocol satisfies fairness and non-repudiation. This helps merchant and bank to speed up the financial transaction process and to give user instant services at any time. Also, in this paper, we will discuss an important e-payment protocol namely pay-word scheme and examine its advantages and limitations, which encourages the authors to improve the scheme that keeps all characteristics intact without compromise of the security robustness. The suggested protocol employs the idea of blind signature with the thought of hash chain. We will compare the proposed protocol with pay-word protocol and demonstrate that the proposed protocol offers more security and efficiency, which makes the protocol workable for real world services.

  18. Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme.

    Keenan, Jonathan; Shahid, Humma; Bourne, Rupert R; White, Andrew J; Martin, Keith R


    With a higher life expectancy, there is an increased demand for hospital glaucoma services in the United Kingdom. The Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme (COGS) was initiated in 2010, where new referrals for suspected glaucoma are evaluated by community optometrists with a special interest in glaucoma, with virtual electronic review and validation by a consultant ophthalmologist with special interest in glaucoma. 1733 patients were evaluated by this scheme between 2010 and 2013. Clinical assessment is performed by the optometrist at a remote site. Goldmann applanation tonometry, pachymetry, monoscopic colour optic disc photographs and automated Humphrey visual field testing are performed. A clinical decision is made as to whether a patient has glaucoma or is a suspect, and referred on or discharged as a false positive referral. The clinical findings, optic disc photographs and visual field test results are transmitted electronically for virtual review by a consultant ophthalmologist. The number of false positive referrals from initial referral into the scheme. Of the patients, 46.6% were discharged at assessment and a further 5.7% were discharged following virtual review. Of the patients initially discharged, 2.8% were recalled following virtual review. Following assessment at the hospital, a further 10.5% were discharged after a single visit. The COGS community-based glaucoma screening programme is a safe and effective way of evaluating glaucoma referrals in the community and reducing false-positive referrals for glaucoma into the hospital system. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  19. A biometric signcryption scheme without bilinear pairing

    Wang, Mingwen; Ren, Zhiyuan; Cai, Jun; Zheng, Wentao


    How to apply the entropy in biometrics into the encryption and remote authentication schemes to simplify the management of keys is a hot research area. Utilizing Dodis's fuzzy extractor method and Liu's original signcryption scheme, a biometric identity based signcryption scheme is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme is more efficient than most of the previous proposed biometric signcryption schemes for that it does not need bilinear pairing computation and modular exponentiation computation which is time consuming largely. The analysis results show that under the CDH and DL hard problem assumption, the proposed scheme has the features of confidentiality and unforgeability simultaneously.

  20. Characteristics of the secondary relaxation process in soft colloidal suspensions

    Saha, Debasish; Joshi, Yogesh M.; Bandyopadhyay, Ranjini


    A universal secondary relaxation process, known as the Johari-Goldstein (J-G) β-relaxation process, appears in glass formers. It involves all parts of the molecule and is particularly important in glassy systems because of its very close relationship with the α-relaxation process. However, the absence of a J-G β-relaxation mode in colloidal glasses raises questions regarding its universality. In the present work, we study the microscopic relaxation processes in Laponite suspensions, a model soft glassy material, by dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments. α- and β-relaxation timescales are estimated from the autocorrelation functions obtained by DLS measurements for Laponite suspensions with different concentrations, salt concentrations and temperatures. Our experimental results suggest that the β-relaxation process in Laponite suspensions involves all parts of the constituent Laponite particle. The ergodicity breaking time is also seen to be correlated with the characteristic time of the β-relaxation process for all Laponite concentrations, salt concentrations and temperatures. The width of the primary relaxation process is observed to be correlated with the secondary relaxation time. The secondary relaxation time is also very sensitive to the concentration of Laponite. We measure primitive relaxation timescales from the α-relaxation time and the stretching exponent (β) by applying the coupling model for highly correlated systems. The order of magnitude of the primitive relaxation time is very close to the secondary relaxation time. These observations indicate the presence of a J-G β-relaxation mode for soft colloidal suspensions of Laponite.

  1. Relaxation of Magnetic Nanoparticle Chain without Applied Field*

    HE Liang-Ming


    The relaxation ofa one-dimensional magnetic nanoparticle linear chain with lattice constant a is investigated in absence of applied field. There is an equilibrium state (or steady state) where all magnetic moments of particles lie along the chain (x-axis), back to which the magnetic nanoparticle chain at other state will relax. It is found that the relaxation time Tx is determined by Tx = 10β × a3. This relaxation is compared with that of single magnetic nanoparticle system.

  2. Two-temperature reaction and relaxation rates

    Kolesnichenko, E.; Gorbachev, Yu.


    Within the method of solving the kinetic equations for gas mixtures with internal degrees of freedom developed by the authors and based on the approximate summational invariants (ASI) concept, gas-dynamic equations for a multi-temperature model for the spatially inhomogeneous case are derived. For the two-temperature case, the expressions for the non-equilibrium reaction and relaxation rates are obtained. Special attention is drawn to corresponding thermodynamic equations. Different possibilities of introducing the gas-dynamic variables related to the internal degrees of freedom are considered. One is based on the choice of quantum numbers as the ASI, while the other is based on the choice of internal (vibrational) energy as the ASI. Limits to a one-temperature situation are considered in all the cases. For the cutoff harmonic oscillator model, explicit expressions for the reaction and relaxation rates are derived.

  3. Microplastic relaxations of single and polycrystalline molybdenum

    Pichl, W.; Weiss, B. [Wien Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Materialphysik; Chen, D.L.


    The microplasticity of high-purity molybdenum single crystals and of Mo polycrystals of technical purity has been investigated by relaxation step tests in uniaxial compression. A new model for the evaluation of relaxation tests in the microplastic range of b.c.c metals is presented which takes into account the decrease of the mobile dislocation density due to exhaustion of non-screw dislocations. The model allows an independent determination of the activation volume and of the microstructure parameters controlling dislocation exhaustion. The results indicate that in the high-purity single crystals the deformation rate is controlled by interactions of non-screw dislocations with the grown-in network. In the polycrystals additional interactions with impurity atoms seem to occur. In the single crystals the activity and subsequent exhaustion of two different glide systems was observed, followed by a gradual onset of screw dislocation motion. (orig.) 26 refs.

  4. Electron-vibration relaxation in oxygen plasmas

    Laporta, V.; Heritier, K. L.; Panesi, M.


    An ideal chemical reactor model is used to study the vibrational relaxation of oxygen molecules in their ground electronic state, X3Σg-, in presence of free electrons. The model accounts for vibrational non-equilibrium between the translational energy mode of the gas and the vibrational energy mode of individual molecules. The vibrational levels of the molecules are treated as separate species, allowing for non-Boltzmann distributions of their population. The electron and vibrational temperatures are varied in the range [0-20,000] K. Numerical results show a fast energy transfer between oxygen molecules and free electron, which causes strong deviation of the vibrational distribution function from Boltzmann distribution, both in heating and cooling conditions. Comparison with Landau-Teller model is considered showing a good agreement for electron temperature range [2000-12,000] K. Finally analytical fit of the vibrational relaxation time is given.

  5. Modeling aftershocks as a stretched exponential relaxation

    Mignan, A.


    The decay rate of aftershocks has been modeled as a power law since the pioneering work of Omori in the late nineteenth century. Although other expressions have been proposed in recent decades to describe the temporal behavior of aftershocks, the number of model comparisons remains limited. After reviewing the aftershock models published from the late nineteenth century until today, I solely compare the power law, pure exponential and stretched exponential expressions defined in their simplest forms. By applying statistical methods recommended recently in applied mathematics, I show that all aftershock sequences tested in three regional earthquake catalogs (Southern and Northern California, Taiwan) and with three declustering techniques (nearest-neighbor, second-order moment, window methods) follow a stretched exponential instead of a power law. These results infer that aftershocks are due to a simple relaxation process, in accordance with most other relaxation processes observed in Nature.

  6. Relaxation Based Electrical Simulation for VLSI Circuits

    S. Rajkumar


    Full Text Available Electrical circuit simulation was one of the first CAD tools developed for IC design. The conventional circuit simulators like SPICE and ASTAP were designed initially for the cost effective analysis of circuits containing a few hundred transistors or less. A number of approaches have been used to improve the performances of congenital circuit simulators for the analysis of large circuits. Thereafter relaxation methods was proposed to provide more accurate waveforms than standard circuit simulators with up to two orders of magnitude speed improvement for large circuits. In this paper we have tried to highlights recently used waveform and point relaxation techniques for simulation of VLSI circuits. We also propose a simple parallelization technique and experimentally demonstrate that we can solve digital circuits with tens of million transistors in a few hours.

  7. Electrochemical relaxation at electrically conducting polymers

    Nateghi, M. R.; zarandi, M. B.


    In this study, slow relaxation (SR) associated with the electroreduction of polyaniline (PAn) films during polarization to high cathodic potentials was investigated by cyclic voltammetry technique. Anodic voltammetric currents were used as experimental variable to indicate the relaxation occurring in PAn films deposited electrochemically on the Pt electrode surface. The dependence of SR on polymer film thickness, waiting potential, and mobility of the doped anion was investigated. Percolation threshold potential for heteropolyanion doped PAn was estimated to be between 150 and 200 mV depending on polymer thickness on the electrode surface. A new model of the conducting to insulating conversion is described by the percolation theory and mobility gap changes during the process.

  8. Electrochemical relaxation at electrically conducting polymers

    Nateghi, M R [Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, Yazd-Branch, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zarandi, M B [Department of physics, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this study, slow relaxation (SR) associated with the electroreduction of polyaniline (PAn) films during polarization to high cathodic potentials was investigated by cyclic voltammetry technique. Anodic voltammetric currents were used as experimental variable to indicate the relaxation occurring in PAn films deposited electrochemically on the Pt electrode surface. The dependence of SR on polymer film thickness, waiting potential, and mobility of the doped anion was investigated. Percolation threshold potential for heteropolyanion doped PAn was estimated to be between 150 and 200 mV depending on polymer thickness on the electrode surface. A new model of the conducting to insulating conversion is described by the percolation theory and mobility gap changes during the process.

  9. Multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics with flow

    Dennis, G R; Dewar, R L; Hole, M J


    We present an extension of the multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) equilibrium model that includes plasma flow. This new model is a generalization of Woltjer's model of relaxed magnetohydrodynamics equilibria with flow. We prove that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite our extension of MRxMHD reduces to ideal MHD with flow. We also prove that some solutions to MRxMHD with flow are not time-independent in the laboratory frame, and instead have 3D structure which rotates in the toroidal direction with fixed angular velocity. This capability gives MRxMHD potential application to describing rotating 3D MHD structures such as 'snakes' and long-lived modes.

  10. Multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics with flow

    Dennis, G. R., E-mail:; Dewar, R. L.; Hole, M. J. [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Hudson, S. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)


    We present an extension of the multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) equilibrium model that includes plasma flow. This new model is a generalization of Woltjer's model of relaxed magnetohydrodynamics equilibria with flow. We prove that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite, our extension of MRxMHD reduces to ideal MHD with flow. We also prove that some solutions to MRxMHD with flow are not time-independent in the laboratory frame, and instead have 3D structure which rotates in the toroidal direction with fixed angular velocity. This capability gives MRxMHD potential application to describing rotating 3D MHD structures such as 'snakes' and long-lived modes.

  11. Braided magnetic fields: equilibria, relaxation and heating

    Pontin, D I; Russell, A J B; Hornig, G


    We examine the dynamics of magnetic flux tubes containing non-trivial field line braiding (or linkage), using mathematical and computational modelling. The key results obtained from recent modelling efforts are summarised, in the context of testable predictions for the laboratory. We discuss the existence of braided force-free equilibria, and demonstrate that for a field anchored at perfectly-conducting plates, these equilibria exist and contain current sheets whose thickness scales inversely with the braid complexity - as measured for example by the topological entropy. By contrast, for a periodic domain braided exact equilibria typically do not exist, while approximate equilibria contain thin current sheets. In the presence of resistivity, reconnection is triggered at the current sheets and a turbulent relaxation ensues. We discuss the properties of this relaxation, and in particular the existence of constraints that may mean that the final state is not the linear force-free field predicted by Taylor's hypo...

  12. Relaxation matching algorithm for moving photogrammetry

    Guo, Lei; Liu, Ke; Miao, Yinxiao; Zhu, Jigui


    Moving photogrammetry is an application of close range photogrammetry in industrial measurement to realize threedimensional coordinate measurement within large-scale volume. This paper describes an approach of relaxation matching algorithm applicable to moving photogrammetry according to the characteristics of accurate matching result of different measuring images. This method uses neighborhood matching support to improve the matching rate after coarse matching based on epipolar geometry constraint and precise matching using three images. It reflects the overall matching effect of all points, that means when a point is matched correctly, the matching results of those points round it must be correct. So for one point considered, the matching results of points round it are calculated to judge whether its result is correct. Analysis indicates that relaxation matching can eliminate the mismatching effectively and acquire 100% rate of correct matching. It will play a very important role in moving photogrammetry to ensure the following implement of ray bundle adjustment.

  13. Relaxation and Diffusion for the Kicked Rotor

    Khodas, M A


    The dynamics of the kicked-rotor, that is a paradigm for a mixed system, where the motion in some parts of phase space is chaotic and in other parts is regular is studied statistically. The evolution (Frobenius-Perron) operator of phase space densities in the chaotic component is calculated in presence of noise, and the limit of vanishing noise is taken is taken in the end of calculation. The relaxation rates (related to the Ruelle resonances) to the invariant equilibrium density are calculated analytically within an approximation that improves with increasing stochasticity. The results are tested numerically. The global picture of relaxation to the equilibrium density in the chaotic component when the system is bounded and of diffusive behavior when it is unbounded is presented.

  14. Modeling Aftershocks as a Stretched Exponential Relaxation

    Mignan, Arnaud


    The decay rate of aftershocks has been modeled as a power law since the pioneering work of Omori in the late nineteenth century. Considered the second most fundamental empirical law after the Gutenberg-Richter relationship, the power law paradigm has rarely been challenged by the seismological community. By taking a view of aftershock research not biased by prior conceptions of Omori power law decay and by applying statistical methods recommended in applied mathematics, I show that all aftershock sequences tested in three regional earthquake catalogs (Southern and Northern California, Taiwan) and with three declustering techniques (nearest-neighbor, second-order moment, window methods) follow a stretched exponential instead of a power law. These results infer that aftershocks are due to a simpler relaxation process than originally thought, in accordance with most other relaxation processes observed in Nature.

  15. Relaxation in Technique Leading to New Beginnings().

    Koritar, Endre


    This paper explores how standard analytic technique may result in a repetition of past traumatic experiences in the transference and countertransference analytic situation. Relaxation and elasticity of technique can lead to re-integration of previously fragmented ego functions, and in remembering and re-experiencing of previously repressed symbolic representations of fragmenting past traumatic experiences, resulting in neocatharsis and working through, thus healing wounds and scars sustained in self development. This healing process will be described through a detailed depiction of an analytic process introducing relaxation of technique, in a response by the analyst, to the patient's Orpha (self-protective) function. Responsiveness to the patient's implicitly or explicitly expressed needs, in the analytic space, may require a departure from standard technique for a deeper level of dynamic work where symbolization of unrepresented emotional experiences becomes possible.



    In this article, two relaxation time limits, namely, the momentum relaxation time limit and the energy relaxation time limit are considered. By the compactness argument, it is obtained that the smooth solutions of the multidimensional nonisentropic Euler-Poisson problem converge to the solutions of an energy transport model or a drift diffusion model, respectively, with respect to different time scales.

  17. Relaxation Techniques for Handicapped Children: A Review of Literature.

    Zipkin, Dvora


    The paper discusses four major relaxation training approaches used with handicapped children: progressive muscle relaxation, biofeedback, yoga, and mental relaxation, which includes guided fantasy, imagery, and meditation. Descriptions of these techniques, the effects of their use with various populations, and reviews of recent studies of their…

  18. Causal hydrodynamics from kinetic theory by doublet scheme in renormalization-group method

    Tsumura, Kyosuke; Kikuchi, Yuta; Kunihiro, Teiji


    We develop a general framework in the renormalization-group (RG) method for extracting a mesoscopic dynamics from an evolution equation by incorporating some excited (fast) modes as additional components to the invariant manifold spanned by zero modes. We call this framework the doublet scheme. The validity of the doublet scheme is first tested and demonstrated by taking the Lorenz model as a simple three-dimensional dynamical system; it is shown that the two-dimensional reduced dynamics on the attractive manifold composed of the would-be zero and a fast modes are successfully obtained in a natural way. We then apply the doublet scheme to construct causal hydrodynamics as a mesoscopic dynamics of kinetic theory, i.e., the Boltzmann equation, in a systematic manner with no ad-hoc assumption. It is found that our equation has the same form as Grad's thirteen-moment causal hydrodynamic equation, but the microscopic formulae of the transport coefficients and relaxation times are different. In fact, in contrast to the Grad equation, our equation leads to the same expressions for the transport coefficients as given by the Chapman-Enskog expansion method and suggests novel formulae of the relaxation times expressed in terms of relaxation functions which allow a natural physical interpretation of the relaxation times. Furthermore, our theory nicely gives the explicit forms of the distribution function and the thirteen hydrodynamic variables in terms of the linearized collision operator, which in turn clearly suggest the proper ansatz forms of them to be adopted in the method of moments.

