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Sample records for relaxation response training

  1. Relaxation Response and Resiliency Training and Its Effect on Healthcare Resource Utilization.

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    James E Stahl

    Full Text Available Poor psychological and physical resilience in response to stress drives a great deal of health care utilization. Mind-body interventions can reduce stress and build resiliency. The rationale for this study is therefore to estimate the effect of mind-body interventions on healthcare utilization.Estimate the effect of mind body training, specifically, the Relaxation Response Resiliency Program (3RP on healthcare utilization.Retrospective controlled cohort observational study.Major US Academic Health Network.All patients receiving 3RP at the MGH Benson-Henry Institute from 1/12/2006 to 7/1/2014 (n = 4452, controls (n = 13149 followed for a median of 4.2 years (.85-8.4 yrs.Utilization as measured by billable encounters/year (be/yr stratified by encounter type: clinical, imaging, laboratory and procedural, by class of chief complaint: e.g., Cardiovascular, and by site of care delivery, e.g., Emergency Department. Subgroup analysis by propensity score matched pre-intervention utilization rate.At one year, total utilization for the intervention group decreased by 43% [53.5 to 30.5 be/yr] (p <0.0001. Clinical encounters decreased by 41.9% [40 to 23.2 be/yr], imaging by 50.3% [11.5 to 5.7 be/yr], lab encounters by 43.5% [9.8 to 5.6], and procedures by 21.4% [2.2 to 1.7 be/yr], all p < 0.01. The intervention group's Emergency department (ED visits decreased from 3.6 to 1.7/year (p<0.0001 and Hospital and Urgent care visits converged with the controls. Subgroup analysis (identically matched initial utilization rates-Intervention group: high utilizing controls showed the intervention group significantly reduced utilization relative to the control group by: 18.3% across all functional categories, 24.7% across all site categories and 25.3% across all clinical categories.Mind body interventions such as 3RP have the potential to substantially reduce healthcare utilization at relatively low cost and thus can serve as key components in any population health and

  2. Effects of a relaxation training programme on immediate and prolonged stress responses in women with preterm labour.

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    Chuang, Li-Lan; Lin, Li-Chan; Cheng, Po-Jen; Chen, Chung-Hey; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Chang, Chuan-Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a report of an experimental study of the effects of relaxation-training programme on immediate and prolonged stress responses in women with preterm labour. Hospitalized pregnant women with preterm labour experience developmental and situational stress. However, few studies have been performed on stress management in such women. An experimental pretest and repeated post-test design was used to compare the outcomes for two groups in northern Taiwan from December 2008, to May 2010. A total of 129 women were randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 68) or control (n = 61) group. The experimental group participants were instructed to listen daily to a 13-minute relaxation programme. Measurements involved the stress visual analogue scale, finger temperatures, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and Pregnancy-related Anxiety. Two-way analysis of variance and hierarchical linear modelling were used to analyse the group differences. Compared with those in the control group, participants in the experimental group showed immediate improvements in the stress visual analogue scale scores and finger temperatures. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory-State subscale score for the experimental group was significantly lower than that for the control group (P = 0·03). However, no statistically significant differences for the Perceived Stress Scale and Pregnancy-related Anxiety scores were found between the experimental group and the control group. The relaxation-training programme could improve the stress responses of women with preterm labour. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Brief relaxation training program for hospital employees.

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    Balk, Judith L; Chung, Sheng-Chia; Beigi, Richard; Brooks, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Employee stress leads to attrition, burnout, and increased medical costs. We aimed to assess if relaxation training leads to decreased stress levels based on questionnaire and thermal biofeedback. Thirty-minute relaxation training sessions were conducted for hospital employees and for cancer patients. Perceived Stress levels and skin temperature were analyzed before and after relaxation training.

  4. Training-induced improvement of response selection and error detection in aging assessed by task switching: Effects of cognitive, physical and relaxation training

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    Patrick Darius Gajewski

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive control functions decline with increasing age. One of them is response selection that forms the link between the goals and the motor system and is therefore crucial for performance outcomes in cognitive tasks. The present study examines if different types of group-based and trainer-guided training effectively enhance performance of older adults in a task switching task, and how this expected enhancement is reflected in electrophysiological brain activity, as measured in event-related potentials (ERPs. 141 healthy participants aged 65 years and older were randomly assigned to one of four groups: physical training (combined aerobic and strength-training, cognitive training (paper-pencil and computer-aided, relaxation and wellness (social control group and a no-contact control group that did not receive any intervention. Training sessions took place twice a week for 90 minutes for a period of 4 months.The results showed a greater improvement of performance for attendants of the cognitive training group compared to the other groups. This improvement was evident in a reduction of mixing costs in accuracy and intraindividual variability of speed, indexing improved maintenance of multiple task-sets in working memory and an enhanced coherence of neuronal processing. These findings were supported by event-related brain potentials (ERP which showed higher amplitudes in a number of potentials associated with response selection (N2, allocation of cognitive resources (P3b and error detection (Ne.Taken together, our findings suggest neurocognitive plasticity of aging brains which can be stimulated by broad and multilayered cognitive training and assessed in detail by electrophysiological methods.

  5. Relaxation response in femoral angiography.

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    Mandle, C L; Domar, A D; Harrington, D P; Leserman, J; Bozadjian, E M; Friedman, R; Benson, H

    1990-03-01

    Immediately before they underwent femoral angiography, 45 patients were given one of three types of audiotapes: a relaxation response tape recorded for this study, a tape of contemporary instrumental music, or a blank tape. All patients were instructed to listen to their audiotape during the entire angiographic procedure. Each audiotape was played through earphones. Radiologists were not told the group assignment or tape contents. The patients given the audiotape with instructions to elicit the relaxation response (n = 15) experienced significantly less anxiety (P less than .05) and pain (P less than .001) during the procedure, were observed by radiology nurses to exhibit significantly less pain (P less than .001) and anxiety (P less than .001), and requested significantly less fentanyl citrate (P less than .01) and diazepam (P less than .01) than patients given either the music (n = 14) or the blank (n = 16) control audiotapes. Elicitation of the relaxation response is a simple, inexpensive, efficacious, and practical method to reduce pain, anxiety, and medication during femoral angiography and may be useful in other invasive procedures.

  6. Exercise training improves relaxation response and SOD-1 expression in aortic and mesenteric rings from high caloric diet-fed rats

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    Antunes Edson

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has been associated with a variety of disease such as type II diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis. Evidences have shown that exercise training promotes beneficial effects on these disorders, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical preconditioning prevents the deleterious effect of high caloric diet in vascular reactivity of rat aortic and mesenteric rings. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into sedentary (SD; trained (TR; sedentary diet (SDD and trained diet (TRD groups. Run training (RT was performed in sessions of 60 min, 5 days/week for 12 weeks (70–80% VO2max. Triglycerides, glucose, insulin and nitrite/nitrate concentrations (NOx- were measured. Concentration-response curves to acetylcholine (ACh and sodium nitroprusside (SNP were obtained. Expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD-1 was assessed by Western blotting. Results High caloric diet increased triglycerides concentration (SDD: 216 ± 25 mg/dl and exercise training restored to the baseline value (TRD: 89 ± 9 mg/dl. Physical preconditioning significantly reduced insulin levels in both groups (TR: 0.54 ± 0.1 and TRD: 1.24 ± 0.3 ng/ml as compared to sedentary animals (SD: 0.87 ± 0.1 and SDD: 2.57 ± 0.3 ng/ml. On the other hand, glucose concentration was slightly increased by high caloric diet, and RT did not modify this parameter (SD: 126 ± 6; TR: 140 ± 8; SDD: 156 ± 8 and TRD 153 ± 9 mg/dl. Neither high caloric diet nor RT modified NOx- levels (SD: 27 ± 4; TR: 28 ± 6; SDD: 27 ± 3 and TRD: 30 ± 2 μM. Functional assays showed that high caloric diet impaired the relaxing response to ACh in mesenteric (about 13%, but not in aortic rings. RT improved the relaxing responses to ACh either in aortic (28%, for TR and 16%, to TRD groups or mesenteric rings (10%, for TR and 17%, to TRD groups that was accompanied by up-regulation of SOD-1

  7. Relaxation training after stroke: potential to reduce anxiety.

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    Kneebone, Ian; Walker-Samuel, Natalie; Swanston, Jennifer; Otto, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    To consider the feasibility of setting up a relaxation group to treat symptoms of post stroke anxiety in an in-patient post-acute setting; and to explore the effectiveness of relaxation training in reducing self-reported tension. A relaxation group protocol was developed in consultation with a multidisciplinary team and a user group. Over a period of 24 months, 55 stroke patients attended group autogenic relaxation training on a rehabilitation ward. Attendance ranged between one and eleven sessions. Self-reported tension was assessed pre and post relaxation training using the Tension Rating Circles (TRCs). The TRCs identified a significant reduction in self-reported tension from pre to post training, irrespective of the number of sessions attended; z = -3.656, p stroke rehabilitation shows potential. Self-reported tension decreased after attendance at relaxation training. The TRCs proved acceptable to group members, but should be validated against standard anxiety measures. Further exploration of the application of relaxation techniques in clinical practice is desirable. Implications for Rehabilitation Anxiety is prevalent after stroke and likely affects rehabilitation outcomes. Relaxation training is a well proven treatment for anxiety in the non-stroke population. A significant within session reduction in tension, a hallmark symptom of anxiety, was evidenced via group relaxation training delivered in a post-acute, in-patient stroke unit setting. Relaxation training a shows promise as a treatment for anxiety after stroke.

  8. Increasing Mathematical Problem-Solving Performance through Relaxation Training.

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    Sharp, Conni; Coltharp, Hazel; Hurford, David; Cole, AmyKay

    2000-01-01

    Studies two intact classes of 30 undergraduate students enrolled in a mathematics course; however, one group received relaxation training during an initial class meeting and during the first 5-7 minutes of each subsequent class. The group which received the relaxation training had significantly lower mathematics anxiety and significantly higher…

  9. Relaxation Training and Expectation in the Treatment of Postpartum Distress.

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    Halonen, Jane S.; Passman, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of relaxation training in reducing postpartum distress for 48 first-time mothers-to-be via a treatment-component strategy. Compared with nonrelaxation conditions, relaxation treatments reduced reported postpartal distress. Expectations about treatment effectiveness were not significant factors in treatment outcome.…

  10. Stress Testing Recovery EMG for Evaluation of Biofeedback and Progressive Muscle Relaxation Training Effects.

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    Sime, Wesley E.; DeGood, Douglas E.

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess biofeedback (BF) and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and placebo-control training by means of a post-training transfer test. The subjects for the research were 30 women. Initial tests consisted of measuring the electromyographic response of the frontalis muscle of the forehead to stress. After…

  11. Progressive and imaginal relaxation training for elderly persons with subjective anxiety.

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    Scogin, F; Rickard, H C; Keith, S; Wilson, J; McElreath, L

    1992-09-01

    Elders exposed to either progressive or imaginal relaxation procedures reported significant relaxation effects and showed improvement on measures of personal functioning. The results of the Physical Assessment Scale of the Relaxation Inventory indicated that relaxation responses were acquired within and across sessions. Large, consistent changes in relaxation occurred in all 4 sessions. The Symptom Checklist-90-R, which measures self-reported personal adjustment, showed significant positive changes following relaxation training and at 1-month follow-up. Elders who imagined muscle tension release profited as much as those engaged in actual muscle tension-release activities. This finding is of importance for older adults who may experience physical limitations that contraindicate muscle-tension-release procedures.

  12. Mindfulness meditation and relaxation training increases time sensitivity.

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    Droit-Volet, S; Fanget, M; Dambrun, M

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effect of mindfulness meditation and relaxation on time perception using a temporal bisection task. In Experiment 1, the participants performed a temporal task before and after exercises of mindfulness meditation or relaxation. In Experiment 2, the procedure was similar than that used in Experiment 1, except that the participants were trained to mediate or relax every day over a period of several weeks. The results showed that mindfulness meditation exercises increased sensitivity to time and lengthened perceived time. However, this temporal improvement with meditation exercises was primarily observed in the experienced meditators. Our results also showed the experienced meditators were less anxious than the novice participants, and that the sensitivity to time increased when the level of anxiety decreased. Our results were explained by the practice of mindfulness technique that had developed individuals' abilities in devoting more attention resources to temporal information processing.

  13. A Psychophysiological Comparison of the Effects of Three Relaxation Techniques: Respiratory Manipulation Training, Progressive Muscle Relaxation, and Pleasant Imagery.

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    Longo, David J.

    A within-subjects, three condition design was employed to examine the effects of three relaxation techniques on blood pressures, pulse rates, and self-report measures of relaxation for 12 college students. Respiratory Manipulation Training incorporated instructions to exhale and not to inhale for as long as possible. When breathing could no longer…

  14. Relaxation training assisted by heart rate variability biofeedback: Implication for a military predeployment stress inoculation protocol.

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    Lewis, Gregory F; Hourani, Laurel; Tueller, Stephen; Kizakevich, Paul; Bryant, Stephanie; Weimer, Belinda; Strange, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms, but PTSD's effects on the autonomic stress response and the potential influence of HRV biofeedback in stress relaxation training on improving PTSD symptoms are not well understood. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of a predeployment stress inoculation training (PRESTINT) protocol on physiologic measures of HRV in a large sample of the military population randomly assigned to experimental HRV biofeedback-assisted relaxation training versus a control condition. PRESTINT altered the parasympathetic regulation of cardiac activity, with experimental subjects exhibiting greater HRV, that is, less arousal, during a posttraining combat simulation designed to heighten arousal. Autonomic reactivity was also found to be related to PTSD and self-reported use of mental health services. Future PRESTINT training could be appropriate for efficiently teaching self-help skills to reduce the psychological harm following trauma exposure by increasing the capacity for parasympathetically modulated reactions to stress and providing a coping tool (i.e., relaxation method) for use following a stressful situation.

  15. The benefit of heart rate variability biofeedback and relaxation training in reducing trait anxiety†

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    Lee, Jieun; Kim, Jung K; Wachholtz, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Previous research studies have indicated that biofeedback treatment and relaxation techniques are effective in reducing psychological and physical symptoms (Hammond, 2005; Manzoni, G. M., Pagnini, F., Castelnuovo, G., & Molinari, E., 2008). However, dearth of studies has compared heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback treatment and relaxation training to reduce trait anxiety. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of HRV biofeedback treatment and relaxation training in redu...

  16. Relaxation training for anxiety: a ten-years systematic review with meta-analysis

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    Castelnuovo Gianluca

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relaxation training is a common treatment for anxiety problems. Lacking is a recent quantitative meta-analysis that enhances understanding of the variability and clinical significance of anxiety reduction outcomes after relaxation treatment. Methods All studies (1997–2007, both RCT, observational and without control group, evaluating the efficacy of relaxation training (Jacobson's progressive relaxation, autogenic training, applied relaxation and meditation for anxiety problems and disorders were identified by comprehensive electronic searches with Pubmed, Psychinfo and Cochrane Registers, by checking references of relevant studies and of other reviews. Our primary outcome was anxiety measured with psychometric questionnaires. Meta-analysis was undertaken synthesizing the data from all trials, distinguishing within and between effect sizes. Results 27 studies qualified for the inclusion in the meta-analysis. As hypothesized, relaxation training showed a medium-large effect size in the treatment of anxiety. Cohen's d was .57 (95% CI: .52 to .68 in the within analysis and .51 (95% CI: .46 to .634 in the between group analysis. Efficacy was higher for meditation, among volunteers and for longer treatments. Implications and limitations are discussed. Conclusion The results show consistent and significant efficacy of relaxation training in reducing anxiety. This meta-analysis extends the existing literature through facilitation of a better understanding of the variability and clinical significance of anxiety improvement subsequent to relaxation training.

  17. BREATHING EXERCISE RELAXATION INCREASE PHSYCOLOGICAL RESPONSE PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

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    Yuni Sufyanti Arief

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Being hospitalize will be made the children become stress. Hospitalization response of the child particularly is afraid sense regard to painfull procedure and increase to attack the invasive procedure. The aimed of this study was to describe the influence of breathing exercise relaxation technique regarded to phsycological receiving responses in the preeliminary school chidren while they were receiving invasive procedure. Method: A quasy experimental purposive sampling design was used in this study. There were 20 respondents who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was the breathing exercise relaxation technique and the dependent variable was phsycological receiving responses. Data for phsylogical response were collected by using observation form then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result :  The result showed that breathing exercise relaxation technique had significance influence to phsycological response (p=0.000. Discussion: It,s can be concluded that breathing exercise relaxation technique has an effect to increase pshycological response in preeliminary school children who received invasive procedure.

  18. Genomic counter-stress changes induced by the relaxation response.

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    Jeffery A Dusek

    Full Text Available Mind-body practices that elicit the relaxation response (RR have been used worldwide for millennia to prevent and treat disease. The RR is characterized by decreased oxygen consumption, increased exhaled nitric oxide, and reduced psychological distress. It is believed to be the counterpart of the stress response that exhibits a distinct pattern of physiology and transcriptional profile. We hypothesized that RR elicitation results in characteristic gene expression changes that can be used to measure physiological responses elicited by the RR in an unbiased fashion.We assessed whole blood transcriptional profiles in 19 healthy, long-term practitioners of daily RR practice (group M, 19 healthy controls (group N(1, and 20 N(1 individuals who completed 8 weeks of RR training (group N(2. 2209 genes were differentially expressed in group M relative to group N(1 (p<0.05 and 1561 genes in group N(2 compared to group N(1 (p<0.05. Importantly, 433 (p<10(-10 of 2209 and 1561 differentially expressed genes were shared among long-term (M and short-term practitioners (N(2. Gene ontology and gene set enrichment analyses revealed significant alterations in cellular metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, generation of reactive oxygen species and response to oxidative stress in long-term and short-term practitioners of daily RR practice that may counteract cellular damage related to chronic psychological stress. A significant number of genes and pathways were confirmed in an independent validation set containing 5 N(1 controls, 5 N(2 short-term and 6 M long-term practitioners.This study provides the first compelling evidence that the RR elicits specific gene expression changes in short-term and long-term practitioners. Our results suggest consistent and constitutive changes in gene expression resulting from RR may relate to long term physiological effects. Our study may stimulate new investigations into applying transcriptional profiling for accurately measuring

  19. Fetal responses to induced maternal relaxation during pregnancy

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    DiPietro, Janet A.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Nelson, Priscilla; Gurewitsch, Edith D.; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2008-01-01

    Fetal responses to induced maternal relaxation during the 32nd week of pregnancy were recorded in 100 maternal-fetal pairs using a digitized data collection system. The 18-minute guided imagery relaxation manipulation generated significant changes in maternal heart rate, skin conductance, respiration period, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Significant alterations in fetal neurobehavior were observed, including decreased fetal heart rate (FHR), increased FHR variability, suppression of fetal motor activity (FM), and increased FM-FHR coupling. Attribution of the two fetal cardiac responses to the guided imagery procedure itself, as opposed to simple rest or recumbency, is tempered by the observed pattern of response. Evaluation of correspondence between changes within individual maternal-fetal pairs revealed significant associations between maternal autonomic measures and fetal cardiac patterns, lower umbilical and uterine artery resistance and increased FHR variability, and declining salivary cortisol and FM activity. Potential mechanisms that may mediate the observed results are discussed. PMID:17919804

  20. Aerobic endurance training versus relaxation training in patients with migraine (ARMIG: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Totzeck Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migraine is one of the most frequent headache diseases and impairs patients’ quality of life. Up to now, many randomized studies reported efficacy of prophylactic therapy with medications such as beta-blockers or anti-epileptic drugs. Non-medical treatment, like aerobic endurance training, is considered to be an encouraging alternative in migraine prophylaxis. However, there is still a lack of prospective, high-quality randomized trials. We therefore designed a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of aerobic endurance training versus relaxation training in patients with migraine (ARMIG. Methods This is a single-center, open-label, prospective, randomized trial. Sixty participants with migraine are randomly allocated to either endurance training or a relaxation group. After baseline headache diary documentation over at least 4 weeks, participants in the exercise group will start moderate aerobic endurance training under a sport therapist’s supervision at least 3 times a week over a 12-week period. The second group will perform Jacobson’s progressive muscle relaxation training guided by a trained relaxation therapist, also at least 3 times a week over a 12-week period. Both study arms will train in groups of up to 10 participants. More frequent individual training is possible. The follow-up period will be 12 weeks after the training period. The general state of health, possible state of anxiety or depression, impairments due to the headache disorder, pain-related disabilities, the headache-specific locus of control, and the motor fitness status are measured with standardized questionnaires. Discussion The study design is adequate to generate meaningful results. The trial will be helpful in gaining important data on exercise training for non-medical migraine prophylaxis. Trial registration The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01407861.

  1. A temporary decrease in twitch response during reversal of rocuronium-induced muscle relaxation with a small dose of sugammadex

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    Eleveld, Douglas J.; Kuizenga, Karel; Proost, Johannes H.; Wierda, J. Mark K. H.

    BACKGROUND: We present a case in which a temporary decrease in train-of-four (TOF) response was observed after reversal of muscle relaxation with a small dose (0.5 mg/kg) of sugammadex administered 42 min after 0.9 mg/kg of rocuronium. At the end of the operation, the TOF ratio was > 0.9, and the

  2. Exercise training-induced adaptations in mediators of sustained endothelium-dependent coronary artery relaxation in a porcine model of ischemic heart disease

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    Heaps, Cristine L.; Robles, Juan Carlos; Sarin, Vandana; Mattox, Mildred L.; Parker, Janet L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Test the hypothesis that exercise training enhances sustained relaxation to persistent endothelium-dependent vasodilator exposure via increased nitric oxide contribution in small coronary arteries of control and ischemic hearts. Methods Yucatan swine were designated to a control group or a group in which an ameroid constrictor was placed around the proximal LCX. Subsequently, pigs from both groups were assigned to exercise (5 days/week; 16 weeks) or sedentary regimens. Coronary arteries (~100–350 μm) were isolated from control pigs and from both nonoccluded and collateral-dependent regions of chronically-occluded hearts. Results In arteries from control pigs, training significantly enhanced relaxation responses to increasing concentrations of bradykinin (10−10 to 10−7 M) and sustained relaxation to a single bradykinin concentration (30 nM), which were abolished by NOS inhibition. Training also significantly prolonged bradykinin-mediated relaxation in collateral-dependent arteries of occluded pigs, which was associated with more persistent increases in endothelial cellular Ca2+ levels, and reversed with NOS inhibition. Protein levels for eNOS and p-eNOS-(Ser1179), but not caveolin-1, Hsp90, or Akt, were significantly increased with occlusion, independent of training state. Conclusions Exercise training enhances sustained relaxation to endothelium-dependent agonist stimulation in small arteries of control and ischemic hearts by enhanced nitric oxide contribution and endothelial Ca2+ responses. PMID:24447072

  3. Behavioral Relaxation Training for Parkinson's Disease Related Dyskinesia and Comorbid Social Anxiety

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    Lundervold, Duane A.; Pahwa, Rajesh; Lyons, Kelly E.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of brief Behavioral Relaxation Training (BRT) on anxiety and dyskinesia of a 57-year-old female, with an 11-year history of Parkinson's disease (PD) and 18-months post-deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, were evaluated. Multiple process and outcome measures were used including the Clinical Anxiety Scale (CAS),…

  4. DO FOOT REFLEXOLOGY AND RELAXATION TRAINING DECREASE PREMENSTRUAL SYMPTOMS IN ADOLESCENT FEMALES

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    Marwa A. Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premenstrual syndrome is a current condition characterized by troublesome symptoms as tension, irritability, depression, headache, anxiety and loss of self-control, so the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of foot reflexology augmented with relaxation training on premenstrual syndrome in adolescent females. Methods: A sample of 50 volunteers, virgin females diagnosed as premenstrual syndrome was selected from the students of Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University. Their age was ranged between 19 to 23 years with mean value of (21.53±2.27 yrs and BMI was ≤28 Kg/m² with mean value of (24.04±2.41 Kg/m².A detailed medical history was obtained to screen other pathological conditions that may affect the results. Females were randomly assigned into two equal groups. Group (A consisted of 25 subjects who received foot reflexology in addition to relaxation training techniques twice a week for 8 weeks. Group (B consisted of 25 patients, who received relaxation training techniques only twice a week for 8 weeks. Assessment of all subjects in both groups was carried out before and after the treatment program through heart rate, respiratory rate in addition to plasma cortisol level and daily symptoms report chart. Results: Showed a statistical highly significant decrease (p<0.001 in heart rate, respiratory rate, plasma cortisol level as well as daily symptoms report score in group (A while there was a statistical significant decrease (p<0.05 in all variables in group (B. Conclusions: Adding foot reflexology to relaxation training had a great positive effect on premenstrual syndrome in adolescent females than relaxation training only.

  5. DIRECT SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OF ANELASTIC DEFORMATION RESPONSE DURING STRUCTURAL RELAXATION OF AMORPHOUS METALS

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    CSACH, K; Ocelik, Vaclav; MISKUF, J; BENGUS, VZ; DUHAJ, P

    1994-01-01

    Direct relaxation time spectrum analysis method has been successfully used to observe and. to study changes in the kinetics of isothermal anelastic deformation response of soft magnetic metallic glass Fe40Ni40B20 during structural relaxation. Computed relaxation time spectra contain three or four qu

  6. Effects of relaxation training on cursive handwriting of fourth grade students.

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    Jackson, K; Hughes, H

    1978-12-01

    A relaxation method of handwriting improvement was examined. The experimental and no-treatment control groups were composed of 10 students receiving a poor rating on handwriting characteristics and the normal control group of 10 was composed of students receiving average ratings. All three groups received nine trials of writing. Only the experimental group received relaxation training during each trial. The handwriting of the experimental group improved significantly while that of the no-treatment control group remained the same. Although the handwriting of the normal control group also improved significantly, at posttest they were no longer significantly different from the experimental group.

  7. AUTOGENIC TRAINING RELAXATION HELPING POSTPARTUM MOTHERS TO ACHIEVE SUCCESSFUL BREASTFEEDING ON EARLY LACTATION PERIOD

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    Farida Juanita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The numbers of breastfeeding failures are mostly caused by mothers` disbelief to themselves. One method that can be done to overcome these problems in accordance with the self-care nursing theory is the autogenic training relaxation. This method teaches mothers to be self-sufficient in building a positive intention and motivation to help the process of breastfeeding. This study aimed to examine the influence of autogenic training relaxation to the effectiveness of breastfeeding and the enhancement of breast milk volume on maternal postpartum. Method: By using an experimental posttest only-non equivalent control group design, 26 samples were taken based on the criteria and divided into two groups by matching technuiqe. autogenic training was given through MP3 Player for 3 weeks. Post-test observation conducted on the third week by home visit. Via Christi Breastfeeding Assessment Tool Jan Riordan modifications used to assess the effectiveness of breastfeeding, and to measure the milk ejection volume, used weighing test using electronic baby scales. Data were analyzed using one-tailed independent t test with α ≤ 0.05. Result: The analysis showed that mothers who did autogenic training relaxation could breastfeed more effectively and had greater average volume of milk ejection than the control group (p = 0.000 and p = 0.001. Discussion: It can be concluded that autogenic relaxation training techniques affect the effectiveness of breastfeeding and breast milk volume. These results can be considered that autogenic training as an intervention in program of support for breastfeeding mothers.

  8. Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on Pain Threshold and Effectiveness of Footballers’ Training

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    Jaworska Lilianna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Relaxing in the athlete’s training process is underutilized. Relaxation techniques, however, should be taught from the very beginning of the footballer’s training career. The main aim of this study was to present the effect of progressive muscle relaxation on pressure pain threshold levels and the effectiveness of the footballer’s training. Methods. A sample of 32 football players participated in the therapeutic program consisting of 8 PMR sessions. Before and after applying a pressure therapy, the pain threshold in the lumbar region was measured by a dolorimeter and the Cooper test was carried out to determine the footballers’ level of endurance. Results. PMR training did not increase significantly the pain threshold level in the experimental group (p > 0.05, but it increased significantly the distance covered in the Cooper test (p = 0.04. Analysis of the Spearman rank correlation was also carried out (p = 0.81. Conclusions. PMR does not lower pain perception threshold. PMR therapy increases the distance measured by the Cooper test. In order to determine the role of PMR in injury prevention, further research is necessary.

  9. [The effect of EMG level by EMG biofeedback with progressive muscle relaxation training on tension headache].

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    Ro, U J; Kim, N C; Kim, H S

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess if EMG biofeedback training with progressive muscle relaxation training is effective in reducing the EMG level in patients with tension headaches. This study which lasted from 23 October to 30 December 1989, was conducted on 10 females who were diagnosed as patients with tension headaches and selected from among volunteers at C. University in Seoul. The process of the study was as follows: First, before the treatment, the baseline was measured for two weeks and the level of EMG was measured five times in five minutes. And then EMG biofeedback training was used for six weeks, 12 sessions in all, and progressive muscle relaxation was done at home by audio tape over eight weeks. Each session was composed of a 5-minute baseline, two 5-minute EMG biofeedback training periods and a 5-minute self-control stage. Each stage was followed by a five minute rest period. So each session took a total of 40 minutes. The EMG level was measured by EMG biofeedback (Autogenic-Cyborg: M 130 EMG module). The results were as follows: 1. The average age of the subjects was 44.1 years and the average history of headache was 10.6 years (range: 6 months-20 years). 2. The level of EMG was lowest between the third and the fourth week of the training except in Cases I and IV. 3. The patients began to show a nonconciliatory attitude at the first session of the fifth week of the training.

  10. The Role of Relaxation Training to Pregnant Mothers on Health Index of Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Mosaviasl

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Investigations have shown that the emotional stress during the pregnancy period could have sustainable effects on the embryo. Different factors such as family members, spouse, supporting friends could relive these effects, but coping skills especially relaxation could be more effective on stress. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of relaxation training to pregnant mothers on health index such as Apgar index, weight, height, and cowlick grade in infants. Materials & Methods: This is a clinical trail in which 100 pregnant women who referred to health center of Yasuj (2006-2008 were selected using simple sampling method and assigned randomly to case and control groups. The relaxation was taught to the case group whereas nothing was taught to control groups. At the time of delivery the above mentioned indices were assessed. The gathered data was analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The results showed a significant difference between two groups in weight, height, cephalic index, and colic grade (with better situation in case group. There was no significant difference between two groups in Apgar scores. Conclusion: Considering the results of this study, it seems that teaching of relaxation to pregnant women could be effective in health index of children especially in the time of delivery. Therefore attention should be paid to different methods for reducing the stress in this group of mothers. Keywords: relaxation, pregnant women, infants, Apgar scores

  11. Comparison of sensory modes of biofeedback in relaxation training of frontalis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of various sensory modes of EMG biofeedback to relaxation training of the frontalis muscle. 19 male and 29 female subjects were randomly selected from a pool of college volunteers. They were then randomly assigned 12 each to audiofeedback, visual feedback, audiovisual feedback, and no feedback groups. There were 11 20-min. sessions per subject. Subjects in the biofeedback groups were trained to reduce muscle tension voluntarily by utilizing Cyborg J33 EMG portable trainers. The subjects in the three feedback groups exhibited significantly lower muscle tension than did the subjects in the no-feedback control group. There were no significant differences in relaxation among the three feedback groups.

  12. The efficacy of relaxation training on stress, anxiety, and pain perception in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Heidari Gorji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients on dialysis experience psychological distress, which can impact pain perception. Reduction of stress and anxiety in patients provides psychological resources to cope with their physical condition. We examined the efficacy of relaxation training on stress, anxiety, and pain perception of hemodialysis (HD patients. eighty HD patients were randomized into two groups (intervention and control. Benson relaxation training was implemented in the intervention group for 15 min twice daily during 4 weeks. Pain perception, stress, and anxiety scale were evaluated before and after intervention. There were significant differences between pain perception, stress, and anxiety levels in case group before and after intervention (P < 0.001 and there was a correlation between pain perception with stress and anxiety. Instructing Benson′s relaxation technique is accompanied by reducing pain, stress, and anxiety level of HD patients. Reducing stress and anxiety can provide calmness for the patients so that pursuing medical therapy would be accompanied with more tranquility and low pain intensity. We suggest improving and preventing the patients′ psychological problems as well as other chronic disorders through applying nonpharmacological interventions.

  13. Fetal response to abbreviated relaxation techniques. A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Nadine S; Urech, Corinne; Isabel, Fornaro; Meyer, Andrea; Hoesli, Irène; Bitzer, Johannes; Alder, Judith

    2011-02-01

    stress during pregnancy can have adverse effects on the course of pregnancy and on fetal development. There are few studies investigating the outcome of stress reduction interventions on maternal well-being and obstetric outcome. this study aims (1) to obtain fetal behavioral states (quiet/active sleep, quiet/active wakefulness), (2) to investigate the effects of maternal relaxation on fetal behavior as well as on uterine activity, and (3) to investigate maternal physiological and endocrine parameters as potential underlying mechanisms for maternal-fetal relaxation-transferral. the behavior of 33 fetuses was analyzed during laboratory relaxation/quiet rest (control group, CG) and controlled for baseline fetal behavior. Potential associations between relaxation/quiet rest and fetal behavior (fetal heart rate (FHR), FHR variation, FHR acceleration, and body movements) and uterine activity were studied, using a computerized cardiotocogram (CTG) system. Maternal heart rate, blood pressure, cortisol, and norepinephrine were measured. intervention (progressive muscle relaxation, PMR, and guided imagery, GI) showed changes in fetal behavior. The intervention groups had higher long-term variation during and after relaxation compared to the CG (p=.039). CG fetuses had more FHR acceleration, especially during and after quiet rest (p=.027). Women in the PMR group had significantly more uterine activity than women in the GI group (p=.011) and than CG women. Maternal heart rate, blood pressure, and stress hormones were not associated with fetal behavior. this study indicates that the fetus might participate in maternal relaxation and suggests that GI is superior to PMR. This could especially be true for women who tend to direct their attention to body sensations such as abdominal activity. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Predictability of psychic outcome for exercise training and exercise training including relaxation therapy after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); J. van Dixhoorn (J.)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Predictability of the psychic outcome for two cardiac rehabilitation programmes was investigated in 119 myocardial infarction patients. They were randomly assigned to either a five-week daily exercise training or to an identical training in combination with six sessions

  15. Identification of Structural Relaxation in the Dielectric Response of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jesper S.; Kisliuk, Alexander; Sokolov, Alexei P.; Gainaru, Catalin

    2016-06-01

    One century ago pioneering dielectric results obtained for water and n -alcohols triggered the advent of molecular rotation diffusion theory considered by Debye to describe the primary dielectric absorption in these liquids. Comparing dielectric, viscoelastic, and light scattering results, we unambiguously demonstrate that the structural relaxation appears only as a high-frequency shoulder in the dielectric spectra of water. In contrast, the main dielectric peak is related to a supramolecular structure, analogous to the Debye-like peak observed in monoalcohols.

  16. Effects of relaxation and stress on the capsaicin-induced local inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutgendorf, S; Logan, H; Kirchner, H L; Rothrock, N; Svengalis, S; Iverson, K; Lubaroff, D

    2000-01-01

    Although stress is known to modulate the inflammatory response, there has been little experimental examination of the effects of stress and stress reduction on inflammation in humans. In particular, the effects of stress and relaxation on neurogenic inflammation have been minimally studied. This study examines the effects of three experimental manipulations: mental stress, relaxation, and control on the local inflammatory response evoked by the intradermal injection of capsaicin, the active ingredient in chili peppers. Fifty subjects (28 men and 22 women) were pretrained in relaxation using an imagery-based relaxation tape and then randomized to experimental condition. Subjects participated in an evening reactivity session including 20 minutes of a stress (Stroop test), relaxation (tape), or control (video) manipulation, followed by a capsaicin injection in the forearm. Digitized flare measurements were taken for 1 hour postcapsaicin, and measurements of cardiovascular variables, cortisol, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and norepinephrine were taken at regular intervals. The size of the maximum capsaicin-induced flare was significantly smaller in the relaxation condition than in the stress or control conditions, which did not differ from each other. Increases in norepinephrine, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure during the experimental task, but not after capsaicin, significantly predicted size of maximum flare and total area under the curve of flare measurements. These findings suggest that stress reduction may affect local inflammatory processes. Results are consistent with sympathetic modulation of the effects of relaxation on the flare response.

  17. Immune modulation in response to stress and relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub-E-Sobhani; Haque, N; Salma, U; Ahmed, A

    2011-03-15

    Traditional medical science has kept the mind separate from the body. Recently people realize the effect of mind on health and psychoneuroimmunology is the new evolved science that describes the interactions between psyche and soma. In this review through a typical psycho-neuro-endocrino-immune network the effects of psychological stress (acute, brief naturalistic and chronic) and relaxation on immune modulation has been shown. From this network Corticotrophin Releasing Factor (CRF), Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH), Glucocorticoids (GC), alpha-endorphin and Met-enkephalin are found as important endocrine components and T cells, B cells, monocytes/macrophages, Natural Killer (NK) cells and their cytokines that is Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), Interferon Gamma (IFN-alpha) and interleukins such as IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 etc. are found as important immune components. Finally, it has been shown that, acute, brief naturalistic and chronic stress have different immune modulatory activities which are harmful to one's homeostasis and relaxation can help to maintain that homeostasis.

  18. Effect of Relaxation Training to Pregnant Mothers on Quality of life and Postpartum Blues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Akbarzadeh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the postpartum period, mothers are exposed to some potential complications and their health many decrease. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of relaxation on postpartum blues and quality of life.Methods: In this clinical trial study, 84 pregnant women who referred to health centers of Shiraz (2010 were selected through a simple sampling method and were randomly assigned to case and control groups. The relaxation was taught to the case group whereas nothing was taught to control groups. Severity of postpartum blues was evaluated by Zung self rating depression scale on the 1st and 10th days after birth in case and control groups and quality of life was evaluated as well. Results: There was not statistically significant difference between two groups with regard to demographic and obstetric variables (P>0.05. Mean of postpartum blues on the 1st day and 10th day after delivery showed a significant difference between case and control group (P<0.05. The mean score of quality of life subscales (Feelings of mothers to herself and mother towards her child were significantly higher in case group and there was a significant difference between the two groups in this regard (P<0.05.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that relaxation training to pregnant mothers was effective in decreasing postpartum blues severity and it was beneficial to mothers’ health and quality of life. Therefore, it is a simple, useful and cost free method to improve postpartum blues and its application is recommended for improving maternal psychological health.

  19. Atomistic modeling of electron relaxation effect on femtosecond laser-induced thermoelastic response of gold films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Q. L.; Tian, X. G.; Lu, T. J.

    2012-07-01

    The thermoelastic response of thin gold films induced by femtosecond laser irradiation is numerically simulated using a modified combined two-temperature model (TTM) and molecular dynamics (MD) method, with focus placed upon the influence of the electron relaxation effect. The validity of the numerical approach is checked against existing experimental results. While the electron relaxation effect is found negligible when the laser duration is much longer than the electron thermal relaxation time, it becomes significant if the laser duration matches the electron relaxation time, especially when the former is much shorter than the latter. The characteristics of thermo-mechanical interaction in the thin film are analyzed, and the influence of temperature-dependent material properties upon the thermoelastic response of the film quantified.

  20. Response to induced relaxation during pregnancy: comparison of women with high versus low levels of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, Judith; Urech, Corinne; Fink, Nadine; Bitzer, Johannes; Hoesli, Irene

    2011-03-01

    Relaxation exercises have become a standard intervention for individuals with anxiety disorders but little is known about their potential for anxiety relief during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to examine psychoendocrine (i) baseline differences and (ii) changes after a standardized relaxation period in pregnant women with high versus low levels of anxiety. Thirty-nine third-trimester high and low anxious pregnant women performed active or passive relaxation while levels of anxiety, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) system activity were assessed before and after the relaxation period. In women with high levels of trait anxiety, state anxiety (F(1,36) = 8.3, p = .007) and negative affect (F(1,36) = 7.99, p = .008) as well as ACTH (F(1,35) = 9.24, p = .002) remained elevated over the entire course of the experimental procedure, the last indicating increased HPA axis activity. In addition, norepinephrine showed a constricted decrease of relaxation reflecting lower response of the SAM-system (F(1,37) = 4.41, p = .043). Although relaxation exercises have become a standard intervention for individuals with anxiety, pregnant women with high levels of trait anxiety benefited less than women with low levels from a single standardized relaxation period.

  1. Acute effect of rosiglitazone on relaxation responses in hypercholesterolemic corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdag, H; Murat, N; Evcim, S; Esen, A; Gidener, S

    2016-05-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) improve vascular endothelial dysfunction through non-genomic effects of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor γ. This study investigated the acute effect of one of the TZD, rosiglitazone, on endothelium-dependent relaxation response of corpus cavernosum (CC) in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. New Zealand rabbits were divided into two groups randomly as control and cholesterol groups. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding rabbits with 2% cholesterol diet (w/w) for 6 weeks. Endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation response of CC were evaluated in the presence of rosiglitazone by organ bath studies with cumulative doses of acetylcholine (Ach) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Maximal relaxation (Emax) response to Ach significantly decreased owing to hypercholesterolemia in CC tissues. However, in vitro incubation of rosiglitazone with different concentrations (0.1, 1 and 10 μm) did not improve the Ach-dependent Emax responses in hypercholesterolemic rabbit CC. Surprisingly, rosiglitazone caused a significant decrease in Ach-dependent relaxation in healthy CC. Emax responses to SNP did not differ in the presence of rosiglitazone in both the control and hypercholesterolemic groups. Rosiglitazone does not improve hypercholesterolemia-induced endothelial dysfunction in CC tissues while it dose-dependently impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation in healthy CC tissue.

  2. Atmospheric Wind Relaxations and the Oceanic Response in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewings, M. R.; Dorman, C. E.; Washburn, L.; Liu, W.

    2010-12-01

    On the West Coast of North America in summer, episodic relaxation of the upwelling-favorable winds causes warm water to propagate northward from southern to central California, against the prevailing currents [Harms and Winant 1998, Winant et al. 2003, Melton et al. 2009]. Similar wind relaxations are an important characteristic of coastal upwelling ecosystems worldwide. Although these wind relaxations have an important influence on coastal ocean dynamics, no description exists of the regional atmospheric patterns that lead to wind relaxations in southern California, or of the regional ocean response. We use QuikSCAT wind stress, North American Regional Reanalysis atmospheric pressure products, water temperature and velocity from coastal ocean moorings, surface ocean currents from high-frequency radars, and MODIS satellite sea-surface temperature and ocean color images to analyze wind relaxation events and the ocean response. We identify the events based on an empirical index calculated from NDBC buoy winds [Melton et al. 2009]. We describe the regional evolution of the atmosphere from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California over the few days leading up to wind relaxations, and the coastal ocean temperature, color, and current response off southern and central California. We analyze ~100 wind relaxation events in June-September during the QuikSCAT mission, 1999-2009. Our results indicate south-central California wind relaxations in summer are tied to mid-level atmospheric low-pressure systems that form in the Gulf of Alaska and propagate southeastward over 3-5 days. As the low-pressure systems reach southern California, the atmospheric pressure gradient along the coast weakens, causing the surface wind stress to relax to near zero. The weak wind signal appears first at San Diego and propagates northward. QuikSCAT data indicate the relaxed winds extend over the entire Southern California Bight and up to 200 km offshore of central California. Atmospheric dynamics in

  3. Controlled Comparison of Family Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Psychoeducation/Relaxation Training for Child Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, John; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Peris, Tara; Wood, Jeffrey J.; McCracken, James

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus a structured family intervention (FCBT) versus psychoeducation plus relaxation training (PRT) for reducing symptom severity, functional impairment, and family accommodation in youths with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: A total of 71…

  4. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy versus Progressive Relaxation Training for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Michael P.; Hayes, Steven C.; Plumb, Jennifer C.; Pruitt, Larry D.; Collins, Angela B.; Hazlett-Stevens, Holly; Woidneck, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Effective treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exist, but additional treatment options are needed. The effectiveness of 8 sessions of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for adult OCD was compared with progressive relaxation training (PRT). Method: Seventy-nine adults (61% female) diagnosed with OCD (mean age = 37…

  5. Anxiety Management Training and Relaxation as Self-Control in the Treatment of Generalized Anxiety in Medical Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragan, Mary K.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.

    1984-01-01

    Compared Anxiety Management Training (AMT) and Relaxation as Self-Control (RSC) in reducing stress in 55 anxious medical outpatients. At posttreatment and follow-up assessments, both AMT and RSC groups reported significantly less anxiety, stress reactivity, general physiological arousal, depression, and anger than controls. (JAC)

  6. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy versus Progressive Relaxation Training for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Michael P.; Hayes, Steven C.; Plumb, Jennifer C.; Pruitt, Larry D.; Collins, Angela B.; Hazlett-Stevens, Holly; Woidneck, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Effective treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exist, but additional treatment options are needed. The effectiveness of 8 sessions of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for adult OCD was compared with progressive relaxation training (PRT). Method: Seventy-nine adults (61% female) diagnosed with OCD (mean age = 37…

  7. Controlled Comparison of Family Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Psychoeducation/Relaxation Training for Child Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, John; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Peris, Tara; Wood, Jeffrey J.; McCracken, James

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus a structured family intervention (FCBT) versus psychoeducation plus relaxation training (PRT) for reducing symptom severity, functional impairment, and family accommodation in youths with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: A total of 71…

  8. The effects of Chinese calligraphy handwriting and relaxation training in Chinese Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Ling; Li, Huan-Huan; Hong, Ming-Huang; Kao, Henry S R

    2010-05-01

    Chinese calligraphy handwriting is the practice of traditional Chinese brush writing, researches found calligraphy had therapeutic effects on certain diseases, some authors argued that calligraphy might have relaxation effect. This study was to compare the effects of calligraphy handwriting with those of progressive muscle relaxation and imagery training in Chinese Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma patients. This study was a randomized controlled trial. Two hundred and eighty-seven Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma patients were approached, ninety (31%) patients were recruited and randomized to one of the three treatment groups: progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery training group, Calligraphy handwriting group, or a Control group. Seventy-nine (87.8%) completed all of the outcome measures. The primary treatment outcome was the changes of physiological arousal parameters measured by pre- and post-treatment differences of heart rate, blood pressure and respiration rate. The secondary outcomes included: modified Chinese version of Symptom Distress Scale, Profile of Mood State-Short Form, and Karnofsky Performance Status measured at baseline, during treatment (after the 2-week intervention), post-treatment (after the 4-week intervention) and after a 2-week follow-up. Effectiveness was tested by repeated measure ANOVA analyses. Cancer centre of a major university hospital in Guangdong, China. Results showed that both of calligraphy and relaxation training demonstrated slow-down effects on physiological arousal parameters. Moreover, calligraphy practice gradually lowered participants' systolic blood pressure (simple main effect of time at pre-treatment measure, p=.007) and respiration rate (p=.000) at pre- and post-treatment measures as the intervention proceeded, though with a smaller effect size as compared to relaxation. Both of calligraphy and relaxation training had certain symptom relief and mood improvement effects in NPC patients. Relaxation was effective in relieving

  9. Relaxation response induces temporal transcriptome changes in energy metabolism, insulin secretion and inflammatory pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K Bhasin

    Full Text Available The relaxation response (RR is the counterpart of the stress response. Millennia-old practices evoking the RR include meditation, yoga and repetitive prayer. Although RR elicitation is an effective therapeutic intervention that counteracts the adverse clinical effects of stress in disorders including hypertension, anxiety, insomnia and aging, the underlying molecular mechanisms that explain these clinical benefits remain undetermined. To assess rapid time-dependent (temporal genomic changes during one session of RR practice among healthy practitioners with years of RR practice and also in novices before and after 8 weeks of RR training, we measured the transcriptome in peripheral blood prior to, immediately after, and 15 minutes after listening to an RR-eliciting or a health education CD. Both short-term and long-term practitioners evoked significant temporal gene expression changes with greater significance in the latter as compared to novices. RR practice enhanced expression of genes associated with energy metabolism, mitochondrial function, insulin secretion and telomere maintenance, and reduced expression of genes linked to inflammatory response and stress-related pathways. Interactive network analyses of RR-affected pathways identified mitochondrial ATP synthase and insulin (INS as top upregulated critical molecules (focus hubs and NF-κB pathway genes as top downregulated focus hubs. Our results for the first time indicate that RR elicitation, particularly after long-term practice, may evoke its downstream health benefits by improving mitochondrial energy production and utilization and thus promoting mitochondrial resiliency through upregulation of ATPase and insulin function. Mitochondrial resiliency might also be promoted by RR-induced downregulation of NF-κB-associated upstream and downstream targets that mitigates stress.

  10. Relaxation response induces temporal transcriptome changes in energy metabolism, insulin secretion and inflammatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Manoj K; Dusek, Jeffery A; Chang, Bei-Hung; Joseph, Marie G; Denninger, John W; Fricchione, Gregory L; Benson, Herbert; Libermann, Towia A

    2013-01-01

    The relaxation response (RR) is the counterpart of the stress response. Millennia-old practices evoking the RR include meditation, yoga and repetitive prayer. Although RR elicitation is an effective therapeutic intervention that counteracts the adverse clinical effects of stress in disorders including hypertension, anxiety, insomnia and aging, the underlying molecular mechanisms that explain these clinical benefits remain undetermined. To assess rapid time-dependent (temporal) genomic changes during one session of RR practice among healthy practitioners with years of RR practice and also in novices before and after 8 weeks of RR training, we measured the transcriptome in peripheral blood prior to, immediately after, and 15 minutes after listening to an RR-eliciting or a health education CD. Both short-term and long-term practitioners evoked significant temporal gene expression changes with greater significance in the latter as compared to novices. RR practice enhanced expression of genes associated with energy metabolism, mitochondrial function, insulin secretion and telomere maintenance, and reduced expression of genes linked to inflammatory response and stress-related pathways. Interactive network analyses of RR-affected pathways identified mitochondrial ATP synthase and insulin (INS) as top upregulated critical molecules (focus hubs) and NF-κB pathway genes as top downregulated focus hubs. Our results for the first time indicate that RR elicitation, particularly after long-term practice, may evoke its downstream health benefits by improving mitochondrial energy production and utilization and thus promoting mitochondrial resiliency through upregulation of ATPase and insulin function. Mitochondrial resiliency might also be promoted by RR-induced downregulation of NF-κB-associated upstream and downstream targets that mitigates stress.

  11. A randomized controlled trial of mindfulness meditation versus relaxation training: effects on distress, positive states of mind, rumination, and distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shamini; Shapiro, Shauna L; Swanick, Summer; Roesch, Scott C; Mills, Paul J; Bell, Iris; Schwartz, Gary E R

    2007-02-01

    Although mindfulness meditation interventions have recently shown benefits for reducing stress in various populations, little is known about their relative efficacy compared with relaxation interventions. This randomized controlled trial examines the effects of a 1-month mindfulness meditation versus somatic relaxation training as compared to a control group in 83 students (M age = 25; 16 men and 67 women) reporting distress. Psychological distress, positive states of mind, distractive and ruminative thoughts and behaviors, and spiritual experience were measured, while controlling for social desirability. Hierarchical linear modeling reveals that both meditation and relaxation groups experienced significant decreases in distress as well as increases in positive mood states over time, compared with the control group (p differences between meditation and relaxation on distress and positive mood states over time. Effect sizes for distress were large for both meditation and relaxation (Cohen's d = 1.36 and .91, respectively), whereas the meditation group showed a larger effect size for positive states of mind than relaxation (Cohen's d =.71 and .25, respectively). The meditation group also demonstrated significant pre-post decreases in both distractive and ruminative thoughts/behaviors compared with the control group (p mindfulness meditation's effects on reducing distress were partially mediated by reducing rumination. No significant effects were found for spiritual experience. The data suggest that compared with a no-treatment control, brief training in mindfulness meditation or somatic relaxation reduces distress and improves positive mood states. However, mindfulness meditation may be specific in its ability to reduce distractive and ruminative thoughts and behaviors, and this ability may provide a unique mechanism by which mindfulness meditation reduces distress.

  12. PHMC post-NPH emergency response training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1997-04-08

    This document describes post-Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) emergency response training that was provided to two teams of Project Hanford Management Contractors (PHMC) staff that will be used to assess potential structural damage that may occur as a result of a significant natural phenomena event. This training supports recent plans and procedures to use trained staff to inspect structures following an NPH event on the Hanford Site.

  13. Influenza A infection attenuates relaxation responses of mouse tracheal smooth muscle evoked by acrolein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Esther Y; Mann, Tracy S; Burcham, Philip C; Henry, Peter J

    2015-02-15

    The airway epithelium is an important source of relaxant mediators, and damage to the epithelium caused by respiratory tract viruses may contribute to airway hyperreactivity. The aim of this study was to determine whether influenza A-induced epithelial damage would modulate relaxation responses evoked by acrolein, a toxic and prevalent component of smoke. Male BALB/c mice were inoculated intranasally with influenza A/PR-8/34 (VIRUS-infected) or allantoic fluid (SHAM-infected). On day 4 post-inoculation, isometric tension recording studies were conducted on carbachol pre-contracted tracheal segments isolated from VIRUS and SHAM mice. Relaxant responses to acrolein (30 μM) were markedly smaller in VIRUS segments compared to SHAM segments (2 ± 1% relaxation vs. 28 ± 5%, n=14, pacrolein and SP were reduced in VIRUS segments (>35% reduction, n=6, pacrolein were profoundly diminished in tracheal segments isolated from influenza A-infected mice. The mechanism through which influenza A infection attenuates this response appears to involve reduced production of PGE2 in response to SP due to epithelial cell loss, and may provide insight into the airway hyperreactivity observed with influenza A infection.

  14. AN UNSTABLE BASE ALTERS LIMB AND ABDOMINAL ACTIVATION STRATEGIES DURING THE FLEXION-RELAXATION RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Behm

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The flexion-relaxation phenomenon consisting of an erector spinae silent period occurring with trunk flexion can place considerable stress upon tissues. Since individuals often flex their trunks while unstable, the purpose of the study was to examine the effect of an unstable base on the flexion-relaxation response. Fourteen participants flexed at the hips and back while standing on a stable floor or an unstable dyna-disc. Hip and trunk flexion were repeated four times each with one-minute rest. Electromyographic (EMG electrodes were placed over the right lumbo-sacral erector spinae (LSES, upper lumbar erector spinae (ULES, lower abdominals (LA, biceps femoris and soleus. In addition to the flexion-relaxation phenomenon of the ES, a quiescence of biceps femoris and a burst of LA EMG activity was observed with the majority of stable trials. There was no effect of instability on the flexion-relaxation phenomenon of the ULES or LSES. The incidence of a biceps femoris silent period while stable was diminished with an unstable base. Similarly, the incidence of a LA EMG burst was curtailed with instability. Soleus EMG activity increased 29.5% with an unstable platform. An unstable base did not significantly affect LSES and ULES EMG flexion-relaxation, but did result in more persistent lower limb and LA activity

  15. Intended rather than actual movement velocity determines velocity-specific training response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, D G; Sale, D G

    1993-01-01

    Eight men and eight women trained 3 days/wk for 16 wk by doing attempted ballistic unilateral ankle dorsiflexions against resistance that either rendered the resultant contractions isometric (one limb) or allowed a relatively high-velocity (5.23 rad/s on an isokinetic dynamometer) movement (other limb). Training sessions consisted of five sets of 10 contractions of each type. Training produced the same high-velocity-specific training response in both limbs (P rad/s (38%) in comparison to lower velocities (0, 0.26, 0.52, 1.04, 1.55, 3.02, and 4.19 rad/s). Both limbs also showed similar increases in voluntary isometric rate of torque development (26%) and relaxation (47%) and in evoked tetanus rate of torque development (14%). A similar decrease in evoked twitch time to peak torque (6%) and half-relaxation time (11%) was also observed. Thus, all of these training responses, previously associated specifically with high-velocity resistance training, were produced by a training regimen that prevented an actual rapid movement through a range of movement. The results suggest that the principal stimuli for the high-velocity training response are the repeated attempts to perform ballistic contractions and the high rate of force development of the ensuing contraction. The type of muscle action (isometric or concentric) appears to be of lesser importance.

  16. Optimal timing for initiation of biofeedback-assisted relaxation training in hospitalized coronary heart disease patients with sleep disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Na; Tao, Hong; Zhao, Yue; Zhou, Yu-Qiu; Jiang, Xiu-Rong

    2014-07-01

    Clinical studies have shown that biofeedback-assisted relaxation positively influences the treatment outcomes of sleep disturbance. However, there are only few studies reporting the timing of relaxation training initiation, and the relationships between the timing of initiation and the effectiveness of relaxation remain unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal timing for initiating nurse-led biofeedback-assisted relaxation on hospitalized coronary heart disease patients with sleep disturbance. An experimental pretest and repeated posttest design was used to compare the effectiveness of nurse-led biofeedback-assisted relaxation. A total of 128 patients with coronary heart disease were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: morning group, night group, morning-night group, or control group. Outcome measures included self-report of sleep-related indicators, the scores of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Zung's Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and the dosage of sleep medication used. A 2-way analysis of variance and a simple effect test were used to analyze the differences among the 4 groups. No significant differences could be detected at baseline. Compared with the control group, the nurse-led biofeedback-assisted relaxation yielded a greater benefit for patients in the 3 intervention groups. Group and time factors (pretest-protest) could explain the variation in the effectiveness of this program (main effect P sleep latency, experienced fewer awakenings, reported higher sleep quality, and used significantly fewer sleep medications than the morning group did (F = 32.97, P sleep quality and decrease the need for of sleep medications in hospitalized patients with sleep disturbance.

  17. Airflow and autonomic responses to stress and relaxation in asthma: the impact of stressor type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboussafy, David; Campbell, Tavis S; Lavoie, Kim; Aboud, Frances E; Ditto, Blaine

    2005-09-01

    The impact of stress on respiratory airflow in asthmatics is unclear. Part of the uncertainty may spring from the different physiological effects of different stressors. Given their potential to elicit increases in parasympathetic vagal activity, stressful situations that present few opportunities for coping (passive coping stressors) may be particularly problematic for people with asthma. Thirty-one adult asthmatics participated in a protocol including a widely used passive coping stressor (the cold pressor test), an active coping stressor (mental arithmetic), an interview about an upsetting asthma-related incident (viewed as a potential passive coping stressor given the exposure to unpleasant memories), and progressive muscle relaxation. Repeated measurements of airflow (via peak expiratory flow), vagal tone (via heart rate variability), and other variables were obtained. The cold pressor test, asthma interview and progressive muscle relaxation produced significant decreases in airflow compared to the baseline period. The cold pressor test and progressive muscle relaxation produced significant, complementary increases in vagal tone. These results suggest that passive coping stressors and other stimuli (e.g., certain forms of relaxation) that elicit increased vagal tone may be associated with poorer asthma control, a view consistent with a significant negative correlation between the participant's mean vagal tone response to the tasks and score on a measure of asthma self-efficacy.

  18. The effectiveness of a relaxation training program for women with preterm labour on pregnancy outcomes: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Li-Lan; Lin, Li-Chan; Cheng, Po-Jen; Chen, Chung-Hey; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Chang, Chuan-Lin

    2012-03-01

    Prenatal maternal stress is associated with adverse birth outcomes. Few studies have been published on the effectiveness of relaxation techniques focusing on women with preterm labour. The object of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a relaxation training program on pregnancy outcomes in women experiencing preterm labour. A single-blinded, controlled clinical trial was used. The study was conducted in two hospitals. Both of the study hospitals located in northern Taiwan are also large teaching hospitals and share the same treatment protocols of preterm labour. Inclusion criteria were being pregnant and diagnosed with preterm labour, singleton, hospitalized at time of entry into the study, at gestation between 20 and 34 weeks, and having a cervical dilatation of less than 3 cm. Exclusion criteria were if they had one or any combination of the following: antepartum hemorrhage, infection, hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, or immunologic disease. The experimental group (n=68) participants received a mini mp3 player containing a 13-min relaxation audio program, which they were instructed to follow daily, while the control group (n=59) received only routine prenatal care. Pregnancy outcomes were obtained from medical charts after each woman gave birth. Survival analysis demonstrated that the experimental group had a significant pregnancy prolongation compared to the control group (p=0.048). Participants receiving the relaxation training program had a significant lower proportion of extreme preterm birth, a higher rate of not being admitted to a NICU, and a lower rate of stay days within 30 days when compared with the control group. No significant differences were found on pregnancy outcomes in terms of the rate of preterm birth, low birth weight, Apgar score at 1 and 5 min, mode of birth, and perinatal mortality between the two groups. Relaxation training for women with preterm labour is effective in delaying of delivery and enhancing positive

  19. Highly nonlinear stress-relaxation response of articular cartilage in indentation: Importance of collagen nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, J T A; Korhonen, R K

    2016-06-14

    Modern fibril-reinforced computational models of articular cartilage can include inhomogeneous tissue composition and structure, and nonlinear mechanical behavior of collagen, proteoglycans and fluid. These models can capture well experimental single step creep and stress-relaxation tests or measurements under small strains in unconfined and confined compression. Yet, it is known that in indentation, especially at high strain velocities, cartilage can express highly nonlinear response. Different fibril reinforced poroelastic and poroviscoelastic models were used to assess measured highly nonlinear stress-relaxation response of rabbit articular cartilage in indentation. Experimentally measured depth-dependent volume fractions of different tissue constituents and their mechanical nonlinearities were taken into account in the models. In particular, the collagen fibril network was modeled using eight separate models that implemented five different constitutive equations to describe the nonlinearity. These consisted of linear elastic, nonlinear viscoelastic and multiple nonlinear elastic representations. The model incorporating the most nonlinearly increasing Young׳s modulus of collagen fibrils as a function of strain captured best the experimental data. Relative difference between the model and experiment was ~3%. Surprisingly, the difference in the peak forces between the experiment and the model with viscoelastic collagen fibrils was almost 20%. Implementation of the measured volume fractions did not improve the ability of the model to capture the measured mechanical data. These results suggest that a highly nonlinear formulation for collagen fibrils is needed to replicate multi-step stress-relaxation response of rabbit articular cartilage in indentation with high strain rates.

  20. A randomized clinical trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy vs. Progressive Relaxation Training for obsessive compulsive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Michael P.; Hayes, Steven C.; Plumb, Jennifer C.; Pruitt, Larry D.; Collins, Angela B.; Hazlett-Stevens, Holly; Woidneck, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Effective treatments for adult OCD exist, but refusal and drop-out rates are high and treatments are not effective for all individuals who complete them. Thus, additional treatment options are needed. This study investigated the effectiveness of eight sessions of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for adult obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to Progressive Relaxation Training (PRT). Method 79 adults (66% Female) diagnosed with OCD (M age=37, 89% Caucasian) participated in a randomized clinical trial of 8 sessions of ACT or PRT with no in-session exposure. The following assessments were completed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and three month follow-up by an assessor who was unaware of treatment conditions: Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Beck Depression Inventory-II, Quality of Life Scale, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire, Thought Action Fusion Scale, and Thought Control Questionnaire. The Treatment Evaluation Inventory-Short Form was completed at posttreatment. Results ACT produced greater changes at posttreatment and follow-up over PRT on OCD severity (Y-BOCS: ACT pre=24.22, post=12.76, follow-up=11.79; PRT pre=25.4, post=18.67, follow-up=16.23), and produced greater change on depression among those reporting at least mild depression before treatment. Clinically significant change in OCD severity occurred more in the ACT condition than PRT using multiple criteria (clinical response rates: ACT post=46-56%, follow-up 46-66%; PRT post=13%-18%, follow-up 16-18%). Quality of life improved in both conditions but was marginally in favor of ACT at post. Finally, treatment refusal (2.4% ACT, 7.8% PRT) and drop-out (9.8% ACT, 13.2% PRT) were low in both conditions. Conclusions ACT is worth exploring further as a treatment for OCD. PMID:20873905

  1. Cervical flexion-relaxation response to neck muscle fatigue in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimbarte, Ashish D; Zreiqat, Majed M; Chowdhury, Suman Kanti

    2014-12-01

    In this study the effect of muscle fatigue on the cervical spine flexion-relaxation response was studied. Twenty healthy participants (10 males and 10 females) were recruited for data collection. The Sorenson protocol was utilized to induce neck muscle fatigue. Surface electromyography and optical motion capture systems were used to measure neck muscle activation and head-neck posture, respectively. A post-fatigue reduction in the Flexion-Relaxation Ratio (FRR) and higher FRR for females compared to males were observed. A post-fatigue decrease was also observed in the onset and offset angles resulting in an expansion of the myoelectric silence period. Gender had no effect on the onset and offset angles of the silence period. Post-fatigue shift in the onset and offset angles and the expansion of the silence period indicate an increased contribution by the passive viscoelastic tissues in stabilizing the cervical spine under fatigued condition.

