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Sample records for relaxation training cognitive

  1. Training-induced improvement of response selection and error detection in aging assessed by task switching: effects of cognitive, physical, and relaxation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Falkenstein, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive control functions decline with increasing age. The present study examines if different types of group-based and trainer-guided training effectively enhance performance of older adults in a task switching task, and how this expected enhancement is reflected in changes of cognitive functions, as measured in electrophysiological brain activity (event-related potentials). One hundred forty-one healthy participants aged 65 years and older were randomly assigned to one of four groups: physical training (combined aerobic and strength training), cognitive training (paper-pencil and computer-aided), relaxation and wellness (social control group), and a control group that did not receive any intervention. Training sessions took place twice a week for 90 min for a period of 4 months. The results showed a greater improvement of performance for attendants of the cognitive training group compared to the other groups. This improvement was evident in a reduction of mixing costs in accuracy and intraindividual variability of speed, indexing improved maintenance of multiple task sets in working memory, and an enhanced coherence of neuronal processing. These findings were supported by event-related brain potentials which showed higher amplitudes in a number of potentials associated with response selection (N2), allocation of cognitive resources (P3b), and error detection (Ne). Taken together, our findings suggest neurocognitive plasticity of aging brains which can be stimulated by broad and multilayered cognitive training and assessed in detail by electrophysiological methods.

  2. Training-induced improvement of response selection and error detection in aging assessed by task switching: Effects of cognitive, physical and relaxation training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Darius Gajewski

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive control functions decline with increasing age. One of them is response selection that forms the link between the goals and the motor system and is therefore crucial for performance outcomes in cognitive tasks. The present study examines if different types of group-based and trainer-guided training effectively enhance performance of older adults in a task switching task, and how this expected enhancement is reflected in electrophysiological brain activity, as measured in event-related potentials (ERPs. 141 healthy participants aged 65 years and older were randomly assigned to one of four groups: physical training (combined aerobic and strength-training, cognitive training (paper-pencil and computer-aided, relaxation and wellness (social control group and a no-contact control group that did not receive any intervention. Training sessions took place twice a week for 90 minutes for a period of 4 months.The results showed a greater improvement of performance for attendants of the cognitive training group compared to the other groups. This improvement was evident in a reduction of mixing costs in accuracy and intraindividual variability of speed, indexing improved maintenance of multiple task-sets in working memory and an enhanced coherence of neuronal processing. These findings were supported by event-related brain potentials (ERP which showed higher amplitudes in a number of potentials associated with response selection (N2, allocation of cognitive resources (P3b and error detection (Ne.Taken together, our findings suggest neurocognitive plasticity of aging brains which can be stimulated by broad and multilayered cognitive training and assessed in detail by electrophysiological methods.

  3. Controlled comparison of family cognitive behavioral therapy and psychoeducation/relaxation training for child obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, John; Bergman, R Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Peris, Tara; Wood, Jeffrey J; McCracken, James

    2011-11-01

    To examine the efficacy of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus a structured family intervention (FCBT) versus psychoeducation plus relaxation training (PRT) for reducing symptom severity, functional impairment, and family accommodation in youths with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A total of 71 youngsters 8 to 17 years of age (mean 12.2 years; range, 8-17 years, 37% male, 78% Caucasian) with primary OCD were randomized (70:30) to 12 sessions over 14 weeks of FCBT or PRT. Blind raters assessed outcomes with responders followed for 6 months to assess treatment durability. FCBT led to significantly higher response rates than PRT in ITT (57.1% vs 27.3%) and completer analyses (68.3% vs. 35.3%). Using HLM, FCBT was associated with significantly greater change in OCD severity and child-reported functional impairment than PRT and marginally greater change in parent-reported accommodation of symptoms. These findings were confirmed in some, but not all, secondary analyses. Clinical remission rates were 42.5% for FCBT versus 17.6% for PRT. Reduction in family accommodation temporally preceded improvement in OCD for both groups and child functional status for FCBT only. Treatment gains were maintained at 6 months. FCBT is effective for reducing OCD severity and impairment. Importantly, treatment also reduced parent-reported involvement in symptoms with reduced accommodation preceding reduced symptom severity and functional impairment. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRY INFORMATION: Behavior Therapy for Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD); http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00000386. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cognitive training for dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konta, Brigitte

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the HTA report is to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive training methods to treat cognitive disorders of dementia and other diseases with cognitive deficits. For this purpose, a systematic literature search was carried out first based on the DIMDI superbase retrieval. The identified publications were judged and selected by two independent, methodically competent experts. 33 publications were included in the report. Based on the studies for a normal cognitive development in old age a theory that healthy older people have a considerable capacity reserve for an improved performance in abstract abilities of thinking can be assumed. The first symptoms for older people at risk for dementia are a reduced cognitive capacity reserve. Cognitive training methods therefore focus abilities of abstract memory. Apart from types of dementia another two groups of diseases with cognitive deficits were included in the HTA report: cerebral lesions and schizophrenic psychoses. Studies with mild as well as forms of dementia heavy forms including the Alzheimer disease were included. The described training methods were very heterogeneous with regard to their contents, the temporal sequence and the outcome parameter. The studies were methodically partly contestable. Approximately a third of the studies of all publications could show improvements in the cognitive achievements by the training. Three studies concerning cognitive training methods in case of cerebral lesions were included. All three studies demonstrated a significant improvement in the training group in some outcome parameters. Special cognitive training methods were used for the treatment of cognitive deficits at schizophrenic psychoses. The neurocognitive training (NET, the "Cognitive Remediation Therapy" as well as the strategic training with coaching proved to be effective. The studies, however, were hardly comparable and very heterogeneous in detail. Summarising the cognitive training

  5. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy & Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild

    Coaching is an expanding area of professional work, and recent years have brought forward the notion of cognitive coaching (Costa, 2006; Oestrich, 2005) which adapts theory and techniques from cognitive therapy to serve self-enhancement in non-clinical populations. We suggest that a cognitive...... to monitor and evaluate the learning process. The course is embedded in a graduate programme of applied cognitive, developmental and neuropsychology, and includes 92 hours (17 days spanning one academic year) of lectures and workshops on cognitive behavioural therapy and coaching. Seven behaviour competence...... coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own...

  6. The Efficacy of Relaxation Training in Treating Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesco, Pagnini; Mauro, Manzoni Gian; Gianluca, Castelnuovo; Enrico, Molinari

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a review of scientific literature about relaxation training and its effects on anxiety. Research investigating progressive relaxation, meditation, applied relaxation and autogenic training were considered. All these methods proved to be effective in reducing anxiety in all kind of samples, affected or not by physical or…

  7. Relaxation training after stroke: potential to reduce anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneebone, Ian; Walker-Samuel, Natalie; Swanston, Jennifer; Otto, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    To consider the feasibility of setting up a relaxation group to treat symptoms of post stroke anxiety in an in-patient post-acute setting; and to explore the effectiveness of relaxation training in reducing self-reported tension. A relaxation group protocol was developed in consultation with a multidisciplinary team and a user group. Over a period of 24 months, 55 stroke patients attended group autogenic relaxation training on a rehabilitation ward. Attendance ranged between one and eleven sessions. Self-reported tension was assessed pre and post relaxation training using the Tension Rating Circles (TRCs). The TRCs identified a significant reduction in self-reported tension from pre to post training, irrespective of the number of sessions attended; z = -3.656, p training. The TRCs proved acceptable to group members, but should be validated against standard anxiety measures. Further exploration of the application of relaxation techniques in clinical practice is desirable. Implications for Rehabilitation Anxiety is prevalent after stroke and likely affects rehabilitation outcomes. Relaxation training is a well proven treatment for anxiety in the non-stroke population. A significant within session reduction in tension, a hallmark symptom of anxiety, was evidenced via group relaxation training delivered in a post-acute, in-patient stroke unit setting. Relaxation training a shows promise as a treatment for anxiety after stroke.

  8. Relaxation training methods for nurse managers in Hong Kong: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Paul M B; Fung, Man Yi; Chan, Tony M F; Lau, Bernard W K

    2004-12-01

    Nurse managers are under increased stress because of excessive workloads and hospitals' restructuring which is affecting their work tasks. High levels of stress could affect their mental health. Yet, few stress management training programmes are provided for this population. The purpose of this study was to apply stretch-release relaxation and cognitive relaxation training to enhance the mental health for nurse managers. A total of 65 nurse managers in Hong Kong were randomly assigned to stretch-release relaxation (n = 17), cognitive relaxation (n = 18), and a test control group (n = 35). Mental health status was assessed using the Chinese version of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Chinese version of the General Health Questionnaire. Participants were assessed at the pretreatment session, the fourth posttreatment session, and at the 1-month follow-up session. The results revealed both the stretch-release and cognitive relaxation training enhanced mental health in nurse managers in Hong Kong. The application of relaxation training in enhancing mental health status for nurses and health professionals is discussed.

  9. Improving the Performance of Poor Readers through Autogenic Relaxation Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Herbert

    1980-01-01

    Reports that the addition of 15 minutes of relaxation training to weekly remedial reading periods for disabled readers throughout a school year raised concentration levels and decreased anxiety, neuroticism, and number of reading errors. Describes a few types of relaxation exercises that may be helpful. (ET)

  10. A cognitive-relaxation-visualisation intervention for anxiety in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cognitive-relaxation-visualisation intervention for anxiety in women with breast cancer. ... A Solomon four group design was used for the pre-diagnosis group and a pre-test - post-test control group design was utilised for the post-diagnosis group. The IPAT Anxiety Scale was used to measure the variables of overt and ...

  11. Is cognitive-behavioural therapy more effective than relaxation therapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Marin, Jesus; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; López-Montoyo, Alba; Zabaleta-Del-Olmo, Edurne; Cuijpers, Pim

    2018-07-01

    It is not clear whether relaxation therapies are more or less effective than cognitive and behavioural therapies in the treatment of anxiety. The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of relaxation techniques compared to cognitive and behavioural therapies in reducing anxiety symptoms, and whether they have comparable efficacy across disorders. We conducted a meta-analysis of 50 studies (2801 patients) comparing relaxation training with cognitive and behavioural treatments of anxiety. The overall effect size (ES) across all anxiety outcomes, with only one combined ES in each study, was g = -0.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.41 to -0.13], favouring cognitive and behavioural therapies (number needed to treat = 6.61). However, no significant difference between relaxation and cognitive and behavioural therapies was found for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder and specific phobias (considering social anxiety and specific phobias separately). Heterogeneity was moderate (I2 = 52; 95% CI = 33-65). The ES was significantly associated with age (p cognitive and/or behavioural therapy (p = 0.015), quality of intervention (p = 0.007), relaxation treatment format (p cognitive and behavioural therapies in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder and it might also be less effective at 1-year follow-up for panic, but there is no evidence that it is less effective for other anxiety disorders.

  12. Cognitive Behavioral Training and Education for Spaceflight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonmaw, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral-training (CBT) is an evidence-based practice commonly used to help treat insomnia, and is part of NASA's countermeasure regimen for Fatigue Management. CBT addresses the life style and habits of individuals that are maladaptive to managing stress and fatigue. This includes addressing learned behavioral responses that may cause stress and lead to an increased sense of fatigue. While the initial cause of onset of fatigue in the individual may be no longer present, the perception and engrained anticipation of fatigue persist and cause an exaggerated state of tension. CBT combined with relaxation training allows the individual to unlearn the maladaptive beliefs and behaviors and replace them with routines and techniques that allow cognitive restructuring and resultant relief from stress. CBT allows for elimination in individuals of unwanted ruminating thoughts and anticipatory anxiety by, for example, training the individuals to practice stressful situations in a relaxed state. As a result of CBT, relaxation can be accomplished in many ways, such as progressive muscle relaxation, meditation and guided imagery. CBT is not therapy, but rather the synthesis of behavioral countermeasures. CBT utilizes progressive relaxation as a means of reinforcing educational and cognitive countermeasures. These countermeasures include: masking, elimination of distracting thoughts, anxiety control, split attention, cognitive restructuring and other advanced psychological techniques.

  13. Strong Relaxations for the Train Timetabling Problem Using Connected Configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Frank; Schlechte, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The task of the train timetabling problem or track allocation problem is to find conflict free schedules for a set of trains with predefined routes in a railway network. Especially for non-periodic instances models based on time expanded networks are often used. Unfortunately, the linear programming relaxation of these models is often extremely weak because these models do not describe combinatorial relations like overtaking possibilities very well. In this paper we extend the model by so cal...

  14. Music training, cognition, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigall, Kathleen A; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Misura, Nicole M

    2013-01-01

    Although most studies that examined associations between music training and cognitive abilities had correlational designs, the prevailing bias is that music training causes improvements in cognition. It is also possible, however, that high-functioning children are more likely than other children to take music lessons, and that they also differ in personality. We asked whether individual differences in cognition and personality predict who takes music lessons and for how long. The participants were 118 adults (Study 1) and 167 10- to 12-year-old children (Study 2). We collected demographic information and measured cognitive ability and the Big Five personality dimensions. As in previous research, cognitive ability was associated with musical involvement even when demographic variables were controlled statistically. Novel findings indicated that personality was associated with musical involvement when demographics and cognitive ability were held constant, and that openness-to-experience was the personality dimension with the best predictive power. These findings reveal that: (1) individual differences influence who takes music lessons and for how long, (2) personality variables are at least as good as cognitive variables at predicting music training, and (3) future correlational studies of links between music training and non-musical ability should account for individual differences in personality.

  15. Music training, cognition, and personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A Corrigall

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Although most studies that examined associations between music training and cognitive abilities had correlational designs, the prevailing bias is that music training causes improvements in cognition. It is also possible, however, that high-functioning children are more likely than other children to take music lessons, and that they also differ in personality. We asked whether individual differences in cognition and personality predict who takes music lessons and for how long. The participants were 118 adults (Study 1 and 167 10- to 12-year-old children (Study 2. We collected demographic information and measured cognitive ability and the Big Five personality dimensions. As in previous research, cognitive ability was associated with musical involvement even when demographic variables were controlled statistically. Novel findings indicated that personality was associated with musical involvement when demographics and cognitive ability were held constant, and that openness-to-experience was the personality dimension with the best predictive power. These findings reveal that: (1 individual differences influence who takes music lessons and for how long, (2 personality variables are at least as good as cognitive variables at predicting music training, and (3 future correlational studies of links between music training and nonmusical ability should account for individual differences in personality.

  16. Musical training, neuroplasticity and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina; Loureiro, Maurício Alves; Caramelli, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    The influence of music on the human brain has been recently investigated in numerous studies. Several investigations have shown that structural and functional cerebral neuroplastic processes emerge as a result of long-term musical training, which in turn may produce cognitive differences between musicians and non-musicians. Musicians can be considered ideal cases for studies on brain adaptation, due to their unique and intensive training experiences. This article presents a review of recent findings showing positive effects of musical training on non-musical cognitive abilities, which probably reflect plastic changes in brains of musicians.

  17. Relaxation training for anxiety: a ten-years systematic review with meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Castelnuovo Gianluca; Pagnini Francesco; Manzoni Gian; Molinari Enrico

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Relaxation training is a common treatment for anxiety problems. Lacking is a recent quantitative meta-analysis that enhances understanding of the variability and clinical significance of anxiety reduction outcomes after relaxation treatment. Methods All studies (1997–2007), both RCT, observational and without control group, evaluating the efficacy of relaxation training (Jacobson's progressive relaxation, autogenic training, applied relaxation and meditation) for anxiety p...

  18. Reducing Anxiety and Improving Academic Performance Through a Biofeedback Relaxation Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritzeta, Aitor; Soroa, Goretti; Balluerka, Nekane; Muela, Alexander; Gorostiaga, Arantxa; Aliri, Jone

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of a biofeedback relaxation training program on anxiety and academic performance. The program consisted of five biofeedback sessions coupled with three training activities focused on deep breathing, guided imagery, and muscle relaxation. The participants were second-year psychology undergraduates from the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU, northern Spain). The experimental group comprised 152 students (M age  = 19.6, SD = 0.74; 74% women) and the control group 81 students (M age   = 19.4, SD = 0.92; 71% women). Results showed that after participating in the program, students in the experimental group had lower levels of anxiety and increased academic performance. Furthermore, they scored lower on anxiety and higher on academic performance in comparison with the control subjects. This suggests that the inclusion of biofeedback training programs in educational contexts could be a way of reducing anxiety and improving academic performance. It may also deepen our understanding of the dynamic interplay between psychophysiological, cognitive, and emotional processes.

  19. Cognitive training in Parkinson disease: cognition-specific vs nonspecific computer training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Ronan; Gschwandtner, Ute; Benz, Nina; Hatz, Florian; Schindler, Christian; Taub, Ethan; Fuhr, Peter

    2014-04-08

    In this study, we compared a cognition-specific computer-based cognitive training program with a motion-controlled computer sports game that is not cognition-specific for their ability to enhance cognitive performance in various cognitive domains in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Patients with PD were trained with either a computer program designed to enhance cognition (CogniPlus, 19 patients) or a computer sports game with motion-capturing controllers (Nintendo Wii, 20 patients). The effect of training in 5 cognitive domains was measured by neuropsychological testing at baseline and after training. Group differences over all variables were assessed with multivariate analysis of variance, and group differences in single variables were assessed with 95% confidence intervals of mean difference. The groups were similar regarding age, sex, and educational level. Patients with PD who were trained with Wii for 4 weeks performed better in attention (95% confidence interval: -1.49 to -0.11) than patients trained with CogniPlus. In our study, patients with PD derived at least the same degree of cognitive benefit from non-cognition-specific training involving movement as from cognition-specific computerized training. For patients with PD, game consoles may be a less expensive and more entertaining alternative to computer programs specifically designed for cognitive training. This study provides Class III evidence that, in patients with PD, cognition-specific computer-based training is not superior to a motion-controlled computer game in improving cognitive performance.

  20. Psychophysiological correlates of relaxation induced by standard autogenic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, N; Kubota, S; Nagata, S

    1999-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the psychophysiological changes induced in subjects by standard autogenic training (AT). Physiological measurements were taken under strict experimental conditions. Thirty-one healthy students were divided randomly into two groups: the AT group and the control group. In the first session, the physiological variables were measured for all students before and after all were asked to relax in their own way. The AT group were then taught AT for 3 months, after which time the measurements were repeated. In the second session, the AT group practised the standard AT exercise, while the control group repeated their own form of simple relaxation. Electrocardiogram, plethysmogram (PTG) and blood pressure (BP) were measured while the students carried out a breathing rate of 15 cycles/min. The R-R intervals and BP were analysed by an autoregressive model for spectral analysis, and the data were compared by repeated-measures ANOVA. The AT group had a significant increase in the mean R-R interval and a significant decrease in the baseline deflection of the PTG in the second session. There were no significant changes in sympathetic activity except for the change in the PTG, although low frequency amplitude of systolic BP decreased slightly. AT was found to induce significant changes that were independent of respiration in healthy students, although paced breathing might have operated as a mental stress. The increase in mean R-R interval and the decrease in baseline deflection of the PTG were the most robust correlates of AT.

  1. A Comparison of Paraprofessionally Trained and Self-Instructed Relaxation Training for the Reduction in Frequency of Tension Headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Bruce W.; Utz, Patrick W.

    Previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of using paraprofessional trainers in teaching students with tension headaches to relax, thus reducing the frequency of their headaches. A technique for automated self-instructed relaxation training was compared to a paraprofessionally trained group and a no-treatment control group over a 3-week…

  2. COGNITIVE RESERVE IN DEMENTIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR COGNITIVE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eMondini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive reserve (CR is a potential mechanism to cope with brain damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cognitive reserve on a cognitive training (CT in a group of patients with dementia. 86 participants with mild to moderate dementia were identified by their level of CR quantified by the Cognitive Reserve Index questionnaire (CRIq and underwent a cycle of CT. A global measure of cognition (MMSE was obtained before (T0 and after (T1 the training. Multiple linear regression analyses highlighted CR as a significant factor able to predict changes in cognitive performance after the CT. In particular, patients with lower CR benefited from a CT program more than those with high CR. These data show that CR can modulate the outcome of a CT program and that it should be considered as a predictive factor of neuropsychological rehabilitation training efficacy in people with dementia.

  3. Twelve month follow-up on a randomised controlled trial of relaxation training for post-stroke anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Katherine; Fife-Schaw, Chris; Kneebone, Ian

    2017-09-01

    To follow up participants in a randomised controlled trial of relaxation training for anxiety after stroke at 12 months. Twelve month follow-up to a randomised controlled trial, in which the control group also received treatment. Community. Fifteen of twenty one original participants with post-stroke anxiety participated in a one year follow-up study. A self-help autogenic relaxation CD listened to five times a week for one month, immediately in the intervention group and after three months in the control group. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety subscale and the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status for inclusion. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety subscale for outcome. All measures were administered by phone. Anxiety ratings reduced significantly between pre and post-intervention, and between pre-intervention and one year follow-up ( χ 2 (2) = 22.29, p autogenic relaxation CD appear to be maintained after one year.

  4. Relaxation training for anxiety: a ten-years systematic review with meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Pagnini, Francesco; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Molinari, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    Background Relaxation training is a common treatment for anxiety problems. Lacking is a recent quantitative meta-analysis that enhances understanding of the variability and clinical significance of anxiety reduction outcomes after relaxation treatment. Methods All studies (1997–2007), both RCT, observational and without control group, evaluating the efficacy of relaxation training (Jacobson's progressive relaxation, autogenic training, applied relaxation and meditation) for anxiety problems and disorders were identified by comprehensive electronic searches with Pubmed, Psychinfo and Cochrane Registers, by checking references of relevant studies and of other reviews. Our primary outcome was anxiety measured with psychometric questionnaires. Meta-analysis was undertaken synthesizing the data from all trials, distinguishing within and between effect sizes. Results 27 studies qualified for the inclusion in the meta-analysis. As hypothesized, relaxation training showed a medium-large effect size in the treatment of anxiety. Cohen's d was .57 (95% CI: .52 to .68) in the within analysis and .51 (95% CI: .46 to .634) in the between group analysis. Efficacy was higher for meditation, among volunteers and for longer treatments. Implications and limitations are discussed. Conclusion The results show consistent and significant efficacy of relaxation training in reducing anxiety. This meta-analysis extends the existing literature through facilitation of a better understanding of the variability and clinical significance of anxiety improvement subsequent to relaxation training. PMID:18518981

  5. Relaxation training for anxiety: a ten-years systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Pagnini, Francesco; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Molinari, Enrico

    2008-06-02

    Relaxation training is a common treatment for anxiety problems. Lacking is a recent quantitative meta-analysis that enhances understanding of the variability and clinical significance of anxiety reduction outcomes after relaxation treatment. All studies (1997-2007), both RCT, observational and without control group, evaluating the efficacy of relaxation training (Jacobson's progressive relaxation, autogenic training, applied relaxation and meditation) for anxiety problems and disorders were identified by comprehensive electronic searches with Pubmed, Psychinfo and Cochrane Registers, by checking references of relevant studies and of other reviews. Our primary outcome was anxiety measured with psychometric questionnaires. Meta-analysis was undertaken synthesizing the data from all trials, distinguishing within and between effect sizes. 27 studies qualified for the inclusion in the meta-analysis. As hypothesized, relaxation training showed a medium-large effect size in the treatment of anxiety. Cohen's d was .57 (95% CI: .52 to .68) in the within analysis and .51 (95% CI: .46 to .634) in the between group analysis. Efficacy was higher for meditation, among volunteers and for longer treatments. Implications and limitations are discussed. The results show consistent and significant efficacy of relaxation training in reducing anxiety. This meta-analysis extends the existing literature through facilitation of a better understanding of the variability and clinical significance of anxiety improvement subsequent to relaxation training.

  6. Relaxation training for anxiety: a ten-years systematic review with meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castelnuovo Gianluca

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relaxation training is a common treatment for anxiety problems. Lacking is a recent quantitative meta-analysis that enhances understanding of the variability and clinical significance of anxiety reduction outcomes after relaxation treatment. Methods All studies (1997–2007, both RCT, observational and without control group, evaluating the efficacy of relaxation training (Jacobson's progressive relaxation, autogenic training, applied relaxation and meditation for anxiety problems and disorders were identified by comprehensive electronic searches with Pubmed, Psychinfo and Cochrane Registers, by checking references of relevant studies and of other reviews. Our primary outcome was anxiety measured with psychometric questionnaires. Meta-analysis was undertaken synthesizing the data from all trials, distinguishing within and between effect sizes. Results 27 studies qualified for the inclusion in the meta-analysis. As hypothesized, relaxation training showed a medium-large effect size in the treatment of anxiety. Cohen's d was .57 (95% CI: .52 to .68 in the within analysis and .51 (95% CI: .46 to .634 in the between group analysis. Efficacy was higher for meditation, among volunteers and for longer treatments. Implications and limitations are discussed. Conclusion The results show consistent and significant efficacy of relaxation training in reducing anxiety. This meta-analysis extends the existing literature through facilitation of a better understanding of the variability and clinical significance of anxiety improvement subsequent to relaxation training.

  7. Analysis and training of cognitive skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumaw, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Cognitive skills (e.g., decision making, problem solving) are critical to many jobs in the nuclear power industry, and yet the standard approach to training development does not always train these skills most effectively. In most cases, these skills are not described in sufficient detail, and training programs fail to address them explicitly. Cognitive psychologists have developed a set of techniques, based on analysis of expertise, for describing cognitive skills in more detail. These techniques incorporate a diverse set of human performance measures. An example is given to illustrate a method for determining how experts represent problems mentally. Cognitive psychologists have also established a set of empirical findings concerning skill acquisition. These findings can be used to provide some general rules for structuring the training of cognitive skills

  8. Can cognitive training improve episodic memory?

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganath, Charan; Flegal, Kristin E.; Kelly, Laura L.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroscience-inspired approaches to train cognitive abilities are bringing about a paradigm shift in the way scientists view the treatment of memory dysfunction, but it can be challenging to prove whether such approaches have significant effects.

  9. Cognitive Load in Mastoidectomy Skills Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier; Konge, Lars

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The cognitive load (CL) theoretical framework suggests that working memory is limited, which has implications for learning and skills acquisition. Complex learning situations such as surgical skills training can potentially induce a cognitive overload, inhibiting learning. This study...... aims to compare CL in traditional cadaveric dissection training and virtual reality (VR) simulation training of mastoidectomy. DESIGN: A prospective, crossover study. Participants performed cadaveric dissection before VR simulation of the procedure or vice versa. CL was estimated by secondary...... surgical skills can be a challenge for the novice and mastoidectomy skills training could potentially be optimized by employing VR simulation training first because of the lower CL. Traditional dissection training could then be used to supplement skills training after basic competencies have been acquired...

  10. Autogenic Training Relaxation Helping Postpartum Mothers to Achieve Successful Breastfeeding on Early Lactation Period

    OpenAIRE

    Juanita, Farida

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The numbers of breastfeeding failures are mostly caused by mothers` disbelief to themselves. One method that can be done to overcome these problems in accordance with the self-care nursing theory is the autogenic training relaxation. This method teaches mothers to be self-sufficient in building a positive intention and motivation to help the process of breastfeeding. This study aimed to examine the influence of autogenic training relaxation to the effectiveness of breastfeeding ...

  11. Is cognitive behavioral therapy more effective than relaxation therapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders? A meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montero Marin, J.; Garcia-Campayo, J.; López-Montoyo, A.; Zabaleta-del-Olmo, E.; Cuijpers, P.

    2017-01-01

    Background It is not clear whether relaxation therapies are more or less effective than cognitive and behavioural therapies in the treatment of anxiety. The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of relaxation techniques compared to cognitive and behavioural therapies in reducing

  12. Cognitive Therapy Versus Exposure and Applied Relaxation in Social Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David M.; Ehlers, Anke; Hackmann, Ann; McManus, Freda; Fennell, Melanie; Grey, Nick; Waddington, Louise; Wild, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    A new cognitive therapy (CT) program was compared with an established behavioral treatment. Sixty-two patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria for social phobia were randomly assigned to CT, exposure plus applied relaxation (EXP = AR), or wait-list (WAIT). CT…

  13. Biofeedback-assisted relaxation training to decrease test anxiety in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Catherine A; Yucha, Carolyn B

    2013-01-01

    Nursing students experiencing debilitating test anxiety may be unable to demonstrate their knowledge and have potential for poor academic performance. A biofeedback-assisted relaxation training program was created to reduce test anxiety. Anxiety was measured using Spielberger's Test Anxiety Inventory and monitoring peripheral skin temperature, pulse, and respiration rates during the training. Participants were introduced to diaphragmatic breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, and autogenic training. Statistically significant changes occurred in respiratory rates and skin temperatures during the diaphragmatic breathing session; respiratory rates and peripheral skin temperatures during progressive muscle relaxation session; respiratory and pulse rates, and peripheral skin temperatures during the autogenic sessions. No statistically significant difference was noted between the first and second TAI. Subjective test anxiety scores of the students did not decrease by the end of training. Autogenic training session was most effective in showing a statistically significant change in decreased respiratory and pulse rates and increased peripheral skin temperature.

  14. Comparing the influence of relaxation training and consumption of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sleep disturbance is one of the symptoms of menopause, which occurs due to a decrease in sex hormones and dramatically affects the quality of life. This study was designed to compare the effects of relaxation and Valerian on insomnia of menopause women. Methods: The study was a randomized clinical ...

  15. The benefit of heart rate variability biofeedback and relaxation training in reducing trait anxiety†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Kim, Jung K; Wachholtz, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Previous research studies have indicated that biofeedback treatment and relaxation techniques are effective in reducing psychological and physical symptoms (Hammond, 2005; Manzoni, G. M., Pagnini, F., Castelnuovo, G., & Molinari, E., 2008). However, dearth of studies has compared heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback treatment and relaxation training to reduce trait anxiety. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of HRV biofeedback treatment and relaxation training in reducing trait anxiety compared to control group without any treatment using students in a science and engineering university of South Korea. For the present study, a total of 15 graduate students with moderate level of trait anxiety were recruited for 4 individual sessions every two weeks. They were randomly assigned into three groups: biofeedback treatment (n = 5), relaxation training (n = 5), and no treatment control group (n = 5). Our results revealed significant difference in change score of trait anxiety between the HRV biofeedback treatment and the no treatment control group. However, no significant difference was found between the relaxation training group and the no treatment control group. In addition, there was no significant difference between the HRV biofeedback treatment and the relaxation training. Results of the present study indicate that there is potential benefit in utilizing HRV biofeedback treatment for stress management programs and/or anxiety reduction treatment PMID:27099546

  16. Computer-Based Cognitive Training in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimova, Blanka

    2016-01-01

    At present there is a rapid growth of aging population groups worldwide, which brings about serious economic and social problems. Thus, there is considerable effort to prolong the active life of these older people and keep them independent. The purpose of this mini review is to explore available clinical studies implementing computer-based cognitive training programs as intervention tools in the prevention and delay of cognitive decline in aging, with a special focus on their effectiveness. This was done by conducting a literature search in the databases Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE and Springer, and consequently by evaluating the findings of the relevant studies. The findings show that computerized cognitive training can lead to the improvement of cognitive functions such as working memory and reasoning skills in particular. However, this training should be performed over a longer time span since a short-term cognitive training mainly has an impact on short-term memory with temporary effects. In addition, the training must be intense to become effective. Furthermore, the results indicate that it is important to pay close attention to the methodological standards in future clinical studies.

  17. The Effects of Progressive Relaxation and Music on Attention, Relaxation, and Stress Responses: An Investigation of the Cognitive-Behavioral Model of Relaxation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scheufele, Peter

    1999-01-01

    ...) suggested that stress management techniques have specific effects A compromise position suggests that the specific effects of relaxation techniques are superimposed upon a general relaxation response...

  18. Clinical and Cognitive Insight in a Compensatory Cognitive Training Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Cynthia Z.; Vella, Lea; Twamley, Elizabeth W.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of limited insight is a crucial consideration in the treatment of individuals with psychiatric illness. In the context of psychosis, both clinical and cognitive insight have been described. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between clinical and cognitive insight and neuropsychological functioning, psychiatric symptom severity, and everyday functioning in patients with a primary psychotic disorder participating in a compensatory cognitive training (CT) intervention. Sixty-nine individuals diagnosed with a primary psychotic disorder were randomized to a 3-month CT intervention or to standard pharmacotherapy, and they completed a comprehensive neuropsychological, clinical, and functional battery at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The CT intervention focused on habit formation and compensatory strategy learning in four domains: prospective memory, attention and vigilance, learning and memory, and problem-solving/cognitive flexibility. At baseline, better clinical insight was significantly related to better executive functioning and less severe negative symptoms. There was no significant association between cognitive insight and cognitive functioning, symptom severity, or everyday functioning ability. The CT intervention did not have an effect on clinical or cognitive insight, but better cognitive insight prior to participation in CT significantly predicted decreased positive and depressive symptom severity posttreatment, and better clinical insight predicted improved self-reported quality of life. Although clinical insight is related to executive functioning, the correlates of cognitive insight remain elusive. Intact insight appears to be beneficial in ameliorating clinical symptomatology like positive symptoms and depression, rather than augmenting cognition. It may be valuable to develop brief interventions aimed at improving clinical and cognitive insight prior to other psychosocial rehabilitation in order to maximize the benefit of

  19. Conceptual Framework for Therapeutic Training with Biofeedback in Virtual Reality: First Evaluation of a Relaxation Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fominykh, Mikhail; Prasolova-Førland, Ekaterina; Stiles, Tore C.; Krogh, Anne Berit; Linde, Mattias

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a concept for designing low-cost therapeutic training with biofeedback and virtual reality. We completed the first evaluation of a prototype--a mobile learning application for relaxation training, primarily for adolescents suffering from tension-type headaches. The system delivers visual experience on a head-mounted display. A…

  20. Effects of Anger Awareness and Expression Training versus Relaxation Training on Headaches: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin-Spenny, Olga; Lumley, Mark A.; Thakur, Elyse R.; Nevedal, Dana C.; Hijazi, Alaa M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Stress contributes to headaches, and effective interventions for headaches routinely include relaxation training (RT) to directly reduce negative emotions and arousal. Yet, suppressing negative emotions, particularly anger, appears to augment pain, and experimental studies suggest that expressing anger may reduce pain. Therefore, we developed and tested anger awareness and expression training (AAET) on people with headaches. Methods Young adults with headaches (N = 147) were randomized to AAET, RT, or a wait-list control. We assessed affect during sessions, and process and outcome variables at baseline and 4 weeks after treatment. Results On process measures, both interventions increased self-efficacy to manage headaches, but only AAET reduced alexithymia and increased emotional processing and assertiveness. Yet, both interventions were equally effective at improving headache outcomes relative to controls. Conclusions Enhancing anger awareness and expression may improve chronic headaches, although not more than RT. Researchers should study which patients are most likely to benefit from emotional expression versus emotional reduction approaches to chronic pain. PMID:23620190

  1. Behavioral Relaxation Training for Parkinson's Disease Related Dyskinesia and Comorbid Social Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Pahwa, Rajesh; Lyons, Kelly E.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of brief Behavioral Relaxation Training (BRT) on anxiety and dyskinesia of a 57-year-old female, with an 11-year history of Parkinson's disease (PD) and 18-months post-deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, were evaluated. Multiple process and outcome measures were used including the Clinical Anxiety Scale (CAS), Subjective…

  2. Action video game training for cognitive enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Green, C. Shawn; Bavelier, Daphné

    2015-01-01

    Here we review the literature examining the perceptual, attentional, and cognitive benefits of playing one sub-type of video games known as ‘action video games,’ as well as the mechanistic underpinnings of these behavioral effects. We then outline evidence indicating the potential usefulness of these commercial off-the-shelf games for practical, real-world applications such as rehabilitation or the training of job-related skills. Finally, we discuss potential core characteristics of action vi...

  3. Stress Inoculation through Cognitive and Biofeedback Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    eLearning will motivate younger personnel to use these mobile devices and gain the training benefits; Utilizing Stress Productively The key...cognitive performance is high. Athletes call this THE ZONE. Game-Based eLearning It is clear that many of the effects of combat and...game-based eLearning framework. In Phase II the major development steps will be: (1) to implement the complete system on a mobile handheld device

  4. Musical Training and Late-Life Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Lori F; Abner, Erin L; Jicha, Gregory A; Kryscio, Richard J; Schmitt, Fredrick A

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of early- to midlife musical training on cognition in older adults. A musical training survey examined self-reported musical experience and objective knowledge in 237 cognitively intact participants. Responses were classified into low-, medium-, and high-knowledge groups. Linear mixed models compared the groups' longitudinal performance on the Animal Naming Test (ANT; semantic verbal fluency) and Logical Memory Story A Immediate Recall (LMI; episodic memory) controlling for baseline age, time since baseline, education, sex, and full-scale IQ. Results indicate that high-knowledge participants had significantly higher LMI scores at baseline and over time compared to low-knowledge participants. The ANT scores did not differ among the groups. Ability to read music was associated with higher mean scores for both ANT and LMI over time. Early- to midlife musical training may be associated with improved late-life episodic and semantic memory as well as a useful marker of cognitive reserve. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. DO FOOT REFLEXOLOGY AND RELAXATION TRAINING DECREASE PREMENSTRUAL SYMPTOMS IN ADOLESCENT FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa A. Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premenstrual syndrome is a current condition characterized by troublesome symptoms as tension, irritability, depression, headache, anxiety and loss of self-control, so the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of foot reflexology augmented with relaxation training on premenstrual syndrome in adolescent females. Methods: A sample of 50 volunteers, virgin females diagnosed as premenstrual syndrome was selected from the students of Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University. Their age was ranged between 19 to 23 years with mean value of (21.53±2.27 yrs and BMI was ≤28 Kg/m² with mean value of (24.04±2.41 Kg/m².A detailed medical history was obtained to screen other pathological conditions that may affect the results. Females were randomly assigned into two equal groups. Group (A consisted of 25 subjects who received foot reflexology in addition to relaxation training techniques twice a week for 8 weeks. Group (B consisted of 25 patients, who received relaxation training techniques only twice a week for 8 weeks. Assessment of all subjects in both groups was carried out before and after the treatment program through heart rate, respiratory rate in addition to plasma cortisol level and daily symptoms report chart. Results: Showed a statistical highly significant decrease (p<0.001 in heart rate, respiratory rate, plasma cortisol level as well as daily symptoms report score in group (A while there was a statistical significant decrease (p<0.05 in all variables in group (B. Conclusions: Adding foot reflexology to relaxation training had a great positive effect on premenstrual syndrome in adolescent females than relaxation training only.

  6. A cognitive-relaxation-visualisation intervention for anxiety in women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colinda D Linde

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was twofold. Firstly, to design a cognitive-relaxation-visualisation intervention with the aim of reducing both overt and covert anxiety associated with the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie studie was tweeledig. Eerstens is daar gepoog om ‘n kognitiewe ontspanningsvisualiserings-intervensie te ontwerp wat die vermindering van overte en koverte angs geassosieer met die diagnose en behandeling van borskanker ten doel het. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  7. AUTOGENIC TRAINING RELAXATION HELPING POSTPARTUM MOTHERS TO ACHIEVE SUCCESSFUL BREASTFEEDING ON EARLY LACTATION PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Juanita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The numbers of breastfeeding failures are mostly caused by mothers` disbelief to themselves. One method that can be done to overcome these problems in accordance with the self-care nursing theory is the autogenic training relaxation. This method teaches mothers to be self-sufficient in building a positive intention and motivation to help the process of breastfeeding. This study aimed to examine the influence of autogenic training relaxation to the effectiveness of breastfeeding and the enhancement of breast milk volume on maternal postpartum. Method: By using an experimental posttest only-non equivalent control group design, 26 samples were taken based on the criteria and divided into two groups by matching technuiqe. autogenic training was given through MP3 Player for 3 weeks. Post-test observation conducted on the third week by home visit. Via Christi Breastfeeding Assessment Tool Jan Riordan modifications used to assess the effectiveness of breastfeeding, and to measure the milk ejection volume, used weighing test using electronic baby scales. Data were analyzed using one-tailed independent t test with α ≤ 0.05. Result: The analysis showed that mothers who did autogenic training relaxation could breastfeed more effectively and had greater average volume of milk ejection than the control group (p = 0.000 and p = 0.001. Discussion: It can be concluded that autogenic relaxation training techniques affect the effectiveness of breastfeeding and breast milk volume. These results can be considered that autogenic training as an intervention in program of support for breastfeeding mothers.

  8. Short- and long-term benefits of cognitive training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeggi, Susanne M; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Shah, Priti

    2011-06-21

    Does cognitive training work? There are numerous commercial training interventions claiming to improve general mental capacity; however, the scientific evidence for such claims is sparse. Nevertheless, there is accumulating evidence that certain cognitive interventions are effective. Here we provide evidence for the effectiveness of cognitive (often called "brain") training. However, we demonstrate that there are important individual differences that determine training and transfer. We trained elementary and middle school children by means of a videogame-like working memory task. We found that only children who considerably improved on the training task showed a performance increase on untrained fluid intelligence tasks. This improvement was larger than the improvement of a control group who trained on a knowledge-based task that did not engage working memory; further, this differential pattern remained intact even after a 3-mo hiatus from training. We conclude that cognitive training can be effective and long-lasting, but that there are limiting factors that must be considered to evaluate the effects of this training, one of which is individual differences in training performance. We propose that future research should not investigate whether cognitive training works, but rather should determine what training regimens and what training conditions result in the best transfer effects, investigate the underlying neural and cognitive mechanisms, and finally, investigate for whom cognitive training is most useful.

  9. The Role of Relaxation Training to Pregnant Mothers on Health Index of Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Mosaviasl

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Investigations have shown that the emotional stress during the pregnancy period could have sustainable effects on the embryo. Different factors such as family members, spouse, supporting friends could relive these effects, but coping skills especially relaxation could be more effective on stress. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of relaxation training to pregnant mothers on health index such as Apgar index, weight, height, and cowlick grade in infants. Materials & Methods: This is a clinical trail in which 100 pregnant women who referred to health center of Yasuj (2006-2008 were selected using simple sampling method and assigned randomly to case and control groups. The relaxation was taught to the case group whereas nothing was taught to control groups. At the time of delivery the above mentioned indices were assessed. The gathered data was analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The results showed a significant difference between two groups in weight, height, cephalic index, and colic grade (with better situation in case group. There was no significant difference between two groups in Apgar scores. Conclusion: Considering the results of this study, it seems that teaching of relaxation to pregnant women could be effective in health index of children especially in the time of delivery. Therefore attention should be paid to different methods for reducing the stress in this group of mothers. Keywords: relaxation, pregnant women, infants, Apgar scores

  10. Who is in charge? The impact of home-based computerized cognitive training on the Cognitive Training Alliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This case study observes and analyses how home-based computerized cognitive rehabilitation training impacts the relationship between the patient and home training assistants being either the spouse or paid care takers. The use of computerized cognitive training at home is fairly new...... to the emotional challenges of being a training assistant. A Cognitive Training Alliance model for a cognitive training alliance is proposed which takes into consideration the challenges of delegating training responsibility to computers and home-based assistants. Conclusion: It is important to understand how...... the use of computerized cognitive training in clinics or at home influences the training alliance to avoid or diminish frustration on the part of the patients and assistants....

  11. The Effect of Relaxation Training on Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Demiralp

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of progressive muscle relaxation training on anxiety and depression in Turkish women with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy. METHOD: Data were collected between March 2005–2006. The sample of the study consisted of 27 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients who had planned to be cured with adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients who met these study criteria were accepted to the research programme and assigned to one of two groups, either progressive muscle relaxation (PMR group (n = 14 or control (n = 13 group sequentially. The effect of the progressive muscle relaxation training was measured at different stages of the treatment. A data collection form and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used to collect the data. In our research, for statistical analysis of data, parametric and nonparametric tests were used according to data range. Values of p0.05. CONCLUSION: Consequently, it was determined that relaxation exercises have no any significant effect on the symptoms of anxiety and depression alone. Based upon these results it was suggested that anxiety and depression symptoms must be assessed again by using different intervention modalities with different research designs and instruments. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 165-174

  12. Relaxation Training and Postoperative Music Therapy for Adolescents Undergoing Spinal Fusion Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kirsten; Adamek, Mary; Kleiber, Charmaine

    2017-02-01

    Spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis is one of the most painful surgeries experienced by adolescents. Music therapy, utilizing music-assisted relaxation with controlled breathing and imagery, is a promising intervention for reducing pain and anxiety for these patients. It can be challenging to teach new coping strategies to post-operative patients who are already in pain. This study evaluated the effects of introducing music-assisted relaxation training to adolescents before surgery. Outcome measures were self-reported pain and anxiety, recorded on 0-10 numeric rating scale, and observed behavioral indicators of pain and relaxation. The training intervention was a 12-minute video about music-assisted relaxation with opportunities to practice before surgery. Forty-four participants between the ages of 10 and 19 were enrolled. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental group that watched the video at the preoperative visit or to the control group that did not watch the video. All subjects received a music therapy session with a board certified music therapist on post-operative day 2 while out of bed for the first time. Pain and anxiety were significantly reduced from immediately pre-therapy to post-therapy (paired t-test; p). Copyright © 2016 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship between mode of sport training and general cognitive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Chih-Hung Chang

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: These findings indicate that the mode of sport training, which results in either high cardiovascular or high motor fitness, bears no relationship to measures of general cognition in elite athletes. The present findings suggest that coaches and athletic trainers should be encouraged to monitor athletes' stress levels during training in order to maximize the beneficial effects of such training on general cognitive performance.

  14. [The effect of EMG level by EMG biofeedback with progressive muscle relaxation training on tension headache].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, U J; Kim, N C; Kim, H S

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess if EMG biofeedback training with progressive muscle relaxation training is effective in reducing the EMG level in patients with tension headaches. This study which lasted from 23 October to 30 December 1989, was conducted on 10 females who were diagnosed as patients with tension headaches and selected from among volunteers at C. University in Seoul. The process of the study was as follows: First, before the treatment, the baseline was measured for two weeks and the level of EMG was measured five times in five minutes. And then EMG biofeedback training was used for six weeks, 12 sessions in all, and progressive muscle relaxation was done at home by audio tape over eight weeks. Each session was composed of a 5-minute baseline, two 5-minute EMG biofeedback training periods and a 5-minute self-control stage. Each stage was followed by a five minute rest period. So each session took a total of 40 minutes. The EMG level was measured by EMG biofeedback (Autogenic-Cyborg: M 130 EMG module). The results were as follows: 1. The average age of the subjects was 44.1 years and the average history of headache was 10.6 years (range: 6 months-20 years). 2. The level of EMG was lowest between the third and the fourth week of the training except in Cases I and IV. 3. The patients began to show a nonconciliatory attitude at the first session of the fifth week of the training.

  15. Comparison of sensory modes of biofeedback in relaxation training of frontalis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of various sensory modes of EMG biofeedback to relaxation training of the frontalis muscle. 19 male and 29 female subjects were randomly selected from a pool of college volunteers. They were then randomly assigned 12 each to audiofeedback, visual feedback, audiovisual feedback, and no feedback groups. There were 11 20-min. sessions per subject. Subjects in the biofeedback groups were trained to reduce muscle tension voluntarily by utilizing Cyborg J33 EMG portable trainers. The subjects in the three feedback groups exhibited significantly lower muscle tension than did the subjects in the no-feedback control group. There were no significant differences in relaxation among the three feedback groups.

  16. Intradialytic Cognitive and Exercise Training May Preserve Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A; Konel, Jonathan; Warsame, Fatima; Ying, Hao; Fernández, Marlís González; Carlson, Michelle C; Fine, Derek M; Appel, Lawrence J; Segev, Dorry L

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive decline is common and increases mortality risk in hemodialysis patients. Intradialytic interventions like cognitive training (CT) and exercise training (ET) may preserve cognitive function. We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial of 20 hemodialysis patients to study the impact of 3 months of intradialytic CT (tablet-based brain games) (n = 7), ET (foot peddlers) (n = 6), or standard of care (SC) (n = 7) on cognitive function. Global cognitive function was measured by the Modified Mini Mental Status Exam (3MS), psychomotor speed was measured by Trail Making Tests A and B (TMTA and TMTB), and executive function was assessed by subtracting (TMTB - TMTA). Lower 3MS scores and slower TMTA and TMTB times reflected worse cognitive function. P values for differences were generated using analysis of variance, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and P values were generated from linear regression. Patients with SC experienced a decrease in psychomotor speed and executive function by 3 months (TMTA: 15 seconds; P  = 0.055; TMTB: 47.4 seconds; P  = 0.006; TMTB - TMTA; 31.7 seconds; P  = 0.052); this decline was not seen among those with CT or ET (all P > 0.05). Compared with SC, the difference in the mean change in 3MS score was -3.29 points (95% CI: -11.70 to 5.12; P  = 0.42) for CT and 4.48 points (95% CI: -4.27 to 13.22; P  = 0.30) for ET. Compared with SC, the difference in mean change for TMTA was -15.13 seconds (95% CI: -37.64 to 7.39; P  = 0.17) for CT and -17.48 seconds (95% CI: -41.18 to 6.22; P  = 0.14) for ET, for TMTB, the difference was -46.72 seconds (95% CI: -91.12 to -2.31; P  = 0.04) for CT and -56.21 seconds (95% CI: -105.86 to -6.56; P  = 0.03) for ET, and for TMTB - TMTA, the difference was -30.88 seconds (95% CI: -76.05 to 14.28; P  = 0.16) for CT and -34.93 seconds (95% CI: -85.43 to 15.56; P  = 0.16) for ET. Preliminary findings of our pilot study suggested that cognitive decline in psychomotor speed

  17. Mental training, relaxation techniques and pedagogical instructions to reduce Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) in flute students

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Viejo Llaneza; Ana Laucirica Larrinaga

    2016-01-01

    Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) is, frequently, one of the problems faced by a musical performer in his or her career. This study observes way in which stage fright affects in musicians, which is a possible factor that may later lead to anxiety in public performances and, furthermore, how we can intervene to mitigate or reduce its effects. An initial interview was conducted with four upper division students of transverse flute. This was followed by some training techniques - relaxation techni...

  18. Combined Cognitive Training vs. Memory Strategy Training in Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Zhu, Xinyi; Hou, Jianhua; Chen, Tingji; Wang, Pengyun; Li, Juan

    2016-01-01

    As mnemonic utilization deficit in older adults associates with age-related decline in executive function, we hypothesized that memory strategy training combined with executive function training might induce larger training effect in memory and broader training effects in non-memory outcomes than pure memory training. The present study compared the effects of combined cognitive training (executive function training plus memory strategy training) to pure memory strategy training. Forty healthy older adults were randomly assigned to a combined cognitive training group or a memory strategy training group. A control group receiving no training was also included. Combined cognitive training group received 16 sessions of training (eight sessions of executive function training followed by eight sessions of memory strategy training). Memory training group received 16 sessions of memory strategy training. The results partly supported our hypothesis in that indeed improved performance on executive function was only found in combined training group, whereas memory performance increased less in combined training compared to memory strategy group. Results suggest that combined cognitive training may be less efficient than pure memory training in memory outcomes, though the influences from insufficient training time and less closeness between trained executive function and working memory could not be excluded; however it has broader training effects in non-memory outcomes. Clinical Trial Registration: www.chictr.org.cn, identifier ChiCTR-OON-16007793. PMID:27375521

  19. Using serious games to (re) train cognition in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boendermaker, W.J.; Peeters, M.; Prins, P.J.M.; Wiers, R.W.; Ma, M.; Oikonomou, A.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive training has been studied in the context of many psychological disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, depression, and addiction. While several studies have found clinically relevant training effects, both in preclinical (experimental) and in clinical

  20. Using Serious Games to (re)train Cognition in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boendermaker, W. J.; Peeters, M.; Prins, P. J. M.; Wiers, R. W.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive training has been studied in the context of many psychological disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, depression, and addiction. While several studies have found clinically relevant training effects, both in preclinical (experimental) and in clinical

  1. Cognitive Training Programme in the Decrease of Stress of Daily ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cognitive Training Programme in the Decrease of Stress of Daily ... which involves, teaching mnemonic strategies: organization, visualization and association for ... and they should be made to participate in training to focus on thinking ability to ...

  2. Cognitive Task Analysis Based Training for Cyber Situation Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Huang , Zequn; Shen , Chien-Chung; Doshi , Sheetal; Thomas , Nimmi; Duong , Ha

    2015-01-01

    Part 1: Innovative Methods; International audience; Cyber attacks have been increasing significantly in both number and complexity, prompting the need for better training of cyber defense analysts. To conduct effective training for cyber situation awareness, it becomes essential to design realistic training scenarios. In this paper, we present a Cognitive Task Analysis based approach to address this training need. The technique of Cognitive Task Analysis is to capture and represent knowledge ...

  3. Positive Effects of Computer-Based Cognitive Training in Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, C.; Chambon, C.; Michel, B. F.; Paban, V.; Alescio-Lautier, B.

    2012-01-01

    Considering the high risk for individuals with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (A-MCI) to progress towards Alzheimer's disease (AD), we investigated the efficacy of a non-pharmacological intervention, that is, cognitive training that could reduce cognitive difficulties and delay the cognitive decline. For this, we evaluated the efficacy of a…

  4. Training writing skills: A cognitive development perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellogg, Ronald T.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Writing skills typically develop over a course of more than two decades as a child matures and learns the craft of composition through late adolescence and into early adulthood. The novice writer progresses from a stage of knowledge-telling to a stage of knowledgetransforming characteristic of adult writers. Professional writers advance further to an expert stage of knowledge-crafting in which representations of the author's planned content, the text itself, and the prospective reader's interpretation of the text are routinely manipulated in working memory. Knowledge-transforming, and especially knowledge-crafting, arguably occur only when sufficient executive attention is available to provide a high degree of cognitive control over the maintenance of multiple representations of the text as well as planning conceptual content, generating text, and reviewing content and text. Because executive attention is limited in capacity, such control depends on reducing the working memory demands of these writing processes through maturation and learning. It is suggested that students might best learn writing skills through cognitive apprenticeship training programs that emphasize deliberate practice.

  5. Effects of Cogmed working memory training on cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherton, Joseph L; Oberle, Crystal D; Rhoton, Jayson; Ney, Ashley

    2018-04-16

    Research on the cognitive benefits of working memory training programs has produced inconsistent results. Such research has frequently used laboratory-specific training tasks, or dual-task n-back training. The current study used the commercial Cogmed Working Memory (WM) Training program, involving several different training tasks involving visual and auditory input. Healthy college undergraduates were assigned to either the full Cogmed training program of 25, 40-min training sessions; an abbreviated Cogmed program of 25, 20-min training sessions; or a no-contact control group. Pretest and posttest measures included multiple measures of attention, working memory, fluid intelligence, and executive functions. Although improvement was observed for the full training group for a digit span task, no training-related improvement was observed for any of the other measures. Results of the study suggest that WM training does not improve performance on unrelated tasks or enhance other cognitive abilities.

  6. Effects of multicomponent training of cognitive control on cognitive function and brain activation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoyoung; Chey, Jeanyung; Lee, Sanghun

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in cognitive functions and brain activation after multicomponent training of cognitive control in non-demented older adults, utilizing neuropsychological tests and fMRI. We developed and implemented a computerized Multicomponent Training of Cognitive Control (MTCC), characterized by task variability and adaptive procedures, in order to maximize training effects in cognitive control and transfer to other cognitive domains. Twenty-seven community-dwelling adults, aged 64-77 years, without any history of neurological or psychiatric problems, participated in this study (14 in the training group and 13 in the control group). The MTCC was administered to the participants assigned to the training group for 8 weeks, while those in the control group received no training. Neuropsychological tests and fMRI were administered prior to and after the training. Trained participants showed improvements in cognitive control, recognition memory and general cognitive functioning. Furthermore, the MTCC led to an increased brain activation of the regions adjacent to the baseline cognitive control-related areas in the frontoparietal network. Future studies are necessary to confirm our hypothesis that MTCC improves cognitive functioning of healthy elderly individuals by expanding their frontoparietal network that is involved in cognitive control. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Using Cognitive Agents to Train Negotiation Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Stevens

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Training negotiation is difficult because it is a complex, dynamic activity that involves multiple parties. It is often not clear how to create situations in which students can practice negotiation or how to measure students' progress. Some have begun to address these issues by creating artificial software agents with which students can train. These agents have the advantage that they can be “reset,” and played against multiple times. This allows students to learn from their mistakes and try different strategies. However, these agents are often based on normative theories of how negotiators should conduct themselves, not necessarily how people actually behave in negotiations. Here, we take a step toward addressing this gap by developing an agent grounded in a cognitive architecture, ACT-R. This agent contains a model of theory-of-mind, the ability of humans to reason about the mental states of others. It uses this model to try to infer the strategy of the opponent and respond accordingly. In a series of experiments, we show that this agent replicates some aspects of human performance, is plausible to human negotiators, and can lead to learning gains in a small-scale negotiation task.

  8. Using Cognitive Agents to Train Negotiation Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Christopher A; Daamen, Jeroen; Gaudrain, Emma; Renkema, Tom; Top, Jakob Dirk; Cnossen, Fokie; Taatgen, Niels A

    2018-01-01

    Training negotiation is difficult because it is a complex, dynamic activity that involves multiple parties. It is often not clear how to create situations in which students can practice negotiation or how to measure students' progress. Some have begun to address these issues by creating artificial software agents with which students can train. These agents have the advantage that they can be "reset," and played against multiple times. This allows students to learn from their mistakes and try different strategies. However, these agents are often based on normative theories of how negotiators should conduct themselves, not necessarily how people actually behave in negotiations. Here, we take a step toward addressing this gap by developing an agent grounded in a cognitive architecture, ACT-R. This agent contains a model of theory-of-mind, the ability of humans to reason about the mental states of others. It uses this model to try to infer the strategy of the opponent and respond accordingly. In a series of experiments, we show that this agent replicates some aspects of human performance, is plausible to human negotiators, and can lead to learning gains in a small-scale negotiation task.