  19. Relaxation Criteria for Iterated Traffic Simulations

    Kelly, Terence; Nagel, Kai

    Iterative transportation microsimulations adjust traveler route plans by iterating between a microsimulation and a route planner. At each iteration, the route planner adjusts individuals' route choices based on the preceding microsimulations. Empirically, this process yields good results, but it is usually unclear when to stop the iterative process when modeling real-world traffic. This paper investigates several criteria to judge relaxation of the iterative process, emphasizing criteria related to traveler decision-making.

  20. Dimension reduction for systems with slow relaxation

    Venkataramani, Shankar C; Restrepo, Juan M


    We develop reduced, stochastic models for high dimensional, dissipative dynamical systems that relax very slowly to equilibrium and can encode long term memory. We present a variety of empirical and first principles approaches for model reduction, and build a mathematical framework for analyzing the reduced models. We introduce the notions of universal and asymptotic filters to characterize `optimal' model reductions. We discuss how our methods apply to the practically important problem of modeling oil spills.

  1. p-q growth via relaxation methods

    Irene Benedetti


    Full Text Available Local Lipschitz continuity of local minimizers of vectorial integrals ∫Ω f(x,Dudx is proved when f satisfies p-q growth condition and ξ↦f(x,ξ is not convex. The uniform convexity and the radial structure condition with respect to the last variable are assumed only at infinity. In the proof, we use semicontinuity and relaxation results for functionals with nonstandard growth.

  2. Models of Flux Tubes from Constrained Relaxation

    Α. Mangalam; V. Krishan


    We study the relaxation of a compressible plasma to an equilibrium with flow. The constraints of conservation of mass, energy, angular momentum, cross-helicity and relative magnetic helicity are imposed. Equilibria corresponding to the energy extrema while conserving these invariants for parallel flows yield three classes of solutions and one of them with an increasing radial density profile, relevant to solar flux tubes is presented.

  3. Active nematic gels as active relaxing solids

    Turzi, Stefano S


    I put forward a continuum theory for active nematic gels, defined as fluids or suspensions of orientable rodlike objects endowed with active dynamics, that is based on symmetry arguments and compatibility with thermodynamics. The starting point is our recent theory that models (passive) nematic liquid crystals as relaxing nematic elastomers. The interplay between viscoelastic response and active dynamics of the microscopic constituents is naturally taken into account. By contrast with standar...

  4. Relaxation time measurements by an electronic method.

    Brousseau, R.; Vanier, J.


    Description of a simple electronic system that permits the direct measurement of time constants of decaying signals. The system was used in connection with relaxation experiments on hydrogen and rubidium masers and was found to operate well. The use of a computing counter in the systems gives the possibility of making averages on several experiments and obtaining the standard deviation of the results from the mean. The program for the computing counter is given.

  5. Controlling spin relaxation with a cavity

    Bienfait, A.; Pla, J. J.; Kubo, Y.; Zhou, X.; Stern, M.; Lo, C. C.; Weis, C. D.; Schenkel, T.; Vion, D.; Esteve, D.; Morton, J. J. L.; Bertet, P.


    Spontaneous emission of radiation is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which an excited quantum system returns to equilibrium. For spins, however, spontaneous emission is generally negligible compared to other non-radiative relaxation processes because of the weak coupling between the magnetic dipole and the electromagnetic field. In 1946, Purcell realized that the rate of spontaneous emission can be greatly enhanced by placing the quantum system in a resonant cavity. This effect has since been used extensively to control the lifetime of atoms and semiconducting heterostructures coupled to microwave or optical cavities, and is essential for the realization of high-efficiency single-photon sources. Here we report the application of this idea to spins in solids. By coupling donor spins in silicon to a superconducting microwave cavity with a high quality factor and a small mode volume, we reach the regime in which spontaneous emission constitutes the dominant mechanism of spin relaxation. The relaxation rate is increased by three orders of magnitude as the spins are tuned to the cavity resonance, demonstrating that energy relaxation can be controlled on demand. Our results provide a general way to initialize spin systems into their ground state and therefore have applications in magnetic resonance and quantum information processing. They also demonstrate that the coupling between the magnetic dipole of a spin and the electromagnetic field can be enhanced up to the point at which quantum fluctuations have a marked effect on the spin dynamics; as such, they represent an important step towards the coherent magnetic coupling of individual spins to microwave photons.

  6. Effect of relaxation on adiabatic following

    Nayfeh, M.H.


    A solution is presented for the damped optical Bloch equations under the excitation of a smooth pulse by first deriving three independent third-order equations of the Bloch vector components. Each equation is reduced to quadratures by assuming that the logarithmic time derivative of the field amplitude is small compared to the Rabi frequency. This results in an approximate summation of the infinite-order time-dependent perturbation in the field amplitude. The relaxation-dependent induced damping of the population inversion is calculated. Also calculated are additional relaxation-dependent contributions to the intensity-dependent refractive index. The time-integrated intensity contribution tends to cause line asymmetry, which becomes, at later times, linear in ..gamma../sub 2/ when ..gamma../sub 2/ very-much-greater-than ..gamma../sub 1/ and zero when 2..gamma../sub 2/ = ..gamma../sub 1/, where ..gamma../sub 1/ and ..gamma../sub 2/ are the atomic energy and phase-changing relaxations, respectively. The dependence of the spectral broadening on pulse length, pressure, and length of the sample is discussed. (AIP)

  7. Fingerprinting Molecular Relaxation in Deformed Polymers

    Wang, Zhe; Lam, Christopher N.; Chen, Wei-Ren; Wang, Weiyu; Liu, Jianning; Liu, Yun; Porcar, Lionel; Stanley, Christopher B.; Zhao, Zhichen; Hong, Kunlun; Wang, Yangyang


    The flow and deformation of macromolecules is ubiquitous in nature and industry, and an understanding of this phenomenon at both macroscopic and microscopic length scales is of fundamental and practical importance. Here, we present the formulation of a general mathematical framework, which could be used to extract, from scattering experiments, the molecular relaxation of deformed polymers. By combining and modestly extending several key conceptual ingredients in the literature, we show how the anisotropic single-chain structure factor can be decomposed by spherical harmonics and experimentally reconstructed from its cross sections on the scattering planes. The resulting wave-number-dependent expansion coefficients constitute a characteristic fingerprint of the macromolecular deformation, permitting detailed examinations of polymer dynamics at the microscopic level. We apply this approach to survey a long-standing problem in polymer physics regarding the molecular relaxation in entangled polymers after a large step deformation. The classical tube theory of Doi and Edwards predicts a fast chain retraction process immediately after the deformation, followed by a slow orientation relaxation through the reptation mechanism. This chain retraction hypothesis, which is the keystone of the tube theory for macromolecular flow and deformation, is critically examined by analyzing the fine features of the two-dimensional anisotropic spectra from small-angle neutron scattering by entangled polystyrenes. We show that the unique scattering patterns associated with the chain retraction mechanism are not experimentally observed. This result calls for a fundamental revision of the current theoretical picture for nonlinear rheological behavior of entangled polymeric liquids.

  8. Graph Matching: Relax at Your Own Risk.

    Lyzinski, Vince; Fishkind, Donniell E; Fiori, Marcelo; Vogelstein, Joshua T; Priebe, Carey E; Sapiro, Guillermo


    Graph matching-aligning a pair of graphs to minimize their edge disagreements-has received wide-spread attention from both theoretical and applied communities over the past several decades, including combinatorics, computer vision, and connectomics. Its attention can be partially attributed to its computational difficulty. Although many heuristics have previously been proposed in the literature to approximately solve graph matching, very few have any theoretical support for their performance. A common technique is to relax the discrete problem to a continuous problem, therefore enabling practitioners to bring gradient-descent-type algorithms to bear. We prove that an indefinite relaxation (when solved exactly) almost always discovers the optimal permutation, while a common convex relaxation almost always fails to discover the optimal permutation. These theoretical results suggest that initializing the indefinite algorithm with the convex optimum might yield improved practical performance. Indeed, experimental results illuminate and corroborate these theoretical findings, demonstrating that excellent results are achieved in both benchmark and real data problems by amalgamating the two approaches.

  9. Cortex phellodendri Extract Relaxes Airway Smooth Muscle

    Qiu-Ju Jiang


    Full Text Available Cortex phellodendri is used to reduce fever and remove dampness and toxin. Berberine is an active ingredient of C. phellodendri. Berberine from Argemone ochroleuca can relax airway smooth muscle (ASM; however, whether the nonberberine component of C. phellodendri has similar relaxant action was unclear. An n-butyl alcohol extract of C. phellodendri (NBAECP, nonberberine component was prepared, which completely inhibits high K+- and acetylcholine- (ACH- induced precontraction of airway smooth muscle in tracheal rings and lung slices from control and asthmatic mice, respectively. The contraction induced by high K+ was also blocked by nifedipine, a selective blocker of L-type Ca2+ channels. The ACH-induced contraction was partially inhibited by nifedipine and pyrazole 3, an inhibitor of TRPC3 and STIM/Orai channels. Taken together, our data demonstrate that NBAECP can relax ASM by inhibiting L-type Ca2+ channels and TRPC3 and/or STIM/Orai channels, suggesting that NBAECP could be developed to a new drug for relieving bronchospasm.

  10. Probing relaxation times in graphene quantum dots

    Volk, Christian; Neumann, Christoph; Kazarski, Sebastian; Fringes, Stefan; Engels, Stephan; Haupt, Federica; Müller, André; Stampfer, Christoph


    Graphene quantum dots are attractive candidates for solid-state quantum bits. In fact, the predicted weak spin-orbit and hyperfine interaction promise spin qubits with long coherence times. Graphene quantum dots have been extensively investigated with respect to their excitation spectrum, spin-filling sequence and electron-hole crossover. However, their relaxation dynamics remain largely unexplored. This is mainly due to challenges in device fabrication, in particular concerning the control of carrier confinement and the tunability of the tunnelling barriers, both crucial to experimentally investigate decoherence times. Here we report pulsed-gate transient current spectroscopy and relaxation time measurements of excited states in graphene quantum dots. This is achieved by an advanced device design that allows to individually tune the tunnelling barriers down to the low megahertz regime, while monitoring their asymmetry. Measuring transient currents through electronic excited states, we estimate a lower bound for charge relaxation times on the order of 60–100 ns. PMID:23612294

  11. Tension and relaxation in the individual.

    Newbury, C R


    Increasing materialism in society is resulting in more wide spread nervous tension in all age groups. While some degree of nervous tension is necessary in everyday living, its adverse effects require that we must learn to bring it under control. Total tension is shown to have two components: a controllable element arising from factors in the environment and the inbuilt uncontrollable residue which is basic in the individual temperament. The effects of excessive or uncontrolled stress can be classified as 1) emotional reactions such as neurotic behaviour (anxiety hypochondria, hysteria, phobia, depression obsessions and compulsions) or psychotic behaviour and 2) psychosomatic reactions (nervous asthma, headache, insomnia, heart attack). Nervous energy can be wastefully expended by such factors as loss of temper, wrong attitudes to work, job frustration and marital strains. Relaxation is the only positive way to control undesirable nervous tension and its techniques require to be learned. A number of techniques (progressive relaxation, differential relaxation, hypnosis, the use of biofeedback, Yoga and Transcendental Meditation) are described and their application to dental practice is discussed.

  12. Relaxation strategies for patients during dermatologic surgery.

    Shenefelt, Philip D


    Patient stress and anxiety are common preoperatively and during dermatologic procedures and surgeries. Stress and anxiety can occasionally interfere with performance of procedures or surgery and can induce hemodynamic instability, such as elevated blood pressure or syncope, as well as producing considerable discomfort for some patients. Detection of excess stress and anxiety in patients can allow the opportunity for corrective or palliative measures. Slower breathing, biofeedback, progressive muscular relaxation, guided imagery, hypnosis, meditation and music can help calm and rebalance the patient's autonomic nervous system and immune functioning. Handheld miniaturized heart rate variability biofeedback devices are now available. The relaxation response can easily be taught. Guided imagery can be recorded or live. Live rapid induction hypnosis followed by deepening and then self-guided imagery requires no experience on the part of the patient but does require training and experience on the part of a provider. Recorded hypnosis inductions may also be used. Meditation generally requires more prior experience and training, but is useful when the patient already is skilled in it. Live, guided meditation or meditation recordings may be used. Relaxing recorded music from speakers or headphones or live performance music may also be employed to ease discomfort and improve the patient's attitude for dermatologic procedures and surgeries.

  13. Ideal relaxation of the Hopf fibration

    Smiet, Christopher Berg; Candelaresi, Simon; Bouwmeester, Dirk


    Ideal magnetohydrodynamics relaxation is the topology-conserving reconfiguration of a magnetic field into a lower energy state where the net force is zero. This is achieved by modeling the plasma as perfectly conducting viscous fluid. It is an important tool for investigating plasma equilibria and is often used to study the magnetic configurations in fusion devices and astrophysical plasmas. We study the equilibrium reached by a localized magnetic field through the topology conserving relaxation of a magnetic field based on the Hopf fibration in which magnetic field lines are closed circles that are all linked with one another. Magnetic fields with this topology have recently been shown to occur in non-ideal numerical simulations. Our results show that any localized field can only attain equilibrium if there is a finite external pressure, and that for such a field a Taylor state is unattainable. We find an equilibrium plasma configuration that is characterized by a lowered pressure in a toroidal region, with field lines lying on surfaces of constant pressure. Therefore, the field is in a Grad-Shafranov equilibrium. Localized helical magnetic fields are found when plasma is ejected from astrophysical bodies and subsequently relaxes against the background plasma, as well as on earth in plasmoids generated by, e.g., a Marshall gun. This work shows under which conditions an equilibrium can be reached and identifies a toroidal depression as the characteristic feature of such a configuration.

  14. Algebraic K-theory of generalized schemes

    Anevski, Stella Victoria Desiree

    Nikolai Durov has developed a generalization of conventional scheme theory in which commutative algebraic monads replace commutative unital rings as the basic algebraic objects. The resulting geometry is expressive enough to encompass conventional scheme theory, tropical algebraic geometry...

  15. Wireless Broadband Access and Accounting Schemes


    In this paper, we propose two wireless broadband access and accounting schemes. In both schemes, the accounting system adopts RADIUS protocol, but the access system adopts SSH and SSL protocols respectively.

  16. Elliptic Curve Blind Digital Signature Schemes

    YOULin; YANGYixian; WENQiaoyan


    Blind signature schemes are important cryptographic protocols in guaranteeing the privacy or anonymity of the users.Three new blind signature schemes and their corresponding generalizations are pro-posed. Moreover, their securities are simply analyzed.

  17. Algebraic K-theory of generalized schemes

    Anevski, Stella Victoria Desiree

    Nikolai Durov has developed a generalization of conventional scheme theory in which commutative algebraic monads replace commutative unital rings as the basic algebraic objects. The resulting geometry is expressive enough to encompass conventional scheme theory, tropical algebraic geometry...

  18. Secret sharing scheme with inherited characteristic

    Ye Zhenjun; Meng Fanzhen


    To assure the shareholders can look for their "legal" attorneys to renew the secret, once the secret sharing scheme is initialized, a secret sharing scheme with inherited characteristic is constructed. In this scheme, each shareholder can produce a new share by his algorithm, which is equivalent to the primary one. Together with other shares, the primary secret can be renewed. Since this scheme is constructed not by replacing the primary share with a new share produced by the dealer in his primitive secret sharing scheme, so no matter how much shares the shareholder produces, these shares can not be gathered together to renew the secret in this scheme. Compared with the existing secret sharing schemes, this scheme provides more agility for the shareholders by investing each of them a function but not affect its security.

  19. Psychophysiological Effects of Progressive Relaxation in Anxiety Neurotic Patients and of Progressive Relaxation and Alpha Feedback in Nonpatients.

    Lehrer, Paul M.


    Compared physiological effects of progressive relaxation, alpha feedback, and a no-treatment condition. Nonpatients showed more psychophysiological habituation than patients in response to hearing very loud tones and to reaction time tasks. Patients showed greater physiological response to relaxation than nonpatients. After relaxation, autonomic…

  20. Linear multi-secret sharing schemes

    XIAO Liangliang; LIU Mulan


    In this paper the linear multi-secret sharing schemes are studied by using monotone span programs. A relation between computing monotone Boolean functions by using monotone span programs and realizing multi-access structures by using linear multisecret sharing schemes is shown. Furthermore, the concept of optimal linear multi-secret sharing scheme is presented and the several schemes are proved to be optimal.

  1. Improvement of publicly verifiable authenticated encryption scheme

    LEI Fei-yu; CHEN Wen; MA Chang-she; CHEN Ke-fei


    A weakness of unforgeability is found in Ma and Chen scheme, and the root cause is the susceptive linear design in the scheme. In order to avoid the weakness and susceptive linear design, an improvement by means of two mechanisms including quadratic residue and composite discrete logarithm is proposed, which can defeat the forgery attacks in Ma and Chen scheme. The new scheme remains good confidentiality, public verifiability and efficiency.