  2. Stress management techniques in childhood and adolescence. Relaxation training, meditation, hypnosis, and biofeedback: appropriate clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M S; Womack, W M

    1987-11-01

    Many childhood and adolescent stress-related symptoms have a psychophysiological component that involves muscular tension and/or autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Examples of this include recurrent headache, chest pain, abdominal pain, syncope, and dizziness. After a careful medical and psychosocial evaluation, the clinician may identify many patients who are appropriate for the application of stress reduction techniques such as progressive muscular relaxation, meditation, biofeedback, and relaxation/mental imagery (self-hypnosis). This review describes these techniques and their application with selected children and adolescents.

  3. Influence of asymmetry on the flexion relaxation response of the low back musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Xiaopeng; Haddad, Omid; Jin, Sangeun; Mirka, Gary A

    2011-01-01

    the flexion relaxation phenomenon has been extensively studied in sagittally symmetric postures. Knowledge about this phenomenon in asymmetric trunk postures is less well understood, and may help to reveal the underlying physiology of the passive tissue/active tissue load-sharing mechanism in the lumbar region. twelve participants performed fifteen controlled, full range trunk flexion-extension motions toward three asymmetric lifting postures (0° (sagittally symmetric), 15°, and 30° from the mid-sagittal plane). The electromyographic activity data from the paraspinals at the L3 and L4 levels and trunk kinematics data from motion sensors over the C7, T12 and S1 vertebrae were recorded. The lumbar flexion angles at which these muscles' activities were reduced to resting levels during forward flexion provided quantitative data describing the effects of asymmetry on the passive tissue/active tissue interaction. flexion relaxation was observed in the muscles contralateral to the direction of the asymmetric trunk flexion motion. The response of the ipsilateral extensor musculature was much less consistent, with many trials indicating that flexion relaxation was never achieved. Increasing asymmetry from 0° to 30° led to a 10% reduction in the maximum lumbar flexion. Lumbar flexion angles necessary to achieve flexion relaxation in the contralateral muscles also decreased (L4 paraspinal-related angle decreasing by 15% and the L3 paraspinal-related angle decreasing by 21%). under asymmetric conditions the lumbar flexion angle at which the transition from active muscle to passive ligamentous extension moment is altered from that seen in symmetric motions and this transition can have implications for the loading of the spine in full flexion (or near full flexion) postures. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Flat-response spin-exchange relaxation free atomic magnetometer under negative feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Joon; Shim, Jeong Hyun; Moon, Han Seb; Kim, Kiwoong

    2014-08-25

    We demonstrate that the use of negative feedback extends the detection bandwidth of an atomic magnetometer in a spin-exchange relaxation free (SERF) regime. A flat-frequency response from zero to 190 Hz was achieved, which is nearly a three-fold enhancement while maintaining sensitivity, 3 fT/Hz1/2 at 100 Hz. With the extension of the bandwidth, the linear correlation between measured signals and a magne-tocardiographic field synthesized for comparison was increased from 0.21 to 0.74. This result supports the feasibility of measuring weak biomagnetic signals containing multiple frequency components using a SERF atomic magnetometer under negative feedback.

  5. Training a new response using conditioned reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Rodrigo; dos Santos, Cristiano Valerio; Flores, Carlos

    2011-06-01

    Some of the most frequently used methods in the study of conditioned reinforcement seem to be insufficient to demonstrate the effect. The clearest way to assess this phenomenon is the training of a new response. In the present study, rats were exposed to a situation in which a primary reinforcer and an arbitrary stimulus were paired and subsequently the effect of this arbitrary event was assessed by presenting it following a new response. Subjects under these conditions emitted more responses compared to their own responding before the pairing and to their responding on a similar operandum that was available concurrently that had no programmed consequences. Response rates also were higher compared to responding by subjects in similar conditions in which there was no contingency (a) between the arbitrary stimulus and the reinforcer, (b) between the response and the arbitrary stimulus or (c) both. Results are discussed in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions to study conditioned reinforcement.

  6. Design and synthesis of calcium responsive magnetic resonance imaging agent: Its relaxation and luminescence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanwar, Jyoti; Datta, Anupama; Chauhan, Kanchan; Kumaran, S Senthil; Tiwari, Anjani K; Kadiyala, K Ganesh; Pal, Sunil; Thirumal, M; Mishra, Anil K

    2014-07-23

    Calcium concentration modulation both inside and outside cell is of considerable interest for nervous system function in normal and pathological conditions. MRI has potential for very high spatial resolution at molecular/cellular level. Design, synthesis and evaluation of Gd-DO3A-AME-NPHE, a calcium responsive MRI contrast agent is presented. The probe is comprised of a Gd(3+)-DO3A core coupled to iminoacetate coordinating groups for calcium induced relaxivity switching. In the absence of Ca(2+) ions, inner sphere water binding to the Gd-DO3A-AME-NPHE is restricted with longitudinal relaxivity, r1 = 4.37 mM(-1) s(-1) at 4.7 T. However, addition of Ca(2+) triggers a marked enhancement in r1 = 6.99 mM(-1) s(-1) at 4.7 T (60% increase). The construct is highly selective for Ca(2+) over competitive metal ions at extracellular concentration. The r1 is modulated by changes in the hydration number (0.2 to 1.05), which was confirmed by luminescence emission lifetimes of the analogous Eu(3+) complex. T1 phantom images establish the capability of complex of visualizing changes in [Ca(2+)] by MRI.

  7. A sustainable model for training teachers to use pivotal response training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhrheinrich, Jessica

    2015-08-01

    The increase in the rate of autism diagnoses has created a growing demand for teachers who are trained to use effective interventions. The train-the-trainer model, which involves training supervisors to train others, may be ideal for providing cost-effective training and ongoing support to teachers. Although research supports interventions, such as pivotal response training, as evidence-based, dissemination to school environments has been problematic. This study assessed the benefits of using the train-the-trainer model to disseminate pivotal response training to school settings. A multiple-baseline design was conducted across three training groups, each consisting of one school staff member (trainer), three special education teachers, and six students. Trainers conducted the teacher-training workshop with high adherence to training protocol and met mastery criteria in their ability to implement pivotal response training, assess implementation of pivotal response training, and provide feedback to teachers. Six of the nine teachers mastered all components of pivotal response training. The remaining three teachers implemented 89% of the pivotal response training components correctly. The majority of trainers and teachers maintained their abilities at follow-up. These results support the use of the train-the-trainer model as an effective method of disseminating evidence-based practices in school settings. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Effect of aerobic exercise and relaxation training on fatigue and physical performance of cancer patients after surgery. A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeo, Fernando C; Thomas, Frank; Raabe-Menssen, Cornelia; Pröpper, Felix; Mathias, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Fatigue is a frequent problem after surgical treatment of solid tumours. Aerobic exercise and psychosocial interventions have been shown to reduce the severity of this symptom in cancer patients. Therefore, we compared the effect of the two therapies on fatigue in a randomised controlled study. Seventy-two patients who underwent surgery for lung (n=27) or gastrointestinal tumours (n=42) were assigned to an aerobic exercise group (stationary biking 30 min five times weekly) or a progressive relaxation training group (45 min three times per week). Both interventions were carried out for 3 weeks. At the beginning and the end of the study, we evaluated physical, cognitive and emotional status and somatic complaints with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core Module (EORTC-QLQ-30) questionnaire, and maximal physical performance with an ergometric stress test. Physical performance of the training group improved significantly during the programme (9.4+/-20 watts, p=0.01) but remained unchanged in the relaxation group (1.5+/-14.8 watts, p=0.37). Fatigue and global health scores improved in both groups during the intervention (fatigue: training group 21%, relaxation group 19%; global health of both groups 19%, p for all training programme improves the physical performance of patients recovering from surgery for solid tumours. However, exercise is not better than progressive relaxation training for the treatment of fatigue in this setting.

  9. Effects of Body-Mind Training and Relaxation Stretching on Persons with Chronic Toxic Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Lis; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the psychological and physical effects of training of body awareness and slow stretching on persons (N=8) with chronic toxic encephalopathy. Results show that electromyography on the frontalis muscle and state anxiety decreased, but no changes were observed in trait anxiety and in the creativity score. (Author/MKA)

  10. 5 CFR 410.202 - Responsibilities for evaluating training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibilities for evaluating training. 410.202 Section 410.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS TRAINING Planning and Evaluating Training § 410.202 Responsibilities for evaluating...

  11. The Effects of Group Relaxation Training/Large Muscle Exercise, and Parental Involvement on Attention to Task, Impulsivity, and Locus of Control among Hyperactive Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sally S.; Omizo, Michael M.

    1984-01-01

    The study examined the effects of group relaxation training/large muscle exercise and parental involvement on attention to task, impulsivity, and locus of control among 34 hyperactive boys. Following treatment both experimental groups recorded significantly higher attention to task, lower impulsivity, and lower locus of control scores. (Author/CL)

  12. Therapeutical Intervention, Relaxation, Mental Images, and Spirituality (RIME for Spiritual Pain in Terminal Patients. A Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Catarina de Araújo Elias

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic intervention involving the technique of Relaxation, Mental Images, and Spirituality (RIME can foster the redefinition of spiritual pain in terminal patients. A training course was developed to instruct health care professionals in its use, and the results were followed up by evaluating reactions of professionals to its use in intervention with patients. Six subjects (a nurse, a doctor, three psychologists, and an alternative therapist, all skilled in palliative care, were invited to take part in the experience. They worked with 11 terminal patients in public hospitals of the cities of Campinas, Piracicaba, and São Paulo, located in Brazil. The theoretical basis for the study involves action research and phenomenology, and the results were analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The analysis of the experience of the professionals revealed 5 categories and 15 subcategories. The analysis of the nature of spiritual pain revealed 6 categories and 11 subcategories. The administration of RIME revealed statistically significant differences (p < 0.0001, i.e., patients reported a greater level of well-being at the end than at the beginning of sessions, which suggests that RIME led to the redefinition of spiritual pain for these terminal patients. The training program proposed has shown itself to be effective in preparing health care professionals for the use of RIME intervention.

  13. Dependence of the time of the appearance of a Stark echo response on irreversible relaxation of a system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmedshina, E. N.; Nefed'ev, L. A.; Garnaeva, G. I.

    2016-09-01

    The dependence of the time of the appearance of a Stark (gradient) echo response on the irreversible transverse relaxation time of a system in the nanosecond range and on the width of the excitation region of an inhomogeneously broadened line has been investigated. It has been shown that the use of nonresonant laser pulses with an artificially created spatial inhomogeneity makes it possible to determine the relaxation time in the nanosecond range from the time of the appearance of a Stark (gradient) echo response, which is a more accurate method than the method of determining the relaxation time from the decay of the intensity by varying time intervals of the exposure to inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields.

  14. Persistent photoconductivity in poly(p-phenylenevinylene): Spectral response and slow relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. H.; Yu, G.; Heeger, A. J.

    1993-06-01

    We report the spectral response and slow decay of the steady-state photoconductivity in poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) films. The spectral response of the photoconductivity is in good agreement with that calculated from the absorption data with the assumption of rapid recombination at the surface of the film; the results indicate direct photogeneration of free charge carriers via an interband transition. The photoconductivity is, therefore, consistent with a description of the electronic structure of PPV in terms of a semiconductor band model (rather than an exciton model). The very slow stretched-exponential relaxation of the photoinduced conductivity is reminiscent of the persistent photoconductivity observed in inorganic semiconductors. By assuming that the photocurrent is carried predominantly by mobile polarons near the surface, one can construct a model for the persistent photoconductivity in which the recombination of long-lived bipolarons is inhibited in the bulk where bipolarons have a lower free energy than polarons. The persistent photoconductivity, therefore, is caused by the slow dispersive diffusion of photogenerated bipolarons to the surface where they dissociate into polarons and where both polaron transport and recombination occur.

  15. Diuretic response in patients with acute decompensated heart failure : characteristics and clinical outcome-an analysis from RELAX-AHF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, Adriaan A.; Davison, Beth A.; Teerlink, John R.; Felker, G. Michael; Cotter, Gad; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Greenberg, Barry H.; Pang, Peter S.; Levin, Bruce; Hua, Tsushung A.; Severin, Thomas; Ponikowski, Piotr; Metra, Marco

    2014-01-01

    AimsWe studied the characteristics and clinical outcome related to diuretic response and the effects of serelaxin in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF). Methods and resultsRELAX-AHF was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, enrolling 1161 patients admitted to hospital for AHF wh

  16. Short radiological emergency response training program. [Radiological emergency response training program outline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.D.; Greenhouse, N.A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents an outline of a radiological emergency response training program conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the health physics and safety training staff. This course is given to groups from local, county, state, and federal agencies and industrial organizations. It is normally three days in length, although the structure is flexible to accommodate individual needs and prior training. An important feature of the course is an emergency exercise utilizing a short lived radionuclide to better simulate real accident conditions. Groups are encouraged to use their own instruments to gain better familiarity with their operating characteristics under field conditions. Immediately following the exercise, a critical review of the students' performance is conducted.

  17. Relaxing Responses to Hydrogen Peroxide and Nitric Oxide in Human Pericardial Resistance Arteries Stimulated with Endothelin-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leurgans, Thomas M; Bloksgaard, Maria; Irmukhamedov, Akhmadjon

    2017-01-01

    relaxing effects of NO and increases those of H2 O2 in resistance artery smooth muscle of patients with cardiovascular disease. Arterial segments, dissected from the parietal pericardium of 39 cardiothoracic surgery patients, were studied by myography during amplitude-matched contractions induced by K......(+) , the TXA2 analogue U46619 or ET-1. Effects of the NO-donor Na-nitroprusside (SNP) and of exogenous H2 O2 were recorded in absence and presence of inhibitors of cyclooxygenases, NO-synthases and small and intermediate conductance calcium-activated K(+) channels. During contractions induced by either...... significant in presence of inhibitors of mechanisms of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. In resistance arteries from patients with cardiovascular disease, ET-1 does not selectively modify smooth muscle relaxing responses to NO or H2 O2 . Furthermore, the candidate endothelium-derived relaxing factor H2 O2...

  18. 飞行人员生物反馈放松训练效果评价%The evaluation of pilots' biofeedback relaxation training effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 王煜蕙; 杜长伟; 刘玉华; 赵春华; 王开辉; 冯琦

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of pilots' biofeedback training in aviation psychological training. Methods After practicing pilots by four kinds of relaxation training ( progressive muscle relaxation, breath adjusting relaxation, intention relaxation and music relaxation) , the scores of heart rate, pressure and PNN50 were statistical analyzed. Results Three physiological inde-xes were changed during earlier stage, medium stage and later stage and the difference had statistical significance ( P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), but were not found significant different among four methods ( P < 0. 01). Compared with the older group and the oldest group, the difference of heart rate scores changes in younger group before, during and after training had statistical significance ( P < 0.01). Conclusion The biofeedback relaxation training was effective in pilots. There was no statistical significance in difference of training effects between different methods and results. The training effects of different age groups were different, and scores of younger group were higher than others.%目的 评价航空心理训练中对飞行人员实施生物反馈放松训练的效果.方法 分别采用渐进性肌肉放松、呼吸调整放松、意向放松和音乐放松等四种方法 进行反馈训练,对训练中心率、压力指数和PNN50生理指标进行统计分析.结果 训练前、中和后期各生理指标变化的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01);四种训练方法 之间生理指标变化无差异(P>0.05);低年龄组心率变化在训练前和训练中、训练后与中间和高年龄组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 飞行人员生物反馈放松训练效果明显,不同放松方法 的训练效果比较差异无统计学意义;不同年龄组训练效果差异有统计学意义,低年龄组训练效果好于中间和高年龄组.

  19. Neuromechanical responses after biofeedback training in participants with chronic low back pain: an experimental cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagé, Isabelle; Marchand, Andrée-Anne; Nougarou, François; O'Shaughnessy, Julie; Descarreaux, Martin

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in neuromechanical responses and clinical outcomes in chronic low back pain participants after 4 sessions of biofeedback training. Twenty-one participants took part in an electromyography biofeedback 4-session training program aimed at reducing lumbar paraspinal muscle activity during full trunk flexion. The sessions consisted of ~46 trunk flexion-extension divided into 5 blocks. The effects of training blocks and sessions on lumbar flexion-relaxation ratio and lumbopelvic ranges of motion were assessed. Changes in disability (Oswestry Disability Index), pain intensity (numerical rating scale), and fear of movement (Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia) were also evaluated. Analyses of variance revealed a significant block effect for which an increase in the flexion-relaxation ratio and the lumbar range of motion between block 1 and the other blocks for sessions 1 and 2 (P Biofeedback training led to decreases in lumbar paraspinal muscle activity in full trunk flexion and increases in lumbopelvic range of motion in participants with chronic nonspecific low back pain. Although the neuromechanical changes were mostly observed at the early stage of the program, the presence of a decrease in the fear of movement suggests that the participants' initially limited ROMs may have been modulated by fear avoidance behaviors. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Six weeks of meditation training influences response bias in a discrimination task with emotional distractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina B Menezes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Focused attention meditation is the voluntary focusing of attention on a chosen object in a sustained fashion, whose objective is to develop attentional and emotional regulatory skills./objective: We investigated the effect of a six-week focused attention meditation training on a discrimination task with emotional distractors by comparing participants’ discriminability and bias before and after training. Method: College students were randomly assigned to either focused meditation (N=35, progressive relaxation (N=37, or control groups (N=28. 120 neutral and 120 emotional - negative and arousing – pictures (9º x 12º, flanked by two peripheral bars (0.3º x 0.3º, equidistant from the centre of the picture (9º, were equally and randomly distributed and displayed among three blocks, one with low attentional (LA and two with high attentional demand (HA. Participants indicated if bars were parallel or not by pressing one of two buttons. In LA and HA conditions, respectively, bars differed with 90º and 6º in half of the trials. Trials started with a fixation cross (1500ms followed by the pictures and bars (200ms. Next, a chessboard remained on the screen until a response was given or for 2000ms. Results: Mixed-design ANOVAs showed no discriminability difference across groups (meditation=26; relaxation=24; control=24 pre-post training; only task difficulty affected discriminability [F(1,68 = 739.8, p < .001; LA > HA]. Response bias was affected by difficulty [F(1,68 = 81.2, p < .001; LA < HA], and testing session [F(1,68 = 23.1,  p < .001; pre > post]. Additionally, there was a significant difficulty × session × group interaction [F(2,68 = 4.02,  p = .02]: meditation (M = .58, SE =.36 and relaxation (M = .65, SE =.36 presented a reduction in response bias relative to control (M = .69, SE =.37, but only after training in the HA condition (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The reduction in response bias suggests that meditation and

  1. Pivotal Response Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This intervention report presents findings from a systematic review of "pivotal response training" conducted using the What Works Clearinghouse Procedures and Standards Handbook (version 3.0) and the Children and Students with an Autism Spectrum Disorder review protocol (version 3.0). "Pivotal response training"…

  2. Response: Training Doctoral Students to Be Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollio, David E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to begin framing doctoral training for a science of social work. This process starts by examining two seemingly simple questions: "What is a social work scientist?" and "How do we train social work scientists?" In answering the first question, some basic assumptions and concepts about what constitutes a "social work…

  3. Changes in the flexion relaxation response induced by lumbar muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantin Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flexion relaxation phenomenon (FRP is an interesting model to study the modulation of lumbar stability. Previous investigations have explored the effect of load, angular velocity and posture on this particular response. However, the influence of muscular fatigue on FRP parameters has not been thoroughly examined. The objective of the study is to identify the effect of erector spinae (ES muscle fatigue and spine loading on myoelectric silence onset and cessation in healthy individuals during a flexion-extension task. Methods Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study and performed blocks of 3 complete trunk flexions under 4 different experimental conditions: no fatigue/no load (1, no fatigue/load (2, fatigue/no load(3, and fatigue/load (4. Fatigue was induced according to the Sorenson protocol, and electromyographic (EMG power spectral analysis confirmed that muscular fatigue was adequate in each subject. Trunk and pelvis angles and surface EMG of the ES L2 and L5 were recorded during a flexion-extension task. Trunk flexion angle corresponding to the onset and cessation of myoelectric silence was then compared across the different experimental conditions using 2 × 2 repeated-measures ANOVA. Results Onset of myoelectric silence during the flexion motion appeared earlier after the fatigue task. Additionally, the cessation of myoelectric silence was observed later during the extension after the fatigue task. Statistical analysis also yielded a main effect of load, indicating a persistence of ES myoelectric activity in flexion during the load condition. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the presence of fatigue of the ES muscles modifies the FRP. Superficial back muscle fatigue seems to induce a shift in load-sharing towards passive stabilizing structures. The loss of muscle contribution together with or without laxity in the viscoelastic tissues may have a substantial impact on post fatigue stability.

  4. Heart rate responses to Taekwondo training in experienced practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Craig A; Jones, Michelle A; Hitchen, Peter; Sanchez, Xavier

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the heart rate (HR) responses of specific Taekwondo training activities, practiced by experienced practitioners in a natural training environment. Eight male experienced Taekwondo practitioners, with 3- 13 years (5.4 +/- 3.2 years) experience took part in a 5-day Taekwondo training camp. Continuous HR measures were recorded at 5-second intervals during 6 training sessions; each session was observed and notated, and a diary of training activities was recorded. The HR responses were assimilated into 8 fundamental training activities for analysis: elastics, technical combinations, step sparring, pad work, forms, basic techniques and forms, sparring drills, and free sparring. Taekwondo training elicited HR into 64.7-81.4% of HR maximum (%HRmax). Moderate relative exercise intensities (64.7-69.4%HRmax) were elicited by elastics, technical combinations, and step sparring. The remaining 5 training activities elicited hard relative exercise intensities (74.7-81.4%HRmax). One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance with post hoc analysis revealed that elastics, technical combinations, and step sparring elicited significantly lower relative intensities than the remaining training activities (p Taekwondo training activities in this study seemed suitable for cardiovascular conditioning, although different training activities stressed the cardiovascular system to different degrees. Practically, this suggests coaches need to structure Taekwondo training sessions based not only on the technical and tactical needs of practitioners but also in a manner that enables sufficient cardiovascular conditioning for competition.

  5. Compassion training alters altruism and neural responses to suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Helen Y; Fox, Andrew S; Shackman, Alexander J; Stodola, Diane E; Caldwell, Jessica Z K; Olson, Matthew C; Rogers, Gregory M; Davidson, Richard J

    2013-07-01

    Compassion is a key motivator of altruistic behavior, but little is known about individuals' capacity to cultivate compassion through training. We examined whether compassion may be systematically trained by testing whether (a) short-term compassion training increases altruistic behavior and (b) individual differences in altruism are associated with training-induced changes in neural responses to suffering. In healthy adults, we found that compassion training increased altruistic redistribution of funds to a victim encountered outside of the training context. Furthermore, increased altruistic behavior after compassion training was associated with altered activation in brain regions implicated in social cognition and emotion regulation, including the inferior parietal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and in DLPFC connectivity with the nucleus accumbens. These results suggest that compassion can be cultivated with training and that greater altruistic behavior may emerge from increased engagement of neural systems implicated in understanding the suffering of other people, executive and emotional control, and reward processing.

  6. The Effects of the Relaxation Response on Nurses' Level of Anxiety, Depression, Well-Being, Work-Related Stress, and Confidence to Teach Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder Calisi, Catherine

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was threefold: to teach nurses the Relaxation Response ( RR), a relaxation technique created by Benson; to measure the effects of the RR on nurses' levels of anxiety, depression, well-being, and work-related stress; and to explore nurses' confidence in teaching their patients the RR. A wait-list, randomized-control quantitative study design was used. Nurses in the intervention group were trained on the benefits and the technique of the RR and were then asked to practice the RR over an 8-week period. No statistical significance was found in nurses' reported level of anxiety, depression, well-being, and work-related stress. However, the nurses reported greater confidence in teaching this technique to patients ( p < .001). As a strategy for self-care in the workplace, nurses were receptive to learning the RR and reported confidence in using this strategy for their patients. Larger studies may reveal more significant reductions in workplace stress and anxiety for nurses.

  7. Relaxation training as complementary therapy for mild hypertension control and the implications of evidence-based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, P; French, P; Leung, B

    2001-05-01

    Relaxation therapy for the treatment of hypertension presented a number of challenges, in terms of conducting and using research as well as gaining the wider acceptance of this complementary therapy in common practice in Hong Kong. Two issues were central to the current implementation of complementary therapies: the evidence-based practice movement and the management of risk during the implementation of new therapies. A major concern was how to maximize the chance of inclusion of research on complementary therapies in evidence-based practice systematic reviews. This was thought to be achievable by making the data amenable to meta-analysis when small samples may be unavoidable. The empirical work examined the effects of three relaxation therapies for the reduction of high blood pressure in nine Chinese subjects. Subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: (a) progressive muscle relaxation, (b) stretch release relaxation and (c) cognitive imagery relaxation. Systolic, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were assessed in a baseline session, the 8th post-treatment session, and a 30-days follow-up session. Datawere analyzed using ANOVA and Paired sample t-test. One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Tests for the normal distribution were performed among the three groups. The results verified that the normality assumption for the data had not been violated. Results revealed that in the context of the study all relaxation therapies can reduce blood pressure in Chinese subjects, but stretch release relaxation and progressive muscle relaxation therapies appeared to be more effective in lowering blood pressure compared to cognitive imagery relaxation. These data are in a form available for meta-analysis at a later date. The study also shows a degree of clinical significance and validation with respect to a Hong Kong population. It demonstrates ways in which the inclusion of research on complementary therapies in systematic reviews can be maximized.

  8. Integrating a Relaxation Response-Based Curriculum into a Public High School in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foret, Megan M.; Scult, Matthew; Wilcher, Marilyn; Chudnofsky, Rana; Malloy, Laura; Hasheminejad, Nicole; Park, Elyse R.

    2012-01-01

    Academic and societal pressures result in U.S. high school students feeling stressed. Stress management and relaxation interventions may help students increase resiliency to stress and overall well-being. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility (enrollment, participation and acceptability) and potential effectiveness (changes…

  9. In-plant emergency response training: Technical matters and technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, T.K.

    1997-02-01

    There are four key elements to any effective training program: knowledge, skill, attitude and behavior. Prior to commencement of any learning experience, there must be a knowledge objective. It is the responsibility of the trainer to provide students with the information needed to properly implement a specific task. All training can be boiled down to one thing -- behavior modification. Emergency response training is no exception. To have a well-trained team, all four elements must be present. Improving a training program`s effectiveness is the primary focus of this article. The emergency response provisions of the HAZWOPER legislation provide all companies that may be required to respond to hazardous materials emergencies with two options: train their own team or call in a qualified outside response team. There are advantages and disadvantages in either case. Training and equipping one`s own team is an expensive, time-consuming option, but it can decrease the response time and enhance the probability that a standard response procedure will be implemented.

  10. State of virtual reality based disaster preparedness and response training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Edbert B; Li, Yang; Bayram, Jamil D; Levinson, David; Yang, Samuel; Monahan, Colleen

    2013-04-24

    The advent of technologically-based approaches to disaster response training through Virtual Reality (VR) environments appears promising in its ability to bridge the gaps of other commonly established training formats. Specifically, the immersive and participatory nature of VR training offers a unique realistic quality that is not generally present in classroom-based or web-based training, yet retains considerable cost advantages over large-scale real-life exercises and other modalities and is gaining increasing acceptance. Currently, numerous government departments and agencies including the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as well as academic institutions are exploring the unique advantages of VR-based training for disaster preparedness and response. Growing implementation of VR-based training for disaster preparedness and response, conducted either independently or combined with other training formats, is anticipated. This paper reviews several applications of VR-based training in the United States, and reveals advantages as well as potential drawbacks and challenges associated with the implementation of such training platform.

  11. The DEMO trial: a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial of strength versus aerobic versus relaxation training for patients with mild to moderate depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Saltin, Bengt; Gluud, Christian

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the benefit and harm of exercise training in adults with clinical depression. METHOD: The DEMO trial is a randomized pragmatic trial for patients with unipolar depression conducted from January 2005 through July 2007. Patients were referred from general practitioners......: Our findings do not support a biologically mediated effect of exercise on symptom severity in depressed patients, but they do support a beneficial effect of strength training on work capacity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: (ClinicalTrials.gov) Identifier: NCT00103415....... or psychiatrists and were eligible if they fulfilled the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, criteria for unipolar depression and were aged between 18 and 55 years. Patients (N = 165) were allocated to supervised strength, aerobic, or relaxation training during a 4-month period. The primary...

  12. Cognitive responses to hypobaric hypoxia: implications for aviation training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuhaus C

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Neuhaus,1,2 Jochen Hinkelbein2,31Department of Anesthesiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Ruprecht Karls University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 2Emergency Medicine and Air Rescue Working Group, German Society of Aviation and Space Medicine (DGLRM, Munich, 3Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, GermanyAbstract: The aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview on cognitive responses to hypobaric hypoxia and to show relevant implications for aviation training. A principal element of hypoxia-awareness training is the intentional evocation of hypoxia symptoms during specific training sessions within a safe and controlled environment. Repetitive training should enable pilots to learn and recognize their personal hypoxia symptoms. A time span of 3–6 years is generally considered suitable to refresh knowledge of the more subtle and early symptoms especially. Currently, there are two different technical approaches available to induce hypoxia during training: hypobaric chamber training and reduced-oxygen breathing devices. Hypoxia training for aircrew is extremely important and effective, and the hypoxia symptoms should be emphasized clearly to aircrews. The use of tight-fitting masks, leak checks, and equipment checks should be taught to all aircrew and reinforced regularly. It is noteworthy that there are major differences in the required quality and quantity of hypoxia training for both military and civilian pilots.Keywords: cognitive response, aviation training, pilot, hypoxia, oxygen, loss of consciousness

  13. Strange metal from Gutzwiller correlations in infinite dimensions: Transverse transport, optical response, and rise of two relaxation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenxin; Žitko, Rok; Shastry, B. Sriram

    2017-09-01

    Using two approaches to strongly correlated systems, the extremely correlated Fermi liquid theory and the dynamical mean field theory, we compute the transverse transport coefficients, namely, the Hall constants RH and Hall angles θH, and the longitudinal and transverse optical response of the U =∞ Hubbard model in the limit of infinite dimensions. We focus on two successive low-temperature regimes, the Gutzwiller-correlated Fermi liquid (GCFL) and the Gutzwiller-correlated strange metal (GCSM). We find that the Hall angle cotθH is proportional to T2 in the GCFL regime, while upon warming into the GCSM regime it first passes through a downward bend and then continues as T2. Equivalently, RH is weakly temperature dependent in the GCFL regime, but becomes strongly temperature dependent in the GCSM regime. Drude peaks are found for both the longitudinal optical conductivity σx x(ω ) and the optical Hall angles tanθH(ω ) below certain characteristic energy scales. By comparing the relaxation rates extracted from fitting to the Drude formula, we find that in the GCFL regime there is a single relaxation rate controlling both longitudinal and transverse transport, while in the GCSM regime two different relaxation rates emerge. We trace the origin of this behavior to the dynamical particle-hole asymmetry of the Dyson self-energy, arguably a generic feature of doped Mott insulators.

  14. Disulfide-activated protein kinase G Iα regulates cardiac diastolic relaxation and fine-tunes the Frank-Starling response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotcher, Jenna; Prysyazhna, Oleksandra; Boguslavskyi, Andrii; Kistamas, Kornel; Hadgraft, Natasha; Martin, Eva D; Worthington, Jenny; Rudyk, Olena; Rodriguez Cutillas, Pedro; Cuello, Friederike; Shattock, Michael J; Marber, Michael S; Conte, Maria R; Greenstein, Adam; Greensmith, David J; Venetucci, Luigi; Timms, John F; Eaton, Philip

    2016-10-26

    The Frank-Starling mechanism allows the amount of blood entering the heart from the veins to be precisely matched with the amount pumped out to the arterial circulation. As the heart fills with blood during diastole, the myocardium is stretched and oxidants are produced. Here we show that protein kinase G Iα (PKGIα) is oxidant-activated during stretch and this form of the kinase selectively phosphorylates cardiac phospholamban Ser16-a site important for diastolic relaxation. We find that hearts of Cys42Ser PKGIα knock-in (KI) mice, which are resistant to PKGIα oxidation, have diastolic dysfunction and a diminished ability to couple ventricular filling with cardiac output on a beat-to-beat basis. Intracellular calcium dynamics of ventricular myocytes isolated from KI hearts are altered in a manner consistent with impaired relaxation and contractile function. We conclude that oxidation of PKGIα during myocardial stretch is crucial for diastolic relaxation and fine-tunes the Frank-Starling response.

  15. New Learning Methods for Marine Oil Spill Response Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justiina Halonen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Finland the Regional Fire and Rescue Services (RFRS are responsible for near shore oil spill response and shoreline cleanup operations. In addition, they assist in other types of maritime incidents, such as search and rescue operations and fire-fighting on board. These statutory assignments require the RFRS to have capability to act both on land and at sea. As maritime incidents occur infrequently, little routine has been established. In order to improve their performance in maritime operations, the RFRS are participating in a new oil spill training programme to be launched by South-Eastern Finland University of Applied Sciences. This training programme aims to utilize new educational methods; e-learning and simulator based training. In addition to fully exploiting the existing navigational bridge simulator, radio communication simulator and crisis management simulator, an entirely new simulator is developed. This simulator is designed to model the oil recovery process; recovery method, rate and volume in various conditions with different oil types. New simulator enables creation of a comprehensive training programme covering training tasks from a distress call to the completion of an oil spill response operation. Structure of the training programme, as well as the training objectives, are based on the findings from competence and education surveys conducted in spring 2016. In these results, a need for vessel maneuvering and navigation exercises together with actual response measures training were emphasized. Also additional training for maritime radio communication, GMDSS-emergency protocols and collaboration with maritime authorities were seemed important. This paper describes new approach to the maritime operations training designed for rescue authorities, a way of learning by doing, without mobilising the vessels at sea.

  16. Is meditation always relaxing? Investigating heart rate, heart rate variability, experienced effort and likeability during training of three types of meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumma, Anna-Lena; Kok, Bethany E; Singer, Tania

    2015-07-01

    Meditation is often associated with a relaxed state of the body. However, meditation can also be regarded as a type of mental task and training, associated with mental effort and physiological arousal. The cardiovascular effects of meditation may vary depending on the type of meditation, degree of mental effort, and amount of training. In the current study we assessed heart rate (HR), high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) and subjective ratings of effort and likeability during three types of meditation varying in their cognitive and attentional requirements, namely breathing meditation, loving-kindness meditation and observing-thoughts meditation. In the context of the ReSource project, a one-year longitudinal mental training study, participants practiced each meditation exercise on a daily basis for 3 months. As expected HR and effort were higher during loving-kindness meditation and observing-thoughts meditation compared to breathing meditation. With training over time HR and likeability increased, while HF-HRV and the subjective experience of effort decreased. The increase in HR and decrease in HF-HRV over training was higher for loving-kindness meditation and observing-thoughts meditation compared to breathing meditation. In contrast to implicit beliefs that meditation is always relaxing and associated with low arousal, the current results show that core meditations aiming at improving compassion and meta-cognitive skills require effort and are associated with physiological arousal compared to breathing meditation. Overall these findings can be useful in making more specific suggestions about which type of meditation is most adaptive for a given context and population.

  17. Relaxation Training Affect the Psychosomatic Status of Patients with Preoperative%放松训练对术前患者心身状况的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石瑞梅

    2013-01-01

      Objective To study the relaxation training affect the psychosomatic status of patients with preoperative. Methods 400 patients with &experience choose the surgery were randomly divided into observation group and control group 200 cases each. Two groups of patients were performed preoperative health education, the observation group based on this, the upward relaxation training, namely USES the deep muscles relaxed type suction a resting method for training. After two groups of patients were to determine the surgical treatment on the day of the 1 d before surgery and surgery (preoperative) late yesterday night and morning, assess their anxiety, tension, fear, depression, insomnia, much dream mood reflected, such as measure its breathing, blood pressure, heart rate and other vital signs. Results In anxiety, tension, depression, fear, insomnia, much dream, breathing, blood pressure, heart rate, etc., the observation group compared with control group,with significant difference (al P<0.05).Conclusions Relaxation training can make the preoperative patients emotional stability, smooth breathing, blood pressure, heart rate and other vital signs.%  目的探讨放松训练对术前患者心身状况的影响。方法将400例我科择期手术患者随机分为观察组和对照组各200例。两组患者均行术前健康教育,观察组在此基础上行放松训练,即采用深吸静息式全身肌肉放松的方法进行训练。两组患者均于确定手术治疗后的当天至手术前1d,术前晚及术日晨评定其焦虑、紧张、恐惧、抑郁、失眠多梦等情绪反映,测定其呼吸、血压、心率等生命体征。结果在焦虑、紧张、抑郁、恐惧、失眠多梦、呼吸、血压、心率等方面,观察组与对照组比较,差异有显著性意义(均 P<0.05)。结论放松训练能使术前患者情绪稳定,呼吸、血压、心率等生命体征平稳。

  18. Effectiveness of the Relaxation Response-Based Group Intervention for Treating Depressed Chinese American Immigrants: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Yeung

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined the feasibility, safety and efficacy of an 8-week Relaxation Response (RR-based group. Methods: Twenty-two depressed Chinese American immigrants were recruited. Outcomes measures were response and remission rates, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Clinical Global Impressions Scale, Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Scale. Results: Participants (N = 22 were 82% female, mean age was 53 (±12. After intervention, completers (N = 15 showed a 40% response rate and a 27% remission rate, and statistically significant improvement in most outcome measures. Discussion: The RR-based group is feasible and safe in treating Chinese American immigrants with depression.

  19. Responsibilities and Training Needs of Paraeducators in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ronald W.; Kotecki, Jerome E.; Harvey, Michael W.; Oliver, Amy

    2007-01-01

    This study describes responsibilities and training needs of paraeducators in physical education. Paraeducators (n = 138) employed in 34 midwestern schools received a 27-item questionnaire. Of the 138 paraeducators contacted, 76 responded, resulting in a 55.1% response rate. Only 16% of the total respondents (n = 76) reported receiving specific…

  20. The Effects of Serotonin Receptor Antagonists on Contraction and Relaxation Responses Induced by Electrical Stimulation in the Rat Small Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farajian Mashhadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The main source of 5-HT in body is in enterchromafin cells of intestine, different studies mentioned different roles for endogenous 5-HT and receptors involved and it is not clearified the mechanism of action of endogenous 5-HT. Objectives To study the role of endogenous 5-HT on modulation of contraction and relaxation responses induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS in different regions of the rat intestine. Materials and Methods Segments taken from the rat duodenum, jejunum, mid and terminal ileum were vertically mounted, connected to a transducer and exposed to EFS with different frequencies in the absence and presence of various inhibitors of enteric mediators i. e. specific 5-HT receptor antagonists. Results EFS-induced responses were sensitive to TTX and partly to atropine, indicating a major neuronal involvement and a cholinergic system. Pre-treatment with WAY100635 (a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist and granisetron up to 10.0 µM, GR113808 (a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist, methysergide and ritanserin up to 1.0 µM, failed to modify responses to EFS inall examined tissues. In the presence of SB258585 1.0 µM (a 5-HT6 receptor antagonist there was a trend to enhance contraction in the proximal part of the intestine and reduce contraction in the distal part. Pre-treatment with SB269970A 1.0 µM (5-HT7 receptor antagonist induced a greater contractile response to EFS at 0.4 Hz only in the duodenum. Conclusions The application of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptor antagonists, applied at concentrations lower than 1.0 µM did not modify the EFS-induced contraction and relaxation responses, whichsuggests the unlikely involvement of endogenous 5-HT in mediating responses to EFS in the described test conditions.

  1. Enhanced pharmacy training for counter-terrorism and disaster response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitstead, John A; Burton, Deborah C

    2006-01-01

    State and federal authorities in the USA have identified pharmacists as important in terrorism detection activities. However few pharmacists are trained for disaster response planning, or providing services at disaster sites. A distance training programme was created by the College of Pharmacy at the University of Kentucky, Chandler Medical Center (UKCMC) in collaboration with an academic Medical Center, urban and rural community pharmacists, experts in pharmacy and infectious disease, and two state pharmacy associations. There was a substantial improvement in bioterrorism training knowledge as judged by pre- and post-test results. During two years of training, a total of 142 licensed pharmacists received certification (approximately 4.7% of all those in Kentucky). In addition, a network of bioterrorism-trained pharmacists was created for the state.

  2. Effect of explosive type strength training on isometric force- and relaxation-time, electromyographic and muscle fibre characteristics of leg extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, K; Komi, P V; Alén, M

    1985-12-01

    To investigate the influence of explosive type strength training on isometric force- and relaxation-time and on electromyographic and muscle fibre characteristics of human skeletal muscle, 10 male subjects went through progressive training which included primarily jumping exercises without extra load and with light extra weights three times a week for 24 weeks. Specific training-induced changes in force-time curve were observed and demonstrated by great (P less than 0.05-0.01) improvements in in parameters of fast force production and by a minor (P less than 0.05) increase in maximal force. The continuous increases in fast force production during the entire training were accompanied by and correlated with the increases (P less than 0.05) in average IEMG-time curve and with the increase (P less than 0.05) in the FT:ST muscle fibre area ratio. The percentage of FT fibres of the muscle correlated (P less than 0.05) with the improvement of average force-time curve during the training. The increase in maximal force was accompanied by significant (P less than 0.05) increases in maximum IEMGs of the trained muscles. However, the hypertrophic changes, as judged from the anthropometric and muscle fibre area data, were only slight during the training. It can be concluded that in training for fast force production considerable neural and selective muscular adaptations may occur to explain the improvement in performance, but that genetic factors may determine the ultimate potential of the trainability of this aspect of the neuromuscular performance.

  3. Endurance training changes in lipolytic responsiveness of obese adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Glisezinski, I; Crampes, F; Harant, I; Berlan, M; Hejnova, J; Langin, D; Rivière, D; Stich, V

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise training on the lipolytic response of adipose tissue in obese subjects. Thirteen men (body mass index = 36.9 +/- 1.3 kg/m2) were submitted to aerobic physical training on a cycloergometer (30-45 min, 4 days a wk) for 3 mo. Adipocyte sensitivity to the action of catecholamines and insulin was studied in vitro before and after training. Training induced a decrease in the percentage of fat mass (P < 0.05) without changing the body weight. Basal lipolysis and hormone-sensitive lipase activity were significantly decreased after training (P < 0.05). The lipolytic effects of epinephrine, isoprenaline (beta-adrenoceptor agonist), and dobutamine (beta1-adrenoceptor agonist) were significantly increased (P < 0.05) but not those of procaterol (beta2-adrenoceptor agonist). The antilipolytic effects of alpha2-adrenoceptor and insulin were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Lipolysis stimulation by agents acting at the postreceptor level was unchanged after training. In conclusion, aerobic physical training in obese male subjects modifies adipose tissue lipolysis through an enhancement of beta-adrenergic response and a concomitant blunting of adipocyte antilipolytic activity.

  4. Glucose response after a ten-week training in swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengoku, Y; Nakamura, K; Takeda, T; Nabekura, Y; Tsubakimoto, S

    2011-11-01

    The present study investigated the difference in blood glucose concentration (Glu) response during an incremental swimming test before and after a ten-week training period and verified whether blood glucose threshold (GT) could be determined in competitive swimmers. 7 elite male university swimmers participated in this study. 2 incremental swimming tests were conducted in a swimming flume before and after a ten-week training period. Blood lactate concentration (Bla) and Glu were measured after each swimming step, and the velocities of the lactate threshold (VLT) and glucose threshold (VGT) were analyzed. VLT increased significantly after training (1.21±0.06 m x s(-1) pre-training, 1.31±0.10 m x s(-1) post-training, pswimming intensity steps. GT was not determined at each trial. Our results show that lactate threshold (LT) improved significantly after the ten-week training period, while the Glu response during incremental swimming tests did not change. Therefore, GT could not be determined in elite competitive swimmers before and after training. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response training Center needs assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, K.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Bolton, P.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Robinson, R.K. [RKR, Inc. (United States)

    1993-09-01

    For the Hanford Site to provide high-quality training using simulated job-site situations to prepare the 4,000 Site workers and 500 emergency responders for known and unknown hazards a Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center is needed. The center will focus on providing classroom lecture as well as hands-on, realistic training. The establishment of the center will create a partnership among the US Department of Energy; its contractors; labor; local, state, and tribal governments; and Xavier and Tulane Universities of Louisiana. This report presents the background, history, need, benefits, and associated costs of the proposed center.

  6. Changes in emotional distress, short term memory, and sustained attention following 6 and 12 sessions of progressive muscle relaxation training in 10-11 years old primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hairul Anuar; Zainol, Nurul Ain

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the effects of 6 and 12 sessions of relaxation training on emotional distress, short-term memory, and sustained attention in primary school children. Participants (N = 132) aged 10 and 11 years old participated in this study. All participants and their parents provided written informed consent. Participants completed the measurement instruments before and after the completion of relaxation training. Nearly half (49%) of all respondents reported moderate to extremely severe stress, and 80 and 61% reported moderate to extremely severe anxiety and depression, respectively. The results of a one-way analysis of variance revealed a significant difference among the groups in mean changes in short-term memory. A greater memory increase was observed in the 12-session than in the six-session and no-training group. It can be conceived that 12-session of training should be considered when prescribing relaxation regimens as a nonspecific clinical treatment (i.e. for healthy students).

  7. Cognitive responses to hypobaric hypoxia: implications for aviation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Christopher; Hinkelbein, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview on cognitive responses to hypobaric hypoxia and to show relevant implications for aviation training. A principal element of hypoxia-awareness training is the intentional evocation of hypoxia symptoms during specific training sessions within a safe and controlled environment. Repetitive training should enable pilots to learn and recognize their personal hypoxia symptoms. A time span of 3-6 years is generally considered suitable to refresh knowledge of the more subtle and early symptoms especially. Currently, there are two different technical approaches available to induce hypoxia during training: hypobaric chamber training and reduced-oxygen breathing devices. Hypoxia training for aircrew is extremely important and effective, and the hypoxia symptoms should be emphasized clearly to aircrews. The use of tight-fitting masks, leak checks, and equipment checks should be taught to all aircrew and reinforced regularly. It is noteworthy that there are major differences in the required quality and quantity of hypoxia training for both military and civilian pilots.

  8. Structure-redox-relaxivity relationships for redox responsive manganese-based magnetic resonance imaging probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Eric M; Mukherjee, Shreya; Liu, Cynthia; Loving, Galen S; Caravan, Peter

    2014-10-06

    A library of 10 Mn-containing complexes capable of switching reversibly between the Mn(II) and Mn(III) oxidation states was prepared and evaluated for potential usage as MRI reporters of tissue redox activity. We synthesized N-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-N,N',N'-ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HBET) and N-(2-hydroxybenzyl-N,N',N'-trans-1,2-cyclohexylenediaminetriacetic acid (CyHBET) ligands functionalized (-H, -OMe, -NO2) at the 5-position of the aromatic ring. The Mn(II) complexes of all ligands and the Mn(III) complexes of the 5-H and 5-NO2 functionalized ligands were synthesized and isolated, but the Mn(III) complexes with the 5-OMe functionalized ligands were unstable. (1)H relaxivity of the 10 isolable complexes was measured at pH 7.4 and 37 °C, 1.4 T. Thermodynamic stability, pH-dependent complex speciation, hydration state, water exchange kinetics of the Mn(II) complexes, and pseudo-first order reduction kinetics of the Mn(III) complexes were studied using a combination of pH-potentiometry, UV-vis spectroscopy, and (1)H and (17)O NMR measurements. The effects of ligand structural and electronic modifications on the Mn(II/III) redox couple were studied by cyclic voltammetry. The Mn(II) complexes are potent relaxation agents as compared to the corresponding Mn(III) species with [Mn(II)(CyHBET)(H2O)](2-) exhibiting a 7.5-fold higher relaxivity (3.3 mM(-1) s(-1)) than the oxidized form (0.4 mM(-1) s(-1)). At pH 7.4, Mn(II) exists as a mixture of fully deprotonated (ML) and monoprotonated (HML) complexes and Mn(II) complex stability decreases as the ligands become more electron-releasing (pMn for 10 μM [Mn(II)(CyHBET-R')(H2O)](2-) decreases from 7.6 to 6.2 as R' goes from -NO2 to -OMe, respectively). HML speciation increases as the electron-releasing nature of the phenolato-O donor increases. The presence of a water coligand is maintained upon conversion from HML to ML, but the water exchange rate of ML is faster by up to 2 orders of magnitude (k(ex)(310) for H

  9. Methods and Tools for Training Crisis Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Holt, Rinehart, & Winston. Bloom , B. C. (Ed.). (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives : Handbook I, cognitive domain. New York; Toronto...Corporation Technical review by Peter S . Schaefer, U.S. Army Research Institute Christopher L. Vowels, U.S. Army Research Institute...Response 5a. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER W74V8H-04-D-0048 5b. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 622785 6. AUTHOR( S ) Laura A. Zimmerman, Jeffrey M. Sestokas

  10. Enhancing relaxation states and positive emotions in physicians through a mindfulness training program: A one-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutio, Alberto; Martínez-Taboada, Cristina; Hermosilla, Daniel; Delgado, Luis Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on mindfulness has focused mainly on stress-related negative symptoms and short-term effects. In contrast, the present article focuses on the impact of a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program on improving well-being (i.e. relaxation states and related positive emotions) in a longitudinal study for a period of one year. A randomized controlled trial in a sample of 42 physicians was used. The intervention group participated in an 8-week MBSR program, with an additional 10-month maintenance period and completed measures of mindfulness and relaxation at pre-intervention, post-intervention and after 10 months. Heart rate measures were also obtained. Significant improvements in favor of the experimental group compared with the control group on the levels of mindfulness and relaxation (including positive emotional states, such as at ease/peace, renewal, energy, optimism, happiness, acceptance, and even transcendence) were obtained after eight weeks. Remarkably, change magnitudes (effect size) significantly increased at the end of the maintenance period after a year, especially for mindfulness and positive energy. Additionally, heart rate significantly decreased for the intervention group and maintained a year after the beginning of the treatment. Results are relevant in terms of practical consequences for improving health and well-being in this population and also in terms of cost-efficiency.

  11. A method for selecting training samples based on camera response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leihong; Li, Bei; Pan, Zilan; Liang, Dong; Kang, Yi; Zhang, Dawei; Ma, Xiuhua

    2016-09-01

    In the process of spectral reflectance reconstruction, sample selection plays an important role in the accuracy of the constructed model and in reconstruction effects. In this paper, a method for training sample selection based on camera response is proposed. It has been proved that the camera response value has a close correlation with the spectral reflectance. Consequently, in this paper we adopt the technique of drawing a sphere in camera response value space to select the training samples which have a higher correlation with the test samples. In addition, the Wiener estimation method is used to reconstruct the spectral reflectance. Finally, we find that the method of sample selection based on camera response value has the smallest color difference and root mean square error after reconstruction compared to the method using the full set of Munsell color charts, the Mohammadi training sample selection method, and the stratified sampling method. Moreover, the goodness of fit coefficient of this method is also the highest among the four sample selection methods. Taking all the factors mentioned above into consideration, the method of training sample selection based on camera response value enhances the reconstruction accuracy from both the colorimetric and spectral perspectives.

  12. Relaxation oscillator-realized artificial electronic neurons, their responses, and noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyungkwang; Ahn, Hyung-Woo; Kornijcuk, Vladimir; Kim, Guhyun; Seok, Jun Yeong; Kim, Inho; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Jeong, Doo Seok

    2016-05-01

    A proof-of-concept relaxation oscillator-based leaky integrate-and-fire (ROLIF) neuron circuit is realized by using an amorphous chalcogenide-based threshold switch and non-ideal operational amplifier (op-amp). The proposed ROLIF neuron offers biologically plausible features such as analog-type encoding, signal amplification, unidirectional synaptic transmission, and Poisson noise. The synaptic transmission between pre- and postsynaptic neurons is achieved through a passive synapse (simple resistor). The synaptic resistor coupled to the non-ideal op-amp realizes excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) evolution that evokes postsynaptic neuron spiking. In an attempt to generalize our proposed model, we theoretically examine ROLIF neuron circuits adopting different non-ideal op-amps having different gains and slew rates. The simulation results indicate the importance of gain in postsynaptic neuron spiking, irrespective of the slew rate (as long as the rate exceeds a particular value), providing the basis for the ROLIF neuron circuit design. Eventually, the behavior of a postsynaptic neuron in connection to multiple presynaptic neurons via synapses is highlighted in terms of EPSP evolution amid simultaneously incident asynchronous presynaptic spikes, which in fact reveals an important role of the random noise in spatial integration.A proof-of-concept relaxation oscillator-based leaky integrate-and-fire (ROLIF) neuron circuit is realized by using an amorphous chalcogenide-based threshold switch and non-ideal operational amplifier (op-amp). The proposed ROLIF neuron offers biologically plausible features such as analog-type encoding, signal amplification, unidirectional synaptic transmission, and Poisson noise. The synaptic transmission between pre- and postsynaptic neurons is achieved through a passive synapse (simple resistor). The synaptic resistor coupled to the non-ideal op-amp realizes excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) evolution that evokes postsynaptic

  13. Changes in the flexion-relaxation response induced by hip extensor and erector spinae muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantin Vincent

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flexion-relaxation phenomenon (FRP is defined by reduced lumbar erector spinae (ES muscle myoelectric activity during full trunk flexion. The objectives of this study were to quantify the effect of hip and back extensor muscle fatigue on FRP parameters and lumbopelvic kinematics. Methods Twenty-seven healthy adults performed flexion-extension tasks under 4 different experimental conditions: no fatigue/no load, no fatigue/load, fatigue/no load, and fatigue/load. Total flexion angle corresponding to the onset and cessation of myoelectric silence, hip flexion angle, lumbar flexion angle and maximal trunk flexion angle were compared across different experimental conditions by 2 × 2 (Load × Fatigue repeated-measures ANOVA. Results The angle corresponding to the ES onset of myoelectric silence was reduced after the fatigue task, and loading the spine decreased the lumbar contribution to motion compared to the hip during both flexion and extension. A relative increment of lumbar spine motion compared to pelvic motion was also observed in fatigue conditions. Conclusions Previous results suggested that ES muscles, in a state of fatigue, are unable to provide sufficient segmental stabilization. The present findings indicate that, changes in lumbar-stabilizing mechanisms in the presence of muscle fatigue seem to be caused by modulation of lumbopelvic kinematics.

  14. Role of the M2 muscarinic receptor pathway in lidocaine-induced potentiation of the relaxant response to atrial natriuretic peptide in bovine tracheal smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunoki, Motonari; Nakahara, Tsutomu; Mitani, Akiko; Sakamoto, Kenji; Ishii, Kunio

    2003-01-01

    We earlier reported that lidocaine augments the relaxation and accumulation of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate produced by atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in bovine tracheal smooth muscle contracted with methacholine. However, the mechanism of that augmentation remains to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the role of muscarinic receptor-mediated signalling in the potentiation of ANP-induced relaxation by lidocaine. Lidocaine (100 micro M) augmented the relaxant responses to ANP in methacholine (0.3 microM)-contracted bovine tracheal smooth muscle but had no effect on the relaxant effects of ANP in preparations contracted with 100 micro M histamine. Treatment of tracheal preparations with methoctramine (0.03 microM), an M2 muscarinic receptor antagonist, enhanced ANP-induced relaxation and this treatment abolished the synergistic action of lidocaine on ANP. In radioligand-binding experiments, lidocaine concentration dependently displaced the specific binding of [3H]- N-methyl scopolamine to cloned human M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. These results suggest that lidocaine acts as an M2 muscarinic receptor antagonist, thereby potentiating the relaxant responses to ANP in the bovine tracheal smooth muscle contracted with muscarinic receptor agonists.

  15. Child Welfare Research and Training: A Response to David Stoesz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brenda D.; Vandiver, Vikki L.

    2016-01-01

    In this response to David Stoesz' critique, "The Child Welfare Cartel," the authors agree that child welfare research and training must be improved. The authors disagree, however, with Stoesz' critique of social work education, his assessment of the most-needed forms of child welfare research, and his depiction of the goals and…

  16. Actuality the process of relaxation on the lessons of physical training on the current stage of higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vankova A.U.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Facilities are considered of making healthy for the improvement of ability to resist stress situations of students. Engaged in a physical culture in the net of educational clock must be conducted in the institute of higher before and after the special disciplines. Application of method of relaxation together with musical accompaniment promote claim of higher type of pedagogical organization of employments. A chronic mental overstrain without the sufficient physical discharging results in a nervous overstrain, negative emotions, deficit of time, violation of the mode of labour and rest, reduction of possibility of physical activity.

  17. Can response time be trained with bilateral limb training in children with Down syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratiksha Tilak Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Response time (RT, that is, the time taken to respond is known to be delayed in children with Down syndrome (DS. We performed a pilot study to evaluate whether bilateral limb training can be used to train RT, in children with DS. Settings and Design: 10 children with DS (5 males were recruited from a special school in a suburban region using convenience sampling. Subjects and Methods: Response time was measured using an indigenously developed RT Analyzer, before and after intervention, from right and left hand. Structured bilateral limb training was given for a period of 4 weeks, using low-cost, locally available materials, in community settings. Statistical Analysis Used: The Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Significant improvements in RT following 4 weeks of intervention were seen in the left hand (P = 0.006 but not in the right hand (P = 0.104. Conclusions: Response time can be trained in children with DS using 4 weeks of bilateral limb training activities using low-cost, locally available materials.

  18. Endothelium-dependent relaxant responses to selective 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonists in the isolated middle cerebral artery of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen-Schwartz, Jacob; Løvland Hoel, Natalie; Nilsson, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    perfused. Luminally added 5- hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), sumatriptan and rizatriptan induced maximal dilatations of 22 +/- 4, 10 +/- 2 and 13 +/- 5%, respectively, compared to the resting diameter. The relaxant effect of sumatriptan was blocked by the 5- HT(1B/1D) receptor selective antagonist GR 55562 (10(-6......)M). The use of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine and charybdotoxin revealed that the dilatation involved both nitric oxide and endothelially derived hyperpolarising factor. Thus, the earlier demonstrated expression of 5-HT(1B/1D) immunoreactivity in the endothelium may well translate into a relaxant...... response to 5-HT and triptans. Using the vessel bath technique, MCA segments were mounted on two metal wires. The relaxant responses to sumatriptan could not be reproduced using this model; instead, weak contractile responses (6 +/- 3% of submaximal contractile capacity) were observed. The difference...

  19. Endothelium-dependent relaxant responses to selective 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonists in the isolated middle cerebral artery of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen-Schwartz, Jacob; Løvland Hoel, Natalie; Nilsson, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    response to 5-HT and triptans. Using the vessel bath technique, MCA segments were mounted on two metal wires. The relaxant responses to sumatriptan could not be reproduced using this model; instead, weak contractile responses (6 +/- 3% of submaximal contractile capacity) were observed. The difference...... perfused. Luminally added 5- hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), sumatriptan and rizatriptan induced maximal dilatations of 22 +/- 4, 10 +/- 2 and 13 +/- 5%, respectively, compared to the resting diameter. The relaxant effect of sumatriptan was blocked by the 5- HT(1B/1D) receptor selective antagonist GR 55562 (10......(-6)M). The use of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine and charybdotoxin revealed that the dilatation involved both nitric oxide and endothelially derived hyperpolarising factor. Thus, the earlier demonstrated expression of 5-HT(1B/1D) immunoreactivity in the endothelium may well translate into a relaxant...

  20. 5 Things To Know About Relaxation Techniques for Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X Y Z 5 Things To Know About Relaxation Techniques for Stress Share: When you’re under stress, ... creating the relaxation response through regular use of relaxation techniques could counteract the negative effects of stress. Relaxation ...

  1. Intensive meditation training influences emotional responses to suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Erika L; Zanesco, Anthony P; King, Brandon G; Aichele, Stephen R; Jacobs, Tonya L; Bridwell, David A; MacLean, Katherine A; Shaver, Phillip R; Ferrer, Emilio; Sahdra, Baljinder K; Lavy, Shiri; Wallace, B Alan; Saron, Clifford D

    2015-12-01

    Meditation practices purportedly help people develop focused and sustained attention, cultivate feelings of compassionate concern for self and others, and strengthen motivation to help others who are in need. We examined the impact of 3 months of intensive meditative training on emotional responses to scenes of human suffering. Sixty participants were assigned randomly to either a 3-month intensive meditation retreat or a wait-list control group. Training consisted of daily practice in techniques designed to improve attention and enhance compassionate regard for others. Participants viewed film scenes depicting human suffering at pre- and posttraining laboratory assessments, during which both facial and subjective measures of emotion were collected. At post-assessment, training group participants were more likely than controls to show facial displays of sadness. Trainees also showed fewer facial displays of rejection emotions (anger, contempt, disgust). The groups did not differ on the likelihood or frequency of showing these emotions prior to training. Self-reported sympathy--but not sadness or distress--predicted sad behavior and inversely predicted displays of rejection emotions in trainees only. These results suggest that intensive meditation training encourages emotional responses to suffering characterized by enhanced sympathetic concern for, and reduced aversion to, the suffering of others.

  2. Corticospinal responses of resistance-trained and un-trained males during dynamic muscle contractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tallent, J.; Goodall, S.; Hortobagyi, T.; Gibson, A. St Clair; Howatson, G.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known regarding the modulation and the plasticity of the neural pathway interconnecting elements of the central nervous system and skeletal muscle in resistant-trained individuals. The aim of the study was to compare corticospinal and spinal responses measured during dynamic muscle contrac

  3. Diminished hormonal responses to exercise in trained rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbo, H; Richter, Erik; Holst, J J

    1977-01-01

    Male rats (120 g) either were subjected to a 12-wk physical training program (T rats) or were sedentary controls (C rats). Subsequently the rats were killed at rest or after a 45- or 90-min forced swim. At rest, T rats had higher liver and muscle glycogen concentrations but lower plasma insulin....... In trained rats the hormonal response to exercise is blunted partly due to higher glucose concentrations. In these rats adipose tissue sensitivity to catecholamines is increased, and changes in glucagon and insulin concentrations are not necessary for increased lipolysis and hepatic glycogen depletion during...

  4. Interpersonal competencies: Responsiveness, technique, and training in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Professional practice in psychology is anchored in interpersonal or relational skills. These skills are essential to successful interactions with clients and their families, students, and colleagues. Expertise in these skills is desired and expected for the practicing psychologist. An important but little-studied aspect of interpersonal skills is what Stiles and colleagues (Stiles, Honos-Webb, & Surko, 1998; Stiles, 2009, 2013) have called appropriate responsiveness. In treatment relationships, appropriate responsiveness is the therapist's ability to achieve optimal benefit for the client by adjusting responses to the current state of the client and the interaction. This article was designed to clarify this aspect of responsiveness, showing its links to empathy, illustrating how responsiveness has been detected in controlled clinical trials, discussing how educators and supervisors have worked to enhance students' responsiveness, and considering how appropriate responsiveness has been assessed. The article also discusses the development of skills underlying appropriate responsiveness and the role of stable differences in talent in training of professional psychologists. Notwithstanding other pessimistic reports on psychologists' expertise, demonstrable expertise may exist in the effective, responsive use of these skills in treatment settings. Appropriate responsiveness may be a variety of executive functioning, organizing and guiding the use of many specific competencies. As such it may be a metacompetency, with implications for the design of competency schemes. Key to all of these considerations is the distinction between therapeutic techniques and their responsive use, which involves astute judgment as to when and how to utilize these responses to best effect in the treatment situation.

  5. Cigarette smoking leads to reduced relaxant responses of the cutaneous microcirculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, M.L.; Andersson, S.E.; Xu, C.B.

    2008-01-01

    . The vasodilator response to the iontophorectic administration of acetylcholine (ACh), acting via an endothelial mechanism, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and acting via a smooth muscle mechanism were studied. The study population consisted of 17 nonsmokers and 17 current smokers (mean age 64+/-2 years, 13...