  9. Cognitive training: How can it be adapted for surgical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lauren; Raison, Nicholas; Ghumman, Faisal; Moran, Aidan; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran

    2017-08-01

    There is a need for new approaches to surgical training in order to cope with the increasing time pressures, ethical constraints, and legal limitations being placed on trainees. One of the most interesting of these new approaches is "cognitive training" or the use of psychological processes to enhance performance of skilled behaviour. Its ability to effectively improve motor skills in sport has raised the question as to whether it could also be used to improve surgical performance. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current evidence on the use of cognitive training within surgery, and evaluate the potential role it can play in surgical education. Scientific database searches were conducted to identify studies that investigated the use of cognitive training in surgery. The key studies were selected and grouped according to the type of cognitive training they examined. Available research demonstrated that cognitive training interventions resulted in greater performance benefits when compared to control training. In particular, cognitive training was found to improve surgical motor skills, as well as a number of non-technical outcomes. Unfortunately, key limitations restricting the generalizability of these findings include small sample size and conceptual issues arising from differing definitions of the term 'cognitive training'. When used appropriately, cognitive training can be a highly effective supplementary training tool in the development of technical skills in surgery. Although further studies are needed to refine our understanding, cognitive training should certainly play an important role in future surgical education. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Applied relaxation vs cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, L G; Westling, B E

    1995-02-01

    The present study investigated the efficacy of a coping-technique, applied relaxation (AR) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), in the treatment of panic disorder. Thirty-eight outpatients fulfilling the DSM-III-R criteria for panic disorder with no (n = 30) or mild (n = 8) avoidance were assessed with independent assessor ratings, self-report scales and self-observation of panic attacks before and after treatment, and at a 1-yr follow-up. The patients were treated individually for 12 weekly sessions. The results showed that both treatments yielded very large improvements, which were maintained, or furthered at follow-up. There was no difference between AR and CBT on any measure. The proportion of panic-free patients were 65 and 74% at post-treatment, and 82 and 89% at follow-up, for AR and CBT, respectively. There were no relapses at follow-up, on the contrary 55% of the patients who still had panic attacks at post-treatment were panic-free at follow-up. Besides affecting panic attacks the treatments also yielded marked and lasting changes on generalized anxiety, depression and cognitive misinterpretations. The conclusion that can be drawn is that both AR and CBT are effective treatments for panic disorder without avoidance.

  11. Training versus Engagement as Paths to Cognitive Enrichment with Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.; Payne, Brennan R.; Roberts, Brent W.; Kramer, Arthur F.; Morrow, Daniel G.; Payne, Laura; Hill, Patrick L.; Jackson, Joshua J.; Gao, Xuefei; Noh, Soo Rim; Janke, Megan C.; Parisi, Jeanine M.

    2014-01-01

    While a training model of cognitive intervention targets the improvement of particular skills through instruction and practice, an engagement model is based on the idea that being embedded in an intellectually and socially complex environment can impact cognition, perhaps even broadly, without explicit instruction. We contrasted these two models of cognitive enrichment by randomly assigning healthy older adults to a home-based inductive reasoning training program, a team-based competitive pro...

  12. Neural activity during emotion recognition after combined cognitive plus social cognitive training in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Christine I; Bruce, Lori; Fisher, Melissa; Verosky, Sara C; Miyakawa, Asako; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2012-08-01

    Cognitive remediation training has been shown to improve both cognitive and social cognitive deficits in people with schizophrenia, but the mechanisms that support this behavioral improvement are largely unknown. One hypothesis is that intensive behavioral training in cognition and/or social cognition restores the underlying neural mechanisms that support targeted skills. However, there is little research on the neural effects of cognitive remediation training. This study investigated whether a 50 h (10-week) remediation intervention which included both cognitive and social cognitive training would influence neural function in regions that support social cognition. Twenty-two stable, outpatient schizophrenia participants were randomized to a treatment condition consisting of auditory-based cognitive training (AT) [Brain Fitness Program/auditory module ~60 min/day] plus social cognition training (SCT) which was focused on emotion recognition [~5-15 min per day] or a placebo condition of non-specific computer games (CG) for an equal amount of time. Pre and post intervention assessments included an fMRI task of positive and negative facial emotion recognition, and standard behavioral assessments of cognition, emotion processing, and functional outcome. There were no significant intervention-related improvements in general cognition or functional outcome. fMRI results showed the predicted group-by-time interaction. Specifically, in comparison to CG, AT+SCT participants had a greater pre-to-post intervention increase in postcentral gyrus activity during emotion recognition of both positive and negative emotions. Furthermore, among all participants, the increase in postcentral gyrus activity predicted behavioral improvement on a standardized test of emotion processing (MSCEIT: Perceiving Emotions). Results indicate that combined cognition and social cognition training impacts neural mechanisms that support social cognition skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All

  13. Neural activity during emotion recognition after combined cognitive plus social-cognitive training in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Christine I.; Bruce, Lori; Fisher, Melissa; Verosky, Sara C.; Miyakawa, Asako; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive remediation training has been shown to improve both cognitive and social-cognitive deficits in people with schizophrenia, but the mechanisms that support this behavioral improvement are largely unknown. One hypothesis is that intensive behavioral training in cognition and/or social-cognition restores the underlying neural mechanisms that support targeted skills. However, there is little research on the neural effects of cognitive remediation training. This study investigated whether a 50 hour (10-week) remediation intervention which included both cognitive and social-cognitive training would influence neural function in regions that support social-cognition. Twenty-two stable, outpatient schizophrenia participants were randomized to a treatment condition consisting of auditory-based cognitive training (AT) [Brain Fitness Program/auditory module ~60 minutes/day] plus social-cognition training (SCT) which was focused on emotion recognition [~5–15 minutes per day] or a placebo condition of non-specific computer games (CG) for an equal amount of time. Pre and post intervention assessments included an fMRI task of positive and negative facial emotion recognition, and standard behavioral assessments of cognition, emotion processing, and functional outcome. There were no significant intervention-related improvements in general cognition or functional outcome. FMRI results showed the predicted group-by-time interaction. Specifically, in comparison to CG, AT+SCT participants had a greater pre-to-post intervention increase in postcentral gyrus activity during emotion recognition of both positive and negative emotions. Furthermore, among all participants, the increase in postcentral gyrus activity predicted behavioral improvement on a standardized test of emotion processing (MSCEIT: Perceiving Emotions). Results indicate that combined cognition and social-cognition training impacts neural mechanisms that support social-cognition skills. PMID:22695257

  14. A Role of the Parasympathetic Nervous System in Cognitive Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Heffner, Kathi L; Ren, Ping; Tadin, Duje

    2017-01-01

    Vision-based speed of processing (VSOP) training can result in broad cognitive improvements in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). What remains unknown, however, is what neurophysiological mechanisms account for the observed training effect. Much of the work in this area has focused on the central nervous system, neglecting the fact that the peripheral system can contributes to changes of the central nervous system and vice versa. We examined the prospective relationship between an adaptive parasympathetic nervous system response to cognitive stimuli and VSOP training-induced plasticity. Twenty-one participants with aMCI (10 for VSOP training, and 11 for mental leisure activities (MLA) control) were enrolled. We assessed high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) during training sessions, and striatum-related neural networks and cognition at baseline and post-training. Compared to MLA, the VSOP group showed a significant U-shaped pattern of HF-HRV response during training, as well as decreases in connectivity strength between bilateral striatal and prefrontal regions. These two effects were associated with training-induced improvements in both the trained (attention and processing speed) and transferred (working memory) cognitive domains. This work provides novel support for interactions between the central and the peripheral nervous systems in relation to cognitive training, and motivates further studies to elucidate the causality of the observed link. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Redirecting learners' attention during training: effects on cognitive load, transfer test performance and training efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Merriënboer, J.J.G.; Schuurman, Jan Gerrit; de Croock, M.B.M.; Paas, F.G.W.C.

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive load theory provides guidelines for improving the training of complex cognitive skills and their transfer to new situations. One guideline states that extraneous cognitive load that is irrelevant to the construction of cognitive schemata should be minimised. Experiment 1 (N=26) compares

  16. Biofeedback, autogenic training, and progressive relaxation in the treatment of Raynaud's disease: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, F J; Surwit, R S; Pilon, R N

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-one female patients suffering from diagnosed idiopathic Raynaud's Disease were trained to raise digital skin temperature using either autogenic training, progressive muscle relaxation, or a combination of autogenic training and skin temperature feedback. Patients were instructed in the treatment procedures in three one-hour group sessions spaced one week apart. All patients were instructed to practice what they had learned twice a day at home. Patients kept records of the frequency of vasospastic attacks occurring over a four-week baseline period, and during the first four weeks and the ninth week of training. In addition, patients underwent four laboratory cold stress tests during which they were instructed to maintain digital temperature as the ambient temperature was slowly dropped from 26 degrees to 17 degrees C. Cold stress tests were given during week 1 of baseline and during weeks 1, 3, and 5 of training. No significant differences between the three behavioral treatment procedures were obtained. In addition, the ability of patients to maintain digital temperature during the cold stress challenge showed significant improvement from the first to the last tests. Symptomatic improvement was maintained by all patients nine weeks after the start of training. The implications of these findings for the behavioral treatment of Raynaud's Disease are discussed. PMID:6988380

  17. Teasing Out Cognitive Development from Cognitive Style: A Training Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globerson, Tamar; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Tested whether or not cognitive development (as measured by mental capacity) and cognitive style (as measured by field-dependence/independence) are different dimensions. Results are discussed with regard to Pascual-Leone's model of cognitive development, relevance to stylistic dimension of reflection/impulsivity, and educational implications.…

  18. No Effect of Commercial Cognitive Training on Brain Activity, Choice Behavior, or Cognitive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Joseph W; Caulfield, M Kathleen; Falcone, Mary; McConnell, Mairead; Bernardo, Leah; Parthasarathi, Trishala; Cooper, Nicole; Ashare, Rebecca; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Hornik, Robert; Diefenbach, Paul; Lee, Frank J; Lerman, Caryn

    2017-08-02

    Increased preference for immediate over delayed rewards and for risky over certain rewards has been associated with unhealthy behavioral choices. Motivated by evidence that enhanced cognitive control can shift choice behavior away from immediate and risky rewards, we tested whether training executive cognitive function could influence choice behavior and brain responses. In this randomized controlled trial, 128 young adults (71 male, 57 female) participated in 10 weeks of training with either a commercial web-based cognitive training program or web-based video games that do not specifically target executive function or adapt the level of difficulty throughout training. Pretraining and post-training, participants completed cognitive assessments and functional magnetic resonance imaging during performance of the following validated decision-making tasks: delay discounting (choices between smaller rewards now vs larger rewards in the future) and risk sensitivity (choices between larger riskier rewards vs smaller certain rewards). Contrary to our hypothesis, we found no evidence that cognitive training influences neural activity during decision-making; nor did we find effects of cognitive training on measures of delay discounting or risk sensitivity. Participants in the commercial training condition improved with practice on the specific tasks they performed during training, but participants in both conditions showed similar improvement on standardized cognitive measures over time. Moreover, the degree of improvement was comparable to that observed in individuals who were reassessed without any training whatsoever. Commercial adaptive cognitive training appears to have no benefits in healthy young adults above those of standard video games for measures of brain activity, choice behavior, or cognitive performance. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Engagement of neural regions and circuits important in executive cognitive function can bias behavioral choices away from immediate

  19. Computerized cognitive training with older adults: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M Kueider

    Full Text Available A systematic review to examine the efficacy of computer-based cognitive interventions for cognitively healthy older adults was conducted. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: average sample age of at least 55 years at time of training; participants did not have Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment; and the study measured cognitive outcomes as a result of training. Theoretical articles, review articles, and book chapters that did not include original data were excluded. We identified 151 studies published between 1984 and 2011, of which 38 met inclusion criteria and were further classified into three groups by the type of computerized program used: classic cognitive training tasks, neuropsychological software, and video games. Reported pre-post training effect sizes for intervention groups ranged from 0.06 to 6.32 for classic cognitive training interventions, 0.19 to 7.14 for neuropsychological software interventions, and 0.09 to 1.70 for video game interventions. Most studies reported older adults did not need to be technologically savvy in order to successfully complete or benefit from training. Overall, findings are comparable or better than those from reviews of more traditional, paper-and-pencil cognitive training approaches suggesting that computerized training is an effective, less labor intensive alternative.

  20. Predictability of psychic outcome for exercise training and exercise training including relaxation therapy after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); J. van Dixhoorn (J.)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Predictability of the psychic outcome for two cardiac rehabilitation programmes was investigated in 119 myocardial infarction patients. They were randomly assigned to either a five-week daily exercise training or to an identical training in combination with six sessions

  1. Neural Plastic Effects of Cognitive Training on Aging Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie T. Y. Leung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing research has evidenced that our brain retains a capacity to change in response to experience until late adulthood. This implies that cognitive training can possibly ameliorate age-associated cognitive decline by inducing training-specific neural plastic changes at both neural and behavioral levels. This longitudinal study examined the behavioral effects of a systematic thirteen-week cognitive training program on attention and working memory of older adults who were at risk of cognitive decline. These older adults were randomly assigned to the Cognitive Training Group (n=109 and the Active Control Group (n=100. Findings clearly indicated that training induced improvement in auditory and visual-spatial attention and working memory. The training effect was specific to the experience provided because no significant difference in verbal and visual-spatial memory between the two groups was observed. This pattern of findings is consistent with the prediction and the principle of experience-dependent neuroplasticity. Findings of our study provided further support to the notion that the neural plastic potential continues until older age. The baseline cognitive status did not correlate with pre- versus posttraining changes to any cognitive variables studied, suggesting that the initial cognitive status may not limit the neuroplastic potential of the brain at an old age.

  2. Neural Plastic Effects of Cognitive Training on Aging Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Natalie T Y; Tam, Helena M K; Chu, Leung W; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Chan, Felix; Lam, Linda C W; Woo, Jean; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-01-01

    Increasing research has evidenced that our brain retains a capacity to change in response to experience until late adulthood. This implies that cognitive training can possibly ameliorate age-associated cognitive decline by inducing training-specific neural plastic changes at both neural and behavioral levels. This longitudinal study examined the behavioral effects of a systematic thirteen-week cognitive training program on attention and working memory of older adults who were at risk of cognitive decline. These older adults were randomly assigned to the Cognitive Training Group (n = 109) and the Active Control Group (n = 100). Findings clearly indicated that training induced improvement in auditory and visual-spatial attention and working memory. The training effect was specific to the experience provided because no significant difference in verbal and visual-spatial memory between the two groups was observed. This pattern of findings is consistent with the prediction and the principle of experience-dependent neuroplasticity. Findings of our study provided further support to the notion that the neural plastic potential continues until older age. The baseline cognitive status did not correlate with pre- versus posttraining changes to any cognitive variables studied, suggesting that the initial cognitive status may not limit the neuroplastic potential of the brain at an old age.

  3. Training Social Cognition: From Imitation to Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiesteban, Idalmis; White, Sarah; Cook, Jennifer; Gilbert, Sam J.; Heyes, Cecilia; Bird, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Evidence for successful socio-cognitive training in typical adults is rare. This study attempted to improve Theory of Mind (ToM) and visual perspective taking in healthy adults by training participants to either imitate or to inhibit imitation. Twenty-four hours after training, all participants completed tests of ToM and visual perspective taking.…

  4. Cortical thickness changes correlate with cognition changes after cognitive training: Evidence from a Chinese community study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan eJiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes in cortical thickness correlated with cognitive function changes in healthy older adults after receiving cognitive training interventions. Moreover, it also aimed to examine the differential impacts of a multi-domain and a single-domain cognitive training interventions. Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scanning was performed on participants 65 to 75 years of age using the Siemens 3.0 T Trio Tim with the MPRAGE sequence. The cortical thickness was determined using FreeSurfer software. Cognitive functioning was evaluated using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS. There were significant group × time interaction effects on the left supramarginal, the left frontal pole cortical regions; and a marginal significant group × time interaction effects on visuospatial/constructional and delayed memory scores. In a multi-domain cognitive training group, a number of cortical region changes were significantly positively correlated with changes in attention, delayed memory, and the total score, but significantly negatively correlated with changes in immediate memory and language scores. In the single-domain cognitive training group, some cortical region changes were significantly positively associated with changes in immediate memory, delayed memory, and the total score, while they were significantly negatively associated with changes in visuospatial/constructional, language, and attention scores. Overall, multi-domain cognitive training offered more advantages in visuospatial/constructional, attention, and delayed memory abilities, while single-domain cognitive training benefited immediate memory ability more effectively. These findings suggest that healthy older adults benefit more from the multi-domain cognitive training than single-domain cognitive training. Cognitive training has impacted on cortical thickness changes in healthy elderly

  5. Enhancing cognition with video games: a multiple game training study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Oei

    Full Text Available Previous evidence points to a causal link between playing action video games and enhanced cognition and perception. However, benefits of playing other video games are under-investigated. We examined whether playing non-action games also improves cognition. Hence, we compared transfer effects of an action and other non-action types that required different cognitive demands.We instructed 5 groups of non-gamer participants to play one game each on a mobile device (iPhone/iPod Touch for one hour a day/five days a week over four weeks (20 hours. Games included action, spatial memory, match-3, hidden- object, and an agent-based life simulation. Participants performed four behavioral tasks before and after video game training to assess for transfer effects. Tasks included an attentional blink task, a spatial memory and visual search dual task, a visual filter memory task to assess for multiple object tracking and cognitive control, as well as a complex verbal span task. Action game playing eliminated attentional blink and improved cognitive control and multiple-object tracking. Match-3, spatial memory and hidden object games improved visual search performance while the latter two also improved spatial working memory. Complex verbal span improved after match-3 and action game training.Cognitive improvements were not limited to action game training alone and different games enhanced different aspects of cognition. We conclude that training specific cognitive abilities frequently in a video game improves performance in tasks that share common underlying demands. Overall, these results suggest that many video game-related cognitive improvements may not be due to training of general broad cognitive systems such as executive attentional control, but instead due to frequent utilization of specific cognitive processes during game play. Thus, many video game training related improvements to cognition may be attributed to near-transfer effects.

  6. Enhancing Cognition with Video Games: A Multiple Game Training Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Adam C.; Patterson, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous evidence points to a causal link between playing action video games and enhanced cognition and perception. However, benefits of playing other video games are under-investigated. We examined whether playing non-action games also improves cognition. Hence, we compared transfer effects of an action and other non-action types that required different cognitive demands. Methodology/Principal Findings We instructed 5 groups of non-gamer participants to play one game each on a mobile device (iPhone/iPod Touch) for one hour a day/five days a week over four weeks (20 hours). Games included action, spatial memory, match-3, hidden- object, and an agent-based life simulation. Participants performed four behavioral tasks before and after video game training to assess for transfer effects. Tasks included an attentional blink task, a spatial memory and visual search dual task, a visual filter memory task to assess for multiple object tracking and cognitive control, as well as a complex verbal span task. Action game playing eliminated attentional blink and improved cognitive control and multiple-object tracking. Match-3, spatial memory and hidden object games improved visual search performance while the latter two also improved spatial working memory. Complex verbal span improved after match-3 and action game training. Conclusion/Significance Cognitive improvements were not limited to action game training alone and different games enhanced different aspects of cognition. We conclude that training specific cognitive abilities frequently in a video game improves performance in tasks that share common underlying demands. Overall, these results suggest that many video game-related cognitive improvements may not be due to training of general broad cognitive systems such as executive attentional control, but instead due to frequent utilization of specific cognitive processes during game play. Thus, many video game training related improvements to cognition may be

  7. Enhancing cognition with video games: a multiple game training study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Adam C; Patterson, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    Previous evidence points to a causal link between playing action video games and enhanced cognition and perception. However, benefits of playing other video games are under-investigated. We examined whether playing non-action games also improves cognition. Hence, we compared transfer effects of an action and other non-action types that required different cognitive demands. We instructed 5 groups of non-gamer participants to play one game each on a mobile device (iPhone/iPod Touch) for one hour a day/five days a week over four weeks (20 hours). Games included action, spatial memory, match-3, hidden- object, and an agent-based life simulation. Participants performed four behavioral tasks before and after video game training to assess for transfer effects. Tasks included an attentional blink task, a spatial memory and visual search dual task, a visual filter memory task to assess for multiple object tracking and cognitive control, as well as a complex verbal span task. Action game playing eliminated attentional blink and improved cognitive control and multiple-object tracking. Match-3, spatial memory and hidden object games improved visual search performance while the latter two also improved spatial working memory. Complex verbal span improved after match-3 and action game training. Cognitive improvements were not limited to action game training alone and different games enhanced different aspects of cognition. We conclude that training specific cognitive abilities frequently in a video game improves performance in tasks that share common underlying demands. Overall, these results suggest that many video game-related cognitive improvements may not be due to training of general broad cognitive systems such as executive attentional control, but instead due to frequent utilization of specific cognitive processes during game play. Thus, many video game training related improvements to cognition may be attributed to near-transfer effects.

  8. Effectiveness of autogenic relaxation training on children and adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbeck, Lutz; Schmid, Katharina

    2003-09-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of autogenic relaxation training in a mildly disturbed outpatient population of children and adolescents with mostly internalizing symptoms, and/or some aggressive, impulsive, or attention deficit symptoms. Fifty children and adolescents from southern Germany (mean age 10.2 years; range 6-15 years; mostly intact middle class family background) participated in a group intervention program. Fifteen patients were randomly assigned to a waiting-list control group. Behavior symptoms (Child Behavior Checklist), psychosomatic complaints (Giessen Complaint List), and level of stress were assessed before and after the intervention or after the waiting phase. Individual goal attainment was evaluated at the end of the intervention and in a 3-month follow-up. The parent report on CBCL reflected reduced symptoms compared with control. The child report indicated reduced stress and psychosomatic complaints both in the intervention and control group, and no significant group x time interaction effects occurred on these scales. Effect sizes of 0.49 in the CBCL and 0.36 in the complaint list indicated clinically relevant effects of the intervention compared with the control group. At the end of the intervention, 56% of the children and 55% of the parents reported partial goal attainment, 38% of the children and 30% of the parents reported complete goal attainment; 71% of the parents confirmed partial goal attainment 3 months postintervention. Autogenic relaxation training is an effective broadband method for children and adolescents.

  9. Relaxation and health-related quality of life in multiple sclerosis: the example of autogenic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Georgina; Andersen, Mark B; Morris, Tony

    2005-06-01

    This study was a pilot project to explore the effect of an autogenic training program (AT; a relaxation intervention) on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and well-being for people with multiple sclerosis. Participants either met weekly for sessions in AT for 10 weeks (n = 11) or were assigned to the control group (n = 11). The AT group was also asked to practice the technique daily at home. Scales designed to measure HRQOL and aspects of well-being (mood and depressed affect) were taken preintervention and at week 8 of the 10-week program. ANCOVAs using a measure of social support and pretest scores as covariates revealed that at the posttest the AT group reported more energy and vigor than the control group and were less limited in their roles due to physical and emotional problems. Future research should involve studies conducted over an extended period, together with sufficiently sized samples to explore the effect of frequency of practice of relaxation training on HRQOL and well-being for people with multiple sclerosis.

  10. Effectiveness of a Combined Dance and Relaxation Intervention on Reducing Anxiety and Depression and Improving Quality of Life among the Cognitively Impaired Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Adam; Ayiesah Ramli; Suzana Shahar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Cognitive impairment is a common problem among the elderly and is believed to be a precursor to dementia. This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of a combined dance and relaxation intervention as compared to relaxation alone in reducing anxiety and depression levels and improving quality of life (QOL) and cognitive function among the cognitively impaired elderly. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted between May and December 2013 in Peninsular Mal...

  11. Cognitive control training for emotion-related impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Andrew D; Johnson, Sheri L

    2018-06-01

    Many forms of psychopathology are tied to a heightened tendency to respond impulsively to strong emotions, and this tendency, in turn, is closely tied to problems with cognitive control. The goal of the present study was to test whether a two-week, six-session cognitive control training program is efficacious in reducing emotion-related impulsivity. Participants (N = 52) reporting elevated scores on an emotion-related impulsivity measure completed cognitive control training targeting working memory and response inhibition. A subset of participants were randomized to a waitlist control group. Impulsivity, emotion regulation, and performance on near and far-transfer cognitive tasks were assessed at baseline and after completion of training. Emotion-related impulsivity declined significantly from pre-training to post-training and at two-week follow-up; improvements were not observed in the waitlist control group. A decrease in brooding rumination and an increase in reappraisal were also observed. Participants showed significant improvements on trained versions of the working memory and inhibition tasks as well as improvements on an inhibition transfer task. In sum, these preliminary findings show that cognitive training appears to be well-tolerated for people with significant emotion-driven impulsivity. Results provide preliminary support for the efficacy of cognitive training interventions as a way to reduce emotion-related impulsivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Training versus engagement as paths to cognitive enrichment with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L; Payne, Brennan R; Roberts, Brent W; Kramer, Arthur F; Morrow, Daniel G; Payne, Laura; Hill, Patrick L; Jackson, Joshua J; Gao, Xuefei; Noh, Soo Rim; Janke, Megan C; Parisi, Jeanine M

    2014-12-01

    While a training model of cognitive intervention targets the improvement of particular skills through instruction and practice, an engagement model is based on the idea that being embedded in an intellectually and socially complex environment can impact cognition, perhaps even broadly, without explicit instruction. We contrasted these 2 models of cognitive enrichment by randomly assigning healthy older adults to a home-based inductive reasoning training program, a team-based competitive program in creative problem solving, or a wait-list control. As predicted, those in the training condition showed selective improvement in inductive reasoning. Those in the engagement condition, on the other hand, showed selective improvement in divergent thinking, a key ability exercised in creative problem solving. On average, then, both groups appeared to show ability-specific effects. However, moderators of change differed somewhat for those in the engagement and training interventions. Generally, those who started either intervention with a more positive cognitive profile showed more cognitive growth, suggesting that cognitive resources enabled individuals to take advantage of environmental enrichment. Only in the engagement condition did initial levels of openness and social network size moderate intervention effects on cognition, suggesting that comfort with novelty and an ability to manage social resources may be additional factors contributing to the capacity to take advantage of the environmental complexity associated with engagement. Collectively, these findings suggest that training and engagement models may offer alternative routes to cognitive resilience in late life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Emotion, cognitive load and learning outcomes during simulation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Kristin; Ma, Irene; Teteris, Elise; Baxter, Heather; Wright, Bruce; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2012-11-01

    Simulation training has emerged as an effective way to complement clinical training of medical students. Yet outcomes from simulation training must be considered suboptimal when 25-30% of students fail to recognise a cardiac murmur on which they were trained 1 hour previously. There are several possible explanations for failure to improve following simulation training, which include the impact of heightened emotions on learning and cognitive overload caused by interactivity with high-fidelity simulators. This study was conducted to assess emotion during simulation training and to explore the relationships between emotion and cognitive load, and diagnostic performance. We trained 84 Year 1 medical students on a scenario of chest pain caused by symptomatic aortic stenosis. After training, students were asked to rate their emotional state and cognitive load. We then provided training on a dyspnoea scenario before asking participants to diagnose the murmur in which they had been trained (aortic stenosis) and a novel murmur (mitral regurgitation). We used factor analysis to identify the principal components of emotion, and then studied the associations between these components of emotion and cognitive load and diagnostic performance. We identified two principal components of emotion, which we felt represented invigoration and tranquillity. Both of these were associated with cognitive load with adjusted regression coefficients of 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-0.99; p = 0.001) and - 0.44 (95% CI - 0.77 to - 0.10; p = 0.009), respectively. We found a significant negative association between cognitive load and the odds of subsequently identifying the trained murmur (odds ratio 0.27, 95% CI 0.11-0.67; p = 0.004). We found that increased invigoration and reduced tranquillity during simulation training were associated with increased cognitive load, and that the likelihood of correctly identifying a trained murmur declined with increasing cognitive load. Further

  14. Is meditation always relaxing? Investigating heart rate, heart rate variability, experienced effort and likeability during training of three types of meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumma, Anna-Lena; Kok, Bethany E; Singer, Tania

    2015-07-01

    Meditation is often associated with a relaxed state of the body. However, meditation can also be regarded as a type of mental task and training, associated with mental effort and physiological arousal. The cardiovascular effects of meditation may vary depending on the type of meditation, degree of mental effort, and amount of training. In the current study we assessed heart rate (HR), high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) and subjective ratings of effort and likeability during three types of meditation varying in their cognitive and attentional requirements, namely breathing meditation, loving-kindness meditation and observing-thoughts meditation. In the context of the ReSource project, a one-year longitudinal mental training study, participants practiced each meditation exercise on a daily basis for 3 months. As expected HR and effort were higher during loving-kindness meditation and observing-thoughts meditation compared to breathing meditation. With training over time HR and likeability increased, while HF-HRV and the subjective experience of effort decreased. The increase in HR and decrease in HF-HRV over training was higher for loving-kindness meditation and observing-thoughts meditation compared to breathing meditation. In contrast to implicit beliefs that meditation is always relaxing and associated with low arousal, the current results show that core meditations aiming at improving compassion and meta-cognitive skills require effort and are associated with physiological arousal compared to breathing meditation. Overall these findings can be useful in making more specific suggestions about which type of meditation is most adaptive for a given context and population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Cognitive Bias Modification Training via Smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Ranming Yang; Ranming Yang; Lixia Cui; Feng Li; Jing Xiao; Qin Zhang; Tian P. S. Oei; Tian P. S. Oei

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Negative cognitive biases have been linked to anxiety and mood problems. Accumulated data from laboratory studies show that positive and negative interpretation styles with accompanying changes in mood can be induced through cognitive bias modification (CBM) paradigms. Despite the therapeutic potential of positive training effects, few studies have explored training paradigms administered via smartphones. The current study aimed to compare the effectiveness of three...

  16. Intradialytic Cognitive and Exercise Training May Preserve Cognitive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara A. McAdams-DeMarco

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Preliminary findings of our pilot study suggested that cognitive decline in psychomotor speed and executive function is possibly prevented by intradialytic CT and ET. These preliminary pilot findings should be replicated.

  17. Memory and Language Improvements Following Cognitive Control Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Erika K.; Harbison, J. Isaiah; Teubner-Rhodes, Susan E.; Mishler, Alan; Velnoskey, Kayla; Novick, Jared M.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive control refers to adjusting thoughts and actions when confronted with conflict during information processing. We tested whether this ability is causally linked to performance on certain language and memory tasks by using cognitive control training to systematically modulate people's ability to resolve information-conflict across domains.…

  18. TACOP : A cognitive agent for a naval training simulation environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, W.A. van; Heuvelink, A.; Broek, E.L. van den

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes how cognitive modeling can be exploited in the design of software agents that support naval training sessions. The architecture, specifications, and embedding of the cognitive agent in a simulation environment are described. Subsequently, the agent's functioning was evaluated in

  19. Assertion Training and Cognitive Restructuring With College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Marilyn J.

    The process of assertive behavior change of college women who received assertion training (AT) and cognitive restructuring was examined to assess the relative effects of different durations of exposure to cognitive restructuring. Undergraduate and graduate women students (N=27) at a state university volunteered and were screened for AT groups.…

  20. Decreased Self-Reported Cognitive Failures after Memory Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, Marek; Lukavsky, Jiri; Steinova, Dana

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, attention has been focused on investigating the effectiveness of composite memory intervention programs with different age and diagnostics groups. The goal of this study was to measure changes in cognitive lapses by Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (CFQ) in a large trained, dementia free group (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE]…

  1. Imaging the neural effects of cognitive bias modification training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiers, C.E.; Wiers, R.W.

    Cognitive bias modification (CBM) was first developed as an experimental tool to examine the causal role of cognitive biases, and later developed into complementary interventions in experimental psychopathology research. CBM involves the "re-training" of implicit biases by means of multiple trials

  2. Awareness of memory failures and motivation for cognitive training in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werheid, Katja; Ziegler, Matthias; Klapper, Annina; Kühl, Klaus-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Awareness of cognitive deficits is considered to be decisive for the effectiveness of cognitive training in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, it is unclear in what way awareness influences motivation to participate in cognitive training. Thirty-two elderly adults with MCI and 72 controls completed the 5-scale Memory Functioning Questionnaire (MFQ) and a motivation questionnaire. The predictive value of the MFQ scales on motivation was analyzed using regression analysis. In the MCI group, but not in controls, higher perceived frequency of memory failures was associated with a lower motivation score. Our findings indicate that, in MCI, greater awareness of cognitive deficits does not necessarily increase motivation to participate in cognitive trainings, and suggest that success expectancy may be a moderating factor. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Gamification of cognitive assessment and cognitive training: A systematic review of applications, approaches and efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Lumsden

    2015-11-01

    5.\tHow successful has gamification been in cognitive testing and training thus far? Method: Using several online databases, we searched the titles, abstracts and keywords of database entries using the search strategy (gamif* OR game OR games AND (cognit* OR engag* OR behavi* OR health* OR attention OR motiv*. Searches included articles published in English between January 2007 and October 2015. Non-peer reviewed studies such as abstracts or conference posters were excluded. Furthermore, due to the specific focus on cognitive assessment and training we excluded several other common uses of gamification including: gamification for education purposes, advertising purposes, disease management, health promotion, physical activity promotion, exposure therapy or rehabilitation. We also excluded studies that were merely used virtual reality or a 3D environment without involving any game mechanics: engagement had to be the primary reason for using a game-like design. Results: Our review identified 33 relevant studies, covering 31 gamified cognitive tasks used across a wide range of disorders and cognitive domains. Gamified cognitive training to relieve attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms was particularly prominent. We describe the game mechanics used in gamified cognitive tasks, their effectiveness and frequency of use by designers. We also found that the majority of gamified cognitive tasks were rated as enjoyable or engaging by the study participants. Gamified assessments were typically validated successfully; however the efficacy of game-like cognitive training is more difficult to interpret due to several poor quality studies. High heterogeneity of study designs and small sample sizes highlight the need for further research in both training and testing. Conclusions: The evidence suggests that gamified cognitive training is motivating for users, though not necessarily an effective intervention. Nevertheless, gamification can provide a way to develop

  4. The effects of mindfulness and relaxation training for insomnia (MRTI) on postmenopausal women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marcelo C; Kozasa, Elisa H; Tufik, Sergio; Mello, Luiz Eugênio A M; Hachul, Helena

    2018-05-21

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of mindfulness and relaxation training for insomnia on insomnia and quality of life in postmenopausal women. Thirty postmenopausal women aged 50 to 65 years, who were not using hormone therapy, and had a diagnosis of insomnia and an apnea-hypopnea index of less than 15, were randomly assigned to two groups: a mindfulness intervention group and a control group. They were assessed before the intervention, and 8 weeks after its completion using questionnaires assessing sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index), quality of life in menopause (Menopause-Specific Quality of Life), menopausal symptoms (Kupperman Menopausal Index), and level of attention (Mindfulness Awareness Attention Scale). They were also assessed through ambulatory polysomnography. This is a pilot study and is limited by its small sample size. The results of the questionnaires showed significant differences in the group that received mindfulness training compared with the control group, namely, improvements in sleep quality, a reduction in the severity of insomnia, a better quality of life, improved attention levels, and a reduction in menopausal and vasomotor symptoms. Polysomnography results showed no differences between the groups. Eight weeks mindfulness meditation training improved sleep quality, quality of life, attention levels, and reduced vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women with insomnia.

  5. [Self-relaxation techniques for glaucoma patients. Significance of autogenic training, hypnosis and music therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelmann, T; Strempel, I

    2016-02-01

    Glaucoma is currently the second most common cause of severe visual impairment and blindness worldwide. Standard pharmaceutical and surgical interventions often fail to prevent progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. To evaluate whether adjuvantly applied self-relaxation techniques can significantly impact intraocular pressure, ocular perfusion and the overall mental state of affected patients. A search of the literature was carried out and a comprehensive overview of currently available data is presented. Autogenic training, hypnosis and music therapy can significantly impact intraocular pressure, ocular perfusion and overall mental state of patients suffering from glaucoma. As all of these adjuvant therapeutic options are cost-effective, available almost everywhere and at anytime as well as without any known side effects, they can be useful additional techniques in the overall concept for treating glaucoma patients. Regular ocular examinations by an ophthalmologist are, however, mandatory.

  6. Effectiveness of cognitive training for Chinese elderly in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Timothy; Wong, Anita; Chan, Grace; Shiu, YY; Lam, Ko-Chuen; Young, Daniel; Ho, Daniel WH; Ho, Florence

    2013-01-01

    In Hong Kong, the evidence for cognitive-training programs in fighting against memory complaints is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Active Mind cognitive-training program in improving the cognitive function and quality of life (QoL) for local community-dwelling Chinese older adults. A total of 200 subjects were recruited from 20 different district elderly community centers (DECCs). Centers were randomly assigned into either the intervention group or control group. The intervention group underwent eight 1-hour sessions of cognitive training, while the control group were included in the usual group activities provided by the DECCs. Standardized neuropsychological tests (the Chinese version of Mattis Dementia Rating Scale [CDRS] and the Cantonese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) and the QoL questionnaire SF12 were used to assess participants’ cognitive function and QoL before and after the trial. A total of 176 subjects completed the study. The intervention group showed greater improvement in the cognitive function measured by total CDRS score (treatment: 12.24 ± 11.57 vs control: 4.37 ± 7.99; P < 0.001) and QoL measured by total SF12 score (treatment: 7.82 ± 13.19 vs control: 3.18 ± 11.61; P = 0.014). Subjects with lower education level were associated with better cognitive response to the cognitive-training program. The current findings indicated that the Active Mind cognitive-training program was effective in improving the cognitive function and QoL for community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Hong Kong. PMID:23440076

  7. A COMPARISOM BETWEEN THE EFFECTTIVENESS OF RELAXATION TRAINING AND PHARMACOTHERAPY IN TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH TENSION HEADACHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R BAGHERIAN

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction: Headaches are the common cause of refferals to physicians, and among them, tension headache is the most prevalent. There is not consens us on the effectiveness of a specific therapeutic procedure. However, the purpose of this study was to identify the effects of relaxation training in comparison to pharmacotherapy in treatment of tension headache.
    Procedures: The study employed an experiment design with two treatment group (N=12 One treatment group gaticipated in a relaxation training program over an 8-week period. A second treatment group was only given Amitriptyline. Data collected over a 2 - week period before and after treatment by using a dialy headache scale used by patients and visual analog scale used by one of the patient";s relatives. Back depression scale and zung Anxietys scale were used for evaluating levels of depression and Anxiety in patients.
    Results: Mean score of improvement in relaxation training was significantly higher than that of Amitriptyline group (t=3.85 , P < 0.01 Also the relaxation group demonstrated lower mean score of headache peak than that of peak than that of Amitriptyline  group (t=2.6, p < 0.01. However, regarding to visual analog scale there was no statistically significant difference between two groups.in respect of distribution of patients among different improvement levels, the relaxation training group was significantly better than Amitriptyline group (x2=6.66, df=2, p < 0.01
    Discussion: The relaxation training was more effective than Amitriptuline in decreasing headach for patients with tension headache.

  8. Does combined cognitive training and physical activity training enhance cognitive abilities more than either alone? A four-condition randomized controlled trial among healthy older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn eShatil

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive training and aerobic training are known to improve cognitive functions. To examine the separate and combined effects of such training on cognitive performance, four groups of healthy older adults embarked on a four months cognitive and/or mild aerobic training. A first group (n=33, mean age=80 [66-90] engaged in cognitive training, a second (n=29, mean age=81 [65-89] in mild aerobic training, a third (n=29, mean age=79 [70-93] in the combination of both and a fourth (n=31, mean age=79 [71-92] control group engaged in book-reading activity. The outcome was a well validated multi-domain computerized cognitive evaluation for older adults. The results indicate that, when compared to older adults who did not engage in cognitive training (the mild aerobic and control groups older adults who engaged in cognitive training (separate or combined training groups showed significant improvement in cognitive performance on Hand-Eye Coordination, Global Visual Memory (working memory and long-term memory, Speed of Information Processing, Visual Scanning and Naming. Indeed, individuals who did not engage in cognitive training showed no such improvements. Those results suggest that cognitive training is effective in improving cognitive performance and that it (and not mild aerobic training is driving the improvement in the combined condition. Results are discussed in terms of the special circumstances of aerobic and cognitive training for older adults who are above 80 years of age.

  9. Examining adherence to components of cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety after training and consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Julie M; Brodman, Douglas M; Ringle, Vanesa A; Read, Kendra L; Kendall, Philip C; Beidas, Rinad S

    2017-02-01

    The present study examined 115 service providers' adherence to components of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth anxiety prior to training, post workshop training, and after three months of weekly consultation. Adherence was measured using a role-play with a trained actor. We examined differences in individual adherence to CBT components across time and the relationship between number of consultation sessions attended and adherence ratings following consultation. Findings indicated that somatic arousal identification and relaxation were the most used treatment components prior to training. Adherence to all components of CBT increased following workshop training, except the usage of problem-solving. Adherence to problem-solving, positive reinforcement, the identification of anxious self-talk, and the creation of coping thoughts increased following consultation but usage of problem-solving remained low compared to other treatment components. Overall adherence remained less than optimal at the final measurement point. Number of consultation sessions attended predicted post-consultation adherence to identification of somatic arousal, identification of anxious self-talk, and positive reinforcement. Implications include tailoring future training based on baseline levels of adherence and spending more time during training and consultation on underutilized CBT components, such as problem-solving. Limitations of the present study, including how adherence was measured, are discussed. This study adds to the implementation science literature by providing more nuanced information on changes in adherence over the course of training and consultation of service providers.

  10. Cognitive Training Improves Sleep Quality and Cognitive Function among Older Adults with Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimov, Iris; Shatil, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives To investigate the effect of an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program on sleep quality and cognitive performance among older adults with insomnia. Design Participants (n = 51) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group (n = 34) or to an active control group (n = 17). The participants in the cognitive training group completed an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program, while the participants in the active control group completed an eight-week, home-based program involving computerized tasks that do not engage high-level cognitive functioning. Before and after training, all participants' sleep was monitored for one week by an actigraph and their cognitive performance was evaluated. Setting Community setting: residential sleep/performance testing facility. Participants Fifty-one older adults with insomnia (aged 65–85). Interventions Eight weeks of computerized cognitive training for older adults with insomnia. Results Mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed between-group improvements for the cognitive training group on both sleep quality (sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency) and cognitive performance (avoiding distractions, working memory, visual memory, general memory and naming). Hierarchical linear regressions analysis in the cognitive training group indicated that improved visual scanning is associated with earlier advent of sleep, while improved naming is associated with the reduction in wake after sleep onset and with the reduction in number of awakenings. Likewise the results indicate that improved “avoiding distractions” is associated with an increase in the duration of sleep. Moreover, the results indicate that in the active control group cognitive decline observed in working memory is associated with an increase in the time required to fall asleep. Conclusions New learning is instrumental in promoting initiation and

  11. Cognitive training improves sleep quality and cognitive function among older adults with insomnia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Haimov

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program on sleep quality and cognitive performance among older adults with insomnia.Participants (n = 51 were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group (n = 34 or to an active control group (n = 17. The participants in the cognitive training group completed an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program, while the participants in the active control group completed an eight-week, home-based program involving computerized tasks that do not engage high-level cognitive functioning. Before and after training, all participants' sleep was monitored for one week by an actigraph and their cognitive performance was evaluated.COMMUNITY SETTING: residential sleep/performance testing facility.Fifty-one older adults with insomnia (aged 65-85.Eight weeks of computerized cognitive training for older adults with insomnia.Mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed between-group improvements for the cognitive training group on both sleep quality (sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency and cognitive performance (avoiding distractions, working memory, visual memory, general memory and naming. Hierarchical linear regressions analysis in the cognitive training group indicated that improved visual scanning is associated with earlier advent of sleep, while improved naming is associated with the reduction in wake after sleep onset and with the reduction in number of awakenings. Likewise the results indicate that improved "avoiding distractions" is associated with an increase in the duration of sleep. Moreover, the results indicate that in the active control group cognitive decline observed in working memory is associated with an increase in the time required to fall asleep.New learning is instrumental in promoting initiation and maintenance of sleep in older adults with insomnia. Lasting and personalized

  12. Arousal vs. Relaxation: A Comparison of the Neurophysiological and Cognitive Correlates of Vajrayana and Theravada Meditative Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amihai, Ido; Kozhevnikov, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Based on evidence of parasympathetic activation, early studies defined meditation as a relaxation response. Later research attempted to categorize meditation as either involving focused or distributed attentional systems. Neither of these hypotheses received strong empirical support, and most of the studies investigated Theravada style meditative practices. In this study, we compared neurophysiological (EEG, EKG) and cognitive correlates of meditative practices that are thought to utilize either focused or distributed attention, from both Theravada and Vajrayana traditions. The results of Study 1 show that both focused (Shamatha) and distributed (Vipassana) attention meditations of the Theravada tradition produced enhanced parasympathetic activation indicative of a relaxation response. In contrast, both focused (Deity) and distributed (Rig-pa) meditations of the Vajrayana tradition produced sympathetic activation, indicative of arousal. Additionally, the results of Study 2 demonstrated an immediate dramatic increase in performance on cognitive tasks following only Vajrayana styles of meditation, indicating enhanced phasic alertness due to arousal. Furthermore, our EEG results showed qualitatively different patterns of activation between Theravada and Vajrayana meditations, albeit highly similar activity between meditations within the same tradition. In conclusion, consistent with Tibetan scriptures that described Shamatha and Vipassana techniques as those that calm and relax the mind, and Vajrayana techniques as those that require ‘an awake quality’ of the mind, we show that Theravada and Vajrayana meditations are based on different neurophysiological mechanisms, which give rise to either a relaxation or arousal response. Hence, it may be more appropriate to categorize meditations in terms of relaxation vs. arousal, whereas classification methods that rely on the focused vs. distributed attention dichotomy may need to be reexamined. PMID:25051268

  13. Arousal vs. relaxation: a comparison of the neurophysiological and cognitive correlates of Vajrayana and Theravada meditative practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ido Amihai

    Full Text Available Based on evidence of parasympathetic activation, early studies defined meditation as a relaxation response. Later research attempted to categorize meditation as either involving focused or distributed attentional systems. Neither of these hypotheses received strong empirical support, and most of the studies investigated Theravada style meditative practices. In this study, we compared neurophysiological (EEG, EKG and cognitive correlates of meditative practices that are thought to utilize either focused or distributed attention, from both Theravada and Vajrayana traditions. The results of Study 1 show that both focused (Shamatha and distributed (Vipassana attention meditations of the Theravada tradition produced enhanced parasympathetic activation indicative of a relaxation response. In contrast, both focused (Deity and distributed (Rig-pa meditations of the Vajrayana tradition produced sympathetic activation, indicative of arousal. Additionally, the results of Study 2 demonstrated an immediate dramatic increase in performance on cognitive tasks following only Vajrayana styles of meditation, indicating enhanced phasic alertness due to arousal. Furthermore, our EEG results showed qualitatively different patterns of activation between Theravada and Vajrayana meditations, albeit highly similar activity between meditations within the same tradition. In conclusion, consistent with Tibetan scriptures that described Shamatha and Vipassana techniques as those that calm and relax the mind, and Vajrayana techniques as those that require 'an awake quality' of the mind, we show that Theravada and Vajrayana meditations are based on different neurophysiological mechanisms, which give rise to either a relaxation or arousal response. Hence, it may be more appropriate to categorize meditations in terms of relaxation vs. arousal, whereas classification methods that rely on the focused vs. distributed attention dichotomy may need to be reexamined.

  14. Cognitive skill training for nuclear power plant operational decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumaw, R.J.; Swatzler, D.; Roth, E.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Thomas, W.A. [Quantum Technologies, Inc., Oak Brook, IL (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, decisionmaking tasks required of nuclear power plant operators involve cognitive skills (e.g., situation assessment, planning). Cognitive skills are needed in situations where formal procedures may not exist or may not be as prescriptive, as is the case in severe accident management (SAM). The Westinghouse research team investigated the potential cognitive demands of SAM on the control room operators and Technical Support Center staff who would be most involved in the selection and execution of severe accident control actions. A model of decision making, organized around six general cognitive processes, was developed to identify the types of cognitive skills that may be needed for effective performance. Also, twelve SAM scenarios were developed to reveal specific decision-making difficulties. Following the identification of relevant cognitive skills, 19 approaches for training individual and team cognitive skills were identified. A review of these approaches resulted in the identification of general characteristics that are important in effective training of cognitive skills.

  15. Cognitive skill training for nuclear power plant operational decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumaw, R.J.; Swatzler, D.; Roth, E.M.; Thomas, W.A.

    1994-06-01

    Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, decisionmaking tasks required of nuclear power plant operators involve cognitive skills (e.g., situation assessment, planning). Cognitive skills are needed in situations where formal procedures may not exist or may not be as prescriptive, as is the case in severe accident management (SAM). The Westinghouse research team investigated the potential cognitive demands of SAM on the control room operators and Technical Support Center staff who would be most involved in the selection and execution of severe accident control actions. A model of decision making, organized around six general cognitive processes, was developed to identify the types of cognitive skills that may be needed for effective performance. Also, twelve SAM scenarios were developed to reveal specific decision-making difficulties. Following the identification of relevant cognitive skills, 19 approaches for training individual and team cognitive skills were identified. A review of these approaches resulted in the identification of general characteristics that are important in effective training of cognitive skills

  16. Effects of Cognitive Bias Modification Training via Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranming Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Negative cognitive biases have been linked to anxiety and mood problems. Accumulated data from laboratory studies show that positive and negative interpretation styles with accompanying changes in mood can be induced through cognitive bias modification (CBM paradigms. Despite the therapeutic potential of positive training effects, few studies have explored training paradigms administered via smartphones. The current study aimed to compare the effectiveness of three different types of training programmes (cognitive bias modification-attention, CBM-A; cognitive bias modification-interpretation, CBM-I; attention and interpretation modification, AIM administered via smart-phones by using a control condition (CC.Methods:Seventy-six undergraduate participants with high social anxiety (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, LSAS ≥ 30 were randomly assigned to four groups: CBM-A (n = 20, CBM-I (n = 20, AIM (n = 16, and CC (n = 20.Results: The results showed that the effects of CBM training, CBM-I training, or AIM training vs. CC for attention yielded no significant differences in dot-probe attention bias scores. The CBM-I group showed significantly less threat interpretation and more benign interpretation than the CC group on interpretation bias scores.Conclusions: The present results supported the feasibility of delivering CBM-I via smartphones, but the effectiveness of CBM-A and AIM training via smartphones was limited.

  17. Effectiveness of cognitive training for Chinese elderly in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok T

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Kwok,1,2 Anita Wong,3 Grace Chan,4 YY Shiu,3 Ko-Chuen Lam,2 Daniel Young,2 Daniel WH Ho,2 Florence Ho21Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Shatin, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 3The Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club Madam Wong Chan Sook Ying Memorial Care and Attention Home for the Aged, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 4The Hong Kong Council of Social Service, Hong Kong, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: In Hong Kong, the evidence for cognitive-training programs in fighting against memory complaints is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Active Mind cognitive-training program in improving the cognitive function and quality of life (QoL for local community-dwelling Chinese older adults. A total of 200 subjects were recruited from 20 different district elderly community centers (DECCs. Centers were randomly assigned into either the intervention group or control group. The intervention group underwent eight 1-hour sessions of cognitive training, while the control group were included in the usual group activities provided by the DECCs. Standardized neuropsychological tests (the Chinese version of Mattis Dementia Rating Scale [CDRS] and the Cantonese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination and the QoL questionnaire SF12 were used to assess participants' cognitive function and QoL before and after the trial. A total of 176 subjects completed the study. The intervention group showed greater improvement in the cognitive function measured by total CDRS score (treatment: 12.24 ± 11.57 vs control: 4.37 ± 7.99; P < 0.001 and QoL measured by total SF12 score (treatment: 7.82 ± 13.19 vs control: 3.18 ± 11.61; P = 0.014. Subjects with lower education level were associated with better cognitive response to the cognitive-training program. The current findings indicated that the Active

  18. Effects of Cognitive Training with and without Aerobic Exercise on Cognitively-Demanding Everyday Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Binder, Ellen F.; Bugg, Julie M.; Waldum, Emily R.; Dufault, Carolyn; Meyer, Amanda; Johanning, Jennifer; Zheng, Jie; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Kudelka, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the potential benefits of a novel cognitive training protocol and an aerobic exercise intervention, both individually and in concert, on older adults’ performances in laboratory simulations of select real-world tasks. The cognitive training focused on a range of cognitive processes, including attentional coordination, prospective memory, and retrospective-memory retrieval, processes that are likely involved in many everyday tasks, and that decline with age. Primary outcome measures were three laboratory tasks that simulated everyday activities: Cooking Breakfast, Virtual Week, and Memory for Health Information. Two months of cognitive training improved older adults’ performance on prospective memory tasks embedded in Virtual Week. Cognitive training, either alone or in combination with six months of aerobic exercise, did not significantly improve Cooking Breakfast or Memory for Health Information. Although gains in aerobic power were comparable to previous reports, aerobic exercise did not produce improvements for the primary outcome measures. Discussion focuses on the possibility that cognitive training programs that include explicit strategy instruction and varied practice contexts may confer gains to older adults for performance on cognitively challenging everyday tasks. PMID:25244489

  19. Anger Management - Evaluation of a Cognitive-Behavioral Training Program for Table Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffgen Georges

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a systematic review of the literature on anger and anger management in sport, there is evidence that anger might be dysfunctional, especially in sports requiring selective attention and fine-tuned motor skills. The research literature suggests that cognitive-behavioral intervention programs can be fruitful in helping athletes to understand and control dysfunctional anger. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief training program for table tennis players in cognitive-behavioral anger management that aimed at changing their noneffective anger reactions. The sample comprised 18 young competitive table tennis players (age range from 16 to 22 years divided randomly into a treatment (n = 10 and a control group (n = 8. A trained group leader instructed the treatment group. Six sessions were held over a period of two months. Cognitive-relaxation coping skills associated with social skills of subjects from the treatment group were compared to no-treatment controls. Psychological measurements (i.e., self-reports on anger were applied before, during and after treatment as well as in a follow-up session. The one-year follow-up session revealed that, in contrast to the control group, the treatment group showed a significant reduction in outwardly negative anger expression as well as anger reactions specific to table tennis. Despite limitations inherent in the research design, the training program was deemed effective.

  20. The effects of Chinese calligraphy handwriting and relaxation training in Chinese Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Ling; Li, Huan-Huan; Hong, Ming-Huang; Kao, Henry S R

    2010-05-01

    Chinese calligraphy handwriting is the practice of traditional Chinese brush writing, researches found calligraphy had therapeutic effects on certain diseases, some authors argued that calligraphy might have relaxation effect. This study was to compare the effects of calligraphy handwriting with those of progressive muscle relaxation and imagery training in Chinese Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma patients. This study was a randomized controlled trial. Two hundred and eighty-seven Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma patients were approached, ninety (31%) patients were recruited and randomized to one of the three treatment groups: progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery training group, Calligraphy handwriting group, or a Control group. Seventy-nine (87.8%) completed all of the outcome measures. The primary treatment outcome was the changes of physiological arousal parameters measured by pre- and post-treatment differences of heart rate, blood pressure and respiration rate. The secondary outcomes included: modified Chinese version of Symptom Distress Scale, Profile of Mood State-Short Form, and Karnofsky Performance Status measured at baseline, during treatment (after the 2-week intervention), post-treatment (after the 4-week intervention) and after a 2-week follow-up. Effectiveness was tested by repeated measure ANOVA analyses. Cancer centre of a major university hospital in Guangdong, China. Results showed that both of calligraphy and relaxation training demonstrated slow-down effects on physiological arousal parameters. Moreover, calligraphy practice gradually lowered participants' systolic blood pressure (simple main effect of time at pre-treatment measure, p=.007) and respiration rate (p=.000) at pre- and post-treatment measures as the intervention proceeded, though with a smaller effect size as compared to relaxation. Both of calligraphy and relaxation training had certain symptom relief and mood improvement effects in NPC patients. Relaxation was effective in relieving

  1. Training Attentional Control Improves Cognitive and Motor Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrocq, Emmanuel; Wilson, Mark; Vine, Sam; Derakshan, Nazanin

    2016-10-01

    Attentional control is a necessary function for the regulation of goal-directed behavior. In three experiments we investigated whether training inhibitory control using a visual search task could improve task-specific measures of attentional control and performance. In Experiment 1 results revealed that training elicited a near-transfer effect, improving performance on a cognitive (antisaccade) task assessing inhibitory control. In Experiment 2 an initial far-transfer effect of training was observed on an index of attentional control validated for tennis. The principal aim of Experiment 3 was to expand on these findings by assessing objective gaze measures of inhibitory control during the performance of a tennis task. Training improved inhibitory control and performance when pressure was elevated, confirming the mechanisms by which cognitive anxiety impacts performance. These results suggest that attentional control training can improve inhibition and reduce taskspecific distractibility with promise of transfer to more efficient sporting performance in competitive contexts.

  2. Effects of endurance, circuit, and relaxing training on cardiovascular risk factors in hypertensive elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, Massimo; Cè, Emiliano; Limonta, Eloisa; Schena, Federico; Caimi, Barbara; Carugo, Stefano; Veicsteinas, Arsenio; Esposito, Fabio

    2015-10-01

    Recommendations for prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) risk factors among older adults highlighted the importance of exercise-based interventions, including endurance training (ET). However, the evidence of efficacy of other interventions based on short-bouts of exercise (circuit training, CT), and the practice of breath-control and meditation (relaxing training, RT) is growing. The aim of this study was to elucidate if CT or RT are equally effective in CVD risk factors reduction compared to ET. To this purpose, in 40 elderly participants, with clinically diagnosed grade 1 hypertension, resting blood pressure, blood glucose, and cholesterol levels, peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), mechanical efficiency and quality of life were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of ET, CT, and RT treatments. Resting blood pressure reduced significantly in all groups by ∼11 %. In ET, blood cholesterol levels (-18 %), [Formula: see text] (+8 %), mechanical efficiency (+9 %), and quality of life scores (+36 %) ameliorated. In CT blood glucose levels (-11 %), [Formula: see text] (+7 %) and quality of life scores (+35 %) were bettered. Conversely, in RT, the lower blood pressure went along only with an improvement in the mental component of quality of life (+42 %). ET and CT were both appropriate interventions to reduce CVDs risk factors, because blood pressure reduction was accompanied by decreases in blood glucose and cholesterol levels, increases in [Formula: see text], mechanical efficiency, and quality of life. Although RT influenced only blood pressure and quality of life, this approach would be an attractive alternative for old individuals unable or reluctant to carry out ET or CT.

