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Sample records for relaxation rate increase

  1. PROGRESSIVE MUSCLE RELAXATION INCREASE PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE ON CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintin Sukartini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Limited progressive air flow in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD can caused by small airway disease (bronchiolitis obstructive and loss of elasticity of the lung (emphysema. Further it can be decreasing the quality of life in COPD patients because dyspnea and uncomfortable in activity. Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR is one of the relaxation technique that can repair pulmonary ventilation by decreasing chronic constriction of the respiratory muscles. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of progressive muscle relaxation on raised peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR. Method: A pre-experimental one group pre-post test design was used in this study. Population was all of the COPD patients at Pulmonary Specialist Polyclinic Dr Mohamad Soewandhie Surabaya. There were 8 respondents taken by using purposive sampling. PEFR was counted by using peak flow meter every six day. Data were analyzed by using Paired t-Test with significance level  p≤0.05. Result: The result showed that PMR had significance level on increasing of PEFR (p=0.012. Discussion: It can be concluded that PMR has an effect on raise PEFR. Further studies are recommended to measure the effect of PMR on respiratory rate (RR, heart rate (HR subjective dyspnoe symptoms, forced expiration volume on the first minute (FEV1 and mid maximum flow rate (MMFR in COPD patients.

  2. Yoga Nidra relaxation increases heart rate variability and is unaffected by a prior bout of Hatha yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markil, Nina; Whitehurst, Michael; Jacobs, Patrick L; Zoeller, Robert F

    2012-10-01

    The measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) is often applied as an index of autonomic nervous system (ANS) balance and, therefore, myocardial stability. Previous studies have suggested that relaxation or mind-body exercise can influence ANS balance positively as measured by HRV but may act via different mechanisms. No studies, to the authors' knowledge, have examined the acute response in HRV to interventions combining relaxation and mind-body exercise. The objective of this study was to compare the acute HRV responses to Yoga Nidra relaxation alone versus Yoga Nidra relaxation preceded by Hatha yoga. This was a randomized counter-balanced trial. The trial was conducted in a university exercise physiology laboratory. Subjects included 20 women and men (29.15±6.98 years of age, with a range of 18-47 years). Participants completed a yoga plus relaxation (YR) session and a relaxation only (R) session. The YR condition produced significant changes from baseline in heart rate (HR; beats per minute [bpm], pheart rate (bpm, p<0.001) as well as indices of HRV: R-R (ms, p<0.001), HF (ms(2), p=0.004), LF (%, p=0.005), HF (%, p=0.008) and LF:HF ratio (%, p=0.008). There were no significant differences between conditions at baseline nor for the changes from baseline for any of the variables. These changes demonstrate a favorable shift in autonomic balance to the parasympathetic branch of the ANS for both conditions, and that Yoga Nidra relaxation produces favorable changes in measures of HRV whether alone or preceded by a bout of Hatha yoga.

  3. Increased CEST specificity for amide and fast-exchanging amine protons using exchange-dependent relaxation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Feng; Xu, Junzhong; Gochberg, Daniel F; Gore, John C; Zu, Zhongliang

    2018-02-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging of amides at 3.5 ppm and fast-exchanging amines at 3 ppm provides a unique means to enhance the sensitivity of detection of, for example, proteins/peptides and neurotransmitters, respectively, and hence can provide important information on molecular composition. However, despite the high sensitivity relative to conventional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), in practice, CEST often has relatively poor specificity. For example, CEST signals are typically influenced by several confounding effects, including direct water saturation (DS), semi-solid non-specific magnetization transfer (MT), the influence of water relaxation times (T 1w ) and nearby overlapping CEST signals. Although several editing techniques have been developed to increase the specificity by removing DS, semi-solid MT and T 1w influences, it is still challenging to remove overlapping CEST signals from different exchanging sites. For instance, the amide proton transfer (APT) signal could be contaminated by CEST effects from fast-exchanging amines at 3 ppm and intermediate-exchanging amines at 2 ppm. The current work applies an exchange-dependent relaxation rate (R ex ) to address this problem. Simulations demonstrate that: (1) slowly exchanging amides and fast-exchanging amines have distinct dependences on irradiation powers; and (2) R ex serves as a resonance frequency high-pass filter to selectively reduce CEST signals with resonance frequencies closer to water. These characteristics of R ex provide a means to isolate the APT signal from amines. In addition, previous studies have shown that CEST signals from fast-exchanging amines have no distinct features around their resonance frequencies. However, R ex gives Lorentzian lineshapes centered at their resonance frequencies for fast-exchanging amines and thus can significantly increase the specificity of CEST imaging for amides and fast-exchanging amines. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons

  4. Relaxed Poisson cure rate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Josemar; Cordeiro, Gauss M; Cancho, Vicente G; Balakrishnan, N

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to make the standard promotion cure rate model (Yakovlev and Tsodikov, ) more flexible by assuming that the number of lesions or altered cells after a treatment follows a fractional Poisson distribution (Laskin, ). It is proved that the well-known Mittag-Leffler relaxation function (Berberan-Santos, ) is a simple way to obtain a new cure rate model that is a compromise between the promotion and geometric cure rate models allowing for superdispersion. So, the relaxed cure rate model developed here can be considered as a natural and less restrictive extension of the popular Poisson cure rate model at the cost of an additional parameter, but a competitor to negative-binomial cure rate models (Rodrigues et al., ). Some mathematical properties of a proper relaxed Poisson density are explored. A simulation study and an illustration of the proposed cure rate model from the Bayesian point of view are finally presented. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. THE PARTICIPATION OF THE NITRERGIC PATHWAY IN INCREASED RATE OF TRANSITORY RELAXATION OF LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER INDUCED BY RECTAL DISTENSION IN DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Santos PALHETA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context The rectal distension in dogs increases the rate of transitory lower esophageal sphincter relaxation considered the main factor causing gastroesophageal reflux. Objectives The aim of this study was evaluate the participation of the nitrergic pathway in the increased transitory lower esophageal sphincter relaxation rate induced by rectal distension in anesthetized dogs. Methods Male mongrel dogs (n = 21, weighing 10-15 kg, were fasted for 12 hours, with water ad libitum. Thereafter, they were anesthetized (ketamine 10 mg.Kg-1 + xylazine 20 mg.Kg-1, so as to carry out the esophageal motility evaluation protocol during 120 min. After a 30-minute basal period, the animals were randomly intravenous treated whith: saline solution 0.15M (1ml.Kg-1, L-NAME (3 mg.Kg-1, L-NAME (3 mg.Kg-1 + L-Arginine (200 mg.Kg-1, glibenclamide (1 mg.Kg-1 or methylene blue (3 mg.Kg-1. Forty-five min after these pre-treatments, the rectum was distended (rectal distension, 5 mL.Kg-1 or not (control with a latex balloon, with changes in the esophageal motility recorded over 45 min. Data were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Student Newman-Keuls test. Results In comparison to the respective control group, rectal distension induces an increase in transitory lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. Pre-treatment with L-NAME or methylene blue prevents (P<0.05 this phenomenon, which is reversible by L-Arginine plus L-NAME. However, pretreating with glibenclamide failed to abolish this process. Conclusions Therefore, these experiments suggested, that rectal distension increases transitory lower esophageal sphincter relaxation in dogs via through nitrergic pathways.

  6. Wall relaxation rates for an optically pumped NA vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D.R.; Anderson, L.W.

    1986-01-01

    The wall relaxation rates for an optically pumped Na vapor have been measured for a variety of wall surfaces. We find that fluorocarbon rubber (Fluorel, Viton) and organosilicones (silicone rubber, dry film) at a temperature of 250 C have respectively relaxation rates that correspond on the average to 10 to 15 and 200 to 500 bounces before depolarization occurs. 7 refs., 3 figs

  7. Constraints on relaxation rates for N-level quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, S.G.; Solomon, A.I.

    2004-01-01

    We study the constraints imposed on the population and phase relaxation rates by the physical requirement of completely positive evolution for open N-level systems. The Lindblad operators that govern the evolution of the system are expressed in terms of observable relaxation rates, explicit formulas for the decoherence rates due to population relaxation are derived, and it is shown that there are additional, nontrivial constraints on the pure dephasing rates for N>2. Explicit, experimentally testable inequality constraints for the decoherence rates are derived for three- and four-level systems, and the implications of the results are discussed for generic ladder, Λ, and V systems and transitions between degenerate energy levels

  8. Transport and relaxation properties of superfluid 3He. I. Kinetic equation and Bogoliubov quasiparticle relaxation rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einzel, D.; Woelfle, P.

    1978-01-01

    The kinetic equation for Bogoliubov quasiparticles for both the A and B phases of superfluid 3 He is derived from the general matrix kinetic equation. A condensed expression for the exact spin-symmetric collision integral is given. The quasiparticle relaxation rate is calculated for the BW state using the s--p approximation for the quasiparticle scattering amplitude. By using the results for the quasiparticle relaxation rate, the mean free path of Bogoliubov quasiparticles is calculated for all temperatures

  9. Dual resonance approach to optical signal processing beyond the carrier relaxation rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuck, Mikkel; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We propose using two optical cavities in a differential control scheme to increase the bandwidth of cavity-based semiconductor optical signal processing devices beyond the limit given by the slowest carrier relaxation rate of the medium.......We propose using two optical cavities in a differential control scheme to increase the bandwidth of cavity-based semiconductor optical signal processing devices beyond the limit given by the slowest carrier relaxation rate of the medium....

  10. High population increase rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    In addition to its economic and ethnic difficulties, the USSR faces several pressing demographic problems, including high population increase rates in several of its constituent republics. It has now become clear that although the country's rigid centralized planning succeeded in covering the basic needs of people, it did not lead to welfare growth. Since the 1970s, the Soviet economy has remained sluggish, which as led to increase in the death and birth rates. Furthermore, the ideology that held that demography could be entirely controlled by the country's political and economic system is contradicted by current Soviet reality, which shows that religion and ethnicity also play a significant role in demographic dynamics. Currently, Soviet republics fall under 2 categories--areas with high or low natural population increase rates. Republics with low rates consist of Christian populations (Armenia, Moldavia, Georgia, Byelorussia, Russia, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine), while republics with high rates are Muslim (Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kirgizia, Azerbaijan Kazakhstan). The later group has natural increase rates as high as 3.3%. Although the USSR as a whole is not considered a developing country, the later group of republics fit the description of the UNFPA's priority list. Another serious demographic issue facing the USSR is its extremely high rate of abortion. This is especially true in the republics of low birth rates, where up to 60% of all pregnancies are terminated by induced abortions. Up to 1/5 of the USSR's annual health care budget is spent on clinical abortions -- money which could be better spent on the production of contraceptives. Along with the recent political and economic changes, the USSR is now eager to deal with its demographic problems.

  11. Characterization of the transverse relaxation rates in lipid bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watnick, P.I.; Dea, P.; Chan, S.I.

    1990-01-01

    The 2H NMR transverse relaxation rates of a deuterated phospholipid bilayer reflect slow motions in the bilayer membrane. A study of dimyristoyl lecithin specifically deuterated at several positions of the hydrocarbon chains indicates that these motions are cooperative and are confined to the hydrocarbon chains of the lipid bilayer. However, lipid head group interactions do play an important role in modulating the properties of the cooperative fluctuations of the hydrocarbon chains (director fluctuations), as evidenced by the effects of various lipid additives on the 2H NMR transverse relaxation rates of the dimyristoyl lecithin bilayer

  12. Accurate determination of rates from non-uniformly sampled relaxation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetz, Matthew A.; Wand, A. Joshua, E-mail: wand@upenn.edu [University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Johnson Research Foundation and Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The application of non-uniform sampling (NUS) to relaxation experiments traditionally used to characterize the fast internal motion of proteins is quantitatively examined. Experimentally acquired Poisson-gap sampled data reconstructed with iterative soft thresholding are compared to regular sequentially sampled (RSS) data. Using ubiquitin as a model system, it is shown that 25 % sampling is sufficient for the determination of quantitatively accurate relaxation rates. When the sampling density is fixed at 25 %, the accuracy of rates is shown to increase sharply with the total number of sampled points until eventually converging near the inherent reproducibility of the experiment. Perhaps contrary to some expectations, it is found that accurate peak height reconstruction is not required for the determination of accurate rates. Instead, inaccuracies in rates arise from inconsistencies in reconstruction across the relaxation series that primarily manifest as a non-linearity in the recovered peak height. This indicates that the performance of an NUS relaxation experiment cannot be predicted from comparison of peak heights using a single RSS reference spectrum. The generality of these findings was assessed using three alternative reconstruction algorithms, eight different relaxation measurements, and three additional proteins that exhibit varying degrees of spectral complexity. From these data, it is revealed that non-linearity in peak height reconstruction across the relaxation series is strongly correlated with errors in NUS-derived relaxation rates. Importantly, it is shown that this correlation can be exploited to reliably predict the performance of an NUS-relaxation experiment by using three or more RSS reference planes from the relaxation series. The RSS reference time points can also serve to provide estimates of the uncertainty of the sampled intensity, which for a typical relaxation times series incurs no penalty in total acquisition time.

  13. BREATHING EXERCISE RELAXATION INCREASE PHSYCOLOGICAL RESPONSE PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

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    Yuni Sufyanti Arief

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Being hospitalize will be made the children become stress. Hospitalization response of the child particularly is afraid sense regard to painfull procedure and increase to attack the invasive procedure. The aimed of this study was to describe the influence of breathing exercise relaxation technique regarded to phsycological receiving responses in the preeliminary school chidren while they were receiving invasive procedure. Method: A quasy experimental purposive sampling design was used in this study. There were 20 respondents who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was the breathing exercise relaxation technique and the dependent variable was phsycological receiving responses. Data for phsylogical response were collected by using observation form then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result :  The result showed that breathing exercise relaxation technique had significance influence to phsycological response (p=0.000. Discussion: It,s can be concluded that breathing exercise relaxation technique has an effect to increase pshycological response in preeliminary school children who received invasive procedure.

  14. Correlated and uncorrelated heart rate fluctuations during relaxing visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasimakis, N.; Pallikari, F.

    2010-05-01

    The heart rate variability (HRV) of healthy subjects practicing relaxing visualization is studied by use of three multiscale analysis techniques: the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), the entropy in natural time (ENT) and the average wavelet (AWC) coefficient. The scaling exponent of normal interbeat interval increments exhibits characteristics of the presence of long-range correlations. During relaxing visualization the HRV dynamics change in the sense that two new features emerge independent of each other: a respiration-induced periodicity that often dominates the HRV at short scales (sleep.

  15. Vibrational energy transfer in selectively excited diatomic molecules. [Relaxation rates, self-relaxation, upper limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasch, C.J.

    1978-09-01

    Single rovibrational states of HCl(v=2), HBr(v=2), DCl(v=2), and CO(v=2) were excited with a pulsed optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Total vibrational relaxation rates near - resonance quenchers were measured at 295/sup 0/K using time resolved infrared fluorescence. These rates are attributed primarily to V - V energy transfer, and they generally conform to a simple energy gap law. A small deviation was found for the CO(v) + DCl(v') relaxation rates. Upper limits for the self relaxation by V - R,T of HCl(v=2) and HBr(v=2) and for the two quantum exchange between HCl and HBr were determined. The HF dimer was detected at 295/sup 0/K and 30 torr HF pressure with an optoacoustic spectrometer using the OPO. Pulsed and chopped, resonant and non-resonant spectrophones are analyzed in detail. From experiments and first order perturbation theory, these V - V exchange rates appear to behave as a first order perturbation in the vibrational coordinates. The rotational dynamics are known to be complicated however, and the coupled rotational - vibrational dynamics were investigated theoreticaly in infinite order by the Dillon and Stephenson and the first Magnus approximations. Large ..delta..J transitions appear to be important, but these calculations differ by orders of magnitude on specific rovibrational transition rates. Integration of the time dependent semiclassical equations by a modified Gordon method and a rotationally distorted wave approximation are discussed as methods which would treat the rotational motion more accurately. 225 references.

  16. Combined Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Apparent Transverse Relaxation Rate Differentiate Parkinson Disease and Atypical Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, G; Lewis, M M; Kanekar, S; Sterling, N W; He, L; Kong, L; Li, R; Huang, X

    2017-05-01

    Both diffusion tensor imaging and the apparent transverse relaxation rate have shown promise in differentiating Parkinson disease from atypical parkinsonism (particularly multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy). The objective of the study was to assess the ability of DTI, the apparent transverse relaxation rate, and their combination for differentiating Parkinson disease, multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, and controls. A total of 106 subjects (36 controls, 35 patients with Parkinson disease, 16 with multiple system atrophy, and 19 with progressive supranuclear palsy) were included. DTI and the apparent transverse relaxation rate measures from the striatal, midbrain, limbic, and cerebellar regions were obtained and compared among groups. The discrimination performance of DTI and the apparent transverse relaxation rate among groups was assessed by using Elastic-Net machine learning and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Compared with controls, patients with Parkinson disease showed significant apparent transverse relaxation rate differences in the red nucleus. Compared to those with Parkinson disease, patients with both multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy showed more widespread changes, extending from the midbrain to striatal and cerebellar structures. The pattern of changes, however, was different between the 2 groups. For instance, patients with multiple system atrophy showed decreased fractional anisotropy and an increased apparent transverse relaxation rate in the subthalamic nucleus, whereas patients with progressive supranuclear palsy showed an increased mean diffusivity in the hippocampus. Combined, DTI and the apparent transverse relaxation rate were significantly better than DTI or the apparent transverse relaxation rate alone in separating controls from those with Parkinson disease/multiple system atrophy/progressive supranuclear palsy; controls from those with Parkinson

  17. Relaxation rates studies in an argon cylindrical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, M.A.; Dengra, A.; Colomer, V.

    1986-01-01

    The single Langmuir probe method has been used to determine the relaxation rates of the electron density and temperature in an argon afterglow dc cylindrical plasma. The ion-electron recombination was found to be the fundamental mechanism of density decay during the early afterglow while the ambipolar diffusion controlles the density decay for later afterglow. Electron temperature cooling curves have been interpreted via electron-neutral collisons. Measurements of the electron-ion recombination and the ambipolar diffusion coefficients have been made, as well as of the electron-neutral collision frequency and the momentum transfer cross sections. Good agreement is obtained with previously published data. (author)

  18. Formation probabilities and relaxation rates of muon states in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clawson, C.W.; Haller, E.E.; Crowe, K.M.; Rosenblum, S.S.; Brewer, J.H.; British Columbia Univ., Vancouver

    1981-01-01

    We report the first results of a study of the muonium states in ultra-pure germanium crystals grown under a variety of conditions at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Among the variations studied are: 1) Hydrogen, deuterium, or nitrogen atmosphere during growth; 2) Dislocation-free vs. dislocated crystals; 3) Grown from quartz, graphite, and pyrolytic graphite coated quartz crucibles; 4) n-type vs. p-type. We report a significant difference in the muonium relaxation rate between the dislocated and non-dislocated crystals. (orig.)

  19. Concentration dependence of fluorine impurity spin-lattice relaxation rate in bone mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Code, R.F.; Armstrong, R.L.; Cheng, P.-T.

    1992-01-01

    The concentration dependence of the fluoride ion spin-lattice relaxation rate has been observed by nuclear magnetic resonance experiments on samples of defatted and dried bone. The 19 F spin-lattice relaxation rates increased linearly with bone fluoride concentration. Different results were obtained from trabecular than from cortical bone. For the same macroscopic fluoride content per gram of bone calcium, relaxation rate is significantly faster in cortical bone. Relaxation rates in cortical bone samples prepared from rats and dogs were apparently controlled by the same species-independent processes. For samples from beagle dogs, bulk fluoride concentrations measured by neutron activation analysis were 3.1±0.3 times greater in trabecular bone than in corresponding cortical bone. The beagle spin-lattice relaxation data suggest that microscopic fluoride concentrations in bone mineral were 1.8±0.4 times greater in trabecular bone than in cortical bone. It is concluded that accumulation of fluoride impurities in bone mineral is non-uniform. (author)

  20. NMR relaxation rate in quasi one-dimensional antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capponi, Sylvain; Dupont, Maxime; Laflorencie, Nicolas; Sengupta, Pinaki; Shao, Hui; Sandvik, Anders W.

    We compare results of different numerical approaches to compute the NMR relaxation rate 1 /T1 in quasi one-dimensional (1d) antiferromagnets. In the purely 1d regime, recent numerical simulations using DMRG have provided the full crossover behavior from classical regime at high temperature to universal Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid at low-energy (in the gapless case) or activated behavior (in the gapped case). For quasi 1d models, we can use mean-field approaches to reduce the problem to a 1d one that can be studied using DMRG. But in some cases, we can also simulate the full microscopic model using quantum Monte-Carlo techniques. This allows to compute dynamical correlations in imaginary time and we will discuss recent advances to perform stochastic analytic continuation to get real frequency spectra. Finally, we connect our results to experiments on various quasi 1d materials.

  1. Characterization of strain rate sensitivity and activation volume using the indentation relaxation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Baoxing; Chen Xi; Yue Zhufeng

    2010-01-01

    We present the possibility of extracting the strain rate sensitivity, activation volume and Helmholtz free energy (for dislocation activation) using just one indentation stress relaxation test, and the approach is demonstrated with polycrystalline copper. The Helmholtz free energy measured from indentation relaxation agrees well with that from the conventional compression relaxation test, which validates the proposed approach. From the indentation relaxation test, the measured indentation strain rate sensitivity exponent is found to be slightly larger, and the indentation activation volume much smaller, than their counterparts from the compression test. The results indicate the involvement of multiple dislocation mechanisms in the indentation test.

  2. Relaxation rates of low-field gas-phase ^129Xe storage cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limes, Mark; Saam, Brian

    2010-10-01

    A study of longitudinal nuclear relaxation rates T1 of ^129Xe and Xe-N2 mixtures in a magnetic field of 3.8 mT is presented. In this regime, intrinsic spin relaxation is dominated by the intramolecular spin-rotation interaction due to persistent xenon dimers, a mechanism that can be quelled by introducing large amounts of N2 into the storage cell. Extrinsic spin relaxation is dominated by the wall-relaxation rate, which is the primary quantity of interest for the various low-field storage cells and coatings that we have tested. Previous group work has shown that extremely long gas-phase relaxation times T1 can be obtained, but only at large magnetic fields and low xenon densities. The current work is motivated by the practical benefits of retaining hyperpolarized ^129Xe for extended periods of time in a small magnetic field.

  3. Dual-resonances approach to broadband cavity-assisted optical signal processing beyond the carrier relaxation rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuck, Mikkel; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We propose and analyze a differential control scheme for cavity-enhanced optical signal processing devices based on carrier nonlinearities. The scheme relies on two optical cavities to increase the bandwidth beyond the limit given by the slowest carrier relaxation rate of the medium. Practical...

  4. Relaxation rates of gene expression kinetics reveal the feedback signs of autoregulatory gene networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chen; Qian, Hong; Chen, Min; Zhang, Michael Q.

    2018-03-01

    The transient response to a stimulus and subsequent recovery to a steady state are the fundamental characteristics of a living organism. Here we study the relaxation kinetics of autoregulatory gene networks based on the chemical master equation model of single-cell stochastic gene expression with nonlinear feedback regulation. We report a novel relation between the rate of relaxation, characterized by the spectral gap of the Markov model, and the feedback sign of the underlying gene circuit. When a network has no feedback, the relaxation rate is exactly the decaying rate of the protein. We further show that positive feedback always slows down the relaxation kinetics while negative feedback always speeds it up. Numerical simulations demonstrate that this relation provides a possible method to infer the feedback topology of autoregulatory gene networks by using time-series data of gene expression.

  5. Calculation of nuclear-spin-relaxation rate for spin-polarized atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, R.M.C.; Eijnde, J.P.H.W.V.; Verhaar, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    Approximations introduced in previous calculations of spin relaxation for spin-polarized atomic hydrogen are investigated by carrying out a more exact coupled-channel calculation. With the exception of the high-temperature approximation, the approximations turn out to be justified up to the 10 -3 level of accuracy. It is shown that at the lowest temperatures for which experimental data are available, the high-temperature limit underestimates relaxation rates by a factor of up to 2. For a comparison with experimental data it is also of interest to pay attention to the expression for the atomic hydrogen relaxation rates in terms of transition amplitudes for two-particle collisions. Discrepancies by a factor of 2 among previous derivations of relaxation rates are pointed out. To shed light on these discrepancies we present two alternative derivations in which special attention is paid to identical-particle aspects. Comparing with experiment, we find our theoretical volume relaxation rate to be in better agreement with measured values than that obtained by other groups. The theoretical surface relaxation rate, however, still shows a discrepancy with experiment by a factor of order 50

  6. Increased heart rate variability during nondirective meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvold, Anders; Fagerland, Morten W; Davanger, Svend; Ellingsen, Øyvind; Solberg, Erik E; Holen, Are; Sevre, Knut; Atar, Dan

    2012-08-01

    Meditation practices are in use for relaxation and stress reduction. Some studies indicate beneficial cardiovascular health effects of meditation. The effects on the autonomous nervous system seem to vary among techniques. The purpose of the present study was to identify autonomic nerve activity changes during nondirective meditation. Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability (BPV), and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were monitored in 27 middle-aged healthy participants of both genders, first during 20 min regular rest with eyes closed, thereafter practising Acem meditation for 20 min. Haemodynamic and autonomic data were collected continuously (beat-to-beat) and non-invasively. HRV and BPV parameters were estimated by power spectral analyses, computed by an autoregressive model. Spontaneous activity of baroreceptors were determined by the sequence method. Primary outcomes were changes in HRV, BPV, and BRS between rest and meditation. HRV increased in the low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) bands during meditation, compared with rest (p = 0.014, 0.013, respectively). Power spectral density of the RR-intervals increased as well (p = 0.012). LF/HF ratio decreased non-significantly, and a reduction of LF-BPV power was observed during meditation (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in BRS. Respiration and heart rates remained unchanged. Blood pressure increased slightly during meditation. There is an increased parasympathetic and reduced sympathetic nerve activity and increased overall HRV, while practising the technique. Hence, nondirective meditation by the middle aged may contribute towards a reduction of cardiovascular risk.

  7. Spin fluctuations in iron based superconductors probed by NMR relaxation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graefe, Uwe; Kuehne, Tim; Wurmehl, Sabine; Buechner, Bernd; Grafe, Hans-Joachim [IFW Dresden, Institute for Solid State Research, PF 270116, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Hammerath, Franziska [IFW Dresden, Institute for Solid State Research, PF 270116, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Department of Physics ' ' A. Volta' ' , University of Pavia-CNISM, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Lang, Guillaume [3LPEM-UPR5, CNRS, ESPCI Paris Tech, 10 Rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris (France)

    2013-07-01

    We present {sup 75}As nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results in F doped LaOFeAs iron pnictides. In the underdoped superconducting samples, pronounced spin fluctuations lead to a peak in the NMR spin lattice relaxation rate, (T{sub 1}T){sup -1}. The peak shows a typical field dependence that indicates a critical slowing of spin fluctuations: it is reduced in height and shifted to higher temperatures. In contrast, a similar peak in the underdoped magnetic samples at the ordering temperature of the spin density wave does not show such a field dependence. Furthermore, the peak is absent in optimally and overdoped samples, suggesting the absence of strong spin fluctuations. Our results indicate a glassy magnetic ordering in the underdoped samples that is in contrast to the often reported Curie Weiss like increase of spin fluctuations towards T{sub c}. Additional measurements of the linewidth and the spin spin relaxation rate are in agreement with such a glassy magnetic ordering that is most likely competing with superconductivity. Our results will be compared to Co doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, where a similar peak in (T{sub 1}T){sup -1} has been observed.

  8. Spin relaxation rates in quantum dots: Role of the phonon modulated spin orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde, A. M.; Romano, C. L.; Marques, G. E.

    2008-11-01

    We calculate the spin relaxation rates in InAs and GaAs parabolic quantum dots due to the interaction of spin carriers with acoustical phonons. We consider a spin relaxation mechanism completely intrinsic to the system, since it is based on the modulation of the spin-orbit interaction by the acoustic phonon potential, which is independent of any structural properties of the confinement potential. The electron-phonon deformation potential and the piezoelectric interaction are described by the Pavlov-Firsov spin-phonon Hamiltonian. Our results demonstrate that, for narrow-gap semiconductors, the deformation potential interaction becomes dominant. This behavior is not observed for wide or intermediate gap semiconductors, where the piezoelectric coupling, in general, governs the relaxation processes. We also demonstrate that the spin relaxation rates are particularly sensitive to values of the Landé g-factor, which depend strongly on the spatial shape of the confinement.

  9. Randomized controlled trial of relaxation music to reduce heart rate in patients undergoing cardiac CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ming Yen; Karimzad, Yasser; Menezes, Ravi J; Wintersperger, Bernd J; Li, Qin; Forero, Julian; Paul, Narinder S; Nguyen, Elsie T

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the heart rate lowering effect of relaxation music in patients undergoing coronary CT angiography (CCTA), pulmonary vein CT (PVCT) and coronary calcium score CT (CCS). Patients were randomised to a control group (i.e. standard of care protocol) or to a relaxation music group (ie. standard of care protocol with music). The groups were compared for heart rate, radiation dose, image quality and dose of IV metoprolol. Both groups completed State-Trait Anxiety Inventory anxiety questionnaires to assess patient experience. One hundred and ninety-seven patients were recruited (61.9 % males); mean age 56y (19-86 y); 127 CCTA, 17 PVCT, 53 CCS. No significant difference in heart rate, radiation dose, image quality, metoprolol dose and anxiety scores. 86 % of patients enjoyed the music. 90 % of patients in the music group expressed a strong preference to have music for future examinations. The patient cohort demonstrated low anxiety levels prior to CT. Relaxation music in CCTA, PVCT and CCS does not reduce heart rate or IV metoprolol use. Patients showed low levels of anxiety indicating that anxiolytics may not have a significant role in lowering heart rate. Music can be used in cardiac CT to improve patient experience. • Relaxation music does not reduce heart rate in cardiac CT • Relaxation music does not reduce beta-blocker use in cardiac CT • Relaxation music has no effect on cardiac CT image quality • Low levels of anxiety are present in patients prior to cardiac CT • Patients enjoyed the relaxation music and this results in improved patient experience.

  10. THE BENEFICIENCE OF RELIGIOUS RELAXATION: DZIKIR TO INCREASE PHSYCOLOGICAL WELLNESS OF ELDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah. Yusuf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychological well-being is one of an important part on the positive aging process for elderly. Many older people face stressful situation such as death of family, deterioration of health, decrease of physical ability and psychological problem like loneliness, low self esteem, useless, isolation or difficulty in relationship. Religious relaxation: dzikir is one of the group therapy to fill up psychological necessary by filled up spiritual necessary so they could say thanks to God for everything what they have had now. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of religious relaxation: dzikir to increase the level of psychological well being of the elderly. Method: This study was used a quasy experimental pre post test design. There were 20 respondents which taken by using purposive sampling. The independent variable was religious relaxation: dzikir and the dependent variable was elderly psychological well being. Data were analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U-Test with significance level a≤0.05. Result: The result showed that religious relaxation: dzikir has an effect on increasing the level of psychological well being of the elderly with Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test p=0.004 in treatment group, p=1.000 in control group and the result of Mann Whitney U-Test revealed p=0.000. Discussion: It can be concluded that religious relaxation: dzikir can increase psychological well-being. Religious relaxation: dzikir help the elderly to develop self acceptance, autonomy, positive relation with others, environmental mastery, purposive in life and personal growth. Researcher suggests the institutional to practice relaxation religious: dzikir to help elderly people to raise psychological well-being.

  11. The effect of relaxing music on heart rate and heart rate variability during ECG GATED-myocardial perfusion scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yusuf Ziya; Ozdemir, Semra; Temiz, Ahmet; Celik, Fatmanur

    2015-05-01

    The positive changes in human behavior caused by relaxing music demonstrate the psychological effect of music on human body. A meta-analytical study has shown that relaxing music affects blood pressure and heart rate in coronary heart patients and cancer patients. The aim of our study is to research whether there is a significant effect on heart rate and heart rate variability due to listening to relaxing music during ECG GATED MPS imaging under gamma camera. The music group (n = 50 patients) could choose from 15 different musical types including folk music (no lyric). The other 50 patients were placed in a "no music group" and did not get headphones or any music. There was a statistically significant reduction in the heart rate of patients in the music group compared to those in the control group. Relaxing music provides great benefits to both patient and clinician. There is close relationship between relaxing music and health procedure, can use every area of the health noninvasiv, safe, cheap and is a method don't have side effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhancement of relaxation rates in the normal state of superconductor PuRhGa5:NQR relaxation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, H.; Kambe, S.; Tokunaga, Y.; Fujimoto, T.; Walstedt, R.E.; Yasuoka, H.; Aoki, D.; Homma, Y.; Yamamoto, E.; Nakamura, A.; Shiokawa, Y.; Nakajima, K.; Arai, Y.; Matsuda, T.D.; Haga, Y.; Onuki, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The spin-lattice relaxation rates (1/T 1 ) have been measured under zero field using nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) lines in superconductor PuRhGa 5 and Pauli-paramagnet LuCoGa 5 . In the reference LuCoGa 5 with fully-occupied 4f shell, the 1/T 1 shows the constant behavior of (T 1 T) -1 =0.495+/-0.002(sK) -1 . On the other hand, in PuRhGa 5 , 1/T 1 is much larger than in LuCoGa 5 and the 1/T 1 ∝T behavior below ∼30K is seen, where its (T 1 T) -1 value is 3.27+/-0.005(sK) -1 . These results suggest a development of coherent Fermi liquid state incorporated with 5f electrons below ∼30K in PuRhGa 5

  13. Frequency and Temperature Dependence of Anharmonic Phonon Relaxation Rate in Carbon Nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepplestone, S P; Srivastava, G P

    2007-01-01

    The relaxation rate of phonon modes in the (10, 10) single wall carbon nanotube undergoing three-phonon interactions at various temperatures has been studied using both qualitative and quantitative approaches based upon Fermi's Golden Rule and a quasi-elastic continuum model for the anharmonic potential. For the quantitative calculations, dispersion relations for the phonon modes were obtained from analytic expressions developed by Zhang et al. The qualitative expressions were derived using simple linear phonon dispersions relations. We show that in the high temperature regime the relaxation rate varies linearly with temperature and with the square of the frequency. In the low temperature regime we show that the relaxation rate varies exponentially with the inverse of temperature. These results have some very interesting implifications for effects for mean free path and thermal conductivity calculations

  14. The benefit of heart rate variability biofeedback and relaxation training in reducing trait anxiety†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Kim, Jung K; Wachholtz, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Previous research studies have indicated that biofeedback treatment and relaxation techniques are effective in reducing psychological and physical symptoms (Hammond, 2005; Manzoni, G. M., Pagnini, F., Castelnuovo, G., & Molinari, E., 2008). However, dearth of studies has compared heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback treatment and relaxation training to reduce trait anxiety. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of HRV biofeedback treatment and relaxation training in reducing trait anxiety compared to control group without any treatment using students in a science and engineering university of South Korea. For the present study, a total of 15 graduate students with moderate level of trait anxiety were recruited for 4 individual sessions every two weeks. They were randomly assigned into three groups: biofeedback treatment (n = 5), relaxation training (n = 5), and no treatment control group (n = 5). Our results revealed significant difference in change score of trait anxiety between the HRV biofeedback treatment and the no treatment control group. However, no significant difference was found between the relaxation training group and the no treatment control group. In addition, there was no significant difference between the HRV biofeedback treatment and the relaxation training. Results of the present study indicate that there is potential benefit in utilizing HRV biofeedback treatment for stress management programs and/or anxiety reduction treatment PMID:27099546

  15. Time-Dependent Behaviors of Granite: Loading-Rate Dependence, Creep, and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, K.; Fukui, K.

    2016-07-01

    To assess the long-term stability of underground structures, it is important to understand the time-dependent behaviors of rocks, such as their loading-rate dependence, creep, and relaxation. However, there have been fewer studies on crystalline rocks than on tuff, mudstone, and rock salt, because the high strength of crystalline rocks makes the detection of their time-dependent behaviors much more difficult. Moreover, studies on the relaxation, temporal change of stress and strain (TCSS) conditions, and relations between various time-dependent behaviors are scarce for not only granites, but also other rocks. In this study, previous reports on the time-dependent behaviors of granites were reviewed and various laboratory tests were conducted using Toki granite. These tests included an alternating-loading-rate test, creep test, relaxation test, and TCSS test. The results showed that the degree of time dependence of Toki granite is similar to other granites, and that the TCSS resembles the stress-relaxation curve and creep-strain curve. A viscoelastic constitutive model, proposed in a previous study, was modified to investigate the relations between the time-dependent behaviors in the pre- and post-peak regions. The modified model reproduced the stress-strain curve, creep, relaxation, and the results of the TCSS test. Based on a comparison of the results of the laboratory tests and numerical simulations, close relations between the time-dependent behaviors were revealed quantitatively.

  16. Phonon conductivity and relaxation rate in solids with disturbances by the Green function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.

    1980-09-01

    In this present article we have established an expression for the temperature dependence of the lattice thermal conductivity of solids with harmonic disturbances. The relaxation rate for scattering of phonons with point defect is also derived. We will apply the Kubo-correlation function formalism for the thermal conductivity, and the double time temperature dependent Green function technique for the evaluation of correlation functions

  17. Cross-correlated relaxation rates between protein backbone H–X dipolar interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vögeli, Beat

    2017-01-01

    The relaxation interference between dipole–dipole interactions of two separate spin pairs carries structural and dynamics information. In particular, when compared to individual dynamic behavior of those spin pairs, such cross-correlated relaxation (CCR) rates report on the correlation between the spin pairs. We have recently mapped out correlated motion along the backbone of the protein GB3, using CCR rates among and between consecutive H N –N and H α –C α dipole–dipole interactions. Here, we provide a detailed account of the measurement of the four types of CCR rates. All rates were obtained from at least two different pulse sequences, of which the yet unpublished ones are presented. Detailed comparisons between the different methods and corrections for unwanted pathways demonstrate that the averaged CCR rates are highly accurate and precise with errors of 1.5–3% of the entire value ranges.

  18. Cross-correlated relaxation rates between protein backbone H–X dipolar interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vögeli, Beat, E-mail: beat.vogeli@ucdenver.edu [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics (United States)

    2017-03-15

    The relaxation interference between dipole–dipole interactions of two separate spin pairs carries structural and dynamics information. In particular, when compared to individual dynamic behavior of those spin pairs, such cross-correlated relaxation (CCR) rates report on the correlation between the spin pairs. We have recently mapped out correlated motion along the backbone of the protein GB3, using CCR rates among and between consecutive H{sup N}–N and H{sup α}–C{sup α} dipole–dipole interactions. Here, we provide a detailed account of the measurement of the four types of CCR rates. All rates were obtained from at least two different pulse sequences, of which the yet unpublished ones are presented. Detailed comparisons between the different methods and corrections for unwanted pathways demonstrate that the averaged CCR rates are highly accurate and precise with errors of 1.5–3% of the entire value ranges.

