Sample records for relaxation tests

  1. Indentation load relaxation test

    Hannula, S.P.; Stone, D.; Li, C.Y. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    Most of the models that are used to describe the nonelastic behavior of materials utilize stress-strain rate relations which can be obtained by a load relaxation test. The conventional load relaxation test, however, cannot be performed if the volume of the material to be tested is very small. For such applications the indentation type of test offers an attractive means of obtaining data necessary for materials characterization. In this work the feasibility of the indentation load relaxation test is studied. Experimental techniques are described together with results on Al, Cu and 316 SS. These results are compared to those of conventional uniaxial load relaxation tests, and the conversion of the load-indentation rate data into the stress-strain rate data is discussed.

  2. Stress relaxation in tempered glass caused by heat soak testing

    Schneider, Jens; Hilcken, Jonas; Aronen, Antti


    Heat soak testing of tempered glass is a thermal process required after the tempering process itself to bring glasses of commercial soda-lime-silica-glass to failure that are contaminated with nickel sulphide inclusions, diameter 50 mm to 500 mm typically. Thus, the tests avoid a so-called "spont......Heat soak testing of tempered glass is a thermal process required after the tempering process itself to bring glasses of commercial soda-lime-silica-glass to failure that are contaminated with nickel sulphide inclusions, diameter 50 mm to 500 mm typically. Thus, the tests avoid a so...... of commercial soda-lime-silica glass, it causes stress relaxation in tempered glass and the fracture pattern of the glass changes accordingly, especially thin glasses are affected. Based on the Tool-Narayanaswamy-Model, this paper comprises the theoretical background of the stress...

  3. Anaphylaxis to muscle relaxants: rational for skin tests.

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Kanny, G


    IgE-dependent allergy to muscle relaxants (MR) has an estimated prevalence of 1 out of 6500 General Anesthesias (GA). 62% of anaphylaxis during surgery are due to MR anaphylaxis. All the molecules are divalent, carrying two NH4+ epitopes (quaternary ammonium ions), either structurally or after rapid in vivo protonization (vecuronium). The excellent overall performance of skin test makes them the golden standard for the diagnosis of anaphylactoid reactions. Techniques include intradermal tests and prick-tests. The current localizations are the forearm and the back. Positivity criteria are 3 mm for prick-tests. For IDTs, the criterium is the doubling of the size of the injection papula, when 0.02 to 0.04 ml is injected: 8 mm. The recommended concentrations are not falsely negative. Commercial concentrations can be tested by prick tests, except for mivacurium and atracurium tested of 1:10 dilution. A scale of concentrations is advised for IDT starting with 1:10,000, up to a normally non reactive concentration that is: 100 micrograms/ml (succinylcholine), 200 micrograms/ml (gallamine), 10 micrograms/ml (atracurium), 2 micrograms/ml (mivacurium), 200 micrograms/ml (pancuronium), 400 micrograms/ml (vecuronium), 1,000 micrograms/ml (rocuronium), 200 micrograms/ml (cis atracurium). The specificity and sensitivity of the skin tests to MRs are greater than 95%. The reproducibility over years is 88%. The overall concordance of PT and IDR is 97%. Both types of tests can be used for the diagnosis. IDT have to be carried out for the search of the cross sensitization. 84% of patients do have cross sensitization to MRs but only 16% react to all MRs. The further use of MRs selected by negative IDTs has been proved to be safe.

  4. Association of MRI T1 relaxation time with neuropsychological test performance in manganese- exposed welders.

    Bowler, R M; Yeh, C-L; Adams, S W; Ward, E J; Ma, R E; Dharmadhikari, S; Snyder, S A; Zauber, S E; Wright, C W; Dydak, U


    This study examines the results of neuropsychological testing of 26 active welders and 17 similar controls and their relationship to welders' shortened MRI T1 relaxation time, indicative of increased brain manganese (Mn) accumulation. Welders were exposed to Mn for an average duration of 12.25 years to average levels of Mn in air of 0.11±0.05mg/m(3). Welders scored significantly worse than controls on Fruit Naming and the Parallel Lines test of graphomotor tremor. Welders had shorter MRI T1 relaxation times than controls in the globus pallidus, substantia nigra, caudate nucleus, and the anterior prefrontal lobe. 63% of the variation in MRI T1 relaxation times was accounted for by exposure group. In welders, lower relaxation times in the caudate nucleus and substantia nigra were associated with lower neuropsychological test performance on tests of verbal fluency (Fruit Naming), verbal learning, memory, and perseveration (WHO-UCLA AVLT). Results indicate that verbal function may be one of the first cognitive domains affected by brain Mn deposition in welders as reflected by MRI T1 relaxation times. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Stress Testing Recovery EMG for Evaluation of Biofeedback and Progressive Muscle Relaxation Training Effects.

    Sime, Wesley E.; DeGood, Douglas E.

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess biofeedback (BF) and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and placebo-control training by means of a post-training transfer test. The subjects for the research were 30 women. Initial tests consisted of measuring the electromyographic response of the frontalis muscle of the forehead to stress. After…

  6. The effects of cyclic tensile and stress-relaxation tests on porcine skin.

    Remache, D; Caliez, M; Gratton, M; Dos Santos, S


    When a living tissue is subjected to cyclic stretching, the stress-strain curves show a shift down with the increase in the number of cycles until stabilization. This phenomenon is referred to in the literature as a preconditioning and is performed to obtain repeatable and predictable measurements. Preconditioning has been routinely performed in skin tissue tests; however, its effects on the mechanical properties of the material such as viscoelastic response, tangent modulus, sensitivity to strain rate, the stress relaxation rate, etc….remain unclear. In addition, various physical interpretations of this phenomenon have been proposed and there is no general agreement on its origin at the microscopic or mesoscopic scales. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the cyclical stretching and the stress-relaxation tests on the mechanical properties of the porcine skin. Cyclic uniaxial tensile tests at large and constant strain were performed on different skin samples. The change in the reaction force, and skin's tangent modulus as a function of the number of cycles, as well as the strain rate effect on the mechanical behavior of skin samples after cycling were investigated. Stress-relaxation tests were also performed on skin samples. The change in the reaction force as a function of relaxation time and the strain rate effect on the mechanical behavior of skin samples after the stress-relaxation were investigated. The mechanical behavior of a skin sample under stress-relaxation test was modeled using a combination of hyperelasticity and viscoelasticity. Overall, the results showed that the mechanical behavior of the skin was strongly influenced by cycling and stress relaxation tests. Indeed, it was observed that the skin's resistance decreased by about half for two hours of cycling; the tangent modulus degraded by nearly 30% and skin samples became insensitive to the strain rates and accumulated progressively an inelastic deformation over time during

  7. On-chip stress relaxation testing method for freestanding thin film materials.

    Coulombier, M; Guisbiers, G; Colla, M-S; Vayrette, R; Raskin, J-P; Pardoen, T


    A stress relaxation method for freestanding thin films is developed based on an on-chip internal stress actuated microtensile testing set-up. The on-chip test structures are produced using microfabrication techniques involving cleaning, deposition, lithography, and release. After release from the substrate, the test specimens are subjected to uniaxial tension. The applied load decays with the deformation taking place during relaxation. This technique is adapted to strain rates lower than 10(-6)∕s and permits the determination of the strain rate sensitivity of very thin films. The main advantage of the technique is that the relaxation tests are simultaneously performed on thousands of specimens, pre-deformed up to different strain levels, for very long periods of time without monopolizing any external mechanical loading equipment. Proof of concept results are provided for 205-nm-thick sputtered AlSi(0.01) films and for 350-nm-thick evaporated Pd films showing unexpectedly high relaxation at room temperature.

  8. Reducing Test Anxiety among Third Grade Students through the Implementation of Relaxation Techniques

    Larson, Heidi A.; El Ramahi, Mera K.; Conn, Steven R.; Estes, Lincoln A.; Ghibellini, Amanda B.


    The purpose of this study was to reduce the negative effects that self-perceived levels of test anxiety have on third-grade students. The participants in this study consisted of 177 third-grade students at two Midwestern public elementary schools. Students at one school were taught relaxation techniques, while students at the second school served…

  9. Simulation of the Relaxation Potential Profile of an ac-dc-ac Test

    Kerry N. Allahar


    Full Text Available The relaxation period of the accelerated ac-dc-ac test for coatings is associated with the transient electrochemistry that occurs when the immersed coated system is allowed to return to a stable open-circuit condition after being subjected to a cathodic potential. A mathematical model of the transient electrochemistry that occurs during this relaxation period is presented for coated aluminum. Expressions for the corrosion potential and corrosion current as functions of the local pH at the metal-coating interface were developed using reported experimental results. These expressions enabled the simulation of the transient electrochemistry under the constraint of balanced anodic and cathodic current densities. Regression of the transient relaxation potential profiles to exponential decay functions provided time-constant characterization of the profiles. Simulated results are presented that demonstrate the influences of the coating's porosity and thickness, the applied dc potential and the metal-coating interface condition on the time-constants associated with the relaxation profile. Interpretation of experimentally reported relaxation potential profiles supported the analysis of the simulated results.

  10. Stress-relaxation tests in the work-hardening regime of tungsten single crystals below 300 K

    Brunner, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)], E-mail:


    The influence of work hardening on the results of stress-relaxation tests was studied for highly pure tungsten single crystals isothermally deformed at four temperatures of 274, 241, 131, and 78 K. A method accounting for strong work hardening on the determination of the strain-rate sensitivity from stress-relaxation tests is introduced by establishing special diagrams of SR tests denoted as YX diagrams.

  11. The Application of Stress-Relaxation Test to Life Assessment of T911/T22 Weld Metal

    Cao, Tieshan; Zhao, Jie; Cheng, Congqian; Li, Huifang


    A dissimilar weld metal was obtained through submerged arc welding of a T911 steel to a T22 steel, and its creep property was explored by stress-relaxation test assisted by some conventional creep tests. The creep rate information of the stress-relaxation test was compared to the minimum and the average creep rates of the conventional creep test. Log-log graph showed that the creep rate of the stress-relaxation test was in a linear relationship with the minimum creep rate of the conventional creep test. Thus, the creep rate of stress-relaxation test could be used in the Monkman-Grant relation to calculate the rupture life. The creep rate of the stress-relaxation test was similar to the average creep rate, and thereby the rupture life could be evaluated by a method of "time to rupture strain." The results also showed that rupture life which was assessed by the Monkman-Grant relation was more accurate than that obtained through the method of "time to rupture strain."

  12. Experimental validation of waveform relaxation technique for power system controller testing

    S P Panda; K A Salunkhe; A M Kulkarni


    A Waveform Relaxation (WR) based iterative real-time playback scheme for controller testing was recently proposed in the literature along with proof-ofconcept simulations. This scheme can be a low-cost alternative to Hardware-in-Loop simulation, as it does not require a real-time simulator. To demonstrate practical feasibility of the WR scheme, this paper presents results of experiments with real-time implementation of controllers, iteratively interacting with simulated models of power apparatus via storage and real-time play-back. Two systems are considered: a HVDC controller tested with a detailed model of the converters, and a TCSC based damping controller tested with a low frequency model of a power system. The results are validated with those obtained using simulated models of the controllers. We also present results of an experiment in which the tested HVDC controller is used to control the scaled real-life HVDC apparatus, for which a simulated model was used during controller testing. Convergence and a good match between simulated and real-time implementation are obtained for the HVDC system. The experiments on the TCSC damping controller drawn our attention to a potential convergence problem which may arise due to iteration-dependent round-off noise.

  13. Modelling of Creep and Stress Relaxation Test of a Polypropylene Microfibre by Using Fraction-Exponential Kernel

    Andrea Sorzia


    Full Text Available A tensile test until breakage and a creep and relaxation test on a polypropylene fibre are carried out and the resulting creep and stress relaxation curves are fit by a model adopting a fraction-exponential kernel in the viscoelastic operator. The models using fraction-exponential functions are simpler than the complex ones obtained from combination of dashpots and springs and, furthermore, are suitable for fitting experimental data with good approximation allowing, at the same time, obtaining inverse Laplace transform in closed form. Therefore, the viscoelastic response of polypropylene fibres can be modelled straightforwardly through analytical methods. Addition of polypropylene fibres greatly improves the tensile strength of composite materials with concrete matrix. The proposed analytical model can be employed for simulating the mechanical behaviour of composite materials with embedded viscoelastic fibres.

  14. Dielectric and shear mechanical relaxations in glass-forming liquids: A test of the Gemant-DiMarzio-Bishop model

    Niss, K.; Jakobsen, B.; Olsen, N.B.


    The Gemant-DiMarzio-Bishop model, which connects the frequency-dependent shear modulus to the frequency-dependent dielectric constant, is reviewed and a new consistent macroscopic formulation is derived. It is moreover shown that this version of the model can be tested without fitting parameters...... that the Gemant-DiMarzio-Bishop model is correct on a qualitative level. The quantitative agreement between the model and the data is on the other hand moderate to poor. It is discussed if a model-free comparison between the dielectric and shear mechanical relaxations is relevant, and it is concluded...... that the shear modulus should be compared with the rotational dielectric modulus, 1/(epsilon(omega)–n^2), which is extracted from the Gemant-DiMarzio-Bishop model, rather than to the dielectric susceptibility or the conventional dielectric modulus M=1/epsilon(omega)...

  15. High Temperature Performance Evaluation of As-serviced 25Cr35Ni Type Heat-resistant Steel Based on Stress Relaxation Tests

    XU Jun


    Full Text Available Based on an as-serviced 25Cr35Ni type steel, the high temperature property evaluation using stress relaxation test(SRT method and residual life prediction were studied. The results show that creep rupture property decreases because of the formation of network carbides along grain boundaries and coarsening of secondary carbides in the austenitic matrix. Based on the relationship of stress relaxation strain rate curves obtained at different temperatures, and the extrapolation equation of stress relaxation rate-rupture time, it is capable to perform residual life evaluation by combining SRT data and a small amount of creep rupture test(CRT. Good agreement is observed for predicting results performed by current method and traditional method.

  16. Multiphasic stress relaxation response of freshly isolated and cultured vascular smooth muscle cells measured by quasi-in situ tensile test.

    Nagayama, Kazuaki; Saito, Shunsuke; Matsumoto, Takeo


    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) undergo a phenotypic change from a contractile to a synthetic state under pathological conditions, such as atherogenesis and restenosis. Although the viscoelastic properties of SMCs are of particular interest because of their role in the development of these vascular diseases, the effects of phenotypic changes on their viscoelastic properties are unclear at this stage. We performed the stress relaxation test at constant strain (ε=30%) for the freshly isolated contractile SMCs (FSMCs) and the cultured synthetic SMCs (CSMCs) maintaining in situ cell shape and cytoskeletal integrity. We also investigated the effect of extracellular Ca2+ on their viscoelastic behaviors. FSMCs and CSMCs exhibited multiphasic stress relaxation, which consisted of rapid relaxation, occurring on a time scale of several seconds and several 10 seconds, and slow relaxation occurring on a time scale of 1000 seconds. The estimated elastic modulus of CSMCs was less than one-half that of FSMCs, that was associated with a decreased of amount of actin stress fibers (SFs) during the transition from contractile to synthetic phenotypes. FSMCs showed a conservation of tension with extracellular Ca2+ following rapid stress relaxation. In contrast, CSMCs showed a consecutive decrease in tension independent of Ca2+. This suggests that the decrease in tension in a long time scale may be involved in mechanical remodeling of SFs induced through a Rho-dependent pathway, which is Ca2+-independent and become predominant in the transition from contractile to synthetic phenotypes.

  17. Effectiveness of Indonesian Essential Oil Mixture of Lemongrass, Cananga, and Patchouli in Relaxation through Inhalation: A Clinical Test on Healthy Woman with High Potential for Stress

    Richard Siahaan


    Full Text Available Relaxation is one of many mechanisms for coping with stress. One of the most widely used methods for relaxation is aromatherapy with the application of essential oils. Known for their therapeutic benefits, essential oils can be extracted from various Indonesian native herbs such as lemongrass (sereh wangi or Cymbopogon winterianus, cananga or ylang-ylang (kenanga or Canarium odoratum, and patchouli (nilam or Pogostemon cabin. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a mixture of Indonesian essential oil made of lemongrass, cananga, and patchouli extracts. Experiment was conducted by asking a number of subjects to inhale the oil mixture and assessing its effectiveness in terms of psychological relaxation by using Visual Analog Scale or VAS and of physical relaxation by examining the subjects’ blood pressure (MAP, pulse frequency, and breathing frequency. The result was then compared with that of lavender oil and with the control group. The study was conducted on 60 healthy women through single-blind clinical trials (before and after using the “intent to treat” approach, followed by a startle test. Participants were divided into three groups: (1 20 participants who were treated with Indonesian essential oil mixture, (2 20 participants who were treated with lavender oil, and (3 20 participants who served as the control group. Psychological relaxation measurement showed that Indonesian essential oil mixture produced the same degree of effectiveness as lavender oil and the control groups did, although both treatments tended to produce better results than the control group did. However, physical relaxation measurement showed that Indonesian essential oil mixture produced a higher degree of effectiveness than lavender oil and tended to produce a better result than the control group did, especially in terms of blood pressure based on MAP scores.

  18. Using the Relaxation Test to Study Variation in the Time-Dependent Property of Rock and the Consequent Effect on Time-Dependent Roof Failure

    Xue, Yuting; Mishra, Brijes; Gao, Danqing


    Field observations have demonstrated that roof failure occurs spatially in a mine from the time of excavation. It is suspected that time-dependent deformation propagates failure in the rock mass. In this paper, the relaxation test is used to study variation in the time-dependent property of rock and the consequent effect on time-dependent roof failure. This investigation uses a numerical simulation in 3DEC. The relaxation equation is developed from Burgers model. Variations in the time-dependent property in the post-failure region show negligible variation and, therefore, are averaged to represent the time-dependent property of the failed rock. Finally, these parameters are used in the numerical simulation of underground excavations. Two groups of parameters are used to represent the time-dependent property for pre- and post-failure conditions. FISH functions within 3DEC are used to monitor the state of each zone. Once failure is detected, the parameters are changed to the values corresponding to failed rock. The results show that the new relaxation model accurately predicts the time-dependent propagation of the failure zone. The variation of the time-dependent parameters significantly affects the rock mass behavior and roof convergence.

  19. A Technique for Determining Relaxation Times by Free-Flight Tests of Low-Fineness-Ratio Cones; with Experimental Results for Air at Equilibrium Temperatures up to 3440 K

    Stephenson, Jack D.


    This report describes a technique which combines theory and experiments for determining relaxation times in gases. The technique is based on the measurement of shapes of the bow shock waves of low-fineness-ratio cones fired from high-velocity guns. The theory presented in the report provides a means by which shadowgraph data showing the bow waves can be analyzed so as to furnish effective relaxation times. Relaxation times in air were obtained by this technique and the results have been compared with values estimated from shock tube measurements in pure oxygen and nitrogen. The tests were made at velocities ranging from 4600 to 12,000 feet per second corresponding to equilibrium temperatures from 35900 R (19900 K) to 6200 R (34400 K), under which conditions, at all but the highest temperatures, the effective relaxation times were determined primarily by the relaxation time for oxygen and nitrogen vibrations.

  20. Natural relaxation

    Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti


    Motivated by natural inflation, we propose a relaxation mechanism consistent with inflationary cosmology that explains the hierarchy between the electroweak scale and Planck scale. This scenario is based on a selection mechanism that identifies the low-scale dynamics as the one that is screened from UV physics. The scenario also predicts the near-criticality and metastability of the Standard Model (SM) vacuum state, explaining the Higgs boson mass observed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Once Majorana right-handed neutrinos are introduced to provide a viable reheating channel, our framework yields a corresponding mass scale that allows for the seesaw mechanism as well as for standard thermal leptogenesis. We argue that considering singlet scalar dark matter extensions of the proposed scenario could solve the vacuum stability problem and discuss how the cosmological constant problem is possibly addressed.

  1. Local transport barrier formation and relaxation in reverse-shear plasmas on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Synakowski, E. J.; Batha, S. H.; Beer, M. A.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Budny, R. V.; Bush, C. E.; Efthimion, P. C.; Hahm, T. S.; Hammett, G. W.; LeBlanc, B.; Levinton, F.; Mazzucato, E.; Park, H.; Ramsey, A. T.; Schmidt, G.; Rewoldt, G.; Scott, S. D.; Taylor, G.; Zarnstorff, M. C.


    The roles of turbulence stabilization by sheared E×B flow and Shafranov shift gradients are examined for Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor [D. J. Grove and D. M. Meade, Nucl. Fusion 25, 1167 (1985)] enhanced reverse-shear (ERS) plasmas. Both effects in combination provide the basis of a positive-feedback model that predicts reinforced turbulence suppression with increasing pressure gradient. Local fluctuation behavior at the onset of ERS confinement is consistent with this framework. The power required for transitions into the ERS regime are lower when high power neutral beams are applied earlier in the current profile evolution, consistent with the suggestion that both effects play a role. Separation of the roles of E×B and Shafranov shift effects was performed by varying the E×B shear through changes in the toroidal velocity with nearly steady-state pressure profiles. Transport and fluctuation levels increase only when E×B shearing rates are driven below a critical value that is comparable to the fastest linear growth rates of the dominant instabilities. While a turbulence suppression criterion that involves the ratio of shearing to linear growth rates is in accord with many of these results, the existence of hidden dependencies of the criterion is suggested in experiments where the toroidal field was varied. The forward transition into the ERS regime has also been examined in strongly rotating plasmas. The power threshold is higher with unidirectional injection than with balance injection.

  2. Vacuolization correlates with spin-spin relaxation time in motor brainstem nuclei and behavioural tests in the transgenic G93A-SOD1 mouse model of ALS.

    Bucher, Selina; Braunstein, Kerstin E; Niessen, Heiko G; Kaulisch, Thomas; Neumaier, Michael; Boeckers, Tobias M; Stiller, Detlef; Ludolph, Albert C


    In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a preferred tool for the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in humans. A widely used animal model for human ALS is the G93A-superoxide dismutase 1 (G93A-SOD1) transgenic mouse model. However, the mechanisms for the selective degeneration of motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord are still uncertain. In our study, we applied MRI at 4.7 Tesla to non-invasively evaluate pathological alterations in the brainstem of this animal model and to follow the progression of the disease. Extending previous investigation, we used the relaxation parameter T(2) as a suitable measure for the progression of ALS, and evaluated the potential agreement with histological evaluation and behavioural data of open-field tests. In the brainstem of G93A-SOD1 mice, T(2) values were significantly increased in the motor nuclei Nc. V, Nc. VII and Nc. XII, as early as Day 80, i.e. before the average disease onset at about Day 90. Moreover, this increase is associated with a progressive development of vacuoles in the brainstem motor nuclei and a significantly decreased performance in behavioural tests. Overall, MRI is a very sensitive tool to obtain correlates for neuronal degeneration in vivo. Furthermore, MRI enables us to investigate a follow up at different time points of the disease. These advantages are especially useful for therapeutic studies with respect to survival rates of motor neurons using mouse models. Finally, our data suggest that MRI does not only resemble the findings of behavioural tests, but is potentially superior to behavioural studies.

  3. Relaxation Techniques for Health

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Relaxation Techniques for Health Share: On This Page What’s the ... Bottom Line? How much do we know about relaxation techniques? A substantial amount of research has been done ...

  4. Latent Period of Relaxation.

    Kobayashi, M; Irisawa, H


    The latent period of relaxation of molluscan myocardium due to anodal current is much longer than that of contraction. Although the rate and the grade of relaxation are intimately related to both the stimulus condition and the muscle tension, the latent period of relaxation remains constant, except when the temperature of the bathing fluid is changed.

  5. Observation of the relaxivity and thickness of surface phase in porous rock with the combination of PFG NMR and relaxation measurements

    肖立志; 杜有如; 叶朝辉


    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation of fluids in porous media is affected by the solid-liquid interface. Quantitative determination of the surface relaxivity is significantly important for both investigation and application of relaxation mechanisms in porous media. A method to estimate the surface relaxivity with the combination of relaxation and diffusion measurements is proposed. According to this method, a criterion for testing the current diffusion and relaxation theory for porous media is available.

  6. 1H relaxation dispersion in solutions of nitroxide radicals: Influence of electron spin relaxation

    Kruk, D.; Korpała, A.; Kubica, A.; Kowalewski, J.; Rössler, E. A.; Moscicki, J.


    The work presents a theory of nuclear (1H) spin-lattice relaxation dispersion for solutions of 15N and 14N radicals, including electron spin relaxation effects. The theory is a generalization of the approach presented by Kruk et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 137, 044512 (2012)], 10.1063/1.4736854. The electron spin relaxation is attributed to the anisotropic part of the electron spin-nitrogen spin hyperfine interaction modulated by rotational dynamics of the paramagnetic molecule, and described by means of Redfield relaxation theory. The 1H relaxation is caused by electron spin-proton spin dipole-dipole interactions which are modulated by relative translational motion of the solvent and solute molecules. The spectral density characterizing the translational dynamics is described by the force-free-hard-sphere model. The electronic relaxation influences the 1H relaxation by contributing to the fluctuations of the inter-molecular dipolar interactions. The developed theory is tested against 1H spin-lattice relaxation dispersion data for glycerol solutions of 4-oxo-TEMPO-d16-15N and 4-oxo-TEMPO-d16-14N covering the frequency range of 10 kHz-20 MHz. The studies are carried out as a function of temperature starting at 328 K and going down to 290 K. The theory gives a consistent overall interpretation of the experimental data for both 14N and 15N systems and explains the features of 1H relaxation dispersion resulting from the electron spin relaxation.

  7. Stress Relaxation in Entangled Polymer Melts

    Hou, Ji-Xuan; Svaneborg, Carsten; Everaers, Ralf


    We present an extensive set of simulation results for the stress relaxation in equilibrium and step-strained bead-spring polymer melts. The data allow us to explore the chain dynamics and the shear relaxation modulus, G(t), into the plateau regime for chains with Z=40 entanglements and into the t......We present an extensive set of simulation results for the stress relaxation in equilibrium and step-strained bead-spring polymer melts. The data allow us to explore the chain dynamics and the shear relaxation modulus, G(t), into the plateau regime for chains with Z=40 entanglements...... and into the terminal relaxation regime for Z=10. Using the known (Rouse) mobility of unentangled chains and the melt entanglement length determined via the primitive path analysis of the microscopic topological state of our systems, we have performed parameter-free tests of several different tube models. We find...

  8. Magnetization Transfer Induced Biexponential Longitudinal Relaxation

    Prantner, Andrew M.; Bretthorst, G. Larry; Neil, Jeffrey J.; Garbow, Joel R.; Ackerman, Joseph J.H.


    Longitudinal relaxation of brain water 1H magnetization in mammalian brain in vivo is typically analyzed on a per voxel basis using a monoexponential model, thereby assigning a single relaxation time constant to all 1H magnetization within a given voxel. This approach was tested by obtaining inversion recovery data from grey matter of rats at 64 exponentially-spaced recovery times. Using Bayesian probability for model selection, brain water data were best represented by a biexponential function characterized by fast and slow relaxation components. At 4.7 T, the amplitude fraction of the rapidly relaxing component is 3.4 ± 0.7 % with a rate constant of 44 ± 12 s-1 (mean ± SD; 174 voxels from 4 rats). The rate constant of the slow relaxing component is 0.66 ± 0.04 s-1. At 11.7 T, the corresponding values are 6.9 ± 0.9 %, 19 ± 5 s-1, and 0.48 ± 0.02 s-1 (151 voxels from 4 rats). Several putative mechanisms for biexponential relaxation behavior were evaluated, and magnetization transfer between bulk water protons and non-aqueous protons was determined to be the source of biexponential longitudinal relaxation. MR methods requiring accurate quantification of longitudinal relaxation may need to take this effect explicitly into account. PMID:18759367

  9. Stress Relaxation in Entangled Polymer Melts

    Hou, Ji-Xuan; Svaneborg, Carsten; Everaers, Ralf


    and into the terminal relaxation regime for Z=10. Using the known (Rouse) mobility of unentangled chains and the melt entanglement length determined via the primitive path analysis of the microscopic topological state of our systems, we have performed parameter-free tests of several different tube models. We find......We present an extensive set of simulation results for the stress relaxation in equilibrium and step-strained bead-spring polymer melts. The data allow us to explore the chain dynamics and the shear relaxation modulus, G(t), into the plateau regime for chains with Z=40 entanglements...

  10. Relaxation techniques for stress

    ... problems such as high blood pressure, stomachaches, headaches, anxiety, and depression. Using relaxation techniques can help you feel calm. These exercises can also help you manage stress and ease the effects of stress on your body.

  11. Perturbations and quantum relaxation

    Kandhadai, Adithya


    We investigate whether small perturbations can cause relaxation to quantum equilibrium over very long timescales. We consider in particular a two-dimensional harmonic oscillator, which can serve as a model of a field mode on expanding space. We assume an initial wave function with small perturbations to the ground state. We present evidence that the trajectories are highly confined so as to preclude relaxation to equilibrium even over very long timescales. Cosmological implications are briefly discussed.

  12. Molecular Relaxation in Liquids

    Bagchi, Biman


    This book brings together many different relaxation phenomena in liquids under a common umbrella and provides a unified view of apparently diverse phenomena. It aligns recent experimental results obtained with modern techniques with recent theoretical developments. Such close interaction between experiment and theory in this area goes back to the works of Einstein, Smoluchowski, Kramers' and de Gennes. Development of ultrafast laser spectroscopy recently allowed study of various relaxation processes directly in the time domain, with time scales going down to picosecond (ps) and femtosecond (fs

  13. Stress relaxation in viscous soft spheres.

    Boschan, Julia; Vasudevan, Siddarth A; Boukany, Pouyan E; Somfai, Ellák; Tighe, Brian P


    We report the results of molecular dynamics simulations of stress relaxation tests in athermal viscous soft sphere packings close to their unjamming transition. By systematically and simultaneously varying both the amplitude of the applied strain step and the pressure of the initial condition, we access both linear and nonlinear response regimes and control the distance to jamming. Stress relaxation in viscoelastic solids is characterized by a relaxation time τ* that separates short time scales, where viscous loss is substantial, from long time scales, where elastic storage dominates and the response is essentially quasistatic. We identify two distinct plateaus in the strain dependence of the relaxation time, one each in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The height of both plateaus scales as an inverse power law with the distance to jamming. By probing the time evolution of particle velocities during relaxation, we further identify a correlation between mechanical relaxation in the bulk and the degree of non-affinity in the particle velocities on the micro scale.

  14. Hastelloy C-276合金应力松弛试验及蠕变本构方程%Stress relaxation test of Hastelloy C-276 alloy and its creep constitutive equation

    朱智; 张立文; 顾森东


    对Hastelloy C-276合金分别在不同的温度(750、800、850和900℃)和相应的初始应力(250、250、250和200 MPa)条件下进行了多组应力松弛试验.利用试验测得的应力松弛曲线推导出应力松弛过程中蠕变应变速率与应力之间的关系,建立用于描述Hastelloy C-276合金应力松弛行为的蠕变本构方程,通过对蠕变应变速率一应力曲线进行拟合,得到各温度下蠕变本构方程中的材料常数.将蠕变本构方程带入有限元软件MSC.Marc对Hastelloy C-276合金的应力松弛过程进行模拟,模拟得到的应力松弛曲线与试验测得的应力松弛曲线符合得很好,验证蠕变本构方程的可靠性.%The stress relaxation tests of Hastelloy C-276 alloy were conducted at different temperatures (750, 800, 850 and 900 ℃) and corresponding initial stress levels (250, 250, 250 and 200 MPa), respectively. Based on the experimental stress relaxation curves, the relationship between creep strain rate and stress was derived. Then, a set of creep constitutive equations were built for Hastelloy C-276 alloy and the material constants of these equations were determined by fitting the creep strain rate-stress curves. The creep constitutive equations were used to simulate the stress relaxation process of Hastelloy C-276 alloy by integrating these equations into finite element software MSC.Marc. The simulated stress relaxation curves agree well with the experimental ones, which verify the reliability of the creep constitutive equations.

  15. Isochronous relaxation curves for type 304 stainless steel after monotonic and cyclic strain

    Swindeman, R.W.


    Relaxation tests to 100 hr were performed on type 304 stainless steel in the temperature range 480 to 650/sup 0/C and were used to develop isochronous relaxation curves. Behavior after monotonic and cyclic strain was compared. Relaxation differed only slightly as a consequence of the type of previous strain, provided that plastic flow preceded the relaxation period. We observed that the short-time relaxation behavior did not manifest strong heat-to-heat variation in creep strength.

  16. Measuring Propellant Stress Relaxation Modulus Using Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer


    P. N., Singh, P. P., and Bhattacharya, B., “Determination of Activation Energy of Relaxation Events in Composite Solid Propellants by Dynamic...Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 04 August 2016 – 29 March 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Measuring Propellant Stress Relaxation Modulus Using Dynamic...ERC 14. ABSTRACT A method for determining the stress relaxation master curve of solid rocket propellants was developed. The propellant was tested in

  17. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  18. Kinetic Actviation Relaxation Technique

    Béland, Laurent Karim; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand


    We present a detailed description of the kinetic Activation-Relaxation Technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si, self-interstitial diffusion in Fe and structural relaxation in amorphous silicon.

  19. Nonlinear fractional relaxation

    A Tofighi


    We define a nonlinear model for fractional relaxation phenomena. We use -expansion method to analyse this model. By studying the fundamental solutions of this model we find that when → 0 the model exhibits a fast decay rate and when → ∞ the model exhibits a power-law decay. By analysing the frequency response we find a logarithmic enhancement for the relative ratio of susceptibility.


    G.Q. Jia; H.W. Shen; Y.M. Zhu


    Stress relaxation behavior of two turbine bolt steels was evaluated by the manualcontrolled tensile stress relaxation test (TSRT) at high temperature. First, feasibility and the procedure of the manual-controlled tensile stress relaxation test (TSRT) is discussed and carried out on a general creep testing machine. And then, the experimental results from such type of test were compared to the existing data provided by certain Laboratory U.K. Overall good agreement between the results of manualcontrolled TSRT method and the existing data provides confidence in the use of the proposed method in practice. Finally, the experimental results of turbine bolt steels from TSRT were compared with that of bending test. It is observed that great difference exists between the results from two different type stress relaxation tests. It is therefore suggested that the results from TSRT method be adopted in turbine bolt design in engineering.

  1. Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy

    Wang, Lidai; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Lihong V.


    The temperature-dependent property of the Grueneisen parameter has been employed in photoacoustic imaging mainly to measure tissue temperature. Here we explore this property using a different approach and develop Grueneisen-relaxation photoacoustic microscopy (GR-PAM), a technique that images non-radiative absorption with confocal optical resolution. GR-PAM sequentially delivers two identical laser pulses with a micro-second-scale time delay. The first laser pulse generates a photoacoustic signal and thermally tags the in-focus absorbers. Owing to the temperature dependence of the Grueneisen parameter, when the second laser pulse excites the tagged absorbers within the thermal relaxation time, a photoacoustic signal stronger than the first one is produced. GR-PAM detects the amplitude difference between the two co-located photoacoustic signals, confocally imaging the non-radiative absorption. We greatly improved axial resolution from 45 µm to 2.3 µm and at the same time slightly improved lateral resolution from 0.63 µm to 0.41 µm. In addition, the optical sectioning capability facilitates the measurement of the absolute absorption coefficient without fluence calibration. PMID:25379919

  2. Magnetoviscosity and relaxation in ferrofluids



    The increase in viscosity of a ferrofluid due to an applied magnetic field is discussed on the basis of a phenomenological relaxation equation for the magnetization. The relaxation equation was derived earlier from irreversible thermodynamics, and differs from that postulated by Shliomis. The two relaxation equations lead to a different dependence of viscosity on magnetic field, unless the relaxation rates are related in a specific field-dependent way. Both planar Couette flow and Poiseuille pipe flow in parallel and perpendicular magnetic field are discussed. The entropy production for these situations is calculated and related to the magnetoviscosity.

  3. [Death in a relaxation tank].

    Rupp, Wolf; Simon, Karl-Heinz; Bohnert, Michael


    Complete relaxation can be achieved by floating in a darkened, sound-proof relaxation tank filled with salinated water kept at body temperature. Under these conditions, meditation exercises up to self-hypnosis may lead to deep relaxation with physical and mental revitalization. A user manipulated his tank, presumably to completely cut off all optical and acoustic stimuli and accidentally also covered the ventilation hole. The man was found dead in his relaxation tank. The findings suggested lack of oxygen as the cause of death.

  4. Relaxing Behavioural Inheritance

    Nuno Amálio


    Full Text Available Object-oriented (OO inheritance allows the definition of families of classes in a hierarchical way. In behavioural inheritance, a strong version, it should be possible to substitute an object of a subclass for an object of its superclass without any observable effect on the system. Behavioural inheritance is related to formal refinement, but, as observed in the literature, the refinement constraints are too restrictive, ruling out many useful OO subclassings. This paper studies behavioural inheritance in the context of ZOO, an object-oriented style for Z. To overcome refinement's restrictions, this paper proposes relaxations to the behavioural inheritance refinement rules. The work is presented for Z, but the results are applicable to any OO language that supports design-by-contract.

  5. Relaxing effect of eugenol and essential oils in Pomacea canaliculata

    Adriane Erbice Bianchini


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the potential relaxing and/or molluscicidal effects of eugenol and essential oils of Origanum majorana, Ocimum americanum, Hesperozygis ringens, and Piper gaudichaudianum in the gastropod Pomacea canaliculata. Compounds were tested at concentrations of 100, 250, 500, and 750µL L-1 to evaluate the relaxing effects. In the second experiment, animals were exposed to 10, 25, and 50µL L-1 of essential oils of H. ringens and P. gaudichaudianum for a period of 24h for the evaluation of molluscicidal effects. Eugenol and essential oils of O. majorana and O. americanum showed relaxing effects at ≥250µL L-1, but the essential oils of H. ringens and P. gaudichaudianum did not promote relaxing or molluscicidal effects within the times and concentrations studied. Therefore, only eugenol and the essential oils of O. majorana and O. americanum can be used for relaxation purposes in P. canaliculata.

  6. Magnetic relaxation in anisotropic magnets

    Lindgård, Per-Anker


    The line shape and the kinematic and thermodynamic slowing down of the critical and paramagnetic relaxation in axially anisotropic materials are discussed. Kinematic slowing down occurs only in the longitudinal relaxation function. The thermodynamic slowing down occurs in either the transverse or...

  7. Rheological model for swida wilsoniana fruits in process of cold pressing based on stress-relaxation tests%基于松弛试验的光皮树果实冷态压榨流变模型

    刘汝宽; 肖志红; 张爱华; 李培旺; 张良波; 李辉; 李昌珠


    Swida wilsoniana is one of the important woody oil plants supported by the State Council, mainly distributed in Hunan, Guizhou and Jiangxi Province, of which the whole fruits contain about 30% oils with high nutritional value. Mechanical pressing and solvent extraction are 2 major ways for fruit oil, and the lack of equipment for Swida wilsoniana fruits with the characteristics of hard core make it imperative to carry out this work. In order to study the rheological property of Swida wilsoniana fruits in cold pressing process, the stress relaxation tests under different loading strain levels were carried out by using the self-made straight cylinder pressing device. Based on the basic model of rock rheology, the relationship between the stress and strain was simulated, and its rheological model was established. The results showed that the relationship of stress and strain in the loading process of Swida wilsoniana fruits was divided into 2 parts which were defined as linear period and nonlinear period, and the critical yield strain was 0.4, meaning that the relationship between stress and strain was linear when the strain level was lower than 0.4 and was nonlinear as strain level was higher than 0.4. The amount of stress relaxation rose with the increase of pressing strain level, especially as the strain level was higher than 0.5, due to the oil bursting out of oilseeds, and the higher strain levels, the greater amount of oil, and the greater amount of stress relaxation. Segmented simulation was used to analyze and determine the parameters of the model. Firstly, the Maxwell model generalized by elastic element and damper mode was used to simulate the linear relaxation process. Then linear mode and the Kawakita's superposition model jointly simulated the process of nonlinear relaxation. Finally the rheological model was established and the parameters were obtained. Error analysis showed the application range and simulation effect. The relative error was large when

  8. Microplastic relaxations of single and polycrystalline molybdenum

    Pichl, W.; Weiss, B. [Wien Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Materialphysik; Chen, D.L.


    The microplasticity of high-purity molybdenum single crystals and of Mo polycrystals of technical purity has been investigated by relaxation step tests in uniaxial compression. A new model for the evaluation of relaxation tests in the microplastic range of b.c.c metals is presented which takes into account the decrease of the mobile dislocation density due to exhaustion of non-screw dislocations. The model allows an independent determination of the activation volume and of the microstructure parameters controlling dislocation exhaustion. The results indicate that in the high-purity single crystals the deformation rate is controlled by interactions of non-screw dislocations with the grown-in network. In the polycrystals additional interactions with impurity atoms seem to occur. In the single crystals the activity and subsequent exhaustion of two different glide systems was observed, followed by a gradual onset of screw dislocation motion. (orig.) 26 refs.

  9. Relaxing music counters heightened consolidation of emotional memory.

    Rickard, Nikki S; Wong, Wendy Wing; Velik, Lauren


    Emotional events tend to be retained more strongly than other everyday occurrences, a phenomenon partially regulated by the neuromodulatory effects of arousal. Two experiments demonstrated the use of relaxing music as a means of reducing arousal levels, thereby challenging heightened long-term recall of an emotional story. In Experiment 1, participants (N=84) viewed a slideshow, during which they listened to either an emotional or neutral narration, and were exposed to relaxing or no music. Retention was tested 1 week later via a forced choice recognition test. Retention for both the emotional content (Phase 2 of the story) and material presented immediately after the emotional content (Phase 3) was enhanced, when compared with retention for the neutral story. Relaxing music prevented the enhancement for material presented after the emotional content (Phase 3). Experiment 2 (N=159) provided further support to the neuromodulatory effect of music by post-event presentation of both relaxing music and non-relaxing auditory stimuli (arousing music/background sound). Free recall of the story was assessed immediately afterwards and 1 week later. Relaxing music significantly reduced recall of the emotional story (Phase 2). The findings provide further insight into the capacity of relaxing music to attenuate the strength of emotional memory, offering support for the therapeutic use of music for such purposes.

  10. Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?

    Solodukhin, S. N.


    We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the worm-hole modification. In the latter case the entropy comes out correctly as well.

  11. Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?

    Solodukhin, Sergey N.


    We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the...

  12. Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?

    Solodukhin, S N


    We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the worm-hole modification. In the latter case the entropy comes out correctly as well.

  13. Relaxation dynamics of amorphous dibucaine using dielectric studies

    Sahra, M.; Jumailath, K.; Thayyil, M. Shahin; Capaccioli, S.


    Using broadband dielectric spectroscopy the molecular mobility of dibucaine is investigated in the supercooled liquid and gassy states, over a wide temperature range for some test frequencies. Above the glass transition temperature Tg, the presence of structural α- relaxation peak was observed due to the cooperative motions of the molecule and upon cooling frozen kinetically to form the glass. The secondary relaxation process was perceivable below Tg due to localized motions. The peak loss frequency of α-relaxation process shows non-Arrhenius behavior and obeys Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation over the measured temperature range whereas the β- process shows Arrhenius behavior.

  14. Developing a Learning Algorithm-Generated Empirical Relaxer

    Mitchell, Wayne [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Applied Math; Kallman, Josh [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Toreja, Allen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gallagher, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jiang, Ming [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Laney, Dan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    One of the main difficulties when running Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) simulations is determining how much to relax the mesh during the Eulerian step. This determination is currently made by the user on a simulation-by-simulation basis. We present a Learning Algorithm-Generated Empirical Relaxer (LAGER) which uses a regressive random forest algorithm to automate this decision process. We also demonstrate that LAGER successfully relaxes a variety of test problems, maintains simulation accuracy, and has the potential to significantly decrease both the person-hours and computational hours needed to run a successful ALE simulation.

  15. Diffusive mesh relaxation in ALE finite element numerical simulations

    Dube, E.I.


    The theory for a diffusive mesh relaxation algorithm is developed for use in three-dimensional Arbitary Lagrange/Eulerian (ALE) finite element simulation techniques. This mesh relaxer is derived by a variational principle for an unstructured 3D grid using finite elements, and incorporates hourglass controls in the numerical implementation. The diffusive coefficients are based on the geometric properties of the existing mesh, and are chosen so as to allow for a smooth grid that retains the general shape of the original mesh. The diffusive mesh relaxation algorithm is then applied to an ALE code system, and results from several test cases are discussed.

  16. Accelerating convergence of molecular dynamics-based structural relaxation

    Christensen, Asbjørn


    We describe strategies to accelerate the terminal stage of molecular dynamics (MD)based relaxation algorithms, where a large fraction of the computational resources are used. First, we analyze the qualitative and quantitative behavior of the QuickMin family of MD relaxation algorithms and explore...... the influence of spectral properties and dimensionality of the molecular system on the algorithm efficiency. We test two algorithms, the MinMax and Lanczos, for spectral estimation from an MD trajectory, and use this to derive a practical scheme of time step adaptation in MD relaxation algorithms to improve...

  17. An Exact Relaxation of Clustering

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai


    of clustering problems such as the K-means objective and pairwise clustering as well as graph partition problems, e.g., for community detection in complex networks. In particular we show that a relaxation to the simplex can be given for which the extreme solutions are stable hard assignment solutions and vice......Continuous relaxation of hard assignment clustering problems can lead to better solutions than greedy iterative refinement algorithms. However, the validity of existing relaxations is contingent on problem specific fuzzy parameters that quantify the level of similarity between the original...... versa. Based on the new relaxation we derive the SR-clustering algorithm that has the same complexity as traditional greedy iterative refinement algorithms but leading to significantly better partitions of the data. A Matlab implementation of the SR-clustering algorithm is available for download....

  18. The relaxation & stress reduction workbook

    Davis, Martha; Eshelman, Elizabeth Robbins; McKay, Matthew


    "The Relaxation & Stress Reduction Workbook broke new ground when it was first published in 1980, detailing easy, step-by-step techniques for calming the body and mind in an increasingly overstimulated world...

  19. Modeling aftershocks as a stretched exponential relaxation

    Mignan, A.


    The decay rate of aftershocks has been modeled as a power law since the pioneering work of Omori in the late nineteenth century. Although other expressions have been proposed in recent decades to describe the temporal behavior of aftershocks, the number of model comparisons remains limited. After reviewing the aftershock models published from the late nineteenth century until today, I solely compare the power law, pure exponential and stretched exponential expressions defined in their simplest forms. By applying statistical methods recommended recently in applied mathematics, I show that all aftershock sequences tested in three regional earthquake catalogs (Southern and Northern California, Taiwan) and with three declustering techniques (nearest-neighbor, second-order moment, window methods) follow a stretched exponential instead of a power law. These results infer that aftershocks are due to a simple relaxation process, in accordance with most other relaxation processes observed in Nature.

  20. Relaxation and Diffusion for the Kicked Rotor

    Khodas, M A


    The dynamics of the kicked-rotor, that is a paradigm for a mixed system, where the motion in some parts of phase space is chaotic and in other parts is regular is studied statistically. The evolution (Frobenius-Perron) operator of phase space densities in the chaotic component is calculated in presence of noise, and the limit of vanishing noise is taken is taken in the end of calculation. The relaxation rates (related to the Ruelle resonances) to the invariant equilibrium density are calculated analytically within an approximation that improves with increasing stochasticity. The results are tested numerically. The global picture of relaxation to the equilibrium density in the chaotic component when the system is bounded and of diffusive behavior when it is unbounded is presented.

  1. Modeling Aftershocks as a Stretched Exponential Relaxation

    Mignan, Arnaud


    The decay rate of aftershocks has been modeled as a power law since the pioneering work of Omori in the late nineteenth century. Considered the second most fundamental empirical law after the Gutenberg-Richter relationship, the power law paradigm has rarely been challenged by the seismological community. By taking a view of aftershock research not biased by prior conceptions of Omori power law decay and by applying statistical methods recommended in applied mathematics, I show that all aftershock sequences tested in three regional earthquake catalogs (Southern and Northern California, Taiwan) and with three declustering techniques (nearest-neighbor, second-order moment, window methods) follow a stretched exponential instead of a power law. These results infer that aftershocks are due to a simpler relaxation process than originally thought, in accordance with most other relaxation processes observed in Nature.

  2. Relaxation Dynamics in Heme Proteins.

    Scholl, Reinhard Wilhelm

    A protein molecule possesses many conformational substates that are likely arranged in a hierarchy consisting of a number of tiers. A hierarchical organization of conformational substates is expected to give rise to a multitude of nonequilibrium relaxation phenomena. If the temperature is lowered, transitions between substates of higher tiers are frozen out, and relaxation processes characteristic of lower tiers will dominate the observational time scale. This thesis addresses the following questions: (i) What is the energy landscape of a protein? How does the landscape depend on the environment such as pH and viscosity, and how can it be connected to specific structural parts? (ii) What relaxation phenomena can be observed in a protein? Which are protein specific, and which occur in other proteins? How does the environment influence relaxations? (iii) What functional form best describes relaxation functions? (iv) Can we connect the motions to specific structural parts of the protein molecule, and are these motions important for the function of the protein?. To this purpose, relaxation processes after a pressure change are studied in carbonmonoxy (CO) heme proteins (myoglobin-CO, substrate-bound and substrate-free cytochrome P450cam-CO, chloroperoxidase-CO, horseradish peroxidase -CO) between 150 K and 250 K using FTIR spectroscopy to monitor the CO bound to the heme iron. Two types of p -relaxation experiments are performed: p-release (200 to ~eq40 MPa) and p-jump (~eq40 to 200 MPa) experiments. Most of the relaxations fall into one of three groups and are characterized by (i) nonexponential time dependence and non-Arrhenius temperature dependence (FIM1( nu), FIM1(Gamma)); (ii) exponential time dependence and non-Arrhenius temperature dependence (FIM0(A_{i}to A_{j})); exponential time dependence and Arrhenius temperature dependence (FIMX( nu)). The influence of pH is studied in myoglobin-CO and shown to have a strong influence on the substate population of the

  3. The use of relaxation, hypnosis, and imagery in sport psychiatry.

    Newmark, Thomas S; Bogacki, David F


    Hypnosis is a procedure during which a mental health professional suggests that a patient experience changes in sensations, perceptions, thoughts, or behavior. The purpose of this article is to briefly describe the use of various methods of relaxation, hypnosis, and imagery techniques available to enhance athletic performance. The characteristics that these techniques have in common include relaxation, suggestibility, concentration, imaginative ability, reality testing, brain function, autonomic control, and placebo effect. Case studies are provided for illustration.

  4. Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors

    Krasnoperov E.P.


    Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.

  5. Shear stress relaxation of dental ceramics determined from creep behavior.

    DeHoff, Paul H; Anusavice, Kenneth J


    To test the hypothesis that shear stress relaxation functions of dental ceramics can be determined from creep functions measured in a beam-bending viscometer. Stress relaxation behavior was determined from creep data for the following materials: (1) a veneering ceramic-IPS Empress2 body ceramic (E2V); (2) an experimental veneering ceramic (EXV); (3) a low expansion body porcelain-Vita VMK 68 feldspathic body porcelain (VB); (4) a high expansion body porcelain-Will Ceram feldspathic body porcelain (WCB); (5) a medium expansion opaque porcelain-Vita feldspathic opaque porcelain (VO); and (6) a high expansion opaque porcelain-Will Ceram feldspathic opaque porcelain (WCO). Laplace transform techniques were used to relate shear stress relaxation functions to creep functions for an eight-parameter, discrete viscoelastic model. Nonlinear regression analysis was performed to fit a four-term exponential relaxation function for each material at each temperature. The relaxation functions were utilized in the ANSYS finite element program to simulate creep behavior in three-point bending for each material at each temperature. Shear stress relaxation times at 575 degrees C ranged from 0.03 s for EXV to 195 s for WCO. Knowledge of the shear relaxation functions for dental ceramics at high temperatures is required input for the viscoelastic element in the ANSYS finite element program, which can used to determine transient and residual stresses in dental prostheses during fabrication.

  6. Relaxation Dynamics of Non-Power-Law Fluids

    Min, Qi; Duan, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Liang, Zhan-Peng; Lee, Duu-Jong


    The relaxation of non-Newtonian liquids with non-power-law rheology on partially wetted surfaces is rarely investigated. This study assesses the relaxation behavior of 14 partial wetting systems with non-power-law fluids by sessile drop method. These systems are two carboxymethylcellulose sodium solutions on two kinds of slides, cover glass, and silicon wafer surfaces; three polyethylene glycol (PEG400) + silica nanoparticle suspensions on polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene surfaces. The dynamic contact angle and moving velocity of contact line relationship data for relaxation drops of the 14 tested systems demonstrate a power-law fluid-like behavior, and the equivalent power exponent for a certain fluid on different solid substrates are uniform. By analyzing the relationship between the equivalent power exponent and shear rate, it is proposed that a fluid regime with shear rates of a few tens of s controls relaxation dynamics.

  7. Dynamical theory of spin relaxation

    Field, Timothy R.; Bain, Alex D.


    The dynamics of a spin system is usually calculated using the density matrix. However, the usual formulation in terms of the density matrix predicts that the signal will decay to zero, and does not address the issue of individual spin dynamics. Using stochastic calculus, we develop a dynamical theory of spin relaxation, the origins of which lie in the component spin fluctuations. This entails consideration of random pure states for individual protons, and how these pure states are correctly combined when the density matrix is formulated. Both the lattice and the spins are treated quantum mechanically. Such treatment incorporates both the processes of spin-spin and (finite temperature) spin-lattice relaxation. Our results reveal the intimate connections between spin noise and conventional spin relaxation.

  8. A mixed relaxed clock model


    Over recent years, several alternative relaxed clock models have been proposed in the context of Bayesian dating. These models fall in two distinct categories: uncorrelated and autocorrelated across branches. The choice between these two classes of relaxed clocks is still an open question. More fundamentally, the true process of rate variation may have both long-term trends and short-term fluctuations, suggesting that more sophisticated clock models unfolding over multiple time scales should ultimately be developed. Here, a mixed relaxed clock model is introduced, which can be mechanistically interpreted as a rate variation process undergoing short-term fluctuations on the top of Brownian long-term trends. Statistically, this mixed clock represents an alternative solution to the problem of choosing between autocorrelated and uncorrelated relaxed clocks, by proposing instead to combine their respective merits. Fitting this model on a dataset of 105 placental mammals, using both node-dating and tip-dating approaches, suggests that the two pure clocks, Brownian and white noise, are rejected in favour of a mixed model with approximately equal contributions for its uncorrelated and autocorrelated components. The tip-dating analysis is particularly sensitive to the choice of the relaxed clock model. In this context, the classical pure Brownian relaxed clock appears to be overly rigid, leading to biases in divergence time estimation. By contrast, the use of a mixed clock leads to more recent and more reasonable estimates for the crown ages of placental orders and superorders. Altogether, the mixed clock introduced here represents a first step towards empirically more adequate models of the patterns of rate variation across phylogenetic trees. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’. PMID:27325829


    IGA Prima Dewi AP


    Full Text Available Aromatherapy is a kind of treatment that used aroma with aromatherapy essential oil. Extraction process from essential oil generally doing in three methods, there are distilling with water (boiled, distilling with water and steam, and distilling with steam. One of the most favorite aroma is lavender. The main content from lavender is linalyl acetate and linalool (C10H18O. Linalool is main active contents in lavender which can use for anti-anxiety (relaxation. Based on some research, the conclusion indicates that essential oil from lavender can give relaxation (carminative, sedative, reduce anxiety level and increasing mood.

  10. Statistical mechanics of violent relaxation

    Spergel, David N.; Hernquist, Lars


    We propose a functional that is extremized through violent relaxation. It is based on the Ansatz that the wave-particle scattering during violent dynamical processes can be approximated as a sequence of discrete scattering events that occur near a particle's perigalacticon. This functional has an extremum whose structure closely resembles that of spheroidal stellar systems such as elliptical galaxies. The results described here, therefore, provide a simple framework for understanding the physical nature of violent relaxation and support the view that galaxies are structured in accord with fundamental statistical principles.

  11. Active optomechanics through relaxation oscillations

    Princepe, Debora; Frateschi, Newton


    We propose an optomechanical laser based on III-V compounds which exhibits self-pulsation in the presence of a dissipative optomechanical coupling. In such a laser cavity, radiation pressure drives the mechanical degree of freedom and its back-action is caused by the mechanical modulation of the cavity loss rate. Our numerical analysis shows that even in a wideband gain material, such dissipative coupling couples the mechanical oscillation with the laser relaxation oscillations process. Laser self-pulsation is observed for mechanical frequencies below the laser relaxation oscillation frequency under sufficiently high optomechanical coupling factor.

  12. Thermal relaxation and mechanical relaxation of rice gel

    丁玉琴; 赵思明; 熊善柏


    Rice gel was prepared by simulating the production processes of Chinese local rice noodles,and the properties of thermal relaxation and mechanical relaxation during gelatinization were studied by differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) measurement and dynamic rheometer.The results show that during gelatinization,the molecular chains of rice starch undergo the thermal relaxation and mechanical relaxation.During the first heating and high temperature holding processes,the starch crystallites in the rice slurry melt,and the polymer chains stretch and interact,then viscoelastic gel forms.The cooling and low temperatures holding processes result in reinforced networks and decrease the viscoelasticity of the gel.During the second heating,the remaining starch crystallites further melt,the network is reinforced,and the viscoelasticity increases.The viscoelasticity,the molecular conformation and texture of the gel are adjusted by changing the temperature,and finally construct the gel with the textural characteristics of Chinese local rice noodle.