  6. Physiological Predictors of Response to Exposure, Relaxation, and Rescripting Therapy for Chronic Nightmares in a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joanne L.; Rhudy, Jamie L.; Pruiksma, Kristi E.; Byrd, Patricia; Williams, Amy E.; McCabe, Klanci M.; Bartley, Emily J.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Evidence supports the use of cognitive behavioral therapies for nightmares in trauma-exposed individuals. This randomized clinical trial replicated a study of exposure, relaxation, and rescripting therapy(ERRT) and extended prior research by including broad measures of mental health difficulties, self-reported physical health problems, and quality of life. Additionally, physiological correlates of treatment-related change assessed from a script-driven imagery paradigm were examined. Methods: Forty-seven individuals were randomized to treatment or waitlist control. Results: The treatment group demonstrated improvements relative to the control group at the one-week post-treatment assessment. At the 6-month follow-up assessment, significant improvements were found for frequency and severity of nightmares, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, depression, sleep quality and quantity, physical health symptoms, anger, dissociation, and tension reduction behaviors. Participants also reported improved quality of life. Treatment-related decreases in heart rate to nightmare imagery were correlated with improvements in sleep quality and quantity; treatment-related decreases in skin conductance to nightmare imagery were correlated with improvements in nightmare severity, posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity, sleep quality, and fear of sleep; and treatment-related decreases in corrugator activity to nightmare imagery were correlated with improved physical health. Conclusions: Findings provide additional support for the use of ERRT in treating nightmares and related difficulties and improving sleep. Citation: Davis JL; Rhudy JL; Pruiksma KE; Byrd P; Williams AE; McCabe KM; Bartley EJ. Physiological predictors of response to exposure, relaxation, and rescripting therapy for chronic nightmares in a randomized clinical trial. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(6):622-631. PMID:22171201

  7. Mas receptor overexpression increased Ang-(1-7) relaxation response in renovascular hypertensive rat carotid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivon, V C; Aires, R D; Santiago, L B; Ramalho, L Z N; Cortes, S F; Lemos, V S

    2015-09-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important factor in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Mas receptor, Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]-activated receptor, is an important RAS component and exerts protective effects in the vasculature. Ang-(1-7) vascular effects and Mas receptor expression in carotid from renovascular hypertensive (2K-1C) rats is not clear. In the present study we investigated Mas receptor vasodilator response activated by Ang-(1-7) in the carotid rings from sham and 2K-1C rats. Changes in isometric tension were recorded on organ chamber. Mas receptors expression was investigated in carotid by Western blot. Nitric oxide production was evaluated by 2,3-diaminonaphthalene (DAN) and eNOS expression and activity by immunofluoresce and western blot, respectively. Ang-(1-7) induced concentration-dependent vasodilator effect in carotid rings from sham and 2K-1C, which the hypertension increased vasodilatation response. In the 2K-1C carotid rings, A-779 (Mas receptor antagonist) reduced but not abolish the vasodilator effect of Ang-(1-7). Corroborating, Mas receptor protein expression was significantly increased in the 2K-1C rats. L-NAME and ibuprofen decreased Ang-(1-7) vasodilator response and L-NAME plus ibuprofen practically abolish the remaining vasodilatation response. Nitric oxide production is increased due increased of eNOS expression and pSer(1177) activity. Our results demonstrated that renovascular hypertension increased Mas receptors expression and nitric oxide production in the rats carotid which, consequently increased Ang-(1-7)-vasorelaxant response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of exercise training on left ventricular relaxation and diastolic suction at rest and during orthostatic stress after bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick-Ranson, Graeme; Hastings, Jeffrey L; Bhella, Paul S; Shibata, Shigeki; Levine, Benjamin D

    2013-02-01

    A marked reduction in upright stroke volume (SV) contributes substantially to orthostatic intolerance after exposure to spaceflight or bed rest. It is unclear whether slowed left ventricular (LV) relaxation and diastolic suction contribute to the reduction in SV or whether these changes are influenced by exercise training while in bed. Twenty-seven healthy adults completed 5 weeks of -6 deg head-down bed rest (HDBR). During HDBR, nine subjects were sedentary (NOEX), while 18 performed near-daily rowing ergometry (EX). Left ventricular mass, SV, LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and Doppler ultrasound indices of LV function were collected pre- and post-HDBR during supine rest (twice) and during reduced LV loading (lower body negative pressure; LBNP) and increased LV loading (saline infusion). Post-HDBR, LV mass increased in the EX group, but decreased in the NOEX group. The reduction in SV and LVEDV during supine rest and LBNP were greater with NOEX in comparison to EX after HDBR. Peak early mitral annular velocity, isovolumic relaxation time, early propagation velocity, a non-invasive index of early diastolic filling and ventricular diastolic suction, and peak global longitudinal early strain rate were slowed during supine rest after HDBR with NOEX; however, these variables were either unaltered or the reduction was less prominent with EX. Doppler ultrasound measures of early diastolic filling, ventricular relaxation and diastolic suction were not significantly affected during LV unloading by LBNP after HDBR in either group. All Doppler indices were restored to pre-HDBR levels in both groups during saline infusion to normalize LV filling pressure after HDBR. It is concluded that Doppler indices of dynamic LV filling were reduced in both groups after HDBR; however, these effects were more pronounced in the NOEX group. Irrespective of group, post-HDBR Doppler parameters were restored when LV filling pressure was increased to pre

  9. The endocrine response to exercise and training in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan

    2013-11-01

    The manuscript "Plasma Somatomedin-C in 8- to 10-Year-Old Swimmers" by Denison and Ben-Ezra published in the first issue of Pediatric Exercise Science in 1989 was among the first to address the relationship between growth, the growth hormone (GH)/Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis, and exercise. Since their pioneering article, this topic has become of great interest to pediatricians and pediatric exercise researchers, and today our understanding of the effects of exercise training on the growth axis during childhood and puberty, on differences between systemic and local (i.e., muscle) responses to exercise, and our ability to use these responses to assist the adolescent competitive athlete in the evaluation of the training load have markedly improved. The aim of the present review is to summarize our current knowledge on this topic.

  10. Flexion Relaxation Ratio Not Responsive to Acutely Induced Low Back Pain from a Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Maggie E.; Bishop, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The flexion relaxation ratio (FRR) has been suggested as a measure of muscular performance in patients with low back pain (LBP). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the FRR was responsive to acute LBP produced from a delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) protocol. Methods. Fifty-one pain-free volunteers performed DOMS to induce LBP. Current pain intensity, trunk flexion range of motion (ROM), and passive straight leg raise (SLR) were measured at baseline, 24 and 48 hours after DOMS. Participants were categorized into pain groups based on reported current pain intensity. Changes in FRR, trunk flexion ROM, and SLR ROM were examined using two-way repeated measures analysis of variance. Results. Pain group was not found to have a significant effect on FRR (F1,29 = 0.054, P = 0.818), nor were there any two-way interactions for changes in FRR. The pain group had decreased trunk flexion ROM compared to the minimal pain group (F1,38 = 7.21, P = 0.011), but no decreases in SLR ROM (F1,38 = 3.51, P = 0.057) over time. Interpretation. There were no differences in FRR based on reported pain intensity of LBP from a DOMS protocol. The responsiveness of FRR might be limited in patients with acute onset LBP of muscular origin. PMID:27335879

  11. Relaxation and Visualization Strategies for Story Telling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯灵林

    2012-01-01

    The importance of training students to tell or retell story is self - evident for mastering English language. The following activity introduces relaxation and visualization strategies for story telling.

  12. Part 2: effect of training surface on acute physiological responses after sport-specific training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnie, Martyn J; Dawson, Brian; Pinnington, Hugh; Landers, Grant; Peeling, Peter

    2013-04-01

    This study compared the effect of sand and grass training surfaces during a sport-specific conditioning session in well-trained team sport athletes (n = 10). The participants initially completed a preliminary testing session to gather baseline (BASE) performance data for vertical jump, repeated sprint ability, and 3-km running time trial. Three days subsequent to BASE, all the athletes completed the first sport-specific conditioning session, which was followed by a repeat of the BASE performance tests the following day (24 hours postexercise). Seven days later, the same training session was completed on the opposing surface and was again followed 24 hours later by the BASE performance tests. During each session, blood lactate, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and heart rate (HR) were recorded, with player movement patterns also monitored via global positioning system units. Additionally, venous blood was collected preexercise, postexercise, and 24 hours postexercise, and analyzed for serum concentrations of Myoglobin, Haptoglobin, and C-Reactive Protein. Results showed significantly higher HR and RPE responses on SAND (p > 0.05), despite significantly lower distance and velocity outputs for the training session (p > 0.05). There were no differences in 24 hours postexercise performance (p > 0.05), and blood markers of muscle damage, inflammation and hemolysis were also similar between the surfaces (p > 0.05). These results suggest that performing a sport-specific conditioning session on a sand (vs. grass) surface can result in a greater physiological response, without any additional decrement to next-day performance.

  13. Examining the Effectiveness of a Train-the-Trainer Model: Training Teachers to Use Pivotal Response Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhrheinrich, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    The train-the-trainer (TTT) model, which has also been called pyramidal training, triadic training, and helper model training, focuses on initially training a person or people who, in turn, train other people at their home agency. The TTT model has promise of being both efficient and cost-effective. The TTT model may be especially useful in…

  14. Presynaptic muscarinic and adenosine receptors are involved in 2 Hz-induced train-of-four fade caused by antinicotinic neuromuscular relaxants in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mw; Bornia, Ecs; Correia-de-Sá, P; Alves-Do-Prado, W

    2011-11-01

    1. Train-of-four fade (TOF(fade) ) is a clinically useful parameter to monitor the degree of block of neuromuscular transmission in curarized patients. Experimentally, TOF(fade) has been attributed to the blockade of facilitatory nicotinic receptors on motor nerve terminals. There is less information regarding the involvement of coexistent presynaptic receptors (e.g. muscarinic M(1) and M(2) , adenosine A(1) and A(2A) ) in the TOF(fade) produced by antinicotinic agents. 2. In the present study, we evaluated the TOF(fade) caused by antinicotinic neuromuscular relaxants (hexamethonium, d-tubocurarine, vecuronium and rocuronium) as the ratio of the muscle tension produced in the rat diaphragm by the fourth to the first stimulus (T(4) /T(1) ) of a train-of-four stimuli delivered to the phrenic nerve trunk at a frequency of 2 Hz. 3. All antinicotinic agents, except hexamethonium, decreased the amplitude of muscle tension during the first stimulus. Hexamethonium, (5.47 mmol/L), d-tubocurarine- (1.1 μmol/L), vecuronium (4.7 μmol/L)- and rocuronium (9.8 μmol/L)-induced TOF(fade) was attenuated by 10 nmol/L pirenzepine (an M(1) receptor antagonist), 1 μmol/L methoctramine (an M(2) receptor antagonist) and 2.5 nmol/L 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (an A(1) receptor antagonist). Blockade of the A(2A) receptor with 10 nmol/L ZM241385 partially reversed the TOF(fade) induced by d-tubocurarine, vecuronium and rocuronium, but not that caused by the 'pure' neuronal nicotinic receptor antagonist hexamethonium, unless one increased the concentration of ZM241385 to 50 nmol/L. 4. The data indicate that presynaptic M(1) , M(2) , A(1) and A(2A) receptors play a role in neuromuscular TOF(fade) caused by antinicotinic neuromuscular relaxants. Such interplay depends on adenosine tonus and on the affinity of neuromuscular blocking agents for neuronal versus muscular nicotinic receptors.

  15. Impact of relaxation training on rehabilitation of patients with lung cancer%放松训练对肺癌患者康复效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭锦萍

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨围术期放松训练对肺癌患者康复效果的影响。方法选择2010年1月至2012年12月我院肺科肺癌患者120例,按随机数字表法随机分为干预组和对照组,各60例。对照组进行常规护理,干预组在常规护理的基础上采取音乐疗法、渐进性肌肉放松及引导性想象等放松训练方法。干预后比较两组患者的生理、心理状况及疼痛度。结果干预前,两组患者状态焦虑问卷得分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),干预后干预组患者的状态焦虑问卷得分明显低于对照组,差异有显著统计学意义( P<0.01)。干预前,两组患者Rotterdam症状检测量表的生理纬度、心理纬度及总计得分差异无统计学意义( P>0.05),干预后干预组患者的Rotterdam症状检测量表的生理纬度、心理纬度及总计得分明显低于对照组,差异有显著统计学意义( P<0.01)。结论放松训练可有效缓解患者的焦虑情绪,降低身体的不适感及疼痛度。%Objective To discuss the impact of relaxation training of perioperative period on rehabilitation of patients with lung cancer.Methods From January 2010 to December 2012 in our hospital 120 patients with lung cancer in pulmonary department were selected and randomly divided into intervention group and control group both with 60 cases.Control group was given routine nursing while intervention group was given music therapy , gradual muscle relaxation and guiding imagination therapy on basis of routine nursing .After intervention , physiological and mental status and pain degree of the two groups were compared.Results Before intervention , no significant difference exis-ted between two groups with anxiety questionnaire scores ( P>0.05 ); After intervention , anxiety questionnaire score of intervention group was obviously lower than that of control group ( P<0.01 ) .After intervention , physiological latitude , mental latitude and total

  16. Musical training shapes neural responses to melodic and prosodic expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioga, Ioanna; Di Bernardi Luft, Caroline; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2016-11-01

    Current research on music processing and syntax or semantics in language suggests that music and language share partially overlapping neural resources. Pitch also constitutes a common denominator, forming melody in music and prosody in language. Further, pitch perception is modulated by musical training. The present study investigated how music and language interact on pitch dimension and whether musical training plays a role in this interaction. For this purpose, we used melodies ending on an expected or unexpected note (melodic expectancy being estimated by a computational model) paired with prosodic utterances which were either expected (statements with falling pitch) or relatively unexpected (questions with rising pitch). Participants' (22 musicians, 20 nonmusicians) ERPs and behavioural responses in a statement/question discrimination task were recorded. Participants were faster for simultaneous expectancy violations in the melodic and linguistic stimuli. Further, musicians performed better than nonmusicians, which may be related to their increased pitch tracking ability. At the neural level, prosodic violations elicited a front-central positive ERP around 150ms after the onset of the last word/note, while musicians presented reduced P600 in response to strong incongruities (questions on low-probability notes). Critically, musicians' P800 amplitudes were proportional to their level of musical training, suggesting that expertise might shape the pitch processing of language. The beneficial aspect of expertise could be attributed to its strengthening effect of general executive functions. These findings offer novel contributions to our understanding of shared higher-order mechanisms between music and language processing on pitch dimension, and further demonstrate a potential modulation by musical expertise. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Acupuncture and the relaxation response for treating gastrointestinal symptoms in HIV patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bei-Hung; Sommers, Elizabeth

    2011-09-01

    To examine the effect of acupuncture and the relaxation response (RR) for treating gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in HIV patients who are using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The authors conducted a 4-arm 2×2 double-blind randomised controlled trial in an acupuncture clinic in the USA. Sham acupuncture and health education were used as the control conditions of real acupuncture and RR elicitation, respectively. Enrolled patients were randomised to real acupuncture+RR (AR), sham acupuncture+RR (SR), real acupuncture+health education (AE) or sham acupuncture+health education (SE) study arm. Participants listened to CDs with RR-eliciting instructions or health education while receiving acupuncture intervention. Interventions were provided twice weekly for 4 weeks and once weekly for another 4 weeks. Participants used daily diaries to record GI symptom severity ratings (0-10). The authors estimated the intervention effect as the changes in symptom rating per intervention session increase using a mixed-effects regression model. A total of 130 people with HIV/AIDS who were on HAART and had persistent GI symptoms were enrolled and 115 started the study intervention. The AR group had greater intervention effects for loose stools symptoms than the other three groups (β=-0.149, -0.151 and -0.144, p value=0.013, 0.013 and 0.018 comparing AR to AE, SR and SE, respectively). The AR group also had significant intervention effects on reducing nausea symptoms when the intervention was given twice per week (β=-0.218, p=0.001). Our trial provided preliminary data demonstrating the potential synergistic effects of acupuncture and RR for treating GI symptoms in HIV patients on HAART.

  18. Oxidative stress biomarker responses to an acute session of hypertrophy-resistance traditional interval training and circuit training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminice, Rafael; Sicchieri, Tiago; Mialich, Mirele S; Milani, Francine; Ovidio, Paula P; Jordao, Alceu A

    2011-03-01

    We have studied circuit resistance schemes with high loads as a time-effective alternative to hypertrophy-traditional resistance training. However, the oxidative stress biomarker responses to high-load circuit training are unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare oxidative stress biomarker response with an acute session of hypertrophy-resistance circuit training and traditional interval training. A week after the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) test, 11 healthy and well-trained male participants completed hypertrophy-resistance acute sessions of traditional interval training (3 × 10 repetitions at 75% of the 1RM, with 90-second passive rest) and circuit training (3 × 10 repetitions at 75% of the 1RM, in alternating performance of 2 exercises with different muscle groups) in a randomized and cross-over design. Venous blood samples were collected before (pre) and 10 minutes after (post) the resistance training sessions for oxidative stress biomarker assays. As expected, the time used to complete the circuit training (20.2 ± 1.6) was half of that needed to complete the traditional interval training (40.3 ± 1.8). Significant increases (p creatine kinase (CK) (67%), glutathione (14%), and uric acid (25%) were detected posttraditional interval training session in relation to pre. In relation to circuit training, a significant increase in CK (33%) activity postsession in relation to pre was observed. Statistical analysis did not reveal any other change in the oxidative stress biomarker after circuit training. In conclusion, circuit resistance-hypertrophy training scheme proposed in the current study promoted lower oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant modulations compared with resistance traditional interval training.

  19. A Sustainable Model for Training Teachers to Use Pivotal Response Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhrheinrich, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The increase in the rate of autism diagnoses has created a growing demand for teachers who are trained to use effective interventions. The train-the-trainer model, which involves training supervisors to train others, may be ideal for providing cost-effective training and ongoing support to teachers. Although research supports interventions, such…

  20. A Sustainable Model for Training Teachers to Use Pivotal Response Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhrheinrich, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The increase in the rate of autism diagnoses has created a growing demand for teachers who are trained to use effective interventions. The train-the-trainer model, which involves training supervisors to train others, may be ideal for providing cost-effective training and ongoing support to teachers. Although research supports interventions, such…

  1. Differences in Physiological Responses to Interval Training in Cyclists With and Without Interval Training Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebisz, Rafal; Hebisz, Paulina; Borkowski, Jacek; Zatoń, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine differences in glycolytic metabolite concentrations and work output in response to an all-out interval training session in 23 cyclists with at least 2 years of interval training experience (E) and those inexperienced (IE) in this form of training. The intervention involved subsequent sets of maximal intensity exercise on a cycle ergometer. Each set comprised four 30 s repetitions interspersed with 90 s recovery periods; sets were repeated when blood pH returned to 7.3. Measurements of post-exercise hydrogen (H+) and lactate ion (LA-) concentrations and work output were taken. The experienced cyclists performed significantly more sets of maximal efforts than the inexperienced athletes (5.8 ± 1.2 vs. 4.3 ± 0.9 sets, respectively). Work output decreased in each subsequent set in the IE group and only in the last set in the E group. Distribution of power output changed only in the E group; power decreased in the initial repetitions of set only to increase in the final repetitions. H+ concentration decreased in the third, penultimate, and last sets in the E group and in each subsequent set in the IE group. LA- decreased in the last set in both groups. In conclusion, the experienced cyclists were able to repeatedly induce elevated levels of lactic acidosis. Power output distribution changed with decreased acid-base imbalance. In this way, this group could compensate for a decreased anaerobic metabolism. The above factors allowed cyclists experienced in interval training to perform more sets of maximal exercise without a decrease in power output compared with inexperienced cyclists.

  2. Differences in Physiological Responses to Interval Training in Cyclists With and Without Interval Training Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebisz Rafal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine differences in glycolytic metabolite concentrations and work output in response to an all-out interval training session in 23 cyclists with at least 2 years of interval training experience (E and those inexperienced (IE in this form of training. The intervention involved subsequent sets of maximal intensity exercise on a cycle ergometer. Each set comprised four 30 s repetitions interspersed with 90 s recovery periods; sets were repeated when blood pH returned to 7.3. Measurements of post-exercise hydrogen (H+ and lactate ion (LA- concentrations and work output were taken. The experienced cyclists performed significantly more sets of maximal efforts than the inexperienced athletes (5.8 ± 1.2 vs. 4.3 ± 0.9 sets, respectively. Work output decreased in each subsequent set in the IE group and only in the last set in the E group. Distribution of power output changed only in the E group; power decreased in the initial repetitions of set only to increase in the final repetitions. H+ concentration decreased in the third, penultimate, and last sets in the E group and in each subsequent set in the IE group. LA- decreased in the last set in both groups. In conclusion, the experienced cyclists were able to repeatedly induce elevated levels of lactic acidosis. Power output distribution changed with decreased acid–base imbalance. In this way, this group could compensate for a decreased anaerobic metabolism. The above factors allowed cyclists experienced in interval training to perform more sets of maximal exercise without a decrease in power output compared with inexperienced cyclists.

  3. The frequency-domain relaxation response of gallium doped Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzmiel, Justyna; Weron, Karina [Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Jurlewicz, Agnieszka [Hugo Steinhaus Center, Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2010-03-10

    In this paper the complex dielectric permittivity of gallium doped Cd{sub 0.99}Mn{sub 0.01}Te mixed crystals is studied at different temperatures. We observe a two-power-law relaxation pattern with m and n, the low- and high-frequency power-law exponents respectively, satisfying the relation m < 1 - n. To interpret the empirical result we propose a correlated-cluster relaxation mechanism. This approach allows us to find origins of both power-law exponents, m and n.

  4. TIME-COURSE OF ACTION AND ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATING CONDITIONS OF ORG-9487, A NEW SHORT-ACTING STEROIDAL MUSCLE-RELAXANT - A COMPARISON WITH SUCCINYLCHOLINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERDA, JMKH; VANDENBROEK, L; PROOST, JH; VERBAAN, BW; HENNIS, PJ

    1993-01-01

    In a randomized study, we evaluated lag time (time from the end of injection of muscle relaxant until the first depression of the train-of-four response [TOF]), onset time (time from the end of injection of muscle relaxant until the maximum depression of the first twitch of the TOF [T1]), neuromuscu

  5. Rapid E-Learning Simulation Training and User Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackler, Angeline

    2011-01-01

    A new trend in e-learning development is to have subject matter experts use rapid development tools to create training simulations. This type of training is called rapid e-learning simulation training. Though companies are using rapid development tools to create training quickly and cost effectively, there is little empirical research to indicate…

  6. Rapid E-Learning Simulation Training and User Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackler, Angeline

    2011-01-01

    A new trend in e-learning development is to have subject matter experts use rapid development tools to create training simulations. This type of training is called rapid e-learning simulation training. Though companies are using rapid development tools to create training quickly and cost effectively, there is little empirical research to indicate…

  7. Gaming industry employees' responses to responsible gambling training: a public health imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Debi A; Gray, Heather M; LaBrie, Richard A; Kleschinsky, John H; Shaffer, Howard J

    2012-06-01

    Gaming industry employees work in settings that create personal health risks. They also have direct contact with customers who might engage in multiple risky activities (e.g., drinking, smoking, and gambling) and might need to facilitate help-seeking by patrons or co-workers who experience problems. Consequently, the empirical examination of the processes and procedures designed to prepare employees for such complex situations is a public health imperative. In the current study we describe an evaluation of the Casino, Inc. Play Responsibly responsible gaming program. We surveyed 217 employees prior to and 1 month after (n = 116) they completed a multimedia driven responsible gambling training program. We observed that employees improved their knowledge of responsible gambling concepts from baseline to follow-up. The Play Responsibly program was more successful in providing new knowledge than it was in correcting mistaken beliefs that existed prior to training. We conclude, generally, that Play Responsibly is associated with increases in employees' responsible gambling knowledge.

  8. Relaxation and biofeedback techniques in the management of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, C; Datey, K K

    1976-02-01

    In a controlled trial, 27 patients with systemic hypertension were given training in relaxation and meditation using biofeedback procedures. As a result there was a significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic pressure in 77% of the patients. In 50% of the patients it was also possible to reduce antihypertensive drugs, ranging from 33 to 100%. Six-month follow up results show that the benefit can be maintained for a long term provided the patients practice relaxation regularly. The response is unlikely to be a "placebo effect" in the usual meaning. Its genuine therapeutic value should be exploited and reevaluated on a larger scale.

  9. Relaxation strategies for patients during dermatologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenefelt, Philip D

    2010-07-01

    Patient stress and anxiety are common preoperatively and during dermatologic procedures and surgeries. Stress and anxiety can occasionally interfere with performance of procedures or surgery and can induce hemodynamic instability, such as elevated blood pressure or syncope, as well as producing considerable discomfort for some patients. Detection of excess stress and anxiety in patients can allow the opportunity for corrective or palliative measures. Slower breathing, biofeedback, progressive muscular relaxation, guided imagery, hypnosis, meditation and music can help calm and rebalance the patient's autonomic nervous system and immune functioning. Handheld miniaturized heart rate variability biofeedback devices are now available. The relaxation response can easily be taught. Guided imagery can be recorded or live. Live rapid induction hypnosis followed by deepening and then self-guided imagery requires no experience on the part of the patient but does require training and experience on the part of a provider. Recorded hypnosis inductions may also be used. Meditation generally requires more prior experience and training, but is useful when the patient already is skilled in it. Live, guided meditation or meditation recordings may be used. Relaxing recorded music from speakers or headphones or live performance music may also be employed to ease discomfort and improve the patient's attitude for dermatologic procedures and surgeries.

  10. 40 CFR 112.21 - Facility response training and drills/exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Facility response training and drills/exercises. 112.21 Section 112.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Response Requirements § 112.21 Facility response training and...

  11. Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, C C B M; Visser, E K; van den Broek, J; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M

    2013-05-01

    Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six inexperienced) police horses during police training. Horses were evaluated during four test settings at three time points over a 7-week period: outdoor track test, street track test, indoor arena test and smoke machine test. Heart rate (HR; beats/min), HR variability (HRV; root means square of successive differences; ms), behavior score (BS; scores 0 to 5) and standard police performance score (PPS; scores 1 to 0) were obtained per test. All data were statistically evaluated using a linear mixed model (Akaike's Information criterium; t > 2.00) or logistic regression (P horses was increased at indoor arena test (98 ± 26) and smoke machine test (107 ± 25) compared with outdoor track (80 ± 12, t = 2.83 and t = 3.91, respectively) and street track tests (81 ± 14, t = 2.48 and t = 3.52, respectively). HRV of horses at the indoor arena test (42.4 ± 50.2) was significantly lower compared with street track test (85.7 ± 94.3 and t = 2.78). BS did not show significant differences between tests and HR of horses was not always correlated with the observed moderate behavioral responses. HR, HRV, PPS and BS did not differ between repetition of tests and there were no significant differences in any of the four tests between experienced and inexperienced horses. No habituation occurred during the test weeks, and experience as a police horse does not seem to be a key factor in how these horses handle stress. All horses showed only modest behavioral responses, and HR may provide complimentary information for individual evaluation and welfare assessment of these horses. Overall, little evidence of stress was observed during these police training tests. As three of these tests (excluding

  12. Ethical Responsibilities in Training Marriage and Family Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Dana Heller

    2004-01-01

    Graduate programs in marriage and family counseling must adhere to ethical codes and standards for training students. A question arises concerning the amount of specialized training that should be included within the larger counselor education discipline. This article addresses the standards for training and competence as set forth by the Council…

  13. THE ROLE OF THE REPEATED CONTRACTIONS AND OF THE ACTIVE RELAXATION-OPPOSITION MOVEMENT IN FACILITATING THE MOTOR RESPONSE IN THE CASE OF PATIENTS WITH MIXED PARESIS ON THE LEVEL OF THE MEDIAL AND CUBITAL NERVE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriela Ochiana; Maria Mindirigiu; Nicolae Ochiana

    2011-01-01

    ... of the proprioceptive and neuromuscular facilitation techniques, more exactly the repeated contractions and the active relaxation-opposition movement in facilitating the motor response on the level of the paretic muscles...

  14. Disaster Response Team FAST Skills Training with a Portable Ultrasound Simulator Compared to Traditional Training: Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paddock, Michael T.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pre-hospital focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST has been effectively used to improve patient care in multiple mass casualty events throughout the world. Although requisite FAST knowledge may now be learned remotely by disaster response team members, traditional live instructor and model hands-on FAST skills training remains logistically challenging. The objective of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of a novel portable ultrasound (US simulator with traditional FAST skills training for a deployed mixed provider disaster response team. Methods: We randomized participants into one of three training groups stratified by provider role: Group A. Traditional Skills Training, Group B. US Simulator Skills Training, and Group C. Traditional Skills Training Plus US Simulator Skills Training. After skills training, we measured participants’ FAST image acquisition and interpretation skills using a standardized direct observation tool (SDOT with healthy models and review of FAST patient images. Pre- and post-course US and FAST knowledge were also assessed using a previously validated multiple-choice evaluation. We used the ANOVA procedure to determine the statistical significance of differences between the means of each group’s skills scores. Paired sample t-tests were used to determine the statistical significance of pre- and post-course mean knowledge scores within groups. Results: We enrolled 36 participants, 12 randomized to each training group. Randomization resulted in similar distribution of participants between training groups with respect to provider role, age, sex, and prior US training. For the FAST SDOT image acquisition and interpretation mean skills scores, there was no statistically significant difference between training groups. For US and FAST mean knowledge scores, there was a statistically significant improvement between pre- and post-course scores within each group, but again there was not

  15. 瑜伽放松训练对骨科手术后失眠患者睡眠质量的影响%The effect of Yoga relaxation training on sleep quality of orthopedic postoperative patient with insomnia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙咏梅; 彭丽娟; 胡娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of Yoga relaxation training on sleep quality of orthopedic postoperative patient with insomnia.Methods Sixty - four patients with insomnia were randomly divided into intervention group and control group,there were 32 cases in every group.All the orthopedic postoperative patients underwent routine care,and the reasons for the implementation of nursing intervention for inssomnia and other symptomatic treatment and nursing,intervention group was accepted Yoga relaxation training on the basis of treatment.Results After relaxation training,there were significantly reduction of moderate and severe insomnia in intervention group on the fourth day.Conclusions Yoga relaxation therapy can significantly improve the sleep quality of orthopedic postoperative patients with insomnia.%目的 探讨瑜伽放松训练对改善骨科手术后失眠患者睡眠质量的效果.方法 将64例骨科手术后失眠患者随机分为干预组和对照组各32例.两组患者术后均进行骨科手术后常规护理,并针对失眠原因实施护理干预等对症治疗.干预组在此治疗基础上进行瑜伽放松洲练.结果 放松训练后,干预组在术后第4天,中、重度失眠显著降低.结论 瑜伽放松疗法可有效改善骨科手术后失眠患者的睡眠质量.

  16. Conceptual design report, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-09

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will involve the management, handling, and cleanup of toxic substances. If the DOE is to meet its high standards of safety, the thousands of workers involved in these activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and the risks associated with these tasks. Furthermore, emergency response for DOE shipments is the primary responsibility of state, tribal, and local governments. A collaborative training initiative with the DOE will strengthen emergency response at the Hanford Site and within the regional communities. Local and international labor has joined the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) partnership, and will share in the HAMMER Training Center core programs and facilities using their own specialized trainers and training programs. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a centralized regional site dedicated to the training of hazardous material, emergency response, and fire fighting personnel.

  17. High-Intensity Training and Salivary Immunoglobulin A Responses in Professional Top-Level Soccer Players: Effect of Training Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Adam L; Wong, Del P; Dunlop, Gordon; Groussard, Carole; Kebsi, Wiem; Dellal, Alexandre; Morgans, Ryland; Zouhal, Hassane

    2016-09-01

    Owen, AL, Wong, DP, Dunlop, G, Groussard, C, Kebsi, W, Dellal, A, Morgans, R, and Zouhal, H. High-intensity training and salivary immunoglobulin A responses in professional top-level soccer players: Effect of training intensity. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2460-2469, 2016-This study aimed (a) to test the hypothesis that salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) would vary with training intensity sessions (low-intensity [LI] vs. high-intensity sessions [HI]) during a traditional training program divided into 4 training periods and (b) to identify key variables (e.g., GPS data, rating of perceived exertion [RPE], and training duration), which could affect s-IgA. Saliva samples of 10 elite professional soccer players were collected (a) before the investigation started to establish the baseline level and (b) before and after each 4 training sessions (LI vs. HI). Training intensity was monitored as internal (through heart rate responses and RPE) and external (through GPS) loads. High-intensity sessions were associated with higher external load (GPS) and with higher RPE. Baseline and pretraining s-IgA did not differ between the 4 training sessions both for HI and LI. Post-training s-IgA were not different (in absolute value and in percentage of change) between HI and LI sessions at the first 3 periods. However, at the fourth period, s-IgA concentration for HI session was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) than the LI session. The percentage change between s-IgA post-training and s-IgA baseline concentrations differ significantly (p ≤ 0.05) between HI and LI training sessions. Significant correlations between s-IgA and training intensity were also noted. High-intensity soccer training sessions might cause a significant decrease in s-IgA values during the postexercise window as compared with LI sessions. This study encourages coaches to monitor s-IgA in routine, particularly during HI training periods, to take precautions to avoid upper respiratory tract infection in highly trained

  18. Relaxation training to improve the survey depression patients hospitalized anxiety effect%放松训练改善住院抑郁症病人焦虑情绪效果调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚洪伟; 韩以华; 刘先群; 周华

    2013-01-01

    Objective Depression patients with drug treatment combined with relaxation training ,relaxation training consciously control the psychological physiological activities ,reduce arousal level ,improve the disorder function reduce anxiety emotional distress and physical symptoms . Methods A self-designed questionnaire to conform to the standards of the patient ,relaxed survey questionnaire before and after training .Anxiety and sleep improvement before and after training to relax more .Results The drug therapy combined with relaxation training ,improve patient com-pliance ,reduce anxiety ,improve sleep ,there are obvious differences between them before and after treatment (P ≤ 0.05) .Conclusion Depres-sion is a chronic disease ,medication time is long ,the compliance decreased gradually along with the medication time prolonged ,the obvious anxie-ty ,sleep ,we take the drug therapy combined with relaxation training ,reduce anxiety and improve patient treatment of sleep ,increased confi-dence ,drug therapy combined with relaxation training therapy and so on ,to provide treatment and care fully for the patient .%目的:抑郁症病人通过药物治疗的同时辅以放松训练,通过放松训练有意识地控制自身的心理生理活动,降低唤醒水平,改善机体紊乱功能降低紧张焦虑情绪困扰和躯体症状。方法采用自行设计的调查表对符合标准的病人进行调查,放松训练前后效果问卷调查.放松训练前后焦虑情绪和睡眠改善比较。结果通过药物治疗配合放松训练,病员服药依从性提高,减轻了焦虑情绪、改善睡眠,治疗前后两者之间有明显的差异(P≤0.05)。结论抑郁症是一个慢性病,服药时间长,依从性随服药时间延长逐渐下降,病员焦虑情绪明显,影响睡眠,我们采取药物治疗结合放松训练,减轻焦虑情绪改善病员睡眠,治疗信心增强,药物治疗为主结合放松训练等辅助治疗,

  19. Myogenic response of human skeletal muscle to 12 weeks of resistance training at light loading intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Holm, L; Reitelseder, S

    2011-01-01

    There is strong evidence for enhanced numbers of satellite cells with heavy resistance training. The satellite cell response to very light muscle loading is, however, unknown. We, therefore, designed a 12-week training protocol where volunteers trained one leg with a high load (H) and the other leg....... A significant main effect of time was observed (Pinduce an increase in the number of satellite...

  20. The response of the lactate minimum test to a 12-week swimming training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Eduardo Zapaterra; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Da Silva, Adelino Sanchez Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Despite the utilization of lactate minimum test (LMT) in training, its intensity response to training remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to verify alterations of LMT intensity in swimmers during a 12-week training protocol. Eight swimmers were submitted to three LMT assessmen...

  1. Weightlifting Training and Hormonal Responses in Adolescent Males: Implications for Program Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Andrew C.; Schilling, Brian K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses monitoring of the training tolerance of junior- aged weightlifters, focusing on: whether the hormonal system can be used to monitor training status; puberty and the hormonal environment; whether training stresses can be monitored by the hormonal environment; adolescent weightlifters' hormonal response during a lifting session; whether…

  2. Comparison of relaxation responses of cavernous and trigonal smooth muscles from rabbits by alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists; prazosin, terazosin, doxazosin, and tamsulosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, K. K.; Lee, M. Y.; Lim, S. W.; Kim, S. C.

    1999-01-01

    Alpha1a-adrenergic receptor (AR) primarily mediates the contraction of the prostatic and cavernous smooth muscles. Among clinically available alpha1-AR antagonists for the medical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), tamsulosin has a modest selectivity for alpha1A- and alpha1D- over alpha1B-ARs. To compare the effects of various alpha1-AR antagonists on relaxation responses of cavernous and trigonal smooth muscles, isometric tension studies with relatively selective (tamsulosin) and non-selective (prazosin, doxazosin, and terazosin) alpha1A-AR antagonists, were conducted in the cavernous and trigonal muscle strips of rabbits (n=10 each). Tamsulosin had the strongest inhibitory effect on contraction of trigonal smooth muscle among the various alpha1-AR antagonists, and the inhibitory activities of prazosin, doxazosin, and terazosin were not statistically different. All alpha1-AR antagonists caused concentration-dependent relaxation of the cavernous muscle strips. Tamsulosin was shown to have greater potency than prazosin (more than 100-fold), doxazosin (more than 1000-fold), and terazosin (more than 1000-fold), in relaxation of cavernous smooth muscle. In conclusion, tamsulosin might be the most effective drug among the four commonly used alpha1-AR antagonists for the medical management of BPH. Tamsulosin might be a potential substitute for phentolamine in combination with vasoactive agents as an intracavernous injection therapy for patients with erectile dysfunction. PMID:10102527

  3. Performance and Endocrine Responses to Differing Ratios of Concurrent Strength and Endurance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas W; Howatson, Glyn; Russell, Mark; French, Duncan N

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined functional strength and endocrine responses to varying ratios of strength and endurance training in a concurrent training regimen. Thirty resistance trained men completed 6 weeks of 3 d·wk of (a) strength training (ST), (b) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 3:1 (CT3), (c) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 1:1 (CT1), or (d) no training (CON). Strength training was conducted using whole-body multijoint exercises, whereas endurance training consisted of treadmill running. Assessments of maximal strength, lower-body power, and endocrine factors were conducted pretraining and after 3 and 6 weeks. After the intervention, ST and CT3 elicited similar increases in lower-body strength; furthermore, ST resulted in greater increases than CT1 and CON (all p ≤ 0.05). All training conditions resulted in similar increases in upper-body strength after training. The ST group observed greater increases in lower-body power than all other conditions (all p ≤ 0.05). After the final training session, CT1 elicited greater increases in cortisol than ST (p = 0.008). When implemented as part of a concurrent training regimen, higher volumes of endurance training result in the inhibition of lower-body strength, whereas low volumes do not. Lower-body power was attenuated by high and low frequencies of endurance training. Higher frequencies of endurance training resulted in increased cortisol responses to training. These data suggest that if strength development is the primary focus of a training intervention, frequency of endurance training should remain low.

  4. Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake

    OpenAIRE

    De Bock, Katrien; Derave, W.; Eijnde, B. O.; Hesselink, M.K.; Koninckx, Erwin; Rose, A.J.; Schrauwen, P.; Bonen, A.; Richter, E A; Hespel, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Skeletal muscle gene response to exercise depends on nutritional status during and after exercise, but it is unknown whether muscle adaptations to endurance training are affected by nutritional status during training sessions. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of an endurance training program (6 wk, 3 day/wk, 1-2 h, 75% of peak (V) over dot O-2) in moderately active males. They trained in the fasted (F; n = 10) or carbohydratefed state (CHO; n = 10) while receiving a standardized ...

  5. Active myocyte shortening during the 'isovolumetric relaxation' phase of diastole is responsible for ventricular suction; 'systolic ventricular filling'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckberg, Gerald D; Castellá, Manuel; Gharib, Morteza; Saleh, Saleh

    2006-04-01

    To study the 'isovolumetric relaxation' phase of rapid ventricular filling by analysis of the shortening of cardiac muscle in the endocardial and epicardial segments of the left ventricle in the dual helical model of the ventricular band, described by Torrent-Guasp. In 10 pigs (27-82 kg), temporal shortening by sonomicrometer crystals was recorded while recording ECG, and measuring intraventricular pressure and dP/dt with Millar pressure transducers. The following sequence was observed; shortening began in descending or endocardial segment, and 82+/-23 ms later it was initiated in the epicardial or ascending segment of the band. The descending segment stops shortening during the rapid filling phase of fast descent of ventricular pressure, but the ascending segment shortening continues for 92+/-33 ms, so that active shortening continues during the period of isovolumetric relaxation. During the rapid filling phase, dopamine decreased the interval between completion of endocardial and termination of epicardial contraction from 92+/-20 to 33+/-8 ms. Conversely propranolol delayed the start of epicardial shortening from 82+/-23 to 121+/-20 ms, and prolonged the duration of endocardial contraction, causing a closer (21+/-5 ms vs 92+/-20 ms) interval between termination of contraction of endocardial and epicardial fibers. The resultant slope of the rapid descent of the left ventricular pressure curve became prolonged. These time sequences show that ongoing unopposed ascending segment shortening occurs during the phase of rapid fall of ventricular pressure. These active shortening phases respond to positive and negative inotropic stimulation, and indicate the classic concept of 'isovolumetric relaxation', IVR, must be reconsidered, and the new term 'isovolumetric contraction', IVC, or systolic ventricular filing may be used.

  6. Influence of cueing on the preparation and execution of untrained and trained complex motor responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alouche, S.R.; Sant'Anna, G.N.; Biagioni, G.; Ribeiro-do-Valle, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of cueing on the performance of untrained and trained complex motor responses. Healthy adults responded to a visual target by performing four sequential movements (complex response) or a single movement (simple response) of their middle finger. A visual cue preceded the target by an interval of 300, 1000, or 2000 ms. In Experiment 1, the complex and simple responses were not previously trained. During the testing session, the complex response pattern varied on a trial-by-trial basis following the indication provided by the visual cue. In Experiment 2, the complex response and the simple response were extensively trained beforehand. During the testing session, the trained complex response pattern was performed in all trials. The latency of the untrained and trained complex responses decreased from the short to the medium and long cue-target intervals. The latency of the complex response was longer than that of the simple response, except in the case of the trained responses and the long cue-target interval. These results suggest that the preparation of untrained complex responses cannot be completed in advance, this being possible, however, for trained complex responses when enough time is available. The duration of the 1st submovement, 1st pause and 2nd submovement of the untrained and the trained complex responses increased from the short to the long cue-target interval, suggesting that there is an increase of online programming of the response possibly related to the degree of certainty about the moment of target appearance. PMID:22473319

  7. Influence of cueing on the preparation and execution of untrained and trained complex motor responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Alouche

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of cueing on the performance of untrained and trained complex motor responses. Healthy adults responded to a visual target by performing four sequential movements (complex response or a single movement (simple response of their middle finger. A visual cue preceded the target by an interval of 300, 1000, or 2000 ms. In Experiment 1, the complex and simple responses were not previously trained. During the testing session, the complex response pattern varied on a trial-by-trial basis following the indication provided by the visual cue. In Experiment 2, the complex response and the simple response were extensively trained beforehand. During the testing session, the trained complex response pattern was performed in all trials. The latency of the untrained and trained complex responses decreased from the short to the medium and long cue-target intervals. The latency of the complex response was longer than that of the simple response, except in the case of the trained responses and the long cue-target interval. These results suggest that the preparation of untrained complex responses cannot be completed in advance, this being possible, however, for trained complex responses when enough time is available. The duration of the 1st submovement, 1st pause and 2nd submovement of the untrained and the trained complex responses increased from the short to the long cue-target interval, suggesting that there is an increase of online programming of the response possibly related to the degree of certainty about the moment of target appearance.

  8. Natural relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by natural inflation, we propose a relaxation mechanism consistent with inflationary cosmology that explains the hierarchy between the electroweak scale and Planck scale. This scenario is based on a selection mechanism that identifies the low-scale dynamics as the one that is screened from UV physics. The scenario also predicts the near-criticality and metastability of the Standard Model (SM) vacuum state, explaining the Higgs boson mass observed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Once Majorana right-handed neutrinos are introduced to provide a viable reheating channel, our framework yields a corresponding mass scale that allows for the seesaw mechanism as well as for standard thermal leptogenesis. We argue that considering singlet scalar dark matter extensions of the proposed scenario could solve the vacuum stability problem and discuss how the cosmological constant problem is possibly addressed.

  9. Load-relaxation properties of the human trunk in response to prolonged flexion: measuring and modeling the effect of flexion angle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Toosizadeh

    Full Text Available Experimental studies suggest that prolonged trunk flexion reduces passive support of the spine. To understand alterations of the synergy between active and passive tissues following such loadings, several studies have assessed the time-dependent behavior of passive tissues including those within spinal motion segments and muscles. Yet, there remain limitations regarding load-relaxation of the lumbar spine in response to flexion exposures and the influence of different flexion angles. Ten healthy participants were exposed for 16 min to each of five magnitudes of lumbar flexion specified relative to individual flexion-relaxation angles (i.e., 30, 40, 60, 80, and 100%, during which lumbar flexion angle and trunk moment were recorded. Outcome measures were initial trunk moment, moment drop, parameters of four viscoelastic models (i.e., Standard Linear Solid model, the Prony Series, Schapery's Theory, and the Modified Superposition Method, and changes in neutral zone and viscoelastic state following exposure. There were significant effects of flexion angle on initial moment, moment drop, changes in normalized neutral zone, and some parameters of the Standard Linear Solid model. Initial moment, moment drop, and changes in normalized neutral zone increased exponentially with flexion angle. Kelvin-solid models produced better predictions of temporal behaviors. Observed responses to trunk flexion suggest nonlinearity in viscoelastic properties, and which likely reflected viscoelastic behaviors of spinal (lumbar motion segments. Flexion-induced changes in viscous properties and neutral zone imply an increase in internal loads and perhaps increased risk of low back disorders. Kelvin-solid models, especially the Prony Series model appeared to be more effective at modeling load-relaxation of the trunk.

  10. Nonlinear fractional relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Tofighi

    2012-04-01

    We define a nonlinear model for fractional relaxation phenomena. We use -expansion method to analyse this model. By studying the fundamental solutions of this model we find that when → 0 the model exhibits a fast decay rate and when → ∞ the model exhibits a power-law decay. By analysing the frequency response we find a logarithmic enhancement for the relative ratio of susceptibility.

  11. A comparative study of the effects of problem-solving skills training and relaxation on the score of self-esteem in women with postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Saeideh; Kordi, Masoumeh; Gharavi, Morteza Modares

    2015-01-01

    Self-esteem is a determinant factor of mental health. Individuals with low self-esteem have depression, and low self-esteem is one of main symptoms of depression. Aim of this study is to compare the effects of problem-solving skills and relaxation on the score of self-esteem in women with postpartum depression. This clinical trial was performed on 80 women. Sampling was done in Mashhad healthy centers from December 2009 to June 2010. Women were randomly divided and assigned to problem-solving skills (n = 26), relaxation (n = 26), and control groups (n = 28). Interventions were implemented for 6 weeks and the subjects again completed Eysenck self-esteem scale 9 weeks after delivery. Data analysis was done by descriptive statistics, Kruskal-Wallis test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test by SPSS software. The findings showed that the mean of self-esteem scale scores was 117.9 ± 9.7 after intervention in the problem-solving group, 117.0 ± 11.8 in the relaxation group, and 113.5 ± 10.4 in the control group and there was significant difference between the groups of relaxation and problem solving, and also between intervention groups and control group. According to the results, problem-solving skills and relaxation can be used to prevent and recover from postpartum depression.

  12. Modeling the responses to resistance training in an animal experiment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Antony G; Py, Guillaume; Favier, François B; Sanchez, Anthony M J; Bonnieu, Anne; Busso, Thierry; Candau, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether systems models of training effects on performance in athletes can be used to explore the responses to resistance training in rats. 11 Wistar Han rats (277 ± 15 g) underwent 4 weeks of resistance training consisting in climbing a ladder with progressive loads. Training amount and performance were computed from total work and mean power during each training session. Three systems models relating performance to cumulated training bouts have been tested: (i) with a single component for adaptation to training, (ii) with two components to distinguish the adaptation and fatigue produced by exercise bouts, and (iii) with an additional component to account for training-related changes in exercise-induced fatigue. Model parameters were fitted using a mixed-effects modeling approach. The model with two components was found to be the most suitable to analyze the training responses (R(2) = 0.53; P experiment makes it possible to model the responses to resistance training. This modeling in rodents could be used in future studies in combination with biological tools for enhancing our understanding of the adaptive processes that occur during physical training.

  13. Guinea-pig interpubic joint (symphysis pubica relaxation at parturition: Underlying cellular processes that resemble an inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz-de-Toro Mónica

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At term, cervical ripening in coordination with uterine contractions becomes a prerequisite for a normal vaginal delivery. Currently, cervical ripening is considered to occur independently from uterine contractions. Many evidences suggest that cervical ripening resembles an inflammatory process. Comparatively little attention has been paid to the increased flexibility of the pelvic symphysis that occurs in many species to enable safe delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the guinea-pig interpubic joint relaxation process observed during late pregnancy and parturition resembles an inflammatory process. Methods Samples of pubic symphysis were taken from pregnant guinea-pigs sacrificed along gestation, parturition and postpartum. Serial sections of paraffin-embedded tissues were used to measure the interpubic distance on digitalized images, stained with Giemsa to quantify leukocyte infiltration and to describe the vascular area changes, or studied by the picrosirius-polarization method to evaluate collagen remodeling. P4 and E2 serum levels were measured by a sequential immunometric assay. Results Data showed that the pubic relaxation is associated with an increase in collagen remodeling. In addition, a positive correlation between E2 serum levels and the increase in the interpubic distance was found. On the other hand, a leukocyte infiltration in the interpubic tissue around parturition was described, with the presence of almost all inflammatory cells types. At the same time, histological images show an increase in vascular area (angiogenesis. Eosinophils reached their highest level immediately before parturition; whereas for the neutrophilic and mononuclear infiltration higher values were recorded one day after parturition. Correlation analysis showed that eosinophils and mononuclear cells were positively correlated with E2 levels, but only eosinophilic infiltration was associated with collagen remodeling

  14. 放松训练用于轻中度突发性耳聋患者的效果评价%Effects of relaxation training on sudden deafness patients with mild-to-moderate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄伟清; 孟作为; 邹虹; 廖素华

    2014-01-01

    目的 观察放松训练对轻中度突发性耳聋(sudden hearing loss,SHL)患者的治疗效果.方法 将78例轻中度突发性耳聋患者,随机分为观察组38例和对照组40例.观察组在对照组采取常规治疗和护理的基础上,每日早晚各加1次放松训练.分别于干预前和干预3周后进行纯音听阈测定,比较2组患者的听阈水平.结果 观察组患者听阈水平显著低于对照组,差异有统计学意义.结论 放松训练疗法对轻中度突发性耳聋患者的听力恢复具有显著疗效.%Objective To evaluate the effect of relaxation training on sudden deafness patients with mild or moderate grade.Methods 78 patients were divided into the observation group (38 cases) and the control group (40 cases).Besides usual care and nursing,the observation group was treated with relaxation training daily in the morning and evening.The pure tone audiometry scores before and after nursing intervention and treatment was compared between two groups.Results There was significant difference in threshold level between two groups.Conclusions Relaxation training was an effective nursing intervention for sudden deafness patients with mild-to-moderate grade.

  15. Speech training alters consonant and vowel responses in multiple auditory cortex fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Crystal T; Rahebi, Kimiya C; Buell, Elizabeth P; Fink, Melyssa K; Kilgard, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Speech sounds evoke unique neural activity patterns in primary auditory cortex (A1). Extensive speech sound discrimination training alters A1 responses. While the neighboring auditory cortical fields each contain information about speech sound identity, each field processes speech sounds differently. We hypothesized that while all fields would exhibit training-induced plasticity following speech training, there would be unique differences in how each field changes. In this study, rats were trained to discriminate speech sounds by consonant or vowel in quiet and in varying levels of background speech-shaped noise. Local field potential and multiunit responses were recorded from four auditory cortex fields in rats that had received 10 weeks of speech discrimination training. Our results reveal that training alters speech evoked responses in each of the auditory fields tested. The neural response to consonants was significantly stronger in anterior auditory field (AAF) and A1 following speech training. The neural response to vowels following speech training was significantly weaker in ventral auditory field (VAF) and posterior auditory field (PAF). This differential plasticity of consonant and vowel sound responses may result from the greater paired pulse depression, expanded low frequency tuning, reduced frequency selectivity, and lower tone thresholds, which occurred across the four auditory fields. These findings suggest that alterations in the distributed processing of behaviorally relevant sounds may contribute to robust speech discrimination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Resistance Training: Physiological Responses and Adaptations (Part 2 of 4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Stephen J.; Kraerner, William J.

    1988-01-01

    Resistance training causes a variety of physiological reactions, including changes in muscle size, connective tissue size, and bone mineral content. This article summarizes data from a variety of studies and research. (JL)

  17. Individual responses to completion of short-term and chronic interval training: a retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A Astorino

    Full Text Available Alterations in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, heart rate (HR, and fat oxidation occur in response to chronic endurance training. However, many studies report frequent incidence of "non-responders" who do not adapt to continuous moderate exercise. Whether this is the case in response to high intensity interval training (HIT, which elicits similar adaptations as endurance training, is unknown. The aim of this retrospective study was to examine individual responses to two paradigms of interval training. In the first study (study 1, twenty active men and women (age and baseline VO2max=24.0 ± 4.6 yr and 42.8 ± 4.8 mL/kg/min performed 6 d of sprint interval training (SIT consisting of 4-6 Wingate tests per day, while in a separate study (study 2, 20 sedentary women (age and baseline VO2max=23.7 ± 6.2 yr and 30.0 ± 4.9 mL/kg/min performed 12 wk of high-volume HIT at workloads ranging from 60-90% maximal workload. Individual changes in VO2max, HR, and fat oxidation were examined in each study, and multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of training adaptations to SIT and HIT. Data showed high frequency of increased VO2max (95% and attenuated exercise HR (85% in response to HIT, and low frequency of response for VO2max (65% and exercise HR (55% via SIT. Frequency of improved fat oxidation was similar (60-65% across regimens. Only one participant across both interventions showed non-response for all variables. Baseline values of VO2max, exercise HR, respiratory exchange ratio, and body fat were significant predictors of adaptations to interval training. Frequency of positive responses to interval training seems to be greater in response to prolonged, higher volume interval training compared to similar durations of endurance training.

  18. Individual Responses to Completion of Short-Term and Chronic Interval Training: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A.; Schubert, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), heart rate (HR), and fat oxidation occur in response to chronic endurance training. However, many studies report frequent incidence of “non-responders” who do not adapt to continuous moderate exercise. Whether this is the case in response to high intensity interval training (HIT), which elicits similar adaptations as endurance training, is unknown. The aim of this retrospective study was to examine individual responses to two paradigms of interval training. In the first study (study 1), twenty active men and women (age and baseline VO2max = 24.0±4.6 yr and 42.8±4.8 mL/kg/min) performed 6 d of sprint interval training (SIT) consisting of 4–6 Wingate tests per day, while in a separate study (study 2), 20 sedentary women (age and baseline VO2max = 23.7±6.2 yr and 30.0±4.9 mL/kg/min) performed 12 wk of high-volume HIT at workloads ranging from 60–90% maximal workload. Individual changes in VO2max, HR, and fat oxidation were examined in each study, and multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of training adaptations to SIT and HIT. Data showed high frequency of increased VO2max (95%) and attenuated exercise HR (85%) in response to HIT, and low frequency of response for VO2max (65%) and exercise HR (55%) via SIT. Frequency of improved fat oxidation was similar (60–65%) across regimens. Only one participant across both interventions showed non-response for all variables. Baseline values of VO2max, exercise HR, respiratory exchange ratio, and body fat were significant predictors of adaptations to interval training. Frequency of positive responses to interval training seems to be greater in response to prolonged, higher volume interval training compared to similar durations of endurance training. PMID:24847797

  19. Circulating adiponectin concentration and body composition are altered in response to high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shing, Cecilia M; Webb, Jessica J; Driller, Matthew W; Williams, Andrew D; Fell, James W

    2013-08-01

    Adiponectin influences metabolic adaptations that would prove beneficial to endurance athletes, and yet to date there is little known about the response of adiponectin concentrations to exercise, and, in particular, the response of this hormone to training in an athlete population. This study aimed to determine the response of plasma adiponectin concentrations to acute exercise after 2 different training programs and to determine the influence of the training on body composition. Seven state-level representative rowers (age: 19 ± 1.2 years [mean ± SD], height: 1.77 ± 0.10 m, body mass: 74.0 ± 10.7 kg, VO2peak 62.1 ± 7.0 ml·kg·min) participated in the double-blind, randomized crossover investigation. Rowers performed an incremental graded exercise test before and after completing 4 weeks of high-intensity interval ergometer training and 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training. Rowers' body composition was assessed at baseline and after each training program. Significant increases in plasma adiponectin concentration occurred in response to maximal exercise after completion of the high-intensity interval training (p = 0.016) but not after traditional ergometer rowing training (p = 0.69). The high-intensity interval training also resulted in significant increases in mean 4-minute power output (p = 0.002) and VO2peak (p = 0.05), and a decrease in body fat percentage (p = 0.022). Mean 4-minute power output, VO2peak, and body fat percentage were not significantly different after 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training (p > 0.05). Four weeks of high-intensity interval training is associated with an increase in adiponectin concentration in response to maximal exercise and a reduction in body fat percentage. The potential for changes in adiponectin concentration to reflect positive training adaptations and athlete performance level should be further explored.

  20. MONITORING TRAINING LOADS, STRESS, IMMUNE-ENDOCRINE RESPONSES AND PERFORMANCE IN TENNIS PLAYERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, A.; Lodo, L.; Nosaka, K.; Coutts, A.J.; Aoki, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    The study aim was to investigate the effect of a periodised pre-season training plan on internal training load and subsequent stress tolerance, immune-endocrine responses and physical performance in tennis players. Well-trained young tennis players (n = 10) were monitored across the pre-season period, which was divided into 4 weeks of progressive overloading training and a 1-week tapering period. Weekly measures of internal training load, training monotony and stress tolerance (sources and symptoms of stress) were taken, along with salivary testosterone, cortisol and immunoglobulin A. One repetition maximum strength, running endurance, jump height and agility were assessed before and after training. The periodised training plan led to significant weekly changes in training loads (i.e. increasing in weeks 3 and 4, decreasing in week 5) and post-training improvements in strength, endurance and agility (P < 0.05). Cortisol concentration and the symptoms of stress also increased in weeks 3 and/or 4, before returning to baseline in week 5 (P < 0.05). Conversely, the testosterone to cortisol ratio decreased in weeks 3 and 4, before returning to baseline in week 5 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the training plan evoked adaptive changes in stress tolerance and hormonal responses, which may have mediated the improvements in physical performance. PMID:24744485

  1. Consumer Perceptions About Pilot Training: An Emotional Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Timothy G.

    Civilian pilot training has followed a traditional path for several decades. With a potential pilot shortage approaching, ICAO proposed a new paradigm in pilot training methodology called the Multi-Crew Pilot License. This new methodology puts a pilot in the cockpit of an airliner with significantly less flight time experience than the traditional methodology. The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent gender, country of origin and pilot training methodology effect an aviation consumer's willingness to fly. Additionally, this study attempted to determine what emotions mediate a consumer's decision. This study surveyed participants from India and the United States to measure their willingness to fly using the Willingness to Fly Scale shown to be valid and reliable by Rice et al. (2015). The scale uses a five point Likert-type scale. In order to determine the mediating emotions, Ekman and Friesen's (1979) universal emotions, which are happiness, surprise, fear, disgust, anger, and sadness were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Descriptive statistics are provided for respondent's age and willingness to fly values. An ANOVA was conducted to test the first four hypotheses and Hayes (2004, 2008) bootstrapping process was used for the mediation analysis. Results indicated a significant main effect for training, F(1,972) = 227.76, p . .001, etap 2 = 0.190, country of origin, F(1, 972) = 28.86, p emotions anger, fear, happiness, and surprise mediated the relationship between training and country of origin, and training. The findings of this study are important to designers of MPL training programs and airline marketers.

  2. L-Carnitine supplementation impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric arteries from rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgas da Silva, Carmem P; Rojas-Moscoso, Julio A; Antunes, Edson; Zanesco, Angelina; Priviero, Fernanda B M

    2014-07-01

    L-Carnitine (L-Car) is taken as fat burner. The risks of L-Car supplementation for the cardiovascular system are unclear. We evaluated the relaxing responses of the mesenteric and aorta rings from rats after four weeks of L-Car supplementation and/or physical training. Concentration response curves to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), as well as cyclic GMP levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) were evaluated. Physical training decreased body weight gain that was potentiated by L-Car. In mesenteric rings, L-Car impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation whereas endothelium independent relaxation was increased. In aorta, exercise improved endothelium-dependent relaxation; however, it was partially inhibited by L-Car. SNP-induced relaxation was similar in aorta of all groups. Basal cGMP were increased in aorta of exercised rats. SOD activity and MDA levels were unaltered. In conclusion, L-Car and physical exercise promotes body weight loss; however, it impairs endothelium-dependent vaso-relaxation possibly involving alterations in muscarinic receptors/eNOS/NO signalling pathway in mesenteric artery.

  3. Back muscle response to sudden trunk loading can be modified by training among healthcare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Essendrop, Morten; Skotte, Jørgen H.

    2007-01-01

    . Available data suggest that a delayed muscle reflex response to sudden trunk loading may increase the risk of low back injuries. We have previously shown that training may alter the response to sudden trunk loading in healthy subjects and decrease the time elapsed until stopping of the forward movement...... of the trunk (stopping time). Data on the possibilities of a training-induced improvement in the reflex response among workers exposed to sudden trunk loading on the job are, however, nonexistent, and there is no evidence of long-term benefits, i.e., the sustainability of a positive training effect. Methods......Study Design. Experimental study of the effect of physical training on the reaction to sudden back loading. Objective. To investigate the effect and sustainability of "on the job training" on the reaction to sudden back loading among employees at a geriatric ward. Summary of Background Data...

  4. Speech sound discrimination training improves auditory cortex responses in a rat model of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal T Engineer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism often have language impairments and degraded cortical responses to speech. Extensive behavioral interventions can improve language outcomes and cortical responses. Prenatal exposure to the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA increases the risk for autism and language impairment. Prenatal exposure to VPA also causes weaker and delayed auditory cortex responses in rats. In this study, we document speech sound discrimination ability in VPA exposed rats and document the effect of extensive speech training on auditory cortex responses. VPA exposed rats were significantly impaired at consonant, but not vowel, discrimination. Extensive speech training resulted in both stronger and faster anterior auditory field responses compared to untrained VPA exposed rats, and restored responses to control levels. This neural response improvement generalized to non-trained sounds. The rodent VPA model of autism may be used to improve the understanding of speech processing in autism and contribute to improving language outcomes.

  5. Speech sound discrimination training improves auditory cortex responses in a rat model of autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Crystal T.; Centanni, Tracy M.; Im, Kwok W.; Kilgard, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism often have language impairments and degraded cortical responses to speech. Extensive behavioral interventions can improve language outcomes and cortical responses. Prenatal exposure to the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) increases the risk for autism and language impairment. Prenatal exposure to VPA also causes weaker and delayed auditory cortex responses in rats. In this study, we document speech sound discrimination ability in VPA exposed rats and document the effect of extensive speech training on auditory cortex responses. VPA exposed rats were significantly impaired at consonant, but not vowel, discrimination. Extensive speech training resulted in both stronger and faster anterior auditory field (AAF) responses compared to untrained VPA exposed rats, and restored responses to control levels. This neural response improvement generalized to non-trained sounds. The rodent VPA model of autism may be used to improve the understanding of speech processing in autism and contribute to improving language outcomes. PMID:25140133

  6. Cycle training modulates satellite cell and transcriptional responses to a bout of resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murach, Kevin A; Walton, R Grace; Fry, Christopher S; Michaelis, Sami L; Groshong, Jason S; Finlin, Brian S; Kern, Philip A; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2016-09-01

    This investigation evaluated whether moderate-intensity cycle ergometer training affects satellite cell and molecular responses to acute maximal concentric/eccentric resistance exercise in middle-aged women. Baseline and 72 h postresistance exercise vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained from seven healthy middle-aged women (56 ± 5 years, BMI 26 ± 1, VO2max 27 ± 4) before and after 12 weeks of cycle training. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) I- and II-associated satellite cell density and cross-sectional area was determined via immunohistochemistry. Expression of 93 genes representative of the muscle-remodeling environment was also measured via NanoString. Overall fiber size increased ~20% with cycle training (P = 0.052). MyHC I satellite cell density increased 29% in response to acute resistance exercise before endurance training and 50% with endurance training (P training, MyHC I satellite cell density decreased by 13% in response to acute resistance exercise (acute resistance × training interaction, P trained state in response to resistance exercise. Similar satellite cell and gene expression response patterns indicate coordinated regulation of the muscle environment to promote adaptation. Moderate-intensity endurance cycle training modulates the response to acute resistance exercise, potentially conditioning the muscle for more intense concentric/eccentric activity. These results suggest that cycle training is an effective endurance exercise modality for promoting growth in middle-aged women, who are susceptible to muscle mass loss with progressing age.