  2. A massive momentum-subtraction scheme

    Boyle, Peter; Khamseh, Ava


    A new renormalization scheme is defined for fermion bilinears in QCD at non vanishing quark masses. This new scheme, denoted RI/mSMOM, preserves the benefits of the nonexceptional momenta introduced in the RI/SMOM scheme, and allows a definition of renormalized composite fields away from the chiral limit. Some properties of the scheme are investigated by performing explicit one-loop computation in dimensional regularization.

  3. MIRD radionuclide data and decay schemes

    Eckerman, Keith F


    For all physicians, scientists, and physicists working in the nuclear medicine field, the MIRD: Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes updated edition is an essential sourcebook for radiation dosimetry and understanding the properties of radionuclides. Includes CD Table of Contents Decay schemes listed by atomic number Radioactive decay processes Serial decay schemes Decay schemes and decay tables This essential reference for nuclear medicine physicians, scientists and physicists also includes a CD with tabulations of the radionuclide data necessary for dosimetry calculations.

  4. Comparative study of numerical schemes of TVD3, UNO3-ACM and optimized compact scheme

    Lee, Duck-Joo; Hwang, Chang-Jeon; Ko, Duck-Kon; Kim, Jae-Wook


    Three different schemes are employed to solve the benchmark problem. The first one is a conventional TVD-MUSCL (Monotone Upwind Schemes for Conservation Laws) scheme. The second scheme is a UNO3-ACM (Uniformly Non-Oscillatory Artificial Compression Method) scheme. The third scheme is an optimized compact finite difference scheme modified by us: the 4th order Runge Kutta time stepping, the 4th order pentadiagonal compact spatial discretization with the maximum resolution characteristics. The problems of category 1 are solved by using the second (UNO3-ACM) and third (Optimized Compact) schemes. The problems of category 2 are solved by using the first (TVD3) and second (UNO3-ACM) schemes. The problem of category 5 is solved by using the first (TVD3) scheme. It can be concluded from the present calculations that the Optimized Compact scheme and the UN03-ACM show good resolutions for category 1 and category 2 respectively.


    Smirnov, A.P.


    Full Text Available The low-frequency dielectric relaxation process in silver stearate layers was studied. The increasing of dielectric permittivity with frequency decreasing and temperature increasing in studied sample are associated with the dipole-relaxation polarization mechanisms. The dispersion of loss factor could be connected with the contribution of relaxation mechanism and conductivity. The shape of the Cole-Cole diagram shows that silver stearate is a non-Debye dielectric material characterized by a wide distribution of relaxators, according to the Cole-Cole relaxation model.

  6. Population Monotonic Path Schemes for Simple Games

    Ciftci, B.B.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.


    A path scheme for a simple game is composed of a path, i.e., a sequence of coalitions that is formed during the coalition formation process and a scheme, i.e., a payoff vector for each coalition in the path.A path scheme is called population monotonic if a player's payoff does not decrease as the pa

  7. A new semi-Lagrangian difference scheme

    季仲贞; 陈嘉滨


    A new completely energy-conserving semi-Lagrangian scheme is constructed. The numerical solution of shallow water equation shows that this conservative scheme preserves the total energy in twelve significant digits, while the traditional scheme does only in five significant digits.

  8. Arbitrated quantum signature scheme with message recovery

    Lee, Hwayean; Hong, Changho; Kim, Hyunsang; Lim, Jongin; Yang, Hyung Jin


    Two quantum signature schemes with message recovery relying on the availability of an arbitrator are proposed. One scheme uses a public board and the other does not. However both schemes provide confidentiality of the message and a higher efficiency in transmission.

  9. Quantum Signature Scheme with Weak Arbitrator

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Yun, Deng; Yang, Yi-Xian


    In this paper, we propose one quantum signature scheme with a weak arbitrator to sign classical messages. This scheme can preserve the merits in the original arbitrated scheme with some entanglement resources, and provide a higher efficiency in transmission and reduction the complexity of implementation. The arbitrator is costless and only involved in the disagreement case.

  10. Current terminology and diagnostic classification schemes.

    Okeson, J P


    This article reviews the current terminology and classification schemes available for temporomandibular disorders. The origin of each term is presented, and the classification schemes that have been offered for temporomandibular disorders are briefly reviewed. Several important classifications are presented in more detail, with mention of advantages and disadvantages. Final recommendations are provided for future direction in the area of classification schemes.

  11. A Model of Hierarchical Key Assignment Scheme

    ZHANG Zhigang; ZHAO Jing; XU Maozhi


    A model of the hierarchical key assignment scheme is approached in this paper, which can be used with any cryptography algorithm. Besides, the optimal dynamic control property of a hierarchical key assignment scheme will be defined in this paper. Also, our scheme model will meet this property.

  12. Pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for cavitation bubble collapse with high density ratio

    Shan, Ming-Lei; Zhu, Chang-Ping; Yao, Cheng; Yin, Cheng; Jiang, Xiao-Yan


    The dynamics of the cavitation bubble collapse is a fundamental issue for the bubble collapse application and prevention. In the present work, the modified forcing scheme for the pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model developed by Li Q et al. [Li Q, Luo K H and Li X J 2013 Phys. Rev. E 87 053301] is adopted to develop a cavitation bubble collapse model. In the respects of coexistence curves and Laplace law verification, the improved pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model is investigated. It is found that the thermodynamic consistency and surface tension are independent of kinematic viscosity. By homogeneous and heterogeneous cavitation simulation, the ability of the present model to describe the cavitation bubble development as well as the cavitation inception is verified. The bubble collapse between two parallel walls is simulated. The dynamic process of a collapsing bubble is consistent with the results from experiments and simulations by other numerical methods. It is demonstrated that the present pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model is applicable and efficient, and the lattice Boltzmann method is an alternative tool for collapsing bubble modeling. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274092 and 1140040119) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. SBK2014043338).

  13. On the equivalence between the Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi method and Richardson's non-stationary method

    Adsuara, J E; Cerdá-Durán, P; Mewes, V; Aloy, M A


    The Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi (SRJ) method is an extension of the classical Jacobi iterative method to solve linear systems of equations ($Au=b$) associated with elliptic problems. It inherits its robustness and accelerates its convergence rate computing a set of $P$ relaxation factors that result from a minimization problem. In a typical SRJ scheme, the former set of factors is employed in cycles of $M$ consecutive iterations until a prescribed tolerance is reached. We present the analytic form for the optimal set of relaxation factors for the case in which all of them are different, and find that the resulting algorithm is equivalent to a non-stationary generalized Richardson's method. Our method to estimate the weights has the advantage that the explicit computation of the maximum and minimum eigenvalues of the matrix $A$ is replaced by the (much easier) calculation of the maximum and minimum frequencies derived from a von Neumann analysis. This set of weights is also optimal for the general problem, res...

  14. Pseudo-transient Continuation Based Variable Relaxation Solve in Nonlinear Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    Jin Chen


    Efficient and robust Variable Relaxation Solver, based on pseudo-transient continuation, is developed to solve nonlinear anisotropic thermal conduction arising from fusion plasma simulations. By adding first and/or second order artificial time derivatives to the system, this type of method advances the resulting time-dependent nonlinear PDEs to steady state, which is the solution to be sought. In this process, only the stiffness matrix itself is involved so that the numerical complexity and errors can be greatly reduced. In fact, this work is an extension of integrating efficient linear elliptic solvers for fusion simulation on Cray XIE. Two schemes are derived in this work, first and second order Variable Relaxations. Four factors are observed to be critical for efficiency and preservation of solution's symmetric structure arising from periodic boundary condition: refining meshes in different coordinate directions, initializing nonlinear process, varying time steps in both temporal and spatial directions, and accurately generating nonlinear stiffness matrix. First finer mesh scale should be taken in strong transport direction; Next the system is carefully initialized by the solution with linear conductivity; Third, time step and relaxation factor are vertex-based varied and optimized at each time step; Finally, the nonlinear stiffness matrix is updated by just scaling corresponding linear one with the vector generated from nonlinear thermal conductivity.

  15. FOI-PERFECT code: 3D relaxation MHD modeling and Applications

    Wang, Gang-Hua; Duan, Shu-Chao; Comutational Physics Team Team


    One of the challenges in numerical simulations of electromagnetically driven high energy density (HED) systems is the existence of vacuum region. FOI-PERFECT code adopts a full relaxation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. The electromagnetic part of the conventional model adopts the magnetic diffusion approximation. The vacuum region is approximated by artificially increasing the resistivity. On one hand the phase/group velocity is superluminal and hence non-physical in the vacuum region, on the other hand a diffusion equation with large diffusion coefficient can only be solved by implicit scheme which is difficult to be parallelized and converge. A better alternative is to solve the full electromagnetic equations. Maxwell's equations coupled with the constitutive equation, generalized Ohm's law, constitute a relaxation model. The dispersion relation is given to show its transition from electromagnetic propagation in vacuum to resistive MHD in plasma in a natural way. The phase and group velocities are finite for this system. A better time stepping is adopted to give a 3rd full order convergence in time domain without the stiff relaxation term restriction. Therefore it is convenient for explicit & parallel computations. Some numerical results of FOI-PERFECT code are also given. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11571293) And Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. 2015B0201023).

  16. Support Schemes and Ownership Structures

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Costa, Ana

    In recent years, fuel cell based micro‐combined heat and power has received increasing attention due to its potential contribution to energy savings, efficiency gains, customer proximity and flexibility in operation and capacity size. The FC4Home project assesses technical and economic aspects...... for promoting combined heat and power and energy from renewable sources. These Directives are to be implemented at the national level by the Member States. Section 3 conceptually presents the spectrum of national support schemes, ranging from investment support to market‐based operational support. The choice...

  17. Update on the Pyramid Scheme

    Banks, Tom; Torres, T. J.


    We summarize recent work in which we attempt to make consistent models of LHC physics, from the Pyramid Scheme. The models share much with the NMSSM, in particular, enhanced tree level contributions to the Higgs mass and a preference for small tan β. There are three different singlet fields, and a new strongly coupled gauge theory, so the constraints of perturbative unification are quite different. We outline our general approach to the model, which contains a Kähler potential for three of the low energy fields, which is hard to calculate. Detailed calculations, based on approximations to the Kähler potential, will be presented in a future publication.

  18. Magneto-dependent stress relaxation of magnetorheological gels

    Xu, Yangguang


    The stress relaxation behaviors of magnetorheological (MR) gels under stepwise shear loading are systematically investigated. The particle-enhanced effect, the magneto-induced effect, and the temperature-enhanced effect on the stress relaxation of MR gels are discussed. For further analysis of the magneto-induced stress relaxation mechanism in MR gels, a phenomenological model is established to describe the stress relaxation behavior of the matrix and the magnetic particle chains. All characteristic parameters introduced in the model, i.e. relaxation time, instantaneous modulus, and stable modulus, have well-defined physical meanings and are fitted based on the experimental results. The influence of each parameter on the macroscopic response is discussed and it is found that the relaxation stress induced by the magneto-mechanical coupling effect plays an important role in the stress relaxation process of MR gels.

  19. High Relaxivity Gd(III)–DNA Gold Nanostars: Investigation of Shape Effects on Proton Relaxation

    Rotz, Matthew W.; Culver, Kayla S. B.; Parigi, Giacomo; MacRenaris, Keith W.; Luchinat, Claudio; Odom, Teri W.; Meade, Thomas J.


    Gadolinium(III) nanoconjugate contrast agents (CAs) have distinct advantages over their small-molecule counterparts in magnetic resonance imaging. In addition to increased Gd(III) payload, a significant improvement in proton relaxation efficiency, or relaxivity (r1), is often observed. In this work, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a nanoconjugate CA created by covalent attachment of Gd(III) to thiolated DNA (Gd(III)–DNA), followed by surface conjugation onto gold nanostars (DNA–Gd@stars). These conjugates exhibit remarkable r1 with values up to 98 mM−1 s−1. Additionally, DNA–Gd@stars show efficient Gd(III) delivery and biocompatibility in vitro and generate significant contrast enhancement when imaged at 7 T. Using nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion analysis, we attribute the high performance of the DNA–Gd@stars to an increased contribution of second-sphere relaxivity compared to that of spherical CA equivalents (DNA–Gd@spheres). Importantly, the surface of the gold nanostar contains Gd(III)–DNA in regions of positive, negative, and neutral curvature. We hypothesize that the proton relaxation enhancement observed results from the presence of a unique hydrophilic environment produced by Gd(III)–DNA in these regions, which allows second-sphere water molecules to remain adjacent to Gd(III) ions for up to 10 times longer than diffusion. These results establish that particle shape and second-sphere relaxivity are important considerations in the design of Gd(III) nanoconjugate CAs. PMID:25723190

  20. Dielectric Relaxation in Dimethyl Sulfoxide/Water Mixtures Studied by Microwave Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy

    Lu, Zijie; Manias, Evangelos; MacDonald, Digby D.; Lanagan, Michael


    Dielectric spectra of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/water mixtures, over the entire concentration range, have been measured using the transmission line method at frequencies from 45 MHz to 26 GHz and at temperatures of 298-318 K. The relaxation times of the mixtures show a maximum at an intermediate molar fraction of DMSO. The specific structure of mixtures in different concentration regions was determined by the dielectric relaxation dynamics, obtained from the effect of temperature on the relaxation time. A water structure "breaking effect" is observed in dilute aqueous solutions. The average number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule in these mixtures is found to be reduced compared to pure water. The increase in the dielectric relaxation time in DMSO/water mixtures is attributed to the spatial (steric) constraints of DMSO molecules on the hydrogen-bond network, rather than being due to hydrophobic hydration of the methyl groups. The interaction between water and DMSO by hydrogen bonding reaches a maximum at a DMSO molar fraction of 0.33, reflected by the maximum activation enthalpy for dielectric relaxation in this concentration, suggesting the formation of a stoichiometric compound, H2O-DMSO-H2O. In highly concentrated solutions, negative activation entropies are observed, indicating the presence of aggregates of DMSO molecules. A distinct antiparallel arrangement of dipoles is obtained for neat DMSO in the liquid state according to the Kirkwood correlation factor (gK = 0.5), calculated from the static permittivity. The similarity of the dielectric behavior of pure DMSO and DMSO-rich mixtures suggests that dipole-dipole interactions contribute significantly to the rotational relaxation process in these solutions.

  1. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)


    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  2. Pseudorandomness of Camellia-Like Scheme

    Wen-Ling Wu


    Luby and Rackoff idealized DES by replacing each round function with one large random function. In this paper, the author idealizes Camellia by replacing each S-box with one small random function, which is named Camellialike scheme. It is then proved that five-round Camellia-like scheme is pseudorandom and eight-round Camellia-like scheme is super-pseudorandom for adaptive adversaries. Further the paper considers more efficient construction of Camellia-like scheme, and discusses how to construct pseudorandom Camellia-like scheme from less random functions.

  3. Modification of QUICK scheme by skew points

    Mirzaei, M.; Mohammadi, R.; Malekzadeh, M. [K.N. Toosi Univ. of Technology, Aerospace Engineering Dept., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail:


    This paper presents a new method for convective flux approximation based on inclusions of skew points. The scheme uses the truncated terms of QUICK scheme and with the aid of an equation extracted from momentum equations, the skew points will appear in the convective flux formula. The results show that the presented scheme has better accuracy than the other schemes. Diffusion fluxes are approximated using power law scheme and for evaluation of the performance of the presented method several test cases were carried out and the results are compared with the results of other numerical works and experimental data. (author)

  4. A Provably Secure Asynchronous Proactive RSA Scheme

    ZHANG Rui-shan; LI Qiang; CHEN Ke-fei


    The drawback of the first asynchronous proactive RSA scheme presented by Zhou in 2001, is that the se curity definition and security proof do not follow the approach of provable security. This paper presented a provably secure asynchronous proactive RSA scheme, which includes three protocols: initial key distribution protocol,signature generation protocol and share refreshing protocol. Taken these protocols together, a complete provably secure proactive RSA scheme was obtained. And the efficiency of the scheme is approximate to that of the scheme of Zhou.

  5. Hash function based secret sharing scheme designs

    Chum, Chi Sing


    Secret sharing schemes create an effective method to safeguard a secret by dividing it among several participants. By using hash functions and the herding hashes technique, we first set up a (t+1, n) threshold scheme which is perfect and ideal, and then extend it to schemes for any general access structure. The schemes can be further set up as proactive or verifiable if necessary. The setup and recovery of the secret is efficient due to the fast calculation of the hash function. The proposed scheme is flexible because of the use of existing hash functions.

  6. A New Signature Scheme with Shared Verification

    JIA Xiao-yun; LUO Shou-shan; YUAN Chao-wei


    With expanding user demands, digital signature techniques are also being expanded greatly, from single signature and single verification techniques to techniques supporting multi-users. This paper presents a new digital signature scheme vith shared verification based on the fiat-shamir signature scheme. This scheme is suitable not only for digital signatures of one public key, but also for situations where multiple public keys are required. In addition, the scheme can resist all kinds of collusion, making it more practicable and safer. Additionally it is more efficient than other schemes.