  13. Relaxed Operational Semantics of Concurrent Programming Languages

    Gustavo Petri


    Full Text Available We propose a novel, operational framework to formally describe the semantics of concurrent programs running within the context of a relaxed memory model. Our framework features a "temporary store" where the memory operations issued by the threads are recorded, in program order. A memory model then specifies the conditions under which a pending operation from this sequence is allowed to be globally performed, possibly out of order. The memory model also involves a "write grain," accounting for architectures where a thread may read a write that is not yet globally visible. Our formal model is supported by a software simulator, allowing us to run litmus tests in our semantics.

  14. Parameterization of NMR relaxation curves in terms of logarithmic moments of the relaxation time distribution

    Petrov, Oleg V.; Stapf, Siegfried


    This work addresses the problem of a compact and easily comparable representation of multi-exponential relaxation data. It is often convenient to describe such data in a few parameters, all being of physical significance and easy to interpret, and in such a way that enables a model-free comparison between different groups of samples. Logarithmic moments (LMs) of the relaxation time constitute a set of parameters which are related to the characteristic relaxation time on the log-scale, the width and the asymmetry of an underlying distribution of exponentials. On the other hand, the calculation of LMs does not require knowing the actual distribution function and is reduced to a numerical integration of original data. The performance of this method has been tested on both synthetic and experimental NMR relaxation data which differ in a signal-to-noise ratio, the sampling range and the sampling rate. The calculation of two lower-order LMs, the log-mean time and the log-variance, has proved robust against deficiencies of the experiment such as scattered data point and incomplete sampling. One may consider using them as such to monitor formation of a heterogeneous structure, e.g., in phase separation, vitrification, polymerization, hydration, aging, contrast agent propagation processes. It may also assist in interpreting frequency and temperature dependences of relaxation, revealing a crossover from slow to fast exchange between populations. The third LM was found to be a less reliable quantity due to its susceptibility to the noise and must be used with caution.

  15. Intestinal, Airway, and Cardiovascular Relaxant Activities of Thymoquinone

    Muhammad Nabeel Ghayur


    Full Text Available Thymoquinone (TQ is a bioactive component found in many medicinal herbs. In this study, we report the smooth and cardiac muscle relaxant activities of this compound. TQ concentration dependently suppressed spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum while also relaxed high K+-(80 mM induced contractions in jejunum and guinea-pig ileum, indicating activity at voltage-operated Ca++ channels (VOCC. Further, TQ displaced Ca++ concentration-response curves, obtained in a Ca++-free environment, to the right, showing blockade of VOCC. Similar activity was observed with verapamil, a standard VOCC blocker. TQ also exhibited nonadrenergic relaxation of agonist-induced contractions in guinea-pig trachea. When tested in fluo-4-loaded mouse lung slices, TQ inhibited ACh-induced airway narrowing and Ca++ signalling in airway smooth muscle cells. In endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded rat aorta, TQ inhibited high K+-induced contractions at significantly lower concentrations than phenylephrine-(PE- (1 microM induced contractions. Relaxation of PE-induced contractions was resistant to blockade by L-NAME and atropine. In guinea-pig atria, TQ showed noncholinergic relaxation of atrial force and rate of contractions. These data suggest smooth and cardiac muscle relaxant activity of TQ possibly mediated, in part, via blockade of VOCC. The results also justify the use of TQ containing plants in related health disorders like colic, diarrhoea, cough, and asthma.

  16. A new method for multi-exponential inversion of NMR relaxation measurements

    WANG; Zhongdong; XIAO; Lizhi; LIU; Tangyan


    A new method for multi-exponential inversion to NMR T1 and T2 relaxation time distributions is suggested and tested. Inversion results are compared with MAP-II which is based on SVD algorithm and widely accepted in the industry. Inversed NMR relaxation spectra that have different pre-assigned relaxation times from echo trains with different SNR confirm that the new method with 16 to 64 equally spaced time constants in logarithm scale will ensure the relaxation distribution. Testing results show that the new inversion algorithm is a valuable tool for rock core NMR experimental analysis and NMR logging data process and interpretation.

  17. Relaxation versus adiabatic quantum steady-state preparation

    Venuti, Lorenzo Campos; Albash, Tameem; Marvian, Milad; Lidar, Daniel; Zanardi, Paolo


    Adiabatic preparation of the ground states of many-body Hamiltonians in the closed-system limit is at the heart of adiabatic quantum computation, but in reality systems are always open. This motivates a natural comparison between, on the one hand, adiabatic preparation of steady states of Lindbladian generators and, on the other hand, relaxation towards the same steady states subject to the final Lindbladian of the adiabatic process. In this work we thus adopt the perspective that the goal is the most efficient possible preparation of such steady states, rather than ground states. Using known rigorous bounds for the open-system adiabatic theorem and for mixing times, we are then led to a disturbing conclusion that at first appears to doom efforts to build physical quantum annealers: relaxation seems to always converge faster than adiabatic preparation. However, by carefully estimating the adiabatic preparation time for Lindbladians describing thermalization in the low-temperature limit, we show that there is, after all, room for an adiabatic speedup over relaxation. To test the analytically derived bounds for the adiabatic preparation time and the relaxation time, we numerically study three models: a dissipative quasifree fermionic chain, a single qubit coupled to a thermal bath, and the "spike" problem of n qubits coupled to a thermal bath. Via these models we find that the answer to the "which wins" question depends for each model on the temperature and the system-bath coupling strength. In the case of the "spike" problem we find that relaxation during the adiabatic evolution plays an important role in ensuring a speedup over the final-time relaxation procedure. Thus, relaxation-assisted adiabatic preparation can be more efficient than both pure adiabatic evolution and pure relaxation.

  18. Dielectric relaxation of samarium aluminate

    Sakhya, Anup Pradhan; Dutta, Alo; Sinha, T.P. [Bose Institute, Department of Physics, Kolkata (India)


    A ceramic SmAlO{sub 3} (SAO) sample is synthesized by the solid-state reaction technique. The Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction pattern has been done to find the crystal symmetry of the sample at room temperature. An impedance spectroscopy study of the sample has been performed in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 1 MHz and in the temperature range from 313 K to 573 K. Dielectric relaxation peaks are observed in the imaginary parts of the spectra. The Cole-Cole model is used to analyze the dielectric relaxation mechanism in SAO. The temperature-dependent relaxation times are found to obey the Arrhenius law having an activation energy of 0.29 eV, which indicates that polaron hopping is responsible for conduction or dielectric relaxation in this material. The complex impedance plane plot of the sample indicates the presence of both grain and grain-boundary effects and is analyzed by an electrical equivalent circuit consisting of a resistance and a constant-phase element. The frequency-dependent conductivity spectra follow a double-power law due to the presence of two plateaus. (orig.)

  19. Choosing a skeletal muscle relaxant.

    See, Sharon; Ginzburg, Regina


    Skeletal muscle relaxants are widely used in treating musculoskeletal conditions. However, evidence of their effectiveness consists mainly of studies with poor methodologic design. In addition, these drugs have not been proven to be superior to acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses support using skeletal muscle relaxants for short-term relief of acute low back pain when nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen are not effective or tolerated. Comparison studies have not shown one skeletal muscle relaxant to be superior to another. Cyclobenzaprine is the most heavily studied and has been shown to be effective for various musculoskeletal conditions. The sedative properties of tizanidine and cyclobenzaprine may benefit patients with insomnia caused by severe muscle spasms. Methocarbamol and metaxalone are less sedating, although effectiveness evidence is limited. Adverse effects, particularly dizziness and drowsiness, are consistently reported with all skeletal muscle relaxants. The potential adverse effects should be communicated clearly to the patient. Because of limited comparable effectiveness data, choice of agent should be based on side-effect profile, patient preference, abuse potential, and possible drug interactions.

  20. Onsager relaxation of toroidal plasmas

    Samain, A.; Nguyen, F.


    The slow relaxation of isolated toroidal plasmas towards their thermodynamical equilibrium is studied in an Onsager framework based on the entropy metric. The basic tool is a variational principle, equivalent to the kinetic equation, involving the profiles of density, temperature, electric potential, electric current. New minimization procedures are proposed to obtain entropy and entropy production rate functionals. (author). 36 refs.

  1. Relaxation properties in classical diamagnetism

    Carati, A.; Benfenati, F.; Galgani, L.


    It is an old result of Bohr that, according to classical statistical mechanics, at equilibrium a system of electrons in a static magnetic field presents no magnetization. Thus a magnetization can occur only in an out of equilibrium state, such as that produced through the Foucault currents when a magnetic field is switched on. It was suggested by Bohr that, after the establishment of such a nonequilibrium state, the system of electrons would quickly relax back to equilibrium. In the present paper, we study numerically the relaxation to equilibrium in a modified Bohr model, which is mathematically equivalent to a billiard with obstacles, immersed in a magnetic field that is adiabatically switched on. We show that it is not guaranteed that equilibrium is attained within the typical time scales of microscopic dynamics. Depending on the values of the parameters, one has a relaxation either to equilibrium or to a diamagnetic (presumably metastable) state. The analogy with the relaxation properties in the Fermi Pasta Ulam problem is also pointed out.

  2. Equivalent Relaxations of Optimal Power Flow

    Bose, S; Low, SH; Teeraratkul, T; Hassibi, B


    Several convex relaxations of the optimal power flow (OPF) problem have recently been developed using both bus injection models and branch flow models. In this paper, we prove relations among three convex relaxations: a semidefinite relaxation that computes a full matrix, a chordal relaxation based on a chordal extension of the network graph, and a second-order cone relaxation that computes the smallest partial matrix. We prove a bijection between the feasible sets of the OPF in the bus injection model and the branch flow model, establishing the equivalence of these two models and their second-order cone relaxations. Our results imply that, for radial networks, all these relaxations are equivalent and one should always solve the second-order cone relaxation. For mesh networks, the semidefinite relaxation and the chordal relaxation are equally tight and both are strictly tighter than the second-order cone relaxation. Therefore, for mesh networks, one should either solve the chordal relaxation or the SOCP relaxation, trading off tightness and the required computational effort. Simulations are used to illustrate these results.


    Y.W.Bao; Y.F.Han; F.T.Gong


    Stress relaxation of glass is a dualism effect, it often lead to strength degradation in strengthened glass, but on the other hand, it improves the reliability and stressuniformity of glasses. In this work, stress relaxation of soda-lime glass was investigated using three-point bending tests at 400-560℃ which is near the brittle to ductile transition temperature, for enhancing the safety of glass productions and exploring the most economic anneal process. The experimental results show that the speed of stress relaxation increases but the ultimate stress decreases with increasing temperature. The stress uniformity of the glass samples before and after anneal was examined using spherical indentation at arranged testing points. It indicates that the scatter of the local strength measured by the Hertzian indentation is smaller in the anneal glass than in initial specimen, so that the estimated Weibull modulus for the anneal specimen is higher. Furthermore, the strength evaluation by Hertzian indentation and statistical analysis was presented.

  4. Efficient relaxed-Jacobi smoothers for multigrid on parallel computers

    Yang, Xiang; Mittal, Rajat


    In this Technical Note, we present a family of Jacobi-based multigrid smoothers suitable for the solution of discretized elliptic equations. These smoothers are based on the idea of scheduled-relaxation Jacobi proposed recently by Yang & Mittal (2014) [18] and employ two or three successive relaxed Jacobi iterations with relaxation factors derived so as to maximize the smoothing property of these iterations. The performance of these new smoothers measured in terms of convergence acceleration and computational workload, is assessed for multi-domain implementations typical of parallelized solvers, and compared to the lexicographic point Gauss-Seidel smoother. The tests include the geometric multigrid method on structured grids as well as the algebraic grid method on unstructured grids. The tests demonstrate that unlike Gauss-Seidel, the convergence of these Jacobi-based smoothers is unaffected by domain decomposition, and furthermore, they outperform the lexicographic Gauss-Seidel by factors that increase with domain partition count.

  5. Accelerating convergence of molecular dynamics-based structural relaxation

    Christensen, Asbjørn


    We describe strategies to accelerate the terminal stage of molecular dynamics (MD)based relaxation algorithms, where a large fraction of the computational resources are used. First, we analyze the qualitative and quantitative behavior of the QuickMin family of MD relaxation algorithms and explore...... the influence of spectral properties and dimensionality of the molecular system on the algorithm efficiency. We test two algorithms, the MinMax and Lanczos, for spectral estimation from an MD trajectory, and use this to derive a practical scheme of time step adaptation in MD relaxation algorithms to improve...... efficiency. We also discuss the implementation aspects. Secondly, we explore the final state refinement acceleration by a combination with the conjugate gradient technique, where the key ingredient is an implicit corrector step. Finally, we test the feasibility of passive Hessian matrix accumulation from...

  6. Organic semiconductors: What makes the spin relax?

    Bobbert, Peter A.


    Spin relaxation in organic materials is expected to be slow because of weak spin-orbit coupling. The effects of deuteration and coherent spin excitation show that the spin-relaxation time is actually limited by hyperfine fields.

  7. Relaxation Techniques to Manage IBS Symptoms

    ... the Day Art of IBS Gallery Contact Us Relaxation Techniques to Manage IBS Symptoms Details Content Last Updated: ... Topic Psychological Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS You’ve been to the doctor ...

  8. Plasmon-mediated energy relaxation in graphene

    Ferry, D. K. [School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-5706 (United States); Somphonsane, R. [Department of Physics, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology, Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Ramamoorthy, H.; Bird, J. P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, the State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14260-1500 (United States)


    Energy relaxation of hot carriers in graphene is studied at low temperatures, where the loss rate may differ significantly from that predicted for electron-phonon interactions. We show here that plasmons, important in the relaxation of energetic carriers in bulk semiconductors, can also provide a pathway for energy relaxation in transport experiments in graphene. We obtain a total loss rate to plasmons that results in energy relaxation times whose dependence on temperature and density closely matches that found experimentally.

  9. Collisionless Relaxation of Stellar Systems

    Kandrup, H E


    The objective of the work summarised here has been to exploit and extend ideas from plasma physics and accelerator dynamics to formulate a unified description of collisionless relaxation that views violent relaxation, Landau damping, and phase mixing as (manifestations of) a single phenomenon. This approach embraces the fact that the collisionless Boltzmann equation (CBE), the basic object of the theory, is an infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian system, with the distribution function f playing the role of the fundamental dynamical variable, and that, interpreted appropriately, an evolution described by the other Hamiltonian system. Equilibrium solutions correspond to extremal points of the Hamiltonian subject to the constraints associated with Liouville's Theorem. Stable equilibria correspond to energy minima. The evolution of a system out of equilibrium involves (in general nonlinear) phase space oscillations which may -- or may not -- interfere destructively so as to damp away.

  10. Collisionless Relaxation of Stellar Systems

    Kandrup, Henry E.


    The objective of the work summarized here has been to exploit and extend ideas from plasma physics and accelerator dynamics to formulate a unified description of collisionless relaxation of stellar systems that views violent relaxation, Landau damping, and phase mixing as (manifestations of) a single phenomenon. This approach embraces the fact that the collisionless Boltzmann equation (CBE), the basic object of the theory, is an infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian system, with the distribution function f playing the role of the fundamental dynamical variable, and that, interpreted appropriately, an evolution described by the CBE is no different fundamentally from an evolution described by any other Hamiltonian system. Equilibrium solutions f0 correspond to extremal points of the Hamiltonian subject to the constraints associated with Liouville's Theorem. Stable equilibria correspond to energy minima. The evolution of a system out of equilibrium involves (in general nonlinear) phase space oscillations which may - or may not - interfere destructively so as to damp away.

  11. Kinetic activation-relaxation technique

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Brommer, Peter; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand


    We present a detailed description of the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si (crystalline silicon), self-interstitial diffusion in Fe, and structural relaxation in a-Si (amorphous silicon).

  12. Kinetic activation-relaxation technique.

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Brommer, Peter; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand


    We present a detailed description of the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si (crystalline silicon), self-interstitial diffusion in Fe, and structural relaxation in a-Si (amorphous silicon).

  13. Brief relaxation training program for hospital employees.

    Balk, Judith L; Chung, Sheng-Chia; Beigi, Richard; Brooks, Maria


    Employee stress leads to attrition, burnout, and increased medical costs. We aimed to assess if relaxation training leads to decreased stress levels based on questionnaire and thermal biofeedback. Thirty-minute relaxation training sessions were conducted for hospital employees and for cancer patients. Perceived Stress levels and skin temperature were analyzed before and after relaxation training.

  14. POS Tagging Using Relaxation Labelling

    Padro, L


    Relaxation labelling is an optimization technique used in many fields to solve constraint satisfaction problems. The algorithm finds a combination of values for a set of variables such that satisfies -to the maximum possible degree- a set of given constraints. This paper describes some experiments performed applying it to POS tagging, and the results obtained. It also ponders the possibility of applying it to word sense disambiguation.

  15. Spin relaxation in metallic ferromagnets

    Berger, L.


    The Elliott theory of spin relaxation in metals and semiconductors is extended to metallic ferromagnets. Our treatment is based on the two-current model of Fert, Campbell, and Jaoul. The d→s electron-scattering process involved in spin relaxation is the inverse of the s→d process responsible for the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). As a result, spin-relaxation rate 1/τsr and AMR Δρ are given by similar formulas, and are in a constant ratio if scattering is by solute atoms. Our treatment applies to nickel- and cobalt-based alloys which do not have spin-up 3d states at the Fermi level. This category includes many of the technologically important magnetic materials. And we show how to modify the theory to apply it to bcc iron-based alloys. We also treat the case of Permalloy Ni80Fe20 at finite temperature or in thin-film form, where several kinds of scatterers exist. Predicted values of 1/τsr and Δρ are plotted versus resistivity of the sample. These predictions are compared to values of 1/τsr and Δρ derived from ferromagnetic-resonance and AMR experiments in Permalloy.

  16. Arresting relaxation in Pickering Emulsions

    Atherton, Tim; Burke, Chris


    Pickering emulsions consist of droplets of one fluid dispersed in a host fluid and stabilized by colloidal particles absorbed at the fluid-fluid interface. Everyday materials such as crude oil and food products like salad dressing are examples of these materials. Particles can stabilize non spherical droplet shapes in these emulsions through the following sequence: first, an isolated droplet is deformed, e.g. by an electric field, increasing the surface area above the equilibrium value; additional particles are then adsorbed to the interface reducing the surface tension. The droplet is then allowed to relax toward a sphere. If more particles were adsorbed than can be accommodated by the surface area of the spherical ground state, relaxation of the droplet is arrested at some non-spherical shape. Because the energetic cost of removing adsorbed colloids exceeds the interfacial driving force, these configurations can remain stable over long timescales. In this presentation, we present a computational study of the ordering present in anisotropic droplets produced through the mechanism of arrested relaxation and discuss the interplay between the geometry of the droplet, the dynamical process that produced it, and the structure of the defects observed.

  17. Relaxation response in femoral angiography.

    Mandle, C L; Domar, A D; Harrington, D P; Leserman, J; Bozadjian, E M; Friedman, R; Benson, H


    Immediately before they underwent femoral angiography, 45 patients were given one of three types of audiotapes: a relaxation response tape recorded for this study, a tape of contemporary instrumental music, or a blank tape. All patients were instructed to listen to their audiotape during the entire angiographic procedure. Each audiotape was played through earphones. Radiologists were not told the group assignment or tape contents. The patients given the audiotape with instructions to elicit the relaxation response (n = 15) experienced significantly less anxiety (P less than .05) and pain (P less than .001) during the procedure, were observed by radiology nurses to exhibit significantly less pain (P less than .001) and anxiety (P less than .001), and requested significantly less fentanyl citrate (P less than .01) and diazepam (P less than .01) than patients given either the music (n = 14) or the blank (n = 16) control audiotapes. Elicitation of the relaxation response is a simple, inexpensive, efficacious, and practical method to reduce pain, anxiety, and medication during femoral angiography and may be useful in other invasive procedures.

  18. Capturing molecular multimode relaxation processes in excitable gases based on decomposition of acoustic relaxation spectra

    Zhu, Ming; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Kesheng


    Existing two-frequency reconstructive methods can only capture primary (single) molecular relaxation processes in excitable gases. In this paper, we present a reconstructive method based on the novel decomposition of frequency-dependent acoustic relaxation spectra to capture the entire molecular multimode relaxation process. This decomposition of acoustic relaxation spectra is developed from the frequency-dependent effective specific heat, indicating that a multi-relaxation process is the sum of the interior single-relaxation processes. Based on this decomposition, we can reconstruct the entire multi-relaxation process by capturing the relaxation times and relaxation strengths of N interior single-relaxation processes, using the measurements of acoustic absorption and sound speed at 2N frequencies. Experimental data for the gas mixtures CO2-N2 and CO2-O2 validate our decomposition and reconstruction approach.

  19. Time of relaxation in dusty plasma model

    Timofeev, A. V.


    Dust particles in plasma may have different values of average kinetic energy for vertical and horizontal motion. The partial equilibrium of the subsystems and the relaxation processes leading to this asymmetry are under consideration. A method for the relaxation time estimation in nonideal dusty plasma is suggested. The characteristic relaxation times of vertical and horizontal motion of dust particles in gas discharge are estimated by analytical approach and by analysis of simulation results. These relaxation times for vertical and horizontal subsystems appear to be different. A single hierarchy of relaxation times is proposed.

  20. Stress relaxation and estimation of activation volume in a commercial hard PZT piezoelectric ceramic

    B L Cheng; M J Reece


    The stress relaxation of ferroelectric/piezoelectric material was studied using compression testing. The deformation was produced by the switching of ferroelectric domains. The internal stresses were estimated by decremental stress relaxation during unloading. The results were interpreted in terms of reversible and irreversible switching of the domains.

  1. 5 Things To Know About Relaxation Techniques for Stress

    ... X Y Z 5 Things To Know About Relaxation Techniques for Stress Share: When you’re under stress, ... creating the relaxation response through regular use of relaxation techniques could counteract the negative effects of stress. Relaxation ...


    Hua-zhong Tang; Hua-mu Wu


    Hamilton-Jacobiequation appears frequently in applications, e.g., in differential games and control theory, and is closely related to hyperbolic conservation laws[3, 4, 12]. This is helpful in the design of difference approximations for Hamilton-Jacobi equation and hyperbolic conservation laws. In this paper we present the relaxing system for HamiltonJacobiequations in arbitrary space dimensions, and high resolution relaxing schemes for Hamilton-Jacobi equation, based on using the local relaxation approximation. The schemes are numerically tested on a variety of 1D and 2D problems, including a problem related to optimal control problem. High-order accuracy in smooth regions, good resolution of discontinuities, and convergence to viscosity solutions are observed.

  3. Oral muscle relaxant may induce immediate allergic reactions.

    Hur, Gyu-Young; Hwang, Eui Kyung; Moon, Jae-Young; Ye, Young-Min; Shim, Jae-Jeong; Park, Hae-Sim; Kang, Kyung-Ho


    Eperisone and afloqualone act by relaxing both skeletal and vascular smooth muscles to improve circulation and suppress pain reflex. These drugs are typically prescribed with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as painkillers. However, there have been no reports on serious adverse reactions to oral muscle relaxants; and this is the first report to describe three allergic reactions caused by eperisone and afloqualone. All three patients had histories of allergic reactions after oral intake of multiple painkillers, including oral muscle relaxants and NSAIDs, for chronic muscle pain. An open-label oral challenge test was performed with each drug to confirm which drugs caused the systemic reactions. All patients experienced the same reactions within one hour after oral intake of eperisone or afloqualone. The severity of these reactions ranged from laryngeal edema to hypotension. To confirm that the systemic reaction was caused by eperisone or afloqualone, skin prick testing and intradermal skin tests were performed with eperisone or afloqualone extract in vivo, and basophil activity tests were performed after stimulation with these drugs in vitro. In one patient with laryngeal edema, the intradermal test with afloqualone extract had a positive result, and CD63 expression levels on basophils increased in a dose-dependent manner by stimulation with afloqualone. We report three allergic reactions caused by oral muscle relaxants that might be mediated by non-immunoglobulin E-mediated responses. Since oral muscle relaxants such as eperisone and afloqualone are commonly prescribed for chronic muscle pain and can induce severe allergic reactions, we should prescribe them carefully.

  4. Effects of relaxation and music on postoperative pain: a review.

    Good, M


    Postoperative patients differ in their response to pain and opioids. It is therefore important that nurses offer other options as adjuvants to medication. Relaxation and music may reduce pain by interrupting the postoperative cycle of pain, muscle tension and sympathetic activity. This review summarizes and critiques studies on the effectiveness of relaxation and music use during postoperative pain. Relaxation and music were effective in reducing affective and observed pain in the majority of studies, but they were less often effective in reducing sensory pain or opioid intake. However, the between-study differences in surgical procedures, experimental techniques, activities during testing, measurement of pain, and amount of practice make comparisons difficult. Furthermore, within studies, the problems of inadequate sample size, lack of random assignment, no assurance of pretest equivalence, delayed post-test administration and no control for opiates at the time of testing reduces the validity of the studies' conclusions. Randomized controlled studies of the types of relaxation and music that are most helpful to postoperative patients should be explored in various contexts.

  5. Compaction and relaxation of biofilms

    Valladares Linares, R.


    Operation of membrane systems for water treatment can be seriously hampered by biofouling. A better characterization of biofilms in membrane systems and their impact on membrane performance may help to develop effective biofouling control strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence, extent and timescale of biofilm compaction and relaxation (decompaction), caused by permeate flux variations. The impact of permeate flux changes on biofilm thickness, structure and stiffness was investigated in situ and non-destructively with optical coherence tomography using membrane fouling monitors operated at a constant crossflow velocity of 0.1 m s−1 with permeate production. The permeate flux was varied sequentially from 20 to 60 and back to 20 L m−2 h−1. The study showed that the average biofilm thickness on the membrane decreased after elevating the permeate flux from 20 to 60 L m−2 h−1 while the biofilm thickness increased again after restoring the original flux of 20 L m−2 h−1, indicating the occurrence of biofilm compaction and relaxation. Within a few seconds after the flux change, the biofilm thickness was changed and stabilized, biofilm compaction occurred faster than the relaxation after restoring the original permeate flux. The initial biofilm parameters were not fully reinstated: the biofilm thickness was reduced by 21%, biofilm stiffness had increased and the hydraulic biofilm resistance was elevated by 16%. Biofilm thickness was related to the hydraulic biofilm resistance. Membrane performance losses are related to the biofilm thickness, density and morphology, which are influenced by (variations in) hydraulic conditions. A (temporarily) permeate flux increase caused biofilm compaction, together with membrane performance losses. The impact of biofilms on membrane performance can be influenced (increased and reduced) by operational parameters. The article shows that a (temporary) pressure increase leads to more

  6. Plasma Relaxation in Hall Magnetohydrodynamics

    Shivamoggi, B K


    Parker's formulation of isotopological plasma relaxation process in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is extended to Hall MHD. The torsion coefficient alpha in the Hall MHD Beltrami condition turns out now to be proportional to the "potential vorticity." The Hall MHD Beltrami condition becomes equivalent to the "potential vorticity" conservation equation in two-dimensional hydrodynamics if the Hall MHD Lagrange multiplier beta is taken to be proportional to the "potential vorticity" as well. The winding pattern of the magnetic field lines in Hall MHD then appears to evolve in the same way as "potential vorticity" lines in 2D hydrodynamics.

  7. Spectral Estimation of NMR Relaxation

    Naugler, David G.; Cushley, Robert J.


    In this paper, spectral estimation of NMR relaxation is constructed as an extension of Fourier Transform (FT) theory as it is practiced in NMR or MRI, where multidimensional FT theory is used. nD NMR strives to separate overlapping resonances, so the treatment given here deals primarily with monoexponential decay. In the domain of real error, it is shown how optimal estimation based on prior knowledge can be derived. Assuming small Gaussian error, the estimation variance and bias are derived. Minimum bias and minimum variance are shown to be contradictory experimental design objectives. The analytical continuation of spectral estimation is constructed in an optimal manner. An important property of spectral estimation is that it is phase invariant. Hence, hypercomplex data storage is unnecessary. It is shown that, under reasonable assumptions, spectral estimation is unbiased in the context of complex error and its variance is reduced because the modulus of the whole signal is used. Because of phase invariance, the labor of phasing and any error due to imperfect phase can be avoided. A comparison of spectral estimation with nonlinear least squares (NLS) estimation is made analytically and with numerical examples. Compared to conventional sampling for NLS estimation, spectral estimation would typically provide estimation values of comparable precision in one-quarter to one-tenth of the spectrometer time when S/N is high. When S/N is low, the time saved can be used for signal averaging at the sampled points to give better precision. NLS typically provides one estimate at a time, whereas spectral estimation is inherently parallel. The frequency dimensions of conventional nD FT NMR may be denoted D1, D2, etc. As an extension of nD FT NMR, one can view spectral estimation of NMR relaxation as an extension into the zeroth dimension. In nD NMR, the information content of a spectrum can be extracted as a set of n-tuples (ω1, … ωn), corresponding to the peak maxima

  8. Relaxing Chosen-Ciphertext Security

    Canetti, Ran; Krawczyk, Hugo; Nielsen, Jesper Buus


    Security against adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks (or, CCA security) has been accepted as the standard requirement from encryption schemes that need to withstand active attacks. In particular, it is regarded as the appropriate security notion for encryption schemes used as components within...... “for most practical purposes.” We propose a relaxed variant of CCA security, called Replayable CCA (RCCA) security. RCCA security accepts as secure the non-CCA (yet arguably secure) schemes mentioned above; furthermore, it suffices for most existing applications of CCA security. We provide three...

  9. Research on relaxation modulus of viscoelastic materials under unsteady temperature states based on TTSP

    Xu, Jinsheng; Ju, Yutao; Han, Bo; Zhou, Changsheng; Zheng, Jian


    The main goal of this work is to obtain relaxation curves of Hydroxyl-Terminated Polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant under unsteady temperature states. A series of relaxation tests of HTPB were carried out, with the strain level ɛ 0 of the tests being applied with a ramp time of strain rate . A method is proposed to compensate for stress relaxation during the period of strain rate loading. The proposed method is compared to a numerical method and a general method in terms of accuracy of determination of relaxation modulus. The results show that the relaxation moduli obtained by the proposed method and the numerical method are more accurate than those from the general method; in addition, the proposed method is more convenient in data processing. The relaxation modulus values under unsteady temperature states were obtained from a series of relaxation curves under constant temperature, and at different temperatures according to Time-Temperature Superposition Principle (TTSP). In this work, reduced time is defined as a function of time-temperature shift factor a T and a variable ψ( T) called `zero time' which depends on temperature. A comparison of test results showed that the values of relaxation modulus that take `zero time' into account are more accurate than those without `zero time'.

  10. Integrating Biosystem Models Using Waveform Relaxation

    Stephen Baigent


    Full Text Available Modelling in systems biology often involves the integration of component models into larger composite models. How to do this systematically and efficiently is a significant challenge: coupling of components can be unidirectional or bidirectional, and of variable strengths. We adapt the waveform relaxation (WR method for parallel computation of ODEs as a general methodology for computing systems of linked submodels. Four test cases are presented: (i a cascade of unidirectionally and bidirectionally coupled harmonic oscillators, (ii deterministic and stochastic simulations of calcium oscillations, (iii single cell calcium oscillations showing complex behaviour such as periodic and chaotic bursting, and (iv a multicellular calcium model for a cell plate of hepatocytes. We conclude that WR provides a flexible means to deal with multitime-scale computation and model heterogeneity. Global solutions over time can be captured independently of the solution techniques for the individual components, which may be distributed in different computing environments.

  11. Stress relaxation study of water atomized Cu-Cr-Zr powder alloys consolidated by inverse warm extrusion

    Poblano-Salas, C.A., E-mail: carlos.poblano@ciateq.m [CIATEQ A.C., Centro de Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Manantiales 23 A, Parque Industrial Bernardo Quintana, El Marques, Queretaro, C.P. 76246 (Mexico); Barceinas-Sanchez, J.D.O., E-mail: obarceinas@ipn.m [CICATA-IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Cerro Blanco 141, Colinas del Cimatario, Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro, C.P. 76090 (Mexico)


    Stress relaxation testing in compression at high temperature was performed on Cu-Cr-Zr alloys produced by consolidation of water atomized powders. Precipitation and recrystallization were monitored during stress relaxation experiments carried out at an ageing temperature of 723 K. Pre-straining imposed to the Cu-Cr-Zr samples prior to stress relaxation testing resulted in reduced hardness compared to that reported for conventionally-aged alloys; it also resulted in shorter times for achieving maximum strengthening on ageing.

  12. Relaxation of liquid bridge after droplets coalescence

    Jiangen Zheng


    Full Text Available We investigate the relaxation of liquid bridge after the coalescence of two sessile droplets resting on an organic glass substrate both experimentally and theoretically. The liquid bridge is found to relax to its equilibrium shape via two distinct approaches: damped oscillation relaxation and underdamped relaxation. When the viscosity is low, damped oscillation shows up, in this approach, the liquid bridge undergoes a damped oscillation process until it reaches its stable shape. However, if the viscous effects become significant, underdamped relaxation occurs. In this case, the liquid bridge relaxes to its equilibrium state in a non-periodic decay mode. In depth analysis indicates that the damping rate and oscillation period of damped oscillation are related to an inertial-capillary time scale τc. These experimental results are also testified by our numerical simulations with COMSOL Multiphysics.

  13. Cross relaxation in nitroxide spin labels

    Marsh, Derek


    Cross relaxation, and mI -dependence of the intrinsic electron spin-lattice relaxation rate We , are incorporated explicitly into the rate equations for the electron-spin population differences that govern the saturation behaviour of 14N- and 15N-nitroxide spin labels. Both prove important in spin-label EPR and ELDOR, particularly for saturation recovery studies. Neither for saturation recovery, nor for CW-saturation EPR and CW-ELDOR, can cross relaxation be described simply by increasing the value of We , the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate. Independence of the saturation recovery rates from the hyperfine line pumped or observed follows directly from solution of the rate equations including cross relaxation, even when the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate We is mI -dependent.


    Yuni Sufyanti Arief


    Full Text Available Introduction: Being hospitalize will be made the children become stress. Hospitalization response of the child particularly is afraid sense regard to painfull procedure and increase to attack the invasive procedure. The aimed of this study was to describe the influence of breathing exercise relaxation technique regarded to phsycological receiving responses in the preeliminary school chidren while they were receiving invasive procedure. Method: A quasy experimental purposive sampling design was used in this study. There were 20 respondents who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was the breathing exercise relaxation technique and the dependent variable was phsycological receiving responses. Data for phsylogical response were collected by using observation form then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result :  The result showed that breathing exercise relaxation technique had significance influence to phsycological response (p=0.000. Discussion: It,s can be concluded that breathing exercise relaxation technique has an effect to increase pshycological response in preeliminary school children who received invasive procedure.

  15. Utilizing RELAX NG Schemas in XML Editors

    Schmied, Martin


    This thesis explores the possibilities of utilizing RELAX NG schemata in the process of editing XML documents. The ultimate goal of this thesis is to prototype a system supporting user while editing XML document with bound RELAX NG schema inside the Eclipse IDE. Such a system comprises two major components -- an integration of RELAX NG validator and an autocompletion engine. Design of the autocompletion engine represents the main contribution of this thesis, because similar systems are almost...

  16. Microstructural and Microhardness Variation of Amorphous Fe78Si9B13 Alloy during Bend Stress Relaxation

    Xifeng LI; Kaifeng ZHANG; Changli WANG; Wenbo HAN; Guofeng WANG


    The amorphous Fe78Si9B13 ribbons were bend stress relaxed at various temperature well below the crystallization temperature (Tx) for different time. The effect of pre-annealing on the subsequent bend stress relaxation was examined. The variation of the microstructure and microhardness during bend stress relaxation process was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Vickers microhardness test,respectively. Curvature radius of the amorphous Fe78Si9B13 ribbons decreased with increase bend stress relaxation temperature and time. The microhardness of the stress relaxed specimens increased with time at 300℃ due to the forming of nanocrystals during bend stress relaxation. The pre-annealing reduced the decrease rate of the curvature radius of stress relaxed specimens.


    Ruo-Bing Yu; Chi-Xing Zhou; Wei Yu


    Intermittent shear flow including start-up flow and small oscillatory amplitude time sweep or stress relaxation after cessation of shear flow was used to study the rheological behavior and internal structure of thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer (TLCP). There are two kinds of intermittent shear flow: all start-up flows are in the same direction (intermittent flow forward: IFF) and start-up flows change their directions alternately (intermittent flow reversal: IFR). The results show that the stress of start-up flow of IFF and IFR in the test process is not superposed, indicating different changes of internal structure of thermotropic LCP (TLCP). Two main factors affect structure changes in the experimental time scale. One relates to long-term texture relaxation process, the other is an interchain reaction that becomes important after 30 min. The two factors raise the stress of IFF, but express complex effects for the stress of IFR. The latter factor becomes very important at long time annealing process. The relaxation behavior was also studied by the application of wide range relaxation spectrum calculated from the combined dynamic modulus, which gave three characteristic relaxation times (0.3, 10 and 600 s)ascribable to the relaxations of less-phase orientation, domain orientation, and domain deformation, respectively. The result also shows that the domain coalescence (texture relaxation), a long relaxation time, is a much slow process and lasts beyond 2400 s of the test time.

  18. Temperature relaxation in dense plasma mixtures

    Faussurier, Gérald; Blancard, Christophe


    We present a model to calculate temperature-relaxation rates in dense plasma mixtures. The electron-ion relaxation rates are calculated using an average-atom model and the ion-ion relaxation rates by the Landau-Spitzer approach. This method allows the study of the temperature relaxation in many-temperature electron-ion and ion-ion systems such as those encountered in inertial confinement fusion simulations. It is of interest for general nonequilibrium thermodynamics dealing with energy flows between various systems and should find broad use in present high energy density experiments.

  19. Baryogenesis via Elementary Goldstone Higgs Relaxation

    Gertov, Helene; Pearce, Lauren; Yang, Louis


    We extend the relaxation mechanism to the Elementary Goldstone Higgs frame- work. Besides studying the allowed parameter space of the theory we add the minimal ingredients needed for the framework to be phenomenologically viable. The very nature of the extended Higgs sector allows to consider very flat scalar potential directions along which the relaxation mechanism can be implemented. This fact translates into wider regions of applicability of the relaxation mechanism when compared to the Standard Model Higgs case. Our results show that, if the electroweak scale is not fundamental but radiatively generated, it is possible to generate the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry via the relaxation mechanism.

  20. Dielectric relaxation studies in polyvinyl butyral

    Mehendru, P. C.; Kumar, Naresh; Arora, V. P.; Gupta, N. P.


    Dielectric measurements have been made in thick films (˜100 μm) of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) having degree of polymerization n=1600, in the frequency range 100 Hz-100 KHz and temperature range 300-373 K. The results indicated that PVB was in the amorphous phase and observed dielectric dispersion has been assigned as the β-relaxation process. The β relaxation is of Debye type with symmetrical distribution of relaxation times. The dielectric relaxation strength Δɛ and the distribution parameters β¯ increase with temperature. The results can be qualitatively explained by assuming the hindered rotation of the side groups involving hydroxyl/acetate groups.

  1. Relaxation and Visualization Strategies for Story Telling



    The importance of training students to tell or retell story is self - evident for mastering English language. The following activity introduces relaxation and visualization strategies for story telling.

  2. Nuclear relaxation via paramagnetic impurities

    Dzheparov, F S; Jacquinot, J F


    First part of the work contains a calculation of the kinetics of nuclear relaxation via paramagnetic impurities for systems with arbitrary (including fractal) space dimension d basing on ideas, which run current for 3d objects now. A new mean-field-type theory is constructed in the second part of the work. It reproduces all results of the first part for integer d and gives a possibility to describe the process for longer time, when a crossover to Balagurov-Waks asymptotics starts to develop. Solutions of the equations of the new theory are constructed for integer d. To obtain the solutions a method of calculation of the low-energy and long-wave asymptotics for T matrix of potential scattering out of the mass shell for singular repulsive potentials is developed

  3. Relaxing Chosen-Ciphertext Security

    Canetti, Ran; Krawczyk, Hugo; Nielsen, Jesper Buus


    Security against adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks (or, CCA security) has been accepted as the standard requirement from encryption schemes that need to withstand active attacks. In particular, it is regarded as the appropriate security notion for encryption schemes used as components within...... general protocols and applications. Indeed, CCA security was shown to suffice in a large variety of contexts. However, CCA security often appears to be somewhat too strong: there exist encryption schemes (some of which come up naturally in practice) that are not CCA secure, but seem sufficiently secure...... “for most practical purposes.” We propose a relaxed variant of CCA security, called Replayable CCA (RCCA) security. RCCA security accepts as secure the non-CCA (yet arguably secure) schemes mentioned above; furthermore, it suffices for most existing applications of CCA security. We provide three...

  4. Muscle relaxant activity of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. fruit seeds in mice.

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Ramezani, Mohammad; Namjo, Nazanin


    Muscle relaxant effect of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. (Elaeagnaceae) fruit seeds was studied in mice using traction test. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts (i.p) induced a muscle relaxant effect in a dose dependent manner as effective as diazepam (1 mg/kg). The aqueous extract was partitioned with methanol-chloroform (MeCh) and n-butanol (Bu.) saturated with water. The MeCh and Bu. fractions did not show activity. Preliminary phytochemical tests showed that the extract contains flavonoid. The results suggested that E. angustifolia fruit seeds exerted muscle relaxant activity via flavonoid component(s).


    曹铁山; 方旭东; 程从前; 赵杰


    Rupture life is a main property for a material using at high-temperature condition.Usually,the rupture life is gained from creep rupture test.As creep and stress relaxation are two main behaviors for a material served in high-temperature environment,it is important to work out the interrelationship through which one of the two behaviors can be deduced from the other one.Recently,a number of researchs have taken stress relaxation test to replace creep rupture test on studying the creep behavior,and furthermore predicting the rupture life and the stress relaxation test is proved to be superior to the traditional creep rupture test for its short time,small at damage,abundant of information and so on.In this work,the stress relaxation test was used to analyze the creep behavior of two HR3C heat resistant steels with different grain sizes.Additionally,considering the change of microstructure during serve period,the aged HR3C steel was used to compare with as-received HR3C steel for studying the aging effects on the creep behavior.Furthermore,the creep behavior was correlated to their microstructure characteristics.The result was shown that the creep behaviors of two HR3C heat resistant steels varied significantly in spite of their similarity in chemical composition.The coarse grained HR3C steel had lower creep rate,larger stress exponent,greater activation energy and higher creep resistance than that of fine grained HR3C steel for both as-received one and aged one.The long-term aging process damaged the microstructures of two HR3C steels,increased aged HR3C steel's creep rate,lowered stress exponent and activation energy and reduced creep resistance.And the damaging effects on the coarse grained HR3C steel were larger than that on fine grained HR3C steel,which meant the coarse grained HR3C steel had much more stable creep resistance than that of fine grained HR3C steel.%采用应力松弛方法研究了2种不同晶粒大小HR3C耐热钢的初始态试样和时效态

  6. Influence of the storage conditions on prestressing steel relaxation losses

    Suárez, F.


    Full Text Available Stress relaxation losses on active reinforcement have significant impact on prestressed concrete structures. This is why relaxation tests are carried out on prestressing steel wires and strands after being manufactured. Then, these materials are coiled and stored for a long-term period, sometimes in excess of one year. The influence of these operations, carried out after manufacturing, is usually neglected. Nevertheless, some manufacturers and contractors have noticed that, sometimes, when relaxation tests are carried out after a long-term storage, the relaxation losses found are higher than those measured immediately after manufacturing. In this work, lab tests are performed to check the influence of the coiling radius and the period of storage on the relaxation test. In addition to this, an analytical model is presented to predict the results of a relaxation test carried out on a wire coiled and stored for a long-term period. This model explains the evolution on the cross-sectional stress profile along the coiling-storing-uncoiling process, as well as the influence of the residual stresses on it.

    La pérdida de tensión por relajación en las armaduras activas afecta de forma importante a las estructuras de hormigón pretensado. Por ello se realizan ensayos de relajación de los alambres y cordones de pretensado tras su fabricación. Después, el material es enrollado y almacenado durante periodos que en ocasiones pueden superar el año de duración. Generalmente se desprecia la influencia que estas operaciones posteriores a la fabricación pueden tener sobre el material. Sin embargo, diversos fabricantes y suministradores han constatado experimentalmente que, en ocasiones, el material almacenado durante un periodo prolongado presenta pérdidas de relajación mayores que inmediatamente tras su fabricación. En este trabajo se realizan ensayos de laboratorio para comprobar la influencia que el radio de enrollamiento y el periodo de

  7. Ncpol2sdpa -- Sparse Semidefinite Programming Relaxations for Polynomial Optimization Problems of Noncommuting Variables

    Wittek, Peter


    A hierarchy of semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxations approximates the global optimum of polynomial optimization problems of noncommuting variables. Generating the relaxation, however, is a computationally demanding task, and only problems of commuting variables have efficient generators. We develop an implementation for problems of noncommuting problems that creates the relaxation to be solved by SDPA -- a high-performance solver that runs in a distributed environment. We further exploit the inherent sparsity of optimization problems in quantum physics to reduce the complexity of resulting relaxation. Constrained problems with a relaxation of order two may contain up to a hundred variables. The implementation is available in C++ and Python. The tool helps solve problems such as finding the ground state energy or testing quantum correlations.

  8. HV/CVD Grown Relaxed SiGe Buffer Layers for SiGe HMOSFETs

    黄文韬; 罗广礼; 史进; 邓宁; 陈培毅; 钱佩信


    High-vacuum/chemical-vapor deposition (HV/CVD) system was used to grow relaxed SiGe buffer layers on Si substrates. Several methods were then used to analyze the quality of the SiGe films. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy showed that the upper layer was almost fully relaxed. Second ion mass spectroscopy showed that the Ge compositions were step-graded. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the misfit dislocations were restrained to the graded SiGe layers. Tests of the electrical properties of tensile-strained Si on relaxed SiGe buffer layers showed that their transconductances were higher than that of Si devices. These results verify the high quality of the relaxed SiGe buffer layer. The calculated critical layer thicknesses of the graded Si1-xGex layer on Si substrate and a Si layer on the relaxed SiGe buffer layer agree well with experimental results.

  9. Relaxation of uterine and aortic smooth muscle by glaucolides D and E from Vernonia liatroides.

    Campos, María; Oropeza, Martha; Ponce, Héctor; Fernández, Jaquelina; Jimenez-Estrada, Manuel; Torres, Héctor; Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo


    Vernonia spp. (Asteraceae) are used in herbolaria in Latin America in menstrual and stomach disorders, suggesting smooth muscle relaxing properties of some of their chemical constituents. For pharmacological support for this belief, sesquiterpene lactones glaucolides D and E were assayed on isolated rat smooth muscle. Glaucolide E proved more potent than glaucolide D to relax high KCl- or noradrenaline-induced contractions in aorta and to relax the high KCl-contraction in uterus. Hirsutinolide-type sesquiterpene lactone also was tested but displayed no effect. Relaxation of smooth muscle by structurally related sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide has been attributed mainly to the alpha-methylene gamma-lactone moiety; because glaucolides D and E lack this functional group, their relaxant properties may rely on other alkylating sites such as C10 of the germacra-1(10),4-diene-4-epoxide skeleton.

  10. Relaxation rates of low-field gas-phase ^129Xe storage cells

    Limes, Mark; Saam, Brian


    A study of longitudinal nuclear relaxation rates T1 of ^129Xe and Xe-N2 mixtures in a magnetic field of 3.8 mT is presented. In this regime, intrinsic spin relaxation is dominated by the intramolecular spin-rotation interaction due to persistent xenon dimers, a mechanism that can be quelled by introducing large amounts of N2 into the storage cell. Extrinsic spin relaxation is dominated by the wall-relaxation rate, which is the primary quantity of interest for the various low-field storage cells and coatings that we have tested. Previous group work has shown that extremely long gas-phase relaxation times T1 can be obtained, but only at large magnetic fields and low xenon densities. The current work is motivated by the practical benefits of retaining hyperpolarized ^129Xe for extended periods of time in a small magnetic field.

  11. Relaxation and diffusion models with non-singular kernels

    Sun, HongGuang; Hao, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yong; Baleanu, Dumitru


    Anomalous relaxation and diffusion processes have been widely quantified by fractional derivative models, where the definition of the fractional-order derivative remains a historical debate due to its limitation in describing different kinds of non-exponential decays (e.g. stretched exponential decay). Meanwhile, many efforts by mathematicians and engineers have been made to overcome the singularity of power function kernel in its definition. This study first explores physical properties of relaxation and diffusion models where the temporal derivative was defined recently using an exponential kernel. Analytical analysis shows that the Caputo type derivative model with an exponential kernel cannot characterize non-exponential dynamics well-documented in anomalous relaxation and diffusion. A legitimate extension of the previous derivative is then proposed by replacing the exponential kernel with a stretched exponential kernel. Numerical tests show that the Caputo type derivative model with the stretched exponential kernel can describe a much wider range of anomalous diffusion than the exponential kernel, implying the potential applicability of the new derivative in quantifying real-world, anomalous relaxation and diffusion processes.

  12. Quasi-static relaxation of arbitrarily shaped sessile drops

    Iliev, S; Nikolayev, Vadim


    We study a spontaneous relaxation dynamics of arbitrarily shaped liquid drops on solid surfaces in the partial wetting regime. It is assumed that the energy dissipated near the contact line is much larger than that in the bulk of the fluid. We have shown rigorously in the case of quasi-static relaxation using the standard mechanical description of dissipative system dynamics that the introduction of a dissipation term proportional to the contact line length leads to the well known local relation between the contact line velocity and the dynamic contact angle at every point of an arbitrary contact line shape. A numerical code is developed for 3D drops to study the dependence of the relaxation dynamics on the initial drop shape. The available asymptotic solutions are tested against the obtained numerical data. We show how the relaxation at a given point of the contact line is influenced by the dynamics of the whole drop which is a manifestation of the non-local

  13. Superparamagnetic relaxation of weakly interacting particles

    Mørup, Steen; Tronc, Elisabeth


    The influence of particle interactions on the superparamagnetic relaxation time has been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy in samples of maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) particles with different particle sizes and particle separations. It is found that the relaxation time decreases with decreasing particl...

  14. Postextrasystolic relaxation in the dog heart

    Kuijer, P.J.P.; Heethaar, R.M.; Herbschleb, J.N.; Zimmerman, A.N.E.; Meijler, F.L.


    Left ventricular relaxation was studied in 8 dogs using parameters derived from the left ventricular pressure: the fastest pressure fall and the time constant of pressure decline. Effects of extrasystolic rhythm interventions were examined on the relaxation parameters of the post-relative to the pre

  15. Superparamagnetic relaxation in alpha-Fe particles

    Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen; Pedersen, Michael Stanley;


    The superparamagnetic relaxation time of carbon-supported alpha-Fe particles with an average size of 3.0 Mm has been studied over a large temperature range by the use of Mossbauer spectroscopy combined with AC and DC magnetization measurements. It is found that the relaxation time varies with tem...

  16. Cross relaxation in nitroxide spin labels

    Marsh, Derek


    -label EPR and ELDOR, particularly for saturation recovery studies. Neither for saturation recovery, nor for CW-saturation EPR and CW-ELDOR, can cross relaxation be described simply by increasing the value of We, the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate. Independence of the saturation recovery rates from...

  17. Windowing Waveform Relaxation of Initial Value Problems

    Yao-lin Jiang


    We present a windowing technique of waveform relaxation for dynamic systems. An effective estimation on window length is derived by an iterative error expression provided here. Relaxation processes can be speeded up if one takes the windowing technique in advance. Numerical experiments are given to further illustrate the theoretical analysis.

  18. Stress and Relaxation in Relation to Personality

    Harish Kumar Sharma


    Full Text Available Relaxation plays a significant role in facing stress. The aim of the present study is to see whether personality patterns determine an individual’s ability to relax. As a reaction to stress, coping is the best way to handle stress, which requires rational and conscious thinking. Does this ability to relax anyway facilitate coping reactions? A study was conducted on 100 college students. Results revealed that extraverts relax easily than introverts. In addition, if intelligence level is average or above average, relaxation does play a role in facilitating coping reactions. It suggests that in designing techniques of stress management, the personality and intelligence level must be taken into consideration to make techniques effective.

  19. Quantifying the rates of relaxation of binary mixtures of amorphous pharmaceuticals with isothermal calorimetry.

    Alem, Naziha; Beezer, Anthony E; Gaisford, Simon


    While the use of isothermal calorimetry to quantify the rate of relaxation of one-phase amorphous pharmaceuticals, through application of models, is well documented, the resolution of the models to detect and quantify relaxation in systems containing two independent amorphous phases is not known. Addressing this knowledge gap is the focus of this work. Two fitting models were tested; the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts model (KWW) and the modified-stretch exponential (MSE). The ability of each model to resolve relaxation processes in binary systems was determined with simulated calorimetric data. It was found that as long as the relaxation time constants of the relaxation processes were with 10(3) of each other, the models could determine that two events were occurring and could quantify the correct reaction parameters of each. With greater differences in the time constants, the faster process always dominates the data and the resolving power of the models is lost. Real calorimetric data were then obtained for two binary amorphous systems (sucrose-lactose and sucrose-indomethacin mixtures). The relaxation behaviour of all the single components was characterised as they relaxed individually to provide reference data. The ability of the KWW model to recover the expected relaxation parameters for two component data was impaired because of their inherently noisy nature. The MSE model reasonably recovered the expected parameters for each component for the sucrose-indomethacin system but not for the sucrose-lactose system, which may indicate a possible interaction in that case.

  20. Physical activity and relaxation during and after work are independently associated with the need for recovery.

    Coffeng, Jennifer K; van Sluijs, Esther M; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M; van Mechelen, Willem; Boot, Cécile R L


    Research is needed to better understand the associations between during-work and after-work-hours physical activity and relaxation and need for recovery (NFR), so a study of these variables in office workers at a financial service provider was undertaken. Self-reported baseline data of 412 employees (mean age = 41.3 y; 39.6% women) were used. Linear regression analyses were performed to test associations of physical activity, relaxation, detachment, and breaks at work with NFR. A lower NFR was significantly positively associated with standing, stair climbing, active lunch break, relaxation at work, detachment at work, physical detachment at work, relaxation at home, and detachment at home. In the multiple model, a lower NFR was independently positively associated with frequency of stair climbing, minutes spent in leisure activities, detachment at work, physical detachment at work, and relaxation and detachment at home (P relaxation at home and NFR was stronger with high job demands. Although prospective evidence is necessary to confirm the causal relationships, our findings suggest that engaging in stair climbing, leisure activities, (physical) detachment at work, relaxation and detachment after work is associated with a lower NFR. For future work site health promotion initiatives, interventions might be targeted at improving physical activity and relaxation.

  1. Active open boundary forcing using dual relaxation time-scales in downscaled ocean models

    Herzfeld, M.; Gillibrand, P. A.


    Regional models actively forced with data from larger scale models at their open boundaries often contain motion at different time-scales (e.g. tidal and low frequency). These motions are not always individually well specified in the forcing data, and one may require a more active boundary forcing while the other exert less influence on the model interior. If a single relaxation time-scale is used to relax toward these data in the boundary equation, then this may be difficult. The method of fractional steps is used to introduce dual relaxation time-scales in an open boundary local flux adjustment scheme. This allows tidal and low frequency oscillations to be relaxed independently, resulting in a better overall solution than if a single relaxation parameter is optimized for tidal (short relaxation) or low frequency (long relaxation) boundary forcing. The dual method is compared to the single relaxation method for an idealized test case where a tidal signal is superimposed on a steady state low frequency solution, and a real application where the low frequency boundary forcing component is derived from a global circulation model for a region extending over the whole Great Barrier Reef, and a tidal signal subsequently superimposed.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting with short relaxation intervals.