  3. Influence of Sequential vs. Simultaneous Dual-Task Exercise Training on Cognitive Function in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Jamie L; Duckham, Rachel L; Milte, Catherine M; Main, Luana C; Daly, Robin M

    2017-01-01

    Emerging research indicates that exercise combined with cognitive training may improve cognitive function in older adults. Typically these programs have incorporated sequential training, where exercise and cognitive training are undertaken separately. However, simultaneous or dual-task training, where cognitive and/or motor training are performed simultaneously with exercise, may offer greater benefits. This review summary provides an overview of the effects of combined simultaneous vs. sequential training on cognitive function in older adults. Based on the available evidence, there are inconsistent findings with regard to the cognitive benefits of sequential training in comparison to cognitive or exercise training alone. In contrast, simultaneous training interventions, particularly multimodal exercise programs in combination with secondary tasks regulated by sensory cues, have significantly improved cognition in both healthy older and clinical populations. However, further research is needed to determine the optimal characteristics of a successful simultaneous training program for optimizing cognitive function in older people.

  4. Is cognitive adaptation training (CAT) compensatory, restorative, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrick, Megan M; Mintz, Jim; Roberts, David L; Maples, Natalie J; Sarkar, Sonali; Li, Xueying; Velligan, Dawn I

    2015-08-01

    Cognitive adaptation training (CAT) is a psychosocial treatment incorporating environmental supports including signs, checklists to bypass the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. Our objective was to examine the association between CAT, functional outcomes, and cognitive test performance (cognition). The two research questions were as follows: 1) Does cognition mediate the effect of CAT intervention on functional outcome? 2) Does CAT impact cognitive test performance? A total of 120 participants with schizophrenia were randomized to one of three treatments: 1) CAT (weekly for 9months; monthly thereafter), 2) generic environmental supports (given to participants on clinic visits to promote adaptive behavior), or 3) treatment as usual (TAU). Assessments of cognition and functional outcome were conducted at baseline, 9 and 24months. Mediation analyses and mixed effects regression were conducted. Mediation analyses revealed that during the initial 9months, the direct path from treatment group to functional outcome on the primary measure was positive and highly significant. CAT significantly improved functional outcome compared to the other treatments. However, paths involving cognition were negligible. There was no evidence that cognition mediated improvement in functional outcomes. At 24months, cognition improved more in CAT compared to other treatment groups. The test for cognition mediating improvement in functional outcomes was not significant at this time point. However, improvement in functional outcome led to better performance on cognitive testing. We concluded that improvement in cognition is not a necessary condition for improvement in functional outcome and that greater engagement in functional behavior has a positive impact on cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Gamification of Cognitive Assessment and Cognitive Training: A Systematic Review of Applications and Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Jim; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Lawrence, Natalia S; Coyle, David; Munafò, Marcus R

    2016-07-15

    Cognitive tasks are typically viewed as effortful, frustrating, and repetitive, which often leads to participant disengagement. This, in turn, may negatively impact data quality and/or reduce intervention effects. However, gamification may provide a possible solution. If game design features can be incorporated into cognitive tasks without undermining their scientific value, then data quality, intervention effects, and participant engagement may be improved. This systematic review aims to explore and evaluate the ways in which gamification has already been used for cognitive training and assessment purposes. We hope to answer 3 questions: (1) Why have researchers opted to use gamification? (2) What domains has gamification been applied in? (3) How successful has gamification been in cognitive research thus far? We systematically searched several Web-based databases, searching the titles, abstracts, and keywords of database entries using the search strategy (gamif* OR game OR games) AND (cognit* OR engag* OR behavi* OR health* OR attention OR motiv*). Searches included papers published in English between January 2007 and October 2015. Our review identified 33 relevant studies, covering 31 gamified cognitive tasks used across a range of disorders and cognitive domains. We identified 7 reasons for researchers opting to gamify their cognitive training and testing. We found that working memory and general executive functions were common targets for both gamified assessment and training. Gamified tests were typically validated successfully, although mixed-domain measurement was a problem. Gamified training appears to be highly engaging and does boost participant motivation, but mixed effects of gamification on task performance were reported. Heterogeneous study designs and typically small sample sizes highlight the need for further research in both gamified training and testing. Nevertheless, careful application of gamification can provide a way to develop engaging and

  6. Failure of Working Memory Training to Enhance Cognition or Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Todd W.; Waskom, Michael L.; Garel, Keri-Lee A.; Cardenas-Iniguez, Carlos; Reynolds, Gretchen O.; Winter, Rebecca; Chang, Patricia; Pollard, Kiersten; Lala, Nupur; Alvarez, George A.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2013-01-01

    Fluid intelligence is important for successful functioning in the modern world, but much evidence suggests that fluid intelligence is largely immutable after childhood. Recently, however, researchers have reported gains in fluid intelligence after multiple sessions of adaptive working memory training in adults. The current study attempted to replicate and expand those results by administering a broad assessment of cognitive abilities and personality traits to young adults who underwent 20 sessions of an adaptive dual n-back working memory training program and comparing their post-training performance on those tests to a matched set of young adults who underwent 20 sessions of an adaptive attentional tracking program. Pre- and post-training measurements of fluid intelligence, standardized intelligence tests, speed of processing, reading skills, and other tests of working memory were assessed. Both training groups exhibited substantial and specific improvements on the trained tasks that persisted for at least 6 months post-training, but no transfer of improvement was observed to any of the non-trained measurements when compared to a third untrained group serving as a passive control. These findings fail to support the idea that adaptive working memory training in healthy young adults enhances working memory capacity in non-trained tasks, fluid intelligence, or other measures of cognitive abilities. PMID:23717453

  7. Failure of working memory training to enhance cognition or intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd W Thompson

    Full Text Available Fluid intelligence is important for successful functioning in the modern world, but much evidence suggests that fluid intelligence is largely immutable after childhood. Recently, however, researchers have reported gains in fluid intelligence after multiple sessions of adaptive working memory training in adults. The current study attempted to replicate and expand those results by administering a broad assessment of cognitive abilities and personality traits to young adults who underwent 20 sessions of an adaptive dual n-back working memory training program and comparing their post-training performance on those tests to a matched set of young adults who underwent 20 sessions of an adaptive attentional tracking program. Pre- and post-training measurements of fluid intelligence, standardized intelligence tests, speed of processing, reading skills, and other tests of working memory were assessed. Both training groups exhibited substantial and specific improvements on the trained tasks that persisted for at least 6 months post-training, but no transfer of improvement was observed to any of the non-trained measurements when compared to a third untrained group serving as a passive control. These findings fail to support the idea that adaptive working memory training in healthy young adults enhances working memory capacity in non-trained tasks, fluid intelligence, or other measures of cognitive abilities.

  8. Pilot Cognitive Functioning and Training Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    reducing physical stress and damage to the airframe. In summary, there has been extensive research in the USAF on the use of cognitive ability tests...has amassed a body of knowledge about many topics Comprehension Measures “social acculturation ,” “social intelligence,” and the conventional

  9. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of progressive resistance training compared to progressive muscle relaxation in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy: the BEST study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potthoff, Karin; Steindorf, Karen; Schmidt, Martina E; Wiskemann, Joachim; Hof, Holger; Klassen, Oliver; Habermann, Nina; Beckhove, Philipp; Debus, Juergen; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2013-01-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment. During and after radiotherapy breast cancer patients often suffer from CRF which frequently impairs quality of life (QoL). Despite the high prevalence of CRF in breast cancer patients and the severe impact on the physical and emotional well-being, effective treatment methods are scarce. Physical activity for breast cancer patients has been reported to decrease fatigue, to improve emotional well-being and to increase physical strength. The pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms of CRF and the molecular-biologic changes induced by exercise, however, are poorly understood. In the BEST trial we aim to assess the effects of resistance training on fatigue, QoL and physical fitness as well as on molecular, immunological and inflammatory changes in breast cancer patients during adjuvant radiotherapy. The BEST study is a prospective randomized, controlled intervention trial investigating the effects of a 12-week supervised progressive resistance training compared to a 12-week supervised muscle relaxation training in 160 patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy. To determine the effect of exercise itself beyond potential psychosocial group effects, patients in the control group perform a group-based progressive muscle relaxation training. Main inclusion criterion is histologically confirmed breast cancer stage I-III after lumpectomy or mastectomy with indication for adjuvant radiotherapy. Main exclusion criteria are acute infectious diseases, severe neurological, musculosceletal or cardiorespiratory disorders. The primary endpoint is cancer-related fatigue; secondary endpoints include immunological and inflammatory parameters analyzed in peripheral blood, saliva and urine. In addition, QoL, depression, physical performance and cognitive capacity will be assessed. The BEST study is the first randomized controlled trial comparing progressive

  10. Comparing three methods of computerised cognitive training for older adults with subclinical cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Amanda L; Choi, Jimmy; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Wilkins, Kirsten; Kirwin, Paul D; van Dyck, Christopher H; Devanand, Davangere; Bell, Morris D; Rivera Mindt, Monica

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive rehabilitation for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease is readily available to the geriatric population. Initial evidence suggests that techniques incorporating motivational strategies to enhance treatment engagement may provide more benefit than computerised training alone. Seventy four adults with subclinical cognitive decline were randomly assigned to computerised cognitive training (CCT), Cognitive Vitality Training (CVT), or an Active Control Group (ACG), and underwent neuropsychological evaluations at baseline and four-month follow-up. Significant differences were found in changes in performance on the Modified Mini Mental State Examination (mMMSE) and measures of verbal learning and memory across treatment groups. Experimental groups showed greater preservation of functioning on the mMMSE than the ACG group, the CVT group performed better than the ACG group on one measure of verbal learning and both measures of verbal memory, and the CCT group performed better than the ACG group on one measure of verbal learning and one measure of verbal memory. There were no significant group differences between the CVT and CCT groups on measures of verbal learning or memory. It was concluded that computerised cognitive training may offer the most benefit when incorporated into a therapeutic milieu rather than administered alone, although both appear superior to more generic forms of cognitive stimulation.

  11. Cognitive training with casual video games: Points to consider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline L Baniqued

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain training programs have proliferated in recent years, with claims that video games or computer-based tasks can broadly enhance cognitive function. However, benefits are commonly seen only in trained tasks. Assessing generalized improvement and practicality of laboratory exercises complicate interpretation and application of findings. In this study, we addressed these issues by using active control groups, training tasks that more closely resemble real-world demands and multiple tests to determine transfer of training. We examined whether casual video games can broadly improve cognition and selected training games from a study of the relationship between game performance and cognitive abilities. A total of 209 young adults were randomized into a working memory-reasoning group, an adaptive working memory-reasoning group, an active control game group, and a no-contact control group. Before and after 15 hours of training, participants completed tests of reasoning, working memory, attention, episodic memory, perceptual speed, and self-report measures of executive function, game experience, perceived improvement, knowledge of brain training research, and game play outside the laboratory. Participants improved on the training games, but transfer to untrained tasks was limited. No group showed gains in reasoning, working memory, episodic memory or perceptual speed, but the working memory-reasoning groups improved in divided attention, with better performance in an attention-demanding game, a decreased attentional blink and smaller trail-making costs. Perceived improvements did not differ across training groups and those with low reasoning ability at baseline showed larger gains. Although there are important caveats, our study sheds light on the mixed effects in the training and transfer literature and offers a novel and potentially practical training approach. Still, more research is needed to determine the real-world benefits of computer programs

  12. Cognitive training with casual video games: points to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniqued, Pauline L; Kranz, Michael B; Voss, Michelle W; Lee, Hyunkyu; Cosman, Joshua D; Severson, Joan; Kramer, Arthur F

    2014-01-07

    Brain training programs have proliferated in recent years, with claims that video games or computer-based tasks can broadly enhance cognitive function. However, benefits are commonly seen only in trained tasks. Assessing generalized improvement and practicality of laboratory exercises complicates interpretation and application of findings. In this study, we addressed these issues by using active control groups, training tasks that more closely resemble real-world demands and multiple tests to determine transfer of training. We examined whether casual video games can broadly improve cognition, and selected training games from a study of the relationship between game performance and cognitive abilities. A total of 209 young adults were randomized into a working memory-reasoning group, an adaptive working memory-reasoning group, an active control game group, and a no-contact control group. Before and after 15 h of training, participants completed tests of reasoning, working memory, attention, episodic memory, perceptual speed, and self-report measures of executive function, game experience, perceived improvement, knowledge of brain training research, and game play outside the laboratory. Participants improved on the training games, but transfer to untrained tasks was limited. No group showed gains in reasoning, working memory, episodic memory, or perceptual speed, but the working memory-reasoning groups improved in divided attention, with better performance in an attention-demanding game, a decreased attentional blink and smaller trail-making costs. Perceived improvements did not differ across training groups and those with low reasoning ability at baseline showed larger gains. Although there are important caveats, our study sheds light on the mixed effects in the training and transfer literature and offers a novel and potentially practical training approach. Still, more research is needed to determine the real-world benefits of computer programs such as casual games.

  13. Cognitive training with casual video games: points to consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniqued, Pauline L.; Kranz, Michael B.; Voss, Michelle W.; Lee, Hyunkyu; Cosman, Joshua D.; Severson, Joan; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2014-01-01

    Brain training programs have proliferated in recent years, with claims that video games or computer-based tasks can broadly enhance cognitive function. However, benefits are commonly seen only in trained tasks. Assessing generalized improvement and practicality of laboratory exercises complicates interpretation and application of findings. In this study, we addressed these issues by using active control groups, training tasks that more closely resemble real-world demands and multiple tests to determine transfer of training. We examined whether casual video games can broadly improve cognition, and selected training games from a study of the relationship between game performance and cognitive abilities. A total of 209 young adults were randomized into a working memory–reasoning group, an adaptive working memory–reasoning group, an active control game group, and a no-contact control group. Before and after 15 h of training, participants completed tests of reasoning, working memory, attention, episodic memory, perceptual speed, and self-report measures of executive function, game experience, perceived improvement, knowledge of brain training research, and game play outside the laboratory. Participants improved on the training games, but transfer to untrained tasks was limited. No group showed gains in reasoning, working memory, episodic memory, or perceptual speed, but the working memory–reasoning groups improved in divided attention, with better performance in an attention-demanding game, a decreased attentional blink and smaller trail-making costs. Perceived improvements did not differ across training groups and those with low reasoning ability at baseline showed larger gains. Although there are important caveats, our study sheds light on the mixed effects in the training and transfer literature and offers a novel and potentially practical training approach. Still, more research is needed to determine the real-world benefits of computer programs such as casual

  14. Cognitive responses to hypobaric hypoxia: implications for aviation training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuhaus C

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Neuhaus,1,2 Jochen Hinkelbein2,31Department of Anesthesiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Ruprecht Karls University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 2Emergency Medicine and Air Rescue Working Group, German Society of Aviation and Space Medicine (DGLRM, Munich, 3Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, GermanyAbstract: The aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview on cognitive responses to hypobaric hypoxia and to show relevant implications for aviation training. A principal element of hypoxia-awareness training is the intentional evocation of hypoxia symptoms during specific training sessions within a safe and controlled environment. Repetitive training should enable pilots to learn and recognize their personal hypoxia symptoms. A time span of 3–6 years is generally considered suitable to refresh knowledge of the more subtle and early symptoms especially. Currently, there are two different technical approaches available to induce hypoxia during training: hypobaric chamber training and reduced-oxygen breathing devices. Hypoxia training for aircrew is extremely important and effective, and the hypoxia symptoms should be emphasized clearly to aircrews. The use of tight-fitting masks, leak checks, and equipment checks should be taught to all aircrew and reinforced regularly. It is noteworthy that there are major differences in the required quality and quantity of hypoxia training for both military and civilian pilots.Keywords: cognitive response, aviation training, pilot, hypoxia, oxygen, loss of consciousness

  15. A Window of Opportunity for Cognitive Training in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Lisa J; Fuhrmann, Delia; Sakhardande, Ashok L; Stamp, Fabian; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2016-12-01

    In the current study, we investigated windows for enhanced learning of cognitive skills during adolescence. Six hundred thirty-three participants (11-33 years old) were divided into four age groups, and each participant was randomly allocated to one of three training groups. Each training group completed up to 20 days of online training in numerosity discrimination (i.e., discriminating small from large numbers of objects), relational reasoning (i.e., detecting abstract relationships between groups of items), or face perception (i.e., identifying differences in faces). Training yielded some improvement in performance on the numerosity-discrimination task, but only in older adolescents or adults. In contrast, training in relational reasoning improved performance on that task in all age groups, but training benefits were greater for people in late adolescence and adulthood than for people earlier in adolescence. Training did not increase performance on the face-perception task for any age group. Our findings suggest that for certain cognitive skills, training during late adolescence and adulthood yields greater improvement than training earlier in adolescence, which highlights the relevance of this late developmental stage for education.

  16. Physical and cognitive effects of virtual reality integrated training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Richard T; Watts, Kristopher P; Zhong, Peihan; Wei, Chen-Shuang

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the cognitive and physical impact of virtual reality (VR) integrated training versus traditional training methods in the domain of weld training. Weld training is very important in various industries and represents a complex skill set appropriate for advanced training intervention. As such, there has been a long search for the most successful and most cost-effective method for training new welders. Participants in this study were randomly assigned to one of two separate training courses taught by sanctioned American Welding Society certified welding instructors; the duration of each course was 2 weeks. After completing the training for a specific weld type, participants were given the opportunity to test for the corresponding certification. Participants were evaluated in terms of their cognitive and physical parameters, total training time exposure, and welding certification awards earned. Each of the four weld types taught in this study represented distinct levels of difficulty and required the development of specialized knowledge and skills. This study demonstrated that participants in the VR integrated training group (VR50) performed as well as, and in some cases, significantly outperformed, the traditional welding (TW) training group.The VR50 group was found to have a 41.6% increase in overall certifications earned compared with the TW group. VR technology is a valuable tool for the production of skilled welders in a shorter time and often with more highly developed skills than their traditionally trained counterparts. These findings strongly support the use ofVR integrated training in the welding industry.

  17. Training-dependent cognitive advantage is suppressed at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Gang; You, Hai-Yan; Zheng, Ran; Gao, Yu-Qi

    2012-06-25

    Ascent to high altitude is associated with decreases in cognitive function and work performance as a result of hypoxia. Some workers with special jobs typically undergo intensive mental training because they are expected to be agile, stable and error-free in their job performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk to cognitive function acquired from training following hypoxic exposure. The results of WHO neurobehavioral core tests battery (WHO-NCTB) and Raven's standard progressive matrices (RSPM) tests of a group of 54 highly trained military operators were compared with those of 51 non-trained ordinary people and were investigated at sea level and on the fifth day after arrival at high altitudes (3900m). Meanwhile, the plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were examined. The result showed that at sea level, the trained group exhibited significantly better performance on neurobehavioral and RSPM tests. At high altitude, both groups had decreased accuracy in most cognitive tests and took longer to finish them. More importantly, the highly trained subjects showed more substantial declines than the non-trained subjects in visual reaction accuracy, auditory reaction speed, digit symbol scores, ability to report correct dots in a pursuit aiming test and total RSPM scores. This means that the training-dependent cognitive advantages in these areas were suppressed at high altitudes. The above phenomenon maybe associated with decreased BDNF and elevated inflammatory factor during hypoxia, and other mechanisms could not be excluded. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Using Cognitive Agents to Train Negotiation Skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Christopher A; Daamen, Jeroen; Gaudrain, Emma; Renkema, Tom; Top, Jakob Dirk; Cnossen, Fokie; Taatgen, Niels A

    2018-01-01

    Training negotiation is difficult because it is a complex, dynamic activity that involves multiple parties. It is often not clear how to create situations in which students can practice negotiation or how to measure students' progress. Some have begun to address these issues by creating artificial

  19. Video game training enhances cognitive control in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguera, J A; Boccanfuso, J; Rintoul, J L; Al-Hashimi, O; Faraji, F; Janowich, J; Kong, E; Larraburo, Y; Rolle, C; Johnston, E; Gazzaley, A

    2013-09-05

    Cognitive control is defined by a set of neural processes that allow us to interact with our complex environment in a goal-directed manner. Humans regularly challenge these control processes when attempting to simultaneously accomplish multiple goals (multitasking), generating interference as the result of fundamental information processing limitations. It is clear that multitasking behaviour has become ubiquitous in today's technologically dense world, and substantial evidence has accrued regarding multitasking difficulties and cognitive control deficits in our ageing population. Here we show that multitasking performance, as assessed with a custom-designed three-dimensional video game (NeuroRacer), exhibits a linear age-related decline from 20 to 79 years of age. By playing an adaptive version of NeuroRacer in multitasking training mode, older adults (60 to 85 years old) reduced multitasking costs compared to both an active control group and a no-contact control group, attaining levels beyond those achieved by untrained 20-year-old participants, with gains persisting for 6 months. Furthermore, age-related deficits in neural signatures of cognitive control, as measured with electroencephalography, were remediated by multitasking training (enhanced midline frontal theta power and frontal-posterior theta coherence). Critically, this training resulted in performance benefits that extended to untrained cognitive control abilities (enhanced sustained attention and working memory), with an increase in midline frontal theta power predicting the training-induced boost in sustained attention and preservation of multitasking improvement 6 months later. These findings highlight the robust plasticity of the prefrontal cognitive control system in the ageing brain, and provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, of how a custom-designed video game can be used to assess cognitive abilities across the lifespan, evaluate underlying neural mechanisms, and serve as a powerful tool

  20. The influence of combined cognitive plus social-cognitive training on amygdala response during face emotion recognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Christine I; Bruce, Lori; Fisher, Melissa; Verosky, Sara C; Miyakawa, Asako; D'Esposito, Mark; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2013-08-30

    Both cognitive and social-cognitive deficits impact functional outcome in schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation studies indicate that targeted cognitive and/or social-cognitive training improves behavioral performance on trained skills. However, the neural effects of training in schizophrenia and their relation to behavioral gains are largely unknown. This study tested whether a 50-h intervention which included both cognitive and social-cognitive training would influence neural mechanisms that support social ccognition. Schizophrenia participants completed a computer-based intervention of either auditory-based cognitive training (AT) plus social-cognition training (SCT) (N=11) or non-specific computer games (CG) (N=11). Assessments included a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task of facial emotion recognition, and behavioral measures of cognition, social cognition, and functional outcome. The fMRI results showed the predicted group-by-time interaction. Results were strongest for emotion recognition of happy, surprise and fear: relative to CG participants, AT+SCT participants showed a neural activity increase in bilateral amygdala, right putamen and right medial prefrontal cortex. Across all participants, pre-to-post intervention neural activity increase in these regions predicted behavioral improvement on an independent emotion perception measure (MSCEIT: Perceiving Emotions). Among AT+SCT participants alone, neural activity increase in right amygdala predicted behavioral improvement in emotion perception. The findings indicate that combined cognition and social-cognition training improves neural systems that support social-cognition skills. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Computerised training improves cognitive performance in chronic pain: a participant-blinded randomised active-controlled trial with remote supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Katharine S; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Lampit, Amit; Valenzuela, Michael; Gibson, Stephen J; Giummarra, Melita J

    2018-04-01

    Chronic pain is associated with reduced efficiency of cognitive performance, and few studies have investigated methods of remediation. We trialled a computerised cognitive training protocol to determine whether it could attenuate cognitive difficulties in a chronic pain sample. Thirty-nine adults with chronic pain (mean age = 43.3, 61.5% females) were randomised to an 8-week online course (3 sessions/week from home) of game-like cognitive training exercises, or an active control involving watching documentary videos. Participants received weekly supervision by video call. Primary outcomes were a global neurocognitive composite (tests of attention, speed, and executive function) and self-reported cognition. Secondary outcomes were pain (intensity; interference), mood symptoms (depression; anxiety), and coping with pain (catastrophising; self-efficacy). Thirty participants (15 training and 15 control) completed the trial. Mixed model intention-to-treat analyses revealed significant effects of training on the global neurocognitive composite (net effect size [ES] = 0.43, P = 0.017), driven by improved executive function performance (attention switching and working memory). The control group reported improvement in pain intensity (net ES = 0.65, P = 0.022). Both groups reported subjective improvements in cognition (ES = 0.28, P = 0.033) and catastrophising (ES = 0.55, P = 0.006). Depression, anxiety, self-efficacy, and pain interference showed no change in either group. This study provides preliminary evidence that supervised cognitive training may be a viable method for enhancing cognitive skills in persons with chronic pain, but transfer to functional and clinical outcomes remains to be demonstrated. Active control results suggest that activities perceived as relaxing or enjoyable contribute to improved perception of well-being. Weekly contact was pivotal to successful program completion.

  2. Cognitive training for children with ADHD: Individual differences in training and transfer gains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Donk, M.L.A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to determine the efficacy of cognitive training for school-aged children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. We were mainly interested in whether the effects of training would generalize to functioning in everyday life, especially in terms of classroom

  3. The Effects of Relaxation and Cognitive Expectancy on Attraction in a Social Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Midge

    One approach to searching for determinants of interpersonal attraction involves the altering and studying of physiological arousal, psychological stress, and moods. On the basis of the reinforcement-affect model of attraction, it was hypothesized that the positive feelings obtained from undergoing relaxation exercises could serve to enhance…

  4. TACOP: A Cognitive Agent for a Naval Training Simulation Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doesburg, W.A.; Verbeeck, K.; Heuvelink, A.; Tuyls, K.; Nowé, A.; van den Broek, Egon; Manderick, B.; Kuijpers, B.

    2005-01-01

    The full version of this paper appeared in: Doesburg, W. A. van, Heuvelink, A., and Broek, E. L. van den (2005). TACOP: A cognitive agent for a naval training simulation environment. In M. Pechoucek, D. Steiner, and S. Thompson (Eds.), Proceedings of the Industry Track of the Fourth International

  5. Cognitive adaptation training combined with assertive community treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Peter; Østergaard, Birte; Nordentoft, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive adaptation training (CAT) targets the adaptive behaviour of patients with schizophrenia and has shown promising results regarding the social aspects of psychosocial treatment. As yet, no reports have appeared on the use of CAT in combination with assertive community treatment (ACT). Our...

  6. A Randomized Controlled ERP Study on the Effects of Multi-Domain Cognitive Training and Task Difficulty on Task Switching Performance in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küper, Kristina; Gajewski, Patrick D.; Frieg, Claudia; Falkenstein, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Executive functions are subject to a marked age-related decline, but have been shown to benefit from cognitive training interventions. As of yet, it is, however, still relatively unclear which neural mechanism can mediate training-related performance gains. In the present electrophysiological study, we examined the effects of multi-domain cognitive training on performance in an untrained cue-based task switch paradigm featuring Stroop color words: participants either had to indicate the word meaning of Stroop stimuli (word task) or perform the more difficult task of color naming (color task). One-hundred and three older adults (>65 years old) were randomly assigned to a training group receiving a 4-month multi-domain cognitive training, a passive no-contact control group or an active (social) control group receiving a 4-month relaxation training. For all groups, we recorded performance and EEG measures before and after the intervention. For the cognitive training group, but not for the two control groups, we observed an increase in response accuracy at posttest, irrespective of task and trial type. No training-related effects on reaction times were found. Cognitive training was also associated with an overall increase in N2 amplitude and a decrease of P2 latency on single trials. Training-related performance gains were thus likely mediated by an enhancement of response selection and improved access to relevant stimulus-response mappings. Additionally, cognitive training was associated with an amplitude decrease in the time window of the target-locked P3 at fronto-central electrodes. An increase in the switch positivity during advance task preparation emerged after both cognitive and relaxation training. Training-related behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) effects were not modulated by task difficulty. The data suggest that cognitive training increased slow negative potentials during target processing which enhanced the N2 and reduced a subsequent P3-like

  7. Effects of cognitive training based on metamemory and mental images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Bento Lima-Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract There is scant research evidence regarding training effects among elderly with limited educational experience. Research indicating an association between metamemory and memory performance is based on samples of older adults with at least 12 years of education. Objectives: To test the efficacy of a cognitive training program based on the creation of mental images and changes in specific aspects of metamemory in individuals with 3 to 15 years of education (M=8.38, SD=4.24. Methods: 37 older adults participated in five training sessions (Training Group (TG and 32 control subjects completed only pre and post test assessments (Control Group (CG including the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery (BCSB (naming and memorization of 10 pictures, animal category verbal fluency test, the Clock Drawing Test (CDT, the Story subtest from the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT, the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q, and the Picture and Story domains from the Memory Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (MSEQ. Results: The TG showed significant improvement between pre and post tests on the delayed recall of the 10 pictures and in self-efficacy for the memorization of stories. These same changes were not found in the CG . Conclusions: Five-session cognitive training may lead to significant improvements in episodic memory and memory self-efficacy, an aspect of metamemory, in individuals with an average of 8 years of education.

  8. Personalized cognitive training in unipolar and bipolar disorder: a study of cognitive functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek ePreiss

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Patients with unipolar depressive disorder and in the depressive phase of bipolar disorder often manifest psychological distress and cognitive deficits, notably in Executive Control. We used computerized cognitive training in anattempt to reduce psychological affliction, improve everyday coping and cognitive function. We asked one group of patients (intervention group to engage in cognitive training three times a week, for 20 minutes each time, for eight consecutive weeks. A second group of patients (control group received standard care only. Before the onset of training we administered to all patients self-report questionnaires of mood, mental and psychological health, and everyday coping. We also assessed Executive Control using a broad computerized neurocognitive battery of tests which yielded, among others, scores in Working Memory, Shifting, Inhibition, Visuomotor Vigilance, Divided Attention, Memory Span and a Global Executive Function score. All questionnaires and tests were re-administered to the patients who adhered to the study at the end of training. When we compared the groups (between-group comparisons on the amount of change that had taken place from baseline to post-training, we found improvements in Executive Control. Further exploration of the data showed that the cognitive improvements did not predict the improvements in everyday coping, and mood. Single-group data (within-group comparisons show that patients in the intervention group were reporting fewer cognitive failures, fewer dysexecutive incidents and less difficulty in everyday coping. This group had also improved significantly on the six Executive Control tests and on the Global Executive Control score. By contrast, the control group improved only on the reports of cognitive failure and on working memory.

  9. Personalized cognitive training in unipolar and bipolar disorder: a study of cognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, Marek; Shatil, Evelyn; Cermáková, Radka; Cimermanová, Dominika; Ram, Ilana

    2013-01-01

    Patients with unipolar depressive disorder and in the depressive phase of bipolar disorder often manifest psychological distress and cognitive deficits, notably in executive control. We used computerized cognitive training in an attempt to reduce psychological affliction, improve everyday coping, and cognitive function. We asked one group of patients (intervention group) to engage in cognitive training three times a week, for 20 min each time, for eight consecutive weeks. A second group of patients (control group) received standard care only. Before the onset of training we administered to all patients self-report questionnaires of mood, mental and psychological health, and everyday coping. We also assessed executive control using a broad computerized neurocognitive battery of tests which yielded, among others, scores in Working Memory, Shifting, Inhibition, Visuomotor Vigilance, Divided Attention, Memory Span, and a Global Executive Function score. All questionnaires and tests were re-administered to the patients who adhered to the study at the end of training. When we compared the groups (between-group comparisons) on the amount of change that had taken place from baseline to post-training, we found significantly reduced depression level for the intervention group. This group also displayed significant improvements in Shifting, Divided Attention, and in the Global executive control score. Further exploration of the data showed that the cognitive improvement did not predict the improvements in mood. Single-group data (within-group comparisons) show that patients in the intervention group were reporting fewer cognitive failures, fewer dysexecutive incidents, and less difficulty in everyday coping. This group had also improved significantly on the six executive control tests and on the Global executive control score. By contrast, the control group improved only on the reports of cognitive failure and on working memory.

  10. Computer-Based Cognitive Training for Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results from a Pilot Randomized, Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Deborah E.; Yaffe, Kristine; Belfor, Nataliya; Jagust, William J.; DeCarli, Charles; Reed, Bruce R.; Kramer, Joel H.

    2009-01-01

    We performed a pilot randomized, controlled trial of intensive, computer-based cognitive training in 47 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The intervention group performed exercises specifically designed to improve auditory processing speed and accuracy for 100 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks; the control group performed more passive computer activities (reading, listening, visuospatial game) for similar amounts of time. Subjects had a mean age of 74 years and 60% were men; 7...

  11. Strength Training Decreases Inflammation and Increases Cognition and Physical Fitness in Older Women with Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupel, Matheus U; Direito, Fábio; Furtado, Guilherme E; Minuzzi, Luciéle G; Pedrosa, Filipa M; Colado, Juan C; Ferreira, José P; Filaire, Edith; Teixeira, Ana M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive impairment that affects older adults is commonly associated with an inflammatory imbalance, resulting in decreased physical fitness. Exercise has been pointed to mitigate immunosenescence and cognitive impairment associated with aging, while increase in physical fitness. However, few studies explored the relationship between changes in cytokine concentration and improvement on cognition due to elastic band strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of strength training on pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines, hematological markers and physical fitness of older women with cognitive impairment. Methods: Thirty-three women (82.7 ± 5.7 years old) participated in the study and were divided in two groups: strength exercise training group (ST; n = 16) and Control Group (CG; n = 17) and were evaluated before and after 28 weeks of the exercise program. The CG did not undergo any type of exercise programs. Data for IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), white blood counts (WBC), red blood counts (RBC), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and physical fitness tests were analyzed in both moments. Results: IL-10 increased in the ST group without changes in CG. TNF-α and CRP increased in the control group while no changes were observed for IFN-γ in both groups. Strength training decreased leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and increase hemoglobin, mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin concentration. The MMSE score increased in strength training group but remained unchanged in the control group. A correlation between the variation of granulocyte counts and the MMSE scores was also observed within the total sample. An improvement in physical fitness was observed with strength training. Conclusion: Resistance exercise promoted better anti-inflammatory balance and physical performance simultaneously with an increase in cognitive profile in older women with cognitive impairment.

  12. Cognitive computer training in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus no intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bikic, Aida; Leckman, J. F.; Lindschou, Jane

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention and impulsivity and/or hyperactivity and a range of cognitive dysfunctions. Pharmacological treatment may be beneficial; however, many affected individuals...... of cognition, mostly on the working memory or attention but with poor generalization of training on other cognitive functions and functional outcome. Children with ADHD have a variety of cognitive dysfunctions, and it is important that cognitive training target multiple cognitive functions. METHODS...

  13. Prefrontal activation may predict working-memory training gain in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Heskamp, L.; Simons, E.M.F.; Dautzenberg, P.LJ.; Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive training has been shown to result in improved behavioral performance in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), yet little is known about the neural correlates of cognitive plasticity, or about individual differences in responsiveness to cognitive training. In this study, 21

  14. Efficacy of a Multimodal Cognitive Rehabilitation Including Psychomotor and Endurance Training in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Reuter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment, especially executive dysfunction might occur early in the course of Parkinson's disease. Cognitive training is thought to improve cognitive performance. However, transfer of improvements achieved in paper and pencil tests into daily life has been difficult. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a multimodal cognitive rehabilitation programme including physical exercises might be more successful than cognitive training programmes without motor training. 240 PD-patients were included in the study and randomly allocated to three treatment arms, group A cognitive training, group B cognitive training and transfer training and group C cognitive training, transfer training and psychomotor and endurance training. The primary outcome measure was the ADAS-Cog. The secondary outcome measure was the SCOPA-Cog. Training was conducted for 4 weeks on a rehabilitation unit, followed by 6 months training at home. Caregivers received an education programme. The combination of cognitive training using paper and pencil and the computer, transfer training and physical training seems to have the greatest effect on cognitive function. Thus, patients of group C showed the greatest improvement on the ADAS-Cog and SCOPA-COG and were more likely to continue with the training programme after the study.

  15. The Perceived Effectiveness of Supervision In Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Kuru

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychotherapy is a general name for the problem solving techniques to address mental disorders or struggles through verbal interaction. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT is one of the leading approaches in psychotherapy field. The first aim of this study; to evaluate the contribution of theoretical and supervision trainings perceived by mental health professionals to their CBT skills and personal development. The second one was to evaluate the CBT training process in psychotherapy training. To this end, 54 mental health professionals who agree to participate the study were given questionnaires each consisting of 18 items. This questionnaire was created by three supervisors who have been certified by the Academy of Cognitive Therapy (ACT. Mean duration of work as a mental health professional were 7.6 years. Mean duration of using psychotherapy in their clinical practice were 4,8 years. Mean duration of application of CBT as a psychotherapy modality were 3,2 years. Mean durations of theoretical and supervision trainings the participants had participated were 55,4 hours and 69,1 respectively. Seventy-nine point six of the participants reported that the theoretical training had contributed to their CBT practice at “quite” to “too much” levels. Fifty-nine point two of the participants reported that the same training contributed to their personal development at “quiet” to “too much” levels. For the supervision traning these perceived contributions were 92,6 % and 70,4% respectively. That the therapists reported high degree of satisfaction with the theoretical and supervision trainings they need to accomplish is promising about the psychotherapy training in Turkey. Besides, results of this study suggests that although theoretical training is of perceived value, supervision has been perceived as had given extra contribution. [JCBPR 2016; 5(3.000: 119-124

  16. Efficacy of Cognitive Training in Older Adults with and without Subjective Cognitive Decline Is Associated with Inhibition Efficiency and Working Memory Span, Not with Cognitive Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Higes, Ramón; Martín-Aragoneses, María T; Rubio-Valdehita, Susana; Delgado-Losada, María L; Montejo, Pedro; Montenegro, Mercedes; Prados, José M; de Frutos-Lucas, Jaisalmer; López-Sanz, David

    2018-01-01

    The present study explores the role of cognitive reserve, executive functions, and working memory (WM) span, as factors that might explain training outcomes in cognitive status. Eighty-one older adults voluntarily participated in the study, classified either as older adults with subjective cognitive decline or cognitively intact. Each participant underwent a neuropsychological assessment that was conducted both at baseline (entailing cognitive reserve, executive functions, WM span and depressive symptomatology measures, as well as the Mini-Mental State Exam regarding initial cognitive status), and then 6 months later, once each participant had completed the training program (Mini-Mental State Exam at the endpoint). With respect to cognitive status the training program was most beneficial for subjective cognitive decline participants with low efficiency in inhibition at baseline (explaining a 33% of Mini-Mental State Exam total variance), whereas for cognitively intact participants training gains were observed for those who presented lower WM span.

  17. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna eAlesi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Football may be a physical and sport activities able to improve motor and cognitive growth in children. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times.Forty-six children with chronological age of ~9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n=24 attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n=22 was composed of sedentary children.Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a natural and enjoyable tool to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development.

  18. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 24) attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n = 22) was composed of sedentary children. Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination, and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a "natural and enjoyable tool" to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development.

  19. Gamification of cognitive assessment and cognitive training: A systematic review of applications, approaches and efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Lumsden

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive tasks are typically viewed as effortful, frustrating and repetitive, and these factors may lead participants to disengage with the task at hand. This, in turn, may negatively impact our data quality and reduce any intervention effects. Gamification may provide a solution. If we can successfully import game design elements into cognitive tasks without undermining their scientific value, then we may be able improve the quality of data, increase the effectiveness of our interventions, and maximise participant engagement. We conducted a systematic review of the existing literature of gamified cognitive testing and training tasks to identify where, how and why gamification has been used, and whether it has been successful. We searched several online databases, from January 2007 to January 2015, and screened 33,000 articles that matched our search terms. Our review identified 34 relevant studies, covering 31 gamified cognitive tasks used across a wide range of disorders and cognitive domains. Gamified cognitive training to relieve attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms was particularly prominent. We also found that the majority of gamified cognitive tasks were validated successfully and were rated as enjoyable or engaging by the study participants. Despite this, the heterogeneity of study designs and typically small sample sizes highlights the need for further research. We describe the game mechanics used in gamified cognitive tasks, their effectiveness and how they relate to several models of player engagement. In conclusion the evidence suggests that gamification can provide a way to develop engaging and scientifically valid cognitive tasks, but that no single game can be engaging to every participant and therefore gamification is not a silver-bullet for all motivational problems in psychological research.

  20. Home-based, Online Mindfulness and Cognitive Training for Soldiers and Veterans with TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0685 TITLE: Home-based, Online Mindfulness and Cognitive Training for Soldiers and Veterans with TBI PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Home-based, Online Mindfulness and Cognitive Training for Soldiers and Veterans with TBI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...individuated brain training program (cognitive training + mindfulness /stress- reduction training) with caregiver support portal and lifestyle monitor is

  1. Self-Perceived Benefits of Cognitive Training in Healthy Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vina M. Goghari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The idea that individualized, computer-based cognitive training improves cognitive functioning in non-trained domains is highly contested. An understudied area is whether cognitive training improves one’s own perception of cognitive and day-to-day functioning. Furthermore, no studies have compared working memory training to programs that train higher-level processes themselves, namely logic and planning, in improving perception of cognitive abilities. We investigated self-reported changes in: (a cognitive errors relevant to daily life; (b expectations regarding training; and (c impact of training on daily life, in healthy older adults who completed working memory training or logic and planning training. Ninety-seven healthy older adults completed 8-weeks of computerized cognitive training that targeted either working memory or logic and planning. Findings were compared to a no-training control group. Participants reported fewer cognitive failures relevant to daily life after training compared to the no-training control group, with a greater reduction in errors reported by the logic and planning training group compared to the working memory training group. Trainees’ perception of training efficacy decreased over time. Nonetheless, approximately half of the participants in both training groups endorsed “some improvement” or more in self-perceived day-to-day functioning at post-testing. These results support the conclusion that individualized computerized cognitive training may enhance subjective perceptions of change and that higher level cognitive training may confer additional benefits. Findings suggest that cognitive training can enhance cognitive self-efficacy in healthy seniors.

  2. An Effects of Behavioral Assertiveness Training And Cognitive Assertiveness Training on Assertiveness Behavior of Elementary School Studennts in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    金, 奎卓; 野島, 一彦

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Behavioral Assertiveness Training (BAT), and those of Cognitive Assertiveness Training (CAT), also to compare the effects of these trainings accoiding to the distinction of sex. The subjects were thirty two elementary school students who voluntarily participated in this study. These thirty two subjects were randomly divided into two groups, behavioral assertiveness training group and cognitive assertiveness training group, and each group...

  3. Effects of a relaxation training programme on immediate and prolonged stress responses in women with preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Li-Lan; Lin, Li-Chan; Cheng, Po-Jen; Chen, Chung-Hey; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Chang, Chuan-Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a report of an experimental study of the effects of relaxation-training programme on immediate and prolonged stress responses in women with preterm labour. Hospitalized pregnant women with preterm labour experience developmental and situational stress. However, few studies have been performed on stress management in such women. An experimental pretest and repeated post-test design was used to compare the outcomes for two groups in northern Taiwan from December 2008, to May 2010. A total of 129 women were randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 68) or control (n = 61) group. The experimental group participants were instructed to listen daily to a 13-minute relaxation programme. Measurements involved the stress visual analogue scale, finger temperatures, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and Pregnancy-related Anxiety. Two-way analysis of variance and hierarchical linear modelling were used to analyse the group differences. Compared with those in the control group, participants in the experimental group showed immediate improvements in the stress visual analogue scale scores and finger temperatures. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory-State subscale score for the experimental group was significantly lower than that for the control group (P = 0·03). However, no statistically significant differences for the Perceived Stress Scale and Pregnancy-related Anxiety scores were found between the experimental group and the control group. The relaxation-training programme could improve the stress responses of women with preterm labour. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Relaxation Response and Resiliency Training and Its Effect on Healthcare Resource Utilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Stahl

    Full Text Available Poor psychological and physical resilience in response to stress drives a great deal of health care utilization. Mind-body interventions can reduce stress and build resiliency. The rationale for this study is therefore to estimate the effect of mind-body interventions on healthcare utilization.Estimate the effect of mind body training, specifically, the Relaxation Response Resiliency Program (3RP on healthcare utilization.Retrospective controlled cohort observational study.Major US Academic Health Network.All patients receiving 3RP at the MGH Benson-Henry Institute from 1/12/2006 to 7/1/2014 (n = 4452, controls (n = 13149 followed for a median of 4.2 years (.85-8.4 yrs.Utilization as measured by billable encounters/year (be/yr stratified by encounter type: clinical, imaging, laboratory and procedural, by class of chief complaint: e.g., Cardiovascular, and by site of care delivery, e.g., Emergency Department. Subgroup analysis by propensity score matched pre-intervention utilization rate.At one year, total utilization for the intervention group decreased by 43% [53.5 to 30.5 be/yr] (p <0.0001. Clinical encounters decreased by 41.9% [40 to 23.2 be/yr], imaging by 50.3% [11.5 to 5.7 be/yr], lab encounters by 43.5% [9.8 to 5.6], and procedures by 21.4% [2.2 to 1.7 be/yr], all p < 0.01. The intervention group's Emergency department (ED visits decreased from 3.6 to 1.7/year (p<0.0001 and Hospital and Urgent care visits converged with the controls. Subgroup analysis (identically matched initial utilization rates-Intervention group: high utilizing controls showed the intervention group significantly reduced utilization relative to the control group by: 18.3% across all functional categories, 24.7% across all site categories and 25.3% across all clinical categories.Mind body interventions such as 3RP have the potential to substantially reduce healthcare utilization at relatively low cost and thus can serve as key components in any population health and

  5. Biological Factors Contributing to the Response to Cognitive Training in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Jessica; Schumacher, Lena V; Landerer, Verena; Abdulkadir, Ahmed; Kaller, Christoph P; Lahr, Jacob; Klöppel, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    In mild cognitive impairment (MCI), small benefits from cognitive training were observed for memory functions but there appears to be great variability in the response to treatment. Our study aimed to improve the characterization and selection of those participants who will benefit from cognitive intervention. We evaluated the predictive value of disease-specific biological factors for the outcome after cognitive training in MCI (n = 25) and also considered motivation of the participants. We compared the results of the cognitive intervention group with two independent control groups of MCI patients (local memory clinic, n = 20; ADNI cohort, n = 302). The primary outcome measure was episodic memory as measured by verbal delayed recall of a 10-word list. Episodic memory remained stable after treatment and slightly increased 6 months after the intervention. In contrast, in MCI patients who did not receive an intervention, episodic memory significantly decreased during the same time interval. A larger left entorhinal cortex predicted more improvement in episodic memory after treatment and so did higher levels of motivation. Adding disease-specific biological factors significantly improved the prediction of training-related change compared to a model based simply on age and baseline performance. Bootstrapping with resampling (n = 1000) verified the stability of our finding. Cognitive training might be particularly helpful in individuals with a bigger left entorhinal cortex as individuals who did not benefit from intervention showed 17% less volume in this area. When extended to alternative treatment options, stratification based on disease-specific biological factors is a useful step towards individualized medicine.

  6. Augmenting cognitive training in older adults (The ACT Study): Design and Methods of a Phase III tDCS and cognitive training trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Adam J; Cohen, Ronald; Marsiske, Michael; Alexander, Gene E; Czaja, Sara J; Wu, Samuel

    2018-02-01

    Adults over age 65 represent the fastest growing population in the US. Decline in cognitive abilities is a hallmark of advanced age and is associated with loss of independence and dementia risk. There is a pressing need to develop effective interventions for slowing or reversing the cognitive aging process. While certain forms of cognitive training have shown promise in this area, effects only sometimes transfer to neuropsychological tests within or outside the trained domain. This paper describes a NIA-funded Phase III adaptive multisite randomized clinical trial, examining whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of frontal cortices enhances neurocognitive outcomes achieved from cognitive training in older adults experiencing age-related cognitive decline: the Augmenting Cognitive Training in Older Adults study (ACT). ACT will enroll 360 participants aged 65 to 89 with age-related cognitive decline, but not dementia. Participants will undergo cognitive training intervention or education training-control combined with tDCS or sham tDCS control. Cognitive training employs a suite of eight adaptive training tasks focused on attention/speed of processing and working memory from Posit Science BrainHQ. Training control involves exposure to educational nature/history videos and related content questions of the same interval/duration as the cognitive training. Participants are assessed at baseline, after training (12weeks), and 12-month follow-up on our primary outcome measure, NIH Toolbox Fluid Cognition Composite Score, as well as a comprehensive neurocognitive, functional, clinical and multimodal neuroimaging battery. The findings from this study have the potential to significantly enhance efforts to ameliorate cognitive aging and slow dementia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Introducing Clicker Training as a Cognitive Enrichment for Laboratory Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, Charlotte; Herrmann, Felix; Thöne-Reineke, Christa; Baumgart, Nadine; Baumgart, Jan

    2017-03-06

    Establishing new refinement strategies in laboratory animal science is a central goal in fulfilling the requirements of Directive 2010/63/EU. Previous research determined a profound impact of gentle handling protocols on the well-being of laboratory mice. By introducing clicker training to the keeping of mice, not only do we promote the amicable treatment of mice, but we also enable them to experience cognitive enrichment. Clicker training is a form of positive reinforcement training using a conditioned secondary reinforcer, the "click" sound of a clicker, which serves as a time bridge between the strengthened behavior and an upcoming reward. The effective implementation of the clicker training protocol with a cohort of 12 BALB/c inbred mice of each sex proved to be uncomplicated. The mice learned rather quickly when challenged with tasks of the clicker training protocol, and almost all trained mice overcame the challenges they were given (100% of female mice and 83% of male mice). This study has identified that clicker training for mice strongly correlates with reduced fear in the mice during human-mice interactions, as shown by reduced anxiety-related behaviors (e.g., defecation, vocalization, and urination) and fewer depression-like behaviors (e.g., floating). By developing a reliable protocol that can be easily integrated into the daily routine of the keeping of laboratory mice, the lifetime experience of welfare in the mice can be improved substantially.

  8. AFFECT: Altered-Fidelity Framework for Enhancing Cognition and Training

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    Ryan Patrick McMahan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new framework for analyzing and designing virtual reality (VR techniques. This framework is based on two concepts—system fidelity (i.e., the degree with which real-world experiences are reproduced by a system and memory (i.e., the formation and activation of perceptual, cognitive, and motor networks of neurons. The premise of the framework is to manipulate an aspect of system fidelity in order to assist a stage of memory. We call it the Altered-Fidelity Framework for Enhancing Cognition and Training (AFFECT. AFFECT provides nine categories of approaches to altering system fidelity to positively affect learning or training. These categories are based on the intersections of three aspects of system fidelity (interaction fidelity, scenario fidelity, and display fidelity and three stages of memory (encoding, implicit retrieval, and explicit retrieval. In addition to discussing the details of our new framework, we show how AFFECT can be used as a tool for analyzing and categorizing VR techniques designed to facilitate learning or training. We also demonstrate how AFFECT can be used as a design space for creating new VR techniques intended for educational and training systems.

  9. Self-Instructional Cognitive Training to Reduce Impulsive Cognitive Style in Children with Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Flores, Gladys Wilma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Children with attention deficit with hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an impulsive, rigid and field-dependent cognitive style. This study examines whether self-instructional cognitive training reduces impulsive cognitive style in children diagnosed with this disorder. Method: The subjects were 10 children between the ages of 6 and…

  10. Effectiveness of a Combined Dance and Relaxation Intervention on Reducing Anxiety and Depression and Improving Quality of Life among the Cognitively Impaired Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Adam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cognitive impairment is a common problem among the elderly and is believed to be a precursor to dementia. This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of a combined dance and relaxation intervention as compared to relaxation alone in reducing anxiety and depression levels and improving quality of life (QOL and cognitive function among the cognitively impaired elderly. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted between May and December 2013 in Peninsular Malaysia. Subjects from four government residential homes for older adults aged ≥60 years with mild to moderate cognitive function as assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination were included in the study. Subjects were divided into an intervention group and a control group; the former participated in a combined poco-poco dance and relaxation intervention whilst the latter participated in relaxation exercises only. Both groups participated in two sessions per week for six weeks. Anxiety and depression were self-assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and QOL was self-assessed using the Quality of Life in Alzheimer’s Disease questionnaire. Results: A total of 84 elderly subjects were included in the study; 44 were in the intervention group and 40 were in the control group. When compared to control subjects, those in the intervention group showed significantly decreased anxiety (P <0.001 and depression (P <0.001 levels as well as improved QOL (P <0.001 and cognitive impairment (P <0.001. Conclusion: Dance as a form of participationbased physical exercise was found to reduce anxiety and depression levels and improve QOL and cognitive function among the studied sample of cognitively impaired elderly subjects in Malaysia.

  11. Applying cognitive training to target executive functions during early development.

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    Wass, Sam V

    2015-01-01

    Developmental psychopathology is increasingly recognizing the importance of distinguishing causal processes (i.e., the mechanisms that cause a disease) from developmental outcomes (i.e., the symptoms of the disorder as it is eventually diagnosed). Targeting causal processes early in disordered development may be more effective than waiting until outcomes are established and then trying to reverse the pathogenic process. In this review, I evaluate evidence suggesting that neural and behavioral plasticity may be greatest at very early stages of development. I also describe correlational evidence suggesting that, across a number of conditions, early emerging individual differences in attentional control and working memory may play a role in mediating later-developing differences in academic and other forms of learning. I review the currently small number of studies that applied direct and indirect cognitive training targeted at young individuals and discuss methodological challenges associated with targeting this age group. I also discuss a number of ways in which early, targeted cognitive training may be used to help us understand the developmental mechanisms subserving typical and atypical cognitive development.

  12. Computer-based, personalized cognitive training versus classical computer games: a randomized double-blind prospective trial of cognitive stimulation.

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    Peretz, Chava; Korczyn, Amos D; Shatil, Evelyn; Aharonson, Vered; Birnboim, Smadar; Giladi, Nir

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that cognitive training can result in cognitive gains in healthy older adults. We investigated whether personalized computerized cognitive training provides greater benefits than those obtained by playing conventional computer games. This was a randomized double-blind interventional study. Self-referred healthy older adults (n = 155, 68 ± 7 years old) were assigned to either a personalized, computerized cognitive training or to a computer games group. Cognitive performance was assessed at baseline and after 3 months by a neuropsychological assessment battery. Differences in cognitive performance scores between and within groups were evaluated using mixed effects models in 2 approaches: adherence only (AO; n = 121) and intention to treat (ITT; n = 155). Both groups improved in cognitive performance. The improvement in the personalized cognitive training group was significant (p computer games group it was significant (p games in improving visuospatial working memory (p = 0.0001), visuospatial learning (p = 0.0012) and focused attention (p = 0.0019). Personalized, computerized cognitive training appears to be more effective than computer games in improving cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Further studies are needed to evaluate the ecological validity of these findings. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Cognitive and memory training in adults at risk of dementia: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Effective non-pharmacological cognitive interventions to prevent Alzheimer's dementia or slow its progression are an urgent international priority. The aim of this review was to evaluate cognitive training trials in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and evaluate the efficacy of training in memory strategies or cognitive exercises to determine if cognitive training could benefit individuals at risk of developing dementia. Methods A systematic review of eligible trials was undertaken, followed by effect size analysis. Cognitive training was differentiated from other cognitive interventions not meeting generally accepted definitions, and included both cognitive exercises and memory strategies. Results Ten studies enrolling a total of 305 subjects met criteria for cognitive training in MCI. Only five of the studies were randomized controlled trials. Meta-analysis was not considered appropriate due to the heterogeneity of interventions. Moderate effects on memory outcomes were identified in seven trials. Cognitive exercises (relative effect sizes ranged from .10 to 1.21) may lead to greater benefits than memory strategies (.88 to -1.18) on memory. Conclusions Previous conclusions of a lack of efficacy for cognitive training in MCI may have been influenced by not clearly defining the intervention. Our systematic review found that cognitive exercises can produce moderate-to-large beneficial effects on memory-related outcomes. However, the number of high quality RCTs remains low, and so further trials must be a priority. Several suggestions for the better design of cognitive training trials are provided. PMID:21942932

  14. Communicative-pragmatic impairment in schizophrenia: Cognitive rehabilitative training

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    Francesca Marina Bosco

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to verify in patients with schizophrenia, the efficacy of Cognitive Pragmatic Treatment (CPT, a new remediation program for improving communicative-pragmatic abilities. The CPT program consists of 20 group sessions, focused on several communication modalities, i.e. linguistic, extralinguistic and paralinguistic, Theory of Mind (ToM and other cognitive functions that can affect communicative performance, such as awareness and planning. A group of 17 patients with schizophrenia participated in the training. They were tested before and after training, using the equivalent forms of the Assessment Battery for Communication (ABaCo, a tool for evaluating the comprehension and production of a wide range of pragmatic phenomena such as, i.e. direct and indirect speech acts, irony and deceit, and a series of neuropsychological and ToM tests. The results showed a significant improvement in patients’ performance following the program, on both comprehension and production tasks, and in all the communication modalities assessed by the ABaCo, i.e. linguistic, extralinguistic, paralinguistic and social appropriateness. The improvement of patients’ performance persisted after three months from the end of the training, as shown by the follow-up tests. These preliminary findings support the efficacy of the CPT program in improving communicative-pragmatic abilities in the patients.

  15. Effects of cognitive training on the structure of intelligence.

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    Protzko, John

    2017-08-01

    Targeted cognitive training, such as n-back or speed of processing training, in the hopes of raising intelligence is of great theoretical and practical importance. The most important theoretical contribution, however, is not about the malleability of intelligence. Instead, I argue the most important and novel theoretical contribution is understanding the causal structure of intelligence. The structure of intelligence, most often taken as a hierarchical factor structure, necessarily prohibits transfer from subfactors back up to intelligence. If this is the true structure, targeted cognitive training interventions will fail to increase intelligence not because intelligence is immutable, but simply because there is no causal connection between, say, working memory and intelligence. Seeing the structure of intelligence for what it is, a causal measurement model, allows us to focus testing on the presence and absence of causal links. If we can increase subfactors without transfer to other facets, we may be confirming the correct causal structure more than testing malleability. Such a blending into experimental psychometrics is a strong theoretical pursuit.

  16. The effect of distributed virtual reality simulation training on cognitive load during subsequent dissection training.

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    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Konge, Lars; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten

    2018-05-07

    Complex tasks such as surgical procedures can induce excessive cognitive load (CL), which can have a negative effect on learning, especially for novices. To investigate if repeated and distributed virtual reality (VR) simulation practice induces a lower CL and higher performance in subsequent cadaveric dissection training. In a prospective, controlled cohort study, 37 residents in otorhinolaryngology received VR simulation training either as additional distributed practice prior to course participation (intervention) (9 participants) or as standard practice during the course (control) (28 participants). Cognitive load was estimated as the relative change in secondary-task reaction time during VR simulation and cadaveric procedures. Structured distributed VR simulation practice resulted in lower mean reaction times (32% vs. 47% for the intervention and control group, respectively, p training. Repeated and distributed VR simulation causes a lower CL to be induced when the learning situation is increased in complexity. A suggested mechanism is the formation of mental schemas and reduction of the intrinsic CL. This has potential implications for surgical skills training and suggests that structured, distributed training be systematically implemented in surgical training curricula.