  19. NMR relaxation rates and Knight shifts in the alloy Mg1-xAlxB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serventi, S; Allodi, G; Bucci, C; Renzi, R De; Guidi, G; Pavarini, E; Manfrinetti, P; Palenzona, A

    2003-01-01

    We measured the 27 Al and 11 B NMR spin lattice relaxation rates and the isotropic Knight shifts in powder samples of Mg 1-x Al x B 2 , as a function of the Al concentration, x. The temperature independence of the Knight shifts and the linear temperature dependence of the relaxation are verified throughout the compositions explored. The variation with x of the measured quantities is discussed in terms of the projected densities of states at the Fermi energy, finding good qualitative as well as quantitative agreement with recent band structure calculations

  20. Low-Dimensional Nanoparticle Clustering in Polymer Micelles and Their Transverse Relaxivity Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Robert J.; Meng, Xin; Zhang, Peijun; Park, So-Jung

    2015-01-01

    One- or two-dimensional arrays of iron oxide nanoparticles were formed in colloidal assemblies of amphiphilic polymers. Electron tomography imaging revealed that nanoparticles are arranged into one-dimensional strings in magneto-micelles or two-dimensional sheets in magneto-core/shell assemblies. The distinct directional assembly behavior was attributed to the interparticle interaction relative to the nanoparticle–polymer interaction, which was modulated by varying the cosolvent used for the solution phase self-assembly. Magneto-core/shell assemblies with varying structural parameters were formed with a range of different sized as-synthesized nanoparticles. The transverse magnetic relaxivity rates (r2) of a series of different assemblies were determined to examine the effect of nanoparticle arrangement on the magnetic relaxivity for their potential applications in MRI. The results indicated that the assembly structure of nanoparticles in polymer micelles significantly affects the r2 of surrounding water, providing a way to control magnetic relaxivity. PMID:23731021

  1. Enhancement and degradation of the R2* relaxation rate resulting from the encapsulation of magnetic particles with hydrophilic coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Hendrick W; Paquet, Chantal

    2011-12-01

    The effects of including a hydrophilic coating around the particles are studied across a wide range of particle sizes by performing Monte Carlo simulations of protons diffusing through a system of magnetic particles. A physically realistic methodology of implementing the coating by cross boundary jump scaling and transition probabilities at the coating surface is developed. Using this formulation, the coating has three distinct impacts on the relaxation rate: an enhancement at small particle sizes, a degradation at intermediate particle sizes, and no effect at large particles sizes. These varied effects are reconciled with the underlying dephasing mechanisms by using the concept of a full dephasing zone to present a physical picture of the dephasing process with and without the coating for all sizes. The enhancement at small particle sizes is studied systemically to demonstrate the existence of an optimal ratio of diffusion coefficients inside/outside the coating to achieve maximal increase in the relaxation rate. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Ovariectomy increases the participation of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the relaxation of rat aorta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sagredo

    Full Text Available This study examines the downstream NO release pathway and the contribution of different vasodilator mediators in the acetylcholine-induced response in rat aorta 5-months after the loss of ovarian function. Aortic segments from ovariectomized and control female Sprague-Dawley rats were used to measure: the levels of superoxide anion, the superoxide dismutases (SODs activity, the cGMP formation, the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG activity and the involvement of NO, cGMP, hydrogen peroxide and hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the ACh-induced relaxation. The results showed that ovariectomy did not alter ACh-induced relaxation; incubation with L-NAME, a NO synthase inhibitor, decreased the ACh-induced response to a lesser extent in aorta from ovariectomized than from control rats, while ODQ, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, decreased that response to a similar extent; the blockade of hyperpolarizing mechanisms, by precontracting arteries with KCl, decreased the ACh-induced response to a greater extent in aortas from ovariectomized than those from control rats; catalase, that decomposes hydrogen peroxide, decreased the ACh-induced response only in aorta from ovariectomized rats. In addition, ovariectomy increased superoxide anion levels and SODs activity, decreased cGMP formation and increased PKG activity. Despite the increased superoxide anion and decreased cGMP in aorta from ovariectomized rats, ACh-induced relaxation is maintained by the existence of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in which hydrogen peroxide participates. The greater contribution of hydrogen peroxide in ACh-induced relaxation is due to increased SOD activity, in an attempt to compensate for increased superoxide anion formation. Increased PKG activity could represent a redundant mechanism to ensure vasodilator function in the aorta of ovariectomized rats.

  3. Randomized controlled trial of relaxation music to reduce heart rate in patients undergoing cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Ming Yen [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hong Kong (China); Karimzad, Yasser; Menezes, Ravi J.; Wintersperger, Bernd J.; Li, Qin; Forero, Julian; Paul, Narinder S.; Nguyen, Elsie T. [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-10-15

    To evaluate the heart rate lowering effect of relaxation music in patients undergoing coronary CT angiography (CCTA), pulmonary vein CT (PVCT) and coronary calcium score CT (CCS). Patients were randomised to a control group (i.e. standard of care protocol) or to a relaxation music group (ie. standard of care protocol with music). The groups were compared for heart rate, radiation dose, image quality and dose of IV metoprolol. Both groups completed State-Trait Anxiety Inventory anxiety questionnaires to assess patient experience. One hundred and ninety-seven patients were recruited (61.9 % males); mean age 56y (19-86 y); 127 CCTA, 17 PVCT, 53 CCS. No significant difference in heart rate, radiation dose, image quality, metoprolol dose and anxiety scores. 86 % of patients enjoyed the music. 90 % of patients in the music group expressed a strong preference to have music for future examinations. The patient cohort demonstrated low anxiety levels prior to CT. Relaxation music in CCTA, PVCT and CCS does not reduce heart rate or IV metoprolol use. Patients showed low levels of anxiety indicating that anxiolytics may not have a significant role in lowering heart rate. Music can be used in cardiac CT to improve patient experience. (orig.)

  4. Randomized controlled trial of relaxation music to reduce heart rate in patients undergoing cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Ming Yen; Karimzad, Yasser; Menezes, Ravi J.; Wintersperger, Bernd J.; Li, Qin; Forero, Julian; Paul, Narinder S.; Nguyen, Elsie T.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the heart rate lowering effect of relaxation music in patients undergoing coronary CT angiography (CCTA), pulmonary vein CT (PVCT) and coronary calcium score CT (CCS). Patients were randomised to a control group (i.e. standard of care protocol) or to a relaxation music group (ie. standard of care protocol with music). The groups were compared for heart rate, radiation dose, image quality and dose of IV metoprolol. Both groups completed State-Trait Anxiety Inventory anxiety questionnaires to assess patient experience. One hundred and ninety-seven patients were recruited (61.9 % males); mean age 56y (19-86 y); 127 CCTA, 17 PVCT, 53 CCS. No significant difference in heart rate, radiation dose, image quality, metoprolol dose and anxiety scores. 86 % of patients enjoyed the music. 90 % of patients in the music group expressed a strong preference to have music for future examinations. The patient cohort demonstrated low anxiety levels prior to CT. Relaxation music in CCTA, PVCT and CCS does not reduce heart rate or IV metoprolol use. Patients showed low levels of anxiety indicating that anxiolytics may not have a significant role in lowering heart rate. Music can be used in cardiac CT to improve patient experience. (orig.)

  5. The laser second threshold: Its exact analytical dependence on detuning and relaxation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakasov, A.A.; Abraham, N.B.

    1992-11-01

    An exact analysis has been carried out for general analytical expressions for the second threshold of a single-mode homogeneously broadened laser and for the initial pulsation frequency at the second threshold for arbitrary physical values of the relaxation rates, and at arbitrary detuning between the cavity frequency and the atomic resonance frequency. These expressions also give correspondingly exact forms for asymptotic cases that have previously studied with some approximations. Earlier approximate results are partly confirmed and partly improved by these more general expressions. The physical status of various expressions and approximations is re-considered and specified more clearly, including an analysis of which reasonably can be attained in lasers or masers. A general analytical proof is given that for larger detuning of the laser cavity from resonance a higher value of the laser excitation is required to destabilize the steady state solution (the second threshold). We also present results for the minimum value of the second threshold at fixed detuning as a function of the other parameters of the system and on the dependence of the ratio of the second threshold to the first threshold as a function of detuning. Minima of the second threshold and of the threshold ratio occur only if the population relaxation rate is equal to zero. The minima of the threshold ratio are shown to be bounded from above as well as from below (as functions of the relaxation rates, so long as the second threshold exists). The upper bound on the threshold ratio is equal to 17. The variation of the second threshold in the semi-infinite parameter space of the decay rates is shown at various detunings in plots with a finite domain by normalizing the material relaxation rates to the cavity decay rate. (author). 53 refs, 22 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Simple expressions of the nuclear relaxation rate enhancement due to quadrupole nuclei in slowly tumbling molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Pascal H., E-mail: pascal-h.fries@cea.fr [Université Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SCIB, RICC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SCIB, RICC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Belorizky, Elie [Université Grenoble Alpes, LIPHY, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, Leti-Clinatec, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-28

    For slowly tumbling entities or quasi-rigid lattices, we derive very simple analytical expressions of the quadrupole relaxation enhancement (QRE) of the longitudinal relaxation rate R{sub 1} of nuclear spins I due to their intramolecular magnetic dipolar coupling with quadrupole nuclei of arbitrary spins S ≥ 1. These expressions are obtained by using the adiabatic approximation for evaluating the time evolution operator of the quantum states of the quadrupole nuclei S. They are valid when the gyromagnetic ratio of the spin S is much smaller than that of the spin I. The theory predicts quadrupole resonant peaks in the dispersion curve of R{sub 1} vs magnetic field. The number, positions, relative intensities, Lorentzian shapes, and widths of these peaks are explained in terms of the following properties: the magnitude of the quadrupole Hamiltonian and the asymmetry parameter of the electric field gradient (EFG) acting on the spin S, the S-I inter-spin orientation with respect to the EFG principal axes, the rotational correlation time of the entity carrying the S–I pair, and/or the proper relaxation time of the spin S. The theory is first applied to protein amide protons undergoing dipolar coupling with fast-relaxing quadrupole {sup 14}N nuclei and mediating the QRE to the observed bulk water protons. The theoretical QRE agrees well with its experimental counterpart for various systems such as bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor and cartilages. The anomalous behaviour of the relaxation rate of protons in synthetic aluminium silicate imogolite nano-tubes due to the QRE of {sup 27}Al (S = 5/2) nuclei is also explained.

  7. Postearthquake relaxation after the 2004 M6 Parkfield, California, earthquake and rate-and-state friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, J.C.; Langbein, J.

    2008-01-01

    An unusually complete set of measurements (including rapid rate GPS over the first 10 days) of postseismic deformation is available at 12 continuous GPS stations located close to the epicenter of the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake. The principal component modes for the relaxation of the ensemble of those 12 GPS stations were determined. The first mode alone furnishes an adequate approximation to the data. Thus, the relaxation at all stations can be represented by the product of a common temporal function and distinct amplitudes for each component (north or east) of relaxation at each station. The distribution in space of the amplitudes indicates that the relaxation is dominantly strike slip. The temporal function, which spans times from about 5 min to 900 days postearthquake, can be fit by a superposition of three creep terms, each of the form ??l loge(1 + t/??l), with characteristic times ??, = 4.06, 0.11, and 0.0001 days. It seems likely that what is actually involved is a broad spectrum of characteristic times, the individual components of which arise from afterslip on different fault patches. Perfettini and Avouac (2004) have shown that an individual creep term can be explained by the spring-slider model with rate-dependent (no state variable) friction. The observed temporal function can also be explained using a single spring-slider model (i.e., single fault patch) that includes rate-and-state-dependent friction, a single-state variable, and either of the two commonly used (aging and slip) state evolution laws. In the latter fits, the rate-and-state friction parameter b is negative.

  8. Realization of a scenario with two relaxation rates in the Hubbard Falicov-Kimball model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, H.; Laad, M. S.; Hassan, S. R.

    2018-02-01

    A single transport relaxation rate governs the decay of both longitudinal and Hall currents in Landau Fermi liquids (FL). Breakdown of this fundamental feature, first observed in two-dimensional cuprates and subsequently in other three-dimensional correlated systems close to the Mott metal-insulator transition, played a pivotal role in emergence of a non-FL (NFL) paradigm in higher dimensions D (>1 ) . Motivated hereby, we explore the emergence of this "two relaxation rates" scenario in the Hubbard Falicov-Kimball model (HFKM) using the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). Specializing to D =3 , we find, beyond a critical Falicov-Kimball (FK) interaction, that two distinct relaxation rates governing distinct temperature (T ) dependence of the longitudinal and Hall currents naturally emerges in the NFL metal. Our results show good accord with the experiment in V2 -yO3 near the metal-to-insulator transition (MIT). We rationalize this surprising finding by an analytical analysis of the structure of charge and spin Hamiltonians in the underlying impurity problem, specifically through a bosonization method applied to the Wolff model and connecting it to the x-ray edge problem.

  9. Quantitative evaluation of degenerative lumbar intervertebral disc applying an equivalent cross-relaxation rate using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, Hideaki; Inaba, Tadashi; Kato, Takaya; Tokuda, Masataka; Matsushima, Shigeru; Yamada, Michiaki; Kinosada, Yasutomi

    2004-01-01

    The equivalent cross-relaxation rate (ECR) is a measurement method to evaluate a change in organizational structure quantitatively utilizing MRI. The objectives of this study are to understand the characteristics related to water contents in degenerative lumbar intervertebral discs, and to investigate the usefulness of quantitative evaluation using ECR in order to find as early as possible disordered discs. Seven normal volunteers and four asymptomatic volunteers with degeneration in lumbar intervertebral discs, 21 to 26 years of age, were studied using a SIGNA model of GE Medical Systems equipped with a 1.5 T clinical scanner and spine coil. The ECR values were defined as the percentage of signal loss between unsaturated and saturated images. The results showed that the ECR value of annulus fibrosus in an intervertebral disc was higher than nucleus pulposus. Furthermore, it was found that the ECR value of nucleus pulposus (L5-S1) with degeneration was significantly higher than that without degeneration. It was considered that this result reflected an increase of water contents in the degenerative nucleus. This study suggests that the ECR value of a nucleus could be an effective parameter to diagnosis of degenerated discs or grades of disorder. (author)

  10. Quantitative comparison of errors in 15N transverse relaxation rates measured using various CPMG phasing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myint Wazo; Cai Yufeng; Schiffer, Celia A.; Ishima, Rieko

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen-15 Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) transverse relaxation experiment are widely used to characterize protein backbone dynamics and chemical exchange parameters. Although an accurate value of the transverse relaxation rate, R 2 , is needed for accurate characterization of dynamics, the uncertainty in the R 2 value depends on the experimental settings and the details of the data analysis itself. Here, we present an analysis of the impact of CPMG pulse phase alternation on the accuracy of the 15 N CPMG R 2 . Our simulations show that R 2 can be obtained accurately for a relatively wide spectral width, either using the conventional phase cycle or using phase alternation when the r.f. pulse power is accurately calibrated. However, when the r.f. pulse is miscalibrated, the conventional CPMG experiment exhibits more significant uncertainties in R 2 caused by the off-resonance effect than does the phase alternation experiment. Our experiments show that this effect becomes manifest under the circumstance that the systematic error exceeds that arising from experimental noise. Furthermore, our results provide the means to estimate practical parameter settings that yield accurate values of 15 N transverse relaxation rates in the both CPMG experiments.

  11. Blend-wall economics. Relaxing US ethanol regulations can lead to increased use of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zibin; Qiu, Cheng; Wetzstein, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency is currently considering a waiver allowing an increase in the fuel-ethanol blend limit (the 'blend wall') from 10% (E10) up to 15% (E15). Justifications for this waiver are reduced vehicle fuel prices and less consumption of petroleum gasoline leading to energy security. A theoretical examination of this waiver reveals an anomaly where a relaxation of this blend wall elicits a demand response. Under a wide range of elasticities, this demand response can actually increase the consumption of petroleum gasoline and thus lead to greater energy insecurity. The economics supporting this result and associated policy implications are developed and discussed. (author)

  12. Blend-wall economics. Relaxing US ethanol regulations can lead to increased use of fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zibin [Department of Economics at Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Qiu, Cheng; Wetzstein, Michael [Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The US Environmental Protection Agency is currently considering a waiver allowing an increase in the fuel-ethanol blend limit (the 'blend wall') from 10% (E10) up to 15% (E15). Justifications for this waiver are reduced vehicle fuel prices and less consumption of petroleum gasoline leading to energy security. A theoretical examination of this waiver reveals an anomaly where a relaxation of this blend wall elicits a demand response. Under a wide range of elasticities, this demand response can actually increase the consumption of petroleum gasoline and thus lead to greater energy insecurity. The economics supporting this result and associated policy implications are developed and discussed. (author)

  13. Stress relaxation of entangled polystyrene solution after constant-rate, uniaxial elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsumiya, Yumi; Masubuchi, Yuichi; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    For an entangled solution of linear polystyrene (PS 545k; M = 545k) in dibutyl phthalate (DBP), the stress relaxation after constant-rate uniaxial elongation was examined with an extensional viscosity fixture mounted on ARES (TA Instruments). The PS concentration, c = 52 wt%, was chosen in a way...... that the entanglement density M/Me of the solution coincided with that of PS 290k melt (M = 290k). After the elongation at the Rouse-based Weissenberg number Wi(R) ~ 3 up to the Hencky strain of 3, the short time stress relaxation of the solution was accelerated by a factor of ~4, which was less significant compared...... and the lack of monotonic thinning observed for the semidilute solutions. Results for less concentrated solutions will be also presented on site....

  14. A comparison of methods for calculating NMR cross-relaxation rates (NOESY and ROESY intensities) in small peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, K Anton; Peter, Christine; Scheek, Ruud M; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F; Mark, Alan E

    Three methods for calculating nuclear magnetic resonance cross-relaxation rates from molecular dynamics simulations of small flexible molecules have been compared in terms of their ability to reproduce relaxation data obtained experimentally and to produce consistent descriptions of the system. The

  15. [Effects of Monochord Music on Heart Rate Variability and Self-Reports of Relaxation in Healthy Adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäbel, Christine; Garrido, Natalia; Koenig, Julian; Hillecke, Thomas Karl; Warth, Marco

    Music-based interventions are considered an effective and low-cost treatment option for stress-related symptoms. The present study aimed to examine the trajectories of the psychophysiological response in apparently healthy participants during a music-based relaxation intervention compared to a verbal relaxation exercise. 70 participants were assigned to either receptive live music (experimental group) or a prerecorded verbal relaxation exercise (control group). Self-ratings of relaxation were assessed before and after each intervention on visual analogue scales and the Relaxation Inventory (RI). The heart rate variability (HRV) was continuously recorded throughout the sessions. Statistical analysis focused on HRV parameters indicative of parasympathetic cardiovascular outflow. We found significant quadratic main effects for time on the mean R-R interval (heart rate), the high-frequency power of HRV (indicative of parasympathetic activity), and the self-ratings of relaxation in both groups. A significant group × time interaction was observed for the cognitive tension subscale of the RI. Participants in both groups showed psychophysiological changes indicative of greater relaxation over the course of the interventions. However, differences between groups were only marginal. Music might be effective in relieving stress and promoting relaxation by altering the autonomic nervous system function. Future studies need to explore the long-term outcomes of such interventions. © 2017 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  16. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side......-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study...... populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction...

  17. Strain Rate Dependence of Compressive Yield and Relaxation in DGEBA Epoxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechederra, Gabriel K.; Reprogle, Riley C.; Clarkson, Caitlyn M.; McCoy, John D.; Kropka, Jamie M.; Long, Kevin N.; Chambers, Robert S.

    2015-03-01

    The mechanical response in uniaxial compression of two diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxies were studied. These were 828DEA (Epon 828 cured with diethanolamine (DEA)) and 828T403 (Epon 828 cured with Jeffamine T-403). Two types of uniaxial compression tests were performed: A) constant strain rate compression and B) constant strain rate compression followed by a constant strain relaxation. The peak (yield) stress was analyzed as a function of strain rate from Eyring theory for activation volume. Runs at different temperatures permitted the construction of a mastercurve, and the resulting shift factors resulted in an activation energy. Strain and hold tests were performed for a low strain rate where a peak stress was lacking and for a higher strain rate where the peak stress was apparent. Relaxation from strains at different places along the stress-strain curve was tracked and compared. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Luther-Emery liquid in the NMR relaxation rate of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulacsi, Miklos; Simon, Ferenc; Wzietek, Pawel; Kuzmany, Hans; Dora, Balazs

    2008-01-01

    We analyze a recent NMR experiments by Singer et al.[Singer et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 236403 (2005).], which showed a deviation from Fermi-liquid behavior in carbon nanotubes with an energy gap evident at low temperatures. A comprehensive theory for the magnetic field and temperature dependent NMR 13 C spin-lattice relaxation is given in the framework of the Luther-Emery and Luttinger liquids. The low temperature properties are governed by a gapped relaxation due to a spin gap (∝30 K), described by the Luther-Emery liquid picture, which crosses over smoothly to the Luttinger liquid behaviour with increasing temperature. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Vogel-Fulcher dependence of relaxation rates in a nematic monomer and elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, D.; Filippov, S.; Aliev, F.; Keller, P.; Thomsen, D.; Ratna, B.

    2000-12-01

    Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy is used to study the relaxation processes in a nematic monomer and the corresponding cross-linked polymer nematic liquid crystal (elastomer). In the frequency window 10 mHz to 2 GHz the monomer liquid crystal shows a single relaxation whereas the polymer exhibits three relaxation processes, two of which are quantitatively analyzed. The temperature dependence of relaxation times in both the monomer and polymer follows a Vogel-Fulcher behavior. The relaxation processes are identified with specific molecular motions and activation energies are calculated in a linear approximation for comparison with literature data.

  20. Are rates of pediatric bipolar disorder increasing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    Studies from the USA suggest that rates of pediatric bipolar disorder have increased since the mid-90s, but no study outside the USA has been published on the rates of pediatric bipolar disorder. Further, it is unclear whether an increase in rates reflects a true increase in the illness or more...... diagnostic attention. Using nationwide registers of all inpatients and outpatients contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark, we investigated (1) gender-specific rates of incident pediatric mania/bipolar disorder during a period from 1995 to 2012, (2) whether age and other characteristics...... for pediatric mania/bipolar disorder changed during the calendar period (1995 to 2003 versus 2004 to 2012), and (3) whether the diagnosis is more often made at first psychiatric contact in recent time compared to earlier according to gender. Totally, 346 patients got a main diagnosis of a manic episode (F30...

  1. Temperature dependence of the NMR spin-lattice relaxation rate for spin-1/2 chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coira, E.; Barmettler, P.; Giamarchi, T.; Kollath, C.

    2016-10-01

    We use recent developments in the framework of a time-dependent matrix product state method to compute the nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation rate 1 /T1 for spin-1/2 chains under magnetic field and for different Hamiltonians (XXX, XXZ, isotropically dimerized). We compute numerically the temperature dependence of the 1 /T1 . We consider both gapped and gapless phases, and also the proximity of quantum critical points. At temperatures much lower than the typical exchange energy scale, our results are in excellent agreement with analytical results, such as the ones derived from the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) theory and bosonization, which are valid in this regime. We also cover the regime for which the temperature T is comparable to the exchange coupling. In this case analytical theories are not appropriate, but this regime is relevant for various new compounds with exchange couplings in the range of tens of Kelvin. For the gapped phases, either the fully polarized phase for spin chains or the low-magnetic-field phase for the dimerized systems, we find an exponential decrease in Δ /(kBT ) of the relaxation time and can compute the gap Δ . Close to the quantum critical point our results are in good agreement with the scaling behavior based on the existence of free excitations.

  2. Increase in salivary oxytocin and decrease in salivary cortisol after listening to relaxing slow-tempo and exciting fast-tempo music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuuki Ooishi

    Full Text Available Relaxation and excitation are components of the effects of music listening. The tempo of music is often considered a critical factor when determining these effects: listening to slow-tempo and fast-tempo music elicits relaxation and excitation, respectively. However, the chemical bases that underlie these relaxation and excitation effects remain unclear. Since parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activities are facilitated by oxytocin and glucocorticoid, respectively, we hypothesized that listening to relaxing slow-tempo and exciting fast-tempo music is accompanied by increases in the oxytocin and cortisol levels, respectively. We evaluated the change in the salivary oxytocin and cortisol levels of participants listening to slow-tempo and fast-tempo music sequences. We measured the heart rate (HR and calculated the heart rate variability (HRV to evaluate the strength of autonomic nerve activity. After listening to a music sequence, the participants rated their arousal and valence levels. We found that both the salivary oxytocin concentration and the high frequency component of the HRV (HF increased and the HR decreased when a slow-tempo music sequence was presented. The salivary cortisol level decreased and the low frequency of the HRV (LF to HF ratio (LF/HF increased when a fast-tempo music sequence was presented. The ratio of the change in the oxytocin level was correlated with the change in HF, LF/HF and HR, whereas that in the cortisol level did not show any correlation with indices of autonomic nerve activity. There was no correlation between the change in oxytocin level and self-reported emotions, while the change in cortisol level correlated with the arousal level. These findings suggest that listening to slow-tempo and fast-tempo music is accompanied by an increase in the oxytocin level and a decrease in the cortisol level, respectively, and imply that such music listening-related changes in oxytocin and cortisol are involved in

  3. Increase in salivary oxytocin and decrease in salivary cortisol after listening to relaxing slow-tempo and exciting fast-tempo music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken; Kawato, Suguru; Kashino, Makio

    2017-01-01

    Relaxation and excitation are components of the effects of music listening. The tempo of music is often considered a critical factor when determining these effects: listening to slow-tempo and fast-tempo music elicits relaxation and excitation, respectively. However, the chemical bases that underlie these relaxation and excitation effects remain unclear. Since parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activities are facilitated by oxytocin and glucocorticoid, respectively, we hypothesized that listening to relaxing slow-tempo and exciting fast-tempo music is accompanied by increases in the oxytocin and cortisol levels, respectively. We evaluated the change in the salivary oxytocin and cortisol levels of participants listening to slow-tempo and fast-tempo music sequences. We measured the heart rate (HR) and calculated the heart rate variability (HRV) to evaluate the strength of autonomic nerve activity. After listening to a music sequence, the participants rated their arousal and valence levels. We found that both the salivary oxytocin concentration and the high frequency component of the HRV (HF) increased and the HR decreased when a slow-tempo music sequence was presented. The salivary cortisol level decreased and the low frequency of the HRV (LF) to HF ratio (LF/HF) increased when a fast-tempo music sequence was presented. The ratio of the change in the oxytocin level was correlated with the change in HF, LF/HF and HR, whereas that in the cortisol level did not show any correlation with indices of autonomic nerve activity. There was no correlation between the change in oxytocin level and self-reported emotions, while the change in cortisol level correlated with the arousal level. These findings suggest that listening to slow-tempo and fast-tempo music is accompanied by an increase in the oxytocin level and a decrease in the cortisol level, respectively, and imply that such music listening-related changes in oxytocin and cortisol are involved in physiological

  4. Increase in salivary oxytocin and decrease in salivary cortisol after listening to relaxing slow-tempo and exciting fast-tempo music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooishi, Yuuki; Mukai, Hideo; Watanabe, Ken; Kawato, Suguru; Kashino, Makio

    2017-01-01

    Relaxation and excitation are components of the effects of music listening. The tempo of music is often considered a critical factor when determining these effects: listening to slow-tempo and fast-tempo music elicits relaxation and excitation, respectively. However, the chemical bases that underlie these relaxation and excitation effects remain unclear. Since parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activities are facilitated by oxytocin and glucocorticoid, respectively, we hypothesized that listening to relaxing slow-tempo and exciting fast-tempo music is accompanied by increases in the oxytocin and cortisol levels, respectively. We evaluated the change in the salivary oxytocin and cortisol levels of participants listening to slow-tempo and fast-tempo music sequences. We measured the heart rate (HR) and calculated the heart rate variability (HRV) to evaluate the strength of autonomic nerve activity. After listening to a music sequence, the participants rated their arousal and valence levels. We found that both the salivary oxytocin concentration and the high frequency component of the HRV (HF) increased and the HR decreased when a slow-tempo music sequence was presented. The salivary cortisol level decreased and the low frequency of the HRV (LF) to HF ratio (LF/HF) increased when a fast-tempo music sequence was presented. The ratio of the change in the oxytocin level was correlated with the change in HF, LF/HF and HR, whereas that in the cortisol level did not show any correlation with indices of autonomic nerve activity. There was no correlation between the change in oxytocin level and self-reported emotions, while the change in cortisol level correlated with the arousal level. These findings suggest that listening to slow-tempo and fast-tempo music is accompanied by an increase in the oxytocin level and a decrease in the cortisol level, respectively, and imply that such music listening-related changes in oxytocin and cortisol are involved in physiological

  5. A study on the influence of fast amide exchange on the accuracy of (15)N relaxation rate constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurt, Simon; Zerbe, Oliver

    2012-12-01

    (15)N relaxation rates of amide moieties provide insight both into global as well as local backbone dynamics of peptides and proteins. As the differences in the relaxation rates in general are small, their accurate determination is of prime importance. One potential source of error is fast amide exchange. It is well known that in its presence the effects of saturation transfer and H/D exchange may result in erroneous apparent relaxation rates R (1) and R (2). Here, the extent of these errors is rigorously examined. Theoretical considerations reveal that even when saturation effects are absent, H/D exchange will easily result in significant deviations from the true values. In particular overestimations of up to 10 % in R (1) and up to 5 % in R (2) are observed. An alternative scheme for fitting the relaxation data to the corresponding exponentials is presented that in the best cases not only delivers more accurate relaxation rates but also allows extracting estimates for the exchange rates. The theoretical computations were tested and verified for the case of ubiquitin.

  6. A study on the influence of fast amide exchange on the accuracy of 15N relaxation rate constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurt, Simon; Zerbe, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    15 N relaxation rates of amide moieties provide insight both into global as well as local backbone dynamics of peptides and proteins. As the differences in the relaxation rates in general are small, their accurate determination is of prime importance. One potential source of error is fast amide exchange. It is well known that in its presence the effects of saturation transfer and H/D exchange may result in erroneous apparent relaxation rates R 1 and R 2 . Here, the extent of these errors is rigorously examined. Theoretical considerations reveal that even when saturation effects are absent, H/D exchange will easily result in significant deviations from the true values. In particular overestimations of up to 10 % in R 1 and up to 5 % in R 2 are observed. An alternative scheme for fitting the relaxation data to the corresponding exponentials is presented that in the best cases not only delivers more accurate relaxation rates but also allows extracting estimates for the exchange rates. The theoretical computations were tested and verified for the case of ubiquitin.

  7. A study of spin-lattice relaxation rates of glucose, fructose, sucrose and cherries using high-T c SQUID-based NMR in ultralow magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shu-Hsien; Wu, Pei-Che

    2017-08-01

    We study the concentration dependence of spin-lattice relaxation rates, T 1 -1, of glucose, fructose, sucrose and cherries by using high-T c SQUID-based NMR at magnetic fields of ˜97 μT. The detected NMR signal, Sy (T Bp), is fitted to [1 - exp(-T Bp/T 1)] to derive T 1 -1, where Sy (T Bp) is the strength of the NMR signal, T Bp is the duration of pre-polarization and T 1 -1 is the spin-lattice relaxation rate. It was found that T 1 -1 increases as the sugar concentrations increase. The increased T 1 -1 is due to the presence of more molecules in the surroundings, which increases the spin-lattice interaction and in turn enhances T 1 -1. The T 1 -1 versus degrees Brix curve provides a basis for determining unknown Brix values for cherries as well as other fruits.

  8. Harsh corporal punishment is associated with increased T2 relaxation time in dopamine-rich regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Yi-Shin; Polcari, Ann; Anderson, Carl M; Teicher, Martin H

    2010-11-01

    Harsh corporal punishment (HCP) was defined as frequent parental administration of corporal punishment (CP) for discipline, with occasional use of objects such as straps, or paddles. CP is linked to increased risk for depression and substance abuse. We examine whether long-term exposure to HCP acts as sub-traumatic stressor that contributes to brain alterations, particularly in dopaminergic pathways, which may mediate their increased vulnerability to drug and alcohol abuse. Nineteen young adults who experienced early HCP but no other forms of maltreatment and twenty-three comparable controls were studied. T2 relaxation time (T2-RT) measurements were performed with an echo planar imaging TE stepping technique and T2 maps were calculated and analyzed voxel-by-voxel to locate regional T2-RT differences between groups. Previous studies indicated that T2-RT provides an indirect index of resting cerebral blood volume. Region of interest (ROI) analyses were also conducted in caudate, putamen, nucleus accumbens, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, thalamus, globus pallidus and cerebellar hemispheres. Voxel-based relaxometry showed that HCP was associated with increased T2-RT in right caudate and putamen. ROI analyses also revealed increased T2-RT in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, substantia nigra, thalamus and accumbens but not globus pallidus or cerebellum. There were significant associations between T2-RT measures in dopamine target regions and use of drugs and alcohol, and memory performance. Alteration in the paramagnetic or hemodynamic properties of dopaminergic cell body and projection regions were observed in subjects with HCP, and these findings may relate to their increased risk for drug and alcohol abuse. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of short-term relaxation therapy on indices of heart rate variability and blood pressure in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Gopal Krushna; Ganesh, Venkata; Karthik, Shanmugavel; Nanda, Nivedita; Pal, Pravati

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of short-term practice of relaxation therapy on autonomic and cardiovascular functions in first-year medical students. Case-control, interventional study. Medical college laboratory. Sixty-seven medical students, divided into two groups: study group (n = 35) and control group (n = 32). Study group subjects practiced relaxation therapy (shavasana with a soothing background music) daily 1 hour for 6 weeks. Control group did not practice relaxation techniques. Cardiovascular parameters and spectral indices of heart rate variability (HRV) were recorded before and after the 6-week practice of relaxation therapy. The data between the groups and the data before and after practice of relaxation techniques were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Student t-test. In the study group, prediction of low-frequency to high-frequency ratio (LF-HF) of HRV, the marker of sympathovagal balance, to blood pressure (BP) status was assessed by logistic regression. In the study group, there was significant reduction in heart rate (p = .0001), systolic (p = .0010) and diastolic (p = .0021) pressure, and rate pressure product (p linked to BP status in these individuals.

  10. Investigations of effect of phase change mass transfer rate on cavitation process with homogeneous relaxation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Zhixia; Zhang, Liang; Saha, Kaushik; Som, Sibendu; Duan, Lian; Wang, Qian

    2017-12-01

    The super high fuel injection pressure and micro size of nozzle orifice has been an important development trend for the fuel injection system. Accordingly, cavitation transient process, fuel compressibility, amount of noncondensable gas in the fuel and cavitation erosion have attracted more attention. Based on the fact of cavitation in itself is a kind of thermodynamic phase change process, this paper takes the perspective of the cavitation phase change mass transfer process to analyze above mentioned phenomenon. The two-phase cavitating turbulent flow simulations with VOF approach coupled with HRM cavitation model and U-RANS of standard k-ε turbulence model were performed for investigations of cavitation phase change mass transfer process. It is concluded the mass transfer time scale coefficient in the Homogenous Relaxation Model (HRM) representing mass transfer rate should tend to be as small as possible in a condition that ensured the solver stable. At very fast mass transfer rate, the phase change occurs at very thin interface between liquid and vapor phase and condensation occurs more focused and then will contribute predictably to a more serious cavitation erosion. Both the initial non-condensable gas in fuel and the fuel compressibility can accelerate the cavitation mass transfer process.

  11. Is meditation always relaxing? Investigating heart rate, heart rate variability, experienced effort and likeability during training of three types of meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumma, Anna-Lena; Kok, Bethany E; Singer, Tania

    2015-07-01

    Meditation is often associated with a relaxed state of the body. However, meditation can also be regarded as a type of mental task and training, associated with mental effort and physiological arousal. The cardiovascular effects of meditation may vary depending on the type of meditation, degree of mental effort, and amount of training. In the current study we assessed heart rate (HR), high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) and subjective ratings of effort and likeability during three types of meditation varying in their cognitive and attentional requirements, namely breathing meditation, loving-kindness meditation and observing-thoughts meditation. In the context of the ReSource project, a one-year longitudinal mental training study, participants practiced each meditation exercise on a daily basis for 3 months. As expected HR and effort were higher during loving-kindness meditation and observing-thoughts meditation compared to breathing meditation. With training over time HR and likeability increased, while HF-HRV and the subjective experience of effort decreased. The increase in HR and decrease in HF-HRV over training was higher for loving-kindness meditation and observing-thoughts meditation compared to breathing meditation. In contrast to implicit beliefs that meditation is always relaxing and associated with low arousal, the current results show that core meditations aiming at improving compassion and meta-cognitive skills require effort and are associated with physiological arousal compared to breathing meditation. Overall these findings can be useful in making more specific suggestions about which type of meditation is most adaptive for a given context and population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. MARKETING STRATEGY TO INCREASE BED OCCUPANCY RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Purwaningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A hospital is an institution for health care providing treatment by specialized staff and equipment, more often but not always providing for longer-term patient stays. Today, hospitals are very complex institution, not only survive in dynamic environment but also make a profit based on their services. The aimed of this research was to know marketing mix concept (product, price, place, promotion, people, process and provision of customer service in formulating marketing strategy to increased Bed Occupancy Rate of Obstetric Gynecology Ward 2. Method: The population are health care personnel including midwife, midwife associate, administrator and also client or consumer. The variable were product, price, place, promotion, people, process and provision of customer service. Data were collected by using structured questionnaire. Result: The result showed that product (type of services, infrastructure and facility, relative price, comfortable and safe place, targeted promotion, trained human resources, standard process and provision of customer service are an important aspect to implement strategy marketing to increase Bed Occupancy Rate. Analysis: The result of this study has enlightened the importance of strategy marketing in health care services based on seven principle of marketing mix. Discussion: Implementation of marketing mix in obstetric gynecology ward 2 need to be considered.