    Amthor, Thomas; Doneva, Mariya; Koken, Peter; Sommer, Karsten; Meineke, Jakob; Börnert, Peter


    The aim of this study was to investigate a technique for improving the performance of Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) in repetitive sampling schemes, in particular for 3D MRF acquisition, by shortening relaxation intervals between MRF pulse train repetitions. A calculation method for MRF dictionaries adapted to short relaxation intervals and non-relaxed initial spin states is presented, based on the concept of stationary fingerprints. The method is applicable to many different k-space sampling schemes in 2D and 3D. For accuracy analysis, T1 and T2 values of a phantom are determined by single-slice Cartesian MRF for different relaxation intervals and are compared with quantitative reference measurements. The relevance of slice profile effects is also investigated in this case. To further illustrate the capabilities of the method, an application to in-vivo spiral 3D MRF measurements is demonstrated. The proposed computation method enables accurate parameter estimation even for the shortest relaxation intervals, as investigated for different sampling patterns in 2D and 3D. In 2D Cartesian measurements, we achieved a scan acceleration of more than a factor of two, while maintaining acceptable accuracy: The largest T1 values of a sample set deviated from their reference values by 0.3% (longest relaxation interval) and 2.4% (shortest relaxation interval). The largest T2 values showed systematic deviations of up to 10% for all relaxation intervals, which is discussed. The influence of slice profile effects for multislice acquisition is shown to become increasingly relevant for short relaxation intervals. In 3D spiral measurements, a scan time reduction of 36% was achieved, maintaining the quality of in-vivo T1 and T2 maps. Reducing the relaxation interval between MRF sequence repetitions using stationary fingerprint dictionaries is a feasible method to improve the scan efficiency of MRF sequences. The method enables fast implementations of 3D spatially resolved

  3. 短纤维链板式松弛热定型机内部流场测试及数值模拟%Testing and numerical simulation of flow field in chain plate type relaxation heat setting machine for staple fiber

    李慧; 张军; 常佳; 魏新利


    A numerical calculation model was founded on partial actual test data of flow field in chain plate type relaxation heat setting machine for staple fiber. The computational fluid dynamics software Fluent was adopted to analyze the numerical result of dryer box unit. The results showed that the chain plate type relaxation heat setting machine did not have a reasonable opening rate of air distribution plate, leading to an uneven flow rate perpendicular to chain plate motion in dryer which resulted in the uneven drying effect. The obvious velocity component parallel with the chain plate motion in the dryer flow field, which was beneficial to enhancing the convective mass transfer effect, resulted from the centrifugal force of the fan and the diversion effect of the volute. The numerical calculation method of the model produced the data similar to the actural test results. The numerical analytical results can be used as the preference for the structure optimization design of chain plate type relaxation heat setting machine for staple fiber, especially for the design of air distribution plate openings and fan volute.%在对短纤维链板式松弛热定型机内气体流场部分实测数据的基础上,建立了数值计算模型,利用流体动力学软件Fluent对干燥机箱体单元进行了数值模拟分析.结果表明:所研究短纤维链板式松弛热定型机的匀风板开孔率布置不合理,使得干燥机内垂直于链板运动方向流速不均匀,导致干燥效果的不均匀;由于风机的离心力及蜗壳的导流作用,使得干燥机流场具有明显链板移动方向速度分量,该分量有助于加强干燥过程中的对流传质效果.所建模型的数值计算方法与实际测试结果相近,数值分析结果可以用来作为短纤维链板式松弛热定型机结构优化设计,尤其是匀风板开孔和风机蜗壳的设计的依据.

  4. Effects of progressive muscle relaxation on postmenopausal stress

    Arunima Chaudhuri


    Full Text Available Background: Menopause increases stress level among females and this may be a contributing factor in developing metabolic syndrome. Objectives: The objective of this study is to study the effects of progressive muscle relaxation on cardiorespiratory efficiency and autonomic functions in over weight and obese working stressed postmenopausal females. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 postmenopausal overweight or obese (body mass index [BMI]: 24.97 ± 1.28 females belonging to the age group 50-55 years were included. Stress level in the subjects was assessed according to the presumptive life event stress scale. The perceived stress scale (PSS of Sheldon Cohen was used for measuring the perception of stress. Fasting blood samples were collected to exclude diabetic subjects and analyze lipid profile. BMI and waist/hip ratio were calculated. Resting pulse rate and blood pressure, respiratory rate were measured. VO 2 max, physical fitness index, breath holding time and 40 mm endurance test time were calculated for estimation of cardiopulmonary efficiency. Autonomic function tests were carried. Subjects were given progressive muscle relaxation training for 3 months and all parameters were reevaluated. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA. Results: PSS in pre-training session was 26.16 ± 1.7 and in post-training session was 14.33 ± 2.01 and the difference was statistically significant. There was a significant decrease in pulse rate, blood pressure, BMI, waist/hip ratio, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein following preventive medicine residency training. Results of autonomic function tests and cardiopulmonary efficiency test improved significantly following relaxation training. Conclusions: Increased stress levels may increase BMI and waist/hip ratio, dyslipidemia and lead to autonomic dysfunctions and increase incidence of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal females. Lifestyle modification with relaxation exercises


    竺乃宜; 杨乾锁; 张恒利; 余西龙; 黄立舜


    The experimental results for the excited time of the nonequlibrium radiation andthe ionization behind strong shock waves are presented. Using an optical multichannel analyzer, InSb infrared detectors and near-free-molecular Langmuir probes, the infrared radiation, the electron density of air and the nonequlibrium radiation spectra at different moments of the relaxation process in nitrogen test gas behind normal shock waves were obtained, respectively, in hydrogen oxygen combustion driven shock tubes.

  6. Minimal model for beta relaxation in viscous liquids

    Dyre, Jeppe; Olsen, Niels Boye


    Contrasts between beta relaxation in equilibrium viscous liquids and glasses are rationalized in terms of a double-well potential model with structure-dependent asymmetry, assuming structure is described by a single order parameter. The model is tested for tripropylene glycol where it accounts...... for the hysteresis of the dielectric beta loss peak frequency and magnitude during cooling and reheating through the glass transition....

  7. Domain Relaxation in Langmuir Films

    Bernoff, Andrew J.; Alexander, James C.; Mann, Elizabeth K.; Mann, J. Adin; Zou, Lu; Wintersmith, Jacob R.


    We report on an experimental, theoretical and computational study of a molecularly thin polymer Langmuir layer domain on the surface of a subfluid. When stretched (by a transient stagnation flow), the Langmuir layer takes the form of a bola consisting of two roughly circular reservoirs connected by a thin tether. This shape relaxes to the circular minimum energy configuration. The tether is never observed to rupture, even when it is more than a hundred times as long as it is thin. We model these experiments as a free boundary problem where motion is driven by the line tension of the domain and damped by the viscosity of the subfluid. We process the digital images of the experiment to extract the domain shape, use one of these shapes as an initial condition for the numerical solution of a boundary-integral model of the underlying hydrodynamics, and compare the subsequent images of the experiment to the numerical simulation. The numerical evolutions verify that our hydrodynamical model can reproduce the observed dynamics. They also allow us to deduce the magnitude of the line tension in the system, often to within 1%.

  8. Supervised Discrete Hashing With Relaxation.

    Gui, Jie; Liu, Tongliang; Sun, Zhenan; Tao, Dacheng; Tan, Tieniu


    Data-dependent hashing has recently attracted attention due to being able to support efficient retrieval and storage of high-dimensional data, such as documents, images, and videos. In this paper, we propose a novel learning-based hashing method called ''supervised discrete hashing with relaxation'' (SDHR) based on ''supervised discrete hashing'' (SDH). SDH uses ordinary least squares regression and traditional zero-one matrix encoding of class label information as the regression target (code words), thus fixing the regression target. In SDHR, the regression target is instead optimized. The optimized regression target matrix satisfies a large margin constraint for correct classification of each example. Compared with SDH, which uses the traditional zero-one matrix, SDHR utilizes the learned regression target matrix and, therefore, more accurately measures the classification error of the regression model and is more flexible. As expected, SDHR generally outperforms SDH. Experimental results on two large-scale image data sets (CIFAR-10 and MNIST) and a large-scale and challenging face data set (FRGC) demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of SDHR.

  9. Spin relaxation in organic semiconductors

    Bobbert, Peter


    Intriguing magnetic field effects in organic semiconductor devices have been reported: anomalous magnetoresistance in organic spin valves and large effects of small magnetic fields on the current and luminescence of organic light-emitting diodes. Influences of isotopic substitution on these effects points at the role of hyperfine coupling. We performed studies of spin relaxation in organic semiconductors based on (i) coherent spin precession of the electron spin in an effective magnetic field consisting of a random hyperfine field and an applied magnetic field and (ii) incoherent hopping of charges. These ingredients are incorporated in a stochastic Liouville equation for the dynamics of the spin density matrix of single charges as well as pairs of charges. For single charges we find a spin diffusion length that depends on the magnetic field, explaining anomalous magnetoresistance in organic spin valves. For pairs of charges we show that the magnetic field influences formation of singlet bipolarons, in the case of like charges, and singlet and triplet excitons, in the case of opposite charges. We can reproduce different line shapes of reported magnetic field effects, including recently found effects at ultra-small fields.

  10. Creep and stress relaxation modeling of polycrystalline ceramic fibers

    Dicarlo, James A.; Morscher, Gregory N.


    A variety of high performance polycrystalline ceramic fibers are currently being considered as reinforcement for high temperature ceramic matrix composites. However, under mechanical loading about 800 C, these fibers display creep related instabilities which can result in detrimental changes in composite dimensions, strength, and internal stress distributions. As a first step toward understanding these effects, this study examines the validity of a mechanism-based empirical model which describes primary stage tensile creep and stress relaxation of polycrystalline ceramic fibers as independent functions of time, temperature, and applied stress or strain. To verify these functional dependencies, a simple bend test is used to measure stress relaxation for four types of commercial ceramic fibers for which direct tensile creep data are available. These fibers include both nonoxide (SCS-6, Nicalon) and oxide (PRD-166, FP) compositions. The results of the Bend Stress Relaxation (BSR) test not only confirm the stress, time, and temperature dependencies predicted by the model, but also allow measurement of model empirical parameters for the four fiber types. In addition, comparison of model tensile creep predictions based on the BSR test results with the literature data show good agreement, supporting both the predictive capability of the model and the use of the BSR text as a simple method for parameter determination for other fibers.

  11. Stress Relaxation Behavior of Unidirectional Carbon/Epoxy Composites at Elevated Temperature and Analysis Using Viscoplasticity Model

    Kawai, Masamichi; Kazama, Takeshi; Masuko, Yoichi; Tsuda, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Jun; Kemmochi, Kiyoshi

    Off-axis stress relaxation behavior of unidirectional T800H/3631 carbon/epoxy composite exposed to high temperature is examined at relatively high tensile strain levels, and a phenomenological viscoplasticity model is tested on the capability to describe the time-dependent response observed. First, stress relaxation tests are performed at 100°C on plain coupon specimens with different fiber orientations, θ=0, 10, 30, 45, and 90°. For each of the fiber orientations, in principle, stress relaxation tests are carried out at three different strain levels. The relaxation of axial stress in the unidirectional composite is clearly observed, regardless of the fiber orientation. Just after the total strain hold, the axial stress quickly relaxes with time in a short period. The stress relaxation rate of the composite tends to become zero, irrespective of the fiber orientation. The associated relaxation modulus depends on the level of strain. The entire process of the prior instantaneous tensile response and the subsequent off-axis stress relaxation behavior is simulated using a macromechanical viscoplasticity model based on an overstress concept. It is demonstrated that the model succeeds in adequately reproducing the off-axis stress relaxation behavior of the unidirectional composite laminate.

  12. Relaxation of a 1-D gravitational system

    Valageas, P


    We study the relaxation towards thermodynamical equilibrium of a 1-D gravitational system. This OSC model shows a series of critical energies $E_{cn}$ where new equilibria appear and we focus on the homogeneous ($n=0$), one-peak ($n=\\pm 1$) and two-peak ($n=2$) states. Using numerical simulations we investigate the relaxation to the stable equilibrium $n=\\pm 1$ of this $N-$body system starting from initial conditions defined by equilibria $n=0$ and $n=2$. We find that in a fashion similar to other long-range systems the relaxation involves a fast violent relaxation phase followed by a slow collisional phase as the system goes through a series of quasi-stationary states. Moreover, in cases where this slow second stage leads to a dynamically unstable configuration (two peaks with a high mass ratio) it is followed by a new sequence ``violent relaxation/slow collisional relaxation''. We obtain an analytical estimate of the relaxation time $t_{2\\to \\pm 1}$ through the mean escape time of a particle from its potent...

  13. Plasma Relaxation Dynamics Moderated by Current Sheets

    Dewar, Robert; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Yoshida, Zensho


    Ideal magnetohydrodynamics (IMHD) is strongly constrained by an infinite number of microscopic constraints expressing mass, entropy and magnetic flux conservation in each infinitesimal fluid element, the latter preventing magnetic reconnection. By contrast, in the Taylor-relaxed equilibrium model all these constraints are relaxed save for global magnetic flux and helicity. A Lagrangian is presented that leads to a new variational formulation of magnetized fluid dynamics, relaxed MHD (RxMHD), all static solutions of which are Taylor equilibrium states. By postulating that some long-lived macroscopic current sheets can act as barriers to relaxation, separating the plasma into multiple relaxation regions, a further generalization, multi-relaxed MHD (MRxMHD), is developed. These concepts are illustrated using a simple two-region slab model similar to that proposed by Hahm and Kulsrud--the formation of an initial shielding current sheet after perturbation by boundary rippling is calculated using MRxMHD and the final island state, after the current sheet has relaxed through a reconnection sequence, is calculated using RxMHD. Australian Research Council Grant DP110102881.

  14. Test

    Bendixen, Carsten


    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  15. The novel phenylpropiophenone derivates induced relaxation of isolated rat aorta.

    Ivković, B; Vladimirov, S; Novaković, R; Cupić, V; Heinle, H; Gojković-Bukarica, L


    Our aim was to define how different chemical properties of newly developed phenylpropiophenone derivates (PhPds) influenced their potency and efficacy to relax rat aorta. A contribution of ion channels in the PhPds and propafenone mechanism of vasodilatation was tested. PhPds were syntethysed by substitution in the benzyl moiety with -F, -CH3 or -CF3 groups on the ortho or para position. The vasodilatation by PhPds was examined on the rings of rat aorta precontracted with phenylephrine. In order to test involvement of voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels and L-type Ca2+ channels in a mechanism of action of PhPds, we used their blockers: lidocaine, nifedipine and 4-aminopiridine, respectively. Aorta was more sensitive to 5-ortho-trifluoromethyl derivate than to propafenone and other PhPds. The 5-para-methyl derivate had lower potency and efficacy than propafenone and other PhPds. Lidocaine did not influenced relaxation induced by PhPds, but slightly inhibited the effect of propafenone. The 4-aminopiridine only inhibited relaxation induced by 5-para-methyl derivate. Nifedipine inhibited relaxation of the rat aorta induced by 5-ortho-trifluoromethyl derivate and by propafenone. Introduction of 5-ortho-trifluoromethyl and 5-para-methyl group in the benzyl moiety of propafenone molecule changed its potency, efficacy and mechanism of action in the rat aorta. The 4-aminopiridine- and nifedipine sensitive ion channels are involved in mechanism of action of 5-para-methyl and 5-ortho-trifluoromethyl derivate. The introduction of other tested groups in the benzyl moiety does not affect pharmacological properties of the PhPds in relation to propafenone.

  16. Le Chatelier's principle with multiple relaxation channels

    Gilmore, R.; Levine, R. D.


    Le Chatelier's principle is discussed within the constrained variational approach to thermodynamics. The formulation is general enough to encompass systems not in thermal (or chemical) equilibrium. Particular attention is given to systems with multiple constraints which can be relaxed. The moderation of the initial perturbation increases as additional constraints are removed. This result is studied in particular when the (coupled) relaxation channels have widely different time scales. A series of inequalities is derived which describes the successive moderation as each successive relaxation channel opens up. These inequalities are interpreted within the metric-geometry representation of thermodynamics.

  17. Neural control of muscle relaxation in echinoderms.

    Elphick, M R; Melarange, R


    Smooth muscle relaxation in vertebrates is regulated by a variety of neuronal signalling molecules, including neuropeptides and nitric oxide (NO). The physiology of muscle relaxation in echinoderms is of particular interest because these animals are evolutionarily more closely related to the vertebrates than to the majority of invertebrate phyla. However, whilst in vertebrates there is a clear structural and functional distinction between visceral smooth muscle and skeletal striated muscle, this does not apply to echinoderms, in which the majority of muscles, whether associated with the body wall skeleton and its appendages or with visceral organs, are made up of non-striated fibres. The mechanisms by which the nervous system controls muscle relaxation in echinoderms were, until recently, unknown. Using the cardiac stomach of the starfish Asterias rubens as a model, it has been established that the NO-cGMP signalling pathway mediates relaxation. NO also causes relaxation of sea urchin tube feet, and NO may therefore function as a 'universal' muscle relaxant in echinoderms. The first neuropeptides to be identified in echinoderms were two related peptides isolated from Asterias rubens known as SALMFamide-1 (S1) and SALMFamide-2 (S2). Both S1 and S2 cause relaxation of the starfish cardiac stomach, but with S2 being approximately ten times more potent than S1. SALMFamide neuropeptides have also been isolated from sea cucumbers, in which they cause relaxation of both gut and body wall muscle. Therefore, like NO, SALMFamides may also function as 'universal' muscle relaxants in echinoderms. The mechanisms by which SALMFamides cause relaxation of echinoderm muscle are not known, but several candidate signal transduction pathways are discussed here. The SALMFamides do not, however, appear to act by promoting release of NO, and muscle relaxation in echinoderms is therefore probably regulated by at least two neuronal signalling systems acting in parallel. Recently, other

  18. Spin relaxation in nanowires by hyperfine coupling

    Echeverria-Arrondo, C. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Sherman, E.Ya. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain)


    Hyperfine interactions establish limits on spin dynamics and relaxation rates in ensembles of semiconductor quantum dots. It is the confinement of electrons which determines nonzero hyperfine coupling and leads to the spin relaxation. As a result, in nanowires one would expect the vanishing of this effect due to extended electron states. However, even for relatively clean wires, disorder plays a crucial role and makes electron localization sufficient to cause spin relaxation on the time scale of the order of 10 ns. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Compact vs. Exponential-Size LP Relaxations

    Carr, R.D.; Lancia, G.


    In this paper we introduce by means of examples a new technique for formulating compact (i.e. polynomial-size) LP relaxations in place of exponential-size models requiring separation algorithms. In the same vein as a celebrated theorem by Groetschel, Lovasz and Schrijver, we state the equivalence of compact separation and compact optimization. Among the examples used to illustrate our technique, we introduce a new formulation for the Traveling Salesman Problem, whose relaxation we show equivalent to the subtour elimination relaxation.

  20. Relaxation time in disordered molecular systems

    Rocha, Rodrigo P. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis-SC (Brazil); Freire, José A., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-990 Curitiba-PR (Brazil)


    Relaxation time is the typical time it takes for a closed physical system to attain thermal equilibrium. The equilibrium is brought about by the action of a thermal reservoir inducing changes in the system micro-states. The relaxation time is intuitively expected to increase with system disorder. We derive a simple analytical expression for this dependence in the context of electronic equilibration in an amorphous molecular system model. We find that the disorder dramatically enhances the relaxation time but does not affect its independence of the nature of the initial state.

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation in multiple sclerosis

    Larsson, H B; Barker, G J; MacKay, A


    OBJECTIVES: The theory of relaxation processes and their measurements are described. An overview is presented of the literature on relaxation time measurements in the normal and the developing brain, in experimental diseases in animals, and in patients with multiple sclerosis. RESULTS...... AND CONCLUSION: Relaxation time measurements provide insight into development of multiple sclerosis plaques, especially the occurrence of oedema, demyelination, and gliosis. There is also evidence that normal appearing white matter in patients with multiple sclerosis is affected. What is now needed are fast...

  2. On the prediction of stress relaxation from known creep of nonlinear materials

    Touati, D.; Cederbaum, G. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)


    A method to predict the nonlinear relaxation behavior from creep experiments of nonlinear viscoelastic materials is presented. It is shown that for given nonlinear creep properties, and creep compliance represented by the Prony series, the Schapery creep model can be transformed into a set of first order nonlinear equations. The solution of these equations enables the obtaining of the nonlinear stress relaxation curves. The strain-dependent constitutive equation can then be constructed for a given nonlinear viscoelastic model, as needed for engineering applications. A comparison example of the calculated stress relaxation curves, with test data for polyurethane demonstrates the very good accuracy of the proposed method.

  3. Hydrogen sulfide and vascular relaxation

    SUN Yan; TANG Chao-shu; DU Jun-bao; JIN Hong-fang


    Objective To review the vasorelaxant effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in arterial rings in the cardiovascular system under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions and the possible mechanisms involved.Data sources The data in this review were obtained from Medline and Pubmed sources from 1997 to 2011 using the search terms "hydrogen sulfide" and ""vascular relaxation".Study selection Articles describing the role of hydrogen sulfide in the regulation of vascular activity and its vasorelaxant effects were selected.Results H2S plays an important role in the regulation of cardiovascular tone.The vasomodulatory effects of H2S depend on factors including concentration,species and tissue type.The H2S donor,sodium hydrosulfide (NarS),causes vasorelaxation of rat isolated aortic rings in a dose-dependent manner.This effect was more pronounced than that observed in pulmonary arterial rings.The expression of KATP channel proteins and mRNA in the aortic rings was increased compared with pulmonary artery rings.H2S is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of cardiovascular diseases.Downregulation of the endogenous H2S pathway is an important factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases.The vasorelaxant effects of H2S have been shown to be mediated by activation of KATP channels in vascular smooth muscle cells and via the induction of acidification due to activation of the CI/HCO3 exchanger.It is speculated that the mechanisms underlying the vasoconstrictive function of H2S in the aortic rings involves decreased NO production and inhibition of cAMP accumulation.Conclusion H2S is an important endogenous gasotransmitter in the cardiovascular system and acts as a modulator of vascular tone in the homeostatic regulation of blood pressure.

  4. Time-Dependent Behaviors of Granite: Loading-Rate Dependence, Creep, and Relaxation

    Hashiba, K.; Fukui, K.


    To assess the long-term stability of underground structures, it is important to understand the time-dependent behaviors of rocks, such as their loading-rate dependence, creep, and relaxation. However, there have been fewer studies on crystalline rocks than on tuff, mudstone, and rock salt, because the high strength of crystalline rocks makes the detection of their time-dependent behaviors much more difficult. Moreover, studies on the relaxation, temporal change of stress and strain (TCSS) conditions, and relations between various time-dependent behaviors are scarce for not only granites, but also other rocks. In this study, previous reports on the time-dependent behaviors of granites were reviewed and various laboratory tests were conducted using Toki granite. These tests included an alternating-loading-rate test, creep test, relaxation test, and TCSS test. The results showed that the degree of time dependence of Toki granite is similar to other granites, and that the TCSS resembles the stress-relaxation curve and creep-strain curve. A viscoelastic constitutive model, proposed in a previous study, was modified to investigate the relations between the time-dependent behaviors in the pre- and post-peak regions. The modified model reproduced the stress-strain curve, creep, relaxation, and the results of the TCSS test. Based on a comparison of the results of the laboratory tests and numerical simulations, close relations between the time-dependent behaviors were revealed quantitatively.

  5. “I think relax, relax and it flows a lot easier”: Exploring client-generated relax strategies

    Dianne Cirone


    Full Text Available Background. Some adult stroke survivors participating in Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP treatment programs self-generated relax strategies that have not been explored in previous CO-OP publications. The objective of this study was to describe the process by which adults with stroke used relax strategies and to explore the outcomes associated with their use. Methods. Secondary analysis of transcripts of intervention sessions from five participants was conducted. Results. All five participants applied relax strategies after initially observing a breakdown in performance that was attributed to increased fatigue or tension. The relax strategies used by the participants during their occupations included general relaxation, physical modifications to reduce tension, mental preparation, and pacing. The application of these strategies seemed to result in improved skill performance, reduced fatigue, and transfer to other activities. Conclusion. The relax strategy warrants further investigation as a potentially important therapeutic tool to improve occupational performance in individuals who have had a stroke.

  6. Relaxed acceleration tolerance in female pilot trainees.

    Navathe, P D; Gomez, G; Krishnamurthy, A


    Female pilots now fly many types of aircraft including military fighters capable of maneuvers that produce high, sustained acceleration in the +Gz axis. Although women have participated as subjects in various centrifuge studies, little is known about the acceleration tolerance of female pilots. Between April 1995 and December 1997, 17 female pilot trainees were studied at the Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Bangalore, India. The subjects were 23.2 +/- 1.4 yr old and led physically active lives. Their relaxed +Gz tolerance limits (defined as peripheral light loss) were tested using the High G and Disorientation Demonstrator. The protocol included a series of rapid onset runs (RORs) to tolerance followed by a single gradual onset run (GOR) to tolerance. The mean ROR tolerance was 4.2 +/- 0.4 G. The mean GOR tolerance was 5.2 +/- 0.6 G. Three of the subjects were unable to complete the GOR due to severe nausea. Two women reported breast discomfort at levels of 3.5 G and beyond. No other problems were reported. The acceleration tolerances for the female pilot trainees were comparable to those for male pilots previously studied in our laboratory.

  7. Slow spin relaxation in dipolar spin ice.

    Orendac, Martin; Sedlakova, Lucia; Orendacova, Alzbeta; Vrabel, Peter; Feher, Alexander; Pajerowski, Daniel M.; Cohen, Justin D.; Meisel, Mark W.; Shirai, Masae; Bramwell, Steven T.


    Spin relaxation in dipolar spin ice Dy2Ti2O7 and Ho2Ti2O7 was investigated using the magnetocaloric effect and susceptibility. The magnetocaloric behavior of Dy2Ti2O7 at temperatures where the orientation of spins is governed by ``ice rules`` (T Tice) revealed thermally activated relaxation; however, the resulting temperature dependence of the relaxation time is more complicated than anticipated by a mere extrapolation of the corresponding high temperature data [1]. A susceptibility study of Ho2Ti2O7 was performed at T > Tice and in high magnetic fields, and the results suggest a slow relaxation of spins analogous to the behavior reported in a highly polarized cooperative paramagnet [2]. [1] J. Snyder et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 (2003) 107201. [2] B. G. Ueland et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 027216.

  8. Energy landscape of relaxed amorphous silicon

    Valiquette, Francis; Mousseau, Normand


    We analyze the structure of the energy landscape of a well-relaxed 1000-atom model of amorphous silicon using the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau). Generating more than 40 000 events starting from a single minimum, we find that activated mechanisms are local in nature, that they are distributed uniformly throughout the model, and that the activation energy is limited by the cost of breaking one bond, independently of the complexity of the mechanism. The overall shape of the activation-energy-barrier distribution is also insensitive to the exact details of the configuration, indicating that well-relaxed configurations see essentially the same environment. These results underscore the localized nature of relaxation in this material.

  9. Precession Relaxation of Viscoelastic Oblate Rotators

    Frouard, Julien


    Various perturbations (collisions, close encounters, YORP) destabilise the rotation of a small body, leaving it in a non-principal spin state. Then the body experiences alternating stresses generated by the inertial forces. The ensuing inelastic dissipation reduces the kinetic energy, without influencing the angular momentum. This yields nutation relaxation, i.e., evolution of the spin towards rotation about the maximal-inertia axis. Knowledge of the timescales needed to damp the nutation is crucial in studies of small bodies' dynamics. In the past, nutation relaxation has been described by an empirical quality factor introduced to parameterise the dissipation rate and to evade the discussion of the actual rheological parameters and their role in dissipation. This approach is unable to describe the dependence of the relaxation rate upon the nutation angle, because we do not know the quality factor's dependence on the frequency (which is a function of the nutation angle). This leaves open the question of relax...

  10. Two-Body Relaxation in Cosmological Simulations

    Binney, J; Binney, James; Knebe, Alexander


    The importance of two-body relaxation in cosmological simulations is explored with simulations in which there are two species of particles. The cases of mass ratio sqrt(2):1 and 4:1 are investigated. Simulations are run with both a fixed softening length and adaptive softening using the publicly available codes GADGET and MLAPM, respectively. The effects of two-body relaxation are detected in both the density profiles of halos and the mass function of halos. The effects are more pronounced with a fixed softening length, but even in this case they are not so large as to suggest that results obtained with one mass species are significantly affected by two-body relaxation. The simulations that use adaptive softening are slightly less affected by two-body relaxation and produce slightly higher central densities in the largest halos. They run about three times faster than the simulations that use a fixed softening length.

  11. Structural relaxation in annealed hyperquenched basaltic glasses

    Guo, Xiaoju; Mauro, John C.; Potuzak, M.


    The enthalpy relaxation behavior of hyperquenched (HQ) and annealed hyperquenched (AHQ) basaltic glass is investigated through calorimetric measurements. The results reveal a common onset temperature of the glass transition for all the HQ and AHQ glasses under study, indicating that the primary r...... relaxation is activated at the same temperature regardless of the initial departure from equilibrium. The analysis of secondary relaxation at different annealing temperatures provides insights into the enthalpy recovery of HQ glasses.......The enthalpy relaxation behavior of hyperquenched (HQ) and annealed hyperquenched (AHQ) basaltic glass is investigated through calorimetric measurements. The results reveal a common onset temperature of the glass transition for all the HQ and AHQ glasses under study, indicating that the primary...

  12. Vibrational energy relaxation in liquid oxygen

    Everitt, K. F.; Egorov, S. A.; Skinner, J. L.


    We consider theoretically the relaxation from the first excited vibrational state to the ground state of oxygen molecules in neat liquid oxygen. The relaxation rate constant is related in the usual way to the Fourier transform of a certain quantum mechanical force-force time-correlation function. A result from Egelstaff allows one instead to relate the rate constant (approximately) to the Fourier transform of a classical force-force time-correlation function. This Fourier transform is then evaluated approximately by calculating three equilibrium averages from a classical molecular dynamics simulation. Our results for the relaxation times (at two different temperatures) are within a factor of 5 of the experimental relaxation times, which are in the ms range.

  13. Thermal Relaxation in Autofrettaged Cylinders


    the Thermal Test Conditions, OD/ID - 2.14. 15. Residual Stress versus Percent OverstrAir. for Lhe Thermal Test Conditions, OD/ID - 1.82. 16. Residual...Stress Ratio versus Bore Enlargement Ratio for the Thermal Test Conditions, OD/ID - 2.14. 17. Residual Stress Ratio versus Bore Enlargement Ratio for...the Thermal Test Conditions, OD/ID - 1.82. ii • • •’ .. . .. . . ’ ’It ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 1 This work was performed under funding from Project Number

  14. Sherali-Adams Relaxations of Graph Isomorphism Polytopes

    Malkin, Peter N


    We investigate the Sherali-Adams lift & project hierarchy applied to a graph isomorphism polytope whose integer points encode the isomorphisms between two graphs. In particular, the Sherali-Adams relaxations characterize a new vertex classification algorithm for graph isomorphism, which we call the generalized vertex classification algorithm. This algorithm generalizes the classic vertex classification algorithm and generalizes the work of Tinhofer on polyhedral methods for graph automorphism testing. We establish that the Sherali-Adams lift & project hierarchy when applied to a graph isomorphism polytope needs Omega(n) iterations in the worst case before converging to the convex hull of integer points. We also show that this generalized vertex classification algorithm is also strongly related to the well-known Weisfeiler-Lehman algorithm, which we show can also be characterized in terms of the Sherali-Adams relaxations of a semi-algebraic set whose integer points encode graph isomorphisms.


    Kai-chao Yu; Hong-bing Hu; Mai-li Liu; Han-zhen Yuan; Chao-hui Ye; Ren-xi Zhuo


    Five neutral macromolecular polyester gadolinium (Ⅲ) complexes with pendant hydrophobic alkyl and aromatic functional groups were prepared. The longitudinal relaxation rates of these complexes were measured. One of these Gd (Ⅲ) complexes was chosen for the acute toxicity test and T1-weighted imaging measurement. Preliminary results showed that. compared with Gd-DTPA, the neutral macromolecular gadolinium (Ⅲ) complexes provide higher T1 relaxivity enhancement and longer function duration.

  16. Jin–Xin relaxation method for solving a traffic flow problem in one dimension

    Ambar Sulistiyawati, Bernadetta; Mungkasi, Sudi


    We test the performance of the Jin–Xin relaxation and Lax–Friedrichs finite volume numerical methods in solving a traffic flow problem. In particular, we focus on traffic flow at a traffic light turning from red to green. Numerical solutions are compared with the analytical solution to the mathematical model. We find that the Jin–Xin relaxation solution is more accurate than the Lax–Friedrichs finite volume solution.

  17. Stress Relaxation Of Superelastic Shape Memory Alloy Under Bending And Torsional Load

    Sakib Tanvir


    Full Text Available Stress Relaxation of Superelastic Shape memory NiTi Alloy under bending and torsion is uncommon in literature. Therefore experimental set up has been devised and test results are obtained for superelastic SMA.Unlike the other common engineering materials superelastic SMA it gives dramatic reduction in stress. In this paper therefore results of stress relaxation of superelastic shape memory alloy under bending and torsion are presented graphically and interpreted in terms of stress induced martensitic transformation.

  18. Analytical representations for relaxation functions of glasses

    Hilfer, R.


    Analytical representations in the time and frequency domains are derived for the most frequently used phenomenological fit functions for non-Debye relaxation processes. In the time domain the relaxation functions corresponding to the complex frequency dependent Cole-Cole, Cole-Davidson and Havriliak-Negami susceptibilities are also represented in terms of $H$-functions. In the frequency domain the complex frequency dependent susceptibility function corresponding to the time dependent stretche...

  19. Vibrational relaxation in very high temperature nitrogen

    Hansen, C. Frederick


    Vibrational relaxation of N2 molecules is considered at temperatures up to 40,000 K in gas mixtures that contain electrons as well as heavy collision partners. The theory of vibrational relaxation due to N2-N2 collisions is fit to experimental data to 10,000 K by choice of the shape of the intermolecular potential and size of the collision cross section. These values are then used to extrapolate the theory to 40,000 K.

  20. Anomalous enthalpy relaxation in vitreous silica

    Yue, Yuanzheng


    scans. It is known that the liquid fragility (i.e., the speed of the viscous slow-down of a supercooled liquid at its Tg during cooling) has impact on enthalpy relaxation in glass. Here, we find that vitreous silica (as a strong system) exhibits striking anomalies in both glass transition and enthalpy...... the fragile ones do in a structurally independent fashion. We discuss the origin of the anomalous enthalpy relaxation in the HQ vitreous silica....

  1. Message passing with relaxed moment matching

    Qi, Yuan; Guo, Yandong


    Bayesian learning is often hampered by large computational expense. As a powerful generalization of popular belief propagation, expectation propagation (EP) efficiently approximates the exact Bayesian computation. Nevertheless, EP can be sensitive to outliers and suffer from divergence for difficult cases. To address this issue, we propose a new approximate inference approach, relaxed expectation propagation (REP). It relaxes the moment matching requirement of expectation propagation by addin...

  2. Protein dynamics from nuclear magnetic relaxation.

    Charlier, Cyril; Cousin, Samuel F; Ferrage, Fabien


    Nuclear magnetic resonance is a ubiquitous spectroscopic tool to explore molecules with atomic resolution. Nuclear magnetic relaxation is intimately connected to molecular motions. Many methods and models have been developed to measure and interpret the characteristic rates of nuclear magnetic relaxation in proteins. These approaches shed light on a rich and diverse range of motions covering timescales from picoseconds to seconds. Here, we introduce some of the basic concepts upon which these approaches are built and provide a series of illustrations.

  3. Lagrange relaxation and Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui


    The paper concerns a large-scale linear programming problem having a block-diagonal structure with coupling constraints. It is shown that there are deep connections between the Lagrange relaxation techniques and the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition methods......The paper concerns a large-scale linear programming problem having a block-diagonal structure with coupling constraints. It is shown that there are deep connections between the Lagrange relaxation techniques and the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition methods...

  4. Lagrange relaxation and Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui


    The paper concerns a large-scale linear programming problem having a block-diagonal structure with coupling constraints. It is shown that there are deep connections between the Lagrange relaxation techniques and the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition methods......The paper concerns a large-scale linear programming problem having a block-diagonal structure with coupling constraints. It is shown that there are deep connections between the Lagrange relaxation techniques and the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition methods...

  5. Stress relaxation behavior of dental porcelains at high temperatures.

    DeHoff, P H; Vontivillu, S B; Wang, Z; Anusavice, K J


    The purpose of this study was to measure the stress relaxation behavior at elevated temperatures of three experimental opaque porcelains and three experimental body porcelains. Feldspathic porcelain formulations covering a range of thermal contraction coefficients were supplied by a dental ceramics manufacturer. Six specimens, 11 mm in diameter by 22 mm long, were fabricated for each porcelain. The specimens were tested in compression at five temperatures controlled to +/- 1 degree C in a hot stage furnace attached to a screw-type uni-axial testing machine. Mean values of relaxation time, tau u, and the b function were determined by a regression fit to the relation: psi (t) = exp [-(t/tau u)b]. Values of b ranged from 0.23 to 0.53 for opaque porcelain and 0.47 to 0.64 for body porcelain. Relaxation times ranged from 2.6 s to 4 x 10(4) s for the opaque porcelains and 1.5 s to 5.5 x 10(2) s for the body porcelains. A statistically significant variation of b with temperature for three of the experimental porcelains is an indication that these porcelains do not satisfy the theoretical requirements for the porcelains to be classified as thermorheologically simple. A knowledge of the relaxation behavior of dental porcelains is necessary so that dental researchers can identify metal/porcelain combinations that will result in low stress values and, therefore, reduce the potential for failure from thermally induced stresses. These properties can be used in the optimization of prosthesis design to reduce the destruction of healthy tissue to accommodate the placement of the dental prosthesis.

  6. Orientational relaxation in semiflexible dendrimers.

    Kumar, Amit; Biswas, Parbati


    The orientational relaxation dynamics of semiflexible dendrimers are theoretically calculated within the framework of optimized Rouse-Zimm formalism. Semiflexibility is modeled through appropriate restrictions in the direction and orientation of the respective bond vectors, while the hydrodynamic interactions are included via the preaveraged Oseen tensor. The time autocorrelation function M(i)(1)(t) and the second order orientational autocorrelation function P(i)(2)(t) are analyzed as a function of the branch-point functionality and the degree of semiflexibility. Our approach of calculating M(i)(1)(t) is completely different from that of the earlier studies (A. Perico and M. Guenza J. Chem. Phys., 1985, 83, 3103; J. Chem. Phys., 1986, 84, 510), where the expression of M(i)(1)(t) obtained from earlier studies does not demarcate the flexible dendrimers from the semiflexible ones. The component of global motion of the time autocorrelation function exhibits a strong dependence on both degree of semiflexibility and branch-point functionality, while the component of pulsation motion depends only on the degree of semiflexibility. But it is difficult to distinguish the difference in the extent of pulsation motion among the compressed (0 qualitative behavior of P(i)(2)(t) obtained from our calculations closely matches with the expression for P(exact)(2)(t) in the earlier studies. Theoretically calculated spectral density, J(ω), is found to depend on the degree of semiflexibility and the branch-point functionality for the compressed and expanded conformations of semiflexible dendrimers as a function of frequency, especially in the high frequency regime, where J(ω) decays with frequency for both compressed and expanded conformations of semiflexible dendrimers. This decay of the spectral density occurs after displaying a cross-over behavior with the variation in the degree of semiflexibility in the intermediate frequency regime. The characteristic area increases with the

  7. Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy of phlogopite mica

    Kaur, Navjeet; Singh, Mohan; Singh, Anupinder [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India); Awasthi, A.M. [Thermodynamics Laboratory, UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore 452001 (India); Singh, Lakhwant, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India)


    An in-depth investigation of the dielectric characteristics of annealed phlogopite mica has been conducted in the frequency range 0.1 Hz-10 MHz and over the temperature range 653-873 K through the framework of dielectric permittivity, electric modulus and conductivity formalisms. These formalisms show qualitative similarities in relaxation processes. The frequency dependence of the M Double-Prime and dc conductivity is found to obey an Arrhenius law and the activation energy of the phlogopite mica calculated both from dc conductivity and the modulus spectrum is similar, indicating that same type of charge carriers are involved in the relaxation phenomena. The electric modulus and conductivity data have been fitted with the Havriliak-Negami function. Scaling of M Prime , M Double-Prime , ac conductivity has also been performed in order to obtain insight into the relaxation mechanisms. The scaling behaviour indicates that the relaxation describes the same mechanism at different temperatures. The relaxation mechanism was also examined using the Cole-Cole approach. The study elaborates that the investigation regarding the temperature and frequency dependence of dielectric relaxation in the phlogopite mica will be helpful for various cutting edge applications of this material in electrical engineering.

  8. Dielectric relaxation of gamma irradiated muscovite mica

    Kaur, Navjeet [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India); Singh, Mohan, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India); Singh, Lakhwant [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India); Awasthi, A.M. [Thermodynamics Laboratory, UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore 452001 (India); Lochab, S.P. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)


    Highlights: • The present article reports the effect of gamma irradiation on the dielectric relaxation characteristics of muscovite mica. • Dielectric and electrical relaxations have been analyzed in the framework of dielectric permittivity, electric modulus and Cole–Cole formalisms. • The frequency dependent electrical conductivity has been rationalized using Johnsher’s universal power law. • The experimentally measured electric modulus and conductivity data have been fitted using Havriliak–Negami dielectric relaxation function. - Abstract: In the present research, the dielectric relaxation of gamma irradiated muscovite mica was studied in the frequency range of 0.1 Hz–10 MHz and temperature range of 653–853 K, using the dielectric permittivity, electric modulus and conductivity formalisms. The dielectric constants (ϵ′ and ϵ′′) are found to be high for gamma irradiated muscovite mica as compared to the pristine sample. The frequency dependence of the imaginary part of complex electric modulus (M′′) and dc conductivity data conforms Arrhenius law with single value of activation energy for pristine sample and two values of activation energy for gamma irradiated mica sample. The experimentally assessed electric modulus and conductivity information have been interpreted by the Havriliak–Negami dielectric relaxation explanation. Using the Cole–Cole framework, an analysis of real and imaginary characters of the electric modulus for pristine and gamma irradiated sample was executed which reflects the non-Debye relaxation mechanism.

  9. Rounded stretched exponential for time relaxation functions.

    Powles, J G; Heyes, D M; Rickayzen, G; Evans, W A B


    A rounded stretched exponential function is introduced, C(t)=exp{(tau(0)/tau(E))(beta)[1-(1+(t/tau(0))(2))(beta/2)]}, where t is time, and tau(0) and tau(E) are two relaxation times. This expression can be used to represent the relaxation function of many real dynamical processes, as at long times, t>tau(0), the function converges to a stretched exponential with normalizing relaxation time, tau(E), yet its expansion is even or symmetric in time, which is a statistical mechanical requirement. This expression fits well the shear stress relaxation function for model soft soft-sphere fluids near coexistence, with tau(E)Cole-Cole plots for dielectric and shear stress relaxation (both the modulus and viscosity forms). It is shown that both the dielectric spectra and dynamic shear modulus imaginary parts approach the real axis with a slope equal to 0 at high frequency, whereas the dynamic viscosity has an infinite slope in the same limit. This indicates that inertial effects at high frequency are best discerned in the modulus rather than the viscosity Cole-Cole plot. As a consequence of the even expansion in time of the shear stress relaxation function, the value of the storage modulus derived from it at very high frequency exceeds that in the infinite frequency limit (i.e., G(infinity)).

  10. On convex relaxation of graph isomorphism.

    Aflalo, Yonathan; Bronstein, Alexander; Kimmel, Ron


    We consider the problem of exact and inexact matching of weighted undirected graphs, in which a bijective correspondence is sought to minimize a quadratic weight disagreement. This computationally challenging problem is often relaxed as a convex quadratic program, in which the space of permutations is replaced by the space of doubly stochastic matrices. However, the applicability of such a relaxation is poorly understood. We define a broad class of friendly graphs characterized by an easily verifiable spectral property. We prove that for friendly graphs, the convex relaxation is guaranteed to find the exact isomorphism or certify its inexistence. This result is further extended to approximately isomorphic graphs, for which we develop an explicit bound on the amount of weight disagreement under which the relaxation is guaranteed to find the globally optimal approximate isomorphism. We also show that in many cases, the graph matching problem can be further harmlessly relaxed to a convex quadratic program with only n separable linear equality constraints, which is substantially more efficient than the standard relaxation involving n2 equality and n2 inequality constraints. Finally, we show that our results are still valid for unfriendly graphs if additional information in the form of seeds or attributes is allowed, with the latter satisfying an easy to verify spectral characteristic.

  11. Effects of relaxation and stress on the capsaicin-induced local inflammatory response.

    Lutgendorf, S; Logan, H; Kirchner, H L; Rothrock, N; Svengalis, S; Iverson, K; Lubaroff, D


    Although stress is known to modulate the inflammatory response, there has been little experimental examination of the effects of stress and stress reduction on inflammation in humans. In particular, the effects of stress and relaxation on neurogenic inflammation have been minimally studied. This study examines the effects of three experimental manipulations: mental stress, relaxation, and control on the local inflammatory response evoked by the intradermal injection of capsaicin, the active ingredient in chili peppers. Fifty subjects (28 men and 22 women) were pretrained in relaxation using an imagery-based relaxation tape and then randomized to experimental condition. Subjects participated in an evening reactivity session including 20 minutes of a stress (Stroop test), relaxation (tape), or control (video) manipulation, followed by a capsaicin injection in the forearm. Digitized flare measurements were taken for 1 hour postcapsaicin, and measurements of cardiovascular variables, cortisol, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and norepinephrine were taken at regular intervals. The size of the maximum capsaicin-induced flare was significantly smaller in the relaxation condition than in the stress or control conditions, which did not differ from each other. Increases in norepinephrine, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure during the experimental task, but not after capsaicin, significantly predicted size of maximum flare and total area under the curve of flare measurements. These findings suggest that stress reduction may affect local inflammatory processes. Results are consistent with sympathetic modulation of the effects of relaxation on the flare response.

  12. Effects of the Loading and Unloading Conditions on the Stress Relaxation Behavior of Pre-cracked Granite

    Yang, Haiqing; Liu, Junfeng; Zhou, Xiaoping


    The relaxation behavior plays an important role in evaluating the long-term safety of the surrounding rock mass. Normally, the characters of the stress relaxation behavior of a rock mass can be described as the time-dependent rheological crack propagation features. Based on the subcritical crack growth parameters obtained in the double-torsion experiment, the stress relaxation behavior of pre-cracked granite column specimens is presented. The results of the stress relaxation tests indicate that for a certain confining pressure level, the increase in the uniaxial strain contributes to the propagation of the rheological cracks. For stress relaxation tests conducted under different confining pressure conditions, the propagation of the rheological cracks depends mainly on the D value of the axial and confining pressures. Specifically, the rheological cracks tend to propagate more sufficiently with a higher D value. The experimental results are in good agreement with the analytical solution, in accordance with the Burgers model. Furthermore, the results of the stress relaxation tests conducted under different unloading rates show that the relaxation behavior of the studied material tends to be more obvious for a relatively lower unloading rate of the confining pressure. Finally, the failure patterns obtained under stress relaxation and traditional tests are compared. In detail, for the specimens in the traditional triaxial compression test, the fracture is caused by the abrupt coalescence of the wing cracks and the failure is tensile-shear mixed mode, whereas during the stress relaxation test, the failure is transformed into the smooth coalescence of the tensile rheological cracks. The present research can increase the understanding of the relaxation behavior of hard rock under different engineering environments.

  13. The use of (double) relaxation oscillation SQUIDs as a sensor

    Duuren, van M.J.; Brons, G.C.S.; Kattouw, H.; Flokstra, J.; Rogalla, H.


    Relaxation Oscillation SQUIDs (ROSs) and Double Relaxation Oscillation SQUIDs (DROSs) are based on relaxation oscillations that are induced in hysteretic dc SQUIDs by an external L-R shunt. The relaxation frequency of a ROS varies with the applied flux Φ, whereas the output of a DROS is a dc voltage

  14. The use of (double) relaxation oscillation SQUIDs as a sensor

    van Duuren, M.J.; Brons, G.C.S.; Kattouw, H.; Flokstra, Jakob; Rogalla, Horst


    Relaxation Oscillation SQUIDs (ROSs) and Double Relaxation Oscillation SQUIDs (DROSs) are based on relaxation oscillations that are induced in hysteretic dc SQUIDs by an external L-R shunt. The relaxation frequency of a ROS varies with the applied flux Φ, whereas the output of a DROS is a dc

  15. Spin Relaxation in Hyperpolarized He-3 Fermi Liquids

    Stanton, Liam; Bedell, Kevin


    In the past few years, attention has been drawn towards the hyperpolarized gases of Xenon-129 and Helium-3 isotopes. Medical research has explored the possibilities of using these isotopes for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lungs in both human and animal test subjects. Because the atoms of hyperpolarized gas are forced into a specific spin state, the MRI signal is enhanced. While the spin relaxation times of Helium-3 can be calculated in the high and low temperature limits, there exists no exact analytic solution for intermediate temperatures. The intention of this research was to numerically connect these limits with an accurate approximation. To do this, various analytic and numerical methods were used to reduce the spin relaxation time to a function of temperature, chemical potential, and particle number. Additional numerical methods were then used to calculate the chemical potential of Helium-3. The data show that a minimum occurs in the spin relaxation time at the order of the Fermi temperature, after which the classical limit is rapidly approached. These computational results seem to coincide with those expected.


    Ah. Yusuf


    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychological well-being is one of an important part on the positive aging process for elderly. Many older people face stressful situation such as death of family, deterioration of health, decrease of physical ability and psychological problem like loneliness, low self esteem, useless, isolation or difficulty in relationship. Religious relaxation: dzikir is one of the group therapy to fill up psychological necessary by filled up spiritual necessary so they could say thanks to God for everything what they have had now. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of religious relaxation: dzikir to increase the level of psychological well being of the elderly. Method: This study was used a quasy experimental pre post test design. There were 20 respondents which taken by using purposive sampling. The independent variable was religious relaxation: dzikir and the dependent variable was elderly psychological well being. Data were analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U-Test with significance level a≤0.05. Result: The result showed that religious relaxation: dzikir has an effect on increasing the level of psychological well being of the elderly with Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test p=0.004 in treatment group, p=1.000 in control group and the result of Mann Whitney U-Test revealed p=0.000. Discussion: It can be concluded that religious relaxation: dzikir can increase psychological well-being. Religious relaxation: dzikir help the elderly to develop self acceptance, autonomy, positive relation with others, environmental mastery, purposive in life and personal growth. Researcher suggests the institutional to practice relaxation religious: dzikir to help elderly people to raise psychological well-being.

  17. A Block-Asynchronous Relaxation Method for Graphics Processing Units

    Antz, Hartwig [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Tomov, Stanimire [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Dongarra, Jack [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Heuveline, Vincent [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany)


    In this paper, we analyze the potential of asynchronous relaxation methods on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). For this purpose, we developed a set of asynchronous iteration algorithms in CUDA and compared them with a parallel implementation of synchronous relaxation methods on CPU-based systems. For a set of test matrices taken from the University of Florida Matrix Collection we monitor the convergence behavior, the average iteration time and the total time-to-solution time. Analyzing the results, we observe that even for our most basic asynchronous relaxation scheme, despite its lower convergence rate compared to the Gauss-Seidel relaxation (that we expected), the asynchronous iteration running on GPUs is still able to provide solution approximations of certain accuracy in considerably shorter time then Gauss- Seidel running on CPUs. Hence, it overcompensates for the slower convergence by exploiting the scalability and the good fit of the asynchronous schemes for the highly parallel GPU architectures. Further, enhancing the most basic asynchronous approach with hybrid schemes – using multiple iterations within the ”subdomain” handled by a GPU thread block and Jacobi-like asynchronous updates across the ”boundaries”, subject to tuning various parameters – we manage to not only recover the loss of global convergence but often accelerate convergence of up to two times (compared to the effective but difficult to parallelize Gauss-Seidel type of schemes), while keeping the execution time of a global iteration practically the same. This shows the high potential of the asynchronous methods not only as a stand alone numerical solver for linear systems of equations fulfilling certain convergence conditions but more importantly as a smoother in multigrid methods. Due to the explosion of parallelism in todays architecture designs, the significance and the need for asynchronous methods, as the ones described in this work, is expected to grow.

  18. Experimentally-based relaxation modulus of polyurea and its composites

    Jia, Zhanzhan; Amirkhizi, Alireza V.; Nantasetphong, Wiroj; Nemat-Nasser, Sia


    Polyurea is a block copolymer that has been widely used in the coating industry as an abrasion-resistant and energy-dissipative material. Its mechanical properties can be tuned by choosing different variations of diamines and diisocyanates as well as by adding various nano- and micro-inclusions to create polyurea-based composites. Our aim here is to provide the necessary experimentally-based viscoelastic constitutive relations for polyurea and its composites in a format convenient to support computational studies. The polyurea used in this research is synthesized by the reaction of Versalink P-1000 (Air Products) and Isonate 143L (Dow Chemicals). Samples of pure polyurea and polyurea composites are fabricated and then characterized using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Based on the DMA data, master curves of storage and loss moduli are developed using time-temperature superposition. The quality of the master curves is carefully assessed by comparing with the ultrasonic wave measurements and by Kramers-Kronig relations. Based on the master curves, continuous relaxation spectra are calculated, then the time-domain relaxation moduli are approximated from the relaxation spectra. Prony series of desired number of terms for the frequency ranges of interest are extracted from the relaxation modulus. This method for developing cost efficient Prony series has been proven to be effective and efficient for numerous DMA test results of many polyurea/polyurea-based material systems, including pure polyurea with various stoichiometric ratios, polyurea with milled glass inclusions, polyurea with hybrid nano-particles and polyurea with phenolic microbubbles. The resulting viscoelastic models are customized for the frequency ranges of interest, reference temperature and desired number of Prony terms, achieving both computational accuracy and low cost. The method is not limited to polyurea-based systems. It can be applied to other similar polymers systems.

  19. Arctigenin exhibits relaxation effect on bronchus by affecting transmembrane flow of calcium.

    Zhao, Zhenying; Yin, Yongqiang; Wang, Zengyong; Fang, Runping; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Min; Bai, Gang; Luo, Guo'an


    Arctigenin, a lignan extract from Arctium lappa (L.), exhibits anti-inflammation, antioxidation, vasodilator effects, etc. However, the effects of arctigenin on bronchus relaxation are not well investigated. This study aimed to investigate how arctigenin regulates bronchus tone and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) flow. Trachea strips of guinea pigs were prepared for testing the relaxation effect of arctigenin to acetylcholine, histamine, KCl, and CaCl2, respectively. Furthermore, L-type calcium channel currents were detected by patch-clamp, and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was detected by confocal microscopy. The results showed that arctigenin exhibited relaxation effect on tracheae to different constrictors, and this was related to decreasing cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration by inhibiting Ca(2+) influx partly through L-type calcium channel as well as promoting Ca(2+) efflux. In summary, this study provides new insight into the mechanisms by which arctigenin exhibits relaxation effect on bronchus and suggests its potential use for airway disease therapy.

  20. Experimental validation of proton transverse relaxivity models for superparamagnetic nanoparticle MRI contrast agents

    Carroll, Matthew R J; Woodward, Robert C; House, Michael J; St Pierre, Timothy G [Centre for Strategic Nanofabrication, School of Physics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Teoh, Wey Yang; Amal, Rose [ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, School of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Hanley, Tracey L, E-mail: [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia)


    Analytical models of proton transverse relaxation rate enhancement by magnetic nanoparticles were tested by making measurements on model experimental systems in a field of 1.4 T. Proton relaxivities were measured for five aqueous suspensions of iron oxide (maghemite) nanoparticles with nominal mean particle sizes of 6, 8, 10, 11, and 13 nm. Proton relaxivity increased with mean particle size ranging from 13 s{sup -1} mM Fe{sup -1} for the 6 nm sample, up to 254 s{sup -1} mM Fe{sup -1} for the 13 nm sample. A strong correlation between the measured and predicted values of the relaxivity was observed, with the predicted values being consistently higher than the measured values. The results indicate that the models give a reasonable agreement with experimental results and hence can be used as the basis for the design of new magnetic resonance imaging contrast and labelling agents.

  1. Relationship between relaxation by guided imagery and performance of working memory.

    Hudetz, J A; Hudetz, A G; Klayman, J


    This study tested the hypothesis that relaxation by guided imagery improves working-memory performance of healthy participants. 30 volunteers (both sexes, ages 17-56 years) were randomly assigned to one of three groups and administered the WAIS-III Letter-Number Sequencing Test before and after 10-min. treatment with guided imagery or popular music. The control group received no treatment. Groups' test scores were not different before treatment. The mean increased after relaxation by guided imagery but not after music or no treatment. This result supports the hypothesis that working-memory scores on the test are enhanced by guided imagery and implies that human information processing may be enhanced by prior relaxation.

  2. Uniqueness of rate-dependency, creep and stress relaxation behaviors for soft clays

    朱启银; 尹振宇; 徐长节; 殷建华; 夏小和


    This work focuses on the uniqueness of rate-dependency, creep and stress relaxation behaviors for soft clays under one-dimensional condition. An elasto-viscoplastic model is briefly introduced based on the rate-dependency of preconsolidation pressure. By comparing the rate-dependency formulation with the creep based formulation, the relationship between rate-dependency and creep behaviors is firstly described. The rate-dependency based formulation is then extended to derive an analytical solution for the stress relaxation behavior with defining a stress relaxation coefficient. Based on this, the relationship between the rate-dependency coefficient and the stress relaxation coefficient is derived. Therefore, the uniqueness between behaviors of rate-dependency, creep and stress relaxation with their key parameters is obtained. The uniqueness is finally validated by comparing the simulated rate-dependency of preconsolidation pressure, the estimated values of secondary compression coefficient and simulations of stress relaxation tests with test results on both reconstituted Illite and Berthierville clay.