  17. Cognitive training with and without additional physical activity in healthy older adults: cognitive effects, neurobiological mechanisms, and prediction of training success

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    Julia eRahe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Data is inconsistent concerning the question whether cognitive-physical training (CPT yields stronger cognitive gains than cognitive training (CT. Effects of additional counseling, neurobiological mechanisms, and predictors have scarcely been studied. Healthy older adults were trained with CT (n=20, CPT (n=25, or CPT with counseling (CPT+C; n=23. Cognition, physical fitness, BDNF, IGF-1, and VEGF were assessed at pre- and posttest. No interaction effects were found except for one effect showing that CPT+C led to stronger gains in verbal fluency than CPT (p = .03. However, this superiority could not be assigned to additional physical training gains. Low baseline cognitive performance and BDNF, not carrying apoE4, gains in physical fitness and the moderation of gains in physical fitness x gains in BDNF predicted training success. Although all types of interventions seem successful to enhance cognition, our data do not support the hypotheses that CPT shows superior cognitive training gains compared to CT or that CPT+C adds merit to CPT. However, as CPT leads to additional gains in physical fitness which in turn is known to have positive impact on cognition in the long-term, CPT seems more beneficial. Training success can partly be predicted by neuropsychological, neurobiological, and genetic parameters.http://www.who.int/ictrp; ID: DRKS00005194

  18. Effects of Cognitive Training on Cognitive Performance of Healthy Older Adults.

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    Golino, Mariana Teles Santos; Flores Mendoza, Carmen; Golino, Hudson Fernandes

    2017-09-20

    The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of cognitive training on healthy older adults and verify the transfer effects of targeted and non-targeted abilities. The design consisted of a semi-randomized clinical controlled trial. The final sample was composed of 80 volunteers recruited from a Brazilian community (mean age = 69.69; SD = 7.44), which were separated into an intervention group (N = 47; mean age = 69.66, SD = 7.51) and a control group (N = 33; mean age = 69.73, SD = 7.45). Intervention was characterized by adaptive cognitive training with 12 individual training sessions of 60 to 90 minutes (once a week). Eight instruments were used to assess effects of cognitive training. Five were used to assess trained abilities (near effects), including: Memorization Tests (List and History), Picture Completion, Digit Span, Digit Symbol-Coding, and Symbol Search (the last four from WAIS-III). Two instruments assessed untrained abilities (far effects): Arithmetic and Matrix Reasoning (WAIS-III). The non-parametric repeated measures ANOVA test revealed a significant interaction between group by time interaction for Picture Completion [F(74) = 14.88, p = .0002, d = 0.90, CLES = 73.69%], Digit Symbol-Coding [F(74) = 5.66, p = .019, d = 0.55, CLES = 65.21%] and Digit Span [F(74) = 5.38, p = .02, d = 0.54, CLES = 64.85%], suggesting an interventional impact on these performance tasks. The results supported near transfer effects, but did not demonstrate a far transfer effects.

  19. Comparison of Two Cognitive Training Programs With Effects on Functional Activities and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagovská, Magdaléna; Dzvoník, Oliver; Olekszyová, Zuzana

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare the effectiveness of two types of cognitive training in 60 older adults with mild cognitive impairment by assessing the impact on functional activities, quality of life (QOL), and various cognitive functions. The primary outcomes were functional activity level and QOL. The secondary outcome was cognitive examination. Group assignment was random. Group A (n = 30) underwent CogniPlus, a computer-based, cognitive training. Group B (n = 30) underwent classical group-based cognitive training. Both programs comprised two 30-minute sessions per week for 10 weeks. After training, group A had better QOL (p effect size [ES] = 0.69) and better attention (increased load score, p functional activity level. Group A demonstrated larger improvements in QOL and attention than group B (i.e., classical cognitive training), but the transfer to functional activities was the same between groups. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2017; 10(4):172-180.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Enhanced Learning through Multimodal Training: Evidence from a Comprehensive Cognitive, Physical Fitness, and Neuroscience Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, N; Paul, E; Watson, P; Cooke, G E; Hillman, C H; Cohen, N J; Kramer, A F; Barbey, A K

    2017-07-19

    The potential impact of brain training methods for enhancing human cognition in healthy and clinical populations has motivated increasing public interest and scientific scrutiny. At issue is the merits of intervention modalities, such as computer-based cognitive training, physical exercise training, and non-invasive brain stimulation, and whether such interventions synergistically enhance cognition. To investigate this issue, we conducted a comprehensive 4-month randomized controlled trial in which 318 healthy, young adults were enrolled in one of five interventions: (1) Computer-based cognitive training on six adaptive tests of executive function; (2) Cognitive and physical exercise training; (3) Cognitive training combined with non-invasive brain stimulation and physical exercise training; (4) Active control training in adaptive visual search and change detection tasks; and (5) Passive control. Our findings demonstrate that multimodal training significantly enhanced learning (relative to computer-based cognitive training alone) and provided an effective method to promote skill learning across multiple cognitive domains, spanning executive functions, working memory, and planning and problem solving. These results help to establish the beneficial effects of multimodal intervention and identify key areas for future research in the continued effort to improve human cognition.

  1. Protecting cognition from aging and Alzheimer's disease: a computerized cognitive training combined with reminiscence therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barban, Francesco; Annicchiarico, Roberta; Pantelopoulos, Stelios; Federici, Alessia; Perri, Roberta; Fadda, Lucia; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Ricci, Claudia; Giuli, Simone; Scalici, Francesco; Turchetta, Chiara Stella; Adriano, Fulvia; Lombardi, Maria Giovanna; Zaccarelli, Chiara; Cirillo, Giulio; Passuti, Simone; Mattarelli, Paolo; Lymperopoulou, Olga; Sakka, Paraskevi; Ntanasi, Eva; Moliner, Reyes; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the efficacy of process-based cognitive training (pb-CT) combined with reminiscence therapy (RT) in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (mAD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and in healthy elderly (HE) subjects. This multicenter, randomized, controlled trial involved 348 participants with mAD, MCI, and HE from four European countries. Participants were randomly assigned to two arms of a crossover design: those in arm A underwent 3 months of computerized pb-CT for memory and executive functions combined with RT and 3 months of rest; those in arm B underwent the reverse. The primary outcome was the effect of the training on memory and executive functions performance. The secondary outcome was the effect of the training on functional abilities in mAD assessed with the instrumental activities of daily living. We found a significant effect of the training for memory in all three groups on delayed recall of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and for executive functions in HE on the phonological fluency test. MCI and HE participants maintained these effects at follow-up. MCI and mAD participants also showed a significant effect of the training on the Mini-mental state examination scale. Participants with mAD showed more stable instrumental activities of daily living during the training versus the rest period. Our results corroborate the positive effect of pb-CT and its maintenance primarily on memory in HE and MCI participants that did not seem to be potentiated by RT. Moreover, our results are very promising for the mAD participants. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Brain enhancement through cognitive training: a new insight from brain connectome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko eTaya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the recent advances in neurotechnology and the progress in understanding of brain cognitive functions, improvements of cognitive performance or acceleration of learning process with brain enhancement systems is not out of our reach anymore, on the contrary, it is a tangible target of contemporary research. Although a variety of approaches have been proposed, we will mainly focus on cognitive training interventions, in which learners repeatedly perform cognitive tasks to improve their cognitive abilities. In this review article, we propose that the learning process during the cognitive training can be facilitated by an assistive system monitoring cognitive workloads using EEG biomarkers, and the brain connectome approach can provide additional valuable biomarkers for facilitating leaners' learning processes. For the purpose, we will introduce studies on the cognitive training interventions, EEG biomarkers for cognitive workload, and human brain connectome. As cognitive overload and mental fatigue would reduce or even eliminate gains of cognitive training interventions, a real-time monitoring of cognitive workload can facilitate the learning process by flexibly adjusting difficulty levels of the training task. Moreover, cognitive training interventions should have effects on brain sub-networks, not on a single brain region, and graph theoretical network metrics quantifying topological architecture of the brain network can differentiate with respect to individual cognitive states as well as to different individuals' cognitive abilities, suggesting that the connectome is a valuable approach for tracking the learning progress. Although only a few studies have exploited the connectome approach for studying alterations of the brain network induced by cognitive training interventions so far, we believe that it would be a useful technique for capturing improvements of cognitive functions.

  3. Brain enhancement through cognitive training: a new insight from brain connectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taya, Fumihiko; Sun, Yu; Babiloni, Fabio; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the recent advances in neurotechnology and the progress in understanding of brain cognitive functions, improvements of cognitive performance or acceleration of learning process with brain enhancement systems is not out of our reach anymore, on the contrary, it is a tangible target of contemporary research. Although a variety of approaches have been proposed, we will mainly focus on cognitive training interventions, in which learners repeatedly perform cognitive tasks to improve their cognitive abilities. In this review article, we propose that the learning process during the cognitive training can be facilitated by an assistive system monitoring cognitive workloads using electroencephalography (EEG) biomarkers, and the brain connectome approach can provide additional valuable biomarkers for facilitating leaners' learning processes. For the purpose, we will introduce studies on the cognitive training interventions, EEG biomarkers for cognitive workload, and human brain connectome. As cognitive overload and mental fatigue would reduce or even eliminate gains of cognitive training interventions, a real-time monitoring of cognitive workload can facilitate the learning process by flexibly adjusting difficulty levels of the training task. Moreover, cognitive training interventions should have effects on brain sub-networks, not on a single brain region, and graph theoretical network metrics quantifying topological architecture of the brain network can differentiate with respect to individual cognitive states as well as to different individuals' cognitive abilities, suggesting that the connectome is a valuable approach for tracking the learning progress. Although only a few studies have exploited the connectome approach for studying alterations of the brain network induced by cognitive training interventions so far, we believe that it would be a useful technique for capturing improvements of cognitive functions.

  4. Cognitive training in Alzheimer's disease: a controlled randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovagnoli, A R; Manfredi, V; Parente, A; Schifano, L; Oliveri, S; Avanzini, G

    2017-08-01

    This controlled randomized single-blind study evaluated the effects of cognitive training (CT), compared to active music therapy (AMT) and neuroeducation (NE), on initiative in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). Secondarily, we explored the effects of CT on episodic memory, mood, and social relationships. Thirty-nine AD patients were randomly assigned to CT, AMT, or NE. Each treatment lasted 3 months. Before, at the end, and 3 months after treatment, neuropsychological tests and self-rated scales assessed initiative, episodic memory, depression, anxiety, and social relationships. At the end of the CT, initiative significantly improved, whereas, at the end of AMT and NE, it was unchanged. Episodic memory showed no changes at the end of CT or AMT and a worsening after NE. The rates of the patients with clinically significant improvement of initiative were greater after CT (about 62%) than after AMT (about 8%) or NE (none). At the 3-month follow-up, initiative and episodic memory declined in all patients. Mood and social relationships improved in the three groups, with greater changes after AMT or NE. In patients with mild to moderate AD, CT can improve initiative and stabilize memory, while the non-cognitive treatments can ameliorate the psychosocial aspects. The combining of CT and non-cognitive treatments may have useful clinical implications.

  5. [User friendliness of computer-based cognitive training for psychogeriatric patients with mild to moderate cognitive impairments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Eva S; Hoorweg, Angela; van der Lee, Jacqueline

    2016-04-01

    Cognitive impairment associated with dementia is characterized by a continuous decline. Cognitive training is a method to train specific brain functions such as memory and attention to prevent or slow down cognitive decline. A small number of studies has shown that cognitive training on a computer has a positive effect on both cognition and mood in people with cognitive impairment. This pilot study tested if serious games could be integrated in a psychogeriatric rehabilitation center. Fourteen psychogeriatric patients participated twice weekly in cognitive training sessions on a computer. Both the participants and the facilitator reported positive interactions and outcomes. However, after five weeks only half of the sample still participated in the training. This was partly because of patient turn-over as well as incorporating this new task in the facilitators' daily work. Fear of failure, physical limitations and rapidly decreasing cognitive function led to drop out according to the facilitator. The engagement of patients in the games and the role of the facilitator seemed essential for success, especially monitoring (and adjusting) the difficulty level of the program for every individual participant.

  6. Impact of relaxation training according to Yoga In Daily Life® system on self-esteem after breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačič, Tine; Kovačič, Miha

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to gather information on the immediate and short-term effects of relaxation training according to the Yoga In Daily Life(®) system on the self-esteem of patients with breast cancer. This is a parallel-groups design. Baseline interventions took place at the Institute for Oncology of Ljubljana (Slovenia). At discharge, the experimental group was issued with audiocassette recordings containing the instructions for relaxation training to be practiced individually at home for an additional 3 weeks. The convenience sample of 32 patients with breast cancer was recruited from an accessible population of hospitalized women. Patients were randomized to the experimental (n=16) and to the control group (n=16). Both groups received the same standard physiotherapy for 1 week, while the experimental group additionally received a group relaxation training sessions according to the Yoga in Daily Life(®) system. At discharge, the experimental group was issued with audiocassette recordings containing similar instructions for relaxation training to be practiced individually at home for an additional 3 weeks. Outcome measures were obtained by blinded investigators (physiotherapists) using standardized questionnaires (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) at baseline (after the surgery); at 1 week (1 week postattendance; at discharge); and at 4 weeks (4 weeks postattendance); prior the commencement of radiation. Analysis of variance showed that there were statistically significant differences between the experimental and control group in all measuring self-esteem scores over the study period (pp>0.05). The results indicate that relaxation training according to the Yoga in Daily Life system could be a useful clinical physiotherapy intervention for patients who have breast cancer and who are experiencing low self-esteem. Although this kind of relaxation training can be applied to clinical oncology in Slovenia, more studies need to be done.

  7. How to Train an Injured Brain? A Pilot Feasibility Study of Home-Based Computerized Cognitive Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhelst, Helena; Vander Linden, Catharine; Vingerhoets, Guy; Caeyenberghs, Karen

    2017-02-01

    Computerized cognitive training programs have previously shown to be effective in improving cognitive abilities in patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI). These studies often focused on a single cognitive function or required expensive hardware, making it difficult to be used in a home-based environment. This pilot feasibility study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a newly developed, home-based, computerized cognitive training program for adolescents who suffered from TBI. Additionally, feasibility of study design, procedures, and measurements were examined. Case series, longitudinal, pilot, feasibility intervention study with one baseline and two follow-up assessments. Nine feasibility outcome measures and criteria for success were defined, including accessibility, training motivation/user experience, technical smoothness, training compliance, participation willingness, participation rates, loss to follow-up, assessment timescale, and assessment procedures. Five adolescent patients (four boys, mean age = 16 years 7 months, standard deviation = 9 months) with moderate to severe TBI in the chronic stage were recruited and received 8 weeks of cognitive training with BrainGames. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated to determine possible training-related effects. The new cognitive training intervention, BrainGames, and study design and procedures proved to be feasible; all nine feasibility outcome criteria were met during this pilot feasibility study. Estimates of effect sizes showed small to very large effects on cognitive measures and questionnaires, which were retained after 6 months. Our pilot study shows that a longitudinal intervention study comprising our novel, computerized cognitive training program and two follow-up assessments is feasible in adolescents suffering from TBI in the chronic stage. Future studies with larger sample sizes will evaluate training-related effects on cognitive functions and underlying brain structures.

  8. Effects of a process-based cognitive training intervention for patients with stress-related exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavelin, Hanna Malmberg; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan; Stenlund, Therese; Järvholm, Lisbeth Slunga; Neely, Anna Stigsdotter

    2015-01-01

    Stress-related exhaustion has been linked to a pattern of selective cognitive impairments, mainly affecting executive functioning, attention and episodic memory. Little is known about potential treatments of these cognitive deficits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a process-based cognitive training intervention, designed to target the specific cognitive impairments associated with stress-related exhaustion. To this end, patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder (ED) were randomized to either a multimodal stress rehabilitation program with the addition of a process-based cognitive training intervention (training group, n = 27) or a treatment-as-usual control condition, consisting of multimodal stress rehabilitation with no additional training (control group, n = 32). Treatment effects were evaluated through an extensive cognitive test battery, assessing both near and far transfer effects, as well as self-report forms regarding subjective cognitive complaints and burnout levels. Results showed pronounced training-related improvements on the criterion updating task (p effects to updating (p = 0.01) and episodic memory (p = 0.04). Also, the trained group reported less subjective memory complaints (p = 0.02) and levels of burnout decreased for both groups, but more so for the trained group (p = 0.04), following the intervention. These findings suggest that process-based cognitive training may be a viable method to address the cognitive impairments associated with ED.

  9. The lateralization of intrinsic networks in the aging brain implicates the effects of cognitive training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng eLuo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lateralization of function is an important organization of human brain. The distribution of intrinsic networks in the resting brain is strongly related to the cognitive function, gender and age. In this study, the longitudinal design with one year duration was used to evaluate the cognitive training effects on the lateralization of intrinsic networks among healthy older adults. The subjects were divided into two groups randomly: one with multi-domain cognitive training in three month, the other as a wait-list control group. Resting state fMRI data were acquired before training and one year after training. We analyzed the functional lateralization in ten common resting state fMRI networks. We observed statically significant training effects on the lateralization of two important RSNs related to high-level cognition: right- and left- frontoparietal networks. Especially, the lateralization of left-frontoparietal network were retained well in training group, but decreased in control group. The increased lateralization with aging was observed on the cerebellum network, in which the lateralization was significantly increased in control group although the same change tendency was observed in training group. These findings indicate that the lateralization of the high-level cognitive intrinsic networks is sensitive to the multi-domain cognitive training. This study provides a neuroimaging evidence to support that the cognitive training should have advantages to the cognitive decline in healthy older adults.

  10. Effects of Different Types of Cognitive Training on Cognitive Function, Brain Structure, and Driving Safety in Senior Daily Drivers: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nozawa, Takayuki; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kanno, Akitake; Akimoto, Yoritaka; Ihara, Mizuki; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Ogawa, Takeshi; Goto, Takakuni; Sunda, Takashi; Shimizu, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background. Increasing proportion of the elderly in the driving population raises the importance of assuring their safety. We explored the effects of three different types of cognitive training on the cognitive function, brain structure, and driving safety of the elderly. Methods. Thirty-seven healthy elderly daily drivers were randomly assigned to one of three training groups: Group V trained in a vehicle with a newly developed onboard cognitive training program, Group P trained with a simil...

  11. Respiratory Muscle Training and Cognitive Function Exercising at Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quackenbush, Joseph; Duquin, Aubrey; Helfer, Samuel; Pendergast, David R

    2016-01-01

    Hiking and trekking often occur at altitudes up to 12,000 ft altitude. The hypoxia-induced hyperventilation at altitude paradoxically reduces arterial CO2 (Paco2). A reduction in Paco2 results in vasoconstriction of the blood vessels of the brain and thus in local hypoxia. The local hypoxia likely affects cognitive function, which may result in reduced performance and altitude accidents. Recent publications have demonstrated that voluntary isocapnic hyperventilatory training of the respiratory muscles (VIHT) can markedly enhance exercise endurance as it is associated with reduced ventilation and its energy cost. VIHT may be useful in blunting the altitude-induced hyperventilation leading to higher Paco2 and improved cognitive function. This study examined the effects of VIHT, compared to control (C) and placebo (PVIHT) groups, on selected measures of executive functioning, including working memory and processing speed (i.e., Stroop Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, and Digit Span Forward) at simulated altitude up to 12,000 ft. Associated physiological parameters were also measured. The Digit Span Forward Test did not show improvements after VIHT in any group. The VIHT group, but not C or PVIHT groups, improved significantly (17-30%) on the Stroop Test. Similarly the VIHT group, but not the C and PVIHT groups, improved correct responses (26%) and number of attempts (24%) on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test. In addition, reaction time was also improved (16%). VIHT improved processing speed and working memory during exercise at altitude.

  12. Game-based training of flexibility and attention improves task-switch performance: near and far transfer of cognitive training in an EEG study

    OpenAIRE

    Olfers, Kerwin J. F.; Band, Guido P. H.

    2017-01-01

    There is a demand for ways to enhance cognitive flexibility, as it can be a limiting factor for performance in daily life. Video game training has been linked to advantages in cognitive functioning, raising the question if training with video games can promote cognitive flexibility. In the current study, we investigated if game-based computerized cognitive training (GCCT) could enhance cognitive flexibility in a healthy young adult sample (N = 72), as measured by task-switch performance. Thre...

  13. Effects of cognitive behavioral therapy with relaxation vs. imagery rescripting on test anxiety: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Neele; Warnecke, Irene; Tolgou, Theano; Krampen, Dorothea; Luka-Krausgrill, Ursula; Rohrmann, Sonja

    2017-01-15

    Test anxiety is a common condition in students, which may lead to impaired academic performance as well as to distress. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two cognitive-behavioral interventions designed to reduce test anxiety. Test anxiety in the participants was diagnosed as social or specific phobia according to DSM-IV. Subsequently subjects were randomized to three groups: a moderated self-help group, which served as a control group, and two treatment groups, where either relaxation techniques or imagery rescripting were applied. Students suffering from test anxiety were recruited at two German universities (n=180). The randomized controlled design comprised three groups which received test anxiety treatment in weekly three-hour sessions over a period of five weeks. Treatment outcome was assessed with a test anxiety questionnaire, which was administered before and after treatment, as well as in a six-month follow-up. A repeated-measures ANOVA for participants with complete data (n=59) revealed a significant reduction of test anxiety from baseline to six-month follow-up in all three treatment groups (panxiety. The sample may therefore represent only more severe forms of text anxiety . Moreover, the sample size in this study was small, the numbers of participants per group differed, and treatment results were based on self-report. Due to the length of the treatment, an implementation of the group treatments used in this study might not be feasible in all settings. Group treatments constitute an effective method of treating test anxiety, e.g. in university settings. Imagery rescripting may particularly contribute to treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A longitudinal study of computerized cognitive training in stroke patients - effects on cognitive function and white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Claudia Kim; Nordvik, Jan Egil; Becker, Frank; Rohani, Darius A; Sederevicius, Donatas; Fjell, Anders M; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2018-05-01

    Background Computerized cognitive training is suggested to enhance attention and working memory functioning following stroke, but effects on brain and behavior are not sufficiently studied and longitudinal studies assessing brain and behavior relationships are scarce. Objective The study objectives were to investigate relations between neuropsychological performance post-stroke and white matter microstructure measures derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), including changes after 6 weeks of working memory training. Methods In this experimental training study, 26 stroke patients underwent DTI and neuropsychological tests at 3 time points - before and after a passive phase of 6 weeks, and again after 6 weeks of working memory training (Cogmed QM). Fractional anisotropy (FA) was extracted from stroke-free brain areas to assess the white matter microstructure. Twenty-two participants completed the majority of training (≥18/25 sessions) and were entered into longitudinal analyses. Results Significant correlations between FA and baseline cognitive functions were observed (r = 0.58, p = 0.004), however, no evidence was found of generally improved cognitive functions following training or of changes in white matter microstructure. Conclusions While white matter microstructure related to baseline cognitive function in stroke patients, the study revealed no effect on cognitive functions or microstructural changes in white matter in relation to computerized working memory training.

  15. Evidence for Narrow Transfer after Short-Term Cognitive Training in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souders, Dustin J; Boot, Walter R; Blocker, Kenneth; Vitale, Thomas; Roque, Nelson A; Charness, Neil

    2017-01-01

    The degree to which "brain training" can improve general cognition, resulting in improved performance on tasks dissimilar from the trained tasks (transfer of training), is a controversial topic. Here, we tested the degree to which cognitive training, in the form of gamified training activities that have demonstrated some degree of success in the past, might result in broad transfer. Sixty older adults were randomly assigned to a gamified cognitive training intervention or to an active control condition that involved playing word and number puzzle games. Participants were provided with tablet computers and asked to engage in their assigned training for 30 45-min training sessions over the course of 1 month. Although intervention adherence was acceptable, little evidence for transfer was observed except for the performance of one task that most resembled the gamified cognitive training: There was a trend for greater improvement on a version of the corsi block tapping task for the cognitive training group relative to the control group. This task was very similar to one of the training games. Results suggest that participants were learning specific skills and strategies from game training that influenced their performance on a similar task. However, even this near-transfer effect was weak. Although the results were not positive with respect to broad transfer of training, longer duration studies with larger samples and the addition of a retention period are necessary before the benefit of this specific intervention can be ruled out.

  16. Predictors of cognitive enhancement after training in preschoolers from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad eSegretin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The association between socioeconomic status and child cognitive development, and the positive impact of interventions aimed at optimizing cognitive performance, are well documented. However, few studies have examined how specific socio-environmental factors may moderate the impact of cognitive interventions among poor children. In the present study, we examined how such factors predicted cognitive trajectories during the preschool years, in two samples of children from Argentina, who participated in two cognitive training programs between the years 2002 and 2005: the School Intervention Program (SIP; N=745 and the Cognitive Training Program (CTP; N=333. In both programs children were trained weekly for 16 weeks and tested before and after the intervention using a battery of tasks assessing several cognitive control processes (attention, inhibitory control, working memory, flexibility and planning. After applying mixed model analyses, we identified sets of socio-environmental predictors that were associated with higher levels of pre-intervention cognitive control performance and with increased improvement in cognitive control from pre- to post-intervention. Child age, housing conditions, social resources, parental occupation and family composition were associated with performance in specific cognitive domains at baseline. Housing conditions, social resources, parental occupation, family composition, maternal physical health, age, group (intervention/control and the number of training sessions were related to improvements in specific cognitive skills from pre- to post-training.

  17. Toward a Unified Theory of the Relationship between Training Methods and Factors of Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Shani D.

    2008-01-01

    The paper proposes a theory that trainees have varying ability levels across different factors of cognitive ability, and that these abilities are used in varying levels by different training methods. The paper reviews characteristics of training methods and matches these characteristics to different factors of cognitive ability. The paper proposes…

  18. Comparative Effect of Memory and Cognitive Strategies Training on EFL Intermediate Learners' Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banisaeid, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the effect of memory and cognitive strategies training on vocabulary learning of intermediate proficiency group of Iranian learners of English as a foreign language. It is to check how memory and cognitive strategies training affect word learning of EFL intermediate learners (N = 60) who were homogenized…

  19. Transfer effects of a cognitive strategy training for stroke patients with apraxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusgens, C. A. V.; van Heugten, C. M.; Cooijmans, J. P. J.; Jolles, J.; van den Heuvel, W. J. A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate transfer effects of cognitive strategy training for stroke patients with apraxia. During 8 weeks, 29 apraxic patients received cognitive strategy training to teach them how to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as independently as possible. ADL

  20. Keep Your Brain Fit! A Psychoeducational Training Program for Healthy Cognitive Aging: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnders, Jennifer; van Heugten, Caroline; van Boxtel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A psychoeducational face-to-face training program (Keep Your Brain Fit!) was developed to support the working population in coping with age-related cognitive changes and taking proactive preventive measures to maintain cognitive health. A feasibility study was conducted to test the training program presented in a workshop format. Participants…

  1. Long-Term Effects of an Extensive Cognitive Training on Personality Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Julia; Schmiedek, Florian; Brose, Annette; Wagner, Gert G; Specht, Jule

    2017-08-01

    Previous research found that cognitive training increases the Big Five personality trait Openness to Experience during and some weeks after the intervention. The present study investigated whether long-term changes happen in Openness to Experience and other personality traits after an extensive cognitive training of memory and perceptual speed. The intervention group consisted of 204 adults (20-31 years and 65-80 years; 50% female) who received daily 1-hour cognitive training sessions for about 100 days. The control group consisted of 86 adults (21-29 years and 65-82 years; 51% female) who received no cognitive training. All participants answered the NEO Five-Factor Inventory before and 2 years after the cognitive training. Latent change models were applied that controlled for age group (young vs. old) and gender. In the long run, the cognitive training did not affect changes in any facet of Openness to Experience. This was true for young and old participants as well as for men and women. Instead, the cognitive training lowered the general increase of Conscientiousness. Even an extensive cognitive training on memory and perceptual speed does not serve as a sufficient intervention for enduring changes in Openness to Experiences or one of its facets. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Implementation of physical coordination training and cognitive behavioural training interventions at cleaning workplaces - secondary analyses of a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B; Faber, Anne; Jespersen, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    intervention effects, more research on implementation is needed. Trial registration: ISRCTN96241850. Practitioner summary: Both physical coordination training and cognitive behavioural training are potential effective workplace interventions among low educated job groups with high physical work demands......This study evaluates the implementation of physical coordination training (PCT) and cognitive behavioural training (CBTr) interventions in a randomised controlled trial at nine cleaners' workplaces. Female cleaners (n = 294) were randomised into a PCT, a CBTr or a reference (REF) group. Both 12...

  3. Experimental Study of Middle-Term Training in Social Cognition in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssa, Marine; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    In an experimental design, we examined the effects of middle-term training in social information processing (SIP) and in Theory of Mind (ToM) on preschoolers' social cognition and social adjustment. 48 preschoolers took part in a pre-test and post-test session involving cognitive, socio-cognitive and social adjustment (direct and indirect)…

  4. Cognitive Training Enhances Auditory Attention Efficiency in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. O’Brien

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Auditory cognitive training (ACT improves attention in older adults; however, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are still unknown. The present study examined the effects of ACT on the P3b event-related potential reflecting attention allocation (amplitude and speed of processing (latency during stimulus categorization and the P1-N1-P2 complex reflecting perceptual processing (amplitude and latency. Participants completed an auditory oddball task before and after 10 weeks of ACT (n = 9 or a no contact control period (n = 15. Parietal P3b amplitudes to oddball stimuli decreased at post-test in the trained group as compared to those in the control group, and frontal P3b amplitudes show a similar trend, potentially reflecting more efficient attentional allocation after ACT. No advantages for the ACT group were evident for auditory perceptual processing or speed of processing in this small sample. Our results provide preliminary evidence that ACT may enhance the efficiency of attention allocation, which may account for the positive impact of ACT on the everyday functioning of older adults.

  5. The mechanisms of far transfer from cognitive training: Review and hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Pamela M; Parasuraman, Raja

    2016-09-01

    General intelligence is important for success in daily life, fueling interest in developing cognitive training as an intervention to improve fluid ability (Gf). A major obstacle to the design of effective cognitive interventions has been the paucity of hypotheses bearing on mechanisms underlying transfer of cognitive training to Gf. Despite the large amounts of money and time currently being expended on cognitive training, there is little scientific agreement on how, or even whether, Gf can be heightened by such training. We review the relevant strands of evidence on cognitive-training-related changes in (a) cortical mechanisms of distraction suppression, and (b) activation of the dorsal attention network (DAN). We hypothesize that training-related increases in control of attention are important for what is termed far transfer of cognitive training to untrained abilities, notably to Gf. We review the evidence that distraction suppression evident in behavior, neuronal firing, scalp electroencephalography, and hemodynamic change is important for protecting target processing during perception and also for protecting targets held in working memory. Importantly, attentional control also appears to be central to performance on Gf assessments. Consistent with this evidence, forms of cognitive training that increase ability to ignore distractions (e.g., working memory training and perceptual training) not only affect the DAN but also affect transfer to Gf. Our hypothesis is supported by existing evidence. However, to advance the field of cognitive training, it is necessary that competing hypotheses on mechanisms of far transfer of cognitive training be advanced and empirically tested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Therapeutical Intervention, Relaxation, Mental Images, and Spirituality (RIME for Spiritual Pain in Terminal Patients. A Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Catarina de Araújo Elias

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic intervention involving the technique of Relaxation, Mental Images, and Spirituality (RIME can foster the redefinition of spiritual pain in terminal patients. A training course was developed to instruct health care professionals in its use, and the results were followed up by evaluating reactions of professionals to its use in intervention with patients. Six subjects (a nurse, a doctor, three psychologists, and an alternative therapist, all skilled in palliative care, were invited to take part in the experience. They worked with 11 terminal patients in public hospitals of the cities of Campinas, Piracicaba, and São Paulo, located in Brazil. The theoretical basis for the study involves action research and phenomenology, and the results were analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The analysis of the experience of the professionals revealed 5 categories and 15 subcategories. The analysis of the nature of spiritual pain revealed 6 categories and 11 subcategories. The administration of RIME revealed statistically significant differences (p < 0.0001, i.e., patients reported a greater level of well-being at the end than at the beginning of sessions, which suggests that RIME led to the redefinition of spiritual pain for these terminal patients. The training program proposed has shown itself to be effective in preparing health care professionals for the use of RIME intervention.

  7. The Effects of Group Relaxation Training/Large Muscle Exercise, and Parental Involvement on Attention to Task, Impulsivity, and Locus of Control among Hyperactive Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sally S.; Omizo, Michael M.

    1984-01-01

    The study examined the effects of group relaxation training/large muscle exercise and parental involvement on attention to task, impulsivity, and locus of control among 34 hyperactive boys. Following treatment both experimental groups recorded significantly higher attention to task, lower impulsivity, and lower locus of control scores. (Author/CL)

  8. Effects of Aerobic Training on Cognition and Brain Glucose Metabolism in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Fábio Henrique de Gobbi; Coutinho, Artur Martins Novaes; Pinto, Ana Lucia de Sá; Gualano, Bruno; Duran, Fabio Luís de Souza; Prando, Silvana; Ono, Carla Rachel; Spíndola, Lívia; de Oliveira, Maira Okada; do Vale, Patrícia Helena Figuerêdo; Nitrini, Ricardo; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic training (AT) is a promising intervention for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). To evaluate the effects of AT on cognition and regional brain glucose metabolism (rBGM) in MCI patients. Subjects performed a twice-a-week, moderate intensity, AT program for 24 weeks. Assessment with ADAS-cog, a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, and evaluation of rBGM with positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG-PET) were performed before and after the intervention. Aerobic capacity was compared using the maximal oxygen consumption VO2max (mL/Kg/min). [18F]FDG-PET data were analyzed on a voxel-by-voxel basis with SPM8 software. Forty subjects were included, with a mean (M) age of 70.3 (5.4) years and an initial Mini-Mental State Exam score of 27.4 (1.7). Comparisons using paired t-tests revealed improvements in the ADAS-cog (M difference: -2.7 (3.7), p <  0.001) and VO2max scores (M difference: 1.8 (2.0) mL/kg/min, p <  0.001). Brain metabolic analysis revealed a bilateral decrease in the rBGM of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, pFWE = 0.04. This rBGM decrease was negatively correlated with improvement in a visuospatial function/attentional test (rho =-0.31, p = 0.04). Several other brain areas also showed increases or decreases in rBGM. Of note, there was an increase in the retrosplenial cortex, an important node of the default mode network, that was negatively correlated with the metabolic decrease in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (r =-0.51, p = 0.001). AT improved cognition and changed rBGM in areas related to cognition in subjects with MCI.

  9. Influence of Aerobic Training and Combinations of Interventions on Cognition and Neuroplasticity after Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constans, Annabelle; Pin-barre, Caroline; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Decherchi, Patrick; Laurin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Stroke often aggravated age-related cognitive impairments that strongly affect several aspects of quality of life. However, few studies are, to date, focused on rehabilitation strategies that could improve cognition. Among possible interventions, aerobic training is well known to enhance cardiovascular and motor functions but may also induce beneficial effects on cognitive functions. To assess the effectiveness of aerobic training on cognition, it seems necessary to know whether training promotes the neuroplasticity in brain areas involved in cognitive functions. In the present review, we first explore in both human and animal how aerobic training could improve cognition after stroke by highlighting the neuroplasticity mechanisms. Then, we address the potential effect of combinations between aerobic training with other interventions, including resistance exercises and pharmacological treatments. In addition, we postulate that classic recommendations for aerobic training need to be reconsidered to target both cognition and motor recovery because the current guidelines are only focused on cardiovascular and motor recovery. Finally, methodological limitations of training programs and cognitive function assessment are also developed in this review to clarify their effectiveness in stroke patients. PMID:27445801

  10. Extending brain-training to the affective domain: increasing cognitive and affective executive control through emotional working memory training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Schweizer

    Full Text Available So-called 'brain-training' programs are a huge commercial success. However, empirical evidence regarding their effectiveness and generalizability remains equivocal. This study investigated whether brain-training (working memory [WM] training improves cognitive functions beyond the training task (transfer effects, especially regarding the control of emotional material since it constitutes much of the information we process daily. Forty-five participants received WM training using either emotional or neutral material, or an undemanding control task. WM training, regardless of training material, led to transfer gains on another WM task and in fluid intelligence. However, only brain-training with emotional material yielded transferable gains to improved control over affective information on an emotional Stroop task. The data support the reality of transferable benefits of demanding WM training and suggest that transferable gains across to affective contexts require training with material congruent to those contexts. These findings constitute preliminary evidence that intensive cognitively demanding brain-training can improve not only our abstract problem-solving capacity, but also ameliorate cognitive control processes (e.g. decision-making in our daily emotive environments.

  11. Cognitive training and selective attention in the aging brain: an electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer L; Edwards, Jerri D; Maxfield, Nathan D; Peronto, Carol L; Williams, Victoria A; Lister, Jennifer J

    2013-11-01

    Age-related deficits in selective attention are hypothesized to result from decrements in inhibition of task-irrelevant information. Speed of processing (SOP) training is an adaptive cognitive intervention designed to enhance processing speed for attention tasks. The effectiveness of SOP training to improve cognitive and everyday functional performance is well documented. However, underlying mechanisms of these training benefits are unknown. Participants completed a visual search task evaluated using event-related potentials (ERPs) before and after 10 weeks of SOP training or no contact. N2pc and P3b components were evaluated to determine SOP training effects on attentional resource allocation and capacity. Selective attention to a target was enhanced after SOP training compared to no training. N2pc and P3b amplitudes increased after training, reflecting attentional allocation and capacity enhancement, consistent with previous studies demonstrating behavioral improvements in selective attention following SOP training. Changes in ERPs related to attention allocation and capacity following SOP training support the idea that training leads to cognitive enhancement. Specifically, we provide electrophysiological evidence that SOP training may be successful in counteracting age-related declines in selective attention. This study provides important evidence of the underlying mechanisms by which SOP training improves cognitive function in older adults. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Video game training does not enhance cognitive ability: A comprehensive meta-analytic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Giovanni; Tatlidil, K Semir; Gobet, Fernand

    2018-02-01

    As a result of considerable potential scientific and societal implications, the possibility of enhancing cognitive ability by training has been one of the most influential topics of cognitive psychology in the last two decades. However, substantial research into the psychology of expertise and a recent series of meta-analytic reviews have suggested that various types of cognitive training (e.g., working memory training) benefit performance only in the trained tasks. The lack of skill generalization from one domain to different ones-that is, far transfer-has been documented in various fields of research such as working memory training, music, brain training, and chess. Video game training is another activity that has been claimed by many researchers to foster a broad range of cognitive abilities such as visual processing, attention, spatial ability, and cognitive control. We tested these claims with three random-effects meta-analytic models. The first meta-analysis (k = 310) examined the correlation between video game skill and cognitive ability. The second meta-analysis (k = 315) dealt with the differences between video game players and nonplayers in cognitive ability. The third meta-analysis (k = 359) investigated the effects of video game training on participants' cognitive ability. Small or null overall effect sizes were found in all three models. These outcomes show that overall cognitive ability and video game skill are only weakly related. Importantly, we found no evidence of a causal relationship between playing video games and enhanced cognitive ability. Video game training thus represents no exception to the general difficulty of obtaining far transfer. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Association Between Brain Gene Expression, DNA Methylation, and Alteration of Ex Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging Transverse Relaxation in Late-Life Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Dawe, Robert J; Boyle, Patricia A; Gaiteri, Chris; Yang, Jingyun; Buchman, Aron S; Schneider, Julie A; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; De Jager, Philip L; Bennett, David A

    2017-12-01

    Alteration of ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging transverse relaxation is associated with late-life cognitive decline even after controlling for common neuropathologic conditions. However, the underlying neurobiology of this association is unknown. To investigate the association between brain gene expression, DNA methylation, and alteration of magnetic resonance imaging transverse relaxation in late-life cognitive decline. Data came from 2 community-based longitudinal cohort studies of aging and dementia, the Religious Orders Study, which began in 1993, and the Rush Memory and Aging Project, which began in 1997. All participants agreed to undergo annual clinical evaluations and to donate their brains after death. By October 24, 2016, a total of 1358 individuals had died and had brain autopsies that were approved by board-certified neuropathologists. Of those, 552 had undergone ex vivo imaging. The gene expression analysis was limited to 174 individuals with both imaging and brain RNA sequencing data. The DNA methylation analysis was limited to 225 individuals with both imaging and brain methylation data. Maps of ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging transverse relaxation were generated using fast spin echo imaging. The target was a composite measure of the transverse relaxation rate (R2) that was associated with cognitive decline after controlling for common neuropathologic conditions. Next-generation RNA sequencing and DNA methylation data were generated using frozen tissue from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Genome-wide association analysis was used to investigate gene expression and, separately, DNA methylation for signals associated with the R2 measure. Of the 552 individuals with ex vivo imaging data, 394 were women and 158 were men, and the mean (SD) age at death was 90.4 (6.0) years. Four co-expressed genes (PADI2 [Ensembl ENSG00000117115], ZNF385A [Ensembl ENSG00000161642], PSD2 [Ensembl ENSG00000146005], and A2ML1 [Ensembl ENSG00000166535]) were

  14. A novel, online social cognitive training program for young adults with schizophrenia: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mor Nahum

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: This study provides an initial proof of concept for online social cognition training in schizophrenia. This form of training demonstrated feasibility and resulted in within-subject gains in social functioning and motivation. This pilot study represents a first step towards validating this training approach; randomized controlled trials, now underway, are designed to confirm and extend these findings.

  15. Using Artificial Intelligence to Adapt Level of Difficulty in a Cognitive Training Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    Increasingly, computer-based training is being used within the field of rehabilitation in the effort to improve cognitive functions such as memory, attention and language2,4,5. As a complement to clinical training, computer-based training is a fairly inexpensive way of increasing the intensity an...

  16. Cognitive decline in prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT: a potential role for exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Niamh L; Daly, Robin M; Macpherson, Helen; Fraser, Steve F

    2017-04-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is an effective and widely prescribed treatment for prostate cancer (PCa), but it is associated with multiple treatment-induced adverse effects that impact on various musculoskeletal and cardiometabolic health outcomes. Emerging research has shown that ADT is also associated with cognitive impairment, which has been linked to a loss of independence, increased falls and fracture risk and greater use of medical services. The aim of this review is to outline the evidence related to the effect of ADT use on cognitive function, and propose a role for exercise training as part of usual care to prevent and/or manage cognitive impairments for PCa survivors on ADT. The following results have been obtained from this study. ADT has been shown to adversely affect specific cognitive domains, particularly verbal memory, visuomotor function, attention and executive function. However, current clinical guidelines do not recommend routine assessment of cognitive function in these men. No studies have examined whether exercise training can preserve or improve cognitive function in these men, but in healthy adults', multimodal exercise training incorporating aerobic training, progressive resistance training (PRT) and challenging motor control exercises have the potential to attenuate cognitive decline. In conclusion, as treatment with ADT for men with PCa has been associated with a decline in cognition, it is recommended that cognitive function be routinely monitored in these men and that regular exercise training be prescribed to preserve (or improve) cognitive function. Assessment of cognition and individualised exercise training should be considered in the usual treatment plan of PCa patients receiving ADT. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  17. Efficacy of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Training on Anxiety, Depression and Quality of Life in Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy at Tabriz Hematology and Oncology Research Center, Iran in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shabanlui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemotherapy is an important treatment for cancer, yet some of its side effects are serious and painful. Many patients with cancer suffer from psychiatric disorders that most likely result from therapeutic drugs or mental strategies to cope with their illness. Progressive muscle relaxation is one of the cost effective, self-help methods that promotes mental health in healthy participants. Thisstudy aims to determine the effect of progressive muscle relaxation training on anxiety and depression in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.Methods: This was a randomized, clinical study that enrolled 60 patients who received inpatient chemotherapy in the Tabriz Hematology and Oncology Research Center in 2010. We divided patients into two groups, intervention and control. All participants signed written formal consents and completed the Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale questionnaires. Intervention group participants were trained inprogressive muscle relaxation in groups of 3-6 to enable participants to perform this technique when they were alone in the hospital and after discharge, two to three times each day. After one and three months, questionnaires were completed again by both groups and the results compared. 17th version of SPSS software was used fordata analysis.Results: After data analysis, most participants were satisfied with learning and experiencing this technique. There was no significant difference between scales in the case and control groups after one month (P>0.05. However after three months, anxiety and depression considerably improved in patients who underwent progressive muscle relaxation training (P<0.05.Conclusion: Progressive muscle relaxation training can improve anxietyand depression in cancer patients.

  18. Cognitive training on stroke patients via virtual reality-based serious games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Coelho, Carla; Morais, Diogo; Lopes, Paulo; Pacheco, José; Brito, Rodrigo; Soares, Fabio; Santos, Nuno; Barata, Ana Filipa

    2017-02-01

    Use of virtual reality environments in cognitive rehabilitation offers cost benefits and other advantages. In order to test the effectiveness of a virtual reality application for neuropsychological rehabilitation, a cognitive training program using virtual reality was applied to stroke patients. A virtual reality-based serious games application for cognitive training was developed, with attention and memory tasks consisting of daily life activities. Twenty stroke patients were randomly assigned to two conditions: exposure to the intervention, and waiting list control. The results showed significant improvements in attention and memory functions in the intervention group, but not in the controls. Overall findings provide further support for the use of VR cognitive training applications in neuropsychological rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Improvements in memory and attention functions following a virtual reality-based serious games intervention. Training of daily-life activities using a virtual reality application. Accessibility to training contents.

  19. Cognitive computer training in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus no intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bikic, Aida; Leckman, James F; Lindschou, Jane

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention and impulsivity and/or hyperactivity and a range of cognitive dysfunctions. Pharmacological treatment may be beneficial; however, many affected individuals...... of cognition, mostly on the working memory or attention but with poor generalization of training on other cognitive functions and functional outcome. Children with ADHD have a variety of cognitive dysfunctions, and it is important that cognitive training target multiple cognitive functions. METHODS...... continue to have difficulties with cognitive functions despite medical treatment, and up to 30 % do not respond to pharmacological treatment. Inadequate medical compliance and the long-term effects of treatment make it necessary to explore nonpharmacological and supplementary treatments for ADHD. Treatment...

  20. Effects of compensatory cognitive training intervention for breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Hee; Jung, Yong Sik; Kim, Ku Sang; Bae, Sun Hyoung

    2017-06-01

    Numerous breast cancer patients experience cognitive changes during and after chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment can significantly affect quality of life. This pilot study attempted to determine the effects of a compensatory cognitive training on the objective and subjective cognitive functioning of breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Fifty-four patients were assigned to either a compensatory cognitive training or waitlist condition. They were assessed at baseline (T1), the completion of the 12-week intervention (T2), and 6 months after intervention completion (T3). Outcomes were assessed using the standardized neuropsychological tests and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function (FACT-Cog), version 3. Raw data were converted to T-scores based on baseline scores, and a repeated-measures ANCOVA, adjusting for age, intelligence, depression, and treatment, was used for analysis. The effect sizes for differences in means were calculated. The intervention group improved significantly over time compared to the waitlist group on objective cognitive function. Among ten individual neuropsychological measures, immediate memory, delayed memory, verbal fluency in category, and verbal fluency in letter showed significant group × time interaction. In subjective cognitive function, scores of the waitlist group significantly decrease over time on perceived cognitive impairments, in contrast to those of the intervention group. The 12-week compensatory cognitive training significantly improved the objective and subjective cognitive functioning of breast cancer patients. Because this was a pilot study, further research using a larger sample and longer follow-up durations is necessary.

  1. Effects of stress management and relaxation training on the relationship between diabetes symptoms and affect among Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard; Bermudez-Millan, Angela; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2018-06-01

    Stress management and relaxation (SMR) interventions can reduce symptoms of chronic disease and associated distress. However, there is little evidence that such interventions disrupt associations between symptoms and affect. This study examined whether SMR dampened the link between symptoms of hyperglycemia and proximal levels of affect. We predicted that during periods of increased hyperglycemia, individuals receiving SMR training, relative to controls, would demonstrate smaller increases in negative affect. Fifty-five adult Latinos with type 2 diabetes were randomised to either one group session of diabetes education (DE-only; N = 23) or diabetes education plus eight group sessions of SMR (DE + SMR; N = 32). After treatment, participants reported five diabetes symptoms and four affective states twice daily for seven days using a bilingual telephonic system. Mean age = 57.8 years, mean A1c = 8.4%, and ¾ was female with less than a high school education. Individuals receiving DE + SMR, compared to DE-only, showed a weaker positive within-person association between daily diabetes symptoms and nervous affect. Groups also differed on the association between symptoms and enthusiasm. Age moderated these associations in most models with older individuals showing less affect reactivity to symptoms. Findings provide partial support for theorised mechanisms of SMR.

  2. Limitations of subjective cognitive load measures in simulation-based procedural training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, Laura M; Cheung, Jeffrey J H; Ringsted, Charlotte; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B

    2015-08-01

    The effective implementation of cognitive load theory (CLT) to optimise the instructional design of simulation-based training requires sensitive and reliable measures of cognitive load. This mixed-methods study assessed relationships between commonly used measures of total cognitive load and the extent to which these measures reflected participants' experiences of cognitive load in simulation-based procedural skills training. Two groups of medical residents (n = 38) completed three questionnaires after participating in simulation-based procedural skills training sessions: the Paas Cognitive Load Scale; the NASA Task Load Index (TLX), and a cognitive load component (CLC) questionnaire we developed to assess total cognitive load as the sum of intrinsic load (how complex the task is), extraneous load (how the task is presented) and germane load (how the learner processes the task for learning). We calculated Pearson's correlation coefficients to assess agreement among these instruments. Group interviews explored residents' perceptions about how the simulation sessions contributed to their total cognitive load. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and subjected to qualitative content analysis. Total cognitive load scores differed significantly according to the instrument used to assess them. In particular, there was poor agreement between the Paas Scale and the TLX. Quantitative and qualitative findings supported intrinsic cognitive load as synonymous with mental effort (Paas Scale), mental demand (TLX) and task difficulty and complexity (CLC questionnaire). Additional qualitative themes relating to extraneous and germane cognitive loads were not reflected in any of the questionnaires. The Paas Scale, TLX and CLC questionnaire appear to be interchangeable as measures of intrinsic cognitive load, but not of total cognitive load. A more complete understanding of the sources of extraneous and germane cognitive loads in simulation-based training contexts is

  3. Implementing cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) in a mental health service: staff training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark, Frances; Newman, Ellie; Harris, Meredith; Cairns, Alice; Simpson, Michael; Gore-Jones, Victoria; Whiteford, Harvey; Harvey, Carol; Crompton, David

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the establishment of training in cognitive remediation for psychosis within a community mental health service. Clinical staff working in the community of a mental health service were surveyed to ascertain their interest in cognitive aspects of psychosis and skills training in cognitive remediation (CR). Based on the results of the survey a tiered training programme was established with attendance figures reported for each level of training. Fidelity assessment was conducted on the five CR programmes operating. Of 106 clinical staff working in the community with people diagnosed with a psychotic illness 51 completed the survey (48% response rate). The training needs varied with all 106 staff receiving the fundamental (mandatory) training and 51 staff receiving CR facilitator training. Thirty three percent of staff trained as facilitators were delivering CR. Up skilling the mental health workforce to incorporate an understanding of the cognitive aspects of psychosis into care delivery can be facilitated by a tiered training structure. Fundamental training on the psychosocial aspects of psychosis can act as a platform for focussed CR skills based training. There is also a need for accessible therapy based supervision for staff wishing to develop competencies as CR therapists. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  4. Learning to remember: Cognitive training-induced attenuation of age-related memory decline depends on sex and cognitive demand, and can transfer to untrained cognitive domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talboom, Joshua S.; West, Stephen G.; Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B.; Enders, Craig K.; Crain, Ian; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with progressive changes in learning and memory. A potential approach to attenuate age-related cognitive decline is cognitive training. In this study, adult male and female rats were given either repeated exposure to a T-maze, or no exposure to any maze, and then tested on a final battery of cognitive tasks. Two groups of each sex were tested from 6-18 months old on the same T-maze; one group received a version testing spatial reference memory, and the other group received only the procedural testing components with minimal cognitive demand. Groups three and four of each sex had no maze exposure until the final battery, and were comprised of aged or young rats. The final maze battery included the practiced T-maze plus two novel tasks, one with a similar, and one with a different, memory type to the practice task. The fifth group of each sex was not maze tested, serving as an aged control for the effects of maze testing on neurotrophin protein levels in cognitive brain regions. Results showed that adult intermittent cognitive training enhanced performance on the practice task when aged in both sexes, that cognitive training benefits transferred to novel tasks only in females, and that cognitive demand was necessary for these effects since rats receiving only the procedural testing components showed no improvement on the final maze battery. Further, for both sexes, rats that showed faster learning when young demonstrated better memory when aged. Age-related increases in neurotrophin concentrations in several brain regions were revealed, which was related to performance on the training task only in females. This longitudinal study supports the tenet that cognitive training can help one remember later in life, with broader enhancements and associations with neurotrophins in females. PMID:25104561

  5. The feasibility of meta-cognitive strategy training in acute inpatient stroke rehabilitation: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Elizabeth R; Holm, Margo B; Whyte, Ellen M; Dew, Mary Amanda; Dawson, Deirdre; Becker, James T

    2011-04-01

    Meta-cognitive strategy training may be used to augment inpatient rehabilitation to promote active engagement and subsequent benefit for individuals with cognitive impairments after stroke. We examined the feasibility of administering a form of meta-cognitive strategy training, Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP), during inpatient rehabilitation. We trained an individual with cognitive impairments after right hemisphere stroke to identify performance problems, set self-selected goals, develop plans to address goals, and evaluate performance improvements. To assess feasibility, we examined the number of meta-cognitive training sessions attended, the number of self-selected goals, and changes in goal-related performance. We also examined changes in rehabilitation engagement and disability. The participant used the meta-cognitive strategy to set eight goals addressing physically oriented, instrumental, and work-related activities. Mean improvement in Canadian Occupational Performance Measure Performance Scale scores was 6.1. Pittsburgh Rehabilitation Participation Scale scores (measuring rehabilitation engagement) improved from 3.2 at admission to 4.9 at discharge. Functional Independence Measure scores (measuring disability) improved from 68 at admission, to 97 at discharge. Performance Assessment of Self-Care Skills scores improved from 1.1 at admission to 2.9 at discharge. The results indicate that meta-cognitive strategy training was feasible during inpatient rehabilitation and warrants further evaluation to determine its effectiveness.

  6. [Cognitive training combined with aerobic exercises in multiple sclerosis patients: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Morales, R M; Herrera-Jimenez, L F; Macias-Delgado, Y; Perez-Medinilla, Y T; Diaz-Diaz, S M; Forn, C

    2017-06-01

    The scientific evidences associated to the effectiveness of different techniques of cognitive rehabilitation are still contradictory. To compare a program of combined training (physical and cognitive) in front of a program of physical training and to observe their effectiveness about the optimization of the cognitive functions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It was carried out an experimental study in 32 patients with MS. The patients were distributed in two groups: 16 to the experimental group (combined cognitive training with aerobic exercises) and 16 patients to the control group (aerobic exercises). The intervention was planned for six weeks combining cognitive tasks by means of a game of dynamic board of cubes and signs (TaDiCS ®) and a program of aerobic exercises. The Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Test and the Stroop Test were applied to evaluate the cognitive yield. Also, the Beck Depression Inventory was administered. There were found significant differences in the intergrupal analysis after the intervention in the variable learning and visuoespacial long term memory (p = 0.000), attention (p = 0.026) and inhibitory control (p = 0.007). Also, in the intragroup analysis there were found significant differences in these variables and information processing speed in the group that received the combined training. These patients also showed a significant improvement in the emotional state (p = 0.043). The cognitive training combined with the aerobic exercises is effective to improve the cognitive performance.

  7. Transfer effects of a cognitive strategy training for stroke patients with apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geusgens, C A V; van Heugten, C M; Cooijmans, J P J; Jolles, J; van den Heuvel, W J A

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate transfer effects of cognitive strategy training for stroke patients with apraxia. During 8 weeks, 29 apraxic patients received cognitive strategy training to teach them how to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as independently as possible. ADL functioning was assessed at the rehabilitation centre at baseline and after 8 weeks of training. In addition, assessment took place at the patients' own homes after 8 weeks of training and 5 months after the start of the training. The performance of both trained and nontrained tasks was observed. Patients performed trained tasks and nontrained tasks at the same level of independency at the rehabilitation centre as well as at home, indicating transfer of training effects. These effects turned out to be stable over time.

  8. Simulation for doctrine development and training: modelling the cognitive domain of the OODA loop

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roodt, JHS

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation and Weapon Assignment (TEWA) at this level contain multiple threats and defensive force elements, taxing the cognitive abilities of the commander. Development of new doctrine and training simulators require systems that adequately reflect...

  9. Tailored cognitive-behavioural therapy and exercise training improves the physical fitness of patients with fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spillekom-van Koulil, S.; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Helmond, T. van; Vedder, A.; Hoorn, H. van; Donders, A.R.T.; Wirken, L.; Cats, H.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Evers, A.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Patients with fibromyalgia have diminished levels of physical fitness, which may lead to functional disability and exacerbating complaints. Multidisciplinary treatment comprising cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and exercise training has been shown to be effective in improving

  10. The Influence of Functional Fitness and Cognitive Training of Physical Disabilities of Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chen Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to an investigation done by Taiwan Ministry of the Interior in 2013, there was more than 90% of the disability care institutions mainly based on life care. Previous studies have shown that individuals can effectively improve physical and cognitive training, improved in independent living and everyday competence. The purpose of the study was to investigate influence of the intervention program applying functional fitness and cognitive training to disabled residents in the institution. The subjects were disabled persons of a care institution in southern Taiwan and were randomly divided into training and control groups, both having 17 subjects. The age of the subjects was between 56 and 98 years with a mean age of 79.08 ± 10.04 years; the subjects of training group implemented 12 weeks of training on physical and cognitive training, while the control group subjects did not have any training program. The results revealed that subjects of the training group have significantly improved their functional shoulder rotation flexibility of left and right anterior hip muscle group flexibility of right, sitting functional balance of left and right, naming, attention, delayed recall, orientation, and Montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA. The study suggested developing physical fitness programs and physical and cognitive prescriptions for the disabled people of the institutions.