  7. Colluding attacks on a group signature scheme


    Xie and Yu (2005) proposed a group signature scheme and claimed that it is the most efficient group signature scheme so far and secure. In this paper, we show that two dishonest group members can collude to launch two attacks on the scheme. In the first attack they can derive the group secret key and then generate untraceable group signatures. In the second attack, they can impersonate other group members once they see their signatures. Therefore we conclude that the signature scheme is not secure.We show that some parameters should be carefully selected in the scheme to resist our attacks.

  8. Nonrepudiable Proxy Multi-Signature Scheme

    LI JiGuo(李继国); CAO ZhenFu(曹珍富); ZHANG YiChen(张亦辰)


    The concept of proxy signature introduced by Mambo, Usuda, and Okamotoallows a designated person, called a proxy signer, to sign on behalf of an original signer. However,most existing proxy signature schemes do not support nonrepudiation. In this paper, two securenonrepudiable proxy multi-signature schemes are proposed that overcome disadvantages of theexisting schemes. The proposed schemes can withstand public key substitution attack. In addition,the new schemes have some other advantages such as proxy signature key generation and updatingusing insecure channels. This approach can also be applied to other ElGamal-like proxy signatureschemes.

  9. Relaxation techniques for pain management in labour.

    Smith, Caroline A; Levett, Kate M; Collins, Carmel T; Crowther, Caroline A


    Many women would like to avoid pharmacological or invasive methods of pain management in labour and this may contribute towards the popularity of complementary methods of pain management. This review examined currently available evidence supporting the use of relaxation therapies for pain management in labour. To examine the effects of relaxation methods for pain management in labour on maternal and perinatal morbidity. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 November 2010), The Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field's Trials Register (November 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1966 to 30 November 2010), CINAHL (1980 to 30 November 2010), the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (30 November 2010), Chinese Clinical Trial Register (30 November 2010), Current Controlled Trials (30 November 2010),, (30 November 2010) ISRCTN Register (30 November 2010), National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) (30 November 2010) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (30 November 2010). Randomised controlled trials comparing relaxation methods with standard care, no treatment, other non-pharmacological forms of pain management in labour or placebo. Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality. We attempted to contact study authors for additional information. We included 11 studies (1374 women) in the review. Relaxation was associated with a reduction in pain intensity during the latent phase (mean difference (MD) -1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.97 to -0.53, one trial, 40 women) and active phase of labour (MD -2.48, 95% CI -3.13 to 0.83, two trials, 74 women). There was evidence of improved outcomes from relaxation instruction with increased satisfaction with pain

  10. Idiosyncratic reality claims, relaxation dispositions, and ABC relaxation theory: happiness, literal christianity, miraculous powers, metaphysics, and the paranormal.

    Smith, Jonathan C; Karmin, Aaron D


    This study examined idiosyncratic reality claims, that is, irrational or paranormal beliefs often claimed to enhance relaxation and happiness and reduce stress. The Smith Idiosyncratic Reality Claims Inventory and the Smith Relaxation Dispositions Inventory (which measures relaxation and stress dispositions, or enduring states of mind frequently associated with relaxation or stress) were given to 310 junior college student volunteers. Principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation identified five idiosyncratic reality claim factors: belief in Literal Christianity; Magic; Space Aliens: After Death experiences; and Miraculous Powers of Meditation, Prayer, and Belief. No factor correlated with increased relaxation dispositions Peace, Energy, or Joy, or reduced dispositional somatic stress, worry, or negative emotion on the Smith Relaxation Dispositions Inventory. It was concluded that idiosyncratic reality claims may not be associated with reported relaxation, happiness, or stress. In contrast, previous research strongly supported self-affirming beliefs with few paranormal assumptions display such an association.

  11. Hybrid Transmission Scheme for MIMO Relay Channels

    Guangming Xu


    Full Text Available To improve the achievable rate for the MIMO channels, we propose a hybrid transmission (HT scheme that mixes half-duplex decode-and-forward cooperative relaying transmission (DFRH)with direct transmission (DT. In the HT scheme, the source message is divided into two parts: one is transmitted by DFRH scheme and another is transmitted by DT scheme. Precoding and decoding are considered to convert the original MIMO relay channel into several parallel subchannels so that resource allocation can be easily performed. We focus on the spatial subchannel and power allocation problem. The objective of this problem is to maximize the total achievable rate under the constraints of joint total transmission power. Simulation results show that significant capacity gain can be achieved by the HT scheme compared to the DT scheme and the pure DFRH scheme.

  12. High-Order Energy Stable WENO Schemes

    Yamaleev, Nail K.; Carpenter, Mark H.


    A new third-order Energy Stable Weighted Essentially NonOscillatory (ESWENO) finite difference scheme for scalar and vector linear hyperbolic equations with piecewise continuous initial conditions is developed. The new scheme is proven to be stable in the energy norm for both continuous and discontinuous solutions. In contrast to the existing high-resolution shock-capturing schemes, no assumption that the reconstruction should be total variation bounded (TVB) is explicitly required to prove stability of the new scheme. A rigorous truncation error analysis is presented showing that the accuracy of the 3rd-order ESWENO scheme is drastically improved if the tuning parameters of the weight functions satisfy certain criteria. Numerical results show that the new ESWENO scheme is stable and significantly outperforms the conventional third-order WENO finite difference scheme of Jiang and Shu in terms of accuracy, while providing essentially nonoscillatory solutions near strong discontinuities.

  13. Structural relaxation in viscous metallic liquids

    Meyer, A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (BFRL), Gaithersburg, MD (United States)]|[Technische Univ. Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Wuttke, J.; Petry, W. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Schober, H. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Randl, O.G. [Manufacture Michelin, Clermont-Ferrand (France)


    Recently, metallic alloys have been found that exhibit extremely large viscosities in the liquid state. These liquids can be quenched into bulk metallic glasses at relatively modest cooling rates. In contrast to simple metals the structural relaxation of these systems show a two step decay in the liquid state. This behaviour has long been known for molecular or ionic glass formers in their under-cooled liquid state. Applying an analysis previously used for the glass formers (mode-coupling theory) a full quantitative description of the neutron data is obtained for these metallic liquids. (authors) 3 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Nondepolarizing relaxants: new concepts and new drugs.

    Kopman, A


    Less than a decade ago, the only nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs available to the anesthetist were traditional long-acting drugs such as pancuronium and d-tubocurarine. The revolution that began 10 years ago in our use of relaxants promises to continue unabated into the next decade. Changes in our clinical use of these drugs will be sparked not just by the introduction of new drugs but also by a greater understanding of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic principles that govern onset and recovery.

  15. Thermal Stress Relaxation of Nonhomogeneous Coatings


    Nonhomogeneous coatings (NCs) are new type of engineering structures that is not yet fully understood. One important aspect in the mechanical analysis of NCs is to determine the gradient distribution that creates the maximum thermal stress relaxation. This paper employs numerical analysis using the finite element metho d and experimental analysis using moire interference to study the stress distrib ution in NCs. Attention focused on the edge effect stresses in the coating/subst rate structures and their dependence on the different gradient distributions of this new kind of composite structure.

  16. Reflexogenic relaxation gastroduodenography by the acupuncture method

    Rabkin, I.Kh.; Tsibulyak, V.N.; Mnatsakyan, K.A.; Kondorskaya, I.L.; Galkina, T.V.

    The communication is based upon the results of x-ray examination of the stomach and duodenum in 63 patients with stenoses of the pyloroduodenal zone, cicatrical deformities of the duodenal bulb, bulbar ulcer, duodenal organic lesions, and functional stenosis of the loop. First a routine X-ray examination of the stomach and duodenum was performed using barium-water mixture, then followed acupuncture aimed at hypotension in the definite points of the floor of the auricle where branches of the vagus innervating the stomach and duodenum are located. As distinct from pharmacological relaxation this method produces a purpose-oriented selective effect.

  17. Compatible Relaxation and Coarsening in Algebraic Multigrid

    Brannick, J J; Falgout, R D


    We introduce a coarsening algorithm for algebraic multigrid (AMG) based on the concept of compatible relaxation (CR). The algorithm is significantly different from standard methods, most notably because it does not rely on any notion of strength of connection. We study its behavior on a number of model problems, and evaluate the performance of an AMG algorithm that incorporates the coarsening approach. Lastly, we introduce a variant of CR that provides a sharper metric of coarse-grid quality and demonstrate its potential with two simple examples.

  18. Relaxed Operational Semantics of Concurrent Programming Languages

    Gustavo Petri


    Full Text Available We propose a novel, operational framework to formally describe the semantics of concurrent programs running within the context of a relaxed memory model. Our framework features a "temporary store" where the memory operations issued by the threads are recorded, in program order. A memory model then specifies the conditions under which a pending operation from this sequence is allowed to be globally performed, possibly out of order. The memory model also involves a "write grain," accounting for architectures where a thread may read a write that is not yet globally visible. Our formal model is supported by a software simulator, allowing us to run litmus tests in our semantics.

  19. Dielectric relaxations investigation of a synthesized epoxy resin polymer

    Jilani, Wissal; Mzabi, Nissaf; Gallot-Lavallée, Olivier; Fourati, Najla; Zerrouki, Chouki; Zerrouki, Rachida; Guermazi, Hajer


    A diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy resin was synthesized, and cured with 3,3'-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS) at a curing temperature of 120 °C. The relaxation properties of the realized polymers were studied by two complementary techniques: dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS), in the temperature range 173-393K and in the frequency interval 10-1-106 Hz, and thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) with a windowing polarization process. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were also carried out to study interfacial relaxations. Dielectric data were analyzed in terms of permittivity and electric modulus variations. Three relaxation processes ( γ, β and α) have been identified. They were found to be frequency and temperature dependent and were interpreted in terms of the Havriliak-Negami approach. Relaxation parameters were determined by fitting the experimental data. The temperature dependence of the relaxation time was well fitted by the Arrhenius law for secondary relaxations, while the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamann model was found to better fit the τ( T) variations for α relaxation. We found τ 0 = 4.9 10-12 s, 9.6 10-13 s and 1.98 10-7 s for γ, β and α relaxations, respectively. The obtained results were found to be consistent with those reported in the literature. Due to the calculation of the low-frequency data of dielectric loss by the Hamon approximation, the Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars (MWS) relaxation was highlighted.

  20. Relaxation training after stroke: potential to reduce anxiety.

    Kneebone, Ian; Walker-Samuel, Natalie; Swanston, Jennifer; Otto, Elisabeth


    To consider the feasibility of setting up a relaxation group to treat symptoms of post stroke anxiety in an in-patient post-acute setting; and to explore the effectiveness of relaxation training in reducing self-reported tension. A relaxation group protocol was developed in consultation with a multidisciplinary team and a user group. Over a period of 24 months, 55 stroke patients attended group autogenic relaxation training on a rehabilitation ward. Attendance ranged between one and eleven sessions. Self-reported tension was assessed pre and post relaxation training using the Tension Rating Circles (TRCs). The TRCs identified a significant reduction in self-reported tension from pre to post training, irrespective of the number of sessions attended; z = -3.656, p stroke rehabilitation shows potential. Self-reported tension decreased after attendance at relaxation training. The TRCs proved acceptable to group members, but should be validated against standard anxiety measures. Further exploration of the application of relaxation techniques in clinical practice is desirable. Implications for Rehabilitation Anxiety is prevalent after stroke and likely affects rehabilitation outcomes. Relaxation training is a well proven treatment for anxiety in the non-stroke population. A significant within session reduction in tension, a hallmark symptom of anxiety, was evidenced via group relaxation training delivered in a post-acute, in-patient stroke unit setting. Relaxation training a shows promise as a treatment for anxiety after stroke.

  1. The mechanics of mouse skeletal muscle when shortening during relaxation.

    Barclay, C J; Lichtwark, G A


    The dynamic properties of relaxing skeletal muscle have not been well characterised but are important for understanding muscle function during terrestrial locomotion, during which a considerable fraction of muscle work output can be produced during relaxation. The purpose of this study was to characterise the force-velocity properties of mouse skeletal muscle during relaxation. Experiments were performed in vitro (21 degrees C) using bundles of fibres from mouse soleus and EDL muscles. Isovelocity shortening was applied to muscles during relaxation following short tetanic contractions. Using data from different contractions with different shortening velocities, curves relating force output to shortening velocity were constructed at intervals during relaxation. The velocity component included contributions from shortening of both series elastic component (SEC) and contractile component (CC) because force output was not constant. Early in relaxation force-velocity relationships were linear but became progressively more curved as relaxation progressed. Force-velocity curves late in relaxation had the same curvature as those for the CC in fully activated muscles but V(max) was reduced to approximately 50% of the value in fully activated muscles. These results were the same for slow- and fast-twitch muscles and for relaxation following maximal tetani and brief, sub-maximal tetani. The measured series elastic compliance was used to partition shortening velocity between SEC and CC. The curvature of the CC force-velocity relationship was constant during relaxation. The SEC accounted for most of the shortening and work output during relaxation and its power output during relaxation exceeded the maximum CC power output. It is proposed that unloading the CC, without any change in its overall length, accelerated cross-bridge detachment when shortening was applied during relaxation.

  2. Scheme of thinking quantum systems

    Yukalov, V I


    A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field.

  3. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten


    The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical...... of 3 InGaAsP QWs on an InP substrate has been chosen for the modeling. In the simulations the main focus is on the electrical and optical properties of the nanolasers i.e. electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current and wallplug efficiency. In the current flow evaluation the lowest...... threshold current has been achieved with the lateral electrical injection through the BH; while the lowest resistance has been obtained from the current post structure even though this model shows a higher current threshold because of the lack of carrier confinement. Final scope of the simulations...

  4. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    Bandura, Laura, E-mail: [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Erdelyi, Bela [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Hausmann, Marc [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Kubo, Toshiyuki [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Nolen, Jerry [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Portillo, Mauricio [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Sherrill, Bradley M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)


    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  5. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes.

    Bandura, L.; Erdelyi, B.; Hausmann, M.; Kubo, T.; Nolen, J.; Portillo, M.; Sherrill, B.M. (Physics); (MSU); (Northern Illinois Univ.); (RIKEN)


    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  6. Network Regulation and Support Schemes

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Jacobsen, Henrik


    -in tariffs to market-based quota systems, and network regulation approaches, comprising rate-of-return and incentive regulation. National regulation and the vertical structure of the electricity sector shape the incentives of market agents, notably of distributed generators and network operators....... This article seeks to investigate the interactions between the policy dimensions of support schemes and network regulation and how they affect the deployment of distributed generation. Firstly, a conceptual analysis examines how the incentives of the different market agents are affected. In particular......, it will be shown that there frequently exists a trade-off between the creation of incentives for distributed generators and for distribution system operators to facilitate the integration of distributed generation. Secondly, the interaction of these policy dimensions is analyzed, including case studies based...

  7. Scheme of thinking quantum systems

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.


    A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field.

  8. Network Regulation and Support Schemes

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Jacobsen, Henrik


    -in tariffs to market-based quota systems, and network regulation approaches, comprising rate-of-return and incentive regulation. National regulation and the vertical structure of the electricity sector shape the incentives of market agents, notably of distributed generators and network operators....... This article seeks to investigate the interactions between the policy dimensions of support schemes and network regulation and how they affect the deployment of distributed generation. Firstly, a conceptual analysis examines how the incentives of the different market agents are affected. In particular......, it will be shown that there frequently exists a trade-off between the creation of incentives for distributed generators and for distribution system operators to facilitate the integration of distributed generation. Secondly, the interaction of these policy dimensions is analyzed, including case studies based...

  9. Dielectric relaxation of CdO nanoparticles

    Tripathi, Ramna; Dutta, Alo; Das, Sayantani; Kumar, Akhilesh; Sinha, T. P.


    Nanoparticles of cadmium oxide have been synthesized by soft chemical route using thioglycerol as the capping agent. The crystallite size is determined by X-ray diffraction technique and the particle size is obtained by transmission electron microscope. The band gap of the material is obtained using Tauc relation to UV-visible absorption spectrum. The photoluminescence emission spectra of the sample are measured at various excitation wavelengths. The molecular components in the material have been analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy. The dielectric dispersion of the material is investigated in the temperature range from 313 to 393 K and in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz by impedance spectroscopy. The Cole-Cole model is used to describe the dielectric relaxation of the system. The scaling behavior of imaginary part of impedance shows that the relaxation describes the same mechanism at various temperatures. The frequency-dependent electrical data are also analyzed in the framework of conductivity and electrical modulus formalisms. The frequency-dependent conductivity spectra are found to obey the power law.