  3. Time scales of relaxation dynamics during transient conditions in two-phase flow: RELAXATION DYNAMICS

    Schlüter, Steffen [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon USA; Department Soil Physics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Halle Germany; Berg, Steffen [Shell Global Solutions International B.V., Rijswijk Netherlands; Li, Tianyi [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon USA; Vogel, Hans-Jörg [Department Soil Physics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Halle Germany; Institut für Agrar- und Ernährungswissenschaften, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Halle Germany; Wildenschild, Dorthe [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon USA


    The relaxation dynamics toward a hydrostatic equilibrium after a change in phase saturation in porous media is governed by fluid reconfiguration at the pore scale. Little is known whether a hydrostatic equilibrium in which all interfaces come to rest is ever reached and which microscopic processes govern the time scales of relaxation. Here we apply fast synchrotron-based X-ray tomography (X-ray CT) to measure the slow relaxation dynamics of fluid interfaces in a glass bead pack after fast drainage of the sample. The relaxation of interfaces triggers internal redistribution of fluids, reduces the surface energy stored in the fluid interfaces, and relaxes the contact angle toward the equilibrium value while the fluid topology remains unchanged. The equilibration of capillary pressures occurs in two stages: (i) a quick relaxation within seconds in which most of the pressure drop that built up during drainage is dissipated, a process that is to fast to be captured with fast X-ray CT, and (ii) a slow relaxation with characteristic time scales of 1–4 h which manifests itself as a spontaneous imbibition process that is well described by the Washburn equation for capillary rise in porous media. The slow relaxation implies that a hydrostatic equilibrium is hardly ever attained in practice when conducting two-phase experiments in which a flux boundary condition is changed from flow to no-flow. Implications for experiments with pressure boundary conditions are discussed.

  4. Anomalous Enthalpy Relaxation in Vitreous Silica

    Yuanzheng eYue


    Full Text Available It is a challenge to calorimetrically determine the glass transition temperature (Tg of vitreous silica. Here we demonstrate that this challenge mainly arises from the extreme sensitivity of the Tg to the hydroxyl content in vitreous silica, but also from the irreversibility of its glass transition when repeating the calorimetric scans. It is known that the liquid fragility (i.e., the speed of the viscous slow-down of a supercooled liquid at its Tg during cooling has impact on enthalpy relaxation in glass. Here we find that vitreous silica (as a strong system exhibits striking anomalies in both glass transition and enthalpy relaxation compared to fragile oxide systems. The anomalous enthalpy relaxation of vitreous silica is discovered by performing the hperquenching-annealing-calorimetry experiments. We argue that the strong systems like vitreous silica and vitreous Germania relax in a structurally cooperative manner, whereas the fragile ones do in a structurally independent fashion. We discuss the origin of the anomalous enthalpy relaxation in the HQ vitreous silica.

  5. Motional Spin Relaxation in Large Electric Fields

    Schmid, Riccardo; Filippone, B W


    We discuss the precession of spin-polarized Ultra Cold Neutrons (UCN) and $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ atoms in uniform and static magnetic and electric fields and calculate the spin relaxation effects from motional $v\\times E$ magnetic fields. Particle motion in an electric field creates a motional $v\\times E$ magnetic field, which when combined with collisions, produces variations of the total magnetic field and results in spin relaxation of neutron and $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ samples. The spin relaxation times $T_{1}$ (longitudinal) and $T_{2}$ (transverse) of spin-polarized UCN and $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ atoms are important considerations in a new search for the neutron Electric Dipole Moment at the SNS \\emph{nEDM} experiment. We use a Monte Carlo approach to simulate the relaxation of spins due to the motional $v\\times E$ field for UCN and for $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ atoms at temperatures below $600 \\mathrm{mK}$. We find the relaxation times for the neutron due to the $v\\times E$ effect to be long compared to the neutron lifetime, ...

  6. Doppler effect induced spin relaxation boom

    Zhao, Xinyu; Huang, Peihao; Hu, Xuedong


    We study an electron spin qubit confined in a moving quantum dot (QD), with our attention on both spin relaxation, and the product of spin relaxation, the emitted phonons. We find that Doppler effect leads to several interesting phenomena. In particular, spin relaxation rate peaks when the QD motion is in the transonic regime, which we term a spin relaxation boom in analogy to the classical sonic boom. This peak indicates that a moving spin qubit may have even lower relaxation rate than a static qubit, pointing at the possibility of coherence-preserving transport for a spin qubit. We also find that the emitted phonons become strongly directional and narrow in their frequency range as the qubit reaches the supersonic regime, similar to Cherenkov radiation. In other words, fast moving excited spin qubits can act as a source of non-classical phonons. Compared to classical Cherenkov radiation, we show that quantum dot confinement produces a small but important correction on the Cherenkov angle. Taking together, these results have important implications to both spin-based quantum information processing and coherent phonon dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures.

  7. Silperisone: a centrally acting muscle relaxant.

    Farkas, Sándor


    Silperisone is a tolperisone like organosilicon compound with centrally acting muscle relaxant properties. Studies in mice showed that silperisone may have less propensity to cause CNS depressant or motor side effects than tolperisone or other antispastic drugs. In cats and rats, silperisone was an effective suppressant of monosynaptic and polysynaptic spinal reflexes and decerebrate rigidity. Its suppressant effect on the spinal reflexes was also demonstrated in the isolated hemisected rat spinal cord in vitro. The in vivo potency and efficacy of silperisone by i.v administration were similar to those of tolperisone and eperisone. However, in cats by intraduodenal administration and in mice by oral administration its duration of action was much longer and its functional bioavailability much higher than of the other two drugs. With regard to its profile of actions silperisone was similar to tolperisone with minor differences. The most striking difference was in pontine facilitation and bulbar inhibition of the patellar reflex. Tolperisone depressed both, whereas silperisone inhibited only the former. The mechanism underlying the spinal reflex depressant effects of silperisone involves the blockade of voltage gated neuronal sodium and calcium channels leading to a decreased release of excitatory transmitter and reduced neuronal excitability. In addition, silperisone has potassium channel blocking effect, which is stronger than that of tolperisone. Silperisone is absorbed rapidly and is extensively metabolized in rats. However, its metabolism in dogs and particularly in humans is much less extensive. The elimination half-life of silperisone in humans is 12 to 16 h, so that it can be administered once or twice daily. Phase I clinical studies with silperisone at doses up to 150 mg/day failed to detect any adverse effects at plasma concentrations considered to be effective in the preclinical tests. These findings suggested that silperisone might be a useful antispastic

  8. Reduced-Complexity Semidefinite Relaxations of Optimal Power Flow Problems

    Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Hansson, Anders; Vandenberghe, Lieven


    We propose a new method for generating semidefinite relaxations of optimal power flow problems. The method is based on chordal conversion techniques: by dropping some equality constraints in the conversion, we obtain semidefinite relaxations that are computationally cheaper, but potentially weaker......, than the standard semidefinite relaxation. Our numerical results show that the new relaxations often produce the same results as the standard semidefinite relaxation, but at a lower computational cost....

  9. Mozart versus new age music: relaxation states, stress, and ABC relaxation theory.

    Smith, Jonathan C; Joyce, Carol A


    Smith's (2001) Attentional Behavioral Cognitive (ABC) relaxation theory proposes that all approaches to relaxation (including music) have the potential for evoking one or more of 15 factor-analytically derived relaxation states, or "R-States" (Sleepiness, Disengagement, Rested / Refreshed, Energized, Physical Relaxation, At Ease/Peace, Joy, Mental Quiet, Childlike Innocence, Thankfulness and Love, Mystery, Awe and Wonder, Prayerfulness, Timeless/Boundless/Infinite, and Aware). The present study investigated R-States and stress symptom-patterns associated with listening to Mozart versus New Age music. Students (N = 63) were divided into three relaxation groups based on previously determined preferences. Fourteen listened to a 28-minute tape recording of Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik and 14 listened to a 28-minute tape of Steven Halpern's New Age Serenity Suite. Others (n = 35) did not want music and instead chose a set of popular recreational magazines. Participants engaged in their relaxation activity at home for three consecutive days for 28 minutes a session. Before and after each session, each person completed the Smith Relaxation States Inventory (Smith, 2001), a comprehensive questionnaire tapping 15 R-States as well as the stress states of somatic stress, worry, and negative emotion. Results revealed no differences at Session 1. At Session 2, those who listened to Mozart reported higher levels of At Ease/Peace and lower levels of Negative Emotion. Pronounced differences emerged at Session 3. Mozart listeners uniquely reported substantially higher levels of Mental Quiet, Awe and Wonder, and Mystery. Mozart listeners reported higher levels, and New Age listeners slightly elevated levels, of At Ease/Peace and Rested/Refreshed. Both Mozart and New Age listeners reported higher levels of Thankfulness and Love. In summary, those who listened to Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik reported more psychological relaxation and less stress than either those who listened to

  10. Asymptotic representation of relaxation oscillations in lasers

    Grigorieva, Elena V


    In this book we analyze relaxation oscillations in models of lasers with nonlinear elements controlling light dynamics. The models are based on rate equations taking into account periodic modulation of parameters, optoelectronic delayed feedback, mutual coupling between lasers, intermodal interaction and other factors. With the aim to study relaxation oscillations we present the special asymptotic method of integration for ordinary differential equations and differential-difference equations. As a result, they are reduced to discrete maps. Analyzing the maps we describe analytically such nonlinear phenomena in lasers as multistability of large-amplitude relaxation cycles, bifurcations of cycles, controlled switching of regimes, phase synchronization in an ensemble of coupled systems and others. The book can be fruitful for students and technicians in nonlinear laser dynamics and in differential equations.

  11. On topological relaxations of chromatic conjectures

    Simonyi, Gábor


    There are several famous unsolved conjectures about the chromatic number that were relaxed and already proven to hold for the fractional chromatic number. We discuss similar relaxations for the topological lower bound(s) of the chromatic number. In particular, we prove that such a relaxed version is true for the Behzad-Vizing conjecture and also discuss the conjectures of Hedetniemi and of Hadwiger from this point of view. For the latter, a similar statement was already proven in an earlier paper of the first author with G. Tardos, our main concern here is that the so-called odd Hadwiger conjecture looks much more difficult in this respect. We prove that the statement of the odd Hadwiger conjecture holds for large enough Kneser graphs and Schrijver graphs of any fixed chromatic number.

  12. Vibrational and Rotational Energy Relaxation in Liquids

    Petersen, Jakob

    the intramolecular dynamics during photodissociation is investigated. The apparent agreement with quantum mechanical calculations is shown to be in contrast to the applicability of the individual approximations used in deriving the model from a quantum mechanical treatment. In the spirit of the Bersohn-Zewail model......, the vibrational energy relaxation of I2 subsequent to photodissociation and recombination in CCl4 is studied using classical Molecular Dynamics simulations. The vibrational relaxation times and the time-dependent I-I pair distribution function are compared to new experimental results, and a qualitative agreement...... is found in both cases. Furthermore, the rotational energy relaxation of H2O in liquid water is studied via simulations and a power-and-work analysis. The mechanism of the energy transfer from the rotationally excited H2O molecule to its water neighbors is elucidated, i.e. the energy-accepting degrees...

  13. Relaxation and Diffusion in Complex Systems

    Ngai, K L


    Relaxation and Diffusion in Complex Systems comprehensively presents a variety of experimental evidences of universal relaxation and diffusion properties in complex materials and systems. The materials discussed include liquids, glasses, colloids, polymers, rubbers, plastic crystals and aqueous mixtures, as well as carbohydrates, biomolecules, bioprotectants and pharmaceuticals. Due to the abundance of experimental data, emphasis is placed on glass-formers and the glass transition problem, a still unsolved problem in condensed matter physics and chemistry. The evidence for universal properties of relaxation and diffusion dynamics suggests that a fundamental physical law is at work. The origin of the universal properties is traced to the many-body effects of the interaction, rigorous theory of which does not exist at the present time. However, using solutions of simplified models as guides, key quantities have been identified and predictions of the universal properties generated. These predictions from Ngai’...

  14. Substrate stress relaxation regulates cell spreading

    Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Gu, Luo; Darnell, Max; Klumpers, Darinka; Bencherif, Sidi A.; Weaver, James C.; Huebsch, Nathaniel; Mooney, David J.


    Studies of cellular mechanotransduction have converged upon the idea that cells sense extracellular matrix (ECM) elasticity by gauging resistance to the traction forces they exert on the ECM. However, these studies typically utilize purely elastic materials as substrates, whereas physiological ECMs are viscoelastic, and exhibit stress relaxation, so that cellular traction forces exerted by cells remodel the ECM. Here we investigate the influence of ECM stress relaxation on cell behaviour through computational modelling and cellular experiments. Surprisingly, both our computational model and experiments find that spreading for cells cultured on soft substrates that exhibit stress relaxation is greater than cells spreading on elastic substrates of the same modulus, but similar to that of cells spreading on stiffer elastic substrates. These findings challenge the current view of how cells sense and respond to the ECM.

  15. Nonlinear Model of non-Debye Relaxation

    Zon, Boris A


    We present a simple nonlinear relaxation equation which contains the Debye equation as a particular case. The suggested relaxation equation results in power-law decay of fluctuations. This equation contains a parameter defining the frequency dependence of the dielectric permittivity similarly to the well-known one-parameter phenomenological equations of Cole-Cole, Davidson-Cole and Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts. Unlike these models, the obtained dielectric permittivity (i) obeys to the Kramers-Kronig relation; (ii) has proper behaviour at large frequency; (iii) its imaginary part, conductivity, shows a power-law frequency dependence \\sigma ~ \\omega^n where n1 is also observed in several experiments. The nonlinear equation proposed may be useful in various fields of relaxation theory.

  16. Excited-state relaxation of some aminoquinolines


    Full Text Available The absorption and fluorescence spectra, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes, and fluorescence rate constants ( k f of 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzoxazolylquinoline (I, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzothiazolylquinoline (II, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -methoxybenzothiazolyl-quinoline (III, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzothiazolylbenzoquinoline (IV at different temperatures have been measured. The shortwavelength shift of fluorescence spectra of compounds studied (23–49 nm in ethanol as the temperature decreases (the solvent viscosity increases points out that the excited-state relaxation process takes place. The rate of this process depends essentially on the solvent viscosity, but not the solvent polarity. The essential increasing of fluorescence rate constant k f (up to about 7 times as the solvent viscosity increases proves the existence of excited-state structural relaxation consisting in the mutual internal rotation of molecular fragments of aminoquinolines studied, followed by the solvent orientational relaxation.

  17. Improved memristor-based relaxation oscillator

    Mosad, Ahmed G.


    This paper presents an improved memristor-based relaxation oscillator which offers higher frequency and wider tunning range than the existing reactance-less oscillators. It also has the capability of operating on two positive supplies or alternatively a positive and negative supply. Furthermore, it has the advantage that it can be fully integrated on-chip providing an area-efficient solution. On the other hand, The oscillation concept is discussed then a complete mathematical analysis of the proposed oscillator is introduced. Furthermore, the power consumption of the new relaxation circuit is discussed and validated by the PSPICE circuit simulations showing an excellent agreement. MATLAB results are also introduced to demonstrate the resistance range and the corresponding frequency range which can be obtained from the proposed relaxation oscillator. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Interactive Image Enhancement by Fuzzy Relaxation

    Shang-Ming Zhou; John Q.Can; Li-Da Xu; Robert John


    In this paper, an interactive image enhancement (HE) technique based on fuzzy relaxation is presented, which allows the user to select different intensity levels for enhancement and intermit the enhancement process according to his/her preference in applications. First, based on an analysis of the convergence of a fuzzy relaxation algorithm for image contrast enhancement, an improved version of this algorithm, which is called FuzzIIE Method 1, is suggested by deriving a relationship between the convergence regions and the parameters in the transformations defined in the algorithm. Then a method called FuzzIIE Method 2 is introduced by using a different fuzzy relaxation function, in which there is no need to re-select the parameter values for interactive image enhancement. Experimental results are presented demonstrating the enhancement capabilities of the proposed methods under different conditions.

  19. Relaxation Dynamics of Semiflexible Fractal Macromolecules

    Jonas Mielke


    Full Text Available We study the dynamics of semiflexible hyperbranched macromolecules having only dendritic units and no linear spacers, while the structure of these macromolecules is modeled through T-fractals. We construct a full set of eigenmodes of the dynamical matrix, which couples the set of Langevin equations. Based on the ensuing relaxation spectra, we analyze the mechanical relaxation moduli. The fractal character of the macromolecules reveals itself in the storage and loss moduli in the intermediate region of frequencies through scaling, whereas at higher frequencies, we observe the locally-dendritic structure that is more pronounced for higher stiffness.

  20. Dynamics of cosmological relaxation after reheating

    Choi, Kiwoon; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu


    We examine if the cosmological relaxation mechanism, which was proposed recently as a new solution to the hierarchy problem, can be compatible with high reheating temperature well above the weak scale. As the barrier potential disappears at high temperature, the relaxion rolls down further after the reheating, which may ruin the successful implementation of the relaxation mechanism. It is noted that if the relaxion is coupled to a dark gauge boson, the new frictional force arising from dark gauge boson production can efficiently slow down the relaxion motion, which allows the relaxion to be stabilized after the electroweak phase transition for a wide range of model parameters, while satisfying the known observational constraints.

  1. Synthetic aperture radar autofocus via semidefinite relaxation.

    Liu, Kuang-Hung; Wiesel, Ami; Munson, David C


    The autofocus problem in synthetic aperture radar imaging amounts to estimating unknown phase errors caused by unknown platform or target motion. At the heart of three state-of-the-art autofocus algorithms, namely, phase gradient autofocus, multichannel autofocus (MCA), and Fourier-domain multichannel autofocus (FMCA), is the solution of a constant modulus quadratic program (CMQP). Currently, these algorithms solve a CMQP by using an eigenvalue relaxation approach. We propose an alternative relaxation approach based on semidefinite programming, which has recently attracted considerable attention in other signal processing problems. Experimental results show that our proposed methods provide promising performance improvements for MCA and FMCA through an increase in computational complexity.

  2. Depicting Vortex Stretching and Vortex Relaxing Mechanisms

    符松; 李启兵; 王明皓


    Different from many existing studies on the paranetrization of vortices, we investigate the effectiveness of two new parameters for identifying the vortex stretching and vortex relaxing mechanisms. These parameters are invariants and identify three-dimensional flow structures only, i.e. they diminish in two-dimensional flows. This is also unlike the existing vortex identification approaches which deliver information in two-dimensional flows. The present proposals have been successfully applied to identify the stretching and relaxing vortices in compressible mixing layers and natural convection flows.

  3. Group epitope mapping considering relaxation of the ligand (GEM-CRL): Including longitudinal relaxation rates in the analysis of saturation transfer difference (STD) experiments

    Kemper, Sebastian; Patel, Mitul K.; Errey, James C.; Davis, Benjamin G.; Jones, Jonathan A.; Claridge, Timothy D. W.


    In the application of saturation transfer difference (STD) experiments to the study of protein-ligand interactions, the relaxation of the ligand is one of the major influences on the experimentally observed STD factors, making interpretation of these difficult when attempting to define a group epitope map (GEM). In this paper, we describe a simplification of the relaxation matrix that may be applied under specified experimental conditions, which results in a simplified equation reflecting the directly transferred magnetisation rate from the protein onto the ligand, defined as the summation over the whole protein of the protein-ligand cross-relaxation multiplied by with the fractional saturation of the protein protons. In this, the relaxation of the ligand is accounted for implicitly by inclusion of the experimentally determined longitudinal relaxation rates. The conditions under which this "group epitope mapping considering relaxation of the ligand" (GEM-CRL) can be applied were tested on a theoretical model system, which demonstrated only minor deviations from that predicted by the full relaxation matrix calculations (CORCEMA-ST) [7]. Furthermore, CORCEMA-ST calculations of two protein-saccharide complexes (Jacalin and TreR) with known crystal structures were performed and compared with experimental GEM-CRL data. It could be shown that the GEM-CRL methodology is superior to the classical group epitope mapping approach currently used for defining ligand-protein proximities. GEM-CRL is also useful for the interpretation of CORCEMA-ST results, because the transferred magnetisation rate provides an additional parameter for the comparison between measured and calculated values. The independence of this parameter from the above mentioned factors can thereby enhance the value of CORCEMA-ST calculations.

  4. [Viscoelastic properties of relaxed papillary muscle at physiological hypertrophy].

    Smoliuk, L T; Lisin, R V; Kuznetsov, D A; Protsenko, Iu L


    Viscoelastic properties of relaxed rat papillary muscles at physiological hypertrophy (intensive swimming for 5 weeks) have been obtained. It has been ascertained that viscoelastic properties of hypertrophied muscles are not significantly distinguished from those of control papillary muscles. A three-dimensional model of myocardial fascicle has been verified in compliance with experimental data of biomechanical tests of hypertrophied muscles. Elastic and viscous parameters of structural elements of the model negligibly differ from the parameters of the model of a control muscle. It is shown that physiological hypertrophy has a slight influence on viscoelastic properties of papillary muscles.

  5. Convex Relaxation of Power Dispatch for Voltage Stability Improvement

    Pedersen, Andreas Søndergaard; Blanke, Mogens; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur


    A method for enhancing the voltage stability ofa power system is presented in this paper. The method isbased on a stability-constrained optimal power flow approach,where dispatch is done such that a maximum L-index isminimised for all load busses in a transmission grid. It isshown that optimal...... dispatch is obtainable with enhancedmargins for voltage stability using a semidefinite relaxation ofthe optimal power flow problem, and that this problem canbe formulated as semidefinite program with a quasi-convexobjective. Numerical tests are performed on the IEEE-30 busand BPA systems. The feasibility...... of the method is demonstratedthrough demonstrating that improved voltage stability marginsare obtained for both systems....

  6. Immediate effects of two relaxation techniques on healthy volunteers.

    Khemka, Sushilkumar S; Rao, Nagendra H Rama; Nagarathna, Raghuram


    This controlled study compared immediate effects of two relaxation techniques on state anxiety and sustained attention in healthy subjects. 86 volunteers (56 men and 30 women) were divided into two groups: the first 43 volunteers (age range 18 to 64) practiced 20 minutes of yoga-based Deep Relaxation Technique (DRT), while the second group of 43 volunteers (same age range), practiced 20 minutes Supine Rest (SR). State anxiety was assessed using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI A-State), and sustained attention was assessed using the Six Letter Cancellation (SLC) and Digit Letter Substitution (DLS) tests. All tests were administered immediately before, and immediately after, practice. A significant reduction in State Anxiety score (P < 0.001) was observed for the group practicing DRT, but not for the group practicing SR. For the sustained attention tests, however, there were significant increases in scores by both DRT and SR groups (P < 0.001). The results suggest that both interventions improve attention, but that only DRT reduces State Anxiety.

  7. Borehole camera technology for measuring the relaxation zone of surrounding rock: mechanism and application

    Jing Hong-wen; Li Yuan-hai; Liang Jun-qi; Yu De-cheng [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics & Deep Underground Engineering


    A panoramic borehole camera technology (BCT) and digital image processing method was developed by constructing a system composed of hardware and software. The technology was used for measuring the relaxation zone of surrounding rock with the borehole camera. The hardware consists of a mini CCD camera and a high-pressure sealed magnetic compass that is used for camera positioning. The software includes real-time image monitoring and a processing program that includes the procedure for analysis of the relaxation zone. The roundness of cracks in the boreholes is taken as the index for identifying the relaxation zone. The system was used to measure the relaxation zone of a deep roadway in the Qiwu coal mine of Shandong province. The distribution of the relaxation zone around the roadway was obtained. The results show that the thickness of the broken rock zone varies with the measuring position within a cross section of the roadway. The reliability of the measuring method was tested and verified by comparing the data from BCT with those measured by an ultrasonic method; the difference is less than 3.5%. The system provides a new method for the measurement of the relaxation zone when engineering deep underground. 6 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Influence of relaxation modes on membrane fouling in submerged membrane bioreactor for domestic wastewater treatment.

    Habib, Rasikh; Asif, Muhammad Bilal; Iftekhar, Sidra; Khan, Zahiruddin; Gurung, Khum; Srivastava, Varsha; Sillanpää, Mika


    Relaxation and backwashing have become an integral part of membrane bioreactor (MBR) operations for fouling control. This study was carried out on real municipal wastewater to evaluate the influence of different operational strategies on membrane fouling at equivalent water yield. Four relaxation modes (MBR10+0, MBR10+1, MBR10+1.5 and MBR10+2) were tested to analyze membrane fouling behavior. For the optimization of relaxation modes, fouling rate in terms of trans-membrane pressure, hydraulic resistances and characteristics of fouling fractions were analyzed. It has been observed that cake layer resistance was minimum in MBR10+1.5 but pore blockage resistance was increased in all relaxation modes. Moreover, high instantaneous flux contributed significantly to fouling rate at the initial stage of MBR operations. Relaxation modes were also efficient in removing irreversible fouling to some extent. Under all relaxation modes, COD removal efficiency ranged from 92 to 96.5%. Ammonium and TP removal were on the lower side due to the short solids and hydraulic retention time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study into the correlation of dominant pore throat size and SIP relaxation frequency

    Kruschwitz, Sabine; Prinz, Carsten; Zimathies, Annett


    There is currently a debate within the SIP community about the characteristic textural length scale controlling relaxation time of consolidated porous media. One idea is that the relaxation time is dominated by the pore throat size distribution or more specifically the modal pore throat size as determined in mercury intrusion capillary pressure tests. Recently new studies on inverting pore size distributions from SIP data were published implying that the relaxation mechanisms and controlling length scale are well understood. In contrast new analytical model studies based on the Marshall-Madden membrane polarization theory suggested that two relaxation processes might compete: the one along the short narrow pore (the throat) with one across the wider pore in case the narrow pores become relatively long. This paper presents a first systematically focused study into the relationship of pore throat sizes and SIP relaxation times. The generality of predicted trends is investigated across a wide range of materials differing considerably in chemical composition, specific surface and pore space characteristics. Three different groups of relaxation behaviors can be clearly distinguished. The different behaviors are related to clay content and type, carbonate content, size of the grains and the wide pores in the samples.

  10. Coupling model for calculating prestress loss caused by relaxation loss, shrinkage, and creep of concrete

    曹国辉; 胡佳星; 张锴


    The calculation model for the relaxation loss of concrete mentioned in the Code for Design of Highway Reinforced Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Bridges and Culverts(JTG D62—2004) wasmodified according to experimental data. Time-varying relaxation loss was considered in the new model. Moreover, prestressed reinforcement with varying lengths (caused by the shrinkage and creep of concrete) might influence the final values and the time-varying function of the forecast relaxation loss. Hence, the effects of concrete shrinkage and creep were considered when calculating prestress loss, which reflected the coupling relation between these effects and relaxation loss in concrete. Hence, the forecast relaxation loss of prestressed reinforcement under the effects of different initial stress levels at any time point can be calculated using the modified model. To simplify the calculation, the integral expression of the model can be changed into an algebraic equation. The accuracy of the result is related to the division of the periods within the ending time of deriving the final value of the relaxation loss of prestressed reinforcement. When the time division is reasonable, result accuracy is high. The modified model works excellently according to the comparison of the test results. The calculation result of the modified model mainly reflects the prestress loss values of prestressed reinforcement at each time point, which confirms that adopting the finding in practical applications is reasonable.

  11. Spherical Indentation Testing of Poroelastic Relaxations in Thin Hydrogel Layers


    R. Paul , J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys., 2010, 48, 1685– 1718. 3 B. C. H. Steele and A. Heinzel, Nature, 2001, 414, 345–352. 4 M. A. Hickner, H...4351. 6 B.-S. Kim and J.-W. Choi, Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng., 2007, 12, 323– 332. 7 S. Kim, J.-H. Kim, O. Jeon , I. C. Kwon and K. Park, Eur. J. Pharm

  12. Train and Test Tightness of LP Relaxations in Structured Prediction

    Meshi, Ofer; Mahdavi, Mehrdad; Weller, Adrian; Sontag, David


    Structured prediction is used in areas such as computer vision and natural language processing to predict structured outputs such as segmentations or parse trees. In these settings, prediction is performed by MAP inference or, equivalently, by solving an integer linear program. Because of the complex scoring functions required to obtain accurate predictions, both learning and inference typically require the use of approximate solvers. We propose a theoretical explanation to the striking obser...

  13. The Effect of Relaxation and Positive Self-Talk on Symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome

    Kimiyaee Asadi


    Full Text Available Background Premenstrual syndrome (PMS is characterized by recurrent, moderate-to-severe affective, physical, and behavioral symptoms that develop during the luteal menstrual cycle and disappear within a few days of menstruation. Objectives This article aims to identify the effects of relaxation, positive self-talk, and a combination of relaxation and positive self-talk on premenstrual syndrome. Methods In this quasi-experimental study, 80 women with PMS disorder were selected using a simple random sampling method, in Hamadan, west of Iran. They were randomly divided into four groups. The first and second groups underwent positive self-talk and relaxation, respectively. The third group experienced positive self-talk and relaxation at the same time. The fourth group did not receive any treatment. The duration of treatment was 8 one-hour sessions. Data were collected using a PMS symptom severity questionnaire. All groups were followed up for six months after the intervention. Finally, data analysis was performed using SPSS version 18 for ANCOVA and Bonferroni tests. Results The results showed that compared to the control group, relaxation (23.2 and positive self-talk (21.25 treatment methods alone can reduce PMS (P < 0.001. On the other hand, a combined (relaxation + positive self-talk treatment method (13.75 was more effective in reducing PMS compared to relaxation or positive self-talk alone. Conclusions It seems that psychological therapy based on relaxation and positive self-talk can be significantly effective in reducing PMS.

  14. Development of T2-relaxation values in regional brain sites during adolescence.

    Kumar, Rajesh; Delshad, Sean; Macey, Paul M; Woo, Mary A; Harper, Ronald M


    Brain tissue changes accompany multiple neurodegenerative and developmental conditions in adolescents. Complex processes that occur in the developing brain with disease can be evaluated accurately only against normal aging processes. Normal developmental changes in different brain areas alter tissue water content, which can be assessed by magnetic resonance (MR) T2 relaxometry. We acquired proton-density (PD) and T2-weighted images from 31 subjects (mean age±S.D., 17.4±4.9 years; 18 male), using a 3.0-T MR imaging scanner. Voxel-by-voxel T2-relaxation values were calculated, and whole-brain T2-relaxation maps constructed and normalized to a common space template. We created a set of regions of interest (ROIs) over cortical gray and white matter, basal ganglia, amygdala, thalamic, hypothalamic, pontine and cerebellar sites, with sizes of ROIs varying from 12 to 243 mm(3); regional T2-relaxation values were determined from these ROIs and normalized T2-relaxation maps. Correlations between R2 (1/T2) values in these sites and age were assessed with Pearson's correlation procedures, and gender differences in regional T2-relaxation values were evaluated with independent-samples t tests. Several brain regions, but not all, showed principally positive correlations between R2 values and age; negative correlations emerged in the cerebellar peduncles. No significant differences in T2-relaxation values emerged between males and females for those areas, except for the mid pons and left occipital white matter; males showed higher T2-relaxation values over females. The findings indicate that T2-relaxation values vary with development between brain structures, and emphasize the need to correct for such age-related effects during any determination of potential changes from control values.

  15. Force Relaxation and Thin Filament Protein Phosphorylation during Acute Myocardial Ischemia

    Han, Young Soo; Ogut, Ozgur


    Ischemia impairs myocardial function and may contribute to the progression of heart failure. In this study, rats subjected to acute ischemia demonstrated reduced Ca2+ activated force as well as a decrease in myosin binding protein-C, titin and Ser23/24 phosphorylation of troponin I (TnI). All three proteins have been demonstrated to be downstream targets of β-adrenergic receptor activation (β-AR), leading to the hypothesis that decreased β-AR during ischemia leads to reduced protein phosphorylation and reduced rate constants of force relaxation. To test this hypothesis, force relaxation transients were recorded from permeabilized perfused and ischemic rat heart fibers following photolysis of the caged chelator diazo-2. Relaxation transients were best fit by double exponential functions whereby the majority (>70%) of the force decline was described by the fast rate constant, which was ~5 times faster than the slow rate constant. However, rate constants of relaxation between perfused and ischemic fibers were not different, despite significant decreases in sarcomeric protein phosphorylation in ischemic fibers. Treatment of perfused fibers with a cAMP analog increased Ser23/24 phosphorylation of TnI, yet the rate constants of relaxation remained unchanged. Interestingly, similar treatment of ischemic fibers did not impact TnI phosphorylation or force relaxation transients. Therefore, acute ischemia does not influence the rate constants of relaxation of permeabilized fibers. These results also suggest that the physiological level of sarcomeric protein phosphorylation is unlikely to be the primary driver of relaxation kinetics in permeabilized cardiac muscle fibers. PMID:20925105

  16. Collection Development: Relaxation & Meditation, September 1, 2010

    Lettus, Dodi


    One of the first books to document the relationship between stress and physical and emotional health was "The Relaxation Response" by Herbert Benson, M.D., with Miriam Z. Klipper. Originally published in 1975, the book grew out of Benson's observations as a cardiologist and his research as a fellow at Harvard Medical School. Benson's study of…

  17. BRIEF REPORT: The colour relaxation equation

    Xiaofei, Zhang; Jiarong, Li


    Colour diffusion in quark - gluon plasma (QGP) is investigated from the transport equations of QGP. The pure non-Abelian collision term describing the colour diffusion in QGP is obtained, the expression for colour relaxation time is derived and the physical picture of the colour diffusion in QGP is shown.

  18. Control linearity and jitter of relaxation oscillators

    Gierkink, Sander Laurentius Johannes


    The body of this thesis (chapters 3,4 and 5) deals with the analysis and improvement of a specific class of voltage- or current controlled oscillators (VCO’s respectively CCO’s) called relaxation oscillators. Before going into detail on this particular class of oscillators, first the function and ap

  19. Relaxation for Children. (Revised and Expanded Edition.)

    Rickard, Jenny

    Intended as a guide to reduce negative stress in children, this book suggests relaxation and meditation techniques to help children cope with stressful events. Part 1 provides an introduction to the format of the book. Part 2 contains summaries of the 10 sessions that make up the program. Each session has six sequential stages in which students…

  20. Relaxation Processes in Nonlinear Optical Polymer Films

    S.N. Fedosov


    Full Text Available Dielectric properties of the guest-host polystyrene/DR1 system have been studied by the AC dielectric spectroscopy method at frequencies from 1 Hz to 0,5 MHz and by the thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC method from – 160 to 0 °C. The relaxation peaks at infra-low frequencies from 10 – 5to 10–2 Hz were also calculated using the Hamon’s approximation. Three relaxation processes, namely, α, β and δ ones were identified from the TSDC peaks, while the ε''(fdependence showed a non-Debye ρ-peak narrowing with temperature. The activation energy of the α-relaxation appeared to be 2,57 eV, while that of the γ-process was 0,52 eV. Temperature dependence of the relaxation time is agreed with the Williams-Landel-Ferry model. The ε''(fpeaks were fitted to Havriliak-Negami’s expression and the corresponding distribution parameters were obtained.

  1. Relaxation of polarized nuclei in superconducting rhodium

    Knuuttila, T.A.; Tuoriniemi, J.T.; Lefmann, K.


    Nuclear spin lattice relaxation rates were measured in normal and superconducting (sc) rhodium with nuclear polarizations up to p = 0.55. This was sufficient to influence the sc state of Rh, whose T, and B-c, are exceptionally low. Because B-c

  2. Collection Development: Relaxation & Meditation, September 1, 2010

    Lettus, Dodi


    One of the first books to document the relationship between stress and physical and emotional health was "The Relaxation Response" by Herbert Benson, M.D., with Miriam Z. Klipper. Originally published in 1975, the book grew out of Benson's observations as a cardiologist and his research as a fellow at Harvard Medical School. Benson's study of…

  3. Redheffer representations and relaxed commutant lifting

    ter Horst, S.


    It is well known that the solutions of a (relaxed) commutant lifting problem can be described via a linear fractional representation of the Redheffer type. The coefficients of such Redheffer representations are analytic operator-valued functions defined on the unit disc D of the complex plane. In th

  4. Vibrational relaxation of pure liquid water

    Lindner, J; Vohringer, P; Pshenichnikov, MS; Cringus, D; Wiersma, DA; Mostovoy, M; Vöhringer, Peter; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.


    Multicolor infrared ultrafast spectroscopy is applied to investigate the vibrational relaxation dynamics in liquid water at room temperature. In a sequence of experiments, both the stretching and the bending mode are photoexcited and probed. A unified model, capable of the reproduction of as much as

  5. Relaxation Treatment for Insomnia: A Component Analysis.

    Woolfolk, Robert L.; McNulty, Terrence F.


    Compared four relaxation treatments for sleep onset insomnia with a waiting-list control. Treatments varied in presence or absence of muscular tension-release instructions and in foci of attention. Results showed all treatment conditions reduced latency of sleep onset and fatigue; visual focusing best reduced the number of nocturnal awakenings.…

  6. Generalized approach to non-exponential relaxation

    R M Pickup; R Cywinski; C Pappas; P Fouquet; B Farago; P Falus


    Non-exponential relaxation is a universal feature of systems as diverse as glasses, spin glasses, earthquakes, financial markets and the universe. Complex relaxation results from hierarchically constrained dynamics with the strength of the constraints being directly related to the form of the relaxation, which changes from a simple exponential to a stretched exponential and a power law by increasing the constraints in the system. A global and unified approach to non-exponentiality was first achieved by Weron and was further generalized by Brouers and Sotolongo-Costa, who applied the concept of non-extensive entropy introduced by Tsallis to the relaxation of disordered systems. These concepts are now confronted with experimental results on the classical metallic spin glasses CuMn, AuFe and the insulating system EuSrS. The revisited data have also be complemented by new results on several compositions of the classical CuMn spin glass and on systems, like CoGa and CuCo, the magnetic behaviour of which is believed to arise from magnetic clusters and should be characteristic for superparamagnetism.

  7. Relaxation dynamics of multilayer triangular Husimi cacti

    Galiceanu, Mircea; Jurjiu, Aurel


    We focus on the relaxation dynamics of multilayer polymer structures having, as underlying topology, the Husimi cactus. The relaxation dynamics of the multilayer structures is investigated in the framework of generalized Gaussian structures model using both Rouse and Zimm approaches. In the Rouse type-approach, we determine analytically the complete eigenvalues spectrum and based on it we calculate the mechanical relaxation moduli (storage and loss modulus) and the average monomer displacement. First, we monitor these physical quantities for structures with a fixed generation number and we increase the number of layers, such that the linear topology will smoothly come into play. Second, we keep constant the size of the structures, varying simultaneously two parameters: the generation number of the main layer, G, and the number of layers, c. This fact allows us to study in detail the crossover from a pure Husimi cactus behavior to a predominately linear chain behavior. The most interesting situation is found when the two limiting topologies cancel each other. For this case, we encounter in the intermediate frequency/time domain regions of constant slope for different values of the parameter set (G, c) and we show that the number of layers follows an exponential-law of G. In the Zimm-type approach, which includes the hydrodynamic interactions, the quantities that describe the mechanical relaxation dynamics do not show scaling behavior as in the Rouse model, except the limiting case, namely, a very high number of layers and low generation number.

  8. Noise in (double) relaxation oscillation SQUIDs

    Adelerhof, Derk Jan; Adelerhof, Derk Jan; Flokstra, Jakob; Rogalla, Horst


    We have modelled the effect of two intrinsic noise sources on the flux noise spectral density of (Double) Relaxation Oscillation SQUIDs ((D)ROSs) based on hysteretic Josephson tunnel junctions. An important noise source is the spread in the critical current of the SQUID due to thermal fluctuations.

  9. Reactor flush time correction in relaxation experiments

    den Otter, M.W.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.; Boukamp, Bernard A.; Verweij, H.


    The present paper deals with the analysis of experimental data from conductivity relaxation experiments. It is shown that evaluation of the chemical diffusion and surface transfer coefficients for oxygen by use of this technique is possible only if accurate data for the conductivity transient can be

  10. Anthelmintic and relaxant activities of Verbascum Thapsus Mullein

    Ali Niaz


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbascum thapsus is used in tribal medicine as an antispasmodic, anti-tubercular agent and wormicide. In this study, we investigated the antispasmodic and anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous methanolic extract of the plant. Methods V. thapsus extracts were tested against roundworms (Ascaridia galli and tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis. Each species of worm was placed into a negative control group, an albendazole treatment group, or a V. thapsus treatment group, and the time taken for paralysis and death was determined. In addition, relaxation activity tests were performed on sections of rabbit's jejunum. Plant extracts were tested on KCl-induced contractions and the relaxation activities were quantified against atropine. V. thapsus calcium chloride curves were constructed to investigate the mode of action of the plant extracts. Results We detected flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins, fats and fixed oils in V. thapsus. For both species of worm, paralysis occurred fastest at the highest concentration of extract. The relative index values for paralysis in A. galli were 4.58, 3.41 and 2.08, at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 mg/ml of plant extract, respectively. The relative index for death in A. galli suggested that V. thapsus extract is wormicidal at high concentration. Similarly, the relative indexes for paralysis and death in R. spiralis suggested that the extract is a more potent wormicidal agent than albendazole. The mean EC50 relaxation activity values for spontaneous and KCl induced contractions were 7.5 ± 1.4 mg/ml (6.57-8.01, n = 6 and 7.9 ± 0.41 mg/ml (7.44-8.46, n = 6, respectively. The relaxation activity of the extract was 11.42 ± 2, 17.0 ± 3, 28.5 ± 4, and 128.0 ± 7% of the maximum observed for atropine at corresponding concentrations. The calcium chloride curves showed that V. thapsus extracts (3 mg/ml, had a mean EC50 (log molar [calcium] value of -1.9 ± 0

  11. Collisionless relaxation in beam-plasma systems

    Backhaus, Ekaterina Yu. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This thesis reports the results from the theoretical investigations, both numerical and analytical, of collisionless relaxation phenomena in beam-plasma systems. Many results of this work can also be applied to other lossless systems of plasma physics, beam physics and astrophysics. Different aspects of the physics of collisionless relaxation and its modeling are addressed. A new theoretical framework, named Coupled Moment Equations (CME), is derived and used in numerical and analytical studies of the relaxation of second order moments such as beam size and emittance oscillations. This technique extends the well-known envelope equation formalism, and it can be applied to general systems with nonlinear forces. It is based on a systematic moment expansion of the Vlasov equation. In contrast to the envelope equation, which is derived assuming constant rms beam emittance, the CME model allows the emittance to vary through coupling to higher order moments. The CME model is implemented in slab geometry in the absence of return currents. The CME simulation yields rms beam sizes, velocity spreads and emittances that are in good agreement with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for a wide range of system parameters. The mechanism of relaxation is also considered within the framework of the CME system. It is discovered that the rapid relaxation or beam size oscillations can be attributed to a resonant coupling between different modes of the system. A simple analytical estimate of the relaxation time is developed. The final state of the system reached after the relaxation is complete is investigated. New and accurate analytical results for the second order moments in the phase-mixed state are obtained. Unlike previous results, these connect the final values of the second order moments with the initial beam mismatch. These analytical estimates are in good agreement with the CME model and PIC simulations. Predictions for the final density and temperature are developed that show

  12. Load Relaxation of Olivine Single Crystals

    Cooper, R. F.; Stone, D. S.; Plookphol, T.


    Single crystals of ferromagnesian olivine (San Carlos, AZ, peridot; Fo90-92) have been deformed in both uniaxial creep and load relaxation under conditions of ambient pressure, T = 1500ºC and pO2 = 10-10 atm; creep stresses were in the range 40 ≤ σ1 (MPa) ≤ 220. The crystals were oriented such that the applied stress was parallel to [011]c, which promotes single slip on the slowest slip system in olivine, (010)[001]. The creep rates at steady state match well the results of earlier investigators, as does the stress sensitivity (a power-law exponent of n = 3.6). Dislocation microstructures, including spatial distribution of low-angle (subgrain) boundaries, additionally confirm previous investigations. Inverted primary creep (an accelerating strain rate with an increase in stress) was observed. Load-relaxation, however, produced a singular response—a single hardness curve—regardless of the magnitude of creep stress or total accumulated strain preceding relaxation. The log-stress v. log-strain rate data from load-relaxation and creep experiments overlap to within experimental error. The load-relaxation behavior is distinctly different that that described for other crystalline solids, where the flow stress is affected strongly by work hardening such that a family of distinct hardness curves is generated, which are related by a scaling function. The response of olivine for the conditions studied, thus, indicates flow that is rate-limited by dislocation glide, reflecting specifically a high intrinsic lattice resistance (Peierls stress).

  13. The effect of music relaxation versus progressive muscular relaxation on insomnia in older people and their relationship to personality traits.

    Ziv, Naomi; Rotem, Tomer; Arnon, Zahi; Haimov, Iris


    A large percentage of older people suffer from chronic insomnia, affecting many aspects of life quality and well-being. Although insomnia is most often treated with medication, a growing number of studies demonstrate the efficiency of various relaxation techniques. The present study had three aims: first, to compare two relaxation techniques--music relaxation and progressive muscular relaxation--on various objective and subjective measures of sleep quality; second, to examine the effect of these techniques on anxiety and depression; and finally, to explore possible relationships between the efficiency of both techniques and personality variables. Fifteen older adults took part in the study. Following one week of base-line measurements of sleep quality, participants followed one week of music relaxation and one week of progressive muscular relaxation before going to sleep. Order of relaxation techniques was controlled. Results show music relaxation was more efficient in improving sleep. Sleep efficiency was higher after music relaxation than after progressive muscular relaxation. Moreover, anxiety was lower after music relaxation. Progressive muscular relaxation was related to deterioration of sleep quality on subjective measures. Beyond differences between the relaxation techniques, extraverts seemed to benefit more from both music and progressive muscular relaxation. The advantage of non-pharmacological means to treat insomnia, and the importance of taking individual differences into account are discussed.

  14. A Sequence of Relaxations Constraining Hidden Variable Models

    Steeg, Greg Ver


    Many widely studied graphical models with latent variables lead to nontrivial constraints on the distribution of the observed variables. Inspired by the Bell inequalities in quantum mechanics, we refer to any linear inequality whose violation rules out some latent variable model as a "hidden variable test" for that model. Our main contribution is to introduce a sequence of relaxations which provides progressively tighter hidden variable tests. We demonstrate applicability to mixtures of sequences of i.i.d. variables, Bell inequalities, and homophily models in social networks. For the last, we demonstrate that our method provides a test that is able to rule out latent homophily as the sole explanation for correlations on a real social network that are known to be due to influence.

  15. Effect of Benson Relaxation Techniques on Hemodynamic Variables of Patient Undergoing Coronary Angiography

    M khani


    Full Text Available Introduction: Invasive diagnostic procedures such as coronary angiography, in most cases, are accompanied by stress and anxiety for patients,which may effect on hemodynamic signs. Materials and Methods:This research, as a quasi experimental study, has the objective to determine the influence of applying methods of relaxation on hemodynamic signs in hospitalized 40 patients, experienciny coronary angiography (CA,, has been studied, in regard to existing conditions and methods of sampling and random allocation to two groups of control and relaxation at 2003 . Data collection tool included demographic and disease related information sheet, as well as record sheets for hemodynamic parameters at intervals of 8-12 and ½ hrs before, during and after the angiography. For relaxation group, the researcher would speak individually about the influence of relaxation, the day before angiography; Then with the aid of client himself/herself, performed relaxation instances in a single bout, and eventually asked client to perform relaxation technique 2-3 times before going for angiography. In control group was attended in the usual manner preangiographically. Homodynamic parameters were measured in both groups 8-12 and ½ hrs, before during and after CA. Afterward, resulted data were analyzed statistically by T-Test Chi-squre. Results: With T-Test, respiratory rates½ hrs, beforeAngiography, diastolic blood pressure and Respiratory Rate after Angiography showed statisticaly significant difference between two groups (P0.05.but most of parameters showed clinically significant difference between two groups. Conclusion: Therfore it is offered that relaxation method is applied after invasive procedures.

  16. [Brain activity during different stages of the relaxation process].

    gorev, A S; Kovaleva, A V; Panova, E N; Gorbacheva, A K


    A group of adults participated in experiment in which they were asked to reach relaxed state by using relaxation techniques (active relaxation) and to maintain this state without any technique (passive relaxation). Some changes of EEG-characteristics during relaxation were analyzed. This experiment includes four situations (different functional states): baselinel, active relaxation, passive relaxation, baseline2. EEG was recorded from 10 cortical leads: O1, O2, TPO (left and right), P3, P4, C3, C4, F3 and F4. A comparative EEG analysis was done for 10 frequency bands from 5 to 40 Hz. In each experimental situation we revealed general trends for EEG parameters and also some specific changes in EEG, which characterized brain organization during passive and active relaxed states.

  17. Characteristics of the secondary relaxation process in soft colloidal suspensions

    Saha, Debasish; Joshi, Yogesh M.; Bandyopadhyay, Ranjini


    A universal secondary relaxation process, known as the Johari-Goldstein (J-G) β-relaxation process, appears in glass formers. It involves all parts of the molecule and is particularly important in glassy systems because of its very close relationship with the α-relaxation process. However, the absence of a J-G β-relaxation mode in colloidal glasses raises questions regarding its universality. In the present work, we study the microscopic relaxation processes in Laponite suspensions, a model soft glassy material, by dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments. α- and β-relaxation timescales are estimated from the autocorrelation functions obtained by DLS measurements for Laponite suspensions with different concentrations, salt concentrations and temperatures. Our experimental results suggest that the β-relaxation process in Laponite suspensions involves all parts of the constituent Laponite particle. The ergodicity breaking time is also seen to be correlated with the characteristic time of the β-relaxation process for all Laponite concentrations, salt concentrations and temperatures. The width of the primary relaxation process is observed to be correlated with the secondary relaxation time. The secondary relaxation time is also very sensitive to the concentration of Laponite. We measure primitive relaxation timescales from the α-relaxation time and the stretching exponent (β) by applying the coupling model for highly correlated systems. The order of magnitude of the primitive relaxation time is very close to the secondary relaxation time. These observations indicate the presence of a J-G β-relaxation mode for soft colloidal suspensions of Laponite.

  18. Relaxation of Magnetic Nanoparticle Chain without Applied Field*

    HE Liang-Ming


    The relaxation ofa one-dimensional magnetic nanoparticle linear chain with lattice constant a is investigated in absence of applied field. There is an equilibrium state (or steady state) where all magnetic moments of particles lie along the chain (x-axis), back to which the magnetic nanoparticle chain at other state will relax. It is found that the relaxation time Tx is determined by Tx = 10β × a3. This relaxation is compared with that of single magnetic nanoparticle system.

  19. PREFACE: Muon spin rotation, relaxation or resonance

    Heffner, Robert H.; Nagamine, Kanetada


    To a particle physicist a muon is a member of the lepton family, a heavy electron possessing a mass of about 1/9 that of a proton and a spin of 1/2, which interacts with surrounding atoms and molecules electromagnetically. Since its discovery in 1937, the muon has been put to many uses, from tests of special relativity to deep inelastic scattering, from studies of nuclei to tests of weak interactions and quantum electrodynamics, and most recently, as a radiographic tool to see inside heavy objects and volcanoes. In 1957 Richard Garwin and collaborators, while conducting experiments at the Columbia University cyclotron to search for parity violation, discovered that spin-polarized muons injected into materials might be useful to probe internal magnetic fields. This eventually gave birth to the modern field of muSR, which stands for muon spin rotation, relaxation or resonance, and is the subject of this special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. Muons are produced in accelerators when high energy protons (generally >500 MeV) strike a target like graphite, producing pions which subsequently decay into muons. Most experiments carried out today use relatively low-energy (~4 MeV), positively-charged muons coming from pions decaying at rest in the skin of the production target. These muons have 100% spin polarization, a range in typical materials of about 180 mg cm-2, and are ideal for experiments in condensed matter physics and chemistry. Negatively-charged muons are also occasionally used to study such things as muonic atoms and muon-catalysed fusion. The muSR technique provides a local probe of internal magnetic fields and is highly complementary to inelastic neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance, for example. There are four primary muSR facilities in the world today: ISIS (Didcot, UK), KEK (Tsukuba, Japan), PSI (Villigen, Switzerland) and TRIUMF (Vancouver, Canada), serving about 500 researchers world-wide. A new facility, JPARC (Tokai, Japan

  20. Effects of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin; Cucurbitaceae) in mouse models of convulsion, muscle relaxation, and depression.

    Akindele, Abidemi J; Ajao, Mutiu Y; Aigbe, Flora R; Enumah, Uchenna S


    Telfairia occidentalis (Cucurbitaceae) is a leafy vegetable used in soup and folk medicine in southern Nigeria. Ethnobotanical survey revealed that preparations of the plant are used in the treatment of central nervous system-related disorders including convulsion. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of T. occidentalis in mouse models of convulsion, muscle relaxation, and depression. The strychnine and isoniazid convulsion, traction and climbing muscle relaxation, and forced swim and tail suspension depression tests were used in this study. The extract was administered orally (p.o.) at dose range of 25-800 mg/kg while distilled water (10 mL/kg p.o.) served as negative control. Diazepam (5 mg/kg p.o.) was used as positive control in the convulsion and muscle relaxation models while imipramine (64 mg/kg p.o.) served the same purpose in the depression tests. T. occidentalis significantly increased the onset (Pconvulsion (P<.05, .01) in the strychnine test and increased the time to death (P<.05, .01, .001) in the isoniazid model. The extract insignificantly increased the reaction time in the traction test while it significantly increased the time in the climbing test (P<.001). In the forced swim and tail suspension models, T. occidentalis significantly (P<.001) and dose-dependently increased the duration of immobility. The results obtained in this study suggest that the hydroethanolic leaf extract of T. occidentalis possesses anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant properties, thus justifying its folkloric use.

  1. Two-temperature reaction and relaxation rates

    Kolesnichenko, E.; Gorbachev, Yu.


    Within the method of solving the kinetic equations for gas mixtures with internal degrees of freedom developed by the authors and based on the approximate summational invariants (ASI) concept, gas-dynamic equations for a multi-temperature model for the spatially inhomogeneous case are derived. For the two-temperature case, the expressions for the non-equilibrium reaction and relaxation rates are obtained. Special attention is drawn to corresponding thermodynamic equations. Different possibilities of introducing the gas-dynamic variables related to the internal degrees of freedom are considered. One is based on the choice of quantum numbers as the ASI, while the other is based on the choice of internal (vibrational) energy as the ASI. Limits to a one-temperature situation are considered in all the cases. For the cutoff harmonic oscillator model, explicit expressions for the reaction and relaxation rates are derived.

  2. Electron-vibration relaxation in oxygen plasmas

    Laporta, V.; Heritier, K. L.; Panesi, M.


    An ideal chemical reactor model is used to study the vibrational relaxation of oxygen molecules in their ground electronic state, X3Σg-, in presence of free electrons. The model accounts for vibrational non-equilibrium between the translational energy mode of the gas and the vibrational energy mode of individual molecules. The vibrational levels of the molecules are treated as separate species, allowing for non-Boltzmann distributions of their population. The electron and vibrational temperatures are varied in the range [0-20,000] K. Numerical results show a fast energy transfer between oxygen molecules and free electron, which causes strong deviation of the vibrational distribution function from Boltzmann distribution, both in heating and cooling conditions. Comparison with Landau-Teller model is considered showing a good agreement for electron temperature range [2000-12,000] K. Finally analytical fit of the vibrational relaxation time is given.

  3. Relaxation time estimation in surface NMR

    Grunewald, Elliot D.; Walsh, David O.


    NMR relaxation time estimation methods and corresponding apparatus generate two or more alternating current transmit pulses with arbitrary amplitudes, time delays, and relative phases; apply a surface NMR acquisition scheme in which initial preparatory pulses, the properties of which may be fixed across a set of multiple acquisition sequence, are transmitted at the start of each acquisition sequence and are followed by one or more depth sensitive pulses, the pulse moments of which are varied across the set of multiple acquisition sequences; and apply processing techniques in which recorded NMR response data are used to estimate NMR properties and the relaxation times T.sub.1 and T.sub.2* as a function of position as well as one-dimensional and two-dimension distributions of T.sub.1 versus T.sub.2* as a function of subsurface position.

  4. Relaxation Based Electrical Simulation for VLSI Circuits

    S. Rajkumar


    Full Text Available Electrical circuit simulation was one of the first CAD tools developed for IC design. The conventional circuit simulators like SPICE and ASTAP were designed initially for the cost effective analysis of circuits containing a few hundred transistors or less. A number of approaches have been used to improve the performances of congenital circuit simulators for the analysis of large circuits. Thereafter relaxation methods was proposed to provide more accurate waveforms than standard circuit simulators with up to two orders of magnitude speed improvement for large circuits. In this paper we have tried to highlights recently used waveform and point relaxation techniques for simulation of VLSI circuits. We also propose a simple parallelization technique and experimentally demonstrate that we can solve digital circuits with tens of million transistors in a few hours.

  5. Electrochemical relaxation at electrically conducting polymers

    Nateghi, M. R.; zarandi, M. B.


    In this study, slow relaxation (SR) associated with the electroreduction of polyaniline (PAn) films during polarization to high cathodic potentials was investigated by cyclic voltammetry technique. Anodic voltammetric currents were used as experimental variable to indicate the relaxation occurring in PAn films deposited electrochemically on the Pt electrode surface. The dependence of SR on polymer film thickness, waiting potential, and mobility of the doped anion was investigated. Percolation threshold potential for heteropolyanion doped PAn was estimated to be between 150 and 200 mV depending on polymer thickness on the electrode surface. A new model of the conducting to insulating conversion is described by the percolation theory and mobility gap changes during the process.