  11. Prefrontal activation may predict working-memory training gain in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Anouk; Kessels, Roy P C; Heskamp, Linda; Simons, Esther M F; Dautzenberg, Paul L J; Claassen, Jurgen A H R

    2017-02-01

    Cognitive training has been shown to result in improved behavioral performance in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), yet little is known about the neural correlates of cognitive plasticity, or about individual differences in responsiveness to cognitive training. In this study, 21 healthy older adults and 14 patients with MCI received five weeks of adaptive computerized working-memory (WM) training. Before and after training, functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to assess the hemodynamic response in left and right prefrontal cortex during performance of a verbal n-back task with varying levels of WM load. After training, healthy older adults demonstrated decreased prefrontal activation at high WM load, which may indicate increased processing efficiency. Although MCI patients showed improved behavioral performance at low WM load after training, no evidence was found for training-related changes in prefrontal activation. Whole-group analyses showed that a relatively strong hemodynamic response at low WM load was related to worse behavioral performance, while a relatively strong hemodynamic response at high WM load was related to higher training gain. Therefore, a 'youth-like' prefrontal activation pattern at older age may be associated with better behavioral outcome and cognitive plasticity.

  12. Computerized cognitive training in cognitively healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of effect modifiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Lampit

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New effective interventions to attenuate age-related cognitive decline are a global priority. Computerized cognitive training (CCT is believed to be safe and can be inexpensive, but neither its efficacy in enhancing cognitive performance in healthy older adults nor the impact of design factors on such efficacy has been systematically analyzed. Our aim therefore was to quantitatively assess whether CCT programs can enhance cognition in healthy older adults, discriminate responsive from nonresponsive cognitive domains, and identify the most salient design factors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO for relevant studies from the databases' inception to 9 July 2014. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of ≥ 4 h of CCT on performance in neuropsychological tests in older adults without dementia or other cognitive impairment. Fifty-two studies encompassing 4,885 participants were eligible. Intervention designs varied considerably, but after removal of one outlier, heterogeneity across studies was small (I(2 = 29.92%. There was no systematic evidence of publication bias. The overall effect size (Hedges' g, random effects model for CCT versus control was small and statistically significant, g = 0.22 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.29. Small to moderate effect sizes were found for nonverbal memory, g = 0.24 (95% CI 0.09 to 0.38; verbal memory, g = 0.08 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.15; working memory (WM, g = 0.22 (95% CI 0.09 to 0.35; processing speed, g = 0.31 (95% CI 0.11 to 0.50; and visuospatial skills, g = 0.30 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.54. No significant effects were found for executive functions and attention. Moderator analyses revealed that home-based administration was ineffective compared to group-based training, and that more than three training sessions per week was ineffective versus three or fewer. There was no evidence for the effectiveness of WM training, and only weak

  13. Real-Time Strategy Game Training: Emergence of a Cognitive Flexibility Trait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Brian D.; Maddox, W. Todd; Love, Bradley C.

    2013-01-01

    Training in action video games can increase the speed of perceptual processing. However, it is unknown whether video-game training can lead to broad-based changes in higher-level competencies such as cognitive flexibility, a core and neurally distributed component of cognition. To determine whether video gaming can enhance cognitive flexibility and, if so, why these changes occur, the current study compares two versions of a real-time strategy (RTS) game. Using a meta-analytic Bayes factor approach, we found that the gaming condition that emphasized maintenance and rapid switching between multiple information and action sources led to a large increase in cognitive flexibility as measured by a wide array of non-video gaming tasks. Theoretically, the results suggest that the distributed brain networks supporting cognitive flexibility can be tuned by engrossing video game experience that stresses maintenance and rapid manipulation of multiple information sources. Practically, these results suggest avenues for increasing cognitive function. PMID:23950921

  14. Real-time strategy game training: emergence of a cognitive flexibility trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Brian D; Maddox, W Todd; Love, Bradley C

    2013-01-01

    Training in action video games can increase the speed of perceptual processing. However, it is unknown whether video-game training can lead to broad-based changes in higher-level competencies such as cognitive flexibility, a core and neurally distributed component of cognition. To determine whether video gaming can enhance cognitive flexibility and, if so, why these changes occur, the current study compares two versions of a real-time strategy (RTS) game. Using a meta-analytic Bayes factor approach, we found that the gaming condition that emphasized maintenance and rapid switching between multiple information and action sources led to a large increase in cognitive flexibility as measured by a wide array of non-video gaming tasks. Theoretically, the results suggest that the distributed brain networks supporting cognitive flexibility can be tuned by engrossing video game experience that stresses maintenance and rapid manipulation of multiple information sources. Practically, these results suggest avenues for increasing cognitive function.

  15. Real-time strategy game training: emergence of a cognitive flexibility trait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D Glass

    Full Text Available Training in action video games can increase the speed of perceptual processing. However, it is unknown whether video-game training can lead to broad-based changes in higher-level competencies such as cognitive flexibility, a core and neurally distributed component of cognition. To determine whether video gaming can enhance cognitive flexibility and, if so, why these changes occur, the current study compares two versions of a real-time strategy (RTS game. Using a meta-analytic Bayes factor approach, we found that the gaming condition that emphasized maintenance and rapid switching between multiple information and action sources led to a large increase in cognitive flexibility as measured by a wide array of non-video gaming tasks. Theoretically, the results suggest that the distributed brain networks supporting cognitive flexibility can be tuned by engrossing video game experience that stresses maintenance and rapid manipulation of multiple information sources. Practically, these results suggest avenues for increasing cognitive function.

  16. Training cognitive flexibility in patients with anorexia nervosa: a pilot randomized controlled trial of cognitive remediation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Ingenerf, Katrin; Walther, Stephan; Wild, Beate; Hartmann, Mechthild; Herzog, Wolfgang; Bents, Hinrich; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Inefficient cognitive flexibility is considered a neurocognitive trait marker involved in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN). Cognitive Remediation Therapy (CRT) is a specific treatment targeting this cognitive style. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and efficacy (by estimating the effect size) of specifically tailored CRT for AN, compared to non-specific cognitive training. A prospective, randomized controlled, superiority pilot trial was conducted. Forty women with AN receiving treatment as usual (TAU) were randomized to receive either CRT or non-specific neurocognitive therapy (NNT) as an add-on. Both conditions comprised 30 sessions of computer-assisted (21 sessions) and face-to-face (9 sessions) training over a 3-week period. CRT focused specifically on cognitive flexibility. NNT was comprised of tasks designed to improve attention and memory. The primary outcome was performance on a neuropsychological post-treatment assessment of cognitive set-shifting. Data available from 25 treatment completers were analyzed. Participants in the CRT condition outperformed participants in the NNT condition in cognitive set-shifting at the end of the treatment (p = 0.027; between-groups effect size d = 0.62). Participants in both conditions showed high treatment acceptance. This study confirms the feasibility of CRT for AN, and provides a first estimate of the effect size that can be achieved using CRT for AN. Furthermore, the present findings corroborate that neurocognitive training for AN should be tailored to the specific cognitive inefficiencies of this patient group. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Cognitive Effects of Mindfulness Training: Results of a Pilot Study Based on a Theory Driven Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wimmer, Lena; Bellingrath, Silja; von Stockhausen, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The present paper reports a pilot study which tested cognitive effects of mindfulness practice in a theory-driven approach. Thirty-four fifth graders received either a mindfulness training which was based on the mindfulness-based stress reduction approach (experimental group), a concentration training (active control group), or no treatment (passive control group). Based on the operational definition of mindfulness by Bishop et al. (2004), effects on sustained attention, cognitive flexibility...

  18. Enhancing Cognition with Video Games: A Multiple Game Training Study

    OpenAIRE

    Oei, Adam C.; Patterson, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous evidence points to a causal link between playing action video games and enhanced cognition and perception. However, benefits of playing other video games are under-investigated. We examined whether playing non-action games also improves cognition. Hence, we compared transfer effects of an action and other non-action types that required different cognitive demands. Methodology/Principal Findings We instructed 5 groups of non-gamer participants to play one game each on a mob...

  19. Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,…

  20. A pilot study of cognitive training with and without transcranial direct current stimulation to improve cognition in older persons with HIV-related cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ownby RL

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Raymond L Ownby,1 Amarilis Acevedo2 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, 2College of Psychology, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA Background: In spite of treatment advances, HIV infection is associated with cognitive deficits. This is even more important as many persons with HIV infection age and experience age-related cognitive impairments. Both computer-based cognitive training and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS have shown promise as interventions to improve cognitive function. In this study, we investigate the acceptability and efficacy of cognitive training with and without tDCS in older persons with HIV. Patients and methods: In this single-blind randomized study, participants were 14 individuals of whom 11 completed study procedures (mean age =51.5 years; nine men and two women with HIV-related mild neurocognitive disorder. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological and self-report measures and then six 20-minute cognitive training sessions while receiving either active or sham anodal tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. After training, participants completed the same measures. Success of the blind and participant reactions were assessed during a final interview. Assessments were completed by an assessor blind to treatment assignment. Pre- and post-training changes were evaluated via analysis of covariance yielding estimates of effect size. Results: All participants believed that they had been assigned to active treatment; nine of the 11 believed that the intervention had improved their cognitive functioning. Both participants who felt the intervention was ineffective were assigned to the sham condition. None of the planned tested interactions of time with treatment was significant, but 12 of 13 favored tDCS (P=0.08. All participants indicated that they would participate in similar studies in the future. Conclusion: Results show that both cognitive training via

  1. Structural plasticity of the social brain: Differential change after socio-affective and cognitive mental training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valk, Sofie L; Bernhardt, Boris C; Trautwein, Fynn-Mathis; Böckler, Anne; Kanske, Philipp; Guizard, Nicolas; Collins, D Louis; Singer, Tania

    2017-10-01

    Although neuroscientific research has revealed experience-dependent brain changes across the life span in sensory, motor, and cognitive domains, plasticity relating to social capacities remains largely unknown. To investigate whether the targeted mental training of different cognitive and social skills can induce specific changes in brain morphology, we collected longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data throughout a 9-month mental training intervention from a large sample of adults between 20 and 55 years of age. By means of various daily mental exercises and weekly instructed group sessions, training protocols specifically addressed three functional domains: (i) mindfulness-based attention and interoception, (ii) socio-affective skills (compassion, dealing with difficult emotions, and prosocial motivation), and (iii) socio-cognitive skills (cognitive perspective-taking on self and others and metacognition). MRI-based cortical thickness analyses, contrasting the different training modules against each other, indicated spatially diverging changes in cortical morphology. Training of present-moment focused attention mostly led to increases in cortical thickness in prefrontal regions, socio-affective training induced plasticity in frontoinsular regions, and socio-cognitive training included change in inferior frontal and lateral temporal cortices. Module-specific structural brain changes correlated with training-induced behavioral improvements in the same individuals in domain-specific measures of attention, compassion, and cognitive perspective-taking, respectively, and overlapped with task-relevant functional networks. Our longitudinal findings indicate structural plasticity in well-known socio-affective and socio-cognitive brain networks in healthy adults based on targeted short daily mental practices. These findings could promote the development of evidence-based mental training interventions in clinical, educational, and corporate settings aimed at

  2. Cognitive Load in Mastoidectomy Skills Training: Virtual Reality Simulation and Traditional Dissection Compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier; Konge, Lars; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten

    2016-01-01

    The cognitive load (CL) theoretical framework suggests that working memory is limited, which has implications for learning and skills acquisition. Complex learning situations such as surgical skills training can potentially induce a cognitive overload, inhibiting learning. This study aims to compare CL in traditional cadaveric dissection training and virtual reality (VR) simulation training of mastoidectomy. A prospective, crossover study. Participants performed cadaveric dissection before VR simulation of the procedure or vice versa. CL was estimated by secondary-task reaction time testing at baseline and during the procedure in both training modalities. The national Danish temporal bone course. A total of 40 novice otorhinolaryngology residents. Reaction time was increased by 20% in VR simulation training and 55% in cadaveric dissection training of mastoidectomy compared with baseline measurements. Traditional dissection training increased CL significantly more than VR simulation training (p < 0.001). VR simulation training imposed a lower CL than traditional cadaveric dissection training of mastoidectomy. Learning complex surgical skills can be a challenge for the novice and mastoidectomy skills training could potentially be optimized by employing VR simulation training first because of the lower CL. Traditional dissection training could then be used to supplement skills training after basic competencies have been acquired in the VR simulation. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Studying distributed cognition of simulation-based team training with DiCoT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybing, Jonas; Nilsson, Heléne; Jonson, Carl-Oscar; Bang, Magnus

    2016-03-01

    Health care organizations employ simulation-based team training (SBTT) to improve skill, communication and coordination in a broad range of critical care contexts. Quantitative approaches, such as team performance measurements, are predominantly used to measure SBTTs effectiveness. However, a practical evaluation method that examines how this approach supports cognition and teamwork is missing. We have applied Distributed Cognition for Teamwork (DiCoT), a method for analysing cognition and collaboration aspects of work settings, with the purpose of assessing the methodology's usefulness for evaluating SBTTs. In a case study, we observed and analysed four Emergo Train System® simulation exercises where medical professionals trained emergency response routines. The study suggests that DiCoT is an applicable and learnable tool for determining key distributed cognition attributes of SBTTs that are of importance for the simulation validity of training environments. Moreover, we discuss and exemplify how DiCoT supports design of SBTTs with a focus on transfer and validity characteristics. Practitioner Summary: In this study, we have evaluated a method to assess simulation-based team training environments from a cognitive ergonomics perspective. Using a case study, we analysed Distributed Cognition for Teamwork (DiCoT) by applying it to the Emergo Train System®. We conclude that DiCoT is useful for SBTT evaluation and simulator (re)design.

  4. Neural Correlates of Changes in a Visual Search Task due to Cognitive Training in Seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele Wild-Wall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate the underlying neural sources of near transfer after a multidomain cognitive training in older participants in a visual search task. Participants were randomly assigned to a social control, a no-contact control and a training group, receiving a 4-month paper-pencil and PC-based trainer guided cognitive intervention. All participants were tested in a before and after session with a conjunction visual search task. Performance and event-related potentials (ERPs suggest that the cognitive training improved feature processing of the stimuli which was expressed in an increased rate of target detection compared to the control groups. This was paralleled by enhanced amplitudes of the frontal P2 in the ERP and by higher activation in lingual and parahippocampal brain areas which are discussed to support visual feature processing. Enhanced N1 and N2 potentials in the ERP for nontarget stimuli after cognitive training additionally suggest improved attention and subsequent processing of arrays which were not immediately recognized as targets. Possible test repetition effects were confined to processes of stimulus categorisation as suggested by the P3b potential. The results show neurocognitive plasticity in aging after a broad cognitive training and allow pinpointing the functional loci of effects induced by cognitive training.

  5. Can Training in a Real-Time Strategy Videogame Attenuate Cognitive Decline in Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Chandramallika; Boot, Walter R.; Voss, Michelle W.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2014-01-01

    Declines in various cognitive abilities, particularly executive control functions, are observed in older adults. An important goal of cognitive training is to slow or reverse these age-related declines. However, opinion is divided in the literature regarding whether cognitive training can engender transfer to a variety of cognitive skills in older adults. Yet, recent research indicates that videogame training of young adults may engender broad transfer to skills of visual attention. In the current study, we used a real-time strategy videogame to attempt to train executive functions in older adults, such as working memory, task switching, short-term memory, inhibition, and reasoning. Older adults were either trained in a real-time strategy videogame for 23.5 hours (RON, n=20) or not (CONTROLS, n=20). A battery of cognitive tasks, including tasks of executive control and visuo-spatial skills, were assessed before, during, and after video game training. The trainees improved significantly in the measures of game performance. They also improved significantly more than the controls in a subset of the cognitive tasks, such as task switching, working memory, visual short term memory, and mental rotation. Trends in improvement were also observed, for the video game trainees, in inhibition and reasoning. Individual differences in changes in game performance were correlated with improvements in task-switching. The study has implications for the enhancement of executive control processes of older adults. PMID:19140648

  6. Effect of interval training on cognitive functioning and cerebral oxygenation in obese patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drigny, Joffrey; Gremeaux, Vincent; Dupuy, Olivier; Gayda, Mathieu; Bherer, Louis; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2014-11-01

    To assess the effect of a 4-month high-intensity interval training programme on cognitive functioning, cerebral oxygenation, central haemodynamic and cardiometabolic parameters and aerobic capacity in obese patients. Cognitive functioning, cerebral oxygenation, central haemodynamic, cardiometabolic and exercise para-meters were measured before and after a 4-month high-intensity interval training programme in 6 obese patients (mean age 49 years (standard deviation 8), fat mass percentage 31 ± 7%). Body composition (body mass, total and trunk fat mass, waist circumference) and fasting insulin were improved after the programme (p attention and processing speed, was significantly improved after training (p training (p training programme in obese patients improved both cognitive functioning and cere-bral oxygen extraction, in association with improved exercise capacity and body composition.

  7. Effects of cognitive training on change in accuracy in inductive reasoning ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boron, Julie Blaskewicz; Turiano, Nicholas A; Willis, Sherry L; Schaie, K Warner

    2007-05-01

    We investigated cognitive training effects on accuracy and number of items attempted in inductive reasoning performance in a sample of 335 older participants (M = 72.78 years) from the Seattle Longitudinal Study. We assessed the impact of individual characteristics, including chronic disease. The reasoning training group showed significantly greater gain in accuracy and number of attempted items than did the comparison group; gain was primarily due to enhanced accuracy. Reasoning training effects involved a complex interaction of gender, prior cognitive status, and chronic disease. Women with prior decline on reasoning but no heart disease showed the greatest accuracy increase. In addition, stable reasoning-trained women with heart disease demonstrated significant accuracy gain. Comorbidity was associated with less change in accuracy. The results support the effectiveness of cognitive training on improving the accuracy of reasoning performance.

  8. Effects of Cognitive Training on Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Default Mode, Salience, and Central Executive Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weifang; Cao, Xinyi; Hou, Changyue; Li, Ting; Cheng, Yan; Jiang, Lijuan; Luo, Cheng; Li, Chunbo; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have documented that aging can disrupt certain higher cognitive systems such as the default mode network (DMN), the salience network and the central executive network (CEN). The effect of cognitive training on higher cognitive systems remains unclear. This study used a 1-year longitudinal design to explore the cognitive training effect on three higher cognitive networks in healthy older adults. The community-living healthy older adults were divided into two groups: the multi-domain cognitive training group (24 sessions of cognitive training over a 3-months period) and the wait-list control group. All subjects underwent cognitive measurements and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning at baseline and at 1 year after the training ended. We examined training-related changes in functional connectivity (FC) within and between three networks. Compared with the baseline, we observed maintained or increased FC within all three networks after training. The scans after training also showed maintained anti-correlation of FC between the DMN and CEN compared to the baseline. These findings demonstrated that cognitive training maintained or improved the functional integration within networks and the coupling between the DMN and CEN in older adults. Our findings suggested that multi-domain cognitive training can mitigate the aging-related dysfunction of higher cognitive networks.

  9. Effectiveness of computerized cognitive rehabilitation training on symptomatological, neuropsychological and work function in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Kyeong

    2013-06-01

    There has been plenty of interest in cognitive rehabilitation for schizophrenia here in Korea since the year 2000. But the efficacy studies of cognitive remediation intervention are still deficient. The primary purpose of this study was to develop a computer-assisted cognitive remediation program and conduct a clinical trial in a group of schizophrenic patients. Sixty patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to a computerized cognitive rehabilitation (Cog-trainer) group plus usual rehabilitation (UR) or to a usual rehabilitation (UR) group only. Clinical, neuropsychological and functional outcome variables were assessed at baseline and after intervention. The Cog-trainer group received 20 sessions of computerized cognitive remediation training over 3 months. This training program consists of 10 units, with each unit being divided into three stages: (i) practice; (ii) application; and (iii) advanced. Compared to the UR group, the Cog-trainer exhibited a significant improvement in attention, concentration and working memory. The Cog-trainer group also showed improvement in the work quality subscale of the work behavior inventory. However, there were no significant benefits of computerized cognitive remediation where symptoms were concerned. These results indicate that computerized cognitive rehabilitation training can contribute to an improvement in the cognitive function of people with schizophrenia. The changes in cognitive outcomes can also contribute to improvement in job functioning. Further study of generalization to other functional outcome measures will be necessary. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to confirm the maintenance of such improvements. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Does multicomponent physical exercise with simultaneous cognitive training boost cognitive performance in older adults? A 6-month randomized controlled trial with a 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenberger, Patrick; Schumacher, Vera; Angst, Marius; Theill, Nathan; de Bruin, Eling D

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a health problem that concerns almost every second elderly person. Physical and cognitive training have differential positive effects on cognition, but have been rarely applied in combination. This study evaluates synergistic effects of multicomponent physical exercise complemented with novel simultaneous cognitive training on cognition in older adults. We hypothesized that simultaneous cognitive-physical components would add training specific cognitive benefits compared to exclusively physical training. Seniors, older than 70 years, without cognitive impairment, were randomly assigned to either: 1) virtual reality video game dancing (DANCE), 2) treadmill walking with simultaneous verbal memory training (MEMORY), or 3) treadmill walking (PHYS). Each program was complemented with strength and balance exercises. Two 1-hour training sessions per week over 6 months were applied. Cognitive performance was assessed at baseline, after 3 and 6 months, and at 1-year follow-up. Multiple regression analyses with planned comparisons were calculated. Eighty-nine participants were randomized to the three groups initially, 71 completed the training, while 47 were available at 1-year follow-up. Advantages of the simultaneous cognitive-physical programs were found in two dimensions of executive function. "Shifting attention" showed a time×intervention interaction in favor of DANCE/MEMORY versus PHYS (F[2, 68] =1.95, trend P=0.075, r=0.17); and "working memory" showed a time×intervention interaction in favor of DANCE versus MEMORY (F[1, 136] =2.71, trend P=0.051, R (2)=0.006). Performance improvements in executive functions, long-term visual memory (episodic memory), and processing speed were maintained at follow-up in all groups. Particular executive functions benefit from simultaneous cognitive-physical training compared to exclusively physical multicomponent training. Cognitive-physical training programs may counteract widespread cognitive impairments in

  11. Adjusting brain dynamics in schizophrenia by means of perceptual and cognitive training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzvetan Popov

    Full Text Available In a previous report we showed that cognitive training fostering auditory-verbal discrimination and working memory normalized magnetoencephalographic (MEG M50 gating ratio in schizophrenia patients. The present analysis addressed whether training effects on M50 ratio and task performance are mediated by changes in brain oscillatory activity. Such evidence should improve understanding of the role of oscillatory activity in phenomena such as M50 ratio, the role of dysfunctional oscillatory activity in processing abnormalities in schizophrenia, and mechanisms of action of cognitive training.Time-locked and non-time-locked oscillatory activity was measured together with M50 ratio in a paired-click design before and after a 4-week training of 36 patients randomly assigned to specific cognitive exercises (CE or standard (comparison cognitive training (CP. Patient data were compared to those of 15 healthy controls who participated in two MEG measurements 4 weeks apart without training. Training led to more time-locked gamma-band response and more non-time-locked alpha-band desynchronization, moreso after CE than after CP. Only after CE, increased alpha desynchronization was associated with normalized M50 ratio and with improved verbal memory performance. Thus, both types of cognitive training normalized gamma activity, associated with improved stimulus encoding. More targeted training of auditory-verbal discrimination and memory additionally normalized alpha desynchronization, associated with improved elaborative processing. The latter presumably contributes to improved auditory gating and cognitive function.Results suggest that dysfunctional interplay of ocillatory activity that may contribute to auditory processing disruption in schizophrenia can be modified by targeted training.

  12. Application of Cognitive Principles in Distributed Computer-Based Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deatz, Richard

    2001-01-01

    As the U.S. Army continues to develop more powerful and complex digital information systems, it is essential that both training needs and training opportunities are addressed to meet mission objectives...

  13. Alcohol cognitive bias modification training for problem drinkers over the web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiers, R.W.; Houben, K.; Fadardi, J.S.; van Beek, P.; Rhemtulla, M.; Cox, W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Following successful outcomes of cognitive bias modification (CBM) programs for alcoholism in clinical and community samples, the present study investigated whether different varieties of CBM (attention control training and approach-bias re-training) could be delivered successfully in a fully

  14. Training Nurses in Cognitive Assessment: Uses and Misuses of the Mini-Mental State Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koder, Deborah-Anne; Klahr, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is one of the most commonly used instruments to screen for cognitive deficits within the hospital setting. However training in how to administer this widely used tool is scarce with little, if any, formal training for nursing staff. Scores are also often misused with over reliance on results and cut-offs to…

  15. Working memory training shows immediate and long-term effects on cognitive performance in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugin, Fiona; Metz, Andreas J.; Stauffer, Madlaina; Wolf, Martin; Jenni, Oskar G.; Huber, Reto

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is important for mental reasoning and learning processes. Several studies in adults and school-age children have shown performance improvement in cognitive tests after working memory training. Our aim was to examine not only immediate but also long-term effects of intensive working memory training on cognitive performance tests in children. Fourteen healthy male subjects between 10 and 16 years trained a visuospatial n-back task over 3 weeks (30 min daily), while 15 individuals of the same age range served as a passive control group. Significant differences in immediate (after 3 weeks of training) and long-term effects (after 2-6 months) in an auditory n-back task were observed compared to controls (2.5 fold immediate and 4.7 fold long-term increase in the training group compared to the controls). The improvement was more pronounced in subjects who improved their performance during the training. Other cognitive functions (matrices test and Stroop task) did not change when comparing the training group to the control group. We conclude that visuospatial working memory training in children boosts performance in similar memory tasks such as the auditory n-back task. The sustained performance improvement several months after the training supports the effectiveness of the training. PMID:25671082

  16. Cognitive rehabilitation training in patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy and cognitive deficits: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschio, Marta; Dinapoli, Loredana; Fabi, Alessandra; Giannarelli, Diana; Cantelmi, Tonino

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this pilot observational study was to evaluate effect of cognitive rehabilitation training (RehabTr) on cognitive performances in patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy (BTRE) and cognitive disturbances. Medical inclusion criteria: patients (M/F) ≥ 18 years ≤ 75 with symptomatic seizures due to primary brain tumors or brain metastases in stable treatment with antiepileptic drugs; previous surgical resection or biopsy; >70 Karnofsky Performance Status; stable oncological disease. Eligible patients recruited from 100 consecutive patients with BTRE at first visit to our Center from 2011 to 2012. All recruited patients were administered battery of neuropsychological tests exploring various cognitive domains. Patients considered to have a neuropsychological deficit were those with at least one test score for a given domain indicative of impairment. Thirty patients out of 100 showed cognitive deficits, and were offered participation in RehabTr, of which 16 accepted (5 low grade glioma, 4 high grade glioma, 2 glioblastoma, 2 meningioma and 3 metastases) and 14 declined for various reasons. The RehabTr consisted of one weekly individual session of 1 h, for a total of 10 weeks, carried out by a trained psychologist. The functions trained were: memory, attention, visuo-spatial functions, language and reasoning by means of Training NeuroPsicologico (TNP(®)) software. To evaluate the effect of the RehabTr, the same battery of tests was administered directly after cognitive rehabilitation (T1), and at six-month follow-up (T2). Statistical analysis with Student T test for paired data showed that short-term verbal memory, episodic memory, fluency and long term visuo-spatial memory improved immediately after the T1 and remained stable at T2. At final follow-up all patients showed an improvement in at least one domain that had been lower than normal at baseline. Our results demonstrated a positive effect of rehabilitative training at different times, and, for

  17. Cognitive Effects of Mindfulness Training: Results of a Pilot Study Based on a Theory Driven Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Lena; Bellingrath, Silja; von Stockhausen, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The present paper reports a pilot study which tested cognitive effects of mindfulness practice in a theory-driven approach. Thirty-four fifth graders received either a mindfulness training which was based on the mindfulness-based stress reduction approach (experimental group), a concentration training (active control group), or no treatment (passive control group). Based on the operational definition of mindfulness by Bishop et al. (2004), effects on sustained attention, cognitive flexibility, cognitive inhibition, and data-driven as opposed to schema-based information processing were predicted. These abilities were assessed in a pre-post design by means of a vigilance test, a reversible figures test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a Stroop test, a visual search task, and a recognition task of prototypical faces. Results suggest that the mindfulness training specifically improved cognitive inhibition and data-driven information processing.

  18. Cognitive effects of mindfulness training: Results of a pilot study based on a theory driven approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Wimmer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports a pilot study which tested cognitive effects of mindfulness practice in a theory-driven approach. Thirty-four fifth graders received either a mindfulness training which was based on the mindfulness-based stress reduction approach (experimental group, a concentration training (active control group or no treatment (passive control group. Based on the operational definition of mindfulness by Bishop et al. (2004, effects on sustained attention, cognitive flexibility, cognitive inhibition and data-driven as opposed to schema-based information processing were predicted. These abilities were assessed in a pre-post design by means of a vigilance test, a reversible figures test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a Stroop test, a visual search task, and a recognition task of prototypical faces. Results suggest that the mindfulness training specifically improved cognitive inhibition and data-driven information processing.

  19. Cognitive Training among Cognitively-Impaired Older Adults: A Feasibility Study Assessing the Potential Improvement in Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renae L Smith-Ray

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emerging literature suggests that mobility and cognition are linked. Epidemiological data support a negative association between cognition and falls among cognitively intact older adults. A small number of intervention studies found that regimented cognitive training (CT improves mobility among this population, suggesting that CT may be an under-explored approach toward reducing falls. To date, no studies have examined the impact of CT on balance among those who are cognitively impaired. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of implementing a CT program among cognitively impaired older adults and examine whether there are potential improvements in balance following CT.Method: A single group repeated measures design was used to identify change in balance, depressive symptoms, and global cognition. A mixed method approach was employed to evaluate the feasibility of a CT intervention among a cohort of cognitively impaired older adults. CT was delivered in a group 2 days/week over 10 weeks using an online brain exercise program, Posit Science Brain HQ (20 hours. All participants completed a one-on-one data collection interview at baseline and post-program. Results: Participants (N=20 were on average 80.5 years old and had mild to moderate cognitive impairment. Following the 10-week cognitive training intervention, mean scores on 4 of the 5 balance measures improved among CT participants. Although none of the balance improvements reached significance, these findings are promising given the small sample size. Depressive symptoms significantly improved between baseline and 10 weeks (p=0.021. Mean global cognition also improved across the study period, but neither of these improvements were statistically significant. Based on participant responses, the CT program was feasible for this population.Conclusion: This study provides support for the feasibility of implementing a CT program among cognitively-impaired older adults

  20. Effects of combined physical and cognitive training on fitness and neuropsychological outcomes in healthy older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desjardins-Crépeau L

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Laurence Desjardins-Crépeau,1,2 Nicolas Berryman,2,3 Sarah A Fraser,4 Thien Tuong Minh Vu,5,6 Marie-Jeanne Kergoat,2,6 Karen ZH Li,7 Laurent Bosquet,8 Louis Bherer2,7 1Department of Psychology, University of Quebec at Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Research Center, Institut universitaire de gériatrie de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3Department of Sports Studies, Bishop’s University, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada; 4Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 5Research Center, Centre hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 6Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 7Department of Psychology and PERFORM Centre, Concordia University, Montréal, QC, Canada; 8Faculté des sciences du sport, Université de Poitiers, Poitiers, France Purpose: Physical exercise and cognitive training have been shown to enhance cognition among older adults. However, few studies have looked at the potential synergetic effects of combining physical and cognitive training in a single study. Prior trials on combined training have led to interesting yet equivocal results. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of combined physical and cognitive interventions on physical fitness and neuropsychological performance in healthy older adults.Methods: Seventy-six participants were randomly assigned to one of four training combinations using a 2×2 factorial design. The physical intervention was a mixed aerobic and resistance training program, and the cognitive intervention was a dual-task (DT training program. Stretching and toning exercises and computer lessons were used as active control conditions. Physical and cognitive measures were collected pre- and postintervention.Results: All groups showed equivalent improvements in measures of functional mobility. The aerobic–strength condition led to larger effect size in lower body strength, independently of cognitive training

  1. Examining adherence to components of cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety after training and consultation

    OpenAIRE

    Edmunds, Julie M.; Brodman, Douglas M.; Ringle, Vanesa A.; Read, Kendra L.; Kendall, Philip C.; Beidas, Rinad S.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined 115 service providers’ adherence to components of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth anxiety prior to training, post workshop training, and after three months of weekly consultation. Adherence was measured using a role-play with a trained actor. We examined differences in individual adherence to CBT components across time and the relationship between number of consultation sessions attended and adherence ratings following consultation. Findings indicated t...

  2. Development and Evaluation of a Cognitive Training Game for Older People: A Design-based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Hsin; Lin, Weijane; Yueh, Hsiu-Ping

    2017-01-01

    In the research field of cognitive aging, games have gained attention as training interventions to remediate age-related deficits. Cognitive training games on computer, video and mobile platforms have shown ample and positive support. However, the generalized effects are not agreed upon unanimously, and the game tasks are usually simple and decontextualized due to the limitations of measurements. This study adopted a qualitative approach of design-based research (DBR) to systematically review and pragmatically examine the regime, presentation and feedback design of a cognitive training game for older adults. An overview of the literature of cognitive aging and training games was conducted to form the theoretical conjectures of the design, and an iterative cycle and process were employed to develop a mobile game for older adults who are homebound or receiving care in a nursing home. Stakeholders, i.e., elderly users and institutional administrators, were invited to participate in the design process. Using two cycles of design and evaluation, a working prototype of an iPad-based app that accounted for the needs of elderly adults in terms of form, appearance and working function was developed and tested in the actual contexts of the participants' homes and an assisted living facility. The results showed that the cognitive training game developed in this study was accepted by the participants, and a high degree of satisfaction was noted. Moreover, the elements of the interface, including its size, layout and control flow, were tested and found to be suitable for use. This study contributes to the literature by providing design suggestions for such games, including the designs of the cognitive training structure, interface, interaction, instructions and feedback, based on empirical evidence collected in natural settings. This study further suggests that the effectiveness of cognitive training in mobile games be evaluated through field and physical testing on a larger

  3. Development and Evaluation of a Cognitive Training Game for Older People: A Design-based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Hsin; Lin, Weijane; Yueh, Hsiu-Ping

    2017-01-01

    In the research field of cognitive aging, games have gained attention as training interventions to remediate age-related deficits. Cognitive training games on computer, video and mobile platforms have shown ample and positive support. However, the generalized effects are not agreed upon unanimously, and the game tasks are usually simple and decontextualized due to the limitations of measurements. This study adopted a qualitative approach of design-based research (DBR) to systematically review and pragmatically examine the regime, presentation and feedback design of a cognitive training game for older adults. An overview of the literature of cognitive aging and training games was conducted to form the theoretical conjectures of the design, and an iterative cycle and process were employed to develop a mobile game for older adults who are homebound or receiving care in a nursing home. Stakeholders, i.e., elderly users and institutional administrators, were invited to participate in the design process. Using two cycles of design and evaluation, a working prototype of an iPad-based app that accounted for the needs of elderly adults in terms of form, appearance and working function was developed and tested in the actual contexts of the participants' homes and an assisted living facility. The results showed that the cognitive training game developed in this study was accepted by the participants, and a high degree of satisfaction was noted. Moreover, the elements of the interface, including its size, layout and control flow, were tested and found to be suitable for use. This study contributes to the literature by providing design suggestions for such games, including the designs of the cognitive training structure, interface, interaction, instructions and feedback, based on empirical evidence collected in natural settings. This study further suggests that the effectiveness of cognitive training in mobile games be evaluated through field and physical testing on a larger

  4. Development and Evaluation of a Cognitive Training Game for Older People: A Design-based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsin Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the research field of cognitive aging, games have gained attention as training interventions to remediate age-related deficits. Cognitive training games on computer, video and mobile platforms have shown ample and positive support. However, the generalized effects are not agreed upon unanimously, and the game tasks are usually simple and decontextualized due to the limitations of measurements. This study adopted a qualitative approach of design-based research (DBR to systematically review and pragmatically examine the regime, presentation and feedback design of a cognitive training game for older adults. An overview of the literature of cognitive aging and training games was conducted to form the theoretical conjectures of the design, and an iterative cycle and process were employed to develop a mobile game for older adults who are homebound or receiving care in a nursing home. Stakeholders, i.e., elderly users and institutional administrators, were invited to participate in the design process. Using two cycles of design and evaluation, a working prototype of an iPad-based app that accounted for the needs of elderly adults in terms of form, appearance and working function was developed and tested in the actual contexts of the participants' homes and an assisted living facility. The results showed that the cognitive training game developed in this study was accepted by the participants, and a high degree of satisfaction was noted. Moreover, the elements of the interface, including its size, layout and control flow, were tested and found to be suitable for use. This study contributes to the literature by providing design suggestions for such games, including the designs of the cognitive training structure, interface, interaction, instructions and feedback, based on empirical evidence collected in natural settings. This study further suggests that the effectiveness of cognitive training in mobile games be evaluated through field and physical

  5. Communicative-pragmatic impairment in schizophrenia: Cognitive rehabilitative training

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Marina Bosco; Francesca Marina Bosco; Ilaria eGabbatore; Luigi eGastaldo; Katiuscia eSacco; Katiuscia eSacco

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to verify in patients with schizophrenia, the efficacy of Cognitive Pragmatic Treatment (CPT), a new remediation program for improving communicative-pragmatic abilities. The CPT program consists of 20 group sessions, focused on several communication modalities, i.e. linguistic, extralinguistic and paralinguistic, Theory of Mind (ToM) and other cognitive functions that can affect communicative performance, such as awareness and planning. A group of 17 patients with schizophreni...

  6. Improved physical fitness of cancer survivors : A randomised controlled trial comparing physical training with physical and cognitive-behavioural training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    May, Anne M.; Van Weert, Ellen; Korstjens, Irene; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Van Der Schans, Cees P.; Zonderland, Maria L.; Mesters, Ilse; Van Den Borne, Bart; Ros, Wynand J. G.

    2008-01-01

    We compared the effect of a group-based 12-week supervised exercise programme, i.e. aerobic and resistance exercise, and group sports, with that of the same programme combined with cognitive-behavioural training on physical fitness and activity of cancer survivors. One hundred and forty seven cancer

  7. Effectiveness of Meta-Cognitive Skills Training on Self-Handicapping and Self-Efficacy of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrbanou Javidan

    2018-03-01

    Discussion: Findings of the present study suggest that meta-cognitive skills training- as an effective training program- could be used for decreasing students’ self-handicapping. But with regards to the effectiveness of meta-cognitive skills training on self-efficacy, it is revealed that more variables are involved, and it needs further investigation.

  8. The Effects of Physical Exercise and Cognitive Training on Memory and Neurotrophic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisz, Jennifer J; Clark, Ilana B; Bonin, Katija; Paolucci, Emily M; Michalski, Bernadeta; Becker, Suzanna; Fahnestock, Margaret

    2017-11-01

    This study examined the combined effect of physical exercise and cognitive training on memory and neurotrophic factors in healthy, young adults. Ninety-five participants completed 6 weeks of exercise training, combined exercise and cognitive training, or no training (control). Both the exercise and combined training groups improved performance on a high-interference memory task, whereas the control group did not. In contrast, neither training group improved on general recognition performance, suggesting that exercise training selectively increases high-interference memory that may be linked to hippocampal function. Individuals who experienced greater fitness improvements from the exercise training (i.e., high responders to exercise) also had greater increases in the serum neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and insulin-like growth factor-1. These high responders to exercise also had better high-interference memory performance as a result of the combined exercise and cognitive training compared with exercise alone, suggesting that potential synergistic effects might depend on the availability of neurotrophic factors. These findings are especially important, as memory benefits accrued from a relatively short intervention in high-functioning young adults.

  9. Brain structural changes following adaptive cognitive training assessed by Tensor-Based Morphometry (TBM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Roberto; Hua, Xue; Martínez, Kenia; Burgaleta, Miguel; Román, Francisco J; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Carmona, Susanna; Jaeggi, Susanne M; Thompson, Paul M

    2016-10-01

    Tensor-Based Morphometry (TBM) allows the automatic mapping of brain changes across time building 3D deformation maps. This technique has been applied for tracking brain degeneration in Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases with high sensitivity and reliability. Here we applied TBM to quantify changes in brain structure after completing a challenging adaptive cognitive training program based on the n-back task. Twenty-six young women completed twenty-four training sessions across twelve weeks and they showed, on average, large cognitive improvements. High-resolution MRI scans were obtained before and after training. The computed longitudinal deformation maps were analyzed for answering three questions: (a) Are there differential brain structural changes in the training group as compared with a matched control group? (b) Are these changes related to performance differences in the training program? (c) Are standardized changes in a set of psychological factors (fluid and crystallized intelligence, working memory, and attention control) measured before and after training, related to structural changes in the brain? Results showed (a) greater structural changes for the training group in the temporal lobe, (b) a negative correlation between these changes and performance across training sessions (the greater the structural change, the lower the cognitive performance improvements), and (c) negligible effects regarding the psychological factors measured before and after training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive Training Using a Novel Memory Game on an iPad in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulich, George; Piercy, Thomas; Fox, Chris; Suckling, John; Rowe, James B; O'Brien, John T; Sahakian, Barbara J

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive training is effective in patients with mild cognitive impairment but does not typically address the motivational deficits associated with older populations with memory difficulties. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of cognitive training using a novel memory game on an iPad in 42 patients with a diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment assigned to either the cognitive training (n=21; 8 hours of gameplay over 4 weeks) or control (n=21; clinic visits as usual) groups. Significant time-by-pattern-by-group interactions were found for cognitive performance in terms of the number of errors made and trials needed on the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Paired Associates Learning task (P=.044; P=.027). Significant time-by-group interactions were also found for the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Paired Associates Learning first trial memory score (P=.002), Mini-Mental State Examination (P=.036), the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test (P=.032), and the Apathy Evaluation Scale (P=.026). Within-group comparisons revealed highly specific effects of cognitive training on episodic memory. The cognitive training group maintained high levels of enjoyment and motivation to continue after each hour of gameplay, with self-confidence and self-rated memory ability improving over time. Episodic memory robustly improved in the cognitive training group. "Gamified" cognitive training may also enhance visuospatial abilities in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Gamification maximizes engagement with cognitive training by increasing motivation and could complement pharmacological treatments for amnestic mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease. Larger, more controlled trials are needed to replicate and extend these findings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  11. Engagement with the auditory processing system during targeted auditory cognitive training mediates changes in cognitive outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagianti, Bruno; Fisher, Melissa; Neilands, Torsten B; Loewy, Rachel; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2016-11-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia who engage in targeted cognitive training (TCT) of the auditory system show generalized cognitive improvements. The high degree of variability in cognitive gains maybe due to individual differences in the level of engagement of the underlying neural system target. 131 individuals with schizophrenia underwent 40 hours of TCT. We identified target engagement of auditory system processing efficiency by modeling subject-specific trajectories of auditory processing speed (APS) over time. Lowess analysis, mixed models repeated measures analysis, and latent growth curve modeling were used to examine whether APS trajectories were moderated by age and illness duration, and mediated improvements in cognitive outcome measures. We observed significant improvements in APS from baseline to 20 hours of training (initial change), followed by a flat APS trajectory (plateau) at subsequent time-points. Participants showed interindividual variability in the steepness of the initial APS change and in the APS plateau achieved and sustained between 20 and 40 hours. We found that participants who achieved the fastest APS plateau, showed the greatest transfer effects to untrained cognitive domains. There is a significant association between an individual's ability to generate and sustain auditory processing efficiency and their degree of cognitive improvement after TCT, independent of baseline neurocognition. APS plateau may therefore represent a behavioral measure of target engagement mediating treatment response. Future studies should examine the optimal plateau of auditory processing efficiency required to induce significant cognitive improvements, in the context of interindividual differences in neural plasticity and sensory system efficiency that characterize schizophrenia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Neuroplasticity-based Cognitive and Linguistic Skills Training Improves Reading and Writing Skills in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth eRogowsky

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports an evaluation of the effect of computer-based cognitive and linguistic training on college students’ reading and writing skills. The computer-based training included a series of increasingly challenging software programs that were designed to strengthen students’ foundational cognitive skills (memory, attention span, processing speed, and sequencing in the context of listening and higher level reading tasks. Twenty-five college students (12 native English language; 13 English Second Language who demonstrated poor writing skills participated in the training group. The training group received daily training during the spring semester (11 weeks with the Fast ForWord Literacy (FFW-L and upper levels of the Fast ForWord Reading series (Levels 3, 4 and 5. The comparison group (n=28 selected from the general college population did not receive training. Both the training and comparison groups attended the same university. All students took the Gates MacGinitie Reading Test (GMRT and the Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS Written Expression Scale at the beginning (Time 1 and end (Time 2 of the spring college semester. Results from this study showed that the training group made a statistically greater improvement from Time 1 to Time 2 in both their reading skills and their writing skills than the comparison group. The group who received training began with statistically lower writing skills before training, but exceeded the writing skills of the comparison group after training.

  13. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for children with anxiety disorders in a clinical setting : No additional effect of a cognitive parent training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, MH; Scholing, A; Emmelkamp, PMG; Minderaa, RB

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate a 12-week cognitive-behavioral treatment program for children with anxiety disorders and the additional value of a seven-session cognitive parent training program. Method: Seventy-nine children with an anxiety disorder (aged 7-18 years) were randomly assigned to a cognitive behavioral

  14. Social Skills Training for Young Adolescents: Cognitive and Performance Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kathryn L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An assertiveness training curriculum that was an expansion of two previous programs with young adolescents was presented to 22 fifth graders. Results did not show that training facilitated assertiveness on the performance components. Suggestions are offered for designing programs aimed at developing adolescents' assertive behavior in ways that…

  15. Virtual reality negotiation training system with virtual cognitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, D.; Burger, F.; Brinkman, W.P.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    A number of negotiation training systems have been developed to improve people’s performance in negotiation. They mainly focus on the skills development, and less on negotiation understanding and improving self-efficacy. We propose a virtual reality negotiation training system that exposes users to

  16. Synergistic effects of aerobic exercise and cognitive training on cognition, physiological markers, daily function, and quality of life in stroke survivors with cognitive decline: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ting-Ting; Wu, Ching-Yi; Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Chang, Ku-Chou; Lee, Lin-Chien; Hung, Jen-Wen; Lin, Keh-Chung; Teng, Ching-Hung; Liao, Yi-Han

    2017-08-31

    Aerobic exercise and cognitive training have been effective in improving cognitive functions; however, whether the combination of these two can further enhance cognition and clinical outcomes in stroke survivors with cognitive decline remains unknown. This study aimed to determine the treatment effects of a sequential combination of aerobic exercise and cognitive training on cognitive function and clinical outcomes. Stroke survivors (n = 75) with cognitive decline will be recruited and randomly assigned to cognitive training, aerobic exercise, and sequential combination of aerobic exercise and cognitive training groups. All participants will receive training for 60 minutes per day, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. The aerobic exercise group will receive stationary bicycle training, the cognitive training group will receive cognitive-based training, and the sequential group will first receive 30 minutes of aerobic exercise, followed by 30 minutes of cognitive training. The outcome measures involve cognitive functions, physiological biomarkers, daily function and quality of life, physical functions, and social participation. Participants will be assessed before and immediately after the interventions, and 6 months after the interventions. Repeated measures of analysis of variance will be used to evaluate the changes in outcome measures at the three assessments. This trial aims to explore the benefits of innovative intervention approaches to improve the cognitive function, physiological markers, daily function, and quality of life in stroke survivors with cognitive decline. The findings will provide evidence to advance post-stroke cognitive rehabilitation. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02550990 . Registered on 6 September 2015.

  17. Cognitive Gains from Gist Reasoning Training in Adolescents with Chronic-Stage Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori G. Cook

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI typically demonstrate good recovery of previously acquired skills. However, higher-order and later emergent cognitive functions are often impaired and linked to poor outcomes in academic and social/behavioral domains. Few control trials exist that test cognitive treatment effectiveness at chronic recovery stages. The current pilot study compared the effects of two forms of cognitive training, gist reasoning (top-down versus rote memory learning (bottom-up, on ability to abstract meanings, recall facts, and utilize core executive functions (i.e., working memory, inhibition in 20 adolescents (ages 12-20 who were six months or longer post-TBI. Participants completed eight 45-minute sessions over one month. After training, the gist reasoning group (n = 10 exhibited significant improvement in ability to abstract meanings and increased fact recall. This group also showed significant generalizations to untrained executive functions of working memory and inhibition. The memory training group (n = 10 failed to show significant gains in ability to abstract meaning or on other untrained specialized executive functions, although improved fact recall approached significance. These preliminary results suggest that relatively short-term training (6 hours utilizing a top-down reasoning approach is more effective than a bottom-up rote learning approach in achieving gains in higher-order cognitive abilities in adolescents at chronic stages of TBI. These findings need to be replicated in a larger study; nonetheless, the preliminary data suggest that traditional cognitive intervention schedules need to extend to later-stage training opportunities. Chronic-stage, higher-order cognitive trainings may serve to elevate levels of cognitive performance in adolescents with TBI.

  18. Efficacy of a short cognitive training program in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martín, María Yaiza; González-Platas, Montserrat; Eguía-del Río, Pablo; Croissier-Elías, Cristina; Jiménez Sosa, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment is a common feature in multiple sclerosis (MS) and may have a substantial impact on quality of life. Evidence about the effectiveness of neuropsychological rehabilitation is still limited, but current data suggest that computer-assisted cognitive training improves cognitive performance. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combined computer-assisted training supported by home-based neuropsychological training to improve attention, processing speed, memory and executive functions during 3 consecutive months. Methods In this randomized controlled study blinded for the evaluators, 62 MS patients with clinically stable disease and mild-to-moderate levels of cognitive impairment were randomized to receive a computer-assisted neuropsychological training program (n=30) or no intervention (control group [CG]; n=32). The cognitive assessment included the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Test. Other secondary measures included subjective cognitive impairment, anxiety and depression, fatigue and quality of life measures. Results The treatment group (TG) showed significant improvements in measures of verbal memory, working memory and phonetic fluency after intervention, and repeated measures analysis of covariance revealed a positive effect in most of the functions. The control group (CG) did not show changes. The TG showed a significant reduction in anxiety symptoms and significant improvement in quality of life. There were no improvements in fatigue levels and depressive symptoms. Conclusion Cognitive intervention with a computer-assisted training supported by home training between face-to-face sessions is a useful tool to treat patients with MS and improve functions such as verbal memory, working memory and phonetic fluency. PMID:28223806

  19. Monitoring Physical and Cognitive Overload During a Training Camp in Professional Female Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroix, Lieselot; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Rietjens, Gerard; Meeusen, Romain

    2016-10-01

    High training loads combined with other stressors can lead to performance decrements. The time needed to recover determines the diagnosis of (non)-functional overreaching or the overtraining syndrome. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of an 8-day (intensified) training camp of professional female cyclists on physical and cognitive performance. Nine subjects performed a 30-min time trial (TT), cognitive test, and Profile of Mood States questionnaire before, during, and after a training camp (49% increased training volume). On data collection, cyclists were classified as "overreached" (OR) or "adapted" (A) based on TT performance. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to detect changes in physical and cognitive parameters. Five cyclists were described as OR based on decreased mean power output (MPO) (-7.03%) on day 8. Four cyclists were classified as A (increased MPO: +1.72%). MPO and maximal heart rate were significantly different between A and OR groups. A significant slower reaction time (RT) (+3.35%) was found in OR subjects, whereas RT decreased (-4.59%) in A subjects. The change in MPO was negatively correlated with change in RT in the cognitive test (R 2 = .52). This study showed that the use of objective, inexpensive, and easy-to-interpret physical and cognitive tests can facilitate the monitoring of training adaptations in professional female athletes.

  20. The DEMO trial: a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial of strength versus aerobic versus relaxation training for patients with mild to moderate depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Saltin, Bengt; Gluud, Christian

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the benefit and harm of exercise training in adults with clinical depression. METHOD: The DEMO trial is a randomized pragmatic trial for patients with unipolar depression conducted from January 2005 through July 2007. Patients were referred from general practitioners......: Our findings do not support a biologically mediated effect of exercise on symptom severity in depressed patients, but they do support a beneficial effect of strength training on work capacity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: (ClinicalTrials.gov) Identifier: NCT00103415....... or psychiatrists and were eligible if they fulfilled the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, criteria for unipolar depression and were aged between 18 and 55 years. Patients (N = 165) were allocated to supervised strength, aerobic, or relaxation training during a 4-month period. The primary...

  1. Partial maintenance of auditory-based cognitive training benefits in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Samira; White-Schwoch, Travis; Choi, Hee Jae; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    The potential for short-term training to improve cognitive and sensory function in older adults has captured the public’s interest. Initial results have been promising. For example, eight weeks of auditory-based cognitive training decreases peak latencies and peak variability in neural responses to speech presented in a background of noise and instills gains in speed of processing, speech-in-noise recognition, and short-term memory in older adults. But while previous studies have demonstrated short-term plasticity in older adults, we must consider the long-term maintenance of training gains. To evaluate training maintenance, we invited participants from an earlier training study to return for follow-up testing six months after the completion of training. We found that improvements in response peak timing to speech in noise and speed of processing were maintained, but the participants did not maintain speech-in-noise recognition or memory gains. Future studies should consider factors that are important for training maintenance, including the nature of the training, compliance with the training schedule, and the need for booster sessions after the completion of primary training. PMID:25111032

  2. Fostering Self-Regulation in Training Complex Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meeuwen, Ludo W.; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.; de Bock, Jeano J. P. R.; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2018-01-01

    In complex cognitive domains such as air traffic control, professionals must be able to adapt to and act upon continuing changes in a highly advanced technological work environment. To function optimally in such an environment, the controllers must be able to regulate their learning. Although these regulation skills should be part of their…

  3. Computerized cognitive training in survivors of childhood cancer: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Kristina K; Willard, Victoria W; Bonner, Melanie J

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to pilot a computerized cognitive training program, Captain's Log, in a small sample of survivors of childhood cancer. A total of 9 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors with attention and working memory deficits were enrolled in a home-based 12-week cognitive training program. Survivors returned for follow-up assessments postintervention and 3 months later. The intervention was associated with good feasibility and acceptability. Participants exhibited significant increases in working memory and decreases in parent-rated attention problems following the intervention. Findings indicate that home-based, computerized cognitive intervention is a promising intervention for survivors with cognitive late effects; however, further study is warranted with a larger sample.

  4. Game-based training of flexibility and attention improves task-switch performance: near and far transfer of cognitive training in an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfers, Kerwin J F; Band, Guido P H

    2018-01-01

    There is a demand for ways to enhance cognitive flexibility, as it can be a limiting factor for performance in daily life. Video game training has been linked to advantages in cognitive functioning, raising the question if training with video games can promote cognitive flexibility. In the current study, we investigated if game-based computerized cognitive training (GCCT) could enhance cognitive flexibility in a healthy young adult sample (N = 72), as measured by task-switch performance. Three GCCT schedules were contrasted, which targeted: (1) cognitive flexibility and task switching, (2) attention and working memory, or (3) an active control involving basic math games, in twenty 45-min sessions across 4-6 weeks. Performance on an alternating-runs task-switch paradigm during pretest and posttest sessions indicated greater overall reaction time improvements after both flexibility and attention training as compared to control, although not related to local switch cost. Flexibility training enhanced performance in the presence of distractor-related interference. In contrast, attention training was beneficial when low task difficulty undermined sustained selective attention. Furthermore, flexibility training improved response selection as indicated by a larger N2 amplitude after training as compared to control, and more efficient conflict monitoring as indicated by reduced Nc/CRN and larger Pe amplitude after training. These results provide tentative support for the efficacy of GCCT and suggest that an ideal training might include both task switching and attention components, with maximal task diversity both within and between training games.

  5. Structural brain changes after traditional and robot-assisted multi-domain cognitive training in community-dwelling healthy elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geon Ha Kim

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate if multi-domain cognitive training, especially robot-assisted training, alters cortical thickness in the brains of elderly participants. A controlled trial was conducted with 85 volunteers without cognitive impairment who were 60 years old or older. Participants were first randomized into two groups. One group consisted of 48 participants who would receive cognitive training and 37 who would not receive training. The cognitive training group was randomly divided into two groups, 24 who received traditional cognitive training and 24 who received robot-assisted cognitive training. The training for both groups consisted of daily 90-min-session, five days a week for a total of 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the changes in cortical thickness. When compared to the control group, both groups who underwent cognitive training demonstrated attenuation of age related cortical thinning in the frontotemporal association cortices. When the robot and the traditional interventions were directly compared, the robot group showed less cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate cortices. Our results suggest that cognitive training can mitigate age-associated structural brain changes in the elderly.ClnicalTrials.gov NCT01596205.

  6. Integration of cognitive and physical training in a smart home environment for the elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Evdokimos I; Billis, Antonis; Hlauschek, Walter; Panek, Paul; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2010-01-01

    Our research work is towards a service that can support senior citizens towards their independent living and active ageing. As it is suggested, physical and cognitive exercise training can contribute to a significant prolongation of personal autonomy and participation in society across prevailing age-related impairments such as cognitive decline. In the current paper, the approach of combination of both physical and cognitive training--adopted by LLM project--is discussed related to other similar projects that have taken place in the area of elderly home care and training. The aim of this work is to describe the technical design details of the integration process of the LLM service, which is based on a Web service architecture and to discuss alternative interface elements to be included in the LLM platform in terms of enabling user accessibility and acceptance.

  7. Cognitive Training for Schizophrenia in Developing Countries: A Pilot Trial in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pontes, Livia M. M.; Martins, Camila B.; Napolitano, Isabel C.; Fonseca, Juliana R.; Oliveira, Graça M. R.; Iso, Sandra M. K.; Menezes, Anny K. P. M.; Vizzotto, Adriana D. B.; di Sarno, Elaine S.; Elkis, Hélio

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia can massively impact functionality and quality of life, furthering the importance of cognitive training. Despite the development of the field in Europe and in the United States, no programmes have been developed and tested in developing countries. Different cultural backgrounds, budget restrictions, and other difficulties may render treatment packages created in high income countries difficult for adoption by developing nations. We performed a pilot double-...