  7. The Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Centers: advancing standardized evaluation of public health preparedness and response trainings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hites, Lisle S; Sass, Marcia M; D'Ambrosio, Luann; Brown, Lisa M; Wendelboe, Aaron M; Peters, Karen E; Sobelson, Robyn K

    2014-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Centers (PERLCs) across the United States. The PERLCs provide training to state, local, and tribal public health organizations to meet workforce development needs in the areas of public health preparedness and response, specialized training, education, and consultation. Using Donald Kirkpatrick's training evaluation model, the PERLC network established 4 evaluation working groups that developed evaluation criteria to address each level of the model. The purpose of the working groups was to inform and promote center-level and program-level evaluation across the PERLC network; identify common training evaluation methods and measures; and share materials, resources, and lessons learned with state, local, and tribal public health organizations for potential replication. The evaluation of education and training, irrespective of its modality (eg, in-person, online, webinars, seminars, symposia) can be accomplished using Kirkpatrick's 4-level taxonomy. The 4 levels aim to measure the following aspects of training programs: (1) trainees' reaction; (2) knowledge acquired, skills improved, or attitudes changed; (3) behavior changed; and (4) results or impact. To successfully evaluate emergency preparedness training, drills and exercises, it is necessary to understand the fundamental tenets of each level and how to apply each to measure training outcomes. The PERLC evaluators have adopted the basic schema of Kirkpatrick's 4-level model and applied its structure to a wide variety of preparedness and emergency response training and related activities. The PERLC evaluation working groups successfully developed and tested survey methods and instruments for each of the 4 levels of Kirkpatrick's training evaluation model. Each can be used for replication by state, local, and tribal public health professionals.

  8. Salivary hormones response to preparation and pre-competitive training of world-class level athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaël eGuilhem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the response of salivary hormones of track and field athletes induced by preparation and pre-competitive training periods in an attempt to comment on the physiological effects consistent with the responses of each of the proteins measured. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A, chromogranin A, blood creatine kinase activity and profile of mood state were assessed at rest in 24 world-class level athletes during preparation (3 times in 3 months and pre-competitive (5 times in 5 weeks training periods. Total mood disturbance and fatigue perception were reduced, while immunoglobulin A (+61% and creatine kinase activity (+43% increased, and chromogranin A decreased (-27% during pre-competitive compared to preparation period. A significant increase in salivary testosterone (+9 to +15% and a decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio were associated with a progressive reduction in training load during pre-competitive period (P < 0.05. None of the psycho-physiological parameters were significantly correlated to training load during the pre-competitive period. Results showed a lower adrenocortical response and autonomic activity, and an improvement of immunity status, in response to the reduction in training load and fatigue, without significant correlations of salivary hormones with training load. Our findings suggest that saliva composition is sensitive to training contents (season period but could not be related to workload resulting from track and field athletics training.

  9. The miRNA Plasma Signature in Response to Acute Aerobic Exercise and Endurance Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Rinnov, Anders

    2014-01-01

    the miRNA signature in human plasma in response to acute exercise and chronic endurance training by utilizing a novel methodological approach. RNA was isolated from human plasma collected from young healthy men before and after an acute endurance exercise bout and following 12 weeks of endurance training...

  10. Response of growth and myogenic factors in human skeletal muscle to strength training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Heinichen, M.; Wirth, K.; Schmidtbleicher, D.; Steinacker, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the response to different strength training techniques of growth and myogenic factors in human skeletal muscle, with particular emphasis on satellite cell (SC) activation. Methods: 24 volunteers were divided into two groups and performed a 6-week strength training (group A

  11. Two Methods of Interpersonal Skills Training; Conceptual- versus Response-Oriented Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohart, Arthur C.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Training people in warmth, empathy, and genuineness might fulfill a specific helping role and increase their general social comfort for others. By using conceptual and response-oriented approaches, authors show that training individuals to be effective counselors also helped them be more interpersonally effective. (Author/BEF)

  12. Acetylcholine Release in the Hippocampus and Striatum during Place and Response Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pych, Jason C.; Chang, Qing; Colon-Rivera, Cynthia; Haag, Renee; Gold, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    These experiments examined the release of acetylcholine in the hippocampus and striatum when rats were trained, within single sessions, on place or response versions of food-rewarded mazes. Microdialysis samples of extra-cellular fluid were collected from the hippocampus and striatum at 5-min increments before, during, and after training. These…

  13. Salivary Hormones Response to Preparation and Pre-competitive Training of World-class Level Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, Gaël; Hanon, Christine; Gendreau, Nicolas; Bonneau, Dominique; Guével, Arnaud; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the response of salivary hormones of track and field athletes induced by preparation and pre-competitive training periods in an attempt to comment on the physiological effects consistent with the responses of each of the proteins measured. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A (IgA), chromogranin A, blood creatine kinase activity, and profile of mood state were assessed at rest in 24 world-class level athletes during preparation (3 times in 3 months) and pre-competitive (5 times in 5 weeks) training periods. Total mood disturbance and fatigue perception were reduced, while IgA (+61%) and creatine kinase activity (+43%) increased, and chromogranin A decreased (−27%) during pre-competitive compared to preparation period. A significant increase in salivary testosterone (+9 to +15%) and a decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio were associated with a progressive reduction in training load during pre-competitive period (P < 0.05). None of the psycho-physiological parameters were significantly correlated to training load during the pre-competitive period. Results showed a lower adrenocortical response and autonomic activity, and an improvement of immunity status, in response to the reduction in training load and fatigue, without significant correlations of salivary hormones with training load. Our findings suggest that saliva composition is sensitive to training contents (season period) but could not be related to workload resulting from track and field athletics training. PMID:26635619

  14. The effect of training on cardiovascular responses to arm exercise in individuals with tetraplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, M T; Dallmeijer, A J; Snoek, G; van der Woude, L H

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses to maximal and submaximal arm-cranking exercise in 21 individuals with tetraplegia (TP) and to evaluate the effect of a 3 and 6-month training period (mean frequency of 1.5 h.week-1, mean intensity at 35% of the training time above

  15. Training increases anabolic response and reduces inflammatory response to a single practice in elite male adolescent volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemet, Dan; Portal, Shawn; Zadik, Zvi; Pilz-Burstein, Rutie; Adler-Portal, Dana; Meckel, Yoav; Eliakim, Alon

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effect of training on hormonal and inflammatory response to a single volleyball practice in elite adolescent players. Fourteen male, elite, national team-level, Israeli volleyball players (age, 16.3±1.1 years, Tanner stage 4-5) participated in the study. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after a typical 60-min volleyball practice, before and after 7 weeks of training during the initial phases of the volleyball season. Hormonal measurements included the anabolic hormones growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, and testosterone; the catabolic hormone cortisol; the pro-inflammatory markers interleukin (IL) 6, and the anti-inflammatory marker IL-1 receptor antagonist. Training led to a significant improvement of both anaerobic and aerobic properties. Before the training intervention, the typical volleyball practice was associated with a significant increase of GH and testosterone and also with a significant increase of IL-6. Training resulted in a significantly greater GH response (ΔGH, 2.5±2.4 vs. 4.7±3.0 ng/mL, before and after training, respectively; pvolleyball practice. The results suggest that, along with the improvement of anaerobic and aerobic characteristics, training leads to a greater anabolic and reduced inflammatory response to exercise.

  16. Systems Cancer Biology and the Controlling Mechanisms for the J-Shaped Cancer Dose Response: Towards Relaxing the LNT Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, In Chio; Zhao, Yuchao; Wu, YingJie; Ricci, Paolo F

    2012-01-01

    The hormesis phenomena or J-shaped dose response have been accepted as a common phenomenon regardless of the involved biological model, endpoint measured and chemical class/physical stressor. This paper first introduced a mathematical dose response model based on systems biology approach. It links molecular-level cell cycle checkpoint control information to clonal growth cancer model to predict the possible shapes of the dose response curves of Ionizing Radiation (IR) induced tumor transforma...

  17. Implementation Challenges in Translating Pivotal Response Training into Community Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhrheinrich, Jessica; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Reed, Sarah; Schreibman, Laura; Reisinger, Erica; Mandell, David

    2013-01-01

    Implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) for children with autism is challenging for teachers because these practices are often complex, requiring significant training and resources that are not available in most school settings. This brief investigation was designed to identify areas of strength and difficulty for teachers implementing one…

  18. Mechanisms of the training response in patients with peripheral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attribute increased walking tolerance following exercise training to increased blood flow to the lower limb ... and medial head of gastrocne- mius muscle. AP. ABI .... exercise test, the values were very low (2.08±1.6 to 3.28±1.39 mmol.l-1) and ...

  19. Diminished hormonal responses to exercise in trained rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbo, H; Richter, Erik; Holst, J J

    1977-01-01

    Male rats (120 g) either were subjected to a 12-wk physical training program (T rats) or were sedentary controls (C rats). Subsequently the rats were killed at rest or after a 45- or 90-min forced swim. At rest, T rats had higher liver and muscle glycogen concentrations but lower plasma insulin. ...

  20. New Roles, New Responsibilities: Examining Training Needs of Repository Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Simons

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Institutional repositories play a critical role in the research lifecycle. Funding agencies are increasingly seeking an improved return on their investment in research. Repositories facilitate this process by providing storage of, and access to, institutional research outputs and, more recently, research data. While repositories are generally managed within the academic library, repository staff require different skills and knowledge compared with traditional library roles. This study reports on a survey of Australasian institutional repository staff to identify skills and knowledge sets. METHODS Institutional repository staff working at universities in Australia and New Zealand were invited to participate in an online survey which incorporated both open and closed-ended question types. RESULTS The survey found significant gaps in the current provision of formal training and coursework related to institutional repositories, which echoed findings in the United Kingdom, Italy, and the United States. DISCUSSION There is clearly a need for more and varied training opportunities for repository professionals. Repository work requires a specific set of skills that can be difficult to find and institutions will benefit from investing in training and ongoing development opportunities for repository staff. CONCLUSION The data from this study could be used to facilitate staff recruitment, development, training, and retention strategies.

  1. Dissimilar Physiological and Perceptual Responses Between Sprint Interval Training and High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kimberly M; Olive, Brittany; LaValle, Kaylyn; Thompson, Heather; Greer, Kevin; Astorino, Todd A

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) and sprint interval training (SIT) elicit similar cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations vs. endurance training. No study, however, has investigated acute physiological changes during HIIT vs. SIT. This study compared acute changes in heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration (BLa), oxygen uptake (VO2), affect, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during HIIT and SIT. Active adults (4 women and 8 men, age = 24.2 ± 6.2 years) initially performed a VO2max test to determine workload for both sessions on the cycle ergometer, whose order was randomized. Sprint interval training consisted of 8 bouts of 30 seconds of all-out cycling at 130% of maximum Watts (Wmax). High-intensity interval training consisted of eight 60-second bouts at 85% Wmax. Heart rate, VO2, BLa, affect, and RPE were continuously assessed throughout exercise. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between HIIT and SIT for VO2 (p HIIT (209.3 ± 40.3 kcal) vs. SIT (193.5 ± 39.6 kcal). During HIIT, subjects burned significantly more calories and reported lower perceived exertion than SIT. The higher VO2 and lower BLa in HIIT vs. SIT reflected dissimilar metabolic perturbation between regimens, which may elicit unique long-term adaptations. If an individual is seeking to burn slightly more calories, maintain a higher oxygen uptake, and perceive less exertion during exercise, HIIT is the recommended routine.

  2. Relaxation Techniques for Handicapped Children: A Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, Dvora

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses four major relaxation training approaches used with handicapped children: progressive muscle relaxation, biofeedback, yoga, and mental relaxation, which includes guided fantasy, imagery, and meditation. Descriptions of these techniques, the effects of their use with various populations, and reviews of recent studies of their…

  3. Heritability of submaximal exercise heart rate response to exercise training is accounted for by nine SNPs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tuomo Rankinen; Yun Ju Sung; Mark A. Sarzynski; Treva K. Rice; D. C. Rao; Claude Bouchard

    2012-01-01

    .... The purpose of our study was to perform a genome-wide association study to uncover DNA sequence variants associated with submaximal exercise heart rate training responses in the HERITAGE Family Study...

  4. Exercise training modulates functional sympatholysis and alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in hypertensive and normotensive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Gliemann Hybholt, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Essential hypertension is linked to an increased sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity and reduced tissue perfusion. We investigated the role of exercise training on functional sympatholysis and postjunctional α-adrenergic responsiveness in individuals with essential hypertension. Leg haemodynamics.......05). There was no difference in the vasodilatory response to infused ATP or in muscle P2Y2 receptor content between the groups before and after training. However, training lowered the vasodilatory response to ATP and increased skeletal muscle P2Y2 receptor content in both groups (P ... that exercise training improves functional sympatholysis and reduces postjunctional α-adrenergic responsiveness in both normo- and hypertensive individuals. The ability for functional sympatholysis and the vasodilator and sympatholytic effect of intravascular ATP appears not to be altered in essential...

  5. Student anxiety and performance: a comparison of training in self-hypnosis with progressive muscular relaxation to enable students to increase control of their anxiety.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Background: The literature has identified that children's performance can be impaired by anxiety. Anxiety can lead to tension, stress, avoidance behaviour, and inhibit performance. Progressive muscular relaxation (PMR) and self-hypnosis (SH) have been identified in the literature as approaches to address anxiety.;Aims: This study questions whether anxiety in students can be successfully reduced by teaching students to apply two particular self help approaches PMR or SH and whether SH is more ...

  6. Training reduces catabolic and inflammatory response to a single practice in female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, Alon; Portal, Shawn; Zadik, Zvi; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan

    2013-11-01

    We examined the effect of training on hormonal and inflammatory response to a single volleyball practice in elite adolescent players. Thirteen female, national team level, Israeli volleyball players (age 16.0 ± 1.4 years, Tanner stage 4-5) participated in the study. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after a typical 60 minutes of volleyball practice, before and after 7 weeks of training during the initial phase of the season. Training involved tactic and technical drills (20% of time), power and speed drills (25% of time), interval sessions (25% of time), endurance-type training (15% of time), and resistance training (15% of time). To achieve greater training responses, the study was performed during the early phase (first 7 weeks) of the volleyball season. Hormonal measurements included the anabolic hormones growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3, the catabolic hormone cortisol, the proinflammatory marker interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the anti-inflammatory marker IL-1 receptor antagonist. Training led to a significant improvement of vertical jump, anaerobic properties (peak and mean power by the Wingate Anaerobic Test), and predicted VO2max (by the 20-m shuttle run). Volleyball practice, both before and after the training intervention, was associated with a significant increase of serum lactate, GH, and IL-6. Training resulted in a significantly reduced cortisol response ([INCREMENT]cortisol: 4.2 ± 13.7 vs. -4.4 ± 12.3 ng · ml, before and after training, respectively; p volleyball practice. The results suggest that along with the improvement of power and anaerobic and aerobic characteristics, training reduces the catabolic and inflammatory response to exercise.

  7. Systems Cancer Biology and the Controlling Mechanisms for the J-Shaped Cancer Dose Response: Towards Relaxing the LNT Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, In Chio; Zhao, Yuchao; Wu, Yingjie; Ricci, Paolo F

    2012-01-01

    The hormesis phenomena or J-shaped dose response have been accepted as a common phenomenon regardless of the involved biological model, endpoint measured and chemical class/physical stressor. This paper first introduced a mathematical dose response model based on systems biology approach. It links molecular-level cell cycle checkpoint control information to clonal growth cancer model to predict the possible shapes of the dose response curves of Ionizing Radiation (IR) induced tumor transformation frequency. J-shaped dose response curves have been captured with consideration of cell cycle checkpoint control mechanisms. The simulation results indicate the shape of the dose response curve relates to the behavior of the saddle-node points of the model in the bifurcation diagram. A simplified version of the model in previous work of the authors was used mathematically to analyze behaviors relating to the saddle-node points for the J-shaped dose response curve. It indicates that low-linear energy transfer (LET) is more likely to have a J-shaped dose response curve. This result emphasizes the significance of systems biology approach, which encourages collaboration of multidiscipline of biologists, toxicologists and mathematicians, to illustrate complex cancer-related events, and confirm the biphasic dose-response at low doses.

  8. Biological responses to overload training in endurance sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, R W; Morton, A R; Garcia-Webb, P; Crawford, G P; Keast, D

    1992-01-01

    Five subjects undertook 10 days of twice daily interval training sessions on a treadmill followed by 5 days of active recovery. On days 1, 6, 11, and 16 the subjects were required to undertake a test of submaximal and maximal work capacity on a treadmill combined with a performance test consisting of a run to exhaustion with the treadmill set at 18 km.h-1 and 1% gradient. Also on these days a pre-exercise blood sample was collected and analysed for a range of haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters. The subjects experienced a significant fall in performance on day 11 which had returned to pretraining levels on day 16. Serum ferritin concentrations were depressed significantly from pretraining concentrations at the conclusion of the recovery period while the expression of lymphocyte activation antigens (CD25+ and HLA-DR+) was increased both after the training phase and the recovery phase. The number of CD56+ cells in the peripheral circulation was depressed at the conclusion of the recovery period. Several parameters previously reported to change in association with overload training failing to reflect the decrease in performance experienced by subjects in this study, suggesting that overtraining may best be diagnosed through a multifactorial approach to the recognition of symptoms. The most important factor to consider may be a decrease in the level of performance following a regeneration period. The magnitude of this decreased performance necessary for the diagnosis of overtraining and the nature of an "appropriate" regeneration period are, however, difficult to define and may vary depending upon the training background of the subjects and the nature of the preceding training. It may or may not be associated with biochemical, haematological, physiological and immunological indicators. Individual cases may present a different range of symptoms and diagnosis of overtraining should not be excluded based on the failure of blood parameters to

  9. Whole body, regional fat accumulation, and appetite-related hormonal response after hypoxic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishima, Takuma; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Goto, Kazushige

    2014-03-01

    The present study was conducted to determine change in regional fat accumulation and appetite-related hormonal response following hypoxic training. Twenty sedentary subjects underwent hypoxic (n = 9, HYPO, FiO(2) = 15%) or normoxic training (n = 11, NOR, FiO(2) = 20·9%) during a 4-week period (3 days per week). They performed a 4-week training at 55% of maximal oxygen uptake (V·O(2max)) for each condition. Before and after the training period, V·O(2max), whole body fat mass, abdominal fat area, intramyocellular lipid content (IMCL), fasting and postprandial appetite-related hormonal responses were determined. Both groups showed a significant increase in V·O(2max) following training (Pdecreased in both groups (Pappetite-related hormones.

  10. 放松训练配合聆听音乐对维持性血液透析患者负性情绪的影响%The effect of relaxation training with listening to music on negative emotions of patients with maintenance hemodialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁燕萍; 肖翠艳; 吴娇华

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨放松训练配合聆听音乐对血液透析患者负性情绪的影响.方法 将70例血液透析患者按随机数字表法分为干预组和对照组各35例,对照组患者在透析期间由责任护士给予常规的护理、健康教育及常规出院指导.干预组患者在常规护理的基础上进行放松训练配合聆听音乐,分别于干预前及干预后3个月采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(Hamilton depression scale,HAMD)作为评定工具评价2组患者的负性情绪.结果 干预前2组患者HAMD评分比较无差异;干预3个月后2组患者HAMD评分比较有差异,可见干预组患者在负性心理方面较对照组有明显改善.结论 放松训练配合聆听音乐能明显改善透析患者的不良情绪,值得临床推广应用.%Objective To explore the effect of relaxation training with listening to music on negative emotions of hemodialysis patients.Methods 70 hemodialysis patients were divided into the intervention group and the control group by random number table,and each group had 35 cases.The control group was given routine care,health education and routine discharge guidance during dialysis by the responsible nurses.The intervention group had relaxation training with listening to music on the basis of routine care.Before the intervention and three months after the intervention the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was used as an assessment tool to evaluate negative emotion of patients.Results Before intervention,the HAMD scores of the two groups showed no significant differences.3 months after intervention,HAMD scores had significant difference between two groups.Conclusions Relaxation training with listening to music can significantly improve patients' negative emotions,and is worthy of clinical application.

  11. Promoting Response Variability and Stimulus Generalization in Martial Arts Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Jay W.; Wacker, David P.; Berg, Wendy K.; Rick, Gary; Lee, John F.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of reinforcement and extinction on response variability and stimulus generalization in the punching and kicking techniques of 2 martial arts students were evaluated across drill and sparring conditions. During both conditions, the students were asked to demonstrate different techniques in response to an instructor's punching attack.…

  12. Changes across time in the temporal responses of auditory nerve fibers stimulated by electric pulse trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Charles A; Hu, Ning; Zhang, Fawen; Robinson, Barbara K; Abbas, Paul J

    2008-03-01

    Most auditory prostheses use modulated electric pulse trains to excite the auditory nerve. There are, however, scant data regarding the effects of pulse trains on auditory nerve fiber (ANF) responses across the duration of such stimuli. We examined how temporal ANF properties changed with level and pulse rate across 300-ms pulse trains. Four measures were examined: (1) first-spike latency, (2) interspike interval (ISI), (3) vector strength (VS), and (4) Fano factor (FF, an index of the temporal variability of responsiveness). Data were obtained using 250-, 1,000-, and 5,000-pulse/s stimuli. First-spike latency decreased with increasing spike rate, with relatively small decrements observed for 5,000-pulse/s trains, presumably reflecting integration. ISIs to low-rate (250 pulse/s) trains were strongly locked to the stimuli, whereas ISIs evoked with 5,000-pulse/s trains were dominated by refractory and adaptation effects. Across time, VS decreased for low-rate trains but not for 5,000-pulse/s stimuli. At relatively high spike rates (>200 spike/s), VS values for 5,000-pulse/s trains were lower than those obtained with 250-pulse/s stimuli (even after accounting for the smaller periods of the 5,000-pulse/s stimuli), indicating a desynchronizing effect of high-rate stimuli. FF measures also indicated a desynchronizing effect of high-rate trains. Across a wide range of response rates, FF underwent relatively fast increases (i.e., within 100 ms) for 5,000-pulse/s stimuli. With a few exceptions, ISI, VS, and FF measures approached asymptotic values within the 300-ms duration of the low- and high-rate trains. These findings may have implications for designs of cochlear implant stimulus protocols, understanding electrically evoked compound action potentials, and interpretation of neural measures obtained at central nuclei, which depend on understanding the output of the auditory nerve.

  13. Effect of relaxation training combined with listening to music on postoperative rehabilitation of patients with liver cancer%放松训练配合聆听音乐对肝癌患者术后康复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小凤; 曹何琼; 陈楚岚; 秦玫珍

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨放松训练配合聆听音乐对肝癌患者术后康复的影响.方法 将符合入组标准的52例肝癌术后患者按随机数字表法随机分为实验组和对照组各26例,对照组患者按照肝癌术后常规护理进行护理,实验组在常规护理的基础上让患者坚持放松训练配合聆听音乐.分别对2组患者疼痛程度、下床活动时间、胃肠道功能恢复情况、膀胱功能恢复情况、相关并发症等进行观察与比较. 结果 与对照组相比,实验组患者疼痛明显减轻,首次下床时间明显提前,胃肠道功能恢复情况、留置胃管和导尿管时间明显缩短(P0.05). 结论 放松训练配合聆听音乐可促进肝癌术后患者的康复进程.%Objective To assess the effect of relaxation training combined with listening to music on postoperative rehabilitation of patients with liver cancer. Methods Patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria (52 cases) were divided into the experimental group and the control group with 26 cases in each group.The control group received routine postoperative nursing.The experimental group was given relaxation training combined with listening to music based upon routine nursing.The pain degree,time of ambulation,recovery of gastrointestinal function and bladder function and related postoperative complica-tions were compared between the two groups. Results The experimental group had less pain,earlier time of ambulation,shorter time for recovery of gastrointestinal function, indwelling gastric tube and urinary catheter(P 0.05). Conclusion Relaxation training combined with lis-tening to music can facilitate the postoperative rehabilitation process of patients with liver cancer.

  14. 瑜伽放松训练对抑郁症患者睡眠的影响%Effect of yoga relaxation training on sleep disorder in depression patients//

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林以环; 王俊清; 张华娜

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨瑜伽放松训练改善抑郁症患者睡眠的作用.方法 将24例抑郁症患者按照入组顺序分为常规组和瑜伽组各12例,同期选择健康对照者10人(对照组).常规组接受抗抑郁药治疗;瑜伽组在抗抑郁药治疗基础上接受瑜伽放松训练,每次1 h,4次/周,连续治疗8周.结果 干预前抑郁症患者多导睡眠监测结果显著差于健康对照者(P<0.05,P<0.01);干预后瑜伽组睡眠潜伏期缩短、N1期睡眠时间和比例减少、N2期睡眠时间和比例增加,组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 瑜伽放松训练对抑郁症患者睡眠质量有较好的改善作用.%Objective To explore effects of yoga relaxation training on depressive patients' sleep. Methods A total of 24 patients with depression were equally categorized into a yoga group and a routine group according to the order of admnission dates. Also, 10 healthy people were recruited as controls (the control group). The yoga group and the routine group received anti-depression therapy,and the yoga group received additional yoga relaxation training, which lasted one hour each time, four times a week, and for 8 weeks. Results Before intervention, the testing results of polysomnography in the depressive patients were worst than the healthy controls (P<0.05 ,P<0.01); eight weeks later, patients in the yoga group had shorter sleep latency, decreased duration and percentage of N1 stage and increased duration and percentage of N2. There were statistical differences in the above mentioned indicators between the yoga group and the routine group (P<0.05 for all). Conclusion Yoga relaxation training can effectively improve sleep quality of depressive patients.

  15. On the response of nonlinear viscoelastic materials in creep and stress relaxation experiments in the lubricated squeeze flow setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řehoř, Martin; Pr&oring; ša, Vít; T&oring; ma, Karel

    2016-10-01

    Rigorous analysis of the response of nonlinear materials to step inputs requires one to simultaneously handle the discontinuity, differentiation, and nonlinearity. This task is however beyond the reach of the standard theories such as the classical theory of distributions and presents a considerable mathematical difficulty. New advanced mathematical tools are necessary to handle the challenge. An elegant and relatively easy-to-use framework capable of accomplishing the task is provided by the Colombeau algebra, which is a generalisation of the classical theory of distributions to the nonlinear setting. We use the Colombeau algebra formalism and derive explicit formulae describing the response of incompressible Maxwell viscoelastic fluid subject to step load/deformation in the lubricated squeeze flow setting.

  16. The rate of training response to aerobic exercise affects brain function of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Orsolya; Koltai, Erika; Takeda, Masaki; Mimura, Tatsuya; Pajk, Melitta; Abraham, Dora; Koch, Lauren Gerard; Britton, Steven L; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Boldogh, Istvan; Radak, Zsolt

    2016-10-01

    There is an increasing volume of data connecting capacity to respond to exercise training with quality of life and aging. In this study, we used a rat model in which animals were selectively bred for low and high gain in running distance to test t whether genetic segregation for trainability is associated with brain function and signaling processes in the hippocampus. Rats selected for low response (LRT) and high response training (HRT) were randomly divided into control or exercise group that trained five times a week for 30 min per day for three months at 70% VO2max. All four groups had similar running distance before training. With training, HRT rats showed significantly greater increases in VO2max and running distance than LRT rats (p brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), ratio of phospho and total cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), and apoptotic index, also showed significant differences between LRT and HRT groups. These findings suggest that aerobic training responses are not localized to skeletal muscle, but differently involve signaling processes in the brain of LRT and HRT rats.

  17. Increasing Response Variability of Mand Frames with Script Training and Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Alison M.; Higbee, Thomas S.; Kelley, Kristen N.; Sellers, Tyra P.; Pollard, Joy S.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism often demonstrate less variable behavior than their typically developing peers and those with other cognitive disabilities. A possible reason for lack of response variability emitted by children with autism is that they do not have a variety of response forms in their repertoire. Multiple-exemplar training through the use of…

  18. Exposing College Students to Exercise: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailors, Mary H.; Jackson, Andrew S.; McFarlin, Brian K.; Turpin, Ian; Ellis, Kenneth J.; Foreyt, John P.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Bray, Molly S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study is an exercise program designed to introduce sedentary college students to regular physical activity and to identify genetic factors that influence response to exercise. Participants: A multiracial/ethnic cohort (N = 1,567; 39% male), age 18 to 35 years,…

  19. Exposing college students to exercise: the training interventions and genetics of exercise response (TIGER) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study is an exercise program designed to introduce sedentary college students to regular physical activity and to identify genetic factors that influence response to exercise. A multiracial/ethnic cohort (N = 1,567; 39% male), age ...

  20. The neuronal response to electrical constant-amplitude pulse train stimulation: additive Gaussian noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, A J; Abbas, P J; Rubinstein, J T; Miller, C A

    2000-11-01

    Experimental results from humans and animals show that electrically evoked compound action potential (EAP) responses to constant-amplitude pulse train stimulation can demonstrate an alternating pattern, due to the combined effects of highly synchronized responses to electrical stimulation and refractory effects (Wilson et al., 1994). One way to improve signal representation is to reduce the level of across-fiber synchrony and hence, the level of the amplitude alternation. To accomplish this goal, we have examined EAP responses in the presence of Gaussian noise added to the pulse train stimulus. Addition of Gaussian noise at a level approximately -30 dB relative to EAP threshold to the pulse trains decreased the amount of alternation, indicating that stochastic resonance may be induced in the auditory nerve. The use of some type of conditioning stimulus such as Gaussian noise may provide a more 'normal' neural response pattern.

  1. Modulation of auditory evoked responses to spectral and temporal changes by behavioral discrimination training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto Hidehiko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to auditory experience, musicians have better auditory expertise than non-musicians. An increased neocortical activity during auditory oddball stimulation was observed in different studies for musicians and for non-musicians after discrimination training. This suggests a modification of synaptic strength among simultaneously active neurons due to the training. We used amplitude-modulated tones (AM presented in an oddball sequence and manipulated their carrier or modulation frequencies. We investigated non-musicians in order to see if behavioral discrimination training could modify the neocortical activity generated by change detection of AM tone attributes (carrier or modulation frequency. Cortical evoked responses like N1 and mismatch negativity (MMN triggered by sound changes were recorded by a whole head magnetoencephalographic system (MEG. We investigated (i how the auditory cortex reacts to pitch difference (in carrier frequency and changes in temporal features (modulation frequency of AM tones and (ii how discrimination training modulates the neuronal activity reflecting the transient auditory responses generated in the auditory cortex. Results The results showed that, additionally to an improvement of the behavioral discrimination performance, discrimination training of carrier frequency changes significantly modulates the MMN and N1 response amplitudes after the training. This process was accompanied by an attention switch to the deviant stimulus after the training procedure identified by the occurrence of a P3a component. In contrast, the training in discrimination of modulation frequency was not sufficient to improve the behavioral discrimination performance and to alternate the cortical response (MMN to the modulation frequency change. The N1 amplitude, however, showed significant increase after and one week after the training. Similar to the training in carrier frequency discrimination, a long lasting

  2. Impedance response and dielectric relaxation in co-precipitation derived ferrite (Ni,Zn)Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D. G.; Tang, X. G.; Liu, Q. X.; Jiang, Y. P.; Ma, C. B.; Li, R. [School of Physics and Optoelectric Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2013-06-07

    Dielectric spectra and magnetization hysteresis loops were used to investigate the grain size effect with temperature on the electrical and magnetic response of co-precipitation derived spinel (Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5})Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (NZFO) ceramics. Remarkable dielectric relaxation phenomena of non-Debye type have been observed in each NZFO ceramics as confirmed by two kinds of Cole-Cole plots of the 1100 Degree-Sign C sintered samples, mainly due to the electron-hopping mechanism between n-type and p-type carriers and interfacial ion effect when applied an increase of temperature. The high and low response of grain and grain-boundary regions were determined by modeling the impedance experimental results on two equivalent RC circuits taking into account grain deep trap states. By employing the modified Arrhenius equation, activation energy values of different sintering temperatures were calculated and analyzed in combination with oxygen vacancy. In addition, the magnetization of various sintering temperature samples is dominated by cation distribution and surface effect in different particle ranges.

  3. Altered flexion-relaxation responses exist during asymmetric trunk flexion movements among persons with unilateral lower-limb amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershot, Brad D; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2014-02-01

    Repetitive exposures to altered gait and movement following lower-limb amputation (LLA) have been suggested to contribute to observed alterations in passive tissue properties and neuromuscular control in/surrounding the lumbar spine. These alterations, in turn, may affect the synergy between passive and active tissues during trunk movements. Eight males with unilateral LLA and eight non-amputation controls completed quasi-static trunk flexion-extension movements in seven distinct conditions of rotation in the transverse plane: 0° (sagittally-symmetric), ±15°, ±30°, and ±45° (sagittally-asymmetric). Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the bilateral lumbar erector spinae and lumbar kinematics were simultaneously recorded. Peak lumbar flexion and EMG-off angles were determined, along with the difference ("DIFF") between these two angles and the magnitude of peak normalized EMG activities. Persons with unilateral LLA exhibited altered and asymmetric synergies between active and passive trunk tissues during both sagittally-symmetric and -asymmetric trunk flexion movements. Specifically, decreased and asymmetric passive contributions to trunk movements were compensated with increases in the magnitude and duration of active trunk muscle responses. Such alterations in trunk passive and active neuromuscular responses may result from repetitive exposures to abnormal gait and movement subsequent to LLA, and may increase the risk for LBP in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Regulation of the STARS signaling pathway in response to endurance and resistance exercise and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamon, Séverine; Wallace, Marita A; Stefanetti, Renae J; Rahbek, Stine K; Vendelbo, Mikkel H; Russell, Aaron P; Vissing, Kristian

    2013-09-01

    The striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS) protein and members of its downstream signaling pathway, including myocardin-related transcription factor-A (MRTF-A) and SRF, are increased in response to prolonged resistance exercise training but also following a single bout of endurance cycling. The aim of the present study was to measure and compare the regulation of STARS, MRTF-A and SRF mRNA and protein following 10 weeks of endurance training (ET) versus resistance training (RT), as well as before and following a single bout of endurance (EE) versus resistance exercise (RE). Following prolonged training, STARS, MRTF-A and SRF mRNA levels were all increased by similar magnitude, irrespective of training type. In the training-habituated state, STARS mRNA increased following a single-bout RE when measured 2.5 and 5 h post-exercise and had returned to resting level by 22 h following exercise. MRTF-A and SRF mRNA levels were decreased by 2.5, 5, and 22 h following a single bout of RE and EE exercise when compared to their respective basal levels, with no significant difference seen between the groups at any of the time points. No changes in protein levels were observed following the two modes of exercise training or a single bout of exercise. This study demonstrates that the stress signals elicited by ET and RT result in a comparable regulation of members of the STARS pathway. In contrast, a single bout of EE and RE, performed in the trained state, elicit different responses. These observations suggest that in the trained state, the acute regulation of the STARS pathway following EE or RE may be responsible for exercise-specific muscle adaptations.

  5. Different responses of skeletal muscle following sprint training in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbjörnsson Liljedahl, M; Holm, I; Sylvén, C; Jansson, E

    1996-01-01

    Six male and ten female physically active students performed 30-s sprint training on a cycle ergometer three times a week for 4 weeks, to investigate the training responses of skeletal muscle and to evaluate possible sex differences in this respect. Three repeated sprint tests with a 20-min rest in between were performed and muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken before and after the training period. Mean power (average of sprint I-III) and type IIB cross-sectional fibre area increased only in the women (7% and 25% respectively) following sprint training, resulting in a decreased sex difference. There was an increase in total lactate dehydrogenase (LD) activity following sprint training in both sexes, although the levels were lower in the women both before and after training. Glycogen content increased and the activity of LD iso-enzyme 1 decreased in the women, but not in men. It was hypothesised that both the smaller areas of type II fibres and lower activity of LD generally seen in women may be due in part to less frequent activation of type II fibres in women than in men. If this were the case, the women should respond to sprint training (a type of training that activates type II fibres) to a relatively greater extent than men. That the observed increase in type IIB fibre area in response to sprint training was greater in the women than in men supported the hypothesis of the study. However, the results for LD activity, which showed a similar response in the men and the women, did not support the hypothesis.

  6. Training motor responses to food: A novel treatment for obesity targeting implicit processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Lawrence, Natalia S; Kemps, Eva; Veling, Harm

    2016-11-01

    The present review first summarizes results from prospective brain imaging studies focused on identifying neural vulnerability factors that predict excessive weight gain. Next, findings from cognitive psychology experiments evaluating various interventions involving food response inhibition training or food response facilitation training are reviewed that appear to target these neural vulnerability factors and that have produced encouraging weight loss effects. Findings from both of these reviewed research fields suggest that interventions that reduce reward and attention region responses to high calorie food cues and increase inhibitory region responses to high calorie food cues could prove useful in the treatment of obesity. Based on this review, a new conceptual model is presented to describe how different cognitive training procedures may contribute to modifying eating behavior and important directions for future research are offered. It is concluded that there is a need for evaluating the effectiveness of more intensive food response training interventions and testing whether adding such training to extant weight loss interventions increases their efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictors and moderators of biopsychological social stress responses following brief self-compassion meditation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, Joanna J; Landy, Lauren N; Brown, Kirk Warren

    2016-07-01

    Arch et al. (2014) demonstrated that brief self-compassion meditation training (SCT) dampened sympathetic (salivary alpha-amylase) and subjective anxiety responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), relative to attention and no-instruction control conditions. The present study examined baseline predictors and moderators of these SCT intervention effects. Baseline characteristics included two stress vulnerability traits (social anxiety and rumination) and two potential resiliency traits (non-attachment and self-compassion). We investigated how these traits moderated the effects of SCT on response to the TSST, relative to the control conditions. We also tested how these individual differences predicted TSST responses across conditions in order to uncover characteristics that confer increased vulnerability and resiliency to social stressors. Trait non-attachment, rumination (for sympathetic TSST response only), and social anxiety (for subjective TSST response only) interacted with training condition to moderate TSST responses such that following SCT, lower attachment and lower social anxiety predicted lower TSST stress responses, relative to those scoring higher on these traits. In contrast, trait self-compassion neither moderated nor predicted responses to the TSST. Thus, although SCT had robust effects on buffering stress across individuals with varying levels of trait self-compassion, other psychological traits enhanced or dampened the effect of SCT on TSST responses. These findings support the importance of examining the role of relevant baseline psychological traits to predict sympathetic and subjective responses to social evaluative threat, particularly in the context of resiliency training.

  8. Neuromuscular and Blood Lactate Response After a Motocross Training Session in Amateur Riders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Motocross is one of the most popular motorized off-road sports, characterized by riding on irregular natural terrain of hard earth and/or sand with various obstacles throughout the course. Objectives This study evaluated the influence of a motocross training session on neuromuscular response and blood lactate in amateur riders. Patients and Methods Nine motocross riders (22.7 ± 2.8 years participating in amateur competitions at the state level conducted a training session of 20 minutes duration at a motocross track (1.6 km with a 250-cc four-stroke motorcycle. Metabolic demand was measured with blood lactate concentrations before and immediately, 3, 5, 8, and 10 minutes after the training session. To measure neuromuscular response, riders completed handgrip strength and horizontal jump tests before and 10 minutes after the training session. Student’s t-test and analysis of variance one-way repeated measures were used to compare the changes before and after the motocross training session. Results Significant decreases in handgrip strength were observed for both hands (left: P = 0.010 and right: P = 0.004. However, no significant difference (P = 0.241 in horizontal jump ability was observed. Significant blood lactate values were observed immediately (P = 0.001, 3 (P = 0.001, 5 (P = 0.001, and 8 (P = 0.01 minutes after training when compared to the value before training. The peak blood lactate value was 6.5 ± 2.7 mM at 8 minutes after the training session. Conclusions Amateur motocross riders had significant anaerobic metabolism demands and had reduced handgrip strength following a training session. These data suggest an importance of physical training aimed at improving anaerobic and neuromuscular performance of the upper limbs in amateur motocross riders.

  9. Neuromuscular and Blood Lactate Response After a Motocross Training Session in Amateur Riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Vinicius Radenzev; Crisp, Alex Harley; Verlengia, Rozangela; Pellegrinotti, Idico Luiz

    2016-06-01

    Motocross is one of the most popular motorized off-road sports, characterized by riding on irregular natural terrain of hard earth and/or sand with various obstacles throughout the course. This study evaluated the influence of a motocross training session on neuromuscular response and blood lactate in amateur riders. Nine motocross riders (22.7 ± 2.8 years) participating in amateur competitions at the state level conducted a training session of 20 minutes duration at a motocross track (1.6 km) with a 250-cc four-stroke motorcycle. Metabolic demand was measured with blood lactate concentrations before and immediately, 3, 5, 8, and 10 minutes after the training session. To measure neuromuscular response, riders completed handgrip strength and horizontal jump tests before and 10 minutes after the training session. Student's t-test and analysis of variance one-way repeated measures were used to compare the changes before and after the motocross training session. Significant decreases in handgrip strength were observed for both hands (left: P = 0.010 and right: P = 0.004). However, no significant difference (P = 0.241) in horizontal jump ability was observed. Significant blood lactate values were observed immediately (P = 0.001), 3 (P = 0.001), 5 (P = 0.001), and 8 (P = 0.01) minutes after training when compared to the value before training. The peak blood lactate value was 6.5 ± 2.7 mM at 8 minutes after the training session. Amateur motocross riders had significant anaerobic metabolism demands and had reduced handgrip strength following a training session. These data suggest an importance of physical training aimed at improving anaerobic and neuromuscular performance of the upper limbs in amateur motocross riders.

  10. Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, C.C.B.M.; Visser, E.K.; Broek, van den J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six inex

  11. Descriptive Analysis of Teachers' Responses to Problem Behavior Following Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Laura; Lerman, Dorothea C.

    2009-01-01

    The procedures described by Sloman et al. (2005) were extended to an analysis of teachers' responses to problem behavior after they had been taught to withhold potential sources of positive and negative reinforcement following instances of problem behavior. Results were consistent with those reported previously, suggesting that escape from child…

  12. Contingency Response Groups: An Analysis of Maintenance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    understanding through the multiple TDYs and the demands of the ASAM program. Thank you for your encouragement and motivation. vi...Advanced Study of Air Mobility ( ASAM )__________________ Status: [X ] Student [ ] Faculty [ ] Staff [ ] Other Optimal Media Outlet...www.heritageflightacademy.com/americanairman/apcourse.html>. Carrabba, Peter. "Contingency Response Group Topics for ASAM ." Expeditionary Center, McGuire AFB, NJ. May 2010

  13. A 12-week resistance training program elicits positive changes in hemodynamic responses in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya Campos Salazar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a resistance training program in hemodynamic responses and adaptations in 60 yr. old elderly. Volunteers were 60 healthy-elderly who underwent a training program 3 times/wk. for 12 wk. Participants were randomly assigned to either a control group, an exercise group who trained at 30% intensity of 5 maximal repetitions (5RM (30% of 5RM or an exercise group at an intensity of 70% (70% of 5RM. Hemodynamic variables measured were mean arterial pressure (MAP, calculated before and immediately after the training session, and rate pressure product (RPP, estimated once a month and before and after finishing the program. Results indicated that resistance exercise training at 30% and 70% of 5RM, with a total exercise work of 872.7 and 890.9 kg did not elicited cardiovascular risks for the elderly. A 12-wk resistance exercise training reduced the cardiovascular strain as shown by the RPP (~16% and the MAP (~9%, with no adverse effects throughout the program. Unfortunately, all the hemodynamic benefits were reverted 6 days following completion of the program. In conclusion, a healthy elderly population must perform resistance training exercises to significantly reduce the cardiovascular stress. We suggest to conduct further research that looks into different exercise intensities in longer program duration and to determine the mechanisms responsible for the deleterious effects of the detraining by using physiological, biochemical and biomechanical variables.

  14. Exercise training does not enhance hypothalamic responsiveness to leptin or ghrelin in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, M L; Andrews, Z B; Watt, M J

    2014-02-01

    The detection of hormone and nutrient signals by the hypothalamus is blunted in obesity and contributes to dysregulated energy homeostasis. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training would improve long-term hypothalamic sensitivity to both leptin and ghrelin, independent of acute exercise-induced signalling. Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed either a chow or high-fat diet for 6 weeks, then remained sedentary on their respective diet, or completed 6 weeks of treadmill exercise training with a progressive increase in exercise volume and intensity. Food intake and hypothalamic signalling were assessed in mice injected with leptin or ghrelin at least 24 h after the last exercise bout. Exercise training reduced body mass, increased daily food intake and improved glucose tolerance. Intraperitoneal leptin administration reduced food intake in lean and obese mice, and this was not enhanced after exercise training. Leptin-mediated activation of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in the arcuate nucleus and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus was not enhanced with exercise training. Ghrelin increased food intake and c-Fos positive neurones in the hypothalamus in lean and obese mice, and these physiological and molecular responses were not enhanced with exercise training. This suggests that the previously reported exercise effects on sensitising hypothalamic signalling and food intake responses may be limited to the period immediately after an exercise bout, and are not a result of stable structural or molecular changes that occur with exercise training. © 2014 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  15. Dynamic response analysis of single-span guideway caused by high speed maglev train

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    High speed maglev is one of the most important reformations in the ground transportation systems because of its no physical contact nature. This paper intends to study the dynamic response of the single-span guideway induced by moving maglev train. The dynamic model of the maglev train-guideway system is established. In this model, a maglev train consists of three vehicles and each vehicle is regarded as a multibody system with 34 degrees-of-freedom. The guideway is modeled as a simply suppor...

  16. The DEMO trial: a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial of strength versus aerobic versus relaxation training for patients with mild to moderate depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the benefit and harm of exercise training in adults with clinical depression. METHOD: The DEMO trial is a randomized pragmatic trial for patients with unipolar depression conducted from January 2005 through July 2007. Patients were referred from general practitioners or psych......OBJECTIVE: To assess the benefit and harm of exercise training in adults with clinical depression. METHOD: The DEMO trial is a randomized pragmatic trial for patients with unipolar depression conducted from January 2005 through July 2007. Patients were referred from general practitioners...

  17. Note on changes in response latency following discrimination training in the monkey1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, William C.; Reynolds, Robert W.

    1964-01-01

    Two monkeys were trained to press and hold down a telegraph key in the presence of a red light. Subsequent release of the key in response to a white cross superimposed on the red background was followed by reinforcement. Key release in response to a white circle on the red background was never reinforced. Latencies for the key release response to the reinforced stimulus (cross) were considerably shorter and less variable than those to the unreinforced stimulus (circle). PMID:14143909

  18. Brain Mechanisms Underlying Urge Incontinence and its Response to Pelvic Floor Muscle Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Derek; Clarkson, Becky; Tadic, Stasa D.; Resnick, Neil M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Urge urinary incontinence is a major problem, especially in the elderly, and to our knowledge the underlying mechanisms of disease and therapy are unknown. We used biofeedback assisted pelvic floor muscle training and functional brain imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) to investigate cerebral mechanisms, aiming to improve the understanding of brain-bladder control and therapy. Materials and Methods Before receiving biofeedback assisted pelvic floor muscle training functionally intact, older community dwelling women with urge urinary incontinence as well as normal controls underwent comprehensive clinical and bladder diary evaluation, urodynamic testing and brain functional magnetic resonance imaging. Evaluation was repeated after pelvic floor muscle training in those with urge urinary incontinence. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was done to determine the brain reaction to rapid bladder filling with urgency. Results Of 65 subjects with urge urinary incontinence 28 responded to biofeedback assisted pelvic floor muscle training with 50% or greater improvement of urge urinary incontinence frequency on diary. However, responders and nonresponders displayed 2 patterns of brain reaction. In pattern 1 in responders before pelvic floor muscle training the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and the adjacent supplementary motor area were activated as well as the insula. After the training dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/supplementary motor area activation diminished and there was a trend toward medial prefrontal cortex deactivation. In pattern 2 in nonresponders before pelvic floor muscle training the medial prefrontal cortex was deactivated, which changed little after the training. Conclusions In older women with urge urinary incontinence there appears to be 2 patterns of brain reaction to bladder filling and they seem to predict the response and nonresponse to biofeedback assisted pelvic floor muscle training. Moreover, decreased cingulate

  19. Autonomic Function Predicts Fitness Response to Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, A M; Tulppo, M P; Eskelinen, J J; Savolainen, A M; Kapanen, J; Heinonen, I H A; Hautala, A J; Hannukainen, J C; Kalliokoski, K K

    2015-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that baseline cardiac autonomic function and its acute response to all-out interval exercise explains individual fitness responses to high-intensity interval training (HIT). Healthy middle-aged sedentary men performed HIT (n=12, 4-6×30 s of all-out cycling efforts with 4-min recovery) or aerobic training (AET, n=9, 40-60 min at 60% of peak workload in exercise test [Loadpeak]), comprising 6 sessions within 2 weeks. Low (LF) and high frequency (HF) power of R-R interval oscillation were analyzed from data recorded at supine and standing position (5+5 min) every morning during the intervention. A significant training effect (ptraining*group interaction, was observed in Loadpeak and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). Pre-training supine LF/HF ratio, an estimate of sympathovagal balance, correlated with training outcome in Loadpeak (Spearman's rho [rs]=-0.74, p=0.006) and VO2peak (rs=- 0.59, p=0.042) in the HIT but not the AET group. Also, the mean change in the standing LF/HF ratio in the morning after an acute HIT exercise during the 1(st) week of intervention correlated with training response in Loadpeak (rs=- 0.68, p=0.014) and VO2peak (rs=-0.60, p=0.039) with HIT but not with AET. In conclusion, pre-training cardiac sympathovagal balance and its initial alterations in response to acute HIT exercise were related to fitness responses to short-term HIT. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Strength training prior to endurance exercise: impact on the neuromuscular system, endurance performance and cardiorespiratory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Matheus; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; González-Izal, Miriam; Izquierdo, Mikel; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Goltz, Fernanda Reistenbach; Schneider, Cláudia Dornelles; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Bottaro, Martim; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2014-12-09

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old) participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strength-training and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise.

  1. Perceptual Changes in Response to Two Regimens of Interval Training in Sedentary Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Schubert, Matthew M; Palumbo, Elyse; Stirling, Douglas; McMillan, David W; Gallant, Rachael; Dewoskin, Ruthie

    2016-04-01

    This study examined acute and chronic changes in perceptual measures (rating of perceived exertion [RPE], affect, and arousal) in response to 2 regimens of high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Twenty-three healthy sedentary women (mean ± SD age and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max = 23.0 ± 5.7 years and 30.1 ± 4.4 ml·kg·min, respectively) were randomized to complete 12 weeks of one of 2 HIIT regimes, whereas an additional 7 women served as sedentary controls. Training was performed 3 days per week on a cycle ergometer and consisted of up to ten 1-minute bouts at moderate (60-80%Wmax = moderate intensity [MOD]) or more intense (80-90%Wmax = HI) workloads separated by active recovery. At baseline and every 3 weeks, RPE, affect, and arousal were measured during training using validated scales. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine acute and chronic changes in these variables to HIIT. Data revealed significant (p Training led to a significant reduction in RPE, whereas both affect and arousal were unchanged (p > 0.05) after HIIT. Completion of moderate or more intense interval training reduces perceptions of RPE during training yet does not alter arousal or affect. RPE was reduced via training, yet large dependence on anaerobic metabolism during HIIT may minimize training-induced changes in affect.

  2. Self-organization of head-centered visual responses under ecological training conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Bedeho M W; Stringer, Simon M

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the development of head-centered visual responses in an unsupervised self-organizing neural network model which was trained under ecological training conditions. Four independent spatio-temporal characteristics of the training stimuli were explored to investigate the feasibility of the self-organization under more ecological conditions. First, the number of head-centered visual training locations was varied over a broad range. Model performance improved as the number of training locations approached the continuous sampling of head-centered space. Second, the model depended on periods of time where visual targets remained stationary in head-centered space while it performed saccades around the scene, and the severity of this constraint was explored by introducing increasing levels of random eye movement and stimulus dynamics. Model performance was robust over a range of randomization. Third, the model was trained on visual scenes where multiple simultaneous targets where always visible. Model self-organization was successful, despite never being exposed to a visual target in isolation. Fourth, the duration of fixations during training were made stochastic. With suitable changes to the learning rule, it self-organized successfully. These findings suggest that the fundamental learning mechanism upon which the model rests is robust to the many forms of stimulus variability under ecological training conditions.

  3. Relaxation Techniques for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Relaxation Techniques for Health Share: On This Page What’s the ... Bottom Line? How much do we know about relaxation techniques? A substantial amount of research has been done ...

  4. Cognitive responses to hypobaric hypoxia: implications for aviation training

    OpenAIRE

    Neuhaus C; Hinkelbein J

    2014-01-01

    Christopher Neuhaus,1,2 Jochen Hinkelbein2,31Department of Anesthesiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Ruprecht Karls University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 2Emergency Medicine and Air Rescue Working Group, German Society of Aviation and Space Medicine (DGLRM), Munich, 3Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, GermanyAbstract: The aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview on cognitive responses to hypobaric hypoxia and ...

  5. Psychophysiological Effects of Progressive Relaxation in Anxiety Neurotic Patients and of Progressive Relaxation and Alpha Feedback in Nonpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Paul M.

    1978-01-01

    Compared physiological effects of progressive relaxation, alpha feedback, and a no-treatment condition. Nonpatients showed more psychophysiological habituation than patients in response to hearing very loud tones and to reaction time tasks. Patients showed greater physiological response to relaxation than nonpatients. After relaxation, autonomic…

  6. [Mind-body approach in the area of preventive medicine: focusing on relaxation and meditation for stress management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yunesik

    2010-09-01

    Emotional support and a stress management program should be simultaneously provided to clients as effective preventive services for healthy behavioral change. This study was conducted to review various relaxation and meditation intervention methods and their applicability for a preventive service program. The author of this paper tried to find various relaxation and meditation programs through a literature review and program searching and to introduce them. The 'Relaxation Response' and 'Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR)' are the most the widely used meditative programs in mainstream medical systems. Abdominal breathing, Progressive Musclular Relaxation (PMR), Relaxative Imagery, Autogenic Training (AT) and Biofeedback are other well-known techniques for relaxation and stress management. I have developed and implemented some programs using these methods. Relaxation and meditation classes for cancer patients and a meditation based stress coping workshop are examples of this program. Relaxation and meditation seem to be good and effective methods for primary, secondary and tertiary preventive service programs. Program development and standardization and further study are needed for more and wider use of the mind-body approach in the preventive service area of medicine.

  7. Latent Period of Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Irisawa, H

    1961-10-27

    The latent period of relaxation of molluscan myocardium due to anodal current is much longer than that of contraction. Although the rate and the grade of relaxation are intimately related to both the stimulus condition and the muscle tension, the latent period of relaxation remains constant, except when the temperature of the bathing fluid is changed.

  8. Modulation of auditory cortex response to pitch variation following training with microtonal melodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Zatorre

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We tested changes in cortical functional response to auditory configural learning by training ten human listeners to discriminate micromelodies (consisting of smaller pitch intervals than normally used in Western music. We measured covariation in blood oxygenation signal to increasing pitch-interval size in order to dissociate global changes in activity from those specifically associated with the stimulus feature of interest. A psychophysical staircase procedure with feedback was used for training over a two-week period. Behavioral tests of discrimination ability performed before and after training showed significant learning on the trained stimuli, and generalization to other frequencies and tasks; no learning occurred in an untrained control group. Before training the functional MRI data showed the expected systematic increase in activity in auditory cortices as a function of increasing micromelody pitch-interval size. This function became shallower after training, with the maximal change observed in the right posterior auditory cortex. Global decreases in activity in auditory regions, along with global increases in frontal cortices also occurred after training. Individual variation in learning rate was related to the hemodynamic slope to pitch-interval size, such that those who had a higher sensitivity to pitch-interval variation prior to learning achieved the fastest learning. We conclude that configural auditory learning entails modulation in the response of auditory cortex specifically to the trained stimulus feature. Reduction in blood oxygenation response to increasing pitch-interval size suggests that fewer computational resources, and hence lower neural recruitment, is associated with learning, in accord with models of auditory cortex function, and with data from other modalities.

  9. Study to determine the improvement in neuropsychiatric symptoms after changing the responsible antiretroviral drug to nevirapine: the RELAX study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Pedrol

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Primary - evaluate the improvement in psychiatric symptoms attributable to changing the antiretroviral drug responsible for such symptoms to nevirapine (NVP. The tools used were a sleep test (the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI] and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Secondary - determine the neuropsychiatric disorders and evaluate adherence to treatment and quality of life. Methods: Prospective, observational post-authorisation study that included HIV-1 patients from 36 Spanish hospitals who satisfied the following criteria: age over 18 years; change of antiretroviral treatment to NVP due to CNS side-effects; a PSQI score >5 (significant sleep disturbance; a HADS score ≥10 on the day of starting NVP treatment; and no psychoactive drug treatment initiated during the 6 weeks prior to starting treatment with NVP. Other data gathered from the patients included clinical and demographic details and administration of the Epworth somnolence scale, the Medical Outcomes Study-short form 30 items (MOS-SF-30 quality of life scale and the Simplified Medication Adherence Questionnaire (SMAQ. Evaluations were performed at baseline, 1 and 3 months after the change. Results: 129 patients were included (73.6% men; mean age, 43.2 ± 9.8 years; 36.5% homosexual, 30.2% heterosexual; 28.7% drug users; 38% AIDS; 33.3% co-infection. The drug changed was efavirenz in 89.9% of cases. The reason for the change was sleep disturbances in 75.2%, anxiety in 65.1%, other psychiatric disturbances in 38.7%, attention disturbances in 31%, and other reasons in 31%; a mean of 2.4 neuropsychiatric disturbances were detected in each patient. CD4 rose from 582 ± 261 to 619 ± 299 (non-significant difference. Only three patients had developed an HIV viral load at the end of the study. The differences produced by the change are shown in Table 1. 29 patients withdrew from the study, for the following reasons: 9 for NVP-related toxicity (7 cases of rash

  10. 放松训练对减轻包皮环扎术儿童疼痛的效果观察%Effect of relaxation training on the pain of children under foreskin cerclage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚科; 刘双庆

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨放松训练对学龄儿童包皮环扎术疼痛的影响。方法157例患儿随机分为干预组与对照组,均局麻下行包皮环扎术,以及采用传统的健康教育。干预组患儿在术前3d实施放松训练,包括渐进性肌肉松弛法、引导想象、深呼吸、音乐等方法。使用VAS视觉模拟尺测评疼痛程度及汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)评估患儿的恐惧程度并进行比较。结果干预组患儿术中生理指标(血压和心率)均略低于对照组,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);干预组患儿术中疼痛得分显著低于对照组患儿,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);干预组手术后在焦虑心理、紧张、失眠、害怕、认知功能、抑郁心境及总分与手术前及对照组比较,均明显下降,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论放松训练能降低儿童恐惧心理,降低手术疼痛程度,使患儿在意识清醒情况下能积极配合手术。%Objective To investigate the influence of relaxation training on the pain of school-aged children under foreskin cerclage. Methods One hundred and fifty-seven children were randomly divided into intervention group and control group, which all underwent foreskin cerclage under local anesthesia and received traditional health education. In the intervention group, the children received relaxation training 3 days before surgery, including progres-sive muscle relaxation, guided imagery, deep breath, music, etc. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was applied to evaluate pain in-tensity, and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) was used to assess the patient's fear. Results In the intervention group, the intraoperative physiological indexes (blood pressure and heart rate) were slightly lower than those in the control group, but there was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). The intraoperative pain score in the intervention group was signifi-cantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.01). In

  11. Adaptation of Perceptual Responses to Low-Load Blood Flow Restriction Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Hernández, Juan; Ruiz-Aguado, Jorge; Herrero, Azael J; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Aagaard, Per; Cristi-Montero, Carlos; Menéndez, Héctor; Marín, Pedro J

    2017-03-01

    Martín-Hernández, J, Ruiz-Aguado, J, Herrero, AJ, Loenneke, JP, Aagaard, P, Cristi-Montero, C, Menéndez, H, and Marín, PJ. Adaptation of perceptual responses to low-load blood flow restriction training. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 765-772, 2017-The purpose of this study was to determine the adaptive response of ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and pain over 6 consecutive training sessions. Thirty subjects were assigned to either a blood flow restriction training (BFRT) group or a high-intensity resistance training (HIT) group. Blood flow-restricted training group performed 4 sets (30 + 15 + 15 + 15, respectively) of unilateral leg extension at an intensity of 20% one repetition maximum (1RM) while a restrictive cuff was applied to the most proximal part of the leg. The HIT group performed 3 sets of 8 repetitions with 85% 1RM. Ratings of perceived exertion and pain were assessed immediately after each exercise set along the 6 training sessions and were then averaged to obtain the overall RPE and pain per session. Statistical analyses showed significant main effects for group (p ≤ 0.05) and time (p values dropped from session 1 to session 6 in both BFRT (8.12 ± 1.3 to 5.7 ± 1.1, p training, comparable with that observed with HIT. However, this response becomes attenuated with continuous practice, leading to moderate values of RPE and pain. Perceptual responses may not limit the application of BFRT to highly motivated individuals.

  12. Brief mindfulness meditation training alters psychological and neuroendocrine responses to social evaluative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David; Pacilio, Laura E; Lindsay, Emily K; Brown, Kirk Warren

    2014-06-01

    To test whether a brief mindfulness meditation training intervention buffers self-reported psychological and neuroendocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in young adult volunteers. A second objective evaluates whether pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness moderate the effects of brief mindfulness meditation training on stress reactivity. Sixty-six (N=66) participants were randomly assigned to either a brief 3-day (25-min per day) mindfulness meditation training or an analytic cognitive training control program. All participants completed a standardized laboratory social-evaluative stress challenge task (the TSST) following the third mindfulness meditation or cognitive training session. Measures of psychological (stress perceptions) and biological (salivary cortisol, blood pressure) stress reactivity were collected during the social evaluative stress-challenge session. Brief mindfulness meditation training reduced self-reported psychological stress reactivity but increased salivary cortisol reactivity to the TSST, relative to the cognitive training comparison program. Participants who were low in pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness and then received mindfulness meditation training had the greatest cortisol reactivity to the TSST. No significant main or interactive effects were observed for systolic or diastolic blood pressure reactivity to the TSST. The present study provides an initial indication that brief mindfulness meditation training buffers self-reported psychological stress reactivity, but also increases cortisol reactivity to social evaluative stress. This pattern may indicate that initially brief mindfulness meditation training fosters greater active coping efforts, resulting in reduced psychological stress appraisals and greater cortisol reactivity during social evaluative stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Human-simulated intelligent control of train braking response of bridge with MRB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhou, Hongli; Wu, Yueyuan; Wang, Xiaojie

    2016-04-01

    The urgent train braking could bring structural response menace to the bridge under passive control. Based on the analysis of breaking dynamics of a train-bridge vibration system, a magnetorheological elastomeric bearing (MRB) whose mechanical parameters are adjustable is designed, tested and modeled. A finite element method (FEM) is carried out to model and optimize a full scale vibration isolation system for railway bridge based on MRB. According to the model above, we also consider the effect of different braking stop positions on the vibration isolation system and classify the bridge longitudinal vibration characteristics into several cases. Because the train-bridge vibration isolation system has multiple vibration states and strongly coupling with nonlinear characteristics, a human-simulated intelligent control (HSIC) algorithm for isolating the bridge vibration under the impact of train braking is proposed, in which the peak shear force of pier top, the displacement of beam and the acceleration of beam are chosen as control goals. The simulation of longitudinal vibration control system under the condition of train braking is achieved by MATLAB. The results indicate that different braking stop positions significantly affect the vibration isolation system and the structural response is the most drastic when the train stops at the third cross-span. With the proposed HSIC smart isolation system, the displacement of bridge beam and peak shear force of pier top is reduced by 53.8% and 34.4%, respectively. Moreover, the acceleration of bridge beam is effectively controlled within limited range.