  6. Electrochemical relaxation at electrically conducting polymers

    Nateghi, M R [Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, Yazd-Branch, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zarandi, M B [Department of physics, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this study, slow relaxation (SR) associated with the electroreduction of polyaniline (PAn) films during polarization to high cathodic potentials was investigated by cyclic voltammetry technique. Anodic voltammetric currents were used as experimental variable to indicate the relaxation occurring in PAn films deposited electrochemically on the Pt electrode surface. The dependence of SR on polymer film thickness, waiting potential, and mobility of the doped anion was investigated. Percolation threshold potential for heteropolyanion doped PAn was estimated to be between 150 and 200 mV depending on polymer thickness on the electrode surface. A new model of the conducting to insulating conversion is described by the percolation theory and mobility gap changes during the process.

  7. Relaxation time estimation in surface NMR

    Grunewald, Elliot D.; Walsh, David O.


    NMR relaxation time estimation methods and corresponding apparatus generate two or more alternating current transmit pulses with arbitrary amplitudes, time delays, and relative phases; apply a surface NMR acquisition scheme in which initial preparatory pulses, the properties of which may be fixed across a set of multiple acquisition sequence, are transmitted at the start of each acquisition sequence and are followed by one or more depth sensitive pulses, the pulse moments of which are varied across the set of multiple acquisition sequences; and apply processing techniques in which recorded NMR response data are used to estimate NMR properties and the relaxation times T.sub.1 and T.sub.2* as a function of position as well as one-dimensional and two-dimension distributions of T.sub.1 versus T.sub.2* as a function of subsurface position.

  8. Multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics with flow

    Dennis, G R; Dewar, R L; Hole, M J


    We present an extension of the multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) equilibrium model that includes plasma flow. This new model is a generalization of Woltjer's model of relaxed magnetohydrodynamics equilibria with flow. We prove that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite our extension of MRxMHD reduces to ideal MHD with flow. We also prove that some solutions to MRxMHD with flow are not time-independent in the laboratory frame, and instead have 3D structure which rotates in the toroidal direction with fixed angular velocity. This capability gives MRxMHD potential application to describing rotating 3D MHD structures such as 'snakes' and long-lived modes.

  9. Multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics with flow

    Dennis, G. R., E-mail:; Dewar, R. L.; Hole, M. J. [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Hudson, S. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)


    We present an extension of the multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) equilibrium model that includes plasma flow. This new model is a generalization of Woltjer's model of relaxed magnetohydrodynamics equilibria with flow. We prove that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite, our extension of MRxMHD reduces to ideal MHD with flow. We also prove that some solutions to MRxMHD with flow are not time-independent in the laboratory frame, and instead have 3D structure which rotates in the toroidal direction with fixed angular velocity. This capability gives MRxMHD potential application to describing rotating 3D MHD structures such as 'snakes' and long-lived modes.

  10. Braided magnetic fields: equilibria, relaxation and heating

    Pontin, D I; Russell, A J B; Hornig, G


    We examine the dynamics of magnetic flux tubes containing non-trivial field line braiding (or linkage), using mathematical and computational modelling. The key results obtained from recent modelling efforts are summarised, in the context of testable predictions for the laboratory. We discuss the existence of braided force-free equilibria, and demonstrate that for a field anchored at perfectly-conducting plates, these equilibria exist and contain current sheets whose thickness scales inversely with the braid complexity - as measured for example by the topological entropy. By contrast, for a periodic domain braided exact equilibria typically do not exist, while approximate equilibria contain thin current sheets. In the presence of resistivity, reconnection is triggered at the current sheets and a turbulent relaxation ensues. We discuss the properties of this relaxation, and in particular the existence of constraints that may mean that the final state is not the linear force-free field predicted by Taylor's hypo...

  11. Relaxation matching algorithm for moving photogrammetry

    Guo, Lei; Liu, Ke; Miao, Yinxiao; Zhu, Jigui


    Moving photogrammetry is an application of close range photogrammetry in industrial measurement to realize threedimensional coordinate measurement within large-scale volume. This paper describes an approach of relaxation matching algorithm applicable to moving photogrammetry according to the characteristics of accurate matching result of different measuring images. This method uses neighborhood matching support to improve the matching rate after coarse matching based on epipolar geometry constraint and precise matching using three images. It reflects the overall matching effect of all points, that means when a point is matched correctly, the matching results of those points round it must be correct. So for one point considered, the matching results of points round it are calculated to judge whether its result is correct. Analysis indicates that relaxation matching can eliminate the mismatching effectively and acquire 100% rate of correct matching. It will play a very important role in moving photogrammetry to ensure the following implement of ray bundle adjustment.

  12. Relaxation in Technique Leading to New Beginnings().

    Koritar, Endre


    This paper explores how standard analytic technique may result in a repetition of past traumatic experiences in the transference and countertransference analytic situation. Relaxation and elasticity of technique can lead to re-integration of previously fragmented ego functions, and in remembering and re-experiencing of previously repressed symbolic representations of fragmenting past traumatic experiences, resulting in neocatharsis and working through, thus healing wounds and scars sustained in self development. This healing process will be described through a detailed depiction of an analytic process introducing relaxation of technique, in a response by the analyst, to the patient's Orpha (self-protective) function. Responsiveness to the patient's implicitly or explicitly expressed needs, in the analytic space, may require a departure from standard technique for a deeper level of dynamic work where symbolization of unrepresented emotional experiences becomes possible.



    In this article, two relaxation time limits, namely, the momentum relaxation time limit and the energy relaxation time limit are considered. By the compactness argument, it is obtained that the smooth solutions of the multidimensional nonisentropic Euler-Poisson problem converge to the solutions of an energy transport model or a drift diffusion model, respectively, with respect to different time scales.

  14. Relaxation Techniques for Handicapped Children: A Review of Literature.

    Zipkin, Dvora


    The paper discusses four major relaxation training approaches used with handicapped children: progressive muscle relaxation, biofeedback, yoga, and mental relaxation, which includes guided fantasy, imagery, and meditation. Descriptions of these techniques, the effects of their use with various populations, and reviews of recent studies of their…

  15. Impacts of Base-Case and Post-Contingency Constraint Relaxations on Static and Dynamic Operational Security

    Salloum, Ahmed

    Constraint relaxation by definition means that certain security, operational, or financial constraints are allowed to be violated in the energy market model for a predetermined penalty price. System operators utilize this mechanism in an effort to impose a price-cap on shadow prices throughout the market. In addition, constraint relaxations can serve as corrective approximations that help in reducing the occurrence of infeasible or extreme solutions in the day-ahead markets. This work aims to capture the impact constraint relaxations have on system operational security. Moreover, this analysis also provides a better understanding of the correlation between DC market models and AC real-time systems and analyzes how relaxations in market models propagate to real-time systems. This information can be used not only to assess the criticality of constraint relaxations, but also as a basis for determining penalty prices more accurately. Constraint relaxations practice was replicated in this work using a test case and a real-life large-scale system, while capturing both energy market aspects and AC real-time system performance. System performance investigation included static and dynamic security analysis for base-case and post-contingency operating conditions. PJM peak hour loads were dynamically modeled in order to capture delayed voltage recovery and sustained depressed voltage profiles as a result of reactive power deficiency caused by constraint relaxations. Moreover, impacts of constraint relaxations on operational system security were investigated when risk based penalty prices are used. Transmission lines in the PJM system were categorized according to their risk index and each category was as-signed a different penalty price accordingly in order to avoid real-time overloads on high risk lines. This work also extends the investigation of constraint relaxations to post-contingency relaxations, where emergency limits are allowed to be relaxed in energy market models

  16. Relaxation Criteria for Iterated Traffic Simulations

    Kelly, Terence; Nagel, Kai

    Iterative transportation microsimulations adjust traveler route plans by iterating between a microsimulation and a route planner. At each iteration, the route planner adjusts individuals' route choices based on the preceding microsimulations. Empirically, this process yields good results, but it is usually unclear when to stop the iterative process when modeling real-world traffic. This paper investigates several criteria to judge relaxation of the iterative process, emphasizing criteria related to traveler decision-making.

  17. Dimension reduction for systems with slow relaxation

    Venkataramani, Shankar C; Restrepo, Juan M


    We develop reduced, stochastic models for high dimensional, dissipative dynamical systems that relax very slowly to equilibrium and can encode long term memory. We present a variety of empirical and first principles approaches for model reduction, and build a mathematical framework for analyzing the reduced models. We introduce the notions of universal and asymptotic filters to characterize `optimal' model reductions. We discuss how our methods apply to the practically important problem of modeling oil spills.

  18. p-q growth via relaxation methods

    Irene Benedetti


    Full Text Available Local Lipschitz continuity of local minimizers of vectorial integrals ∫Ω f(x,Dudx is proved when f satisfies p-q growth condition and ξ↦f(x,ξ is not convex. The uniform convexity and the radial structure condition with respect to the last variable are assumed only at infinity. In the proof, we use semicontinuity and relaxation results for functionals with nonstandard growth.

  19. Models of Flux Tubes from Constrained Relaxation

    Α. Mangalam; V. Krishan


    We study the relaxation of a compressible plasma to an equilibrium with flow. The constraints of conservation of mass, energy, angular momentum, cross-helicity and relative magnetic helicity are imposed. Equilibria corresponding to the energy extrema while conserving these invariants for parallel flows yield three classes of solutions and one of them with an increasing radial density profile, relevant to solar flux tubes is presented.

  20. Active nematic gels as active relaxing solids

    Turzi, Stefano S


    I put forward a continuum theory for active nematic gels, defined as fluids or suspensions of orientable rodlike objects endowed with active dynamics, that is based on symmetry arguments and compatibility with thermodynamics. The starting point is our recent theory that models (passive) nematic liquid crystals as relaxing nematic elastomers. The interplay between viscoelastic response and active dynamics of the microscopic constituents is naturally taken into account. By contrast with standar...

  1. Relaxation time measurements by an electronic method.

    Brousseau, R.; Vanier, J.


    Description of a simple electronic system that permits the direct measurement of time constants of decaying signals. The system was used in connection with relaxation experiments on hydrogen and rubidium masers and was found to operate well. The use of a computing counter in the systems gives the possibility of making averages on several experiments and obtaining the standard deviation of the results from the mean. The program for the computing counter is given.

  2. Controlling spin relaxation with a cavity

    Bienfait, A.; Pla, J. J.; Kubo, Y.; Zhou, X.; Stern, M.; Lo, C. C.; Weis, C. D.; Schenkel, T.; Vion, D.; Esteve, D.; Morton, J. J. L.; Bertet, P.


    Spontaneous emission of radiation is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which an excited quantum system returns to equilibrium. For spins, however, spontaneous emission is generally negligible compared to other non-radiative relaxation processes because of the weak coupling between the magnetic dipole and the electromagnetic field. In 1946, Purcell realized that the rate of spontaneous emission can be greatly enhanced by placing the quantum system in a resonant cavity. This effect has since been used extensively to control the lifetime of atoms and semiconducting heterostructures coupled to microwave or optical cavities, and is essential for the realization of high-efficiency single-photon sources. Here we report the application of this idea to spins in solids. By coupling donor spins in silicon to a superconducting microwave cavity with a high quality factor and a small mode volume, we reach the regime in which spontaneous emission constitutes the dominant mechanism of spin relaxation. The relaxation rate is increased by three orders of magnitude as the spins are tuned to the cavity resonance, demonstrating that energy relaxation can be controlled on demand. Our results provide a general way to initialize spin systems into their ground state and therefore have applications in magnetic resonance and quantum information processing. They also demonstrate that the coupling between the magnetic dipole of a spin and the electromagnetic field can be enhanced up to the point at which quantum fluctuations have a marked effect on the spin dynamics; as such, they represent an important step towards the coherent magnetic coupling of individual spins to microwave photons.

  3. Effect of relaxation on adiabatic following

    Nayfeh, M.H.


    A solution is presented for the damped optical Bloch equations under the excitation of a smooth pulse by first deriving three independent third-order equations of the Bloch vector components. Each equation is reduced to quadratures by assuming that the logarithmic time derivative of the field amplitude is small compared to the Rabi frequency. This results in an approximate summation of the infinite-order time-dependent perturbation in the field amplitude. The relaxation-dependent induced damping of the population inversion is calculated. Also calculated are additional relaxation-dependent contributions to the intensity-dependent refractive index. The time-integrated intensity contribution tends to cause line asymmetry, which becomes, at later times, linear in ..gamma../sub 2/ when ..gamma../sub 2/ very-much-greater-than ..gamma../sub 1/ and zero when 2..gamma../sub 2/ = ..gamma../sub 1/, where ..gamma../sub 1/ and ..gamma../sub 2/ are the atomic energy and phase-changing relaxations, respectively. The dependence of the spectral broadening on pulse length, pressure, and length of the sample is discussed. (AIP)

  4. Fingerprinting Molecular Relaxation in Deformed Polymers

    Wang, Zhe; Lam, Christopher N.; Chen, Wei-Ren; Wang, Weiyu; Liu, Jianning; Liu, Yun; Porcar, Lionel; Stanley, Christopher B.; Zhao, Zhichen; Hong, Kunlun; Wang, Yangyang


    The flow and deformation of macromolecules is ubiquitous in nature and industry, and an understanding of this phenomenon at both macroscopic and microscopic length scales is of fundamental and practical importance. Here, we present the formulation of a general mathematical framework, which could be used to extract, from scattering experiments, the molecular relaxation of deformed polymers. By combining and modestly extending several key conceptual ingredients in the literature, we show how the anisotropic single-chain structure factor can be decomposed by spherical harmonics and experimentally reconstructed from its cross sections on the scattering planes. The resulting wave-number-dependent expansion coefficients constitute a characteristic fingerprint of the macromolecular deformation, permitting detailed examinations of polymer dynamics at the microscopic level. We apply this approach to survey a long-standing problem in polymer physics regarding the molecular relaxation in entangled polymers after a large step deformation. The classical tube theory of Doi and Edwards predicts a fast chain retraction process immediately after the deformation, followed by a slow orientation relaxation through the reptation mechanism. This chain retraction hypothesis, which is the keystone of the tube theory for macromolecular flow and deformation, is critically examined by analyzing the fine features of the two-dimensional anisotropic spectra from small-angle neutron scattering by entangled polystyrenes. We show that the unique scattering patterns associated with the chain retraction mechanism are not experimentally observed. This result calls for a fundamental revision of the current theoretical picture for nonlinear rheological behavior of entangled polymeric liquids.

  5. Graph Matching: Relax at Your Own Risk.

    Lyzinski, Vince; Fishkind, Donniell E; Fiori, Marcelo; Vogelstein, Joshua T; Priebe, Carey E; Sapiro, Guillermo


    Graph matching-aligning a pair of graphs to minimize their edge disagreements-has received wide-spread attention from both theoretical and applied communities over the past several decades, including combinatorics, computer vision, and connectomics. Its attention can be partially attributed to its computational difficulty. Although many heuristics have previously been proposed in the literature to approximately solve graph matching, very few have any theoretical support for their performance. A common technique is to relax the discrete problem to a continuous problem, therefore enabling practitioners to bring gradient-descent-type algorithms to bear. We prove that an indefinite relaxation (when solved exactly) almost always discovers the optimal permutation, while a common convex relaxation almost always fails to discover the optimal permutation. These theoretical results suggest that initializing the indefinite algorithm with the convex optimum might yield improved practical performance. Indeed, experimental results illuminate and corroborate these theoretical findings, demonstrating that excellent results are achieved in both benchmark and real data problems by amalgamating the two approaches.

  6. Cortex phellodendri Extract Relaxes Airway Smooth Muscle

    Qiu-Ju Jiang


    Full Text Available Cortex phellodendri is used to reduce fever and remove dampness and toxin. Berberine is an active ingredient of C. phellodendri. Berberine from Argemone ochroleuca can relax airway smooth muscle (ASM; however, whether the nonberberine component of C. phellodendri has similar relaxant action was unclear. An n-butyl alcohol extract of C. phellodendri (NBAECP, nonberberine component was prepared, which completely inhibits high K+- and acetylcholine- (ACH- induced precontraction of airway smooth muscle in tracheal rings and lung slices from control and asthmatic mice, respectively. The contraction induced by high K+ was also blocked by nifedipine, a selective blocker of L-type Ca2+ channels. The ACH-induced contraction was partially inhibited by nifedipine and pyrazole 3, an inhibitor of TRPC3 and STIM/Orai channels. Taken together, our data demonstrate that NBAECP can relax ASM by inhibiting L-type Ca2+ channels and TRPC3 and/or STIM/Orai channels, suggesting that NBAECP could be developed to a new drug for relieving bronchospasm.

  7. Probing relaxation times in graphene quantum dots

    Volk, Christian; Neumann, Christoph; Kazarski, Sebastian; Fringes, Stefan; Engels, Stephan; Haupt, Federica; Müller, André; Stampfer, Christoph


    Graphene quantum dots are attractive candidates for solid-state quantum bits. In fact, the predicted weak spin-orbit and hyperfine interaction promise spin qubits with long coherence times. Graphene quantum dots have been extensively investigated with respect to their excitation spectrum, spin-filling sequence and electron-hole crossover. However, their relaxation dynamics remain largely unexplored. This is mainly due to challenges in device fabrication, in particular concerning the control of carrier confinement and the tunability of the tunnelling barriers, both crucial to experimentally investigate decoherence times. Here we report pulsed-gate transient current spectroscopy and relaxation time measurements of excited states in graphene quantum dots. This is achieved by an advanced device design that allows to individually tune the tunnelling barriers down to the low megahertz regime, while monitoring their asymmetry. Measuring transient currents through electronic excited states, we estimate a lower bound for charge relaxation times on the order of 60–100 ns. PMID:23612294

  8. Tension and relaxation in the individual.

    Newbury, C R


    Increasing materialism in society is resulting in more wide spread nervous tension in all age groups. While some degree of nervous tension is necessary in everyday living, its adverse effects require that we must learn to bring it under control. Total tension is shown to have two components: a controllable element arising from factors in the environment and the inbuilt uncontrollable residue which is basic in the individual temperament. The effects of excessive or uncontrolled stress can be classified as 1) emotional reactions such as neurotic behaviour (anxiety hypochondria, hysteria, phobia, depression obsessions and compulsions) or psychotic behaviour and 2) psychosomatic reactions (nervous asthma, headache, insomnia, heart attack). Nervous energy can be wastefully expended by such factors as loss of temper, wrong attitudes to work, job frustration and marital strains. Relaxation is the only positive way to control undesirable nervous tension and its techniques require to be learned. A number of techniques (progressive relaxation, differential relaxation, hypnosis, the use of biofeedback, Yoga and Transcendental Meditation) are described and their application to dental practice is discussed.

  9. Relaxation strategies for patients during dermatologic surgery.

    Shenefelt, Philip D


    Patient stress and anxiety are common preoperatively and during dermatologic procedures and surgeries. Stress and anxiety can occasionally interfere with performance of procedures or surgery and can induce hemodynamic instability, such as elevated blood pressure or syncope, as well as producing considerable discomfort for some patients. Detection of excess stress and anxiety in patients can allow the opportunity for corrective or palliative measures. Slower breathing, biofeedback, progressive muscular relaxation, guided imagery, hypnosis, meditation and music can help calm and rebalance the patient's autonomic nervous system and immune functioning. Handheld miniaturized heart rate variability biofeedback devices are now available. The relaxation response can easily be taught. Guided imagery can be recorded or live. Live rapid induction hypnosis followed by deepening and then self-guided imagery requires no experience on the part of the patient but does require training and experience on the part of a provider. Recorded hypnosis inductions may also be used. Meditation generally requires more prior experience and training, but is useful when the patient already is skilled in it. Live, guided meditation or meditation recordings may be used. Relaxing recorded music from speakers or headphones or live performance music may also be employed to ease discomfort and improve the patient's attitude for dermatologic procedures and surgeries.

  10. Ideal relaxation of the Hopf fibration

    Smiet, Christopher Berg; Candelaresi, Simon; Bouwmeester, Dirk


    Ideal magnetohydrodynamics relaxation is the topology-conserving reconfiguration of a magnetic field into a lower energy state where the net force is zero. This is achieved by modeling the plasma as perfectly conducting viscous fluid. It is an important tool for investigating plasma equilibria and is often used to study the magnetic configurations in fusion devices and astrophysical plasmas. We study the equilibrium reached by a localized magnetic field through the topology conserving relaxation of a magnetic field based on the Hopf fibration in which magnetic field lines are closed circles that are all linked with one another. Magnetic fields with this topology have recently been shown to occur in non-ideal numerical simulations. Our results show that any localized field can only attain equilibrium if there is a finite external pressure, and that for such a field a Taylor state is unattainable. We find an equilibrium plasma configuration that is characterized by a lowered pressure in a toroidal region, with field lines lying on surfaces of constant pressure. Therefore, the field is in a Grad-Shafranov equilibrium. Localized helical magnetic fields are found when plasma is ejected from astrophysical bodies and subsequently relaxes against the background plasma, as well as on earth in plasmoids generated by, e.g., a Marshall gun. This work shows under which conditions an equilibrium can be reached and identifies a toroidal depression as the characteristic feature of such a configuration.

  11. Multi-scales nuclear spin relaxation of liquids in porous media

    Korb, Jean-Pierre


    The magnetic field dependence of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T(ω) is a rich source of dynamical information for characterizing the molecular dynamics of liquids in confined environments. Varying the magnetic field changes the Larmor frequency ω, and thus the fluctuations to which the nuclear spin relaxation is sensitive. Moreover, this method permits a more complete characterization of the dynamics than the usual measurements as a function of temperature at fixed magnetic field strength, because many common solvent liquids have phase transitions that may alter significantly the character of the dynamics over the temperature range usually studied. Further, the magnetic field dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rate, 1/T(ω), provides a good test of the theories that relate the measurement to the microdynamical behavior of the liquid. This is especially true in spatially confined systems where the effects of reduced dimensionality may force more frequent reencounters of the studied proton spin-bearing molecules with paramagnetic impurities at the pore surfaces that may alter the correlation functions that enter the relaxation equations in a fundamental way. We show by low field NMR relaxation that changing the amount of surface paramagnetic impurities leads to striking different pore-size dependences of the relaxation times T and T of liquids in pores. Here, we focus mainly on high surface area porous materials including calibrated porous silica glasses, granular packings, heterogeneous catalytic materials, cement-based materials and natural porous materials such as clay minerals and rocks. Recent highlights NMR relaxation works are reviewed for these porous materials, like continuous characterization of the evolving microstructure of various cementitious materials and measurement of wettability in reservoir carbonate rocks. Although, the recent applications of 2-dimensional T-T and T-z-store-T correlation experiments for characterization of

  12. Psychophysiological Effects of Progressive Relaxation in Anxiety Neurotic Patients and of Progressive Relaxation and Alpha Feedback in Nonpatients.

    Lehrer, Paul M.


    Compared physiological effects of progressive relaxation, alpha feedback, and a no-treatment condition. Nonpatients showed more psychophysiological habituation than patients in response to hearing very loud tones and to reaction time tasks. Patients showed greater physiological response to relaxation than nonpatients. After relaxation, autonomic…

  13. MR pulse sequences for selective relaxation time measurements: a phantom study

    Thomsen, C; Jensen, K E; Jensen, M


    a Siemens Magnetom wholebody magnetic resonance scanner operating at 1.5 Tesla was used. For comparison six imaging pulse sequences for relaxation time measurements were tested on the same phantom. The spectroscopic pulse sequences all had an accuracy better than 10% of the reference values....

  14. Relaxation training as complementary therapy for mild hypertension control and the implications of evidence-based medicine.

    Yung, P; French, P; Leung, B


    Relaxation therapy for the treatment of hypertension presented a number of challenges, in terms of conducting and using research as well as gaining the wider acceptance of this complementary therapy in common practice in Hong Kong. Two issues were central to the current implementation of complementary therapies: the evidence-based practice movement and the management of risk during the implementation of new therapies. A major concern was how to maximize the chance of inclusion of research on complementary therapies in evidence-based practice systematic reviews. This was thought to be achievable by making the data amenable to meta-analysis when small samples may be unavoidable. The empirical work examined the effects of three relaxation therapies for the reduction of high blood pressure in nine Chinese subjects. Subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: (a) progressive muscle relaxation, (b) stretch release relaxation and (c) cognitive imagery relaxation. Systolic, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were assessed in a baseline session, the 8th post-treatment session, and a 30-days follow-up session. Datawere analyzed using ANOVA and Paired sample t-test. One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Tests for the normal distribution were performed among the three groups. The results verified that the normality assumption for the data had not been violated. Results revealed that in the context of the study all relaxation therapies can reduce blood pressure in Chinese subjects, but stretch release relaxation and progressive muscle relaxation therapies appeared to be more effective in lowering blood pressure compared to cognitive imagery relaxation. These data are in a form available for meta-analysis at a later date. The study also shows a degree of clinical significance and validation with respect to a Hong Kong population. It demonstrates ways in which the inclusion of research on complementary therapies in systematic reviews can be maximized.


    Smirnov, A.P.


    Full Text Available The low-frequency dielectric relaxation process in silver stearate layers was studied. The increasing of dielectric permittivity with frequency decreasing and temperature increasing in studied sample are associated with the dipole-relaxation polarization mechanisms. The dispersion of loss factor could be connected with the contribution of relaxation mechanism and conductivity. The shape of the Cole-Cole diagram shows that silver stearate is a non-Debye dielectric material characterized by a wide distribution of relaxators, according to the Cole-Cole relaxation model.


    Hua-zhong Tang


    In this first paper we present a central relaxing scheme for scalar conservation laws, based on using the local relaxation approximation. Our scheme is obtained without using linear or nonlinear Riemann solvers. A cell entropy inequality is studied for the semidiscrete central relaxing scheme, and a second order MUSCL scheme is shown to be TVD in the zero relaxation limit. The next paper will extend the central relaxing scheme to multi-dimensional systems of conservation laws in curvilinear coordinates, including numerical experiments for 1D and 2D problems.

  17. Adverse reactions to suxamethonium and other muscle relaxants under general anesthesia

    Vervloet, D.; Nizankowska, E.; Arnaud, A.; Senft, M.; Alazia, M.; Charpin, J.


    The mechanisms of anaphylactic reactions to muscle relaxants under general anesthesia are not completely understood. Extending an earlier study, we report 41 cases of anaphylactic shock investigated by intradermal skin tests with muscle relaxants (suxamethonium, pancuronium, gallamine, nortoxiferine), in vitro leukocyte histamine release, and Prausnitz-Kuestner tests. Intradermal tests were significantly positive at concentrations ranging from 10 to 10(5) times less than those in controls. Reproducibility tested for suxamethonium at a 1-year interval in five patients was good. Histamine release induced by muscle relaxants in Tris-albumin-Ca++-Mg++ buffer showed positive results in 8/25 instances and was inhibited by antigen excess in seven cases. Addition of 50% deuterium oxide (D2O) caused significant increase of histamine release in positive cases and induced release in all five negative cases studied. Muscle relaxant-induced histamine release was inhibited by in vitro anti-IgE leukocyte desensitization. The mean maximal histamine release dropped from 58.2% +/- 9.7 to 5.8% +/- 2 (p less than 0.01). Similarly, leukocyte desensitization also inhibited histamine release induced by anti-IgE but not by formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine or poly-L-arginine. Prausnitz-Kuestner tests were positive in five out of 21 cases studied and became negative after heat inactivation. These results confirm the usefulness of intradermal skin tests in diagnosis of patients' reaction to muscle relaxants and suggest an IgE-mediated rather than an idiosyncratic mechanism.

  18. Effects of relaxed static longitudinal stability on a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle design

    Freeman, D. C., Jr.; Wilhite, A. W.


    The effects of relaxing longitudinal stability requirements on single stage to orbit space vehicles is studied. A comparison of the mass and performance characteristics of two vehicles, one designed for positive levels of longitudinal stability and the other designed with relaxed stability requirements in a computer aided design process is presented. Both vehicles, required to meet the same mission characteristics are described. Wind tunnel tests, conducted over a Mach number range from 0.3 to 4.63 to verify estimated aerodynamic characteristics, are discussed.

  19. Linear Program Relaxation of Sparse Nonnegative Recovery in Compressive Sensing Microarrays

    Linxia Qin


    Full Text Available Compressive sensing microarrays (CSM are DNA-based sensors that operate using group testing and compressive sensing principles. Mathematically, one can cast the CSM as sparse nonnegative recovery (SNR which is to find the sparsest solutions subjected to an underdetermined system of linear equations and nonnegative restriction. In this paper, we discuss the l1 relaxation of the SNR. By defining nonnegative restricted isometry/orthogonality constants, we give a nonnegative restricted property condition which guarantees that the SNR and the l1 relaxation share the common unique solution. Besides, we show that any solution to the SNR must be one of the extreme points of the underlying feasible set.

  20. A creative relaxation programme and its incidence on children’s motor creativity

    Eduardo Justo Martínez


    Full Text Available In this study we analyse the effects that a creative relaxation programme can have on the levels of motor creativity (fluidity, originality and imagination of a group of children in the last year of Infant Education. For this purpose, two groups of children took part: a control group that did not receive an intervention programme and an experimental group that received a creative relaxation programme. The levels of motor creativity of the two groups were assessed using the test Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement by Torrance. A significant improvement in the variables studied was perceived in the experimental group in comparison to the control group.

  1. A preliminary investigation of the dynamic viscoelastic relaxation of bovine cortical bone

    Loete T.J.C.


    Full Text Available A new experimental approach is proposed to characterize the dynamic viscoelastic relaxation behaviour of cortical bone. Theoretical models are presented to show that a linear viscoelastic material, when allowed to relax between two long elastic bars, will produce stress, strain and strain rate histories that contain characteristic features. Furthermore, typical experimental results are presented to show that these characteristic features are observed during split Hopkinson bar tests on bovine cortical bone using a Cone-in-Tube striker. The interpretation of this behaviour in the context of a standard linear viscoelastic model is discussed.

  2. Linear program relaxation of sparse nonnegative recovery in compressive sensing microarrays.

    Qin, Linxia; Xiu, Naihua; Kong, Lingchen; Li, Yu


    Compressive sensing microarrays (CSM) are DNA-based sensors that operate using group testing and compressive sensing principles. Mathematically, one can cast the CSM as sparse nonnegative recovery (SNR) which is to find the sparsest solutions subjected to an underdetermined system of linear equations and nonnegative restriction. In this paper, we discuss the l₁ relaxation of the SNR. By defining nonnegative restricted isometry/orthogonality constants, we give a nonnegative restricted property condition which guarantees that the SNR and the l₁ relaxation share the common unique solution. Besides, we show that any solution to the SNR must be one of the extreme points of the underlying feasible set.

  3. Magneto-dependent stress relaxation of magnetorheological gels

    Xu, Yangguang


    The stress relaxation behaviors of magnetorheological (MR) gels under stepwise shear loading are systematically investigated. The particle-enhanced effect, the magneto-induced effect, and the temperature-enhanced effect on the stress relaxation of MR gels are discussed. For further analysis of the magneto-induced stress relaxation mechanism in MR gels, a phenomenological model is established to describe the stress relaxation behavior of the matrix and the magnetic particle chains. All characteristic parameters introduced in the model, i.e. relaxation time, instantaneous modulus, and stable modulus, have well-defined physical meanings and are fitted based on the experimental results. The influence of each parameter on the macroscopic response is discussed and it is found that the relaxation stress induced by the magneto-mechanical coupling effect plays an important role in the stress relaxation process of MR gels.

  4. Experimental study of verapamil on the relaxation of isolated human corpus cavernosum tissues

    Lu-Lin Ma; Yu-Qing Liu; Wen-Hao Tang; Lian-Ming Zhao; Hui Jiang


    Aim: To evaluate the relaxant effect of verapamil on human corpus cavernosum in vitro and to assess the drug's potential as a treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). Methods: Preparations of the human corpus cavernosum were obtained from recently deceased young men who had had normal erectile function. The isometric tension and detailed curves were recorded when contractions induced by 10 mmol/L phenylephrine were reduced by different doses of verapamil or the vehicle control (sterile water). The tension of human corpus cavernosum preparations are described as a percentage of their top tension before adding verapamil or the vehicle. ANOVA and least significant difference tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Doses of 1 μmol/L, 10 μmol/L and 100 μmol/L verapamil resulted in relaxation of (35.28 ± 7.96)%, (55.91 ± 6.41)%, (85.68 ± 4.16)% after 30 min, respectively. The vehicle control at the same time point produced relaxation of (-0.06 ± 10.57)% (P<0.05). Conclusion: Verapamil is significantly effective in relaxing normal human corpus cavernous smooth muscle induced by phenylephrine in vitro and the relaxant effect depends on the concentration of verapamil.

  5. Short-term effects of a randomized controlled worksite relaxation intervention in Greece

    Evangelos C Alexopoulos


    Full Text Available objective. To evaluate the short-term benefits of simple relaxation techniques in white-collar employees. materials and methods. The study was a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial. 152 employees were randomly assigned to receive the 8-week programme (N=80 (relaxation breathing and progressive muscle relaxation, twice a day or not (wait-list group N=72. Self-reported validated measures were used to evaluate perceived stress, health locus of control, job and lifestyle related variables. Saliva cortisol were also sampled and measured. Adjusted mean changes on outcomes were estimated by linear mixed model analysis. 127 employees were finally analyzed (68 in the intervention and 59 in the control group. results. Specific stress-related symptoms, psychological job demands and cortisol levels were found to be significantly decreased after 8-weeks in the intervention group. The result was probably affected by the general socio-economic condition during the study period. Cortisol levels were also significantly related with age, family situation, gender and sampling time. conclusions. Simple relaxation training (diaphragmatic breathing and progressive muscle relaxation could benefit employees and it is strongly proposed that these and other similar techniques should be tested in various labour settings

  6. Competitive growth model involving random deposition and random deposition with surface relaxation

    Horowitz, Claudio M.; Monetti, Roberto A.; Albano, Ezequiel V.


    A deposition model that considers a mixture of random deposition with surface relaxation and a pure random deposition is proposed and studied. As the system evolves, random deposition with surface relaxation (pure random deposition) take place with probability p and (1{minus}p), respectively. The discrete (microscopic) approach to the model is studied by means of extensive numerical simulations, while continuous equations are used in order to investigate the mesoscopic properties of the model. A dynamic scaling ansatz for the interface width W(L,t,p) as a function of the lattice side L, the time t and p is formulated and tested. Three exponents, which can be linked to the standard growth exponent of random deposition with surface relaxation by means of a scaling relation, are identified. In the continuous limit, the model can be well described by means of a phenomenological stochastic growth equation with a p-dependent effective surface tension.

  7. Dynamic treatment of vibrational energy relaxation in a heterogeneous and fluctuating environment

    Fujisaki, Hiroshi


    A computational approach to describe the energy relaxation of a high-frequency vibrational mode in a fluctuating heterogeneous environment is outlined. Extending previous work [H. Fujisaki, Y. Zhang, and J.E. Straub, J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 124}, 144910 (2006)], second-order time-dependent perturbation theory is employed which includes the fluctuations of the parameters in the Hamiltonian within the vibrational adiabatic approximation. This means that the time-dependent vibrational frequencies along an MD trajectory are obtained via a partial geometry optimization of the solute with fixed solvent and a subsequent normal mode calculation. Adopting the amide I mode of N-methylacetamide in heavy water as a test problem, it is shown that the inclusion of dynamic fluctuations may significantly change the vibrational energy relaxation. In particular, it is found that relaxation occurs in two phases, because for short times ($\\lesssim$ 200 fs) the spectral density appears continuous due to the frequency-time uncertainty...

  8. Determination of protein rotational correlation time from NMR relaxation data at various solvent viscosities

    Korchuganov, Denis S.; Gagnidze, Ivan E.; Tkach, Elena N.; Schulga, Alexey A.; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P.; Arseniev, Alexander S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation)], E-mail:


    An accurate determination of the overall rotation of a protein plays a crucial role in the investigation of its internal motions by NMR. In the present work, an innovative approach to the determination of the protein rotational correlation time {tau}{sub R} from the heteronuclear relaxation data is proposed. The approach is based on a joint fit of relaxation data acquired at several viscosities of a protein solution. The method has been tested on computer simulated relaxation data as compared to the traditional {tau}{sub R} determination method from T{sub 1}/T{sub 2} ratio. The approach has been applied to ribonuclease barnase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens dissolved in an aqueous solution and deuterated glycerol as a viscous component. The resulting rotational correlation time of 5.56 {+-} 0.01 ns and other rotational diffusion tensor parameters are in good agreement with those determined from T{sub 1}/T{sub 2} ratio.

  9. Relaxation and pinning in spark-plasma sintered MgB2 superconductor

    Jirsa, M.; Rames, M.; Koblischka, M. R.; Koblischka-Veneva, A.; Berger, K.; Douine, B.


    The model of thermally activated relaxation developed and successfully tested on high-T c superconductors (Jirsa et al 2004 Phys. Rev. B 70 0245251) was applied to magnetic data of a bulk spark-plasma sintered MgB2 sample to elucidate its magnetic relaxation behavior. MgB2 and the related borides form a superconductor class lying between classical and high-T c superconductors. In accord with this classification, the relaxation phenomena were found to be about ten times weaker than in cuprates. Vortex pinning analyzed in terms of the field dependence of the pinning force density indicates a combined pinning by normal point-like defects and by grain surfaces. An additional mode of pinning at rather high magnetic fields (of still unknown origin) was observed.

  10. Audio-Visual and Autogenic Relaxation Alter Amplitude of Alpha EEG Band, Causing Improvements in Mental Work Performance in Athletes.

    Mikicin, Mirosław; Kowalczyk, Marek


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of regular audio-visual relaxation combined with Schultz's autogenic training on: (1) the results of behavioral tests that evaluate work performance during burdensome cognitive tasks (Kraepelin test), (2) changes in classical EEG alpha frequency band, neocortex (frontal, temporal, occipital, parietal), hemisphere (left, right) versus condition (only relaxation 7-12 Hz). Both experimental (EG) and age-and skill-matched control group (CG) consisted of eighteen athletes (ten males and eight females). After 7-month training EG demonstrated changes in the amplitude of mean electrical activity of the EEG alpha bend at rest and an improvement was significantly changing and an improvement in almost all components of Kraepelin test. The same examined variables in CG were unchanged following the period without the intervention. Summing up, combining audio-visual relaxation with autogenic training significantly improves athlete's ability to perform a prolonged mental effort. These changes are accompanied by greater amplitude of waves in alpha band in the state of relax. The results suggest usefulness of relaxation techniques during performance of mentally difficult sports tasks (sports based on speed and stamina, sports games, combat sports) and during relax of athletes.

  11. High Relaxivity Gd(III)–DNA Gold Nanostars: Investigation of Shape Effects on Proton Relaxation

    Rotz, Matthew W.; Culver, Kayla S. B.; Parigi, Giacomo; MacRenaris, Keith W.; Luchinat, Claudio; Odom, Teri W.; Meade, Thomas J.


    Gadolinium(III) nanoconjugate contrast agents (CAs) have distinct advantages over their small-molecule counterparts in magnetic resonance imaging. In addition to increased Gd(III) payload, a significant improvement in proton relaxation efficiency, or relaxivity (r1), is often observed. In this work, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a nanoconjugate CA created by covalent attachment of Gd(III) to thiolated DNA (Gd(III)–DNA), followed by surface conjugation onto gold nanostars (DNA–Gd@stars). These conjugates exhibit remarkable r1 with values up to 98 mM−1 s−1. Additionally, DNA–Gd@stars show efficient Gd(III) delivery and biocompatibility in vitro and generate significant contrast enhancement when imaged at 7 T. Using nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion analysis, we attribute the high performance of the DNA–Gd@stars to an increased contribution of second-sphere relaxivity compared to that of spherical CA equivalents (DNA–Gd@spheres). Importantly, the surface of the gold nanostar contains Gd(III)–DNA in regions of positive, negative, and neutral curvature. We hypothesize that the proton relaxation enhancement observed results from the presence of a unique hydrophilic environment produced by Gd(III)–DNA in these regions, which allows second-sphere water molecules to remain adjacent to Gd(III) ions for up to 10 times longer than diffusion. These results establish that particle shape and second-sphere relaxivity are important considerations in the design of Gd(III) nanoconjugate CAs. PMID:25723190

  12. Dielectric Relaxation in Dimethyl Sulfoxide/Water Mixtures Studied by Microwave Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy

    Lu, Zijie; Manias, Evangelos; MacDonald, Digby D.; Lanagan, Michael


    Dielectric spectra of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/water mixtures, over the entire concentration range, have been measured using the transmission line method at frequencies from 45 MHz to 26 GHz and at temperatures of 298-318 K. The relaxation times of the mixtures show a maximum at an intermediate molar fraction of DMSO. The specific structure of mixtures in different concentration regions was determined by the dielectric relaxation dynamics, obtained from the effect of temperature on the relaxation time. A water structure "breaking effect" is observed in dilute aqueous solutions. The average number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule in these mixtures is found to be reduced compared to pure water. The increase in the dielectric relaxation time in DMSO/water mixtures is attributed to the spatial (steric) constraints of DMSO molecules on the hydrogen-bond network, rather than being due to hydrophobic hydration of the methyl groups. The interaction between water and DMSO by hydrogen bonding reaches a maximum at a DMSO molar fraction of 0.33, reflected by the maximum activation enthalpy for dielectric relaxation in this concentration, suggesting the formation of a stoichiometric compound, H2O-DMSO-H2O. In highly concentrated solutions, negative activation entropies are observed, indicating the presence of aggregates of DMSO molecules. A distinct antiparallel arrangement of dipoles is obtained for neat DMSO in the liquid state according to the Kirkwood correlation factor (gK = 0.5), calculated from the static permittivity. The similarity of the dielectric behavior of pure DMSO and DMSO-rich mixtures suggests that dipole-dipole interactions contribute significantly to the rotational relaxation process in these solutions.

  13. Analysis of Helical Stainless Steel 08X18H10 Spring Relaxation at High Temperature

    H. Sun


    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to study a cylindrical helical spring to be applied at high temperatures. The aim of this work is to study the regularity of relaxation stresses in spring and evaluate its long-term stresses.The work allowed us to establish relaxation dependencies of springs under high temperatures. According to the results of creep tests at 600°, the theoretical equation of steel creep was defined concretely. It was then used for the analysis at 350°.The paper presents a created finite element model of spring relaxation. It is the stainless steel 08Х18Н10 spring to be used at the temperature of 350°.In this paper describes the basic theory of creep, considers the relationship between the creep speed and parameters. The changing compression force of springs is analyzed under fixed compression amount.The paper also analyzes the changing length of springs in the free state after various stages of high-temperature relaxation test. It determines the results of compression forces and free length under different amount of compression.The analysis to compare the theoretical calculation of the compression forces with the experimental results is conducted. Computer modeling is created in Abaqus for calculation. Spring relaxation experiments are carried out under fixed compression amount and at the temperature of 350°. It is shown that the simulation results, which are carried out in Abaqus coincide with experimental results. The study shows that it is possible to use the creep equation parameters, based on the experimental results at high temperatures, to predict creep and relaxation properties of springs, which work at less high temperatures. The work results can be used as a basis in designing the springs working at high temperatures.

  14. Relaxation techniques for pain management in labour.

    Smith, Caroline A; Levett, Kate M; Collins, Carmel T; Crowther, Caroline A


    Many women would like to avoid pharmacological or invasive methods of pain management in labour and this may contribute towards the popularity of complementary methods of pain management. This review examined currently available evidence supporting the use of relaxation therapies for pain management in labour. To examine the effects of relaxation methods for pain management in labour on maternal and perinatal morbidity. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 November 2010), The Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field's Trials Register (November 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1966 to 30 November 2010), CINAHL (1980 to 30 November 2010), the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (30 November 2010), Chinese Clinical Trial Register (30 November 2010), Current Controlled Trials (30 November 2010),, (30 November 2010) ISRCTN Register (30 November 2010), National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) (30 November 2010) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (30 November 2010). Randomised controlled trials comparing relaxation methods with standard care, no treatment, other non-pharmacological forms of pain management in labour or placebo. Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality. We attempted to contact study authors for additional information. We included 11 studies (1374 women) in the review. Relaxation was associated with a reduction in pain intensity during the latent phase (mean difference (MD) -1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.97 to -0.53, one trial, 40 women) and active phase of labour (MD -2.48, 95% CI -3.13 to 0.83, two trials, 74 women). There was evidence of improved outcomes from relaxation instruction with increased satisfaction with pain

  15. Idiosyncratic reality claims, relaxation dispositions, and ABC relaxation theory: happiness, literal christianity, miraculous powers, metaphysics, and the paranormal.

    Smith, Jonathan C; Karmin, Aaron D


    This study examined idiosyncratic reality claims, that is, irrational or paranormal beliefs often claimed to enhance relaxation and happiness and reduce stress. The Smith Idiosyncratic Reality Claims Inventory and the Smith Relaxation Dispositions Inventory (which measures relaxation and stress dispositions, or enduring states of mind frequently associated with relaxation or stress) were given to 310 junior college student volunteers. Principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation identified five idiosyncratic reality claim factors: belief in Literal Christianity; Magic; Space Aliens: After Death experiences; and Miraculous Powers of Meditation, Prayer, and Belief. No factor correlated with increased relaxation dispositions Peace, Energy, or Joy, or reduced dispositional somatic stress, worry, or negative emotion on the Smith Relaxation Dispositions Inventory. It was concluded that idiosyncratic reality claims may not be associated with reported relaxation, happiness, or stress. In contrast, previous research strongly supported self-affirming beliefs with few paranormal assumptions display such an association.

  16. Airflow and autonomic responses to stress and relaxation in asthma: the impact of stressor type.

    Aboussafy, David; Campbell, Tavis S; Lavoie, Kim; Aboud, Frances E; Ditto, Blaine


    The impact of stress on respiratory airflow in asthmatics is unclear. Part of the uncertainty may spring from the different physiological effects of different stressors. Given their potential to elicit increases in parasympathetic vagal activity, stressful situations that present few opportunities for coping (passive coping stressors) may be particularly problematic for people with asthma. Thirty-one adult asthmatics participated in a protocol including a widely used passive coping stressor (the cold pressor test), an active coping stressor (mental arithmetic), an interview about an upsetting asthma-related incident (viewed as a potential passive coping stressor given the exposure to unpleasant memories), and progressive muscle relaxation. Repeated measurements of airflow (via peak expiratory flow), vagal tone (via heart rate variability), and other variables were obtained. The cold pressor test, asthma interview and progressive muscle relaxation produced significant decreases in airflow compared to the baseline period. The cold pressor test and progressive muscle relaxation produced significant, complementary increases in vagal tone. These results suggest that passive coping stressors and other stimuli (e.g., certain forms of relaxation) that elicit increased vagal tone may be associated with poorer asthma control, a view consistent with a significant negative correlation between the participant's mean vagal tone response to the tasks and score on a measure of asthma self-efficacy.

  17. Structural relaxation in viscous metallic liquids

    Meyer, A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (BFRL), Gaithersburg, MD (United States)]|[Technische Univ. Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Wuttke, J.; Petry, W. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Schober, H. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Randl, O.G. [Manufacture Michelin, Clermont-Ferrand (France)


    Recently, metallic alloys have been found that exhibit extremely large viscosities in the liquid state. These liquids can be quenched into bulk metallic glasses at relatively modest cooling rates. In contrast to simple metals the structural relaxation of these systems show a two step decay in the liquid state. This behaviour has long been known for molecular or ionic glass formers in their under-cooled liquid state. Applying an analysis previously used for the glass formers (mode-coupling theory) a full quantitative description of the neutron data is obtained for these metallic liquids. (authors) 3 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Nondepolarizing relaxants: new concepts and new drugs.

    Kopman, A


    Less than a decade ago, the only nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs available to the anesthetist were traditional long-acting drugs such as pancuronium and d-tubocurarine. The revolution that began 10 years ago in our use of relaxants promises to continue unabated into the next decade. Changes in our clinical use of these drugs will be sparked not just by the introduction of new drugs but also by a greater understanding of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic principles that govern onset and recovery.

  19. Thermal Stress Relaxation of Nonhomogeneous Coatings


    Nonhomogeneous coatings (NCs) are new type of engineering structures that is not yet fully understood. One important aspect in the mechanical analysis of NCs is to determine the gradient distribution that creates the maximum thermal stress relaxation. This paper employs numerical analysis using the finite element metho d and experimental analysis using moire interference to study the stress distrib ution in NCs. Attention focused on the edge effect stresses in the coating/subst rate structures and their dependence on the different gradient distributions of this new kind of composite structure.

  20. Reflexogenic relaxation gastroduodenography by the acupuncture method

    Rabkin, I.Kh.; Tsibulyak, V.N.; Mnatsakyan, K.A.; Kondorskaya, I.L.; Galkina, T.V.

    The communication is based upon the results of x-ray examination of the stomach and duodenum in 63 patients with stenoses of the pyloroduodenal zone, cicatrical deformities of the duodenal bulb, bulbar ulcer, duodenal organic lesions, and functional stenosis of the loop. First a routine X-ray examination of the stomach and duodenum was performed using barium-water mixture, then followed acupuncture aimed at hypotension in the definite points of the floor of the auricle where branches of the vagus innervating the stomach and duodenum are located. As distinct from pharmacological relaxation this method produces a purpose-oriented selective effect.

  1. Compatible Relaxation and Coarsening in Algebraic Multigrid

    Brannick, J J; Falgout, R D


    We introduce a coarsening algorithm for algebraic multigrid (AMG) based on the concept of compatible relaxation (CR). The algorithm is significantly different from standard methods, most notably because it does not rely on any notion of strength of connection. We study its behavior on a number of model problems, and evaluate the performance of an AMG algorithm that incorporates the coarsening approach. Lastly, we introduce a variant of CR that provides a sharper metric of coarse-grid quality and demonstrate its potential with two simple examples.

  2. Dielectric relaxation and hopping conduction in reduced graphite oxide

    Wei, Guidan; Yu, Ji; Gu, Min; Tang, Tong B.


    Graphite oxide reduced by sodium borohydride was characterised and its electrical conduction investigated with impedance spectroscopy. Thermal dependence of electrical modulus (instead of permittivity, its inverse) was calculated from complex impedance spectra, an approach that prevents any peak in dielectric loss (imaginary component) from being swarmed by large dc conductivity. Two loss peaks appeared at each tested frequency, in a sample of either degree of reduction. The set of weaker peak should arise from the relaxation of some polar bonds, as proposed earlier by us. The stronger loss peaks may correspond to the hopping of conduction electrons; variable range hopping is also consistent with the observed thermal dependence of conductivity. However, nearer ambient temperature there is a change in mechanism, to band transport, with an activation energy of fairly similar values as derived from both loss peaks and conductivity.

  3. Dielectric relaxations investigation of a synthesized epoxy resin polymer

    Jilani, Wissal; Mzabi, Nissaf; Gallot-Lavallée, Olivier; Fourati, Najla; Zerrouki, Chouki; Zerrouki, Rachida; Guermazi, Hajer


    A diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy resin was synthesized, and cured with 3,3'-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS) at a curing temperature of 120 °C. The relaxation properties of the realized polymers were studied by two complementary techniques: dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS), in the temperature range 173-393K and in the frequency interval 10-1-106 Hz, and thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) with a windowing polarization process. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were also carried out to study interfacial relaxations. Dielectric data were analyzed in terms of permittivity and electric modulus variations. Three relaxation processes ( γ, β and α) have been identified. They were found to be frequency and temperature dependent and were interpreted in terms of the Havriliak-Negami approach. Relaxation parameters were determined by fitting the experimental data. The temperature dependence of the relaxation time was well fitted by the Arrhenius law for secondary relaxations, while the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamann model was found to better fit the τ( T) variations for α relaxation. We found τ 0 = 4.9 10-12 s, 9.6 10-13 s and 1.98 10-7 s for γ, β and α relaxations, respectively. The obtained results were found to be consistent with those reported in the literature. Due to the calculation of the low-frequency data of dielectric loss by the Hamon approximation, the Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars (MWS) relaxation was highlighted.

  4. Relaxation training after stroke: potential to reduce anxiety.

    Kneebone, Ian; Walker-Samuel, Natalie; Swanston, Jennifer; Otto, Elisabeth


    To consider the feasibility of setting up a relaxation group to treat symptoms of post stroke anxiety in an in-patient post-acute setting; and to explore the effectiveness of relaxation training in reducing self-reported tension. A relaxation group protocol was developed in consultation with a multidisciplinary team and a user group. Over a period of 24 months, 55 stroke patients attended group autogenic relaxation training on a rehabilitation ward. Attendance ranged between one and eleven sessions. Self-reported tension was assessed pre and post relaxation training using the Tension Rating Circles (TRCs). The TRCs identified a significant reduction in self-reported tension from pre to post training, irrespective of the number of sessions attended; z = -3.656, p stroke rehabilitation shows potential. Self-reported tension decreased after attendance at relaxation training. The TRCs proved acceptable to group members, but should be validated against standard anxiety measures. Further exploration of the application of relaxation techniques in clinical practice is desirable. Implications for Rehabilitation Anxiety is prevalent after stroke and likely affects rehabilitation outcomes. Relaxation training is a well proven treatment for anxiety in the non-stroke population. A significant within session reduction in tension, a hallmark symptom of anxiety, was evidenced via group relaxation training delivered in a post-acute, in-patient stroke unit setting. Relaxation training a shows promise as a treatment for anxiety after stroke.

  5. The mechanics of mouse skeletal muscle when shortening during relaxation.

    Barclay, C J; Lichtwark, G A


    The dynamic properties of relaxing skeletal muscle have not been well characterised but are important for understanding muscle function during terrestrial locomotion, during which a considerable fraction of muscle work output can be produced during relaxation. The purpose of this study was to characterise the force-velocity properties of mouse skeletal muscle during relaxation. Experiments were performed in vitro (21 degrees C) using bundles of fibres from mouse soleus and EDL muscles. Isovelocity shortening was applied to muscles during relaxation following short tetanic contractions. Using data from different contractions with different shortening velocities, curves relating force output to shortening velocity were constructed at intervals during relaxation. The velocity component included contributions from shortening of both series elastic component (SEC) and contractile component (CC) because force output was not constant. Early in relaxation force-velocity relationships were linear but became progressively more curved as relaxation progressed. Force-velocity curves late in relaxation had the same curvature as those for the CC in fully activated muscles but V(max) was reduced to approximately 50% of the value in fully activated muscles. These results were the same for slow- and fast-twitch muscles and for relaxation following maximal tetani and brief, sub-maximal tetani. The measured series elastic compliance was used to partition shortening velocity between SEC and CC. The curvature of the CC force-velocity relationship was constant during relaxation. The SEC accounted for most of the shortening and work output during relaxation and its power output during relaxation exceeded the maximum CC power output. It is proposed that unloading the CC, without any change in its overall length, accelerated cross-bridge detachment when shortening was applied during relaxation.

  6. Dielectric relaxation of CdO nanoparticles

    Tripathi, Ramna; Dutta, Alo; Das, Sayantani; Kumar, Akhilesh; Sinha, T. P.


    Nanoparticles of cadmium oxide have been synthesized by soft chemical route using thioglycerol as the capping agent. The crystallite size is determined by X-ray diffraction technique and the particle size is obtained by transmission electron microscope. The band gap of the material is obtained using Tauc relation to UV-visible absorption spectrum. The photoluminescence emission spectra of the sample are measured at various excitation wavelengths. The molecular components in the material have been analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy. The dielectric dispersion of the material is investigated in the temperature range from 313 to 393 K and in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz by impedance spectroscopy. The Cole-Cole model is used to describe the dielectric relaxation of the system. The scaling behavior of imaginary part of impedance shows that the relaxation describes the same mechanism at various temperatures. The frequency-dependent electrical data are also analyzed in the framework of conductivity and electrical modulus formalisms. The frequency-dependent conductivity spectra are found to obey the power law.

  7. Transverse relaxation of scalar-coupled protons.

    Segawa, Takuya F; Baishya, Bikash; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey


    In a preliminary communication (B. Baishya, T. F. Segawa, G. Bodenhausen, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 17538-17539), we recently demonstrated that it is possible to obtain clean echo decays of protons in biomolecules despite the presence of homonuclear scalar couplings. These unmodulated decays allow one to determine apparent transverse relaxation rates R(2) (app) of individual protons. Herein, we report the observation of R(2) (app) for three methyl protons, four amide H(N) protons, and all 11 backbone H(α) protons in cyclosporin A. If the proton resonances overlap, their R(2) (app) rates can be measured by transferring their magnetization to neighboring (13)C nuclei, which are less prone to overlap. The R(2) (app) rates of protons attached to (13)C are faster than those attached to (12)C because of (13)C-(1)H dipolar interactions. The differences of these rates allow the determination of local correlation functions. Backbone H(N) and H(α) protons that have fast decay rates R(2) (app) also feature fast longitudinal relaxation rates R(1) and intense NOESY cross peaks that are typical of crowded environments. Variations of R(2) (app) rates of backbone H(α) protons in similar amino acids reflect differences in local environments.

  8. Relaxing effect of rose oil on humans.

    Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee


    One increasingly popular type of alternative therapy is aromatherapy, but scientific validation in this field is still rare. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rose oil (Rosa damascena Mill, Rosaceae) on human autonomic parameters and emotional responses in healthy subjects after transdermal absorption. In order to exclude any olfactory stimulation the inhalation of the fragrances was prevented by breathing masks. Forty healthy volunteers participated in the experiments. Five autonomic parameters, i.e. blood pressure, breathing rate, blood oxygen saturation, pulse rate, and skin temperature, were recorded. Emotional responses were assessed by means of rating scales. Compared to placebo, rose oil caused significant decreases of breathing rate, blood oxygen saturation and systolic blood pressure, which indicate a decrease of autonomic arousal. At the emotional level, subjects in the rose oil group rated themselves as more calm, more relaxed and less alert than subjects in the control group. These findings are likely to represent a relaxing effect of the rose oil and provide some evidence for the use of rose oil in aromatherapy, such as causing relief of depression and stress in humans.