  10. Transverse relaxation of scalar-coupled protons.

    Segawa, Takuya F; Baishya, Bikash; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey


    In a preliminary communication (B. Baishya, T. F. Segawa, G. Bodenhausen, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 17538-17539), we recently demonstrated that it is possible to obtain clean echo decays of protons in biomolecules despite the presence of homonuclear scalar couplings. These unmodulated decays allow one to determine apparent transverse relaxation rates R(2) (app) of individual protons. Herein, we report the observation of R(2) (app) for three methyl protons, four amide H(N) protons, and all 11 backbone H(α) protons in cyclosporin A. If the proton resonances overlap, their R(2) (app) rates can be measured by transferring their magnetization to neighboring (13)C nuclei, which are less prone to overlap. The R(2) (app) rates of protons attached to (13)C are faster than those attached to (12)C because of (13)C-(1)H dipolar interactions. The differences of these rates allow the determination of local correlation functions. Backbone H(N) and H(α) protons that have fast decay rates R(2) (app) also feature fast longitudinal relaxation rates R(1) and intense NOESY cross peaks that are typical of crowded environments. Variations of R(2) (app) rates of backbone H(α) protons in similar amino acids reflect differences in local environments.

  11. Relaxing effect of rose oil on humans.

    Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee


    One increasingly popular type of alternative therapy is aromatherapy, but scientific validation in this field is still rare. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rose oil (Rosa damascena Mill, Rosaceae) on human autonomic parameters and emotional responses in healthy subjects after transdermal absorption. In order to exclude any olfactory stimulation the inhalation of the fragrances was prevented by breathing masks. Forty healthy volunteers participated in the experiments. Five autonomic parameters, i.e. blood pressure, breathing rate, blood oxygen saturation, pulse rate, and skin temperature, were recorded. Emotional responses were assessed by means of rating scales. Compared to placebo, rose oil caused significant decreases of breathing rate, blood oxygen saturation and systolic blood pressure, which indicate a decrease of autonomic arousal. At the emotional level, subjects in the rose oil group rated themselves as more calm, more relaxed and less alert than subjects in the control group. These findings are likely to represent a relaxing effect of the rose oil and provide some evidence for the use of rose oil in aromatherapy, such as causing relief of depression and stress in humans.

  12. Viscosity bound versus the universal relaxation bound

    Hod, Shahar


    For gauge theories with an Einstein gravity dual, the AdS/CFT correspondence predicts a universal value for the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density, η / s = 1 / 4 π. The holographic calculations have motivated the formulation of the celebrated KSS conjecture, according to which all fluids conform to the lower bound η / s ≥ 1 / 4 π. The bound on η / s may be regarded as a lower bound on the relaxation properties of perturbed fluids and it has been the focus of much recent attention. In particular, it was argued that for a class of field theories with Gauss-Bonnet gravity dual, the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, η / s, could violate the conjectured KSS bound. In the present paper we argue that the proposed violations of the KSS bound are strongly constrained by Bekenstein's generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics. In particular, it is shown that physical consistency of the Gauss-Bonnet theory with the GSL requires its coupling constant to be bounded by λGB ≲ 0 . 063. We further argue that the genuine physical bound on the relaxation properties of physically consistent fluids is ℑω(k > 2 πT) > πT, where ω and k are respectively the proper frequency and the wavenumber of a perturbation mode in the fluid.

  13. A Simple Holographic Superconductor with Momentum Relaxation

    Kim, Keun-Young; Park, Miok


    We study a holographic superconductor model with momentum relaxation due to massless scalar fields linear to spatial coordinates($\\psi_I = \\beta \\delta_{Ii} x^i$), where $\\beta$ is the strength of momentum relaxation. In addition to the original superconductor induced by the chemical potential($\\mu$) at $\\beta=0$, there exists a new type of superconductor induced by $\\beta$ even at $\\mu=0$. It may imply a new `pairing' mechanism of particles and antiparticles interacting with $\\beta$, which may be interpreted as `impurity'. Two parameters $\\mu$ and $\\beta$ compete in forming superconducting phase. As a result, the critical temperature behaves differently depending on $\\beta/\\mu$. It decreases when $\\beta/\\mu$ is small and increases when $\\beta/\\mu$ is large, which is a novel feature compared to other models. After analysing ground states and phase diagrams for various $\\beta/\\mu$, we study optical electric($\\sigma$), thermoelectric($\\alpha$), and thermal($\\bar{\\kappa}$) conductivities. When the system undergo...

  14. Improvement of Some Proxy Signature Schemes

    LIJiguo; LIANGZhenghe; ZHUYuelong; HANGYichen


    In 1996, Mambo et al. introduced the concept of proxy signature. Proxy signature can be applied to mobile agent, e-vote etc. Recently, Sun and Hsieh showed that Lee et al's strong proxy signature scheme and its application to multi-proxy signature scheme, Shum and Wei's privacy-protected strong proxy signature scheme, and Park and Lee's nominative proxy signature scheme were all insecure against the original signer's forgery attack. In this paper, we show those proxy signature schemes don't withstand public key substitution attack and give some slight but important modifications for those proxy signature schemes such that the resulting schemes are secure against the original signer's forgery attack and public key substitution attack. In addition, we show that Park and Lee's nominative proxy signature scheme don't satisfy strong nonrepudiation and strong identifiability. Improved schemes satisfy all properties of strong proxy signature scheme, and doesn't use secure channel between the original signer and the proxy signer.


    Weizhu Bao; Shi Jin


    In this paper we present high-order I-stable centered difference schemes for the numer-ical simulation of viscous compressible flows. Here I-stability refers to time discretizationswhose linear stability regions contain part of the imaginary axis. This class of schemeshas a numerical stability independent of the cell-Reynolds number Rc, thus allows one tosimulate high Reynolds number flows with relatively larger Rc, or coarser grids for a fixedRc. On the other hand, Rc cannot be arbitrarily large if one tries to obtain adequatenumerical resolution of the viscous behavior. We investigate the behavior of high-orderI-stable schemes for Burgers' equation and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Wedemonstrate that, for the second order scheme, Rc ≤ 3 is an appropriate constraint for nu-merical resolution of the viscous profile, while for the fourth-order schemes the constraintcan be relaxed to Rc ≤ 6. Our study indicates that the fourth order scheme is preferable:better accuracy, higher resolution, and larger cell-Reynolds numbers.

  16. Increasing sensitivity of pulse EPR experiments using echo train detection schemes

    Mentink-Vigier, F.; Collauto, A.; Feintuch, A.; Kaminker, I.; Tarle, V.; Goldfarb, D.


    Modern pulse EPR experiments are routinely used to study the structural features of paramagnetic centers. They are usually performed at low temperatures, where relaxation times are long and polarization is high, to achieve a sufficient Signal/Noise Ratio (SNR). However, when working with samples whose amount and/or concentration are limited, sensitivity becomes an issue and therefore measurements may require a significant accumulation time, up to 12 h or more. As the detection scheme of practically all pulse EPR sequences is based on the integration of a spin echo - either primary, stimulated or refocused - a considerable increase in SNR can be obtained by replacing the single echo detection scheme by a train of echoes. All these echoes, generated by Carr-Purcell type sequences, are integrated and summed together to improve the SNR. This scheme is commonly used in NMR and here we demonstrate its applicability to a number of frequently used pulse EPR experiments: Echo-Detected EPR, Davies and Mims ENDOR (Electron-Nuclear Double Resonance), DEER (Electron-Electron Double Resonance|) and EDNMR (Electron-Electron Double Resonance (ELDOR)-Detected NMR), which were combined with a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) type detection scheme at W-band. By collecting the transient signal and integrating a number of refocused echoes, this detection scheme yielded a 1.6-5 folds SNR improvement, depending on the paramagnetic center and the pulse sequence applied. This improvement is achieved while keeping the experimental time constant and it does not introduce signal distortion.

  17. Implicit numerical scheme based on SMAC method for unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations

    Li Zhenlin; Zhang Yongxue


    An implicit numerical scheme is developed based on the simplified marker and cell (SMAC)method to solve Reynolds-averaged equations in general curvilinear coordinates for three-dimensional (3-D) unsteady incompressible turbulent flow.The governing equations include the Reynolds-averaged momentum equations,in which contravariant velocities are unknown variables,pressure-correction Poisson equation and k- ε turbulent equations.The governing equations are discretized in a 3-D MAC staggered grid system.To improve the numerical stability of the implicit SMAC scheme,the higherorder high-resolution Chakravarthy-Osher total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme is used to discretize the convective terms in momentum equations and k-ε equations.The discretized algebraic momentum equations and k-εequations are solved by the time-diversion multiple access (CTDMA) method.The algebraic Poisson equations are solved by the Tschebyscheff SLOR (successive linear over relaxation)method with alternating computational directions.At the end of the paper,the unsteady flow at high Reynolds numbers through a simplified cascade made up of NACA65-410 blade are simulated with the program written according to the implicit numerical scheme.The reliability and accuracy of the implicit numerical scheme are verified through the satisfactory agreement between the numerical results of the surface pressure coefficient and experimental data.The numerical results indicate that Reynolds number and angle of attack are two primary factors affecting the characteristics of unsteady flow.

  18. Parameterization of NMR relaxation curves in terms of logarithmic moments of the relaxation time distribution

    Petrov, Oleg V.; Stapf, Siegfried


    This work addresses the problem of a compact and easily comparable representation of multi-exponential relaxation data. It is often convenient to describe such data in a few parameters, all being of physical significance and easy to interpret, and in such a way that enables a model-free comparison between different groups of samples. Logarithmic moments (LMs) of the relaxation time constitute a set of parameters which are related to the characteristic relaxation time on the log-scale, the width and the asymmetry of an underlying distribution of exponentials. On the other hand, the calculation of LMs does not require knowing the actual distribution function and is reduced to a numerical integration of original data. The performance of this method has been tested on both synthetic and experimental NMR relaxation data which differ in a signal-to-noise ratio, the sampling range and the sampling rate. The calculation of two lower-order LMs, the log-mean time and the log-variance, has proved robust against deficiencies of the experiment such as scattered data point and incomplete sampling. One may consider using them as such to monitor formation of a heterogeneous structure, e.g., in phase separation, vitrification, polymerization, hydration, aging, contrast agent propagation processes. It may also assist in interpreting frequency and temperature dependences of relaxation, revealing a crossover from slow to fast exchange between populations. The third LM was found to be a less reliable quantity due to its susceptibility to the noise and must be used with caution.

  19. Effect of asymmetric strain relaxation on dislocation relaxation processes in heteroepitaxial semiconductors

    Andersen, D.; Hull, R.


    The effect of asymmetric interfacial strain configurations upon the generation of misfit dislocation arrays in lattice mismatched epitaxy is considered. For example, elastic strain relaxation for Si1-xGex/Si(110) films is uniaxial, assuming glide on {111} planes as expected for the diamond cubic system, which leads to asymmetric strain relief. Here, we extend our previously developed relaxation model for generation of dislocation arrays in SiGe/Si, by accounting for how the different energetics of asymmetrically strained films affect the kinetics of the relaxation process. Similarly, non-polar III-nitride epitaxial films have asymmetric strain from the outset of growth due to the different c/a lattice parameter ratios. In both systems, the asymmetric strain is represented by an additional term in the misfit dislocation applied stress equation. In SiGe/Si(110), a simple elasticity analysis of the strain produced by the uniaxial array of dislocations predicts that the relaxation orthogonal to the dislocation line direction occurs at a faster rate than predicted by purely biaxial strain relief due to the contributions of the strain parallel to the dislocations. This difference is because the strain parallel to the dislocation line directions continues to resolve stress onto the misfit dislocations even as the orthogonal strain is minimized. As a result, the minimum strain energy is predicted to occur for a dislocation spacing, which produces tensile layer strain in the orthogonal direction. Such tensile strain may modify the (opto)electronic properties of a Si, Ge, or GeSi epilayer but is only predicted to occur for advanced stages of relaxation. These asymmetric derivations are applicable to any thin film system where strain is not strictly biaxial.

  20. Immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann model based on multiple relaxation times.

    Lu, Jianhua; Han, Haifeng; Shi, Baochang; Guo, Zhaoli


    As an alterative version of the lattice Boltzmann models, the multiple relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann model introduces much less numerical boundary slip than the single relaxation time (SRT) lattice Boltzmann model if some special relationship between the relaxation time parameters is chosen. On the other hand, most current versions of the immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann method, which was first introduced by Feng and improved by many other authors, suffer from numerical boundary slip as has been investigated by Le and Zhang. To reduce such a numerical boundary slip, an immerse boundary lattice Boltzmann model based on multiple relaxation times is proposed in this paper. A special formula is given between two relaxation time parameters in the model. A rigorous analysis and the numerical experiments carried out show that the numerical boundary slip reduces dramatically by using the present model compared to the single-relaxation-time-based model.

  1. Nuclear spin relaxation in liquids theory, experiments, and applications

    Kowalewski, Jozef


    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is widely used across many fields because of the rich data it produces, and some of the most valuable data come from the study of nuclear spin relaxation in solution. While described to varying degrees in all major NMR books, spin relaxation is often perceived as a difficult, if not obscure, topic, and an accessible, cohesive treatment has been nearly impossible to find.Collecting relaxation theory, experimental techniques, and illustrative applications into a single volume, this book clarifies the nature of the phenomenon, shows how to study it, and explains why such studies are worthwhile. Coverage ranges from basic to rigorous theory and from simple to sophisticated experimental methods, and the level of detail is somewhat greater than most other NMR texts. Topics include cross-relaxation, multispin phenomena, relaxation studies of molecular dynamics and structure, and special topics such as relaxation in systems with quadrupolar nuclei and paramagnetic systems.Avoiding ove...

  2. Hyperfine relaxation of an optically pumped cesium vapor

    Tornos, J.; Amare, J.C.


    The relaxation of hyperfine orientation indirectly induced by optical pumping with a sigma-polarized D/sub 1/-light in a cesium vapor in the presence of Ar is experimentally studied. The detection technique ensures the absence of quadrupole relaxation contributions in the relaxation signals. The results from the dependences of the hyperfine relaxation rate on the temperature and argon pressure are: diffusion coefficient of Cs in Ar, D/sub 0/ = 0.101 +- 0.010 cm/sup 2/s/sup -1/ at 0/sup 0/C and 760 Torr; relaxation cross section by Cs-Ar collisions, sigma/sub c/ = (104 +- 5) x 10/sup -23/ cm/sup 2/; relaxation cross section by Cs-Cs (spin exchange) collisions, sigma/sub e//sub x/ = (1.63 +- 0.13) x 10/sup -14/ cm/sup 2/.

  3. Cross-relaxation in multiple pulse NQR spin-locking

    Beltjukov, P. A.; Kibrik, G. E. [Perm State University, Physics Department (Russian Federation); Furman, G. B., E-mail:; Goren, S. D. [Ben Gurion University, Physics Department (Israel)


    The experimental and theoretical NQR multiple-pulse spin locking study of cross-relaxation process in solids containing nuclei of two different sorts I > 1/2 and S = 1/2 coupled by the dipole-dipole interactions and influenced by an external magnetic field. Two coupled equations for the inverse spin temperatures of the both spin systems describing the mutual spin lattice relaxation and the cross-relaxation were obtained using the method of the nonequilibrium state operator. It is shown that the relaxation process is realized with non-exponential time dependence describing by a sum of two exponents. The cross relaxation time is calculated as a function of the multiple-pulse field parameters which agree with the experimental data. The calculated magnetization cross relaxation time vs the strength of the applied magnetic field agrees well with the obtained experimental data.

  4. Intraband Relaxation and Its Influences on Quantum Dot Lasers

    DENG Sheng-Ling; HUANG Yong-Zhen; YU Li-Juan


    @@ A comprehensive two-level numerical model is developed to describe carrier distribution in a quantum-dot laser. Light-emission spectra with different intraband relaxation rates (2ps, 7.5ps and 20ps) are calculated and analysed to investigate the influence of relaxation rates on performance of the quantum-dot laser. The results indicate that fast intraband relaxation favours not only the ground state single mode operation but also the higher injection efficiency.

  5. Relaxation of quadrupole orientation in an optically pumped alkali vapour

    Bernabeu, E.; Tornos, J.


    The relaxation of quadrupole orientation (alignment) in an optically pumped alkali vapour is theoretically studied by taking into account the relaxation processes by alkali-buffer gas, alkali-alkali with spin exchange and alkali-cell wall (diffusion process) collisions. The relaxation transients of the quadrupole orientation are obtained by introducing a first-order weak-pumping approximation (intermediate pumping) less restrictive than the usually considered (zeroth order) one.

  6. Measuring Propellant Stress Relaxation Modulus Using Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer


    P. N., Singh, P. P., and Bhattacharya, B., “Determination of Activation Energy of Relaxation Events in Composite Solid Propellants by Dynamic...Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 04 August 2016 – 29 March 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Measuring Propellant Stress Relaxation Modulus Using Dynamic...ERC 14. ABSTRACT A method for determining the stress relaxation master curve of solid rocket propellants was developed. The propellant was tested in

  7. Rapid Parameterization Schemes for Aircraft Shape Optimization

    Li, Wu


    A rapid shape parameterization tool called PROTEUS is developed for aircraft shape optimization. This tool can be applied directly to any aircraft geometry that has been defined in PLOT3D format, with the restriction that each aircraft component must be defined by only one data block. PROTEUS has eight types of parameterization schemes: planform, wing surface, twist, body surface, body scaling, body camber line, shifting/scaling, and linear morphing. These parametric schemes can be applied to two types of components: wing-type surfaces (e.g., wing, canard, horizontal tail, vertical tail, and pylon) and body-type surfaces (e.g., fuselage, pod, and nacelle). These schemes permit the easy setup of commonly used shape modification methods, and each customized parametric scheme can be applied to the same type of component for any configuration. This paper explains the mathematics for these parametric schemes and uses two supersonic configurations to demonstrate the application of these schemes.