  14. Description of load progression and pain response during progressive resistance training early after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone R; Petersen, Annemette K; Mechlenburg, Inger

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a progressive resistance training intervention implemented shortly after total hip arthroplasty, including a detailed description of load progression, pain response and adverse events to the training. DESIGN: Secondary analyses of data from the intervention group in a rando......OBJECTIVE: To describe a progressive resistance training intervention implemented shortly after total hip arthroplasty, including a detailed description of load progression, pain response and adverse events to the training. DESIGN: Secondary analyses of data from the intervention group...... in a randomized controlled trial. SUBJECTS: This study reports data from the intervention group ( n = 37). INTERVENTIONS: The protocol described supervised progressive resistance training of the operated leg two days/week in addition to home-based exercise five days/week and for 10 weeks. The relative load...... progressed from 12 repetition maximum to 8 repetition maximum during 10 weeks for the exercises: knee extension, hip abduction, -flexion and -extension. MAIN MEASURES: Training load in kilograms (kg) for each exercise, hip pain during, before and after exercise using the Visual Analog Scale and adverse...

  15. Improving Pediatric Rapid Response Team Performance Through Crew Resource Management Training of Team Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siems, Ashley; Cartron, Alexander; Watson, Anne; McCarter, Robert; Levin, Amanda

    2017-02-01

    Rapid response teams (RRTs) improve the detection of and response to deteriorating patients. Professional hierarchies and the multidisciplinary nature of RRTs hinder team performance. This study assessed whether an intervention involving crew resource management training of team leaders could improve team performance. In situ observations of RRT activations were performed pre- and post-training intervention. Team performance and dynamics were measured by observed adherence to an ideal task list and by the Team Emergency Assessment Measure tool, respectively. Multiple quartile (median) and logistic regression models were developed to evaluate change in performance scores or completion of specific tasks. Team leader and team introductions (40% to 90%, P = .004; 7% to 45%, P = .03), floor team presentations in Situation Background Assessment Recommendation format (20% to 65%, P = .01), and confirmation of the plan (7% to 70%, P = .002) improved after training in patients transferred to the ICU (n = 35). The Team Emergency Assessment Measure metric was improved in all 4 categories: leadership (2.5 to 3.5, P teams caring for patients who required transfer to the ICU. Targeted crew resource management training of the team leader resulted in improved team performance and dynamics for patients requiring transfer to the ICU. The intervention demonstrated that training the team leader improved behavior in RRT members who were not trained. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Assessing bioterrorism preparedness and response of rural veterinarians: experiences and training needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chiehwen Ed; Jacobson, Holly; Feldman, Katherine; Miller, Jerry A; Rodriguez, Lori; Soto Mas, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Veterinarians play a unique role in emergency preparedness and response, and federal agencies and academic institutions therefore allocate considerable resources to provide training to enhance their readiness. However, the level of preparedness of veterinarians in many rural regions is yet to be improved. This article reports an assessment of the bioterrorism preparedness, specifically the experience and training needs, of rural veterinarians in North Texas. The study employed a cross-sectional design with a study population that included all veterinarians (N = 352) in the 37 counties within Texas Department of State Health Services Regions 2 and 3. Data on veterinarians practicing or residing in the target region were obtained from the Texas State Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners. The response rate was 35% (n = 121). Results indicate that chemical exposure was the condition most frequently seen and treated, followed by botulism and anthrax. The majority (80%) of respondents indicated that they had not previously participated in training related to bioterrorism preparedness, and many (41%) also indicated a willingness to participate in a state health department-initiated bioterrorism response plan. However, only 18% were confident in their ability to diagnose and treat bioterrorism cases. These results suggest that many North Texas veterinarians practicing in rural regions could benefit from additional training in bioterrorism preparedness and response. An area in particular need of further training is the diagnosis and treatment of Category A agents. Federal, state, and local health agencies are urged to increase training opportunities and to make additional efforts to involve veterinarians in bioterrorism preparedness and response.

  17. A qualitative approach to Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) training development: identification of metacognitive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kligyte, Vykinta; Marcy, Richard T; Sevier, Sydney T; Godfrey, Elaine S; Mumford, Michael D

    2008-03-01

    Although Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) training is common in the sciences, the effectiveness of RCR training is open to question. Three key factors appear to be particularly important in ensuring the effectiveness of ethics education programs: (1) educational efforts should be tied to day-to-day practices in the field, (2) educational efforts should provide strategies for working through the ethical problems people are likely to encounter in day-to-day practice, and (3) educational efforts should be embedded in a broader program of on-going career development efforts. This article discusses a complex qualitative approach to RCR training development, based on a sensemaking model, which strives to address the afore-mentioned training concerns. Ethnographic observations and prior RCR training served the purpose of collecting information specific to a multi-disciplinary and multi-university research center with the goal of identifying metacognitive reasoning strategies that would facilitate ethical decision-making. The extensive qualitative analyses resulted in the identification of nine metacognitive reasoning strategies on which future RCR training will be developed. The implications of the findings for RCR training in the sciences are discussed.

  18. Strength Training Prior to Endurance Exercise: Impact on the Neuromuscular System, Endurance Performance and Cardiorespiratory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Matheus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strengthtraining and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05. These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise.

  19. The response of the lactate minimum test to a 12-week swimming training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Zapaterra Campos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the utilization of lactate minimum test (LMT in training, its intensity response to training remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to verify alterations of LMT intensity in swimmers during a 12-week training protocol. Eight swimmers were submitted to three LMT assessments: beginning of the season, T0; after four, T4; and twelve weeks, T12. The LMT consisted of a 200m maximal effort and, after eight minutes of passive rest, five incremental stages of 200m swimming. The intensities of the incremental stages were defined subjectively ("very light," "light," "moderate," "hard," and "all-out". The training was divided in two blocks of periodization: endurance training period (ETP, T0 - T4, and quality plus taper period (QTP, T4 - T12. The LMT intensity of T4 and T12 were significantly higher than T0. We conclude that LMT is modified due to swimming training and can be used for training prescription and detection of aerobic capacity alterations during a season.

  20. Association of hormonal responses and performance of student pilots during acceleration training on the human centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, D.; Rohleder, N.; Welsch, H.

    2005-08-01

    Prediction of student pilots' +Gz tolerance by stress hormone levels would be a useful tool in aviation medicine. The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between neuroendocrine parameters with performance during acceleration training on the human centrifuge (HC).We investigated 21 student pilots during self-controlled acceleration training on the HC. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine were measured after individual training sessions and at rest. Performance was defined by several characteristics including maximum tolerated acceleration. ACTH and cortisol, were significantly higher 20 minutes after acceleration training compared to the resting condition. Subjects tolerated a maximal acceleration of +6.69 Gz. HPA hormone levels and responses were associated with maximum tolerated acceleration +Gz. These findings support the expectation that acceleration- induced increases in stress hormones may enable the organism to tolerate a higher acceleration and could therefore be used as predictors for acceleration tolerance.

  1. Influence of exercise training with thigh compression on heat-loss responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, T; Inoue, Y; Koga, S; Nishiyasu, T; Kondo, N

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effect of thigh compression, which accelerates activation of central command and muscle metabo- and mechanoreceptors, on the adaptation of sweating and cutaneous vascular responses during exercise heat acclimation. Nine non-heat-acclimated male subjects were acclimated to heat (32 °C and 50% RH) while cycling [50% of maximum oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 m a x )] 60 min/day for 7 days (control group). The experimental group (n = 9) conducted the same training while the proximal thighs were compressed by a cuff at 60 mmHg. V ˙ O 2 m a x , acetylcholine-induced forearm sweating rate (iontophoresis), and mean sweating and cutaneous vascular responses on the forehead, chest, and forearm (SRmean and CVCmean ) during passive heating were evaluated before and after training. Training significantly increased V ˙ O 2 m a x while did not affect acetylcholine-induced sweating rates in either group. Training significantly decreased Tb thresholds for SRmean and CVCmean during passive heating without the alternations of sensitivities in both groups. Although SRmean during passive heating at a given ΔTb was not improved in either group, CVCmean was significantly (P training only in experimental group. Our results indicate that thigh cuff compression during exercise heat acclimation does not influence adaptation of the sweating response but attenuate cutaneous vasodilation.

  2. Effect of meditation relaxation training combined drug treatment for anxiety disorders patients%冥想放松训练联合药物治疗焦虑症的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁水莲; 谢建芳; 黄冬华; 钟华; 刘旺林; 郭隆润

    2014-01-01

    Obj ective:To observe the effect of meditation relaxation train-ing combined drug treatment for improving anxiety and depression in anxiety patients.Methods:A total of 6 6 cases of anxiety disorders pa-tients were randomly divided into observation group and control group,33 cases in each,both groups of patients were given anti anxiety medica-tion,routine nursing and entertainment activities.Beside that,the medita-tion relaxation training was given to patients in observation group,using Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA ) and Hamilton depression scale (HAMD)were used to evaluate and compare the anxiety and depression in both groups of patients respectively before intervention,after 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 6 weeks of intervention.Results:After 2 weeks,4 weeks and 6 weeks of intervention,the HAMA and HAMD scores in observation group were lower than that in control group (P<0.05);after 6 weeks of intervention,the curative effect in observation group was better than that of control group (P<0.05).Conclusion:Meditation relaxation training can effectively improve the patient’s anxiety and depression,and improve the effect of treatment.%[目的]观察冥想放松训练改善焦虑症病人焦虑、抑郁情绪的效果。[方法]将66例焦虑症病人随机分为观察组和对照组各33例,两组均给予抗焦虑药物治疗、常规护理和工娱活动,观察组在此上给予冥想放松训练,采用汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)、汉密尔顿抑郁量表(H AMD)分别对两组病人干预前、干预2周后、4周后、6周后焦虑和抑郁情况进行评定比较。[结果]干预2周后、4周后、6周后观察组 H AMA、H AMD 总分均低于对照组(P<0.05);干预6周后观察组病人疗效优于对照组(P<0.05)。[结论]冥想放松训练能够有效改善焦虑症病人的焦虑、抑郁情绪,提高治疗效果。

  3. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO ON-COURT VS RUNNING INTERVAL TRAINING IN COMPETITIVE TENNIS PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Fernandez -Fernandez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare heart rate (HR, blood lactate (LA and rate of perceived exertion (RPE responses to a tennis-specific interval training (i.e., on-court session with that of a matched-on-time running interval training (i.e., off-court. Eight well-trained, male (n = 4 and female (n = 4 tennis players (mean ± SD; age: 16.4 ± 1.8 years underwent an incremental test where peak treadmill speed, maximum HR (HRmax and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max were determined. The two interval training protocols (i.e., off- court and on-court consisted of 4 sets of 120 s of work, interspersed with 90 s rest. Percentage of HRmax (95.9 ± 2.4 vs. 96.1 ± 2.2%; p = 0.79, LA (6.9 ± 2.5 vs. 6.2 ± 2.4 mmol·L-1; p = 0.14 and RPE (16.7 ± 2.1 vs. 16.3 ± 1.8; p = 0.50 responses were similar for off-court and on-court, respectively. The two interval training protocols used in the present study have equivalent physiological responses. Longitudinal studies are still warranted but tennis-specific interval training sessions could represent a time-efficient alternative to off-court (running interval training for the optimization of the specific cardiorespiratory fitness in tennis players

  4. Vitamin E supplementation modifies adaptive responses to training in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, P; Napolitano, G; Barone, D; Di Meo, S

    2014-10-01

    Aim of the present study was to test, by vitamin E treatment, the hypothesis that muscle adaptive responses to training are mediated by free radicals produced during the single exercise sessions. Therefore, we determined aerobic capacity of tissue homogenates and mitochondrial fractions, tissue content of mitochondrial proteins and expression of factors (PGC-1, NRF-1, and NRF-2) involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. Moreover, we determined the oxidative damage extent, antioxidant enzyme activities, and glutathione content in both tissue preparations, mitochondrial ROS production rate. Finally we tested mitochondrial ROS production rate and muscle susceptibility to oxidative stress. The metabolic adaptations to training, consisting in increased muscle oxidative capacity coupled with the proliferation of a mitochondrial population with decreased oxidative capacity, were generally prevented by antioxidant supplementation. Accordingly, the expression of the factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, which were increased by training, was restored to the control level by the antioxidant treatment. Even the training-induced increase in antioxidant enzyme activities, glutathione level and tissue capacity to oppose to an oxidative attach were prevented by vitamin E treatment. Our results support the idea that the stimulus for training-induced adaptive responses derives from the increased production, during the training sessions, of reactive oxygen species that stimulates the expression of PGC-1, which is involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant enzymes expression. On the other hand, the observation that changes induced by training in some parameters are only attenuated by vitamin E treatment suggests that other signaling pathways, which are activated during exercise and impinge on PGC-1, can modify the response to the antioxidant integration.

  5. Early and late rate of force development: differential adaptive responses to resistance training?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L L; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Zebis, M K

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (200 ms) of rising muscle force. Fifteen healthy young...... the vastus lateralis. The main findings were that RFD in the late phase of rising muscle force increased in response to resistance training whereas early RFD remained unchanged and early relative RFD (i.e., RFD/MVC) decreased. Quantitatively, muscle fiber cross-sectional area and MVC increased whereas......-intensity resistance training due to differential influences of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations on early and later phases of rising muscle force....

  6. Training status (endurance or sprint) and catecholamine response to the Wingate-test in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, C; Zouhal, H; Vincent, S; Gratas-Delamarche, A; Berthon, P M; Bentué-Ferrer, D; Delamarche, P

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if, as for men, training status induces different catecholamine responses to exercise. To do this, we investigated the effect of training status (sprint or endurance) on plasma catecholamine response to a supramaximal exercise in women. Nineteen subjects took part in our study: six untrained subjects (UT), seven endurance trained subjects (ET) and six sprint trained ones (ST). The trained subjects (ET and ST) were all competing at a high national level. The maximal power (W max ) and the mean power (W) were determined from the Wingate-test. Blood lactate, adrenaline (A) and noradrenaline (NA) were analysed at rest (La 0, A 0 and NA 0 ), immediately at the end of the exercise (A max and NA max ) and after 5 min recovery (La max [3 min in arterialized blood], A 5 and NA 5 ). The disappearance of A and NA was judged by the ratio (A max -A 5 )/A max and (NA max -NA 5 )/NA 5. The ratio A max /NA max was considered as an index of the adrenal medulla responsiveness to the sympathetic nervous activity. As expected, during the Wingate-test ST exhibited significantly higher performances compared to UT and ET. But in contrast to the men's data no difference was observed between the three groups both for La max (13.1 +/- 0.8 mmol x L (-1); 14.8 +/- 1.0 mmol x L (-1) and 11.2 +/- 0.5 mmol x L (-1) respectively for ET, ST and UT), NA max (22.1 +/- 1.2 nmol x L (-1); 13.1 +/- 2.4 nmol x L (-1) and 20.2 +/- 7 nmol x L (-1)respectively for ET, ST and UT) and A max (4.1 +/- 0.8 nmol x L (-1); 2.6 +/- 0.6 nmol x L (-1); 13.1 +/- 0.6 nmol x L (-1) respectively for ET, ST and UT). Consequently the ratio A max /NA max was similar in UT, ET and ST (respectively 0.2 +/- 0.03; 0.2 +/- 0.04; 0.17 +/- 0.04), These results indicated, in contrast to the men's data, that the catecholamine response to the Wingate-test did not differ between female subjects of different status of training. In conclusion this study did not find any significant effect of training

  7. Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, K; Derave, W; Eijnde, B O; Hesselink, M K; Koninckx, E; Rose, A J; Schrauwen, P; Bonen, A; Richter, E A; Hespel, P

    2008-04-01

    Skeletal muscle gene response to exercise depends on nutritional status during and after exercise, but it is unknown whether muscle adaptations to endurance training are affected by nutritional status during training sessions. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of an endurance training program (6 wk, 3 day/wk, 1-2 h, 75% of peak Vo(2)) in moderately active males. They trained in the fasted (F; n = 10) or carbohydrate-fed state (CHO; n = 10) while receiving a standardized diet [65 percent of total energy intake (En) from carbohydrates, 20%En fat, 15%En protein]. Before and after the training period, substrate use during a 2-h exercise bout was determined. During these experimental sessions, all subjects were in a fed condition and received extra carbohydrates (1 g.kg body wt(-1) .h(-1)). Peak Vo(2) (+7%), succinate dehydrogenase activity, GLUT4, and hexokinase II content were similarly increased between F and CHO. Fatty acid binding protein (FABPm) content increased significantly in F (P = 0.007). Intramyocellular triglyceride content (IMCL) remained unchanged in both groups. After training, pre-exercise glycogen content was higher in CHO (545 +/- 19 mmol/kg dry wt; P = 0.02), but not in F (434 +/- 32 mmol/kg dry wt; P = 0.23). For a given initial glycogen content, F blunted exercise-induced glycogen breakdown when compared with CHO (P = 0.04). Neither IMCL breakdown (P = 0.23) nor fat oxidation rates during exercise were altered by training. Thus short-term training elicits similar adaptations in peak Vo(2) whether carried out in the fasted or carbohydrate-fed state. Although there was a decrease in exercise-induced glycogen breakdown and an increase in proteins involved in fat handling after fasting training, fat oxidation during exercise with carbohydrate intake was not changed.

  8. Training rats to voluntarily dive underwater: investigations of the mammalian diving response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Paul F

    2014-11-12

    Underwater submergence produces autonomic changes that are observed in virtually all diving animals. This reflexly-induced response consists of apnea, a parasympathetically-induced bradycardia and a sympathetically-induced alteration of vascular resistance that maintains blood flow to the heart, brain and exercising muscles. While many of the metabolic and cardiorespiratory aspects of the diving response have been studied in marine animals, investigations of the central integrative aspects of this brainstem reflex have been relatively lacking. Because the physiology and neuroanatomy of the rat are well characterized, the rat can be used to help ascertain the central pathways of the mammalian diving response. Detailed instructions are provided on how to train rats to swim and voluntarily dive underwater through a 5 m long Plexiglas maze. Considerations regarding tank design and procedure room requirements are also given. The behavioral training is conducted in such a way as to reduce the stressfulness that could otherwise be associated with forced underwater submergence, thus minimizing activation of central stress pathways. The training procedures are not technically difficult, but they can be time-consuming. Since behavioral training of animals can only provide a model to be used with other experimental techniques, examples of how voluntarily diving rats have been used in conjunction with other physiological and neuroanatomical research techniques, and how the basic training procedures may need to be modified to accommodate these techniques, are also provided. These experiments show that voluntarily diving rats exhibit the same cardiorespiratory changes typically seen in other diving animals. The ease with which rats can be trained to voluntarily dive underwater, and the already available data from rats collected in other neurophysiological studies, makes voluntarily diving rats a good behavioral model to be used in studies investigating the central aspects of the

  9. Creative Response Styles: The Effects of Socioeconomic Status and Problem-Solving Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Gay L.

    1984-01-01

    Eighty-nine Black preschoolers (advantaged and disadvantaged) participated in sociodrama, verbal training, or control groups. Among results was that differences in socioeconomic groups were related to creative response style rather than to overall ideational, fluency, and originality in divergent production. (CL)

  10. Social Skills Training with Children: Responsiveness to Modeling and Coaching as a Function of Peer Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresham, Frank M.; Nagle, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Coaching and modeling were equivalent procedures for teaching social skills to isolated children. The abbreviated combination of coaching and modeling did not add to the effects. Peer orientation proved to be only a relatively weak modulator of responsiveness to social skills training. (Author)

  11. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 154 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Further, this section of the plan must work in harmony with those sections of the plan dealing with exercises, the spill management team, and the qualified individual. 1.3The material in this appendix D is... the elements that define the program as appropriate. 2.2An effective spill response training...

  12. Using Pivotal Response Training and Technology to Engage Preschoolers with Autism in Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockall, Nancy; Dennis, Lindsay R.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate a significant delay in language development that impacts their ability to engage in robust conversations. In this article the authors discuss two specific elements of pivotal response training--motivation and self-initiations--for children with ASD. Specific…

  13. Do responses to exercise training in cystic fibrosis depend on initial fitness level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, W; Orenstein, D M; Braumann, K M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the responses to an exercise programme with respect to initial fitness in subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF). 72 subjects (42 female) aged 10-43 yrs (forced expiratory volume in 1 s of 62.0 ± 26.7% predicted) were included. Participants were divided into three groups based on peak oxygen uptake expressed as % predicted. Subjects participated in a multifaceted rehabilitation programme, including five-times-a-week exercise training, for 6 weeks. Exercise and ventilatory capacity were determined by a maximal incremental cycling test. Oxygen uptake, workload and peak cardiac frequency at peak and submaximal workload were used as parameters for exercise capacity and responsiveness to training. Lung function values were significantly different between groups (p fitness level. Responsiveness to training showed differences between groups (p fitness level. The improvements in exercise parameters in CF at peak and VAT depended on the fitness level at baseline, independent of lung function. These improvements seen after training were comparable with those seen in healthy subjects, suggesting that responsiveness to exercise is similar in CF and in healthy untrained persons.

  14. Brief Report: Effects of Tact Training on Emergent Intraverbal Vocal Responses in Adolescents with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Richard J.; Hawkins, Emma; Dymond, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the emergence of intraverbal responses following tact training with three adolescents diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Participants were taught to tact the name of a cartoon character (e.g., "What is the name of this monster?" ["Simon"]) and that character's preferred food (e.g., "What food does this monster…

  15. Neuromuscular and Blood Lactate Response After a Motocross Training Session in Amateur Riders

    OpenAIRE

    Simões; Crisp; Verlengia; Pellegrinotti

    2016-01-01

    Background Motocross is one of the most popular motorized off-road sports, characterized by riding on irregular natural terrain of hard earth and/or sand with various obstacles throughout the course. Objectives This study evaluated the influence of a motocross training session on neuromuscular response and blood lactate in amateur riders. Patients and Methods Nine motocross riders ...

  16. How Attendance and Quality of Participation Affect Treatment Response to Parent Management Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, Robert L.; Bierman, Karen L.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether attendance and quality of participation in parent management training predicted treatment response. Data were from 445 parents (55% minority, 62% single; almost all of low socioeconomic status) who had 1st-grade children with severe conduct problems. Quality of participation in weekly parent groups was based on group…

  17. Self-Rated Mental Stress and Exercise Training Response in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirita S Ruuska

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Individual responses to aerobic training vary from almost none to a 40 % increase in aerobic fitness in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that the baseline self-rated mental stress may influence to the training response. Methods: The study population included 44 healthy sedentary subjects (22 women and 14 controls. The laboratory controlled training period was 2 weeks, including 5 sessions a week at an intensity of 75 % of the maximum heart rate (HR for 40 min/session. Self-rated mental stress was assessed by inquiry prior to the training period from 1 (low psychological resources and a lot of stressors in my life to 10 (high psychological resources and no stressors in my life, respectively. Results: Mean peak oxygen uptake (Vo2peak increased from 34±7 to 37±7 ml•kg-1•min-1 in training group (p<0.001 and did not change in control group (from 36±6 to 36±6 ml•kg-1•min-1. Among the training group, the self-rated stress at the baseline condition correlated with the change in fitness after training intervention, e.g. with the change in maximal power (r=0.45, p=0.002, W/kg and with the change in Vo2peak (r=0.32, p=0.039, ml•kg-1•min-1. The self-rated stress at the baseline correlated with the change in fitness in both female and male e.g. r=0.44, p=0.039 and r=0.43, p=0.045 for W/kg in female and male, respectively. Conclusion: As a novel finding the baseline self-rated mental stress is associated with the individual training response among healthy females and males after highly controlled aerobic training intervention. The changes in fitness were very low or absent in the subjects who experience their psychological resources low and a lot of stressors in their life at the beginning of aerobic training intervention.

  18. 放松训练配合音乐疗法对颅内动脉瘤患者介入治疗前疼痛控制的影响%The research of relaxation training combined with listening to music on controlling the pain of patient with in tracranial aneurysm before interventional therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢春雷; 李春霞; 李爱文; 黄维明; 钟丽丽

    2008-01-01

    目的 评价放松训练配合聆听音乐对颅内动脉瘤患者介入治疗前疼痛控制的作用.方法 于患者入院时及进行放松训练配合聆听音乐后分别测定其疼痛程度并评价患者的主观感受.结果:进行放松训练配合聆听音乐后患者疼痛评分明显下降[(7.31±2.24)与(3.76±2.12),P<0.01];自制问卷调查显示,患者对放松训练配合聆听音乐的正性评价为95%.结论 放松训练配合聆听音乐有助于颅内动脉瘤患者介入治疗前疼痛的控制并缓解因绝对卧床而导致的全身不适.%Objective To evaluate the effect of relaxation training combined with listening to music on controlling the pain of patient with intracranial aneurysm before interventional therapy.Methods To determin the pain degree and subjective reception of the patients on admission and after relaxation training combined with listening to music.Results Pain degree relieved obviously after relaxation training combined with listening to music[(7.31±2.24)vs(3.76±2.12),P<0.01];self-made questionnaire showed the positive evaluation of relaxation training combined with listening to music was 95%.Conclusion Relaxation training combined with listening to music can relieve the pain and general malaise bacause of absolute bedrest before interventional therapy.

  19. Individual hemoglobin mass response to normobaric and hypobaric "live high-train low": A one-year crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Anna; Troesch, Severin; Saugy, Jonas J; Schmitt, Laurent; Cejuela-Anta, Roberto; Faiss, Raphael; Steiner, Thomas; Robinson, Neil; Millet, Grégoire P; Wehrlin, Jon P

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare individual hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) changes following a live high-train low (LHTL) altitude training camp under either normobaric hypoxia (NH) or hypobaric hypoxia (HH) conditions in endurance athletes. In a crossover design with a one-year washout, 15 male triathletes randomly performed two 18-day LHTL training camps in either HH or NH. All athletes slept at 2,250 meters and trained at altitudes training camp. Hbmass increased similarly in HH (916-957 g, 4.5 ± 2.2%, P train low using a same-subject crossover design. The main findings indicate that hypobaric and normobaric hypoxia evoked a similar mean increase in Hbmass following 18 days of live high-train low. Notable variability and reproducibility in individual Hbmass responses between athletes was observed, indicating the importance of evaluating individual Hbmass response to altitude training. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Time course of muscle damage and inflammatory responses to resistance training with eccentric overload in trained individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neme Ide, Bernardo; Alessandro Soares Nunes, Lázaro; Brenzikofer, René; Macedo, Denise Vaz

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the time course of muscle damage and inflammatory responses following an eccentric overload resistance-training (EO) program. 3 females (23.8 ± 2.6 years; 70.9 ± 12.7 kg; 1.6 ± 0.08 m) and 5 males (23.8 ± 2.6 years; 75.1 ± 11.2 kg; 1.8 ± 0.1 m) underwent thirteen training sessions (4 × 8-10 eccentric-only repetitions-80% of eccentric 1RM, one-minute rest, 2x week(-1), during 7 weeks, for three exercises). Blood samples were collected prior to (Pre) and after two (P2), seven (P7), nine (P9), eleven (P11), and thirteen (P13) sessions, always 96 hours after last session. The reference change values (RCV) analysis was employed for comparing the responses, and the percentual differences between the serial results were calculated for each subject and compared with RCV(95%). Four subjects presented significant changes for creatine kinase at P2, and another two at P13; six for C-reactive protein at P2, and three at P11; two for neutrophils at P2, P4, and P13, respectively; and only one for white blood cells at P2, P4, P7, and P9, for lymphocyte at P7, P9, and P13, and for platelet at P4. We conclude that EO induced high magnitude of muscle damage and inflammatory responses in the initial phase of the program with subsequent attenuation.

  1. Time Course of Muscle Damage and Inflammatory Responses to Resistance Training with Eccentric Overload in Trained Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Neme Ide

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to observe the time course of muscle damage and inflammatory responses following an eccentric overload resistance-training (EO program. 3 females (23.8 ± 2.6 years; 70.9 ± 12.7 kg; 1.6 ± 0.08 m and 5 males (23.8 ± 2.6 years; 75.1 ± 11.2 kg; 1.8 ± 0.1 m underwent thirteen training sessions (4 × 8–10 eccentric-only repetitions—80% of eccentric 1RM, one-minute rest, 2x week−1, during 7 weeks, for three exercises. Blood samples were collected prior to (Pre and after two (P2, seven (P7, nine (P9, eleven (P11, and thirteen (P13 sessions, always 96 hours after last session. The reference change values (RCV analysis was employed for comparing the responses, and the percentual differences between the serial results were calculated for each subject and compared with RCV95%. Four subjects presented significant changes for creatine kinase at P2, and another two at P13; six for C-reactive protein at P2, and three at P11; two for neutrophils at P2, P4, and P13, respectively; and only one for white blood cells at P2, P4, P7, and P9, for lymphocyte at P7, P9, and P13, and for platelet at P4. We conclude that EO induced high magnitude of muscle damage and inflammatory responses in the initial phase of the program with subsequent attenuation.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting with short relaxation intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amthor, Thomas; Doneva, Mariya; Koken, Peter; Sommer, Karsten; Meineke, Jakob; Börnert, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a technique for improving the performance of Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) in repetitive sampling schemes, in particular for 3D MRF acquisition, by shortening relaxation intervals between MRF pulse train repetitions. A calculation method for MRF dictionaries adapted to short relaxation intervals and non-relaxed initial spin states is presented, based on the concept of stationary fingerprints. The method is applicable to many different k-space sampling schemes in 2D and 3D. For accuracy analysis, T1 and T2 values of a phantom are determined by single-slice Cartesian MRF for different relaxation intervals and are compared with quantitative reference measurements. The relevance of slice profile effects is also investigated in this case. To further illustrate the capabilities of the method, an application to in-vivo spiral 3D MRF measurements is demonstrated. The proposed computation method enables accurate parameter estimation even for the shortest relaxation intervals, as investigated for different sampling patterns in 2D and 3D. In 2D Cartesian measurements, we achieved a scan acceleration of more than a factor of two, while maintaining acceptable accuracy: The largest T1 values of a sample set deviated from their reference values by 0.3% (longest relaxation interval) and 2.4% (shortest relaxation interval). The largest T2 values showed systematic deviations of up to 10% for all relaxation intervals, which is discussed. The influence of slice profile effects for multislice acquisition is shown to become increasingly relevant for short relaxation intervals. In 3D spiral measurements, a scan time reduction of 36% was achieved, maintaining the quality of in-vivo T1 and T2 maps. Reducing the relaxation interval between MRF sequence repetitions using stationary fingerprint dictionaries is a feasible method to improve the scan efficiency of MRF sequences. The method enables fast implementations of 3D spatially resolved

  3. Glucosamine but not iboprofen alters cartilage turnover in osteoarthritis patients in response to physical training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, S.G.; Saxne, T; Heinegard, D

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes in levels of serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and urine c-telopeptide of type-2 collagen (CTX-II) as markers for cartilage turnover in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, in response to muscle strength training in combination with treat......OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes in levels of serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and urine c-telopeptide of type-2 collagen (CTX-II) as markers for cartilage turnover in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, in response to muscle strength training in combination...... (n=12) during 12 weeks of strength training of both legs with focus on the quadriceps muscle. Strength tests (5 repetition maximum), blood and urine sampling were performed before and after the training period. Serum COMP and urinary CTX-II were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA......). RESULTS: All three groups increased their muscle strength following 12 weeks of strength training (Ptraining period (P=0.012), whereas they did not change in the two other groups. Glucosamine reduced COMP statistically...

  4. Sensorimotor training during expression of the leg extension response (LER) in 1-day-old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Starlie C; Allmond, Jacob T; Boomhower, Steven R; Roberto, Megan E; Brumley, Michele R

    2014-11-01

    In newborn rats, the leg extension response (LER) is a coordinated hyperextension of the hindlimbs that is shown in response to anogenital stimulation. Here we examined the influence of sensorimotor training on LER expression in postnatal day 1 rats. In Experiment 1, we examined if proprioceptive feedback facilitates LER expression. We did this by repeatedly stimulating the pup's anogenital region with a vibrotactile device, to experimentally evoke the LER, thus increasing LER-relevant hindlimb proprioceptive feedback during training. In trained subjects, the LER was evoked every 4 min for 15 trials, followed by a final LER test. Results indicated that proprioceptive feedback on its own did not alter later expression of the LER. In Experiment 2, we examined the effect of both proprioceptive and cutaneous feedback on LER expression, through the use of a range of motion (ROM) restriction during training. During ROM restriction, a Plexiglas plate was placed beneath the pup at 50% of limb length. After the 15th training trial, a final LER test occurred with no ROM restriction in place. Compared to controls, pups that experienced ROM restriction exhibited a significantly shorter LER duration, and smaller hip and ankle angles during the LER test (indicating greater limb flexion). Together these findings show that concurrent proprioceptive and cutaneous feedback, but not proprioceptive feedback alone, has persistent effects on expression of this newborn action pattern.

  5. Immune cell changes in response to a swimming training session during a 24-h recovery period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, José P; Monteiro, Cristina P; Teles, Júlia; Reis, Joana F; Matias, Catarina; Seixas, Maria T; Alvim, Marta G; Bourbon, Mafalda; Laires, Maria J; Alves, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the impact of training sessions on the immune response is crucial for the adequate periodization of training, to prevent both a negative influence on health and a performance impairment of the athlete. This study evaluated acute systemic immune cell changes in response to an actual swimming session, during a 24-h recovery period, controlling for sex, menstrual cycle phases, maturity, and age group. Competitive swimmers (30 females, 15 ± 1.3 years old; and 35 males, 16.5 ± 2.1 years old) performed a high-intensity training session. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, 2 h after, and 24 h after exercise. Standard procedures for the assessment of leukogram by automated counting (Coulter LH 750, Beckman) and lymphocytes subsets by flow cytometry (FACS Calibur BD, Biosciences) were used. Subjects were grouped according to competitive age groups and pubertal Tanner stages. Menstrual cycle phase was monitored. The training session induced neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and a low eosinophil count, lasting for at least 2 h, independent of sex and maturity. At 24 h postexercise, the acquired immunity of juniors (15-17 years old), expressed by total lymphocytes and total T lymphocytes (CD3(+)), was not fully recovered. This should be accounted for when planning a weekly training program. The observed lymphopenia suggests a lower immune surveillance at the end of the session that may depress the immunity of athletes, highlighting the need for extra care when athletes are exposed to aggressive environmental agents such as swimming pools.

  6. Responses of knee extensor muscles to leg press training of various types in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netreba, A; Popov, D; Bravyy, Ya; Lyubaeva, E; Terada, M; Ohira, T; Okabe, H; Vinogradova, O; Ohira, Y

    2013-03-01

    Responses of m. vastus lateralis to 8-week resistive training of various types at leg press mashine were investigated in 30 male subjects. Training loads were 25, 65 and 85% of one repetition maximum for low (LI), medium (MI), and high intensity (HI) training groups respectively, while angular velocities of contraction differed considerably between groups. The total work done during training session was identical. The maximum strengths during isokinetic knee extension in LI and HI groups were increased at most angular velocities. In group MI increments were obtained only during concentric contractions. Significant improvement of fatigue resistance and maximum oxygen consumption (V(O2max)) was seen only in group MI and LI, respectively. The training-related increase of cross-sectional area in type II fibers in m. vastus lateralis was in the order of HI > MI > LI group, and that of type I fibers was opposite. The increased myonuclear number was found for HI group. The data suggest that fiber hypertrophy, fatigue resistance and V(O2max) changes were related to the type of training.

  7. Temporal specificity of training: intra-day effects on biochemical responses and Olympic-Weightlifting performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Achraf; Chtourou, Hamdi; Trabelsi, Khaled; Padulo, Johnny; Turki, Mouna; El Abed, Kais; Hoekelmann, Anitta; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of an Olympic-Weightlifting session training at three times of the day on the performance related to biochemical responses. Nine weightlifters (21 ± 0.5 years) performed, in randomised order, on three Olympic-Weightlifting training (snatch, clean and jerk) sessions (08:00 a.m., 02:00 p. m., 06:00 p. m.). Blood samples were collected: before, 3 min and 48 h after each training session. Haematological parameters and markers of muscle injury were assessed. Resting oral temperature and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were also assessed during each session. ANOVA showed that the performance was better (P < 0.001) at 02:00 p. m. with a less RPE (P < 0.01) compared to the morning and the evening sessions while there was higher (P < 0.05) oral temperature at 06:00 p. m. versus 08:00 a.m. and 02:00 p. m. Muscle damage changed immediately (without significant effect after 48 h) after the training sessions with lower values ​​in the evening compared to the morning. In conclusion, the afternoon training is more effective than morning or evening sessions for weightlifters. Therefore, coaches and weightlifters should be advised to schedule their training session in the afternoon hour.

  8. Genomic and clinical effects associated with a relaxation response mind-body intervention in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braden Kuo

    Full Text Available Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD can profoundly affect quality of life and are influenced by stress and resiliency. The impact of mind-body interventions (MBIs on IBS and IBD patients has not previously been examined.Nineteen IBS and 29 IBD patients were enrolled in a 9-week relaxation response based mind-body group intervention (RR-MBI, focusing on elicitation of the RR and cognitive skill building. Symptom questionnaires and inflammatory markers were assessed pre- and post-intervention, and at short-term follow-up. Peripheral blood transcriptome analysis was performed to identify genomic correlates of the RR-MBI.Pain Catastrophizing Scale scores improved significantly post-intervention for IBD and at short-term follow-up for IBS and IBD. Trait Anxiety scores, IBS Quality of Life, IBS Symptom Severity Index, and IBD Questionnaire scores improved significantly post-intervention and at short-term follow-up for IBS and IBD, respectively. RR-MBI altered expression of more genes in IBD (1059 genes than in IBS (119 genes. In IBD, reduced expression of RR-MBI response genes was most significantly linked to inflammatory response, cell growth, proliferation, and oxidative stress-related pathways. In IBS, cell cycle regulation and DNA damage related gene sets were significantly upregulated after RR-MBI. Interactive network analysis of RR-affected pathways identified TNF, AKT and NF-κB as top focus molecules in IBS, while in IBD kinases (e.g. MAPK, P38 MAPK, inflammation (e.g. VEGF-C, NF-κB and cell cycle and proliferation (e.g. UBC, APP related genes emerged as top focus molecules.In this uncontrolled pilot study, participation in an RR-MBI was associated with improvements in disease-specific measures, trait anxiety, and pain catastrophizing in IBS and IBD patients. Moreover, observed gene expression changes suggest that NF-κB is a target focus molecule in both IBS and IBD-and that its regulation may contribute to

  9. Elderly men with moderate and intense training lifestyle present sustained higher antibody responses to influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Adriana Ladeira; Silva, Léia Cristina Rodrigues; Fernandes, Juliana Ruiz; Matias, Manuella de Sousa Toledo; Boas, Lucy Santos; Machado, Clarisse Martins; Garcez-Leme, Luiz Eugênio; Benard, Gil

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to verify whether different levels of training performed regularly and voluntarily for many years could have an impact on one of the main issues of immunosenescence: the poor response to vaccines. We recruited 61 healthy elderly men (65-85 years old), 23 with a moderate training (MT) lifestyle (for 17.0 ± 3.2 years), 22 with an intense training (IT) lifestyle (for 25.9 ± 3.4 years), and 16 without a training lifestyle (NT). Fitness was evaluated through the IPAQ and VO2max consumption. The participants were evaluated regarding cognitive aspects, nutritional status, depression, and quality of life. Antibody titers were determined by hemagglutination inhibition assay prior to influenza vaccination and at 6 weeks and 6 months post-vaccination. Strains used were B, H3N2, and H1N1. Our groups were matched for most characteristics, except for those directly influenced by their lifestyles, such as BMI, VO2max, and MET. In general, MT and IT elderly men showed significantly higher antibody titers to the three vaccine strains post-vaccination than NT elderly men. There were also higher titers against B and H1N1 strains in the trained groups before vaccination. Additionally, there were higher proportions of seroprotected (titers ≥1:40) individuals in the pooled trained groups both at 6 weeks (B and H3N2, p < 0.05) and 6 months (H1N1, p < 0.05; B, p = 0.07). There were no significant differences between the MT and IT groups. Either a moderate or an intense training is associated with stronger and longstanding antibody responses to the influenza vaccine, resulting in higher percentages of seroprotected individuals.

  10. Effects of relaxation training on azoospermia patients in the perioperative period of testicular sperm extraction%放松训练对睾丸穿刺取精术围手术期无精症患者的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石嵩

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨放松训练对行睾丸穿刺取精术(testicular sperm extraction,TESA)的无精症患者的影响。方法选取2011年2月-2014年11月行 TESA围手期无精症患者86例,随机分为对照组和干预组各43例。2组均采取常规护理,干预组在常规护理基础上对 TESA 围手术期各期实施放松训练。分别对 2组患者术中疼痛、术后睾丸血肿、睾丸硬结、勃起功能障碍(erectile dysfunction,ED)及术后6个月婚姻质量(OLSON)进行评定。结果干预组术中疼痛程度明显低于对照组(Z=-3.239,P<0.01);2组睾丸血肿、睾丸硬结、ED的发生差异无统计学意义;干预组术后夫妻交流、性生活评分均高于对照组。2组婚姻满意度评分差异无统计学意义。结论放松训练能有效减轻无精症患者TESA术中疼痛,减少术后并发症发生并改善夫妻婚姻质量。%Objective To explore the effect of relaxation training on azoospermia patients with testicular sperm extraction (TESA)in the perioperative period.Methods From February 2011 to November 2014,86 azoospermia patients with TESA in the perioperative period,were randomly divided into control group (n=43)and intervention group (n=43).The control group was treated with routine care,and the intervention group was given relaxation training at the base of routine care.The pain degree, the incidence rate of testicular hematoma,testicular scleroma and erectile dysfunction,scores of marital quality (OLSON)at 6 months after operation in two groups were compared.Results The pain degree in the intervention group was significantly lower than that in the control group(Z=-3.239,P<0.01).The incidence rates of testicular hematoma,testicular scleroma and erectile dysfunction between 2 groups had no statistically difference.The scores of couples communication and sexual life were higher than that of the control group at six months after surgery, the scores of marital satisfaction between 2 groups had no

  11. The relaxation response resiliency program (3RP) in patients with neurofibromatosis 1, neurofibromatosis 2, and schwannomatosis: results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranceanu, Ana-Maria; Merker, Vanessa L; Plotkin, Scott R; Park, Elyse R

    2014-10-01

    NF1, NF2, and Schwannomatosis are incurable tumor suppressor syndromes associated with poor quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of an NF adapted, 8-week group mind body skills based intervention, the relaxation response resiliency program (3RP) aimed at improving resiliency and increasing satisfaction with life. Patients seen at MGH's Neurofibromatosis Clinic were offered participation if they described difficulties coping to a treating physician. Participants completed measures of life satisfaction, resiliency, stress, mood, lifestyle, pain, post-traumatic growth and mindfulness at baseline and after completing the 3RP program. The intervention had relative feasible enrollment rate (48% rate, 32 out of 67 of patients signing the informed consent form). However, out of the 32 patients who signed the informed consent, only 20 started the study (62.5%) and only 16 completed it (50%), suggesting problems with feasibility. The main reason cited for non-participation was burden of travel to the clinic. The intervention was highly acceptable, as evidenced by an 80% completion rate (16/20). Paired t tests showed significant improvement in resiliency, satisfaction with life, depression, stress, anxiety, mindfulness and post traumatic growth, with effect sizes ranging from 0.73-1.33. There was a trend for significance for improvement in somatization and sleepiness (p = 0.06), with effect sizes of 0.54-0.92 respectively. Statistically nonsignificant improvement was observed in all other measures, with effect sizes small to medium. In sum, the 3RP was found to be relatively feasible, highly acceptable and preliminary efficacious in decreasing symptom burden in this population, supporting the need of a randomized controlled trial.

  12. The effect of training on responses of beta-endorphin and other pituitary hormones to insulin-induced hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikines, K J; Kjær, Michael; Hagen, C;

    1985-01-01

    We studied whether the previously reported intensified beta-endorphin response to exercise after training might result from a training-induced general increase in anterior pituitary secretory capacity. Identical hypoglycemia was induced by insulin infusion in 7 untrained (VO2max 49 +/- 4 ml X (kg X...... min)-1, mean and SE) and 8 physically trained (VO2max 65 +/- 4 ml X (kg X min)-1) subjects. In response to hypoglycemia, levels of beta-endorphin and prolactin immunoreactivity in serum increased similarly in trained (from 41 +/- 2 pg X ml-1 and 6 +/- 1 pg X ml-1 before hypoglycemia to 103 +/- 11 pg X...... to hypoglycemia neither in trained nor in untrained subjects. Finally, differences in beta-endorphin responses to exercise between trained and untrained subjects cannot be ascribed to differences in responsiveness to hypoglycemia....

  13. Investigating the Cellular and Metabolic Responses of World-Class Canoeists Training: A Sportomics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Wagner Santos; Viveiros de Castro, Luis; Deane, Elizabeth; Magno-França, Alexandre; Bassini, Adriana; Cameron, Luiz-Claudio

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: We have been using the Sportomics approach to evaluate biochemical and hematological changes in response to exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic and hematologic responses of world-class canoeists during a training session; (2) Methods: Blood samples were taken at different points and analyzed for their hematological properties, activities of selected enzymes, hormones, and metabolites; (3) Results: Muscle stress biomarkers were elevated in response to exercise which correlated with modifications in the profile of white blood cells, where a leukocyte rise was observed after the canoe session. These results were accompanied by an increase in other exercise intensity parameters such as lactatemia and ammonemia. Adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol increased during the exercise sessions. The acute rise in both erythrocytes and white blood profile were probably due to muscle cell damage, rather than hepatocyte integrity impairment; (4) Conclusion: The cellular and metabolic responses found here, together with effective nutrition support, are crucial to understanding the effects of exercise in order to assist in the creation of new training and recovery planning. Also we show that Sportomics is a primal tool for training management and performance improvement, as well as to the understanding of metabolic response to exercise. PMID:27845704

  14. Investigating the Cellular and Metabolic Responses of World-Class Canoeists Training: A Sportomics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Santos Coelho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: We have been using the Sportomics approach to evaluate biochemical and hematological changes in response to exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic and hematologic responses of world-class canoeists during a training session; (2 Methods: Blood samples were taken at different points and analyzed for their hematological properties, activities of selected enzymes, hormones, and metabolites; (3 Results: Muscle stress biomarkers were elevated in response to exercise which correlated with modifications in the profile of white blood cells, where a leukocyte rise was observed after the canoe session. These results were accompanied by an increase in other exercise intensity parameters such as lactatemia and ammonemia. Adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol increased during the exercise sessions. The acute rise in both erythrocytes and white blood profile were probably due to muscle cell damage, rather than hepatocyte integrity impairment; (4 Conclusion: The cellular and metabolic responses found here, together with effective nutrition support, are crucial to understanding the effects of exercise in order to assist in the creation of new training and recovery planning. Also we show that Sportomics is a primal tool for training management and performance improvement, as well as to the understanding of metabolic response to exercise.

  15. Enhancing Self-Awareness: A Practical Strategy to Train Culturally Responsive Social Work Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini J. Negi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A primary goal of social justice educators is to engage students in a process of self-discovery, with the goal of helping them recognize their own biases, develop empathy, and become better prepared for culturally responsive practice. While social work educators are mandated with the important task of training future social workers in culturally responsive practice with diverse populations, practical strategies on how to do so are scant. This article introduces a teaching exercise, the Ethnic Roots Assignment, which has been shown qualitatively to aid students in developing self-awareness, a key component of culturally competent social work practice. Practical suggestions for classroom utilization, common challenges, and past student responses to participating in the exercise are provided. The dissemination of such a teaching exercise can increase the field’s resources for addressing the important goal of cultural competence training.

  16. Sex differences in the response to resistance exercise training in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Boit, Mariasole; Sibson, Rachael; Meakin, Judith R; Aspden, Richard M; Thies, Frank; Mangoni, Arduino A; Gray, Stuart Robert

    2016-06-01

    Resistance exercise training is known to be effective in increasing muscle mass in older people. Acute measurement of protein metabolism data has indicated that the magnitude of response may differ between sexes. We compared adaptive responses in muscle mass and function to 18 weeks resistance exercise training in a cohort of older (>65 years) men and women. Resistance exercise training improved knee extensor maximal torque, 4 m walk time, time to complete five chair rises, muscle anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) and muscle quality with no effect on muscle fat/water ratio or plasma glucose, insulin, triacylglycerol, IL-6, and TNF-α Differences between sexes were observed for knee extensor maximal torque and muscle quality with greater increases observed in men versus women (P torque increased by 15.8 ± 10.6% in women and 41.7 ± 25.5% in men, whereas muscle quality increased by 8.8 ± 17.5% in women and by 33.7 ± 25.6% in men. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated a difference in the magnitude of adaptation, of some of the outcome measures employed, in response to 18 weeks of resistance exercise training between men and women. The mechanisms underlying this observation remain to be established.

  17. Development and evaluation of a leadership training program for public health emergency response: results from a Chinese study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yihua

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the 9/11 attack and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, the development of qualified and able public health leaders has become a new urgency in building the infrastructure needed to address public health emergencies. Although previous studies have reported that the training of individual leaders is an important approach, the systemic and scientific training model need further improvement and development. The purpose of this study was to develop, deliver, and evaluate a participatory leadership training program for emergency response. Methods Forty-one public health leaders (N = 41 from five provinces completed the entire emergency preparedness training program in China. The program was evaluated by anonymous questionnaires and semi-structured interviews held prior to training, immediately post-training and 12-month after training (Follow-up. Results The emergency preparedness training resulted in positive shifts in knowledge, self-assessment of skills for public health leaders. More than ninety-five percent of participants reported that the training model was scientific and feasible. Moreover, the response of participants in the program to the avian influenza outbreak, as well as the planned evaluations for this leadership training program, further demonstrated both the successful approaches and methods and the positive impact of this integrated leadership training initiative. Conclusion The emergency preparedness training program met its aims and objectives satisfactorily, and improved the emergency capability of public health leaders. This suggests that the leadership training model was effective and feasible in improving the emergency preparedness capability.

  18. Multiphasic stress relaxation response of freshly isolated and cultured vascular smooth muscle cells measured by quasi-in situ tensile test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Kazuaki; Saito, Shunsuke; Matsumoto, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) undergo a phenotypic change from a contractile to a synthetic state under pathological conditions, such as atherogenesis and restenosis. Although the viscoelastic properties of SMCs are of particular interest because of their role in the development of these vascular diseases, the effects of phenotypic changes on their viscoelastic properties are unclear at this stage. We performed the stress relaxation test at constant strain (ε=30%) for the freshly isolated contractile SMCs (FSMCs) and the cultured synthetic SMCs (CSMCs) maintaining in situ cell shape and cytoskeletal integrity. We also investigated the effect of extracellular Ca2+ on their viscoelastic behaviors. FSMCs and CSMCs exhibited multiphasic stress relaxation, which consisted of rapid relaxation, occurring on a time scale of several seconds and several 10 seconds, and slow relaxation occurring on a time scale of 1000 seconds. The estimated elastic modulus of CSMCs was less than one-half that of FSMCs, that was associated with a decreased of amount of actin stress fibers (SFs) during the transition from contractile to synthetic phenotypes. FSMCs showed a conservation of tension with extracellular Ca2+ following rapid stress relaxation. In contrast, CSMCs showed a consecutive decrease in tension independent of Ca2+. This suggests that the decrease in tension in a long time scale may be involved in mechanical remodeling of SFs induced through a Rho-dependent pathway, which is Ca2+-independent and become predominant in the transition from contractile to synthetic phenotypes.

  19. 健康教育结合放松训练对亚健康者疲乏状态的影响%Effects of health education and relaxation training on fatigue of persons in sub-health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖靖琼; 周郁秋; 张秀花; 李莎莎; 田玲

    2012-01-01

    目的 探索适合改善亚健康疲乏状态的心理行为干预模式并评价其临床效果.方法 将60例以疲劳为主要症状的亚健康对象随机分为观察组和对照组各30例.对照组给予常规健康教育,观察组进行健康教育结合放松训练.连续干预8周后采用亚健康状况(SHSQ-25)、疲劳量表-14(FS-14)问卷调查及血乳酸测定评价效果.结果 观察组血乳酸值、FS-14总分及躯体疲乏、脑力疲乏因子得分显著低于对照组(均P<0.05),SHSQ-25总分及疲劳症状、精神症状、免疫力症状因子得分显著低于对照组(均P<0.05).结论 健康教育结合放松训练的干预模式可以改善亚健康症状,缓解亚健康的疲乏状态.%Objective To explore a psychobehavioral intervention model that improves fatigue of people in sub-health state and to e-valuate its effects. Methods A total of 60 subjects in sub-health state with the main symptoms of fatigue were randomly assigned to an observation group (n = 30) and a control group (n = 30). The control group received conventional health education, while the observation group were given health education and relaxation training. After 8-week intervention, the effect was measured by the SHSQ-25 and FS-14, and blood lactic acid was tested. Results After the intervention, total score of the FS-14, subscale scores of physical fatigue and mental fatigue, value of blood lactic acid, total score of SHSQ-25 and subscale scores of symptoms of fatigue, symptoms of mental status, and symptoms of immune system in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0. 05 for all). Conclusion The implement of health education and relaxation training can improve symptoms of sub-health and relieve fatigue.

  20. A comparison of three induction regimens using succinylcholine, vecuronium, or no muscle relaxant: impact on the intraoperative monitoring of the lateral spread response in hemifacial spasm surgery: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yuan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical microvascular decompression (MVD is the curative treatment for hemifacial spasm (HFS. Monitoring MVD by recording the lateral spread response (LSR intraoperatively can predict a successful clinical outcome. However, the rate of the LSR varies between trials, and the reason for this variation is unclear. The aim of our trial is to evaluate the rate of the LSR after intubation following treatment with succinylcholine, vecuronium, or no muscle relaxant. Methods and design This trial is a prospective randomised controlled trial of 96 patients with HFS (ASA status I or II undergoing MVD under general anaesthesia. Patients are randomised to receive succinylcholine, vecuronium, or no muscle relaxant before intubation. Intraoperative LSR will be recorded until dural opening. The primary outcome of this study is the rate of the LSR, and the secondary outcomes are post-intubation pharyngolaryngeal symptoms, the rate of difficult intubations, the rate of adverse haemodynamic events and the relationship between the measurement of LSR or not, and clinical success rates at 30 days after surgery. Discussion This study aims to evaluate the impact of muscle relaxants on the rate of the LSR, and the study may provide evidence supporting the use of muscle relaxants before intubation in patients with HFS undergoing MVD surgery. Trials registration http://www.chictr.org/ ChiCTR-TRC-11001504 Date of registration: 24 June, 2011. The date the first patient was randomised: 30 September, 2011.

  1. PRP training shows Task1 response selection is the locus of the backward response compatibility effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Sandra J; Danis, Lila K; Watter, Scott

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigates the effect of practice in a psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm on the backward compatibility effect (BCE), in order to determine the locus of this response priming effect on Task1 performance. In two experiments, we show that the size of the BCE is closely associated with the duration of the response selection stage in Task1. When this stage is shortened through PRP practice, the magnitude of the BCE decreases. Subsequently increasing the duration of Task1 response selection results in a larger BCE, but manipulating the same stage in Task2 does not. Our results suggest that the BCE reflects crosstalk of unattended response information for Task2 acting on the response selection stage in Task1, and that response information for two tasks may be activated simultaneously.

  2. Dielectric relaxation of samarium aluminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakhya, Anup Pradhan; Dutta, Alo; Sinha, T.P. [Bose Institute, Department of Physics, Kolkata (India)

    2014-03-15

    A ceramic SmAlO{sub 3} (SAO) sample is synthesized by the solid-state reaction technique. The Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction pattern has been done to find the crystal symmetry of the sample at room temperature. An impedance spectroscopy study of the sample has been performed in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 1 MHz and in the temperature range from 313 K to 573 K. Dielectric relaxation peaks are observed in the imaginary parts of the spectra. The Cole-Cole model is used to analyze the dielectric relaxation mechanism in SAO. The temperature-dependent relaxation times are found to obey the Arrhenius law having an activation energy of 0.29 eV, which indicates that polaron hopping is responsible for conduction or dielectric relaxation in this material. The complex impedance plane plot of the sample indicates the presence of both grain and grain-boundary effects and is analyzed by an electrical equivalent circuit consisting of a resistance and a constant-phase element. The frequency-dependent conductivity spectra follow a double-power law due to the presence of two plateaus. (orig.)

  3. Pericyte response to contraction mode-specific resistance exercise training in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farup, Jean; De Lisio, Michael; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; Bjerre, Jonas; Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; Boppart, Marni D; Vissing, Kristian

    2015-11-15

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are important for muscle repair and hypertrophy in response mechanical stimuli. Neuron-glial antigen 2-positive (NG2(+)) and alkaline phosphatase-positive (ALP(+)) pericytes may provide an alternative source of myogenic progenitors and/or secrete paracrine factors to induce Pax7(+) SC proliferation and differentiation. The purpose of this study was to investigate NG2(+) and ALP(+) cell quantity, as well as SC content and activation, in human skeletal muscle following prolonged concentric (Conc) or eccentric (Ecc) resistance training. Male subjects engaged in unilateral resistance training utilizing isolated Ecc or Conc contractions. After 12 wk, muscle biopsies were analyzed for NG2(+) and ALP(+) pericytes, total Pax7(+) SCs, activated SCs (Pax7(+)MyoD(+)), and differentiating myogenic cells (Pax7(-) MyoD(+)). NG2(+) cells localized to CD31(+) vessels and the majority coexpressed ALP. NG2(+) pericyte quantity decreased following both Conc and Ecc training (P < 0.05). ALP(+) pericyte quantity declined following Conc (P < 0.05) but not Ecc training. Conversely, total Pax7(+) SC content was elevated following Conc only (P < 0.001), while Pax7(+)MyoD(+) SC content was increased following Conc and Ecc (P < 0.001). Follow up analyses demonstrated that CD90(+) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα)(+) mononuclear cell proliferation was also increased in response to both Conc and Ecc training (P < 0.01). In summary, resistance training results in a decline in pericyte quantity and an increase in mesenchymal progenitor cell proliferation, and these events likely influence SC pool expansion and increased activation observed posttraining.

  4. Effects of high-intensity interval training on the VO2 response during severe exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Rob; Edge, Johann; Bishop, David

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the effect of high-intensity interval training on the VO2 response during severe, constant-load exercise. Prior to, and following training, 10 females (V O2 peak 37.4+/-6.0 mL kg-1 min-1) performed a graded exercise test to determine VO2 peak and lactate threshold (LT) and a 6 min cycle test (CT) at the pre-training VO2 peak intensity. Training involved high-intensity intervals (2 min work, 1 min rest) performed 3x week for 8 weeks. Breath-by-breath data from 0 to 6 min during the CT were smoothed using 5s averages and fit to a bi-exponential model starting from 20s. Training resulted in significant improvements in VO2 max (2.34+/-0.37-2.78+/-0.30 L min-1), power at VO2 max (170+/-26-204+/-25 W) and power at LT (113+/-17-136+/-20 W) (pVO2 response showed a significant increase in the amplitude of the primary phase (A1) (1396+/-103-1695+/-100 mL min-1; pVO2 (VO2 EE), with no difference (p>0.05) in the time constants of either phase or the amplitude of the slow component (318+/-67-380+/-48 mL; p=0.15). In conjunction, accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD) (43.7+/-9.8-17.2+/-2.8 mL O2 eq kg-1) and anaerobic contribution to the CT (19.4+/-4.4-7.2+/-1.2%) were significantly reduced. In contrast to previous moderate-intensity research, a high-intensity interval training program increased A1 and VO2 EE for the same absolute exercise intensity, decreasing the AOD during a severe-intensity CT.

  5. Creating an infrastructure for training in the responsible conduct of research: the University of Pittsburgh's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Barbara E; Friedman, Charles P; Rosenberg, Jerome L; Russell, Joanne; Beedle, Ari; Levine, Arthur S

    2006-02-01

    In response to public concerns about the consequences of research misconduct, academic institutions have become increasingly cognizant of the need to implement comprehensive, effective training in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) for faculty, staff, students, and external collaborators. The ability to meet this imperative is challenging as universities confront declining financial resources and increasing complexity of the research enterprise. The authors describe the University of Pittsburgh's design, implementation, and evaluation of a Web-based, institution-wide RCR training program called Research and Practice Fundamentals (RPF). This project, established in 2000, was embedded in the philosophy, organizational structure, and technology developed through the Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems grant from the National Library of Medicine. Utilizing a centralized, comprehensive approach, the RPF system provides an efficient mechanism for deploying content to a large, diverse cohort of learners and supports the needs of research administrators by providing access to information about who has successfully completed the training. During its first 3 years of operation, the RPF served over 17,000 users and issued more than 38,000 training certificates. The 18 modules that are currently available address issues required by regulatory mandates and other content areas important to the research community. RPF users report high levels of satisfaction with content and ease of using the system. Future efforts must explore methods to integrate non-RCR education and training into a centralized, cohesive structure. The University of Pittsburgh's experience with the RPF demonstrates the importance of developing an infrastructure for training that is comprehensive, scalable, reliable, centralized, affordable, and sustainable.

  6. Effect of training and familiarity on responsiveness to human cues in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Clare L; Ramos, Mari F

    2014-05-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) seem to possess an evolved competency to follow human-given cues, often out-performing their wild progenitor the wolf (Canis lupus) on cue-following tasks. However, domestication may not be solely responsible for the socio-cognitive skills of dogs, with ontogenetic experience also playing a role. This research evaluated the effects of intensive training on cue-following behaviour using an unreinforced object-choice paradigm. The responses of dogs that were trained to competitive levels were compared to those of pet dogs with only basic training, and dogs living in an animal shelter that demonstrated no or only rudimentary following of basic commands. Using a cue-following task where three types of cues were presented by familiar and unfamiliar human partners, the number of cues followed by each training group were recorded. All dogs found cues where gesture was combined with a congruent head and eye movement easier to follow than either gesture or eye gaze alone. Whether the cue-giver was familiar or not had a significant effect on number of cues followed in homed dogs, and the performance of shelter dogs was comparable to the other groups when faced with an unfamiliar cue-giver. Contrary to predictions, level of training did not improve performance on the cue-following task. This work does provide support for the presence of an evolved adaptation to exploit social cues provided by humans that can be augmented by familiarity with the cue giver. However, additional joint activity as experienced in an intensive training regime does not seem to increase accuracy in following human-given cues.

  7. Training responsibly to improve global surgical and anaesthesia capacity through institutional health partnerships: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Laura; Collins, Maggie

    2017-01-01

    Urgent investment in human resources for surgical and anaesthesia care is needed globally. Responsible training and education is required to ensure healthcare providers are confident and skilled in the delivery of this care in both the rural and the urban setting. The Tropical Health and Education Trust (THET), a UK-based specialist global health organisation, is working with health training institutions, health professionals, Ministries of Health and Health Partnerships or 'links' between healthcare institutions in the UK and low- or middle-income country (LMIC) counterparts. These institutions may be hospitals, professional associations or universities whose primary focus is delivery of health services or the training and education of health workers. Since 2011, THET has been delivering the Health Partnership Scheme (HPS), a UK government-funded programme that provides grants and guidance to health partnerships and promotes the voluntary engagement of UK health professionals overseas. To date, the £30 million Scheme has supported peer-to-peer collaborations involving more than 200 UK and overseas hospitals, universities and professional associations across 25 countries in Africa, Asia and the Middle East. In this paper, we focus on four partnerships that are undertaking training initiatives focused on building capacity for surgery and anaesthesia. In order to do so, we discuss their role as a responsible and effective approach to harnessing the expertise available in the UK in order to increase surgical and anaesthesia capacity in LMICs. Specifically, how well they: (1) respond to locally identified needs; (2) are appropriate to the local context and are of high quality; and (3) have an overarching goal of making a sustainable contribution to the development of the health workforce through education and training. The HPS has now supported 24 training initiatives focused on building capacity for surgery and anaesthesia in 16 countries across sub-Saharan Africa

  8. Track-monitoring from the dynamic response of an operational train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, George; Chen, Siheng; Garrett, James; Kovačević, Jelena; Noh, Hae Young; Bielak, Jacobo

    2017-03-01

    We explore a data-driven approach for monitoring rail infrastructure from the dynamic response of a train in revenue-service. Presently, track inspection is performed either visually or with dedicated track geometry cars. In this study, we examine a more economical approach where track inspection is performed by analyzing vibration data collected from an operational passenger train. The high frequency with which passenger trains travel each section of track means that faults can be detected sooner than with dedicated inspection vehicles, and the large number of passes over each section of track makes a data-driven approach statistically feasible. We have deployed a test-system on a light-rail vehicle and have been collecting data for the past two years. The collected data underscores two of the main challenges that arise in train-based track monitoring: the speed of the train at a given location varies from pass to pass and the position of the train is not known precisely. In this study, we explore which feature representations of the data best characterize the state of the tracks despite these sources of uncertainty (i.e., in the spatial domain or frequency domain), and we examine how consistently change detection approaches can identify track changes from the data. We show the accuracy of these different representations, or features, and different change detection approaches on two types of track changes, track replacement and tamping (a maintenance procedure to improve track geometry), and two types of data, simulated data and operational data from our test-system. The sensing, signal processing, and data analysis we propose in the study could facilitate safer trains and more cost-efficient maintenance in the future. Moreover, the proposed approach is quite general and could be extended to other parts of the infrastructure, including bridges.