  8. 7C.02: TRAINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT TO COUNTERACT COGNITIVE DECLINE: TRAIN THE BRAIN - EFFECTS ON CAROTID STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stea, F; Bruno, R; Ghiadoni, L; Faita, F; Di Lascio, N; Del Turco, S; Maffei, L; Tognoni, G; Taddei, S; Picano, E; Sicari, R

    2015-06-01

    Physical activity is beneficial to vascular health; on the other hand, vascular damage is associated with cognitive impairment. Both physical activity and a cognitively stimulating environment are known to delay the onset of dementia. The Train The Brain study evaluates the effectiveness of a comprehensive program of physical training and mental activity in delaying cognitive decline in elderly people with mild cognitive impairment, at the same time investigating the relationship between physical, vascular, neurological, and cognitive fitness : Elders age 65-89 were recruited with the help of family physicians and territorial services. All participants underwent a neurological and cardiologic evaluation. In the vascular study, carotid pressure was measured with the SphygmoCor system (AtCor, Australia); longitudinal ultrasound scans of the common carotid were performed and 10-second video clips were recorded to be analyzed offline through the Cardiovascular Suite software (Quipu srl, Italy), with the computation of diameter, intima-media thickness, wall cross-sectional area, distensibility coefficient, compliance, stiffness, and elastic modulus. Subjects classified as mild cognitive impairment at the neurological examination were randomized either to standard care, or a 7-month program of physical training and environmental stimulation (lectures, games, music, social activities) three hours a week. The evaluation was then repeated. Data were obtained for 57 patients who underwent training (T) and 30 controls (C). The only significant difference at baseline was in the distensibility coefficient (p = 0.045).(Figure is included in full-text article.)Vessel diameter increased in C and decreased in T; distensibility decreased in C; all carotid parameters were influenced by the combination of time and treatment, in a diverging trend, at a statistically significant level, while there was no effect on pressure. Introducing arterial pressures as covariates did not affect

  9. Interval Running Training Improves Cognitive Flexibility and Aerobic Power of Young Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Solianik, Rima; Juodsnukis, Antanas; Streckis, Vytautas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2016-08-01

    Venckunas, T, Snieckus, A, Trinkunas, E, Baranauskiene, N, Solianik, R, Juodsnukis, A, Streckis, V, and Kamandulis, S. Interval running training improves cognitive flexibility and aerobic power of young healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2114-2121, 2016-The benefits of regular physical exercise may well extend beyond the reduction of chronic diseases risk and augmentation of working capacity, to many other aspects of human well-being, including improved cognitive functioning. Although the effects of moderate intensity continuous training on cognitive performance are relatively well studied, the benefits of interval training have not been investigated in this respect so far. The aim of the current study was to assess whether 7 weeks of interval running training is effective at improving both aerobic fitness and cognitive performance. For this purpose, 8 young dinghy sailors (6 boys and 2 girls) completed the interval running program with 200 m and 2,000 m running performance, cycling maximal oxygen uptake, and cognitive function was measured before and after the intervention. The control group consisted of healthy age-matched subjects (8 boys and 2 girls) who continued their active lifestyle and were tested in the same way as the experimental group, but did not complete any regular training. In the experimental group, 200 m and 2,000 m running performance and cycling maximal oxygen uptake increased together with improved results on cognitive flexibility tasks. No changes in the results of short-term and working memory tasks were observed in the experimental group, and no changes in any of the measured indices were evident in the controls. In conclusion, 7 weeks of interval running training improved running performance and cycling aerobic power, and were sufficient to improve the ability to adjust behavior to changing demands in young active individuals.

  10. Can Training Enhance Face Cognition Abilities in Middle-Aged Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolzycka, Dominika; Herzmann, Grit; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Face cognition is a crucial skill for social interaction and shows large individual differences in healthy adults, suggesting a possibility for improvement in some. We developed and tested specific training procedures for the accuracy of face memory and the speed of face cognition. Two groups each of 20 healthy middle-aged trainees practiced for 29 daily sessions of 15 minutes duration with different computerized home-based training procedures. In addition, 20 matched and 59 non-matched controls were included. Face cognition speed training enhanced performance during the training and transferred to the latent factor level as measured in a pre-post comparison. Persistence of the training effect was evidenced at the manifest level after three months. However, the training procedure influenced the speed of processing object stimuli to the same extent as face stimuli and therefore seems to have affected a more general ability of processing complex visual stimuli and not only faces. No effects of training on the accuracy of face memory were found. This study demonstrates that face-specific abilities may be hard to improve but also shows the plasticity of the speed of processing complex visual stimuli – for the first time in middle-aged, normal adults. PMID:24632743

  11. Sensor-based balance training with motion feedback in people with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Michael; Sabbagh, Marwan; Lin, Ivy; Morgan, Pharah; Grewal, Gurtej S; Mohler, Jane; Coon, David W; Najafi, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Some individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) experience not only cognitive deficits but also a decline in motor function, including postural balance. This pilot study sought to estimate the feasibility, user experience, and effects of a novel sensor-based balance training program. Patients with amnestic MCI (mean age 78.2 yr) were randomized to an intervention group (IG, n = 12) or control group (CG, n = 10). The IG underwent balance training (4 wk, twice a week) that included weight shifting and virtual obstacle crossing. Real-time visual/audio lower-limb motion feedback was provided from wearable sensors. The CG received no training. User experience was measured by a questionnaire. Postintervention effects on balance (center of mass sway during standing with eyes open [EO] and eyes closed), gait (speed, variability), cognition, and fear of falling were measured. Eleven participants (92%) completed the training and expressed fun, safety, and helpfulness of sensor feedback. Sway (EO, p = 0.04) and fear of falling (p = 0.02) were reduced in the IG compared to the CG. Changes in other measures were nonsignificant. Results suggest that the sensor-based training paradigm is well accepted in the target population and beneficial for improving postural control. Future studies should evaluate the added value of the sensor-based training compared to traditional training.

  12. A multistate model of cognitive dynamics in relation to resistance training: the contribution of baseline function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Nader; Hsu, Chun L; Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Davis, Jennifer; Beattie, B Lynn; Graf, Peter; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2013-08-01

    We investigated: (1) the effect of different targeted exercise training on an individual's overall probability for cognitive improvement, maintenance, or decline; and (2) the simultaneous effect of targeted exercise training and baseline function on the dynamics of executive functions when a multistate transition model is used. Analyses are based on a 12-month randomized clinical trial including 155 community-dwelling women 65-75 years of age who were randomly allocated to once-weekly resistance training (1x RT; n = 54), twice-weekly resistance training (2x RT; n = 52), or twice-weekly balance and tone training (BAT; n = 49). The primary outcome measure was performance on the Stroop test, an executive cognitive test of selective attention and conflict resolution. Secondary outcomes of executive functions were set shifting and working memory. Individuals in the 1x RT or 2x RT group demonstrated a significantly greater probability for improved performance on the Stroop Test (0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.57) compared with those in the BAT group (0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.40). Resistance training had significant effects on transitions in selective attention and conflict resolution. Resistance training is efficacious in improving a measure of selective attention and conflict resolution in older women, probably more so among those with greater baseline cognitive function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy of a short cognitive training program in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Martín MY

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available María Yaiza Pérez-Martín,1 Montserrat González-Platas,1 Pablo Eguía-del Río,2 Cristina Croissier-Elías,1 Alejandro Jiménez Sosa3 1Service of Neurology, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Canarias, La Laguna, 2Service of Neurology, Doctor José Molina Orosa Hospital, Arrecife, Lanzarote, 3Unit of Research, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Canarias, La Laguna, Spain Background: Cognitive impairment is a common feature in multiple sclerosis (MS and may have a substantial impact on quality of life. Evidence about the effectiveness of neuropsychological rehabilitation is still limited, but current data suggest that computer-assisted cognitive training improves cognitive performance.Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combined computer-assisted training supported by home-based neuropsychological training to improve attention, processing speed, memory and executive functions during 3 consecutive months.Methods: In this randomized controlled study blinded for the evaluators, 62 MS patients with clinically stable disease and mild-to-moderate levels of cognitive impairment were randomized to receive a computer-assisted neuropsychological training program (n=30 or no intervention (control group [CG]; n=32. The cognitive assessment included the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Test. Other secondary measures included subjective cognitive impairment, anxiety and depression, fatigue and quality of life measures.Results: The treatment group (TG showed significant improvements in measures of verbal memory, working memory and phonetic fluency after intervention, and repeated measures analysis of covariance revealed a positive effect in most of the functions. The control group (CG did not show changes. The TG showed a significant reduction in anxiety symptoms and significant improvement in quality of life. There were no improvements in fatigue levels and depressive symptoms.Conclusion: Cognitive

  14. Can training in a real-time strategy video game attenuate cognitive decline in older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Chandramallika; Boot, Walter R; Voss, Michelle W; Kramer, Arthur F

    2008-12-01

    Declines in various cognitive abilities, particularly executive control functions, are observed in older adults. An important goal of cognitive training is to slow or reverse these age-related declines. However, opinion is divided in the literature regarding whether cognitive training can engender transfer to a variety of cognitive skills in older adults. In the current study, the authors trained older adults in a real-time strategy video game for 23.5 hr in an effort to improve their executive functions. A battery of cognitive tasks, including tasks of executive control and visuospatial skills, were assessed before, during, and after video-game training. The trainees improved significantly in the measures of game performance. They also improved significantly more than the control participants in executive control functions, such as task switching, working memory, visual short-term memory, and reasoning. Individual differences in changes in game performance were correlated with improvements in task switching. The study has implications for the enhancement of executive control processes of older adults. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Online games training aging brains: limited transfer to cognitive control functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Muijden, Jesse; Band, Guido P H; Hommel, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of age-related cognitive decline will increase due to graying of the global population. The goal of the present study was to test whether playing online cognitive training games can improve cognitive control (CC) in healthy older adults. Fifty-four older adults (age 60-77) played five different cognitive training games online for 30 min a day over a period of seven weeks (game group). Another group of 20 older adults (age 61-73) instead answered quiz questions about documentaries online (documentary group). Transfer was assessed by means of a cognitive test battery administered before and after the intervention. The test battery included measures of working memory updating, set shifting, response inhibition, attention, and inductive reasoning. Compared with the documentary group, the game group showed larger improvement of inhibition (Stop-Signal task) and inductive reasoning (Raven-SPM), whereas the documentary group showed more improvement in selective attention (UFoV-3). These effects qualify as transfer effects, because response inhibition, inductive reasoning and selective attention were not targeted by the interventions. However, because seven other indicators of CC did not show benefits of game training and some of those that did suffered from potential baseline differences, the study as a whole provides only modest support for the potential of videogame training to improve CC in healthy older adults.

  16. Online Games Training Aging Brains:Limited transfer to cognitive control functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse eVan Muijden

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of age-related cognitive decline will increase due to graying of the global population. The goal of the present study was to test whether playing online cognitive training games can improve cognitive control (CC in healthy older adults. Fifty-four older adults (age 60-77 played five different cognitive training games online for 30 minutes a day over a period of seven weeks (game group. Another group of 20 older adults (age 61-73 instead answered quiz questions about documentaries online (documentary group. Transfer was assessed by means of a cognitive test battery administered before and after the intervention. The test battery included measures of working memory updating, set shifting, response inhibition, attention and inductive reasoning. Compared with the documentary group, the game group showed larger improvement of inhibition (Stop-Signal task and inductive reasoning (Raven-SPM, whereas the documentary group showed more improvement in selective attention (UFoV-3. These effects qualify as transfer effects, because response inhibition, inductive reasoning and selective attention were not targeted by the interventions. However, because seven other indicators of CC did not show benefits of game training and some of those that did suffered from potential baseline differences, the study as a whole provides only modest support for the potential of videogame training to improve CC in healthy older adults.

  17. Cognitive Training for Schizophrenia in Developing Countries: A Pilot Trial in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia M. M. Pontes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia can massively impact functionality and quality of life, furthering the importance of cognitive training. Despite the development of the field in Europe and in the United States, no programmes have been developed and tested in developing countries. Different cultural backgrounds, budget restrictions, and other difficulties may render treatment packages created in high income countries difficult for adoption by developing nations. We performed a pilot double-blind, randomized, controlled trial in order to investigate the efficacy and feasibility of an attention and memory training programme specially created in a developing nation. The intervention used simple, widely available materials, required minimal infrastructure, and was conducted in groups. The sample included seventeen stable Brazilians with schizophrenia. Sessions were conducted weekly during five months. The cognitive training group showed significant improvements in inhibitory control and set-shifting over time. Both groups showed improvements in symptoms, processing speed, selective attention, executive function, and long-term visual memory. Improvements were found in the control group in long-term verbal memory and concentration. Our findings reinforce the idea that cognitive training in schizophrenia can be constructed using simple resources and infrastructure, facilitating its adoption by developing countries, and it may improve cognition.

  18. Does cognitive training improve internal locus of control among older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinsky, Fredric D; Vander Weg, Mark W; Martin, René; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Willis, Sherry L; Marsiske, Michael; Rebok, George W; Morris, John N; Ball, Karlene K; Tennstedt, Sharon L

    2010-09-01

    We evaluated the effect of cognitive training among 1,534 participants in the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) randomized controlled trial (RCT) on 5-year improvements in 3 cognitive-specific measures of locus of control-internal, chance, and powerful others. ACTIVE was a multisite RCT (age > or = 65), with 4 groups (memory, reasoning, speed of processing, and no-contact control). Complete 5-year follow-up data were available for 1,534 (55%) of the 2,802 participants. A propensity score model was used to adjust for potential attrition bias. Clinically important improvements (and decrements) in the cognitive-specific locus of control scale scores were defined as greater than or equal to 0.5 SD (medium) and greater than or equal to 1.0 SD (large). Multinomial logistic regression was used to simultaneously contrast those who improved and those who declined with those whose locus of control scale score was unchanged. Statistically significant effects reflecting medium-sized (> or = 0.5 SD) improvements in internal locus of control between baseline and the 5-year follow-up were found for the reasoning and speed of processing intervention groups who were 76% (p control group. No improvement effects were found on the chance or powerful others locus of control measures or for the memory intervention group. Cognitive training that targets reasoning and speed of processing can improve the cognitive-specific sense of personal control over one's life in older adults.

  19. Training induces cognitive bias: the case of a simulation-based emergency airway curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Christine S; Stojiljkovic, Ljuba; Milicic, Biljana; Lin, Brian F; Dror, Itiel E

    2014-04-01

    Training-induced cognitive bias may affect performance. Using a simulation-based emergency airway curriculum, we tested the hypothesis that curriculum design would induce bias and affect decision making. Twenty-three novice anesthesiology residents were randomized into 2 groups. The primary outcome measure was the initiation of supraglottic airway and cricothyroidotomy techniques in a simulated cannot-ventilate, cannot-intubate scenario during 3 evaluation sessions. Secondary outcomes were response times for device initiation. After a baseline evaluation and didactic lecture, residents received an initial practical training in either surgical cricothyroidotomy (CRIC group) or supraglottic airway (SGA group). After the midtest, the groups switched to receive the alternate training. From baseline to midtest, the SGA group increased initiation of supraglottic airway but not cricothyroidotomy. The CRIC group increased initiation of cricothyroidotomy but not supraglottic airway. After completion of training in both techniques, the SGA group increased initiation of both supraglottic airway and cricothyroidotomy. In contrast, the CRIC group increased initiation of cricothyroidotomy but failed to change practice in supraglottic airway. Final test response times showed that the CRIC group was slower to initiate supraglottic airway and faster to initiate cricothyroidotomy. Practical training in only 1 technique caused bias in both groups despite a preceding didactic lecture. The chief finding was an asymmetrical effect of training sequence even after training in both techniques. Initial training in cricothyroidotomy caused bias that did not correct despite subsequent supraglottic airway training. Educators must be alert to the risk of inducing cognitive bias when designing curricula.

  20. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John

    2015-09-29

    Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking.

  1. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douris Peter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking.

  2. Training Enhances Both Locomotor and Cognitive Adaptability to a Novel Sensory Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R. A.; Batson, C. D.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Cohen, H. S.

    2010-01-01

    During adaptation to novel gravitational environments, sensorimotor disturbances have the potential to disrupt the ability of astronauts to perform required mission tasks. The goal of this project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program to facilitate rapid adaptation. We have developed a unique training system comprised of a treadmill placed on a motion-base facing a virtual visual scene that provides an unstable walking surface combined with incongruent visual flow designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. The goal of our present study was to determine if SA training improved both the locomotor and cognitive responses to a novel sensory environment and to quantify the extent to which training would be retained. Methods: Twenty subjects (10 training, 10 control) completed three, 30-minute training sessions during which they walked on the treadmill while receiving discordant support surface and visual input. Control subjects walked on the treadmill but did not receive any support surface or visual alterations. To determine the efficacy of training all subjects performed the Transfer Test upon completion of training. For this test, subjects were exposed to novel visual flow and support surface movement, not previously experienced during training. The Transfer Test was performed 20 minutes, 1 week, 1, 3 and 6 months after the final training session. Stride frequency, auditory reaction time, and heart rate data were collected as measures of postural stability, cognitive effort and anxiety, respectively. Results: Using mixed effects regression methods we determined that subjects who received SA training showed less alterations in stride frequency, auditory reaction time and heart rate compared to controls. Conclusion: Subjects who received SA training improved performance across a number of modalities including enhanced locomotor function, increased multi-tasking capability and reduced anxiety during adaptation to novel discordant sensory

  3. The Effects of Suggestibility on Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Henry C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Selected undergraduates (N=32) on the basis of Creative Imagination Scale scores and randomly assigned high and low suggestibility subjects to progressive relaxation (PR) and suggestions of relaxation (SR) training modes. Results revealed a significant pre-post relaxation effect, and main efffects for both suggestibility and training mode. (NRB)

  4. Fast Effects of Cognitive Restructuring Training on Neurocognitive Functions in Opioid Addicts

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Tavakolian; Abbas Abolghasemi

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study This study intended to investigate the effect of cognitive restructuring training on prefrontal related neurocognitive functions in opioid addicts and its relationship with relapse prevention. Subject or material and methods Thirty opioid addicts who completed a 21-day detoxification program were randomly placed in experimental and control groups. Before and after the training, the subjects underwent urinalysis, Addiction-Stroop test, Iowa Gambling Task, Wisconsin C...

  5. Cognitive Modeling of Mindfulness Therapy by Autogenic Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi Ziabari, S.S.; Treur, J.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper the effect of a mindfulness therapy based on a Network-Oriented Modeling approach is addressed. The considered therapy is Autogenic Training, that can be used when under stress; it has as two main goals to achieve feeling heavy and warm body parts (limbs). Mantra’s have been used in

  6. Short cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive training for adults with ADHD – a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarit Virta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Maarit Virta1,2, Anita Salakari1, Mervi Antila1, Esa Chydenius1, Markku Partinen1, Markus Kaski1, Risto Vataja3, Hely Kalska2, Matti Iivanainen11Rinnekoti Research Centre, Espoo, Finland; 2Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, Finland; 3Kellokoski Hospital, Kellokoski, FinlandAbstract: In clinical practice, a growing need exists for effective non-pharmacological ­treatments of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Here, we present the results of a pilot study of 10 adults with ADHD participating in short-term individual ­cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT, 9 adults participating in cognitive training (CT, and 10 controls. Self-report ­questionnaires, independent evaluations, and computerized neurocognitive testing were ­collected before and after the treatments to evaluate change. There were distinctive pre-hypotheses regarding the treatments, and therefore the statistical comparisons were conducted in pairs: CBT vs control, CT vs control, and CBT vs CT. In a combined ADHD symptom score based on self-reports, 6 participants in CBT, 2 in CT and 2 controls improved. Using independent evaluations, improvement was found in 7 of the CBT participants, 2 of CT ­participants and 3 controls. There was no treatment-related improvement in cognitive performance. Thus, in the CBT group, some encouraging improvement was seen, although not as clearly as in ­previous research with longer interventions. In the CT group, there was improvement in the trained tasks but no generalization of the improvement to the tasks of the neurocognitive testing, the ­self-report questionnaires, or the independent evaluations. These preliminary results warrant further studies with more participants and with more elaborate cognitive testing.Keywords: CBT, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, cognitive testing, non-­pharmacological treatments

  7. Measuring cognitive load during procedural skills training with colonoscopy as an exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Justin L; Boscardin, Christy K; Young, John Q; Ten Cate, Olle; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have investigated cognitive factors affecting learning of procedural skills in medical education. Cognitive load theory, which focuses on working memory, is highly relevant, but methods for measuring cognitive load during procedural training are not well understood. Using colonoscopy as an exemplar, we used cognitive load theory to develop a self-report instrument to measure three types of cognitive load (intrinsic, extraneous and germane load) and to provide evidence for instrument validity. We developed the instrument (the Cognitive Load Inventory for Colonoscopy [CLIC]) using a multi-step process. It included 19 items measuring three types of cognitive load, three global rating items and demographics. We then conducted a cross-sectional survey that was administered electronically to 1061 gastroenterology trainees in the USA. Participants completed the CLIC following a colonoscopy. The two study phases (exploratory and confirmatory) each lasted for 10 weeks during the 2014-2015 academic year. Exploratory factor analysis determined the most parsimonious factor structure; confirmatory factor analysis assessed model fit. Composite measures of intrinsic, extraneous and germane load were compared across years of training and with global rating items. A total of 477 (45.0%) invitees participated (116 in the exploratory study and 361 in the confirmatory study) in 154 (95.1%) training programmes. Demographics were similar to national data from the USA. The most parsimonious factor structure included three factors reflecting the three types of cognitive load. Confirmatory factor analysis verified that a three-factor model was the best fit. Intrinsic, extraneous and germane load items had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.90, 0.87 and 0.96, respectively) and correlated as expected with year in training and global assessment of cognitive load. The CLIC measures three types of cognitive load during colonoscopy training. Evidence of validity is

  8. Social Cognitive Training for Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analytic Investigation of Controlled Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Matthew M.; Richardson, Christi L.

    2012-01-01

    A wealth of evidence has revealed that deficits in social cognitive skills (including facial affect recognition (FAR), social cue perception, Theory of Mind (ToM), and attributional style) are evident in schizophrenia and are linked to a variety of domains of functional outcome. In light of these associations, a growing number of studies have attempted to ameliorate these deficits as a means of improving outcome in the disorder through the use of structured behavioral training. This study used quantitative methods of meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of behavioral training programs designed to improve social cognitive function. A total of 19 studies consisting of 692 clients were aggregated from relevant databases. Outcome measures were organized according to whether they were social cognitive tests proximal to the intervention or whether they represented measures of treatment generalization (symptoms, observer-rated community, and institutional function). With respect to social cognitive measures, weighted effect-size analysis revealed that there were moderate-large effects of social cognitive training procedures on FAR (identification, d = 0.71 and discrimination, d = 1.01) and small-moderate effects of training on ToM (d = 0.46), while effects on social cue perception and attributional style were not significant. For measures of generalization, weighted effect-size analysis revealed that there were moderate-large effect on total symptoms (d = 0.68) and observer-rated community and institutional function (d = 0.78). Effects of social cognitive training programs on positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia were nonsignificant. Moderating variables and implications for future research and treatment development are discussed. PMID:21525166

  9. How Life Experience Shapes Cognitive Control Strategies: The Case of Air Traffic Control Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Arbula

    Full Text Available Although human flexible behavior relies on cognitive control, it would be implausible to assume that there is only one, general mode of cognitive control strategy adopted by all individuals. For instance, different reliance on proactive versus reactive control strategies could explain inter-individual variability. In particular, specific life experiences, like a highly demanding training for future Air Traffic Controllers (ATCs, could modulate cognitive control functions. A group of ATC trainees and a matched group of university students were tested longitudinally on task-switching and Stroop paradigms that allowed us to measure indices of cognitive control. The results showed that the ATCs, with respect to the control group, had substantially smaller mixing costs during long cue-target intervals (CTI and a reduced Stroop interference effect. However, this advantage was present also prior to the training phase. Being more capable in managing multiple task sets and less distracted by interfering events suggests a more efficient selection and maintenance of task relevant information as an inherent characteristic of the ATC group, associated with proactive control. Critically, the training that the ATCs underwent improved their accuracy in general and reduced response time switching costs during short CTIs only. These results indicate a training-induced change in reactive control, which is described as a transient process in charge of stimulus-driven task detection and resolution. This experience-based enhancement of reactive control strategy denotes how cognitive control and executive functions in general can be shaped by real-life training and underlines the importance of experience in explaining inter-individual variability in cognitive functioning.

  10. How Life Experience Shapes Cognitive Control Strategies: The Case of Air Traffic Control Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbula, Sandra; Capizzi, Mariagrazia; Lombardo, Nicoletta; Vallesi, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Although human flexible behavior relies on cognitive control, it would be implausible to assume that there is only one, general mode of cognitive control strategy adopted by all individuals. For instance, different reliance on proactive versus reactive control strategies could explain inter-individual variability. In particular, specific life experiences, like a highly demanding training for future Air Traffic Controllers (ATCs), could modulate cognitive control functions. A group of ATC trainees and a matched group of university students were tested longitudinally on task-switching and Stroop paradigms that allowed us to measure indices of cognitive control. The results showed that the ATCs, with respect to the control group, had substantially smaller mixing costs during long cue-target intervals (CTI) and a reduced Stroop interference effect. However, this advantage was present also prior to the training phase. Being more capable in managing multiple task sets and less distracted by interfering events suggests a more efficient selection and maintenance of task relevant information as an inherent characteristic of the ATC group, associated with proactive control. Critically, the training that the ATCs underwent improved their accuracy in general and reduced response time switching costs during short CTIs only. These results indicate a training-induced change in reactive control, which is described as a transient process in charge of stimulus-driven task detection and resolution. This experience-based enhancement of reactive control strategy denotes how cognitive control and executive functions in general can be shaped by real-life training and underlines the importance of experience in explaining inter-individual variability in cognitive functioning.

  11. Comparison of attention training and cognitive therapy in the treatment of social phobia: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Juliet; Abbott, Maree J; Smith, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    Prominent models of social phobia highlight the role played by attentional factors, such as self-focused attention, in the development and maintenance of social phobia. Elevated self-focused attention is associated with increases in self-rated anxiety. Treatments that aim to modify and change attentional processes, specifically self-focused attention, will have a direct effect on social phobia symptoms. Thus, Attention Training targets attentional focus. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of Attention Training in comparison to an established treatment for social phobia, Cognitive Therapy. Participants (Intention-to-treat = 45; completers = 30) were allocated to either 6 weeks of Attention Training or Cognitive Therapy. It was hypothesized that both treatments would be effective in reducing social phobia symptoms, but that Attention Training would work primarily by reducing levels of self-focused attention. The results found an overall effectiveness of both treatment conditions in reducing social phobia symptoms. However, Attention Training significantly improved scores on the Self-Focused Attention questionnaire and the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation questionnaire compared to Cognitive Therapy. Attention Training seems to be a promising treatment for social phobia.

  12. What does it take to show that a cognitive training procedure is useful? A critical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Nori; Ahissar, Merav

    2013-01-01

    Individuals substantially improve with training, indicating that a large degree of plasticity is retained across ages. In the past 20 years, many studies explored the ability to boost cognitive skills (reasoning, linguistic abilities, working memory, and attention) by training with other tasks that exploit limited cognitive resources. Indeed, individuals with long-term training on challenging skills (musicians and action video gamers) show impressive behavior on related tasks (linguistic and visual attention, respectively). However, a critical evaluation of training studies that last weeks to months shows typically mild effects, mainly with respect to control groups that either did not practice or practiced with less challenging, rewarding, or exciting conditions. These findings suggest that future training studies should evaluate these factors carefully and assess whether they mainly impact the testing sessions or actual longer-term skills, and whether their impact can be further strengthened. The lack of a comprehensive theory of learning that integrates cognitive, motivational, and alertness aspects poses a bottleneck to improving current training procedures. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Promising technological innovations in cognitive training to treat eating-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Evan M; Goldstein, Stephanie P; Flack, Daniel; Evans, Brittney C; Manasse, Stephanie M; Dochat, Cara

    2018-05-01

    One potential reason for the suboptimal outcomes of treatments targeting appetitive behavior, such as eating and alcohol consumption, is that they do not target the implicit cognitive processes that may be driving these behaviors. Two groups of related neurocognitive processes that are robustly associated with dysregulated eating and drinking are attention bias (AB; selective attention to specific stimuli) and executive function (EF; a set of cognitive control processes such as inhibitory control, working memory, set shifting, that govern goal-directed behaviors). An increasing body of work suggests that EF and AB training programs improve regulation of appetitive behaviors, especially if trainings are frequent and sustained. However, several key challenges, such as adherence to the trainings in the long term, and overall potency of the training, remain. The current manuscript describes five technological innovations that have the potential to address difficulties related to the effectiveness and feasibility of EF and AB trainings: (1) deployment of training in the home, (2) training via smartphone, (3) gamification, (4) virtual reality, and (5) personalization. The drawbacks of these innovations, as well as areas for future research, are also discussed. The above-mentioned innovations are likely to be instrumental in the future empirical work to develop and evaluate effective EF and AB trainings for appetitive behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive flexibility modulates maturation and music-training-related changes in neural sound discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarikivi, Katri; Putkinen, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari; Huotilainen, Minna

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that musicians show superior neural sound discrimination when compared to non-musicians, and that these changes emerge with accumulation of training. Our aim was to investigate whether individual differences in executive functions predict training-related changes in neural sound discrimination. We measured event-related potentials induced by sound changes coupled with tests for executive functions in musically trained and non-trained children aged 9-11 years and 13-15 years. High performance in a set-shifting task, indexing cognitive flexibility, was linked to enhanced maturation of neural sound discrimination in both musically trained and non-trained children. Specifically, well-performing musically trained children already showed large mismatch negativity (MMN) responses at a young age as well as at an older age, indicating accurate sound discrimination. In contrast, the musically trained low-performing children still showed an increase in MMN amplitude with age, suggesting that they were behind their high-performing peers in the development of sound discrimination. In the non-trained group, in turn, only the high-performing children showed evidence of an age-related increase in MMN amplitude, and the low-performing children showed a small MMN with no age-related change. These latter results suggest an advantage in MMN development also for high-performing non-trained individuals. For the P3a amplitude, there was an age-related increase only in the children who performed well in the set-shifting task, irrespective of music training, indicating enhanced attention-related processes in these children. Thus, the current study provides the first evidence that, in children, cognitive flexibility may influence age-related and training-related plasticity of neural sound discrimination. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Changes in emotional distress, short term memory, and sustained attention following 6 and 12 sessions of progressive muscle relaxation training in 10-11 years old primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hairul Anuar; Zainol, Nurul Ain

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the effects of 6 and 12 sessions of relaxation training on emotional distress, short-term memory, and sustained attention in primary school children. Participants (N = 132) aged 10 and 11 years old participated in this study. All participants and their parents provided written informed consent. Participants completed the measurement instruments before and after the completion of relaxation training. Nearly half (49%) of all respondents reported moderate to extremely severe stress, and 80 and 61% reported moderate to extremely severe anxiety and depression, respectively. The results of a one-way analysis of variance revealed a significant difference among the groups in mean changes in short-term memory. A greater memory increase was observed in the 12-session than in the six-session and no-training group. It can be conceived that 12-session of training should be considered when prescribing relaxation regimens as a nonspecific clinical treatment (i.e. for healthy students).

  16. Psychotherapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Supervision in Danish Psychiatry: Training the Next Generation of Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lasse M; Foli-Andersen, Nina J

    2017-02-01

    Psychotherapy training is mandatory for physicians to qualify as psychiatrists in Denmark. Evidence for the effectiveness of psychotherapy has increased, and psychotherapy is increasingly included in international treatment guidelines. The authors investigated how psychiatrists in training in Denmark evaluate the opportunities to practice psychotherapy in their training and the quality of the supervision they receive in psychotherapy training, particularly for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The authors conducted a survey regarding psychotherapy training and CBT supervision among psychiatrists in training at Danish psychiatric specialist training courses. They investigated respondents' interest and experience in psychotherapy and respondents' views on the relevance and feasibility of performing psychotherapy and receiving supervision in their psychiatry training. Eighty-eight percent of the psychiatrists in training found psychotherapy to be a relevant part of their training; however, 77 % found it difficult to find time to practice psychotherapy and 44 % felt that practicing psychotherapy was a strain on their employer. Thirty-six percent and 53 %, respectively, had difficulties securing psychodynamic and CBT supervision. In CBT supervision, more than 60 % reported supervision that appeared to be below the expected CBT supervision standard and often so much below it might not qualify as CBT supervision. There is a need to focus on how to better integrate psychotherapy and supervision in the Danish psychiatric training program. Good CBT supervision may be lacking, and a way to ensure high-quality supervision is required.

  17. A Cognitive Analysis of Armor Procedural Task Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    Verbal Behavior, 8, 323-343. Craik , F. I. M., & Lockhart , R. S. (1972). Levels of processing : A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning...concep- tual or meaningful) coding of the task to be learned (e.g., Bjork, 1975; Craik & Lockhart , 1972; Melton & Martin, 1972). In order to remember a...were several serious problems with applying this approach in the context of entry- level military training. In particular, the soldier did not always

  18. Metacognitive and social cognition training (MSCT) in schizophrenia: a preliminary efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Nuno B F; Queirós, Cristina

    2013-10-01

    Psychosocial interventions have proven to be effective in treating social cognition in people with psychotic disorders. The current study aimed to determine the effects of a metacognitive and social cognition training (MSCT) program, designed to both remediate deficits and correct biases in social cognition. Thirty-five clinically stable outpatients were recruited and assigned to the MSCT program (n=19) for 10 weeks (18 sessions) or to the TAU group (n=16), and they all completed pre- and post-treatment assessments of social cognition, cognitive biases, functioning and symptoms. The MSCT group demonstrated a significant improvement in theory of mind, social perception, emotion recognition and social functioning. Additionally, the tendency to jump to conclusions was significantly reduced among the MSCT group after training. There were no differential benefits regarding clinical symptoms except for one trend group effect for general psychopathology. The results support the efficacy of the MSCT format, but further development of the training program is required to increase the benefits related to attributional style. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Music makes the world go round: The impact of musical training on non-musical cognitive functions—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eBenz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Musical training is becoming increasingly popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree musical experience generalizes to cognitive functions unrelated to music abilities in healthy humans. In general, it seems that musical training is associated with enhancing effects, even if sometimes only restricted to the auditory domain, on various cognitive functions spanning from executive control to creativity. We conclude that musical engagement may be a useful cognitive training to promote cognitive enhancement, but more research using longitudinal studies and taking into account individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits.

  20. Music Makes the World Go Round: The Impact of Musical Training on Non-musical Cognitive Functions-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Sarah; Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    Musical training is becoming increasingly popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree musical experience generalizes to cognitive functions unrelated to music abilities in healthy humans. In general, it seems that musical training is associated with enhancing effects, even if sometimes only restricted to the auditory domain, on various cognitive functions spanning from executive control to creativity. We conclude that musical engagement may be a useful cognitive training to promote cognitive enhancement, but more research using longitudinal studies and taking into account individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits.

  1. A comparison of the effectiveness of problem solving training and of cognitive-emotional rehabilitation on neurocognition, social cognition and social functioning in people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltro, Franco; Mazza, Monica; Vendittelli, Nicola; Alberti, Mirella; Casacchia, Massimo; Roncone, Rita

    2011-01-01

    Social cognition and Problem Solving (PS) impairments are common characteristics in patients with schizophrenia. Experimental neuropsychological findings support the hypothesis that schizophrenia is characterized by a broad range of heterogeneous cognitive impairments. Since that time Problem Solving Training has been employed as a core strategy in a wide variety of therapeutic settings. Renewed interest in cognitive functioning, including social Problem Solving skills and social cognition in schizophrenia, has led us to reconsider the potential value of metacognitive strategy as a rehabilitation strategy. The present study reports the results obtained by 24 persons with schizophrenia who were randomly assigned to one of two training session groups: Cognitive-Emotional Rehabilitation (REC) vs Problem Solving Training (PST). Both treatments were administered to small groups composed of subjects suffering from schizophrenic disorders over a 12 months period: primary measures of clinical, social outcomes and secondary measures of cognitive and Problem Solving functions were conducted at 0, and 12 months. Results showed that both training methods were found to be effective in psychopathological measures and in social functioning. On cognitive function improvements were specific to the rehabilitative approach. PST are mainly improved capacities for planning and memory, while the REC improved measures such as social cognition Theory of mind and emotion recognition. The results confirmed that it is no necessary to divide the rehabilitation training in treatments directed to specific domains. The conceptualization and applicability of PST and REC its implications for persons with schizophrenia, and future studies in this research area have also been discussed.

  2. Effect of Exercise and Cognitive Training on Falls and Fall-Related Factors in Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipardo, Donald S; Aseron, Anne Marie C; Kwan, Marcella M; Tsang, William W

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of exercise and cognitive training on falls reduction and on factors known to be associated with falls among community-dwelling older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Seven databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ProQuest, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Digital Dissertation Consortium) and reference lists of pertinent articles were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effect of exercise, cognitive training, or a combination of both on falls and factors associated with falls such as balance, lower limb muscle strength, gait, and cognitive function among community-dwelling older adults with MCI were included. Data were extracted using the modified Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) tool. Study quality was assessed using the JBI-MAStARI appraisal instrument. Seventeen RCTs (1679 participants; mean age ± SD, 74.4±2.4y) were included. Exercise improved gait speed and global cognitive function in MCI; both are known factors associated with falls. Cognitive training alone had no significant effect on cognitive function, while combined exercise and cognitive training improved balance in MCI. Neither fall rate nor the number of fallers was reported in any of the studies included. This review suggests that exercise, and combined exercise and cognitive training improve specific factors associated with falls such as gait speed, cognitive function, and balance in MCI. Further research on the direct effect of exercise and cognitive training on the fall rate and incidence in older adults with MCI with larger sample sizes is highly recommended. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychological work characteristics, psychological workload and associated psychological and cognitive requirements of train drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoer, Ilona; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the psychological work characteristics and psychological workload of train drivers and to define the psychological and cognitive requirements of their work. A systematic literature search was performed, and expert interviews were conducted. The following work demands were

  4. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Training in Reducing Depression in Visually Impaired Male Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfan Soleimani Sefat

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: The findings demonstrated that cognitive behavioral therapy was significantly effective in improving depression of male students with visual impairment in experimental group. The group training needs to be adopted by medical practitioners on a cohort for validating its effectiveness on a larger scale.

  5. Virtual reality-based cognitive training for drug abusers: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, David W K

    2018-05-08

    Non-pharmacological means are being developed to enhance cognitive abilities in drug abusers. This study evaluated virtual reality (VR) as an intervention tool for enhancing cognitive and vocational outcomes in 90 young ketamine users (KU) randomly assigned to a treatment group (virtual reality group, VRG; tutor-administered group, TAG) or wait-listed control group (CG). Two training programmes with similar content but different delivery modes (VR-based and manual-based) were applied using a virtual boutique as a training scenario. Outcome assessments comprised the Digit Vigilance Test, Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test, Wisconsin Cart Sorting Test, work-site test and self-efficacy pre- and post-test and during 3- and 6-month follow-ups. The VRG exhibited significant improvements in attention and improvements in memory that were maintained after 3 months. Both the VRG and TAG exhibited significantly improved vocational skills after training which were maintained during follow-up, and improved self-efficacy. VR-based cognitive training might target cognitive problems in KU.

  6. Utilizing Computerized Cognitive Training to Improve Working Memory and Encoding: Piloting a School-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, Dudley J.; Wong, Eugene H.; Minero, Laura P.; Pumaccahua, Tessy T.

    2014-01-01

    Working memory has been well documented as a significant predictor of academic outcomes (e.g., reading and math achievement as well as general life outcomes). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of computerized cognitive training to improve both working memory and encoding abilities in a school setting. Thirty students…

  7. Enhancing the Educational Subject: Cognitive Capitalism, Positive Psychology and Well-Being Training in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, James

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology is influencing educational policy and practice in Britain and North America. This article reveals how this psychological discourse and its offshoot school-based training programs, which stress happiness, self-improvement and well-being, align with an emergent socio-economic formation: cognitive capitalism. Three key points are…

  8. Cognitive Science Implications for Enhancing Training Effectiveness in a Serious Gaming Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Kuchar, Olga Anna; Huston, Kristy

    2007-01-01

    Serious games use entertainment principles, creativity, and technology to meet government or corporate training objectives, but these principles alone will not guarantee that the intended learning will occur. To be effective, serious games must incorporate sound cognitive, learning, and pedagogical principles into their design and structure. In…

  9. Cognitive Training as an Intervention to Improve Driving Ability in the Older Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    The notion that cognitive and motor skills are plastic and can be improved with training is very exciting, because it opens up the possibility for rehabilitation and amelioration of age-related declines in performance. It has been shown that older ad...

  10. In-game assessment and training of nonverbal cognitive skills using TagTiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, J.; Fontijn, W.F.J.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Resing, W.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a field study with a game for children called 'Tap the little hedgehog', which is played on the TagTiles console, a tangible electronic interface. The game was developed to train and assess cognitive skills and includes tasks which, in isolation, exhibit a high correlation with a number

  11. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy versus Temporal Pulse Amplitude Biofeedback Training for Recurrent Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul R.; Forsyth, Michael R.; Reece, John

    2007-01-01

    Sixty-four headache sufferers were allocated randomly to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), temporal pulse amplitude (TPA) biofeedback training, or waiting-list control. Fifty-one participants (14M/37F) completed the study, 30 with migraine and 21 with tension-type headache. Treatment consisted of 8, 1-hour sessions. CBT was highly effective,…

  12. Experimental Study of Short-Term Training in Social Cognition in Pre-Schoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssa, Marine; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Jacobs, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Using an experimental approach, our study examined the differentiated effects on pre-schoolers' social cognition of two short-term social information processing (SIP) and Theory of Mind (ToM) training sessions dealing with emotions and beliefs. The links between ToM, SIP, and social adjustment or externalizing behavior were examined. 47…

  13. The feasibility of cognitive adaptation training for outpatients with schizophrenia in integrated treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Peter; Østergaard, Birte; Nordentoft, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive adaptation training (CAT) has been tested as a psychosocial treatment, showing promising results. To date there are no reported tests of CAT treatment outside the United States. Thus, we decided to adjust CAT treatment and apply it to an Integrated Treatment setting in Denmark. In this ...

  14. THREE THEORIES OF COGNITIVE REPRESENTATION AND CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING TRAINING EFFECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomic, W.; Kingma, J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of cognitive representation is the main theme of the three classic theories on how children learn new concepts (Piaget, Bruner, Vygotsky). However, these theories do not agree on evaluation standards for training effectiveness. According to Piaget, it is only when stringent criteria

  15. Modifying Adolescent Interpretation Biases Through Cognitive Training: Effects on Negative Affect and Stress Appraisals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telman, M.D.; Holmes, E.A; Lau, J.Y.F

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent anxiety is common, impairing and costly. Given the scale of adolescent anxiety and its impact, fresh innovations for therapy are in demand. Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretations (CBM-I) studies of adults show that by training individuals to endorse benign interpretations of

  16. Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral-Theory-Based Skill Training on Academic Procrastination Behaviors of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Betül; Avci, Rasit

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral theory (CBT) psycho-educational group program on the academic procrastination behaviors of university students and the persistence of any training effect. This was a quasi-experimental research based on an experimental and control group pretest, posttest, and followup test model.…

  17. The ERP Effects of Combined Cognitive Training on Intention-based and Stimulus-based Actions in Older Chinese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Nan Niu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Age-related decreases in action are caused by neuromuscular weakness and cognitive decline. Although physical interventions have been reported to have beneficial effects on cognitive function in older adults, whether cognitive training improves action-related function remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of combined cognitive training on intention-based and stimulus-based actions in older adults using event-related potentials (ERPs. A total of 26 healthy older adults (16 in the training group and 10 in the control group participated in the study. The training group received 16 sessions of cognitive training, including 8 sessions of executive function training and 8 sessions of memory strategy training. Before and after training, both groups of participants underwent cognitive assessments and ERP recordings during both the acquisition and test phases with a motor cognitive paradigm. During the acquisition phase, subjects were asked to press one of two keys, either using a self-selected (intention-based method or based on the preceding stimulus (stimulus-based. During the test phase, subjects were asked to respond to the pre-cues with either congruent or incongruent tasks. Using ERP indices—including readiness potential, P3 and contingent negative variation to identify motor preparation, stimulus processing and interference effect, respectively—we revealed the effects of training on both intention-based and stimulus-based actions. The correlations were also computed between the improved cognitive performance and the ERP amplitudes. It was shown that the improved executive function might extend substantial benefits to both actions, whereas associative memory may be specifically related to the bidirectional action-effect association of intention-based action, although the training effect of memory was absent during the insufficient training hours. In sum, the present study provided empirical evidence demonstrating that

  18. Feasibility and effectiveness of a cognitive remediation programme with original computerised cognitive training and group intervention for schizophrenia: a multicentre randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Morimoto, Tsubasa; Furukawa, Shunichi; Sato, Sayaka; Hatsuse, Norifumi; Iwata, Kazuhiko; Kimura, Mieko; Kishimoto, Toshifumi; Ikebuchi, Emi

    2018-04-01

    Devising new methods to improve neurocognitive impairment through cognitive remediation is an important research goal. We developed an original computer programme termed the Japanese Cognitive Rehabilitation Programme for Schizophrenia (JCORES) that provides cognitive practice across a broad range of abilities. The current study examined for the first time whether a cognitive remediation programme, including both computerised cognitive training using JCORES and group intervention such as enhancing meta-cognition and teaching strategies, is more effective than treatment as usual for improving neurocognitive and social functioning. Sixty-two outpatients with schizophrenia were randomised to either a cognitive remediation group or a control group. Participants engaged in two computerised cognitive training sessions and one group meeting per week for 12 weeks. The average number of total sessions attended (computerised cognitive practice + group intervention) was 32.3 (89.7%). The cognitive remediation group showed significantly more improvements in verbal memory, composite score of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Japanese version (BACS-J), and general psychopathology on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) than the control group. These findings demonstrate that a cognitive remediation programme is feasible in Japan and is a more effective way to improve neurocognitive functioning and psychiatric symptoms.

  19. Assessing a cognitive music training for older participants: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasutti, Michele; Mangiacotti, Anthony

    2018-02-01

    In a randomised controlled trial, we investigated whether a cognitive training based on rhythm-music and music improvisation exercises had positive effects on executive functions in older participants. Thirty-five residents in a guest home with mild-moderate cognitive impairment and healthy ageing were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 18) featuring cognitive music training composed of 12 bi-weekly 70-min sessions, and a control group (n = 17) attended 12 bi-weekly 45-min sessions of gymnastic activities offered by the institute. A neuropsychological test battery was administered at baseline and at the end of treatment, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, verbal fluency test, Trail Making Test A, attentional matrices test and clock-drawing test. Pre-test and post-test comparison showed a significant improvement for the experimental group reflected in the Mini-Mental State Examination (F(1,33) = 13.906; p music-rhythmic exercises and music improvisation exercises is associated with improved cognitive functions in older people with mild-moderate cognitive impairment regardless of the individual's degree of cognitive reserve. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Working memory training promotes general cognitive abilities in genetically heterogeneous mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Kenneth R; Kolata, Stefan; Wass, Christopher; Denman-Brice, Alexander; Zagalsky, Ryan; Matzel, Louis D

    2010-04-27

    In both humans and mice, the efficacy of working memory capacity and its related process, selective attention, are each strongly predictive of individuals' aggregate performance in cognitive test batteries [1-9]. Because working memory is taxed during most cognitive tasks, the efficacy of working memory may have a causal influence on individuals' performance on tests of "intelligence" [10, 11]. Despite the attention this has received, supporting evidence has been largely correlational in nature (but see [12]). Here, genetically heterogeneous mice were assessed on a battery of five learning tasks. Animals' aggregate performance across the tasks was used to estimate their general cognitive abilities, a trait that is in some respects analogous to intelligence [13, 14]. Working memory training promoted an increase in animals' selective attention and their aggregate performance on these tasks. This enhancement of general cognitive performance by working memory training was attenuated if its selective attention demands were reduced. These results provide evidence that the efficacy of working memory capacity and selective attention may be causally related to an animal's general cognitive performance and provide a framework for behavioral strategies to promote those abilities. Furthermore, the pattern of behavior reported here reflects a conservation of the processes that regulate general cognitive performance in humans and infrahuman animals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reducing motion sickness - A comparison of autogenic-feedback training and an alternative cognitive task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    Eighteen men were randomly assigned to three groups matched for susceptibility to Coriolis motion sickness. All subjects were given six Coriolis Sickness Susceptibility Index (CSSI) tests separated by 5-d intervals. Treatment Group I subjects were taught to control their own autonomic responses before the third, fourth, and fifth CSSI tests (6 h total training). Group II subjects were given 'sham' training in an alternative cognitive task under conditions otherwise identical to those of Group I. Group III subjects received no treatment. Results showed that Group I subjects could withstand the stress of Coriolis acceleration significantly longer after training. Neither of the other two groups changed significantly.

  2. Speech comprehension training and auditory and cognitive processing in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Levitt, Harry

    2012-12-01

    To provide a brief history of speech comprehension training systems and an overview of research on auditory and cognitive aging as background to recommendations for future directions for rehabilitation. Two distinct domains were reviewed: one concerning technological and the other concerning psychological aspects of training. Historical trends and advances in these 2 domains were interrelated to highlight converging trends and directions for future practice. Over the last century, technological advances have influenced both the design of hearing aids and training systems. Initially, training focused on children and those with severe loss for whom amplification was insufficient. Now the focus has shifted to older adults with relatively little loss but difficulties listening in noise. Evidence of brain plasticity from auditory and cognitive neuroscience provides new insights into how to facilitate perceptual (re-)learning by older adults. There is a new imperative to complement training to increase bottom-up processing of the signal with more ecologically valid training to boost top-down information processing based on knowledge of language and the world. Advances in digital technologies enable the development of increasingly sophisticated training systems incorporating complex meaningful materials such as music, audiovisual interactive displays, and conversation.

  3. Alcohol cognitive bias modification training for problem drinkers over the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiers, Reinout W; Houben, Katrijn; Fadardi, Javad S; van Beek, Paul; Rhemtulla, Mijke; Cox, W Miles

    2015-01-01

    Following successful outcomes of cognitive bias modification (CBM) programs for alcoholism in clinical and community samples, the present study investigated whether different varieties of CBM (attention control training and approach-bias re-training) could be delivered successfully in a fully automated web-based way and whether these interventions would help self-selected problem drinkers to reduce their drinking. Participants were recruited through online advertising, which resulted in 697 interested participants, of whom 615 were screened in. Of the 314 who initiated training, 136 completed a pretest, four sessions of computerized training and a posttest. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions (attention control or one of three varieties of approach-bias re-training) or a sham-training control condition. The general pattern of findings was that participants in all conditions (including participants in the control-training condition) reduced their drinking. It is suggested that integrating CBM with online cognitive and motivational interventions could improve results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Computer-Based Cognitive Training for Executive Functions after Stroke: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Renate M.; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Veltman, Dick J.; Schmand, Ben A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stroke commonly results in cognitive impairments in working memory, attention, and executive function, which may be restored with appropriate training programs. Our aim was to systematically review the evidence for computer-based cognitive training of executive dysfunctions. Methods: Studies were included if they concerned adults who had suffered stroke or other types of acquired brain injury, if the intervention was computer training of executive functions, and if the outcome was related to executive functioning. We searched in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library. Study quality was evaluated based on the CONSORT Statement. Treatment effect was evaluated based on differences compared to pre-treatment and/or to a control group. Results: Twenty studies were included. Two were randomized controlled trials that used an active control group. The other studies included multiple baselines, a passive control group, or were uncontrolled. Improvements were observed in tasks similar to the training (near transfer) and in tasks dissimilar to the training (far transfer). However, these effects were not larger in trained than in active control groups. Two studies evaluated neural effects and found changes in both functional and structural connectivity. Most studies suffered from methodological limitations (e.g., lack of an active control group and no adjustment for multiple testing) hampering differentiation of training effects from spontaneous recovery, retest effects, and placebo effects. Conclusions: The positive findings of most studies, including neural changes, warrant continuation of research in this field, but only if its methodological limitations are addressed. PMID:27148007

  5. Feasibility of a cognitive strategy training intervention for people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Erin R; Spence, Daniel; Toglia, Joan

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the feasibility of a novel client-centered cognitive strategy training intervention for people with Parkinson's disease (PD). This was a case series of seven people with PD without dementia but with subjective cognitive decline. The intervention involved ≥5 treatment sessions at the participant's home. Participant acceptance and engagement were assessed by the Credibility/Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ), Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ), enjoyment and effort ratings, and homework completion. Logistical information was tracked, and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was an exploratory outcome measure. Data analysis was descriptive. CEQ scores were positive and increased over time. CSQ scores were high (M = 30.8, SD = 0.75), with all participants rating all items positively. Almost all (95%) effort and enjoyment ratings were ≥3 (Much), and homework completion rates averaged 84% (SD = 18). Intervention duration was 6-15 weeks (M = 9.2, SD = 2.8), with treatment sessions averaging 1.7 h (SD = 0.5). Group and most individual COPM ratings improved ≥2 points. These findings support the feasibility of the intervention for people with PD. It was acceptable, engaging, and promising in terms of its effect on self-identified functional cognitive problems. Implications for Rehabilitation People with Parkinson's disease (PD) without dementia can experience cognitive decline that negatively impacts function and quality of life. Strategy-based interventions that explicitly train for transfer may mitigate the negative functional consequences of cognitive decline in this population. We developed a client-centered cognitive strategy training intervention for people with PD. This small case series supports its feasibility, indicating that it is acceptable and engaging for people with PD and promising in terms of its effect on self-identified functional cognitive problems.

  6. A comparison of text and technology based training tools to improve cognitive skills in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Kevin; Kirwan, Grainne; Palmer, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Research has indicated that use of cognitive skills training tools can produce positive benefits with older adults. However, little research has compared the efficacy of technology-based interventions and more traditional, text-based interventions which are also available. This study aimed to investigate cognitive skills improvements experienced by 40 older adults using cognitive skills training tools. A Solomon 4 group design was employed to determine which intervention demonstrated the greatest improvement. Participants were asked to use the interventions for 5-10 minutes per day, over a period of 60 days. Pre and post-tests consisted of measures of numerical ability, self-reported memory and intelligence. Following training, older adults indicated significant improvements on numerical ability and intelligence regardless of intervention type. No improvement in selfreported memory was observed. This research provides a critical appraisal of brain training tools and can help point the way for future improvements in the area. Brain training improvements could lead to improved quality of life, and perhaps, have financial and independent living ramifications for older adults.

  7. Actuality the process of relaxation on the lessons of physical training on the current stage of higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vankova A.U.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Facilities are considered of making healthy for the improvement of ability to resist stress situations of students. Engaged in a physical culture in the net of educational clock must be conducted in the institute of higher before and after the special disciplines. Application of method of relaxation together with musical accompaniment promote claim of higher type of pedagogical organization of employments. A chronic mental overstrain without the sufficient physical discharging results in a nervous overstrain, negative emotions, deficit of time, violation of the mode of labour and rest, reduction of possibility of physical activity.

  8. Reward-based training of recurrent neural networks for cognitive and value-based tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H Francis; Yang, Guangyu R; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2017-01-13

    Trained neural network models, which exhibit features of neural activity recorded from behaving animals, may provide insights into the circuit mechanisms of cognitive functions through systematic analysis of network activity and connectivity. However, in contrast to the graded error signals commonly used to train networks through supervised learning, animals learn from reward feedback on definite actions through reinforcement learning. Reward maximization is particularly relevant when optimal behavior depends on an animal's internal judgment of confidence or subjective preferences. Here, we implement reward-based training of recurrent neural networks in which a value network guides learning by using the activity of the decision network to predict future reward. We show that such models capture behavioral and electrophysiological findings from well-known experimental paradigms. Our work provides a unified framework for investigating diverse cognitive and value-based computations, and predicts a role for value representation that is essential for learning, but not executing, a task.

  9. Baseline Predictors for Success Following Strategy-Based Cognitive Remediation Group Training in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farreny, Aida; Aguado, Jaume; Corbera, Silvia; Ochoa, Susana; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Usall, Judith

    2016-08-01

    Our aim was to examine predictive variables associated with the improvement in cognitive, clinical, and functional outcomes after outpatient participation in REPYFLEC strategy-based Cognitive Remediation (CR) group training. In addition, we investigated which factors might be associated with some long-lasting effects at 6 months' follow-up. Predictors of improvement after CR were studied in a sample of 29 outpatients with schizophrenia. Partial correlations were computed between targeted variables and outcomes of response to explore significant associations. Subsequently, we built linear regression models for each outcome variable and predictors of improvement. The improvement in negative symptoms at posttreatment was linked to faster performance in the Trail Making Test B. Disorganization and cognitive symptoms were related to changes in executive function at follow-up. Lower levels of positive symptoms were related to durable improvements in life skills. Levels of symptoms and cognition were associated with improvements following CR, but the pattern of resulting associations was nonspecific.

  10. Guidelines for cognitive behavioral training within doctoral psychology programs in the United States: report of the Inter-organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac, Robert K; Ronan, George F; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D; Belar, Cynthia D; Berry, Sharon L; Christofff, Karen A; Craighead, Linda W; Dougher, Michael J; Dowd, E Thomas; Herbert, James D; McFarr, Lynn M; Rizvi, Shireen L; Sauer, Eric M; Strauman, Timothy J

    2012-12-01

    The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a year-long series of conferences, and developed a consensus on optimal doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology. The recommendations assume solid foundational training that is typical within applied psychology areas such as clinical and counseling psychology programs located in the United States. This article details the background, assumptions, and resulting recommendations specific to doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology, including competencies expected in the areas of ethics, research, and practice. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The DEMO trial: a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial of strength versus aerobic versus relaxation training for patients with mild to moderate depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Saltin, Bengt; Gluud, Christian

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the benefit and harm of exercise training in adults with clinical depression. METHOD: The DEMO trial is a randomized pragmatic trial for patients with unipolar depression conducted from January 2005 through July 2007. Patients were referred from general practitioners or psych......: Our findings do not support a biologically mediated effect of exercise on symptom severity in depressed patients, but they do support a beneficial effect of strength training on work capacity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: (ClinicalTrials.gov) Identifier: NCT00103415.......OBJECTIVE: To assess the benefit and harm of exercise training in adults with clinical depression. METHOD: The DEMO trial is a randomized pragmatic trial for patients with unipolar depression conducted from January 2005 through July 2007. Patients were referred from general practitioners...... or psychiatrists and were eligible if they fulfilled the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, criteria for unipolar depression and were aged between 18 and 55 years. Patients (N = 165) were allocated to supervised strength, aerobic, or relaxation training during a 4-month period. The primary...