  8. On Optimal Designs of Some Censoring Schemes

    Dr. Adnan Mohammad Awad


    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper  is to explore suitability of some entropy-information measures for introducing a new optimality censoring criterion and to apply it to some censoring schemes from some underlying life-time models.  In addition, the  paper investigates four related issues namely; the  effect of the parameter of parent distribution on optimal scheme, equivalence of schemes based on Shannon and Awad sup-entropy measures, the conjecture that the optimal scheme is one stage scheme, and  a conjecture by Cramer and Bagh (2011 about Shannon minimum and maximum schemes when parent distribution is reflected power. Guidelines for designing an optimal censoring plane are reported together with theoretical and numerical results and illustrations.

  9. A Signature Scheme with Non-Repudiation

    XIN Xiangjun; GUO Xiaoli; XIAO Guozhen


    Based on the Schnorr signature scheme, a new signature scheme with non-repudiation is proposed. In this scheme, only the signer and the designated receiver can verify the signature signed by the signer, and if necessary, both the signer and the designated receiver can prove and show the validity of the signature signed by the signer. The proof of the validity of the signature is noninteractive and transferable. To verify and prove the validity of the signature, the signer and the nominated receiver needn't store extra information besides the signature. At the same time, neither the signer nor the designated receiver can deny a valid signature signed. Then, there is no repudiation in this new signature scheme. According to the security analysis of this scheme, it is found the proposed scheme is secure against existential forgery on adaptive chosen message attack.

  10. Experimental validation of waveform relaxation technique for power system controller testing

    S P Panda; K A Salunkhe; A M Kulkarni


    A Waveform Relaxation (WR) based iterative real-time playback scheme for controller testing was recently proposed in the literature along with proof-ofconcept simulations. This scheme can be a low-cost alternative to Hardware-in-Loop simulation, as it does not require a real-time simulator. To demonstrate practical feasibility of the WR scheme, this paper presents results of experiments with real-time implementation of controllers, iteratively interacting with simulated models of power apparatus via storage and real-time play-back. Two systems are considered: a HVDC controller tested with a detailed model of the converters, and a TCSC based damping controller tested with a low frequency model of a power system. The results are validated with those obtained using simulated models of the controllers. We also present results of an experiment in which the tested HVDC controller is used to control the scaled real-life HVDC apparatus, for which a simulated model was used during controller testing. Convergence and a good match between simulated and real-time implementation are obtained for the HVDC system. The experiments on the TCSC damping controller drawn our attention to a potential convergence problem which may arise due to iteration-dependent round-off noise.

  11. Multi-object quantum traveling ballot scheme

    Yuan Li; Guihua Zeng


    Based on quantum mechanics, a traveling ballot scheme with anonymity and secrecy is introduced to realize voting. By searching the objects in large amount of data bases, every voter may cast votes to his desired candidates. Therefore, the proposed scheme may be applied to voting with a great deal of candidates, such as network voting and so on. The security analysis of the present scheme is also performed.


    Xiao Weiwei; Zhang Li; Ji Zhen; Zhang Jihong


    Most proposed digital watermarking algorithms are sensitive to geometric attacksbecause the synchronization information of watermark embedding and detection is destroyed. Inthis letter a novel synchronization recovery scheme based on image normalization is proposed. Thepresented scheme does not require the original image and can be applied to various watermarksystems. A wavelet-based watermarking scheme is proposed as an example and experimentalresults show that it is robust to geometric attacks.

  13. Blind Signature Scheme Based on Chebyshev Polynomials

    Maheswara Rao Valluri


    Full Text Available A blind signature scheme is a cryptographic protocol to obtain a valid signature for a message from a signer such that signer’s view of the protocol can’t be linked to the resulting message signature pair. This paper presents blind signature scheme using Chebyshev polynomials. The security of the given scheme depends upon the intractability of the integer factorization problem and discrete logarithms ofChebyshev polynomials.

  14. Blind Signature Scheme Based on Chebyshev Polynomials

    Maheswara Rao Valluri


    A blind signature scheme is a cryptographic protocol to obtain a valid signature for a message from a signer such that signer’s view of the protocol can’t be linked to the resulting message signature pair. This paper presents blind signature scheme using Chebyshev polynomials. The security of the given scheme depends upon the intractability of the integer factorization problem and discrete logarithms ofChebyshev polynomials.

  15. Pyramid Schemes on the Tibetan Plateau

    Devin Gonier; Rgyal yum sgrol ma


    The unique features of pyramid schemes and certain underlying causes for their development on the Tibetan Plateau are analyzed. Research was conducted by analyzing 521 surveys, allowing estimation of pyramid scheme activity on the Plateau and an identification of related cultural and social specificities. Firsthand accounts were collected revealing details of personal involvement. Survey data and similarities in the accounts were studied to suggest how involvement in pyramid schemes might be ...

  16. Resonance ionization scheme development for europium

    Chrysalidis, K; Fedosseev, V N; Marsh, B A; Naubereit, P; Rothe, S; Seiffert, C; Kron, T; Wendt, K


    Odd-parity autoionizing states of europium have been investigated by resonance ionization spectroscopy via two-step, two-resonance excitations. The aim of this work was to establish ionization schemes specifically suited for europium ion beam production using the ISOLDE Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS). 13 new RILIS-compatible ionization schemes are proposed. The scheme development was the first application of the Photo Ionization Spectroscopy Apparatus (PISA) which has recently been integrated into the RILIS setup.

  17. Signcryption scheme based on schnorr digital signature

    Savu, Laura


    This article presents a new signcryption scheme which is based on the Schnorr digital signature algorithm. The new scheme represents my personal contribution to signcryption area. I have been implemented the algorithm in a program and here are provided the steps of the algorithm, the results and some examples. The paper also contains the presentation of the original Signcryption scheme, based on ElGamal digital signature and discusses the practical applications of Signcryption in real life.


    Adrian Atanasiu; Laura Savu


    This article presents two new signcryption schemes. The first one is based on Schnorr digital signature algorithm and the second one is using Proxy Signature scheme introduced by Mambo. Schnorr Signcryption has been implemented in a program and here are provided the steps of the algorithm, the results and some examples. The Mambo’s Proxy Signature is adapted for Shortened Digital Signature Standard, being part of a new Proxy Signcryption scheme.

  19. Resonance ionization scheme development for europium

    Chrysalidis, K., E-mail:; Goodacre, T. Day; Fedosseev, V. N.; Marsh, B. A. [CERN (Switzerland); Naubereit, P. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Institiut für Physik (Germany); Rothe, S.; Seiffert, C. [CERN (Switzerland); Kron, T.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Institiut für Physik (Germany)


    Odd-parity autoionizing states of europium have been investigated by resonance ionization spectroscopy via two-step, two-resonance excitations. The aim of this work was to establish ionization schemes specifically suited for europium ion beam production using the ISOLDE Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS). 13 new RILIS-compatible ionization schemes are proposed. The scheme development was the first application of the Photo Ionization Spectroscopy Apparatus (PISA) which has recently been integrated into the RILIS setup.

  20. General Compact Labeling Schemes for Dynamic Trees


    Let $F$ be a function on pairs of vertices. An {\\em $F$- labeling scheme} is composed of a {\\em marker} algorithm for labeling the vertices of a graph with short labels, coupled with a {\\em decoder} algorithm allowing one to compute $F(u,v)$ of any two vertices $u$ and $v$ directly from their labels. As applications for labeling schemes concern mainly large and dynamically changing networks, it is of interest to study {\\em distributed dynamic} labeling schemes. This paper investigates labelin...

  1. On the Relaxation Dynamics of Disordered Systems

    Dobramysl, Ulrich

    We investigate the properties of two distinct disordered systems: the two-species predator-prey Lotka-Volterra model with rate variability, and an elastic line model to simulate vortex lines in type-II superconductors. We study the effects of intrinsic demographic variability with inheritance in the reaction rates of the Lotka-Volterra model via zero-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations as well as two-dimensional lattice simulations. Individuals of each species are assigned inheritable predation efficiencies during their creation, leading to evolutionary dynamics and thus population-level optimization. We derive an effective subspecies mean-field theory and compare its results to our numerical data. Furthermore, we introduce environmental variability via quenched spatial reaction-rate randomness. We investigate the competing effects and relative importance of the two types of variability, and find that both lead to a remarkable enhancement of the species densities, while the aforementioned optimization effects are essentially neutral in the densities. Additionally, we collected extinction time histograms for small systems and find a marked increase in the stability of the populations against extinction due to the presence of variability. We employ an elastic line model to investigate the steady-state properties and non-equilibrium relaxation kinetics of magnetic vortex lines in disordered type-II superconductors. To this end, we developed a versatile and efficient Langevin molecular dynamics simulation code, allowing us to do a careful study of samples with or without vortex-vortex interactions or disorder allows us to disentangle the various complex relaxational features present in this system and investigate their origin. In particular, we compare disordered samples with randomly distributed point defects versus correlated columnar defects. We extract two-time quantities such as the mean-square displacement, the height and density correlations, to investigate the

  2. Relaxation Behaviour of Lithium-Borosilicate Glasses

    D. B. Thombre


    Full Text Available Three systems of lithium borosilicate (LBS glasses namely SI 42.5Li2O: (57.5-x B2O3: xSiO2, SII 42.5Li2O: xB2O3 :( 57.5-x SiO2 where x=0, 5, 10, 20, and 30, and SIII (100-2x Li2O: xB2O3: xSiO2 where x=30, 28.75, 27.5, 25, and 22.5, are prepared using conventional melt quenching technique. Functional dependence of conductivity on temperature in the range from 523- 673K and frequency in the range from 10Hz to 13 MHz is studied. In order to analyze electrical conductivity the microscopic parameters such as ionic jump distance and barrier height are necessary. These parameters can be understood properly on the basis of the models proposed by Almond and Elliott. As frequency increases from 1MHz to 13MHz, the Tmin shifts towards low temperature side. According to this model the charge transfer is a thermally activated process and provides a correlation between the barrier height (W and the hopping length (R. The fitting of conductivity data into Almond-West type power law behavior σ = σ(o + Aωs yielded power law exponent(s. Electrical conductivity data fitted well in Elliott’s model, which is true only for amorphous materials. The temperature dependence of frequency exponent s exhibits a minimum (smin at a particular temperature (Tmin . . From the scaling behavior of the ac conductivity it is seen that all the curves scaled better, suggesting that s is temperature independent. It is observed that smin shifts to lower temperature, which shows that electrical conductivity of glassy solid electrolytes is the manifestation of ionic dynamic processes. The superposition of the reduced conductivity at all temperatures shows relaxation mechanism is temperature independent. Analysis of modulus formalism with a distribution of relaxation times using KWW stretched exponential function, the stretching exponent, β, is depend on temperature. The analysis of the temperature variation of the M″ peak indicates the relaxation process is thermally activated

  3. Electrical Relaxation in ULTEM® and ULTEM® Containing Mesoporous Silica

    Turo, Andrew; Edmondson, Charles E.; Lomax, Joseph F.; Bendler, John T.; Fontanella, John J.; Wintersgill, Mary C.


    Mesoporous silica has been added to Ultem® 1000 polyetherimide using solution casting. The mesoporous silica that was added was either uncoated or coated with polystyrene. Audio frequency dielectric relaxation studies were then carried out over the temperature range 5.5 to 550 K. Several interesting results were obtained. First, the uncoated mesoporous silica caused essentially no change in the relaxation spectrum of pure Ultem®. The polystyrene coated mesoporous silica caused rather large changes. The most striking example is the introduction of a new relaxation. This relaxation occurs at about 150 K and 1000 Hz as showing in fig. 1 via the open circles.

  4. Importance of relaxation techniques in cognitive therapy for anxiety

    Alice Rodrigues Willhelm; Ilana Andretta; Mariana Steiger Ungaretti


    .... The CBT treatment for anxiety disorders suggests cognitive techniques of restructuring and cognitive flexibilization and behavioral techniques such as exposure, systematic desensitization and body relaxation techniques...

  5. Observation of the relaxivity and thickness of surface phase in porous rock with the combination of PFG NMR and relaxation measurements

    肖立志; 杜有如; 叶朝辉


    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation of fluids in porous media is affected by the solid-liquid interface. Quantitative determination of the surface relaxivity is significantly important for both investigation and application of relaxation mechanisms in porous media. A method to estimate the surface relaxivity with the combination of relaxation and diffusion measurements is proposed. According to this method, a criterion for testing the current diffusion and relaxation theory for porous media is available.

  6. A theoretical study of the relaxation of a phenyl group chemisorbed to an RDX freestanding thin film

    Pereverzev, Andrey; Sewell, Thomas D.


    Energy relaxation from an excited phenyl group chemisorbed to the surface of a crystalline thin film of α-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (α-RDX) at 298 K and 1 atm is simulated using molecular dynamics. Two schemes are used to excite the phenyl group. In the first scheme, the excitation energy is added instantaneously as kinetic energy by rescaling momenta of the 11 atoms in the phenyl group. In the second scheme, the phenyl group is equilibrated at a higher temperature in the presence of static RDX geometries representative of the 298 K thin film. An analytical model based on ballistic phonon transport that requires only the harmonic part of the total Hamiltonian and includes no adjustable parameters is shown to predict, essentially quantitatively, the short-time dynamics of the kinetic energy relaxation (˜200 fs). The dynamics of the phenyl group for times longer than about 6 ps follows exponential decay and agrees qualitatively with the dynamics described by a master equation. Long-time heat propagation within the bulk of the crystal film is consistent with the heat equation.

  7. General expressions for R1ρ relaxation for N-site chemical exchange and the special case of linear chains

    Koss, Hans; Rance, Mark; Palmer, Arthur G.


    Exploration of dynamic processes in proteins and nucleic acids by spin-locking NMR experiments has been facilitated by the development of theoretical expressions for the R1ρ relaxation rate constant covering a variety of kinetic situations. Herein, we present a generalized approximation to the chemical exchange, Rex, component of R1ρ for arbitrary kinetic schemes, assuming the presence of a dominant major site population, derived from the negative reciprocal trace of the inverse Bloch-McConnell evolution matrix. This approximation is equivalent to first-order truncation of the characteristic polynomial derived from the Bloch-McConnell evolution matrix. For three- and four-site chemical exchange, the first-order approximations are sufficient to distinguish different kinetic schemes. We also introduce an approach to calculate R1ρ for linear N-site schemes, using the matrix determinant lemma to reduce the corresponding 3N × 3N Bloch-McConnell evolution matrix to a 3 × 3 matrix. The first- and second order-expansions of the determinant of this 3 × 3 matrix are closely related to previously derived equations for two-site exchange. The second-order approximations for linear N-site schemes can be used to obtain more accurate approximations for non-linear N-site schemes, such as triangular three-site or star four-site topologies. The expressions presented herein provide powerful means for the estimation of Rex contributions for both low (CEST-limit) and high (R1ρ-limit) radiofrequency field strengths, provided that the population of one state is dominant. The general nature of the new expressions allows for consideration of complex kinetic situations in the analysis of NMR spin relaxation data.

  8. Optimizing Decision Tree Attack on CAS Scheme



    Full Text Available In this paper we show a successful side-channel timing attack on a well-known high-complexity cognitive authentication (CAS scheme. We exploit the weakness of CAS scheme that comes from the asymmetry of the virtual interface and graphical layout which results in nonuniform human behavior during the login procedure, leading to detectable variations in user's response times. We optimized a well-known probabilistic decision tree attack on CAS scheme by introducing this timing information into the attack. We show that the developed classifier could be used to significantly reduce the number of login sessions required to break the CAS scheme.

  9. Key Predistribution Schemes for Distributed Sensor Networks

    Bose, Mausumi; Mukerjee, Rahul


    Key predistribution schemes for distributed sensor networks have received significant attention in the recent literature. In this paper we propose a new construction method for these schemes based on combinations of duals of standard block designs. Our method is a broad spectrum one which works for any intersection threshold. By varying the initial designs, we can generate various schemes and this makes the method quite flexible. We also obtain explicit algebraic expressions for the metrics for local connectivity and resiliency. These schemes are quite efficient with regard to connectivity and resiliency and at the same time they allow a straightforward shared-key discovery.

  10. A new access scheme in OFDMA systems

    GU Xue-lin; YAN Wei; TIAN Hui; ZHANG Ping


    This article presents a dynamic random access scheme for orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) systems. The key features of the proposed scheme are:it is a combination of both the distributed and the centralized schemes, it can accommodate several delay sensitivity classes,and it can adjust the number of random access channels in a media access control (MAC) frame and the access probability according to the outcome of Mobile Terminals access attempts in previous MAC frames. For floating populated packet-based networks, the proposed scheme possibly leads to high average user satisfaction.