  9. Effect of endurance training and cinnamon supplementation on post-exercise oxidative responses in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Dehghan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the preventative and therapeutic effects of regular exercise, exhaustive exercise may be harmful to health. The present study aimed to determine the protective effect of endurance training and cinnamon bark extract (CBE supplementation on oxidative responses induced by an exhaustive exercise schedule in rats. The rats were randomly divided into the following five groups of 6; control sedentary (Con/Sed, control exercised (Con/Ex, trained exercised (Tr/Ex, supplemented exercised (Sup/Ex, and trained, supplemented and exercised (Tr/Sup/Ex. Animals in exercise groups ran on a rodent treadmill for an 8-week endurance training program. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected and (MDA and total thiol (TT levels were measured in plasma. Glutathione peroxidase (GPX, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT activities were determined in soleus muscles. Results showed significant increases in SOD activity and malondealdehyde (MDA levels in the soleus muscles and serum of exercised rats fed with the normal diet. The exhaustive exercise also induced a decrease in serum total thiol level and GPX activity. Elevated levels of total thiol and total antioxidant capacity (TAC and reduced serum MDA levels were found in the Sup/Ex and Tr/Sup/Ex groups. CAT and GPX activities increased by CBE treatment in trained rats. Regular training increased CAT and GPX activities in the Tr/Sup/Ex group. CAT, GPX and SOD activities were not affected by the CBE treatment in untrained rats. Results suggest that additional use of regular training and CBE supplementation increase TAC and protect healthy male rats against oxidative damage induced by exhaustive exercise.

  10. Acute metabolic, hormonal, and psychological responses to different endurance training protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, P; Mathes, S; Köhler, K; Achtzehn, S; Bloch, W; Mester, J

    2013-10-01

    In the last years, mainly 2 high-intensity-training (HIT) protocols became common: first, a Wingate-based "all-out" protocol and second, a 4×4 min protocol. However, no direct comparison between these protocols exists, and also a comparison with high-volume-training (HVT) is missing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare these 3 endurance training protocols on metabolic, hormonal, and psychological responses. Twelve subjects performed: 1) HVT [130 min at 55% peak power output (PPO)]; 2) 4×4 min at 95% PPO; 3) 4×30 s all-out. Human growth hormone (hGH), testosterone, and cortisol were determined before (pre) and 0', 30', 60', 180' after each intervention. Metabolic stimuli and perturbations were characterized by lactate, blood gas (pH, BE, HCO₃⁻, pO₂, PCO₂), and spirometric analysis. Furthermore, changes of the person's perceived physical state were determined. The 4×30 s training caused the highest increases in cortisol and hGH, followed by 4 × 4 min and HVT. Testosterone levels were significantly increased by all 3 exercise protocols. Metabolic stress was highest during and after 4×30 s, followed by 4×4 min and HVT. The 4×30 s training was also the most demanding intervention from an athlete's point of view. In conclusion, the results suggest that 4×30 s and 4×4 min promote anabolic processes more than HVT, due to higher increases of hGH, testosterone, and the T/C ratio. It can be speculated that the acute hormonal increase and the metabolic perturbations might play a positive role in optimizing training adaptation and in eliciting health benefits as it has been shown by previous long term training studies using similar exercise protocols.

  11. Experiment Research on the Influence of Music Relaxation Training to the Pre-competitive Anxiety of Rhythmic Gymnastics Athletes%音乐放松训练对运动员赛前焦虑控制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢苏晅; 任爽

    2014-01-01

    探讨音乐放松训练对艺术体操运动员心理、生理、脑电状态的影响,为运动员赛前情绪的调整提供研究依据。运用音乐放松催眠治疗系统对备战第十二届全运会的四川省艺术体操队8名运动员进行实验前后对比分析,采集数据包括CSAI-2、脑电波和相关生理指标(心理、压力指数、脉搏指数)。实验后CSAI-2均值中认知状态焦虑由23.12降至18.38、躯体状态焦虑由17.88降至15.00、状态自信心由22.88升至26.00,脑电均值中θ波由17.59降至14.18、α波由11.15升至30.34、SMR波由4.15升至7.09、β波由3.86降至2.31,生理指标均值中心率由63.25降至48.13、压力指数由2.18E2降至1.92E2、脉搏由69.00降至53.00。音乐放松训练对运动员赛前焦虑的控制产生了一定的作用。%To investigate the effects of music training on Rhythmic Gymnasts relax psychological, physiological, EEG state, providing research basis for the adjustment of athletes before emotion. Music relaxation hypnotherapy system for preparing the Twelfth National Games in Sichuan Rhythmic Gymnastics Team 8 athletes comparative analysis before and after the experiment, collecting data, including CSAI-2, brain waves and related physiological indicators (psychological, stress index, pulse index). After the experiment, the CSAI - 2 in the average cognitive state anxiety from 23.12 to 18.38, somatic state anxiety from 17.88 to 15.00, state self-confidence from 22.88 to 22.88, the mean electrical in theta from 17.59 to 14.18, alpha from 11.15 to 30.34, SMR wave from 4.15 to 4.15, beta waves from 3.86 to 2.31, physiological indexes mean heart rate by 63.25 to 48.13, pressure index fell to 1.92 from 2.18 e2 e2, pulse from 69.00 to 53.00. Music relaxation training for anxiety control the generation of athletes before a certain role.

  12. Affective Responses to Repeated Sessions of High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saanijoki, Tiina; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Savolainen, Anna M; Vahlberg, Tero; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Hannukainen, Jarna C

    2015-12-01

    Vigorous exercise feels unpleasant, and negative emotions may discourage adherence to regular exercise. We quantified the subjective affective responses to short-term high-intensity interval training (HIT) in comparison with moderate-intensity continuous training (MIT). Twenty-six healthy middle-age (mean age, 47 ± 5 yr; mean VO2peak, 34.2 ± 4.1 mL·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) sedentary men were randomized into HIT (n = 13, 4-6 × 30 s of all-out cycling efforts at approximately 180% of peak workload with 4-min recovery) or MIT (n = 13, 40- to 60-min continuous cycling at 60% of peak workload) groups, performing six sessions within two weeks. Perceived exertion, stress, and affective state were recorded before, during, and after each session. Perceived exertion and arousal were higher, and affective state, more negative during the HIT than that during MIT sessions (P training. Peak oxygen consumption increased (P training). Short-term HIT and MIT are equally effective in improving aerobic fitness, but HIT increases experience of negative emotions and exertion in sedentary middle-age men. This may limit the adherence to this time-effective training mode, even though displeasure lessens over time and suggests similar mental adaptations to both MIT and HIT.

  13. Maternal blood pressure and heart rate response to pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cristine H; Naldoni, Luciane M V; Ribeiro, Juliana Dos Santos; Meirelles, Maria Cristina C C; Cavalli, Ricardo de Carvalho; Bø, Kari

    2014-07-01

    To assess whether maternal blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) change significantly in response to pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy. Longitudinal exploratory study with repeated measurements. Twenty-seven nulliparous healthy women of mean age 23.3 years (range 18-36) and mean body mass index 23.4 (range 23.1-29.5). Individual supervised pelvic floor muscle training from gestational week 20 till 36 with assessment of BP and HR at gestational weeks 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36. Systolic and diastolic BP was measured before and after each training session and HR was monitored during each session. Pelvic floor muscle training did not change BP. 77% (n = 21) of participants exceeded 70% of estimated maximum HR during at least one session. The time for exceeding 70% of estimated maximum HR was between 2.2 and 3.2 % of the total exercise session. Increases in BP and HR from gestational weeks 20 till 36 were within normal limits for pregnant women. Pelvic floor muscle training in nulliparous sedentary pregnant women does not increase BP. It significantly increases HR during the exercise sessions, but only for a limited period of time and with no negative long-term effect on BP or HR. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Maternal physiological responses to swimming training during the second trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Ann-Maree; Goodman, Carmel; Choy, Po Lin; Dawson, Brian; Newnham, John P; McDonald, Susan; Blanksby, Brian A

    2007-01-01

    Maternal submaximal aerobic fitness (PWC170) was measured before, during, and after 12 weeks of swimming training during the second trimester of pregnancy in 23 sedentary women. For comparison, 11 women maintained their normal activities, but did not swim. Training sessions were 3 times per week for 40 min, producing heart rate (HR) responses of 65%-70% of estimated maximum HR and increases in rectal temperature (n = 8) of approximately 0.4 degrees C. Distance swum per session almost doubled over the training period (581 +/- 177 m to 1110 +/- 263 m). PWC170 of the nonswimming group remained stable over time; that of the swimming group increased significantly by 13.8% after 8 weeks of training (790 +/- 145 to 909 +/- 137 kpm/min; p = 0.026). The results indicate that a significant aerobic training effect can be achieved by light-moderate-intensity swimming during pregnancy in previously sedentary women. Further, all women remained healthy, with no adverse outcomes for mother or baby.

  15. Characterization of the equine skeletal muscle transcriptome identifies novel functional responses to exercise training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacHugh David E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Digital gene expression profiling was used to characterize the assembly of genes expressed in equine skeletal muscle and to identify the subset of genes that were differentially expressed following a ten-month period of exercise training. The study cohort comprised seven Thoroughbred racehorses from a single training yard. Skeletal muscle biopsies were collected at rest from the gluteus medius at two time points: T1 - untrained, (9 ± 0.5 months old and T2 - trained (20 ± 0.7 months old. Results The most abundant mRNA transcripts in the muscle transcriptome were those involved in muscle contraction, aerobic respiration and mitochondrial function. A previously unreported over-representation of genes related to RNA processing, the stress response and proteolysis was observed. Following training 92 tags were differentially expressed of which 74 were annotated. Sixteen genes showed increased expression, including the mitochondrial genes ACADVL, MRPS21 and SLC25A29 encoded by the nuclear genome. Among the 58 genes with decreased expression, MSTN, a negative regulator of muscle growth, had the greatest decrease. Functional analysis of all expressed genes using FatiScan revealed an asymmetric distribution of 482 Gene Ontology (GO groups and 18 KEGG pathways. Functional groups displaying highly significant (P Conclusion Exercise training in Thoroughbred racehorses results in coordinate changes in the gene expression of functional groups of genes related to metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation and muscle structure.

  16. Myogenic response of human skeletal muscle to 12 weeks of resistance training at light loading intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, A L; Holm, L; Reitelseder, S; Pedersen, T G; Doessing, S; Kadi, F; Kjaer, M

    2011-12-01

    There is strong evidence for enhanced numbers of satellite cells with heavy resistance training. The satellite cell response to very light muscle loading is, however, unknown. We, therefore, designed a 12-week training protocol where volunteers trained one leg with a high load (H) and the other leg with a light load (L). Twelve young healthy men [mean age 25 ± 3 standard deviation (SD) years] volunteered for the study. Muscle biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis of both legs before and after the training period and satellite cells were visualized by CD56 immunohistochemistry. A significant main effect of time was observed (Pfiber (L: from 0.11 ± 0.02 to 0.13 ± 0.03; H: from 0.12 ± 0.03 to 0.15 ± 0.05, mean ± SD). The finding that 12 weeks of training skeletal muscle even with very light loads can induce an increase in the number of satellite cells reveals a new aspect of myogenic precursor cell activation and suggests that satellite cells may play a role in skeletal muscle adaptation over a broad physiological range.

  17. A 'mixed reality' simulator concept for future Medical Emergency Response Team training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Robert J; Guest, R; Mahoney, P; Lamb, D; Gibson, C

    2017-08-01

    The UK Defence Medical Service's Pre-Hospital Emergency Care (PHEC) capability includes rapid-deployment Medical Emergency Response Teams (MERTs) comprising tri-service trauma consultants, paramedics and specialised nurses, all of whom are qualified to administer emergency care under extreme conditions to improve the survival prospects of combat casualties. The pre-deployment training of MERT personnel is designed to foster individual knowledge, skills and abilities in PHEC and in small team performance and cohesion in 'mission-specific' contexts. Until now, the provision of airborne pre-deployment MERT training had been dependent on either the availability of an operational aircraft (eg, the CH-47 Chinook helicopter) or access to one of only two ground-based facsimiles of the Chinook's rear cargo/passenger cabin. Although MERT training has high priority, there will always be competition with other military taskings for access to helicopter assets (and for other platforms in other branches of the Armed Forces). This paper describes the development of an inexpensive, reconfigurable and transportable MERT training concept based on 'mixed reality' technologies-in effect the 'blending' of real-world objects of training relevance with virtual reality reconstructions of operational contexts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Emotion processing fails to modulate putative mirror neuron response to trained visuomotor associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Bernadette M; Kirkovski, Melissa; Fornito, Alex; Paton, Bryan; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Enticott, Peter G

    2016-04-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that activation of the putative human mirror neuron system (MNS) can be elicited via visuomotor training. This is generally interpreted as supporting an associative learning account of the mirror neuron system (MNS) that argues against the ontogeny of the MNS to be an evolutionary adaptation for social cognition. The current study assessed whether a central component of social cognition, emotion processing, would influence the MNS activity to trained visuomotor associations, which could support a broader role of the MNS in social cognition. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we assessed repetition suppression to the presentation of stimulus pairs involving a simple hand action and a geometric shape that was either congruent or incongruent with earlier association training. Each pair was preceded by an image of positive, negative, or neutral emotionality. In support of an associative learning account of the MNS, repetition suppression was greater for trained pairs compared with untrained pairs in several regions, primarily supplementary motor area (SMA) and right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG). This response, however, was not modulated by the valence of the emotional images. These findings argue against a fundamental role of emotion processing in the mirror neuron response, and are inconsistent with theoretical accounts linking mirror neurons to social cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Longer repetition duration increases muscle activation and blood lactate response in matched resistance training protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Cesar Martins-Costa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzed the effect of different repetition durations on electromyographic and blood lactate responses of the bench press exercise. Fifteen recreationally trained male volunteers completed two training protocols, matched for intensity (% one-repetition maximum; 1RM, number of sets, number of repetitions, and rest intervals. One of the protocols was performed with a repetition duration of 4 s (2 s concentric: 2 s eccentric; 2:2 protocol, whereas the second protocol had a repetition duration of 6 s (2 s concentric: 4 s eccentric; 2:4 protocol. The results showed higher normalized integrated electromyography (pectoralis major and triceps brachii for the 2:4 protocol. Blood lactate concentration was also higher in the 2:4 protocol across all sets. These results show that adding 2 s to the eccentric action in matched training protocols increases muscle activation and blood lactate response, which reinforces the notion that increasing repetition duration is an alternative load progression in resistance training.

  20. Early and late rate of force development: differential adaptive responses to resistance training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, L L; Andersen, J L; Zebis, M K; Aagaard, P

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (200 ms) of rising muscle force. Fifteen healthy young males participated in a 14-week resistance training intervention for the lower body and 10 matched subjects participated as controls. Maximal muscle strength (MVC) and RFD were measured during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. The main findings were that RFD in the late phase of rising muscle force increased in response to resistance training whereas early RFD remained unchanged and early relative RFD (i.e., RFD/MVC) decreased. Quantitatively, muscle fiber cross-sectional area and MVC increased whereas, qualitatively, the relative proportion of type IIX muscle fibers decreased. Multiple regression analysis showed that while increased MVC positively influenced both early and late RFD, decreased-type IIX negatively influenced early RFD only. In conclusion, early and late RFD responded differently to high-intensity resistance training due to differential influences of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations on early and later phases of rising muscle force.

  1. Perceptions of wellness to monitor adaptive responses to training and competition in elite Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastin, Paul B; Meyer, Denny; Robinson, Dean

    2013-09-01

    Perceptions of wellness are often used by athletes and coaches to assess adaptive responses to training. The purpose of this research was to describe how players were coping with the demands of elite level Australian football over a competitive season using subjective ratings of physical and psychological wellness and to assess the ecological validity of such a monitoring approach. Twenty-seven players completed ratings for 9 items (fatigue, general muscle, hamstring, quadriceps, pain/stiffness, power, sleep quality, stress, well-being). Players subjectively rated each item as they arrived at the training or competition venue on a 1-5 visual analog scale, with 1 representing the positive end of the continuum. A total of 2,583 questionnaires were analyzed from completions on 183 days throughout the season (92 ± 24 per player, 103 ± 20 per week; mean ± SD). Descriptive statistics and multilevel modelling were used to understand how player ratings of wellness varied over the season and during the week leading into game day and whether selected player characteristics moderated these relationships. Results indicated that subjective ratings of physical and psychological wellness were sensitive to weekly training manipulations (i.e., improve steadily throughout the week to a game day low, p wellness provide a useful tool for coaches and practitioners to monitor player responses to the rigorous demands of training, competition, and life as a professional athlete.

  2. 音乐放松训练对护理技能竞赛选手竞赛焦虑的影响%Effect of Music Relaxation Training on Competition Anxiety of Nursing Skill Competitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李赢; 赖青; 陈欢

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of music relaxation training on competition anxiety of nursing skill competitors .Meth-ods Taking players who would participate in nursing skills competition and volunteered to participate in this study from two universities as the research object,randomly selected one university as the training group (n=18),another university as the control group (n=22). The training group received 2 weeks music relaxation training .Both the training group and the control group finished the CSAI -2 before the experiment ,1 weeks before the fight ,1 days and 1 hours before the fight .Results There was no significant difference on the CSAI -2 before the experiment between two groups (P>0.05);1 weeks before the fight,cognitive state anxiety score of the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group (t=2.163,P0.05) and self-confidence(t=0.460,P>0.05) were not obvious difference;1 days before the fight,the cognitive state anxiety and somatic state anxiety(t=2.296,P0.05);1 hours before the fight,cognitive anxiety(t=3.755,P0.05).Conclusion Music relaxation training can significantly reduce the cognitive state anxiety and somatic state anxiety level of nurs -ing skill competitors ,but the effect on state self-confidence of the competitors is not obvious .%目的:探讨音乐放松训练对护理技能竞赛选手竞赛焦虑水平的影响。方法选取2所高校即将参加护理技能竞赛并自愿参加本研究的选手作为研究对象,随机选取其中1所高校被试作为实验组(18人),另外1所高校被试作为对照组(22人)。实验组施以为期2周的音乐放松训练。两组在实验前、赛前1周、赛前1天及赛前1小时共4次施测运动竞技状态焦虑量表。结果实验前实验组和对照组在CSAI-2各分量表得分上差异均无显著性( P>0.05);赛前1周实验组在认知状态焦虑上得分明显低于对照组(t=2.163,P<0.05),两

  3. Educational and training systems in Sweden for prehospital response to acts of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulling, Per E J; Holst, Jonas E A

    2003-01-01

    Sweden has a long tradition in planning for disaster situations in which the National Board of Health and Welfare has a key responsibilty within the health sector. One important part of this disaster preparedness is education and training. Since 11 September 2001, much focus has been placed on the acts of terrorism with special reference to the effects of the use of chemical, biological, or nuclear/radiological (CBNR) agents. In the health sector, the preparedness for such situations is much the same as for other castastrophic events. The National Board of Health and Welfare of Sweden is a national authority under the government, and one of its responsibilities is planning and the provision of supplies for health and medical services, environmental health, and social services in case of war or crises. "Joint Central Disaster Committees" in each County Council/Region in the country are responsible for overseeing major incident planning for their respective counties/regions. The "Disaster Committee" is responsible for ensuring that: (1) plans are established and revised; (2) all personnel involved in planning receive adequate information and training; (3) equipment and supplies are available; and (4) maintenance arrangements are in place. Sweden adopts a "Total Defense" strategy, which means that it places a high value in preparing for peacetime and wartime major incidents. The Swedish Emergency Management Agency coordinates the civilian Total Defense strategy, and provides funding to the relevant responsible authority to this end. The National Board of Health and Welfare takes responsibility in this process. In this area, the main activities of the National Board of Health and Welfare are: (1) the establishment of national guidelines and supervision of standards in emergency and disaster medicine, social welfare, public health, and prevention of infectious diseases; (2) the introduction of new principles, standards, and equipment; (3) the conducting education and

  4. Training center and response to emergencies; Centro de treinamento e resposta a emergencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Paulo Manuel da; Endo, Nelson Yukio [PMS Consultoria em Engenharia de Seguranca e Ambiental S/C Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Accidents with installations and products have troubled companies and governmental authorities too, who are actuating so much by inspecting, and prevention of these events must be intensified. It is clear that all persons involved have to qualify for risks management of his activities and to response satisfactorily when accidents occur. For attending this necessity, a partnership with Petroleo Brasileiro S/A - PETROBRAS and PMS Consultoria em Engenharia de Seguranca e Ambiental S/C Ltda, was established to build and operate a Training Centre and Emergency Response. The philosophy of this project is that the major parts of accidents happen many times at the same conditions, and if the accidents representation will be in real conditions for training, in practice it is faster to control the events, and what is more important to avoid repeated accidents. Another purpose of the Centre is to integrate universities and industries, developing research and news technologies, for attending companies needs in this millennium. (author)

  5. Employment Training Panel: Has Achieved Many of Its Training Program Responsibilities Despite Some Administrative and Planning Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Office of the Auditor General, Sacramento.

    California's Employment Training Panel was created in 1982 to work in partnership with the state's businesses, labor unions, and government to provide training funds to California businesses. In 1995, the Employment Training Panel's administrative practices, strategic planning efforts, and contracting policies and practices/procedures were…

  6. Salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to high-intensity cycling before and after an 11-day intensified training period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, John; Corney, Robert; Kouris, Antonios; Gleeson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study examined salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to two, different high-intensity, ∼30-min cycles separated by 2 h rest before and after an 11-day intensified training period. Twelve recreationally active, healthy males completed the study. Saliva samples were collected before, immediately after and 30 min after both bouts with salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations assessed. Compared with pre-training blunted exercise-induced salivary cortisol, testosterone and cortisol/testosterone responses to both bouts post-training were observed (P 0.05). Fatigue and Burnout scores were higher post- compared with pre-training (P < 0.05). These high-intensity exercise bouts can detect altered hormonal responses following intensified training. This test could assess an athlete's current hormonal status, reductions in salivary cortisol and testosterone responses suggestive of increased fatigue.

  7. High-intensity interval training induces a modest systemic inflammatory response in active, young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwetsloot KA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kevin A Zwetsloot,1 Casey S John,1 Marcus M Lawrence,1 Rebecca A Battista,1 R Andrew Shanely1,2 1Department of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA; 2Human Performance Laboratory, North Carolina Research Campus, Appalachian State University, Kannapolis, NC, USA Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine: 1 the extent to which an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT increases systemic inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and 2 whether 2 weeks of HIIT training alters the inflammatory response. Eight recreationally active males (aged 22±2 years performed 2 weeks of HIIT on a cycle ergometer (six HIIT sessions at 8–12 intervals; 60-second intervals, 75-second active rest at a power output equivalent to 100% of their predetermined peak oxygen uptake (VO2max. Serum samples were collected during the first and sixth HIIT sessions at rest and immediately, 15, 30, and 45 minutes post-exercise. An acute session of HIIT induced significant increases in interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 compared with rest. The concentrations of interferon-γ, granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, and IL-1β were unaltered with an acute session of HIIT. Two weeks of training did not alter the inflammatory response to an acute bout of HIIT exercise. Maximal power achieved during a VO2max test significantly increased 4.6%, despite no improvements in VO2max after 2 weeks of HIIT. These data suggest that HIIT exercise induces a small inflammatory response in young, recreationally active men; however, 2 weeks of HIIT does not alter this response. Keywords: cycle ergometer, inflammatory cytokines, exercise training

  8. Exercise training on chronotropic response and exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Li; Min, Gao; Wei, Chen; Min, He; Jie,Zhou

    2017-01-01

    The study was designed to observe the effects and relationship of exercise on chronotropic response (CR) and exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 30 patients with T2DM underwent symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) after excluding contraindication. For each subject individualized exercise prescription was formulated, and they received 12 weeks of exercise training after CPET retest to complete the comparison of CR indicators, includ...

  9. Pre-Sleep Protein Ingestion to Improve the Skeletal Muscle Adaptive Response to Exercise Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommelen, Jorn; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-11-28

    Protein ingestion following resistance-type exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates, and enhances the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training. As the adaptive response to a single bout of resistance exercise extends well beyond the first couple of hours of post-exercise recovery, recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of the timing and distribution of protein ingestion during more prolonged recovery periods. Recent work has shown that overnight muscle protein synthesis rates are restricted by the level of amino acid availability. Protein ingested prior to sleep is effectively digested and absorbed, and thereby stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates during overnight recovery. When applied during a prolonged period of resistance-type exercise training, protein supplementation prior to sleep can further augment gains in muscle mass and strength. Recent studies investigating the impact of pre-sleep protein ingestion suggest that at least 40 g of protein is required to display a robust increase in muscle protein synthesis rates throughout overnight sleep. Furthermore, prior exercise allows more of the pre-sleep protein-derived amino acids to be utilized for de novo muscle protein synthesis during sleep. In short, pre-sleep protein ingestion represents an effective dietary strategy to improve overnight muscle protein synthesis, thereby improving the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training.

  10. A community needs responsive management training model: Re-envisioning management training for pastors of the International Assemblies of God Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malesela J. Masenya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organisations (NGO�s play an important role in helping satisfy society�s many needs. Churches, for example, are called upon to address critical challenges facing the South African society such as discrepancies in life chances, unemployment and corruption. It largely depends on the management skills of leaders of such organisations to succeed in their endeavour to meet community needs. In order to improve these skills, this study sought to redefine the initial training of student pastors, including their management training, at the colleges of the International Assemblies of God Church (IAG. A qualitative research approach was followed. Two focus group interviews and seven individual interviews were conducted. Interviews included members of the national and provincial executive committees of the IAG, serving pastors, directors of training colleges, pastor trainees in their final year of study, and a newly graduated student. The findings of the study support the importance of formal management training for pastors before being employed in the service of the IAG. This Church has moved away from accepting ministers for service based on their faith and profession of a call to ministry only. The investigation revealed shortcomings in the initial training programmes of pastors; for example, the emphasis on theological courses at the expense of courses that are responsive to community needs and management training issues. Leaders with the competency to respond to community needs are required. The implementation of a transformational management framework, which includes community responsive courses, is recommended as a way to effectively train church leaders.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Although this article is written within the framework of Educational Management, it touches on other fields like Practical Theology and Curriculum Development. It reflects on the perceived need to include management training in

  11. The hormonal response of older men to sub-maximum aerobic exercise: the effect of training and detraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Dale I; Cuneo, Ross; Wallace, Jennifer; McLellan, Chris

    2012-04-01

    The hormonal response of 32 older men (70-80years) to a bout of sub-maximum aerobic exercise was examined before, after 16weeks of resistance or aerobic training and again after 4weeks of detraining. Blood samples were obtained at rest and immediately post sub-maximum exercise (30min @ 70% VO(2) max) to determine the concentrations of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), testosterone (Test), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and the calculation of free testosterone (FT). Both training groups had significant increases in leg strength and VO(2) max after 16weeks training but leg strength and VO(2) max returned to pre-training levels in the aerobic training and resistance training groups, respectively. During the 20week study there was no change in resting concentrations of any hormones among the three groups. There was no increase in GH, IGF-1 or SHBG immediately post sub-maximum exercise in any of the groups before training, after 16weeks training or after 4weeks detraining. Testosterone and FT increased immediately post sub-maximum exercise within all groups before training, after 16weeks training and after 4weeks detraining with the increase in Test and FT higher after 16weeks of resistance training compared to before training and after 4weeks detraining within the resistance training group. The increased responsiveness of Test and FT after 16weeks of resistance training was lost after 4weeks of detraining. Our results indicate that some physiological and hormonal adaptations gained after 16weeks training are lost after only 4weeks detraining.

  12. Early skeletal muscle hypertrophy and architectural changes in response to high-intensity resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seynnes, O R; de Boer, M; Narici, M V

    2007-01-01

    The onset of whole muscle hypertrophy in response to overloading is poorly documented. The purpose of this study was to assess the early changes in muscle size and architecture during a 35-day high-intensity resistance training (RT) program. Seven young healthy volunteers performed bilateral leg extension three times per week on a gravity-independent flywheel ergometer. Cross-sectional area (CSA) in the central (C) and distal (D) regions of the quadriceps femoris (QF), muscle architecture, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and electromyographic (EMG) activity were measured before and after 10, 20, and 35 days of RT. By the end of the training period, MVC and EMG activity increased by 38.9 +/- 5.7 and 34.8% +/- 4.7%, respectively. Significant increase in QF CSA (3.5 and 5.2% in the C and D regions, respectively) was observed after 20 days of training, along with a 2.4 +/- 0.7% increase in fascicle length from the 10th day of training. By the end of the 35-day training period, the total increase in QF CSA for regions C and D was 6.5 +/- 1.1 and 7.4 +/- 0.8%, respectively, and fascicle length and pennation angle increased by 9.9 +/- 1.2 and 7.7 +/- 1.3%, respectively. The results show for the first time that changes in muscle size are detectable after only 3 wk of RT and that remodeling of muscle architecture precedes gains in muscle CSA. Muscle hypertrophy seems to contribute to strength gains earlier than previously reported; flywheel training seems particularly effective for inducing these early structural adaptations.

  13. Stress responses to short-term intensified and reduced training in competitive weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, A G; Birch, N P; Fan, V; Smith, H K

    2016-01-01

    We sought to identify and evaluate the tolerance to, and consequences of, short-term variations in training load in competitive weightlifters. Seven international-level lifters performed 1 week of initial training followed by 2 weeks of intensified (INT: +100%, 36.5 ± 11.3 × 10(3)  kg/week) and 1 week of subsequently reduced (RED: -25%) training within their annual program. After INT, but not RED, 90 min of weightlifting increased mRNA levels of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 (CCL4), chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) and cellular stress-associated DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by 40-240%. Resting- and weightlifting-induced changes in plasma protein carbonyls, indicative of oxidative stress, but not pro-inflammatory CCL4 concentrations differed between INT and RED. Symptoms of stress (Daily Analysis of Life Demands of Athletes questionnaire) were reported as worse than normal more frequently during INT and RED than initial training. Global (negative) mood state increased during INT and declined during RED. Maximal snatch (-4.3 ± 3.7%) and vertical jump (-7.2 ± 6.5%), but not clean and jerk, were reduced after INT and restored after RED. Chemokine signaling may thus be part of the stress response to intense weightlifting and short-term reductions in training load support recovery from periodic INT training in weightlifters. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Contemplative/emotion training reduces negative emotional behavior and promotes prosocial responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeny, Margaret E; Foltz, Carol; Cavanagh, James F; Cullen, Margaret; Giese-Davis, Janine; Jennings, Patricia; Rosenberg, Erika L; Gillath, Omri; Shaver, Phillip R; Wallace, B Alan; Ekman, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Contemplative practices are believed to alleviate psychological problems, cultivate prosocial behavior and promote self-awareness. In addition, psychological science has developed tools and models for understanding the mind and promoting well-being. Additional effort is needed to combine frameworks and techniques from these traditions to improve emotional experience and socioemotional behavior. An 8-week intensive (42 hr) meditation/emotion regulation training intervention was designed by experts in contemplative traditions and emotion science to reduce "destructive enactment of emotions" and enhance prosocial responses. Participants were 82 healthy female schoolteachers who were randomly assigned to a training group or a wait-list control group, and assessed preassessment, postassessment, and 5 months after training completion. Assessments included self-reports and experimental tasks to capture changes in emotional behavior. The training group reported reduced trait negative affect, rumination, depression, and anxiety, and increased trait positive affect and mindfulness compared to the control group. On a series of behavioral tasks, the training increased recognition of emotions in others (Micro-Expression Training Tool), protected trainees from some of the psychophysiological effects of an experimental threat to self (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST), appeared to activate cognitive networks associated with compassion (lexical decision procedure), and affected hostile behavior in the Marital Interaction Task. Most effects at postassessment that were examined at follow-up were maintained (excluding positive affect, TSST rumination, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia recovery). Findings suggest that increased awareness of mental processes can influence emotional behavior, and they support the benefit of integrating contemplative theories/practices with psychological models and methods of emotion regulation.

  15. Salivary testosterone and cortisol responses to four different rugby training exercise protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviglio, Christopher M; Osborne, Mark; Kelly, Vincent G; Kilduff, Liam P; Cook, Christian J

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the acute response of salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations to four exercise protocols in 27 elite male rugby players. Each athlete completed four protocols in random order on separate in-season weeks. Two protocols were resistance training based consisting of four exercises (high pull, bench press, squat and chin-ups/prone row): Protocol 1 consisted of 5 sets of 15 repetitions at 55% of 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) with 1-minute rest (5 × 15-55%). Protocol 2 consisted of three sets of five repetitions at 85% 1 RM with 2-minute rest (3 × 5-85%). Protocol 3 was a strongman (STRNG) session consisting of three stations within a circuit of exercises that included exercises such as battling ropes, prowler push, farmer's walk and tyre flips. Protocol 4 was based on boxing and wrestling inspired exercises (combative--COMB). Salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations were measured before (PRE) and immediately after exercise (POST). Testosterone did not significantly change as a result of any intervention, whereas cortisol declined and the testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio increased significantly in both the 5 × 15-55% and 3 × 5-85% protocol. When results were retrospectively grouped and analysed according to the protocol that demonstrated the greatest absolute testosterone response, significant (P < 0.01) increases for the 5 × 15-55%, STRNG and COMB protocols were observed. The individualised hormone response to exercise observed in this study highlights the importance of recognising a protocol-dependent approach to training athletes. Furthermore this study also highlights a potential usefulness of employing STRNG and COMB training protocols as an alternative stimulus to resistance training.

  16. Self-compassion training modulates alpha-amylase, heart rate variability, and subjective responses to social evaluative threat in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, Joanna J.; Brown, Kirk Warren; Dean, Derek J.; Landy, Lauren N.; Brown, Kimberley; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research has revealed that social evaluative stressors trigger biological and psychological responses that in chronic forms have been linked to aging and disease. Recent research suggests that self-compassion may protect the self from typical defensive responses to evaluation. We investigated whether brief training in self-compassion moderated biopsychological responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in women. Compared to attention (placebo) and no-training control conditions, brief self-compassion training diminished sympathetic (salivary alpha-amylase), cardiac parasympathetic, and subjective anxiety responses, though not HPA-axis (salivary cortisol) responses to the TSST. Self-compassion training also led to greater self-compassion under threat relative to the control groups. In that social stress pervades modern life, self-compassion represents a promising approach to diminishing its potentially negative psychological and biological effects. PMID:24636501

  17. Self-compassion training modulates alpha-amylase, heart rate variability, and subjective responses to social evaluative threat in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, Joanna J; Brown, Kirk Warren; Dean, Derek J; Landy, Lauren N; Brown, Kimberley D; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2014-04-01

    A growing body of research has revealed that social evaluative stressors trigger biological and psychological responses that in chronic forms have been linked to aging and disease. Recent research suggests that self-compassion may protect the self from typical defensive responses to evaluation. We investigated whether brief training in self-compassion moderated biopsychological responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in women. Compared to attention (placebo) and no-training control conditions, brief self-compassion training diminished sympathetic (salivary alpha-amylase), cardiac parasympathetic, and subjective anxiety responses, though not HPA-axis (salivary cortisol) responses to the TSST. Self-compassion training also led to greater self-compassion under threat relative to the control groups. In that social stress pervades modern life, self-compassion represents a promising approach to diminishing its potentially negative psychological and biological effects.

  18. Effects of training status on the metabolic responses to high carbohydrate and high fat meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, V L; McMurray, R G

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a difference between the way in which aerobically trained and untrained women metabolize fats and carbohydrates at rest in response to either a high-fat or high-carbohydrate meal. Subjects, 6 per group, were fed a high CHO meal (2068 kJ, 76% CHO, 23% fat, 5% protein) and a high fat meal (2093 kJ, 21% CHO, 72% fat, 8% protein) in counterbalanced order. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured every half-hour for 5 hours. RMR was similar between groups. However, after ingesting a high CHO meal, trained subjects had a peak in metabolism at minute 60, not evident in the untrained subjects. In addition, postprandial RER from minutes 120-300 were lower and fat use was greater after the high CHO meal for the trained subjects. These results suggest that aerobically trained women have an accelerated CHO uptake and overall lower CHO oxidation following the ingestion of a high CHO meal.

  19. Increased expression of titin in mouse gastrocnemiusmuscle in response to an endurance-training program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bellafiore

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Titin, a sarcomeric giant protein, plays crucial roles in muscle assembly, elasticity and stability. Little is known about titin adaptation to endurance exercise. We studied the effects of endurance training on titin expression in mouse gastrocnemius muscles (MGM. Sixty-three ten-week-old male Swiss mice were divided into seven groups. Four groups were composed of untrained control animals (C0, C15, C30, C45 instead the other three included mice trained for 15 (T15, 30 (T30 and 45 (T45 days by treadmill. The training protocol was mainly aerobic, characterized by moderateintensity, rhythmic and continuous exercises. Titin expression was determined by immunohistochemistry on MGM sections. Results revealed a significant reduction in body weight of the T45 mice and a significant increase in titin expression (% titin immunoreactivity median [range] = 41.11 [20-60] vs. 30.00 [10-50]. It is postulated that the up-regulation of titin expression is an adaptative mechanism to increase muscle elasticity and stability in response to the high number of stretch-shorten cycles during endurance training. Such a mechanism may be important for minimizing muscle energy consumption and improving performance during running.

  20. Women Benefit More Than Men in Response to College-based Meditation Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahil Rojiani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: While recent literature has shown that mindfulness training has positive effects on treating anxiety and depression, there has been virtually no research investigating whether effects differ across genders—despite the fact that men and women differ in clinically significant ways. The current study investigated whether college-based meditation training had different effects on negative affect for men and women.Methods: Seventy-seven university students (36 women, age = 20.7 ± 3.0 years participated in 12-week courses with meditation training components. They completed self-report questionnaires of affect, mindfulness, and self-compassion before and after the course.Results: Compared to men, women showed greater decreases in negative affect and greater increases on scales measuring mindfulness and self-compassion. Women’s improvements in negative affect were correlated to improvements in measures of both mindfulness skills and self-compassion. In contrast, men showed non-significant increases in negative affect, and changes in affect were only correlated with ability to describe emotions, not any measures of experiential or self-acceptance.Conclusion: These findings suggest that women may have more favorable responses than men to school-based mindfulness training, and that the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions may be maximized by gender-specific modifications.

  1. The miRNA plasma signature in response to acute aerobic exercise and endurance training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Nielsen

    Full Text Available MiRNAs are potent intracellular posttranscriptional regulators and are also selectively secreted into the circulation in a cell-specific fashion. Global changes in miRNA expression in skeletal muscle in response to endurance exercise training have been reported. Therefore, our aim was to establish the miRNA signature in human plasma in response to acute exercise and chronic endurance training by utilizing a novel methodological approach. RNA was isolated from human plasma collected from young healthy men before and after an acute endurance exercise bout and following 12 weeks of endurance training. Global miRNA (742 miRNAs measurements were performed as a screening to identify detectable miRNAs in plasma. Using customized qPCR panels we quantified the expression levels of miRNAs detected in the screening procedure (188 miRNAs. We demonstrate a dynamic regulation of circulating miRNA (ci-miRNA levels following 0 hour (miR-106a, miR-221, miR-30b, miR-151-5p, let-7i, miR-146, miR-652 and miR-151-3p, 1 hour (miR-338-3p, miR-330-3p, miR-223, miR-139-5p and miR-143 and 3 hours (miR-1 after an acute exercise bout (P<0.00032. Where ci-miRNAs were all downregulated immediately after an acute exercise bout (0 hour the 1 and 3 hour post exercise timepoints were followed by upregulations. In response to chronic training, we identified seven ci-miRNAs with decreased levels in plasma (miR-342-3p, let-7d, miR-766, miR-25, miR-148a, miR-185 and miR-21 and two miRNAs that were present at higher levels after the training period (miR-103 and miR-107 (P<0.00032. In conclusion, acute exercise and chronic endurance training, likely through specific mechanisms unique to each stimulus, robustly modify the miRNA signature of human plasma.

  2. Generalization of naming responses to objects in the natural environment as a function of training stimulus modality with retarded children.

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, S J; Pear, J J

    1980-01-01

    Picture-cards, photographs, and real objects were compared as training stimuli in order to determine which best facilitated the generalization of naming responses learned in a special training room to real objects in the natural environments of four retarded children. The amount of transfer of naming behavior between the three stimulus modes and the average amount of training time required per stimulus mode were also assessed. Three of the four children displayed considerably more generalizat...

  3. The Effects of Parent-Focused Slow Relaxed Speech Intervention on Articulation Rate, Response Time Latency, and Fluency in Preschool Children Who Stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Jean; Matteson, Colleen; Ou, Hua; Nagase, Takahisa

    2017-04-14

    This study investigated the effects of an intervention to reduce caregivers' articulation rates with children who stutter on (a) disfluency, (b) caregiver and child's articulation rates, and (c) caregiver and child's response time latency (RTL). Seventeen caregivers and their preschool children who stuttered participated in a group study of treatment outcomes. One speech sample was collected as a baseline, and 2 samples were collected after treatment. Posttreatment samples were of caregivers speaking as they typically would and using reduced articulation rates. Caregivers reduced articulation rates significantly in the 2 posttreatment samples, and a significant decrease of stuttering-like disfluencies (SLD) was found in the children in those 2 samples. No direct relationship was found between the caregiver's articulation rate and RTL, and there was a small correlation of RTL with the lower levels of SLD found postintervention. No significant relationships were found between the reduced levels of SLD and articulation rates for either caregivers or children. Results suggest caregivers can be trained to slow their speech, and children increased their fluency at the end of a program designed to slow caregiver articulation. The intentionally slower rate of the caregivers, however, was not significantly related to fluency.

  4. Strength and hypertrophy responses to constant and decreasing rest intervals in trained men using creatine supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleck Steven J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the current study was to compare strength and hypertrophy responses to resistance training programs that instituted constant rest intervals (CI and decreasing rest intervals (DI between sets over the course of eight weeks by trained men who supplemented with creatine monohydrate (CR. Methods Twenty-two recreationally trained men were randomly assigned to a CI group (n = 11; 22.3 ± 1 years; 77.7 ± 5.4 kg; 180 ± 2.2 cm or a DI group (n = 11; 22 ± 2.5 years; 75.8 ± 4.9 kg; 178.8 ± 3.4 cm. Subjects in both groups supplemented with CR; the only difference between groups was the rest interval instituted between sets; the CI group used 2 minutes rest intervals between sets and exercises for the entire 8-weeks of training, while the DI group started with a 2 minute rest interval the first two weeks; after which the rest interval between sets was decreased 15 seconds per week (i.e. 2 minutes decreasing to 30 seconds between sets. Pre- and post-intervention maximal strength for the free weight back squat and bench press exercises and isokinetic peak torque were assessed for the knee extensors and flexors. Additionally, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA of the right thigh and upper arm was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Results Both groups demonstrated significant increases in back squat and bench press maximal strength, knee extensor and flexor isokinetic peak torque, and upper arm and right thigh CSA from pre- to post-training (p ≤ 0.0001; however, there were no significant differences between groups for any of these variables. The total volume for the bench press and back squat were significantly greater for CI group versus the DI group. Conclusions We report that the combination of CR supplementation and resistance training can increase muscular strength, isokinetic peak torque, and muscle CSA, irrespective of the rest interval length between sets. Because the volume of training was greater for the

  5. Effect of high-intensity training versus moderate training on peak oxygen uptake and chronotropic response in heart transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, C H; Snoer, M; Christensen, S;

    2014-01-01

    In heart transplant (HTx) recipients, there has been reluctance to recommend high-intensity interval training (HIIT) due to denervation and chronotropic impairment of the heart. We compared the effects of 12 weeks' HIIT versus continued moderate exercise (CON) on exercise capacity and chronotropic...... response in stable HTx recipients >12 months after transplantation in a randomized crossover trial. The study was completed by 16 HTx recipients (mean age 52 years, 75% males). Baseline peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak ) was 22.9 mL/kg/min. HIIT increased VO2peak by 4.9 ± 2.7 mL/min/kg (17%) and CON by 2.6 ± 2.......2 mL/kg/min (10%) (significantly higher in HIIT; p HIIT, systolic blood pressure decreased significantly (p = 0.037) with no significant change in CON (p = 0.241; between group difference p = 0.027). Peak heart rate (HRpeak ) increased significantly by 4.3 beats per minute (p = 0...

  6. Acute-Phase Inflammatory Response to Single-Bout HIIT and Endurance Training: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kaspar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study compared acute and late effect of single-bout endurance training (ET and high-intensity interval training (HIIT on the plasma levels of four inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein and insulin-like growth factor 1. Design. Cohort study with repeated-measures design. Methods. Seven healthy untrained volunteers completed a single bout of ET and HIIT on a cycle ergometer. ET and HIIT sessions were held in random order and at least 7 days apart. Blood was drawn before the interventions and 30 min and 2 days after the training sessions. Plasma samples were analyzed with ELISA for the interleukins (IL, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Statistical analysis was with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results. ET led to both a significant acute and long-term inflammatory response with a significant decrease at 30 minutes after exercise in the IL-6/IL-10 ratio (−20%; p=0.047 and a decrease of MCP-1 (−17.9%; p=0.03. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that ET affects the inflammatory response more adversely at 30 minutes after exercise compared to HIIT. However, this is compensated by a significant decrease in MCP-1 at two days associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis.

  7. Identifying and training non-technical skills of nuclear emergency response teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crichton, M.T. E-mail: m.crichton@abdn.ac.uk; Flin, R

    2004-08-01

    Training of the non-technical (social and cognitive) skills that are crucial to safe and effective management by teams in emergency situations is an issue that is receiving increasing emphasis in many organisations, particularly in the nuclear power industry. As teams play a major role in emergency response organisations (ERO), effective functioning and interactions within, between and across teams is crucial, particularly as the management of an emergency situation often requires that teams are extended by members from various other sections and strategic groups throughout the company, as well as members of external agencies. A series of interviews was recently conducted with members of a UK nuclear emergency response organisation to identify the non-technical skills required by team members that would be required for managing an emergency. Critical skills have been identified as decision making and situation assessment, as well as communication, teamwork, and stress management. A number of training strategies are discussed which can be tailored to the roles and responsibilities of the team members and the team leader, based on the roles within the team being defined as either Decision Maker, Evaluator, or Implementor, according to Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) classifications. It is anticipated that enhanced learning of the necessary non-technical skills, through experience and directed practice, will improve the skills of members of emergency response teams.

  8. The acute satellite cell response and skeletal muscle hypertrophy following resistance training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeann M Bellamy

    Full Text Available The extent of skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to resistance training is highly variable in humans. The main objective of this study was to explain the nature of this variability. More specifically, we focused on the myogenic stem cell population, the satellite cell (SC as a potential mediator of hypertrophy. Twenty-three males (aged 18-35 yrs participated in 16 wk of progressive, whole body resistance training, resulting in changes of 7.9±1.6% (range of -1.9-24.7% and 21.0±4.0% (range of -7.0 to 51.7% in quadriceps volume and myofibre cross-sectional area (CSA, respectively. The SC response to a single bout of resistance exercise (80% 1RM, analyzed via immunofluorescent staining resulted in an expansion of type II fibre associated SC 72 h following exercise (pre: 11.3±0.9; 72 h: 14.8±1.4 SC/type II fibre; p<0.05. Training resulted in an expansion of the SC pool associated with type I (pre: 10.7±1.1; post: 12.1±1.2 SC/type I fibre; p<0.05 and type II fibres (pre: 11.3±0.9; post: 13.0±1.2 SC/type II fibre; p<0.05. Analysis of individual SC responses revealed a correlation between the relative change in type I associated SC 24 to 72 hours following an acute bout of resistance exercise and the percentage increase in quadriceps lean tissue mass assessed by MRI (r2 = 0.566, p = 0.012 and the relative change in type II associated SC following 16 weeks of resistance training and the percentage increase in quadriceps lean tissue mass assessed by MRI (r2 = 0.493, p = 0.027. Our results suggest that the SC response to resistance exercise is related to the extent of muscular hypertrophy induced by training.

  9. Generalization of naming responses to objects in the natural environment as a function of training stimulus modality with retarded children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, S J; Pear, J J

    1980-01-01

    Picture-cards, photographs, and real objects were compared as training stimuli in order to determine which best facilitated the generalization of naming responses learned in a special training room to real objects in the natural environments of four retarded children. The amount of transfer of naming behavior between the three stimulus modes and the average amount of training time required per stimulus mode were also assessed. Three of the four children displayed considerably more generalization to the real objects in the natural environment when they were trained with real objects. The fourth child displayed substantial generalization regardless of the training stimulus mode. No particular training stimulus mode clearly facilitated the transfer of naming responses to other modes or greatly reduced training time. The results of two supplementary procedures conducted with one child showed that: (1) training in several environments facilitated generalization to real objects in the natural environment when real objects were used as training stimuli but not when picture-cards were used, and (2) transfer from picture-cards to real objects was facilitated by training other picture-cards and the real objects portrayed by them at the same time.

  10. Enhanced Corticospinal Excitability and Volitional Drive in Response to Shortening and Lengthening Strength Training and Changes Following Detraining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallent, Jamie; Goodall, Stuart; Gibbon, Karl C.; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Howatson, Glyn

    2017-01-01

    There is a limited understanding of the neurological adaptations responsible for changes in strength following shortening and lengthening resistance training and subsequent detraining. The aim of the study was to investigate differences in corticospinal and spinal responses to resistance training of the tibialis anterior muscle between shortening or lengthening muscle contractions for 4 weeks and after 2 weeks of detraining. Thirty-one untrained individuals were assigned to either shortening or lengthening isokinetic resistance training (4 weeks, 3 days/weeks) or a non-training control group. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) were used to assess corticospinal and spinal changes, respectively, at pre-, mid-, post-resistance training and post detraining. Greater increases changes (P MVC were found from the respective muscle contraction training. Motor evoked potentials (expressed relative to background EMG) significantly increased in lengthening resistance training group under contraction intensities ranging from 25 to 80% of the shortening and lengthening contraction intensity (P MVC and V-wave did not change (P > 0.05), although MEP amplitude decreased during the detraining period (P < 0.01). No changes in H-reflex were found pre to post resistance training or post detraining. Modulation in V-wave appeared to be contraction specific, whereby greatest increases occurred following lengthening resistance training. Strength and volitional drive is maintained following 2 weeks detraining, however corticospinal excitability appears to decrease when the training stimulus is withdrawn. PMID:28223941

  11. HORMONAL RESPONSES IN HEAVY TRAINING AND RECOVERY PERIODS IN AN ELITE MALE WEIGHTLIFTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lin Wu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The endocrine system has been suggested as a useful indicator for training stress (Kraemer and Ratamess, 2005. An equilibrium between anabolic and catabolic states in athletes is often represented by testosterone-to-cortisol ratio (TCR. Changes in TCR have been positively related to weight training performance (Hakkinen, et al., 1987. The decreased TCR has been used as an indicator for overtraining (Roberts, et al., 1993, Vervoorn, et al., 1991 and insufficient recovery (Passelergue and Lac, 1999. Elite weightlifters undergo year-round training with various overreaching and recovery periods. Previous investigations have not established the detailed time course of the hormonal responses in these periods mostly due to insufficient sampling frequencies.We investigated the changes in serum levels of total and free testosterone and cortisol, free testosterone-to-free cortisol ratio (FTFCR, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, and free triiodothyronine (FT3 and thyroxine (FT4 every 2 weeks for 21 weeks in an elite male weightlifter. This study was performed from August, 2003 to January, 2004, including the preparation, taper, and recovery periods for the World Championship in November, 2003.The 27-year-old male weightlifter holds the national records of Taiwan (Chinese Taipei in 56 and 62 kg categories. The subject had ranked top 5 in the world for several years prior to this study and ranked first in the world in 2005 in 56 kg category. His height was 1.58 m and body weight ranged from 55.8 to 59.6 kg during the 21-week study period. The subject has no history of using anabolic steroid or other banned substances. Venous blood samples were collected after overnight fast every 2 weeks between 7 and 8 am. The first blood sample after the World Championship was collected in week 15. Serum concentrations of total and free testosterone and cortisol were measured with enzyme immunoassay and IGF-1 were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits

  12. Generalization of Naming Responses to Objects in the Natural Environment as a Function of Training Stimulus Modality with Retarded Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Steven J.; Pear, Joseph J.

    1980-01-01

    Picture cards, photographs, and real objects were compared as training stimuli in order to determine which best facilitated the generalization of naming responses learned in a special training room to real objects in the natural environments of four severely retarded children (ages 5, 6, 9, and 14). (Author)

  13. Dose-Response Relationships of Resistance Training in Healthy Old Adults : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borde, Ron; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Background Resistance training (RT) is an intervention frequently used to improve muscle strength and morphology in old age. However, evidence-based, dose-response relationships regarding specific RT variables (e.g., training period, frequency, intensity, volume) are unclear in healthy old adults. O

  14. Indentation load relaxation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, S.P.; Stone, D.; Li, C.Y. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    Most of the models that are used to describe the nonelastic behavior of materials utilize stress-strain rate relations which can be obtained by a load relaxation test. The conventional load relaxation test, however, cannot be performed if the volume of the material to be tested is very small. For such applications the indentation type of test offers an attractive means of obtaining data necessary for materials characterization. In this work the feasibility of the indentation load relaxation test is studied. Experimental techniques are described together with results on Al, Cu and 316 SS. These results are compared to those of conventional uniaxial load relaxation tests, and the conversion of the load-indentation rate data into the stress-strain rate data is discussed.

  15. Relaxation techniques for stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems such as high blood pressure, stomachaches, headaches, anxiety, and depression. Using relaxation techniques can help you feel calm. These exercises can also help you manage stress and ease the effects of stress on your body.

  16. Principles of exercise physiology: responses to acute exercise and long-term adaptations to training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Brown, Anita M; Frontera, Walter R

    2012-11-01

    Physical activity and fitness are associated with a lower prevalence of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, high blood pressure, and diabetes. This review discusses the body's response to an acute bout of exercise and long-term physiological adaptations to exercise training with an emphasis on endurance exercise. An overview is provided of skeletal muscle actions, muscle fiber types, and the major metabolic pathways involved in energy production. The importance of adequate fluid intake during exercise sessions to prevent impairments induced by dehydration on endurance exercise, muscular power, and strength is discussed. Physiological adaptations that result from regular exercise training such as increases in cardiorespiratory capacity and strength are mentioned. The review emphasizes the cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations that lead to improvements in maximal oxygen capacity. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. How attendance and quality of participation affect treatment response to parent management training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, Robert L; Bierman, Karen L; McMahon, Robert J

    2009-06-01

    This study examined whether attendance and quality of participation in parent management training predicted treatment response. Data were from 445 parents (55% minority, 62% single; almost all of low socioeconomic status) who had 1st-grade children with severe conduct problems. Quality of participation in weekly parent groups was based on group leader ratings. Parent outcomes were based on interviewer ratings, behavioral observations, parent reports, and teacher ratings. Results of hierarchical linear models suggested that few family characteristics predicted attendance in this efficacy trial and that attendance was not related to changes in parenting over the year. However, several family characteristics predicted quality of participation in parent management training, and this in turn predicted changes in parental perceptions, warmth, physical punishment, and school involvement. From a clinical perspective, these findings suggest that it is not enough to get parents to attend sessions; it is also necessary to facilitate their active engagement in the therapeutic process. Copyright 2009 APA

  18. Monitoring the Response of Judoists´ Organisms To Training Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Bartík

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our contribution was to find out the response of organisms to training load in the judoists of the Army Sports Club Dukla Banská Bystrica. The research sample consisted of 6 top judoists. The main method was finding out the level of blood lactate by means of the automatic analyzer Biosen C Line Sport. Due to the maximum values of blood lactate, which were measured in randori training – 8.03 mmol/l, it is obvious that the presented values do not reach average values, which were stated by e. g. Degoute et al. (2003 12.3 mmol/l, Žára (1989 12.36 mmol/l, Zbignew et al. (2010 between 12 mmol/l and 13.4 mmol/l depending on the duration of a match in randori matches in competitions.

  19. Perturbations and quantum relaxation

    CERN Document Server

    Kandhadai, Adithya

    2016-01-01

    We investigate whether small perturbations can cause relaxation to quantum equilibrium over very long timescales. We consider in particular a two-dimensional harmonic oscillator, which can serve as a model of a field mode on expanding space. We assume an initial wave function with small perturbations to the ground state. We present evidence that the trajectories are highly confined so as to preclude relaxation to equilibrium even over very long timescales. Cosmological implications are briefly discussed.

  20. Improvement in Hemodynamic Responses to Metaboreflex Activation after One Year of Training in Spinal Cord Injured Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Milia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injured (SCI individuals show an altered hemodynamic response to metaboreflex activation due to a reduced capacity to vasoconstrict the venous and arterial vessels below the level of the lesion. Exercise training was found to enhance circulating catecholamines and to improve cardiac preload and venous tone in response to exercise in SCI subjects. Therefore, training would result in enhanced diastolic function and capacity to vasoconstrict circulation. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that one year of training improves hemodynamic response to metaboreflex activation in these subjects. Nine SCI individuals were enrolled and underwent a metaboreflex activation test at the beginning of the study (T0 and after one year of training (T1. Hemodynamics were assessed by impedance cardiography and echocardiography at both T0 and T1. Results show that there was an increment in cardiac output response due to metaboreflex activity at T1 as compared to T0 (545.4±683.9 mL·min−1 versus 220.5±745.4 mL·min−1, P<0.05. Moreover, ventricular filling rate response was higher at T1 than at T0. Similarly, end-diastolic volume response was increased after training. We concluded that a period of training can successfully improve hemodynamic response to muscle metaboreflex activation in SCI subjects.

  1. Emergency response teams training in public health crisis: The seriousness of serious games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Vojislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The rapid development of multimedia technologies in the last twenty years has lead to the emergence of new ways of learning academic and professional skills, which implies the application of multimedia technology in the form of a software -“serious computer games”. Three-Dimensional Virtual Worlds. The basis of this game-platform is made of the platform of three-dimensional virtual worlds that can be described as communication systems in which participants share the same three-dimensional virtual space within which they can move, manipulate objects and communicate through their graphical representativesavatars. Medical Education and Training. Arguments in favor of these computer tools in the learning process are accessibility, repeatability, low cost, the use of attractive graphics and a high degree of adaptation to the user. Specifically designed avatars allow students to get adapted to their roles in certain situations, especially to those which are considered rare, dangerous or unethical in real life. Discussion. Drilling of major incidents, which includes the need to create environments for training, cannot be done in the real world due to high costs and necessity to utilize the extensive resources. In addition, it is impossible to engage all the necessary health personnel at the same time. New technologies intended for conducting training, which are also called “virtual worlds”, make the following possible: training at all times depending on user’s commitments; simultaneous simulations on multiple levels, in several areas, in different circumstances, including dozens of unique victims; repeated scenarios and learning from mistakes; rapid feedback and the development of non-technical skills which are critical for reducing errors in dynamic, high-risk environments. Conclusion. Virtual worlds, which should be the subject of further research and improvements, in the field of hospital emergency response training for mass

  2. Effect of auditory training on the middle latency response in children with (central auditory processing disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Schochat

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the middle latency response (MLR characteristics (latency and amplitude in children with (central auditory processing disorder [(CAPD], categorized as such by their performance on the central auditory test battery, and the effects of these characteristics after auditory training. Thirty children with (CAPD, 8 to 14 years of age, were tested using the MLR-evoked potential. This group was then enrolled in an 8-week auditory training program and then retested at the completion of the program. A control group of 22 children without (CAPD, composed of relatives and acquaintances of those involved in the research, underwent the same testing at equal time intervals, but were not enrolled in the auditory training program. Before auditory training, MLR results for the (CAPD group exhibited lower C3-A1 and C3-A2 wave amplitudes in comparison to the control group [C3-A1, 0.84 µV (mean, 0.39 (SD - standard deviation for the (CAPD group and 1.18 µV (mean, 0.65 (SD for the control group; C3-A2, 0.69 µV (mean, 0.31 (SD for the (CAPD group and 1.00 µV (mean, 0.46 (SD for the control group]. After training, the MLR C3-A1 [1.59 µV (mean, 0.82 (SD] and C3-A2 [1.24 µV (mean, 0.73 (SD] wave amplitudes of the (CAPD group significantly increased, so that there was no longer a significant difference in MLR amplitude between (CAPD and control groups. These findings suggest progress in the use of electrophysiological measurements for the diagnosis and treatment of (CAPD.

  3. Characterization of the equine skeletal muscle transcriptome identifies novel functional responses to exercise training.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGivney, Beatrice A

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Digital gene expression profiling was used to characterize the assembly of genes expressed in equine skeletal muscle and to identify the subset of genes that were differentially expressed following a ten-month period of exercise training. The study cohort comprised seven Thoroughbred racehorses from a single training yard. Skeletal muscle biopsies were collected at rest from the gluteus medius at two time points: T(1) - untrained, (9 +\\/- 0.5 months old) and T(2) - trained (20 +\\/- 0.7 months old). RESULTS: The most abundant mRNA transcripts in the muscle transcriptome were those involved in muscle contraction, aerobic respiration and mitochondrial function. A previously unreported over-representation of genes related to RNA processing, the stress response and proteolysis was observed. Following training 92 tags were differentially expressed of which 74 were annotated. Sixteen genes showed increased expression, including the mitochondrial genes ACADVL, MRPS21 and SLC25A29 encoded by the nuclear genome. Among the 58 genes with decreased expression, MSTN, a negative regulator of muscle growth, had the greatest decrease.Functional analysis of all expressed genes using FatiScan revealed an asymmetric distribution of 482 Gene Ontology (GO) groups and 18 KEGG pathways. Functional groups displaying highly significant (P < 0.0001) increased expression included mitochondrion, oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid metabolism while functional groups with decreased expression were mainly associated with structural genes and included the sarcoplasm, laminin complex and cytoskeleton. CONCLUSION: Exercise training in Thoroughbred racehorses results in coordinate changes in the gene expression of functional groups of genes related to metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation and muscle structure.

  4. Effect of auditory training on the middle latency response in children with (central) auditory processing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schochat, E; Musiek, F E; Alonso, R; Ogata, J

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the middle latency response (MLR) characteristics (latency and amplitude) in children with (central) auditory processing disorder [(C)APD], categorized as such by their performance on the central auditory test battery, and the effects of these characteristics after auditory training. Thirty children with (C)APD, 8 to 14 years of age, were tested using the MLR-evoked potential. This group was then enrolled in an 8-week auditory training program and then retested at the completion of the program. A control group of 22 children without (C)APD, composed of relatives and acquaintances of those involved in the research, underwent the same testing at equal time intervals, but were not enrolled in the auditory training program. Before auditory training, MLR results for the (C)APD group exhibited lower C3-A1 and C3-A2 wave amplitudes in comparison to the control group [C3-A1, 0.84 microV (mean), 0.39 (SD--standard deviation) for the (C)APD group and 1.18 microV (mean), 0.65 (SD) for the control group; C3-A2, 0.69 microV (mean), 0.31 (SD) for the (C)APD group and 1.00 microV (mean), 0.46 (SD) for the control group]. After training, the MLR C3-A1 [1.59 microV (mean), 0.82 (SD)] and C3-A2 [1.24 microV (mean), 0.73 (SD)] wave amplitudes of the (C)APD group significantly increased, so that there was no longer a significant difference in MLR amplitude between (C)APD and control groups. These findings suggest progress in the use of electrophysiological measurements for the diagnosis and treatment of (C)APD.