  13. Evaluation of brain tissue applying equivalent cross-relaxation rate using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, Hideaki; Inaba, Tadashi; Tokuda, Masataka; Matsushima, Shigeru; Kinosada, Yasutomi

    2003-01-01

    The equivalent cross-relaxation rate (ECR) is a measurement method that can evaluate a change in organization structure quantitatively utilizing MRI. The goal of this study is to discover a parameter that we can use to evaluate aging of the human brain using ECR. Fourteen patients diagnosed with diseases other than those located in the cranium were imaged using a SIGNA model of GE Medical Systems equipped with a 1.5 T clinical scanner. The ECR values were defined as the percentage of signal loss between unsaturated and saturated images. It was found that the ECR value of gray matter was lower than subcortical white matter. At ages under 70 years old, the mean of ECR values of subcortical white matter showed stable values with insignificant variance. Furthermore, there was no correlation between age and ECR value of every region calculated. On the other hand, it was found that there was a negative correlation for the ECR values of subcortical white matter and gray matter at ages slightly over 70 years old. It is possible that the reduction in ECR value shows demyelination by aging in the senium. When the offset frequency is near the water resonance frequency, the ECR values mean information about neurocytes. Accordingly, the ECR (320)/ECR (1200) value probably shows that information is related to the amount or activity of neurons. (author)

  14. Increased transverse relaxivity in ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles used as MRI contrast agent for biomedical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sushanta Kumar; Kumar, B S Hemanth; Khushu, Subash; Tripathi, Rajendra P; Gangenahalli, Gurudutta

    2016-09-01

    Synthesis of a contrast agent for biomedical imaging is of great interest where magnetic nanoparticles are concerned, because of the strong influence of particle size on transverse relaxivity. In the present study, biocompatible magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ salts, followed by surface adsorption with reduced dextran. The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical in shape, and 12 ± 2 nm in size as measured using transmission electron microscopy; this was corroborated with results from X-ray diffraction and dynamic light scattering studies. The nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic behavior, superior T 2 relaxation rate and high relaxivities (r 1  = 18.4 ± 0.3, r 2  = 90.5 ± 0.8 s -1 mM -1 , at 7 T). MR image analysis of animals before and after magnetic nanoparticle administration revealed that the signal intensity of tumor imaging, specific organ imaging and whole body imaging can be clearly distinguished, due to the strong relaxation properties of these nanoparticles. Very low concentrations (3.0 mg Fe/kg body weight) of iron oxides are sufficient for early detection of tumors, and also have a clear distinction in pre- and post-enhancement of contrast in organs and body imaging. Many investigators have demonstrated high relaxivities of magnetic nanoparticles at superparamagnetic iron oxide level above 50 nm, but this investigation presents a satisfactory, ultrasmall, superparamagnetic and high transverse relaxivity negative contrast agent for diagnosis in pre-clinical studies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Temperature effect on the rates of isometric force development and relaxation in the fresh and fatigued human adductor pollicis muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C J; Jones, D A; Sargeant, A J; de Haan, A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of temperature on the rates of isometric force development and relaxation in electrically activated fresh and fatigued human adductor pollicis muscle. Following immersion of the lower arm for 20 min in water baths of four different

  16. Sun glitter imaging of submarine sand waves on the Taiwan Banks: Determination of the relaxation rate of short waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hao; Li, Yan; Li, Li

    2011-06-01

    Above sand waves on the seafloor, surface short waves, which are responsible for the radiance distribution in remote sensing imagery, are modulated gradually by the submarine topography. The relaxation rate μr characterizes the rate at which the short waves reach their saturation range after being disturbed. It is a key parameter in the weak hydrodynamic interaction theory and is also a most important parameter in the imaging mechanism used for mapping submarine bottom topography. In this study, a robust expression containing intensity and phase (advection effect) modulations of the perturbed action spectrum of short waves was deduced, by using the first-order weak hydrodynamic interaction theory. On the basis of the phase modulation, a method was developed to determine the relaxation rate in the Sun glitter imaging mechanism. The relaxation rates were estimated using in situ data measured on a cruise over the sand waves of the Taiwan Banks, a sea area between the East China Sea and the South China Sea, on 28-29 August 2006. Results showed that, under a wind speed of 5.0 m s-1, the relaxation rate of short waves was about 0.055 s-1 in response to current variations and about 0.025 s-1 equivalently in response to sea bottom topographic variations. The former value could be applied to interpret the amplitude of submarine topography by using satellite imagery, while the latter one (equivalent relaxation rate μ'r) could help to more accurately calibrate the spatial position of the retrieved sea bottom topography.

  17. A study of the effect of relaxing music on heart rate recovery after exercise among healthy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fuitze; Tengah, Asrin; Nee, Lo Yah; Fredericks, Salim

    2014-05-01

    Music has been employed in various clinical settings to reduce anxiety. However, meta-analysis has shown music to have little influence on haemodynamic parameters. This study aimed at investigating the effect of relaxing music on heart rate recovery after exercise. Twenty-three student volunteers underwent treadmill exercise and were assessed for heart rate recovery and saliva analysis; comparing exposure to sedative music with exposure to silence during the recovery period immediately following exercise. No differences were found between music and non-music exposure regarding: heart rate recovery, resting pulse rate, and salivary cortisol. Music was no different to silence in affecting these physiological measures, which are all associated with anxiety. Relaxing music unaccompanied by meditation techniques or other such interventions may not have a major role in reducing anxiety in certain experimental settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Pringle maneuver reduces the infusion rate of rocuronium required to maintain surgical muscle relaxation during hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiura, Akira; Nagata, Osamu; Sanui, Masamitsu

    2018-04-27

    We investigated the continuous infusion rates of rocuronium necessary to obtain the surgical muscle relaxation before, during, and after the Pringle maneuver on patients who underwent hepatectomy. Fifteen patients were induced by total intravenous anesthesia with propofol. After obtaining the calibration of acceleromyography, the patient was intubated with rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg. Fifteen minutes after initial rocuronium injection, the continuous infusion was started at 7.5 µg/kg/min. The infusion rate was adjusted every 15 min so that the first twitch height (% T1) might become from 3 to 10% of control. The infusion rates at the time when the state of surgical muscle relaxation was achieved for more than 15 min were recorded before, during and after the Pringle maneuver. The 25% recovery time was measured after discontinuing the continuous infusion. The infusion rate of rocuronium before, during, and after the Pringle maneuver was 7.2 ± 1.8, 4.2 ± 1.4, and 4.7 ± 1.5 µg/kg/min (mean ± SD), respectively. The rocuronium infusion rate during the Pringle maneuver was decreased about 40% compared to that before this maneuver, and that after completion of the Pringle maneuver was not recovered to that before the Pringle maneuver. The 25% recovery time was 20 ± 7 min. In case of continuous administration of rocuronium during surgery performing the Pringle maneuver, it was considered necessary to regulate the administration of rocuronium using muscle relaxant monitoring in order to deal with the decrease in muscle relaxant requirement by the Pringle maneuver.

  19. NMR relaxation rates and Knight shifts in MgB2 and AlB2: theory versus experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavarini, E; Baek, S H; Suh, B J; Borsa, F; Bud'ko, S L; Canfield, P C

    2003-01-01

    We have performed 11 B NMR measurements in 11 B enriched MgB 2 powder sample in the normal phase. The Knight shift was accurately determined by using the magic angle spinning technique. Results for 11 B and 27 Al Knight shifts (K) and relaxation rates (1/T 1 ) are also reported for AlB 2 . The data show a dramatic decrease of both K and 1/T 1 for 11 B in AlB 2 with respect to MgB 2 . We compare experimental results with ab initio calculated NMR relaxation rates and Knight shifts. The experimental values for 1/T 1 and K are in most cases in good agreement with the theoretical results. We show that the decrease of K and 1/T 1 for 11 B is consistent with a drastic drop of the density of states at the boron site in AlB 2 with respect to MgB 2

  20. Cross relaxation in nitroxide spin labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Cross relaxation, and mI-dependence of the intrinsic electron spin-lattice relaxation rate We, are incorporated explicitly into the rate equations for the electron-spin population differences that govern the saturation behaviour of 14N- and 15N-nitroxide spin labels. Both prove important in spin......-label EPR and ELDOR, particularly for saturation recovery studies. Neither for saturation recovery, nor for CW-saturation EPR and CW-ELDOR, can cross relaxation be described simply by increasing the value of We, the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate. Independence of the saturation recovery rates from...... the hyperfine line pumped or observed follows directly from solution of the rate equations including cross relaxation, even when the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate We is mI-dependent....

  1. Crop yield response to increasing biochar rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benefit or detriment to crop yield from biochar application varies with biochar type/rate, soil, crop, or climate. The objective of this research was to identify yield response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), corn (Zea mayes L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to hardwood biochar applied at...

  2. System for increasing laser pulse rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A technique of static elements is disclosed for combining a plurality of laser beams having time sequenced, pulsed radiation to achieve an augmented pulse rate. The technique may also be applied in a system for combining both time sequenced pulses and frequency distinct pulses for use in a system for isotope enrichment. (author)

  3. Heart Rate and Increased Intravascular Volume

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Souček, M.; Kára, T.; Jurák, Pavel; Halámek, Josef; Špinarová, L.; Meluzín, J.; Toman, J.; Řiháček, I.; Šumbera, J.; Fráňa, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 52, - (2003), s. 137 - 140 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/02/1339 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : kidneys * heart rate * atrial mechanisms Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2003

  4. Strange metal from Gutzwiller correlations in infinite dimensions: Transverse transport, optical response, and rise of two relaxation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenxin; Žitko, Rok; Shastry, B. Sriram

    2017-09-01

    Using two approaches to strongly correlated systems, the extremely correlated Fermi liquid theory and the dynamical mean field theory, we compute the transverse transport coefficients, namely, the Hall constants RH and Hall angles θH, and the longitudinal and transverse optical response of the U =∞ Hubbard model in the limit of infinite dimensions. We focus on two successive low-temperature regimes, the Gutzwiller-correlated Fermi liquid (GCFL) and the Gutzwiller-correlated strange metal (GCSM). We find that the Hall angle cotθH is proportional to T2 in the GCFL regime, while upon warming into the GCSM regime it first passes through a downward bend and then continues as T2. Equivalently, RH is weakly temperature dependent in the GCFL regime, but becomes strongly temperature dependent in the GCSM regime. Drude peaks are found for both the longitudinal optical conductivity σx x(ω ) and the optical Hall angles tanθH(ω ) below certain characteristic energy scales. By comparing the relaxation rates extracted from fitting to the Drude formula, we find that in the GCFL regime there is a single relaxation rate controlling both longitudinal and transverse transport, while in the GCSM regime two different relaxation rates emerge. We trace the origin of this behavior to the dynamical particle-hole asymmetry of the Dyson self-energy, arguably a generic feature of doped Mott insulators.

  5. Worldwide trends show oropharyngeal cancer rates increasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists report that the incidence of oropharyngeal cancer significantly increased during the period 1983-2002 among people in countries that are economically developed. Oropharyngeal cancer occurs primarily in the middle part of the throat behind t

  6. Increased ionization rate in laser enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janes, G.S.; Pike, G.T.

    1977-01-01

    A system employing multiple, upper excitation levels in a technique for isotopically selective ionization to improve the ionization efficiency is described. Laser radiation is employed to excite particles with isotopic selectivity. Excitation is produced to a plurality of excited states below the ionization level with the result of increasing the number of available excited particles for ionization and thereby increasing the ionization cross section for improved system efficiency

  7. Theoretical relaxation rates of dipole orientation around an excess electron in liquid alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueki, K.; Feng, D.F.; Kevan, L.

    1975-01-01

    A method was developed for calculation of relaxation times for dipole orientation in liquid alcohols induced by localized excess electrons. A microscopic model is used which utilizes quantities calculated from the Fueki, Feng, Kevan semicontinuum model of solvated electron energy levels. Given the semicontinuum model results, the relaxation times are calculated as functions of temperature with no adjustable parameters. Calculated results for methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol agree well with the limited experimental data available from Hunt, Baxendale and Wardman, and Thomas and Beck. The calculated results agree best for propanol and imply that the theoretical model is most applicable to larger molecule solvents. The impressive agreement between experiment and theory suggest that simple dipole orientation is the mechanism of rapid electron solvation in polar liquids. (auth)

  8. Theoretical relaxation rates of dipole orientation around an excess electron in liquid alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueki, K.; Feng, D.F.; Kevan, L.

    1975-01-01

    A method is developed for calculation of relaxation times for dipole orientation in liquid alcohols induced by localized excess electrons. A microscopic model is used which utilizes quantities calculated from the Fueki, Feng, Kevan semicontinuum model of solvated electron energy levels. Given the semicontinuum model results, the relaxation times are calculated as functions of temperature with no adjustable parameters. Calculated results for methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol agree well with the limited experimental data available from Hunt, Baxendale and Wardman, and Thomas and Beck. The calculated results agree best for propanol and imply that the theoretical model is most applicable to larger molecule solvents. The impressive agreement between experiment and theory suggest that simple dipole orientation is the mechanism of rapid electron solvation in polar liquids. (author)

  9. Precritical increase of particle collision rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenchow, L.

    1990-01-01

    In quantum kinetics the collision integral follows from the imaginary part of the mass operator. Using this connection it is shown that the coupling of single particle motion to precritical density fluctuations causes a strong increase of the collision integral near the point of phase instability. 13 refs

  10. Increasing pandemic vaccination rates with effective communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Natalie J

    2011-06-01

    Communicating effectively with the public about the importance of vaccination during a pandemic poses a challenge to health communicators. The public's concerns about the safety, effectiveness and necessity of vaccines lead many people to refuse vaccination and the current communication strategies are often unsuccessful at overcoming the public's resistance to vaccinate. Convincing the public to receive a vaccination, especially during a pandemic when there can be so much uncertainty about the vaccine and the disease, requires a revised communication approach. This revised approach should integrate into messages information that the public identifies as important, as well as presenting messages in a way that is consistent with our evolved social learning biases. These biases will impact both the content of the message and who delivers the message to different target populations. Additionally, an improved understanding between media and health communicators about the role each plays during a crisis may increase the effectiveness of messages disseminated to the public. Lastly, given that the public is increasingly seeking health information from on-line and other electronic sources, health communication needs to continue to find ways to integrate new technologies into communication strategies.

  11. Analysis of the backbone dynamics of capsicein using 15N NMR relaxation rate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Heijenoort, C.; Bouaziz, S.; Guittet, E.

    1994-01-01

    15 N relaxation times T 1 and T 1ρ , and heteronuclear steady state nOes, were measured on capsicein, a 98 residue protein. The classical analysis of these data using directly the Lipari and Szabo formalism was shown to give incoherent results, probably due to the presence of a slow exchange along the whole protein. This global exchange broadening made the usual preliminary evaluation of the overall correlation time of capsicein using the Lipari and Szabo expression for the spectral densities impossible. (authors). 2 figs., 23 refs

  12. Increase of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation associated with cascade stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Akiyo; Kusano, Motoyasu; Hosaka, Hiroko; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Kawamura, Osamu; Akiyama, Junichi; Yamada, Masanobu; Akuzawa, Masako

    2017-01-01

    We previously reported that cascade stomach was associated with reflux symptoms and esophagitis. Delayed gastric emptying has been believed to initiate transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR). We hypothesized that cascade stomach may be associated with frequent TLESR with delayed gastric emptying. Eleven subjects with cascade stomach and 11 subjects without cascade stomach were enrolled. Postprandial gastroesophageal manometry and gastric emptying using a continuous 13C breath system were measured simultaneously after a liquid test meal. TLESR events were counted in early period (0–60 min), late period (60–120 min), and total monitoring period. Three parameters of gastric emptying were calculated: the half emptying time, lag time, and gastric emptying coefficient. The median frequency of TLESR events in the cascade stomach and non-cascade stomach groups was 6.0 (median), 4.6 (interquartile range) vs 5.0, 3.0 in the early period, 5.0, 3.2 vs 3.0, 1.8 in the late period, and 10.0, 6.2 vs 8.0, 5.0 in the total monitoring period. TLESR events were significantly more frequent in the cascade stomach group during the late and total monitoring periods. In contrast, gastric emptying parameters showed no significant differences between the two groups. We concluded that TLESR events were significantly more frequent in persons with cascade stomach without delayed gastric emptying. PMID:28584403

  13. Evaluation of iron deposits in the reticuloendothelial system using T2-relaxation rate of MRI. Relation with serum ferritin and Fe concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuka, Kae; Togami, Izumi; Kitagawa, Takahiro

    1996-01-01

    MR imaging is a useful non-invasive technique to detect iron deposits in many organs, but it is difficult to evaluate quantitatively. This study was performed to determine the possibility whether T2 relaxation rate (1/T2) could quantify iron deposits in the reticuloendothelial system (liver, spleen and bone marrow) of 11 patients and four normal volunteers. A moderate correlation was obtained between T2-relaxation rate and the serum ferritin level. These results suggest that T2-relaxation rate may provide useful information for the repeated quantitative evaluation of patients with iron-overload-syndromes. (author)

  14. Endo- vs. exogenous shocks and relaxation rates in book and music “sales”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambiotte, R.; Ausloos, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this paper, we analyse the response of music and book sales to an external field and a buyer herding. We distinguish endogenous and exogenous shocks. We focus on some case studies, whose data have been collected from ranking on amazon.com. We show that an ensemble of equivalent systems quantitatively respond in a same way to a similar “external shock”, indicating roads to universality features. In contrast to Sornette et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004) 228701] who seemed to find power-law behaviours, in particular at long times, a law interpreted in terms of an epidemic activity, we observe that the relaxation process can be as well seen as an exponential one that saturates toward an asymptotic state, itself different from the pre-shock state. By studying an ensemble of 111 shocks, on books or records, we show that exogenous and endogenous shocks are discriminated by their short-time behaviour: the relaxation time seems to be twice shorter in endogenous shocks than in exogenous ones. We interpret the finding through a simple thermodynamic model with a dissipative force.

  15. Isotopic and chemical dilution effects on the vibrational relaxation rate of some totally symmetric motions of liquid acetonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marri, E.; Morresi, A.; Paliani, G.; Cataliotti, R.S.; Giorgini, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The vibrational dephasing of the ν 1 (C-H, C-D stretching) and ν 3 (C-H, C-D bending) symmetric motions of liquid acetonitrile in its light and fully deuterated forms has been studied in the frame of the vibrational time correlation functions obtained as Fourier transforms of the isotropic Raman spectral distributions and interpreted within the Kubo theory. In addition, the experimental isotropic profiles have been analysed within the bandshape approach formulated by analytical Fourier transformation of the Kubo vibrational time correlation functions in order to derive the relaxation parameters in the frequency domain. The effects of the isotopic (CH 3 CN/CD 3 CN and vice versa) and chemical (CCl 4 ) dilution on the bandshapes and on the vibrational relaxation parameters have been studied. It was observed that the decay rate of ν 1 mode is insensitive to the isotopic dilution but varies appreciably with chemical (CCl 4 ) dilution. The vibrational dephasing of ν 3 mode is qualitatively, but not quantitatively, affected in the same way by chemical dilution and shows a slower modulation regime than that exhibited by the stretching mode. Unlikely from the latter, the ν 3 mode results are slightly affected by the isotopic dilution. Phase relaxation mechanisms of these two motions of acetonitrile in the liquid state are proposed on the basis of these data, and a comparison is made with the results earlier published. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Carbon-13 magnetic relaxation rates or iron (III) complexes of some biogenic amines and parent compounds in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, A.; Monduzzi, M.; Saba, G.

    1980-01-01

    Spin-lattice relaxation rates (R 1 ) from naturally occuring C-13 F.T. N.M.R. spectra of some catecholamines and parent compounds with Iron(III) at pD = 4 were determined in order to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying their association in aqueous solutions. Complexation was observed only for catecholic ligands. The R 1 values were used to calculate iron-carbon scaled distances, and two complexation models were proposed where the catecholic function binds Fe(III) in the first and second coordination spheres respectively. The latter case was shown to be the consistent with the molecular geometries. (orig.)

  17. How does relaxing the algorithm for autism affect DSM-V prevalence rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L; Hattier, Megan A; Williams, Lindsey W

    2012-08-01

    Although it is still unclear what causes autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), over time researchers and clinicians have become more precise with detecting and diagnosing ASD. Many diagnoses, however, are based on the criteria established within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM); thus, any change in these diagnostic criteria can have a great effect upon children with ASD and their families. It is predicted that the prevalence of ASD diagnoses will dramatically decrease with the adoption of the proposed DSM-5 criteria in 2013. The aim of this current study was to inspect the changes in prevalence first using a diagnostic criteria set which was modified slightly from the DSM-5 criteria (Modified-1 criteria) and again using a set of criteria which was relaxed even a bit more (Modified-2 criteria). Modified-1 resulted in 33.77 % fewer toddlers being diagnosed with ASD compared to the DSM-IV, while Modified-2 resulted in only a 17.98 % decrease in ASD diagnoses. Children diagnosed with the DSM-5 criteria exhibited the greatest levels of autism symptomatology, but the Mod-1, Mod-2, and DSM-IV groups still demonstrated significant impairments. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. 76 FR 29963 - Rate Increase Disclosure and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... for the product associated with the rate increase; and (8) employee and executive compensation data... 154 Rate Increase Disclosure and Review; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 99 / Monday... CFR Part 154 [CMS-9999-FC] RIN 0938-AQ68 Rate Increase Disclosure and Review AGENCY: Center for...

  19. Correlation of heart rate and radionuclide index of left ventricular contraction and relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Haruhiko; Sugihara, Hiroki; Nakagawa, Hiroaki; Inagaki, Suetsugu; Kubota, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Masao

    1990-01-01

    Since the cardiac function indices derived from radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) are considered to depend on the heart rate, we studied the relationship between systolic or diastolic indices and heart rates in patients with normal RNV and devised a method of correcting these indices according to the heart rate. For the systolic indices, the heart rate showed significant correlation with ET (r=-0.640), PER (r=0.791) and TPE (r=-0.401) but not with EF, 1/3 EF, MNSER or 1/3 MNSER. For the diastolic indices, the heart rate correlated well with FT (r=-0.938), RFT (r=-0.736), SFT (r=-0.803), 1/3 FF (r=-0.758), PFR (r=0.759), 1/3 PFR (r=0.742) and TPF (r=-0.389) but not with AFT, 1/3 MNDFR or AFF. These results indicate that many systolic and diastolic indices derived from RNV are affected by the heart rate, So when cardiac function is evaluated with the use of radionuclide indices, those which are independent of the heart rate should be used, or they should be corrected for the heart rate. As a method of correction, we proposed a rotating method obtained by manipulation of the regression equation of heart rates and indices. This new method is certain and easier to use when the correcting equations are set into a computer program. (author)

  20. Effects of BM-573 on Endothelial Dependent Relaxation and Increased Blood Pressure at Early Stages of Atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Romero

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction is considered to be an early event in atherosclerosis and plays a pivotal role in the development, progression and clinical complications of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have shown the beneficial effects of combined inhibition of thromboxane synthase and antagonism of thromboxane receptors by BM-573 on atherosclerosis; however our knowledge about the beneficial effects of BM-573 on endothelial function and increased blood pressure related to early stage of atherosclerosis is limited. In the present study, we investigated the effects of short-term (3 μM, 1 hour and chronic (10 mg/L, 8 weeks treatments with BM-573 on vasodilatory function, nitric oxide (NO bioavailability, oxidative stress and systolic blood pressure in 15 weeks old apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-KO mice. ApoE-KO mice showed a reduced endothelium-derived relaxation. In addition, NO bioavailability was reduced and oxidative stress and blood pressure were increased in ApoE-KO mice versus wild-type mice. BM-573 treatments were able to improve the relaxation profile in ApoE-KO mice. Short-term effects of BM-573 were mainly mediated by an increased phosphorylation of both eNOS and Akt, whereas BM-573 in vivo treatment also reduced oxidative stress and restored NO bioavailability. In addition, chronic administration of BM-573 reduced systolic blood pressure in ApoE-KO mice. In conclusion, pharmacological modulation of TxA2 biosynthesis and biological activities by dual TP antagonism/TxAS inhibition with BM-573, already known to prevent plaque formation, has the potential to correct vasodilatory dysfunction at the early stages of atherosclerosis.

  1. Habitat fragmentation and extinction rates within freshwater fish communities : a faunal relaxation approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hugueny, Bernard; Movellan, A.; Belliard, J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To estimate population extinction rates within freshwater fish communities since the fragmentation of palaeo-rivers due to sea level rise at the end of the Pleistocene; to combine this information with rates estimated by other approaches (population surveys, fossil records); and to build an empirical extinction-area relationship. Location Temperate rivers from the Northern Hemisphere, with a special focus on rivers discharging into the English Channel, in north-western France. Methods (1)...

  2. Stress relaxation under cyclic electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystrov, L.N.; Reznitskij, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The kinetics of deformation process in a relaxating sample under 2 MeV electron cyclic irradiation was studied experimentally. The Al-Mg alloys with controllable and different (in dislocation density precipitate presence and their character) structure were used in experiments. It was established that after the beam was switched on the deformation rate increased sharply and then, during prolonged irradiation, in a gradual manner. After the switching-off the relaxation rate decreases by jumps up to values close to extrapolated rates of pre-radiation relaxation. The exhibition of these effects with radiation switching-off and switchin-on is dependent on the initial rate of thermal relaxation, the test temperature, the preliminary cold deformation and the dominating deformation dislocation mechanism. The preliminary cold deformation and test temperature elevation slightly decrease the effect of instantaneous relaxation acceleration with the irradiation switch-on. 17 refs., 5 figs

  3. Measurement of the relaxation rate of the magnetization in Mn12O12-acetate using proton NMR echo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang; Lascialfari; Borsa; Gatteschi

    2000-03-27

    We present a novel method to measure the relaxation rate W of the magnetization of Mn 12O (12)-acetate (Mn12) magnetic molecular cluster in its S = 10 ground state at low T. It is based on the observation of an exponential growth in time of the proton NMR signal during the thermal equilibration of the magnetization of the molecules. We can explain the novel effect with a simple model which relates the intensity of the proton echo signal to the microscopic reversal of the magnetization of each individual Mn12 molecule during the equilibration process. The method should find wide application in the study of magnetic molecular clusters in off-equilibrium conditions.

  4. Measurement of the Relaxation Rate of the Magnetization in Mn12O12 -Acetate Using Proton NMR Echo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Z. H.; Lascialfari, A.; Borsa, F.; Gatteschi, D.

    2000-01-01

    We present a novel method to measure the relaxation rate W of the magnetization of Mn 12 O 12 -acetate (Mn12) magnetic molecular cluster in its S=10 ground state at low T . It is based on the observation of an exponential growth in time of the proton NMR signal during the thermal equilibration of the magnetization of the molecules. We can explain the novel effect with a simple model which relates the intensity of the proton echo signal to the microscopic reversal of the magnetization of each individual Mn12 molecule during the equilibration process. The method should find wide application in the study of magnetic molecular clusters in off-equilibrium conditions. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  5. The mitochondrial uniporter controls fight or flight heart rate increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuejin; Rasmussen, Tyler P; Koval, Olha M; Joiner, Mei-Ling A; Hall, Duane D; Chen, Biyi; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Wang, Qiongling; Rokita, Adam G; Wehrens, Xander H T; Song, Long-Sheng; Anderson, Mark E

    2015-01-20

    Heart rate increases are a fundamental adaptation to physiological stress, while inappropriate heart rate increases are resistant to current therapies. However, the metabolic mechanisms driving heart rate acceleration in cardiac pacemaker cells remain incompletely understood. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) facilitates calcium entry into the mitochondrial matrix to stimulate metabolism. We developed mice with myocardial MCU inhibition by transgenic expression of a dominant-negative (DN) MCU. Here, we show that DN-MCU mice had normal resting heart rates but were incapable of physiological fight or flight heart rate acceleration. We found that MCU function was essential for rapidly increasing mitochondrial calcium in pacemaker cells and that MCU-enhanced oxidative phoshorylation was required to accelerate reloading of an intracellular calcium compartment before each heartbeat. Our findings show that MCU is necessary for complete physiological heart rate acceleration and suggest that MCU inhibition could reduce inappropriate heart rate increases without affecting resting heart rate.

  6. Increased strength of concrete subject to high loading rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curbach, M.

    1987-01-01

    Within the scope of this work various problems are discussed which occur in connection with concrete under high tensile loading rates (e.g. when a plane crashes on a nuclear power plant very high loads occur which act only for a very short time). Particularly the causes for the already frequently noticed increases in strength with increasing loading rates are investigated and also the question whether this increased strength can be taken into account when dimensioning a construction. (MM) [de

  7. Increasing preferred step rate during running reduces plantar pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, James M; Bonanno, Daniel R

    2018-01-01

    Increasing preferred step rate during running is a commonly used strategy in the management of running-related injuries. This study investigated the effect of different step rates on plantar pressures during running. Thirty-two healthy runners ran at a comfortable speed on a treadmill at five step rates (preferred, ±5%, and ±10%). For each step rate, plantar pressure data were collected using the pedar-X in-shoe system. Compared to running with a preferred step rate, a 10% increase in step rate significantly reduced peak pressure (144.5±46.5 vs 129.3±51 kPa; P=.033) and maximum force (382.3±157.6 vs 334.0±159.8 N; P=.021) at the rearfoot, and reduced maximum force (426.4±130.4 vs 400.0±116.6 N; P=.001) at the midfoot. In contrast, a 10% decrease in step rate significantly increased peak pressure (144.5±46.5 vs 161.5±49.3 kPa; P=.011) and maximum force (382.3±157.6 vs 425.4±155.3 N; P=.032) at the rearfoot. Changing step rate by 5% provided no effect on plantar pressures, and no differences in plantar pressures were observed at the medial forefoot, lateral forefoot or hallux between the step rates. This study's findings indicate that increasing preferred step rate by 10% during running will reduce plantar pressures at the rearfoot and midfoot, while decreasing step rate by 10% will increase plantar pressures at the rearfoot. However, changing preferred step rate by 5% will provide no effect on plantar pressures, and forefoot pressures are unaffected by changes in step rate. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Phosphodiesterase-9 (PDE9) inhibition with BAY 73-6691 increases corpus cavernosum relaxations mediated by nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, F H; Pereira, M N; Franco-Penteado, C F; De Nucci, G; Antunes, E; Claudino, M A

    2013-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase-9 (PDE9) specifically hydrolyzes cyclic GMP, and was detected in human corpus cavernosum. However, no previous studies explored the selective PDE9 inhibition with BAY 73-6691 in corpus cavernosum relaxations. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the PDE9 mRNA expression in mice corpus cavernosum, and investigate the effects of BAY 73-6691 in endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxations, along with the nitrergic corpus cavernosum relaxations. Male mice received daily gavage of BAY 73-6691 (or dimethylsulfoxide) at 3 mg kg(-1) per day for 21 days. Relaxant responses to acetylcholine (ACh), nitric oxide (NO) (as acidified sodium nitrite; NaNO2 solution), sildenafil and electrical-field stimulation (EFS) were obtained in corpus cavernosum in control and BAY 73-6691-treated mice. BAY 73-6691 was also added in vitro 30 min before construction of concentration-responses and frequency curves. PDE9A and PDE5 mRNA expression was detected in the mice corpus cavernosum in a similar manner. In vitro addition of BAY 73-6691 neither itself relaxed mice corpus cavernosum nor changed the NaNO2, sildenafil and EFS-induced relaxations. However, in mice treated chronically with BAY 73-6691, the potency (pEC50) values for ACh, NaNO2 and sildenafil were significantly greater compared with control group. The maximal responses (Emax) to NaNO2 and sildenafil were also significantly greater in BAY 73-6691-treated mice. BAY 73-6691 treatment also significantly increased the magnitude and duration of the nitrergic corpus cavernosum relaxations (8-32 Hz). In conclusion, murine corpus cavernosum expresses PDE9 mRNA. Prolonged PDE9 inhibition with BAY 73-6691 amplifies the NO-cGMP-mediated cavernosal responses, and may be of therapeutic value for erectile dysfunction.

  9. Increasing Running Step Rate Reduces Patellofemoral Joint Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Rachel L.; Thelen, Darryl G.; Wille, Christa M.; Chumanov, Elizabeth S.; Heiderscheit, Bryan C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Increasing step rate has been shown to elicit changes in joint kinematics and kinetics during running, and has been suggested as a possible rehabilitation strategy for runners with patellofemoral pain. The purpose of this study was to determine how altering step rate affects internal muscle forces and patellofemoral joint loads, and then to determine what kinematic and kinetic factors best predict changes in joint loading. Methods We recorded whole body kinematics of 30 healthy adults running on an instrumented treadmill at three step rate conditions (90%, 100%, and 110% of preferred step rate). We then used a 3D lower extremity musculoskeletal model to estimate muscle, patellar tendon, and patellofemoral joint forces throughout the running gait cycles. Additionally, linear regression analysis allowed us to ascertain the relative influence of limb posture and external loads on patellofemoral joint force. Results Increasing step rate to 110% of preferred reduced peak patellofemoral joint force by 14%. Peak muscle forces were also altered as a result of the increased step rate with hip, knee and ankle extensor forces, and hip abductor forces all reduced in mid-stance. Compared to the 90% step rate condition, there was a concomitant increase in peak rectus femoris and hamstring loads during early and late swing, respectively, at higher step rates. Peak stance phase knee flexion decreased with increasing step rate, and was found to be the most important predictor of the reduction in patellofemoral joint loading. Conclusion Increasing step rate is an effective strategy to reduce patellofemoral joint forces and could be effective in modulating biomechanical factors that can contribute to patellofemoral pain. PMID:23917470

  10. 75 FR 81003 - Rate Increase Disclosure and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... choice of any threshold makes it inevitable that unreasonable rate increases below the threshold will not... in the preliminary justification supplements, and does not conflict with, State laws specifying what...

  11. Mechanics of arterial subfailure with increasing loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

    2007-01-01

    Arterial subfailure leads to delayed symptomatology and high morbidity and mortality rates, particularly for the thoracic aorta and carotid arteries. Although arterial injuries occur during high-velocity automotive collisions, previous studies of arterial subfailure focused on quasi-static loading. This investigation subjected aortic segments to increasing loading rates to quantify effects on elastic, subfailure, and ultimate vessel mechanics. Sixty-two specimens were axially distracted, and 92% demonstrated subfailure before ultimate failure. With increasing loading rate, stress at initial subfailure and ultimate failure significantly increased, and strain at initial subfailure and ultimate failure significantly decreased. Present results indicate increased susceptibility for arterial subfailure and/or dissection under higher-rate extension. According to the present results, automotive occupants are at greater risk of arterial injury under higher velocity impacts due to greater body segment motions in addition to decreased strain tolerance to subfailure and catastrophic failure.

  12. Does sex speed up evolutionary rate and increase biodiversity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melian, Carlos J.; Alonso, David; Allesina, Stefano; Condit, Richard S.; Etienne, Rampal S.

    Most empirical and theoretical studies have shown that sex increases the rate of evolution, although evidence of sex constraining genomic and epigenetic variation and slowing down evolution also exists. Faster rates with sex have been attributed to new gene combinations, removal of deleterious

  13. 78 FR 57101 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... rate currently in effect. The quantity of assessable walnuts for the 2013-14 marketing year is... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-13-0056; FV13-984-1 PR] Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  14. Investigation of the Temperature Dependence of the Acceptor Center Relaxation Rate in Silicon by the mu^-SR-Method

    CERN Document Server

    Mamedov, T N; Stojkov, A V; Andrianov, D G; Gerlach, D; Zimmermann, U; Gorelkin, V N; Kormann, O; Major, J V; Shevchik, M

    2000-01-01

    Results on the temperature dependence of the residual polarization of negative muons in silicon with phosphorus (3.2 cdot 10^12, 2.3 cdot 10^15 and 4.5 cdot 10^18 cm^-3) and aluminium (2 cdot 10^14 and 2.4 cdot 10^18 cm^-3) impurities are presented. The measurements were carried out in a transverse to the direction of the muon spin magnetic field of 2000 Oe in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. The temperature dependence of the relaxation rate of the magnetic moment of the Al shallow acceptor centre in undeformed silicon is determined for the first time. The constant of the hyperfine interaction between the magnetic moment of the muon and that of the electron shell of the muonic atom A_hf/2pi approx 3 cdot 10^7 s^-1) and the coefficient for capture of free electrons by a neutral aluminium atom in silicon (beta (Al^0) approx 7 cdot 10^-14 cm^3 s^-1 at 30 K) are estimated.

  15. Procedure for determining the optimum rate of increasing shaft depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durov, E.M.

    1983-03-01

    Presented is an economic analysis of increasing shaft depth during mine modernization. Investigations carried out by the Yuzhgiproshakht Institute are analyzed. The investigations are aimed at determining the optimum shaft sinking rate (the rate which reduces investment to the minimum). The following factors are considered: coal output of a mine (0.9, 1.2, 1.5 and 1.8 Mt/year), depth at which the new mining level is situated (600, 800, 1200, 1400 and 1600 m), four schemes of increasing depth of 2 central shafts (rock hoisting to ground surface, rock hoisting to the existing level, rock haulage to the developed level, rock haulage to the level being developed using a large diameter borehole drilled from the new level to the shaft bottom and enlarged from shaft bottom to the new level), shaft sinking rate (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 m/month), range of increasing shaft depth (the difference between depth of the shaft before and after increasing its depth by 100, 200, 300 and 400 m). Comparative evaluations show that the optimum shaft sinking rate depends on the scheme for rock hoisting (one of 4 analyzed), range of increasing shaft depth and gas content in coal seams. The optimum shaft sinking rate ranges from 20 to 40 m/month in coal mines with low methane content and from 20 to 30 m/month in gassy coal mines. The planned coal output of a mine does not influence the optimum shaft sinking rate.

  16. [Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of brain iron deposition: comparison between quantitative susceptibility mapping and transverse relaxation rate (R2*) mapping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ji-Jing; Feng, Yan-Qiu

    2018-03-20

    To evaluate the accuracy and sensitivity of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and transverse relaxation rate (R2*) mapping in the measurement of brain iron deposition. Super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) phantoms and mouse models of Parkinson's disease (PD) related to iron deposition in the substantia nigra (SN) underwent 7.0 T magnetic resonance (MR) scans (Bruker, 70/16) with a multi-echo 3D gradient echo sequence, and the acquired data were processed to obtain QSM and R2*. Linear regression analysis was performed for susceptibility and R2* in the SPIO phantoms containing 5 SPIO concentrations (30, 15, 7.5, 3.75 and 1.875 µg/mL) to evaluate the accuracy of QSM and R2* in quantitative iron analysis. The sensitivities of QSM and R2* mapping in quantitative detection of brain iron deposition were assessed using mouse models of PD induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahy-dropyridine (MPTP) in comparison with the control mice. In SPIO phantoms, QSM provided a higher accuracy than R2* mapping and their goodness-of-fit coefficients (R 2 ) were 0.98 and 0.89, respectively. In the mouse models of PD and control mice, the susceptibility of the SN was significantly higher in the PD models (5.19∓1.58 vs 2.98∓0.88, n=5; Pbrain iron deposition than R2*, and the susceptibility derived by QSM can be a potentially useful biomarker for studying PD.