  11. Efficient Certificateless Signcryption Scheme from Weil Pairing

    Gang Yu


    Full Text Available Certificateless signcryption has both the advantage of certificateless public key cryptography, which overcome the escrow problem inherited from identity based cryptography without the use of certificates as in traditional public key cryptography, and signcryption which can fulfill both the functions of signature and encryption in a logical signal step. In this paper, we explicit the security model for certificateless signcryption and propose an efficient certificateless signcryption scheme from Weil pairings. The new scheme not only can be proved to be secure in our model but also can simultaneously provide public verifiability and forward security. Furthermore, compared with existing schemes, the new scheme is more efficient.

  12. Hybrid scheme for Brownian semistationary processes

    Bennedsen, Mikkel; Lunde, Asger; Pakkanen, Mikko S.

    the asymptotics of the mean square error of the hybrid scheme and we observe that the scheme leads to a substantial improvement of accuracy compared to the ordinary forward Riemann-sum scheme, while having the same computational complexity. We exemplify the use of the hybrid scheme by two numerical experiments......, where we examine the finite-sample properties of an estimator of the roughness parameter of a Brownian semistationary process and study Monte Carlo option pricing in the rough Bergomi model of Bayer et al. (2015), respectively....

  13. An Improved Proxy Multi-Signature Scheme

    GU Li-ze; ZHANG Sheng; YANG Yi-xian


    Based on the Kim-like's proxy multi-signature scheme[1],an improved proxy multi-signature scheme is proposed.The new scheme overcomes the two problems in the Kim-like's proxy multi-signature scheme:(1)Security issue(every original signer can forge a valid proxy multi-signature for any message);(2)Efficiency issue(both the size of the proxy multi-signature and the efficiency of signature checking are dependent on the number of the original signers).

  14. Intelligent control schemes applied to Automatic Generation Control

    Dingguo Chen


    Full Text Available Integrating ever increasing amount of renewable generating resources to interconnected power systems has created new challenges to the safety and reliability of today‟s power grids and posed new questions to be answered in the power system modeling, analysis and control. Automatic Generation Control (AGC must be extended to be able to accommodate the control of renewable generating assets. In addition, AGC is mandated to operate in accordance with the NERC‟s Control Performance Standard (CPS criteria, which represent a greater flexibility in relaxing the control of generating resources and yet assuring the stability and reliability of interconnected power systems when each balancing authority operates in full compliance. Enhancements in several aspects to the traditional AGC must be made in order to meet the aforementioned challenges. It is the intention of this paper to provide a systematic, mathematical formulation for AGC as a first attempt in the context of meeting the NERC CPS requirements and integrating renewable generating assets, which has not been seen reported in the literature to the best knowledge of the authors. Furthermore, this paper proposes neural network based predictive control schemes for AGC. The proposed controller is capable of handling complicated nonlinear dynamics in comparison with the conventional Proportional Integral (PI controller which is typically most effective to handle linear dynamics. The neural controller is designed in such a way that it has the capability of controlling the system generation in the relaxed manner so the ACE is controlled to a desired range instead of driving it to zero which would otherwise increase the control effort and cost; and most importantly the resulting system control performance meets the NERC CPS requirements and/or the NERC Balancing Authority’s ACE Limit (BAAL compliance requirements whichever are applicable.

  15. Hybrid overlay metrology with CDSEM in a BEOL patterning scheme

    Leray, Philippe; Jehoul, Christiane; Inoue, Osamu; Okagawa, Yutaka


    Overlay metrology accuracy is a major concern for our industry. Advanced logic process require more tighter overlay control for multipatterning schemes. TIS (Tool Induced Shift) and WIS (Wafer Induced Shift) are the main issues for IBO (Image Based Overlay) and DBO (Diffraction Based Overlay). Methods of compensation have been introduced, some are even very efficient to reduce these measured offsets. Another related question is about the overlay target designs. These targets are never fully representative of the design rules, strong efforts have been achieved, but the device cannot be completely duplicated. Ideally, we would like to measure in the device itself to verify the real overlay value. Top down CDSEM can measure critical dimensions of any structure, it is not dependent of specific target design. It can also measure the overlay errors but only in specific cases like LELE (Litho Etch Litho Etch) after final patterning. In this paper, we will revisit the capability of the CDSEM at final patterning by measuring overlay in dedicated targets as well as inside a logic and an SRAM design. In the dedicated overlay targets, we study the measurement differences between design rules gratings and relaxed pitch gratings. These relaxed pitch which are usually used in IBO or DBO targets. Beyond this "simple" LELE case, we will explore the capability of the CDSEM to measure overlay even if not at final patterning, at litho level. We will assess the hybridization of DBO and CDSEM for reference to optical tools after final patterning. We will show that these reference data can be used to validate the DBO overlay results (correctables and residual fingerprints).

  16. Nonlinear nonequilibrium quasiparticle relaxation in Josephson junctions.

    Krasnov, V M


    I solve numerically a full set of nonlinear kinetic balance equations for stacked Josephson junctions, which allows analysis of strongly nonequilibrium phenomena. It is shown that nonlinearity becomes significant already at very small disequilibrium. The following new, nonlinear effects are obtained: (i) At even-gap voltages V = 2nDelta/e (n = 2, 3, ...) nonequilibrium bosonic bands overlap. This leads to enhanced emission of Omega = 2Delta bosons and to the appearance of dips in tunnel conductance. (ii) A new type of radiative solution is found at strong disequilibrium. It is characterized by the fast stimulated relaxation of quasiparticles. A stack in this state behaves as a light emitting diode and directly converts electric power to boson emission, without utilization of the ac-Josephson effect. The phenomenon can be used for realization of a new type of superconducting cascade laser in the THz frequency range.

  17. Internal relaxation time in immersed particulate materials

    Rognon, P; Gay, C


    We study the dynamics of the solid to liquid transition for a model material made of elastic particles immersed in a viscous fluid. The interaction between particle surfaces includes their viscous lubrication, a sharp repulsion when they get closer than a tuned steric length and their elastic deflection induced by those two forces. We use Soft Dynamics to simulate the dynamics of this material when it experiences a step increase in the shear stress and a constant normal stress. We observe a long creep phase before a substantial flow eventually establishes. We find that the typical creep time relies on an internal relaxation process, namely the separation of two particles driven by the applied stress and resisted by the viscous friction. This mechanism should be relevant for granular pastes, living cells, emulsions and wet foams.

  18. Spirooxazine Photoisomerization and Relaxation in Polymer Matrices

    Maria Larkowska


    Full Text Available 9′-Hydroxy-1,3,3-trimethylspiro[indoline-2,3′[3H]naphtha[2,1-b]-1,4oxazine] (SPO-7OH was used in studies of photochromic transformations in polymer matrices. Illumination with UV lamp caused opening the spirostructure of the oxazine with formation of open merocyanine species absorbing at ca. 610 nm. The kinetic studies of thermal relaxation of the open form showed that this process can be described with a biexponential function including both photochemical reaction and rheological behaviour of the polymeric environment. Basing on Arrhenius plot of the rate constant ascribed to the photochemical reaction, the activation energy was determined, which was 66.1 and 84.7 kJ/mole for poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl methacrylate and poly(vinylpyrrolidone matrix, respectively.

  19. Relaxation and resonances in fluctuating dielectric systems

    Garcia-Colin, L. S.; del Castillo, L. F.


    In this paper we show how the ideas behind extended irreversible thermodynamics are used to generate a systematic treatment of the relaxation and resonance phenomena in the propagation and absorption of electromagnetic energy in dielectric materials in a nonequilibrium state. Two cases are discussed: the first, in which the forced oscillations arising from the correlation between the fluctuations of the polarization vector and the electric field are neglected, and the second, in which this term is taken into account. In both cases we show how the main equations serve to make a connection between the macroscopic approach followed here and a number of results obtained for both, gases and polar liquids using molecular models. The results obtained here are compared with previous work on this problem, and new effects arising from the second case are pointed out.

  20. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of blood vessels

    Hynes, M.R.


    Dilation of blood vessels in response to a large number of agents has been shown to be dependent on an intact vascular endothelium. The present studies examine some aspects of endothelium-dependent vasodilation in blood vessels of the rabbit and rat. Using the rabbit ear artery and the subtype-selective muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine, muscarinic receptors of the endothelium and smooth muscle cells were shown to be of the low affinity M/sub 2/ subtype. Inhibition of (/sup 3/H)(-)quinuclidinyl benzilate was used to determine affinity for the smooth muscle receptors while antagonism of methacholine induced vasodilation yielded the endothelial cell receptor affinity. The effect of increasing age (1-27 months) on endothelium-dependent relaxation was studied in aortic rings, perfused tail artery and perfused mesenteric bed of the Fisher 344 rat. The influence of endothelium on contractile responses was examined using the perfused caudal artery.

  1. Occupational stress, relaxation therapies, exercise and biofeedback.

    Stein, Franklin


    Occupational stress is a widespread occurrence in the United States. It is a contributing factor to absenteeism, disease, injury and lowered productivity. In general stress management programs in the work place that include relaxation therapies, exercise, and biofeedback have been shown to reduce the physiological symptoms such as hypertension, and increase job satisfaction and job performance. Strategies to implement a successful stress management program include incorporating the coping activities into one's daily schedule, monitoring one's symptoms and stressors, and being realistic in setting up a schedule that is relevant and attainable. A short form of meditation, daily exercise program and the use of heart rate or thermal biofeedback can be helpful to a worker experiencing occupational stress.

  2. The cosmological constant and the relaxed universe

    Bauer, Florian


    We study the role of the cosmological constant (CC) as a component of dark energy (DE). It is argued that the cosmological term is in general unavoidable and it should not be ignored even when dynamical DE sources are considered. From the theoretical point of view quantum zero-point energy and phase transitions suggest a CC of large magnitude in contrast to its tiny observed value. Simply relieving this disaccord with a counterterm requires extreme fine-tuning which is referred to as the old CC problem. To avoid it, we discuss some recent approaches for neutralising a large CC dynamically without adding a fine-tuned counterterm. This can be realised by an effective DE component which relaxes the cosmic expansion by counteracting the effect of the large CC. Alternatively, a CC filter is constructed by modifying gravity to make it insensitive to vacuum energy.

  3. Vibrational energy relaxation pathways of water

    Pakoulev, Andrei; Wang, Zhaohui; Pang, Yoonsoo; Dlott, Dana D.


    Vibrational energy relaxation (VR) of the OH stretch νOH and bend δH 2O in water is studied by the mid-IR pump with anti-Stokes Raman probe technique. The broad νOH band in water consists of two inhomogeneously broadened subbands. VR in the larger red-shifted subband νOHR, with T1=0.55 ps, is shown to occur by the mechanism νOH→ δH 2O (1/3) and νOH → ground state (2/3). VR in the smaller longer-lived blue-shifted subband νOHB, with T1=0.75 ps, occurs by the mechanism νOH → ground state. The bending fundamental δH 2O decays directly to the ground state with T1=1.4 ps.

  4. Holographic thermal relaxation in superfluid turbulence

    Du, Yiqiang [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); Niu, Chao [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); Tian, Yu [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang, Hongbao [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875 (China); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)


    Holographic duality provides a first-principles approach to investigate real time processes in quantum many-body systems, in particular at finite temperature and far-from-equilibrium. We use this approach to study the dynamical evolution of vortex number in a two-dimensional (2D) turbulent superfluid through numerically solving its gravity dual. We find that the temporal evolution of the vortex number can be well fit statistically by two-body decay due to the vortex pair annihilation featured relaxation process, thus confirm the previous suspicion based on the experimental data for turbulent superfluid in highly oblate Bose-Einstein condensates. Furthermore, the decay rate near the critical temperature is in good agreement with the recently developed effective theory of 2D superfluid turbulence.

  5. Multiscale dipole relaxation in dielectric materials

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt


    the cross coupling between the electric field fluctuations and dipole moment fluctuations can be ignored. The peak frequencies in the spectra of the autocorrelation functions are also derived. They depend on the wave vector squared which is a fingerprint of the underlying dipole diffusion mechanism....... For the longitudinal direction the simulation results show that the cross coupling between the electric field and the dipole moment is non-negligible compromising the theoretical predictions. The underlying mechanism for this coupling is not clear.......Dipole relaxation from thermally induced perturbations is investigated on different length scales for dielectric materials. From the continuum dynamical equations for the polarisation, expressions for the transverse and longitudinal dipole autocorrelation functions are derived in the limit where...

  6. Relaxed Half-Stochastic Belief Propagation

    Leduc-Primeau, François; Mannor, Shie; Gross, Warren J


    Low-density parity-check codes are attractive for high throughput applications because of their low decoding complexity per bit, but also because all the codeword bits can be decoded in parallel. However, achieving this in a circuit implementation is complicated by the number of wires required to exchange messages between processing nodes. Decoding algorithms that exchange binary messages are interesting for fully-parallel implementations because they can reduce the number and the length of the wires, and increase logic density. This paper introduces the Relaxed Half-Stochastic (RHS) decoding algorithm, a binary message belief propagation (BP) algorithm that achieves a coding gain comparable to the best known BP algorithms that use real-valued messages. We derive the RHS algorithm by starting from the well-known Sum-Product algorithm, and then derive a low-complexity version suitable for circuit implementation. We present extensive simulation results on two standardized codes having different rates and constr...

  7. Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy in vivo

    Ma, Jun; Shi, Junhui; Hai, Pengfei; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V.


    Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy (GR-PAM) can achieve optically defined axial resolution, but it has been limited to ex vivo demonstrations so far. Here, we present the first in vivo image of a mouse brain acquired with GR-PAM. To induce the GR effect, an intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser was employed to heat absorbing objects. In phantom experiments, an axial resolution of 12.5 μm was achieved, which is sixfold better than the value achieved by conventional optical-resolution PAM. This axial-resolution improvement was further demonstrated by imaging a mouse brain in vivo, where significantly narrower axial profiles of blood vessels were observed. The in vivo demonstration of GR-PAM shows the potential of this modality for label-free and high-resolution anatomical and functional imaging of biological tissues.

  8. Degravitation and the relaxed Einstein equations

    Dirkes, Alain


    The general idea to modify Einstein's field equations by promoting Newton's constant $G$ to a covariant differential operator $G_\\Lambda(\\Box_g)$ was apparently outlined for the first time in [12-15]. The modification itself originates from the quest of finding a mechanism which is able to degravitate the vacuum energy on cosmological scales. We present in this article a precise covariant coupling model which acts like a high-pass filter with a macroscopic distance filter scale $\\sqrt{\\Lambda}$. In the context of this particular theory of gravity we work out the effective relaxed Einstein equations as well as the effective 1.5 post-Newtonian total near-zone mass of a many body system. We observe that at any step of computation we recover in the limit of vanishing modification parameters the corresponding general relativistic result.

  9. Relaxed excited states of color centers

    Baldacchini, G.


    Color centers in alkali halides display an optical cycle which has been, and it is still today, a model case for similar processes in other materials. Moreover, the luminescence of some color centers is so efficient that it has been used in laser applications. However, the quantum state from which the emission of light is originated, the so called relaxed excited state (RES), is not very well known. Indeed, in spite of the wealth of experimental results collected and of the theoretical approaches attempted, an exact description of the RES is still missing. This paper, confined mainly to F centers which are the simplest point defects in crystals, contains a review of the main experimental evidences which has some light on the nature of the RES, with special emphasis on the latest magneto-optical experiments. Also, a description of the theoretical models is attempted whenever required by a particular argument.

  10. Integrating Biosystem Models Using Waveform Relaxation

    Stephen Baigent


    Full Text Available Modelling in systems biology often involves the integration of component models into larger composite models. How to do this systematically and efficiently is a significant challenge: coupling of components can be unidirectional or bidirectional, and of variable strengths. We adapt the waveform relaxation (WR method for parallel computation of ODEs as a general methodology for computing systems of linked submodels. Four test cases are presented: (i a cascade of unidirectionally and bidirectionally coupled harmonic oscillators, (ii deterministic and stochastic simulations of calcium oscillations, (iii single cell calcium oscillations showing complex behaviour such as periodic and chaotic bursting, and (iv a multicellular calcium model for a cell plate of hepatocytes. We conclude that WR provides a flexible means to deal with multitime-scale computation and model heterogeneity. Global solutions over time can be captured independently of the solution techniques for the individual components, which may be distributed in different computing environments.

  11. Using relaxational dynamics to reduce network congestion

    Piontti, Ana L. Pastore y.; La Rocca, Cristian E.; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Braunstein, Lidia A.; Macri, Pablo A.; López, Eduardo


    We study the effects of relaxational dynamics on congestion pressure in scale-free (SF) networks by analyzing the properties of the corresponding gradient networks (Toroczkai and Bassler 2004 Nature 428 716). Using the Family model (Family and Bassler 1986 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 19 L441) from surface-growth physics as single-step load-balancing dynamics, we show that the congestion pressure considerably drops on SF networks when compared with the same dynamics on random graphs. This is due to a structural transition of the corresponding gradient network clusters, which self-organize so as to reduce the congestion pressure. This reduction is enhanced when lowering the value of the connectivity exponent λ towards 2.