  5. Does the MTHFR A1298C Polymorphism Modulate the Cardiorespiratory Response to Training?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cięszczyk Paweł

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR A1298C polymorphic variant is a candidate to explain the individual differences in trainability and response to exercise training. Therefore, the aim of the study was to verify whether the A1298C polymorphism influenced the aerobic and anaerobic performance as well as body and mass composition in young Polish women following low-high impact aerobic exercise training. Two hundred and one women aged 21 ± 1 years (range 19–24 were included in the study. All of them completed a 12-week exercise training program and were measured for selected somatic features, aerobic capacity and cardiorespiratory fitness indices as well as peak anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity, before and after the intervention. A mixed 2 x 2 ANOVA for 20 dependent variables grouped in three categories was conducted. No significant interaction of the genotype with training for body mass and body composition variables was observed. Although, there were three significant genotype x training interactions for maximal oxygen uptake variables, regardless of body mass i.e.: for VO2max (p < 0.05, HRmax (p < 0.0001 and HRAT/HRmax (p < 0.0001. Significantly greater improvement in VO2max was gained by the CC+AC group compared to the AA genotype group. The present results support the hypothesis that individual differences in trainability are at least in part determined by the genetic component and MTHFR A1298C seems to be one of the many polymorphisms involved.

  6. Effects of aging and training status on ventilatory response during incremental cycling exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenti, Mauro; De Vito, Giuseppe; Scotto di Palumbo, Alessandro; Sbriccoli, Paola; Quattrini, Filippo M; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aging and training status on ventilatory response during incremental cycling exercise. Eight young (24 ± 5 years) and 8 older (64 ± 3 years) competitive cyclists together with 8 young (27 ± 4 years) and 8 older (63 ± 2 years) untrained individuals underwent a continuous incremental cycling test to exhaustion to determine ventilatory threshold (VT), respiratory compensation point (RCP), and maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂max). In addition, the isocapnic buffering (IB) phase was calculated together with the hypocapnic hyperventilation. Ventilatory threshold occurred at similar relative exercise intensities in all groups, whereas RCP was recorded at higher intensities in young and older cyclists compared to the untrained subjects. The IB phase, reported as the difference between VT and RCP and expressed either in absolute (ml·min⁻¹·kg⁻¹ VO₂) or in relative terms, was greater (p < 0.01) in both young and older trained cyclists than in untrained subjects, who were also characterized by a lower exercise capacity. Isocapnic buffering was particularly small in the older untrained volunteers. Although young untrained and older trained subjects had a similar level of VO₂max, older athletes exhibited a larger IB. In addition, a higher absolute but similar relative IB was observed in young vs. older cyclists, despite a higher VO₂max in the former. In conclusion, the present study shows that aging is associated with a reduction of the IB phase recorded during an incremental exercise test. Moreover, endurance training induces adaptations that result in an enlargement of the IB phase independent of age. This information can be used for the characterization and monitoring of the physiological adaptations induced by endurance training.

  7. Comparison of the contractile responses to irregular and regular trains of stimuli during microstimulation of single human motor axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, Michael; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2014-04-01

    During voluntary contractions, human motoneurons discharge with a physiological variability of ∼20%. However, studies that have measured the contractile responses to microstimulation of single motor axons have used regular trains of stimuli with no variability. We tested the hypothesis that irregular (physiological) trains of stimuli produce greater contractile responses than regular (nonphysiological) trains of identical mean frequency but zero variability. High-impedance tungsten microelectrodes were inserted into the common peroneal nerve and guided into fascicles supplying a toe extensor muscle. Selective microstimulation was achieved for 14 single motor axons. Contractile responses were measured via an angular displacement transducer over the relevant toe. After the responses to regular trains of 10 stimuli extending from 2 to 100 Hz were recorded, irregular trains of 10 stimuli, based on the interspike intervals recorded from single motor units during voluntary contractions, were delivered. Finally, the stimulation sequences were repeated following a 2-min period of continuous stimulation at 10 Hz to induce muscle fatigue. Regular trains of stimuli generated a sigmoidal increase in displacement with frequency, whereas irregular trains, emulating the firing of volitionally driven motoneurons, displayed significantly greater responses over the same frequency range (8-24 Hz). This was maintained even in the presence of fatigue. We conclude that physiological discharge variability, which incorporates short and long interspike intervals, offers an advantage to the neuromuscular system by allowing motor units to operate on a higher level of the contraction-frequency curve and taking advantage of catch-like properties in skeletal muscle.

  8. TRAINING-LEVEL INDUCED CHANGES IN BLOOD PARAMETERS RESPONSE TO ON-WATER ROWING RACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Petibois

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated blood markers allowing discriminating physiological responses to on-water rowing races, notably regarding training volume of athletes and race duration. College (COL and national (NAT rowers performed a 1000- or 2000-m race. Capillary blood samples obtained before and post-race allowed an analysis of a wide range of serum parameters. COL rowers had a lower rowing experience and training volume than NAT. Races induced a higher lactate concentration increase in NAT compared to COL (10.45 ± 0.45 vs 13.05 ± 0.60; p < 0.001. Race distance (2000 vs. 1000 m induced a higher increase in fatty acids (0.81 ± 0.31 vs +0.67 ± 0. 41; p < 0.05 and triglycerides concentration in NAT (0.33 ± 0.07 vs 0.15 ± 0.09; p < 0.01, but remained comparable between NAT and COL for the 1000-m races. Amino acids concentrations increased in NAT (0.19 ± 0.03, p < 0.01, but urea concentration increased only for NAT rowers having performed the 2000-m race (0.72 ± 0.22, p < 0.05. Transferrin concentration decreased after the 2000-m race (-0.60 ± 0.25, p < 0.05, and concentration changes of haptoglobin differed between NAT2000 (tendency to be reduced and COL (tendency to by enhanced (p < 0.05. Our results confirmed that the training level in rowing is associated with higher glycolysis utilization during maximal 1000- and 2000-m exercise and no difference for similarly trained subjects at these two distances. Our study also demonstrated that a 2000-m race could initiate fatty and amino-acid metabolisms in highly trained subjects. Therefore, these changes in blood parameter responses to a characteristic rowing exercise highlighted the importance of monitoring the physiological effects of training in sporting conditions and according to individual characteristics

  9. Effects of relaxation training combined music therapy on patients undergoing surgery with local anesthesia%放松训练联合音乐疗法在局麻手术病人中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温秀芬; 陈云超; 张晖; 高虹; 张雪燕; 徐光芸; 骆如香

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of relaxation training combined music therapy on postoperative psychological ,pain sensitivity ,and hemodynamic of patients undergoing surgery with local anesthesia .Method 120 patients were randomly divided into 2 group:experimental group and control group ,60 cases in each group .Pa-tients in group experimental received routine care and relaxation training combined with music therapy ,in the anoth-er hand ,patients in group control only received routine care .The changes of pain sensitivity and anxiety levels were observed before surgery and postoperative .changes of heart rate and blood pressure of both group were observed in the day before surgery ,before entering the operating room ,during the surgery and postoperative .Result The SAS and postoperative VAS score of group experimental was significantly lower than that of group control and systolic blood pressure ,diastolic blood pressure and heart rate in postoperative 30 min of group experimental were lower those in group control ether (P 0 .05) .systolic pressure ,diastolic blood pressure and heart rate of patients in both group before entering the operating room were higher than those in the day before sur-gery (P0 .05) .In group control , compared with the data before entering the operating room ,there were there were no significant differences of sys-tolic blood pressure ,diastolic blood pressure ,heart rate among the data before entering the operating room ,during and after the surgery (P> 0 .05) .Conclusion The therapy of relaxation training combined with music could reduce anxiety and pain sensitivity and helps to maintain stable vital signs of anesthesia during and after the surgery in pa-tients with local anesthesia .%目的:探讨放松训练联合音乐疗法对局麻手术患者术中、术后的心理、疼痛敏感度及血流动力学的影响。方法将120例患者按手术安排顺序单双数分为实验组与对照组,每组各60

  10. Spin relaxation in metallic ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, L.

    2011-02-01

    The Elliott theory of spin relaxation in metals and semiconductors is extended to metallic ferromagnets. Our treatment is based on the two-current model of Fert, Campbell, and Jaoul. The d→s electron-scattering process involved in spin relaxation is the inverse of the s→d process responsible for the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). As a result, spin-relaxation rate 1/τsr and AMR Δρ are given by similar formulas, and are in a constant ratio if scattering is by solute atoms. Our treatment applies to nickel- and cobalt-based alloys which do not have spin-up 3d states at the Fermi level. This category includes many of the technologically important magnetic materials. And we show how to modify the theory to apply it to bcc iron-based alloys. We also treat the case of Permalloy Ni80Fe20 at finite temperature or in thin-film form, where several kinds of scatterers exist. Predicted values of 1/τsr and Δρ are plotted versus resistivity of the sample. These predictions are compared to values of 1/τsr and Δρ derived from ferromagnetic-resonance and AMR experiments in Permalloy.

  11. Evaluating the Training, Responsibilities, and Practices of P&T Committee Members and Nonmember Contributors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ryan; Kelly, Brett J; Moody, Mary

    2017-08-01

    Pharmacy and therapeutics (P&T) committees are responsible for managing drug formularies in numerous health care settings. Although pharmacy practice and health care organizations provide general recommendations of responsibilities and skills for members and nonmember contributors of P&T committees, the study investigators hypothesized that there is diversity in the training, responsibilities, and practices of these members and contributors. To describe the training, responsibilities, and practices of members and nonmember contributors of P&T committees in a variety of health care settings, using an online survey. In December 2015, an online survey was delivered to clinicians who were considered likely to be involved in P&T committee service from hospitals ranked by U.S. News & World Report and a convenience sample of clinicians practicing in managed care settings. The survey instrument was designed to assess various domains and perceptions of P&T committee processes. Sixty-nine respondents representing various health care delivery settings in the United States were eligible for and completed the survey. The majority of the respondents were pharmacists (94.2%), and 72.5% of the respondents were P&T committee members. The remainder of the respondents were nonmember P&T committee contributors. Approximately 60% of the respondents had served in P&T committee roles for ≥ 10 years. Specialized postgraduate training incorporating literature evaluation and formulary management was possessed by 21.7% and 17.4% of the respondents, respectively; however, most of the respondents received on-the-job training. Approximately half of the respondents were responsible for preparation of P&T committee documents, and 58% reported that nonmember contributors typically write and prepare these documents. Skill in literature evaluation was the most important criterion in selecting authors of P&T committee documents, while 10.1% of the respondents indicated that their committees did not

  12. Stress relaxation in viscous soft spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschan, Julia; Vasudevan, Siddarth A; Boukany, Pouyan E; Somfai, Ellák; Tighe, Brian P

    2017-09-27

    We report the results of molecular dynamics simulations of stress relaxation tests in athermal viscous soft sphere packings close to their unjamming transition. By systematically and simultaneously varying both the amplitude of the applied strain step and the pressure of the initial condition, we access both linear and nonlinear response regimes and control the distance to jamming. Stress relaxation in viscoelastic solids is characterized by a relaxation time τ* that separates short time scales, where viscous loss is substantial, from long time scales, where elastic storage dominates and the response is essentially quasistatic. We identify two distinct plateaus in the strain dependence of the relaxation time, one each in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The height of both plateaus scales as an inverse power law with the distance to jamming. By probing the time evolution of particle velocities during relaxation, we further identify a correlation between mechanical relaxation in the bulk and the degree of non-affinity in the particle velocities on the micro scale.

  13. Hybrid Decision-making Method for Emergency Response System of Unattended Train Operation Metro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobo Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Suitable selection of the emergency alternatives is a critical issue in emergency response system of Unattended Train Operation (UTO metro system of China. However, there is no available method for dispatcher group in Operating Control Center (OCC to evaluate the decision under emergency situation. It was found that the emergency decision making in UTO metro system is relative with the preferences and the importance of multi-dispatcher in emergency. Regarding these factors, this paper presents a hybrid method to determinate the priority weights of emergency alternatives, which aggregates the preference matrix by constructing the emergency response task model based on the Weighted Ordered Weighted Averaging (WOWA operator. This calculation approach derives the importance weights depending on the dispatcher emergency tasks and integrates it into the Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA operator weights based on a fuzzy membership relation. A case from train fire is given to demonstrate the feasibility and practicability of the proposed methods for Group Multi-Criteria Decision Making (GMCDM in emergency management of UTO metro system. The innovation of this research is paving the way for a systematic emergency decision-making solution which connects the automatic metro emergency response system with the GMCDM theory.

  14. The response of a high-speed train wheel to a harmonic wheel-rail force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiaozhen; Liu, Yuxia; Zhou, Xin

    2016-09-01

    The maximum speed of China's high-speed trains currently is 300km/h and expected to increase to 350-400km/h. As a wheel travels along the rail at such a high speed, it is subject to a force rotating at the same speed along its periphery. This fast moving force contains not only the axle load component, but also many components of high frequencies generated from wheel-rail interactions. Rotation of the wheel also introduces centrifugal and gyroscopic effects. How the wheel responds is fundamental to many issues, including wheel-rail contact, traction, wear and noise. In this paper, by making use of its axial symmetry, a special finite element scheme is developed for responses of a train wheel subject to a vertical and harmonic wheel-rail force. This FE scheme only requires a 2D mesh over a cross-section containing the wheel axis but includes all the effects induced by wheel rotation. Nodal displacements, as a periodic function of the cross-section angle 6, can be decomposed, using Fourier series, into a number of components at different circumferential orders. The derived FE equation is solved for each circumferential order. The sum of responses at all circumferential orders gives the actual response of the wheel.

  15. 运动及渐进性肌肉放松训练对缓解期COPD患者运动耐力、日常生活能力及情绪的影响%Effect of exercise and progressive muscle relaxation training on exercise endurance, activities of daily living, depressive and anxious symptoms in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪立新; 顾晓燕; 沈素娥; 蒋德升; 于天培; 姜静; 李树猛

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of exercise and progressive muscle relaxation training on ex-ercise endurance, activities of daily living ( ADL) , depressive and anxious symptoms patients with stable chronic ob-structive pulmonary disease ( COPD ) . Methods 55 patients with stable COPD were randomly divided into two groups. The training group consisted of 24 cases and the control group consisted of 31 cases. Both groups received medicine therapy. Meanwhile, the training group received breathing training, walking training and progressive muscle relaxation training for 6 months. The endurance of exercise (6MWD), dyspnea ratings (Borg scale), ADL, depres-sive and anxious symptoms assessment and lung function were evaluated before and after the training program. Re-sults Although lung function did not change significantly after training, exercise endurance, dyspnea, ADL and de-pressive and anxious symptoms improved significantly in the training group. Conclusion Exercise and progressive muscle relaxation training can markedly improve the exercise endurance and ADL, as well as relieve the dyspnea, de-pressive and anxious symptoms in patients with stable COPD.%目的:观察运动(呼吸和步行)及渐进性肌肉放松训练对缓解期慢性阻塞性肺疾病( COPD)患者运动耐力、日常生活能力及情绪的影响。方法55例缓解期中、重度COPD患者随机分为对照组31例、训练组24例。对照组给予药物治疗,康复训练组除予以药物治疗外,配合进行运动和渐进性肌肉放松训练,持续观察6个月。观察期前后分别评价运动耐力(6MWD)、呼吸困难程度(Borg评分)和日常生活能力(ADL评分),同时进行焦虑抑郁程度和肺功能评定。结果 COPD患者训练后6MWD明显高于训练前和对照组(均P0.05)。结论运动及渐进性肌肉放松训练尽管对缓解期COPD患者肺功能无显著影响,但可增加其运动耐力和ADL能力,减轻呼吸困难和焦虑抑郁程度。

  16. Responses to sudden cold-water immersion in inexperienced swimmers following training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, James L; Button, Chris; Hodge, Ken; Lucas, Samuel J E; Barwood, Martin J; Cotter, James D

    2013-08-01

    When suddenly immersed in cold water, humans typically exhibit the cold shock response, although training can attenuate hyperventilation. This study extends previous findings by considering the influence of physical activity to maintain buoyancy and subsequent swimming performance. Six inexperienced swimmers (three men and three women; mean age 22.8) received 1 wk of cold-water head-out immersions (10 x 3 min at 15 degrees C) alongside mental skills training to improve their treading water technique and to control hyperventilation upon immersion. Six inexperienced control swimmers (four men and two women; mean age 21.8) received immersions in temperate water (27 degrees C). Ventilation, brain blood flow velocity, and blood oxygenation were measured during a physiological test in which participants trod water for 150 s. In a subsequent simulated survival test, performance (swimming duration and distance) and perception of effort were recorded. All the tests were in 10 degrees C water with the head out. There were significant improvements in the intervention group's ability to suppress rapid increases in respiratory frequency; 62 +/- 24 breaths x min(-1) to 33 +/- 12. The drop in brain blood flow was smaller and more transient than that previously reported due to the hypertensive response associated with treading water. Inexperienced swimmers could benefit from cold-water habituation combined with mental skills training in order to improve voluntary control over the respiratory portion of the cold shock response as part of learning to tread water. This may improve survival prospects in a real-life emergency scenario such as an overturned boat.

  17. Physiological Responses of Young Tennis Players to Training Drills and Simulated Match Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Rodrigo V; Cunha, Vivian C R; Zourdos, Michael C; Aoki, Marcelo S; Moreira, Alexandre; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Capitani, Caroline D

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the responses of young tennis players during 5 different training drills and to compare the responses between drills. Ten (17.0 ± 1.2 years) male tennis players participated in this study. Each athlete completed 5 total training drills. Drills 1-4 consisted of each player returning balls from a ball-serving machine and were stroke/time-controlled over 6 points. The fifth drill was a simulated match (SM) play, between 2 opposing players, and also lasted 6 points. The 4 stroke/time-controlled drills had the following strokes/time for each point: drill 1: 2 strokes/∼4 seconds, drill 2: 4 strokes/∼8 seconds, drill 3: 7 strokes/∼14 seconds, drill 4: 10 strokes/∼20 seconds. Peak heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration (LA), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured after the first, third, and sixth point of each drill. Drills were performed in a randomized crossover design; a 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used with significance set at p ≤ 0.05. All dependent variables (HR, LA, and RPE) significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) as strokes, and time per rally increased in each drill. Furthermore, all variables were elevated to a greater magnitude (p ≤ 0.05) during the 7 and 10 stroke drills after the first, third, and sixth points when compared with the SM and the 2 and 4 stroke drills at the corresponding time points. These results suggest that the physiological responses to tennis training drills were stroke/time-dependent. Therefore, because of the intense intermittent nature of tennis, stroke/time-controlled drills, which require significant physiological demands, should be incorporated along with technically focused shorter drills to fully mimic the conditions of competitive match play.

  18. Taking control! Structural and behavioural plasticity in response to game-based inhibition training in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Lorenz, Robert C; Weichenberger, Markus; Becker, Maxi; Haesner, Marten; O'Sullivan, Julie; Steinert, Anika; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Brandhorst, Susanne; Bremer, Thomas; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2017-08-01

    While previous attempts to train self-control in humans have frequently failed, we set out to train response inhibition using computer-game elements. We trained older adults with a newly developed game-based inhibition training on a tablet for two months and compared them to an active and passive control group. Behavioural effects reflected in shorter stop signal response times that were observed only in the inhibition-training group. This was accompanied by structural growth in cortical thickness of right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) triangularis, a brain region that has been associated with response inhibition. The structural plasticity effect was positively associated with time spent on the training-task and predicted the final percentage of successful inhibition trials in the stop task. The data provide evidence for successful trainability of inhibition when game-based training is employed. The results extend our knowledge on game-based cognitive training effects in older age and may foster treatment research in psychiatric diseases related to impulse control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute and Long-term Responses to Different Rest Intervals in Low-load Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Julius Etienne; Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Kikuchi, Naoki; Nakazato, Koichi

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the effects of low-load resistance training to failure performed with different rest intervals on acute hormonal responses and long-term muscle and strength gains. In the acute study, 14 participants were assigned to either a short rest (S, 30 s) or long rest (L, 150 s) protocol at 40% one-repetition maximum. Blood samples were taken before and after the workout. Both groups showed significant (prest interval length. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Responses of Hodgkin-Huxley Neuronal Systems to Spike-Train Inputs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Wen-Li; WANG Sheng-Jun; WANG Ying-Hai

    2007-01-01

    We investigate responses of the Hodgkin-Huxley globally neuronal systems to periodic spike-train inputs. The firing activities of the neuronal networks show different rhythmic patterns for different parameters. These rhythmic patterns can be used to explain cycles of firing in real brain. These activity patterns, average activity and coherence measure are affected by two quantities such as the percentage of excitatory couplings and stimulus intensity, in which the percentage of excitatory couplings is more important than stimulus intensity since the transition phenomenon of average activity comes about.

  1. Acute neuromuscular and performance responses to Nordic hamstring exercises completed before or after football training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Ric; Siegler, Jason C; Knox, Michael; Brennan, Scott; Marshall, Paul W M

    2016-12-01

    The optimal scheduling of Nordic Hamstring exercises (NHEs) relative to football training sessions is unknown. We examined the acute neuromuscular and performance responses to NHE undertaken either before (BT) or after (AT) simulated football training. Twelve amateur players performed six sets of five repetitions of the NHE either before or after 60 min of standardised football-specific exercise (SAFT(60)). Surface electromyography signals (EMG) of the hamstring muscles were recorded during both the NHE, and maximum eccentric actions of the knee flexors (0.52 rad · s(-1)) performed before and after the NHE programme, and at 15 min intervals during SAFT(60). Ten-metre sprint times were recorded on three occasions during each 15 min SAFT(60) segment. Greater eccentric hamstring fatigue following the NHE programme was observed in BT versus AT (19.8 %; very likely small effect), which was particularly apparent in the latter range of knee flexion (0-15°; 39.6%; likely moderate effect), and synonymous with hamstring EMG declines (likely small-likely moderate effects). Performing NHE BT attenuated sprint performance declines (2.0-3.2%; likely small effects), but decreased eccentric hamstring peak torque (-14.1 to -18.9%; likely small effects) during football-specific exercise. Performing NHE prior to football training reduces eccentric hamstring strength and may exacerbate hamstring injury risk.

  2. Emergency management: e-learning as an immediate response to veterinary training needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Alessandrini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary training plays a crucial role in increasing effectiveness of veterinary response to epidemic and non-epidemic emergencies. Being able to assess learning needs and to deliver training is acknowledged as a strategic priority in veterinary public health activities. The validation of an e-learning system that is able to respond to the urgent needs of veterinary professionals to ensure the despatch of rapid teaching methods on emerging and re-emerging animal diseases and zoonoses was the core of a research project developed in the Mediterranean Basin between 2005 and 2009. The project validated a new transferable, sustainable and repeatable learning model, the main components of which are described. The model is applied to an emergency situation that occurred in Italy in 2008, when West Nile disease outbreaks were reported in northern Italy. Approximately 450 official veterinarians were trained, using an e-learning system that showed adaptability and effectiveness in transferring knowledge, skills and competence to face the situation. The case was used to validate the effectiveness of the model and proved that it can be applied in any emergency situation, i.e. every time that rapid dissemination of knowledge and skills is required.

  3. Exertional responses to sprint interval training: a comparison of 30-sec. and 60-sec. conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Marcus W; Greeley, Samuel J

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of sprint interval training on rating of perceived exertion. 20 healthy participants (11 men, 9 women; M age = 23 yr.) completed a maximal cycle ergometer test and two high-intensity interval training cycling sessions. Each session utilized the same work-to-rest ratio (1:1), work intensity (90% max), recovery intensity (10% work intensity), and session duration (16 min.). Trials differed on duration of the interval segment, with a 30-sec. trial and a 60-sec. trial. Sessions required the same amount of total work over the duration of the trial. Rating of perceived exertion assessed before, during, and after exercise were higher for the 60-sec. trial than the 30-sec. trial despite no difference in total work. High intensity interval training trials utilizing the same total external work but differing in interval length produced different ratings of perceived exertion. Perceived exertion is significantly higher for sessions of exercise that utilize longer work intervals. These findings suggest that shorter intervals may produce more favorable exertional responses that could positively affect future behavior.

  4. Sand training: Exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammatory responses to matched-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Henry; Dawson, Brian; Binnie, Martyn J; Pinnington, Hugh; Sim, Marc; Clemons, Tristan D; Peeling, Peter

    2017-07-01

    This study compared markers of muscle damage and inflammation elevated by a matched-intensity interval running session on soft sand and grass surfaces. In a counterbalanced, repeated-measures and crossover design, 10 well-trained female athletes completed 2 interval-based running sessions 1 week apart on either a grass or a sand surface. Exercise heart rate (HR) was fixed at 83-88% of HR maximum. Venous blood samples were collected pre-, post- and 24 h post-exercise, and analysed for myoglobin (Mb) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Perceptual ratings of exertion (RPE) and muscle soreness (DOMS) were recorded immediately post- and 24 h post-exercise. A significant time effect showed that Mb increased from pre- to post-exercise on grass (p = .008) but not on sand (p = .611). Furthermore, there was a greater relative increase in Mb on grass compared with that on sand (p = .026). No differences in CRP were reported between surfaces (p > .05). The HR, RPE and DOMS scores were not significantly different between conditions (p  >  .05). These results suggest that in response to a matched-intensity exercise bout, markers of post-exercise muscle damage may be reduced by running on softer ground surfaces. Such training strategy may be used to minimize musculoskeletal strain while still incurring an equivalent cardiovascular training stimulus.

  5. Thermal responses and body fluid balance of competitive male swimmers during a training session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Reynaldo; Echegaray, Marcos; Rivera, Miguel A

    2003-05-01

    Thermoregulatory and body fluid balance (BFB) responses of competitive swimmers were studied during a typical interval training session under natural field conditions. Subjects were 9 males (18.0 +/- 1.7 years; VO(2)max = 3.8 +/- 0.9 L x min(-1)) who covered 9,000 m in 180 minutes in an outdoor pool (mean water temperature = 26.8 +/- 0.3 degrees C; mean wet bulb globe temperature = 29.8 +/- 2.8 degrees C). Mean body weight (BWt) decreased by 1.8 +/- 0.5 kg (P WI) (0.1 +/- 0.2 kg) did not maintain BFB (-0.5 kg per hour) and plasma volume decreased 10.7 +/- 5.4%. During a typical training session, swimmers experienced significant body fluid losses, and WI was not enough to prevent involuntary dehydration. The magnitude of the fluid losses (2.5% of BWt) was sufficient to compromise convective thermoregulation because of the decreased plasma volume. Hence, to prevent involuntary dehydration, swimmers should be encouraged to consume an amount of fluids that equals losses throughout the training sessions.

  6. Simulation of spatially coupling dynamic response of train-track time-variant system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向俊; 李德建; 曾庆元

    2003-01-01

    There exist three problems in the calculation of lateral vibration of the train-track time-variant system athome and abroad and the method to solve them is presented. Spatially coupling vibration analysis model of train-track time-variant system is put forward. Each vehicle is modeled as a multi-body system with 26 degrees of freedomand the action of coupler is also considered. The track structure is modeled as an assembly of track elements with 30degrees of freedom, then the spatially coupling vibration matrix equation of the train-track time-variant system is es-tablished on the basis of the principle of total potential energy with stationary value and the "set-in-right-position"rule. The track vertical geometric irregularity is considered as the excitation source of the vertical vibration of thesystem, and the hunting wave of car bogie frame is taken as the excitation source of lateral vibration of the system.The spatially coupling vibration matrix equation of the system is solved by Wilson-θ direct integration method. Theapproximation of the calculated results to the spot test results demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of thepresented analysis method. Finally, some other vibration responses of the system are also obtained.

  7. Magneto-dependent stress relaxation of magnetorheological gels

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yangguang

    2017-09-01

    The stress relaxation behaviors of magnetorheological (MR) gels under stepwise shear loading are systematically investigated. The particle-enhanced effect, the magneto-induced effect, and the temperature-enhanced effect on the stress relaxation of MR gels are discussed. For further analysis of the magneto-induced stress relaxation mechanism in MR gels, a phenomenological model is established to describe the stress relaxation behavior of the matrix and the magnetic particle chains. All characteristic parameters introduced in the model, i.e. relaxation time, instantaneous modulus, and stable modulus, have well-defined physical meanings and are fitted based on the experimental results. The influence of each parameter on the macroscopic response is discussed and it is found that the relaxation stress induced by the magneto-mechanical coupling effect plays an important role in the stress relaxation process of MR gels.

  8. National Training Course. Emergency Medical Technician. Paramedic. Instructor's Lesson Plans. Module I. The Emergency Medical Technician, His Role, Responsibility, and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This instructor's lesson plan guide is one of fifteen modules designed for use in the training of emergency medical technicians (EMT). Four units are presented: (1) role of the EMT, including the operation of an emerging medical services system; (2) the laws relevant to EMTs functioning in the field; (3) activities and responsibilities of an EMT…

  9. Physiological responses to successive days of intense training in competitive swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, J P; Costill, D L; Flynn, M G; Mitchell, J B; Fink, W J; Neufer, P D; Houmard, J A

    1988-06-01

    To examine the physiological responses to successive days of intense training, 12 male collegiate swimmers doubled their training distance (4,266 +/- 264 to 8,970 +/- 161 m.d-1) while maintaining the intensity at approximately 95% VO2max for 10 d. Blood samples were obtained pre-exercise and immediately and 5 min after a sub-maximal (approximately 95% VO2max) front crawl swim (365.8 m) on days 0, 5, and 11. Swim performance was assessed from a maximal front crawl swim (365.8 m), two maximal front crawl sprints (22.9 m), and a semi-tethered swim power test. No significant changes were observed in performance. Pre-exercise serum cortisol (17.5 +/- 1.5, 19.5 +/- 1.6, and 20.6 +/- 1.2 micrograms.dl-1 for days 0, 5, and 11, respectively) and creatine kinase (56.2 +/- 7.7, 93.1 +/- 10.1, and 119.0 +/- 23.1 U.l-1 for days 0, 5, and 11, respectively) values were significantly elevated (P less than 0.05) on days 5 and 11 compared to day 0. Resting plasma catecholamine concentrations were higher but not significantly different (P greater than 0.05) at the end of the training period. Measurements of hemoglobin and hematocrit indicated a relative increase of 11.4 +/- 2.7% (P less than 0.05) in estimated plasma volume during the training period. Resting blood glucose values were unaffected by the training regimen while small but significant decreases in resting blood lactate values (1.01 +/- 0.06, 0.85 +/- 0.06, and 0.86 +/- 0.06 mmol.l-1 for days 0, 5, and 11, respectively) were observed on days 5 and 11. Resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure were not affected by the increased training load.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. From an indirect response pharmacodynamic model towards a secondary signal model of dose-response relationship between exercise training and physical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busso, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the suitability of using indirect responses for modeling the effects of physical training on performance. We formulated four different models assuming that increase in performance results of the transformation of a signal secondary to the primary stimulus which is the training dose. The models were designed to be used with experimental data with daily training amounts ascribed to input and performance measured at several dates ascribed to output. The models were tested using data obtained from six subjects who trained on a cycle ergometer over a 15-week period. The data fit for each subject was good for all of the models. Goodness-of-fit and consistency of parameter estimates favored the model that took into account the inhibition of production of training effect. This model produced an inverted-U shape graphic when plotting daily training dose against performance because of the effect of one training session on the cumulated effects of previous sessions. In conclusion, using secondary signal-dependent response provided a framework helpful for modeling training effect which could enhance the quantitative methods used to analyze how best to dose physical activity for athletic performance or healthy living. PMID:28074875

  11. Can biofeedback training of psychophysiological responses enhance athletes' sport performance? A practitioner's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusenjak, Nika; Grad, Anton; Tusak, Matej; Leskovsek, Matevz; Schwarzlin, Romina

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, biofeedback has become increasingly popular for its proven success in peak performance training - the psychophysiological preparation of athletes for high-stakes sport competitions, such as the Olympic games. The aim of this research was to test whether an 8-week period of exposure to biofeedback training could improve the psychophysiological control over competitive anxiety and enhance athletic performance in participating subjects. Participants of this study were highly competent athletes, each training in different sport disciplines. The experimental group consisted of 18 athletes (4 women, 14 men), whereas the Control group had 21 athletes (4 women, 17 men). All athletes were between 16 and 34 years old. The biofeedback device, Nexus 10, was used to detect and measure the psychophysiological responses of athletes. Athletes from both groups (control and experimental) were subjected to stress tests at the beginning of the study and once again at its conclusion. In between, the experimental group received training in biofeedback techniques. We then calculated the overall percentage of athletes in the experimental group compared with those in the control group who were able to control respiration, skin conductance, heart rate, blood flow amplitude, heart rate variability, and heart respiration coherence. One year following completion of the initial study, we questioned athletes from the experimental group, to determine whether they continued to use these skills and if they could detect any subsequent enhancement in their athletic performance. We demonstrated that a greater number of participants in the experimental group were able to successfully control their psychophysiological parameters, in comparison to their peers in the control group. Significant results (p biofeedback - psycho-regulation skills. Furthermore, these participants uniformly reported believing that these skills had enhanced their athletic performance and general well-being.

  12. Glycemic and insulinemic response to selected snack bars in trained versus sedentary individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompers, Willeke; Perry, Tracy L; Rose, Meredith C; Rehrer, Nancy J

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether glycemic index (GI) is influenced by training state. Participants were tested in a randomized order: twice with a reference solution containing 50 g glucose and once each with 2 commercially available snack bars (Griffin's Fruitli bar and Peak Fuel's Summit bar) containing 50 g available carbohydrate. Eleven of the participants (6 men and 5 women, M + or - SD age 20.8 + or - 2.0 yr) were endurance trained (ET; VO(2max) 57.5 + or - 8.4 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) ), and 9 participants (2 men and 7 women, M + or - SD age 22.4 + or - 1.8 yr) were sedentary (SE; VO(2max) 43.7 + or - 9.1 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) ). After an overnight fast, participants consumed either the glucose solution or snack bar, with blood samples taken before eating and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after eating began. The mean incremental area under the curve (IAUC) of the glucose reference was 31% lower (95% CI 3-52%, p = .03), and the Fruitli bar 38% lower (95% CI 0-61%, p = .05) in ET than in SE participants. There was a trend for the IAUC for the Summit bar to be 35% lower in ET than in SE participants (95% CI -7% to 61% p = .09). There was no significant interaction between training state and test food. The GIs of the Fruitli and Summit bars was not significantly different between ET and SE participants (p = .65 and .54, respectively). ET participants had a lower glycemic response than SE participants; however, training state did not influence GI.

  13. The Duration of Motor Responses Evoked with Intracortical Microstimulation in Rats Is Primarily Modulated by Stimulus Amplitude and Train Duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Watson

    Full Text Available Microstimulation of brain tissue plays a key role in a variety of sensory prosthetics, clinical therapies and research applications, however the effects of stimulation parameters on the responses they evoke remain widely unknown. In particular, the effects of parameters when delivered in the form of a stimulus train as opposed to a single pulse are not well understood despite the prevalence of stimulus train use. We aimed to investigate the contribution of each parameter of a stimulus train to the duration of the motor responses they evoke in forelimb muscles. We used constant-current, biphasic, square wave pulse trains in acute terminal experiments under ketamine anaesthesia. Stimulation parameters were systematically tested in a pair-wise fashion in the caudal forelimb region of the motor cortex in 7 Sprague-Dawley rats while motor evoked potential (MEP recordings from the forelimb were used to quantify the influence of each parameter in the train. Stimulus amplitude and train duration were shown to be the dominant parameters responsible for increasing the total duration of the MEP, while interphase interval had no effect. Increasing stimulus frequency from 100-200 Hz or pulse duration from 0.18-0.34 ms were also effective methods of extending response durations. Response duration was strongly correlated with peak time and amplitude. Our findings suggest that motor cortex intracortical microstimulations are often conducted at a higher frequency rate and longer train duration than necessary to evoke maximal response duration. We demonstrated that the temporal properties of the evoked response can be both predicted by certain response metrics and modulated via alterations to the stimulation signal parameters.

  14. Effect of energy expenditure and training status on leptin response to sub-maximal cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouassida, Anissa; Chatard, Jean-Claude; Chamari, Karim; Zaouali, Monia; Feki, Youssef; Gharbi, Najoua; Zbidi, Abdelkarim; Tabka, Zouhaïr

    2009-01-01

    We examined the leptin response and related hormones during and after two sub-maximal exercise protocols in trained and untrained subjects. During this study, plasma concentrations of leptin [Lep], insulin [I], cortisol [C], growth hormone [GH], glucose [G] and lactate [La] were measured. 7 elite volleyball trained players (TR) and 7 untrained (UTR) subjects (percent body fat: 13.2 ± 1.8 versus 15.7 ± 1.0, p < 0.01, respectively) were examined after short and prolonged sub-maximal cycling exercise protocols (SP and PP). Venous blood samples were collected before each protocol, during, at the end, and after 2 and 24 h of recovery. SP and PP energy expenditures ranged from 470 ± 60 to 740 ± 90 kcal for TR and from 450 ± 60 to 710 ± 90 kcal for UTR, respectively. [Lep] was related to body fat percentage and body fat mass in TR (r = 0. 84, p < 0.05 and r = 0.93, p < 0.01) and in UTR (r = 0.89, p < 0.01 and r = 0.92, p < 0. 01, respectively). [Lep] did not change significantly during both protocols for both groups but was lower (p < 0.05) in all sampling in TR when compared to UTR. Plasma [I] decreased (p < 0.01) and [GH] increased (p < 0.01) significantly during both SP and PP and these hormones remained lower (I: p < 0.01) and higher (GH: p < 0.01) than pre-exercise levels after a 2-h recovery period, returning to base-line at 24-h recovery. Plasma [La] increased (p < 0.01) during both protocols for TR and UTR. There was no significant change in [C] and [G] during and after both protocols for all subjects. It is concluded that 1) leptin is not sensitive to acute short or prolonged sub-maximal exercises (with energy expenditure under 800 kcal) in volleyball/ anaerobically trained athletes as in untrained subjects, 2) volleyball athletes showed significantly lower resting and exercise leptin response with respect to untrained subjects and 3) it appears that in these anaerobically trained athletes leptin response to exercise is more sensitive to the level of energy

  15. EFFECT OF ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND TRAINING STATUS ON LEPTIN RESPONSE TO SUB-MAXIMAL CYCLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anissa Bouassida

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the leptin response and related hormones during and after two sub-maximal exercise protocols in trained and untrained subjects. During this study, plasma concentrations of leptin [Lep], insulin [I], cortisol [C], growth hormone [GH], glucose [G] and lactate [La] were measured. 7 elite volleyball trained players (TR and 7 untrained (UTR subjects (percent body fat: 13.2 ± 1.8 versus 15.7 ± 1.0, p < 0.01, respectively were examined after short and prolonged sub-maximal cycling exercise protocols (SP and PP. Venous blood samples were collected before each protocol, during, at the end, and after 2 and 24 h of recovery. SP and PP energy expenditures ranged from 470 ± 60 to 740 ± 90 kcal for TR and from 450 ± 60 to 710 ± 90 kcal for UTR, respectively. [Lep] was related to body fat percentage and body fat mass in TR (r = 0. 84, p < 0.05 and r = 0.93, p < 0.01 and in UTR (r = 0.89, p < 0.01 and r = 0.92, p < 0. 01, respectively. [Lep] did not change significantly during both protocols for both groups but was lower (p < 0.05 in all sampling in TR when compared to UTR. Plasma [I] decreased (p < 0.01 and [GH] increased (p < 0.01 significantly during both SP and PP and these hormones remained lower (I: p < 0.01 and higher (GH: p < 0.01 than pre-exercise levels after a 2-h recovery period, returning to base-line at 24-h recovery. Plasma [La] increased (p < 0.01 during both protocols for TR and UTR. There was no significant change in [C] and [G] during and after both protocols for all subjects. It is concluded that 1 leptin is not sensitive to acute short or prolonged sub-maximal exercises (with energy expenditure under 800 kcal in volleyball/ anaerobically trained athletes as in untrained subjects, 2 volleyball athletes showed significantly lower resting and exercise leptin response with respect to untrained subjects and 3 it appears that in these anaerobically trained athletes leptin response to exercise is more sensitive to the level of

  16. Insulin relaxes bladder via PI3K/AKT/eNOS pathway activation in mucosa: unfolded protein response-dependent insulin resistance as a cause of obesity-associated overactive bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiria, Luiz O; Sollon, Carolina; Báu, Fernando R; Mónica, Fabíola Z; D’Ancona, Carlos L; De Nucci, Gilberto; Grant, Andrew D; Anhê, Gabriel F; Antunes, Edson

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the role of insulin in the bladder and its relevance for the development of overactive bladder (OAB) in insulin-resistant obese mice. Bladders from male individuals who were involved in multiple organ donations were used. C57BL6/J mice were fed with a high-fat diet for 10 weeks to induce insulin-resistant obesity. Concentration–response curves to insulin were performed in human and mouse isolated mucosa-intact and mucosa-denuded bladders. Cystometric study was performed in terminally anaesthetized mice. Western blot was performed in bladders to detect phosphorylated endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) (Ser1177) and the phosphorylated protein kinase AKT (Ser473), as well as the unfolded protein response (UPR) markers TRIB3, CHOP and ATF4. Insulin (1–100 nm) produced concentration-dependent mouse and human bladder relaxations that were markedly reduced by mucosal removal or inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/eNOS pathway. In mouse bladders, insulin produced a 3.0-fold increase in cGMP levels (P insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT and eNOS in bladder mucosa. Obese mice showed greater voiding frequency and non-voiding contractions, indicating overactive detrusor smooth muscle. Insulin failed to relax the bladder or to increase cGMP in the obese group. Insulin-stimulated AKT and eNOS phosphorylation in mucosa was also impaired in obese mice. The UPR markers TRIB3, CHOP and ATF4 were increased in the mucosa of obese mice. The UPR inhibitor 4-phenyl butyric acid normalized all the functional and molecular parameters in obese mice. Our data show that insulin relaxes human and mouse bladder via activation of the PI3K/AKT/eNOS pathway in the bladder mucosa. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent insulin resistance in bladder contributes to OAB in obese mice. PMID:23478138

  17. Training response to high-intensity interval training in a 42-year-old man with chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnish, Christopher R; Daniels, Jonathan A; Caruso, Deborah

    2017-03-01

    To review the outcome of 12 weeks of periodized, high-intensity interval training (HIT) in a man with chronic traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). A 42-year-old man (180 cm tall, 68.4 kg and 32.0% Fat) with a C8/T1 motor complete SCI took part in 12 weeks of 3 days per week arm crank ergometry (ACE) interval training. Training consisted of a combination of HIT that included three times 5  min at ∼70% Peak Power (WPeak) and 5  min recovery (HIT5); four times 2.5  min at ∼85% WPeak and 5  min recovery (HIT2.5); ten times 1  min at ∼110% WPeak and 2  min recovery (HIT1). Heart rate (HR) zones were set as VO2 Peak improved about 45% and 52%, respectively, by week 6, without further improvement at week 12, HR TRIMP scores and power in training sessions trended upward over the 12-week program. Twelve weeks of HIT resulted in a large increase in peak aerobic power, as well as submaximal endurance performance in our participant. The early plateau in maximal testing supports the use of submaximal training assessment important in the long-term training monitoring for SCI.

  18. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate attenuates cytokine response during sustained military training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jay R; Gepner, Yiftach; Stout, Jeffrey R; Hoffman, Mattan W; Ben-Dov, Daniel; Funk, Shany; Daimont, Ido; Jajtner, Adam R; Townsend, Jeremy R; Church, David D; Shelef, Ilan; Rosen, Philip; Avital, Guy; Chen, Yacov; Frankel, Hagai; Ostfeld, Ishay

    2016-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that of 23 days of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation can maintain muscle mass and attenuate the immune and inflammatory response in combat soldiers during highly intense military training. Soldiers were randomly assigned to either a HMB (n = 6) or placebo (PL; n = 7) group and provided with 3 g · day(-1) of either HMB or PL. During the final week of supplementation soldiers participated in extreme physical training, which included night navigation of 6-8 hours across difficult terrain carrying heavy loads combined with sleep deprivation (3.8 ± 3.0 h per night). Blood draws were performed prior to and following the supplementation period. Magnetic resonance imaging, which included diffusion tensor imaging sequence, was used for muscle fiber tracking analysis. Data was analyzed using a two-way mixed factorial analysis of variance. Magnitude-based inferences were used to provide inferences on the true effects that HMB may have had on the dependent variables compared to PL, calculated from 90% confidence intervals. Changes in tumor necrosis factor-α for HMB (-3.9 ± 8.2 pg · mL(-1)) were significantly lower (P = .043) compared to the change in PL (+4.0 ± 3.7 pg · mL(-1)). HMB ingestion was also very likely (92%-95% Likelihood) to lower granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and interleukin 10 compared to PL. In addition, HMB supplementation was likely (78%-87% likelihood) to reduce interferon-γ, interleukin 8, CX3CL1, and increase muscle volume for the adductor magnus (77% likelihood) compared to PL. In summary, the results of this study provides evidence that HMB supplementation may attenuate the inflammatory response to high intense military training, and maintain muscle quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Engagement in Training as a Mechanism to Understanding Fidelity of Implementation of the Responsive Classroom Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanless, Shannon B; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Abry, Tashia; Larsen, Ross A; Patton, Christine L

    2015-11-01

    Fidelity of implementation of classroom interventions varies greatly, a reality that is concerning because higher fidelity of implementation relates to greater effectiveness of the intervention. We analyzed 126 fourth and fifth grade teachers from the treatment group of a randomized controlled trial of the Responsive Classroom® (RC) approach. Prior to training in the intervention, we assessed factors that had the potential to represent a teacher's readiness to implement with fidelity. These included teachers' observed emotional support, teacher-rated use of intervention practices, teacher-rated self-efficacy, teacher-rated collective responsibility, education level, and years of experience, and they were not directly related to observed fidelity of implementation 2 years later. Further analyses indicated, however, that RC trainers' ratings of teachers' engagement in the initial weeklong RC training mediated the relation between initial observed emotional support and later observed fidelity of implementation. We discuss these findings as a way to advance understanding of teachers' readiness to implement new interventions with fidelity.

  20. Cortical gene transcription response patterns to water maze training in aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bronwen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hippocampus mediates the acquisition of spatial memory, but the memory trace is eventually transferred to the cortex. We have investigated transcriptional activation of pathways related to cognitive function in the cortex of the aged mouse by analyzing gene expression following water maze training. Results We identified genes that were differentially responsive in aged mice with accurate spatial performance during probe trials or repeated swimming sessions, relative to home cage conditions. Effective learners exhibited significantly greater activation of several pathways, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase and insulin receptor signaling pathways, relative to swimmers. The genes encoding activity-related cytoskeletal protein (Arc and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were upregulated in proficient learners, relative to swimmers and home cage controls, while the gene encoding Rho GTPase activating protein 32 (GRIT was downregulated. We explored the regulation of Arc, BDNF, and GRIT expression in greater morphological detail using in situ hybridization. Recall during probe trials enhanced Arc expression across multiple cortical regions involved in the cognitive component of water maze learning, while BDNF expression was more homogeneously upregulated across cortical regions involved in the associational and sensorimotor aspects of water maze training. In contrast, levels of GRIT expression were uniformly reduced across all cortical regions examined. Conclusions These results suggest that cortical gene transcription is responsive to learning in aged mice that exhibit behavioral proficiency, and support a distributed hypothesis of memory storage across multiple cortical compartments.

  1. EMG and heart rate responses decline within 5 days of daily whole-body vibration training with squatting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rosenberger

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the acute effects of a 5-day daily whole-body vibration (WBV training on electromyography (EMG responses of the m. rectus femoris and m. gastrocnemius lateralis, heart rate (HR, continuously recorded, and blood lactate levels. The purpose of the study was to investigate the adaptation of muscle activity, heart rate and blood lactate levels during 5 days of daily training. Two groups of healthy male subjects performed either squat exercises with vibration at 20 Hz on a side alternating platform (SE+V, n = 20, age  = 31.9±7.5 yrs., height  = 178.8±6.2 cm, body mass  = 79.2±11.4 kg or squat exercises alone (SE, n = 21, age  = 28.4±7.3 years, height  = 178.9±7.4 cm, body mass  = 77.2±9.7 kg. On training day 1, EMG amplitudes of the m. rectus femoris were significantly higher (P<0.05 during SE+V than during SE. However, this difference was no longer statistically significant on training days 3 and 5. The heart rate (HR response was significantly higher (P<0.05 during SE+V than during SE on all training days, but showed a constant decline throughout the training days. On training day 1, blood lactate increased significantly more after SE+V than after SE (P<0.05. On the following training days, this difference became much smaller but remained significantly different. The specific physiological responses to WBV were largest on the initial training day and most of them declined during subsequent training days, showing a rapid neuromuscular and cardiovascular adaptation to the vibration stimulus.

  2. The effects of traditional, superset, and tri-set resistance training structures on perceived intensity and physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weakley, Jonathon J S; Till, Kevin; Read, Dale B; Roe, Gregory A B; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Phibbs, Padraic J; Jones, Ben

    2017-07-11

    Investigate the acute and short-term (i.e., 24 h) effects of traditional (TRAD), superset (SS), and tri-set (TRI) resistance training protocols on perceptions of intensity and physiological responses. Fourteen male participants completed a familiarisation session and three resistance training protocols (i.e., TRAD, SS, and TRI) in a randomised-crossover design. Rating of perceived exertion, lactate concentration ([Lac]), creatine kinase concentration ([CK]), countermovement jump (CMJ), testosterone, and cortisol concentrations was measured pre, immediately, and 24-h post the resistance training sessions with magnitude-based inferences assessing changes/differences within/between protocols. TRI reported possible to almost certainly greater efficiency and rate of perceived exertion, although session perceived load was very likely lower. SS and TRI had very likely to almost certainly greater lactate responses during the protocols, with changes in [CK] being very likely and likely increased at 24 h, respectively. At 24-h post-training, CMJ variables in the TRAD protocol had returned to baseline; however, SS and TRI were still possibly to likely reduced. Possible increases in testosterone immediately post SS and TRI protocols were reported, with SS showing possible increases at 24-h post-training. TRAD and SS showed almost certain and likely decreases in cortisol immediately post, respectively, with TRAD reporting likely decreases at 24-h post-training. SS and TRI can enhance training efficiency and reduce training time. However, acute and short-term physiological responses differ between protocols. Athletes can utilise SS and TRI resistance training, but may require additional recovery post-training to minimise effects of fatigue.

  3. Influence of aerobic exercise training on post-exercise responses of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiko eAkazawa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Central arterial blood pressure (BP is more predictive of future cardiovascular events than is brachial BP because it reflects the BP load imposed on the left ventricle with greater accuracy. However, little is known about the effects of exercise training on central hemodynamic response to acute exercise. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of an aerobic exercise regimen on the response of aortic BP after a single aerobic exercise in postmenopausal women. Nine healthy postmenopausal women (age: 61 ± 2 years participated in a 12-week aerobic exercise training regimen. Before and after the training, each subjects performed a single bout of cycling at ventilatory thresholds for 30 min. We evaluated the post-exercise aortic BP response, which was estimated via the general transfer function from applanation tonometry. After the initial pre-training aerobic exercise session, aortic BP did not change significantly: however, aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure were significantly attenuated after the single aerobic exercise session following the 12-week training regimen. The present study demonstrated that a regular aerobic exercise training regimen induced the post-exercise reduction of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure. Regular aerobic exercise training may enhance post-exercise reduction in aortic BP.

  4. Molecular Relaxation in Liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Bagchi, Biman

    2012-01-01

    This book brings together many different relaxation phenomena in liquids under a common umbrella and provides a unified view of apparently diverse phenomena. It aligns recent experimental results obtained with modern techniques with recent theoretical developments. Such close interaction between experiment and theory in this area goes back to the works of Einstein, Smoluchowski, Kramers' and de Gennes. Development of ultrafast laser spectroscopy recently allowed study of various relaxation processes directly in the time domain, with time scales going down to picosecond (ps) and femtosecond (fs

  5. Effects of the training status on the hormonal response and recovery from high-intensity isokinetic exercise: comparisons between endurance-trained athletes and sedentary subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetto, M A; Paccotti, P; Borrione, P; Massazza, G; Ventura, M; Termine, A; Di Luigi, L; Pigozzi, F; Angeli, A

    2006-09-01

    Aims of the study were: to determine the differences in the mechanical, hormonal and lactate responses to a high-intensity isokinetic exercise in two groups of endurance-trained athletes (EA, n = 11) and sedentary subjects (SED, n = 11); to evaluate the relationships between the hormonal and lactate responses; to evaluate the effects of the training status on the pituitary responsiveness to the exercise. EA and SED completed, for each leg, 4 sets of 20 maximal concentric contractions of the knee extensor muscle groups at 180 degrees s-1 angular velocity. Blood and saliva for hormonal and lactate determinations were sampled before, immediately after the test and during the subsequent recovery of 2 hours. The exercise was completed by all subjects and elicited significant mechanical and biochemical responses both in EA and in SED subjects. No differences were found between the two groups both in the mechanical performances and in the increases of lactate and hormones of the pituitary-adrenal axis or in the comparison of the slopes of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone recovery after the peak. The correlation analyses showed significant positive relationships between lactate peak values and percentages of change for ACTH (r2 = 0.16, P training status on the pituitary responsiveness to exercise was evident, as it was indirectly confirmed by no abnormalities in the rates of hormonal recovery after the exercise session.

  6. Cost-Effective Stress Management Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Gordon F.

    1980-01-01

    Stress management training can be a cost effective way to improve productivity and job performance. Among many relaxation techniques, the most effective in terms of teachability, participant motivation, and profitability are self-hypnosis, progressive relaxation, and transcendental meditation. (SK)

  7. Similar inflammatory responses following sprint interval training performed in hypoxia and normoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan James Richardson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sprint interval training (SIT is an efficient intervention capable of improving aerobic capacity and exercise performance. This experiment aimed to determine differences in training adaptations and the inflammatory responses following 2 weeks of SIT (30s maximal work, 4 min recovery; 4-7 repetitions performed in normoxia or hypoxia. Forty-two untrained participants [(mean ± SD, age 21 ±1 yrs, body mass 72.1 ±11.4 kg and height 173 ±10 cm] were equally and randomly assigned to one of three groups; control (CONT; no training, n = 14, normoxic (NORM; SIT in FiO2: 0.21, n = 14 and normobaric hypoxic (HYP; SIT in FiO2: 0.15, n = 14. Participants completed a V̇O2peak test, a time to exhaustion (TTE trial (power = 80% V̇O2peak and had haematological [haemoglobin (Hb, haematocrit (Hct] and inflammatory markers [interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα] measured in a resting state, pre and post SIT. V̇O2peak (mL.kg-1.min-1 improved in HYP (+11.9% and NORM (+9.8%, but not CON (+0.9%. Similarly TTE improved in HYP (+32.2% and NORM (+33.0%, but not CON (+3.4% whilst the power at the anaerobic threshold (AT; W.kg-1 also improved in HYP (+13.3% and NORM (+8.0%, but not CON (-0.3%. AT (mL.kg-1.min-1 improved in HYP (+9.5%, but not NORM (+5% or CON (-0.3%. No between group change occurred in 30 s sprint performance or Hb and Hct. IL-6 increased in HYP (+17.4% and NORM (+20.1%, but not CON (+1.2% respectively. TNF-α increased in HYP (+10.8% NORM (+12.9% and CON (+3.4%.SIT in HYP and NORM increased VO2peak, power at AT and TTE performance in untrained individuals, improvements in AT occurred only when SIT was performed in HYP. Increases in IL-6 and TNFα reflect a training induced inflammatory response to SIT; hypoxic conditions do not exacerbate this.

  8. How Exactly Do I “Let Go”? The Potential of Using ACT to Overcome the Relaxation Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Wilson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Relaxation induced anxiety (RIA or relaxation induced panic (RIP occurs when a person’s attempts to reduce anxiety result in increased arousal. Such paradoxical increases often occur when relaxation is viewed as the avoidance of anxiety-related experiences. In fact, passivity toward these experiences is necessary for successful relaxation. However, passivity is not always easy to understand. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT has attracted increasing interest in recent years and adopts a similar position with regard to experiential avoidance. Reviewing literature on the relaxation paradox, this article argues that incorporating elements of ACT into relaxation training might help overcome some problems with passivity in relaxation.

  9. Dynamic response of a long span suspension bridge and running safety of a train under wind action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Weiwei; XIA He; XU Youlin

    2007-01-01

    A dynamic analysis model of a wind-train-bridge system is established.The wind excitations of the system are the buffeting and self-excited forces simulated in time domain using measured aerodynamic coefficients and flutter derivatives.The proposed formulations are then applied to a long rail-cum-road suspension bridge.The dynamic responses of the bridge and the train under wind action are analyzed.The results show that the lateral and rotational displacements of the bridge are dominated by wind,while the vertical by the gravity loading of the moving train.The running safeties of the train vehicles are much affected by wind.Under wind conditions of 30-40 m/s,the offioad factors,derail factors and overturn factors of the train vehicles exceed the safety allowances,to which great attention should be paid.

  10. Behavioral and Neurological Responses to Musical Features in Adolescent Cochlear Implant Users Before and After an Intensive Musical Training Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn

    This study aimed to investigate perception and processing of musical features in prelingually deaf adolescent CI-users and examine whether this is influenced by music training. Eleven adolescent CI-users received intensive music training for two weeks. Before and after training they completed...... a session of behavioral tests and EEG recordings. CI users significantly improved their overall behavioral perception of music and, in particular, their discrimination of melodic contour and rhythm. Though smaller and later compared to normal-hearing controls, CI-users showed significant mismatch negativity...... responses for timbre, intensity and rhythm but not for pitch. No effect of training was found in the MMN responses. The findings indicate that despite congenital deafness and late implantation, young CI users are able to discriminate details in music. Furthermore, the behavioral advances suggest that...

  11. Reinstatement of short-latency responses after asymptotic Pavlovian conditioning training by the presentation of an extraneous stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Edgar H

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the progressive disappearance of short-latency conditioned responses, or inhibition of delay, observed in Pavlovian conditioning with long inter-stimulus intervals, could be reverted by the presentation of a novel stimulus. In one experiment, two groups of rabbits received extensive training with a short (250 ms) or a long (1500 ms) tone that overlapped and terminated with a periorbital shock unconditioned stimulus. After training, the presentation of an extraneous stimulus prior to tone onset produced a reinstatement of short latency CRs in the group trained with the long CS, but did not affect CR latency in the group trained with the short CS. This finding is consistent with Pavlov's (1927) view that conditioning with long conditioned stimuli involves the acquisition of response tendencies in the early portion of the stimulus that are subsequently suppressed by the development of an inhibitory process.

  12. Insulin-resistant subjects have normal angiogenic response to aerobic exercise training in skeletal muscle, but not in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, R Grace; Finlin, Brian S; Mula, Jyothi; Long, Douglas E; Zhu, Beibei; Fry, Christopher S; Westgate, Philip M; Lee, Jonah D; Bennett, Tamara; Kern, Philip A; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2015-06-01

    Reduced vessel density in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle is associated with obesity and may result in decreased perfusion, decreased oxygen consumption, and insulin resistance. In the presence of VEGFA, Angiopoietin-2 (Angpt2) and Angiopoietin-1 (Angpt1) are central determinants of angiogenesis, with greater Angpt2:Angpt1 ratios promoting angiogenesis. In skeletal muscle, exercise training stimulates angiogenesis and modulates transcription of VEGFA, Angpt1, and Angpt2. However, it remains unknown whether exercise training stimulates vessel growth in human adipose tissue, and it remains unknown whether adipose angiogenesis is mediated by angiopoietin signaling. We sought to determine whether insulin-resistant subjects would display an impaired angiogenic response to aerobic exercise training. Insulin-sensitive (IS, N = 12) and insulin-resistant (IR, N = 14) subjects had subcutaneous adipose and muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies before and after 12 weeks of cycle ergometer training. In both tissues, we measured vessels and expression of pro-angiogenic genes. Exercise training did not increase insulin sensitivity in IR Subjects. In skeletal muscle, training resulted in increased vessels/muscle fiber and increased Angpt2:Angpt1 ratio in both IR and IS subjects. However, in adipose, exercise training only induced angiogenesis in IS subjects, likely due to chronic suppression of VEGFA expression in IR subjects. These results indicate that skeletal muscle of IR subjects exhibits a normal angiogenic response to exercise training. However, the same training regimen is insufficient to induce angiogenesis in adipose tissue of IR subjects, which may help to explain why we did not observe improved insulin sensitivity following aerobic training.

  13. Mechanical load and physiological responses of four different resistance training methods in bench press exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Sebastian; Wirtz, Nicolas; Yue, Zengyuan; Kleinöder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the mechanical impact and the corresponding physiological responses of 4 different and often practically applied resistance training methods (RTMs). Ten healthy male subjects (27.3 ± 3.2 years) experienced in resistance training performed 1 exhausting set of bench press exercise until exhaustion for each of the following RTMs: strength endurance (SE), fast force endurance (FFE), hypertrophy (HYP), and maximum strength (MAX). The RTMs were defined by different lifting masses and different temporal distributions of the contraction modes per repetition. Mean concentric power (P), total concentric work (W), and exercise time (EXTIME) were determined. Oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) was measured during exercise and for 30 minutes postexercise. Mean V[Combining Dot Above]O2, volume of consumed O2, and excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) were calculated over 30 minutes of recovery. Maximum blood lactate concentration (LAmax) was also determined postexercise. The P was significantly higher (p EPOC between all RTMs. The results indicate that FFE and MAX are adequate to train muscular power despite the discrepancy in the external load. Because FFE performance achieves the highest amount in mechanical work, it may also elicit the highest total energy expenditure. The FFE challenges aerobic metabolism most and SE enables the longest EXTIME, indicating both are appropriate to enhance aerobic muscular capacities. The EPOC and LA values may indicate that energy needs covered by anaerobic metabolism are not higher during HYP and MAX compared with the RTM of lower external load.

  14. Hormonal and inflammatory responses to different types of sprint interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan; Bar-Sela, Sheli; Radom-Aizik, Shlomit; Cooper, Dan M; Sagiv, Moran; Eliakim, Alon

    2011-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of different types of sprint interval sessions on the balance between anabolic and catabolic hormones and circulating inflammatory cytokines. Twelve healthy elite junior handball players (17-25 years) participated in the study. Exercise consisted of increasing distance (100 m, 200 m, 300 m, 400 m) and decreasing distance (400 m, 300 m, 200 m, 100 m) sprint interval runs on a treadmill (at random order), at a constant work rate of 80% of the personal maximal speed (calculated from the maximal speed of a 100 m run). The total rest period between the runs in the different interval sessions were similar. Blood samples were collected before, after each run, and after 1-hour recovery. Both types of sprint interval trainings led to a significant (p sprint interval sessions led to a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators IL-1, IL-6, and IL1ra. IL-6 remained elevated in both sessions after 1-hour recovery. Area under the curve was significantly greater (p < 0.05) for lactate and growth hormone (GH) in the decreasing distance session. In contrast, rate of perceived exertion was higher in the increasing distance session, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.07). Changes in anabolic-catabolic hormones and inflammatory mediators can be used to gauge the training intensity of anaerobic-type exercise. Changes in the GH-IGF-I axis and testosterone level suggest exercise-related anabolic adaptations. Increases in inflammatory mediators may indicate their important role in muscle tissue repair after anaerobic exercise. The decreasing distance interval was associated with a greater metabolic (lactate) and anabolic (GH) response but not with a higher rate of perceived exertion. Coaches and athletes should be aware of these differences, and as a result, of a need for specific recovery adaptations after different interval training protocols.

  15. Neural responses in songbird forebrain reflect learning rates, acquired salience, and stimulus novelty after auditory discrimination training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Brittany A; Phan, Mimi L; Vicario, David S

    2015-03-01

    How do social interactions form and modulate the neural representations of specific complex signals? This question can be addressed in the songbird auditory system. Like humans, songbirds learn to vocalize by imitating tutors heard during development. These learned vocalizations are important in reproductive and social interactions and in individual recognition. As a model for the social reinforcement of particular songs, male zebra finches were trained to peck for a food reward in response to one song stimulus (GO) and to withhold responding for another (NoGO). After performance reached criterion, single and multiunit neural responses to both trained and novel stimuli were obtained from multiple electrodes inserted bilaterally into two songbird auditory processing areas [caudomedial mesopallium (CMM) and caudomedial nidopallium (NCM)] of awake, restrained birds. Neurons in these areas undergo stimulus-specific adaptation to repeated song stimuli, and responses to familiar stimuli adapt more slowly than to novel stimuli. The results show that auditory responses differed in NCM and CMM for trained (GO and NoGO) stimuli vs. novel song stimuli. When subjects were grouped by the number of training days required to reach criterion, fast learners showed larger neural responses and faster stimulus-specific adaptation to all stimuli than slow learners in both areas. Furthermore, responses in NCM of fast learners were more strongly left-lateralized than in slow learners. Thus auditory responses in these sensory areas not only encode stimulus familiarity, but also reflect behavioral reinforcement in our paradigm, and can potentially be modulated by social interactions.