  17. Relaxation techniques for stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... raise your heart rate. This is called the stress response. Relaxation techniques can help your body relax and lower your blood pressure ... also many other types of breathing techniques you can learn. In many cases, you do not need much ... including those that cause stress. Meditation has been practiced for thousands of years, ...

  18. NMR quantification of diffusional exchange in cell suspensions with relaxation rate differences between intra and extracellular compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Stefanie; Elbing, Karin; Söderman, Olle; Lindkvist-Petersson, Karin; Topgaard, Daniel; Lasič, Samo

    2017-01-01

    Water transport across cell membranes can be measured non-invasively with diffusion NMR. We present a method to quantify the intracellular lifetime of water in cell suspensions with short transverse relaxation times, T2, and also circumvent the confounding effect of different T2 values in the intra- and extracellular compartments. Filter exchange spectroscopy (FEXSY) is specifically sensitive to exchange between compartments with different apparent diffusivities. Our investigation shows that FEXSY could yield significantly biased results if differences in T2 are not accounted for. To mitigate this problem, we propose combining FEXSY with diffusion-relaxation correlation experiment, which can quantify differences in T2 values in compartments with different diffusivities. Our analysis uses a joint constrained fitting of the two datasets and considers the effects of diffusion, relaxation and exchange in both experiments. The method is demonstrated on yeast cells with and without human aquaporins.

  19. Increasing the sensitivity of NMR diffusion measurements by paramagnetic longitudinal relaxation enhancement, with application to ribosome–nascent chain complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Sammy H. S.; Waudby, Christopher A.; Cassaignau, Anaïs M. E.; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John

    2015-01-01

    The translational diffusion of macromolecules can be examined non-invasively by stimulated echo (STE) NMR experiments to accurately determine their molecular sizes. These measurements can be important probes of intermolecular interactions and protein folding and unfolding, and are crucial in monitoring the integrity of large macromolecular assemblies such as ribosome–nascent chain complexes (RNCs). However, NMR studies of these complexes can be severely constrained by their slow tumbling, low solubility (with maximum concentrations of up to 10 μM), and short lifetimes resulting in weak signal, and therefore continuing improvements in experimental sensitivity are essential. Here we explore the use of the paramagnetic longitudinal relaxation enhancement (PLRE) agent NiDO2A on the sensitivity of 15 N XSTE and SORDID heteronuclear STE experiments, which can be used to monitor the integrity of these unstable complexes. We exploit the dependence of the PLRE effect on the gyromagnetic ratio and electronic relaxation time to accelerate recovery of 1 H magnetization without adversely affecting storage on N z during diffusion delays or introducing significant transverse relaxation line broadening. By applying the longitudinal relaxation-optimized SORDID pulse sequence together with NiDO2A to 70S Escherichia coli ribosomes and RNCs, NMR diffusion sensitivity enhancements of up to 4.5-fold relative to XSTE are achieved, alongside ∼1.9-fold improvements in two-dimensional NMR sensitivity, without compromising the sample integrity. We anticipate these results will significantly advance the use of NMR to probe dynamic regions of ribosomes and other large, unstable macromolecular assemblies.Graphical Abstract

  20. Increased degradation rate of nitrososureas in media containing carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidegård, Janeric; Grönquist, Lena; Tuvesson, Helen; Gunnarsson, Per-Olov

    2009-01-01

    The stability of two nitrosoureas, tauromustine and lomustine, has been investigated in different media and buffers. All media tested, except Leibovitz's L-15 medium, significantly increased the degradation rate of the investigated nitrosoureas at pH 7.4. Sodium bicarbonate seems to be the cause of the observed increase of the degradation rate, since it provides the main buffering capacity of all the media except for Leibovitz's L-15 medium, which is based on phosphate buffer. Other ingredients in the media, such as amino acids, vitamins, and inorganic salts, or the ionic strength of a buffer, did not have any major effect on the degradation rate of the nitrosoureas. These results suggest that media containing carbonated buffer should be avoided when the anti-tumor effect of nitrosoureas is to be investigated in different cell cultures.

  1. 5 CFR 530.304 - Establishing or increasing special rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... involved (including exposure to toxic substances or other occupational hazards); or (4) Any other... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing or increasing special rates. 530.304 Section 530.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE...

  2. 75 FR 22211 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California olive... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-09-0089; FV10-932-1 FR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  3. 76 FR 67320 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California walnut handlers are subject to... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0062; FV11-984-1 FR] Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  4. 77 FR 51684 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California olive handlers are... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0093; FV12-932-1 FR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  5. Does sex speed up evolutionary rate and increase biodiversity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J Melián

    Full Text Available Most empirical and theoretical studies have shown that sex increases the rate of evolution, although evidence of sex constraining genomic and epigenetic variation and slowing down evolution also exists. Faster rates with sex have been attributed to new gene combinations, removal of deleterious mutations, and adaptation to heterogeneous environments. Slower rates with sex have been attributed to removal of major genetic rearrangements, the cost of finding a mate, vulnerability to predation, and exposure to sexually transmitted diseases. Whether sex speeds or slows evolution, the connection between reproductive mode, the evolutionary rate, and species diversity remains largely unexplored. Here we present a spatially explicit model of ecological and evolutionary dynamics based on DNA sequence change to study the connection between mutation, speciation, and the resulting biodiversity in sexual and asexual populations. We show that faster speciation can decrease the abundance of newly formed species and thus decrease long-term biodiversity. In this way, sex can reduce diversity relative to asexual populations, because it leads to a higher rate of production of new species, but with lower abundances. Our results show that reproductive mode and the mechanisms underlying it can alter the link between mutation, evolutionary rate, speciation and biodiversity and we suggest that a high rate of evolution may not be required to yield high biodiversity.

  6. Does sex speed up evolutionary rate and increase biodiversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melián, Carlos J; Alonso, David; Allesina, Stefano; Condit, Richard S; Etienne, Rampal S

    2012-01-01

    Most empirical and theoretical studies have shown that sex increases the rate of evolution, although evidence of sex constraining genomic and epigenetic variation and slowing down evolution also exists. Faster rates with sex have been attributed to new gene combinations, removal of deleterious mutations, and adaptation to heterogeneous environments. Slower rates with sex have been attributed to removal of major genetic rearrangements, the cost of finding a mate, vulnerability to predation, and exposure to sexually transmitted diseases. Whether sex speeds or slows evolution, the connection between reproductive mode, the evolutionary rate, and species diversity remains largely unexplored. Here we present a spatially explicit model of ecological and evolutionary dynamics based on DNA sequence change to study the connection between mutation, speciation, and the resulting biodiversity in sexual and asexual populations. We show that faster speciation can decrease the abundance of newly formed species and thus decrease long-term biodiversity. In this way, sex can reduce diversity relative to asexual populations, because it leads to a higher rate of production of new species, but with lower abundances. Our results show that reproductive mode and the mechanisms underlying it can alter the link between mutation, evolutionary rate, speciation and biodiversity and we suggest that a high rate of evolution may not be required to yield high biodiversity.

  7. Sequential improvements in organ procurement increase the organ donation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeter, Adrian T; Sklare, Seth; Franklin, Glen A; Wright, Jerry; Morgan, Gary; O'Flynn, Paul E; Polk, Hiram C

    2012-11-01

    Organ demand exceeds availability of transplantable organs. Organ procurement continues to suffer from failures to identify potential donors, inability to obtain consent for donation, as well as failures to retrieve certain organs as donor demographics change. The purpose of this article is to propose how sequentially introduced measures can increase organ donation rates as well as improve organ procurement. We analysed the effect of stepwise improvements in the organ procurement process patients in a university-based surgical intensive care unit over a 20-year period. We related newly introduced measures in the organ retrieval process with changes in donation rates. We specifically targeted these three main steps in the donation process: donor identification, conversion of potential donors to actual donors, and organ protection during the procurement process. Finally, we assessed the effect of the same measures on organ procurement after introduction in other hospitals of the same organ procurement region. Introduction of quality improvement steps increased all of the observed parameters. The number of organ donors was stabilised due to a better identification of potential donors, a major increase in conversion from potential to actual donors, and an increase in extended criteria donor. Improvements in organ protection led to higher rates of organs transplanted per donor and increased recovery of lungs and hearts despite increasing donor age. The same measures were introduced successfully in other hospitals in our organ procurement region. Sequential improvements in organ procurement can increase the yield of retrieved organs. The same measures can be applied to other hospitals and lead to comparable improvements in organ donation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Social modernization and the increase in the divorce rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, H

    1993-03-01

    The author develops a micro-model of marital interactions that is used to analyze factors affecting the divorce rate in modern industrialized societies. The core of the model is the concept of production of marital gain and mutual control of this production. "The increase of divorce rates, then, is explained by a steady decrease of institutional and social embeddedness, which helps to solve this kind of an 'assurance game.' The shape of the individual risk is explained by the typical form of change of the 'production functions' of marriages within the first period of adaptation. The inconsistent results concerning womens' labor market participation in linear regression models are explained as a consequence of the (theoretical and statistical) 'interaction' of decreases in embeddedness and increases in external alternatives for women." Comments are included by Karl-Dieter Opp (pp. 278-82) and Ulrich Witt (pp. 283-5). excerpt

  9. Increasing the graduation rates of minority medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J L; Nowacki, C M; Girotti, J A; Townsel, J; Plagge, J C; Beckham, T W

    1986-05-01

    The University of Illinois College of Medicine has operated a program since 1969 to recruit minority students into the college and to increase the graduation rates of these students once they enroll. Known as the Medical Opportunities Program (MOP) until 1978, the program was expanded in 1978 and renamed the Urban Health Program (UHP). The authors of the present paper discuss the results of these programs, particularly the effect of granting minority students delays in completing graduation requirements. The MOP (1969 through 1978) increased graduation rates for minority students from 55 percent for those who graduated on time to 81 percent for both on-time and delayed graduates. Under the first seven years of the UHP (1979 through 1985), more minority students have been offered places, and more have enrolled than in the 10 years of the MOP. The retention rate under the UHP, if it holds, will be higher than that under the MOP. For the combined MOP-UHP period, the retention rate for minority students was 88 percent; 69.8 percent of the graduates were on time, and 30.2 were delayed.

  10. Measurement of the ferric diffusion coefficient in agarose and gelatine gels by utilization of the evolution of a radiation induced edge as reflected in relaxation rate images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Torje V.; Olsen, Dag R.; Skretting, Arne

    1997-01-01

    A method has been developed to determine the diffusion coefficients of ferric ions in ferrous sulphate doped gels. A radiation induced edge was created in the gel, and two spin-echo sequences were used to acquire a pair of images of the gel at different points of time. For each of these image pairs, a longitudinal relaxation rate image was derived. From profiles through these images, the standard deviations of the Gaussian functions that characterize diffusion were determined. These data provided the basis for the determination of the ferric diffusion coefficients by two different methods. Simulations indicate that the use of single spin-echo images in this procedure may in some cases lead to a significant underestimation of the diffusion coefficient. The technique was applied to different agarose and gelatine gels that were prepared, irradiated and imaged simultaneously. The results indicate that the diffusion coefficient is lower in a gelatine gel than in an agarose gel. Addition of xylenol orange to a gelatine gel lowers the diffusion coefficient from 1.45 to 0.81 mm 2 h -1 , at the cost of significantly lower R 1 sensitivity. The addition of benzoic acid to the latter gel did not increase the R 1 sensitivity. (author) OK

  11. Does stoma site specimen extraction increase postoperative ileostomy complication rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanglin; Benlice, Cigdem; Stocchi, Luca; Kessler, Hermann; Gorgun, Emre; Costedio, Meagan

    2017-09-01

    Minimizing incisions has the potential to decrease hernia formation and wound complications following laparoscopic surgery. It is currently unknown if using the stoma site for specimen extraction affects outcomes. This study aims to evaluate the impact of stoma site extraction on postoperative complication rates in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. After IRB approval, a retrospective comparative review of 738 consecutive patients (405 M) who underwent laparoscopic colorectal surgery with ileostomy between January 2008 and December 2014 was performed. Patients who had a minimally invasive surgery that required an ileostomy were included. Patients were classified into two groups: stoma site extraction (SSE) or non-stoma site extraction (NSSE) and compared by body mass index (BMI), age, comorbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, length of stay, estimated blood loss, parastomal complications, and hernia rate. The parastomal hernia rate was 10.1% for the SSE group (n = 14) and 4.2% for the NSSE group (n = 25) (p = 0.007). The need for additional surgeries was 7/139 (5.0%) for the SSE group and 27/599 (4.5%) for the NSSE group (p = 0.79). There was no difference in the hernia rate after stoma closure in either group. There was no difference in single incision laparoscopic surgery versus conventional laparoscopy or robotic-assisted laparoscopy on stoma site complications in patients with SSE. SSE, transfusion, and BMI >30 were found to be independent factors associated with increased stoma site complications. SSE does increase stoma site complications. SSE should be used with caution, or in conjunction with other techniques to reduce hernias in patients requiring a permanent stoma or with an elevated BMI. The increase in stoma site complications does not translate into additional surgeries or postoperative sequelae following stoma reversal and is a reasonable option in patients requiring a temporary stoma.

  12. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N L; Das, A J; Condit, R; Russo, S E; Baker, P J; Beckman, N G; Coomes, D A; Lines, E R; Morris, W K; Rüger, N; Alvarez, E; Blundo, C; Bunyavejchewin, S; Chuyong, G; Davies, S J; Duque, A; Ewango, C N; Flores, O; Franklin, J F; Grau, H R; Hao, Z; Harmon, M E; Hubbell, S P; Kenfack, D; Lin, Y; Makana, J-R; Malizia, A; Malizia, L R; Pabst, R J; Pongpattananurak, N; Su, S-H; Sun, I-F; Tan, S; Thomas, D; van Mantgem, P J; Wang, X; Wiser, S K; Zavala, M A

    2014-03-06

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  13. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N.L.; Das, A.J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S.E.; Baker, P.J.; Beckman, N.G.; Coomes, D.A.; Lines, E.R.; Morris, W.K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S.J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C.N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J.F.; Grau, H.R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Hubbell, S.P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L.R.; Pabst, R.J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P.J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S.K.; Zavala, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle—particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage - increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree’s total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to understand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  14. Changes in transcriptional orientation are associated with increases in evolutionary rates of enterobacterial genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiung Chao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in transcriptional orientation (“CTOs” occur frequently in prokaryotic genomes. Such changes usually result from genomic inversions, which may cause a conflict between the directions of replication and transcription and an increase in mutation rate. However, CTOs do not always lead to the replication-transcription confrontation. Furthermore, CTOs may cause deleterious disruptions of operon structure and/or gene regulations. The currently existing CTOs may indicate relaxation of selection pressure. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate whether CTOs have an independent effect on the evolutionary rates of the affected genes, and whether these genes are subject to any type of selection pressure in prokaryotes. Methods Three closely related enterbacteria, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, were selected for comparisons of synonymous (dS and nonsynonymous (dN substitution rate between the genes that have experienced changes in transcriptional orientation (changed-orientation genes, “COGs” and those that do not (same-orientation genes, “SOGs”. The dN/dS ratio was also derived to evaluate the selection pressure on the analyzed genes. Confounding factors in the estimation of evolutionary rates, such as gene essentiality, gene expression level, replication-transcription confrontation, and decreased dS at gene terminals were controlled in the COG-SOG comparisons. Results We demonstrate that COGs have significantly higher dN and dS than SOGs when a series of confounding factors are controlled. However, the dN/dS ratios are similar between the two gene groups, suggesting that the increase in dS can sufficiently explain the increase in dN in COGs. Therefore, the increases in evolutionary rates in COGs may be mainly mutation-driven. Conclusions Here we show that CTOs can increase the evolutionary rates of the affected genes. This effect is independent of the

  15. Prolonged operative time increases infection rate in tibial plateau fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Matthew; Wright, Adam; Gruen, Gary; Siska, Peter; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Tarkin, Ivan

    2013-02-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau present a treatment challenge and are susceptible to both prolonged operative times and high postoperative infection rates. For those fractures treated with open plating, we sought to identify the relationship between surgical site infection and prolonged operative time as well as to identify other surgical risk factors. We performed a retrospective controlled analysis of 309 consecutive unicondylar and bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated with open plate osteosynthesis at our institution's level I trauma centre during a recent 5-year period. We recorded operative times, injury characteristics, surgical treatment, and need for operative debridement due to infection. Operative times of infected cases were compared to uncomplicated surgical cases. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for postoperative infection. Mean operative time in the infection group was 2.8h vs. 2.2h in the non-infected group (p=0.005). 15 fractures (4.9%) underwent four compartment fasciotomies as part of their treatment, with a significantly higher infection rate than those not undergoing fasciotomy (26.7% vs. 6.8%, p=0.01). Open fracture grade was also significantly related to infection rate (closed fractures: 5.3%, grade 1: 14.3%, grade 2: 40%, grade 3: 50%, pinfection rates (13.9% vs. 8.7%, p=0.36). Multivariable logistic regression analysis of the entire study group identified longer operative times (OR 1.78, p=0.013) and open fractures (OR 7.02, psite infection. Operative times approaching 3h and open fractures are related to an increased overall risk for surgical site infection after open plating of the tibial plateau. Dual incision approaches with bicolumnar plating do not appear to expose the patient to increased risk compared to single incision approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nesting bird "host funnel" increases mosquito-bird contact rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillouët, Kevin A; Riggan, Anna E; Bulluck, Lesley P; Carlson, John C; Sabo, Roy T

    2013-03-01

    Increases in vector-host contact rates can enhance arbovirus transmission intensity. We investigated weekly fluctuations in contact rates between mosquitoes and nesting birds using the recently described Nest Mosquito Trap (NMT). The number of mosquitoes per nestling increased from nesting season. Our evidence suggests the coincidence of the end of the avian nesting season and increasing mosquito abundances may have caused a "host funnel," concentrating host-seeking mosquitoes to the few remaining nestlings. The relative abundance of mosquitoes collected by the NMT suggests that significantly more Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex pipiens (L.) /restuans (Theobald) sought nesting bird bloodmeals than were predicted by their relative abundances in CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light and gravid traps. Culex salinarius (Coquillett) and Culex erraticus Dyar and Knab were collected in NMTs in proportion to their relative abundances in the generic traps. Temporal host funnels and nesting bird host specificity may enhance arbovirus amplification and explain observed West Nile virus and St. Louis encephalitis virus amplification periods.

  17. Applying lessons from behavioral economics to increase flu vaccination rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frederick; Stevens, Ryan

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal influenza imposes an enormous burden on society every year, yet many people refuse to obtain flu shots due to misconceptions of the flu vaccine. We argue that recent research in psychology and behavioral economics may provide the answers to why people hold mistaken beliefs about flu shots, how we can correct these misconceptions, and what policy-makers can do to increase flu vaccination rates. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Chromatin relaxation-mediated induction of p19INK4d increases the ability of cells to repair damaged DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogara, María F; Sirkin, Pablo F; Carcagno, Abel L; Marazita, Mariela C; Sonzogni, Silvina V; Ceruti, Julieta M; Cánepa, Eduardo T

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of genomic integrity is of main importance to the survival and health of organisms which are continuously exposed to genotoxic stress. Cells respond to DNA damage by activating survival pathways consisting of cell cycle checkpoints and repair mechanisms. However, the signal that triggers the DNA damage response is not necessarily a direct detection of the primary DNA lesion. In fact, chromatin defects may serve as initiating signals to activate those mechanisms. If the modulation of chromatin structure could initiate a checkpoint response in a direct manner, this supposes the existence of specific chromatin sensors. p19INK4d, a member of the INK4 cell cycle inhibitors, plays a crucial role in regulating genomic stability and cell viability by enhancing DNA repair. Its expression is induced in cells injured by one of several genotoxic treatments like cis-platin, UV light or neocarzinostatin. Nevertheless, when exogenous DNA damaged molecules are introduced into the cell, this induction is not observed. Here, we show that p19INK4d is enhanced after chromatin relaxation even in the absence of DNA damage. This induction was shown to depend upon ATM/ATR, Chk1/Chk2 and E2F activity, as is the case of p19INK4d induction by endogenous DNA damage. Interestingly, p19INK4d improves DNA repair when the genotoxic damage is caused in a relaxed-chromatin context. These results suggest that changes in chromatin structure, and not DNA damage itself, is the actual trigger of p19INK4d induction. We propose that, in addition to its role as a cell cycle inhibitor, p19INK4d could participate in a signaling network directed to detecting and eventually responding to chromatin anomalies.

  19. Chromatin relaxation-mediated induction of p19INK4d increases the ability of cells to repair damaged DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F Ogara

    Full Text Available The maintenance of genomic integrity is of main importance to the survival and health of organisms which are continuously exposed to genotoxic stress. Cells respond to DNA damage by activating survival pathways consisting of cell cycle checkpoints and repair mechanisms. However, the signal that triggers the DNA damage response is not necessarily a direct detection of the primary DNA lesion. In fact, chromatin defects may serve as initiating signals to activate those mechanisms. If the modulation of chromatin structure could initiate a checkpoint response in a direct manner, this supposes the existence of specific chromatin sensors. p19INK4d, a member of the INK4 cell cycle inhibitors, plays a crucial role in regulating genomic stability and cell viability by enhancing DNA repair. Its expression is induced in cells injured by one of several genotoxic treatments like cis-platin, UV light or neocarzinostatin. Nevertheless, when exogenous DNA damaged molecules are introduced into the cell, this induction is not observed. Here, we show that p19INK4d is enhanced after chromatin relaxation even in the absence of DNA damage. This induction was shown to depend upon ATM/ATR, Chk1/Chk2 and E2F activity, as is the case of p19INK4d induction by endogenous DNA damage. Interestingly, p19INK4d improves DNA repair when the genotoxic damage is caused in a relaxed-chromatin context. These results suggest that changes in chromatin structure, and not DNA damage itself, is the actual trigger of p19INK4d induction. We propose that, in addition to its role as a cell cycle inhibitor, p19INK4d could participate in a signaling network directed to detecting and eventually responding to chromatin anomalies.

  20. Reduced white matter MRI transverse relaxation rate in cognitively normal H63D-HFE human carriers and H67D-HFE mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadowcroft, Mark D; Wang, Jianli; Purnell, Carson J; Peters, Douglas G; Eslinger, Paul J; Neely, Elizabeth B; Gill, David J; Vasavada, Megha; Ali-Rahmani, Fatima; Yang, Qing X; Connor, James R

    2016-12-01

    Mutations within the HFE protein gene sequence have been associated with increased risk of developing a number of neurodegenerative disorders. To this effect, an animal model has been created which incorporates the mouse homologue to the human H63D-HFE mutation: the H67D-HFE knock-in mouse. These mice exhibit alterations in iron management proteins, have increased neuronal oxidative stress, and a disruption in cholesterol regulation. However, it remains undetermined how these differences translate to human H63D carriers in regards to white matter (WM) integrity. To this endeavor, MRI transverse relaxation rate (R 2 ) parametrics were employed to test the hypothesis that WM alterations are present in H63D human carriers and are recapitulated in the H67D mice. H63D carriers exhibit widespread reductions in brain R 2 compared to non-carriers within white matter association fibers in the brain. Similar R 2 decreases within white matter tracts were observed in the H67D mouse brain. Additionally, an exacerbation of age-related R 2 decrease is found in the H67D animal model in white matter regions of interest. The decrease in R 2 within white matter tracts of both species is speculated to be multifaceted. The R 2 changes are hypothesized to be due to alterations in axonal biochemical tissue composition. The R 2 changes observed in both the human-H63D and mouse-H67D data suggest that modified white matter myelination is occurring in subjects with HFE mutations, potentially increasing vulnerability to neurodegenerative disorders.

  1. Music increases alcohol consumption rate in young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Lorenzo D; Dodd, Hannah

    2013-10-01

    Previous field research has shown that individuals consumed more alcohol and at a faster rate in environments paired with loud music. Theoretically, this effect has been linked to approach/avoidance accounts of how music influences arousal and mood, but no work has tested this experimentally. In the present study, female participants (n = 45) consumed an alcoholic (4% alcohol-by-volume) beverage in one of three contexts: slow tempo music, fast tempo music, or a no-music control. Results revealed that, compared with the control, the beverage was consumed fastest in the two music conditions. Interestingly, whereas arousal and negative mood declined in the control condition, this was not the case for either of the music conditions, suggesting a downregulation of alcohol effects. We additionally found evidence for music to disrupt sensory systems in that, counterintuitively, faster consumption was driven by increases in perceived alcohol strength, which, in turn, predicted lower breath alcohol level (BrAL). These findings suggest a unique interaction of music environment and psychoactive effects of alcohol itself on consumption rate. Because alcohol consumed at a faster rate induces greater intoxication, these findings have implications for applied and theoretical work. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Excited-state relaxation of some aminoquinolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The absorption and fluorescence spectra, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes, and fluorescence rate constants ( k f of 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzoxazolylquinoline (I, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzothiazolylquinoline (II, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -methoxybenzothiazolyl-quinoline (III, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzothiazolylbenzoquinoline (IV at different temperatures have been measured. The shortwavelength shift of fluorescence spectra of compounds studied (23–49 nm in ethanol as the temperature decreases (the solvent viscosity increases points out that the excited-state relaxation process takes place. The rate of this process depends essentially on the solvent viscosity, but not the solvent polarity. The essential increasing of fluorescence rate constant k f (up to about 7 times as the solvent viscosity increases proves the existence of excited-state structural relaxation consisting in the mutual internal rotation of molecular fragments of aminoquinolines studied, followed by the solvent orientational relaxation.

  3. Heart rate and autonomic response to stress after experimental induction of worry versus relaxation in healthy, high-worry, and generalized anxiety disorder individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Aaron J; Newman, Michelle G

    2013-04-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is the most commonly occurring anxiety disorder and has been related to cardiovascular morbidity such as cardiac ischemia, sudden cardiac death, and myocardial infarction. Both GAD and its cardinal symptom - worry - have been shown to promote muted physiological reactivity in response to laboratory and ecological stressors. Importantly, no study to date has examined the concurrent and relative contributions of trait and state worry within healthy controls, (non-clinical) high trait-worry controls, and GAD participants. The present study examined heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) responses to laboratory stress during and following the experimental induction of worry versus relaxation in healthy controls (n=42), high trait worriers (n=33) and participants with GAD (n=76). All groups exhibited increased HR and decreased RSA in response to the stressor, with no differences by condition. Baseline sAA significantly moderated HR and RSA reactivity, such that higher sAA predicted greater increases in HR and decreases in RSA. There was a significant group by baseline sAA interaction such that in GAD, higher baseline sAA predicted decreased change in sAA during stress, whereas higher baseline sAA predicted greater sAA change in healthy controls. High-worry controls fell non-significantly between these groups. The present study provides additional evidence for the effect of worry on diminished HR stress response and points to possible suppression of adrenergic sympathetic stress responses in GAD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Detailing magnetic field strength dependence and segmental artifact distribution of myocardial effective transverse relaxation rate at 1.5, 3.0, and 7.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Antonella; Hezel, Fabian; Positano, Vincenzo; Keilberg, Petra; Pepe, Alessia; Lombardi, Massimo; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2014-06-01

    Realizing the challenges and opportunities of effective transverse relaxation rate (R2 *) mapping at high and ultrahigh fields, this work examines magnetic field strength (B0 ) dependence and segmental artifact distribution of myocardial R2 * at 1.5, 3.0, and 7.0 T. Healthy subjects were considered. Three short-axis views of the left ventricle were examined. R2 * was calculated for 16 standard myocardial segments. Global and mid-septum R2 * were determined. For each segment, an artifactual factor was estimated as the deviation of segmental from global R2 * value. The global artifactual factor was significantly enlarged at 7.0 T versus 1.5 T (P = 0.010) but not versus 3.0 T. At 7.0 T, the most severe susceptibility artifacts were detected in the inferior lateral wall. The mid-septum showed minor artifactual factors at 7.0 T, similar to those at 1.5 and 3.0 T. Mean R2 * increased linearly with the field strength, with larger changes for global heart R2 * values. At 7.0 T, segmental heart R2 * analysis is challenging due to macroscopic susceptibility artifacts induced by the heart-lung interface and the posterior vein. Myocardial R2 * depends linearly on the magnetic field strength. The increased R2 * sensitivity at 7.0 T might offer means for susceptibility-weighted and oxygenation level-dependent MR imaging of the myocardium. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Baicalin prevents Candida albicans infections via increasing its apoptosis rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shulong; Fu, Yingyuan, E-mail: yingyuanfu@126.com; Wu, Xiuzhen; Zhou, Zhixing; Xu, Jing; Zeng, Xiaoping; Kuang, Nanzhen; Zeng, Yurong

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Baicalin increases the ratio of the G0/G1 stages and C. albicans apoptosis. • Baicalin decreases the proliferation index of C. albicans. • Baicalin inhibits the biosynthesis of DNA, RNA and protein in C. albicans. • Baicalin depresses Succinate Dehydrogenase and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase in C. albicans. • Baicalin increases the endocytic free Ca{sup 2+} concentration in C. albicans. - Abstract: Background: These experiments were employed to explore the mechanisms underlying baicalin action on Candida albicans. Methodology and principal findings: We detected the baicalin inhibition effects on three isotope-labeled precursors of {sup 3}H-UdR, {sup 3}H-TdR and {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation into C. albicans using the isotope incorporation technology. The activities of Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH), cytochrome oxidase (CCO) and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase, cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} concentration, the cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as the ultrastructure of C.albicans were also tested. We found that baicalin inhibited {sup 3}H-UdR, {sup 3}H-TdR and {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation into C.albicans (P < 0.005). The activities of the SDH and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase of C.albicans in baicalin groups were lower than those in control group (P < 0.05). Ca{sup 2+} concentrations of C. albicans in baicalin groups were much higher than those in control group (P < 0.05). The ratio of C.albicans at the G0/G1 stage increased in baicalin groups in dose dependent manner (P < 0.01). There were a significant differences in the apoptosis rate of C.albicans between baicalin and control groups (P < 0.01). After 12–48 h incubation with baicalin (1 mg/ml), C. albicans shown to be markedly damaged under transmission electron micrographs. Innovation and significance: Baicalin can increase the apoptosis rate of C. albicans. These effects of Baicalin may involved in its inhibiting the activities of the SDH and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase, increasing

  6. Baicalin prevents Candida albicans infections via increasing its apoptosis rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shulong; Fu, Yingyuan; Wu, Xiuzhen; Zhou, Zhixing; Xu, Jing; Zeng, Xiaoping; Kuang, Nanzhen; Zeng, Yurong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Baicalin increases the ratio of the G0/G1 stages and C. albicans apoptosis. • Baicalin decreases the proliferation index of C. albicans. • Baicalin inhibits the biosynthesis of DNA, RNA and protein in C. albicans. • Baicalin depresses Succinate Dehydrogenase and Ca 2+ –Mg 2+ ATPase in C. albicans. • Baicalin increases the endocytic free Ca 2+ concentration in C. albicans. - Abstract: Background: These experiments were employed to explore the mechanisms underlying baicalin action on Candida albicans. Methodology and principal findings: We detected the baicalin inhibition effects on three isotope-labeled precursors of 3 H-UdR, 3 H-TdR and 3 H-leucine incorporation into C. albicans using the isotope incorporation technology. The activities of Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH), cytochrome oxidase (CCO) and Ca 2+ –Mg 2+ ATPase, cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration, the cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as the ultrastructure of C.albicans were also tested. We found that baicalin inhibited 3 H-UdR, 3 H-TdR and 3 H-leucine incorporation into C.albicans (P < 0.005). The activities of the SDH and Ca 2+ –Mg 2+ ATPase of C.albicans in baicalin groups were lower than those in control group (P < 0.05). Ca 2+ concentrations of C. albicans in baicalin groups were much higher than those in control group (P < 0.05). The ratio of C.albicans at the G0/G1 stage increased in baicalin groups in dose dependent manner (P < 0.01). There were a significant differences in the apoptosis rate of C.albicans between baicalin and control groups (P < 0.01). After 12–48 h incubation with baicalin (1 mg/ml), C. albicans shown to be markedly damaged under transmission electron micrographs. Innovation and significance: Baicalin can increase the apoptosis rate of C. albicans. These effects of Baicalin may involved in its inhibiting the activities of the SDH and Ca 2+ –Mg 2+ ATPase, increasing cytosolic Ca 2+ content and damaging the ultrastructure of C. albicans

  7. Comparison of Physiological and Psychological Relaxation Using Measurements of Heart Rate Variability, Prefrontal Cortex Activity, and Subjective Indexes after Completing Tasks with and without Foliage Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin-Ae; Song, Chorong; Oh, Yun-Ah; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Son, Ki-Cheol

    2017-09-20

    The objective of this study was to compare physiological and psychological relaxation by assessing heart rate variability (HRV), prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective indexes while subjects performed a task with and without foliage plants. In a crossover experimental design, 24 university students performed a task transferring pots with and without a foliage plant for 3 min. HRV and oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration in the prefrontal cortex were continuously measured. Immediately thereafter, subjective evaluation of emotions was performed using a modified semantic differential (SD) method and a profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS). Results showed that the natural logarithmic (ln) ratio of low frequency/high frequency, as an estimate of sympathetic nerve activity, was significantly lower while performing the task with foliage plants for the average 3 min measurement interval. Oxy-Hb concentration in the left prefrontal cortex showed a tendency to decrease in the 2-3 min interval in the task with foliage plants compared to the task without plants. Moreover, significant psychological relaxation according to POMS score and SD was demonstrated when the task involved foliage plants. In conclusion, the task involving foliage plants led to more physiological and psychological relaxation compared with the task without foliage plants.

  8. Comparison of Physiological and Psychological Relaxation Using Measurements of Heart Rate Variability, Prefrontal Cortex Activity, and Subjective Indexes after Completing Tasks with and without Foliage Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin-Ae Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare physiological and psychological relaxation by assessing heart rate variability (HRV, prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective indexes while subjects performed a task with and without foliage plants. In a crossover experimental design, 24 university students performed a task transferring pots with and without a foliage plant for 3 min. HRV and oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb concentration in the prefrontal cortex were continuously measured. Immediately thereafter, subjective evaluation of emotions was performed using a modified semantic differential (SD method and a profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS. Results showed that the natural logarithmic (ln ratio of low frequency/high frequency, as an estimate of sympathetic nerve activity, was significantly lower while performing the task with foliage plants for the average 3 min measurement interval. Oxy-Hb concentration in the left prefrontal cortex showed a tendency to decrease in the 2–3 min interval in the task with foliage plants compared to the task without plants. Moreover, significant psychological relaxation according to POMS score and SD was demonstrated when the task involved foliage plants. In conclusion, the task involving foliage plants led to more physiological and psychological relaxation compared with the task without foliage plants.

  9. Increasing inhibitory input increases neuronal firing rate: why and when? Diffusion process cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jianfeng [COGS, Sussex University (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jf218@cam.ac.uk; Wei Gang [Department of Mathematics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail gwei@math.hkbu.edu.hk

    2001-09-21

    Increasing inhibitory input to single neuronal models, such as the FitzHugh-Nagumo model and the Hodgkin-Huxley model, can sometimes increase their firing rates, a phenomenon which we term inhibition-boosted firing (IBF). Here we consider neuronal models with diffusion approximation inputs, i.e. they share the identical first- and second-order statistics of the corresponding Poisson process inputs. Using the integrate-and-fire model and the IF-FHN model, we explore theoretically how and when IBF can happen. For both models, it is shown that there is a critical input frequency at which the efferent firing rate is identical when the neuron receives purely excitatory inputs or exactly balanced inhibitory and excitatory inputs. When the input frequency is lower than the critical frequency, IBF occurs. (author)

  10. Social marketing as a strategy to increase immunization rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opel, Douglas J; Diekema, Douglas S; Lee, Nancy R; Marcuse, Edgar K

    2009-05-01

    Today in the United States, outbreaks of vaccine-preventable disease are often traced to susceptible children whose parents have claimed an exemption from school or child care immunization regulations. The origins of this immunization hesitancy and resistance have roots in the decline of the threat of vaccine-preventable disease coupled with an increase in concerns about the adverse effects of vaccines, the emergence of mass media and the Internet, and the intrinsic limitations of modern medicine. Appeals to emotion have drowned out thoughtful discussion in public forums, and overall, public trust in immunizations has declined. We present an often overlooked behavior change strategy-social marketing-as a way to improve immunization rates by addressing the important roots of immunization hesitancy and effectively engaging emotions. As an example, we provide a synopsis of a social marketing campaign that is currently in development in Washington state and that is aimed at increasing timely immunizations in children from birth to age 24 months.

  11. Increasing fMRI sampling rate improves Granger causality estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available Estimation of causal interactions between brain areas is necessary for elucidating large-scale functional brain networks underlying behavior and cognition. Granger causality analysis of time series data can quantitatively estimate directional information flow between brain regions. Here, we show that such estimates are significantly improved when the temporal sampling rate of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is increased 20-fold. Specifically, healthy volunteers performed a simple visuomotor task during blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD contrast based whole-head inverse imaging (InI. Granger causality analysis based on raw InI BOLD data sampled at 100-ms resolution detected the expected causal relations, whereas when the data were downsampled to the temporal resolution of 2 s typically used in echo-planar fMRI, the causality could not be detected. An additional control analysis, in which we SINC interpolated additional data points to the downsampled time series at 0.1-s intervals, confirmed that the improvements achieved with the real InI data were not explainable by the increased time-series length alone. We therefore conclude that the high-temporal resolution of InI improves the Granger causality connectivity analysis of the human brain.