  9. Viscosity bound versus the universal relaxation bound

    Hod, Shahar


    For gauge theories with an Einstein gravity dual, the AdS/CFT correspondence predicts a universal value for the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density, η / s = 1 / 4 π. The holographic calculations have motivated the formulation of the celebrated KSS conjecture, according to which all fluids conform to the lower bound η / s ≥ 1 / 4 π. The bound on η / s may be regarded as a lower bound on the relaxation properties of perturbed fluids and it has been the focus of much recent attention. In particular, it was argued that for a class of field theories with Gauss-Bonnet gravity dual, the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, η / s, could violate the conjectured KSS bound. In the present paper we argue that the proposed violations of the KSS bound are strongly constrained by Bekenstein's generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics. In particular, it is shown that physical consistency of the Gauss-Bonnet theory with the GSL requires its coupling constant to be bounded by λGB ≲ 0 . 063. We further argue that the genuine physical bound on the relaxation properties of physically consistent fluids is ℑω(k > 2 πT) > πT, where ω and k are respectively the proper frequency and the wavenumber of a perturbation mode in the fluid.

  10. A Simple Holographic Superconductor with Momentum Relaxation

    Kim, Keun-Young; Park, Miok


    We study a holographic superconductor model with momentum relaxation due to massless scalar fields linear to spatial coordinates($\\psi_I = \\beta \\delta_{Ii} x^i$), where $\\beta$ is the strength of momentum relaxation. In addition to the original superconductor induced by the chemical potential($\\mu$) at $\\beta=0$, there exists a new type of superconductor induced by $\\beta$ even at $\\mu=0$. It may imply a new `pairing' mechanism of particles and antiparticles interacting with $\\beta$, which may be interpreted as `impurity'. Two parameters $\\mu$ and $\\beta$ compete in forming superconducting phase. As a result, the critical temperature behaves differently depending on $\\beta/\\mu$. It decreases when $\\beta/\\mu$ is small and increases when $\\beta/\\mu$ is large, which is a novel feature compared to other models. After analysing ground states and phase diagrams for various $\\beta/\\mu$, we study optical electric($\\sigma$), thermoelectric($\\alpha$), and thermal($\\bar{\\kappa}$) conductivities. When the system undergo...

  11. Comparison of ice packs application and relaxation therapy in pain reduction during chest tube removal following cardiac surgery

    M A Heidari Gorji


    Full Text Available Background: Usually the chest tube removal (CTR has been described as one of the worst experiences by patients in the intensive care unit. Aim: This study aimed to compare the effects of cold therapy and relaxation on pain of CTR among the patients undergoes coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Materials and Methods: This single-blinded clinical trial was done on 80 post-cardiac surgery patients in the heart hospital of Sari-Iran. The patients were assigned to three randomized groups that included cold therapy, relaxation, and control groups. Data analysis was done by T-test, Chi-square, generalized estimating equations and repeated measures analysis variance tests. Results: The groups had no significant differences in pain intensity before CTR (P = 0.84, but immediately after CTR there was a significant difference between the treatment (cold application and relaxation groups and control groups (P = 0.001. There was no significant difference between relaxation and cold therapy groups. Conclusion: Regarding the relaxation and cold application methods showed relatively equal effects on reducing the pain owing to CTR. Thus, the use of relaxation because of economics, without side effects, easy to use and effective is recommended by the authors to the practitioners.

  12. Muscle Relaxant and Sedative-Hypnotic Activities of Extract of Viola betonicifolia in Animal Models Supported by Its Isolated Compound, 4-Hydroxy Coumarin

    Naveed Muhammad


    Full Text Available The crude methanolic extract of the whole plant of Viola betonicifolia (VBME was investigated for anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, sleep induction, antidepressant, and sedative activities to ascertain its scientific values. VBME showed a significant (P<0.05 dose dependent anxiolytic action in staircase test. In muscle relaxant paradigms, a dose dependent muscle relaxation was observed. For phenobarbitone sleep induction test, VBME notably (P<0.05 reduced the latency time and increased total sleeping duration. Our tested extract was found free of any antidepressant activity, while the movement was significantly (P<0.05 shortened in locomotor activity. The whole plant of V. betonicifolia led to the isolation of 4-hydroxyl coumarin (4HC which showed substantial safety profile in acute toxicity test. When challenged in Traction and Chimney tests, it showed significant (P<0.05 muscle relaxant effect in both muscle relaxant paradigms at 20 and 30 mg/kg during various assessment times. Nevertheless, 4HC was devoid of sedative and hypnotic potentials. In conclusion, VBME had strong muscle relaxant and sedative-hypnotic properties, while its isolated compound, 4HC, possessed a significant muscle relaxant action with substantial safety profile without sedative-hypnotic effects.

  13. Effect of asymmetric strain relaxation on dislocation relaxation processes in heteroepitaxial semiconductors

    Andersen, D.; Hull, R.


    The effect of asymmetric interfacial strain configurations upon the generation of misfit dislocation arrays in lattice mismatched epitaxy is considered. For example, elastic strain relaxation for Si1-xGex/Si(110) films is uniaxial, assuming glide on {111} planes as expected for the diamond cubic system, which leads to asymmetric strain relief. Here, we extend our previously developed relaxation model for generation of dislocation arrays in SiGe/Si, by accounting for how the different energetics of asymmetrically strained films affect the kinetics of the relaxation process. Similarly, non-polar III-nitride epitaxial films have asymmetric strain from the outset of growth due to the different c/a lattice parameter ratios. In both systems, the asymmetric strain is represented by an additional term in the misfit dislocation applied stress equation. In SiGe/Si(110), a simple elasticity analysis of the strain produced by the uniaxial array of dislocations predicts that the relaxation orthogonal to the dislocation line direction occurs at a faster rate than predicted by purely biaxial strain relief due to the contributions of the strain parallel to the dislocations. This difference is because the strain parallel to the dislocation line directions continues to resolve stress onto the misfit dislocations even as the orthogonal strain is minimized. As a result, the minimum strain energy is predicted to occur for a dislocation spacing, which produces tensile layer strain in the orthogonal direction. Such tensile strain may modify the (opto)electronic properties of a Si, Ge, or GeSi epilayer but is only predicted to occur for advanced stages of relaxation. These asymmetric derivations are applicable to any thin film system where strain is not strictly biaxial.

  14. Evaluation of the kinetics of myocardial during isovolumic relaxation in normal subjects combined with exercise stress testing using speckle-tracking imaging%斑点追踪显像结合运动负荷试验研究正常人等容舒张期心肌应变的特点

    陈晓燕; 康春松; 李朝军; 张燕霞; 宋倩; 赵哲黠


    Objective To observe the kinetics of myocardial during isovolumic relaxation (IVR) in normal subjects during exercise stress testing,and evaluate the relationship between the recovery rate of circumferential strain during IVR and the diastolic function of the heart.Methods Echocardiography was performed in 43 healthy students at rest,at peak stress and at recovery of the exercise test.The ratio of peak early-diastolic mitral orifice flow velocity and peak early-diastolic mitral annular velocity in left ventricular posterior wall (E/e) was measured.The records of the movement in the basal,papillary muscle and apical short-axis views of the left ventricular were stored.The circumferential strain during the end systolic (ES) and the end isovolumetric relaxation (IRA) of the subendocardial and subepicardial layers in the three short axis were analyzed using X-strain software.The circumferential strain recovery rate of the subendocardial and subepicardial layers during the IVR (ENCSrec,EPCSrec) were calculated.The circumferential strain of the subendocardial and subepicardial layers in the three short-axis during ES and IRA phases in different status were compared.The relationship between the circumferential strain recovery rate during IVR and E/e were analyzed.Results The circumferential strain of the basal,papillary level in short axis during ES and IRA phases decreases at the beginning and then increased along with the exercise intensity (P <0.05).The circumferential strain of the subendocardial layer is greater than the subepicardial layer in the three shortaxis during ES and IRA in different exercise status (P <0.01).The ENCSrec and EPCSrec of the three short-axis increases at the beginning and then decreased along with the exercise intensity (P <0.05).The ENCSrec and EPCSrec of 3 short axis are correlated with E/e in different exercise phases (P <0.05).Conclusions In normal subjects,the kinetics of circumferential strain during IVR is consisted with the

  15. Immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann model based on multiple relaxation times.

    Lu, Jianhua; Han, Haifeng; Shi, Baochang; Guo, Zhaoli


    As an alterative version of the lattice Boltzmann models, the multiple relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann model introduces much less numerical boundary slip than the single relaxation time (SRT) lattice Boltzmann model if some special relationship between the relaxation time parameters is chosen. On the other hand, most current versions of the immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann method, which was first introduced by Feng and improved by many other authors, suffer from numerical boundary slip as has been investigated by Le and Zhang. To reduce such a numerical boundary slip, an immerse boundary lattice Boltzmann model based on multiple relaxation times is proposed in this paper. A special formula is given between two relaxation time parameters in the model. A rigorous analysis and the numerical experiments carried out show that the numerical boundary slip reduces dramatically by using the present model compared to the single-relaxation-time-based model.

  16. Nuclear spin relaxation in liquids theory, experiments, and applications

    Kowalewski, Jozef


    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is widely used across many fields because of the rich data it produces, and some of the most valuable data come from the study of nuclear spin relaxation in solution. While described to varying degrees in all major NMR books, spin relaxation is often perceived as a difficult, if not obscure, topic, and an accessible, cohesive treatment has been nearly impossible to find.Collecting relaxation theory, experimental techniques, and illustrative applications into a single volume, this book clarifies the nature of the phenomenon, shows how to study it, and explains why such studies are worthwhile. Coverage ranges from basic to rigorous theory and from simple to sophisticated experimental methods, and the level of detail is somewhat greater than most other NMR texts. Topics include cross-relaxation, multispin phenomena, relaxation studies of molecular dynamics and structure, and special topics such as relaxation in systems with quadrupolar nuclei and paramagnetic systems.Avoiding ove...

  17. Hyperfine relaxation of an optically pumped cesium vapor

    Tornos, J.; Amare, J.C.


    The relaxation of hyperfine orientation indirectly induced by optical pumping with a sigma-polarized D/sub 1/-light in a cesium vapor in the presence of Ar is experimentally studied. The detection technique ensures the absence of quadrupole relaxation contributions in the relaxation signals. The results from the dependences of the hyperfine relaxation rate on the temperature and argon pressure are: diffusion coefficient of Cs in Ar, D/sub 0/ = 0.101 +- 0.010 cm/sup 2/s/sup -1/ at 0/sup 0/C and 760 Torr; relaxation cross section by Cs-Ar collisions, sigma/sub c/ = (104 +- 5) x 10/sup -23/ cm/sup 2/; relaxation cross section by Cs-Cs (spin exchange) collisions, sigma/sub e//sub x/ = (1.63 +- 0.13) x 10/sup -14/ cm/sup 2/.

  18. Cross-relaxation in multiple pulse NQR spin-locking

    Beltjukov, P. A.; Kibrik, G. E. [Perm State University, Physics Department (Russian Federation); Furman, G. B., E-mail:; Goren, S. D. [Ben Gurion University, Physics Department (Israel)


    The experimental and theoretical NQR multiple-pulse spin locking study of cross-relaxation process in solids containing nuclei of two different sorts I > 1/2 and S = 1/2 coupled by the dipole-dipole interactions and influenced by an external magnetic field. Two coupled equations for the inverse spin temperatures of the both spin systems describing the mutual spin lattice relaxation and the cross-relaxation were obtained using the method of the nonequilibrium state operator. It is shown that the relaxation process is realized with non-exponential time dependence describing by a sum of two exponents. The cross relaxation time is calculated as a function of the multiple-pulse field parameters which agree with the experimental data. The calculated magnetization cross relaxation time vs the strength of the applied magnetic field agrees well with the obtained experimental data.

  19. Hypnotic relaxation results in elevated thresholds of sensory detection but not of pain detection.

    Kramer, Sybille; Zims, Rolf; Simang, Michael; Rüger, Linda; Irnich, Dominik


    Many studies show an effectiveness of hypnotic analgesia. It has been discussed whether the analgesic effect is mainly caused by the relaxation that is concomitant to hypnosis. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of hypnotic relaxation suggestion on different somatosensory detection and pain thresholds. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) measurements were performed before and during hypnosis in twenty-three healthy subjects on the dorsum of the right hand. Paired t-test was used to compare threshold changes. The influence of hypnotic susceptibility was evaluated by calculating correlation coefficients for threshold changes and hypnotic susceptibility (Harvard group scale). During hypnosis significantly changed somatosensory thresholds (reduced function) were observed for the following sensory detection thresholds: Cold Detection Threshold (CDT), Warm Detection Threshold (WDT), Thermal Sensory Limen (TSL) and Mechanical Detection Threshold (MDT). The only unchanged sensory detection threshold was Vibration Detection Threshold (VDT). No significant changes were observed for the determined pain detection thresholds (Cold Pain Thresholds, Heat Pain Thresholds, Mechanical Pain Sensitivity, Dynamic Mechanical Allodynia, Wind-up Ratio and Pressure Pain Threshold). No correlation of hypnotic susceptibility and threshold changes were detected. Hypnotic relaxation without a specific analgesic suggestion results in thermal and mechanical detection, but not pain threshold changes. We thus conclude that a relaxation suggestion has no genuine effect on sensory pain thresholds., Identifier: NCT02261155 (9th October 2014).

  20. Carboxylated magnetic nanoparticles as MRI contrast agents: Relaxation measurements at different field strengths

    Jedlovszky-Hajdu, Angela, E-mail: [Laboratory of Nanochemistry, Department of Biophysics and Radiation Biology, Semmelweis University, Nagyvarad Sq 4, H-1089 Budapest (Hungary); Tombacz, Etelka, E-mail: [Department of Physical Chemistry and Material Science, University of Szeged, Aradi Vt. Sq 1, Szeged 6720 (Hungary); Banyai, Istvan, E-mail: [Department of Colloid and Environmental Chemistry, University of Debrecen (Hungary); Babos, Magor, E-mail: [Euromedic Diagnostics Szeged Ltd., Semmelweis St 6, Szeged 6720 (Hungary); Palko, Andras, E-mail: [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Szeged (Hungary)


    At the moment the biomedical applications of magnetic fluids are the subject of intensive scientific interest. In the present work, magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized and stabilized in aqueous medium with different carboxylic compounds (citric acid (CA), polyacrylic acid (PAA), and sodium oleate (NaOA)), in order to prepare well stabilized magnetic fluids (MFs). The magnetic nanoparticles can be used in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as contrast agents. Magnetic resonance relaxation measurements of the above MFs were performed at different field strengths (i.e., 0.47, 1.5 and 9.4 T) to reveal the field strength dependence of their magnetic responses, and to compare them with that of ferucarbotran, a well-known superparamagnetic contrast agent. The measurements showed characteristic differences between the tested magnetic fluids stabilized by carboxylic compounds and ferucarbotran. It is worthy of note that our magnetic fluids have the highest r2 relaxivities at the field strength of 1.5 T, where the most of the MRI works in worldwide. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic resonance relaxation measurements were done at different field strengths. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results show characteristic differences between the tested carboxylated MFs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer r1 and r2 relaxivities depend on the thickness of the protecting layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MFs have high r2/r1 ratios at each magnetic field.

  1. Effectiveness of applying progressive muscle relaxation technique on quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Ghafari, Somayeh; Ahmadi, Fazlolah; Nabavi, Masoud; Anoshirvan, Kazemnejad; Memarian, Robabe; Rafatbakhsh, Mohamad


    To identify the effects of applying Progressive Muscle Relaxation Technique on Quality of Life of patients with multiple Sclerosis. In view of the growing caring options in Multiple Sclerosis, improvement of quality of life has become increasingly relevant as a caring intervention. Complementary therapies are widely used by multiple sclerosis patients and Progressive Muscle Relaxation Technique is a form of complementary therapies. Quasi-experimental study. Multiple Sclerosis patients (n = 66) were selected with no probability sampling then assigned to experimental and control groups (33 patients in each group). Means of data collection included: Individual Information Questionnaire, SF-8 Health Survey, Self-reported checklist. PMRT performed for 63 sessions by experimental group during two months but no intervention was done for control group. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS software. Student t-test showed that there was no significant difference between two groups in mean scores of health-related quality of life before the study but this test showed a significant difference between two groups, one and two months after intervention (p Relaxation Technique on quality of life of multiple sclerosis patients, further research is required to determine better methods to promote quality of life of patients suffer multiple sclerosis and other chronic disease. Progressive Muscle Relaxation Technique is practically feasible and is associated with increase of life quality of multiple sclerosis patients; so that health professionals need to update their knowledge about complementary therapies.

  2. Intraband Relaxation and Its Influences on Quantum Dot Lasers

    DENG Sheng-Ling; HUANG Yong-Zhen; YU Li-Juan


    @@ A comprehensive two-level numerical model is developed to describe carrier distribution in a quantum-dot laser. Light-emission spectra with different intraband relaxation rates (2ps, 7.5ps and 20ps) are calculated and analysed to investigate the influence of relaxation rates on performance of the quantum-dot laser. The results indicate that fast intraband relaxation favours not only the ground state single mode operation but also the higher injection efficiency.

  3. Relaxation of quadrupole orientation in an optically pumped alkali vapour

    Bernabeu, E.; Tornos, J.


    The relaxation of quadrupole orientation (alignment) in an optically pumped alkali vapour is theoretically studied by taking into account the relaxation processes by alkali-buffer gas, alkali-alkali with spin exchange and alkali-cell wall (diffusion process) collisions. The relaxation transients of the quadrupole orientation are obtained by introducing a first-order weak-pumping approximation (intermediate pumping) less restrictive than the usually considered (zeroth order) one.

  4. On the Relaxation Dynamics of Disordered Systems

    Dobramysl, Ulrich

    We investigate the properties of two distinct disordered systems: the two-species predator-prey Lotka-Volterra model with rate variability, and an elastic line model to simulate vortex lines in type-II superconductors. We study the effects of intrinsic demographic variability with inheritance in the reaction rates of the Lotka-Volterra model via zero-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations as well as two-dimensional lattice simulations. Individuals of each species are assigned inheritable predation efficiencies during their creation, leading to evolutionary dynamics and thus population-level optimization. We derive an effective subspecies mean-field theory and compare its results to our numerical data. Furthermore, we introduce environmental variability via quenched spatial reaction-rate randomness. We investigate the competing effects and relative importance of the two types of variability, and find that both lead to a remarkable enhancement of the species densities, while the aforementioned optimization effects are essentially neutral in the densities. Additionally, we collected extinction time histograms for small systems and find a marked increase in the stability of the populations against extinction due to the presence of variability. We employ an elastic line model to investigate the steady-state properties and non-equilibrium relaxation kinetics of magnetic vortex lines in disordered type-II superconductors. To this end, we developed a versatile and efficient Langevin molecular dynamics simulation code, allowing us to do a careful study of samples with or without vortex-vortex interactions or disorder allows us to disentangle the various complex relaxational features present in this system and investigate their origin. In particular, we compare disordered samples with randomly distributed point defects versus correlated columnar defects. We extract two-time quantities such as the mean-square displacement, the height and density correlations, to investigate the

  5. Relaxation Behaviour of Lithium-Borosilicate Glasses

    D. B. Thombre


    Full Text Available Three systems of lithium borosilicate (LBS glasses namely SI 42.5Li2O: (57.5-x B2O3: xSiO2, SII 42.5Li2O: xB2O3 :( 57.5-x SiO2 where x=0, 5, 10, 20, and 30, and SIII (100-2x Li2O: xB2O3: xSiO2 where x=30, 28.75, 27.5, 25, and 22.5, are prepared using conventional melt quenching technique. Functional dependence of conductivity on temperature in the range from 523- 673K and frequency in the range from 10Hz to 13 MHz is studied. In order to analyze electrical conductivity the microscopic parameters such as ionic jump distance and barrier height are necessary. These parameters can be understood properly on the basis of the models proposed by Almond and Elliott. As frequency increases from 1MHz to 13MHz, the Tmin shifts towards low temperature side. According to this model the charge transfer is a thermally activated process and provides a correlation between the barrier height (W and the hopping length (R. The fitting of conductivity data into Almond-West type power law behavior σ = σ(o + Aωs yielded power law exponent(s. Electrical conductivity data fitted well in Elliott’s model, which is true only for amorphous materials. The temperature dependence of frequency exponent s exhibits a minimum (smin at a particular temperature (Tmin . . From the scaling behavior of the ac conductivity it is seen that all the curves scaled better, suggesting that s is temperature independent. It is observed that smin shifts to lower temperature, which shows that electrical conductivity of glassy solid electrolytes is the manifestation of ionic dynamic processes. The superposition of the reduced conductivity at all temperatures shows relaxation mechanism is temperature independent. Analysis of modulus formalism with a distribution of relaxation times using KWW stretched exponential function, the stretching exponent, β, is depend on temperature. The analysis of the temperature variation of the M″ peak indicates the relaxation process is thermally activated

  6. Electrical Relaxation in ULTEM® and ULTEM® Containing Mesoporous Silica

    Turo, Andrew; Edmondson, Charles E.; Lomax, Joseph F.; Bendler, John T.; Fontanella, John J.; Wintersgill, Mary C.


    Mesoporous silica has been added to Ultem® 1000 polyetherimide using solution casting. The mesoporous silica that was added was either uncoated or coated with polystyrene. Audio frequency dielectric relaxation studies were then carried out over the temperature range 5.5 to 550 K. Several interesting results were obtained. First, the uncoated mesoporous silica caused essentially no change in the relaxation spectrum of pure Ultem®. The polystyrene coated mesoporous silica caused rather large changes. The most striking example is the introduction of a new relaxation. This relaxation occurs at about 150 K and 1000 Hz as showing in fig. 1 via the open circles.

  7. Importance of relaxation techniques in cognitive therapy for anxiety

    Alice Rodrigues Willhelm; Ilana Andretta; Mariana Steiger Ungaretti


    .... The CBT treatment for anxiety disorders suggests cognitive techniques of restructuring and cognitive flexibilization and behavioral techniques such as exposure, systematic desensitization and body relaxation techniques...

  8. Benson's Relaxation Effect in Comparing to Systematic Desensitization on Anxiety of Female Nurses: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Sajadi, Mahbobeh; Goudarzi, Khatereh; Khosravi, Sharareh; Farmahini-Farahani, Molod; Mohammadbeig, Abolfazl


    Nursing staffs expose to a high level of anxiety. This study aimed to compare the effect of Benson's relaxation and systematic desensitization methods for decreasing the anxiety score of nurses. In a randomized clinical trial, 72 female nurses were assigned randomly to three different groups. Benson's relaxation and systematic desensitization were used as intervention beside control group. After intervention, the Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory was used for measuring the anxiety score. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey test, and paired t-test were applied for comparing three group scores. The ANOVA test showed that a significant difference among three groups regarding scores of posttrait and poststate anxiety (P < 0.05). The Tukey test showed that both Benson's relaxation and systematic desensitization methods were effective in decreasing of the anxiety score of nurses. Moreover, the mean change in trait and state anxiety scores at Benson's relaxation and systematic desensitization groups was more than control group, respectively, and was statistically significant. Both Benson's relaxation and systematic desensitization methods are effective in improvement of the state and trait dimensions of anxiety. However, these methods could be applied in stressful situation among medical staffs of students.

  9. Nonlinear nonequilibrium quasiparticle relaxation in Josephson junctions.

    Krasnov, V M


    I solve numerically a full set of nonlinear kinetic balance equations for stacked Josephson junctions, which allows analysis of strongly nonequilibrium phenomena. It is shown that nonlinearity becomes significant already at very small disequilibrium. The following new, nonlinear effects are obtained: (i) At even-gap voltages V = 2nDelta/e (n = 2, 3, ...) nonequilibrium bosonic bands overlap. This leads to enhanced emission of Omega = 2Delta bosons and to the appearance of dips in tunnel conductance. (ii) A new type of radiative solution is found at strong disequilibrium. It is characterized by the fast stimulated relaxation of quasiparticles. A stack in this state behaves as a light emitting diode and directly converts electric power to boson emission, without utilization of the ac-Josephson effect. The phenomenon can be used for realization of a new type of superconducting cascade laser in the THz frequency range.

  10. Internal relaxation time in immersed particulate materials

    Rognon, P; Gay, C


    We study the dynamics of the solid to liquid transition for a model material made of elastic particles immersed in a viscous fluid. The interaction between particle surfaces includes their viscous lubrication, a sharp repulsion when they get closer than a tuned steric length and their elastic deflection induced by those two forces. We use Soft Dynamics to simulate the dynamics of this material when it experiences a step increase in the shear stress and a constant normal stress. We observe a long creep phase before a substantial flow eventually establishes. We find that the typical creep time relies on an internal relaxation process, namely the separation of two particles driven by the applied stress and resisted by the viscous friction. This mechanism should be relevant for granular pastes, living cells, emulsions and wet foams.

  11. Spirooxazine Photoisomerization and Relaxation in Polymer Matrices

    Maria Larkowska


    Full Text Available 9′-Hydroxy-1,3,3-trimethylspiro[indoline-2,3′[3H]naphtha[2,1-b]-1,4oxazine] (SPO-7OH was used in studies of photochromic transformations in polymer matrices. Illumination with UV lamp caused opening the spirostructure of the oxazine with formation of open merocyanine species absorbing at ca. 610 nm. The kinetic studies of thermal relaxation of the open form showed that this process can be described with a biexponential function including both photochemical reaction and rheological behaviour of the polymeric environment. Basing on Arrhenius plot of the rate constant ascribed to the photochemical reaction, the activation energy was determined, which was 66.1 and 84.7 kJ/mole for poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl methacrylate and poly(vinylpyrrolidone matrix, respectively.

  12. Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi method: improvements and applications

    Adsuara, J E; Cerdá-Durán, P; Aloy, M A


    Elliptic partial differential equations (ePDEs) appear in a wide variety of areas of mathematics, physics and engineering. Typically, ePDEs must be solved numerically, which sets an ever growing demand for efficient and highly parallel algorithms to tackle their computational solution. The Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi (SRJ) is a promising class of methods, atypical for combining simplicity and efficiency, that has been recently introduced for solving linear Poisson-like ePDEs. The SRJ methodology relies on computing the appropriate parameters of a multilevel approach with the goal of minimizing the number of iterations needed to cut down the residuals below specified tolerances. The efficiency in the reduction of the residual increases with the number of levels employed in the algorithm. Applying the original methodology to compute the algorithm parameters with more than 5 levels notably hinders obtaining optimal SRJ schemes, as the mixed (non-linear) algebraic-differential equations from which they result bec...

  13. Relaxation and resonances in fluctuating dielectric systems

    Garcia-Colin, L. S.; del Castillo, L. F.


    In this paper we show how the ideas behind extended irreversible thermodynamics are used to generate a systematic treatment of the relaxation and resonance phenomena in the propagation and absorption of electromagnetic energy in dielectric materials in a nonequilibrium state. Two cases are discussed: the first, in which the forced oscillations arising from the correlation between the fluctuations of the polarization vector and the electric field are neglected, and the second, in which this term is taken into account. In both cases we show how the main equations serve to make a connection between the macroscopic approach followed here and a number of results obtained for both, gases and polar liquids using molecular models. The results obtained here are compared with previous work on this problem, and new effects arising from the second case are pointed out.

  14. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of blood vessels

    Hynes, M.R.


    Dilation of blood vessels in response to a large number of agents has been shown to be dependent on an intact vascular endothelium. The present studies examine some aspects of endothelium-dependent vasodilation in blood vessels of the rabbit and rat. Using the rabbit ear artery and the subtype-selective muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine, muscarinic receptors of the endothelium and smooth muscle cells were shown to be of the low affinity M/sub 2/ subtype. Inhibition of (/sup 3/H)(-)quinuclidinyl benzilate was used to determine affinity for the smooth muscle receptors while antagonism of methacholine induced vasodilation yielded the endothelial cell receptor affinity. The effect of increasing age (1-27 months) on endothelium-dependent relaxation was studied in aortic rings, perfused tail artery and perfused mesenteric bed of the Fisher 344 rat. The influence of endothelium on contractile responses was examined using the perfused caudal artery.

  15. Occupational stress, relaxation therapies, exercise and biofeedback.

    Stein, Franklin


    Occupational stress is a widespread occurrence in the United States. It is a contributing factor to absenteeism, disease, injury and lowered productivity. In general stress management programs in the work place that include relaxation therapies, exercise, and biofeedback have been shown to reduce the physiological symptoms such as hypertension, and increase job satisfaction and job performance. Strategies to implement a successful stress management program include incorporating the coping activities into one's daily schedule, monitoring one's symptoms and stressors, and being realistic in setting up a schedule that is relevant and attainable. A short form of meditation, daily exercise program and the use of heart rate or thermal biofeedback can be helpful to a worker experiencing occupational stress.

  16. The cosmological constant and the relaxed universe

    Bauer, Florian


    We study the role of the cosmological constant (CC) as a component of dark energy (DE). It is argued that the cosmological term is in general unavoidable and it should not be ignored even when dynamical DE sources are considered. From the theoretical point of view quantum zero-point energy and phase transitions suggest a CC of large magnitude in contrast to its tiny observed value. Simply relieving this disaccord with a counterterm requires extreme fine-tuning which is referred to as the old CC problem. To avoid it, we discuss some recent approaches for neutralising a large CC dynamically without adding a fine-tuned counterterm. This can be realised by an effective DE component which relaxes the cosmic expansion by counteracting the effect of the large CC. Alternatively, a CC filter is constructed by modifying gravity to make it insensitive to vacuum energy.

  17. Vibrational energy relaxation pathways of water

    Pakoulev, Andrei; Wang, Zhaohui; Pang, Yoonsoo; Dlott, Dana D.


    Vibrational energy relaxation (VR) of the OH stretch νOH and bend δH 2O in water is studied by the mid-IR pump with anti-Stokes Raman probe technique. The broad νOH band in water consists of two inhomogeneously broadened subbands. VR in the larger red-shifted subband νOHR, with T1=0.55 ps, is shown to occur by the mechanism νOH→ δH 2O (1/3) and νOH → ground state (2/3). VR in the smaller longer-lived blue-shifted subband νOHB, with T1=0.75 ps, occurs by the mechanism νOH → ground state. The bending fundamental δH 2O decays directly to the ground state with T1=1.4 ps.

  18. Holographic thermal relaxation in superfluid turbulence

    Du, Yiqiang [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); Niu, Chao [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); Tian, Yu [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang, Hongbao [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875 (China); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)


    Holographic duality provides a first-principles approach to investigate real time processes in quantum many-body systems, in particular at finite temperature and far-from-equilibrium. We use this approach to study the dynamical evolution of vortex number in a two-dimensional (2D) turbulent superfluid through numerically solving its gravity dual. We find that the temporal evolution of the vortex number can be well fit statistically by two-body decay due to the vortex pair annihilation featured relaxation process, thus confirm the previous suspicion based on the experimental data for turbulent superfluid in highly oblate Bose-Einstein condensates. Furthermore, the decay rate near the critical temperature is in good agreement with the recently developed effective theory of 2D superfluid turbulence.

  19. Multiscale dipole relaxation in dielectric materials

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt


    the cross coupling between the electric field fluctuations and dipole moment fluctuations can be ignored. The peak frequencies in the spectra of the autocorrelation functions are also derived. They depend on the wave vector squared which is a fingerprint of the underlying dipole diffusion mechanism....... For the longitudinal direction the simulation results show that the cross coupling between the electric field and the dipole moment is non-negligible compromising the theoretical predictions. The underlying mechanism for this coupling is not clear.......Dipole relaxation from thermally induced perturbations is investigated on different length scales for dielectric materials. From the continuum dynamical equations for the polarisation, expressions for the transverse and longitudinal dipole autocorrelation functions are derived in the limit where...

  20. Relaxed Half-Stochastic Belief Propagation

    Leduc-Primeau, François; Mannor, Shie; Gross, Warren J


    Low-density parity-check codes are attractive for high throughput applications because of their low decoding complexity per bit, but also because all the codeword bits can be decoded in parallel. However, achieving this in a circuit implementation is complicated by the number of wires required to exchange messages between processing nodes. Decoding algorithms that exchange binary messages are interesting for fully-parallel implementations because they can reduce the number and the length of the wires, and increase logic density. This paper introduces the Relaxed Half-Stochastic (RHS) decoding algorithm, a binary message belief propagation (BP) algorithm that achieves a coding gain comparable to the best known BP algorithms that use real-valued messages. We derive the RHS algorithm by starting from the well-known Sum-Product algorithm, and then derive a low-complexity version suitable for circuit implementation. We present extensive simulation results on two standardized codes having different rates and constr...

  1. Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy in vivo

    Ma, Jun; Shi, Junhui; Hai, Pengfei; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V.


    Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy (GR-PAM) can achieve optically defined axial resolution, but it has been limited to ex vivo demonstrations so far. Here, we present the first in vivo image of a mouse brain acquired with GR-PAM. To induce the GR effect, an intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser was employed to heat absorbing objects. In phantom experiments, an axial resolution of 12.5 μm was achieved, which is sixfold better than the value achieved by conventional optical-resolution PAM. This axial-resolution improvement was further demonstrated by imaging a mouse brain in vivo, where significantly narrower axial profiles of blood vessels were observed. The in vivo demonstration of GR-PAM shows the potential of this modality for label-free and high-resolution anatomical and functional imaging of biological tissues.

  2. Degravitation and the relaxed Einstein equations

    Dirkes, Alain


    The general idea to modify Einstein's field equations by promoting Newton's constant $G$ to a covariant differential operator $G_\\Lambda(\\Box_g)$ was apparently outlined for the first time in [12-15]. The modification itself originates from the quest of finding a mechanism which is able to degravitate the vacuum energy on cosmological scales. We present in this article a precise covariant coupling model which acts like a high-pass filter with a macroscopic distance filter scale $\\sqrt{\\Lambda}$. In the context of this particular theory of gravity we work out the effective relaxed Einstein equations as well as the effective 1.5 post-Newtonian total near-zone mass of a many body system. We observe that at any step of computation we recover in the limit of vanishing modification parameters the corresponding general relativistic result.

  3. Relaxed excited states of color centers

    Baldacchini, G.


    Color centers in alkali halides display an optical cycle which has been, and it is still today, a model case for similar processes in other materials. Moreover, the luminescence of some color centers is so efficient that it has been used in laser applications. However, the quantum state from which the emission of light is originated, the so called relaxed excited state (RES), is not very well known. Indeed, in spite of the wealth of experimental results collected and of the theoretical approaches attempted, an exact description of the RES is still missing. This paper, confined mainly to F centers which are the simplest point defects in crystals, contains a review of the main experimental evidences which has some light on the nature of the RES, with special emphasis on the latest magneto-optical experiments. Also, a description of the theoretical models is attempted whenever required by a particular argument.

  4. Using relaxational dynamics to reduce network congestion

    Piontti, Ana L. Pastore y.; La Rocca, Cristian E.; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Braunstein, Lidia A.; Macri, Pablo A.; López, Eduardo


    We study the effects of relaxational dynamics on congestion pressure in scale-free (SF) networks by analyzing the properties of the corresponding gradient networks (Toroczkai and Bassler 2004 Nature 428 716). Using the Family model (Family and Bassler 1986 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 19 L441) from surface-growth physics as single-step load-balancing dynamics, we show that the congestion pressure considerably drops on SF networks when compared with the same dynamics on random graphs. This is due to a structural transition of the corresponding gradient network clusters, which self-organize so as to reduce the congestion pressure. This reduction is enhanced when lowering the value of the connectivity exponent λ towards 2.

  5. Characterizing RNA Excited States using NMR Relaxation Dispersion

    Xue, Yi; Kellogg, Dawn; Kimsey, Isaac J; Sathyamoorthy, Bharathwaj; Stein, Zachary W; McBrairty, Mitchell; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M.


    Changes in RNA secondary structure play fundamental roles in the cellular functions of a growing number of non-coding RNAs. This chapter describes NMR-based approaches for characterizing microsecond-to-millisecond changes in RNA secondary structure that are directed toward short-lived and low-populated species often referred to as “excited states”. Compared to larger-scale changes in RNA secondary structure, transitions towards excited states do not require assistance from chaperones, are often orders of magnitude faster, and are localized to a small number of nearby base pairs in and around non-canonical motifs. Here we describe a procedure for characterizing RNA excited states using off-resonance R1ρ NMR relaxation dispersion utilizing low-to-high spin-lock fields (25–3000 Hz). R1ρ NMR relaxation dispersion experiments are used to measure carbon and nitrogen chemical shifts in base and sugar moieties of the excited state. The chemical shift data is then interpreted with the aid of secondary structure prediction to infer potential excited states that feature alternative secondary structures. Candidate structures are then tested by using mutations, single-atom substitutions, or by changing physiochemical conditions, such as pH and temperature, to either stabilize or destabilize the candidate excited state. The resulting chemical shifts of the mutants or under different physiochemical conditions are then compared to those of the ground and excited state. Application is illustrated with a focus on the transactivation response element (TAR) from the human immune deficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), which exists in dynamic equilibrium with at least two distinct excited states. PMID:26068737

  6. Thermodynamic scaling of relaxation: insights from anharmonic elasticity

    Bernini, S.; Puosi, F.; Leporini, D.


    Using molecular dynamics simulations of a molecular liquid, we investigate the thermodynamic scaling (TS) of the structural relaxation time {τα} in terms of the quantity T{ρ-{γ\\text{ts}}}} , where T and ρ are the temperature and density, respectively. The liquid does not exhibit strong virial–energy correlations. We propose a method for evaluating both the characteristic exponent {{γ\\text{ts}} and the TS master curve that uses experimentally accessible quantities that characterise the anharmonic elasticity and does not use details about the microscopic interactions. In particular, we express the TS characteristic exponent {γ\\text{ts}} in terms of the lattice Grüneisen parameter {γL} and the isochoric anharmonicity {δL} . An analytic expression of the TS master curve of {τα} with {δL} as the key adjustable parameter is found. The comparison with the experimental TS master curves and the isochoric fragilities of 34 glassformers is satisfying. In a few cases, where thermodynamic data are available, we test (i) the predicted characteristic exponent {γ\\text{ts}} and (ii) the isochoric anharmonicity {δL} , as drawn by the best fit of the TS of the structural relaxation, against the available thermodynamic data. A linear relation between the isochoric fragility and the isochoric anharmonicity {δL} is found and compared favourably with the results of experiments with no adjustable parameters. A relation between the increase of the isochoric vibrational heat capacity due to anharmonicity and the isochoric fragility is derived.

  7. Late cortical disinhibition in relaxed versus active hand muscles.

    Caux-Dedeystère, A; Derambure, P; Devanne, H


    Recent research suggests that long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) is followed by a transitory period of late cortical disinhibition (LCD) that can even lead to a net increase in cortical excitability. The relationship between LICI/LCD and voluntary drive remains poorly understood. Our study aims at investigating the influence of index abduction on LICI and LCD in an actively engaged muscle and a neighboring muscle, while varying the intensity of the conditioning stimulus (CS). Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the first dorsal interosseus (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles in 13 subjects. Paired-pulses were delivered with 10 different interstimulus intervals (ranging from 60 to 290 ms). Whatever the condition (relaxed or active FDI), the test stimulus was set to evoke an MEP of 1mV. The time course of conditioned MEP amplitude was compared for relaxed and active conditions when the CS intensity was set to (i) 130% of the rest motor threshold (RMT) or (ii) to evoke the same size of MEP under both conditions. LICI lasted longer (i.e. disinhibition occurred later) at rest than during abduction when evoked either by similar or matched conditioning stimuli. No post-LICI facilitation was observed at rest - even when the CS intensity was set to 160% RMT. In contrast, long-interval intracortical facilitation (LICF) was observed in the quiescent ADM when FDI was active. LICF may then be associated with voluntary activity albeit with lack of topographic specificity. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 5-HT is a potent relaxant in rat superior mesenteric veins.

    Watts, Stephanie W; Darios, Emma S; Seitz, Bridget M; Thompson, Janice M


    Serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) reduces blood pressure of the conscious rat when administered chronically (1 week). 5-HT does not directly relax isolated arteries, and microsphere experiments in 5-HT-infused rats suggested that 5-HT increased flow to the splanchnic bed. We hypothesized that 5-HT increased splanchnic flow because of direct venous relaxation; our focus was thus on the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) as an important vein in splanchnic circulation. Real-time RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western analyses supported the predominant expression of the 5-HT2B and 5-HT7 receptor in the SMV. The SMV was mounted in tissue baths for measurement of isometric contraction. 5-HT caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of the endothelin-1 (ET-1)-contracted vein. The threshold of 5-HT-induced venous relaxation was significantly lower than for 5-HT-induced venous contraction (∼2 vs. 700 nmol/L, respectively). A series of serotonergic agonists established in their use of receptor characterization was tested, and the following rank order of potency found for agonist-induced relaxation (receptor selectivity): 5-CT (5-HT1/5-HT7)>5-HT = LP-44 (5-HT7)>PNU109291 (5-HT1D) = BW723C86 (5-HT2B). 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A/7), CP93129 (5-HT1B), mCPBG (5-HT3/4), AS19 (5-HT7) and TCB-2 (5-HT2A) did not relax the isolated vein. Consistent with these findings, two different 5-HT7 receptor antagonists SB 269970 and LY215840 but not the 5-HT2B receptor antagonist LY272015 nor the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor LNNA abolished 5-CT-induced relaxation of the isolated SMV. 5-CT (1 μg kg(-1) min(-1), sc) also reduced blood pressure over 7 days. These findings suggest that 5-HT directly relaxes the SMV primarily through activation of the 5-HT7 receptor.


    G.V. Bezprozvannych


    the width of each of the relaxation maxima is associated with characteristic fractal cluster size. It is important that the hydrated solid and foamed polyethylene insulation to show individuality, typical only for water clusters which are detected by high-frequency dipole relaxation peaks dielectric loss tangent. There is a positive correlation between the bandwidth Δf of relaxation maxima and the rate of decrease of insulation resistance by applying a high DC voltage. Practical value. Establishing a correlation between the bandwidth of relaxation maxima and the rate of decrease in the insulation resistance test objects in the laboratory makes it possible to diagnose the presence of free moisture in the power and RF cables by measuring the insulation resistance in exploitation.

  10. Fast Heterogeneous Relaxation Near The Glass Transition

    Russina, Margarita


    More than a decade ago inelastic neutron scattering studies revealed a surprising characteristic feature in the atomic dynamics near the glass transition, which was often called the betta-process, with reference to predictions of the mode coupling theory (MCT). This process appears on the ps time scale, i.e. fast compared to the ordinary flow viscosity governed relaxation and slow compared to usual atomic vibrations, and its nature remained a puzzle over the years. Although inelastic neutron scattering is ideally suited to observe dynamics on microscopic time and length scales, experimental difficulties due to strong multiple scattering effects prevented the exploration of the spatial character of this process. By a new experimental approach to correct for these spurious contributions with a high precision, we were now able to extend the spatial domain of our observations from just about nearest neighbor atomic distances by close to an order of magnitude larger ones, which length scale includes that of the intermediate range order, which can be expected to reveal most sensitively collective, as opposed to the local, behavior. Our results in the fragile glass forming liquid Ca-K-NO3 show, that the betta-process is a first fast step of the structural relaxation, which confirms a most fundamental prediction of MCT. Furthermore, by investigating the Debye-Waller factor associated with this process, we found that its geometrical nature corresponds to quasi-rigid, correlated displacement of mobile groups of atoms, which move much faster than the ordinary flow of the bulk of the supercooled liquid. This is the first direct experimental evidence for the existence of heterogeneous fast flow processes similar to the string-flow motion recently observed in molecular dynamic simulations of model liquids close to the glass transition.

  11. Effect of pressure relaxation during the laser heating and electron-ion relaxation stages

    Chimier, B.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.; Hallo, L. [Univ Bordeaux 1, CEA, CNRS, CELIA, UMR 5107, 33 - Talence (France)


    The multi-phase equation of state by Bushman et al. (Sov. Tech. Rev. 5:1-44, 2008) is modified to describe states with different electron and ion temperatures and it is applied to the non-equilibrium evolution of an aluminum sample heated by a subpicosecond laser pulse. The sample evolution is described by the two-temperature model for the electron and ion temperatures, while the pressure and density are described by a simplified relaxation equation. The pressure relaxation in the heating stage reduces the binding energy and facilitates the electron-driven ablation. The model is applied to estimate the ablation depth of an Al target irradiated by a subpicosecond laser pulse. It improves the agreement with the experimental data and provides a new explanation of the ablation process. (authors)

  12. A fast determination method for transverse relaxation of spin-exchange-relaxation-free magnetometer.

    Lu, Jixi; Qian, Zheng; Fang, Jiancheng


    We propose a fast and accurate determination method for transverse relaxation of the spin-exchange-relaxation-free (SERF) magnetometer. This method is based on the measurement of magnetic resonance linewidth via a chirped magnetic field excitation and the amplitude spectrum analysis. Compared with the frequency sweeping via separate sinusoidal excitation, our method can realize linewidth determination within only few seconds and meanwhile obtain good frequency resolution. Therefore, it can avoid the drift error in long term measurement and improve the accuracy of the determination. As the magnetic resonance frequency of the SERF magnetometer is very low, we include the effect of the negative resonance frequency caused by the chirp and achieve the coefficient of determination of the fitting results better than 0.998 with 95% confidence bounds to the theoretical equation. The experimental results are in good agreement with our theoretical analysis.

  13. Evidence of direct smooth muscle relaxant effects of the fibrate gemfibrozil.

    Phelps, Laura E; Peuler, Jacob D


    Fibrates are commonly employed to treat abnormal lipid metabolism via their unique ability to stimulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). Interestingly, they also decrease systemic arterial pressure, despite recent evidence that PPAR alpha may contribute to expression of renin and related hypertension. Yet, mechanisms responsible for their potential antihypertensive activity remain unresolved. Rapid decreases in arterial pressure following bolus intravenous injections of bezafibrate strongly suggest they may relax arterial smooth muscle directly. But since bezafibrate is highly susceptible to photodegradation in aqueous media, it has never been critically tested for this possibility in vitro with isolated arterial smooth muscle preparations. Accordingly, we tested gemfibrozil which is resistant to photodegradation. We examined it over a therapeutically-relevant range (50-400 microM) for both acute and delayed relaxant effects on contractions of the isolated rat tail artery; contractions induced by either depolarizing its smooth muscle cell membranes with high potassium or stimulating its membrane-bound receptors with norepinephrine and arginine-vasopressin. We also examined these same gemfibrozil levels for effects on spontaneously-occurring phasic rhythmic contractile activity, typically not seen in arteries under in vitro conditions but commonly exhibited by smooth muscle of uterus, duodenum and bladder. We found that gemfibrozil significantly relaxed all induced forms of contraction in the rat tail artery, acutely at the higher test levels and after a delay of a few hours at the lower test levels. The highest test level of gemfibrozil (400 microM) also completely abolished spontaneously-occurring contractile activity of the isolated uterus and duodenum and markedly suppressed it in the bladder. This is the first evidence that a fibrate drug can directly relax smooth muscle contractions, either induced by various contractile agents or

  14. a Study of Stress Relaxation Rate in Un-Irradiated and Neutron-Irradiated Stainless Steel

    Ghauri, I. M.; Afzal, Naveed; Zyrek, N. A.

    Stress relaxation rate in un-irradiated and neutron-irradiated 303 stainless steel was investigated at room temperature. The specimens were exposed to 100 mC, Ra-Be neutron source of continuous energy 2-12 MeV for a period ranging from 4 to 16 days. The tensile deformation of the specimens was carried out using a Universal Testing Machine at 300 K. During the deformation, straining was frequently interrupted by arresting the cross head to observe stress relaxation at fixed load. Stress relaxation rate, s, was found to be stress dependent i.e. it increased with increasing stress levels σ0 both in un-irradiated and irradiated specimens, however the rate was lower in irradiated specimens than those of un-irradiated ones. A further decrease in s was observed with increase in exposure time. The experiential decrease in the relaxation rate in irradiated specimens is ascribed to strong interaction of glide dislocations with radiation induced defects. The activation energy for the movement of dislocations was found to be higher in irradiated specimens as compared with the un-irradiated ones.

  15. Relaxation in x-space magnetic particle imaging.

    Croft, Laura R; Goodwill, Patrick W; Conolly, Steven M


    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new imaging modality that noninvasively images the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs). MPI has demonstrated high contrast and zero attenuation with depth, and MPI promises superior safety compared to current angiography methods, X-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging angiography. Nanoparticle relaxation can delay the SPIO magnetization, and in this work we investigate the open problem of the role relaxation plays in MPI scanning and its effect on the image. We begin by amending the x-space theory of MPI to include nanoparticle relaxation effects. We then validate the amended theory with experiments from a Berkeley x-space relaxometer and a Berkeley x-space projection MPI scanner. Our theory and experimental data indicate that relaxation reduces SNR and asymmetrically blurs the image in the scanning direction. While relaxation effects can have deleterious effects on the MPI scan, we show theoretically and experimentally that x-space reconstruction remains robust in the presence of relaxation. Furthermore, the role of relaxation in x-space theory provides guidance as we develop methods to minimize relaxation-induced blurring. This will be an important future area of research for the MPI community.

  16. Energy relaxation in optically excited Si and Ge nanocrystals

    S. Saeed


    The scientific objective of the research presented in this thesis is to explore energy relaxation processes of optically excited Si and Ge nanocrystals. The identification and deeper understanding of unique energy relaxation paths in these materials will open a new window of opportunity for these ma

  17. Stress relaxation of bi-disperse polystyrene melts

    Hengeller, Ludovica; Huang, Qian; Dorokhin, Andriy


    We present start-up of uniaxial extension followed by stress relaxation experiments of a bi-disperse 50 % by weight blend of 95k and 545k molecular weight polystyrene. We also show, for comparison, stress relaxation measurements of the polystyrene melts with molecular weight 95k and 545k, which a...

  18. Evolving fuzzy rules for relaxed-criteria negotiation.

    Sim, Kwang Mong


    In the literature on automated negotiation, very few negotiation agents are designed with the flexibility to slightly relax their negotiation criteria to reach a consensus more rapidly and with more certainty. Furthermore, these relaxed-criteria negotiation agents were not equipped with the ability to enhance their performance by learning and evolving their relaxed-criteria negotiation rules. The impetus of this work is designing market-driven negotiation agents (MDAs) that not only have the flexibility of relaxing bargaining criteria using fuzzy rules, but can also evolve their structures by learning new relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules to improve their negotiation outcomes as they participate in negotiations in more e-markets. To this end, an evolutionary algorithm for adapting and evolving relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules was developed. Implementing the idea in a testbed, two kinds of experiments for evaluating and comparing EvEMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are evolved using the evolutionary algorithm) and EMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are manually constructed) were carried out through stochastic simulations. Empirical results show that: 1) EvEMDAs generally outperformed EMDAs in different types of e-markets and 2) the negotiation outcomes of EvEMDAs generally improved as they negotiated in more e-markets.

  19. Experimental study of 199Hg spin anti-relaxation coatings

    Chowdhuri, Z; Horras, M; Kirch, K; Krempel, J; Lauss, B; Mtchedlishvili, A; Rebreyend, D; Roccia, S; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Zsigmond, G


    We report on a comparison of spin relaxation rates in a $^{199}$Hg magnetometer using different wall coatings. A compact mercury magnetometer was built for this purpose. Glass cells coated with fluorinated materials show longer spin coherence times than if coated with their hydrogenated homologues. The longest spin relaxation time of the mercury vapor was measured with a fluorinated paraffin wall coating.

  20. Noninteracting control of nonlinear systems based on relaxed control

    Jayawardhana, B.


    In this paper, we propose methodology to solve noninteracting control problem for general nonlinear systems based on the relaxed control technique proposed by Artstein. For a class of nonlinear systems which cannot be stabilized by smooth feedback, a state-feedback relaxed control can be designed to

  1. Relaxation towards phase-locked dynamics in long Josephson junctions

    Salerno, M.; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm


    We study the relaxation phenomenon towards phase-locked dynamics in long Josephson junctions. In particular the dependence of the relaxation frequency for the equal time of flight solution on the junction parameters is derived. The analysis is based on a phase-locked map and is compared with dire...

  2. Relaxation Training and Expectation in the Treatment of Postpartum Distress.

    Halonen, Jane S.; Passman, Richard H.


    Examined the effectiveness of relaxation training in reducing postpartum distress for 48 first-time mothers-to-be via a treatment-component strategy. Compared with nonrelaxation conditions, relaxation treatments reduced reported postpartal distress. Expectations about treatment effectiveness were not significant factors in treatment outcome.…

  3. Increasing Mathematical Problem-Solving Performance through Relaxation Training.

    Sharp, Conni; Coltharp, Hazel; Hurford, David; Cole, AmyKay


    Studies two intact classes of 30 undergraduate students enrolled in a mathematics course; however, one group received relaxation training during an initial class meeting and during the first 5-7 minutes of each subsequent class. The group which received the relaxation training had significantly lower mathematics anxiety and significantly higher…

  4. Definition, evaluation, and management of brain relaxation during craniotomy.

    Li, J; Gelb, A W; Flexman, A M; Ji, F; Meng, L


    The term 'brain relaxation' is routinely used to describe the size and firmness of the brain tissue during craniotomy. The status of brain relaxation is an important aspect of neuroanaesthesia practice and is relevant to the operating conditions, retraction injury, and likely patient outcomes. Brain relaxation is determined by the relationship between the volume of the intracranial contents and the capacity of the intracranial space (i.e. a content-space relationship). It is a concept related to, but distinct from, intracranial pressure. The evaluation of brain relaxation should be standardized to facilitate clinical communication and research collaboration. Both advantageous and disadvantageous effects of the various interventions for brain relaxation should be taken into account in patient care. The outcomes that matter the most to patients should be emphasized in defining, evaluating, and managing brain relaxation. To date, brain relaxation has not been reviewed specifically, and the aim of this manuscript is to discuss the current approaches to the definition, evaluation, and management of brain relaxation, knowledge gaps, and targets for future research.

  5. A digital Double Relaxation Oscillation SQUID for particle detector readout

    Podt, M.; Keizer, D.; Flokstra, Jakob; Rogalla, Horst


    Double Relaxation Oscillation SQUIDs (DROSs) are based on relaxation oscillations that are generated in hysteretic dc SQUIDs by an external L–R shunt. We realized a DROS with the complete flux-locked loop circuitry on one single chip, the Smart DROS. The pulsed output of the Smart DROS enables a

  6. High sensitivity double relaxation oscillation superconducting quantum interference devices

    Adelerhof, Derk Jan; Adelerhof, Derk Jan; Kawai, Jun; Uehara, Gen; Kado, Hisashi


    Double relaxation oscillationsuperconducting quantum interference devices(SQUIDs) (DROSs) have been fabricated with estimated relaxation frequencies up to 14 GHz. Both the intrinsic flux noise and the performance in a flux locked loop with direct voltage readout have been studied. In flux locked

  7. Determination of Relaxation Time of a Josephson Tunnel Junction

    WEN Xue-Da; YU Yang


    We propose a non-stationary method to measure the energy relaxation time of Josephson tunnel junctions from microwave enhanced escape phenomena.Compared with the previous methods,our method possesses simple and accurate features.Moreover,having determined the energy relaxation time,we can further obtain the coupling strength between the microwave source and the junction by changing the microwave power.

  8. An experiment in multispectral, multitemporal crop classification using relaxation techniques

    Davis, L. S.; Wang, C.-Y.; Xie, H.-C


    The paper describes the result of an experimental study concerning the use of probabilistic relaxation for improving pixel classification rates. Two LACIE sites were used in the study and in both cases, relaxation resulted in a marked improvement in classification rates.

  9. In vivo sedative and muscle relaxants activity of Diospyros lotus L

    Abdur; Rauf; Ghias; Uddin; Bina; Shaheen; Siddiqui; Haroon; Khan


    Objective: To evaluate the sedative effect of Diospyros lotus L(D. lotus) extract in mice using the open field and Rota rod tests.Methods: For the sedative and muscle relaxants activities of extract/fractions of the plant, invivo open field and phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time were used, while the Roda rod test was employed in animals for the assessment of muscle relaxant activity.Results: Results from this investigation revealed that the extracts of D. lotus have exhibited significant sedative effect in mice(45.98%) at 100 mg/kg i.p. When the extract was partitioned with different solvents, the n-hexane fraction was inactive whereas the chloroform fraction was the most active with 82.67% sedative effect at 50 and 100 mg/kg i.p. On the other hand,the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions displayed significant sedative effects(55.65% and40.87%, respectively) at 100 mg/kg i.p. Among the tested extract/fractions, only chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions showed significant(P < 0.05) muscle relaxant activity in the Rota rod test.Conclusions: In short, our study provided scientific background to the traditional uses of D.lotus as sedative.