  16. Relaxation from a voluntary contraction is preceded by increased excitability of motor cortical inhibitory circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccolieri, Alessandro; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Rothwell, John C

    2004-07-15

    Termination of a muscle contraction is as important a part of movement as muscle activation yet the mechanisms responsible are less well understood. In the present experiments we examined the possible role of intracortical inhibitory circuits in terminating a 20% maximum isometric contraction of the first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) in eight healthy subjects. Subjects performed the task simultaneously with both hands and received single or pairs (at an interstimulus interval of 3 ms to evaluate short interval intracortical inhibition, SICI) of transcranial magnetic stimuli (TMS) via a focal coil over the motor hand area of the left hemisphere at different times before and after the onset of relaxation. The amplitude of the motor-evoked potential (MEP) following a single or a pair of TMS pulses was measured in the right FDI and plotted relative to the onset of relaxation as estimated from the surface electromyogram (EMG) of the left FDI. MEPs were larger during contraction than after relaxation whereas SICI was absent during contraction and reappeared after relaxation. We found that in all subjects, the time course of MEP changes during relaxation was closely fitted by a Boltzmann sigmoidal curve which allowed us to estimate the mean MEP amplitudes as well as the ratio of the amplitudes after single or pairs of TMS pulses (i.e.%SICI) at any time in the task. The data showed that the amplitude of MEPs to single pulse TMS had started to decline at about the same time as the onset of EMG silence. Furthermore, the size of the MEPs evoked by paired pulses decreased up to 30 ms beforehand. The latter suggests that an increase in SICI occurs prior to the onset of MEP changes, and hence that increased cortical inhibition may play a role in suppressing corticospinal excitability during relaxation. A subsidiary experiment showed that the time relations of changes in SICI and MEP were unchanged by a period of 10 min training on the task.

  17. Botulinum toxin A for palmar hyperhidrosis: assessment with sympathetic skin responses evoked by train of stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hashel, J Y; Youssry, D; Rashaed, H M; Shamov, T; Rousseff, R T

    2016-07-01

    Objective assessment of the effect of botulinum toxin A (BT) treatment in primary palmar hyperhidrosis (PH) is attempted by different methods. We decided to use for this purpose sympathetic skin responses evoked by train of stimuli (TSSR). Twenty patients with severe PH (five female, median age 24, range 18-36) were examined regularly over 3 months after receiving 50 UI BT in each palm. TSSR were recorded from the palms after sensory stimulation by a train of three supramaximal electric pulses 3 millisecond apart. Results were compared to longitudinally studied TSSR of 20 healthy sex- and age-matched control subjects. All hyperhidrosis patients reported excellent improvement. TSSR amplitudes decreased at week 1 (mean 54% range 48%-67%) and over the following months in a clinically significant trend (slope R=-.82, P<.0001). TSSR in controls changed insignificantly (±13% from the baseline). The difference between patients and controls was highly significant at any time point (P<.001). This study suggests that TSSR may help in assessment of treatments in PH. It confirms objectively the efficacy of BT in PH.

  18. Exercise training on chronotropic response and exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li; Min, Gao; Wei, Chen; Min, He; Jie, Zhou

    2017-03-01

    The study was designed to observe the effects and relationship of exercise on chronotropic response (CR) and exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 30 patients with T2DM underwent symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) after excluding contraindication. For each subject individualized exercise prescription was formulated, and they received 12 weeks of exercise training after CPET retest to complete the comparison of CR indicators, including the ratio of maximum exercise heart rate to predicted maximum heart rate value (rHR), heart rate reserve rate (HRRes), heart rate recovery (HRR) of 1-6 min after exercise termination (HRR1-6), exercise capacity (peak VO2/kg) and other indicators. The results showed that after 12 weeks of exercise treatment, rHR, HRRes, HRR1-6, and peak VO2/kg were significantly higher than before (Pexercise training can improve cardiac dysfunction, abnormal HRR, enhance exercise capacity and adaptability of the cardiovascular system to exercise stress in T2DM patients.

  19. Ventilatory responses of trained and untrained subjects during running and walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M J; Robergs, R A; Weyrich, A S; Puntenney, P J

    1988-10-01

    To investigate the influence of stride frequency on ventilation in different subject populations, the ventilatory responses to walking and running at similar metabolic loads were studied in 29 males. Ten of the males were well-trained, highly fit runners (HFR), ten were well-trained, highly fit cyclists (HFC), and nine were healthy low-fit males (LFM) who did not engage in any form of regular exercise. All subjects completed two separate exercise bouts, a level run and an uphill walk, at 90% of their ventilatory threshold. Stride frequency was found to increase by 49% between the walk and run trials. Minute ventilation (VE), tidal volume (VT), breathing frequency (f), end-tibial CO2 tension (PETCO2), end-tidal O2 tension (PETO2), and inspiratory time (TI) were all significantly different (P less than 0.05) between the walk and run trials for the HFR. Minute ventilation and expiratory time (TE) did not differ significantly between the walk and run trials for the HFC; however, VT, f, PETCO2, PETO2, and TI were significantly different. Only PETCO2 and TI were found to be significantly different between the walk and run trials for the LFM. These results suggest that stride frequency affects ventilation to varying degrees dependent upon the subject population and that the mechanisms for the hyperpnea of moderate exercise operating in each of these subject populations involve a complex interaction of many factors.

  20. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to progressive resistance exercise intensity in trained and untrained males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Çakır-Atabek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative stress. RE trained (N=8 and untrained (N=8 men performed the leg extension RE at progressive intensities standardized for total volume: 1x17 reps at 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM; 1x14 reps at 60% of 1RM; 1x12 reps at 70% of 1RM; 2x5 reps at 80% of 1RM; and 3x3 reps at 90% of 1RM. Blood samples were drawn before (PRE and immediately after each intensity, and after 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 24 hours following the RE. Lipid-hydroperoxide (LHP significantly increased during the test and then decreased during the recovery in both groups (p0.05. Standardized volume of RE increased oxidative stress responses. Our study suggests that lower intensity (50% is enough to increase LHP, whereas higher intensity (more than 80% is required to evoke protein oxidation.

  1. Relaxation with biofeedback-assisted guided imagery: the importance of breathing rate as an index of hypoarousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, R

    1987-12-01

    Fifteen men and 35 women, suffering from a number of psychological and somatic disorders, were taught to relax by biofeedback-assisted deep-diaphragmatic breathing together with guided mental imagery. No instructions were given about rate. Breathing rate and pattern, PETCO2, and EEG were monitored before training and after the first three 2-minute training trials (session 1). In 27 subjects (54%), breathing patterns and rate were noted to resemble those reported by meditation practitioners (3 to 5 b/min). The PETCO2 and EEG changes support a hypothesis of metabolic hypoarousal. Four subjects spontaneously reported experiencing altered awareness. A centrally mediated hypoarousal response is tentatively implicated.

  2. Acute Responses To Resistance And High Intensity Interval Training In Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Nigel; Dulson, Deborah; Logan, Greig; Warbrick, Isaac; Merien, Fabrice; Lubans, David

    2016-08-16

    The purpose of this study was to compare the acute physiological responses within and between resistance training (RT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) matched for time and with comparable effort, in a school setting. Seventeen early adolescents (12.9 ± 0.3 y) performed both RT (2-5 repetitions perceived short of failure at the end of each set) and HIIT (90% of age predicted maximum heart rate), equated for total work set and recovery period durations comprising of 12 'sets' of 30 s work followed by 30 s recovery (total session time 12 min). Variables of interest included oxygen consumption, set and session heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and change in salivary cortisol (SC), salivary alpha amylase (SαA), and blood lactate (BL) from pre- to post-session. Analyses were conducted to determine responses within and between the two different protocols. For both RT and HIIT there were very large increases pre- to post-trial for SC and BL, and only BL increased greater in HIIT (9.1 ± 2.6 mmol·L) than RT (6.8 ± 3.3 mmol·L). Mean set HR for both RT (170 ± 9.1 bpm) and HIIT (179 ± 5.6 bpm) was at least 85% of HR maximum. VO2 over all 12 sets was greater for HIIT (33.8 ± 5.21 mL·kg·min) than RT (24.9 ± 3.23 mL·kg·min). Brief, repetitive, intermittent forays into high, but not supra-maximal intensity exercise utilising either RT or HIIT appeared to be a potent physiological stimulus in adolescents.

  3. Ultrasound assessment of lower limb muscle mass in response to resistance training in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menon Manoj K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantifying the improvements in lower limb or quadriceps muscle mass following resistance training (RT, is an important outcome measure in COPD. Ultrasound is a portable, radiation free imaging technique that can measure the size of superficial muscles belonging to the quadriceps group such as the rectus femoris, but has not been previously used in COPD patients following RT. We compared the responsiveness of ultrasound derived measures of quadriceps mass against dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, in patients with COPD and healthy controls following a programme of high intensity knee extensor RT. Methods Portable ultrasound was used to assess the size of the dominant quadriceps in 45 COPD patients and 19 healthy controls-before, during, and after 8 weeks of bilateral high intensity isokinetic knee extensor RT. Scanning was performed at the mid-thigh region, and 2 indices of quadriceps mass were measured-rectus femoris cross-sectional area (RFcsa and quadriceps muscle thickness (Qt. Thigh lean mass (Tdexa was determined by DEXA. Results Training resulted in a significant increase in Tdexa, RFcsa and Qt in COPD patients [5.7%, 21.8%, 12.1% respectively] and healthy controls [5.4%, 19.5%, 10.9 respectively]. The effect size for the changes in RFcsa (COPD= 0.77; Healthy=0.83 and Qt (COPD=0.36; Healthy=0.78 were greater than the changes in Tdexa (COPD=0.19; Healthy=0.26 following RT. Conclusions Serial ultrasound measurements of the quadriceps can detect changes in muscle mass in response to RT in COPD. The technique has good reproducibility, and may be more sensitive to changes in muscle mass when compared to DEXA. Trial registration http://www.controlled-trials.com (Identifier: ISRCTN22764439

  4. Collection Development: Relaxation & Meditation, September 1, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettus, Dodi

    2010-01-01

    One of the first books to document the relationship between stress and physical and emotional health was "The Relaxation Response" by Herbert Benson, M.D., with Miriam Z. Klipper. Originally published in 1975, the book grew out of Benson's observations as a cardiologist and his research as a fellow at Harvard Medical School. Benson's study of…

  5. Collection Development: Relaxation & Meditation, September 1, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettus, Dodi

    2010-01-01

    One of the first books to document the relationship between stress and physical and emotional health was "The Relaxation Response" by Herbert Benson, M.D., with Miriam Z. Klipper. Originally published in 1975, the book grew out of Benson's observations as a cardiologist and his research as a fellow at Harvard Medical School. Benson's study of…

  6. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  7. In search of augmentation at human SI: Somatosensory cortical responses to stimulus trains and their modulation by motor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Juha

    2010-05-17

    In many animal preparations, repeated stimulation at ca. 10 Hz in thalamic nuclei leads to rapid changes in the cortical evoked responses, known as the augmenting response. The present study was undertaken to evaluate whether anything similar to the augmenting response can be observed in awake human subjects when a peripheral nerve is stimulated, and whether a possible human correlate of augmenting would be modified when the subject is engaged in an active motor task. Somatosensory-evoked magnetic fields (SEFs) were recorded in healthy human subjects in response to stimulus trains (15 pulses at 10 Hz) applied to the left median nerve. SEFs were recorded in a resting condition and during a finger-tapping task performed with the stimulated hand. In the resting condition, the most marked change in the SEF configuration was a reduction of the P35m deflection and a concurrent enhancement of the N45m deflection during the 1st few stimuli of the trains. Another conspicuous feature was a prolongation of the latencies of the N45m and P60m deflections toward the end of the train. In the motor task, the response modulation during the pulse trains was in general similar to the resting condition. The most notable difference was that the P35m amplitude was markedly reduced already for the 1st pulse of the train when compared with rest. Also, the latencies of N45m and P60m were not prolonged during the train. We discuss the possibility that the reduction of P35m and a concurrent increase of N45m during a pulse train constitute a human analogue to the augmenting response, and suggest that these changes may reflect a decrease of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs, P35m) and an increase of secondary excitatory postsynaptic potentials (N45m) during stimulus train presentation. The reduction of P35m during motor activity compared with rest already at the beginning of stimulus trains suggests that postsynaptic IPSPs in response to afferent stimulation are reduced during active

  8. Cognitive Behavioral Training and Education for Spaceflight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonmaw, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral-training (CBT) is an evidence-based practice commonly used to help treat insomnia, and is part of NASA's countermeasure regimen for Fatigue Management. CBT addresses the life style and habits of individuals that are maladaptive to managing stress and fatigue. This includes addressing learned behavioral responses that may cause stress and lead to an increased sense of fatigue. While the initial cause of onset of fatigue in the individual may be no longer present, the perception and engrained anticipation of fatigue persist and cause an exaggerated state of tension. CBT combined with relaxation training allows the individual to unlearn the maladaptive beliefs and behaviors and replace them with routines and techniques that allow cognitive restructuring and resultant relief from stress. CBT allows for elimination in individuals of unwanted ruminating thoughts and anticipatory anxiety by, for example, training the individuals to practice stressful situations in a relaxed state. As a result of CBT, relaxation can be accomplished in many ways, such as progressive muscle relaxation, meditation and guided imagery. CBT is not therapy, but rather the synthesis of behavioral countermeasures. CBT utilizes progressive relaxation as a means of reinforcing educational and cognitive countermeasures. These countermeasures include: masking, elimination of distracting thoughts, anxiety control, split attention, cognitive restructuring and other advanced psychological techniques.

  9. Lipolytic response of adipocytes to epinephrine in sedentary and exercise-trained subjects: sex-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampes, F; Riviere, D; Beauville, M; Marceron, M; Garrigues, M

    1989-01-01

    Adipose tissue lipolytic activity is increased in endurance-trained subjects, but little is known about the mechanisms of this increase. To understand more fully the mechanisms involved and to discover whether sex-related differences exist, biopsies of fat were performed in the periumbilical region of 20 sedentary subjects (10 women (W) and 10 men (M)) and 20 trained subjects (10 W, 10 M); the in vitro response to epinephrine of the collagenase-isolated fat cells was studied. Glycerol release, chosen as an adipocyte lipolysis indicator, was measured by bioluminescence. Dose-response curves with epinephrine (alpha 2 and beta agonist), with isoproterenol (beta agonist) and epinephrine + propranolol and adenosine deaminase, were studied. Epinephrine-induced lipolysis was enhanced in trained subjects and this was due to an increased efficiency of the beta-adrenergic pathway. However, differences were found between the two sexes. In trained men, the lipolysis increase resulted from the enhancement of the beta-adrenergic pathway efficiency without any significant decrease in the alpha 2-adrenergic pathway efficiency. In trained women, the lipolysis increase was not only due to the enhancement of the beta-adrenergic pathway efficiency (which was greater than in trained men), but also to a significant decrease in the alpha 2-adrenergic pathway efficiency. Despite the decrease, the alpha 2-adrenergic pathway remained more efficient in trained women than in trained men, as was the case in sedentary subjects. It is concluded that endurance training led to better lipid mobilization and that this effect seemed greater in women than in men.

  10. Evidence-based communications strategies: NWPERLC response to training on effectively reaching limited English-speaking (LEP) populations in emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DʼAmbrosio, Luann; Huang, Claire E; Sheng Kwan-Gett, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and overcoming barriers to effective emergency preparedness and response is one of the objectives for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's network of 14 Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Centers (PERLCs) and 9 Preparedness and Response Research Centers (PERRCs). This report describes how a PERLC and a PERRC colocated at the Northwest Center for Public Health Practice responded to Los Angeles County Department of Public Health's (DPH's) request to improve emergency communications with limited English-proficient (LEP) populations. Activities included an assessment of training needs of the DPH preparedness workforce, a training series on social media and community engagement, and a toolkit of evidence-based findings to improve LEP populations' emergency communications and community resilience. Most respondents to the training needs assessment considered themselves essential personnel during an emergency and stated that they have received proper training. Respondents would like to receive further emergency preparedness training, including additional clarity on their role during an emergency. The majority of participants rated the training series as excellent/very good and agreed that they will be able to apply the course content to their work. The percentage of participants who reported confidence in their knowledge and skills related to each course learning objective increased from the precourse survey to the postcourse survey. This article discusses how the colocation of PERRC and PERLC offers efficiencies and expertise to accomplish multicomponent evidence-based requests. The ability to translate research findings quickly into evidence-based training and best practice resources is a strategic benefit to public health practice agencies working on emergency preparedness. LA County DPH was able to use knowledge and lessons learned gained from this work to design and prioritize education and training offerings to improve the capacity

  11. On the road to becoming a responsible leader: A simulation-based training approach for final year medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt-Huber, Marion

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: There is a need for young physicians to take a responsible role in clinical teams, comparable to a leadership role. However, today’s medical curricula barely consider the development of leadership competencies. Acquisition of leadership skills are currently a by-product of medical education, even though it seems to be a competency relevant for physicians’ success. Therefore, an innovative leadership training program for young physicians was developed and validated. Training conceptualisation were based upon Method: The training consists of four sessions (3-4 hours each and provided evidence-based lectures of leadership theory and effective leader behaviors, interactive training elements and a simulation-based approach with professional role players focusing on interprofessional collaboration with care staff. Training evaluation was assessed twice after completion of the program (=37. Assessments included items from validated and approved evaluation instruments regarding diverse learning outcomes (satisfaction/reaction, learning, self-efficacy, and application/transfer and transfer indicators. Furthermore, training success predictors were assessed based on stepwise regression analysis. In addition, long-term trainings effects and behavioral changes were analysed. Results: Various learning outcomes are achieved (self-reported training satisfaction, usefulness of the content and learning effects and results show substantial transfer effects of the training contents and a strengthened awareness for the leadership role (e.g. self-confidence, ideas dealing with work-related problems in a role as responsible physician. We identified competence of trainer, training of applied tools, awareness of job expectations, and the opportunity to learn from experiences of other participants as predictors of training success. Additionally, we found long-term training effects and participants reported an increase in specific

  12. Kinetic Actviation Relaxation Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Béland, Laurent Karim; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the kinetic Activation-Relaxation Technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si, self-interstitial diffusion in Fe and structural relaxation in amorphous silicon.

  13. 放松训练辅助聆听音乐对介入治疗的颅内动脉瘤患者睡眠质量影响的效果评价%Effect of relaxation training in combination with listening to music on sleep quality of patients with intracranial aneurysm who underwent endovascular interventional therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢春雷; 李春霞; 李爱文; 黄维明; 钟丽丽

    2008-01-01

    Objective To improve the sleep quality of patients by evaluating the effect of relaxation training in combination with listening to music on sleep quality of patients with intracranial aneurysm who underwent endovascular interventional therapy. Methods 55 patients who reached the entrance standard were divided into the observation group (28 cases)and the control group(27 cases).The control group received routine nursing measures. The observation group were given relaxation training in combination with listening to music based on routine nursing measures. The sleep quality was appraised by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and patients subjective feeling was investigated by self-designed questionnaires. Results The relaxation training in combination with listening to music ameliorated the sleep quality in the observation group compared with that of the control group(P<0.01).Conclusion The relaxation training in combination with listening to music could improved the sleep quality of patients with intracranial aneurysm who underwent endovascular interventional therapy.%目的 评价放松训练配合聆听音乐对颅内动脉瘤患者介入治疗前后睡眠质量的影响,以期提高患者的睡眠质量.方法 收集符合纳入标准的55例颅内动脉瘤患者,随机分为观察组28例和对照组27例,对照组患者按照颅内动脉瘤常规护理进行护理,观察组在常规护理的基础上让患者坚持放松训练配合聆听音乐,以匹兹堡睡眠质量指数作为评定工具评价2组患者睡眠质量情况,自制问卷评价患者主观感受.结果 放松训练配合聆听音乐改善了患者的睡眠质量,2组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 放松训练配合聆听音乐可提高介入治疗的颅内动脉瘤患者睡眠质量.

  14. Monitoring training load, recovery-stress state, immune-endocrine responses, and physical performance in elite female basketball players during a periodized training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João A; Moreira, Alexandre; Crewther, Blair T; Nosaka, Ken; Viveiros, Luis; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of a periodized training program on internal training load (ITL), recovery-stress state, immune-endocrine responses, and physical performance in 19 elite female basketball players. The participants were monitored across a 12-week period before an international championship, which included 2 overloading and tapering phases. The first overloading phase (fourth to sixth week) was followed by a 1-week tapering, and the second overloading phase (eighth to 10th week) was followed by a 2-week tapering. ITL (session rating of perceived exertion method) and recovery-stress state (RESTQ-76 Sport questionnaire) were assessed weekly and bi-weekly, respectively. Pretraining and posttraining assessments included measures of salivary IgA, testosterone and cortisol concentrations, strength, jumping power, running endurance, and agility. Internal training load increased across all weeks from 2 to 11 (p ≤ 0.05). After the first tapering period (week 7), a further increase in ITL was observed during the second overloading phase (p ≤ 0.05). After the second tapering period, a decrease in ITL was detected (p ≤ 0.05). A disturbance in athlete stress-recovery state was noted during the second overloading period (p ≤ 0.05), before returning to baseline level in end of the second tapering period. The training program led to significant improvements in the physical performance parameters evaluated. The salivary measures did not change despite the fluctuations in ITL. In conclusion, a periodized training program evoked changes in ITL in elite female basketball players, which appeared to influence their recovery-stress state. The training plan was effective in preparing participants for competition, as indicated by improvements in recovery-stress state and physical performance after tapering.

  15. High-intensity training reduces CD8+ T-cell redistribution in response to exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witard, O.C.; Turner, J.E.; Jackman, S.R.; Tipton, K.D.; Jeukendrup, A.E.; Kies, A.K.; Bosch, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We examined whether exercise-induced lymphocytosis and lymphocytopenia are impaired with high-intensity training. Methods: Eight trained cyclists (V·O2max = 64.2 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1) undertook 1 wk of normal-intensity training and a second week of high-intensity training. On day 7 of each w

  16. Effect of physical training on metabolic responses of pregnant rats submitted to swimming under thermal stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Alexis Lazo-Osorio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of pre-pregnancy physical training on metabolic responses and its effects on offspring.
    • METHODS: Three groups of rats (n = 7 in each group: sedentary pregnant rats (PS, exercised during  regnancy (PE and pregnant rats trained before and during pregnancy (PT were compared. They were separated  nto three subgroups regarding water temperature: 28°C, 35°C or 39°C. Plasma triglycerides and glucose levels,  eight gain during pregnancy and rectal temperature pre and post exercise (swim, as well as the offspring size and weight were analysed.
    • RESULTS: Rectal temperature post exercise was lower than pre exercise at 28°C and 35°C, and higher at 39°C.  eight gain was lower at 39°C for the PT group and at 35°C for the PT and PE groups compared to the PS group. Plasma glucose, at 28°C and 39°C for PS and PE groups, was higher than those obtained at 35°C, while triglycerides  ere lower. For trained rats, plasma glucose and triglycerides were similar at all water temperatures.  rained rats presented lower triglyceride values at 35°C, and higher triglyceride values at 39°C compared to PS  roup. Glucose presented inverse results. None of the groups presented fetal reabsorption. However, in the PS group, the offspring presented lower weight gain at 28

    • Supplemental Protein during Heavy Cycling Training and Recovery Impacts Skeletal Muscle and Heart Rate Responses but Not Performance.

      Science.gov (United States)

      D'Lugos, Andrew C; Luden, Nicholas D; Faller, Justin M; Akers, Jeremy D; McKenzie, Alec I; Saunders, Michael J

      2016-09-07

      The effects of protein supplementation on cycling performance, skeletal muscle function, and heart rate responses to exercise were examined following intensified (ICT) and reduced-volume training (RVT). Seven cyclists performed consecutive periods of normal training (NT), ICT (10 days; average training duration 220% of NT), and RVT (10 days; training duration 66% of NT). In a crossover design, subjects consumed supplemental carbohydrate (CHO) or an equal amount of carbohydrate with added protein (CP) during and following each exercise session (CP = +0.94 g/kg/day protein during ICT; +0.39 g/kg/day during RVT). A 30-kilometer time trial performance (following 120 min at 50% Wmax) was modestly impaired following ICT (+2.4 ± 6.4% versus NT) and returned to baseline levels following RVT (-0.7 ± 4.5% versus NT), with similar responses between CHO and CP. Skeletal muscle torque at 120 deg/s benefited from CP, compared to CHO, following ICT. However, this effect was no longer present at RVT. Following ICT, muscle fiber cross-sectional area was increased with CP, while there were no clear changes with CHO. Reductions in constant-load heart rates (at 50% Wmax) following RVT were likely greater with CP than CHO (-9 ± 9 bpm). Overall it appears that CP supplementation impacted skeletal muscle and heart rate responses during a period of heavy training and recovery, but this did not result in meaningful changes in time trial performance.

    • Supplemental Protein during Heavy Cycling Training and Recovery Impacts Skeletal Muscle and Heart Rate Responses but Not Performance

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Andrew C. D’Lugos

      2016-09-01

      Full Text Available The effects of protein supplementation on cycling performance, skeletal muscle function, and heart rate responses to exercise were examined following intensified (ICT and reduced-volume training (RVT. Seven cyclists performed consecutive periods of normal training (NT, ICT (10 days; average training duration 220% of NT, and RVT (10 days; training duration 66% of NT. In a crossover design, subjects consumed supplemental carbohydrate (CHO or an equal amount of carbohydrate with added protein (CP during and following each exercise session (CP = +0.94 g/kg/day protein during ICT; +0.39 g/kg/day during RVT. A 30-kilometer time trial performance (following 120 min at 50% Wmax was modestly impaired following ICT (+2.4 ± 6.4% versus NT and returned to baseline levels following RVT (−0.7 ± 4.5% versus NT, with similar responses between CHO and CP. Skeletal muscle torque at 120 deg/s benefited from CP, compared to CHO, following ICT. However, this effect was no longer present at RVT. Following ICT, muscle fiber cross-sectional area was increased with CP, while there were no clear changes with CHO. Reductions in constant-load heart rates (at 50% Wmax following RVT were likely greater with CP than CHO (−9 ± 9 bpm. Overall it appears that CP supplementation impacted skeletal muscle and heart rate responses during a period of heavy training and recovery, but this did not result in meaningful changes in time trial performance.

    • Supplemental Protein during Heavy Cycling Training and Recovery Impacts Skeletal Muscle and Heart Rate Responses but Not Performance

      Science.gov (United States)

      D’Lugos, Andrew C.; Luden, Nicholas D.; Faller, Justin M.; Akers, Jeremy D.; McKenzie, Alec I.; Saunders, Michael J.

      2016-01-01

      The effects of protein supplementation on cycling performance, skeletal muscle function, and heart rate responses to exercise were examined following intensified (ICT) and reduced-volume training (RVT). Seven cyclists performed consecutive periods of normal training (NT), ICT (10 days; average training duration 220% of NT), and RVT (10 days; training duration 66% of NT). In a crossover design, subjects consumed supplemental carbohydrate (CHO) or an equal amount of carbohydrate with added protein (CP) during and following each exercise session (CP = +0.94 g/kg/day protein during ICT; +0.39 g/kg/day during RVT). A 30-kilometer time trial performance (following 120 min at 50% Wmax) was modestly impaired following ICT (+2.4 ± 6.4% versus NT) and returned to baseline levels following RVT (−0.7 ± 4.5% versus NT), with similar responses between CHO and CP. Skeletal muscle torque at 120 deg/s benefited from CP, compared to CHO, following ICT. However, this effect was no longer present at RVT. Following ICT, muscle fiber cross-sectional area was increased with CP, while there were no clear changes with CHO. Reductions in constant-load heart rates (at 50% Wmax) following RVT were likely greater with CP than CHO (−9 ± 9 bpm). Overall it appears that CP supplementation impacted skeletal muscle and heart rate responses during a period of heavy training and recovery, but this did not result in meaningful changes in time trial performance. PMID:27618091

    • Exercise order affects the total training volume and the ratings of perceived exertion in response to a super-set resistance training session

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Balsamo S

      2012-02-01

      Full Text Available Sandor Balsamo1–3, Ramires Alsamir Tibana1,2,4, Dahan da Cunha Nascimento1,2, Gleyverton Landim de Farias1,2, Zeno Petruccelli1,2, Frederico dos Santos de Santana1,2, Otávio Vanni Martins1,2, Fernando de Aguiar1,2, Guilherme Borges Pereira4, Jéssica Cardoso de Souza4, Jonato Prestes41Department of Physical Education, Centro Universitário UNIEURO, Brasília, 2GEPEEFS (Resistance training and Health Research Group, Brasília/DF, 3Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Universidade de Brasília (UnB, Brasília, 4Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB, Brasília/DF, BrazilAbstract: The super-set is a widely used resistance training method consisting of exercises for agonist and antagonist muscles with limited or no rest interval between them – for example, bench press followed by bent-over rows. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different super-set exercise sequences on the total training volume. A secondary aim was to evaluate the ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue index in response to different exercise order. On separate testing days, twelve resistance-trained men, aged 23.0 ± 4.3 years, height 174.8 ± 6.75 cm, body mass 77.8 ± 13.27 kg, body fat 12.0% ± 4.7%, were submitted to a super-set method by using two different exercise orders: quadriceps (leg extension + hamstrings (leg curl (QH or hamstrings (leg curl + quadriceps (leg extension (HQ. Sessions consisted of three sets with a ten-repetition maximum load with 90 seconds rest between sets. Results revealed that the total training volume was higher for the HQ exercise order (P = 0.02 with lower perceived exertion than the inverse order (P = 0.04. These results suggest that HQ exercise order involving lower limbs may benefit practitioners interested in reaching a higher total training volume with lower ratings of perceived exertion compared with the leg extension plus leg curl

  1. Time-course changes of oxidative stress response to high-intensity discontinuous training versus moderate-intensity continuous training in masters runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Vezzoli

    Full Text Available Beneficial systemic effects of regular physical exercise have been demonstrated to reduce risks of a number of age-related disorders. Antioxidant capacity adaptations are amongst these fundamental changes in response to exercise training. However, it has been claimed that acute physical exercise performed at high intensity (>60% of maximal oxygen uptake may result in oxidative stress, due to reactive oxygen species being generated excessively by enhanced oxygen consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity discontinuous training (HIDT, characterized by repeated variations of intensity and changes of redox potential, on oxidative damage. Twenty long-distance masters runners (age 47.8 ± 7.8 yr on the basis of the individual values of gas exchange threshold were assigned to a different 8-weeks training program: continuous moderate-intensity training (MOD, n = 10 or HIDT (n = 10. In both groups before (PRE and after (POST training we examined the following oxidative damage markers: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS as marker of lipid peroxidation; protein carbonyls (PC as marker of protein oxidation; 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine (8-OH-dG as a biomarker of DNA base modifications; and total antioxidant capacity (TAC as indicator of the overall antioxidant system. Training induced a significant (p<0.05 decrease in resting plasma TBARS concentration in both MOD (7.53 ± 0.30 and 6.46 ± 0.27 µM, PRE and POST respectively and HIDT (7.21 ± 0.32 and 5.85 ± 0.46 µM, PRE and POST respectively. Resting urinary 8-OH-dG levels were significantly decreased in both MOD (5.50 ± 0.66 and 4.16 ± 0.40 ng mg(-1creatinine, PRE and POST respectively and HIDT (4.52 ± 0.50 and 3.18 ± 0.34 ng mg(-1creatinine, PRE and POST respectively. Training both in MOD and HIDT did not significantly modify plasma levels of PC. Resting plasma TAC was reduced in MOD while no significant changes were observed in HIDT. In conclusion

  2. Gender impacts the post-exercise substrate and endocrine response in trained runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin William F

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several studies have investigated gender differences in the substrate and endocrine responses during and following endurance exercise, few have studied sex differences during a more prolonged recovery period post endurance exercise. The purpose of this study was to compare and characterize the endocrine and substrate profiles of trained male and female adult runners during the three-and-a-half hour recovery period from an endurance run. Methods After consuming a euenergetic diet (1.8 g·kg-1·d-1 protein, 26% fat, 58% carbohydrates, 42.8 ± 1.2 kcal/kg body weight for 8 days, blood was collected from trained male (n = 6, 21 yrs, 70 kg, 180 cm, 9% body fat, VO2peak 78.0 ± 3.4 mL·kg FFM-1·min-1 and female (n = 6, 23 y, 66 kg, 170 cm, 29% body fat, VO2peak 71.6 ± 4.5 mL·kg FFM-1·min-1 endurance runners at rest and during recovery from a 75 min run at 70% VO2peak. Circulating levels of glucose, lactate, free fatty acids (FFAs, insulin, cortisol, growth hormone (GH, and free insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I were measured. Results During the recovery period, females experienced increases in glucose, lactate and insulin while no changes were noted in men (P P Conclusion These data further document gender differences in substrate and endocrine changes during a prolonged recovery period following endurance exercise. Future studies are needed to evaluate the effect of differing diets and nutritional supplements on these gender-specific post-exercise substrate and endocrine differences.

  3. Dose-Response of High-Intensity Training (HIT on Atheroprotective miRNA-126 Levels

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    Boris Schmitz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: MicroRNA-126 (miR-126 exerts beneficial effects on vascular integrity, angiogenesis, and atherosclerotic plaque stability. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the dose-response relationship of high-intensity interval training (HIIT on miR-126-3p and -5p levels.Methods: Sixty-one moderately trained individuals (females = 31 [50.8%]; 22.0 ± 1.84 years were consecutively recruited and allocated into three matched groups using exercise capacity. During a 4-week intervention a HIIT group performed three exercise sessions/week of 4 × 30 s at maximum speed (all-out, a progressive HIIT (proHIIT group performed three exercise sessions/week of 4 × 30 s at maximum speed (all-out with one extra session every week (up to 7 × 30 s and a low-intensity training (LIT control group performed three exercise sessions/week for 25 min <75% of maximum heart rate. Exercise miR-126-3p/-5p plasma levels were determined using capillary blood from earlobes.Results: No exercise-induced increase in miR-126 levels was detected at baseline, neither in the LIT (after 25 min low-intensity running nor the HIIT groups (after 4 min of high-intensity running. After the intervention, the LIT group presented an increase in miR-126-3p, while in the HIIT group, miR-126-3p levels were still reduced (all p < 0.05. An increase for both, miR-126-3p and -5p levels (all p < 0.05, pre- vs. during and post-exercise was detected in the proHIIT group. Between group analysis revealed that miR-126-3p levels after LIT and proHIIT increased by 2.12 ± 2.55 and 1.24 ± 2.46 units (all p < 0.01, respectively, compared to HIIT (−1.05 ± 2.6 units.Conclusions: LIT and proHIIT may be performed to increase individual miR-126 levels. HIIT without progression was less effective in increasing miR-126.

  4. Acute post-exercise change in blood pressure and exercise training response in patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti M Kiviniemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that acute post-exercise change in blood pressure (BP may predict exercise training responses in BP in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. Patients with CAD (n=116, age 62±5 years, 85 men underwent BP assessments at rest and during 10-min recovery following a symptom-limited exercise test before and after the 6-month training intervention (one strength and 3-4 aerobic moderate-intensity exercises weekly. Post-exercise change in systolic BP (SBP was calculated by subtracting resting SBP from lowest post-exercise SBP. The training-induced change in resting SBP was -2±13 mmHg (p=0.064, ranging from -42 to 35 mmHg. Larger post-exercise decrease in SBP and baseline resting SBP predicted a larger training-induced decrement in SBP (β=0.46 and β=-0.44, respectively, p<0.001 for both. Acute post-exercise decrease in SBP provided additive value to baseline resting SBP in the prediction of training-induced change in resting SBP (R squared from 0.20 to 0.26, p=0.002. After further adjustments for other potential confounders (sex, age, baseline body mass index, realized training load, post-exercise decrease in SBP still predicted the training response in resting SBP (β=0.26, p=0.015. Acute post-exercise change in SBP was associated with training-induced change in resting SBP in patients with CAD, providing significant predictive information beyond baseline resting SBP.

  5. Early-phase muscular adaptations in response to slow-speed versus traditional resistance-training regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenke, Mark D; Herman, Jennifer R; Gliders, Roger M; Hagerman, Fredrick C; Hikida, Robert S; Rana, Sharon R; Ragg, Kerry E; Staron, Robert S

    2012-10-01

    Thirty-four untrained women participated in a 6-week program to investigate slow-speed versus "normal" speed resistance-training protocols. Subjects were divided into: slow-speed (SS), normal-speed/traditional-strength (TS), normal-speed/traditional muscular endurance (TE), and non-exercising control (C) groups. Leg press, squats, and knee extensions were performed 2 days/week for the first week and 3 days/week for the remaining 5 weeks (~2 min rest). The SS group performed 6-10 repetitions maximum (6-10RM) for each set with 10 s concentric (con) and 4 s eccentric (ecc) contractions. The TS and TE groups performed sets of 6-10RM and 20-30RM, respectively, at "normal" speed (1-2 s/con and ecc contractions). TE and SS trained at the same relative intensity (~40-60% 1RM), whereas TS trained at ~80-85% 1RM. Pre- and post-training muscle biopsies were analyzed for fiber-type composition, cross-sectional area (CSA), and myosin heavy chain (MHC) content. The percentage of type IIX fibers decreased and IIAX increased in all three training groups. However, only TS showed an increase in percentage of type IIA fibers. CSA of fiber types I, IIA, and IIX increased in TS. In SS, only the CSA of IIA and IIX fibers increased. These changes were supported by MHC data. No significant changes for any parameters were found for the C group. In conclusion, slow-speed strength training induced a greater adaptive response compared to training with a similar resistance at "normal" speed. However, training with a higher intensity at "normal" speed resulted in the greatest overall muscle fiber response in each of the variables assessed.

  6. Effects of different relaxation training on the comPetition state anxiety of middle- and long-distance athletes%不同放松训练对中长跑运动员竞赛状态焦虑的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马天浩; 张双玲

    2015-01-01

    选取中长跑1500米、5000米、10000米3个小项的18名运动员为研究对象,分为自生放松组、腹式呼吸组和对照组,经过3周的放松训练,考察放松训练对运动状态焦虑的影响。结果表明:不同性别的运动员在认知焦虑、躯体焦虑和状态自信心3个维度上没有显著地差异,但是10000米运动员的认知焦虑明显高于1500米运动员,10000米和5000米运动员的躯体焦虑均显著高于1500米运动员。健将级运动员的认知焦虑显著低于二级运动员。腹式呼吸和自生放松训练对运动员的认知焦虑和状态自信心具有显著的调节作用,其中腹式呼吸对于缓解运动员的认知焦虑具有最佳的效果;自生放松训练对于提高运动员的自信心具有更大的优势。%This study selected 18 athletes of 1500 m,5000 m and 10000 m events as the research objects,and divided them into autogenic relaxation group,abdominal breathing group and the control group. After 3 weeks of relaxation training,we explored the effect of relaxation training on state anxiety. The results showed that there were no significant differences between different gender in the cognitive anxiety,somatic anxiety and state self - confidence. The cognitive anxiety of athletes in 10000 m was significantly higher than those in 1500 m. On somatic anxiety,athletes of 10000 m and 5000 m was significantly higher than those of 1500 m. Master-level athletesˊcognitive anxiety was below than the second-level athletes. Abdominal breathing and autogenic relaxation regulated athletesˊcognitive state anxiety and self-confidence effectively. Abdominal breathing was the most effective in reducing cognitive anxiety,and autogenic relaxation had more advantages in improving the athletesˊconfidence.

  7. Training Strategies to Mitigate Expectancy-Induced Response Bias in Combat Identification: A Research Agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Andrews, Dee H.

    2009-12-01

    Historical assessments of combat fratricide reveal principal contributing factors in the effects of stress, continuous operations or sleep deprivation, poor situational awareness, emotions, and lack of training. This paper discusses what and how improvements in combat identification (CID) may be achieved through training. In addition to skill-based training, CID training must focus on countering the negative effects of expectancy in the face of heightened anxiety and stressors of continuous operations that lead to combat errors or fratricide. The paper examines possible approaches to training for overcoming erroneous expectancies and emotional factors that may distort or limit accurate "blue force" identification.

  8. Training Strategies to Mitigate Expectancy-Induced Response Bias in Combat Identification: A Research Agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Andrews, Dee H.

    2008-04-15

    Historical assessments of combat fratricide reveal principal contributing factors in the effects of stress, continuous operations or sleep deprivation, poor situational awareness, emotions, and lack of training. This paper discusses what and how improvements in combat identification (CID) may be achieved through training. In addition to skill-based training, CID training must focus on countering the negative effects of expectancy in the face of heightened anxiety and stressors of continuous operations that lead to combat errors or fratricide. The paper examines possible approaches to training for overcoming erroneous expectancies and emotional factors that may distort or limit accurate "blue force" identification.

  9. Effects of 7 days of exercise training on insulin sensitivity and responsiveness in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirwan, John P; Solomon, Thomas; Wojta, Daniel M

    2009-01-01

    resulted in improvements in insulin action in the absence of weight loss. Glucose disposal rates during the euglycemic clamp were significantly increased at both hyperinsulinemic stages after training (40 mU: 1.84 +/- 0.32 to 2.67 +/- 0.37 mg.kg(-1).min(-1), P ...The objectives of this study were to determine whether 1) the improvement in insulin action induced by short-term exercise training in patients with type 2 diabetes is due to an improvement in insulin sensitivity, an improvement in insulin responsiveness, or a combination of improved insulin...... sensitivity and responsiveness and 2) short-term exercise training results in improved suppression of hepatic glucose production by insulin. Fourteen obese patients with type 2 diabetes, age 64 +/- 2 yr, underwent a two-stage hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp procedure, first stage 40 mU.m(-2).min(-1) insulin...

  10. Metallothionein-mediated antioxidant defense system and its response to exercise training are impaired in human type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Penkowa, Milena; Hidalgo, Juan

    2005-01-01

    the MT-I+II-mediated antioxidant capacity and its response to exercise training in the skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes, biopsies and blood samples were taken from 13 matched subjects (type 2 diabetes n = 8, control subjects n = 5) both before and after 8 weeks of exercise training....... Immunohistochemical analysis revealed reduced MT-I+II levels in the skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic subjects compared with control subjects. Control subjects produced a robust increase of MT-I+II in response to training; however, in type 2 diabetes, MT-I+II levels remained essentially unchanged. Significantly...... lower levels of MT-I+II were also detected in the plasma of type 2 diabetic subjects compared with control subjects. These results suggest that, in control subjects, the MT-I+II defense system is active and inducible within skeletal muscle tissue and plasma. In type 2 diabetes, reduced levels of MT...

  11. Long-Lasting Effects of BCG Vaccination on Both Heterologous Th1/Th17 Responses and Innate Trained Immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinnijenhuis, Johanneke; Quintin, Jessica; Preijers, Frank

    2013-01-01

    '. In the present study we assessed whether BCG was able to induce long-lasting effects on both trained immunity and heterologous T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 immune responses 1 year after vaccination. The production of TNFα and IL-1β to mycobacteria or unrelated pathogens was higher after 2 weeks and 3 months...... in proinflammatory cytokine production after stimulation with the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. The heterologous production of Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th17 (IL-17 and IL-22) immune responses to nonmycobacterial stimulation remained strongly elevated even 1 year after BCG vaccination. In conclusion, BCG induces sustained...... changes in the immune system associated with a nonspecific response to infections both at the level of innate trained immunity and at the level of heterologous Th1/Th17 responses. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel....

  12. Phlebotomy eliminates the maximal cardiac output response to six weeks of exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonne, Thomas Christian; Doucende, Gregory; Flück, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    -breathing) was re-established to pre-training values by phlebotomy and Qmax was quantified again. Resting echography revealed no structural heart adaptations as a consequence of the training intervention. Following the training period, plasma volume (PV), red blood cell volume (RBCV) and BV increased (p......With this study we tested the hypothesis that six weeks of endurance training increases maximal cardiac output (Qmax) relatively more by elevating blood volume (BV) than by inducing structural and functional changes within the heart. Nine healthy but untrained volunteers (VO2max 47 ± 5 ml.min(-1......).kg(-1)) underwent supervised training (60 min; 4 times weekly at 65% VO2max for six weeks) and Qmax was determined by inert gas re-breathing during cycle ergometer exercise before and after the training period. After the training period, blood volume (determined in duplicates by CO re...

  13. Effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on endogenous antioxidant systems and heat shock proteins in response to endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Kristoffer T; Raastad, Truls; Holden, Geir; Bastani, Nasser E; Schneeberger, Damaris; Paronetto, Maria Paola; Mercatelli, Neri; Ostgaard, Hege N; Ugelstad, Ingrid; Caporossi, Daniela; Blomhoff, Rune; Paulsen, Gøran

    2014-10-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are important signal molecules for adaptations to training. Due to the antioxidant properties of vitamin C and E, supplementation has been shown to blunt adaptations to endurance training. In this study, we investigated the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation and endurance training on adaptations in endogenous antioxidants and heat shock proteins (HSP). Thirty seven males and females were randomly assigned to receive Vitamin C and E (C + E; C: 1000 mg, E: 235 mg daily) or placebo (PLA), and underwent endurance training for 11 weeks. After 5 weeks, a subgroup conducted a high intensity interval session to investigate acute stress responses. Muscle and blood samples were obtained to investigate changes in proteins and mRNA related to the antioxidant and HSP system. The acute response to the interval session revealed no effects of C + E supplementation on NFκB activation. However, higher stress responses to exercise in C + E group was indicated by larger translocation of HSPs and a more pronounced gene expression compared to PLA. Eleven weeks of endurance training decreased muscle GPx1, HSP27 and αB-crystallin, while mnSOD, HSP70 and GSH remained unchanged, with no influence of supplementation. Plasma GSH increased in both groups, while uric acid decreased in the C + E group only. Our results showed that C + E did not affect long-term training adaptations in the antioxidant- and HSP systems. However, the greater stress responses to exercise in the C + E group might indicate that long-term adaptations occurs through different mechanisms in the two groups. © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  14. Does perioperative tactile evaluation of the train-of-four response influence the frequency of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, T; Viby-Mogensen, J; Bang, U

    1990-01-01

    The authors conducted a randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate the usefulness of perioperative manual evaluation of the response to train-of-four (TOF) nerve stimulation. A total of 80 patients were divided into four groups of 20 each. For two groups (one given vecuronium and one pancur...

  15. Dose-Response Relationships of Balance Training in Healthy Young Adults : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesinski, Melanie; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Gollhofer, Albert; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Background Balance training (BT) has been used for the promotion of balance and sports-related skills as well as for prevention and rehabilitation of lower extremity sport injuries. However, evidence-based dose-response relationships in BT parameters have not yet been established. Objective The obje

  16. Of Responsible Research--Exploring the Science-Society Dialogue in Undergraduate Training within the Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Maria Strecht; Quintanilha, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    We explore the integration of societal issues in undergraduate training within the life sciences. Skills in thinking about science, scientific knowledge production and the place of science in society are crucial in the context of the idea of responsible research and innovation. This idea became institutionalized and it is currently well-present in…

  17. Cue Attendance and Hypothesis Generation as Two Procedures of Training for Producing Subjective Response Uncertainity in Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Gavriel

    This experiment studied the extent to which training of two behaviors affects subjective response uncertainity and information seeking. The two behaviors were cue attendance, i.e., analyzing a complex stimulus and identifying its discrete components, and hypotheses generation, i.e., the generation of numerous alternative hypothetical explanations…

  18. Dose-Response Relationships of Balance Training in Healthy Young Adults : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesinski, Melanie; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Gollhofer, Albert; Granacher, Urs

    Background Balance training (BT) has been used for the promotion of balance and sports-related skills as well as for prevention and rehabilitation of lower extremity sport injuries. However, evidence-based dose-response relationships in BT parameters have not yet been established. Objective The

  19. The prevalence of adverse cardiometabolic responses to exercise training with evidence-based practice is low

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalleck LC

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lance C Dalleck,1 Gary P Van Guilder,2 Tara B Richardson,1 Chantal A Vella3 1Recreation, Exercise, and Sport Science Department, Western State Colorado University, Gunnison, CO, USA; 2Department of Health and Nutritional Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, USA; 3Department of Movement Sciences, WWAMI Medical Education Program, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of individuals who experienced exercise-induced adverse cardiometabolic response (ACR, following an evidence-based, individualized, community exercise program. Methods: Prevalence of ACR was retrospectively analyzed in 332 adults (190 women, 142 men before and after a 14-week supervised community exercise program. ACR included an exercise training-induced increase in systolic blood pressure of 10 mmHg, increase in plasma triglycerides (TG of >37.0 mg/dL (0.42 mmol/L, or decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C of >4.0 mg/dL (0.12 mmol/L. A second category of ACR was also defined – this was ACR that resulted in a metabolic syndrome component (ACR-risk as a consequence of the adverse response. Results: According to the above criteria, prevalence of ACR between baseline and post-program was systolic blood pressure (6.0%, TG (3.6%, and HDL-C (5.1%. The prevalence of ACR-risk was elevated TG (3.2%, impaired fasting blood glucose (2.7%, low HDL-C (2.2%, elevated waist circumference (1.3%, and elevated blood pressure (0.6%. Conclusion: Evidence-based practice exercise programming may attenuate the prevalence of exercise training-induced ACR. Our findings provide important preliminary evidence needed for the vision of exercise prescription as a personalized form of preventative medicine to become a reality. Keywords: evidence-based research, cardiovascular health, community-based research, metabolic health

  20. Sex differences in response to maximal exercise stress test in trained adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomin Åsa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex comparisons between girls and boys in response to exercise in trained adolescents are missing and we investigated similarities and differences as a basis for clinical interpretation and guidance. Methods A total of 24 adolescent females and 27 adolescent males aged 13–19 years underwent a maximal bicycle exercise stress test with measurement of cardiovascular variables, cardiac output, lung volumes, metabolic factors/lactate concentrations and breath-by-breath monitoring of ventilation, and determination of peak VO2. Results Maximum heart rate was similar in females (191 ± 9 bpm and males (194 ± 7 bpm, cardiac index at maximum exercise was lower in females (7.0 ± 1.0 l/min/m2 than in males (8.3 ± 1.4 l/min/m2, P 2 was lower in females (2.37 ± 0.34 l/min than in males (3.38 ± 0.49 l/min, P 2 was normalized to leg muscle mass sex differences disappeared (females: 161 ± 21 ml/min/kg vs. males: 170 ± 23 ml/min/kg. The increase in cardiac index during exercise is the key factor responsible for the greater peak VO2 in adolescent boys compared to girls. Conclusions Differences in peak VO2 in adolescent boys and girls disappear when peak VO2 is normalized to estimated leg muscle mass and therefore provide a tool to conduct individual and intersex comparisons of fitness when evaluating adolescent athletes in aerobic sports.

  1. Inflammation marker, damage marker and anabolic hormone responses to resistance training with vascular restriction in older males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Murat; Sherk, Vanessa D; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2013-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine anabolic hormone, muscle damage marker and inflammation marker responses to two types of resistance training protocols in older men. Thirty-six healthy older males (mean age = 56.6 ± 0.6 years) completed 6 weeks of high-intensity resistance training (HI-RT), low-intensity resistance training with vascular restriction (LI-BFR) or no exercise control group (CON) three times per week. Three upper body exercises were performed by both exercise groups at the same intensity (at 80% 1-RM), but lower body exercises were performed by the HI-RT group at 80% 1-RM and by the LI-BFR group at 20% 1-RM with vascular restriction. Resting serum creatine kinase (CK), interleukin 6 (IL-6), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) and testosterone (T) were measured before and after training. No significant group differences in resting CK, IL-6, IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and T were detected following training (P>0.05). In addition, there were no significant changes in muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), but a trend for significant decreases in the percent changes in thigh subcutaneous fat (P = 0.051). Although training-induced anabolic hormone response did not reach statistical significance, our findings on CK and IL-6 indicated that the LI-BFR training protocol was safe and well tolerated for older men to perform to improve muscular strength. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Aerobic exercise does not compromise muscle hypertrophy response to short-term resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Gustafsson, Thomas; Tesch, Per A

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that chronic aerobic and resistance exercise (AE+RE) would elicit greater muscle hypertrophy than resistance exercise only (RE). Ten men (25 ± 4 yr) performed 5 wk unilateral knee extensor AE+RE. The opposing limb was subjected to RE. AE completed 6 hr prior to RE consisted of ~45 min one-legged cycle ergometry. RE comprised 4 × 7 maximal concentric-eccentric knee extensions. Various indexes of in vivo knee extensor function were measured before and after training. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessed m. quadricep femoris (QF) cross-sectional area (CSA), volume, and signal intensity (SI). Biopsies obtained from m. vastus lateralis determined fiber CSA, enzyme levels, and gene expression of myostatin, atrogin-1, MuRF-1, PGC-1α, and VEGF. Increases (P 0.05). QF SI increased (12%; P < 0.05) after AE+RE, but not RE. Neither AE+RE nor RE showed altered mRNA levels. Citrate synthase activity increased (P < 0.05) after AE+RE. The results suggest that the increased aerobic capacity shown with AE+RE was accompanied by a more robust increase in muscle size compared with RE. Although this response was not carried over to greater improvement in muscle function, it remains that intense AE can be executed prior to RE without compromising performance outcome.

  3. The relationship between the stress-related psychosocial factors and the psychosomatic adjustment after surgery(II):The effect of Qi-Gong relaxation training%心理社会因素与手术康复(二):气功的干预作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈晓红; 姜乾金; 叶圣雅

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of Qi-Gong relaxation training on the operation-related psychological stress and the post-operative psychosomatic adjustment in upper-abdominal surgery patients. Methods Forty-two patients undergoing upper-abdominal surgery in intervention group were instructed to do Qi-Gong relaxation training, and forty patients matched were controls without Qi-Gong relaxation training. On the day before surgery, a self-developed patients' pre-operative appraisal questionnaire, a self-developed patients' pre-operative behavior rating questionnaire for completion by medical workers, and State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) of State -Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used in two groups. In an hour before operation,the shift of the mean value of pulse and systolic pressure of every case compared with the base line measured at his (or her) admission was also recorded. After surgery, patients were assessed with a self-developed patients' post-operative appraisal questionnaire, a self-developed patients' post-operative behavior rating questionnaire for completion by medical workers and SAI of STAI. Besides, the indexes of physical rehabilitation, including intestinal aerofluxus, total dosage of analgesia and so on, were recorded. Data were analysed in t-test with SPSS. Results Compared with controls, the patients in intervention group had more positive anticipation about the following operation, lower pre- and post-operative anxiety, and lighter post-operative pain experience. There was no difference in the indexes of physical rehabilitation between two groups. Conclusions Qi-Gong relaxation training could lead patients to better psychological adjustment both before and after operation. This finding suggests that Qi-Gong relaxation training could be used as an effective psycho-behavior intervention in abdominal surgery patients.%目的探索气功放松训练在外科心理应激及术后心身康复中的干预作用。方法随机选

  4. Hormonal responses to training and its tapering off in competitive swimmers: relationships with performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, I; Chatard, J C; Padilla, S; Guezennec, C Y; Geyssant, A

    1996-01-01

    During a winter training season, the effects of 12 weeks of intense training and 4 weeks of tapering off (taper) on plasma hormone concentrations and competition performance were investigated in a group of highly trained swimmers (n = 8). Blood samples were collected and the swimmers performed their speciality in competition at weeks 10 (mid-season), 22 (pre-taper) and 26 (post-taper). No statistically significant changes were observed in the concentrations of total testosterone (TT), non-sex hormone binding globulin-bound-testosterone (NSBT), cortisol (C), luteinising hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine plasma catecholamines, creatine kinase and ammonia during training and taper. Mid-season NSBT: C ratio and the amount of training were statistically related (r = 0.82, P swimmers' performance capacities throughout the training season.

  5. Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lidai; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    The temperature-dependent property of the Grueneisen parameter has been employed in photoacoustic imaging mainly to measure tissue temperature. Here we explore this property using a different approach and develop Grueneisen-relaxation photoacoustic microscopy (GR-PAM), a technique that images non-radiative absorption with confocal optical resolution. GR-PAM sequentially delivers two identical laser pulses with a micro-second-scale time delay. The first laser pulse generates a photoacoustic signal and thermally tags the in-focus absorbers. Owing to the temperature dependence of the Grueneisen parameter, when the second laser pulse excites the tagged absorbers within the thermal relaxation time, a photoacoustic signal stronger than the first one is produced. GR-PAM detects the amplitude difference between the two co-located photoacoustic signals, confocally imaging the non-radiative absorption. We greatly improved axial resolution from 45 µm to 2.3 µm and at the same time slightly improved lateral resolution from 0.63 µm to 0.41 µm. In addition, the optical sectioning capability facilitates the measurement of the absolute absorption coefficient without fluence calibration. PMID:25379919

  6. Training of medical teams on-site for individual and coordinated response in emergency management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Verner

    2003-01-01

    involved in the complete preparedness: fire brigade, police, medical team, civil defence, etc. All these modules will in the end be integrated on a common integration platform, either to a fully-fledged system covering all aspects of training for the complete preparedness, or for creating a dedicated...... system for specific training set-ups for specific groups of trainees. The first module completed as a commercial system, "Training of medical teams on site", will be presented....

  7. Track monitoring from the dynamic response of a passing train: A sparse approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, George; Chen, Siheng; Garrett, James H.; Kovačević, Jelena; Noh, Hae Young; Bielak, Jacobo

    2017-06-01

    Collecting vibration data from revenue service trains could be a low-cost way to more frequently monitor railroad tracks, yet operational variability makes robust analysis a challenge. We propose a novel analysis technique for track monitoring that exploits the sparsity inherent in train-vibration data. This sparsity is based on the observation that large vertical train vibrations typically involve the excitation of the train's fundamental mode due to track joints, switchgear, or other discrete hardware. Rather than try to model the entire rail profile, in this study we examine a sparse approach to solving an inverse problem where (1) the roughness is constrained to a discrete and limited set of "bumps"; and (2) the train system is idealized as a simple damped oscillator that models the train's vibration in the fundamental mode. We use an expectation maximization (EM) approach to iteratively solve for the track profile and the train system properties, using orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) to find the sparse approximation within each step. By enforcing sparsity, the inverse problem is well posed and the train's position can be found relative to the sparse bumps, thus reducing the uncertainty in the GPS data. We validate the sparse approach on two sections of track monitored from an operational train over a 16 month period of time, one where track changes did not occur during this period and another where changes did occur. We show that this approach can not only detect when track changes occur, but also offers insight into the type of such changes.

  8. Effects of endurance training on endocrine response to physical exercise after 5 days of bed rest in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koska, Juraj; Ksinantová, Lucia; Kvetnanský, Richard; Hamar, Dusan; Martinkovic, Miroslav; Vigas, Milan

    2004-06-01

    The study was designed to evaluate how a bout of endurance training (ET) influences the endocrine response after head-down bed rest (HDBR). Eleven healthy males completed the study, which consisted of a 6-wk ET followed by 5 days of -6 degrees head-down HDBR. Treadmill exercise at 80% of pretraining maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2max)) was performed before and after ET as well as after HDBR. ET increased VO(2max) by 13%. The response of norepinephrine was attenuated after ET and exaggerated after HDBR (P < 0.001). The differences in epinephrine responses were not statistically significant. The responses of cortisol and plasma renin activity (PRA) were unchanged after ET and were enhanced after HDBR (P < 0.001). The response of growth hormone after HDBR was reduced (P < 0.05). Only the change in cortisol response was associated with the increment of VO(2max) after ET (r = 0.68, P < 0.01). Endurance training failed to completely prevent changes in endocrine responses seen after HDBR. Improvement of physical fitness was associated with an enhancement of the cortisol response to exercise following the period of bed rest.

  9. Response of the arterial blood pressure of quadriplegic patients to treadmill gait training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho D.C.L.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure pattern was analyzed in 12 complete quadriplegics with chronic lesions after three months of treadmill gait training. Before training, blood pressure values were obtained at rest, during treadmill walking and during the recovery phase. Gait training was performed for 20 min twice a week for three months. Treadmill gait was achieved using neuromuscular electrical stimulation, assisted by partial body weight relief (30-50%. After training, blood pressure was evaluated at rest, during gait and during recovery phase. Before and after training, mean systolic blood pressures and heart rates increased significantly during gait compared to rest (94.16 ± 5.15 to 105 ± 5.22 mmHg and 74.27 ± 10.09 to 106.23 ± 17.31 bpm, respectively, and blood pressure decreased significantly in the recovery phase (86.66 ± 9.84 and 57.5 ± 8.66 mmHg, respectively. After three months of training, systolic blood pressure became higher at rest (94.16 ± 5.15 mmHg before training and 100 ± 8.52 mmHg after training; P < 0.05 and during gait exercise (105 ± 5.22 mmHg before and 110 ± 7.38 mmHg after training; P < 0.05 when compared to the initial values, with no changes in heart rate. No changes occurred in blood pressure during the recovery phase, with the lower values being maintained. A drop in systolic pressure from 105 ± 5.22 to 86.66 ± 9.84 mmHg before training and from 110 ± 7.38 to 90 ± 7.38 mmHg after training was noticed immediately after exercise, thus resulting in hypotensive symptoms when chronic quadriplegics reach the sitting position from the upright position.

  10. Weight loss and exercise training effect on oxygen uptake and heart rate response to locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary R; Fisher, Gordon; Bryan, David R; Zuckerman, Paul A

    2012-05-01

    Effects of resistance and aerobic training on the ease of physical activity during and after weight loss are unknown. The purpose of the study was to determine what effect weight loss combined with either aerobic or resistance training has on the ease of locomotion (net V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and heart rate). It is hypothesized that exercise training will result in an increased ease, lowers heart rate during locomotion. Seventy-three overweight premenopausal women were assigned to diet and aerobic training, diet and resistance training, or diet only. Subjects were evaluated while overweight, after diet-induced weight loss (average, 12.5 kg loss), and 1 year after weight loss (5.5 kg regain). Submaximal walking, grade walking, stair climbing, and bike oxygen uptake and heart rate were measured at all time points. Weight loss diet was 800 kcal per day. Exercisers trained 3 times per week during weight loss and 2 times per week during 1-year follow-up. Resistance training increased strength, and aerobic training increased maximum oxygen uptake. Net submaximal oxygen uptake was not affected by weight loss or exercise training. However, heart rate during walking, stair climbing, and bicycling was reduced after weight loss. No significant differences in reduction in heart rate were observed among the 3 treatment groups for locomotion after weight loss. However, during 1-year follow-up, exercise training resulted in maintenance of lower submaximal heart rate, whereas nonexercisers increased heart rate during locomotion. Results suggest that moderately intense exercise is helpful in improving the ease of movement after weight loss. Exercise training may be helpful in increasing the participation in free-living physical activity.

  11. Magnetoviscosity and relaxation in ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felderhof

    2000-09-01

    The increase in viscosity of a ferrofluid due to an applied magnetic field is discussed on the basis of a phenomenological relaxation equation for the magnetization. The relaxation equation was derived earlier from irreversible thermodynamics, and differs from that postulated by Shliomis. The two relaxation equations lead to a different dependence of viscosity on magnetic field, unless the relaxation rates are related in a specific field-dependent way. Both planar Couette flow and Poiseuille pipe flow in parallel and perpendicular magnetic field are discussed. The entropy production for these situations is calculated and related to the magnetoviscosity.

  12. [Death in a relaxation tank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Wolf; Simon, Karl-Heinz; Bohnert, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Complete relaxation can be achieved by floating in a darkened, sound-proof relaxation tank filled with salinated water kept at body temperature. Under these conditions, meditation exercises up to self-hypnosis may lead to deep relaxation with physical and mental revitalization. A user manipulated his tank, presumably to completely cut off all optical and acoustic stimuli and accidentally also covered the ventilation hole. The man was found dead in his relaxation tank. The findings suggested lack of oxygen as the cause of death.

  13. Training and Mastery of Techniques in Wittgenstein's Later Philosophy: A Response to Michael Luntley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickney, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Responding to Michael Luntley's article, "Learning, Empowerment and Judgement," the author shows he cannot successfully make the following three moves: (1) dissolve the analytic distinction between learning by training and learning by reasoning, while advocating the latter; (2) diminish the role of training in Wittgenstein's philosophy, nor…

  14. Doorways I: Student Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). "Doorways I: Student Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence…

  15. The impact of exercise training on the diameter dilator response to forearm ischaemia in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Tinken, T.M.; Hopkins, N.; Dawson, E.A.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Recent studies found differences be