  12. Optimizing Water Exchange Rates and Rotational Mobility for High-Relaxivity of a Novel Gd-DO3A Derivative Complex Conjugated to Inulin as Macromolecular Contrast Agents for MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Luigi; Vander Elst, Luce; Henoumont, Celine; Muller, Robert N; Laurent, Sophie

    2018-02-01

    Thanks to the understanding of the relationships between the residence lifetime τ M of the coordinated water molecules to macrocyclic Gd-complexes and the rotational mobility τ R of these structures, and according to the theory for paramagnetic relaxation, it is now possible to design macromolecular contrast agents with enhanced relaxivities by optimizing these two parameters through ligand structural modification. We succeeded in accelerating the water exchange rate by inducing steric compression around the water binding site, and by removing the amide function from the DOTA-AA ligand [1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid mono(p-aminoanilide)] (L) previously designed. This new ligand 10[2(1-oxo-1-p-propylthioureidophenylpropyl]-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclodecane-1,4,7-tetraacetic acid (L 1 ) was then covalently conjugated to API [O-(aminopropyl)inulin] to get the complex API-(GdL 1 )x with intent to slow down the rotational correlation time (τ R ) of the macromolecular complex. The evaluation of the longitudinal relaxivity at different magnetic fields and the study of the 17 O-NMR at variable temperature of the low-molecular-weight compound (GdL 1 ) showed a slight decrease of the τ M value (τM310 = 331 ns vs. τM310 = 450 ns for the GdL complex). Consequently to the increase of the size of the API-(GdL 1 )x complex, the rotational correlation time becomes about 360 times longer compared to the monomeric GdL 1 complex (τ R  = 33,700 ps), which results in an enhanced proton relaxivity. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  13. Perturbation of longitudinal relaxation rate in rotating frame (PLRF) analysis for quantification of chemical exchange saturation transfer signal in a transient state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Zhang, Yaoyu; Zhao, Xuna; Wu, Bing; Gao, Jia-Hong

    2017-11-01

    To develop a novel analytical method for quantification of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) in the transient state. The proposed method aims to reduce the effects of non-chemical-exchange (non-CE) parameters on the CEST signal, emphasizing the effect of chemical exchange. The difference in the longitudinal relaxation rate in the rotating frame ( ΔR1ρ) was calculated based on perturbation of the Z-value by R1ρ, and a saturation-pulse-amplitude-compensated exchange-dependent relaxation rate (SPACER) was determined with a high-exchange-rate approximation. In both phantom and human subject experiments, MTRasym (representative of the traditional CEST index), ΔR1ρ, and SPACER were measured, evaluated, and compared by altering the non-CE parameters in a transient-state continuous-wave CEST sequence. In line with the theoretical expectation, our experimental data demonstrate that the effects of the non-CE parameters can be more effectively reduced using the proposed indices (  ΔR1ρ and SPACER) than using the traditional CEST index ( MTRasym). The proposed method allows for the chemical exchange weight to be better emphasized in the transient-state CEST signal, which is beneficial, in practice, for quantifying the CEST signal. Magn Reson Med 78:1711-1723, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. What implementation interventions increase cancer screening rates? a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lent Barbara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. As part of a larger agenda to create an implementation guideline, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate interventions designed to increase the rate of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer (CRC screening. The interventions considered were: client reminders, client incentives, mass media, small media, group education, one-on-one education, reduction in structural barriers, reduction in out-of-pocket costs, provider assessment and feedback interventions, and provider incentives. Our primary outcome, screening completion, was calculated as the overall median post-intervention absolute percentage point (PP change in completed screening tests. Methods Our first step was to conduct an iterative scoping review in the research area. This yielded three relevant high-quality systematic reviews. Serving as our evidentiary foundation, we conducted a formal update. Randomized controlled trials and cluster randomized controlled trials, published between 2004 and 2010, were searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHinfo. Results The update yielded 66 studies new eligible studies with 74 comparisons. The new studies ranged considerably in quality. Client reminders, small media, and provider audit and feedback appear to be effective interventions to increase the uptake of screening for three cancers. One-on-one education and reduction of structural barriers also appears effective, but their roles with CRC and cervical screening, respectively, are less established. More study is required to assess client incentives, mass media, group education, reduction of out-of-pocket costs, and provider incentive interventions. Conclusion The new evidence generally aligns with the evidence and conclusions from the original systematic

  15. Increasing Stability in the Mix of Exchange-rate Policies.

    OpenAIRE

    Mushin, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an examination of the experience of exchange-rate policy systems since 1996 and a comparison with the experience of 1978 to 1995. Exchange-rate policy has become more stable than it was in the earlier period. In addition, it has become polarized, with almost all countries choosing either a fixed exchange-rate regime (especially in low-GDP countries) or a floating exchange-rate regime (especially in high-GDP countries). Limited-flexibility exchange-rate systems have become unimpo...

  16. Increased diversification rates follow shifts to bisexuality in liverworts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laenen, Benjamin; Machac, Antonin; Gradstein, S Robbert; Shaw, Blanka; Patiño, Jairo; Désamoré, Aurélie; Goffinet, Bernard; Cox, Cymon J; Shaw, A Jonathan; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-05-01

    Shifts in sexual systems are one of the key drivers of species diversification. In contrast to angiosperms, unisexuality prevails in bryophytes. Here, we test the hypotheses that bisexuality evolved from an ancestral unisexual condition and is a key innovation in liverworts. We investigate whether shifts in sexual systems influence diversification using hidden state speciation and extinction analysis (HiSSE). This new method compares the effects of the variable of interest to the best-fitting latent variable, yielding robust and conservative tests. We find that the transitions in sexual systems are significantly biased toward unisexuality, even though bisexuality is coupled with increased diversification. Sexual systems are strongly conserved deep within the liverwort tree but become much more labile toward the present. Bisexuality appears to be a key innovation in liverworts. Its effects on diversification are presumably mediated by the interplay of high fertilization rates, massive spore production and long-distance dispersal, which may separately or together have facilitated liverwort speciation, suppressed their extinction, or both. Importantly, shifts in liverwort sexual systems have the opposite effect when compared to angiosperms, leading to contrasting diversification patterns between the two groups. The high prevalence of unisexuality among liverworts suggests, however, a strong selection for sexual dimorphism. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. The change of longitudinal relaxation rate in oxygen enhanced pulmonary MRI depends on age and BMI but not diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide in healthy never-smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Sven Ivan Kindvall

    Full Text Available Oxygen enhanced pulmonary MRI is a promising modality for functional lung studies and has been applied to a wide range of pulmonary conditions. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oxygen enhancement effect in the lungs of healthy, never-smokers, in light of a previously established relationship between oxygen enhancement and diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide in the lung (DL,CO in patients with lung disease.In 30 healthy never-smoking volunteers, an inversion recovery with gradient echo read-out (Snapshot-FLASH was used to quantify the difference in longitudinal relaxation rate, while breathing air and 100% oxygen, ΔR1, at 1.5 Tesla. Measurements were performed under multiple tidal inspiration breath-holds.In single parameter linear models, ΔR1 exhibit a significant correlation with age (p = 0.003 and BMI (p = 0.0004, but not DL,CO (p = 0.33. Stepwise linear regression of ΔR1 yields an optimized model including an age-BMI interaction term.In this healthy, never-smoking cohort, age and BMI are both predictors of the change in MRI longitudinal relaxation rate when breathing oxygen. However, DL,CO does not show a significant correlation with the oxygen enhancement. This is possibly because oxygen transfer in the lung is not diffusion limited at rest in healthy individuals. This work stresses the importance of using a physiological model to understand results from oxygen enhanced MRI.

  18. Density-dependent lines of one- and two-electron ions in diagnostics of laboratory plasma. I. The rates of collision relaxation of excited levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevelko, V P; Skobelev, I Yu; Vinogradov, A V [Lebedev Physical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, USSR

    1977-01-01

    Plasma devices with inertial plasma confinement such as laser produced plasmas, exploding wires, plasma focus, etc., which have been rapidly developed during recent years., appear to be very intensive sources of spectral line radiation in far UV and X-ray regions. Analysis of this radiation provides a good tool for plasma diagnostics with very high electron densities up to 10/sup 22/cm/sup -3/. In this work, consisting of two parts, the authors consider the mechanism of the formation of spectral lines in hot and dense plasma. The key point for density diagnostics is the fact that for some ion levels the rate of collisional relaxation has the same order of magnitude as the radiative decay. Thus the intensities of spectral lines arising from these levels show a strong dependence on electron density which makes diagnostics possible. In this paper, emphasis is laid on the calculation of rates of transition between close ion levels induced by electron or ion impact, which usually gives the main contribution to the collisional relaxation constants. The influence of plasma polarization effects on the collision frequency in a dense plasma is also considered.

  19. Relaxation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Environ Corporation's relaxation system is built around a body lounge, a kind of super easy chair that incorporates sensory devices. Computer controlled enclosure provides filtered ionized air to create a feeling of invigoration, enhanced by mood changing aromas. Occupant is also surrounded by multidimensional audio and the lighting is programmed to change colors, patterns, and intensity periodically. These and other sensory stimulators are designed to provide an environment in which the learning process is stimulated, because research has proven that while an individual is in a deep state of relaxation, the mind is more receptive to new information.

  20. Binding proteins enhance specific uptake rate by increasing the substrate-transporter encounter rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosdriesz, Evert; Magnúsdóttir, Stefanía; Bruggeman, Frank J; Teusink, Bas; Molenaar, Douwe

    2015-06-01

    Microorganisms rely on binding-protein assisted, active transport systems to scavenge for scarce nutrients. Several advantages of using binding proteins in such uptake systems have been proposed. However, a systematic, rigorous and quantitative analysis of the function of binding proteins is lacking. By combining knowledge of selection pressure and physiochemical constraints, we derive kinetic, thermodynamic, and stoichiometric properties of binding-protein dependent transport systems that enable a maximal import activity per amount of transporter. Under the hypothesis that this maximal specific activity of the transport complex is the selection objective, binding protein concentrations should exceed the concentration of both the scarce nutrient and the transporter. This increases the encounter rate of transporter with loaded binding protein at low substrate concentrations, thereby enhancing the affinity and specific uptake rate. These predictions are experimentally testable, and a number of observations confirm them. © 2015 FEBS.

  1. Reduced Mutation Rate and Increased Transformability of Transposon-Free Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1-ISx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Gabriel A; Renda, Brian A; Dasgupta, Aurko; Barrick, Jeffrey E

    2017-09-01

    The genomes of most bacteria contain mobile DNA elements that can contribute to undesirable genetic instability in engineered cells. In particular, transposable insertion sequence (IS) elements can rapidly inactivate genes that are important for a designed function. We deleted all six copies of IS 1236 from the genome of the naturally transformable bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. The natural competence of ADP1 made it possible to rapidly repair deleterious point mutations that arose during strain construction. In the resulting ADP1-ISx strain, the rates of mutations inactivating a reporter gene were reduced by 7- to 21-fold. This reduction was higher than expected from the incidence of new IS 1236 insertions found during a 300-day mutation accumulation experiment with wild-type ADP1 that was used to estimate spontaneous mutation rates in the strain. The extra improvement appears to be due in part to eliminating large deletions caused by IS 1236 activity, as the point mutation rate was unchanged in ADP1-ISx. Deletion of an error-prone polymerase ( dinP ) and a DNA damage response regulator ( umuD Ab [the umuD gene of A. baylyi ]) from the ADP1-ISx genome did not further reduce mutation rates. Surprisingly, ADP1-ISx exhibited increased transformability. This improvement may be due to less autolysis and aggregation of the engineered cells than of the wild type. Thus, deleting IS elements from the ADP1 genome led to a greater than expected increase in evolutionary reliability and unexpectedly enhanced other key strain properties, as has been observed for other clean-genome bacterial strains. ADP1-ISx is an improved chassis for metabolic engineering and other applications. IMPORTANCE Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 has been proposed as a next-generation bacterial host for synthetic biology and genome engineering due to its ability to efficiently take up DNA from its environment during normal growth. We deleted transposable elements that are capable of copying themselves

  2. 76 FR 50703 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... under Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California... marketing year. The proposed assessment rate would continue in effect indefinitely unless modified..., August 16, 2011 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; [[Page 50703

  3. Effect of carrier relaxation lifetime on the performance of InAs/InP quantum-dash lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2011-12-01

    The effect of carrier relaxation process into the quantum dash (Qdash) ground state (GS) is examined theoretically by carrier-photon rate equation model incorporating the inhomogeneous broadening. Increase in the relaxation time and the inhomogeneous broadening degrades the threshold current density. Moreover, our results show that a relaxation time of less than 2 ps gives optimum laser performance. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. Optimal rate of power increase in nuclear fuel. Pellet behaviour under dynamic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, B.G.

    1976-05-01

    A mathematical model has been worked out for the determination of the optium power escalation rate for nuclear power plants from the view-pint of fuel integrity. The model calculates the stress and strain transients in the pellet-cladding system with rapid power increase. No burnup effects are included due to the short time scale involved. An elastic solution has been transposed to a linear viscoelastic one using the correspondence principle. The cladding has however been treated under the programme assumptions as purely elastic. The fuel material has been assumed to be completely relaxed prior to the power transient. Radial cracking is included. The UO 2 -material distortion has been assumed to be linear viscoelastic, while the dilation is assumed as elastic. The system has been treated assuming plane strain since friction between the pellet and the cladding is large with practical burnsups, and the pellet column can be regarded as infinitely long, compared to the diameter of the pellet. The results of the calculations made show that under the above assumptions the clad stress is independent of the rate of power increase in the pellet. Scince this result is in opposition to general opinion an experimental programme was performed in order to test the results of the model. These results were confirmed. The occurance of clad failures in practice is not determined purely by clad straining. Current thought pays attention to the influence of e.g. stress-corrosion phenomena as significant. The programme reported here pays no attention such-like effects, or the effects of clad creep which could be of considerable significance with local deformations. These later effects are receiving attention in work now being initiated at the Department.(author)

  5. Fetal responses to induced maternal relaxation during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Nelson, Priscilla; Gurewitsch, Edith D.; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2007-01-01

    Fetal responses to induced maternal relaxation during the 32nd week of pregnancy were recorded in 100 maternal-fetal pairs using a digitized data collection system. The 18-minute guided imagery relaxation manipulation generated significant changes in maternal heart rate, skin conductance, respiration period, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Significant alterations in fetal neurobehavior were observed, including decreased fetal heart rate (FHR), increased FHR variability, suppression of fetal...

  6. Local NMR relaxation rates T1-1 and T2-1 depending on the d -vector symmetry in the vortex state of chiral and helical p -wave superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenta K.; Ichioka, Masanori; Onari, Seiichiro

    2018-04-01

    Local NMR relaxation rates in the vortex state of chiral and helical p -wave superconductors are investigated by the quasiclassical Eilenberger theory. We calculate the spatial and resonance frequency dependences of the local NMR spin-lattice relaxation rate T1-1 and spin-spin relaxation rate T2-1. Depending on the relation between the NMR relaxation direction and the d -vector symmetry, the local T1-1 and T2-1 in the vortex core region show different behaviors. When the NMR relaxation direction is parallel to the d -vector component, the local NMR relaxation rate is anomalously suppressed by the negative coherence effect due to the spin dependence of the odd-frequency s -wave spin-triplet Cooper pairs. The difference between the local T1-1 and T2-1 in the site-selective NMR measurement is expected to be a method to examine the d -vector symmetry of candidate materials for spin-triplet superconductors.

  7. Synthetic aperture design for increased SAR image rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielek, Timothy P [Albuquerque, NM; Thompson, Douglas G [Albuqerque, NM; Walker, Bruce C [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-03-03

    High resolution SAR images of a target scene at near video rates can be produced by using overlapped, but nevertheless, full-size synthetic apertures. The SAR images, which respectively correspond to the apertures, can be analyzed in sequence to permit detection of movement in the target scene.

  8. Strategies to Increase Enrollment, Retention, and Graduation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, Patricia Y.

    2012-01-01

    Student retention in postsecondary institutions continues to be a vexing problem, as graduation rates have continued to decline over the last decade. To be a competitive force in the global economy, it is crucial to keep students in school. This research uses a conceptual data model to introduce academic leaders' (N = 104) perspectives to increase…

  9. Molecular substitution rate increases with latitude in butterflies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schär, Sämi; Vila, Roger; Petrović, Andjeljko

    2017-01-01

    of five lycaenid butterfly species with varied ecological adaptations, sampled across a latitudinal gradient in the Holarctic region. We found a positive correlation between latitude and substitution rate of mitochondrial DNA sequences in all species investigated. We propose that this result is the signal...

  10. Use of cellular phone contacts to increase return rates for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: in Kenya, failure to complete immunization schedules by children who previously accessed immunization services is an obstacle to ensuring that children are fully immunized. Home visit approaches used to track defaulting children have not been successful in reducing the dropout rate. Methods: This study ...

  11. 78 FR 77327 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... reviewed under Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect... the marketing year. The assessment rate established in this rule will continue in effect indefinitely... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-13-0056...

  12. Measurement of sample temperatures under magic-angle spinning from the chemical shift and spin-lattice relaxation rate of 79Br in KBr powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Accurate determination of sample temperatures in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with magic-angle spinning (MAS) can be problematic, particularly because frictional heating and heating by radio-frequency irradiation can make the internal sample temperature significantly different from the temperature outside the MAS rotor. This paper demonstrates the use of (79)Br chemical shifts and spin-lattice relaxation rates in KBr powder as temperature-dependent parameters for the determination of internal sample temperatures. Advantages of this method include high signal-to-noise, proximity of the (79)Br NMR frequency to that of (13)C, applicability from 20 K to 320 K or higher, and simultaneity with adjustment of the MAS axis direction. We show that spin-lattice relaxation in KBr is driven by a quadrupolar mechanism. We demonstrate a simple approach to including KBr powder in hydrated samples, such as biological membrane samples, hydrated amyloid fibrils, and hydrated microcrystalline proteins, that allows direct assessment of the effects of frictional and radio-frequency heating under experimentally relevant conditions.

  13. Increase in salivary oxytocin and decrease in salivary cortisol after listening to relaxing slow-tempo and exciting fast-tempo music

    OpenAIRE

    Ooishi, Yuuki; Mukai, Hideo; Watanabe, Ken; Kawato, Suguru; Kashino, Makio

    2017-01-01

    Relaxation and excitation are components of the effects of music listening. The tempo of music is often considered a critical factor when determining these effects: listening to slow-tempo and fast-tempo music elicits relaxation and excitation, respectively. However, the chemical bases that underlie these relaxation and excitation effects remain unclear. Since parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activities are facilitated by oxytocin and glucocorticoid, respectively, we hypothesized that li...

  14. Increased heart rate variability but normal resting metabolic rate in hypocretin/orexin-deficient human narcolepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fronczek, R.; Overeem, S.; Reijntjes, R.; Lammers, G.J.; Dijk, J.G.M.; Pijl, H.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: We investigated autonomic balance and resting metabolic rate to explore their possible involvement in obesity in hypocretin/orexin-deficient narcoleptic subjects. METHODS: Resting metabolic rate (using indirect calorimetry) and variability in heart rate and blood pressure were

  15. Leftward lighting in advertisements increases advertisement ratings and purchase intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Jennifer; Thomas, Nicole A; Elias, Lorin

    2011-07-01

    It has been reliably shown that light is assumed to come from above. There is also some suggestion that light from the left might be preferred. Leftward lighting biases have been observed across various mediums such as paintings, portraits, photographs, and advertisements. As advertisements are used to persuade the public to purchase products, it was of interest to better understand whether leftward lighting would influence future intention to purchase. Participants gave preference ratings for pairs of advertisements with opposing lighting directions. Attitude towards the advertisement and the brand as well as future purchase intention was then rated. Overall, participants indicated that they preferred advertisements with leftward lighting and were more likely to purchase these products in the future than when the same products were lit from the right. Findings are consistent with previously observed leftward lighting biases and suggest that advertisements with a leftward lighting bias might be more effective.

  16. [Performance based regulation: a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo-Armijo, Fernanda; Charvel, Sofía; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    The decreasing breastfeeding rate in México is of public health concern. In this paper we discus an innovative regulatory approach -Performance Based Regulation- and its application to improve breastfeeding rates. This approach, forces industry to take responsibility for the lack of breastfeeding and its consequences. Failure to comply with this targets results in financial penalties. Applying performance based regulation as a strategy to improve breastfeeding is feasible because: the breastmilk substitutes market is an oligopoly, hence it is easy to identify the contribution of each market participant; the regulation's target population is clearly defined; it has a clear regulatory standard which can be easily evaluated, and sanctions to infringement can be defined under objective parameters. modify public policy, celebrate concertation agreements with the industry, create persuasive sanctions, strengthen enforcement activities and coordinate every action with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.

  17. Performance based regulation: a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cobo-Armijo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The decreasing breastfeeding rate in México is of public health concern. In this paper we discus an innovative regulatory ap­proach -Performance Based Regulation- and its application to improve breastfeeding rates. This approach, forces industry to take responsibility for the lack of breastfeeding and its consequences. Failure to comply with this targets results in financial penalties. Applying performance based regulation as a strategy to improve breastfeeding is feasible because: the breastmilk substitutes market is an oligopoly, hence it is easy to identify the contribution of each market participant; the regulation’s target population is clearly defined; it has a clear regulatory standard which can be easily evaluated, and sanctions to infringement can be defined under objective parameters. Recommendations: modify public policy, celebrate concertation agreements with the industry, create persuasive sanctions, strengthen enforcement activities and coordinate every action with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.

  18. Music increases alcohol consumption rate in young females

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, Lorenzo D.; Dodd, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Previous field research has shown that individuals consumed more alcohol and at a faster rate in environments paired with loud music. Theoretically, this effect has been linked to approach/avoidance accounts of how music influences arousal and mood, but no work has tested this experimentally. In the present study, female participants (n = 45) consumed an alcoholic (4% alcohol-by-volume) beverage in one of three contexts: slow tempo music, fast tempo music, or a no-music control. Results revea...

  19. Assessing Metabolic Syndrome Through Increased Heart Rate During Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess changes in resting and maximum heart rates as primary indicators of cardiac autonomic function in metabolic syndrome (MetS patients and to determine their value for discriminating MetS from non-MetS. 468 participants were enrolled in this cross-sectional study and assessed according to the updated adult treatment panel III (ATP-III definition of MetS. Resting and maximum heart rates were recorded following the Bruce protocol during an exercise. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to identify the best cutoff point for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state. 194 participants (41.5% were diagnosed as MetS. The mean resting heart rate (RHR was not statistically different between the two groups (P=0.078. However, the mean maximum heart (MHR rate was considerably higher in participants with MetS (142.37±14.84 beats per min compared to the non-MetS group (134.62±21.63 beats per min (P<0.001. In the MetS group, the MHR was positively correlated with the serum triglyceride level (β=0.185, P=0.033 and was inversely associated with age (β=-0.469, P<0.001. The MHR had a moderate value for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state (c=0.580, P=0.004 with the optimal cutoff point of 140 beats per min. In MetS patients, the MHR was significantly greater compared to non-MetS subjects and was directly correlated with serum triglyceride levels and inversely with advanced age. Moreover, MHR can be used as a suspicious indicator for identifying MetS.

  20. Assessing Metabolic Syndrome Through Increased Heart Rate During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Gharipour, Mojgan; Nezafati, Pouya; Shafie, Davood; Aghababaei, Esmaeil; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to assess changes in resting and maximum heart rates as primary indicators of cardiac autonomic function in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients and to determine their value for discriminating MetS from non-MetS. 468 participants were enrolled in this cross-sectional study and assessed according to the updated adult treatment panel III (ATP-III) definition of MetS. Resting and maximum heart rates were recorded following the Bruce protocol during an exercise. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify the best cutoff point for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state. 194 participants (41.5%) were diagnosed as MetS. The mean resting heart rate (RHR) was not statistically different between the two groups (P=0.078). However, the mean maximum heart (MHR) rate was considerably higher in participants with MetS (142.37±14.84 beats per min) compared to the non-MetS group (134.62±21.63 beats per min) (P<0.001). In the MetS group, the MHR was positively correlated with the serum triglyceride level (β=0.185, P=0.033) and was inversely associated with age (β=-0.469, P<0.001). The MHR had a moderate value for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state (c=0.580, P=0.004) with the optimal cutoff point of 140 beats per min. In MetS patients, the MHR was significantly greater compared to non-MetS subjects and was directly correlated with serum triglyceride levels and inversely with advanced age. Moreover, MHR can be used as a suspicious indicator for identifying MetS.

  1. Increased diversification rates follow shifts to bisexuality in liverworts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laenen, Benjamin; Machac, Antonin; Gradstein, S. Robbert

    2016-01-01

    on diversification are presumably mediated by the interplay of high fertilization rates, massive spore production and long-distance dispersal, which may separately or together have facilitated liverwort speciation, suppressed their extinction, or both. Importantly, shifts in liverwort sexual systems have...... shifts in sexual systems influence diversification using hidden state speciation and extinction analysis (HiSSE). This new method compares the effects of the variable of interest to the best-fitting latent variable, yielding robust and conservative tests. We find that the transitions in sexual systems...

  2. Estrogen therapy may counterbalance eutrophic remodeling of coronary arteries and increase bradykinin relaxation in a rat model of menopausal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrai, Mate; Hetthéssy, Judit R; Nadasy, Gyorgy L; Szekacs, Bela; Mericli, Metin; Acs, Nandor; Monos, Emil; Arbib, Nissim; Varbiro, Szabolcs

    2016-07-01

    Hypertension causes adverse remodeling and vasomotor alterations in coronaries. Hormones such as estrogen may help counterbalance some of these effects. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of ovariectomy and estrogen therapy in a rat model of menopausal hypertension induced by angiotensin II (AII). We investigated diameter, tone, and mechanics of intramural coronaries taken from ovariectomized female rats (n = 11) that received chronic AII treatment to induce hypertension, and compared the results with those found in female rats that were also given estrogen therapy (n = 11). The "hypertensive control" group (n = 11) underwent an abdominal sham operation, and received AII. After 4 weeks of AII treatment, side branches of left anterior descendent coronary (approximately 200 μm in diameter) were isolated, cannulated with plastic microcannulas at both ends, and studied in vitro in a vessel chamber. The inner and outer diameter of the arteries were measured by microangiometry, and spontenuous tone, wall thickness, wall cross-sectional area, tangential stress, incremental distensibility, circumferential incremental elastic modulus, thromboxane agonist-induced tone, and bradykinin-induced dilation were calculated. In hypertension, intramural small coronaries show inward eutrophic remodeling after ovariectomy comparing with hypertensive controls. Estrogen therapy had an opposite effect on vessel diameter. Hormone therapy led to an increase in spontaneous tone, allowing for greater dilatative capacity. Estrogen may therefore be considered to counterbalance some of the adverse changes seen in the wall of intramural coronaries in the early stages of chronic hypertension.

  3. Measurement of the Relaxation Rate of the Magnetization in Mn{sub 12}O{sub 12} -Acetate Using Proton NMR Echo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Z. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Lascialfari, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' A. Volta' ' e Unita' , INFM di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia, (Italy); Borsa, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' A. Volta' ' e Unita' , INFM di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia, (Italy); Gatteschi, D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via Maragliano 77, 50144 Firenze, (Italy)

    2000-03-27

    We present a novel method to measure the relaxation rate W of the magnetization of Mn{sub 12}O {sub 12} -acetate (Mn12) magnetic molecular cluster in its S=10 ground state at low T . It is based on the observation of an exponential growth in time of the proton NMR signal during the thermal equilibration of the magnetization of the molecules. We can explain the novel effect with a simple model which relates the intensity of the proton echo signal to the microscopic reversal of the magnetization of each individual Mn12 molecule during the equilibration process. The method should find wide application in the study of magnetic molecular clusters in off-equilibrium conditions. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  4. pH-Dependent Regulation of the Relaxation Rate of the Radical Anion of the Secondary Quinone Electron Acceptor QB in Photosystem II As Revealed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Yosuke; Noguchi, Takumi

    2018-05-15

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a protein complex that performs water oxidation using light energy during photosynthesis. In PSII, electrons abstracted from water are eventually transferred to the secondary quinone electron acceptor, Q B , and upon double reduction, Q B is converted to quinol by binding two protons. Thus, excess electron transfer in PSII increases the pH of the stroma. In this study, to investigate the pH-dependent regulation of the electron flow in PSII, we have estimated the relaxation rate of the Q B - radical anion in the pH region between 5 and 8 by direct monitoring of its population using light-induced Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy. The decay of Q B - by charge recombination with the S 2 state of the water oxidation center in PSII membranes was shown to be accelerated at higher pH, whereas that of Q A - examined in the presence of a herbicide was virtually unaffected at pH ≤7.5 and slightly slowed at pH 8. These observations were consistent with the previous studies that included rather indirect monitoring of the Q B - and Q A - decays using fluorescence detection. The accelerated relaxation of Q B - was explained by the shift of a redox equilibrium between Q A - and Q B - to the Q A - side due to the decrease in the redox potential of Q B at higher pH, which is induced by deprotonation of a single amino acid residue near Q B . It is proposed that this pH-dependent Q B - relaxation is one of the mechanisms of electron flow regulation in PSII for its photoprotection.

  5. Strategic Service Analysis Pusako Hotel to Increase Occupancy Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Tyas, Anggi Fitrining; Wibowo, Satya Aditya

    2013-01-01

    The tourism industry is the fourth largest foreign exchange earner for Indonesia after oil and gas, palm oil, rubber and processed in 2011. This industry is expected to continue to grow and expand in Indonesia in line with government programs to take advantage of all the potential of tourism in Indonesia. West Sumatra, especially the Bukittinggi is one of the favorite tourist destinations in Indonesia also felt the positive effects of tourism development in Indonesia, namely the increasing nu...

  6. Peak heart rate decreases with increasing severity of acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Araoz, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2001-01-01

    , 459, and 404 mmHg) in a hypobaric chamber and while breathing 9% O(2) in N(2). These conditions were equivalent to altitudes of 3300, 4300, 5300, and 6300 m above sea level, respectively. At 4300 m, maximal exercise was also repeated after 4 and 8 h. Peak heart rate (HR) decreased from 191 (182......-202) (mean and range) at sea level to 189 (179-200), 182 (172-189), 175 (166-183), and 165 (162-169) in the acute hypoxic conditions. Peak HR did not decrease further after 4 and 8 h at 4300 m compared to the acute exposure at this altitude. Between barometric pressures of 518 and 355 mmHg (approximately...... 3300 and 6300 m), peak HR decreased linearly: peak HR(hypobaria) = peak HR(sea level) - 0.135 x [hypobaria(3100) - hypobaria (mmHg)]; or peak HR(altitude) = peak HR(sea level) - 0.15 x (altitude - 3100 m). This corresponds to approximately 1-beat x min(-1) reduction in peak HR for every 7-mmHg decrease...

  7. Nonlocal and collective relaxation in stellar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Martin D.

    1993-01-01

    The modal response of stellar systems to fluctuations at large scales is presently investigated by means of analytic theory and n-body simulation; the stochastic excitation of these modes is shown to increase the relaxation rate even for a system which is moderately far from instability. The n-body simulations, when designed to suppress relaxation at small scales, clearly show the effects of large-scale fluctuations. It is predicted that large-scale fluctuations will be largest for such marginally bound systems as forming star clusters and associations.

  8. Mechanism of nuclear cross-relaxation in magnetically ordered media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buishvili, L L; Volzhan, E B; Giorgadze, N P [AN Gruzinskoj SSR, Tbilisi. Inst. Fiziki

    1975-09-01

    A mechanism of two-step nuclear relaxation in magnetic ordered dielectrics is proposed. The case is considered where the energy conservation in the cross relaxation (CR) process is ensured by the lattice itself without spin-spin interactions. Expressions have been obtained describing the temperature dependence of the CR rate. For a nonuniform broadened NMR line it has been shown that the spin-lattice relaxation time for a spin packet taken out from the equilibrium may be determined by the CR time owing to the mechanism suggested. When the quantization axes for electron and nuclear spins coincide, the spin-lattice relaxation is due to the three-magnon mechanism. The cross-relaxation stage has been shown to play a significant role in the range of low temperatures (T<10 deg K) and to become negligible with a temperature increase.

  9. Plasmon-mediated energy relaxation in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, D. K. [School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-5706 (United States); Somphonsane, R. [Department of Physics, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology, Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Ramamoorthy, H.; Bird, J. P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, the State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14260-1500 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    Energy relaxation of hot carriers in graphene is studied at low temperatures, where the loss rate may differ significantly from that predicted for electron-phonon interactions. We show here that plasmons, important in the relaxation of energetic carriers in bulk semiconductors, can also provide a pathway for energy relaxation in transport experiments in graphene. We obtain a total loss rate to plasmons that results in energy relaxation times whose dependence on temperature and density closely matches that found experimentally.

  10. Relaxed damage threshold intensity conditions and nonlinear increase in the conversion efficiency of an optical parametric oscillator using a bi-directional pump geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, G; McConnell, G

    2010-03-01

    A novel bi-directional pump geometry that nonlinearly increases the nonlinear optical conversion efficiency of a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is reported. This bi-directional pumping method synchronizes the circulating signal pulse with two counter-propagating pump pulses within a linear OPO resonator. Through this pump scheme, an increase in nonlinear optical conversion efficiency of 22% was achieved at the signal wavelength, corresponding to a 95% overall increase in average power. Given an almost unchanged measured pulse duration of 260 fs under optimal performance conditions, this related to a signal wavelength peak power output of 18.8 kW, compared with 10 kW using the traditional single-pass geometry. In this study, a total effective peak intensity pump-field of 7.11 GW/cm(2) (corresponding to 3.55 GW/cm(2) from each pump beam) was applied to a 3 mm long periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, which had a damage threshold intensity of 4 GW/cm(2), without impairing crystal integrity. We therefore prove the application of this novel pump geometry provides opportunities for power-scaling of synchronously pumped OPO systems together with enhanced nonlinear conversion efficiency through relaxed damage threshold intensity conditions.

  11. New N2(C 3Πu, v) collision quenching and vibrational relaxation rate constants: 2. PG emission diagnostics of high-pressure discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilecce, G; Ambrico, P F; De Benedictis, S

    2007-01-01

    The present paper deals with the determination of discharge parameters using N 2 (C 3 Π u , v) populations deduced from 2.PG emission spectra, focusing on the influence of N 2 (C 3 Π u , v) collision rate coefficients on these determinations. In particular it is shown that the new set of quenching and vibrational relaxation rate coefficients of N 2 (C 3 Π u , v 0-4) vibronic levels recently measured by optical-optical double resonance laser induced fluorescence (LIF) have a large effect on discharge parameter determination in high-pressure discharges. In the present paper we explore this effect, evidencing the differences with respect to the old data set case, in both simulated and real cases of N 2 (C 3 Π u , v) vibrational distributions measured at high pressure in a dielectric barrier discharge. Finally we point out the improved potentiality of 2.PG spectroscopy as a diagnostic technique: with the new rate coefficients, and measurement of the N 2 (C 3 Π u , v) distribution up to at least v = 3, it is possible to have a quasi-independent evaluation of the electron temperature and of the first level vibrational temperature of the N 2 ground state

  12. Vibrational relaxation in OCS mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, C.J.S.M.; Gait, P.D.; Simmie, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental measurements are reported of vibrational relaxation times which may be used to show whether there is near resonant vibration-rotation energy transfer between OCS and H 2 , D 2 or HD. Vibrational relaxation times have been measured in OCS and OCS mixtures over the temperature range 360 to 1000 K using a shock tube and a laser schlieren system. The effectiveness of the additives in reducing the relaxation time of OCS is in the order 4 He 3 He 2 2 and HD. Along this series the effect of an increase in temperature changes from the case of speeding up the rate with 4 He to retarding it with D 2 , HD and H 2 . There is no measurable difference in the effectiveness of n-D 2 and o-D 2 and little, or no, difference between n-H 2 and p-H 2 . Thus the experimental results do not give clear evidence for rotational-vibration energy transfer between hydrogen and OCS. This contrasts with the situation for CO 2 + H 2 mixtures. (author)

  13. Increasing vaginal progesterone gel supplementation after frozen-thawed embryo transfer significantly increases the delivery rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsbjerg, Birgit; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Elbaek, Helle Olesen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive outcome in patients receiving frozen-thawed embryo transfer before and after doubling of the vaginal progesterone gel supplementation. The study was a retrospective study performed in The Fertility Clinic, Skive Regional Hospital, Denmark....... A total of 346 infertility patients with oligoamenorrhoea undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer after priming with oestradiol and vaginal progesterone gel were included. The vaginal progesterone dose was changed from 90mg (Crinone) once a day to twice a day and the reproductive outcome during the two...... rate (8.7% versus 20.5%, respectively; P=0.002). Doubling of the vaginal progesterone gel supplementation during frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles decreased the early pregnancy loss rate, resulting in a significantly higher delivery rate. This study evaluated the reproductive outcome of 346 women...

  14. Increased metabolic turnover rate and transcapillary escape rate of albumin in long-term juvenile diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Rossing, N; Sander, E

    1975-01-01

    The metabolic turnover rate and transcapillary escape rate of albumin were studied with 131I-labelled human albumin in nine patients with long-term diabetes mellitus. Retinopathy was present in all patients and nephropathy in four. Plasma albumin concentration and plasma volume were reduced (P...

  15. 129 Xe NMR Relaxation-Based Macromolecular Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Muller D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Dao, Phuong [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Jeong, Keunhong [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Slack, Clancy C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Vassiliou, Christophoros C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Finbloom, Joel A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Francis, Matthew B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Wemmer, David E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Physical Biosciences Division; Pines, Alexander [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-07-29

    A 129Xe NMR relaxation-based sensing approach is reported on that exploits changes in the bulk xenon relaxation rate induced by slowed tumbling of a cryptophane-based sensor upon target binding. The amplification afforded by detection of the bulk dissolved xenon allows sensitive detection of targets. The sensor comprises a xenon-binding cryptophane cage, a target interaction element, and a metal chelating agent. Xenon associated with the target-bound cryptophane cage is rapidly relaxed and then detected after exchange with the bulk. Here we show that large macromolecular targets increase the rotational correlation time of xenon, increasing its relaxation rate. Upon binding of a biotin-containing sensor to avidin at 1.5 μM concentration, the free xenon T2 is reduced by a factor of 4.

  16. On the relaxation rate distribution of the photoionized DX centers in indium doped Cd1-xMnxTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trzmiel, J; Placzek-Popko, E; Gumienny, Z; Weron, K; Becla, P

    2009-01-01

    It was recently shown that the kinetics of persistent photoconductivity (PPC) build-up in indium doped Cd 1-x Mn x Te are non-exponential and can be described solely by the stretched-exponential function. The non-exponentiality is attributed to the indium related DX centers present in the materials. In order to explain this observation, low temperature photoconductivity build-up was studied for Cd 1-x Mn x Te:In of two different manganese contents. It was found that this type of response has its origin in the heavy-tailed distribution of the DX centers. The distribution was analyzed in terms of photon flux. Increasing photon flux leads to the more dispersive behavior. It was also confirmed that the heavy-tailed distribution is due to the different local configuration of atoms surrounding DX centers in the alloy.