  12. Brain training improves recovery after stroke but waiting list improves equally: A multicenter randomized controlled trial of a computer-based cognitive flexibility training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate M van de Ven

    Full Text Available Brain training is currently widely used in an attempt to improve cognitive functioning. Computer-based training can be performed at home and could therefore be an effective add-on to available rehabilitation programs aimed at improving cognitive functioning. Several studies have reported cognitive improvements after computer training, but most lacked proper active and passive control conditions.Our aim was to investigate whether computer-based cognitive flexibility training improves executive functioning after stroke. We also conducted within-group analyses similar to those used in previous studies, to assess inferences about transfer effects when comparisons to proper control groups are missing.We conducted a randomized controlled, double blind trial. Adults (30-80 years old who had suffered a stroke within the last 5 years were assigned to either an intervention group (n = 38, active control group (i.e., mock training; n = 35, or waiting list control group (n = 24. The intervention and mock training consisted of 58 half-hour sessions within a 12-week period. Cognitive functioning was assessed using several paper-and-pencil and computerized neuropsychological tasks before the training, immediately after training, and 4 weeks after training completion.Both training groups improved on training tasks, and all groups improved on several transfer tasks (three executive functioning tasks, attention, reasoning, and psychomotor speed. Improvements remained 4 weeks after training completion. However, the amount of improvement in executive and general cognitive functioning in the intervention group was similar to that of both control groups (active control and waiting list. Therefore, this improvement was likely due to training-unspecific effects. Our results stress the importance to include both active and passive control conditions in the study design and analyses. Results from studies without proper control conditions should be interpreted with care.

  13. Computerized cognitive training during physical inactivity improves executive functioning in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusic, Uros; Giordani, Bruno; Moffat, Scott D; Petrič, Mojca; Dolenc, Petra; Pišot, Rado; Kavcic, Voyko

    2018-01-01

    The hippocampus is closely tied to spatial navigation, a central component in cognitive functioning, and critically involved in age-associated cognitive decline and dementia. This study evaluated a novel, cognitive computerized spatial navigation training (CSNT) program targeting the hippocampus, with expectation of mitigating possible cognitive decline with bed rest (BR). During a 14-day BR study with 16 healthy, older men (mean age = 60 ± 3, range = 55-65 years), half received CSNT for 12 days in 50-min sessions and half were controls (watching documentaries). This design uniquely controlled diet, sleep, and other personal and environmental activities. Although there were no cognitive declines in controls post-BR, CSNT participants demonstrated significant increases in executive/attention ability and processing speed, and continued spatial navigation testing showed improvement to 400 days post-BR. This intervention may prove useful to mitigate cognitive declines known to occur in long periods of immobilization and could have broader implications in protecting against age-related cognitive decline.

  14. Computerized cognitive training in prostate cancer patients on androgen deprivation therapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lisa M; Amidi, Ali; Tanenbaum, Molly L; Winkel, Gary; Gordon, Wayne A; Hall, Simon J; Bovbjerg, Katrin; Diefenbach, Michael A

    2018-06-01

    Prostate cancer patients who have undergone androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) may experience cognitive impairment, yet there is an unmet need for nonpharmacological interventions to address cognitive impairment in this population. This study examines the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a home-based computerized cognitive training (CCT) program to treat cancer-related cognitive impairment. Sixty men who had received ≥ 3 months of ADT were screened for at least mild cognitive or neurobehavioral impairment and randomized to 8 weeks of CCT or usual care. Follow-up assessments occurred immediately post-intervention or equivalent (T2) and 8 weeks later (T3). The acceptability of CCT was also assessed. Feasibility:A priori feasibility thresholds were partially met (i.e., randomization rate > 50%, retention rate > 70% excluding CCT drop-outs, but cognitive functioning, neurobehavioral functioning, nor quality of life. This study provides tentative support for the feasibility and acceptability of CCT to treat mild cognitive impairment in ADT patients. CCT had a beneficial effect on reaction time, but temporarily suppressed memory. CCT's benefits may be limited to a narrow area of functioning. Larger-scale studies are needed.

  15. Dissociable effects of game elements on motivation and cognition in a task-switching training in middle childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Dörrenbächer, Sandra; Müller, Philipp M.; Tröger, Johannes; Kray, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Although motivational reinforcers are often used to enhance the attractiveness of trainings of cognitive control in children, little is known about how such motivational manipulations of the setting contribute to separate gains in motivation and cognitive-control performance. Here we provide a framework for systematically investigating the impact of a motivational video-game setting on the training motivation, the task performance, and the transfer success in a task-switching training in midd...

  16. The effects of video-game training on broad cognitive transfer in multiple sclerosis: A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Alisha; Boster, Aaron; Lee, HyunKyu; Patterson, Beth; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system that results in diffuse nerve damage and associated physical and cognitive impairments. Of the few comprehensive rehabilitation options that exist for populations with lower baseline cognitive functioning, those that have been successful at eliciting broad cognitive improvements have focused on a multimodal training approach, emphasizing complex cognitive processing that utilizes multiple domains simultaneously. The current study sought to determine the feasibility of an 8-week, hybrid-variable priority training (HVT) program, with a secondary aim to assess the success of this training paradigm at eliciting broad cognitive transfer effects. Capitalizing on the multimodal training modalities offered by the Space Fortress platform, we compared the HVT strategy-based intervention with a waitlist control group, to primarily assess skill acquisition and secondarily determine presence of cognitive transfer. Twenty-eight participants met inclusionary criteria for the study and were randomized to either training or waitlist control groups. To assess broad transfer effects, a battery of neuropsychological tests was administered pre- and post-intervention. The results indicated an overall improvement in skill acquisition and evidence for the feasibility of the intervention, but a lack of broad transfer to tasks of cognitive functioning. Participants in the training group, however, did show improvements on a measure of spatial short-term memory. The current investigation provided support for the feasibility of a multimodal training approach, using the HVT strategy, within the MS population, but lacked broad transfer to multiple domains of cognitive functioning. Future improvements to obtain greater cognitive transfer efficacy would include a larger sample size, a longer course of training to evoke greater game score improvement, the inclusion of only cognitively impaired individuals, and

  17. Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment cut-off score to clarify improvement of mild cognitive impairment after exercise training in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Marina; Sugie, Masamitsu; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Koyama, Teruyuki; Sengoku, Renpei; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Obuchi, Shuichi; Harada, Kazumasa; Kyo, Shunei; Ito, Hideki

    2018-02-02

    Physical exercise improves cognitive function in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, information about whether the degree of MCI before exercise training affects improvement in cognitive function is lacking. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the cut-off value in a MCI screening tool that predicts reversal to normal cognitive function after exercise training in older adults with MCI. Participants included 112 Japanese community-dwelling older adult outpatients (37 men, 75 women; mean age 76.3 years). We administered the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J) before and after exercise training. MCI was defined as a MoCA-J score cognitive function. The MoCA-J cut-off score to predict cognitive function potentially reversible to normal was 23, with receiver operating characteristic analysis showing an area under the curve of 0.80, sensitivity of 79.4% and specificity of 69.2%. Multiple logistic regression analysis to predict non-MCI after exercise training showed that MoCA-J score ≥23 (OR 6.9, P cognitive function that is potentially reversible to normal among community-dwelling Japanese older adults with MCI. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 The Authors Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  18. Guidelines for Cognitive Behavioral Training within Doctoral Psychology Programs in the United States: Report of the Inter-Organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac, Robert K.; Ronan, George F.; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D.; Belar, Cynthia D.; Berry, Sharon L.; Christofff, Karen A.; Craighead, Linda W.; Dougher, Michael J.; Dowd, E. Thomas; Herbert, James D.; McFarr, Lynn M.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Sauer, Eric M.; Strauman, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a yearlong series of…

  19. Neurocognitive performance and physical function do not change with physical-cognitive-mindfulness training in female laboratory technicians with chronic musculoskeletal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Brandt, Mikkel; Schraefel, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive and physical performance can be negatively affected by chronic pain. This study evaluates the effect of combined physical-, cognitive-, and mindfulness training (PCMT) on cognitive and physical performance. METHODS: From a large pharmaceutical company in Denmark we randomly...

  20. Can Driving-Simulator Training Enhance Visual Attention, Cognition, and Physical Functioning in Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeger, Mathias; Bock, Otmar; Memmert, Daniel; Hüttermann, Stefanie

    2018-01-01

    Virtual reality offers a good possibility for the implementation of real-life tasks in a laboratory-based training or testing scenario. Thus, a computerized training in a driving simulator offers an ecological valid training approach. Visual attention had an influence on driving performance, so we used the reverse approach to test the influence of a driving training on visual attention and executive functions. Thirty-seven healthy older participants (mean age: 71.46 ± 4.09; gender: 17 men and 20 women) took part in our controlled experimental study. We examined transfer effects from a four-week driving training (three times per week) on visual attention, executive function, and motor skill. Effects were analyzed using an analysis of variance with repeated measurements. Therefore, main factors were group and time to show training-related benefits of our intervention. Results revealed improvements for the intervention group in divided visual attention; however, there were benefits neither in the other cognitive domains nor in the additional motor task. Thus, there are no broad training-induced transfer effects from such an ecologically valid training regime. This lack of findings could be addressed to insufficient training intensities or a participant-induced bias following the cancelled randomization process.

  1. Can Driving-Simulator Training Enhance Visual Attention, Cognition, and Physical Functioning in Older Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Haeger

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality offers a good possibility for the implementation of real-life tasks in a laboratory-based training or testing scenario. Thus, a computerized training in a driving simulator offers an ecological valid training approach. Visual attention had an influence on driving performance, so we used the reverse approach to test the influence of a driving training on visual attention and executive functions. Thirty-seven healthy older participants (mean age: 71.46 ± 4.09; gender: 17 men and 20 women took part in our controlled experimental study. We examined transfer effects from a four-week driving training (three times per week on visual attention, executive function, and motor skill. Effects were analyzed using an analysis of variance with repeated measurements. Therefore, main factors were group and time to show training-related benefits of our intervention. Results revealed improvements for the intervention group in divided visual attention; however, there were benefits neither in the other cognitive domains nor in the additional motor task. Thus, there are no broad training-induced transfer effects from such an ecologically valid training regime. This lack of findings could be addressed to insufficient training intensities or a participant-induced bias following the cancelled randomization process.

  2. Effects of Different Types of Cognitive Training on Cognitive Function, Brain Structure, and Driving Safety in Senior Daily Drivers: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Kanno, Akitake; Akimoto, Yoritaka; Ihara, Mizuki; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Ogawa, Takeshi; Goto, Takakuni; Sunda, Takashi; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Tozuka, Eiji; Hirose, Satoru; Nanbu, Tatsuyoshi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-01-01

    Background. Increasing proportion of the elderly in the driving population raises the importance of assuring their safety. We explored the effects of three different types of cognitive training on the cognitive function, brain structure, and driving safety of the elderly. Methods. Thirty-seven healthy elderly daily drivers were randomly assigned to one of three training groups: Group V trained in a vehicle with a newly developed onboard cognitive training program, Group P trained with a similar program but on a personal computer, and Group C trained to solve a crossword puzzle. Before and after the 8-week training period, they underwent neuropsychological tests, structural brain magnetic resonance imaging, and driving safety tests. Results. For cognitive function, only Group V showed significant improvements in processing speed and working memory. For driving safety, Group V showed significant improvements both in the driving aptitude test and in the on-road evaluations. Group P showed no significant improvements in either test, and Group C showed significant improvements in the driving aptitude but not in the on-road evaluations. Conclusion. The results support the effectiveness of the onboard training program in enhancing the elderly's abilities to drive safely and the potential advantages of a multimodal training approach. PMID:26161000

  3. Effects of Different Types of Cognitive Training on Cognitive Function, Brain Structure, and Driving Safety in Senior Daily Drivers: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Nozawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increasing proportion of the elderly in the driving population raises the importance of assuring their safety. We explored the effects of three different types of cognitive training on the cognitive function, brain structure, and driving safety of the elderly. Methods. Thirty-seven healthy elderly daily drivers were randomly assigned to one of three training groups: Group V trained in a vehicle with a newly developed onboard cognitive training program, Group P trained with a similar program but on a personal computer, and Group C trained to solve a crossword puzzle. Before and after the 8-week training period, they underwent neuropsychological tests, structural brain magnetic resonance imaging, and driving safety tests. Results. For cognitive function, only Group V showed significant improvements in processing speed and working memory. For driving safety, Group V showed significant improvements both in the driving aptitude test and in the on-road evaluations. Group P showed no significant improvements in either test, and Group C showed significant improvements in the driving aptitude but not in the on-road evaluations. Conclusion. The results support the effectiveness of the onboard training program in enhancing the elderly’s abilities to drive safely and the potential advantages of a multimodal training approach.

  4. Effects of Different Types of Cognitive Training on Cognitive Function, Brain Structure, and Driving Safety in Senior Daily Drivers: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Takayuki; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kanno, Akitake; Akimoto, Yoritaka; Ihara, Mizuki; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Ogawa, Takeshi; Goto, Takakuni; Sunda, Takashi; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Tozuka, Eiji; Hirose, Satoru; Nanbu, Tatsuyoshi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-01-01

    Increasing proportion of the elderly in the driving population raises the importance of assuring their safety. We explored the effects of three different types of cognitive training on the cognitive function, brain structure, and driving safety of the elderly. Thirty-seven healthy elderly daily drivers were randomly assigned to one of three training groups: Group V trained in a vehicle with a newly developed onboard cognitive training program, Group P trained with a similar program but on a personal computer, and Group C trained to solve a crossword puzzle. Before and after the 8-week training period, they underwent neuropsychological tests, structural brain magnetic resonance imaging, and driving safety tests. For cognitive function, only Group V showed significant improvements in processing speed and working memory. For driving safety, Group V showed significant improvements both in the driving aptitude test and in the on-road evaluations. Group P showed no significant improvements in either test, and Group C showed significant improvements in the driving aptitude but not in the on-road evaluations. The results support the effectiveness of the onboard training program in enhancing the elderly's abilities to drive safely and the potential advantages of a multimodal training approach.

  5. Benefits of physical exercise training on cognition and quality of life in frail older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Francis; Vu, Thien Tuong Minh; Chassé, Kathleen; Dupuis, Gilles; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Bherer, Louis

    2013-05-01

    Frailty is a state of vulnerability associated with increased risks of fall, hospitalization, cognitive deficits, and psychological distress. Studies with healthy senior suggest that physical exercise can help improve cognition and quality of life. Whether frail older adults can show such benefits remains to be documented. A total of 83 participants aged 61-89 years were assigned to an exercise-training group (3 times a week for 12 weeks) or a control group (waiting list). Frailty was determined by a complete geriatric examination using specific criteria. Pre- and post-test measures assessed physical capacity, cognitive performance, and quality of life. Compared with controls, the intervention group showed significant improvement in physical capacity (functional capacities and physical endurance), cognitive performance (executive functions, processing speed, and working memory), and quality of life (global quality of life, leisure activities, physical capacity, social/family relationships, and physical health). Benefits were overall equivalent between frail and nonfrail participants. Physical exercise training leads to improved cognitive functioning and psychological well-being in frail older adults.

  6. Effects of computerized cognitive training on neuroimaging outcomes in older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brinke, Lisanne F; Davis, Jennifer C; Barha, Cindy K; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2017-07-10

    Worldwide, the population is aging and the number of individuals diagnosed with dementia is rising rapidly. Currently, there are no effective pharmaceutical cures. Hence, identifying lifestyle approaches that may prevent, delay, or treat cognitive impairment and dementia in older adults is becoming increasingly important. Computerized Cognitive Training (CCT) is a promising strategy to combat cognitive decline. Yet, the underlying mechanisms of the effect of CCT on cognition remain poorly understood. Hence, the primary objective of this systematic review was to examine peer-reviewed literature ascertaining the effect of CCT on both structural and functional neuroimaging measures among older adults to gain insight into the underlying mechanisms by which CCT may benefit cognitive function. In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, we used the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL. Two independent reviewers abstracted data using pre-defined terms. These included: main study characteristics such as the type of training (i.e., single- versus multi-domain), participant demographics (age ≥ 50 years; no psychiatric conditions), and the inclusion of neuroimaging outcomes. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale was used to assess quality of all studies included in this systematic review. Nine studies were included in this systematic review, with four studies including multiple MRI sequences. Results of this systematic review are mixed: CCT was found to increase and decrease both brain structure and function in older adults. In addition, depending on region of interest, both increases and decreases in structure and function were associated with behavioural performance. Of all studies included in this systematic review, results from the highest quality studies, which were two randomized controlled trials, demonstrated that multi-domain CCT could lead to increases in hippocampal functional connectivity. Further high quality studies that include an active

  7. Training Older Adults to Use Tablet Computers: Does It Enhance Cognitive Function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Micaela Y; Haber, Sara; Drew, Linda M; Park, Denise C

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidence shows that engaging in learning new skills improves episodic memory in older adults. In this study, older adults who were computer novices were trained to use a tablet computer and associated software applications. We hypothesize that sustained engagement in this mentally challenging training would yield a dual benefit of improved cognition and enhancement of everyday function by introducing useful skills. A total of 54 older adults (age 60-90) committed 15 hr/week for 3 months. Eighteen participants received extensive iPad training, learning a broad range of practical applications. The iPad group was compared with 2 separate controls: a Placebo group that engaged in passive tasks requiring little new learning; and a Social group that had regular social interaction, but no active skill acquisition. All participants completed the same cognitive battery pre- and post-engagement. Compared with both controls, the iPad group showed greater improvements in episodic memory and processing speed but did not differ in mental control or visuospatial processing. iPad training improved cognition relative to engaging in social or nonchallenging activities. Mastering relevant technological devices have the added advantage of providing older adults with technological skills useful in facilitating everyday activities (e.g., banking). This work informs the selection of targeted activities for future interventions and community programs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  8. Computer-Based Training Programs for Older People with Mild Cognitive Impairment and/or Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanka Klimova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, due to the demographic trends, the number of aging population groups is dramatically rising, especially in developed countries. This trend causes serious economic and social issues, but also an increase of aging disorders such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia in older population groups. MCI and dementia are connected with deterioration of cognitive functions. The aim of this mini review article is therefore to explore whether computer-based training programs might be an effective intervention tool for older people with MCI and/or dementia or not. The methods include a literature search in the world’s acknowledged databases: Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, MEDLINE and Springer, and consequently, evaluation of the findings of the relevant studies. The findings from the selected studies are quite neutral with respect to the efficacy of the computer assisted intervention programs on the improvement of basic cognitive functions. On the one hand, they suggest that the computer-based training interventions might generate some positive effects on patients with MCI and/or dementia, such as the improvement of learning and short-term memory, as well as behavioral symptoms. On the other hand, these training interventions seem to be short-term, with small sample sizes and their efficacy was proved only in the half of the detected studies. Therefore more longitudinal randomized controlled trials (RCTs are needed to prove the efficacy of the computer-based training programs among older individuals with MCI and/or dementia.

  9. Exercise training improves relaxation response and SOD-1 expression in aortic and mesenteric rings from high caloric diet-fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes Edson

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has been associated with a variety of disease such as type II diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis. Evidences have shown that exercise training promotes beneficial effects on these disorders, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical preconditioning prevents the deleterious effect of high caloric diet in vascular reactivity of rat aortic and mesenteric rings. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into sedentary (SD; trained (TR; sedentary diet (SDD and trained diet (TRD groups. Run training (RT was performed in sessions of 60 min, 5 days/week for 12 weeks (70–80% VO2max. Triglycerides, glucose, insulin and nitrite/nitrate concentrations (NOx- were measured. Concentration-response curves to acetylcholine (ACh and sodium nitroprusside (SNP were obtained. Expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD-1 was assessed by Western blotting. Results High caloric diet increased triglycerides concentration (SDD: 216 ± 25 mg/dl and exercise training restored to the baseline value (TRD: 89 ± 9 mg/dl. Physical preconditioning significantly reduced insulin levels in both groups (TR: 0.54 ± 0.1 and TRD: 1.24 ± 0.3 ng/ml as compared to sedentary animals (SD: 0.87 ± 0.1 and SDD: 2.57 ± 0.3 ng/ml. On the other hand, glucose concentration was slightly increased by high caloric diet, and RT did not modify this parameter (SD: 126 ± 6; TR: 140 ± 8; SDD: 156 ± 8 and TRD 153 ± 9 mg/dl. Neither high caloric diet nor RT modified NOx- levels (SD: 27 ± 4; TR: 28 ± 6; SDD: 27 ± 3 and TRD: 30 ± 2 μM. Functional assays showed that high caloric diet impaired the relaxing response to ACh in mesenteric (about 13%, but not in aortic rings. RT improved the relaxing responses to ACh either in aortic (28%, for TR and 16%, to TRD groups or mesenteric rings (10%, for TR and 17%, to TRD groups that was accompanied by up-regulation of SOD-1

  10. Who would benefit from memory training? A pilot study examining the ceiling effect of concurrent cognitive stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok TCY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Timothy CY Kwok1,2, Wai Wang Chau1, Kenneth SL Yuen1,3, Anita YM Wong4, Jessie CY Li1, Rebecca YY Shiu4, Florence KY Ho11Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Hong Kong; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 3Laboratory of Neuropsychology, Department of Psychology, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong; 4The Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club Madam Wong Chan Sook Ying Memorial Care and Attention Home for the Aged, Hong KongAbstract: Diverse effects of memory training were observed in the literature. One possible factor is the amount of concurrent cognitive training received during the training program. In this pilot study, we recruited 24 elderly adults with or without concurrent cognitive stimulations to attend a memory-training program. Findings suggested that elderly people without concurrent cognitive stimulation could benefit from a memory-training program in the form of improved initiation and memory functioning. Self-rated quality of life measure also showed improvements alongside the cognitive benefits. Elderly people with regular concurrent cognitive stimulation, on the other hand, seemed to plateau in their level of performance and did not show any significant change. Our preliminary findings suggested nonlinear concurrent cognitive stimulation in the elderly.Keywords: memory training, cognitive training, dementia, Chinese, elderly 

  11. Ketogenic diet, high intensity interval training (HIIT) and memory training in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Kaitlyn; Gibas, Kelly J

    2018-04-11

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) deaths have increased by 89% since 2000. This alarming trajectory of neurological disease highlights the failure of current best practice. Deteriorating brain fuel supply is the nemesis of intact neurological health. Cerebral hypo-metabolism associated with AD occurs years before onset. Both the ketogenic diet and calorie restriction (fasting) lead to a compensatory rise in ketones to improve energy deficits in the brain derived from cerebral insulin resistance. Two forms of ketone bodies, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, fuel the brain during starvation, fasting and strenuous exercise. Ketones are neuroprotective agents that shelter the aging brain from memory loss and neurodegeneration. Induced ketone production has been shown to ameliorate mitochondrial function, reduce the expression of apoptotic and inflammatory mediators and provide neuroprotection to cells (Lange et al., 2017). This case study highlights an innovative research design aimed at attenuating memory decline in a 57 year old female previously diagnosed with comorbid mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Mild cognitive impairment is a predementia syndrome known to precede AD (Michaud et al, 2017). The 12-week intervention included ketogenic nutrition protocol, high intensity interval training (HIIT) and memory training using the PEAK brain training app. Memory function was assessed via the MoCA (Montreal Cognitive Assessment) pre/post intervention. Physiological biomarkers for MetS including HOMA-IR(homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance), triglyceride/HDL ratio, HgA1c, fasting triglycerides and HDL were measured pre/post intervention. MoCA baseline score was 22/30 (MCI); post intervention score: 30/30 (normal). MetS biomarker improvements also reflected statistical significance. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Cognitive and Neural Effects of Vision-Based Speed-of-Processing Training in Older Adults with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Heffner, Kathi L; Ren, Ping; Tivarus, Madalina E; Brasch, Judith; Chen, Ding-Geng; Mapstone, Mark; Porsteinsson, Anton P; Tadin, Duje

    2016-06-01

    To examine the cognitive and neural effects of vision-based speed-of-processing (VSOP) training in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and contrast those effects with an active control (mental leisure activities (MLA)). Randomized single-blind controlled pilot trial. Academic medical center. Individuals with aMCI (N = 21). Six-week computerized VSOP training. Multiple cognitive processing measures, instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and two resting state neural networks regulating cognitive processing: central executive network (CEN) and default mode network (DMN). VSOP training led to significantly greater improvements in trained (processing speed and attention: F1,19  = 6.61, partial η(2)  = 0.26, P = .02) and untrained (working memory: F1,19  = 7.33, partial η(2)  = 0.28, P = .01; IADLs: F1,19  = 5.16, partial η(2)  = 0.21, P = .03) cognitive domains than MLA and protective maintenance in DMN (F1, 9  = 14.63, partial η(2)  = 0.62, P = .004). VSOP training, but not MLA, resulted in a significant improvement in CEN connectivity (Z = -2.37, P = .02). Target and transfer effects of VSOP training were identified, and links between VSOP training and two neural networks associated with aMCI were found. These findings highlight the potential of VSOP training to slow cognitive decline in individuals with aMCI. Further delineation of mechanisms underlying VSOP-induced plasticity is necessary to understand in which populations and under what conditions such training may be most effective. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Effects of cognitive-motor dual-task training combined with auditory motor synchronization training on cognitive functioning in individuals with chronic stroke: A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Ok; Lee, Sang-Heon

    2018-06-01

    Preservation and enhancement of cognitive function are essential for the restoration of functional abilities and independence following stroke. While cognitive-motor dual-task training (CMDT) has been utilized in rehabilitation settings, many patients with stroke experience impairments in cognitive function that can interfere with dual-task performance. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CMDT combined with auditory motor synchronization training (AMST) utilizing rhythmic cues on cognitive function in patients with stroke. The present randomized controlled trial was conducted at a single rehabilitation hospital. Thirty patients with chronic stroke were randomly divided an experimental group (n = 15) and a control group (n = 15). The experimental group received 3 CMDT + AMST sessions per week for 6 weeks, whereas the control group received CMDT only 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Changes in cognitive function were evaluated using the trail making test (TMT), digit span test (DST), and stroop test (ST). Significant differences in TMT-A and B (P = .001, P = .001), DST-forward (P = .001, P = .001), DST-backward (P = .000, P = .001), ST-word (P = .001, P = .001), and ST-color (P = .002, P = .001) scores were observed in both the control and experimental groups, respectively. Significant differences in TMT-A (P = .001), DST-forward (P = .027), DST-backward (P = .002), and ST-word (P = .025) scores were observed between the 2 groups. Performance speed on the TMT-A was faster in the CMDT + AMST group than in the CMDT group. Moreover, DST-forward and DST-backward scores were higher in the CMDT + AMST group than in the CDMT group. Although ST-color results were similar in the 2 groups, ST-word scores were higher in the CMDT + AMST group than in the CMDT group. This finding indicates that the combined therapy CMDT and AMST can be used to increase attention, memory, and executive

  14. User-friendly cognitive training for the elderly: a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquete, Luciano; Rodríguez-Ascariz, José Manuel; Amo-Usanos, Carlos; Martínez-Arribas, Alejandro; Amo-Usanos, Javier; Otón, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a system that implements a cognitive training program in users' homes. The system comprises various applications designed to create a daily brain-fitness regime. The proposed mental training system uses television and a remote control specially designed for the elderly. This system integrates Java applications to promote brain-fitness training in three areas: arithmetic, memory, and idea association. The system comprises the following: Standard television set, simplified wireless remote control, black box (system's core hardware and software), brain-fitness games (language Java), and Wi-Fi-enabled Internet-connected router. All data from the user training sessions are monitored through a control center. This control center analyzes the evolution of the user and the proper performance of the system during the test. The implemented system has been tested by six healthy volunteers. The results for this user group demonstrated the accessibility and usability of the system in a controlled real environment. The impressions of the users were very favorable, and they reported high adaptability to the system. The mean score for usability and accessibility assigned by the users was 3.56 out of 5 points. The operation stress test (over 200 h) was successful. The proposed system was used to implement a cognitive training program in users' homes, which was developed to be a low-cost tool with a high degree of user interactivity. The results of this preliminary study indicate that this user-friendly system could be adopted as a form of cognitive training for the elderly.

  15. How assistive technology changes the brain: the critical role of hippocampal-striatal interactions during cognitive training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kéri, Szabolcs

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies found structural changes of the brain during cognitive training. These changes may be important when assistive technologies are used, for example, to boost memory and navigation abilities in patients with neurocognitive disorders. In this study, we show that extensive training with a platformer game simulating navigation and real-life spatial abilities, patients with Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairmant exhibit an increased volume of the caudate nucleus in contrast to healthy individuals who display increased hippocampal volumes. These results raise the possibility that cognitive training and assistive technology may induce compensatory changes of brain structure in memory disorders.

  16. Dissociable effects of game elements on motivation and cognition in a task-switching training in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörrenbächer, Sandra; Müller, Philipp M; Tröger, Johannes; Kray, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Although motivational reinforcers are often used to enhance the attractiveness of trainings of cognitive control in children, little is known about how such motivational manipulations of the setting contribute to separate gains in motivation and cognitive-control performance. Here we provide a framework for systematically investigating the impact of a motivational video-game setting on the training motivation, the task performance, and the transfer success in a task-switching training in middle-aged children (8-11 years of age). We manipulated both the type of training (low-demanding/single-task training vs. high-demanding/task-switching training) as well as the motivational setting (low-motivational/without video-game elements vs. high-motivational/with video-game elements) separately from another. The results indicated that the addition of game elements to a training setting enhanced the intrinsic interest in task practice, independently of the cognitive demands placed by the training type. In the task-switching group, the high-motivational training setting led to an additional enhancement of task and switching performance during the training phase right from the outset. These motivation-induced benefits projected onto the switching performance in a switching situation different from the trained one (near-transfer measurement). However, in structurally dissimilar cognitive tasks (far-transfer measurement), the motivational gains only transferred to the response dynamics (speed of processing). Hence, the motivational setting clearly had a positive impact on the training motivation and on the paradigm-specific task-switching abilities; it did not, however, consistently generalize on broad cognitive processes. These findings shed new light on the conflation of motivation and cognition in childhood and may help to refine guidelines for designing adequate training interventions.

  17. Dissociable effects of game elements on motivation and cognition in a task-switching training in middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eDörrenbächer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although motivational reinforcers are often used to enhance the attractiveness of trainings of cognitive control in children, little is known about how such motivational manipulations of the setting contribute to separate gains in motivation and cognitive-control performance. Here we provide a framework for systematically investigating the impact of a motivational video-game setting on the training motivation, the task performance, and the transfer success in a task-switching training in middle-aged children (8 to 11 years of age. We manipulated both the type of training (low-demanding/ single-task training vs high-demanding/ task-switching training as well as the motivational setting (low-motivational/ without video-game elements vs high-motivational/ with video-game elements separately from another. The results indicated that the addition of game elements to a training setting enhanced the intrinsic interest in task practice, independently of the cognitive demands placed by the training type. In the task-switching group, the high-motivational training setting led to an additional enhancement of task and switching performance during the training phase right from the outset. These motivation-induced benefits projected onto the switching performance in a switching situation different from the trained one (near-transfer measurement. However, in structurally dissimilar cognitive tasks (far-transfer measurement, the motivational gains only transferred to the response dynamics (speed of processing. Hence, the motivational setting clearly had a positive impact on the training motivation and on the paradigm-specific task-switching abilities; it did not, however, consistently generalize on broad cognitive processes. These findings shed new light on the conflation of motivation and cognition in childhood and may help to refine guidelines for designing adequate training interventions.

  18. Dissociable effects of game elements on motivation and cognition in a task-switching training in middle childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörrenbächer, Sandra; Müller, Philipp M.; Tröger, Johannes; Kray, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Although motivational reinforcers are often used to enhance the attractiveness of trainings of cognitive control in children, little is known about how such motivational manipulations of the setting contribute to separate gains in motivation and cognitive-control performance. Here we provide a framework for systematically investigating the impact of a motivational video-game setting on the training motivation, the task performance, and the transfer success in a task-switching training in middle-aged children (8–11 years of age). We manipulated both the type of training (low-demanding/single-task training vs. high-demanding/task-switching training) as well as the motivational setting (low-motivational/without video-game elements vs. high-motivational/with video-game elements) separately from another. The results indicated that the addition of game elements to a training setting enhanced the intrinsic interest in task practice, independently of the cognitive demands placed by the training type. In the task-switching group, the high-motivational training setting led to an additional enhancement of task and switching performance during the training phase right from the outset. These motivation-induced benefits projected onto the switching performance in a switching situation different from the trained one (near-transfer measurement). However, in structurally dissimilar cognitive tasks (far-transfer measurement), the motivational gains only transferred to the response dynamics (speed of processing). Hence, the motivational setting clearly had a positive impact on the training motivation and on the paradigm-specific task-switching abilities; it did not, however, consistently generalize on broad cognitive processes. These findings shed new light on the conflation of motivation and cognition in childhood and may help to refine guidelines for designing adequate training interventions. PMID:25431564

  19. Social cognition intervention in schizophrenia: Description of the training of affect recognition program - Indian version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonse, Umesh; Behere, Rishikesh V; Frommann, Nicole; Sharma, Psvn

    2018-01-01

    Social cognition refers to mental operations involved in processing of social cues and includes the domains of emotion processing, Theory of Mind (ToM), social perception, social knowledge and attributional bias. Significant deficits in ToM, emotion perception and social perception have been demonstrated in schizophrenia which can have an impact on socio-occupational functioning. Intervention modules for social cognition have demonstrated moderate effect sizes for improving emotion identification and discrimination. We describe the Indian version of the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR) program and a pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of administering this intervention program in the Indian population. We also discuss the cultural sensibilities in adopting an intervention program for the Indian setting. To the best of our knowledge this is the first intervention program for social cognition for use in persons with schizophrenia in India. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of strength training on cognitive performance in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolarek AC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available André de Camargo Smolarek,1,2 Luis Henrique Boiko Ferreira,1,2 Luis Paulo Gomes Mascarenhas,1 Steven R McAnulty,3 Karla Daniele Varela,4 Mônica C Dangui,4 Marcelo Paes de Barros,5 Alan C Utter,3 Tácito P Souza-Junior2,3 1Department of Physical Education, Biochemistry of the Exercise Laboratory, Centro Oeste University State, Irati, Parana, 2Research Group on Metabolism, Nutrition and Strength Training, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Brazil; 3Department of Health and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA; 4Physical Education Department, Faculty Guairaca, Guarapuava, Parana, 5Institute of Physical Activity and Sports Science (ICAFE, Cruzeiro do Sul University, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Aging is a degenerative process marked by recognized functional, physiological, and metabolic impairments, such as dynapenia and diminished cognitive capacity. Therefore, the search for innovative strategies to prevent/delay these physiological and cognitive disorders is essential to guarantee the independence and life quality of an elderly population. The aim of this work is to verify the effect of a 12-week resistance exercise program on the general physical aptitude and cognitive capacities of elderly and sedentary women. Twenty-nine women (65.87±5.69 years were divided into two groups. The control group was composed of eight elderly women who met the same inclusion criteria of the study and the strength training group was composed of 29 elderly women who were subjected to a resistance exercise program defined by 12 upper and lower limb exercises combined in 3×10 repetitions with 1-minute interval between repetitions and two resting minutes between exercises (three times/week. Weight loads were fixed between 60% and 75% of the apparent 1 repetition maximum, which was estimated by the test of 10 maximum repetitions. The direct curl was performed for upper body strength evaluation with 2

  1. A Case Report Examining the Feasibility of Meta-Cognitive Strategy Training in Acute Inpatient Stroke Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Holm, Margo B.; Whyte, Ellen M.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Dawson, Deirdre; Becker, James T.

    2011-01-01

    Meta-cognitive strategy training may be used to augment inpatient rehabilitation to promote active engagement and subsequent benefit for individuals with cognitive impairments after stroke. We examined the feasibility of administering a form of meta-cognitive strategy training, Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance, during inpatient rehabilitation. We trained an individual with cognitive impairments after right hemisphere stroke to identify performance problems, set self-selected goals, develop plans to address goals, and evaluate performance improvements. To assess feasibility, we examined the number of meta-cognitive training sessions attended, the number of self-selected goals, and changes in goal-related performance. We also examined changes in rehabilitation engagement and disability. The participant used the meta-cognitive strategy to set 8 goals addressing physically-oriented, instrumental, and work-related activities. Mean improvement in Canadian Occupational Performance Measure Performance Scale scores was 6.1. Pittsburgh Rehabilitation Participation Scale scores (measuring rehabilitation engagement) improved from 3.2 at admission to 4.9 at discharge. Functional Independence Measure scores (measuring disability) improved from 68 at admission, to 97 at discharge. Performance Assessment of Self-care Skills scores improved from 1.1 at admission to 2.9 at discharge. The results indicate that meta-cognitive strategy training was feasible during inpatient rehabilitation and warrants further evaluation to determine its effectiveness. PMID:21391121

  2. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Training in Reducing Depression in Visually Impaired Male Students

    OpenAIRE

    Erfan Soleimani Sefat; Seyyed Jalal Younesi; Asghar Dadkhah; Mohammad Rostami

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: According to the prevalence of psychological problems, especially depression in people with visual impairment, this study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of group training of cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing depression in visually impaired male students.  Methods: This study employed a quasi-experimental design, with pre-test and post-test and control group. The study population included 30 students with visual impairment from high school and pre-universit...

  3. Implementation of a Cognitive Skills Training Program in ROTC: The Leadership Enrichment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    IMPLEMENTATION ..................... B-i C. LEP BRIDGING MANUAL . ............... ..... C-I D. ROTC INSTRUCTORS TRAINED IN IE ............... D-1 E. BASIC...cognitive ability. The importance of thinking ability is em- phasized throughout the leadership field manual , FM-22-100, particularly in the sections...haplamtation * Qonfeaumos Calls, * Gonctmetr Site Visits * instrutor 4-5/85 questionnaires Got Feeback an * Conference Camll * Ref ruskur Session 2/85 Frolow

  4. Social-cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: generalization of effects of the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölwer, Wolfgang; Frommann, Nicole

    2011-09-01

    In the last decade, several social cognitive remediation programs have been developed for use in schizophrenia. Though existing evidence indicates that such programs can improve social cognition, which is essential for successful social functioning, it remains unclear whether the improvements generalize to social cognitive domains not primarily addressed by the intervention and whether the improved test performance transfers into everyday social functioning. The present study investigated whether, beyond its known effects on facial affect recognition, the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR) has effects on prosodic affect recognition, theory of mind (ToM) performance, social competence in a role-play task, and more general social and occupational functioning. Thirty-eight inpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of treatment with the TAR--primarily targeted at facial affect recognition-or Cognitive Remediation Training (CRT)--primarily targeted at neurocognition. Intention-to-treat analyses found significantly larger pre-post improvements with TAR than with CRT in prosodic affect recognition, ToM, and social competence and a trend effect in global social functioning. However, the effects on ToM and social competence were no longer significant in the smaller group of patients who completed treatment according to protocol. Results suggest that TAR effects generalize to other social cognitive domains not primarily addressed. TAR may also enhance social skills and social functioning, although this has to be confirmed. Results are discussed with regard to the need to improve functional outcome in schizophrenia against the background of current evidence from other social cognitive remediation approaches.

  5. Reducing children's social anxiety symptoms: exploring a novel parent-administered cognitive bias modification training intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jennifer Y F; Pettit, Eleanor; Creswell, Cathy

    2013-07-01

    Social fears and worries in children are common and impairing. Yet, questions have been raised over the efficacy, suitability and accessibility of current frontline treatments. Here, we present data on the effectiveness of a novel parent-administered Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretations (CBM-I) training tool. CBM-I capitalises on findings demonstrating an association between anxiety symptoms and biased interpretations, the tendency to interpret ambiguous situations negatively. Through CBM-I training, participants are exposed to benign resolutions, and reinforced for selecting these. In adults and adolescents, CBM-I training is effective at reducing symptoms and mood reactivity. In the present study, we developed a novel, child-appropriate form of CBM-I training, by presenting training materials within bedtime stories, read by a parent to the child across three consecutive evenings. Compared to a test-retest control group (n = 17), children receiving CBM-I (n = 19) reported greater endorsement of benign interpretations of ambiguous situations post-training (compared to pre-training). These participants (but not the test-retest control group) also showed a significant reduction in social anxiety symptoms. Pending replication and extensions to a clinical sample, these data may implicate a cost-effective, mechanism-driven and developmentally-appropriate resource for targeting social anxiety problems in children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modifying adolescent interpretation biases through cognitive training: effects on negative affect and stress appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telman, Machteld D; Holmes, Emily A; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2013-10-01

    Adolescent anxiety is common, impairing and costly. Given the scale of adolescent anxiety and its impact, fresh innovations for therapy are in demand. Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretations (CBM-I) studies of adults show that by training individuals to endorse benign interpretations of ambiguous situations can improve anxious mood-states particularly in response towards stress. While, these investigations have been partially extended to adolescents with success, inconsistent training effects on anxious mood-states have been found. The present study investigated whether positive versus negative CBM-I training influenced appraisals of stress, in forty-nine adolescents, aged 15-18. Data supported the plasticity of interpretational styles, with positively-trained adolescents selecting more benign resolutions of new ambiguous situations, than negatively-trained adolescents. Positively-trained adolescents also rated recent stressors as having less impact on their lives than negatively-trained adolescents. Thus, while negative styles may increase negative responses towards stress, positive styles may boost resilience.

  7. Improvement of gross motor and cognitive abilities by an exercise training program: three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alesi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Marianna Alesi,1 Giuseppe Battaglia,2 Michele Roccella,1 Davide Testa,1 Antonio Palma,2 Annamaria Pepi1 1Department of Psychology, 2Department of Law, Social and Sport Science, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy Background: This work examined the efficacy of an integrated exercise training program (coach and family in three children with Down syndrome to improve their motor and cognitive abilities, in particular reaction time and working memory. Methods: The integrated exercise training program was used in three children with Down syndrome, comprising two boys (M1, with a chronological age of 10.3 years and a mental age of 4.7 years; M2, with a chronological age of 14.6 years and a mental age of less than 4 years and one girl (F1, chronological age 14.0 years and a mental age of less than 4 years. Results: Improvements in gross motor ability scores were seen after the training period. Greater improvements in task reaction time were noted for both evaluation parameters, ie, time and omissions. Conclusion: There is a close interrelationship between motor and cognitive domains in individuals with atypical development. There is a need to plan intervention programs based on the simultaneous involvement of child and parents and aimed at promoting an active lifestyle in individuals with Down syndrome. Keywords: disability, Down syndrome, gross motor abilities, cognitive abilities, physical activity

  8. Reducing Fall Risk with Combined Motor and Cognitive Training in Elderly Fallers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Barban

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Falling is a major clinical problem in elderly people, demanding effective solutions. At present, the only effective intervention is motor training of balance and strength. Executive function-based training (EFt might be effective at preventing falls according to evidence showing a relationship between executive functions and gait abnormalities. The aim was to assess the effectiveness of a motor and a cognitive treatment developed within the EU co-funded project I-DONT-FALL. Methods. In a sample of 481 elderly people at risk of falls recruited in this multicenter randomised controlled trial, the effectiveness of a motor treatment (pure motor or mixed with EFt of 24 one-hour sessions delivered through an i-Walker with a non-motor treatment (pure EFt or control condition was evaluated. Similarly, a 24 one-hour session cognitive treatment (pure EFt or mixed with motor training, delivered through a touch-screen computer was compared with a non-cognitive treatment (pure motor or control condition. Results. Motor treatment, particularly when mixed with EFt, reduced significantly fear of falling (F(1,478 = 6.786, p = 0.009 although to a limited extent (ES −0.25 restricted to the period after intervention. Conclusions. This study suggests the effectiveness of motor treatment empowered by EFt in reducing fear of falling.

  9. Relaxation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Environ Corporation's relaxation system is built around a body lounge, a kind of super easy chair that incorporates sensory devices. Computer controlled enclosure provides filtered ionized air to create a feeling of invigoration, enhanced by mood changing aromas. Occupant is also surrounded by multidimensional audio and the lighting is programmed to change colors, patterns, and intensity periodically. These and other sensory stimulators are designed to provide an environment in which the learning process is stimulated, because research has proven that while an individual is in a deep state of relaxation, the mind is more receptive to new information.

  10. How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miendlarzewska, Ewa A; Trost, Wiebke J

    2013-01-01

    Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musical training extend beyond the skills it directly aims to train and last well into adulthood. For example, children who undergo musical training have better verbal memory, second language pronunciation accuracy, reading ability and executive functions. Learning to play an instrument as a child may even predict academic performance and IQ in young adulthood. The degree of observed structural and functional adaptation in the brain correlates with intensity and duration of practice. Importantly, the effects on cognitive development depend on the timing of musical initiation due to sensitive periods during development, as well as on several other modulating variables. Notably, we point to motivation, reward and social context of musical education, which are important yet neglected factors affecting the long-term benefits of musical training. Further, we introduce the notion of rhythmic entrainment and suggest that it may represent a mechanism supporting learning and development of executive functions. It also hones temporal processing and orienting of attention in time that may underlie enhancements observed in reading and verbal memory. We conclude that musical training uniquely engenders near and far transfer effects, preparing a foundation for a range of skills, and thus fostering cognitive development.

  11. How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Aurelia Miendlarzewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musical training extend beyond the skills it directly aims to train and last well into adulthood. For example, children who undergo musical training have better verbal memory, second language pronunciation accuracy, reading ability and executive functions. Learning to play an instrument as a child may even predict academic performance and IQ in young adulthood. The degree of observed structural and functional adaptation in the brain correlates with intensity and duration of practice. Importantly, the effects on cognitive development depend on the timing of musical initiation due to sensitive periods during development, as well as on several other modulating variables. Notably, we point to motivation, reward and social context of musical education, which are important yet neglected factors affecting the long-term benefits of musical training. Further, we introduce the notion of rhythmic entrainment and suggest that it may represent a mechanism supporting learning and development of executive functions. It also hones temporal processing and orienting of attention in time that may underlie enhancements observed in reading and verbal memory. We conclude that musical training uniquely engenders near and far transfer effects, preparing a foundation for a range of skills, and thus fostering cognitive development.

  12. Effects of Relaxing and Arousing Music during Imagery Training on Dart-Throwing Performance, Physiological Arousal Indices, and Competitive State Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Garry; Morris, Tony; Kueh, Yee Cheng; Terry, Peter C

    2018-01-01

    Music that is carefully selected to match the requirements of activities and the characteristics of individuals has been shown to produce significant impacts on performance enhancement (Priest et al., 2004). There is also evidence that music can enhance imagery (Grocke and Wigram, 2007), although few studies have investigated the effects of music on imagery in the context of sport skills. In the present study, the effects of relaxing and arousing music during imagery on dart-throwing performance, physiological arousal indices, and competitive state anxiety, were investigated among 63 novice dart throwers. Participants had moderate-to-high imagery ability and were randomly assigned to unfamiliar relaxing music (URM), unfamiliar arousing music (UAM), or no music (NM) groups. Performance was assessed by 40 dart throws at a concentric circles dartboard before and after 12 imagery sessions over 4 weeks. Measures of galvanic skin response (GSR), peripheral temperature (PT), and heart rate (HR) were taken during imagery sessions 1 and 12, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 Revised (CSAI-2R) was administered prior to the pre- and post-intervention performance task. Dart-throwing gain scores were significantly higher for URM than for UAM and NM, with no significant difference between UAM and NM (URM = 37.24 ± 5.66, UAM = 17.57 ± 5.30, and NM = 13.19 ± 6.14, F 2,62 = 5.03, p = 0.01, η 2 = 0.14). GSR, PT, and HR reflected lower arousal for URM than for UAM or NM. Significant decreases in somatic anxiety were evident for URM and UAM but not NM. Significant decreases in cognitive anxiety were evident for URM and NM but not UAM. Significant increases in self-confidence were evident for URM but not UAM or NM. Performance improved in all three conditions but URM was associated with the largest performance gain, the lowest physiological indices of arousal, and the most positive CSAI-2R profiles. Listening to relaxing music during imagery may have benefits for

  13. Effects of Relaxing and Arousing Music during Imagery Training on Dart-Throwing Performance, Physiological Arousal Indices, and Competitive State Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Kuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Music that is carefully selected to match the requirements of activities and the characteristics of individuals has been shown to produce significant impacts on performance enhancement (Priest et al., 2004. There is also evidence that music can enhance imagery (Grocke and Wigram, 2007, although few studies have investigated the effects of music on imagery in the context of sport skills. In the present study, the effects of relaxing and arousing music during imagery on dart-throwing performance, physiological arousal indices, and competitive state anxiety, were investigated among 63 novice dart throwers. Participants had moderate-to-high imagery ability and were randomly assigned to unfamiliar relaxing music (URM, unfamiliar arousing music (UAM, or no music (NM groups. Performance was assessed by 40 dart throws at a concentric circles dartboard before and after 12 imagery sessions over 4 weeks. Measures of galvanic skin response (GSR, peripheral temperature (PT, and heart rate (HR were taken during imagery sessions 1 and 12, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 Revised (CSAI-2R was administered prior to the pre- and post-intervention performance task. Dart-throwing gain scores were significantly higher for URM than for UAM and NM, with no significant difference between UAM and NM (URM = 37.24 ± 5.66, UAM = 17.57 ± 5.30, and NM = 13.19 ± 6.14, F2,62 = 5.03, p = 0.01, η2 = 0.14. GSR, PT, and HR reflected lower arousal for URM than for UAM or NM. Significant decreases in somatic anxiety were evident for URM and UAM but not NM. Significant decreases in cognitive anxiety were evident for URM and NM but not UAM. Significant increases in self-confidence were evident for URM but not UAM or NM. Performance improved in all three conditions but URM was associated with the largest performance gain, the lowest physiological indices of arousal, and the most positive CSAI-2R profiles. Listening to relaxing music during imagery may have benefits for

  14. Multi-center randomized controlled trial of cognitive treatment, placebo, oxybutynin, bladder training, and pelvic floor training in children with functional urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gool, Jan D.; de Jong, Tom P. V. M.; Winkler-Seinstra, Pauline; Tamminen-Moebius, Tytti; Lax, Hildegard; Hirche, Herbert; Nijman, Rien J. M.; Hjalmas, Kelm; Jodal, Ulf; Bachmann, Hannsjoerg; Hoebeke, Piet; Vande Walle, Johan; Misselwitz, Joachim; John, Ulrike; Bael, An

    Objective Functional urinary incontinence causes considerable morbidity in 8.4% of school-age children, mainly girls. To compare oxybutynin, placebo, and bladder training in overactive bladder (OAB), and cognitive treatment and pelvic floor training in dysfunctional voiding (DV), a multi-center

  15. Multi-center randomized controlled trial of cognitive treatment, placebo, oxybutynin, bladder training, and pelvic floor training in children with functional urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gool, Jan D.; de Jong, Tom P. V. M.; Winkler-Seinstra, Pauline; Tamminen-Möbius, Tytti; Lax, Hildegard; Hirche, Herbert; Nijman, Rien J. M.; Hjälmås, Kelm; Jodal, Ulf; Bachmann, Hannsjörg; Hoebeke, Piet; Walle, Johan Vande; Misselwitz, Joachim; John, Ulrike; Bael, An

    2014-01-01

    Functional urinary incontinence causes considerable morbidity in 8.4% of school-age children, mainly girls. To compare oxybutynin, placebo, and bladder training in overactive bladder (OAB), and cognitive treatment and pelvic floor training in dysfunctional voiding (DV), a multi-center controlled

  16. Effects of cancer rehabilitation on problem-solving, anxiety and depression : a RCT comparing physical and cognitive-behavioural training versus physical training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstjens, Irene; Mesters, Ilse; May, Anne M; van Weert, Ellen; van den Hout, Johanna H C; Ros, Wynand; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E H M; van der Schans, Cees; van den Borne, Bart

    2011-01-01

    We tested the effects on problem-solving, anxiety and depression of 12-week group-based self-management cancer rehabilitation, combining comprehensive physical training (PT) and cognitive-behavioural problem-solving training (CBT), compared with PT. We expected that PT + CBT would outperform PT in

  17. Effects of cancer rehabilitation on problem-solving, anxiety and depression : A RCT comparing physical and cognitive-behavioural training versus physical training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstjens, Irene; Mesters, Ilse; May, Anne M.; van Weert, Ellen; van den Hout, Johanna H. C.; Ros, Wynand; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; van der Schans, Cees P.; van den Borne, Bart

    2011-01-01

    We tested the effects on problem-solving, anxiety and depression of 12-week group-based self-management cancer rehabilitation, combining comprehensive physical training (PT) and cognitive-behavioural problem-solving training (CBT), compared with PT. We expected that PT + CBT would outperform PT in

  18. The Effectiveness of Cognitive- behavioral Techniques Training on Procrastination, Stress, Anxiety and Depression of High School Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sA hasar

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: training of cognitive-behavioral techniques reduced procrastination, anxiety and stress in experimental group in comparison with control group but it did not have meaningful effect on control group depression

  19. Temporal pattern of emotions and cognitive load during simulation training and debriefing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Kristin; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2018-04-24

    In the simulated clinical environment, there is a perceived benefit to the emotional activation experienced by learners; however, potential harm of excessive and/or negative emotions has also been hypothesized. An improved understanding of the emotional experiences of learners during each phase of the simulation session will inform instructional design. In this observational study, we asked 174 first-year medical students about their emotional state upon arrival to the simulation lab (t1). They were then trained on a standard simulation scenario, after which they rated their emotional state and perceived cognitive load (t2). After debriefing, we then asked them to again rate their emotions and cognitive load (t3). Students reported that their experience of tranquility (a positive and low-arousal state) dropped from pre-scenario (t1) to post-scenario (t2), and returned to baseline levels after debriefing (t3), from 0.69 (0.87) to 0.14 (0.78) to 0.62 (0.78). Post scenario cognitive load was rated to be moderately high at 6.62 (1.12) and scores increased after debriefing to 6.90 (1.05) d = 0.26, p Cognitive load was associated with the simultaneous measures of emotions at both t2 and t3. Participant emotions are significantly altered through the experience of medical simulation and emotions are associated with subjective ratings of cognitive load.

  20. Effect of elastic band-based high-speed power training on cognitive function, physical performance and muscle strength in older women with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dong Hyun; Kang, Dongheon; Kim, Hee-Jae; Kim, Jin-Soo; Song, Han Sol; Song, Wook

    2017-05-01

    The effectiveness of resistance training in improving cognitive function in older adults is well demonstrated. In particular, unconventional high-speed resistance training can improve muscle power development. In the present study, the effectiveness of 12 weeks of elastic band-based high-speed power training (HSPT) was examined. Participants were randomly assigned into a HSPT group (n = 14, age 75.0 ± 0.9 years), a low-speed strength training (LSST) group (n = 9, age 76.0 ± 1.3 years) and a control group (CON; n = 7, age 78.0 ± 1.0 years). A 1-h exercise program was provided twice a week for 12 weeks for the HSPT and LSST groups, and balance and tone exercises were carried out by the CON group. Significant increases in levels of cognitive function, physical function, and muscle strength were observed in both the HSPT and LSST groups. In cognitive function, significant improvements in the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment were seen in both the HSPT and LSST groups compared with the CON group. In physical functions, Short Physical Performance Battery scores were increased significantly in the HSPT and LSST groups compared with the CON group. In the 12 weeks of elastic band-based training, the HSPT group showed greater improvements in older women with mild cognitive impairment than the LSST group, although both regimens were effective in improving cognitive function, physical function and muscle strength. We conclude that elastic band-based HSPT, as compared with LSST, is more efficient in helping older women with mild cognitive impairment to improve cognitive function, physical performance and muscle strength. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 765-772. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  1. Cognitive Enhancement Through Action Video Game Training: Great Expectations Require Greater Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph eBisoglio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Action video game training may hold promise as a cognitive intervention with the potential to enhance daily functioning and remediate impairments, but this must be more thoroughly evaluated through evidence-based practices. We review current research on the effect of action video game training on visual attention and visuospatial processing, executive functions, and learning and memory. Focusing on studies that utilize strict experimental controls and synthesize behavioral and neurophysiological data, we examine whether there is sufficient evidence to support a causal relationship between action video game training and beneficial changes in cognition. Convergent lines of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence tentatively support the efficacy of training, but the magnitude and specificity of these effects remain obscure. Causal inference is thus far limited by a lack of standardized and well-controlled methodology. Considering future directions, we suggest stringent adherence to evidence based practices and collaboration modeled after clinical trial networks. Finally, we recommend the exploration of more complex causal models, such as indirect causal relationships and interactions that may be masking true effects.

  2. Validity of Cognitive Load Measures in Simulation-Based Training: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, Laura M; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive load theory (CLT) provides a rich framework to inform instructional design. Despite the applicability of CLT to simulation-based medical training, findings from multimedia learning have not been consistently replicated in this context. This lack of transferability may be related to issues in measuring cognitive load (CL) during simulation. The authors conducted a review of CLT studies across simulation training contexts to assess the validity evidence for different CL measures. PRISMA standards were followed. For 48 studies selected from a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and ERIC databases, information was extracted about study aims, methods, validity evidence of measures, and findings. Studies were categorized on the basis of findings and prevalence of validity evidence collected, and statistical comparisons between measurement types and research domains were pursued. CL during simulation training has been measured in diverse populations including medical trainees, pilots, and university students. Most studies (71%; 34) used self-report measures; others included secondary task performance, physiological indices, and observer ratings. Correlations between CL and learning varied from positive to negative. Overall validity evidence for CL measures was low (mean score 1.55/5). Studies reporting greater validity evidence were more likely to report that high CL impaired learning. The authors found evidence that inconsistent correlations between CL and learning may be related to issues of validity in CL measures. Further research would benefit from rigorous documentation of validity and from triangulating measures of CL. This can better inform CLT instructional design for simulation-based medical training.