  12. On Spectral Relaxation Method for Entropy Generation on a MHD Flow and Heat Transfer of a Maxwell Fluid

    Stanford Shateyi


    Full Text Available The present study investigates entropy generation on a magnetohydrodynamic flow and heat transfer of a Maxwell fluid using a spectral relaxation method. The method is based on simple iteration schemes formed by reduction of the order of the momentum equation followed by a rearrangement of the resulting governing nonlinear equation systems which are then solved using spectral methods. The velocity and temperature profiles are obtained numerically and used to generate the entropy generation number. Entropy generation increased with the Reynolds number, the magnetic parameter and the dimensionless group parameter while decreased for higher Prandtl numbers. The effect of the flow parameters on the velocity and temperature of the flow were also investigated. The results were validated using the bvp4c where the spectral relaxation method was found to be accurate and rapidly convergent to the numerical results.

  13. Strongly coupled partitioned six degree-of-freedom rigid body motion solver with Aitken's dynamic under-relaxation

    Jeng Hei Chow


    Full Text Available An implicit method of solving the six degree-of-freedom rigid body motion equations based on the second order Adams-Bashforth-Moulten method was utilised as an improvement over the leapfrog scheme by making modifications to the rigid body motion solver libraries directly. The implementation will depend on predictor-corrector steps still residing within the hybrid Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operators - Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations (PIMPLE outer corrector loops to ensure strong coupling between fluid and motion. Aitken's under-relaxation is also introduced in this study to optimise the convergence rate and stability of the coupled solver. The resulting coupled solver ran on a free floating object tutorial test case when converged matches the original solver. It further allows a varying 70%–80% reduction in simulation times compared using a fixed under-relaxation to achieve the required stability.

  14. Fast Heterogeneous Relaxation Near The Glass Transition

    Russina, Margarita


    More than a decade ago inelastic neutron scattering studies revealed a surprising characteristic feature in the atomic dynamics near the glass transition, which was often called the betta-process, with reference to predictions of the mode coupling theory (MCT). This process appears on the ps time scale, i.e. fast compared to the ordinary flow viscosity governed relaxation and slow compared to usual atomic vibrations, and its nature remained a puzzle over the years. Although inelastic neutron scattering is ideally suited to observe dynamics on microscopic time and length scales, experimental difficulties due to strong multiple scattering effects prevented the exploration of the spatial character of this process. By a new experimental approach to correct for these spurious contributions with a high precision, we were now able to extend the spatial domain of our observations from just about nearest neighbor atomic distances by close to an order of magnitude larger ones, which length scale includes that of the intermediate range order, which can be expected to reveal most sensitively collective, as opposed to the local, behavior. Our results in the fragile glass forming liquid Ca-K-NO3 show, that the betta-process is a first fast step of the structural relaxation, which confirms a most fundamental prediction of MCT. Furthermore, by investigating the Debye-Waller factor associated with this process, we found that its geometrical nature corresponds to quasi-rigid, correlated displacement of mobile groups of atoms, which move much faster than the ordinary flow of the bulk of the supercooled liquid. This is the first direct experimental evidence for the existence of heterogeneous fast flow processes similar to the string-flow motion recently observed in molecular dynamic simulations of model liquids close to the glass transition.

  15. arXiv Application of the Waveform Relaxation Technique to the Co-Simulation of Power Converter Controller and Electrical Circuit Models

    Maciejewski, Michał; Schöps, Sebastian; Auchmann, Bernhard; Bortot, Lorenzo; Prioli, Marco; Verweij, Arjan P.

    In this paper we present the co-simulation of a PID class power converter controller and an electrical circuit by means of the waveform relaxation technique. The simulation of the controller model is characterized by a fixed-time stepping scheme reflecting its digital implementation, whereas a circuit simulation usually employs an adaptive time stepping scheme in order to account for a wide range of time constants within the circuit model. In order to maintain the characteristic of both models as well as to facilitate model replacement, we treat them separately by means of input/output relations and propose an application of a waveform relaxation algorithm. Furthermore, the maximum and minimum number of iterations of the proposed algorithm are mathematically analyzed. The concept of controller/circuit coupling is illustrated by an example of the co-simulation of a PI power converter controller and a model of the main dipole circuit of the Large Hadron Collider.

  16. Effect of pressure relaxation during the laser heating and electron-ion relaxation stages

    Chimier, B.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.; Hallo, L. [Univ Bordeaux 1, CEA, CNRS, CELIA, UMR 5107, 33 - Talence (France)


    The multi-phase equation of state by Bushman et al. (Sov. Tech. Rev. 5:1-44, 2008) is modified to describe states with different electron and ion temperatures and it is applied to the non-equilibrium evolution of an aluminum sample heated by a subpicosecond laser pulse. The sample evolution is described by the two-temperature model for the electron and ion temperatures, while the pressure and density are described by a simplified relaxation equation. The pressure relaxation in the heating stage reduces the binding energy and facilitates the electron-driven ablation. The model is applied to estimate the ablation depth of an Al target irradiated by a subpicosecond laser pulse. It improves the agreement with the experimental data and provides a new explanation of the ablation process. (authors)

  17. A fast determination method for transverse relaxation of spin-exchange-relaxation-free magnetometer.

    Lu, Jixi; Qian, Zheng; Fang, Jiancheng


    We propose a fast and accurate determination method for transverse relaxation of the spin-exchange-relaxation-free (SERF) magnetometer. This method is based on the measurement of magnetic resonance linewidth via a chirped magnetic field excitation and the amplitude spectrum analysis. Compared with the frequency sweeping via separate sinusoidal excitation, our method can realize linewidth determination within only few seconds and meanwhile obtain good frequency resolution. Therefore, it can avoid the drift error in long term measurement and improve the accuracy of the determination. As the magnetic resonance frequency of the SERF magnetometer is very low, we include the effect of the negative resonance frequency caused by the chirp and achieve the coefficient of determination of the fitting results better than 0.998 with 95% confidence bounds to the theoretical equation. The experimental results are in good agreement with our theoretical analysis.

  18. GYRE: An open-source stellar oscillation code based on a new Magnus Multiple Shooting Scheme

    Townsend, R H D


    We present a new oscillation code, GYRE, which solves the stellar pulsation equations (both adiabatic and non-adiabatic) using a novel Magnus Multiple Shooting numerical scheme devised to overcome certain weaknesses of the usual relaxation and shooting schemes appearing in the literature. The code is accurate (up to 6th order in the number of grid points), robust, efficiently makes use of multiple processor cores and/or nodes, and is freely available in source form for use and distribution. We verify the code against analytic solutions and results from other oscillation codes, in all cases finding good agreement. Then, we use the code to explore how the asteroseismic observables of a 1.5 M_sun star change as it evolves through the red-giant bump.

  19. Sampling scheme optimization from hyperspectral data

    Debba, P.


    This thesis presents statistical sampling scheme optimization for geo-environ-menta] purposes on the basis of hyperspectral data. It integrates derived products of the hyperspectral remote sensing data into individual sampling schemes. Five different issues are being dealt with.First, the optimized

  20. Anonymous Credential Schemes with Encrypted Attributes

    Guajardo Merchan, J.; Mennink, B.; Schoenmakers, B.


    In anonymous credential schemes, users obtain credentials on certain attributes from an issuer, and later show these credentials to a relying party anonymously and without fully disclosing the attributes. In this paper, we introduce the notion of (anonymous) credential schemes with encrypted attribu

  1. Mixed ultrasoft/norm-conserved pseudopotential scheme

    Stokbro, Kurt


    A variant of the Vanderbilt ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme, where the norm conservation is released for only one or a few angular channels, is presented. Within this scheme some difficulties of the truly ultrasoft pseudopotentials are overcome without sacrificing the pseudopotential softness. (...

  2. Finite volume renormalization scheme for fermionic operators

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostas [JLAB


    We propose a new finite volume renormalization scheme. Our scheme is based on the Gradient Flow applied to both fermion and gauge fields and, much like the Schr\\"odinger functional method, allows for a nonperturbative determination of the scale dependence of operators using a step-scaling approach. We give some preliminary results for the pseudo-scalar density in the quenched approximation.

  3. Nonstandard finite difference schemes for differential equations

    Mohammad Mehdizadeh Khalsaraei


    Full Text Available In this paper, the reorganization of the denominator of the discrete derivative and nonlocal approximation of nonlinear terms are used in the design of nonstandard finite difference schemes (NSFDs. Numerical examples confirming then efficiency of schemes, for some differential equations are provided. In order to illustrate the accuracy of the new NSFDs, the numerical results are compared with standard methods.

  4. Consolidation of the health insurance scheme

    Association du personnel


    In the last issue of Echo, we highlighted CERN’s obligation to guarantee a social security scheme for all employees, pensioners and their families. In that issue we talked about the first component: pensions. This time we shall discuss the other component: the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS).

  5. Unconditionnally stable scheme for Riccati equation

    Dubois, François; 10.1051/proc:2000003


    We present a numerical scheme for the resolution of matrix Riccati equation used in control problems. The scheme is unconditionnally stable and the solution is definite positive at each time step of the resolution. We prove the convergence in the scalar case and present several numerical experiments for classical test cases.

  6. Modified Mean-Pyramid Coding Scheme

    Cheung, Kar-Ming; Romer, Richard


    Modified mean-pyramid coding scheme requires transmission of slightly fewer data. Data-expansion factor reduced from 1/3 to 1/12. Schemes for progressive transmission of image data transmitted in sequence of frames in such way coarse version of image reconstructed after receipt of first frame and increasingly refined version of image reconstructed after receipt of each subsequent frame.

  7. A New Public-Key Encryption Scheme

    Hai-Bo Tian; Xi Sun; Yu-Min Wang


    This paper proposes a new public-key encryption scheme which removes one element from the public-key tuple of the original Cramer-Shoup scheme.As a result, a ciphertext is not a quadruple but a triple at the cost of a strong assumption,the third version of knowledge of exponent assumption (KEA3).Under assumptions of KEA3, a decision Diffie-Hellman (DDH) and a variant of target collision resistance (TCRv), the new scheme is proved secure against indistinguishable adaptive chosen ciphertext attack (IND-CCA2).This scheme is as efficient as Damgard ElGamal (DEG) scheme when it makes use of a well-known algorithm for product of exponentiations.The DEG scheme is recently proved IND-CCA1 secure by Bellare and Palacio in ASIACRYPT 2004 under another strong assumption.In addition to our IND-CCA2 secured scheme, we also believe that the security proof procedure itself provides a well insight for ElGamal-based encryption schemes which are secure in real world.

  8. Novel Link Adaptation Schemes for OFDM System

    LEI Ming; CAI Peng; XU Yue-shan; ZHANG Ping


    Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is the most promising technique supporting the high data rate transmission. The combination of the link adaptation and OFDM can further increase the spectral efficiency. In this paper, we put forward two link adaptation schemes for OFDM system which have the advantages of both flexibility and practicability. Both of the two novel link adaptation schemes are based on the iterative mechanism to allocate the bit and power to subcarriers according to their channel gains and noisy levels which are assumed to be already known at the transmitter. The candidate modulation modes are determined freely before the link adaptation schemes are performed. The distinction between the two novel link adaptation schemes is that in the novel scheme A, the modulation mode is upgraded to the neighboring higher-order mode, while in the novel scheme B the modulation is upgraded to the genuine optimal mode. Therefore, the novel scheme A has the advantage of lower complexity and the novel scheme B has the advantage of higher spectral efficiency.

  9. Sampling scheme optimization from hyperspectral data

    Debba, P.


    This thesis presents statistical sampling scheme optimization for geo-environ-menta] purposes on the basis of hyperspectral data. It integrates derived products of the hyperspectral remote sensing data into individual sampling schemes. Five different issues are being dealt with.First, the optimized

  10. Modified Mean-Pyramid Coding Scheme

    Cheung, Kar-Ming; Romer, Richard


    Modified mean-pyramid coding scheme requires transmission of slightly fewer data. Data-expansion factor reduced from 1/3 to 1/12. Schemes for progressive transmission of image data transmitted in sequence of frames in such way coarse version of image reconstructed after receipt of first frame and increasingly refined version of image reconstructed after receipt of each subsequent frame.

  11. Phase calibration scheme for a ``T'' array

    Ramesh, R.; Subramanian, K. R.; Sastry, Ch. V.


    A calibration scheme based on closure and redundancy techniques is described for correcting the phase errors in the complex visibilities observed with a T-shaped radio interferometer array. Practical details of the scheme are illustrated with reference to the Gauribidanur radioheliograph (GRH).

  12. Privacy Preserving Mapping Schemes Supporting Comparison

    Tang, Qiang


    To cater to the privacy requirements in cloud computing, we introduce a new primitive, namely Privacy Preserving Mapping (PPM) schemes supporting comparison. An PPM scheme enables a user to map data items into images in such a way that, with a set of images, any entity can determine the $<, =, >$ re

  13. Privacy Preserving Mapping Schemes Supporting Comparison

    Tang, Qiang


    To cater to the privacy requirements in cloud computing, we introduce a new primitive, namely Privacy Preserving Mapping (PPM) schemes supporting comparison. An PPM scheme enables a user to map data items into images in such a way that, with a set of images, any entity can determine the <, =, >

  14. Modeling Students' Mathematics Using Steffe's Fraction Schemes

    Norton, Anderson H.; McCloskey, Andrea V.


    Each year, more teachers learn about the successful intervention program known as Math Recovery (USMRC 2008; Wright 2003). The program uses Steffe's whole-number schemes to model, understand, and support children's development of whole-number reasoning. Readers are probably less familiar with Steffe's fraction schemes, which have proven similarly…

  15. A Secure Threshold Group Signature Scheme

    Wang Xiaoming; Fu Fangwei


    The threshold group signature is an important kind of signature. So far, many threshold group signature schemes have been proposed, but most of them suffer from conspiracy attack and are insecure. In this paper, a secure threshold group signature scheme is proposed. It can not only satisfy the properties of the threshold group signature, but also withstand the conspiracy attack

  16. Cornering (3+1) sterile neutrino schemes

    Maltoni, M; Valle, José W F


    Using the most recent atmospheric neutrino data, as well as short-baseline and tritium $\\beta$-decay data we show that (3+1) sterile neutrino schemes are severely disfavored, in contrast to the theoretically favored (2+2) schemes.

  17. Relaxation in x-space magnetic particle imaging.

    Croft, Laura R; Goodwill, Patrick W; Conolly, Steven M


    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new imaging modality that noninvasively images the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs). MPI has demonstrated high contrast and zero attenuation with depth, and MPI promises superior safety compared to current angiography methods, X-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging angiography. Nanoparticle relaxation can delay the SPIO magnetization, and in this work we investigate the open problem of the role relaxation plays in MPI scanning and its effect on the image. We begin by amending the x-space theory of MPI to include nanoparticle relaxation effects. We then validate the amended theory with experiments from a Berkeley x-space relaxometer and a Berkeley x-space projection MPI scanner. Our theory and experimental data indicate that relaxation reduces SNR and asymmetrically blurs the image in the scanning direction. While relaxation effects can have deleterious effects on the MPI scan, we show theoretically and experimentally that x-space reconstruction remains robust in the presence of relaxation. Furthermore, the role of relaxation in x-space theory provides guidance as we develop methods to minimize relaxation-induced blurring. This will be an important future area of research for the MPI community.

  18. Energy relaxation in optically excited Si and Ge nanocrystals

    S. Saeed


    The scientific objective of the research presented in this thesis is to explore energy relaxation processes of optically excited Si and Ge nanocrystals. The identification and deeper understanding of unique energy relaxation paths in these materials will open a new window of opportunity for these ma

  19. Stress relaxation of bi-disperse polystyrene melts

    Hengeller, Ludovica; Huang, Qian; Dorokhin, Andriy


    We present start-up of uniaxial extension followed by stress relaxation experiments of a bi-disperse 50 % by weight blend of 95k and 545k molecular weight polystyrene. We also show, for comparison, stress relaxation measurements of the polystyrene melts with molecular weight 95k and 545k, which a...

  20. Evolving fuzzy rules for relaxed-criteria negotiation.

    Sim, Kwang Mong


    In the literature on automated negotiation, very few negotiation agents are designed with the flexibility to slightly relax their negotiation criteria to reach a consensus more rapidly and with more certainty. Furthermore, these relaxed-criteria negotiation agents were not equipped with the ability to enhance their performance by learning and evolving their relaxed-criteria negotiation rules. The impetus of this work is designing market-driven negotiation agents (MDAs) that not only have the flexibility of relaxing bargaining criteria using fuzzy rules, but can also evolve their structures by learning new relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules to improve their negotiation outcomes as they participate in negotiations in more e-markets. To this end, an evolutionary algorithm for adapting and evolving relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules was developed. Implementing the idea in a testbed, two kinds of experiments for evaluating and comparing EvEMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are evolved using the evolutionary algorithm) and EMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are manually constructed) were carried out through stochastic simulations. Empirical results show that: 1) EvEMDAs generally outperformed EMDAs in different types of e-markets and 2) the negotiation outcomes of EvEMDAs generally improved as they negotiated in more e-markets.