  17. Properties of the manganese(II) binding site in ternary complexes of Mnter dot ADP and Mnter dot ATP with chloroplast coupling factor 1: Magnetic field dependence of solvent sup 1 H and sup 2 H NMR relaxation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddy, A.E.; Frasch, W.D.; Sharp, R.R. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1989-05-02

    The influence of the binding of ADP and ATP on the high-affinity Mn(II) binding site of chloroplast coupling factor 1 (CF{sub 1}) was studied by analysis of field-dependent solvent proton and deuteron spin-lattice relaxation data. In order to characterize metal-nucleotide complexes of CF{sub 1} under conditions similar to those of the NMR experiments, the enzyme was analyzed for bound nucleotides and Mn(II) after incubation with AdN and MnCl{sub 2} and removal of labile ligands by extensive gel filtration chromatography. In the field-dependent NMR experiments, the Mn(II) binding site of CF{sub 1} was studied for three mole ratios of added Mn(II) to CF{sub 1}, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5, in the presence of an excess of either ADP or ATP. The results were extrapolated to zero Mn(II) concentration to characterize the environment of the first Mn(II) binding site of Cf{sub 1}. In the presence of both adenine nucleotides, pronounced changes in the Mn(II) environment relative to that in Mn(II)-CF{sub 1} were evident; the local relaxation rate maxima were more pronounced and shifted to higher field strengths, and the relaxation rate per bound Mn(II) increased at all field strengths. Analysis of the data revealed that the number of exchangeable water molecules liganded to bound Mn(II) increased from one in the binary Mn(II)-CF{sub 1} complex to three and two in the ternary Mn(II)-ADP-CF{sub 1} and Mn(II)-ATP-CF{sub 1} complexes, respectively; these results suggest that a water ligand to bound Mn(II) in the Mn(II)-ADP-CF{sub 1} complex is replaced by the {gamma}-phosphate of ATP in the Mn(II)-ATP-CF{sub 1} complex. A binding model is presented to account for these observations.

  18. Communication: Relaxation-limited electronic currents in extended reservoir simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruss, Daniel; Smolyanitsky, Alex; Zwolak, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Open-system approaches are gaining traction in the simulation of charge transport in nanoscale and molecular electronic devices. In particular, "extended reservoir" simulations, where explicit reservoir degrees of freedom are present, allow for the computation of both real-time and steady-state properties but require relaxation of the extended reservoirs. The strength of this relaxation, γ, influences the conductance, giving rise to a "turnover" behavior analogous to Kramers turnover in chemical reaction rates. We derive explicit, general expressions for the weak and strong relaxation limits. For weak relaxation, the conductance increases linearly with γ and every electronic state of the total explicit system contributes to the electronic current according to its "reduced" weight in the two extended reservoir regions. Essentially, this represents two conductors in series—one at each interface with the implicit reservoirs that provide the relaxation. For strong relaxation, a "dual" expression-one with the same functional form-results, except now proportional to 1/γ and dependent on the system of interest's electronic states, reflecting that the strong relaxation is localizing electrons in the extended reservoirs. Higher order behavior (e.g., γ2 or 1/γ2) can occur when there is a gap in the frequency spectrum. Moreover, inhomogeneity in the frequency spacing can give rise to a pseudo-plateau regime. These findings yield a physically motivated approach to diagnosing numerical simulations and understanding the influence of relaxation, and we examine their occurrence in both simple models and a realistic, fluctuating graphene nanoribbon.

  19. ANALYSIS OF MEASURES FOR INCREASING THE RATING OF UNIVERSITY IN INTERNATIONAL RATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.П. Харченко

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The principles of forming the world's most popular international Internet-ranking of universities are considered. The principles of forming the international rating of electronic resources known as Webometrics, which results are defined by summing four values based on quantity of unique external links to the site page and by the quantity of “valuable” files placed on website are represented.  Мost Internet ratings make slope on the  Web activity of the university and its researchers, therefore the participation of entire staff at university is required

  20. Progress toward Increasing National and State Graduation Rates. Raising Graduation Rates: A Series of Data Briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Robert; West, Thomas C.

    2006-01-01

    This is the first in a series of briefs examining the progress in raising high school graduation rates over the past decade. During this period, the prevailing belief has been that all students who wanted to or needed to graduate did so. However, it is now recognized that in every state there are too many communities and schools where high school…

  1. Effect of high pressure on the relaxation dynamics of glass-forming liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, M; Grzybowska, K; Grzybowski, A [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, ulica Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2007-05-23

    A glass is usually formed by cooling a liquid at a rate sufficient to avoid crystallization. In the vicinity of the glass transition the structural relaxation time increases with lowering temperature in a non-Arrhenius fashion and the structural relaxation function reveals a non-Debye behaviour. However, liquid can be also vitrified by keeping it at a constant temperature and increasing the pressure. This pressure-induced transition to the glassy state is also accompanied by dramatic changes in the relaxation dynamics. Herein we discuss the behaviour of the structural relaxation times of glass-forming liquids and polymer melts under high pressure.

  2. Effect of high pressure on the relaxation dynamics of glass-forming liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paluch, M; Grzybowska, K; Grzybowski, A

    2007-01-01

    A glass is usually formed by cooling a liquid at a rate sufficient to avoid crystallization. In the vicinity of the glass transition the structural relaxation time increases with lowering temperature in a non-Arrhenius fashion and the structural relaxation function reveals a non-Debye behaviour. However, liquid can be also vitrified by keeping it at a constant temperature and increasing the pressure. This pressure-induced transition to the glassy state is also accompanied by dramatic changes in the relaxation dynamics. Herein we discuss the behaviour of the structural relaxation times of glass-forming liquids and polymer melts under high pressure

  3. Relaxation of the one child policy and trends in caesarean section rates and birth outcomes in China between 2012 and 2016: observational study of nearly seven million health facility births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Juan; Mu, Yi; Li, Xiaohong; Tang, Wen; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Zheng; Huang, Xiaona; Scherpbier, Robert W; Guo, Sufang; Li, Mingrong; Dai, Li; Deng, Kui; Deng, Changfei; Li, Qi; Kang, Leni; Zhu, Jun; Ronsmans, Carine

    2018-03-05

    To examine how the relaxation of the one child policy and policies to reduce caesarean section rates might have affected trends over time in caesarean section rates and perinatal and pregnancy related mortality in China. Observational study. China's National Maternal Near Miss Surveillance System (NMNMSS). 6 838 582 births at 28 completed weeks or more of gestation or birth weight ≥1000 g in 438 hospitals in the NMNMSS between 2012 and 2016. Obstetric risk was defined using a modified Robson classification. The main outcome measures were changes in parity and age distributions and relative frequency of each Robson group, crude and adjusted trends over time in caesarean section rates within each risk category (using Poisson regression with a robust variance estimator), and trends in perinatal and pregnancy related mortality over time. Caesarean section rates declined steadily between 2012 and 2016 (crude relative risk 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.89 to 0.93), reaching an overall hospital based rate of 41.1% in 2016. The relaxation of the one child policy was associated with an increase in the proportion of multiparous births (from 34.1% in 2012 to 46.7% in 2016), and births in women with a uterine scar nearly doubled (from 9.8% to 17.7% of all births). Taking account of these changes, the decline in caesarean sections was amplified over time (adjusted relative risk 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.84). Caesarean sections declined noticeably in nulliparous women (0.75, 0.73 to 0.77) but also declined in multiparous women without a uterine scar (0.65, 0.62 to 0.77). The decrease in caesarean section rates was most pronounced in hospitals with the highest rates in 2012, consistent with the government's policy of targeting hospitals with the highest rates. Perinatal mortality declined from 10.1 to 7.2 per 1000 births over the same period (0.87, 0.83 to 0.91), and there was no change in pregnancy related mortality over time. China is the only country that

  4. The Intertemporal Substitution and Income Effects of a VAT Rate Increase: Evidence from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    David CASHIN; UNAYAMA Takashi

    2011-01-01

    One of the biggest political issues in Japan is an increase in the rate of value added tax (VAT). In this paper, we evaluate its impact on household expenditure, using Japan's April 1997 VAT rate increase from three to five percent as a case study. A rate increase induces price hikes, and provided this increase in price levels is anticipated, households should engage in intertemporal substitution of purchases. In addition, if households are not compensated for the rate increase, it has the po...

  5. Calorimetric and relaxation properties of xylitol-water mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamin, Khalid; Sjöström, Johan; Jansson, Helén; Swenson, Jan

    2012-03-01

    considerably stronger water (w) relaxation at about the same frequency. However, the similarities in time scale and activation energy between the w-relaxation and the β-relaxation of xylitol at water contents below 13 wt. % suggest that the w-relaxation is governed, in some way, by the β-relaxation of xylitol, since clusters of water molecules are rare at these water concentrations. At higher water concentrations the intensity and relaxation rate of the w-relaxation increase rapidly with increasing water content (up to the concentration where ice starts to form), most likely due to a rapid increase of small water clusters where an increasing number of water molecules interacting with other water molecules.

  6. Increasing Nucleosome Occupancy Is Correlated with an Increasing Mutation Rate so Long as DNA Repair Machinery Is Intact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jared F.; Khattab, Omar S.; Chen, Yu-Han; Chen, Yumay; Jacobsen, Steven E.; Wang, Ping H.

    2015-01-01

    Deciphering the multitude of epigenomic and genomic factors that influence the mutation rate is an area of great interest in modern biology. Recently, chromatin has been shown to play a part in this process. To elucidate this relationship further, we integrated our own ultra-deep sequenced human nucleosomal DNA data set with a host of published human genomic and cancer genomic data sets. Our results revealed, that differences in nucleosome occupancy are associated with changes in base-specific mutation rates. Increasing nucleosome occupancy is associated with an increasing transition to transversion ratio and an increased germline mutation rate within the human genome. Additionally, cancer single nucleotide variants and microindels are enriched within nucleosomes and both the coding and non-coding cancer mutation rate increases with increasing nucleosome occupancy. There is an enrichment of cancer indels at the theoretical start (74 bp) and end (115 bp) of linker DNA between two nucleosomes. We then hypothesized that increasing nucleosome occupancy decreases access to DNA by DNA repair machinery and could account for the increasing mutation rate. Such a relationship should not exist in DNA repair knockouts, and we thus repeated our analysis in DNA repair machinery knockouts to test our hypothesis. Indeed, our results revealed no correlation between increasing nucleosome occupancy and increasing mutation rate in DNA repair knockouts. Our findings emphasize the linkage of the genome and epigenome through the nucleosome whose properties can affect genome evolution and genetic aberrations such as cancer. PMID:26308346

  7. Increasing Nucleosome Occupancy Is Correlated with an Increasing Mutation Rate so Long as DNA Repair Machinery Is Intact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puya G Yazdi

    Full Text Available Deciphering the multitude of epigenomic and genomic factors that influence the mutation rate is an area of great interest in modern biology. Recently, chromatin has been shown to play a part in this process. To elucidate this relationship further, we integrated our own ultra-deep sequenced human nucleosomal DNA data set with a host of published human genomic and cancer genomic data sets. Our results revealed, that differences in nucleosome occupancy are associated with changes in base-specific mutation rates. Increasing nucleosome occupancy is associated with an increasing transition to transversion ratio and an increased germline mutation rate within the human genome. Additionally, cancer single nucleotide variants and microindels are enriched within nucleosomes and both the coding and non-coding cancer mutation rate increases with increasing nucleosome occupancy. There is an enrichment of cancer indels at the theoretical start (74 bp and end (115 bp of linker DNA between two nucleosomes. We then hypothesized that increasing nucleosome occupancy decreases access to DNA by DNA repair machinery and could account for the increasing mutation rate. Such a relationship should not exist in DNA repair knockouts, and we thus repeated our analysis in DNA repair machinery knockouts to test our hypothesis. Indeed, our results revealed no correlation between increasing nucleosome occupancy and increasing mutation rate in DNA repair knockouts. Our findings emphasize the linkage of the genome and epigenome through the nucleosome whose properties can affect genome evolution and genetic aberrations such as cancer.

  8. Can increasing adult vaccination rates reduce lost time and increase productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittle, Chad

    2014-12-01

    This article addresses limited vaccination coverage by providing an overview of the epidemiology of influenza, pertussis, and pneumonia, and the impact these diseases have on work attendance for the worker, the worker's family, and employer profit. Studies focused on the cost of vaccination programs, lost work time, lost employee productivity and acute disease treatment are discussed, as well as strategies for increasing vaccination coverage to reduce overall health care costs for employers. Communicating the benefits of universal vaccination for employees and their families and combating vaccine misinformation among employees are outlined. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Ingestion of a carbonated beverage decreases lower esophageal sphincter pressure and increases frequency of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Akash; Meshram, Megha; Gopan, Amrit; Ganjewar, Vaibhav; Kumar, Praveen; Bhatia, Shobna J

    2012-06-01

    Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (tLESR) and decreased basal lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure are postulated mechanisms of gastroesophageal reflux (GER). There is conflicting evidence on the effect of carbonated drinks on lower esophageal sphincter function. This study was conducted to assess the effect of a carbonated beverage on tLESR and LES pressure. High resolution manometry tracings (16 channel water-perfused, Trace 1.2, Hebbard, Australia) were obtained in 18 healthy volunteers (6 men) for 30 min each at baseline, and after 200 mL of chilled potable water and 200 mL of chilled carbonated cola drink (Pepsi [Pepsico India Ltd]). The sequence of administration of the drinks was determined by random number method generated by a computer. The analysis of tracings was done using TRACE 1.2 software by a physician who was unaware of the sequence of administration of fluids. The mean (SD) age of the participant was 37.3 (12.9) years. The median (range) frequency of tLESr was higher after the carbonated beverage (10.5 [0-26]) as compared to baseline (0 [0-3], p = 0.005) as well as after water (1 [0-14], p = 0.010). The LES pressure decreased after ingestion of the carbonated beverage (18.5 [11-37] mmHg) compared to baseline (40.5 [25-66] mmHg, p = 0.0001) and after water (34 [15-67] mmHg, p = 0.003). Gastric pressure was not different in the three groups. Ingestion of a carbonated beverage increases tLESr and lowers LES pressure in healthy subjects.

  10. Earthquake sequence simulations of a fault in a viscoelastic material with a spectral boundary integral equation method: The effect of interseismic stress relaxation on a behavior of a rate-weakening patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Y.; Noda, H.

    2017-12-01

    Earthquake sequences involve many processes in a wide range of time scales, from quasistatic loading to dynamic rupture. At a depth of brittle-plastic transitional and deeper, rock behaves as a viscous fluid in a long timescale, but as an elastic material in a short timescale. Viscoelastic stress relaxation may be important in the interseismic periods at the depth, near the deeper limit of the seismogenic layer or the region of slow slip events (SSEs) [Namiki et al., 2014 and references therein]. In the present study, we implemented the viscoelastic effect (Maxwell material) in fully-dynamic earthquake sequence simulations using a spectral boundary integral equation method (SBIEM) [e.g., Lapusta et al., 2000]. SBIEM is efficient in calculation of convolutional terms for dynamic stress transfer, and the problem size is limited by the amount of memory available. Linear viscoelasticity could be implemented by convolution of slip rate history and Green's function, but this method requires additional memory and thus not suitable for the implementation to the present code. Instead, we integrated the evolution of "effective slip" distribution, which gives static stress distribution when convolved with static elastic Green's function. This method works only for simple viscoelastic property distributions, but such models are suitable for numerical experiments aiming basic understanding of the system behavior because of the virtue of SBIEM, the ability of fine on-fault spatial resolution and efficient computation utilizing the fast Fourier transformation. In the present study, we examined the effect of viscoelasticity on earthquake sequences of a fault with a rate-weakening patch. A series of simulations with various relaxation time tc revealed that as decreasing tc, recurrence intervals of earthquakes increases and seismicity ultimately disappears. As long as studied, this transition to aseismic behavior is NOT associated with SSEs. In a case where the rate-weakening patch

  11. Relaxed states of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucinski, M.Y.; Okano, V.

    1993-01-01

    The relaxed states of tokamak plasmas are studied. It is assumed that the plasma relaxes to a quasi-steady state which is characterized by a minimum entropy production rate, compatible with a number of prescribed conditions and pressure balance. A poloidal current arises naturally due to the anisotropic resistivity. The minimum entropy production theory is applied, assuming the pressure equilibrium as fundamental constraint on the final state. (L.C.J.A.)

  12. Increasing the effective energy barrier promoted by the change of a counteranion in a Zn-Dy-Zn SMM: slow relaxation via the second excited state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzabal, I; Ruiz, J; Ruiz, E; Aravena, D; Seco, J M; Colacio, E

    2015-08-11

    The trinuclear complex [ZnCl(μ-L)Dy(μ-L)ClZn]PF6 exhibits a single-molecule magnetic behaviour under zero field with a relatively large effective energy barrier of 186 cm(-1). Ab initio calculations reveal that the relaxation of the magnetization is symmetry-driven (the Dy(III) ion possesses a C2 symmetry) and occurs via the second excited state.

  13. Short-run Distributional Effects of VAT Rate Change: Evidence from a consumption tax rate increase in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    David CASHIN; UNAYAMA Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Households will purchase more items than usual prior to a value added tax (VAT) rate increase in order to avoid taxation. Since this type of arbitrage requires resources such as shopping time and storage space, the impacts of tax increases vary across households, which has brought distributional effects in the short-run. Using the case of a consumption tax rate increase in Japan in 1997, we show that households who are non-working, with non-working spouses and residing in larger houses, benef...

  14. Sildenafil preserves diastolic relaxation after reduction by L-NAME and increases phosphodiesterase-5 in the intercalated discs of cardiac myocytes and arterioles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Elaine Ferreira-Melo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We investigated the influence of sildenafil on cardiac contractility and diastolic relaxation and examined the distribution of phosphodiesterase-5 in the hearts of hypertensive rats that were treated with by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were treated with L-NAME and/or sildenafil for eight weeks. The Langendorff method was used to examine the effects of sildenafil on cardiac contractility and diastolic relaxation. The presence and location of phosphodiesterase-5 and phosphodiesterase-3 were assessed by immunohistochemistry, and cGMP plasma levels were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: In isolated hearts, sildenafil prevented the reduction of diastolic relaxation (dP/dt that was induced by L-NAME. In addition, phosphodiesterase-5 immunoreactivity was localized in the intercalated discs between the myocardial cells. The staining intensity was reduced by L-NAME, and sildenafil treatment abolished this reduction. Consistent with these results, the plasma levels of cGMP were decreased in the L-NAME-treated rats but not in rats that were treated with L-NAME + sildenafil. CONCLUSION: The sildenafil-induced attenuation of the deleterious hemodynamic and cardiac morphological effects of L-NAME in cardiac myocytes is mediated (at least in part by the inhibition of phosphodiesterase-5.

  15. Limiting conditions for operation relaxation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to assess the impact of system maintenance unavailability on plant risk to provide technical justification for the relaxation of system limiting conditions for operation from three to seven days. The primary goal of the relaxation program is to allow for more thorough equipment maintenance. A potential increase in out-of-service time for a particular outage caused by the performance of more effective repairs will be counterbalanced by a probable decrease in the frequency in the outage rate of a component. Benefits resulting from an increase in allowed outage time include: (a) a potential reduction in total system out-of-service time, (b) a minimization of challenges to plant systems, and (c) a reduction in the number of emergency technical specification change requests. This program therefore offers an opportunity to more effectively manage plant maintenance and operation

  16. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  17. Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoperov E.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.

  18. Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, P.J.; Stephenson, N.L.; Byrne, J.C.; Daniels, L.D.; Franklin, J.F.; Fule, P.Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Larson, A.J.; Smith, Joseph M.; Taylor, A.H.; Veblen, T.T.

    2009-01-01

    Persistent changes in tree mortality rates can alter forest structure, composition, and ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration. Our analyses of longitudinal data from unmanaged old forests in the western United States showed that background (noncatastrophic) mortality rates have increased rapidly in recent decades, with doubling periods ranging from 17 to 29 years among regions. Increases were also pervasive across elevations, tree sizes, dominant genera, and past fire histories. Forest density and basal area declined slightly, which suggests that increasing mortality was not caused by endogenous increases in competition. Because mortality increased in small trees, the overall increase in mortality rates cannot be attributed solely to aging of large trees. Regional warming and consequent increases in water deficits are likely contributors to the increases in tree mortality rates.

  19. Sandpile model for relaxation in complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, A.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.; Brouers, F.

    1997-10-01

    The relaxation in complex systems is, in general, nonexponential. After an initial rapid decay the system relaxes slowly following a long time tail. In the present paper a sandpile moderation of the relaxation in complex systems is analysed. Complexity is introduced by a process of avalanches in the Bethe lattice and a feedback mechanism which leads to slower decay with increasing time. In this way, some features of relaxation in complex systems: long time tails relaxation, aging, and fractal distribution of characteristic times, are obtained by simple computer simulations. (author)

  20. Rising Tide II: Do Black Students Benefit as Grad Rates Increase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Andrew Howard; Eberle-Sudré, Kimberlee; Welch, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    "Rising Tide II: Do Black Students Benefit as Grad Rates Increase?" looks at a decade of graduation rates for African American students at four-year, public institutions that improved student success during the past decade. It shows that while a majority (almost 70 percent) of institutions we examined improved graduation rates for black…

  1. Increased effects of machining damage in beryllium observed at high strain rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitscher, S.; Brewer, A.W.; Corle, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Tensile tests at both low and high strain rates, and also impact shear tests, were performed on a weldable grade powder-source beryllium. Impact energies increased by a factor of 2 to 3 from the as-machined level after etching or annealing. Similar increases in the ductility from machining damage removal were observed from the tensile data at the higher strain rate (10 s -1 ) while an insignificant increase in elongation was measured at the lower strain rate (10 -4 s -1 ). High strain-rate tests appear to be more sensitive and reliable for evaluating machining practice and damage removal methods for beryllium components subjected to sudden loads. 2 tables

  2. Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in n -type insulating and metallic GaAs single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J.; Hoch, M. J. R.; Kuhns, P. L.; Moulton, W. G.; Gan, Z.; Reyes, A. P.

    2006-09-01

    The coupling of electron and nuclear spins in n-GaAs changes significantly as the donor concentration n increases through the insulator-metal critical concentration nC˜1.2×1016cm-3 . The present measurements of the Ga71 relaxation rates W made as a function of magnetic field (1-13T) and temperature (1.5-300K) for semi-insulating GaAs and for three doped n-GaAs samples with donor concentrations n=5.9×1015 , 7×1016 , and 2×1018cm-3 , show marked changes in the relaxation behavior with n . Korringa-like relaxation is found in both metallic samples for T30K phonon-induced nuclear quadrupolar relaxation is dominant. The relaxation rate measurements permit determination of the electron probability density at Ga71 sites. A small Knight shift of -3.3ppm was measured on the most metallic (2×1018cm-3) sample using magic-angle spinning at room temperature. For the n=5.9×1015cm-3 sample, a nuclear relaxation model involving the Fermi contact hyperfine interaction, rapid spin diffusion, and exchange coupled local moments is proposed. While the relaxation rate behavior with temperature for the weakly metallic sample, n=7×1016cm-3 , is similar to that found for the just-insulating sample, the magnetic field dependence is quite different. For the 5.9×1015cm-3 sample, increasing the magnetic field leads to a decrease in the relaxation rate, while for the 7×1016cm-3 sample this results in an increase in the relaxation rate ascribed to an increase in the density of states at the Fermi level as the Landau level degeneracy is increased.

  3. Does global warning increase establishment rates of invasive alien species? A centurial time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingcheng Huang; Robert A. Haack; Runzhi. Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The establishment rate of invasive alien insect species has been increasing worldwide during the past century. This trend has been widely attributed to increased rates of international trade and associated species introductions, but rarely linked to environmental change. To better understand and manage the bioinvasion process, it is crucial to understand the...

  4. 50 CFR 260.81 - Readjustment and increase in hourly rates of fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of fees. 260.81 Section 260.81 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL... Certification of Establishments and Fishery Products for Human Consumption Fees and Charges § 260.81 Readjustment and increase in hourly rates of fees. (a) When Federal Pay Act increases occur, the hourly rates...

  5. Glucagon infusion increases rate of purine synthesis de novo in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itakura, Mitsuo; Maeda, Noriaki; Tsuchiya, Masami; Yamashita, Kamejiro

    1987-01-01

    Based on the parallel increases of glucagon, the second peak of hepatic cAMP, and the rate of purine synthesis de novo in the prereplicative period in regenerating rate liver after a 70% hepatectomy, it was hypothesized that glucagon is responsible for the increased rate of purine synthesis de novo. To test this hypothesis, the effect of glucagon or dibutyryl cAMP infusion on the rate of purine synthesis de novo in rat liver was studied. Glucagon infusion but not insulin or glucose infusion increased the rate of purine synthesis de novo, which was assayed by [ 14 C]glycine or [ 14 C]formate incorporation, by 2.7- to 4.3-fold. Glucagon infusion increased cAMP concentrations by 4.9-fold and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate concentrations by 1.5-fold in liver but did not change the specific activity of amidophosphoribosyltransferase or purine ribonucleotide concentrations. Dibutyryl cAMP infusion also increased the rate of purine synthesis de novo by 2.2- to 4.0-fold. Because glucagon infusion increased the rate of purine synthesis de novo in the presence of unchanged purine ribonucleotide concentrations, it is concluded that glucagon after infusion or in animals after a 70% hepatectomy is playing an anabolic role to increase the rate of purine synthesis de novo by increasing cAMP and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate concentrations

  6. Sexual dimorphism of extensor carpi radialis muscle size, isometric force, relaxation rate and stamina during the breeding season of the frog Rana temporaria Linnaeus 1758.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Carlos A; James, Rob S

    2007-02-01

    Mating success of individual male frogs within explosive breeding species can depend on their ability to compete for a mate and to hold onto that mate during amplexus. Such importance of amplexus has resulted in the evolution of sexual dimorphism in the morphology and contractile characteristics of the anuran forelimb muscles used during amplexus. The aims of our study were to use an explosive breeding frog (Rana temporaria) during the breeding season to compare extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle length, mass, isometric activation times, relaxation times, absolute force, relative force (stress) and fatigue between male and female frogs. We found that ECR muscle mass and length were greater (tenfold and 1.4-fold, respectively), absolute tetanic muscle force and relative tetanic force (stress) were greater (16-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively) and relaxation times were slower in males than in females. Male ECR muscles incompletely relaxed during fatigue tests and showed less fatigue than female muscles. These sex differences are likely to be beneficial to the male frogs in allowing them to produce relatively high absolute muscle forces for prolonged periods of time to hold onto their mate during amplexus.

  7. Nesting Bird “Host Funnel” Increases Mosquito-Bird Contact Rate

    OpenAIRE

    CAILLOUËT, KEVIN A.; RIGGAN, ANNA E.; BULLUCK, LESLEY P.; CARLSON, JOHN C.; SABO, ROY T.

    2013-01-01

    Increases in vector-host contact rates can enhance arbovirus transmission intensity. We investigated weekly fluctuations in contact rates between mosquitoes and nesting birds using the recently described Nest Mosquito Trap (NMT). The number of mosquitoes per nestling increased from < 1 mosquito per trap night to 36.2 in the final 2 wk of the nesting season. Our evidence suggests the coincidence of the end of the avian nesting season and increasing mosquito abundances may have caused a “host f...

  8. Increasing The Number of Embryos Transferred from Two to Three, Does not Increase Pregnancy Rates in Good Prognosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ashrafi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To compare the pregnancy outcomes after two embryos versus three embryos transfers (ETs in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed on three hundred eighty seven women with primary infertility and with at least one fresh embryo in good quality in order to transfer at each IVF/ICSI cycle, from September 2006 to June 2010. Patients were categorized into two groups according to the number of ET as follows: ET2 and ET3 groups, indicating two and three embryos were respectively transferred. Pregnancy outcomes were compared between ET2 and ET3 groups. Chi square and student t tests were used for data analysis. Results: Clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were similar between two groups. The rates of multiple pregnancies were 27 and 45.2% in ET2 and ET3 groups, respectively. The rate of multiple pregnancies in young women was significantly increased when triple instead of double embryos were transferred. Logistic regression analysis indicated two significant prognostic variables for live birth that included number and quality of transferred embryos; it means that the chance of live birth following ICSI treatment increased 3.2-fold when the embryo with top quality (grade A was transferred, but the number of ET had an inverse relationship with live birth rate; it means that probability of live birth in women with transfer of two embryos was three times greater than those who had three ET. Conclusion: Due to the difficulty of implementation of the elective single-ET technique in some infertility centers in the world, we suggest transfer of double instead of triple embryos when at least one good quality embryo is available for transfer in women aged 39 years or younger. However, to reduce the rate of multiple pregnancies, it is recommended to consider the elective single ET strategy.

  9. Relaxation response of A533B steel from 25 to 600/degree/C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Bolling, E.

    1989-01-01

    Relaxation tests were performed on A533B steel over the range 25 to 600/degree/C in order to examine the general features of time- dependent deformation. It was found that the relaxation strength increased with the flow stress at low temperatures and was relatively independent of history at high temperatures. In the temperature range 400 to 600/degree/C the inelastic strain rates calculated from the relaxation rates followed stress dependencies that were consistent with expectations based on a model proposed by Hart and coworkers for matrix deformation. 21 refs., 10 figs

  10. [Neurophysiologic and respiratory changes during the practice of relaxation technics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallois, P

    1984-01-01

    A polygraphic study, of 40 minutes duration, among 10 subjects who practiced autogenic training (TA) and 10 subjects who practiced transcendental meditation (MT), compared to 10 control subjects, gave the following results: rarity of the number of sleeping episodes during relaxation, cardiac rhythm, significantly decreased in the TM group, increased stability of the E.D.G. during and after relaxation, respiratory rate decreased to a value of 33% of the initial rate, respiratory suspensions were frequent in the TM group, reaching a maximal duration of 50 seconds. The absence of compensatory hypercapnia and hyperpnea is an argument in favor of their central origin, lastly, the simple reaction time after relaxation is slightly decreased, whereas it is increased in the controls, this aerobic hypometabolic state, the stability of the autonomic nervous system and the maintenance of the vigilance, induced by deep relaxation, seems to be the opposite of the state which is induced by stress; therefore deep relaxation may play a role in a psycho-somatic approach to treating a variety of disease states.

  11. Breathing and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Doctor Relaxation is the absence of tension in muscle groups and a minimum or absence ... Drill Meditation Progressive Muscle Relaxation Minimizing Shortness of Breath Visualization This information has been approved by Shelby ...

  12. Constant growth rate can be supported by decreasing energy flux and increasing aerobic glycolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slavov, Nikolai; Budnik, Bogdan A; Schwab, David; Airoldi, Edoardo M; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Fermenting glucose in the presence of enough oxygen to support respiration, known as aerobic glycolysis, is believed to maximize growth rate. We observed increasing aerobic glycolysis during exponential growth, suggesting additional physiological roles for aerobic glycolysis. We investigated such

  13. The Effects of Increased Accountability Standards on Graduation Rates for Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Lee

    2012-01-01

    This research sought to determine if unintended effects of increased accountability standards on graduation rates for students with disabilities existed. Data from one southeastern state were utilized in order to determine if graduation rates were impacted as a result of higher accountability standards. In addition, administrator attitudes on…

  14. Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip J. van Mantgem; Nathan L. Stephenson; John C. Byrne; Lori D. Daniels; Jerry F. Franklin; Peter Z. Fule; Mark E. Harmon; Andrew J. Larson; Jeremy M. Smith; Alan H. Taylor; Thomas T. Veblen

    2009-01-01

    Persistent changes in tree mortality rates can alter forest structure, composition, and ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration. Our analyses of longitudinal data from unmanaged old forests in the western United States showed that background (noncatastrophic) mortality rates have increased rapidly in recent decades, with doubling periods ranging from 17 to 29...

  15. Review of Research Shows, Overall, Acupuncture Did Not Increase Pregnancy Rates with IVF

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... did seem to increase pregnancy success rates at IVF clinics with baseline pregnancy rates that were lower than 32 percent. This review, funded in part by NCCAM, was published online in the journal Human Reproduction Update. The review analyzed 16 randomized controlled clinical ...

  16. Onsager relaxation of toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samain, A.; Nguyen, F.

    1997-01-01

    The slow relaxation of isolated toroidal plasmas towards their thermodynamical equilibrium is studied in an Onsager framework based on the entropy metric. The basic tool is a variational principle, equivalent to the kinetic equation, involving the profiles of density, temperature, electric potential, electric current. New minimization procedures are proposed to obtain entropy and entropy production rate functionals. (author)

  17. A study on increasing the breeding rate of chicks with low-dosage stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuyu; Zhang Hongwei; Cui Zaijiu; Liu Dashen; Zhang Peng; Yi Jun

    1991-10-01

    During the years 1985 ∼ 1990, the semen of male fowl was irradiated by β-rays, the survival time of the spermatozoa was prolonged and fertility increased by 2% to 5%. The breeding eggs of 'Harbin White hen' were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays to stimulate the growth of the blastoderm of fertilized eggs, the hatching rate increased by 6.86%, the healthy bird rate increased by 5.52%, and the chick weight increased by 5% to 6%. The egg production rate of the first irradiated generation hens increased by 8.03%, the first-egg age of the second irradiated generation hens shifted 6 to 7 weeks earlier and the egg production period prolonged. 72-week egg production was raised by 10.48%

  18. Increasing Suicide Rates Among Middle-age Persons and Interventions to Manage Patients with Psychiatric Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath Chakravarthy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has published significant data and trends related to suicide rates in the United States (U.S.. Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in U.S. adults, and rates are increasing across all geographic regions. There is a significant increase in the suicide rate among adults in the 35-64 age range. We present findings from the CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR with commentary on current resources and barriers to psychiatric care. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(1:11–13.

  19. Warming, soil moisture, and loss of snow increase Bromus tectorum’s population growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Compagnoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Climate change threatens to exacerbate the impacts of invasive species. In temperate ecosystems, direct effects of warming may be compounded by dramatic reductions in winter snow cover. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum is arguably the most destructive biological invader in basins of the North American Intermountain West, and warming could increase its performance through direct effects on demographic rates or through indirect effects mediated by loss of snow. We conducted a two-year experimental manipulation of temperature and snow pack to test whether 1 warming increases cheatgrass population growth rate and 2 reduced snow cover contributes to cheatgrass’ positive response to warming. We used infrared heaters operating continuously to create the warming treatment, but turned heaters on only during snowfalls for the snowmelt treatment. We monitored cheatgrass population growth rate and the vital rates that determine it: emergence, survival and fecundity. Growth rate increased in both warming and snowmelt treatments. The largest increases occurred in warming plots during the wettest year, indicating that the magnitude of response to warming depends on moisture availability. Warming increased both fecundity and survival, especially in the wet year, while snowmelt contributed to the positive effects of warming by increasing survival. Our results indicate that increasing temperature will exacerbate cheatgrass impacts, especially where warming causes large reductions in the depth and duration of snow cover.

  20. 5 CFR 9701.323 - Eligibility for pay increase associated with a rate range adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... individual pay increase. An employee who meets or exceeds performance expectations (i.e., has a rating of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for pay increase associated...) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Setting and...

  1. The Paradox of Increasing Both Enrollment and Graduation Rates: Acknowledging Elephants in the Ivory Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvenon, Sean W.; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    The argument is made that increasing enrollments and graduation rates cannot occur while maintaining academic standards. Several U.S. universities are attempting to increase their enrollments to counter the financial difficulties created by a reduction in state support. These same universities are also under growing pressure from their state…

  2. 78 FR 57099 - Avocados Grown in South Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 915 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-13-0054; FV13-915-2 PR] Avocados Grown in South Florida; Increased... rule would increase the assessment rate established for the Avocado Administrative Committee (Committee... Florida avocados handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order, which regulates the...

  3. [Effect of temperature and salinity on intrinsic increasing rate of Moina mongolica Daddy (Cladocera: Moinidae) population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; He, Z

    2001-02-01

    The intrinsic increasing rate of Moina mongolica Daddy, a euryhaline cladocera species isolated from inland brackish lakes of northwestern China, was studied at 20 degrees C-33 degrees C and 5-40 ppt, respectively. The results showed that its intrinsic increasing rate (rm) increased with increasing temperature from 20 degrees C-30 degrees C, and sharply dropped with further increasing temperature up to 33 degrees C. The rm of M. mongolica was relatively high at low salinity, the highest at 10 ppt, but no significant difference at 20-40 ppt. Therefore, 25 degrees C-30 degrees C and 10 ppt could be optimal for the development of M. mongolica population, and its increasing potential would not be affected significantly by rearing this cladocera species in seawater for a long period.

  4. Shale gas activity and increased rates of sexually transmitted infections in Ohio, 2000-2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole C Deziel

    Full Text Available The growing shale gas ("fracking" industry depends on a mobile workforce, whose influx could have social impacts on host communities. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs can increase through sexual mixing patterns associated with labor migration. No prior studies have quantified the relationship between shale gas activity and rates of three reportable STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis.We conducted a longitudinal, ecologic study from 2000-2016 in Ohio, situated in a prolific shale gas region in the United States (US. Data on reported cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis by county and year were obtained from the Ohio Department of Health. All 88 counties were classified as none, low, and high shale gas activity in each year, using data from the Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Annual rate ratios (RR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were calculated from mixed-effects Poisson regression models evaluating the relationship between shale gas activity and reported annual STI rates while adjusting for secular trends and potential confounders obtained from the US Census.Compared to counties with no shale gas activity, counties with high activity had 21% (RR = 1.21; 95%CI = 1.08-1.36 increased rates of chlamydia and 19% (RR = 1.27; 95%CI 0.98-1.44 increased rates of gonorrhea, respectively. No association was observed for syphilis.This first report of a link between shale gas activity and increased rates of both chlamydia and gonorrhea may inform local policies and community health efforts.

  5. Increase in Multicast OFDM Data Rate in PLC Network using Adaptive LP-OFDM

    OpenAIRE

    Maiga , Ali; Baudais , Jean-Yves; Hélard , Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    ISBN: 978-1-4244-3523-4; International audience; Linear precoding (LP) technique applied to OFDM systems has already proved its ability to significantly increase the system throughput in a powerline communication (PLC) context. In this paper, we propose resource allocation algorithms based on the LP technique to increase the multicast OFDM systems bit rate. The conventional multicast capacity is limited by the user which experiences the worst channel conditions. To increase the multicast bit ...

  6. An examination of black/white differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fenelon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The rate of mortality increase with age among adults is typically used as a measure of the rate of functional decline associated with aging or senescence. While black and white populations differ in the level of mortality, mortality also rises less rapidly with age for blacks than for whites, leading to the well-known black/white mortality "crossover". OBJECTIVE This paper investigates black/white differences in the rate of mortality increase with age for major causes of death in order to examine the factors responsible for the black/white crossover. METHODS The analysis considers two explanations for the crossover: selective survival and age misreporting. Mortality is modeled using a Gompertz model for 11 causes of death from ages 50-84 among blacks and whites by sex. RESULTS Mortality increases more rapidly with age for whites than for blacks for nearly all causes of death considered. The all-cause mortality rate of mortality increase is nearly two percentage points higher for whites. The analysis finds evidence for both selective survival and age misreporting, although age misreporting is a more prominent explanation among women. CONCLUSIONS The black/white mortality crossover reflects large differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase. Instead of reflecting the impact of specific causes of death, this pattern exists across many disparate disease conditions, indicating the need for a broad explanation.