  3. The Transfer of Cognitive Speed of Processing Training to Older Adults' Driving Mobility Across 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lesley A; Edwards, Jerri D; O'Connor, Melissa L; Ball, Karlene K; Wadley, Virginia G; Vance, David E

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel models assessed the effects of cognitive speed of processing training (SPT) on older adults' self-reported driving using intention-to-treat (ITT, randomization to training or control conditions) and dosage (treatment-received via number of training sessions) analyses across 5 years. Participants randomized to SPT (n = 598) were compared with those randomized to either the no-contact control (n = 598) or memory training, which served as an active control (n = 610). Driving mobility (frequency, exposure, and space) was assessed over time. No significant effects were found within the ITT analyses. However, number of SPT sessions did affect driving mobility outcomes. In the full sample (N = 1,806), higher SPT doses were associated with maintained driving frequency as compared with both control groups, but no effects were found for driving exposure or space. Subsample analyses (n = 315) revealed that persons at-risk for mobility declines (i.e., poor initial processing speed) who received additional booster SPT sessions reported greater maintenance of both driving frequency and exposure over time as compared with the no-contact and active control groups. These results and prior research indicate that cognitive SPT transfers to prolonged driving mobility among older adults. Future research should investigate the mechanisms behind transfer effects to real-world activities, such as driving. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The Transfer of Cognitive Speed of Processing Training to Older Adults’ Driving Mobility Across 5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jerri D.; O’Connor, Melissa L.; Ball, Karlene K.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Vance, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Multilevel models assessed the effects of cognitive speed of processing training (SPT) on older adults’ self-reported driving using intention-to-treat (ITT, randomization to training or control conditions) and dosage (treatment-received via number of training sessions) analyses across 5 years. Method. Participants randomized to SPT (n = 598) were compared with those randomized to either the no-contact control (n = 598) or memory training, which served as an active control (n = 610). Driving mobility (frequency, exposure, and space) was assessed over time. Results. No significant effects were found within the ITT analyses. However, number of SPT sessions did affect driving mobility outcomes. In the full sample (N = 1,806), higher SPT doses were associated with maintained driving frequency as compared with both control groups, but no effects were found for driving exposure or space. Subsample analyses (n = 315) revealed that persons at-risk for mobility declines (i.e., poor initial processing speed) who received additional booster SPT sessions reported greater maintenance of both driving frequency and exposure over time as compared with the no-contact and active control groups. Discussion. These results and prior research indicate that cognitive SPT transfers to prolonged driving mobility among older adults. Future research should investigate the mechanisms behind transfer effects to real-world activities, such as driving. PMID:25878053

  5. The effects of strength training on cognitive performance in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarek, André de Camargo; Ferreira, Luis Henrique Boiko; Mascarenhas, Luis Paulo Gomes; McAnulty, Steven R; Varela, Karla Daniele; Dangui, Mônica C; de Barros, Marcelo Paes; Utter, Alan C; Souza-Junior, Tácito P

    2016-01-01

    Aging is a degenerative process marked by recognized functional, physiological, and metabolic impairments, such as dynapenia and diminished cognitive capacity. Therefore, the search for innovative strategies to prevent/delay these physiological and cognitive disorders is essential to guarantee the independence and life quality of an elderly population. The aim of this work is to verify the effect of a 12-week resistance exercise program on the general physical aptitude and cognitive capacities of elderly and sedentary women. Twenty-nine women (65.87±5.69 years) were divided into two groups. The control group was composed of eight elderly women who met the same inclusion criteria of the study and the strength training group was composed of 29 elderly women who were subjected to a resistance exercise program defined by 12 upper and lower limb exercises combined in 3×10 repetitions with 1-minute interval between repetitions and two resting minutes between exercises (three times/week). Weight loads were fixed between 60% and 75% of the apparent 1 repetition maximum, which was estimated by the test of 10 maximum repetitions. The direct curl was performed for upper body strength evaluation with 2.3 kg dumbbells for 30 seconds, whereas the chair test was used for lower body evaluation (total sit-stand movements in 30 seconds). The cognitive capacities of subjects were evaluated by "The Montreal Cognitive Assessment" questionnaire. After 12 weeks, the elderly group showed significant increases in the average upper body strength (58%), lower body strength (68%), and cognitive capacity (19%). The present study demonstrated that regular resistance exercises could provide significant gains on the upper and lower body strength concomitant to positive improvements on cognitive capacities of elderly women, bringing enhanced life quality.

  6. [Timing and effectiveness of Brenner's IPT cognitive training in early psychosis. A pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borriello, Adriana; Balbi, Andrea; Menichincheri, Renato Maria; Mirabella, Fiorino

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluates the outcome of cognitive training as part of Brenner's Integrated Psychological Therapy (IPT) in two groups of individuals with a schizophrenic spectrum disorder (F20-F24 ICD-10). 28 participants were divided into either an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group was composed of 13 individuals (46%) with a mean age of 21.2 years and a mean duration of illness (since their first episode of psychosis FEP) of 15.6 months. The control group included 15 individuals (54%) with a mean age of 25.6 years and a mean duration of illness of 74.4 months (beyond the critical period). Participants underwent an assessment of cognitive functioning which focused on attention, memory, executive functioning and cognitive flexibility as measured by the WCST (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Each individual was tested pre- and 6-month post-intervention. The original IPT method was altered by reducing the frequency of sessions to once a week and by limiting our sessions to 2-3 individuals per group. Cognitive flexibility (pattention, short-term memory and verbal fluency improved in both groups (from ptraining, when delivered in the early stages of psychosis (within 18 months from FEP), seems to be particularly effective in improving cognitive flexibility and long-term memory. We did not see improvements in those who had a longer duration of illness who also underwent the same treatment. Cognitive flexibility is linked to clinical insight and social cognition. Therefore, improving this function may lead to a better outcome for patients.

  7. A clinical randomized controlled trial of music therapy and progressive muscle relaxation training in female breast cancer patients after radical mastectomy: results on depression, anxiety and length of hospital stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kaina; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Jin; Liu, Miao; Dang, Shaonong; Wang, Duolao; Xin, Xia

    2015-02-01

    To examine effects of music therapy and progressive muscle relaxation training on depression, anxiety and length of hospital stay in Chinese female breast cancer patients after radical mastectomy. A total of 170 patients were randomly allocated to the intervention group (n = 85) receiving music therapy and progressive muscle relaxation training plus routine nursing care and the control group (n = 85) receiving routine nursing care. Music therapy and progressive muscle relaxation training were performed twice a day within 48 h after radical mastectomy, once in the early morning (6a.m.-8a.m.) and once in the evening (9p.m.-11p.m.), for 30 min per session until discharged from the hospital. A general linear model with univariate analysis showed that the intervention group patients had significant improvement in depression and anxiety in the effects of group (F = 20.31, P Music therapy and progressive muscle relaxation training can reduce depression, anxiety and length of hospital stay in female breast cancer patients after radical mastectomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cognitive Training and Work Therapy for the Treatment of Verbal Learning and Memory Deficits in Veterans With Alcohol Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Morris D; Vissicchio, Nicholas A; Weinstein, Andrea J

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the efficacy of cognitive training for verbal learning and memory deficits in a population of older veterans with alcohol use disorders. Veterans with alcohol use disorders, who were in outpatient treatment at VA facilities and in early-phase recovery (N = 31), were randomized to receive a three-month trial of daily cognitive training plus work therapy (n = 15) or work therapy alone (n = 16), along with treatment as usual. Participants completed assessments at baseline and at three- and six-month follow-ups; the Hopkins Verbal Learning Task (HVLT) was the primary outcome measure. Participants were primarily male (97%) and in their mid-50s (M = 55.16, SD = 5.16) and had been sober for 1.64 (SD = 2.81) months. Study retention was excellent (91% at three-month follow-up) and adherence to treatment in both conditions was very good. On average, participants in the cognitive training condition had more than 41 hours of cognitive training, and both conditions had more than 230 hours of productive activity. HVLT results at three-month follow-up revealed significant condition effects favoring cognitive training for verbal learning (HVLT Trial-3 T-score, p cognitive training condition with clinically significant verbal memory deficits (p therapy alone condition and a trend toward significance for verbal learning deficits, which was not sustained at six-month follow-up. This National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded pilot study demonstrates that cognitive training within the context of another activating intervention (work therapy) may have efficacy in remediating verbal learning and memory deficits in patients with alcohol use disorder. Findings indicate a large effect for cognitive training in this pilot study, which suggests that further research is warranted. This study is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT 01410110).

  9. An Examination of Mediators of the Transfer of Cognitive Speed of Processing Training to Everyday Functional Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Jerri D.; Ruva, Christine L.; O’Brien, Jennifer L.; Haley, Christine B.; Lister, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of these analyses was to examine mediators of the transfer of cognitive speed of processing training to improved everyday functional performance (Edwards, Wadley, Vance, Roenker, & Ball, 2005). Cognitive speed of processing and visual attention (as measured by the Useful Field of View Test; UFOV) were examined as mediators of training transfer. Secondary data analyses were conducted from the Staying Keen in Later Life (SKILL) study, a randomized cohort study including 126 communit...

  10. Effects of Smart-Tablet-Based Neurofeedback Training on Cognitive Function in Children with Attention Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min-Sup; Jeon, Hyejin; Kim, Miyoung; Hwang, Taeho; Oh, Seo Jin; Hwangbo, Minsu; Kim, Ki Joong

    2016-05-01

    We sought to determine whether smart-tablet-based neurofeedback could improve executive function-including attention, working memory, and self-regulation-in children with attention problems. Forty children (10-12 years old) with attention problems, as determined by ratings on the Conners Parent Rating Scale, were assigned to either a neurofeedback group that received 16 sessions or a control group. A comprehensive test battery that assessed general intelligence, visual and auditory attention, attentional shifting, response inhibition and behavior rating scales were administered to both groups before neurofeedback training. Several neuropsychological tests were conducted at posttraining and follow-up assessment. Scores on several neuropsychological tests and parent behavior rating scales showed significant improvement in the training group but not in the controls. The improvements remained through the follow-up assessment. This study suggests that the smart-tablet-based neurofeedback training program might improve cognitive function in children with attention problems. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Cognitive Training for Children: Effects on Inductive Reasoning, Deductive Reasoning, and Mathematics Achievement in an Australian School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkl, Sophie; Porter, Amy; Ginns, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Inductive reasoning is a core cognitive process of fluid intelligence, predicting a variety of educational outcomes. The Cognitive Training for Children (CTC) program is an educational intervention designed to develop children's inductive reasoning skills, with previous investigations finding substantial effects of the program on both inductive…

  12. Impact of Ramadan intermittent fasting on cognitive function in trained cyclists: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Chamari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed selected measures of cognitive function in trained cyclists who observed daylight fasting during Ramadan. Eleven cyclists volunteered to participate (age: 21.6±4.8 years, VO 2 max: 57.7±5.6 ml • kg-1 • min-1 and were followed for 2 months. Cognitive function (Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB, Reaction Time index (RTI and Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP tests and sleep architecture (ambulatory EEG were assessed: before Ramadan (BR, in the 1st week (RA1 and 4th week of Ramadan (RA4, and 2 weeks post-Ramadan (PR. Both cognitive tests were performed twice per day: before and after Ramadan at 8-10 a.m. and 4-6 p.m., and during Ramadan at 4-6 p.m. and 0-2 a.m., respectively. Training load (TL by the rating of perceived exertion (RPE method and wellness (Hooper index were measured daily. If the TL increased over the study period, this variable was stable during Ramadan. The perceived fatigue and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS increased at RA4. Sleep patterns and architecture showed clear disturbances, with significant increases in the number of awakenings and light sleep durations during Ramadan (RA1 and RA4, together with decreased durations of deep and REM sleep stages at PR. RTI (simple and multiple reaction index reaction and movement times did not vary over the study period. The RVP test showed reduced false alarms during Ramadan, suggesting reduced impulsivity. Overall accuracy significantly increased at RA1, RA4 and PR compared to baseline. At RA4, the accuracy was higher at 0-2 a.m. compared to 4-6 p.m. Despite the observed disturbances in sleep architecture, Ramadan fasting did not negatively impact the cognitive performance of trained cyclists from the Middle East.

  13. Impact of Ramadan intermittent fasting on cognitive function in trained cyclists: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamari, K; Briki, W; Farooq, A; Patrick, T; Belfekih, T; Herrera, C P

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed selected measures of cognitive function in trained cyclists who observed daylight fasting during Ramadan. Eleven cyclists volunteered to participate (age: 21.6±4.8 years, VO2max: 57.7±5.6 ml kg(-1)·min(-1)) and were followed for 2 months. Cognitive function (Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), Reaction Time index (RTI) and Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) tests) and sleep architecture (ambulatory EEG) were assessed: before Ramadan (BR), in the 1st week (RA1) and 4th week of Ramadan (RA4), and 2 weeks post-Ramadan (PR). Both cognitive tests were performed twice per day: before and after Ramadan at 8-10 a.m. and 4-6 p.m., and during Ramadan at 4-6 p.m. and 0-2 a.m., respectively. Training load (TL) by the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) method and wellness (Hooper index) were measured daily. If the TL increased over the study period, this variable was stable during Ramadan. The perceived fatigue and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) increased at RA4. Sleep patterns and architecture showed clear disturbances, with significant increases in the number of awakenings and light sleep durations during Ramadan (RA1 and RA4), together with decreased durations of deep and REM sleep stages at PR. RTI (simple and multiple reaction index) reaction and movement times did not vary over the study period. The RVP test showed reduced false alarms during Ramadan, suggesting reduced impulsivity. Overall accuracy significantly increased at RA1, RA4 and PR compared to baseline. At RA4, the accuracy was higher at 0-2 a.m. compared to 4-6 p.m. Despite the observed disturbances in sleep architecture, Ramadan fasting did not negatively impact the cognitive performance of trained cyclists from the Middle East.

  14. Gamified Cognitive Control Training for Remitted Depressed Individuals: User Requirements Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervaeke, Jasmien; Van Looy, Jan; Hoorelbeke, Kristof; Baeken, Chris; Koster, Ernst Hw

    2018-04-05

    The high incidence and relapse rates of major depressive disorder demand novel treatment options. Standard treatments (psychotherapy, medication) usually do not target cognitive control impairments, although these seem to play a crucial role in achieving stable remission. The urgent need for treatment combined with poor availability of adequate psychological interventions has instigated a shift toward internet interventions. Numerous computerized programs have been developed that can be presented online and offline. However, their uptake and adherence are oftentimes low. The aim of this study was to perform a user requirements analysis for an internet-based training targeting cognitive control. This training focuses on ameliorating cognitive control impairments, as these are still present during remission and can be a risk factor for relapse. To facilitate uptake of and adherence to this intervention, a qualitative user requirements analysis was conducted to map mandatory and desirable requirements. We conducted a user requirements analysis through a focus group with 5 remitted depressed individuals and individual interviews with 6 mental health care professionals. All qualitative data were transcribed and examined using a thematic analytic approach. Results showed mandatory requirements for the remitted sample in terms of training configuration, technological and personal factors, and desirable requirements regarding knowledge and enjoyment. Furthermore, knowledge and therapeutic benefits were key requirements for therapists. The identified requirements provide useful information to be integrated in interventions targeting cognitive control in depression. ©Jasmien Vervaeke, Jan Van Looy, Kristof Hoorelbeke, Chris Baeken, Ernst HW Koster. Originally published in JMIR Serious Games (http://games.jmir.org), 05.04.2018.

  15. Effect of music-based multitask training on cognition and mood in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hars, Mélany; Herrmann, Francois R; Gold, Gabriel; Rizzoli, René; Trombetti, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    in a secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial, we investigated whether 6 months of music-based multitask training had beneficial effects on cognitive functioning and mood in older adults. 134 community-dwellers aged ≥65 years at increased risk for falling were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (n = 66) who attended once weekly 1-h supervised group classes of multitask exercises, executed to the rhythm of piano music, or a control group with delayed intervention (n = 68) who maintained usual lifestyle habits, for 6 months. A short neuropsychological test battery was administered by an intervention-blinded neuropsychologist at baseline and Month 6, including the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), the clock-drawing test, the frontal assessment battery (FAB) and the hospital anxiety (HADS-A) and depression scale. intention-to-treat analysis showed an improvement in the sensitivity to interference subtest of the FAB (adjusted between-group mean difference (AMD), 0.12; 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.25; P = 0.047) and a reduction in anxiety level (HADS-A; AMD, -0.88; 95% CI, -1.73 to -0.05; P = 0.039) in intervention participants, as compared with the controls. Within-group analysis revealed an increase in MMSE score (P = 0.004) and a reduction in the number of participants with impaired global cognitive performance (i.e., MMSE score ≤23; P = 0.003) with intervention. six months of once weekly music-based multitask training was associated with improved cognitive function and decreased anxiety in community-dwelling older adults, compared with non-exercising controls. Studies designed to further delineate whether training-induced changes in cognitive function could contribute to dual-task gait improvements and falls reduction, remain to be conducted.

  16. Cognitive training of self-initiation of semantic encoding strategies in schizophrenia: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Synthia; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Available cognitive remediation interventions have a significant but relatively small to moderate impact on episodic memory in schizophrenia. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of a brief novel episodic memory training targeting the self-initiation of semantic encoding strategies. To select patients with such deficits, 28 participants with schizophrenia performed our Semantic Encoding Memory Task (SEMT) that provides a measure of self-initiated semantic encoding strategies. This task identified a deficit in 13 participants who were then offered two 60-minute training sessions one week apart. After the training, patients performed an alternate version of the SEMT. The CVLT-II (a standardised measure of semantic encoding strategies) and the BVMT-R (a control spatial memory task) were used to quantify memory pre- and post-training. After the training, participants were significantly better at self-initiating semantic encoding strategies in the SEMT (p = .004) and in the CVLT-II (p = .002). No significant differences were found in the BVMT-R. The current study demonstrates that a brief and specific training in memory strategies can help patients to improve a deficient memory process in schizophrenia. Future studies will need to test this intervention further using a randomised controlled trial, and to explore its functional impact.

  17. A new computerized cognitive and social cognition training specifically designed for patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder in early stages of illness: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gonzalo, Sol; Turon, Marc; Jodar, Merce; Pousa, Esther; Hernandez Rambla, Carla; García, Rebeca; Palao, Diego

    2015-08-30

    People with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorders at early stages of the illness present cognitive and social cognition deficits that have a great impact in functional outcomes. Cognitive Remediation Therapy (CRT) has demonstrated consistent effect in cognitive performance, symptoms and psychosocial functioning. However, any CRT intervention or social cognition training have been specifically designed for patients in the early stages of psychosis. The aim of this pilot study is to assess the efficacy of a new computerized cognitive and social cognition program for patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder with recent diagnosis. A comprehensive assessment of clinical, social and non-social cognitive and functional measures was carried out in 53 randomized participants before and after the 4-months treatment. Significant results were observed in Spatial Span Forwards, Immediate Logical Memory and Pictures of Facial Affect (POFA) total score. None of these results were explained by medication, premorbid social functioning or psychopathological symptoms. No impact of the intervention was observed in other cognitive and social cognition outcome neither in clinical and functional outcomes. This new computerized intervention may result effective ameliorating visual attention, logical memory and emotional processing in patients in the early stages of schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cognitive and motor dual task gait training improve dual task gait performance after stroke - A randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Ci; Yang, Yea-Ru; Tsai, Yun-An; Wang, Ray-Yau

    2017-06-22

    This study investigated effects of cognitive and motor dual task gait training on dual task gait performance in stroke. Participants (n = 28) were randomly assigned to cognitive dual task gait training (CDTT), motor dual task gait training (MDTT), or conventional physical therapy (CPT) group. Participants in CDTT or MDTT group practiced the cognitive or motor tasks respectively during walking. Participants in CPT group received strengthening, balance, and gait training. The intervention was 30 min/session, 3 sessions/week for 4 weeks. Three test conditions to evaluate the training effects were single walking, walking while performing cognitive task (serial subtraction), and walking while performing motor task (tray-carrying). Parameters included gait speed, dual task cost of gait speed (DTC-speed), cadence, stride time, and stride length. After CDTT, cognitive-motor dual task gait performance (stride length and DTC-speed) was improved (p = 0.021; p = 0.015). After MDTT, motor dual task gait performance (gait speed, stride length, and DTC-speed) was improved (p = 0.008; p = 0.008; p = 0.008 respectively). It seems that CDTT improved cognitive dual task gait performance and MDTT improved motor dual task gait performance although such improvements did not reach significant group difference. Therefore, different types of dual task gait training can be adopted to enhance different dual task gait performance in stroke.

  19. Cognitive Training for Post-Acute Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Hallock

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To quantitatively aggregate effects of cognitive training (CT on cognitive and functional outcome measures in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI more than 12-months post-injury.Design: We systematically searched six databases for non-randomized and randomized controlled trials (RCTs of CT in TBI patients at least 12-months post-injury reporting cognitive and/or functional outcomes. Main Measures: Efficacy was measured as standardized mean difference (Hedges’ g of post-training change. We investigated heterogeneity across studies using subgroup analyses and meta-regressions. Results: Fourteen studies encompassing 575 patients were included. The effect of CT on overall cognition was small and statistically significant (g=0.22, 95%CI 0.05 to 0.38; p=0.01, with low heterogeneity (I2=11.71% and no evidence of publication bias. A moderate effect size was found for overall functional outcomes (g=0.32, 95%CI 0.08 to 0.57, p=0.01 with low heterogeneity (I2=14.27% and possible publication bias. Statistically significant effects were also found only for executive function (g=0.20, 95%CI 0.02 to 0.39, p=0.03 and verbal memory (g=0.32, 95%CI 0.14 to 0.50, p<0.01. Conclusions: Despite limited studies in this field, this meta-analysis indicates that CT is modestly effective in improving cognitive and functional outcomes in patients with post-acute TBI and should therefore play a more significant role in TBI rehabilitation.

  20. Self-supervised, mobile-application based cognitive training of auditory attention: A behavioral and fMRI evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef J. Bless

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence of the validity of collecting data in natural settings using smartphone applications has opened new possibilities for psychological assessment, treatment, and research. In this study we explored the feasibility and effectiveness of using a mobile application for self-supervised training of auditory attention. In addition, we investigated the neural underpinnings of the training procedure with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, as well as possible transfer effects to untrained cognitive interference tasks. Subjects in the training group performed the training task on an iPod touch two times a day (morning/evening for three weeks; subjects in the control group received no training, but were tested at the same time interval as the training group. Behavioral responses were measured before and after the training period in both groups, together with measures of task-related neural activations by fMRI. The results showed an expected performance increase after training that corresponded to activation decreases in brain regions associated with selective auditory processing (left posterior temporal gyrus and executive functions (right middle frontal gyrus, indicating more efficient processing in task-related neural networks after training. Our study suggests that cognitive training delivered via mobile applications is feasible and improves the ability to focus attention with corresponding effects on neural plasticity. Future research should focus on the clinical benefits of mobile cognitive training. Limitations of the study are discussed including reduced experimental control and lack of transfer effects.

  1. A randomised controlled trial of adjunctive yoga and adjunctive physical exercise training for cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Triptish; Mazumdar, Sati; Wood, Joel; He, Fanyin; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L; Deshpande, Smita N

    2017-04-01

    Yoga and physical exercise have been used as adjunctive intervention for cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia (SZ), but controlled comparisons are lacking. Aims A single-blind randomised controlled trial was designed to evaluate whether yoga training or physical exercise training enhance cognitive functions in SZ, based on a prior pilot study. Consenting, clinically stable, adult outpatients with SZ (n=286) completed baseline assessments and were randomised to treatment as usual (TAU), supervised yoga training with TAU (YT) or supervised physical exercise training with TAU (PE). Based on the pilot study, the primary outcome measure was speed index for the cognitive domain of 'attention' in the Penn computerised neurocognitive battery. Using mixed models and contrasts, cognitive functions at baseline, 21 days (end of training), 3 and 6 months post-training were evaluated with intention-to-treat paradigm. Speed index of attention domain in the YT group showed greater improvement than PE at 6 months follow-up (pattention domain showed greater improvement than TAU alone at 6-month follow-up (pattention and additional cognitive domains well past the training period, supporting our prior reported beneficial effect of YT on speed index of attention domain. As adjuncts, YT or PE can benefit individuals with SZ.

  2. Comparison of focused cognitive training and portable "brain-games" on functional outcomes for vocational rehabilitation participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Morris D; Laws, Holly; Pittman, Brian; Johannesen, Jason K

    2018-01-29

    Cognitive remediation performed in a cognitive laboratory was compared with a sham control using portable brain games to study effects on vocational, neurocognitive, and functional outcomes for participants with psychotic disorders in vocational rehabilitation (VR). Seventy-seven participants (61% schizophrenia, 39% other psychosis) in transitional (45.5%) or supported employment (54.5%) were randomly assigned to 6 months of portable cognitive-games (CG) or cognitive remediation (CR) plus a weekly goal-setting group, and evaluated during training, post-training and at 12 months. Overall rates of employment did not differ significantly at 12-month follow-up; however, VR + CG attained employment more rapidly during training. A significant time by condition interaction favored VR + CR on Quality of Life Total Score and Instrumental Functioning over 12 months. Neurocognitive outcomes favored VR + CR, particularly on attention. Training hours related significantly to neurocognitive improvement regardless of condition. No differences were found in training adherence despite portability for VR + CG. Results indicate that VR + CR had significantly greater effect than VR + CG on neurocognition and community functioning, but not on employment outcome. Job attainment rates during the training period revealed a potential advantage for portable training raising new questions concerning how cognitive remediation can be most effectively integrated with VR.

  3. Hybrid Cognitive Behavioral Therapy versus Relaxation Training for Co-Occurring Anxiety and Alcohol Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Matt G.; Maurer, Eric W.; Thuras, Paul; Donahue, Chris; Frye, Brenda; Menary, Kyle R.; Hobbs, Jennifer; Haeny, Angela M.; Van Demark, Joani

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD) is far less effective for those with a co-occurring anxiety disorder. Surprisingly, adding an independent anxiety treatment to AUD treatment does not substantially improve the poor alcohol outcomes of these patients. This may reflect the lack of attention from independent treatments to the…

  4. Interactive Cognitive-Motor Step Training Improves Cognitive Risk Factors of Falling in Older Adults - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schoene

    Full Text Available Interactive cognitive-motor training (ICMT requires individuals to perform both gross motor movements and complex information processing. This study investigated the effectiveness of ICMT on cognitive functions associated with falls in older adults.A single-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted in community-dwelling older adults (N = 90, mean age 81.5±7 without major cognitive impairment. Participants in the intervention group (IG played four stepping games that required them to divide attention, inhibit irrelevant stimuli, switch between tasks, rotate objects and make rapid decisions. The recommended minimum dose was three 20-minute sessions per week over a period of 16 weeks unsupervised at home. Participants in the control group (CG received an evidence-based brochure on fall prevention. Measures of processing speed, attention/executive function (EF, visuo-spatial ability, concerns about falling and depression were assessed before and after the intervention.Eighty-one participants (90% attended re-assessment. There were no improvements with respect to the Stroop Stepping Test (primary outcome in the intervention group. Compared to the CG, the IG improved significantly in measures of processing speed, visuo-spatial ability and concern about falling. Significant interactions were observed for measures of EF and divided attention, indicating group differences varied for different levels of the covariate with larger improvements in IG participants with poorer baseline performance. The interaction for depression showed no change for the IG but an increase in the CG for those with low depressive symptoms at baseline. Additionally, low and high-adherer groups differed in their baseline performance and responded differently to the intervention. Compared to high adherers, low adherers improved more in processing speed and visual scanning while high-adherers improved more in tasks related to EF.This study shows that unsupervised stepping

  5. A cognitive perspective on technology enhanced learning in medical training: great opportunities, pitfalls and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Itiel; Schmidt, Pascal; O'connor, Lanty

    2011-01-01

    As new technology becomes available and is used for educational purposes, educators often take existing training and simply transcribe it into the new technological medium. However, when technology drives e-learning rather than the learner and the learning, and when it uses designs and approaches that were not originally built for e-learning, then often technology does not enhance the learning (it may even be detrimental to it). The success of e-learning depends on it being 'brain friendly', on engaging the learners from an understanding of how the cognitive system works. This enables educators to optimize learning by achieving correct mental representations that will be remembered and applied in practice. Such technology enhanced learning (TEL) involves developing and using novel approaches grounded in cognitive neuroscience; for example, gaming and simulations that distort realism rather than emphasizing visual fidelity and realism, making videos interactive, training for 'error recovery' rather than for 'error reduction', and a whole range of practical ways that result in effective TEL. These are a result of e-learning that is built to fit and support the cognitive system, and therefore optimize the learning.

  6. Performance-Based Contingency Management in Cognitive Remediation Training: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiluk, Brian D; Buck, Matthew B; Devore, Kathleen A; Babuscio, Theresa A; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2017-01-01

    Impairments in attention, working memory, and executive function are common among substance users and may adversely affect SUD treatment outcomes. The ability of cognitive remediation (CR) interventions to improve these deficits is hindered in part because levels of engagement in CR training may be inadequate to achieve benefit. This pilot study aimed to increase CR engagement and improve outcome by implementing contingency management (CM) procedures that reinforce performance improvements on CR tasks. Participants were forty individuals (50% male; 65% African American) in an outpatient substance use treatment facility with mild cognitive impairment who had ≥30-days of abstinence from alcohol and drugs. They were randomized to standard (CR-S; n=21) or CM-enhanced (CR-CM; n=19) cognitive remediation training. CR consisted of 1-hour sessions, three times per week for four weeks (12 sessions). A neuropsychological assessment battery was administered prior to and after the four-week intervention. Both groups had high rates of CR session attendance (mean CR-S=11.7, CR-CM=10.9 sessions). Performance on 8 of the 9 CR tasks significantly improved over time for both conditions, with the CR-CM condition demonstrating greater improvement on a CR Sequenced Recall task [F(1,37)=5.81, ptraining and suggest the potential value of more research in this area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Benefits of extending and adjusting the level of difficulty on computerized cognitive training for children with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon eOttersen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Training on working memory (WM improves attention and working memory in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and memory impairments. However, for children with intellectual disabilities (ID, the results have been less encouraging. In this preliminary study it was hypothesized that children with ID would benefit from an extended amount of training and that the level of difficulty during training would affect the outcome. We included 21 children with mild or moderate intellectual disabilities aged 8–13 years. They went through between 37 and 50 training sessions with an adaptive computerized program on WM and non-verbal reasoning (NVR. The children were divided into two subgroups with different difficulty levels during training. The transfer to untrained cognitive tests was compared to the results of 22 children with intellectual disabilities training only 25 sessions, and to a control group. We found that the training group with the extended training program improved significantly on a block design task measuring NVR and on a WM task compared to the control group. There was also a significantly larger improvement on block design relative to the training group with the shorter training time. The children that received easier training tasks also improved significantly more on a verbal WM task compared to children with more demanding tasks.In conclusion, these preliminary data suggest that children with ID might benefit from cognitive training with longer training periods and less demanding tasks, compared to children without disabilities.

  8. Benefits of extending and adjusting the level of difficulty on computerized cognitive training for children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottersen, Jon; Grill, Katja M

    2015-01-01

    Training on working memory (WM) improves attention and WM in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and memory impairments. However, for children with intellectual disabilities (ID), the results have been less encouraging. In this preliminary study it was hypothesized that children with ID would benefit from an extended amount of training and that the level of difficulty during training would affect the outcome. We included 21 children with mild or moderate ID aged 8-13 years. They went through between 37 and 50 training sessions with an adaptive computerized program on WM and non-verbal reasoning (NVR). The children were divided into two subgroups with different difficulty levels during training. The transfer to untrained cognitive tests was compared to the results of 22 children with ID training only 25 sessions, and to a control group. We found that the training group with the extended training program improved significantly on a block design task measuring NVR and on a WM task compared to the control group. There was also a significantly larger improvement on block design relative to the training group with the shorter training time. The children that received easier training tasks also improved significantly more on a verbal WM task compared to children with more demanding tasks. In conclusion, these preliminary data suggest that children with ID might benefit from cognitive training with longer training periods and less demanding tasks, compared to children without disabilities.

  9. Training Excitatory-Inhibitory Recurrent Neural Networks for Cognitive Tasks: A Simple and Flexible Framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Francis Song

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to simultaneously record from large numbers of neurons in behaving animals has ushered in a new era for the study of the neural circuit mechanisms underlying cognitive functions. One promising approach to uncovering the dynamical and computational principles governing population responses is to analyze model recurrent neural networks (RNNs that have been optimized to perform the same tasks as behaving animals. Because the optimization of network parameters specifies the desired output but not the manner in which to achieve this output, "trained" networks serve as a source of mechanistic hypotheses and a testing ground for data analyses that link neural computation to behavior. Complete access to the activity and connectivity of the circuit, and the ability to manipulate them arbitrarily, make trained networks a convenient proxy for biological circuits and a valuable platform for theoretical investigation. However, existing RNNs lack basic biological features such as the distinction between excitatory and inhibitory units (Dale's principle, which are essential if RNNs are to provide insights into the operation of biological circuits. Moreover, trained networks can achieve the same behavioral performance but differ substantially in their structure and dynamics, highlighting the need for a simple and flexible framework for the exploratory training of RNNs. Here, we describe a framework for gradient descent-based training of excitatory-inhibitory RNNs that can incorporate a variety of biological knowledge. We provide an implementation based on the machine learning library Theano, whose automatic differentiation capabilities facilitate modifications and extensions. We validate this framework by applying it to well-known experimental paradigms such as perceptual decision-making, context-dependent integration, multisensory integration, parametric working memory, and motor sequence generation. Our results demonstrate the wide range of neural

  10. Immunoendocrine alterations following Marine Corps Martial Arts training are associated with changes in moral cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlik, Jacob A; Deckert, Jake A; Clopton, Aaron W; Gigliotti, Nicole; Chan, Marcia A; Benedict, Stephen H; Herda, Trent J; Gallagher, Philip M; Vardiman, John P

    2016-02-01

    Combined physical and psychological stress events have been associated with exacerbated endocrine responses and increased alterations in immune cell trafficking when compared to exercise stress alone. Military training programs are rigorous in nature and often purposefully delivered in environments combining high levels of both physical and mental stress. The objective of this study was to assess physiological and cognitive changes following U.S. Marine Corps Martial Arts training. Seven active-duty, male Marines were observed during a typical Marine Corps Martial Arts training session. Immune parameters, including immunomodulatory cytokines, and hormone concentrations were determined from blood samples obtained at baseline, immediately post training (IP) and at 15min intervals post-training to 1h (R15, R30, R45, R60). Assessments of cognitive moral functioning (moral judgment and intent) were recorded at intervals during recovery. There were significant fluctuations in immunoendocrine parameters. Peak endocrine measures were observed within the IP-R15 time interval. Distributions of circulating immune cells were significantly altered with neutrophils and all lymphocyte subsets elevated at IP. IFN-γ and IL-17a exhibited small, non-significant, parallel increases over the recovery period. Moral functioning was informed by different social identities during the recovery resulting in changes in moral decision-making. These data demonstrate that the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program induces significant alterations in lymphocyte and leukocyte distributions, but does not shift the balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines or induce a systemic inflammatory response. The program does, however, induce alterations in moral decision-making ability associated with the observed endocrine responses, even suggesting a potential interaction between one's social identities and endocrine responses upon moral decision-making. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Working memory and cognitive flexibility-training for children with an autism spectrum disorder: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Marieke; Prins, Pier J. M.; Schmand, Ben A.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2015-01-01

    People with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) experience executive function (EF) deficits. There is an urgent need for effective interventions, but in spite of the increasing research focus on computerized cognitive training, this has not been studied in ASD. Hence, we investigated two EF training

  12. Virtual reality training to enhance behavior and cognitive function among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shema-Shiratzky, Shirley; Brozgol, Marina; Cornejo-Thumm, Pablo; Geva-Dayan, Karen; Rotstein, Michael; Leitner, Yael; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Mirelman, Anat

    2018-05-17

    To examine the feasibility and efficacy of a combined motor-cognitive training using virtual reality to enhance behavior, cognitive function and dual-tasking in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Fourteen non-medicated school-aged children with ADHD, received 18 training sessions during 6 weeks. Training included walking on a treadmill while negotiating virtual obstacles. Behavioral symptoms, cognition and gait were tested before and after the training and at 6-weeks follow-up. Based on parental report, there was a significant improvement in children's social problems and psychosomatic behavior after the training. Executive function and memory were improved post-training while attention was unchanged. Gait regularity significantly increased during dual-task walking. Long-term training effects were maintained in memory and executive function. Treadmill-training augmented with virtual-reality is feasible and may be an effective treatment to enhance behavior, cognitive function and dual-tasking in children with ADHD.

  13. Does Cognitive Strategy Training on Word Problems Compensate for Working Memory Capacity in Children with Math Difficulties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive strategies are important tools for children with math difficulties (MD) in learning to solve word problems. The effectiveness of strategy training, however, depends on working memory capacity (WMC). Thus, children with MD but with relatively higher WMC are more likely to benefit from strategy training, whereas children with lower WMC may…

  14. Designing simulator-based training: An approach integrating cognitive task analysis and four-component instructional design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjiam, I.M.; Schout, B.M.; Hendrikx, A.J.M.; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Witjes, J.A.; Van Merrienboer, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Most studies of simulator-based surgical skills training have focused on the acquisition of psychomotor skills, but surgical procedures are complex tasks requiring both psychomotor and cognitive skills. As skills training is modelled on expert performance consisting partly of unconscious automatic

  15. Tailored cognitive-behavioural therapy and exercise training improves the physical fitness of patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Koulil, S; van Lankveld, W; Kraaimaat, F W; van Helmond, T; Vedder, A; van Hoorn, H; Donders, A R T; Wirken, L; Cats, H; van Riel, P L C M; Evers, A W M

    2011-12-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia have diminished levels of physical fitness, which may lead to functional disability and exacerbating complaints. Multidisciplinary treatment comprising cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and exercise training has been shown to be effective in improving physical fitness. However, due to the high drop-out rates and large variability in patients' functioning, it was proposed that a tailored treatment approach might yield more promising treatment outcomes. High-risk fibromyalgia patients were randomly assigned to a waiting list control group (WLC) or a treatment condition (TC), with the treatment consisting of 16 twice-weekly sessions of CBT and exercise training tailored to the patient's cognitive-behavioural pattern. Physical fitness was assessed with two physical tests before and 3 months after treatment and at corresponding intervals in the WLC. Treatment effects were evaluated using linear mixed models. The level of physical fitness had improved significantly in the TC compared with the WLC. Attrition rates were low, effect sizes large and reliable change indices indicated a clinically relevant improvement among the TC. A tailored multidisciplinary treatment approach for fibromyalgia consisting of CBT and exercise training is well tolerated, yields clinically relevant changes, and appears a promising approach to improve patients' physical fitness. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT00268606.

  16. Cognitive Training Program to Improve Working Memory in Older Adults with MCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, Lee; Scott, Ciera; Atkinson, Mary Michael; Mullen, Christine M; Lee, Anna; Johnson, Aaron; Mckenzie, Laura C

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) are associated with age-related decline. We report findings from a clinical trial that examined the effectiveness of Cogmed, a computerized program that trains WM. We compare this program to a Sham condition in older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Older adults (N = 68) living in the community were assessed. Participants reported memory impairment and met criteria for MCI, either by poor delayed memory or poor performance in other cognitive areas. The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS, Delayed Memory Index) and the Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR) were utilized. All presented with normal Mini Mental State Exams (MMSE) and activities of daily living (ADLs). Participants were randomized to Cogmed or a Sham computer program. Twenty-five sessions were completed over five to seven weeks. Pre, post, and follow-up measures included a battery of cognitive measures (three WM tests), a subjective memory scale, and a functional measure. Both intervention groups improved over time. Cogmed significantly outperformed Sham on Span Board and exceeded in subjective memory reports at follow-up as assessed by the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ). The Cogmed group demonstrated better performance on the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ), a measure of adjustment and far transfer, at follow-up. Both groups, especially Cogmed, enjoyed the intervention. Results suggest that WM was enhanced in both groups of older adults with MCI. Cogmed was better on one core WM measure and had higher ratings of satisfaction. The Sham condition declined on adjustment.

  17. Coherence training in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: cognitive functions and behavioral changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Anthony; Brett, David; Wesnes, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent behavioral diagnosis in children, with an estimated 500 000 children affected in the United Kingdom alone. The need for an appropriate and effective intervention for children with ADHD is a growing concern for educators and childcare agencies. This randomized controlled clinical trial evaluated the impact of the HeartMath self-regulation skills and coherence training program (Institute of HeartMath, Boulder Creek, California) on a population of 38 children with ADHD in academic year groups 6, 7, and 8. Learning of the skills was supported with heart rhythm coherence monitoring and feedback technology designed to facilitate self-induced shifts in cardiac coherence. The cognitive drug research system was used to assess cognitive functioning as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures assessed teacher and student reposted changes in behavior. Participants demonstrated significant improvements in various aspects of cognitive functioning such as delayed word recall, immediate word recall, word recognition, and episodic secondary memory. Significant improvements in behavior were also found. The results suggest that the intervention offers a physiologically based program to improve cognitive functioning in children with ADHD and improve behaviors that is appropriate to implement in a school environment.

  18. Does napping enhance the effects of Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal training? An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woud, Marcella L; Cwik, Jan C; Blackwell, Simon E; Kleim, Birgit; Holmes, Emily A; Adolph, Dirk; Zhang, Hui; Margraf, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is characterised by dysfunctional appraisals of the trauma and its consequences including one's own symptoms. Experimental studies have shown that Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal (CBM-App) training can reduce dysfunctional interpretations and analog trauma symptoms. One important question is how to enhance the effects of CBM-App. Following work suggesting that sleep has beneficial effects on consolidation processes and can thus improve learning, the present study investigated whether a brief period of sleep (i.e., a nap) enhances the effects of CBM-App. All participants watched a stressful movie as an analogue trauma induction. After that, participants received either positive or negative CBM-App training. Within each training, half of the participants then had a 90-minute nap or watched a neutral movie. Results showed that the CBM training induced training-congruent appraisals. Sleep did not enhance this effect. Participants who slept, however, experienced fewer intrusive memories of the analogue trauma, but this effect was independent of the CBM condition. These results provide valuable information about the effects of sleep during a 90-minute nap period on encoding of analogue trauma and emotional learning in the context of appraisal, and highlight the importance of sleep as a focus for continued research.

  19. Does napping enhance the effects of Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal training? An experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella L Woud

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is characterised by dysfunctional appraisals of the trauma and its consequences including one's own symptoms. Experimental studies have shown that Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal (CBM-App training can reduce dysfunctional interpretations and analog trauma symptoms. One important question is how to enhance the effects of CBM-App. Following work suggesting that sleep has beneficial effects on consolidation processes and can thus improve learning, the present study investigated whether a brief period of sleep (i.e., a nap enhances the effects of CBM-App. All participants watched a stressful movie as an analogue trauma induction. After that, participants received either positive or negative CBM-App training. Within each training, half of the participants then had a 90-minute nap or watched a neutral movie. Results showed that the CBM training induced training-congruent appraisals. Sleep did not enhance this effect. Participants who slept, however, experienced fewer intrusive memories of the analogue trauma, but this effect was independent of the CBM condition. These results provide valuable information about the effects of sleep during a 90-minute nap period on encoding of analogue trauma and emotional learning in the context of appraisal, and highlight the importance of sleep as a focus for continued research.

  20. Social Intelligence for a Robot Engaging People in Cognitive Training Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanie Chan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Current research supports the use of cognitive training interventions to improve the brain functioning of both adults and children. Our work focuses on exploring the potential use of robot assistants to allow for these interventions to become more accessible. Namely, we aim to develop an intelligent, socially assistive robot that can engage individuals in person-centred cognitively stimulating activities. In this paper, we present the design of a novel control architecture for the robot Brian 2.0, which enables the robot to be a social motivator by providing assistance, encouragement and celebration during an activity. A hierarchical reinforcement learning approach is used in the architecture to allow the robot to: 1 learn appropriate assistive behaviours based on the structure of the activity, and 2 personalize an interaction based on user states. Experiments show that the control architecture is effective in determining the robot's optimal assistive behaviours during a memory game interaction.

  1. Neural substrates of cognitive control under the belief of getting neurofeedback training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eNinaus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning to modulate one’s own brain activity is the fundament of neurofeedback (NF applications. Besides the neural networks directly involved in the generation and modulation of the neurophysiological parameter being specifically trained, more general determinants of NF efficacy such as self-referential processes and cognitive control have been frequently disregarded. Nonetheless, deeper insight into these cognitive mechanisms and their neuronal underpinnings sheds light on various open NF related questions concerning individual differences, brain-computer interface (BCI illiteracy as well as a more general model of NF learning. In this context, we investigated the neuronal substrate of these more general regulatory mechanisms that are engaged when participants believe that they are receiving NF. Twenty healthy participants (40-63 years, 10 female performed a sham NF paradigm during fMRI scanning. All participants were novices to NF-experiments and were instructed to voluntarily modulate their own brain activity based on a visual display of moving color bars. However, the bar depicted a recording and not the actual brain activity of participants. Reports collected at the end of the experiment indicate that participants were unaware of the sham feedback. In comparison to a passive watching condition, bilateral insula, anterior cingulate cortex and supplementary motor and dorsomedial and lateral prefrontal area were activated when participants actively tried to control the bar. In contrast, when merely watching moving bars, increased activation in the left angular gyrus was observed. These results show that the intention to control a moving bar is sufficient to engage a broad frontoparietal and cingulo-opercular network involved in cognitive control. The results of the present study indicate that tasks such as those generally employed in NF training recruit the neuronal correlates of cognitive control even when only sham NF is presented.

  2. Effects of Higher-order Cognitive Strategy Training on Gist Reasoning and Fact Learning in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn F Gamino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving the reasoning skills of adolescents across the United States has become a major concern for educators and scientists who are dedicated to identifying evidence-based protocols to improve student outcome. This small sample randomized, control pilot study sought to determine the efficacy of higher-order cognitive training on gist-reasoning and fact-learning in an inner-city public middle school. The study compared gist-reasoning and fact-learning performances after training in a smaller sample when tested in Spanish, many of the students’ native language, versus English. The 54 eighth grade students who participated in this pilot study were enrolled in an urban middle school, predominantly from lower socio-economic status families, and were primarily of minority descent. The students were randomized into one of three groups, one that learned cognitive strategies promoting abstraction of meaning, a group that learned rote memory strategies, or a control group to ascertain the impact of each program on gist-reasoning and fact-learning from text-based information. We found that the students who had cognitive strategy instruction that entailed abstraction of meaning significantly improved their gist-reasoning and fact-learning ability. The students who learned rote memory strategies significantly improved their fact-learning scores from a text but not gist-reasoning ability. The control group showed no significant change in either gist-reasoning or fact-learning ability. A trend toward significant improvement in overall reading scores for the group that learned to abstract meaning as well as a significant correlation between gist-reasoning ability and the critical thinking on a state-mandated standardized reading test was also found. There were no significant differences between English and Spanish performance of gist reasoning and fact learning. Our findings suggest that teaching higher-order cognitive strategies facilitates gist

  3. Social Cognitive Training Improves Emotional Processing and Reduces Aggressive Attitudes in Ex-combatants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Sandra; Trujillo, Natalia; Lopez, Jose D.; Gomez, Diana; Valencia, Stella; Rendon, Jorge; Pineda, David A.; Parra, Mario A.

    2017-01-01

    Emotional processing (EP) is a complex cognitive function necessary to successfully adjust to social environments where we need to interpret and respond to cues that convey threat or reward signals. Ex-combatants have consistently shown atypical EP as well as poor social interactions. Available reintegration programs aim to facilitate the re-adaptation of ex-combatants to their communities. However, they do not incorporate actions to improve EP and to enhance cognitive-emotional regulation. The present study was aimed at evaluating the usefulness of an intervention focused on Social Cognitive Training (SCT), which was designed to equip ex-combatants enrolled in the Social Reintegration Route with EP and social cognition skills. A group of 31 ex-combatants (mean age of 37.2, 29 men) from Colombian illegal armed groups were recruited into this study. Of these, 16 were invited to take part in a SCT and the other continued with the conventional reintegration intervention. Both groups underwent 12 training sessions in a period 12–14 weeks. They were assessed with a comprehensive protocol which included Psychosocial, Behavioral, and Emotion Processing instruments. The scores on these instruments prior to and after the intervention were compared within and between groups. Both groups were matched at baseline. Ex-combatants receiving the SCT experienced significant improvements in EP and a reduction in aggressive attitudes, effects not observed in those continuing the conventional reintegration intervention. This is the first study that achieves such outcomes in such a population using SCT intervention. We discuss the implications of such results toward better social reintegration strategies. PMID:28428767

  4. Increased engagement of the cognitive control network associated with music training in children during an fMRI Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Matthew; Kaplan, Jonas; Der Sarkissian, Alissa; Habibi, Assal

    2017-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument engages various sensorimotor processes and draws on cognitive capacities collectively termed executive functions. However, while music training is believed to associated with enhancements in certain cognitive and language abilities, studies that have explored the specific relationship between music and executive function have yielded conflicting results. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of music training on executive function using fMRI and several behavioral tasks, including the Color-Word Stroop task. Children involved in ongoing music training (N = 14, mean age = 8.67) were compared with two groups of comparable general cognitive abilities and socioeconomic status, one involved in sports ("sports" group, N = 13, mean age = 8.85) and another not involved in music or sports ("control" group, N = 17, mean age = 9.05). During the Color-Word Stroop task, children with music training showed significantly greater bilateral activation in the pre-SMA/SMA, ACC, IFG, and insula in trials that required cognitive control compared to the control group, despite no differences in performance on behavioral measures of executive function. No significant differences in brain activation or in task performance were found between the music and sports groups. The results suggest that systematic extracurricular training, particularly music-based training, is associated with changes in the cognitive control network in the brain even in the absence of changes in behavioral performance.

  5. Increased engagement of the cognitive control network associated with music training in children during an fMRI Stroop task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Sachs

    Full Text Available Playing a musical instrument engages various sensorimotor processes and draws on cognitive capacities collectively termed executive functions. However, while music training is believed to associated with enhancements in certain cognitive and language abilities, studies that have explored the specific relationship between music and executive function have yielded conflicting results. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of music training on executive function using fMRI and several behavioral tasks, including the Color-Word Stroop task. Children involved in ongoing music training (N = 14, mean age = 8.67 were compared with two groups of comparable general cognitive abilities and socioeconomic status, one involved in sports ("sports" group, N = 13, mean age = 8.85 and another not involved in music or sports ("control" group, N = 17, mean age = 9.05. During the Color-Word Stroop task, children with music training showed significantly greater bilateral activation in the pre-SMA/SMA, ACC, IFG, and insula in trials that required cognitive control compared to the control group, despite no differences in performance on behavioral measures of executive function. No significant differences in brain activation or in task performance were found between the music and sports groups. The results suggest that systematic extracurricular training, particularly music-based training, is associated with changes in the cognitive control network in the brain even in the absence of changes in behavioral performance.

  6. Virtual Reality Training with Cognitive Load Improves Walking Function in Chronic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ki Hun; Kim, Min Kyu; Lee, Hwang-Jae; Lee, Wan Hee

    2015-08-01

    Virtual reality training is considered as an effective intervention method of stroke patients, and the virtual reality system for therapeutic rehabilitation has emphasized the cognitive factors to improve walking function. The purpose of current study was to investigate the effect of virtual reality training with cognitive load (VRTCL) on walking function of chronic stroke. Chronic stroke patients were randomly assigned to the VRTCL group (11 patients, including 5 men; mean age, 60.0 years; post-stroke duration, 273.9 days) or control group (11 patients, including 2 men; mean age, 58.6 years; post-stroke duration, 263.9 days). All subjects participated in the standard rehabilitation program that consisted of physical and occupational therapies. In addition, VRTCL group participated in the VRTCL for 4 weeks (30 min per day and five times a week), while those in the control group participated in virtual reality treadmill training. Walking function under single (walking alone) and dual task (walking with cognitive tasks) conditions was assessed using an electrical walkway system. After the 4-week intervention, under both single and dual task conditions, significant improvement on walking function was observed in VRTCL and control groups (P < 0.05). In addition, in the dual task condition, greater improvement on walking function was observed in the VRTCL group, compared with the control group (P < 0.05). These findings demonstrated the efficacy of VRTCL on the walking function under the dual task condition. Therefore, we suggest that VRTCL may be an effective method for the achievement of independent walking in chronic stroke patients.

  7. A 9-Week Aerobic and Strength Training Program Improves Cognitive and Motor Function in Patients with Dementia : A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossers, Willem J. R.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Boersma, Froukje; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Scherder, Erik J. A.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.

    Objective: To compare training and follow-up effects of combined aerobic and strength training versus aerobic-only training on cognitive and motor function in institutionalized patients with dementia and to explore whether improved motor function mediates improved cognitive function. Methods: Using

  8. Effects of Brief Communication Skills Training for Workers Based on the Principles of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Norio; Somemura, Hironori; Nakamura, Saki; Yamamoto, Megumi; Isojima, Manabu; Shinmei, Issei; Horikoshi, Masaru; Tanaka, Katsutoshi

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Stimulating communication is an important workplace issue. We investigated the effects of a brief communication skills training (CST) program based on the principles of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 206 white-collar workers. The intervention group underwent a 2-hour CST group training conducted by an occupational physician. Result: The results of the intention-to-treat analysis using a mixed-effects model showed that there was a significant interaction between group and time observed for the item “thinking together to solve problems and issues” (P = 0.02). The effect size (Cohen d) was 0.35 (95% confidence interval, 0.07 to 0.62). Conclusions: The present study suggests that a brief CST based on the principles of CBT could improve the communication behavior of workers. PMID:28045799

  9. Cognitive skills training in digital era: A paradigm shift in surgical education using the TaTME model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knol, Joep; Keller, Deborah S

    2018-04-30

    Surgical competence is a complex, multifactorial process, requiring ample time and training. Optimal training is based on acquiring knowledge and psychomotor and cognitive skills. Practicing surgical skills is one of the most crucial tasks for both the novice surgeon learning new procedures and surgeons already in practice learning new techniques. Focus is placed on teaching traditional technical skills, but the importance of cognitive skills cannot be underestimated. Cognitive skills allow recognizing environmental cues to improve technical performance including situational awareness, mental readiness, risk assessment, anticipating problems, decision-making, adaptation, and flexibility, and may also accelerate the trainee's understanding of a procedure, formalize the steps being practiced, and reduce the overall training time to become technically proficient. The introduction and implementation of the transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) into practice may be the best demonstration of this new model of teaching and training, including pre-training, course attendance, and post-course guidance on technical and cognitive skills. To date, the TaTME framework has been the ideal model for structured training to ensure safe implementation. Further development of metrics to grade successful learning and assessment of long term outcomes with the new pathway will confirm the success of this training model. Copyright © 2018 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. All rights reserved.

  10. A Systematic Review of Commercial Cognitive Training Devices: Implications for Use in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Harris

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive training (CT aims to develop a range of skills, like attention and decision-making, through targeted training of core cognitive functions. While CT can target context specific skills, like movement anticipation, much CT is domain general, focusing on core abilities (e.g., selective attention for transfer to a range of real-world tasks, such as spotting opponents. Commercial CT (CCT devices are highly appealing for athletes and coaches due to their ease of use and eye-catching marketing claims. The extent to which this training transfers to performance in the sporting arena is, however, unclear. Therefore, this paper sought to provide a systematic review of evidence for beneficial training effects of CCT devices and evaluate their application to sport.Methods: An extensive search of electronic databases (PubMed, PsychInfo, GoogleScholar, and SportDiscus was conducted to identify peer-reviewed evidence of training interventions with commercially available CT devices. Forty-three studies met the inclusion criteria and were retained for quality assessment and synthesis of results. Seventeen studies assessed transfer effects beyond laboratory cognitive tests, but only 1 directly assessed transfer to a sporting task.Results: The review of evidence showed limited support for far transfer benefits from CCT devices to sporting tasks, mainly because studies did not target the sporting environment. Additionally, a number of methodological issues with the CCT literature were identified, including small sample sizes, lack of retention tests, and limited replication of findings by researchers independent of the commercial product. Therefore, evidence for sporting benefits is currently limited by the paucity of representative transfer tests and a focus on populations with health conditions.Conclusions: Currently there is little direct evidence that the use of CCT devices can transfer to benefits for sporting performance. This conclusion

  11. Training Excitatory-Inhibitory Recurrent Neural Networks for Cognitive Tasks: A Simple and Flexible Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2016-01-01

    The ability to simultaneously record from large numbers of neurons in behaving animals has ushered in a new era for the study of the neural circuit mechanisms underlying cognitive functions. One promising approach to uncovering the dynamical and computational principles governing population responses is to analyze model recurrent neural networks (RNNs) that have been optimized to perform the same tasks as behaving animals. Because the optimization of network parameters specifies the desired output but not the manner in which to achieve this output, “trained” networks serve as a source of mechanistic hypotheses and a testing ground for data analyses that link neural computation to behavior. Complete access to the activity and connectivity of the circuit, and the ability to manipulate them arbitrarily, make trained networks a convenient proxy for biological circuits and a valuable platform for theoretical investigation. However, existing RNNs lack basic biological features such as the distinction between excitatory and inhibitory units (Dale’s principle), which are essential if RNNs are to provide insights into the operation of biological circuits. Moreover, trained networks can achieve the same behavioral performance but differ substantially in their structure and dynamics, highlighting the need for a simple and flexible framework for the exploratory training of RNNs. Here, we describe a framework for gradient descent-based training of excitatory-inhibitory RNNs that can incorporate a variety of biological knowledge. We provide an implementation based on the machine learning library Theano, whose automatic differentiation capabilities facilitate modifications and extensions. We validate this framework by applying it to well-known experimental paradigms such as perceptual decision-making, context-dependent integration, multisensory integration, parametric working memory, and motor sequence generation. Our results demonstrate the wide range of neural activity

  12. Mindfulness Training in Primary Schools Decreases Negative Affect and Increases Meta-Cognition in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Charlotte E.; Dorjee, Dusana

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating the feasibility and impact of mindfulness programs on emotional well-being when delivered by school teachers in pre-adolescence are scarce. This study reports the findings of a controlled feasibility pilot which assessed acceptability and emotional well-being outcomes of an 8-week mindfulness program (Paws b) for children aged 7–9 years. The program was delivered by school teachers within a regular school curriculum. Emotional well-being was measured using self-report questionnaires at baseline, post-training and 3 months follow-up, and informant reports were collected at baseline and follow-up. Seventy one participants aged 7–9 years were recruited from three primary schools in the UK (training group n = 33; control group n = 38). Acceptability of the program was high with 76% of children in the training group re