  10. Microscopic origin of shear relaxation in a model viscoelastic liquid.

    Ashwin, J; Sen, Abhijit


    An atomistic description of shear stress relaxation in a viscoelastic liquid is developed from first principles through accurate molecular dynamic simulations in a model Yukawa system. It is shown that the relaxation time τ(M)(ex) of the excess part of the shear stress autocorrelation function provides a correct measure of the relaxation process. Below a certain critical value Γ(c) of the Coulomb coupling strength, the lifetime of local atomic connectivity τ(LC) converges to τ(M)(ex) and is the microscopic origin of the relaxation. At Γ≫Γ(c), i.e., in the potential energy dominated regime, τ(M)(ex)→τ(M) (the Maxwell relaxation time) and can, therefore, fully account for the elastic or "solidlike" behavior. Our results can help provide a better fundamental understanding of viscoelastic behavior in a variety of strongly coupled systems such as dusty plasmas, colloids, and non-Newtonian fluids.

  11. Surface hopping investigation of the relaxation dynamics in radical cations

    Assmann, Mariana; Matsika, Spiridoula, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States); Weinacht, Thomas [Department of Physics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)


    Ionization processes can lead to the formation of radical cations with population in several ionic states. In this study, we examine the dynamics of three radical cations starting from an excited ionic state using trajectory surface hopping dynamics in combination with multiconfigurational electronic structure methods. The efficiency of relaxation to the ground state is examined in an effort to understand better whether fragmentation of cations is likely to occur directly on excited states or after relaxation to the ground state. The results on cyclohexadiene, hexatriene, and uracil indicate that relaxation to the ground ionic state is very fast in these systems, while fragmentation before relaxation is rare. Ultrafast relaxation is facilitated by the close proximity of electronic states and the presence of two- and three-state conical intersections. Examining the properties of the systems in the Franck-Condon region can give some insight into the subsequent dynamics.

  12. Correlation of transverse relaxation time with structure of biological tissue

    Furman, Gregory B.; Meerovich, Victor M.; Sokolovsky, Vladimir L.


    Transverse spin-spin relaxation of liquids entrapped in nanocavities with different orientational order is theoretically investigated. Based on the bivariate normal distribution of nanocavities directions, we have calculated the anisotropy of the transverse relaxation time for biological systems, such as collagenous tissues, articular cartilage, and tendon. In the framework of the considered model, the dipole-dipole interaction is determined by a single coupling constant. The calculation results for the transverse relaxation time explain the angular dependence observed in MRI experiments with biological objects. The good agreement with the experimental data is obtained by adjustment of only one parameter which characterizes the disorder in fiber orientations. The relaxation time is correlated with the degree of ordering in biological tissues. Thus, microstructure of the tissues can be revealed from the measurement of relaxation time anisotropy. The clinical significance of the correlation, especially in the detection of damage must be evaluated in a large prospective clinical trials.

  13. Theoretical model of intravascular paramagnetic tracers effect on tissue relaxation

    Kjølby, Birgitte Fuglsang; Østergaard, Leif; Kiselev, Valerij G


    that the relaxivity of intravascular contrast agents depends significantly on the host tissue. This agrees with experimental data by Johnson et al. (Magn Reson Med 2000;44:909). In particular, the present results suggest a several-fold increase in the relaxivity of Gd-based contrast agents in brain tissue compared...... with bulk blood. The enhancement of relaxation in tissue is due to the contrast in magnetic susceptibility between blood vessels and parenchyma induced by the presence of paramagnetic tracer. Beyond the perfusion measurements, the results can be applied to quantitation of functional MRI and to vessel size......The concentration of MRI tracers cannot be measured directly by MRI and is commonly evaluated indirectly using their relaxation effect. This study develops a comprehensive theoretical model to describe the transverse relaxation in perfused tissue caused by intravascular tracers. The model takes...

  14. Microscopic Origin of Shear Relaxation in a Model Viscoelastic Liquid

    Ashwin, J.; Sen, Abhijit


    An atomistic description of shear stress relaxation in a viscoelastic liquid is developed from first principles through accurate molecular dynamic simulations in a model Yukawa system. It is shown that the relaxation time τMex of the excess part of the shear stress autocorrelation function provides a correct measure of the relaxation process. Below a certain critical value Γc of the Coulomb coupling strength, the lifetime of local atomic connectivity τLC converges to τMex and is the microscopic origin of the relaxation. At Γ ≫Γc, i.e., in the potential energy dominated regime, τMex→τM (the Maxwell relaxation time) and can, therefore, fully account for the elastic or "solidlike" behavior. Our results can help provide a better fundamental understanding of viscoelastic behavior in a variety of strongly coupled systems such as dusty plasmas, colloids, and non-Newtonian fluids.

  15. A numerical comparison of theories of violent relaxation

    Arad, I


    Using N-body simulations with a large set of massless test particles we compare the predictions of two theories of violent relaxation, the well known Lynden-Bell theory and the more recent theory by Nakamura. We derive ``weaken'' versions of both theories in which we use the whole equilibrium coarse-grained distribution function as a constraint instead of the total energy constraint. We use these weaken theories to construct expressions for the conditional probability $K_i(\\tau)$ that a test particle initially at the phase-space coordinate $\\tau$ would end-up in the $i$'th macro-cell at equilibrium. We show that the logarithm of the ratio $R_{ij}(\\tau) \\equiv K_i(\\tau)/K_j(\\tau)$ is directly proportional to the initial phase-space density $f_0(\\tau)$ for the Lynden-Bell theory and inversely proportional to $f_0(\\tau)$ for the Nakamura theory. We then measure $R_{ij}(\\tau)$ using a set of N-body simulations of a system undergoing a gravitational collapse to check the validity of the two theories of violent rel...

  16. A Psychophysiological Comparison of the Effects of Three Relaxation Techniques: Respiratory Manipulation Training, Progressive Muscle Relaxation, and Pleasant Imagery.

    Longo, David J.

    A within-subjects, three condition design was employed to examine the effects of three relaxation techniques on blood pressures, pulse rates, and self-report measures of relaxation for 12 college students. Respiratory Manipulation Training incorporated instructions to exhale and not to inhale for as long as possible. When breathing could no longer…

  17. Numerical methods for TVD transport and coupled relaxing processes in gases and plasmas

    Cambier, Jean-Luc


    The construction of second-order upwind schemes for nonequilibrium plasmas, for both one- and two-fluid formulations is demonstrated. Coupled relaxation processes, including ionization kinetics and radiative processes and their algorithms for nonequilibrium, multiple temperature conditions are described as well. The paper applies the numerical techniques on some simple test cases, points out critical problems and their solutions, and makes qualitative comparisons with known results, whenever possible.

  18. Relaxation of Shot-Peened Residual Stresses Under Creep Loading (Preprint)


    thermal, and mechanical properties of metals. In addition, surface treatments such as shot peening (SP), low plasticity burnishing (LPB) and...plasticity burnishing (LPB), which are termed low cold work surface treatment processes, are more resistant to thermal relaxation of residual stresses than...analysis and LCF test results for peened bolt hole and dovetail configurations,” Proceedings of ASM’s Conference on Residual Stress – In Design

  19. Relaxation Mode Analysis and Markov State Relaxation Mode Analysis for Chignolin in Aqueous Solution at a Transition Temperature

    Mitsutake, Ayori


    It is important to extract reaction coordinates or order parameters from protein simulations in order to investigate the local-minimum-energy states and the transition between them. The most popular method is principal component analysis, which extracts modes with large conformational fluctuation around an average structure. For protein systems, we recently have applied relaxation mode analysis, which investigate dynamics properties of structural fluctuations of proteins and extract slow relaxation modes. In this article, we apply relaxation mode analysis to extract reaction coordinates for the system, in which there are large conformational changes such as folding/unfolding simulation. We have performed a 750 ns simulation of chignolin at a transition temperature and observed many transitions between the most stable, misfolded and unfolded states. Here, we apply principal component analysis and relaxation mode analysis to the system. In relaxation mode analysis, we extract good reaction coordinates automatic...

  20. Viscous relaxation of Ganymede's impact craters: Constraints on heat flux

    Bland, Michael; Singer, Kelsi N.; McKinnon, William B.; Schenk, Paul M.


    Measurement of crater depths in Ganymede’s dark terrain have revealed substantial numbers of unusually shallow craters indicative of viscous relaxation [see companion paper: Singer, K.N., Schenk, P. M., Bland, M.T., McKinnon, W.B., (2017). Relaxed impact craters on Ganymede: Regional variations and high heat flow. Icarus, submitted]. These viscously relaxed craters provide insight into the thermal history of the dark terrain: the rate of relaxation depends on the size of the crater and the thermal structure of the lithosphere. Here we use finite element simulations of crater relaxation to constrain the heat flux within the dark terrain when relaxation occurred. We show that the degree of viscous relaxation observed cannot be achieved through radiogenic heating alone, even if all of the relaxed craters are ancient and experienced the high radiogenic fluxes present early in the satellite’s history. For craters with diameter ≥ 10 km, heat fluxes of 40–50 mW m-2−2"> can reproduce the observed crater depths, but only if the fluxes are sustained for ∼1 Gyr. These craters can also be explained by shorter-lived “heat pulses” with magnitudes of ∼100 mW m-2−2"> and timescales of 10–100 Myr. At small crater diameters (4 km) the observed shallow depths are difficult to achieve even when heat fluxes as high as 150 mW m-2−2"> are sustained for 1 Gyr. The extreme thermal conditions required to viscously relax small craters may indicate that mechanisms other than viscous relaxation, such as topographic degradation, are also in play at small crater diameters. The timing of the relaxation event(s) is poorly constrained due to the sparsity of adequate topographic information, though it likely occurred in Ganymede’s middle history (neither recently, nor shortly after satellite formation). The consistency between the timing and magnitude of the heat fluxes derived here and those inferred from other tectonic features suggests that a single event

  1. Structural changes and relaxations monitored by luminescence.

    Wang, Y; Yang, B; Townsend, P D


    Luminescence data have often been used to study imperfections and to characterize lattice distortions because the signals are sensitive to changes of structure and composition. Previous studies have included intentionally added probe ions such as rare earth ions to sense distortions in local crystal fields caused by modified structural environments. An under-exploited extension of this approach was to use luminescence to monitor crystalline phase changes. A current overview of this new and powerful technique shows that continuous scanning of the sample temperatures immediately offered at least three types of signatures for phase transitions. Because of high sensitivity, luminescence signals were equally responsive to structural changes from inclusions and nanoparticles. These coupled to the host material via long-range interactions and modified the host signals. Two frequently observed examples that are normally overlooked are from nanoparticle inclusions of water and CO2. Examples also indicated that phase transitions were detected in more diverse materials such as superconductors and fullerenes. Finally, luminescence studies have shown that in some crystalline examples, high dose ion implantation of surface layers could induce relaxations and/or structural changes of the entire underlying bulk material. This was an unexpected result and therefore such a possibility has not previously been explored. However, the implications for ion implication are significant and could be far more general than the examples mentioned here.

  2. Anelastic Relaxation Mechanisms Characterization by Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    Soberon Mobarak, Martin Jesus, E-mail: [Secretaria de Educacion Publica (Mexico)


    Anelastic behavior of crystalline solids is generated by several microstructural processes. Its experimental study yields valuable information about materials, namely: modulus, dissipation mechanisms and activation enthalpies. However, conventional techniques to evaluate it are complicated, expensive, time consuming and not easily replicated. As a new approach, in this work a Moessbauer spectrum of an iron specimen is obtained with the specimen at repose being its parameters the 'base parameters'. After that, the same specimen is subjected to an alternated stress-relaxation cycle at frequency {omega}{sub 1} and a new Moessbauer spectrum is obtained under this excited condition; doing the same at several increasing frequencies {omega}{sub n} in order to scan a wide frequencies spectrum. The differences between the Moessbauer parameters obtained at each excitation frequency and the base parameters are plotted against frequency, yielding an 'anelastic spectrum' that reveals the different dissipation mechanisms involved, its characteristic frequency and activation energy. Results are in good agreement with the obtained with other techniques

  3. Dielectric relaxation in Sr modified PST ceramics

    Sen, S.; Choudhary, R. N. P.


    Nanocrystalline powders of strontium modified PbSn0.15Ti0.85O3 (PST) having the formula Pb0.94Sr0.06Sn0.15 have been synthesized by a precursor solution method. The electrical behavior of Pb0.94Sr0.06Sn0.15Ti0.85O3 sintered pellets has been studied by complex impedance spectroscopy analysis. The plot of the real and imaginary parts of the impedance shows that the semicircle exhibits a depression degree with a distribution of relaxation time. The modulus curve indicates the possibility of non-exponential type conductivity. The values of the activation energy calculated from both plots of Z” and M”, are 1.06 and 1.09 eV, which reveals that the species responsible for conduction are same. It also confirms that oxygen vacancies play an important role in conduction. The non-overlapping of the peaks in the plot of M”/M”max and Z”/Z”max as a function of logarithmic frequency measured at 350 °C indicates short-range conduction. The compounds exhibit a negative temperature coefficient of resistance with an α value of -5×10-2 °C at 375 °C. The frequency (ω) dependence of conductivity satisfies the ωn power law. The variation of n with temperature suggests that ac conduction is due to small polaron tunneling.

  4. Ideal Relaxation of the Hopf Fibration

    Smiet, Christopber Berg; Bouwmeester, Dirk


    We study the topology conserving relaxation of a magnetic field based on the Hopf fibration in which magnetic field lines are closed circles that are all linked with one another. In order to find a stable plasma configuration in which the pressure gradient balances the Lorentz forces, and the magnetic field preserves its Hopf topology we take the following steps. First, we take the magnetic Hopf fibration at constant pressure as initial condition. Second, we let the system evolve under a non-resistive evolution in order to preserve the magnetic field topology while balancing pressure gradients can build up. Third, we add viscosity to damp any oscillatory fluid motion. In this way we find an equilibrium plasma configuration, characterized by a lowered pressure in a toroidal region, with field lines lying on surfaces of constant pressure, and as such the field is in a Grad-Shafranov equilibrium. Such a field configuration is of interest to astrophysical plasma and earth-based fusion plasma.

  5. Mixing, ergodicity and slow relaxation phenomena

    Costa, I. V. L.; Vainstein, M. H.; Lapas, L. C.; Batista, A. A.; Oliveira, F. A.


    Investigations on diffusion in systems with memory [I.V.L. Costa, R. Morgado, M.V.B.T. Lima, F.A. Oliveira, Europhys. Lett. 63 (2003) 173] have established a hierarchical connection between mixing, ergodicity, and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT). This hierarchy means that ergodicity is a necessary condition for the validity of the FDT, and mixing is a necessary condition for ergodicity. In this work, we compare those results with recent investigations using the Lee recurrence relations method [M.H. Lee, Phys. Rev. B 26 (1982) 2547; M.H. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001) 250601; M.H. Lee, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 (2006) 4651]. Lee shows that ergodicity is violated in the dynamics of the electron gas [M.H. Lee, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 (2006) 4651]. This reinforces both works and implies that the results of [I.V.L. Costa, R. Morgado, M.V.B.T. Lima, F.A. Oliveira, Europhys. Lett. 63 (2003) 173] are more general than the framework in which they were obtained. Some applications to slow relaxation phenomena are discussed.

  6. Vertical dimonsion changes after muscle relaxation

    Shahroodi MH


    Full Text Available In this study, 116 edentulous patients in the age group 37-90 yrs were selected. Out of the above,"n12 patients had visited the dept. Of prosthodontics for the first time for treatment. Other 34 of them were"npatients of the dental school and the rest were from Kahrizak and Nikan sanatoriums."nInitially, the V.D. of rest was measured as usual for all the patients. After subjecting them to the excercises of completely opening and closing of the mouth for 15 no. of times, the rest position was measured again. Results show that the changes in V.D.R. after, excercises, relaxing the elevator and depressor muscles and the duration of usage of prosthesis, the following conclusions are obtained."n1. There is an increase in V.D.R. after tiring out the elevator and depressor muscles of the jaws."n2. There is a direct co - relation between the increased V.D.R. and duration of use of prosthesis after excercises."n3. Change in the V.D.R. after excercise is notably more in women."n4. No definite conclusion is obtained in the relationship between changes in V.D.R. after excercises and use of prosthesis during sleep."n5. As above no conclusions as yet can be deduced between changes in V.D.R. and different operators.

  7. Isobolographic analysis of non-depolarising muscle relaxant interactions at their receptor site.

    Paul, Matthias; Kindler, Christoph H; Fokt, Ralf M; Dipp, Natalie C J; Yost, C Spencer


    Administration of certain combinations of non-depolarising muscle relaxants produces greater than expected neuromuscular blockade. Synergistic effects may be explained by drug interactions with the postsynaptic muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. To investigate this hypothesis, the adult mouse muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha(2)beta delta epsilon) was heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and activated by the application of acetylcholine (10 microM). The effects of five individually applied muscle relaxants and six combinations of structurally similar and dissimilar compounds were studied. Drug combinations containing equipotent concentrations of two agents were tested and dose-response curves were determined. All compounds tested alone and in combination produced rapid and readily reversible, concentration-dependent inhibition. Isobolographic and fractional analyses indicated additive interactions for all six tested combinations. These findings suggest that synergistic neuromuscular blocking effects, observed for the administration of certain combinations of muscle relaxants, do not result from purely postsynaptic binding events at the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, but rather from differential actions on pre- and postsynaptic sites.

  8. Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on Pain Threshold and Effectiveness of Footballers’ Training

    Jaworska Lilianna


    Full Text Available Purpose. Relaxing in the athlete’s training process is underutilized. Relaxation techniques, however, should be taught from the very beginning of the footballer’s training career. The main aim of this study was to present the effect of progressive muscle relaxation on pressure pain threshold levels and the effectiveness of the footballer’s training. Methods. A sample of 32 football players participated in the therapeutic program consisting of 8 PMR sessions. Before and after applying a pressure therapy, the pain threshold in the lumbar region was measured by a dolorimeter and the Cooper test was carried out to determine the footballers’ level of endurance. Results. PMR training did not increase significantly the pain threshold level in the experimental group (p > 0.05, but it increased significantly the distance covered in the Cooper test (p = 0.04. Analysis of the Spearman rank correlation was also carried out (p = 0.81. Conclusions. PMR does not lower pain perception threshold. PMR therapy increases the distance measured by the Cooper test. In order to determine the role of PMR in injury prevention, further research is necessary.

  9. Determination of relaxation modulus of time-dependent materials using neural networks

    Aulova, Alexandra; Govekar, Edvard; Emri, Igor


    Health monitoring systems for plastic based structures require the capability of real time tracking of changes in response to the time-dependent behavior of polymer based structures. The paper proposes artificial neural networks as a tool of solving inverse problem appearing within time-dependent material characterization, since the conventional methods are computationally demanding and cannot operate in the real time mode. Abilities of a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and a Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFN) to solve ill-posed inverse problems on an example of determination of a time-dependent relaxation modulus curve segment from constant strain rate tensile test data are investigated. The required modeling data composed of strain rate, tensile and related relaxation modulus were generated using existing closed-form solution. Several neural networks topologies were tested with respect to the structure of input data, and their performance was compared to an exponential fitting technique. Selected optimal topologies of MLP and RBFN were tested for generalization and robustness on noisy data; performance of all the modeling methods with respect to the number of data points in the input vector was analyzed as well. It was shown that MLP and RBFN are capable of solving inverse problems related to the determination of a time dependent relaxation modulus curve segment. Particular topologies demonstrate good generalization and robustness capabilities, where the topology of RBFN with data provided in parallel proved to be superior compared to other methods.

  10. Determination of relaxation modulus of time-dependent materials using neural networks

    Aulova, Alexandra; Govekar, Edvard; Emri, Igor


    Health monitoring systems for plastic based structures require the capability of real time tracking of changes in response to the time-dependent behavior of polymer based structures. The paper proposes artificial neural networks as a tool of solving inverse problem appearing within time-dependent material characterization, since the conventional methods are computationally demanding and cannot operate in the real time mode. Abilities of a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and a Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFN) to solve ill-posed inverse problems on an example of determination of a time-dependent relaxation modulus curve segment from constant strain rate tensile test data are investigated. The required modeling data composed of strain rate, tensile and related relaxation modulus were generated using existing closed-form solution. Several neural networks topologies were tested with respect to the structure of input data, and their performance was compared to an exponential fitting technique. Selected optimal topologies of MLP and RBFN were tested for generalization and robustness on noisy data; performance of all the modeling methods with respect to the number of data points in the input vector was analyzed as well. It was shown that MLP and RBFN are capable of solving inverse problems related to the determination of a time dependent relaxation modulus curve segment. Particular topologies demonstrate good generalization and robustness capabilities, where the topology of RBFN with data provided in parallel proved to be superior compared to other methods.

  11. Distinguishing magnetic vs. quadrupolar relaxation in b-NMR using 8Li and 9Li

    Chatzichristos, A.; McFadden, R. M. L.; Karner, V. L.; Cortie, D. L.; Fang, A.; Levy, C. D. P.; Macfarlane, W. A.; Morris, G. D.; Pearson, M. R.; Salman, Z.; Kiefl, R. F.


    Beta-detected NMR is a powerful technique in condensed matter physics. It uses the parity violation of beta decay to detect the NMR signal from a beam of highly polarized radionuclides implanted in a sample material. Spin-lattice relaxation (SLR) is studied by monitoring the rate with which the asymmetry between the beta counts in two opposing detectors is lost. Unlike classical NMR, b-NMR can study thin films and near-surface effects. The most common b-NMR isotope at TRIUMF is 8Li, which has a quadrupole moment, thus it is sensitive to both magnetic fields and electric field gradients. A challenge with 8Li b-NMR is identifying the predominant mechanism of SLR in a given sample. It is possible to distinguish between SLR mechanisms by varying the probe isotope. For two isotopes with different nuclear moments, the ratio of SLR rates should be different in the limits of either pure magnetic or quadrupolar relaxation. This method has been used in classical NMR and we report its first application to b-NMR. We measured the SLR rates for 8Li and 8Li in Pt foil and SrTiO3. Pt is a test case for pure magnetic relaxation. SrTiO3 is a non-magnetic insulator, but the source of its relaxation is not well understood. Here we show that its relaxation is mainly quadrupolar. We thank TRIUMF's CMMS for their technical support. This work was supported by: NSERC Discovery Grants to R.F.K. and W.A.M.; and IsoSiM fellowships to A.C. and R.M.L.M.

  12. Predicting permeability from the characteristic relaxation time and intrinsic formation factor of complex conductivity spectra

    Revil, A.; Binley, A.; Mejus, L.; Kessouri, P.


    Low-frequency quadrature conductivity spectra of siliclastic materials exhibit typically a characteristic relaxation time, which either corresponds to the peak frequency of the phase or the quadrature conductivity or a typical corner frequency, at which the quadrature conductivity starts to decrease rapidly toward lower frequencies. This characteristic relaxation time can be combined with the (intrinsic) formation factor and a diffusion coefficient to predict the permeability to flow of porous materials at saturation. The intrinsic formation factor can either be determined at several salinities using an electrical conductivity model or at a single salinity using a relationship between the surface and quadrature conductivities. The diffusion coefficient entering into the relationship between the permeability, the characteristic relaxation time, and the formation factor takes only two distinct values for isothermal conditions. For pure silica, the diffusion coefficient of cations, like sodium or potassium, in the Stern layer is equal to the diffusion coefficient of these ions in the bulk pore water, indicating weak sorption of these couterions. For clayey materials and clean sands and sandstones whose surface have been exposed to alumina (possibly iron), the diffusion coefficient of the cations in the Stern layer appears to be 350 times smaller than the diffusion coefficient of the same cations in the pore water. These values are consistent with the values of the ionic mobilities used to determine the amplitude of the low and high-frequency quadrature conductivities and surface conductivity. The database used to test the model comprises a total of 202 samples. Our analysis reveals that permeability prediction with the proposed model is usually within an order of magnitude from the measured value above 0.1 mD. We also discuss the relationship between the different time constants that have been considered in previous works as characteristic relaxation time, including

  13. Reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation to anandamide in mesenteric arteries from young obese Zucker rats.

    Nubia S Lobato

    Full Text Available Impaired vascular function, manifested by an altered ability of the endothelium to release endothelium-derived relaxing factors and endothelium-derived contracting factors, is consistently reported in obesity. Considering that the endothelium plays a major role in the relaxant response to the cannabinoid agonist anandamide, the present study tested the hypothesis that vascular relaxation to anandamide is decreased in obese rats. Mechanisms contributing to decreased anandamide-induced vasodilation were determined. Resistance mesenteric arteries from young obese Zucker rats (OZRs and their lean counterparts (LZRs were used. Vascular reactivity was evaluated in a myograph for isometric tension recording. Protein expression and localization were analyzed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence, respectively. Vasorelaxation to anandamide, acetylcholine, and sodium nitroprusside, as well as to CB1, CB2, and TRPV1 agonists was decreased in endothelium-intact mesenteric arteries from OZRs. Incubation with an AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK activator or a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor restored anandamide-induced vascular relaxation in OZRs. CB1 and CB2 receptors protein expression was decreased in arteries from OZRs. Incubation of mesenteric arteries with anandamide evoked endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, AMPK and acetyl CoA carboxylase phosphorylation in LZRs, whereas it decreased phosphorylation of these proteins in OZRs. In conclusion, obesity decreases anandamide-induced relaxation in resistance arteries. Decreased cannabinoid receptors expression, increased anandamide degradation, decreased AMPK/eNOS activity as well as impairment of the response mediated by TRPV1 activation seem to contribute to reduce responses to cannabinoid agonists in obesity.

  14. Estimation of T2 relaxation time of breast cancer: Correlation with clinical, imaging and pathological features

    Seo, Mirinae; Sohn, Yu Mee [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jung Kyu; Jahng, Geon Ho; Rhee, Sun Jung; Oh, Jang Hoon; Won, Kyu Yeoun [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study was to estimate the T2* relaxation time in breast cancer, and to evaluate the association between the T2* value with clinical-imaging-pathological features of breast cancer. Between January 2011 and July 2013, 107 consecutive women with 107 breast cancers underwent multi-echo T2*-weighted imaging on a 3T clinical magnetic resonance imaging system. The Student's t test and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare the T2* values of cancer for different groups, based on the clinical-imaging-pathological features. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to find independent predictive factors associated with the T2* values. Of the 107 breast cancers, 92 were invasive and 15 were ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). The mean T2* value of invasive cancers was significantly longer than that of DCIS (p = 0.029). Signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and histologic grade of invasive breast cancers showed significant correlation with T2* relaxation time in univariate and multivariate analysis. Breast cancer groups with higher signal intensity on T2WI showed longer T2* relaxation time (p = 0.005). Cancer groups with higher histologic grade showed longer T2* relaxation time (p = 0.017). The T2* value is significantly longer in invasive cancer than in DCIS. In invasive cancers, T2* relaxation time is significantly longer in higher histologic grades and high signal intensity on T2WI. Based on these preliminary data, quantitative T2* mapping has the potential to be useful in the characterization of breast cancer.

  15. Effects of ginger and its constituents on airway smooth muscle relaxation and calcium regulation.

    Townsend, Elizabeth A; Siviski, Matthew E; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Carrie; Hoonjan, Bhupinder; Emala, Charles W


    The prevalence of asthma has increased in recent years, and is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Many patients report using alternative therapies to self-treat asthma symptoms as adjuncts to short-acting and long-acting β-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). As many as 40% of patients with asthma use herbal therapies to manage asthma symptoms, often without proven efficacy or known mechanisms of action. Therefore, investigations of both the therapeutic and possible detrimental effects of isolated components of herbal treatments on the airway are important. We hypothesized that ginger and its active components induce bronchodilation by modulating intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) in airway smooth muscle (ASM). In isolated human ASM, ginger caused significant and rapid relaxation. Four purified constituents of ginger were subsequently tested for ASM relaxant properties in both guinea pig and human tracheas: [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol induced rapid relaxation of precontracted ASM (100-300 μM), whereas [10]-gingerol failed to induce relaxation. In human ASM cells, exposure to [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol, but not [10]-gingerol (100 μM), blunted subsequent Ca(2+) responses to bradykinin (10 μM) and S-(-)-Bay K 8644 (10 μM). In A/J mice, the nebulization of [8]-gingerol (100 μM), 15 minutes before methacholine challenge, significantly attenuated airway resistance, compared with vehicle. Taken together, these novel data show that ginger and its isolated active components, [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol, relax ASM, and [8]-gingerol attenuates airway hyperresponsiveness, in part by altering [Ca(2+)](i) regulation. These purified compounds may provide a therapeutic option alone or in combination with accepted therapeutics, including β(2)-agonists, in airway diseases such as asthma.




    Full Text Available Background: Neck pain is a common problem within our society. Upper trapezius sternocleidomastoid and the levator scapulae are the most common postural muscles that tends to get shorten leading to restricted neck mobility. There is lack of evidence to allow conclusions to be drawn about the effectiveness of post isometric relaxation when compared with static stretching exercises. The aim is to find out the effectiveness of Post isometric relaxation Versus Static stretching in the subjects with chronic nonspecific neck pain. To evaluate the effectiveness of post isometric relaxation technique on pain by using Visual analoge scale, range of motion by using Universal Goniometry, and functional disability by using Neck Disability Index in chronic nonspecific neck pain. Methods: A convenient sample of thirty seven subjects was diagnosed with nonspecific neck pain was randomly allocated to one of the two treatment groups on the basis of the inclusion criteria. The experimental group (n=15 received three sessions of post isometric relaxation technique for trapezius, sternocleidomastoid and the levator scapulae and control group (n=15 received the three sessions of static stretching for trapezius, sternocliedomastiod and levator scapulae for four weeks. Results: Non parametric tests demonstrated a statistically significant difference with experimental group showing greater improvement in ROM, VAS, and NDI than the control group and significant difference within the group also. Conclusion: This study concluded and the results reflected that post isometric relaxation technique group had better improvement in reduction of pain, improvement in the range of motion, and increased neck functional activities than the static stretching group.

  17. Physical activity maintains aortic endothelium-dependent relaxation in the obese type 2 diabetic OLETF rat.

    Bunker, Aaron K; Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A; Rector, R Scott; Booth, Frank W; Ibdah, Jamal A; Laughlin, M Harold


    We tested the hypothesis that physical activity can attenuate the temporal decline of ACh-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation during type 2 diabetes mellitus progression in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rat. Sedentary OLETF rats exhibited decreased ACh-induced abdominal aortic endothelium-dependent relaxation from 13 to 20 wk of age (20-35%) and from 13 to 40 wk of age (35-50%). ACh-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was maintained in the physically active OLETF group and control sedentary Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) group from 13 to 40 wk of age. Aortic pretreatment with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA), indomethacin (Indo), and l-NNA + Indo did not alter the temporal decline in ACh-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation. Temporal changes in the protein expression of SOD isoforms in the aortic endothelium or smooth muscle did not contribute to the temporal decline in ACh-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in sedentary OLETF rats. A significant increase in the 40-wk-old sedentary LETO and physically active OLETF rat aortic phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide (p-eNOS)-to-eNOS ratio was observed versus 13- and 20-wk-old rats in each group that was not seen in the 40- versus 13- and 20-wk-old sedentary OLETF rats. These results suggest that temporal changes in the antioxidant system, EDHF, and cycloxygenase metabolite production in sedentary OLETF rat aortas do not contribute to the temporal decline in sedentary OLETF rat aortic ACh-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation seen with type 2 diabetes mellitus progression. We also report that physical activity in conjunction with aging in the OLETF rat results in a temporal increase in the aortic endothelial p-eNOS-to-eNOS ratio that was not seen in sedentary OLETF rats. These results suggest that the sustained aortic ACh-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in aged physically active OLETF rats may be the result of an increase in active aortic eNOS.

  18. Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Counseling on Anxiety among Primigravida Women Referred to Health Care Centers in Hamadan

    Fateme Shobeiri


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Progressive muscle relaxation is a non-invasive, cost-effective and complication less method which can be performed independently by the individual. Considering the importance of psychological problems during pregnancy, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of progressive muscle relaxation counseling on anxiety among primigravida women referred to health care centers in Hamadan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial with two groups (experimental and control with pre-test and post-test. A total of 120 women were referred to health centers in Hamadan who were experiencing their first pregnancy and were consecutively enrolled in the study, after obtaining informed consents. They were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups (60 women in each group by allocation concealment. The control group only received routine prenatal care, but the experimental group after two counseling sessions and learning muscle relaxation techniques performed progressive muscle relaxation exercises from 21-22 weeks for 10 weeks, and completed the daily performance sheet of relaxation. The study data collection tools included a demographic questionnaire, Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory, and the daily performance sheet for the intervention group. Data were analyzed in SPSS 20 using independent samples t-test, Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, and paired t-test. Results: Data analysis reflected the homogeneity of the state and trait anxiety levels in both groups before the intervention. The results showed that state and trait anxiety in the control group after the intervention was significantly increased (P<0.001, but the experimental group showed a significant decrease in state and trait anxiety after the intervention (P<0.001. Conclusions: Teaching progressive muscle relaxation techniques to pregnant women can have a significant impact on reducing pregnancy anxiety.

  19. Relaxation dynamics of a protein solution investigated by dielectric spectroscopy.

    Wolf, M; Gulich, R; Lunkenheimer, P; Loidl, A


    In the present work, we provide a dielectric study on two differently concentrated aqueous lysozyme solutions in the frequency range from 1MHz to 40GHz and for temperatures from 275 to 330K. We analyze the three dispersion regions, commonly found in protein solutions, usually termed β-, γ-, and δ-relaxations. The β-relaxation, occurring in the frequency range around 10MHz and the γ-relaxation around 20GHz (at room temperature) can be attributed to the rotation of the polar protein molecules in their aqueous medium and the reorientational motion of the free water molecules, respectively. The nature of the δ-relaxation, which is often ascribed to the motion of bound water molecules, is not yet fully understood. Here we provide data on the temperature dependence of the relaxation times and relaxation strengths of all three detected processes and on the dc conductivity arising from ionic charge transport. The temperature dependences of the β- and γ-relaxations are closely correlated. We found a significant temperature dependence of the dipole moment of the protein, indicating conformational changes. Moreover we find a breakdown of the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relation in this protein solution, i.e., the dc conductivity is not completely governed by the mobility of the solvent molecules. Instead it seems that the dc conductivity is closely connected to the hydration shell dynamics.

  20. Stochastic tools hidden behind the empirical dielectric relaxation laws

    Stanislavsky, Aleksander; Weron, Karina


    The paper is devoted to recent advances in stochastic modeling of anomalous kinetic processes observed in dielectric materials which are prominent examples of disordered (complex) systems. Theoretical studies of dynamical properties of ‘structures with variations’ (Goldenfield and Kadanoff 1999 Science 284 87–9) require application of such mathematical tools—by means of which their random nature can be analyzed and, independently of the details distinguishing various systems (dipolar materials, glasses, semiconductors, liquid crystals, polymers, etc), the empirical universal kinetic patterns can be derived. We begin with a brief survey of the historical background of the dielectric relaxation study. After a short outline of the theoretical ideas providing the random tools applicable to modeling of relaxation phenomena, we present probabilistic implications for the study of the relaxation-rate distribution models. In the framework of the probability distribution of relaxation rates we consider description of complex systems, in which relaxing entities form random clusters interacting with each other and single entities. Then we focus on stochastic mechanisms of the relaxation phenomenon. We discuss the diffusion approach and its usefulness for understanding of anomalous dynamics of relaxing systems. We also discuss extensions of the diffusive approach to systems under tempered random processes. Useful relationships among different stochastic approaches to the anomalous dynamics of complex systems allow us to get a fresh look at this subject. The paper closes with a final discussion on achievements of stochastic tools describing the anomalous time evolution of complex systems.

  1. Ultrafast energy relaxation in single light-harvesting complexes.

    Malý, Pavel; Gruber, J Michael; Cogdell, Richard J; Mančal, Tomáš; van Grondelle, Rienk


    Energy relaxation in light-harvesting complexes has been extensively studied by various ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, the fastest processes being in the sub-100-fs range. At the same time, much slower dynamics have been observed in individual complexes by single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy (SMS). In this work, we use a pump-probe-type SMS technique to observe the ultrafast energy relaxation in single light-harvesting complexes LH2 of purple bacteria. After excitation at 800 nm, the measured relaxation time distribution of multiple complexes has a peak at 95 fs and is asymmetric, with a tail at slower relaxation times. When tuning the excitation wavelength, the distribution changes in both its shape and position. The observed behavior agrees with what is to be expected from the LH2 excited states structure. As we show by a Redfield theory calculation of the relaxation times, the distribution shape corresponds to the expected effect of Gaussian disorder of the pigment transition energies. By repeatedly measuring few individual complexes for minutes, we find that complexes sample the relaxation time distribution on a timescale of seconds. Furthermore, by comparing the distribution from a single long-lived complex with the whole ensemble, we demonstrate that, regarding the relaxation times, the ensemble can be considered ergodic. Our findings thus agree with the commonly used notion of an ensemble of identical LH2 complexes experiencing slow random fluctuations.

  2. Analysis of 2D NMR relaxation data using Chisholm approximations

    Huber, S.; Haase, A.; Gleich, B.


    To analyze 2D NMR relaxation data based on a discrete delta-like relaxation map we extended the Padé-Laplace method to two dimensions. We approximate the forward Laplace image of the time domain signal by a Chisholm approximation, i.e. a rational polynomial in two dimensions. The poles and residues of this approximation correspond to the relaxation rates and weighting factors of the underlying relaxation map. In this work we explain the principle ideas of our algorithm and demonstrate its applicability. Therefore we compare the inversion results of the Chisholm approximation and Tikhonov regularization method as a function of SNR when the investigated signal is based on a given discrete relaxation map. Our algorithm proved to be reliable for SNRs larger than 50 and is able to compete with the Tikhonov regularization method. Furthermore we show that our method is also able to detect the simulated relaxation compartments of narrow Gaussian distributions with widths less or equal than 0.05 s-1. Finally we investigate the resolution limit with experimental data. For a SNR of 750 the Chisholm approximation method was able to resolve two relaxation compartments in 8 of 10 cases when both compartments differ by a factor of 1.7.

  3. State resolved vibrational relaxation modeling for strongly nonequilibrium flows

    Boyd, Iain D.; Josyula, Eswar


    Vibrational relaxation is an important physical process in hypersonic flows. Activation of the vibrational mode affects the fundamental thermodynamic properties and finite rate relaxation can reduce the degree of dissociation of a gas. Low fidelity models of vibrational activation employ a relaxation time to capture the process at a macroscopic level. High fidelity, state-resolved models have been developed for use in continuum gas dynamics simulations based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). By comparison, such models are not as common for use with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. In this study, a high fidelity, state-resolved vibrational relaxation model is developed for the DSMC technique. The model is based on the forced harmonic oscillator approach in which multi-quantum transitions may become dominant at high temperature. Results obtained for integrated rate coefficients from the DSMC model are consistent with the corresponding CFD model. Comparison of relaxation results obtained with the high-fidelity DSMC model shows significantly less excitation of upper vibrational levels in comparison to the standard, lower fidelity DSMC vibrational relaxation model. Application of the new DSMC model to a Mach 7 normal shock wave in carbon monoxide provides better agreement with experimental measurements than the standard DSMC relaxation model.

  4. Vibrational energy transfer in selectively excited diatomic molecules. [Relaxation rates, self-relaxation, upper limits

    Dasch, C.J.


    Single rovibrational states of HCl(v=2), HBr(v=2), DCl(v=2), and CO(v=2) were excited with a pulsed optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Total vibrational relaxation rates near - resonance quenchers were measured at 295/sup 0/K using time resolved infrared fluorescence. These rates are attributed primarily to V - V energy transfer, and they generally conform to a simple energy gap law. A small deviation was found for the CO(v) + DCl(v') relaxation rates. Upper limits for the self relaxation by V - R,T of HCl(v=2) and HBr(v=2) and for the two quantum exchange between HCl and HBr were determined. The HF dimer was detected at 295/sup 0/K and 30 torr HF pressure with an optoacoustic spectrometer using the OPO. Pulsed and chopped, resonant and non-resonant spectrophones are analyzed in detail. From experiments and first order perturbation theory, these V - V exchange rates appear to behave as a first order perturbation in the vibrational coordinates. The rotational dynamics are known to be complicated however, and the coupled rotational - vibrational dynamics were investigated theoreticaly in infinite order by the Dillon and Stephenson and the first Magnus approximations. Large transitions appear to be important, but these calculations differ by orders of magnitude on specific rovibrational transition rates. Integration of the time dependent semiclassical equations by a modified Gordon method and a rotationally distorted wave approximation are discussed as methods which would treat the rotational motion more accurately. 225 references.

  5. Extended MHD Modeling of Tearing-Driven Magnetic Relaxation

    Sauppe, Joshua


    Driven plasma pinch configurations are characterized by the gradual accumulation and episodic release of free energy in discrete relaxation events. The hallmark of this relaxation in a reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasma is flattening of the parallel current density profile effected by a fluctuation-induced dynamo emf in Ohm's law. Nonlinear two-fluid modeling of macroscopic RFP dynamics has shown appreciable coupling of magnetic relaxation and the evolution of plasma flow. Accurate modeling of RFP dynamics requires the Hall effect in Ohm's law as well as first order ion finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects, represented by the Braginskii ion gyroviscous stress tensor. New results find that the Hall dynamo effect from / ne can counter the MHD effect from - in some of the relaxation events. The MHD effect dominates these events and relaxes the current profile toward the Taylor state, but the opposition of the two dynamos generates plasma flow in the direction of equilibrium current density, consistent with experimental measurements. Detailed experimental measurements of the MHD and Hall emf terms are compared to these extended MHD predictions. Tracking the evolution of magnetic energy, helicity, and hybrid helicity during relaxation identifies the most important contributions in single-fluid and two-fluid models. Magnetic helicity is well conserved relative to the magnetic energy during relaxation. The hybrid helicity is dominated by magnetic helicity in realistic low-beta pinch conditions and is also well conserved. Differences of less than 1 % between magnetic helicity and hybrid helicity are observed with two-fluid modeling and result from cross helicity evolution through ion FLR effects, which have not been included in contemporary relaxation theories. The kinetic energy driven by relaxation in the computations is dominated by velocity components perpendicular to the magnetic field, an effect that had not been predicted. Work performed at University of Wisconsin


    Farida Juanita


    Full Text Available Introduction: The numbers of breastfeeding failures are mostly caused by mothers` disbelief to themselves. One method that can be done to overcome these problems in accordance with the self-care nursing theory is the autogenic training relaxation. This method teaches mothers to be self-sufficient in building a positive intention and motivation to help the process of breastfeeding. This study aimed to examine the influence of autogenic training relaxation to the effectiveness of breastfeeding and the enhancement of breast milk volume on maternal postpartum. Method: By using an experimental posttest only-non equivalent control group design, 26 samples were taken based on the criteria and divided into two groups by matching technuiqe. autogenic training was given through MP3 Player for 3 weeks. Post-test observation conducted on the third week by home visit. Via Christi Breastfeeding Assessment Tool Jan Riordan modifications used to assess the effectiveness of breastfeeding, and to measure the milk ejection volume, used weighing test using electronic baby scales. Data were analyzed using one-tailed independent t test with α ≤ 0.05. Result: The analysis showed that mothers who did autogenic training relaxation could breastfeed more effectively and had greater average volume of milk ejection than the control group (p = 0.000 and p = 0.001. Discussion: It can be concluded that autogenic relaxation training techniques affect the effectiveness of breastfeeding and breast milk volume. These results can be considered that autogenic training as an intervention in program of support for breastfeeding mothers.

  7. Ultrafast vibrational energy relaxation of the water bridge.

    Piatkowski, Lukasz; Wexler, Adam D; Fuchs, Elmar C; Schoenmaker, Hinco; Bakker, Huib J


    We report the energy relaxation of the OH stretch vibration of HDO molecules contained in an HDO:D(2)O water bridge using femtosecond mid-infrared pump-probe spectroscopy. We found that the vibrational lifetime is shorter (~630 ± 50 fs) than for HDO molecules in bulk HDO:D(2)O (~740 ± 40 fs). In contrast, the thermalization dynamics following the vibrational relaxation are much slower (~1.5 ± 0.4 ps) than in bulk HDO:D(2)O (~250 ± 90 fs). These differences in energy relaxation dynamics strongly indicate that the water bridge and bulk water differ on a molecular scale.

  8. Chemical relaxation times in a hadron gas at finite temperature

    Goity, J L


    The relaxation times of particle numbers in hot hadronic matter with vanishing baryon number are estimated using the ideal gas approximation and taking into account resonance decays and annihilation processes as the only sources of particle number fluctuations. Near the QCD critical temperature the longest relaxation times turn out to be of the order of 10 fm and grow roughly exponentially to become of the order of $10^{3}$ fm at temperatures around 100 MeV. As a consequence of such long relaxation times, a clear departure from chemical equilibrium must be observed in the momentum distribution of secondary particles produced in high energy nuclear collisions.

  9. The β relaxation in metallic glasses: an overview

    Hai-Bin Yu


    Full Text Available Metallic glasses, combining metallic bonding and disordered atomic structures, are at the cutting edge of metallic materials research. Recent advances in this field have revealed that many key questions in glassy physics are inherently connected to one important relaxation mode: the so-called secondary (β relaxation. Here, in metallic glasses, we review the features of β relaxations and their relations to other processes and properties. Special emphasis is put on their current roles and future promise in understanding the glass transition phenomenon, mechanical properties and mechanisms of plastic deformation, diffusion, physical aging, as well as the stability and crystallization of metallic glasses.

  10. On semidefinite programming relaxations of the traveling salesman problem

    de Klerk, Etienne; Sotirov, Renata; 10.1137/070711141


    We consider a new semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxation of the symmetric traveling salesman problem (TSP) that may be obtained via an SDP relaxation of the more general quadratic assignment problem (QAP). We show that the new relaxation dominates the one in [D. Cvetkovic, M. Cangalovic, and V. Kovacevic-Vujcic, Semidefinite programming methods for the symmetric traveling salesman problem, in Proc. 7th Int. IPCO Conference, Springer, London, 1999, pp. 126--136]. Unlike the bound of Cvetkovic et al., the new SDP bound is not dominated by the Held-Karp linear programming bound, or vice versa.


    Mohammed Sea(l)d


    We construct and implement a non-oscillatory relaxation scheme for multidimensional hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. The method transforms the nonlinear hyperbolic system to a semilinear model with a relaxation source term and linear characteristics which can be solved numerically without using either Riemann solver or linear iterations.To discretize the relaxation system we consider a high-resolution reconstruction in space and a TVD Runge-Kutta time integration. Detailed formulation of the scheme is given for problems in three space dimensions and numerical experiments are implemented in both scalar and system cases to show the effectiveness of the method.

  12. Anelastic Relaxation of Point Defects in Cubic Crystals

    Weller, M.


    Point defects in solids can give rise to anelastic relaxation provided that the defects behave as elastic dipoles. Experiments with single crystals give information on the atomic configuration of the point defects. Measurements of the orientation dependence of the relaxation strength allow determination of the defect symmetry and the dipole shape factor δλ=|λ1-λ2|. This is demonstrated for two examples : (i) The Snoek relaxation of O and N in Nb and Ta single crystals : The δλ values for O an...

  13. Mechanism of latency relaxation in frog skeletal muscle.

    Yagi, N


    The latency relaxation is a small drop of tension before skeletal muscle begins to develop active tension. This phenomenon was found nearly one century ago but its origin has not been clarified. In this review, the hypotheses for its mechanism are discussed in terms of the recent experimental results using X-ray diffraction. The latency relaxation takes place almost simultaneously as the structural change of the regulatory protein troponin, an unspecified structural change of the thick filament, and increase in stiffness. It seems difficult to associate all of these with the latency relaxation by assuming a simple mechanism. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Parallel rapid relaxation inversion of 3D magnetotelluric data%大地电磁三维快速松弛反演并行算法研究

    林昌洪; 谭捍东; 佟拓


    We implement a parallel algorithm with the advantage of MPI (Message Passing Interface) to speed up the rapid relaxation inversion for 3D magnetotelluric data. We test the parallel rapid relaxation algorithm with synthetic and real data. The execution efficiency of the algorithm for several different situations is also compared. The results 'indicate that the parallel rapid relaxation algorithm for 3D magnetotelluric inversion, is effective. This parallel algorithm implemented on a common PC promotes the practical application of 3D magnetotelluric inversion and can be suitable for the other geophysical 3D modeling and inversion.

  15. Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi method: Improvements and applications

    Adsuara, J. E.; Cordero-Carrión, I.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Aloy, M. A.


    Elliptic partial differential equations (ePDEs) appear in a wide variety of areas of mathematics, physics and engineering. Typically, ePDEs must be solved numerically, which sets an ever growing demand for efficient and highly parallel algorithms to tackle their computational solution. The Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi (SRJ) is a promising class of methods, atypical for combining simplicity and efficiency, that has been recently introduced for solving linear Poisson-like ePDEs. The SRJ methodology relies on computing the appropriate parameters of a multilevel approach with the goal of minimizing the number of iterations needed to cut down the residuals below specified tolerances. The efficiency in the reduction of the residual increases with the number of levels employed in the algorithm. Applying the original methodology to compute the algorithm parameters with more than 5 levels notably hinders obtaining optimal SRJ schemes, as the mixed (non-linear) algebraic-differential system of equations from which they result becomes notably stiff. Here we present a new methodology for obtaining the parameters of SRJ schemes that overcomes the limitations of the original algorithm and provide parameters for SRJ schemes with up to 15 levels and resolutions of up to 215 points per dimension, allowing for acceleration factors larger than several hundreds with respect to the Jacobi method for typical resolutions and, in some high resolution cases, close to 1000. Most of the success in finding SRJ optimal schemes with more than 10 levels is based on an analytic reduction of the complexity of the previously mentioned system of equations. Furthermore, we extend the original algorithm to apply it to certain systems of non-linear ePDEs.

  16. The effects of frontal EMG biofeedback and progressive relaxation upon hyperactivity and its behavioral concomitants.

    Braud, L W


    Hyperactive children (N = 15) and nonhyperactive children (N = 15) were compared. Hyperactive children were found to possess significantly higher (p less than .002) muscular tension levels and, in addition, presented more behavioral problems and had lower test scores. Both electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback and progressive relaxation exercises were successful in the significant reduction of muscular tension, hyperactivity, distractability, irritability, impulsivity, explosiveness, aggressivity, and emotionality in hyperactive children. The greatest improvement was seen in the area of "emotionality-aggression" (irritability, explosiveness, impulsivity, low frustration tolerance, aggresion). No differences were seen in the EMG improvement of drug and nondrug hyperactive children; both made progress under these self-control techniques. However, nondrug children made greater improvements in the behavioral area. Both EMG biofeedback and progressive relaxation resulted in improvements on the test scores of hyperactive subjects (Bender-Gestalt, Visual Sequential Memory, Digit Span, Coding). The therapy would appear to be improved by the inclusion of mental relaxation, concentration, meditation, and mind-blanking exercises for mental control.

  17. The novel ortho-chloro derivate propafenone induced relaxation in isolated rat aorta

    Ivković Branka


    Full Text Available The information on the inhibitory effect of propafenone in vascular smooth muscle is sparse. Propafenone acts through blockage of voltage-dependent cardiac Na+ channels, L-type Ca2+ channels, voltage-sensitive K+ (Kv channels, as well as β-adrenergic receptors in the heart. The introduction of different chemical groups in the benzyl moiety of propafenone influences pharmacological properties of newly developed derivate of propafenone. Here we investigated the effect of new ortho-chloro derivate of propafenone (5OCl on the vascular tone of precontracted rat aorta. 5OCl produced endothelium-independent relaxation of rat aorta. In order to test the involvement of different ion channels in 5OCl mechanism of action, antagonist of Na+, lidocaine, KV channels, 4-aminopyiridine (4-AP and L-type Ca2+ channels, nifedipine were used. All tested antagonists of ion channels did not influence the relaxation of rat aorta induced by high a concentration of 5OCl (≥10 μM, but antagonized the relaxation induced by low concentrations of this propafenone derivate. Thus, 5OCl derivate has comparable potency and efficacy as propafenone. According to its interaction with lidocaine, 4-AP and nifedipine it seems that 5OCl partly shares the mechanism of action with propafenone. The mechanism of vasodilatation induced by high micromolar concentration of 5OCl is not defined and further investigations are necessary.

  18. Cosmology and Astrophysics from Relaxed Galaxy Clusters V: Consistency with Cold Dark Matter Structure Formation

    Mantz, Adam B; Morris, R Glenn


    This is the fifth in a series of papers studying the astrophysics and cosmology of massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters. Our sample comprises 40 clusters identified as being dynamically relaxed and hot in Papers I and II of this series. Here we use constraints on cluster mass profiles from X-ray data to test some of the basic predictions of cosmological structure formation in the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) paradigm. We present constraints on the concentration--mass relation for massive clusters, finding a power-law mass dependence with a slope of $\\kappa_m=-0.16\\pm0.07$, in agreement with CDM predictions. For this relaxed sample, the relation is consistent with a constant as a function of redshift (power-law slope with $1+z$ of $\\kappa_\\zeta=-0.17\\pm0.26$), with an intrinsic scatter of $\\sigma_{\\ln c}=0.16\\pm0.03$. We investigate the shape of cluster mass profiles over the radial range probed by the data (typically $\\sim50$kpc--1Mpc), and test for departures from the simple Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW...


    Tintin Sukartini


    Full Text Available Introduction: Limited progressive air flow in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD can caused by small airway disease (bronchiolitis obstructive and loss of elasticity of the lung (emphysema. Further it can be decreasing the quality of life in COPD patients because dyspnea and uncomfortable in activity. Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR is one of the relaxation technique that can repair pulmonary ventilation by decreasing chronic constriction of the respiratory muscles. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of progressive muscle relaxation on raised peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR. Method: A pre-experimental one group pre-post test design was used in this study. Population was all of the COPD patients at Pulmonary Specialist Polyclinic Dr Mohamad Soewandhie Surabaya. There were 8 respondents taken by using purposive sampling. PEFR was counted by using peak flow meter every six day. Data were analyzed by using Paired t-Test with significance level  p≤0.05. Result: The result showed that PMR had significance level on increasing of PEFR (p=0.012. Discussion: It can be concluded that PMR has an effect on raise PEFR. Further studies are recommended to measure the effect of PMR on respiratory rate (RR, heart rate (HR subjective dyspnoe symptoms, forced expiration volume on the first minute (FEV1 and mid maximum flow rate (MMFR in COPD patients.

  20. Heteronuclear transverse and longitudinal relaxation in AX4 spin systems: Application to 15N relaxations in 15NH4 +

    Werbeck, Nicolas D; Hansen, D. Flemming


    The equations that describe the time-evolution of transverse and longitudinal 15N magnetisations in tetrahedral ammonium ions, 15NH4 +, are derived from the Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield density operator relaxation theory. It is assumed that the relaxation of the spin-states is dominated by (1) the intra-molecular 15N–1H and 1H–1H dipole–dipole interactions and (2) interactions of the ammonium protons with remote spins, which also include the contribution to the relaxations that arise from the exc...

  1. Serelaxin, recombinant human relaxin-2, for treatment of acute heart failure (RELAX-AHF) : a randomised, placebo-controlled trial

    Teerlink, John R.; Cotter, Gad; Davison, Beth A.; Felker, G. Michael; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Greenberg, Barry H.; Ponikowski, Piotr; Unemori, Elaine; Voors, Adriaan A.; Adams, Kirkwood F.; Dorobantu, Maria I.; Grinfeld, Liliana R.; Jondeau, Guillaume; Marmor, Alon; Masip, Josep; Pang, Peter S.; Werdan, Karl; Teichman, Sam L.; Trapani, Angelo; Bush, Christopher A.; Saini, Rajnish; Schumacher, Christoph; Severin, Thomas M.; Metra, Marco


    Background Serelaxin, recombinant human relaxin-2, is a vasoactive peptide hormone with many biological and haemodynamic effects. In a pilot study, serelaxin was safe and well tolerated with positive clinical outcome signals in patients with acute heart failure. The RELAX-AHF trial tested the hypoth

  2. Serelaxin, recombinant human relaxin-2, for treatment of acute heart failure (RELAX-AHF) : a randomised, placebo-controlled trial

    Teerlink, John R.; Cotter, Gad; Davison, Beth A.; Felker, G. Michael; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Greenberg, Barry H.; Ponikowski, Piotr; Unemori, Elaine; Voors, Adriaan A.; Adams, Kirkwood F.; Dorobantu, Maria I.; Grinfeld, Liliana R.; Jondeau, Guillaume; Marmor, Alon; Masip, Josep; Pang, Peter S.; Werdan, Karl; Teichman, Sam L.; Trapani, Angelo; Bush, Christopher A.; Saini, Rajnish; Schumacher, Christoph; Severin, Thomas M.; Metra, Marco


    Background Serelaxin, recombinant human relaxin-2, is a vasoactive peptide hormone with many biological and haemodynamic effects. In a pilot study, serelaxin was safe and well tolerated with positive clinical outcome signals in patients with acute heart failure. The RELAX-AHF trial tested the hypoth

  3. Synthesis and relaxivity of polycarboxylic hydrazone rare earth complexes--Relaxivity of a -oxo-pentanedioic acid benzoyl hydrazone Gd-complexes


    Synthesis of ligand, a -oxo-pentanedioic acid benzoyl hydrazone (H2LPB), and its six rare earth (La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd and Er) complexes are reported. The composition and the properties of the complexes were characterized by element analysis, thermal analysis, UV, IR and 1H NMR spectra. Besides, relaxivity (R1) of Gd-complex has been determined by INVREC.Au program, using inversion recovery pulse sequences, R1=8.05 mmol.L-1.s-1. The acute toxicity of Gd-complex in animal has also been tested, and the median lethal dose (LD50) is equal to (468.2±30) mg/kg.