  7. Evidence that BDNF regulates heart rate by a mechanism involving increased brainstem parasympathetic neuron excitability

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Ruiqian; Weigand, Letitia A.; Bateman, Ryan; Griffioen, Kathleen; Mendelowitz, David; Mattson, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic control of heart rate is mediated by cardioinhibitory parasympathetic cholinergic neurons located in the brainstem and stimulatory sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. During embryonic development the survival and cholinergic phenotype of brainstem autonomic neurons is promoted by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We now provide evidence that BDNF regulates heart rate by a mechanism involving increased brainstem cardioinhibitory parasympathetic activity. Mice with a BDNF haplo...

  8. A Minimalistic Resource Allocation Model to Explain Ubiquitous Increase in Protein Expression with Growth Rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uri Barenholz

    Full Text Available Most proteins show changes in level across growth conditions. Many of these changes seem to be coordinated with the specific growth rate rather than the growth environment or the protein function. Although cellular growth rates, gene expression levels and gene regulation have been at the center of biological research for decades, there are only a few models giving a base line prediction of the dependence of the proteome fraction occupied by a gene with the specific growth rate. We present a simple model that predicts a widely coordinated increase in the fraction of many proteins out of the proteome, proportionally with the growth rate. The model reveals how passive redistribution of resources, due to active regulation of only a few proteins, can have proteome wide effects that are quantitatively predictable. Our model provides a potential explanation for why and how such a coordinated response of a large fraction of the proteome to the specific growth rate arises under different environmental conditions. The simplicity of our model can also be useful by serving as a baseline null hypothesis in the search for active regulation. We exemplify the usage of the model by analyzing the relationship between growth rate and proteome composition for the model microorganism E.coli as reflected in recent proteomics data sets spanning various growth conditions. We find that the fraction out of the proteome of a large number of proteins, and from different cellular processes, increases proportionally with the growth rate. Notably, ribosomal proteins, which have been previously reported to increase in fraction with growth rate, are only a small part of this group of proteins. We suggest that, although the fractions of many proteins change with the growth rate, such changes may be partially driven by a global effect, not necessarily requiring specific cellular control mechanisms.

  9. Effectiveness of worksite interventions to increase influenza vaccination rates among employees and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofstead, Cori L; Sherman, Bruce W; Wetzler, Harry P; Dirlam Langlay, Alexandra M; Mueller, Natalie J; Ward, Jeremy M; Ritter, Daniel R; Poland, Gregory A

    2013-02-01

    To increase influenza vaccination rates among industrial employees and their families through a campaign at a large corporation. This prospective, multisite study used employee surveys and claims data to evaluate an evidence-based worksite vaccination program. Vaccination rates among insured employees and dependents (N = 13,520) increased significantly after the intervention (P employees received vaccine at employer-sponsored events. There was a strong association between employee and family vaccination status. Primary reasons for receiving the vaccine were economic (free 84%; convenient 80%; avoid absenteeism 82%), rather than health-related. Knowledge was associated with vaccination, but customized education did not change beliefs. Worksite programs can demonstrably increase vaccination rates among industrial employees and families. Consideration should be given to repositioning vaccination from medical treatment to community initiatives offered with other worksite health promotion programs.

  10. Increasing low birth weight rates: deliveries in a tertiary hospital in istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Yasemin; Cömert, Serdar; Turan, Cem; Unal, Orhan; Piçak, Abdülkadir; Ger, Lale; Telatar, Berrin

    2010-09-01

    Prevalence of low birth weight deliveries may vary across different environments. The necessity of determination of regional data prompted this study. Information of all deliveries from January 2004 to December 2008 was obtained from delivery registry records retrospectively. Initial data including birth weight, vital status, sex, maternal age and mode of delivery were recorded using medical files. The frequency of low birth weight, very low birth weight, extremely low birth weight and stillbirth deliveries were determined. Among 19,533 total births, there were 450 (23.04 per 1000) stillbirths. Low birth weight rate was 10.61%. A significant increase in yearly distribution of low birth weight deliveries was observed (Pbirth weight and extremely low birth weight delivery rates were 3.14% and 1.58% respectively. Among 2073 low birth weight infants, 333 (16.06%) were stillbirths. The stillbirth delivery rate and the birth of a female infant among low birth weight deliveries were significantly higher than infants with birth weight ≥2500g (Pbirth weight and maternal age. The rate of cesarean section among low birth weight infants was 49.4%. High low birth weight and stillbirth rates, as well as the increase in low birth weight deliveries over the past five years in this study are striking. For reduction of increased low birth weight rates, appropriate intervention methods should be initiated.

  11. A single dose of dark chocolate increases parasympathetic modulation and heart rate variability in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Machado DUARTE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of a single dose of dark chocolate (70% cocoa on blood pressure and heart rate variability. Methods: Thirty-one healthy subjects (aged 18-25 years; both sexes were divided into two groups: 10 subjects in the white chocolate (7.4 g group and 21 in the dark chocolate (10 g group; measurements were performed at the university's physiology lab. An electrocardiogram measured the sympathovagal balance by spectral and symbolic analysis. Results: A single dose of dark chocolate significantly reduced systolic blood pressure and heart rate. After consuming 10 g of dark chocolate, significant increases were observed for heart rate variability, standard deviation of RR intervals standard deviation of all NN intervals, square root of the mean squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals root mean square of successive differences, and an increase in the high frequency component in absolute values, representing the parasympathetic modulation. Conclusion: In conclusion the importance of our results lies in the magnitude of the response provoked by a single dose of cocoa. Just 10 g of cocoa triggered a significant increase in parasympathetic modulation and heart rate variability. These combined effects can potentially increase life expectancy because a reduction in heart rate variability is associated with several cardiovascular diseases and higher mortality.

  12. Increased Frame Rate for Plane Wave Imaging Without Loss of Image Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2015-01-01

    Clinical applications of plane wave imaging necessitate the creation of high-quality images with the highest possible frame rate for improved blood flow tracking and anatomical imaging. However, linear array transducers create grating lobe artefacts, which degrade the image quality especially...... in the near field for λ-pitch transducers. Artefacts can only partly be suppressed by increasing the number of emissions, and this paper demonstrates how the frame rate can be increased without loss of image quality by using λ/2-pitch transducers. The number of emissions and steering angles are optimized...

  13. Increased resting heart rate following radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Brian; Chen, Xu; Pehrson, Steen

    2005-01-01

    the procedure. RESULTS: Following PV isolation, the mean HR significantly increased from 58 +/- 10 bpm at baseline to 67 +/- 12 bpm at one month, 71 +/- 13 bpm at three months, 69 +/- 12 bpm at six months, 69 +/- 13 at nine months, and 70 +/- 13 at 12 months follow-up. The ablation success significantly...... correlated with the increase in HR at one month follow-up. In three patients the mean HR increased > 25 bpm resulting in symptoms necessitating therapy with rate-controlling drugs. CONCLUSION: PV isolation in patients with AF may result in increased HR, which positively correlated with the ablation success...

  14. Vibrational relaxation of matrix-isolated CH3F and HCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, L.

    1981-08-01

    Kinetic and spectroscopic studies have been performed on CH 3 F and HCl as a function of host matrix and temperature. Temporally and spectrally resolved infrared fluorescence was used to monitor the populations of both the initially excited state and the lower lying levels which participate in the relaxation process. For CH 3 F, relaxation from any of the levels near 3.5 μ, i.e. the CH stretching fundamentals or bend overtones, occurs via rapid ( 3 with subsequent relaxation of the ν 3 (CF stretch) manifold. Lifetimes of 2ν 3 and ν 3 were determined through overtone, ΔV = 2, and fundamental fluorescence. These lifetimes show a dramatic dependence on host lattice, an increase of two orders of magnitude in going from Xe and Ar matrices. Lifetimes depend only weakly on temperature. The relaxation of 2ν 3 and ν 3 is consistent with a model in which production of a highly rotationally excited guest via collisions with the repulsive wall of the host is the rate limiting step. For HCl, lifetimes of v = 1,2,3 have been determined. In all hosts, the relaxation is non-radiative. For a given vibrational state, v, the relaxation rate increases in the series k(Ar) < k(Kr) < k(Xe). The dependence of the relaxation rate; on v is superlinear in all matrices, the deviation from linearity increasng in the order Ar < Kr < Xe. The relaxation rates become more strongly temperature dependent with increasing vibrational excitation. The results are consistent with a mechanism in which complex formation introduces the anisotropy necessary to induce a near resonant V → R transition in the rate limiting step

  15. An energy-saving development initiative increases birth rate and childhood malnutrition in rural Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhairi A Gibson

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary life history theory predicts that, in the absence of contraception, any enhancement of maternal condition can increase human fertility. Energetic trade-offs are likely to be resolved in favour of maximizing reproductive success rather than health or longevity. Here we find support for the hypothesis that development initiatives designed to improve maternal and child welfare may also incur costs associated with increased family sizes if they do not include a family planning component.Demographic and anthropometric data were collected in a rural Ethiopian community benefiting from a recent labour-saving development technology that reduces women's energetic expenditure (n = 1,976 households. Using logistic hazards models and general linear modelling techniques, we found that whilst infant mortality has declined, the birth rate has increased, causing greater scarcity of resources within households.This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a link between a technological development intervention and an increase in both birth rate and childhood malnutrition. Women's nutritional status was not improved by the energy-saving technology, because energy was diverted into higher birth rates. We argue that the contribution of biological processes to increased birth rates in areas of the developing world without access to modern contraception has been overlooked. This highlights the continued need for development programmes to be multisectoral, including access to and promotion of contraception.

  16. Surgical Space Suits Increase Particle and Microbiological Emission Rates in a Simulated Surgical Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaysegaran, Praveen; Knibbs, Luke D; Morawska, Lidia; Crawford, Ross W

    2018-05-01

    The role of space suits in the prevention of orthopedic prosthetic joint infection remains unclear. Recent evidence suggests that space suits may in fact contribute to increased infection rates, with bioaerosol emissions from space suits identified as a potential cause. This study aimed to compare the particle and microbiological emission rates (PER and MER) of space suits and standard surgical clothing. A comparison of emission rates between space suits and standard surgical clothing was performed in a simulated surgical environment during 5 separate experiments. Particle counts were analyzed with 2 separate particle counters capable of detecting particles between 0.1 and 20 μm. An Andersen impactor was used to sample bacteria, with culture counts performed at 24 and 48 hours. Four experiments consistently showed statistically significant increases in both PER and MER when space suits are used compared with standard surgical clothing. One experiment showed inconsistent results, with a trend toward increases in both PER and MER when space suits are used compared with standard surgical clothing. Space suits cause increased PER and MER compared with standard surgical clothing. This finding provides mechanistic evidence to support the increased prosthetic joint infection rates observed in clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanical relaxation in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiki, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The basic properties of glasses and the characteristics of mechanical relaxation in glasses were briefly reviewed, and then our studies concerned were presented. Experimental methods adopted were viscosity, internal friction, ultrasonic attenuation, and Brillouin scattering measurements. The specimens used were several kinds of inorganic, organic, and metallic glasses. The measurements were mainly carried out from the room temperature up to the glass transition temperature, and the relaxation time was determined as a function of temperature. The 'double relaxation' composed of two Arrhenius-type relaxations was observed in many materials. In both relaxations, the 'compensation effect' showing a correlation of the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy was observed. These results were explained by considering the 'complex relaxation' due to cooperative motions of atoms or group of atoms. Values of activation energy near the glass transition determined by the various experimental methods were compared with each other

  18. Dynamic stress relaxation due to cyclic variation of strain at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, F.

    1975-01-01

    The relaxation of stress which occurs when low amplitude alternating strains are superimposed on constant mean total strains is studied in this paper. Experiments were carried out on a 0.16 per cent carbon steel and an AISI 347 stainless steel at 450 0 C and 650 0 C respectively in which the decrease of axial mean stress was measured as a function of time. When even a low amplitude alternating strain was applied, the rate of stress relaxation was observed to increase. Analytical predictions based on creep and static relaxation data show fairly good agreement with experiments in the period corresponding to transient creep. (author)

  19. Suppression of Electron Spin Relaxation in Mn-Doped GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astakhov, G. V.; Dzhioev, R. I.; Kavokin, K. V.; Korenev, V. L.; Lazarev, M. V.; Tkachuk, M. N.; Kusrayev, Yu. G.; Kiessling, T.; Ossau, W.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    2008-08-01

    We report a surprisingly long spin relaxation time of electrons in Mn-doped p-GaAs. The spin relaxation time scales with the optical pumping and increases from 12 ns in the dark to 160 ns upon saturation. This behavior is associated with the difference in spin relaxation rates of electrons precessing in the fluctuating fields of ionized or neutral Mn acceptors, respectively. For the latter, the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between a Mn ion and a bound hole results in a partial compensation of these fluctuating fields, leading to the enhanced spin memory.

  20. Increasing the Response Rate of the Patient Satisfaction Survey of Inpatients at National Naval Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    identify a method to improve the effectiveness of the current survey process to increase the response rate of the patients being sampled. As health care... consumer must have adequate representation to provide meaningful information for decision making by the health care organization. Background of the...the Total Quality Management (TQM) philosophy into the health care industry has increased the importance of listening to the customer (Matthews, 1992

  1. California emergency department visit rates for medical conditions increased while visit rates for injuries fell, 2005-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Renee Y; Nath, Julia B; Baker, Laurence C

    2015-04-01

    The emergency department (ED) is the source of most hospital admissions; provides care for patients with no other point of access to the health care system; receives advanced care referrals from primary care physicians; and provides surveillance data on injuries, infectious diseases, violence, and adverse drug events. Understanding the changes in the profile of disease in the ED can inform emergency services administration and planning and can provide insight into the public's health. We analyzed the trends in the diagnoses seen in California EDs from 2005 to 2011, finding that while the ED visit rate for injuries decreased by 0.7 percent, the rate of ED visits for noninjury diagnoses rose 13.4 percent. We also found a rise in symptom-related diagnoses, such as abdominal pain, along with nervous system disorders, gastrointestinal disease, and mental illness. These trends point out the increasing importance of EDs in providing care for complex medical cases, as well as the changing nature of illness in the population needing immediate medical attention. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  2. Solar radiation increases suicide rate after adjusting for other climate factors in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Hee-Jung; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Lee, Yu Jin; Choi, Nari; An, Hyonggin; Lee, Heon-Jeong

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated that suicide rates have significant seasonal variations. There is seasonal discordance between temperature and solar radiation due to the monsoon season in South Korea. We investigated the seasonality of suicide and assessed its association with climate variables in South Korea. Suicide rates were obtained from the National Statistical Office of South Korea, and climatic data were obtained from the Korea Meteorological Administration for the period of 1992-2010. We conducted analyses using a generalized additive model (GAM). First, we explored the seasonality of suicide and climate variables such as mean temperature, daily temperature range, solar radiation, and relative humidity. Next, we identified confounding climate variables associated with suicide rate. To estimate the adjusted effect of solar radiation on the suicide rate, we investigated the confounding variables using a multivariable GAM. Suicide rate showed seasonality with a pattern similar to that of solar radiation. We found that the suicide rate increased 1.008 times when solar radiation increased by 1 MJ/m 2 after adjusting for other confounding climate factors (P Solar radiation has a significant linear relationship with suicide after adjusting for region, other climate variables, and time trends. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Increased traffic accident rates associated with shale gas drilling in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jove; Irving, Jennifer; Tang, Xiaoqin; Sellers, Stephen; Crisp, Joshua; Horwitz, Daniel; Muehlenbachs, Lucija; Krupnick, Alan; Carey, David

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between shale gas drilling and motor vehicle accident rates in Pennsylvania. Using publicly available data on all reported vehicle crashes in Pennsylvania, we compared accident rates in counties with and without shale gas drilling, in periods with and without intermittent drilling (using data from 2005 to 2012). Counties with drilling were matched to non-drilling counties with similar population and traffic in the pre-drilling period. Heavily drilled counties in the north experienced 15-23% higher vehicle crash rates in 2010-2012 and 61-65% higher heavy truck crash rates in 2011-2012 than control counties. We estimated 5-23% increases in crash rates when comparing months with drilling and months without, but did not find significant effects on fatalities and major injury crashes. Heavily drilled counties in the southwest showed 45-47% higher rates of fatal and major injury crashes in 2012 than control counties, but monthly comparisons of drilling activity showed no significant differences associated with drilling. Vehicle accidents have measurably increased in conjunction with shale gas drilling. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Increased rates of cesarean sections and large families: a potentially dangerous combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ahmed M; Dudenhausen, Joachim W; Ahmed, Badreldeen

    2017-07-26

    Rates of cesarean sections have been on the rise over the past three decades all over the world, despite the ideal rate of 10-15% that had been set by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1985, in Fortaleza, Brazil. This epidemic increase in the rate of cesarean delivery is due to many factors which include, cesarean delivery on request, advanced maternal age at first pregnancy, decrease in number of patients who are willing to try vaginal birth after cesarean delivery, virtual disappearance of vaginal breech delivery, perceived increase in the weight of the fetus and increase in the number of women with chronic medical conditions such as Diabetes Mellitus and congenital heart disease in the reproductive age. There is no doubt that cesarean delivery is a safe procedure and it is getting safer and safer for many reasons. However, like all other surgical procedures it is not without risks both to the mother and the new born. There is a substantial increase in the incidence of morbidly adherent placenta and the risk of scar pregnancy. In the Middle East and many African and Asian countries women tend to have large families. The number of previous cesarean section deliveries is directly proportional to the risk of developing morbidly adherent placenta. Morbidly adherent placenta is the most common cause of emergency postpartum hysterectomy, which is often associated with multiple surgical complications, severe maternal morbidity and mortality. The increased rates of cesarean sections lead to increased rates of scar pregnancies, which can have lethal consequences. Cesarean delivery has a negative impact on the infant immune system. This effect on the infant led to the introduction of a new concept called "Vaginal seeding". This refers to the practice of transferring some maternal vaginal fluid to the infant born via cesarean section in an effort to enhance its immune system.

  5. Hypoxia increases exercise heart rate despite combined inhibition of β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, Christoph; Rasmussen, Peter; Sørensen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia increases the heart rate (HR) response to exercise but the mechanism(s) remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the tachycardic effect of hypoxia persists during separate but not combined inhibition of β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors. Nine subjects performed incremental exercise...... combined β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptor inhibition....

  6. 76 FR 61074 - USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... Quota for Refined Sugar AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced an increase in the fiscal year (FY) 2011 refined sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) of... INFORMATION: A quantity of 22,000 MTRV for sugars, syrups, and molasses (collectively referred to as refined...

  7. Using Norm-Based Appeals to Increase Response Rates in Evaluation Research: A Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Shalini; Stokols, Daniel; Marino, Anne Heberger

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of norm-based persuasive messages for increasing response rates in online survey research. Participants in an interdisciplinary conference were asked to complete two successive postconference surveys and randomly assigned to one of two groups at each time point. The experimental group…

  8. The Use of Gap Analysis to Increase Student Completion Rates at Travelor Adult School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Blanca Estela

    2013-01-01

    This project applied the gap analysis problem-solving framework (Clark & Estes, 2008) in order to help develop strategies to increase completion rates at Travelor Adult School. The purpose of the study was to identify whether the knowledge, motivation and organization barriers were contributing to the identified gap. A mixed method approached…

  9. 78 FR 23671 - Onions Grown in South Texas; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... behalf. There are approximately 85 producers of onions in the production area and approximately 30... FR] Onions Grown in South Texas; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service... Texas Onion Committee (Committee) for the 2012-13 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.025 to $0.03 per...

  10. Increasing rate of middle ear ventilation tube insertion in children in denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki Ditlev; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    ventilation tube insertions distributed among 269,459 different children were identified. From 1997 to 2010 the age standardized incidence rate in 0-15-year-olds increased from 26 to 40 per 1000 person years with an estimated annual increase of 2.0% (95% confidence interval 1.9-2.1%). The largest increase...... in incidence rate was found in 1-year-olds with an annual increase of 4.5% (95% confidence interval 4.4-4.6%). Age-specific incidence rates remained at maximum around the age of 14 months throughout the period. The cumulative incidence proportion for the 2010 birth cohort by the time they reach the age of 5......OBJECTIVE: To study the incidence rates of middle ear ventilation tube insertion in children aged 0 to 15 years in Denmark from 1997 to 2010. METHODS: Using two national registers, the Danish National Health Service Register and the Danish National Patient Register, practically all cases of middle...

  11. 76 FR 7095 - Avocados Grown in South Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... FIR] Avocados Grown in South Florida; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service... established for the Avocado Administrative Committee (Committee), for the 2010-11 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.27 to $0.37 per 55-pound bushel container of Florida avocados handled. The Committee...

  12. 76 FR 18003 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... the marketing order now in effect, California raisin handlers are subject to assessments. Funds to... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 989 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0090...: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate...

  13. 78 FR 8047 - Onions Grown in South Texas; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, South Texas onion... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 959 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-12-0039; FV12-959-1 PR] Onions Grown in South Texas; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  14. 75 FR 51924 - Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, apricot handlers in... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 922 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0050...: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate...

  15. 75 FR 67607 - Dried Prunes Produced in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California dried prune... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 993 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0057... Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate established...

  16. Exogenous insulin does not increase muscle protein synthesis rate when administered systemically: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trommelen, J.; Groen, B.; Hamer, H.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Loon, van L.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Though it is well appreciated that insulin plays an important role in the regulation of muscle protein metabolism, there is much discrepancy in the literature on the capacity of exogenous insulin administration to increase muscle protein synthesis rates in vivo in humans. Objective To

  17. 76 FR 7119 - Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) (5 U.S.C. 601-612), the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) has considered... Marketing Service. [FR Doc. 2011-2875 Filed 2-8-11; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3410-02-P ...

  18. 78 FR 63128 - Dried Prunes Produced in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This... the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) (5 U.S.C. 601-612), the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) has... prunes. Dated: October 17, 2013. Rex A. Barnes, Associate Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service...

  19. Increasing recruitment rates in an inpatient clinical research study using quality improvement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauers, Hadley S; Beck, Andrew F; Kahn, Robert S; Simmons, Jeffrey M

    2014-11-01

    One important benefit of successful patient recruitment is increased generalizability of findings. We sought to optimize enrollment of children admitted with asthma as part of a population-based, prospective, observational cohort study with the goal of enrolling at least 60% of all eligible and staffed patients. Quality improvement methods were used to improve cohort recruitment. Weekly meetings with study staff and study leadership were held to plan and discuss how to maximize recruitment rates. Significant initial variability in recruitment success prompted the team to use small-scale tests of change to increase recruitment numbers. A number of tests were trialed, focusing primarily on reducing patient refusals and improving recruitment process efficiency. Recruitment rates were calculated by dividing eligible by enrolled patients and displayed using annotated Shewhart control charts. Control charts were used to illustrate week-to-week variability while also enabling differentiation of common-cause and special-cause variation. The study enrolled 774 patients, representing 54% of all eligible and 59% of those eligible for whom staff were available to enroll. Our mean weekly recruitment rate increased from 55% during the first 3 months of the study to a statistically significant sustained rate of 61%. This was sustained given numerous obstacles, such as departing and hiring of staff and adding a second recruitment location. Implementing quality improvement methods within a larger research study led to an increase in the rate of recruitment as well as the stability in recruitment rates from week-to-week. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Shale gas activity and increased rates of sexually transmitted infections in Ohio, 2000–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeau, Zoe; Elliott, Elise G.; Warren, Joshua L.; Niccolai, Linda M.

    2018-01-01

    Background The growing shale gas (“fracking”) industry depends on a mobile workforce, whose influx could have social impacts on host communities. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can increase through sexual mixing patterns associated with labor migration. No prior studies have quantified the relationship between shale gas activity and rates of three reportable STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Methods We conducted a longitudinal, ecologic study from 2000–2016 in Ohio, situated in a prolific shale gas region in the United States (US). Data on reported cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis by county and year were obtained from the Ohio Department of Health. All 88 counties were classified as none, low, and high shale gas activity in each year, using data from the Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Annual rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated from mixed-effects Poisson regression models evaluating the relationship between shale gas activity and reported annual STI rates while adjusting for secular trends and potential confounders obtained from the US Census. Results Compared to counties with no shale gas activity, counties with high activity had 21% (RR = 1.21; 95%CI = 1.08–1.36) increased rates of chlamydia and 19% (RR = 1.27; 95%CI 0.98–1.44) increased rates of gonorrhea, respectively. No association was observed for syphilis. Conclusion This first report of a link between shale gas activity and increased rates of both chlamydia and gonorrhea may inform local policies and community health efforts. PMID:29570712

  1. Textured insoles reduce vertical loading rate and increase subjective plantar sensation in overground running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Michael; Ewen, Alistair; Caplan, Nicholas; O'leary, David; Smith, Neil; Stoneham, Richard; Saxby, Lee

    2018-05-01

    The effect of textured insoles on kinetics and kinematics of overground running was assessed. 16 male injury-free-recreational runners attended a single visit (age 23 ± 5 yrs; stature 1.78 ± 0.06 m; mass 72.6 ± 9.2 kg). Overground 15-m runs were completed in flat, canvas plimsolls both with and without textured insoles at self-selected velocity on an indoor track in an order that was balanced among participants. Average vertical loading rate and peak vertical force (F peak ) were captured by force platforms. Video footage was digitised for sagittal plane hip, knee and ankle angles at foot strike and mid stance. Velocity, stride rate and length and contact and flight time were determined. Subjectively rated plantar sensation was recorded by visual scale. 95% confidence intervals estimated mean differences. Smallest worthwhile change in loading rate was defined as standardised reduction of 0.54 from a previous comparison of injured versus non-injured runners. Loading rate decreased (-25 to -9.3 BW s -1 ; 60% likely beneficial reduction) and plantar sensation was increased (46-58 mm) with the insole. F peak (-0.1 to 0.14 BW) and velocity (-0.02 to 0.06 m s -1 ) were similar. Stride length, flight and contact time were lower (-0.13 to -0.01 m; -0.02 to-0.01 s; -0.016 to -0.006 s) and stride rate was higher (0.01-0.07 steps s -1 ) with insoles. Textured insoles elicited an acute, meaningful decrease in vertical loading rate in short distance, overground running and were associated with subjectively increased plantar sensation. Reduced vertical loading rate could be explained by altered stride characteristics.

  2. Restrictive use of perioperative blood transfusion does not increase complication rates in microvascular breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Anne C; Barandun, Marina; Cha, Jieun; Zhong, Toni; Hofer, Stefan O P

    2016-08-01

    With increasing appreciation of the possible adverse effects of peri-operative blood transfusion, restrictive policies regarding use of blood products have been adopted in many surgical specialties. Although microvascular breast reconstruction has become a routine procedure, high peri-operative transfusion rates continue to be reported in the literature. In this study we examine the impact of our restrictive approach on blood transfusion rates and postoperative complications in patients undergoing microvascular blood transfusion. A retrospective review of patients undergoing microvascular breast reconstruction with abdominal flaps at a single institution was performed. Patient age and body mass index as well as type, timing and laterality of reconstruction was recorded. Pre-operative and post-operative hemoglobin and hematocrit were recorded. Peri-operative blood transfusion rates were calculated. Post-operative complication rates were compared between patients with higher and lower post-operative hemoglobin levels. Five hundred and twelve patients were included in this study. The peri-operative transfusion rate was 0.98% in this series. There was no significant difference between transfusion rates in unilateral and bilateral reconstructions (0.68 vs 1.36% p = 0.08) or immediate and delayed reconstructions (1.02 vs 0.51% p = 0.72 and 1.01 vs 1.60% p = 0.09 for unilateral and bilateral respectively). Lower post-operative hemoglobin levels were not associated with increased flap related, surgical or medical complications rates. A restrictive approach to peri-operative blood transfusion can be safely adopted in microvascular breast reconstruction without compromising flap viability or overall complication rates. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Insight into the Physical and Dynamical Processes that Control Rapid Increases in Total Flash Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid increases in total lightning (also termed "lightning jumps") have been observed for many decades. Lightning jumps have been well correlated to severe and hazardous weather occurrence. The main focus of lightning jump work has been on the development of lightning algorithms to be used in real-time assessment of storm intensity. However, in these studies it is typically assumed that the updraft "increases" without direct measurements of the vertical motion, or specification of which updraft characteristic actually increases (e.g., average speed, maximum speed, or convective updraft volume). Therefore, an end-to-end physical and dynamical basis for coupling rapid increases in total flash rate to increases in updraft speed and volume must be understood in order to ultimately relate lightning occurrence to severe storm metrics. Herein, we use polarimetric, multi-Doppler, and lightning mapping array measurements to provide physical context as to why rapid increases in total lightning are closely tied to severe and hazardous weather.

  4. Relaxation of polarized nuclei in superconducting rhodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuuttila, T.A.; Tuoriniemi, J.T.; Lefmann, K.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear spin lattice relaxation rates were measured in normal and superconducting (sc) rhodium with nuclear polarizations up to p = 0.55. This was sufficient to influence the sc state of Rh, whose T, and B-c, are exceptionally low. Because B-c ... is unchanged, the nuclear spin entropy was fully sustained across the sc transition. The relaxation in the sc state was slower at all temperatures without the coherence enhancement close to T-c. Nonzero nuclear polarization strongly reduced the difference between the relaxation rates in the sc and normal...

  5. Relaxation characteristics of hastelloy X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko

    1980-02-01

    Relaxation diagrams of Hastelloy X (relaxation curves, relaxation design diagrams, etc.) were generated from the creep constitutive equation of Hastelloy X, using inelastic stress analysis code TEPICC-J. These data are in good agreement with experimental relaxation data of ORNL-5479. Three typical inelastic stress analyses were performed for various relaxation behaviors of the high-temperature structures. An attempt was also made to predict these relaxation behaviors by the relaxation curves. (author)

  6. Gamma-ray dose rate increase at rainfall events and their air-mass origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2007-01-01

    The environmental γ-ray dose rate and precipitation rates were measured at our institute, in Rokkasho, Aomori, Japan. We analyzed 425 rainfall events in which the precipitation rate was over 0.5 mm from April through November during the years 2003 to 2005. Backward trajectories for 5 d starting from 1000 m above Rokkasho at the time of the maximum dose rate in a rainfall event, were calculated by using the HYSPLIT model of the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory. The trajectories for 5 d were classified by visual inspection according to the passage areas; Pacific Ocean, Asian Continent and Japan Islands. The increase of cumulative environmental γ-ray dose during a rainfall event was plotted against the precipitation in the event, and their relationship was separately examined according to the air-mass passage area, i.e. origin of the air-mass. Our results showed that the origin of air-mass was an important factor affecting the increase of environmental γ-ray dose rate by rainfall. (author)

  7. Growth hormone increases and maturation decreases glutamine synthetase turnover rate in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.K.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was made of the effect of hypophysectomy and growth hormone (GH) replacement regimen (1 mg/100 g twice daily for 30 days); and maturation (from 25 up to 90 days) on the liver and brain glutamine synthetase (GS) mass and turnover rates in rats. The first order decay rate of enzyme 14 C radioactivity was determined between 1 and 4 days to obtain the half-life (T/sub 1/2/) of GS. The hepatic GS mass was determined by immunoassay. GS turnover (GS/sub s/) was calculated from T/sub 1/2/ and the GS mass (i.e., K = 0.693/T/sub 1/2/; GS/sub s/ = K x GS mass). It was concluded that: (1) GS specific activity is not decreased by hypophysectomy or increased by GH. These results suggested that observed endocrine induced changes in GS are due to changes in GS mass. (2) The liver GS turnover rate is significantly reduced by hypophysectomy and increased by GH replacement. It was proposed that GH specifically enhances synthesis of GS in the liver. (3) Maturation (25, 40, 60, and 90 days) decreases GS turnover rate in both liver and brain of normal rats. This similar effect of maturation suggests that the observed age induced decline in GS turnover rate is not related to GH in all tissues

  8. Chocolate bar as an incentive did not increase response rate among physiotherapists: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahm Kristin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a small incentive, a bar of dark chocolate, on response rate in a study of physiotherapy performance in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Findings Norwegian physiotherapists from private practice were randomised in blocks to an intervention group (n = 1027 receiving a bar of dark chocolate together with a data-collection form, and a control group (n = 1027 that received the data-collection form only. The physiotherapists were asked to prospectively complete the data-collection form by reporting treatments provided to one patient with knee osteoarthritis through 12 treatment sessions. The outcome measure was response rate of completed forms. Out of the 510 physiotherapists that responded, 280 had completed the data-collection form by the end of the study period. There was no difference between the chocolate and no-chocolate group in response rate of those who sent in completed forms. In the chocolate group, 142 (13.8% returned completed forms compared to 138 (13.4% in the control group, ARR = 0.4 (95% CI: -3.44 to 2.6. Conclusion A bar of dark chocolate did not increase response rate in a prospective study of physiotherapy performance. Stronger incentives than chocolate seem to be necessary to increase the response rate among professionals who are asked to report about their practice. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials register: ISRCTN02397855

  9. Fetal responses to induced maternal relaxation during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, Janet A; Costigan, Kathleen A; Nelson, Priscilla; Gurewitsch, Edith D; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2008-01-01

    Fetal responses to induced maternal relaxation during the 32nd week of pregnancy were recorded in 100 maternal-fetal pairs using a digitized data collection system. The 18-min guided imagery relaxation manipulation generated significant changes in maternal heart rate, skin conductance, respiration period, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Significant alterations in fetal neurobehavior were observed, including decreased fetal heart rate (FHR), increased FHR variability, suppression of fetal motor activity (FM), and increased FM-FHR coupling. Attribution of the two fetal cardiac responses to the guided imagery procedure itself, as opposed to simple rest or recumbency, is tempered by the observed pattern of response. Evaluation of correspondence between changes within individual maternal-fetal pairs revealed significant associations between maternal autonomic measures and fetal cardiac patterns, lower umbilical and uterine artery resistance and increased FHR variability, and declining salivary cortisol and FM activity. Potential mechanisms that may mediate the observed results are discussed.

  10. A method to increase optical timing spectra measurement rates using a multi-hit TDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, W.W.

    1993-01-01

    A method is presented for using a modern time to digital converter (TDC) to increase the data collection rate for optical timing measurements such as scintillator decay times. It extends the conventional delayed coincidence method, where a synchronization signal ''starts'' a TDC and a photomultiplier tube (PMT) sampling the optical signal ''stops'' the TDC. Data acquisition rates are low with the conventional method because ε, the light collection efficiency of the ''stop'' PMT, is artificially limited to ε∼0.01 photons per ''start'' signal to reduce the probability of detecting more than one photon during the sampling period. With conventional TDCs, these multiple photon events bias the time spectrum since only the first ''stop'' pulse is digitized. The new method uses a modern TDC to detect whether additional ''stop'' signals occur during the sampling period, and actively reject these multiple photon events. This allows ε to be increased to almost 1 photon per ''start'' signal, which maximizes the data acquisition rate at a value nearly 20 times higher. Multi-hit TDCs can digitize the arrival times of n ''stop'' signals per ''start'' signal, which allows ε to be increased to ∼3n/4. While overlap of the ''stop'' signals prevents the full gain in data collection rate to be realized, significant improvements are possible for most applications. (orig.)

  11. The impact of rate reduction and increased loudness on fundamental frequency characteristics in dysarthria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which articulatory rate reduction and increased loudness were associated with adjustments in utterance-level measures of fundamental frequency (F(0)) variability for speakers with dysarthria and healthy controls that have been shown to impact on intelligibility in previously published studies. More generally, the current study sought to compare and contrast how a slower-than-normal rate and increased vocal loudness impact on a variety of utterance-level F(0) characteristics for speakers with dysarthria and healthy controls. Eleven speakers with Parkinson's disease, 15 speakers with multiple sclerosis, and 14 healthy control speakers were audio recorded while reading a passage in habitual, loud, and slow conditions. Magnitude production was used to elicit variations in rate and loudness. Acoustic measures of duration, intensity and F(0) were obtained. For all speaker groups, a slower-than-normal articulatory rate and increased vocal loudness had distinct effects on F(0) relative to the habitual condition, including a tendency for measures of F(0) variation to be greater in the loud condition and reduced in the slow condition. These results suggest implications for the treatment of dysarthria. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Nested radiations and the pulse of angiosperm diversification: increased diversification rates often follow whole genome duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, David C; Eastman, Jonathan M; Pennell, Matthew W; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Hinchliff, Cody E; Brown, Joseph W; Sessa, Emily B; Harmon, Luke J

    2015-07-01

    Our growing understanding of the plant tree of life provides a novel opportunity to uncover the major drivers of angiosperm diversity. Using a time-calibrated phylogeny, we characterized hot and cold spots of lineage diversification across the angiosperm tree of life by modeling evolutionary diversification using stepwise AIC (MEDUSA). We also tested the whole-genome duplication (WGD) radiation lag-time model, which postulates that increases in diversification tend to lag behind established WGD events. Diversification rates have been incredibly heterogeneous throughout the evolutionary history of angiosperms and reveal a pattern of 'nested radiations' - increases in net diversification nested within other radiations. This pattern in turn generates a negative relationship between clade age and diversity across both families and orders. We suggest that stochastically changing diversification rates across the phylogeny explain these patterns. Finally, we demonstrate significant statistical support for the WGD radiation lag-time model. Across angiosperms, nested shifts in diversification led to an overall increasing rate of net diversification and declining relative extinction rates through time. These diversification shifts are only rarely perfectly associated with WGD events, but commonly follow them after a lag period. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Constant Growth Rate Can Be Supported by Decreasing Energy Flux and Increasing Aerobic Glycolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Slavov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermenting glucose in the presence of enough oxygen to support respiration, known as aerobic glycolysis, is believed to maximize growth rate. We observed increasing aerobic glycolysis during exponential growth, suggesting additional physiological roles for aerobic glycolysis. We investigated such roles in yeast batch cultures by quantifying O2 consumption, CO2 production, amino acids, mRNAs, proteins, posttranslational modifications, and stress sensitivity in the course of nine doublings at constant rate. During this course, the cells support a constant biomass-production rate with decreasing rates of respiration and ATP production but also decrease their stress resistance. As the respiration rate decreases, so do the levels of enzymes catalyzing rate-determining reactions of the tricarboxylic-acid cycle (providing NADH for respiration and of mitochondrial folate-mediated NADPH production (required for oxidative defense. The findings demonstrate that exponential growth can represent not a single metabolic/physiological state but a continuum of changing states and that aerobic glycolysis can reduce the energy demands associated with respiratory metabolism and stress survival.