  4. Cole-Cole broadening in dielectric relaxation and strange kinetics.

    Puzenko, Alexander; Ishai, Paul Ben; Feldman, Yuri


    We present a fresh appraisal of the Cole-Cole (CC) description of dielectric relaxation. While the approach is phenomenological, it demonstrates a fundamental connection between the parameters of the CC dispersion. Based on the fractal nature of the time set representing the interaction of the relaxing dipole with its encompassing matrix, and the Kirkwood-Froehlich correlation factor, a new 3D phase space linking together the kinetic and structural properties is proposed. The evolution of the relaxation process is represented in this phase space by a trajectory, which is determined by the variation of external macroscopic parameters. As an example, the validity of the approach is demonstrated on two porous silica glasses exhibiting a CC relaxation process.


    Baalbergen, J.; Ong, T; Van Duyneveldt, A.; Verstelle, J.


    Ac susceptibility measurements in spin glasses over an extended frequency range indicate a Cole-Cole behaviour at temperatures from well above to far below the freezing temperature. The consequences of this kind of relaxation are discussed.

  6. Relaxation Dynamics in Condensation on Weighted Scale-Free Networks

    MENG Xin-He; TANG Ming; WANG Peng; LIU Zong-Hua


    Most of the realistic networks are weighted scale-free networks. How this structure influences the conden-sation on it is a challenging problem. Recently, we make a first step to discuss its condensation [Phys. Rev. E 74 (2006) 036101] and here we focus on its evolutionary process of phase transition. In order to show how the weighted transport influences the dynamical properties, we study the relaxation dynamics in a zero range process on weighted scale-free networks. We find that there is a hierarchical relaxation dynamics in the evolution and there is a scaling relation between the relaxation time and the jumping exponent. The relaxation dynamics can be illustrated by a mean-field equation. The theoretical predictions are confirmed by our numerical simulations.

  7. Multi-region relaxed Hall magnetohydrodynamics with flow

    Lingam, Manasvi; Hudson, Stuart R


    The recent formulations of multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) have generalized the famous Woltjer-Taylor states by incorporating a collection of "ideal barriers" that prevent global relaxation, and flow. In this paper, we generalize MRxMHD with flow to include Hall effects (MRxHMHD), and thereby obtain the partially relaxed counterparts of the famous double Beltrami states as a special subset. The physical and mathematical consequences arising from the introduction of the Hall term are also presented. We demonstrate that our results (in the ideal MHD limit) constitute an important subset of ideal MHD equilibria, and we compare our approach against other variational principles proposed for deriving the relaxed states.

  8. Multi-region relaxed Hall magnetohydrodynamics with flow

    Lingam, Manasvi; Abdelhamid, Hamdi M.; Hudson, Stuart R.


    The recent formulations of multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) have generalized the famous Woltjer-Taylor states by incorporating a collection of "ideal barriers" that prevent global relaxation and flow. In this paper, we generalize MRxMHD with flow to include Hall effects, and thereby obtain the partially relaxed counterparts of the famous double Beltrami states as a special subset. The physical and mathematical consequences arising from the introduction of the Hall term are also presented. We demonstrate that our results (in the ideal MHD limit) constitute an important subset of ideal MHD equilibria, and we compare our approach against other variational principles proposed for deriving the partially relaxed states.

  9. Spin relaxation of radicals in low and zero magnetic field

    Fedin, M. V.; Purtov, P. A.; Bagryanskaya, E. G.


    Spin relaxation of radicals in solution in low and zero magnetic field has been studied theoretically. The main relaxation mechanisms in low magnetic field [modulation of anisotropic and isotropic hyperfine interaction, and modulation of spin-rotational interaction] are considered within a Redfield theory. The analytical results for a radical with one magnetic nucleus (I=1/2) and for a radical with two equivalent magnetic nuclei (I=1/2) are obtained and analyzed. It is shown that the probabilities of relaxational transitions in low and zero magnetic fields differ significantly from the probabilities in high magnetic fields. The use of high-field expressions in low and zero magnetic fields is not correct. Taking exact account of spin relaxation is important in calculations of much low-field magnetic resonance data.

  10. Levitation force relaxation under reloading in a HTS Maglev system

    He, Qingyong; Wang, Jiasu; Wang, Suyu; Wang, Jiansi; Dong, Hao; Wang, Yuxin; Shao, Senhao


    The loading capacity of the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev vehicle is an important parameter in the practical application. It is closely related to the levitation force of the HTS bulk. Many papers reported that the levitation force showed the relaxation characteristic. Because different loads cause different levitation gaps and different applied magnetic fields, the levitation force relaxations under the different loads are not the same. In terms of cylindrical YBCO bulk levitated over the permanent magnetic guideway, the relationship between the levitation force relaxation and the reloading is investigated experimentally in this paper. The decrement, the decrement rate and the relaxation rate of the levitation force are calculated, respectively. This work might be helpful for studying the loading capacity of the HTS Maglev vehicle.

  11. Hypnotizability modulates the cardiovascular correlates of subjective relaxation.

    Santarcangelo, Enrica L; Paoletti, Giulia; Balocchi, Rita; Carli, Giancarlo; Morizzo, Carmela; Palombo, Carlo; Varanini, Maurizio


    Mean values and the spectral variability of heart rate (HRV), blood pressure, and skin blood flow were studied in high and low hypnotizable subjects during simple relaxation. Similar subjective relaxation was reported by highs and lows. A parasympathetic prevalence (indicated by a higher High-Frequency component of HRV and a lower High/Low-Frequency ratio) and lower renin-angiotensin activity (indicated by a lower Very-Low-Frequency component of HRV) could be attributed to highs with respect to lows. Hypnotizability did not affect blood pressure and its variability and modulated the skin blood flow across the session only in lows. The findings confirm that relaxation cannot be defined solely on cardiovascular parameters and also indicate that hypnotizability modulates cardiovascular activity during simple relaxation and suggest it may have a protective role against cardiovascular disease.

  12. Dynamics of Sulfonated Polystyrene Ionomers by Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy

    Castagna, Alicia; Wang, Wenqin; Winey, Karen; Runt, James


    Broadband dielectric spectroscopy was used to investigate the dynamics of sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) ionomers, in both the acid and neutralized form. This study seeks to elucidate the role of counter ion type (Zn, Na, and Cs), degree of sulfonation (9 and 6%), and ion cluster morphology on the relaxation phenomena of SPS. Degree of neutralization and ion type have been found to significantly impact the breadth and time scale of the segmental relaxation process. High temperature relaxation processes, tentatively proposed to arise from Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars interfacial polarization and a hydrogen bonding relaxation, have also been identified. Bands in the sulfonate stretching region of FTIR spectra reveal information about ion coordination in the local aggregate environment. A combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and X-ray scattering confirmed the presence of homogeneously distributed, nearly monodisperse spherical ionic aggregates in the polymer matrix.

  13. Ferrohydrodynamic evaluation of rotational viscosity and relaxation in certain ferrofluids.

    Patel, Rajesh


    A significant effect of aggregation dynamics for aqueous ferrofluid (AF) and kerosene based ferrofluid (KF) using magnetic field dependent capillary viscosity and magneto-optical relaxation measurements is studied. For better comparison parameters of AF and KF are kept similar. Ferrohydrodynamic equations of chain forming ferrofluids, dilute ferrofluids, and Brownian dynamic simulations are compared. It is observed that the rotational viscosity of AF is larger than that of KF due to field induced aggregates in it and strong dipolar interactions. It is also observed that at Ωτ ~ 0.04 both AF and KF viscosity becomes almost similar, suggesting similar behavior at that shear rate. The magneto-optical relaxation in AF exhibits nonexponential behavior when relaxed from higher magnetic field and follows irreversible thermodynamics, whereas for KF the relaxation is exponential and follows the effective field method. This discrepancy is explained based on aggregation dynamics of magnetic particles. Results are well described by the corresponding theoretical models.

  14. Local fluctuations in the relaxation rate in a glassy system

    Pandit, Rajib; Flenner, Elijah; Castillo, Horacio E.

    We numerically study the equilibrium dynamics of a glass-forming binary hard-sphere mixture, for different packing fractions. We extract a correlator that probes the integrated fluctuations in the local relaxation rate in the system. We find that the strength of this correlator at t =τα (the α-relaxation time) grows with packing fraction approximately as a power of τα. We also find that for a fixed packing fraction, the correlator grows as a power of time, for very long times, with an exponent that depends on the packing fraction. This exponent probes the time correlations of the relaxation rate fluctuations. We find that the exponent is around 3 for very low packing fractions, and gradually decreases to a value below 2 as the glass transition is approached. We conclude that a description of fluctuations in terms of local relaxation rates is only applicable at long times and for packing fractions close to the glass transition.

  15. Electron Spin Relaxation in Intrinsic Bulk InP Semiconductor

    Ma, Hong; Wang, Lihua; Ma, Guohong


    Electron spin dynamics is studied by time resolved pump probe reflectivity (TRPPR) technique using the co- and counter-circularly polarized femtosecond pulses in intrinsic bulk Indium Phosphide (InP) crystal at room temperature and 70 K. The reflectivity change from bleaching into absorption enhancement is observed with increasing pump photon energy. This phenomenon can be explained in terms of the spin sensitive band filling and band gap renormalization effects. Although electron spin relaxation process at room temperature is much faster than that at 70K, carrier density dependence of electron spin relaxation shows similar tendency. With increasing carrier density, the electron spin relaxation time increases initially and then decreases after reaching a maximum value. Our experimental results agree well with the recent theoretical prediction and D'yakonov-Perel' mechanism is considered as a dominating contribution to the electron spin relaxation in intrinsic bulk InP semiconductor.

  16. Ber analysis of the box relaxation for BPSK signal recovery

    Thrampoulidis, Christos


    We study the problem of recovering an n-dimensional BPSK signal from m linear noise-corrupted measurements using the box relaxation method which relaxes the discrete set {±1}n to the convex set [-1,1]n to obtain a convex optimization algorithm followed by hard thresholding. When the noise and measurement matrix have iid standard normal entries, we obtain an exact expression for the bit-wise probability of error Pe in the limit of n and m growing and m/n fixed. At high SNR our result shows that the Pe of box relaxation is within 3dB of the matched filter bound (MFB) for square systems, and that it approaches the (MFB) as m grows large compared to n. Our results also indicate that as m, n → ∞, for any fixed set of size k, the error events of the corresponding k bits in the box relaxation method are independent.

  17. Cosmology and Astrophysics from Relaxed Galaxy Clusters I: Sample Selection

    Mantz, Adam B; Morris, R Glenn; Schmidt, Robert W; von der Linden, Anja; Urban, Ondrej


    This is the first in a series of papers studying the astrophysics and cosmology of massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters. Here we present a new, automated method for identifying relaxed clusters based on their morphologies in X-ray imaging data. While broadly similar to others in the literature, the morphological quantities that we measure are specifically designed to provide a fair basis for comparison across a range of data quality and cluster redshifts, to be robust against missing data due to point-source masks and gaps between detectors, and to avoid strong assumptions about the cosmological background and cluster masses. Based on three morphological indicators - Symmetry, Peakiness and Alignment - we develop the SPA criterion for relaxation. This analysis was applied to a large sample of cluster observations from the Chandra and ROSAT archives. Of the 361 clusters which received the SPA treatment, 57 (16 per cent) were subsequently found to be relaxed according to our criterion. We compare our me...

  18. Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on the Adverse ...

    less in subjects practicing relaxation exercises, as compared to subjects only on ... be associated with mood and eating disorders. ... mental state, reduce anticipatory anxiety, reduce anxiety as .... A higher degree and longer duration.

  19. Modified relaxation technique for treating hypertension in Thai postmenopausal women

    Saensak, Suprawita; Vutyavanich, Teraporn; Somboonporn, Woraluk; Srisurapanont, Manit


    To examine the effectiveness of a modified relaxation (MR) technique in reducing blood pressure levels in Thai postmenopausal women with mild hypertension, compared with a control group who received health education...

  20. Semiconvergence and Relaxation Parameters for Projected SIRT Algorithms

    Elfving, Tommy; Hansen, Per Christian; Nikazad, Touraj


    We give a detailed study of the semiconverg ence behavior of projected nonstationary simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT) algorithms, including the projected Landweber algorithm. We also consider the use of a relaxation parameter strategy, proposed recently for the standard...

  1. Comparison between phenomenological and ab-initio reaction and relaxation models in DSMC

    Sebastião, Israel B.; Kulakhmetov, Marat; Alexeenko, Alina


    New state-specific vibrational-translational energy exchange and dissociation models, based on ab-initio data, are implemented in direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method and compared to the established Larsen-Borgnakke (LB) and total collision energy (TCE) phenomenological models. For consistency, both the LB and TCE models are calibrated with QCT-calculated O2+O data. The model comparison test cases include 0-D thermochemical relaxation under adiabatic conditions and 1-D normal shockwave calculations. The results show that both the ME-QCT-VT and LB models can reproduce vibrational relaxation accurately but the TCE model is unable to reproduce nonequilibrium rates even when it is calibrated to accurate equilibrium rates. The new reaction model does capture QCT-calculated nonequilibrium rates. For all investigated cases, we discuss the prediction differences based on the new model features.

  2. Accuracy and Numerical Stabilty Analysis of Lattice Boltzmann Method with Multiple Relaxation Time for Incompressible Flows

    Pradipto; Purqon, Acep


    Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is the novel method for simulating fluid dynamics. Nowadays, the application of LBM ranges from the incompressible flow, flow in the porous medium, until microflows. The common collision model of LBM is the BGK with a constant single relaxation time τ. However, BGK suffers from numerical instabilities. These instabilities could be eliminated by implementing LBM with multiple relaxation time. Both of those scheme have implemented for incompressible 2 dimensions lid-driven cavity. The stability analysis has done by finding the maximum Reynolds number and velocity for converged simulations. The accuracy analysis is done by comparing the velocity profile with the benchmark results from Ghia, et al and calculating the net velocity flux. The tests concluded that LBM with MRT are more stable than BGK, and have a similar accuracy. The maximum Reynolds number that converges for BGK is 3200 and 7500 for MRT respectively.

  3. Coupling the beam tracing code TORBEAM and the Fokker-Planck solver RELAX for fast electrons

    Maj, O.; Poli, E.; Westerhof, E.


    In this paper the interface between the beam tracing code TORBEAM [Poli, Peeters and Pereverzev, Comp. Phys. Comm. 136, 90 (2001)] and the quasi-linear Fokker-Planck solver RELAX [Westerhof, Peeters and Schippers, Rijnhuizen Report No. RR 92-211 CA, 1992] is presented together with preliminary testing results for electron cyclotron waves in ITER plasmas and their effects on the electron distribution function. The resulting numerical package allows us to account for diffraction effects in the construction of the quasi-linear wave-particle diffusion operator. The coupling of the paraxial-WKB code TORBEAM to the ray-based code RELAX requires a reinterpretation of the paraxial wave field in terms of extended rays, which are addressed in details.

  4. Nonlinear approximation method in Lagrangian relaxation-based algorithms for hydrothermal scheduling

    Guan, X. [Pacific Gas and Electric, San Francisco, CA (United States); Luh, P.B.; Zhang, L. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Systems Engineering


    When the Lagrangian relaxation technique is used to solve hydrothermal scheduling problems, many subproblems have linear stage-wise cost functions. A well recognized difficulty is that the solutions to these subproblems may oscillate between maximum and minimum generations with slight changes of the multipliers. Furthermore, the subproblem solutions may become singular, i.e., they are un-determined when the linear coefficients become zero. This may result in large differences between subproblem solutions and the optimal primal schedule. In this paper, a nonlinear approximation method is presented which utilizes nonlinear functions, quadratic in this case, to approximate relevant linear cost functions. The analysis shows that the difficulty associated with solution oscillation is reduced, and singularity is avoided. Extensive testing based on Northeast Utilities data indicates that the method consistently generates better schedules than the standard Lagrangian relaxation method.

  5. Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert - A parameterization of moist convection for general circulation models

    Moorthi, Shrinivas; Suarez, Max J.


    A simple implementation of the Arakawa and Schubert (1974) cumulus parameterization is presented. The major simplification made is to 'relax' the state toward equilibrium each time the parameterization is invoked, rather than requiring that the final state be balanced, as in the original Arakawa-Schubert implementation. This relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS) scheme is evaluated in off-line tests using the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) Phase III data. The results show that RAS is equivalent to the standard implementation of Arakawa-Schubert but is more economical and simpler to code. RAS also avoids the ill-posed problem that occurs in Arakawa-Schubert as a result of having to solve for a balanced state.

  6. Synthesis of Nonionic Oligomeric Manganese(Ⅱ) Complexes and Investigation of Their Toxicity and Τ1-Relaxation Enhancement

    YU Kai-chao; LI Ying-xia; ZHOU Jin-lan; DING Shang-wu; YE Chao-hui


    Six nonionic oligomeric manganese(Ⅱ) complexes with oligomeric phosphate-polyglycol-EDTA ester ligands were synthesized and characterized. The longitudinal relaxivities of these complexes were measured. One of these complexes, which showed the highest relaxivity, was chosen to be used in the acute toxicity test and the Τ1-weighted imaging experiment. It has been found that compared to Gd-DTPA, this nonionic oligomeric Mn(Ⅱ) complex exhibits no acute toxicity, generates highly enhanced MRI signals and increases the intention time in the rat liver tissue.

  7. Dipolar relaxation of cold sodium atoms in a magnetic field

    Zygelman, B


    A quantum mechanical close coupling theory of spin relaxation in the stretched hyperfine level of sodium is presented. We calculate the dipolar relaxation rate of magnetically trapped cold sodium atoms in the magnetic field. The influence of shape resonances and the anisotropy of the dipolar interaction on the collision dynamics are explored. We examine the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections on the choice of asymptotic atomic state basis.

  8. Relaxation of a qubit measured by a driven Duffing oscillator

    Serban, I; Wilhelm, F K


    We investigate the relaxation of a superconducting qubit for the case when its detector, the Josephson bifurcation amplifier, remains latched in one of its two (meta)stable states of forced vibrations. The qubit relaxation rates are different in different states. They can display strong dependence on the qubit frequency and resonant enhancement, which is due to {\\em quasienergy resonances}. Coupling to the driven oscillator changes the effective temperature of the qubit.

  9. Control of Transport-barrier relaxations by Resonant Magnetic Perturbations

    Leconte, M; Garbet, X; Benkadda, S


    Transport-barrier relaxation oscillations in the presence of resonant magnetic perturbations are investigated using three-dimensional global fluid turbulence simulations from first principles at the edge of a tokamak. It is shown that resonant magnetic perturbations have a stabilizing effect on these relaxation oscillations and that this effect is due mainly to a modification of the pressure profile linked to the presence of both residual residual magnetic island chains and a stochastic layer.

  10. Peace of Mind, Best-ever for Relaxation


    @@ Relaxation and peace of mind are words that come to mind when most people who have been to the region think of this country in Central Europe-the Czech Republic. They discovered that this new member of the EU has glorious countryside crisscrossed with thousands of kilometres of hiking trails, an incredible amount of cultural sites, picturesque historical towns and renowned spas where people come to receive treatment and relax.

  11. Vibrational relaxation of guest and host in mixed molecular crystals

    Hill, Jeffrey R.; Chronister, Eric L.; Chang, Ta-Chau; Kim, Hackjin; Postlewaite, Jay C.; Dlott, Dana D.


    Vibrational relaxation (VR) of dilute impurity molecules (naphthalene, anthracene) in crystalline host matrices (durene, naphthalene) is studied with the ps photon echo technique. The results obtained by echoes on vibrations in the electronically excited state are compared to previous ps time delayed coherent Raman studies of ground state vibrations of the pure host matrix. The relaxation channels for guest and host, and the effects of molecular and crystal structure on VR rates are determined.

  12. Relaxation oscillations in a laser with a Gaussian mirror.

    Mossakowska-Wyszyńska, Agnieszka; Witoński, Piotr; Szczepański, Paweł


    We present an analysis of the relaxation oscillations in a laser with a Gaussian mirror by taking into account the three-dimensional spatial field distribution of the laser modes and the spatial hole burning effect. In particular, we discuss the influence of the Gaussian mirror peak reflectivity and a Gaussian parameter on the damping rate and frequency of the relaxation oscillation for two different laser structures, i.e., with a classically unstable resonator and a classically stable resonator.

  13. Mechanism of resveratrol-induced relaxation in the human gallbladder.

    Tsai, Ching-Chung; Lee, Ming-Che; Tey, Shu-Leei; Liu, Ching-Wen; Huang, Shih-Che


    Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound extracted from plants and is also a constituent of red wine. Resveratrol produces relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and may prevent cardiovascular diseases. Although resveratrol has been reported to cause relaxation of the guinea pig gallbladder, limited data are available about the effect of resveratrol on the gallbladder smooth muscle in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relaxation effects of resveratrol in human gallbladder muscle strips. We studied the relaxant effects of resveratrol in human gallbladder. In addition, we also investigated mechanism of resveratrol-induced relaxation in human gallbladder by tetraethylammonium (a non-selective potassium channels blocker), iberiotoxin (an inhibitor of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel), glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker), charybdotoxin (an inhibitor of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and slowly inactivating voltage-gated potassium channels), apamine (a selective inhibitor of the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel), KT 5720 (a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A inhibitor), KT 5823 (a cGMP-dependent protein kinase G inhibitor), NG-Nitro-L-arginine (a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase), tetrodotoxin (a selective neuronal Na(+) channel blocker), and ω-conotoxin GVIA (a selective neuronal Ca(2+) channel blocker). The present study showed that resveratrol has relaxant effects in human gallbladder muscle strips. In addition, we found that resveratrol-induced relaxation in human gallbladder is associated with nitric oxide, ATP-sensitive potassium channel, and large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel pathways. This study provides the first evidence concerning the relaxant effects of resveratrol in human gallbladder muscle strips. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that resveratrol is a potential new drug or health supplement in the treatment of

  14. Immersed Boundary-Lattice Boltzmann Method Using Two Relaxation Times

    Kosuke Hayashi


    Full Text Available An immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM using a two-relaxation time model (TRT is proposed. The collision operator in the lattice Boltzmann equation is modeled using two relaxation times. One of them is used to set the fluid viscosity and the other is for numerical stability and accuracy. A direct-forcing method is utilized for treatment of immersed boundary. A multi-direct forcing method is also implemented to precisely satisfy the boundary conditions at the immersed boundary. Circular Couette flows between a stationary cylinder and a rotating cylinder are simulated for validation of the proposed method. The method is also validated through simulations of circular and spherical falling particles. Effects of the functional forms of the direct-forcing term and the smoothed-delta function, which interpolates the fluid velocity to the immersed boundary and distributes the forcing term to fixed Eulerian grid points, are also examined. As a result, the following conclusions are obtained: (1 the proposed method does not cause non-physical velocity distribution in circular Couette flows even at high relaxation times, whereas the single-relaxation time (SRT model causes a large non-physical velocity distortion at a high relaxation time, (2 the multi-direct forcing reduces the errors in the velocity profile of a circular Couette flow at a high relaxation time, (3 the two-point delta function is better than the four-point delta function at low relaxation times, but worse at high relaxation times, (4 the functional form of the direct-forcing term does not affect predictions, and (5 circular and spherical particles falling in liquids are well predicted by using the proposed method both for two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases.

  15. Relaxation Mechanisms in Glassy Dynamics: the Arrhenius and Fragile Regimes

    Hentschel, H. George E.; Karmakar, Smarajit; Procaccia, Itamar; Zylberg, Jacques


    Generic glass formers exhibit at least two characteristic changes in their relaxation behavior, first to an Arrhenius-type relaxation at some characteristic temperature, and then at a lower characteristic temperature to a super-Arrhenius (fragile) behavior. We address these transitions by studying the statistics of free energy barriers for different systems at different temperatures and space dimensions. We present a clear evidence for changes in the dynamical behavior at the transition to Ar...

  16. Relaxation Effect of Abacavir on Rat Basilar Arteries

    Li, Rachel Wai Sum; Yang, Cui; Chan, Shun Wan; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Leung, George Pak Heng


    Background The use of abacavir has been linked with increased cardiovascular risk in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection; however, the mechanism involved remains unclear. We hypothesize that abacavir may impair endothelial function. In addition, based on the structural similarity between abacavir and adenosine, we propose that abacavir may affect vascular contractility through endogenous adenosine release or adenosine receptors in blood vessels. Methods The relaxation effect of abacavir on rat basilar arteries was studied using the myograph technique. Cyclic GMP and AMP levels were measured by immunoassay. The effects of abacavir on nucleoside transporters were studied using radiolabeled nucleoside uptake experiments. Ecto-5′ nucleotidase activity was determined by measuring the generation of inorganic phosphate using adenosine monophosphate as the substrate. Results Abacavir induced the relaxation of rat basilar arteries in a concentration-dependent manner. This relaxation was abolished when endothelium was removed. In addition, the relaxation was diminished by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME, the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, ODQ, and the protein kinase G inhibitor, KT5820. Abacavir also increased the cGMP level in rat basilar arteries. Abacavir-induced relaxation was also abolished by adenosine A2 receptor blockers. However, abacavir had no effect on ecto-5’ nucleotidase and nucleoside transporters. Short-term and long-term treatment of abacavir did not affect acetylcholine-induced relaxation in rat basilar arteries. Conclusion Abacavir induces acute endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat basilar arteries, probably through the activation of adenosine A2 receptors in endothelial cells, which subsequently leads to the release of nitric oxide, resulting in activation of the cyclic guanosine monophosphate/protein kinase G-dependent pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells. It is speculated that abacavir-induced cardiovascular risk may

  17. Synoptic forcing of wind relaxations at Pt. Conception, California

    Fewings, Melanie R.; Washburn, Libe; Dorman, Clive E.; Gotschalk, Christopher; Lombardo, Kelly


    Over the California Current upwelling system in summer, the prevailing upwelling-favorable winds episodically weaken (relax) or reverse direction for a few days. Near Pt. Conception, California, the wind usually does not reverse, but wind relaxation allows poleward oceanic coastal flow with ecological consequences. To determine the offshore extent and synoptic forcing of these wind relaxations, we formed composite averages of wind stress from the QuikSCAT satellite and atmospheric pressure from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) using 67 wind relaxations during summer 2000-2009. Wind relaxations at Pt. Conception are the third stage of an event sequence that repeatedly affects the west coast of North America in summer. First, 5-7 days before the wind weakens near Pt. Conception, the wind weakens or reverses off Oregon and northern California. Second, the upwelling-favorable wind intensifies along central California. Third, the wind relaxes at Pt. Conception, and the area of weakened winds extends poleward to northern California over 3-5 days. The NARR underestimates the wind stress within ˜200 km of coastal capes by a factor of 2. Wind relaxations at Pt. Conception are caused by offshore extension of the desert heat low. This synoptic forcing is related to event cycles that cause wind reversal as in Halliwell and Allen (1987) and Mass and Bond (1996), but includes weaker events. The wind relaxations extend ˜600 km offshore, similarly to the California-scale hydraulic expansion fan shaping the prevailing winds, and ˜1000 km alongshore, limited by an opposing pressure gradient force at Cape Mendocino.

  18. Relaxation effect of abacavir on rat basilar arteries.

    Rachel Wai Sum Li

    Full Text Available The use of abacavir has been linked with increased cardiovascular risk in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection; however, the mechanism involved remains unclear. We hypothesize that abacavir may impair endothelial function. In addition, based on the structural similarity between abacavir and adenosine, we propose that abacavir may affect vascular contractility through endogenous adenosine release or adenosine receptors in blood vessels.The relaxation effect of abacavir on rat basilar arteries was studied using the myograph technique. Cyclic GMP and AMP levels were measured by immunoassay. The effects of abacavir on nucleoside transporters were studied using radiolabeled nucleoside uptake experiments. Ecto-5' nucleotidase activity was determined by measuring the generation of inorganic phosphate using adenosine monophosphate as the substrate.Abacavir induced the relaxation of rat basilar arteries in a concentration-dependent manner. This relaxation was abolished when endothelium was removed. In addition, the relaxation was diminished by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME, the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, ODQ, and the protein kinase G inhibitor, KT5820. Abacavir also increased the cGMP level in rat basilar arteries. Abacavir-induced relaxation was also abolished by adenosine A2 receptor blockers. However, abacavir had no effect on ecto-5' nucleotidase and nucleoside transporters. Short-term and long-term treatment of abacavir did not affect acetylcholine-induced relaxation in rat basilar arteries.Abacavir induces acute endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat basilar arteries, probably through the activation of adenosine A2 receptors in endothelial cells, which subsequently leads to the release of nitric oxide, resulting in activation of the cyclic guanosine monophosphate/protein kinase G-dependent pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells. It is speculated that abacavir-induced cardiovascular risk may not be related to

  19. T(2) relaxation time of hyaline cartilage in presence of different gadolinium-based contrast agents.

    Wiener, Edzard; Settles, Marcus; Diederichs, Gerd


    The transverse relaxation time, T(2), of native cartilage is used to quantify cartilage degradation. T(2) is frequently measured after contrast administration, assuming that the impact of gadolinium-based contrast agents on cartilage T(2) is negligible. To verify this assumption the depth-dependent variation of T(2) in the presence of gadopentetate dimeglumine, gadobenate dimeglumine and gadoteridol was investigated. Furthermore, the r(2)/r(1) relaxivity ratios were quantified in different cartilage layers to demonstrate differences between T(2) and T(1) relaxation effects. Transverse high-spatial-resolution T(1)- and T(2)-maps were simultaneously acquired on a 1.5 T MR scanner before and after contrast administration in nine bovine patellae using a turbo-mixed sequence. The r(2)/r(1) ratios were calculated for each contrast agent in cartilage. Profiles of T(1), T(2) and r(2)/r(1) across cartilage thickness were generated in the absence and presence of contrast agent. The mean values in different cartilage layers were compared for global variance using the Kruskal-Wallis test and pairwise using the Mann-Whitney U-test. T(2) of unenhanced cartilage was 98 +/- 5 ms at 1 mm and 65 +/- 4 ms at 3 mm depth. Eleven hours after contrast administration significant differences (p cartilage thickness were close to 1.0 (range 0.9-1.3). At 1.5 T, T(2) decreased significantly in the presence of contrast agents, more pronounced in superficial than in deep cartilage. The change in T(2) relaxation rate was similar to the change in T(1). Cartilage T(2) measurements after contrast administration will lead to systematic errors in the quantification of cartilage degradation. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Spin relaxation in geometrically frustrated pyrochlores

    Dunsiger, Sarah Ruth

    This thesis describes muSR experiments which focus on systems where the magnetic ions occupy the vertices of edge or corner sharing triangular units, in particular the pyrochlores A2B2O7. The scientific interest in pyrochlores is based on the fact that they display novel magnetic behaviour at low temperatures due to geometrical frustration. The ground state of these systems is sensitively dependent on such factors as the range of the spin-spin interactions, disorder, anisotropy, thermal and quantum fluctuations. For example, Y2Mo2O7 shows many features reminiscent of a conventional spin glass, even though this material has nominally zero chemical disorder. It is found that the muon spin polarisation obeys a time-field scaling relation which indicates that the spin-spin autocorrelation function has a power law form in time, in stark contrast with the exponential form often assumed for conventional magnets above their transition temperature. Gd2Ti2O7 shows long range order, but only at a temperature much lower than its Curie-Weiss temperature, a signature of a frustrated system. In the paramagnetic regime, it is well described by an isotropic Heisenberg Hamiltonian with nearest neighbour couplings in the presence of a Zeeman interaction, from which the spin-spin autocorrelation function may be calculated as a power series in time. The muon spin relaxation rate decreases with magnetic field as the Zeeman energy becomes comparable with the exchange coupling between Gd spins. Thus, an independent measure of the exchange coupling or equivalently the Gd spin fluctuation rate is extracted. By contrast, Tb2Ti2O7 has been identified as a type of cooperative paramagnet. Short range correlations develop below 50 K. However, there is no long range ordering down to very low temperatures (0.075 K). The Tb3+ ion is subject to strong crystal electric field effects: point charge calculations indicate that this system is Ising like at low temperatures. Thus this system may be

  1. Relaxation cracking in the process industry, an underestimated problem

    Wortel, J.C. van [TNO Institute of Industrial Technology, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)


    Austenitic components, operating between 500 and 750 deg C, can fail within 1 year service while the ordinary mechanical properties after failure are still within the code requirements. The intergranular brittle failures are situated in the welded or cold deformed areas. This type of cracking has many names, showing the uncertainty concerning the mechanism for the (catastrophical) failures. A just finished investigation showed that it is a relaxation crack problem, introduced by manufacturing processes, especially welding and cold rolling. Cracking/failures can be expected after only 0.1- 0.2 % relaxation strain. These low strain values can already be generated during relaxation of the welding stresses. Especially coarse grained `age hardening` materials are susceptible. Stabilising and Postweld Heat Treatments are very effective to avoid relaxation crack problems during operation. After these heat treatments the components can withstand more than 2 % relaxation strain. At temperatures between 500 and 750 deg C relaxation cracking is the predominant factor for the safety and lifetime of welded austenitic components. (orig.) 12 refs.

  2. Anomaly diffuse and dielectric relaxation in strontium doped lanthanum molybdate

    Liu, Xiao [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Fan, Huiqing, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Shi, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The anomaly diffuse and dielectric relaxation behaviors are fitted by the Cole-Cole approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The peak in the LSMO is corresponding to different oxygen ion diffusion process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We first give better explanation about the strange conductivity change caused by doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oxygen ion diffusion is due to a combination of the dipolar relaxation and the motion of ions. -- Abstract: The dielectric properties of the La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9-{delta}} (x = 0-0.2) ceramics were investigated in the temperature range of 300-800 K. Dielectric measurement reveals that two dielectric anomalies, associated with the oxygen ion diffusion, exist in frequency spectrum with x = 0.5. The broad dielectric peaks in tan {delta}({omega}) can be well fitted by a modified Cole-Cole approach. When x = 0.1, only one dielectric relaxation peak is observed, corresponding to different oxygen ion diffusion processes, as distinct from the only relaxation peak in the pure La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9}. The relaxation parameters {tau}{sub 0}, the dielectric relaxation strength {Delta}, and the activation energy E{sub a} were obtained. The result of this work shows that, the conductivity change caused by doping between the two phases is due to the combination of the dipolar effects and motion of ions.

  3. Difference and similarity of dielectric relaxation processes among polyols

    Minoguchi, Ayumi; Kitai, Kei; Nozaki, Ryusuke


    Complex permittivity measurements were performed on sorbitol, xylitol, and sorbitol-xylitol mixture in the supercooled liquid state in an extremely wide frequency range from 10 μHz to 500 MHz at temperatures near and above the glass transition temperature. We determined detailed behavior of the relaxation parameters such as relaxation frequency and broadening against temperature not only for the α process but also for the β process above the glass transition temperature, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. Since supercooled liquids are in the quasi-equilibrium state, the behavior of all the relaxation parameters for the β process can be compared among the polyols as well as those for the α process. The relaxation frequencies of the α processes follow the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann manner and the loci in the Arrhenius diagram are different corresponding to the difference of the glass transition temperatures. On the other hand, the relaxation frequencies of the β processes, which are often called as the Johari-Goldstein processes, follow the Arrhenius-type temperature dependence. The relaxation parameters for the β process are quite similar among the polyols at temperatures below the αβ merging temperature, TM. However, they show anomalous behavior near TM, which depends on the molecular size of materials. These results suggest that the origin of the β process is essentially the same among the polyols.


    Cohen, Seth A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Wegner, Gary A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)


    We investigate the relationship between star formation (SF) and level of relaxation in a sample of 379 galaxy clusters at z < 0.2. We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to measure cluster membership and level of relaxation, and to select star-forming galaxies based on mid-infrared emission detected with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer. For galaxies with absolute magnitudes M{sub r} < −19.5, we find an inverse correlation between SF fraction and cluster relaxation: as a cluster becomes less relaxed, its SF fraction increases. Furthermore, in general, the subtracted SF fraction in all unrelaxed clusters (0.117 ± 0.003) is higher than that in all relaxed clusters (0.097 ± 0.005). We verify the validity of our SF calculation methods and membership criteria through analysis of previous work. Our results agree with previous findings that a weak correlation exists between cluster SF and dynamical state, possibly because unrelaxed clusters are less evolved relative to relaxed clusters.

  5. Search Trees with Relaxed Balance and Near-Optimal Height

    Fagerberg, Rolf; Larsen, Kim Skak; Jensen, Rune E.


    We introduce a relaxed k-tree, a search tree with relaxed balance and a height bound, when in balance, of (1+epsilon)log_2 n + 1, for any epsilon > 0. The number of nodes involved in rebalancing is O(1/epsilon) per update in the amortized sense, and O(log n/epsilon) in the worst case sense. This ...... constant rebalancing, which is an improvement over the current definition. World Wide Web search engines are possible applications for this line of work.......We introduce a relaxed k-tree, a search tree with relaxed balance and a height bound, when in balance, of (1+epsilon)log_2 n + 1, for any epsilon > 0. The number of nodes involved in rebalancing is O(1/epsilon) per update in the amortized sense, and O(log n/epsilon) in the worst case sense....... This is the first binary search tree with relaxed balance having a height bound better than c log_2 n for a fixed constant c. In all previous proposals, the constant is at least 1/log_2 phi>1.44, where phi is the golden ratio. As a consequence, we can also define a standard (non-relaxed) k-tree with amortized...

  6. Stretched exponential relaxation and ac universality in disordered dielectrics

    Milovanov, Alexander V.; Rypdal, Kristoffer; Juul Rasmussen, Jens


    This paper is concerned with the connection between the properties of dielectric relaxation and alternating-current (ac) conduction in disordered dielectrics. The discussion is divided between the classical linear-response theory and a self-consistent dynamical modeling. The key issues are stretc......This paper is concerned with the connection between the properties of dielectric relaxation and alternating-current (ac) conduction in disordered dielectrics. The discussion is divided between the classical linear-response theory and a self-consistent dynamical modeling. The key issues...... are stretched exponential character of dielectric relaxation, power-law power spectral density, and anomalous dependence of ac conduction coefficient on frequency. We propose a self-consistent model of dielectric relaxation in which the relaxations are described by a stretched exponential decay function....... Mathematically, our study refers to the expanding area of fractional calculus and we propose a systematic derivation of the fractional relaxation and fractional diffusion equations from the property of ac universality....

  7. Thermal relaxation of molecular oxygen in collisions with nitrogen atoms

    Andrienko, Daniil A.; Boyd, Iain D.


    Investigation of O2-N collisions is performed by means of the quasi-classical trajectory method on the two lowest ab initio potential energy surfaces at temperatures relevant to hypersonic flows. A complete set of bound-bound and bound-free transition rates is obtained for each precollisional rovibrational state. Special attention is paid to the vibrational and rotational relaxations of oxygen as a result of chemically non-reactive interaction with nitrogen atoms. The vibrational relaxation of oxygen partially occurs via the formation of an intermediate NO2 complex. The efficient energy randomization results in rapid vibrational relaxation at low temperatures, compared to other molecular systems with a purely repulsive potential. The vibrational relaxation time, computed by means of master equation studies, is nearly an order of magnitude lower than the relaxation time in N2-O collisions. The rotational nonequilibrium starts to play a significant effect at translational temperatures above 8000 K. The present work provides convenient relations for the vibrational and rotational relaxation times as well as for the quasi-steady dissociation rate coefficient and thus fills a gap in data due to a lack of experimental measurements for this system.

  8. Weak nanoscale chaos and anomalous relaxation in DNA

    Mazur, Alexey K.


    Anomalous nonexponential relaxation in hydrated biomolecules is commonly attributed to the complexity of the free-energy landscapes, similarly to polymers and glasses. It was found recently that the hydrogen-bond breathing of terminal DNA base pairs exhibits a slow power-law relaxation attributable to weak Hamiltonian chaos, with parameters similar to experimental data. Here, the relationship is studied between this motion and spectroscopic signals measured in DNA with a small molecular photoprobe inserted into the base-pair stack. To this end, the earlier computational approach in combination with an analytical theory is applied to the experimental DNA fragment. It is found that the intensity of breathing dynamics is strongly increased in the internal base pairs that flank the photoprobe, with anomalous relaxation quantitatively close to that in terminal base pairs. A physical mechanism is proposed to explain the coupling between the relaxation of base-pair breathing and the experimental response signal. It is concluded that the algebraic relaxation observed experimentally is very likely a manifestation of weakly chaotic dynamics of hydrogen-bond breathing in the base pairs stacked to the photoprobe and that the weak nanoscale chaos can represent an ubiquitous hidden source of nonexponential relaxation in ultrafast spectroscopy.

  9. Repeated load relaxations of type 316 austenitic stainless steel

    Hannula, S.P.; Li, C.Y.


    Several experiments have shown that the shape of the load relaxation curve after reloading in a logarithmic stress vs. logarithmic strain rate plot may differ from that after the initial loading. In a recent study Korhonen and Li showed that the apparent kink in a log sigma versus log epsilon plot of the stress relaxation data, after mainly elastic and anelastic loading, is due to change of the deformation mode from an anelasticity dominated one to a plasticity dominated one. According to the state variable model by Hart, the relaxation curve in reloading should overlap with the original one after this transition in the absence of structural changes. Therefore, the crossing of stress relaxation curves after an initial plastic loading and subsequent elastic and anelastic reloadings in commercially pure aluminum at room temperature was accounted for by thermally induced effects. In the same study, consecutive stress relaxation runs were conducted on 316 SS, and no cross-over behavior was observed, which was associated with the lack of thermal effects in 316 SS at room temperature. The results demonstrate that strain aging has an effect on relaxation behavior even at room temperature, the effect being more pronounced at high strains. The phenomena can be accounted for according to a state variable model by modifying the rate constant, which is affected by the amount of mobile dislocations as well as dislocation mobility.


    Muhammad Abid


    Full Text Available Loss of pre-load with time, commonly known as ‘Relaxation’ is an established phenomena. Behaviour of a bolted joint depends upon the pre-load in the bolts in use, not the pre-load introduced by the mechanic. Loss of pre-load is expected due to the many factors such as embedment relaxation, gasket creep, elastic interactions, and vibration loosening or stress relaxation. In a gasketed joint, due to the gasket flexibility, relaxation is always substantial during preliminary passes, as 80 to 100% loss is not uncommon in almost all the bolts, resulting in a dynamic behaviour. Pre-load in a gasketed joint is stabilized and retained to certain extent in the final passes only. In a non-gasketed joint, due to no gasket and no rotation its static behaviour is concluded. This paper highlights the factors affecting the amount of relaxation with time and presents important considerations that can reduce this. Both the short and long term relaxations are recorded and a ‘best fit’ model for relaxation behaviour is derived.

  11. Topology Synthesis of Structures Using Parameter Relaxation and Geometric Refinement

    Hull, P. V.; Tinker, M. L.


    Typically, structural topology optimization problems undergo relaxation of certain design parameters to allow the existence of intermediate variable optimum topologies. Relaxation permits the use of a variety of gradient-based search techniques and has been shown to guarantee the existence of optimal solutions and eliminate mesh dependencies. This Technical Publication (TP) will demonstrate the application of relaxation to a control point discretization of the design workspace for the structural topology optimization process. The control point parameterization with subdivision has been offered as an alternative to the traditional method of discretized finite element design domain. The principle of relaxation demonstrates the increased utility of the control point parameterization. One of the significant results of the relaxation process offered in this TP is that direct manufacturability of the optimized design will be maintained without the need for designer intervention or translation. In addition, it will be shown that relaxation of certain parameters may extend the range of problems that can be addressed; e.g., in permitting limited out-of-plane motion to be included in a path generation problem.

  12. Irradiation creep relaxation of void swelling-driven stresses

    Hall, M.M., E-mail: [MacRay Consulting, 1366 Hillsdale Drive, Monroeville, PA (United States)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Irradiation void swelling can cause distortion of reactor core components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constrained swelling can drive stresses beyond acceptable levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compressive stresses decrease irradiation swelling rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Irradiation creep relaxes swelling-driven stresses and core restraint forces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Swelling-driven creep stresses are consistent with predictions of a proposed model. - Abstract: Swelling-driven-creep test specimens are used to measure the compressive stresses that develop due to constraint of irradiation void swelling. These specimens use a previously non-irradiated 20% CW Type 316 stainless steel holder to axially restrain two Type 304 stainless steel tubular specimens that were previously irradiated in the US Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II) at 490 Degree-Sign C. One specimen was previously irradiated to fluence levels in the void nucleation regime (9 dpa) and the other in the quasi-steady void growth regime (28 dpa). A lift-off compliance measurement technique was used post-irradiation to determine compressive stresses developed during reirradiation of the two specimen assemblies in Row 7 of EBR-II at temperatures of 547 Degree-Sign C and 504 Degree-Sign C, respectively, to additional damage levels each of about 5 dpa. Results obtained on the higher fluence swelling-driven-creep specimen show that compressive stress due to constraint of swelling retards void swelling to a degree that is consistent with active load uniaxial compression specimens that were irradiated as part of a previously reported multiaxial in-reactor creep experiment. Swelling results obtained on the lower fluence swelling-driven creep specimen show a much larger effect of compressive stress in reducing swelling, demonstrating that the larger effect of stress on swelling is on void nucleation as compared to void growth. Test results are

  13. Crater Relaxation and Stereo Imaging of the Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn

    Phillips, C. B.; Beyer, R. A.; Nimmo, F.; Roberts, J. H.; Robuchon, G.


    Crater relaxation has been used as a probe of subsurface temperature structure for over thirty years, both on terrestrial bodies and icy satellites. We are developing and testing two independent methods for processing stereo pairs to produce digital elevation models, to address how crater relaxation depends on crater diameter, geographic location, and stratigraphic position on the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. Our topographic profiles will then serve as input into two numerical models, one viscous and one viscoelastic, to allow us to probe the subsurface thermal profiles and relaxation histories of these satellites. We are constructing stereo topography from Galileo and Cassini image pairs using the NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline (Moratto et al. 2010), an automated stereogrammetry tool designed for processing planetary imagery captured from orbiting and landed robotic explorers on other planets. We will also be using the commercial program SOCET SET from BAE Systems (Miller and Walker 1993; 1995). Qualitatively, it is clear that there are large spatial variations in the degree of crater relaxation among Jupiter’s and Saturn’s satellites. However, our use of stereo topography will allow quantitative measures of crater relaxation (e.g. depth:diameter ratio or equivalent) to be derived. Such measures are essential to derive quantitative estimates of the heat fluxes responsible for this relaxation. Estimating how surface heat flux has varied with time provides critical constraints on satellite thermal (and orbital) evolution. Craters undergo viscous relaxation over time at a rate that depends on the temperature gradient and crater scale. We are investigating how the near-surface satellite heat flux varied in time and space, based on our crater relaxation observations. Once we have crater profiles from our DEMs, we use them as input to two theoretical approaches: a relatively simple (viscous) numerical model in which time-varying heat fluxes can be included, and

  14. Group hypnotherapy versus group relaxation for smoking cessation: an RCT study protocol

    Dickson-Spillmann Maria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant number of smokers would like to stop smoking. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of pharmacological smoking cessation treatments, many smokers are unwilling to use them; however, they are inclined to try alternative methods. Hypnosis has a long-standing reputation in smoking cessation therapy, but its efficacy has not been scientifically proven. We designed this randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of group hypnosis as a method for smoking cessation, and we will compare the results of group hypnosis with group relaxation. Methods/Design This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT to compare the efficacy of a single session of hypnosis with that of relaxation performed in groups of 8-15 smokers. We intend to include at least 220 participants in our trial. The inclusion criteria include smoking at least 5 cigarettes per day, not using other cessation methods and being willing to quit smoking. The intervention is performed by a trained hypnotist/relaxation therapist. Both groups first receive 40 min of mental preparation that is based on motivational interviewing. Then, a state of deep relaxation is induced in the hypnosis condition, and superficial relaxation is induced in the control condition. Suggestions are made in the hypnosis condition that aim to switch the mental self-image of the participants from that of smokers to that of non-smokers. Each intervention lasts for 40 min. The participants also complete questionnaires that assess their smoking status and symptoms of depression and anxiety at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months post-intervention. In addition, saliva samples are collected to assess cotinine levels at baseline and at 6 months post-intervention. We also assess nicotine withdrawal symptoms at 2 weeks post-intervention. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this RCT is the first to test the efficacy of group hypnosis versus group relaxation. Issues requiring discussion in the outcome

  15. Menstrual variation of breast volume and T{sub 2} relaxation times in cyclical mastalgia

    Hussain, Zainab [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Liverpool, Johnstone Building, Brownlow Hill, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GB (United Kingdom); Magnetic Resonance and Image Analysis Research Centre, University of Liverpool, Johnstone Building, Brownlow Hill, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GB (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Brooks, Jonathan [Magnetic Resonance and Image Analysis Research Centre, University of Liverpool, Johnstone Building, Brownlow Hill, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GB (United Kingdom); Department of Human Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Percy, Dave [Centre for Operational Research and Applied Statistics, University of Salford, Salford, Greater Manchester M5 4WT (United Kingdom)


    Purpose: Hormonal activity causes breast volume to change during the menstrual cycle. One possible cause of this volume change is thought to be due to water retention or oedema within the tissues. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study the variation in breast volume and {sup 1}H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) to measure T{sub 2} relaxation times which are known to increase with increasing tissue water content. We hypothesised that an increase in breast volume will elevate T{sub 2} relaxation due to the presence of an increased water content within the breast. T{sub 2} Relaxation time and volume were studied in fifteen control subjects and in a cohort of eight patients with cyclical mastalgia in order to determine whether changes in breast volume and T{sub 2} relaxation times differed in controls and patients during menses, ovulation and premenses. Method: Breast volume was determined by the Cavalieri method in combination with point counting techniques on MR images and T{sub 2} relaxation times of the water and fat in a voxel of breast tissue were obtained using {sup 1}H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS). Results: Statistical analysis (ANOVA) demonstrated highly significant differences in breast volume between the three stages of the cycle (p < 0.0005) with breast volume being greatest premenstrually. Patients did not exhibit an increase in volume premenstrually, significantly above controls. T{sub 2} of fat or water did not depend on stage of cycle. T-tests demonstrated no significant differences in T{sub 2} of water or fat between patient and control groups. The average T{sub 2} relaxation time of water was lowest in the patient and control groups during ovulation and highest in the patient group during premenses. Conclusion: We have performed the first combined volumetric and spectroscopic study of women with cyclical mastalgia and demonstrated that the global changes in volumes and T{sub 2} were not significantly different from normal


    T. V. Dubinina


    Full Text Available Guidelines for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS lack muscle relaxants. At the same time, the latter are used for combined therapy using nonsteroidal  anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs  in 53.1% of patients in an outpatient  setting. No clear recommendations make the administration of these agents uncontrolled, on the one hand, and substantially restrict therapeutic  possibilities, on the other.Objective: to investigate the short-term effect and safety of using tolperisone hydrochloride  (THC,  Mydocalm®  in patients with AS during group therapeutic  exercise (TE.Subjects and methods. The investigation included 40 patients aged over 18 years with a valid diagnosis of AS who had been treated at the Clinic of the V.A. Nasonova Research Institute of Rheumatology and agreed to participate  in the study. All the patients were randomized  in a 1:1 ratio into two groups: 1 20 patients used NSAIDs in combination with TE; 2 20 patients received NSAIDs,  TE, and THC 450 mg/day. The groups were matched for age, gender, disease duration,  and functional impairments. Before and after completion  of the investigation, the investigators estimated BASDAI, BASFI, patient-rated numerical pain rating scale (NPRS, patient-rated TE performance  scores (NPRS, where 0 (very effective, 10 (ineffective, THC tolerance monitoring  (consideration of adverse events. Spinal motility was evaluated using BASMI and chest excursion measurement.Results and discussion. During TE, both groups showed a significant increase in the volume of movements (p < 0.03, when measuring chest excursion and carrying out modified Schober's test, a decrease in BASDAI (p < 0.01 and BASFI (p < 0.009, as well as a reduction  in patient-rated overall disease activity assessment (p < 0.02 as compared to the baseline values. At the same time the modified Schober test revealed that the increase in motility was significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p < 0.05. During the

  17. Ice sheet growth with laterally varying bedrock relaxation time

    van der Wal, Wouter; Vizcaino Rubio, Pablo; De Boer, Bas; van de Wal, Roderik


    Isostatic response of the bedrock, or glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) in included in most ice sheet models. This is important because the surface elevation determines the mass balance and thereby implicitly also the strength of the mass balance feedback where higher surface elevation yields lower temperatures implying less melt and vice versa. Usually a single relaxation time or a set of relaxation times is used to model the response everywhere on Earth or at least for an entire ice sheet. In reality the viscosity in the Earth's mantle, and hence the relaxation time experienced by the ice, varies with location. Seismic studies indicate that several regions that were covered by ice during the last glacial cycle are underlain by mantle in which viscosity varies with orders of magnitude, such as Antarctica and North America. The question is whether such a variation of viscosity influences ice evolution. Several GIA models exist that can deal with 3D viscosity, but their large computation times make it nearly impossible to couple them to ice sheet models. Here we use the ANICE ice-sheet model (de Boer et al. 2013) with a simple bedrock-relaxation model in which a different relaxation time is used for separate regions. A temperature anomaly is applied to grow a schematic ice sheet on a flat earth, with other forcing mechanisms neglected. It is shown that in locations with a fast relaxation time of 300 years the equilibrium ice sheet is significantly thinner and narrower but also ice thickness in neighbouring regions (with the more standard relaxation time of 3000 years) is affected.

  18. Fetal response to abbreviated relaxation techniques. A randomized controlled study.

    Fink, Nadine S; Urech, Corinne; Isabel, Fornaro; Meyer, Andrea; Hoesli, Irène; Bitzer, Johannes; Alder, Judith


    stress during pregnancy can have adverse effects on the course of pregnancy and on fetal development. There are few studies investigating the outcome of stress reduction interventions on maternal well-being and obstetric outcome. this study aims (1) to obtain fetal behavioral states (quiet/active sleep, quiet/active wakefulness), (2) to investigate the effects of maternal relaxation on fetal behavior as well as on uterine activity, and (3) to investigate maternal physiological and endocrine parameters as potential underlying mechanisms for maternal-fetal relaxation-transferral. the behavior of 33 fetuses was analyzed during laboratory relaxation/quiet rest (control group, CG) and controlled for baseline fetal behavior. Potential associations between relaxation/quiet rest and fetal behavior (fetal heart rate (FHR), FHR variation, FHR acceleration, and body movements) and uterine activity were studied, using a computerized cardiotocogram (CTG) system. Maternal heart rate, blood pressure, cortisol, and norepinephrine were measured. intervention (progressive muscle relaxation, PMR, and guided imagery, GI) showed changes in fetal behavior. The intervention groups had higher long-term variation during and after relaxation compared to the CG (p=.039). CG fetuses had more FHR acceleration, especially during and after quiet rest (p=.027). Women in the PMR group had significantly more uterine activity than women in the GI group (p=.011) and than CG women. Maternal heart rate, blood pressure, and stress hormones were not associated with fetal behavior. this study indicates that the fetus might participate in maternal relaxation and suggests that GI is superior to PMR. This could especially be true for women who tend to direct their attention to body sensations such as abdominal activity. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lower esophageal sphincter relaxation reflex kinetics: effects of peristaltic reflexes and maturation in human premature neonates.

    Pena, Eneysis M; Parks, Vanessa N; Peng, Juan; Fernandez, Soledad A; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Shaker, Reza; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R


    We defined the sensory-motor characteristics of the lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (LESR) (stimulus threshold volume, response onset, and relaxation period, relaxation magnitude, nadir) during maturation in human neonates. We hypothesized that LESR kinetics differs during maturation and with peristaltic reflex type. Basal and adaptive esophageal motility testing was performed (N = 20 premature neonates) at 34.7 and 39.1 wk (time 1 and time 2). Effects of midesophageal provocation with graded stimuli (N = 1,267 stimuli, air and liquids) on LESR kinetics during esophagodeglutition response (EDR) and secondary peristalsis (SP) were analyzed by mixed models. Frequency of LESR with basal primary peristalsis were different during maturation (P = 0.03). During adaptive responses with maturation, 1) the frequencies of peristaltic reflexes and LESR were similar; 2) liquid stimuli resulted in a shorter LESR response latency and LESR nadir and greater LESR magnitude (all P reflexes at both times (vs. none, P reflex, and postnatal maturation. Maturation modulates an increased recruitment of inhibitory pathways that favor LESR.

  20. Localization model description of diffusion and structural relaxation in glass-forming Cu-Zr alloys

    Douglas, Jack F.; Pazmino Betancourt, Beatriz A.; Tong, Xuhang; Zhang, Hao


    We test the localization model (LM) prediction of a parameter-free relationship between the α-structural relaxation time τ α and the Debye-Waller factor    for a series of simulated glass-forming Cu-Zr metallic liquids having a range of alloy compositions. After validating this relationship between the picosecond (‘fast’) and long-time relaxation dynamics over the full range of temperatures and alloy compositions investigated in our simulations, we show that it is also possible to estimate the self-diffusion coefficients of the individual atomic species (D Cu, D Zr) and the average diffusion coefficient D using the LM, in conjunction with the empirical fractional Stokes-Einstein (FSE) relation linking these diffusion coefficients to τ α . We further observe that the fragility and extent of decoupling between D and τ α strongly correlate with    at the onset temperature of glass-formation T A where particle caging and the breakdown of Arrhenius relaxation first emerge.