  14. TEACHING NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NORRIS, JEANNE E.; STEINHAUS, ARTHUR H.

    THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED TO FIND OUT WHETHER (1) THE METHODS FOR ATTAINING NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION THAT HAVE PROVED FRUITFUL IN THE ONE-TO-ONE RELATIONSHIP OF THE CLINIC CAN BE SUCCESSFULLY ADAPTED TO THE TEACHER-CLASS RELATIONSHIP OF THE CLASSROOM AND GYMNASIUM, AND (2) NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION CAN BE TAUGHT SUCCESSFULLY BY AN APPROPRIATELY TRAINED…

  15. Relaxation of Anisotropic Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deubener, Joachim; Martin, Birgit; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2004-01-01

    . When the load was removed at room temperature a permanent optical anisotropy (birefringence) was observed only perpendicular to cylinder axis and the pressure direction indicating complete elimination of thermal stresses. Relaxation of structural anisotropy was studied from reheating experiments using...... the energy release, thermo-mechanical and optical relaxation behaviour are drawn....

  16. Increased cesarean section rate in Central Saudi Arabia: a change in practice or different maternal characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Kadri HM

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hanan M Al-Kadri,1 Sultana A Al-Anazi,1 Hani M Tamim21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, 2College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Cesarean section (CS rate has shown creepy increase. We aimed in this work to identify factors contributing to increasing rate of CS in central Saudi Arabia.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City. Two groups of women were included (G1 and G2. G1 had delivered by CS during the year 2002 (CS rate 12%, and G2 had delivered by CS during the year 2009 (CS rate 20%. We compared the included women’s characteristics, neonates, CS indications, and complications. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15 program. Odds ratios and confidence intervals were calculated to report precision of categorical data results. A P-value of ≤0.05 was considered significant.Results: A total of 198 women were included in G1 and 200 in G2. Both groups had comparable maternal and fetal characteristics; however, absence of antenatal care has resulted in 70% increase in CS deliveries for G2, P=0.008, OR =0.30, CI 0.12–0.76. Previous vaginal surgeries have contributed to tenfold increase in CS deliveries for G2, P=0.006, OR =10.37, CI 1.32–81.78. G2 had eight times increased CS deliveries than G1 due to intrauterine growth restriction, P=0.02, OR =8.21, CI 1.02–66.25, and 80% increased risk of CS was based on maternal demand, P=0.02, OR =0.20, CI 0.02–1.71. Decision taken by less-experienced staff was associated with 2.5-fold increase in CS deliveries for G2, P=0.002, OR =2.62, CI 1.39–4.93. There was a significant increase in CS deliveries under regional analgesia and shorter duration of hospital stay for G2, P=0.0001 and P=0.001, respectively. G2 women had 2.75-fold increase in neonatal intensive care unit admission, P=0.03, OR =2.75, CI 1.06–7.15.Conclusion: CS delivery rate

  17. Increasing the response rate of text messaging data collection: a delayed randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Wang, Wei; Wu, Qiong; van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Chen, Li; Du, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Yanfeng; Rudan, Igor; Car, Josip

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the effectiveness of multiple interventions on increasing the response rate of text messaging for longitudinal data collection. Methods Our cohort included 283 caregivers of children aged 6–12 months who were participating in an anemia program in rural China. Using text messages to collect data on anemia medication adherence, we conducted a delayed randomized controlled trial to test multiple interventions (an additional four reminders; a ¥5.0 (US$0.79) credit reward for replying; and a feedback text message). After a 6-week pilot study with week 7 as the baseline measurement, we randomly allocated all participants into two groups: group 1 (n = 142) and group 2 (n = 141). During weeks 8–11, we introduced the interventions to group 1, and in weeks 12–15 the intervention was introduced to both groups. We compared the response rates between groups and explored factors affecting the response rate. Results During weeks 8–11, the response rates in group 1 increased and were significantly higher than in group 2 (p0.05) and slightly decreased in group 1. Younger participants or participants who had children with lower hemoglobin concentration were more likely to reply (p = 0.02). Sending four reminders on the second day contributed to only 286 (11.7%) extra text messages. Discussion Our study showed that multiple interventions were effective in increasing response rate of text messaging data collection in rural China. Conclusions Larger multi-site studies are needed to find the most effective way of using these interventions to allow usage of text messaging data collection for health research. PMID:25332355

  18. Increase in the prescription rate of antidepressants after the Sewol Ferry disaster in Ansan, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Man; Kim, Kyoung-Hoon; Lee, Mikyung; Lee, Sang-Min; Ko, Young-Hoon; Paik, Jong-Woo

    2017-09-01

    Previous pharmaco-epidemiological studies have reported increases in the prescription of psychotropic medications after a disaster, reflecting post-disaster changes in psychiatric conditions and mental health service utilization. We investigated changes in the prescription of psychotropic medications in the Danwon district of Ansan city (Ansan Danwon) compared to a control community before and after the Sewol Ferry disaster on April 16, 2014. Data was collected from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database. We analyzed the prescription rates of psychotropic medications including antidepressants, anxiolytics, and sedatives/hypnotics, and investigated whether the time-series pattern of monthly prescriptions per 100,000 people was different in Ansan Danwon compared to that in Cheonan city after the Sewol Ferry disaster through difference-in-differences regression analysis. Ansan Danwon showed a significantly greater increase (5.6%) in the prescription rate of antidepressants compared to Cheonan city following the Sewol Ferry disaster. There were no significant differences in changes in the prescription rates of anxiolytics or sedatives/hypnotics. In the secondary analysis, a significantly greater increase in the prescription rate of antipsychotics was observed in Ansan Danwon compared to a control community after the disaster. We could not exclude the possibility that other events influenced changes in the prescription rates of psychotropic medications during the study period. Pharmaco-epidemiological studies on psychotropic medication prescription after a disaster provide important information about population-level mental health. Our results suggest that the Sewol Ferry disaster exerted a harmful effect on the mental health status of the affected community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased rate of treatment with antidepressants in patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Harhoff, Mette; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of depression and anxiety is increased in patients with multiple sclerosis, but it has not been investigated whether these conditions are treated in clinical practice. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the rate of treatment with antidepressants is increased...... in patients with multiple sclerosis compared with patients with other chronic illnesses and compared with the general population. By linkage of nationwide case registers, all patients were identified, who had received a main diagnosis of multiple sclerosis or osteoarthritis at first admission or during...... outpatient contact in the period 1995-2000 in Denmark. Rates of subsequent purchase of antidepressants for these patients were calculated. In total, 417 patients with a main diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and 12 127 patients with a main diagnosis of osteoarthritis, at first discharge from hospital...

  20. A new entropy condition for increasing accuracy and convergence rate of TVD scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashidi, M.M.; Esfahanian, V.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a TVD method is applied to the numerical solution of the flow over axisymmetric steady hypersonic viscous flow using TLNS equations over blunt cone. In the TVD schemes, the artificial viscosity (AV) is implemented using entropy condition. For hypersonic flow, Yee entropy condition shows relatively a better stability and convergence rate than others. This paper presents a new entropy condition for increasing the accuracy and convergence rate of the TVD scheme which does not have the difficulty associated with Yee entropy condition for viscous flow in the hypersonic regime. The entropy condition increases the AV in the shocks and decreases AV in the smooth region. The numerical solution has been compared with the Beam and Warming shock fitting approach indicating a better numerical accuracy. (author)

  1. [Voluntary alpha-power increasing training impact on the heart rate variability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Balioz, N V; Muravleva, K B; Skoraia, M V

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the effect of the alpha EEG power increasing training at heart rate variability (HRV) as the index of the autonomic regulation of cognitive functions there were follow tasks: (1) to figure out the impact of biofeedback in the voluntary increasing the power in the individual high-frequency alpha-band effect on heart rate variability and related characteristics of cognitive and emotional spheres, (2) to determine the nature of the relationship between alpha activity indices and heart rate variability, depending on the alpha-frequency EEG pattern at rest (3) to examine how the individual alpha frequency EEG pattern is reflected in changes HRV as a result of biofeedback training. Psychometric indicators of cognitive performance, the characteristics of the alpha-EEG activity and heart rate variability (HRV) as LF/HF and pNN50 were recorded in 27 healthy men aged 18-34 years, before, during, and after 10 sessions of training of voluntary increase in alpha power in the individual high-frequency alpha band with eyes closed. To determine the biofeedback effect on the alpha power increasing training, data subjects are compared in 2 groups: experimental (14) with the real and the control group (13 people)--with mock biofeedback. The follow up effect of trainings was studied through month over the 10 training sessions. Results showed that alpha biofeedback training enhanced the fluency and accuracy in cognitive performance, decreased anxiety and frontal EMG, increased resting frequency, width and power in individual upper alpha range only in participants with low baseline alpha frequency. While mock biofeedback increased resting alpha power only in participants with high baseline resting alpha frequency and did change neither cognitive performance, nor HRV indices. Biofeedback training eliminated the alpha power decrease in response to arithmetic task in both with high and low alpha frequency participants and this effect was followed up over the month. Mock

  2. Increased rate of repair of ultraviolet-induced DNA strand breaks in mitogen stimulated lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, S.M.; Lavin, M.F.; Jennings, P.A. (Queensland Univ., St. Lucia (Australia). Dept. of Biochemistry; Queensland Univ., St. Lucia (Australia). Dept. of Veterinary Pathology; Queensland Univ. St. Lucia (Australia). Dept. of Public Health)

    1982-05-01

    Previous results have shown that phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated bovine lymphocytes exhibit a peak of ultraviolet-induced DNA repair synthesis 3 to 4 days after addition of mitogen. The level of repair synthesis was approximately tenfold higher than that in unstimulated lymphocytes. These studies have been extended to examine the rate of repair of strand breaks in U.V.-irradiated bovine lymphocytes. The extent of breakage of DNA was shown to be the same in mitogen-stimulated and unstimulated lymphocytes from two breeds of cattle, when determined by sedimentation of nucleoids on sucrose gradients. However, in mitogen-stimulated cells the time taken to repair DNA strand breaks was 6 hours compared with 12 hours in stationary phase lymphocytes after a U.V. dose of 5 J/m/sup 2/. These results suggest that the increased rate of repair of strand breaks is due to the induction of enzymes involved at the post-incision stage of DNA repair. Thus the increased level of repair synthesis observed in earlier work correlates with an increased rate of repair of DNA strand breaks in phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated bovine lymphocytes.

  3. Increased rate of repair of ultraviolet-induced DNA strand breaks in mitogen stimulated lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlet, S.M.; Lavin, M.F.; Jennings, P.A.; Queensland Univ., St. Lucia; Queensland Univ. St. Lucia

    1982-01-01

    Previous results have shown that phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated bovine lymphocytes exhibit a peak of ultraviolet-induced DNA repair synthesis 3 to 4 days after addition of mitogen. The level of repair synthesis was approximately tenfold higher than that in unstimulated lymphocytes. These studies have been extended to examine the rate of repair of strand breaks in U.V.-irradiated bovine lymphocytes. The extent of breakage of DNA was shown to be the same in mitogen-stimulated and unstimulated lymphocytes from two breeds of cattle, when determined by sedimentation of nucleoids on sucrose gradients. However, in mitogen-stimulated cells the time taken to repair DNA strand breaks was 6 hours compared with 12 hours in stationary phase lymphocytes after a U.V. dose of 5 J/m 2 . These results suggest that the increased rate of repair of strand breaks is due to the induction of enzymes involved at the post-incision stage of DNA repair. Thus the increased level of repair synthesis observed in earlier work correlates with an increased rate of repair of DNA strand breaks in phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated bovine lymphocytes. (author)

  4. Biofeedback-assisted relaxation training to decrease test anxiety in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Catherine A; Yucha, Carolyn B

    2013-01-01

    Nursing students experiencing debilitating test anxiety may be unable to demonstrate their knowledge and have potential for poor academic performance. A biofeedback-assisted relaxation training program was created to reduce test anxiety. Anxiety was measured using Spielberger's Test Anxiety Inventory and monitoring peripheral skin temperature, pulse, and respiration rates during the training. Participants were introduced to diaphragmatic breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, and autogenic training. Statistically significant changes occurred in respiratory rates and skin temperatures during the diaphragmatic breathing session; respiratory rates and peripheral skin temperatures during progressive muscle relaxation session; respiratory and pulse rates, and peripheral skin temperatures during the autogenic sessions. No statistically significant difference was noted between the first and second TAI. Subjective test anxiety scores of the students did not decrease by the end of training. Autogenic training session was most effective in showing a statistically significant change in decreased respiratory and pulse rates and increased peripheral skin temperature.

  5. Evaluation of an integrated adherence program aimed to increase Medicare Part D star rating measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, R Scott; Tirado, Breanne; Patel, Bimal V; Rein, Philip J

    2014-12-01

    The Centers for Medicare Medicaid Services (CMS) Plan Quality and Performance Program, or Star Ratings Program, allows Medicare beneficiaries to compare quality of care among available Medicare Advantage prescription drug (MA-PD) plans and stand-alone prescription drug plans (PDPs). Health plans have increased intervention efforts and applied existing care management infrastructure as an approach to improving member medication adherence and subsequent Part D star rating performance. Independent Care Health Plan (iCare), an MA-PD plan; MedImpact Healthcare Systems, Inc. (MedImpact), a pharmacy benefits manager; and US MED, a mail order pharmacy, partnered to engage and enroll iCare's dual-eligible special needs population in an intervention designed to improve patient medication adherence and health plan performance for 3 Part D patient safety outcome measures: Medication Adherence for Oral Diabetes Medications (ODM), Medication Adherence for Hypertension (HTN), and Medication Adherence for Cholesterol (CHOL). To (a) assess the effectiveness of a coordinated member-directed medication adherence intervention and (b) determine the overall impact of the intervention on adherence rates and CMS Part D star rating adherence measures.  Administrative pharmacy claims and health plan eligibility data from MedImpact's databases were used to identify members using 3 target medication classes. Adherence was estimated by the proportion of days covered (PDC) for all members. Those members considered at high risk for nonadherence were prioritized for care management services. Risk factors were based on members' use of more than 1 target medication class, newly started therapy, and suboptimal adherence (PDC  less than  80%) in the most recent 6-month period. Data files listing member adherence rates and contact information were formatted and loaded monthly into iCare's care management system, which triggered an alert for care coordinators to counsel members on the importance

  6. From field to health: a simple way to increase the nutraceutical content of grape as shown by NO-dependent vascular relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Francesca; Rossoni, Mara; Iriti, Marcello; di Gennaro, Antonio; Faoro, Franco; Borroni, Emanuele; Borgo, Michele; Scienza, Attilio; Sala, Angelo; Folco, Giancarlo

    2006-07-26

    Polyphenolic grapevine components involved in plant resistance against pathogens possess various pharmacological properties that include nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilation and anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities, which may explain the protective effect of moderate red wine consumption against cardiovascular disease. The aim of this work was (a) to verify the possibility that preharvest treatments of grapevine with a plant activator, benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH), could lead to an enriched nutraceutical potential of wine and (b) to characterize the profile of metabolites responsible for pharmacological activity. Plant spraying at the end of veraison, with a water suspension of BTH (0.3 mM), led to increased whole anthocyanin content as confirmed by HPLC comparative analysis. Extracts from berry skins of BTH-treated grapevines caused NO-dependent vasorelaxation, with a concentration-response curve that was significantly shifted to the left of the control non-BTH-treated curve. Moreover, 1:1000 dilutions of berry extracts from BTH-treated plants significantly increased basal production of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) in human vascular endothelial cells when compared to the corresponding extracts of untreated plants. These results show that BTH treatment increases anthocyanin content of grape extracts, as well as their ability to induce NO-mediated vasoprotection. No increase of anthocyanin content was observed in the wine extracts from BTH-treated vines. It is concluded that BTH treatment could be exploited to increase the nutraceutical potential of grapes.

  7. Luteal phase of the menstrual cycle increases sweating rate during exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia A.M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated whether the luteal phase elevation of body temperature would be offset during exercise by increased sweating, when women are normally hydrated. Eleven women performed 60 min of cycling exercise at 60% of their maximal work load at 32ºC and 80% relative air humidity. Each subject participated in two identical experimental sessions: one during the follicular phase (between days 5 and 8 and the other during the luteal phase (between days 22 and 25. Women with serum progesterone >3 ng/mL, in the luteal phase were classified as group 1 (N = 4, whereas the others were classified as group 2 (N = 7. Post-exercise urine volume (213 ± 80 vs 309 ± 113 mL and specific urine gravity (1.008 ± 0.003 vs 1.006 ± 0.002 changed (P < 0.05 during the luteal phase compared to the follicular phase in group 1. No menstrual cycle dependence was observed for these parameters in group 2. Sweat rate was higher (P < 0.05 in the luteal (3.10 ± 0.81 g m-2 min-1 than in the follicular phase (2.80 ± 0.64 g m-2 min-1 only in group 1. During exercise, no differences related to menstrual cycle phases were seen in rectal temperature, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, mean skin temperature, and pre- and post-exercise body weight. Women exercising in a warm and humid environment with water intake seem to be able to adapt to the luteal phase increase of basal body temperature through reduced urinary volume and increased sweating rate.

  8. Recession contributes to slowest annual rate of increase in health spending in five decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne; Lassman, David; Whittle, Lekha; Catlin, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, US health care spending grew 4.0 percent--a historically low rate of annual increase--to $2.5 trillion, or $8,086 per person. Despite the slower growth, the share of the gross domestic product devoted to health spending increased to 17.6 percent in 2009 from 16.6 percent in 2008. The growth rate of health spending continued to outpace the growth of the overall economy, which experienced its largest drop since 1938. The recession contributed to slower growth in private health insurance spending and out-of-pocket spending by consumers, as well as a reduction in capital investments by health care providers. The recession also placed increased burdens on households, businesses, and governments, which meant that fewer financial resources were available to pay for health care. Declining federal revenues and strong growth in federal health spending increased the health spending share of total federal revenue from 37.6 percent in 2008 to 54.2 percent in 2009.

  9. Metabolic modeling of energy balances in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae shows that pyruvate addition increases growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamminga, Tjerko; Slagman, Simen-Jan; Bijlsma, Jetta J E; Martins Dos Santos, Vitor A P; Suarez-Diez, Maria; Schaap, Peter J

    2017-10-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is cultured on large-scale to produce antigen for inactivated whole-cell vaccines against respiratory disease in pigs. However, the fastidious nutrient requirements of this minimal bacterium and the low growth rate make it challenging to reach sufficient biomass yield for antigen production. In this study, we sequenced the genome of M. hyopneumoniae strain 11 and constructed a high quality constraint-based genome-scale metabolic model of 284 chemical reactions and 298 metabolites. We validated the model with time-series data of duplicate fermentation cultures to aim for an integrated model describing the dynamic profiles measured in fermentations. The model predicted that 84% of cellular energy in a standard M. hyopneumoniae cultivation was used for non-growth associated maintenance and only 16% of cellular energy was used for growth and growth associated maintenance. Following a cycle of model-driven experimentation in dedicated fermentation experiments, we were able to increase the fraction of cellular energy used for growth through pyruvate addition to the medium. This increase in turn led to an increase in growth rate and a 2.3 times increase in the total biomass concentration reached after 3-4 days of fermentation, enhancing the productivity of the overall process. The model presented provides a solid basis to understand and further improve M. hyopneumoniae fermentation processes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2339-2347. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Can online benchmarking increase rates of thrombolysis? Data from the Austrian stroke unit registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Julia; Seyfang, Leonhard; Lang, Wilfried

    2013-09-01

    Despite its widespread availability and known safety and efficacy, a therapy with intravenous thrombolysis is still undergiven. We aimed to identify whether nationwide quality projects--like the stroke registry in Austria--as well as online benchmarking and predefined target values can increase rates of thrombolysis. Therefore, we assessed 6,394 out of 48,462 patients with ischemic stroke from the Austrian stroke registry (study period from March 2003 to December 2011) who had undergone thrombolysis treatment. We defined lower level and target values as quality parameters and evaluated whether or not these parameters could be achieved in the past years. We were able to show that rates of thrombolysis in Austria increased from 4.9% in 2003 to 18.3% in 2011. In a multivariate regression model, the main impact seen was the increase over the years [the OR ranges from 0.47 (95% CI 0.32-0.68) in 2003 to 2.51 (95% CI 2.20-2.87) in 2011). The predefined lower and target levels of thrombolysis were achieved at the majority of participating centers: in 2011 the lower value of 5% was achieved at all stroke units, and the target value of 15% was observed at 21 of 34 stroke units. We conclude that online benchmarking and the concept of defining target values as a tool for nationwide acute stroke care appeared to result in an increase in the rate of thrombolysis over the last few years while the variability between the stroke units has not yet been reduced.

  11. EGF increases expression and activity of PAs in preimplantation rat embryos and their implantation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Har-Vardi Iris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Embryo implantation plays a major role in embryogenesis and the outcome of pregnancy. Plasminogen activators (PAs have been implicated in mammalian fertilization, early stages of development and embryo implantation. As in-vitro developing embryos resulted in lower implantation rate than those developed in-vivo we assume that a reduced PAs activity may be involved. In the present work we studied the effect of EGF on PAs activity, quantity and embryo implantation. Methods Zygotes were flushed from rat oviducts on day one of pregnancy and grown in-vitro in R1ECM supplemented with EGF (10 ng/ml and were grown up to the blastocyst stage. The control groups were grown in the same medium without EGF. The distribution and quantity of the PAs were examined using fluorescence immunohistochemistry followed by measurement of PAs activity using the chromogenic assay. Implantation rate was studied using the embryo donation model. Results PAs distribution in the embryos was the same in EGF treated and untreated embryos. Both PAs were localized in the blastocysts' trophectoderm, supporting the assumption that PAs play a role in the implantation process in rats. EGF increased the quantity of uPA at all stages studied but the 8-cell stage as compared with controls. The tissue type PA (tPA content was unaffected except the 8-cell stage, which was increased. The activity of uPA increased gradually towards the blastocyst stage and more so due to the presence of EGF. The activity of tPA did not vary with the advancing developmental stages although it was also increased by EGF. The presence of EGF during the preimplantation development doubled the rate of implantation of the treated group as compared with controls.

  12. Influence of recycling rate increase of aseptic carton for long-life milk on GWP reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourad, Anna Lucia; Garcia, Eloisa E.C.; Vilela, Gustavo Braz; Von Zuben, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Tetra Pak, through intensive cooperation with its supply chain, increased the post-consumer recycling rate of the aseptic packaging for long-life milk in the last 10 years. In continuation of a previous study that presented a superior overall performance in terms of reduction of the consumption of natural resources, air emissions and most of the water emissions, the objective of the present work was to apply life cycle assessment (LCA) to measure the global warming potential (GWP). The system was assessed using as functional unit 1000 liters of milk packaged in Tetra Pak Aseptic containers. The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions was calculated for recycling rates of 2%, 22%, 30%, 40% and 70% of the post-consumer residues in Scenarios I (only cardboard recycling) and II (total aseptic laminate recycling). Scenario I showed a 14% reduction in GWP, representing 26 kg of avoided CO 2 equiv. emitted due to the efforts of Tetra Pak to increase the recycling rate from 2% (2000) to 22% (2004). If it will be possible to increase the recycling rate to 70% of post-consumer packages in the future, a 48% reduction of GWP could be attained. Methane exhibited the greatest mass reduction among the greenhouse emissions, since it is emitted during the production of cardboard and also as a result of anaerobic degradation in landfills. The total reduction of the energy requirements of the system due to the increase of the recycling rate (from 2% to 22%) is 154 MJ/1000 liters, a saving of 7%. Scenario II (which considers additional polyethylene and aluminum recycling) has a smaller effect on GWP reduction than Scenario I, since PE/AL represent only 25% of the total mass of the container. The major benefit of the recycling of aseptic cartons is the reduction of the amounts of virgin materials required and the consequent reduction of air emissions. The results of this study can be used to encourage the collection of post-consumer milk cartons as part of environmental education

  13. MEA [Municipal Electric Association] declares opposition to 1991 Ontario Hydro rate increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In hearings before the Ontario Energy Board, the Municipal Electric Association (MEA) called for an average 1992 rate increase of 10.3%, lower than Ontario Hydro's revised figure of 10.4%, and a $129 million reduction in its operations, maintenance and administration budget. As it has been noted that Hydro pays considerably higher wages than the surrounding reference community, MEA recommended that the utility reduce and eventually eliminate the premium paid to employees, and also called for staff reductions and layoffs for 1991 and 1992. In the area of transmission reliability, MEA stated that Ontario Hydro's transmission maintenance is suffering at the expense of other priorities, and called for reorganizing its transmission plan to achieve target performance by 1996 rather than 1999. In 1991, only 65-70% of maintenance targets were being achieved. MEA also accused Hydro of deferring operational expenditures into deferment and capitalization, creating a false picture of the utility's financial condition. Also discussed at the hearing were the possible overestimating of the effects of Ontario Hydro's demand management programs, the possibility that a shift to time-of-use rates for industrial customers may increase demand, a downgrading of the province's and the utility's credit rating, and the unpleasant side effects of the non-utility generation program

  14. An EPQ Model with Increasing Demand and Demand Dependent Production Rate under Trade Credit Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan QIN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an EPQ model with the increasing demand and demand dependent production rate involving the trade credit financing policy, which is seldom reported in the literatures. The model considers the manufacturer was offered by the supplier a delayed payment time. It is assumed that the demand is a linear increasing function of the time and the production rate is proportional to the demand. That is, the production rate is also a linear function of time. This study attempts to offer a best policy for the replenishment cycle and the order quantity for the manufacturer to maximum its profit per cycle. First, the inventory model is developed under the above situation. Second, some useful theoretical results have been derived to characterize the optimal solutions for the inventory system. The Algorithm is proposed to obtain the optimal solutions of the manufacturer. Finally, the numerical examples are carried out to illustrate the theorems, and the sensitivity analysis of the optimal solutions with respect to the parameters of the inventory system is performed. Some important management insights are obtained based on the analysis.

  15. Rapamycin treatment is associated with an increased apoptosis rate in experimental vein grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Thomas; Oberhuber, Alexander; Zou, Yping; Tzankov, Alexandar; Ott, Harald; Laufer, Günther; Bonatti, Johannes

    2005-02-01

    Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive agent with marked antiproliferative properties and is effective in reducing in stent restenosis and vein graft neointimal hyperplasia. Apoptosis is one mechanism counterbalancing cellular proliferation. We therefore investigated the role of apoptosis in rapamycin treated vein grafts in a mouse model. C57BL6J mice underwent interposition of the inferior vena cava from isogenic donor mice into the common carotid artery using a cuff technique. In the treatment group 200 microg of rapamycin were applied locally in pluronic gel. The control group did not receive local treatment. Vein grafts were harvested at 4 weeks postoperatively and underwent morphometric analysis as well as immunohistochemical analysis for apoptosis (TUNEL). In grafted veins without treatment (controls) neointimal thickness was 50 (12-58) microm at 4 weeks postoperatively. In 200 microg rapamycin treated grafts the neointimal thickness was 17 (5-55) microm. Rapamycin treated vein grafts showed a significantly increased rate of apoptosis in the adventitia as compared with controls (P=0.032). In the neointima the apoptosis rate was lower in both groups with no significant difference between rapamycin treated grafts and controls. We conclude that treatment of experimental vein grafts with rapamycin is associated with an increased apoptosis rate in the vascular wall and a trend towards reduction of neointimal hyperplasia. These results suggest that apoptosis may be a beneficial antiproliferative component for the treatment of vein graft disease.

  16. Increasing FSW join strength by optimizing feed rate, rotating speed and pin angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmadi, Djarot B.; Purnowidodo, Anindito; Siswanto, Eko

    2017-10-01

    Principally the join in Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is formed due to mechanical bonding. At least there are two factors determines the quality of this join, first is the temperature in the area around the interface and secondly the intense of mixing forces in nugget zone to create the mechanical bonding. The adequate temperature creates good flowability of the nugget zone and an intensive mixing force produces homogeneous strong bonding. Based on those two factors in this research the effects of feed rate, rotating speed and pin angle of the FSW process to the tensile strength of resulted join are studied. The true experimental method was used. Feed rate was varied at 24, 42, 55 and 74 mm/minutes and from the experimental results, it can be concluded that the higher feed rate decreases the tensile strength of weld join and it is believed due to the lower heat embedded in the material. Inversely, the higher rotating speed increases the join’s tensile strength as a result of higher heat embedded in base metal and higher mixing force in the nugget zone. The rotating speed were 1842, 2257 and 2904 RPMs. The pin angle determines the direction of mixing force. With variation of pin angle: 0°, 4°, 8° and 12° the higher pin angle generally increases the tensile strength because of more intensive mixing force. For 12° pin angle the lower tensile strength is found since the force tends to push out the nugget area from the joint gap.

  17. Spin relaxation in nanowires by hyperfine coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverria-Arrondo, C.; Sherman, E.Ya.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperfine interactions establish limits on spin dynamics and relaxation rates in ensembles of semiconductor quantum dots. It is the confinement of electrons which determines nonzero hyperfine coupling and leads to the spin relaxation. As a result, in nanowires one would expect the vanishing of this effect due to extended electron states. However, even for relatively clean wires, disorder plays a crucial role and makes electron localization sufficient to cause spin relaxation on the time scale of the order of 10 ns. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Collisional relaxation of electron tail distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagiwa, Mitsuru; Okamoto, Masao.

    1985-05-01

    Relaxation due to the Coulomb collisions of the electron velocity distribution function with a high energy tail is investigated in detail. In the course of the relaxation, a 'saddle' point can be created in velocity space owing to upsilon -3 dependence of the deflection rate and a positive slope or a 'dip' appears in the tail direction. The time evolution of the electron tail is studied analytically. A comparison is made with numerical results by using a Fokker-Planck code. Also discussed is the kinetic instability concerned with the positive slope during the relaxation. (author)

  19. Increase of the spontaneous mutation rate in a long-term experiment with Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Victoria; Chavarrías, David; Sánchez, Enrique; Manrique, Antonio; López-Fanjul, Carlos; García-Dorado, Aurora

    2006-05-01

    In a previous experiment, the effect of 255 generations of mutation accumulation (MA) on the second chromosome viability of Drosophila melanogaster was studied using 200 full-sib MA1 lines and a large C1 control, both derived from a genetically homogeneous base population. At generation 265, one of those MA1 lines was expanded to start 150 new full-sib MA2 lines and a new C2 large control. After 46 generations, the rate of decline in mean viability in MA2 was approximately 2.5 times that estimated in MA1, while the average degree of dominance of mutations was small and nonsignificant by generation 40 and moderate by generation 80. In parallel, the inbreeding depression rate for viability and the amount of additive variance for two bristle traits in C2 were 2-3 times larger than those in C1. The results are consistent with a mutation rate in the line from which MA2 and C2 were derived about 2.5 times larger than that in MA1. The mean viability of C2 remained roughly similar to that of C1, but the rate of MA2 line extinction increased progressively, leading to mutational collapse, which can be ascribed to accelerated mutation and/or synergy after important deleterious accumulation.

  20. The relaxation time approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gairola, R.P.; Indu, B.D.

    1991-01-01

    A plausible approximation has been made to estimate the relaxation time from a knowledge of the transition probability of phonons from one state (r vector, q vector) to other state (r' vector, q' vector), as a result of collision. The relaxation time, thus obtained, shows a strong dependence on temperature and weak dependence on the wave vector. In view of this dependence, relaxation time has been expressed in terms of a temperature Taylor's series in the first Brillouin zone. Consequently, a simple model for estimating the thermal conductivity is suggested. the calculations become much easier than the Callaway model. (author). 14 refs

  1. The legality of unilateral increase of interest rate in banking loan contracts under Serbian law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudaš Atila I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis spread in 2008 through the world and reached Serbia, rendered the repayment of banking loans indexed in foreign currencies, mostly in CHF at the time, even more difficult. The growing number of non-performing loans inevitably led to an increase in number of the court proceedings in which the debtors made attempts to have the loan contracts declared null and void. In these proceedings, the courts needed to take a stand on some typical clauses in loan contracts and on some banking practices that the debtors considered to be contrary to the principle of good faith, which, before the crisis, was hardly ever given judicial epilogue. In the majority of cases, two types of clauses proved to be unlawful: a clause establishing a right of the bank to subsequently, i.e. after the formation of the contract, and unilaterally, i.e. without a specific consent of the debtor, change (regularly increase the interest rate for the remainder of the credit period; and a clause establishing the right of the bank to apply different exchange rates, i.e. the buying rate to the disbursement of the loan, and the selling rate to the value of credit installments. These clauses certainly existed even before the crisis, but the difficulties in performing the loans caused by the crisis was the social propelling force that brought these cases within the sight of the judiciary. In this paper the author analyzes the reaction of courts, and subsequently that of the legislator, to the clause in loan contracts entitling the bank to unilaterally increase the variable interest rate after the formation of contract. The application of this clause was usually conditioned on significant changes in international financial markets or changes in the costs of the sources of financing, while in some cases the conditions of the application of the clause were simply changes in the business policy of the bank or the need to operate with profit. In any case, these are

  2. Brain cancer mortality rates increase with Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittecoq, Marion; Elguero, Eric; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Roche, Benjamin; Brodeur, Jacques; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée; Thomas, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of adult brain cancer was previously shown to be higher in countries where the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common, suggesting that this brain protozoan could potentially increase the risk of tumor formation. Using countries as replicates has, however, several potential confounding factors, particularly because detection rates vary with country wealth. Using an independent dataset entirely within France, we further establish the significance of the association between T. gondii and brain cancer and find additional demographic resolution. In adult age classes 55 years and older, regional mortality rates due to brain cancer correlated positively with the local seroprevalence of T. gondii. This effect was particularly strong for men. While this novel evidence of a significant statistical association between T. gondii infection and brain cancer does not demonstrate causation, these results suggest that investigations at the scale of the individual are merited.

  3. Increased germination and growth rates of pea and Zucchini seed by FSG plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Shohreh; Ahmadinia, Arash

    2018-04-01

    Recently, cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) with the unique bio-disinfection features is used in various fields of industry, medicine, and agriculture. The main objectives of this work were to design FSG plasma (a semi-automatic device) and investigate the effect of the cold plasma in the enhancement of the Pea and Zucchini seed germination. Plasma irradiation time was studied to obtain a proper condition for the germination enhancement of seeds. The growth rate was calculated by measuring length of root and stem and dry weight of plants treated by plasma. To investigate drought resistance of plants, all treated and untreated samples were kept in darkness without water for 48 h. From the experimental results, it could be confirmed both drought resistance and germination of seedlings increased after plasma was applied to seeds at 30 s, while seeds treated whiten 60 s showed a decrease in both germination rate and seedling growth.

  4. The increase in fatigue crack growth rates observed for Zircaloy-4 in a PWR environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockeram, B. V.; Kammenzind, B. F.

    2018-02-01

    Cyclic stresses produced during the operation of nuclear reactors can result in the extension of cracks by processes of fatigue. Although fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) data for Zircaloy-4 in air are available, little testing has been performed in a PWR primary water environment. Test programs have been performed by Gee et al., in 1989 and Picker and Pickles in 1984 by the UK Atomic Energy Authority, and by Wisner et al., in 1994, that have shown an enhancement in FCGR for Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4 in high-temperature water. In this work, FCGR testing is performed on Zircaloy-4 in a PWR environment in the hydrided and non-hydrided condition over a range of stress-intensity. Measurements of crack extension are performed using a direct current potential drop (DCPD) method. The cyclic rate in the PWR primary water environment is varied between 1 cycle per minute to 0.1 cycle per minute. Faster FCGR rates are observed in water in comparison to FCGR testing performed in air for the hydrided material. Hydrided and non-hydrided materials had similar FCGR values in air, but the non-hydrided material exhibited much lower rates of FCGR in a PWR primary water environment than for hydrided material. Hydrides are shown to exhibit an increased tendency for cracking or decohesion in a PWR primary water environment that results in an enhancement in FCGR values. The FCGR in the PWR primary water only increased slightly with decreasing cycle frequency in the range of 1 cycle per minute to 0.1 cycle per minute. Comparisons between the FCGR in water and air show the enhancement from the PWR environment is affected by the applied stress intensity.

  5. Generator exchange is associated with an increased rate of Sprint Fidelis lead failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, Joshua D; Patel, Ayesha; Mengistu, Andenet; Hoskins, Michael; El-Chami, Mikhael; Lloyd, Michael S; Leon, Angel; DeLurgio, David; Langberg, Jonathan J

    2012-10-01

    The Medtronic Sprint Fidelis defibrillator lead is at an increased risk for failure and was recalled in October 2007. Approximately 268,000 leads were implanted, and more than 100,000 patients still have active Fidelis leads. A number of studies have examined the rate and clinical predictors of lead failure, but none has addressed the effect of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator generator exchange on subsequent lead failure. Although the manufacturer asserts that "Sprint Fidelis performance after device change-out is similar to lead performance without device change-out," published data are lacking. To assess the effect of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator generator exchange on the rate of Fidelis lead failure. A chart review was conducted in patients who underwent implantation of a Fidelis lead. Patients with a functioning Fidelis lead at generator exchange were compared with controls with leads implanted for a comparable amount of time not undergoing ICD replacement. A total of 1366 patients received a Fidelis lead prior to the recall, of which 479 were still actively followed. Seventy-two patients with a functioning lead underwent generator exchange without lead replacement. Following generator replacement, 15 leads failed. Sixty percent of the Fidelis leads failed within 3 months. Generator exchange increased the rate of lead failure compared with matched controls (20.8% vs 2.54%; P exchange is associated with a higher than expected rate of Fidelis lead failure, often within 3 months. The risk-benefit ratio of Fidelis lead replacement at the time of generator exchange may be greater than appreciated. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Increase in the rate and uniformity of coastline erosion in Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, C.D.; Jorgenson, M.T.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Schmutz, J.A.; Flint, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of a 60 km segment of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea coast using a time-series of aerial photography revealed that mean annual erosion rates increased from 6.8 m a-1 (1955 to 1979), to 8.7 m a-1 (1979 to 2002), to 13.6 m a-1 (2002 to 2007). We also observed that spatial patterns of erosion have become more uniform across shoreline types with different degrees of ice-richness. Further, during the remainder of the 2007 ice-free season 25 m of erosion occurred locally, in the absence of a westerly storm event. Concurrent arctic changes potentially responsible for this shift in the rate and pattern of land loss include declining sea ice extent, increasing summertime sea surface temperature, rising sea-level, and increases in storm power and corresponding wave action. Taken together, these factors may be leading to a new regime of ocean-land interactions that are repositioning and reshaping the Arctic coastline. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Increase in the rate of recombinants in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) after in vitro regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, M; Biglary, M; Demarly, Y

    1984-07-01

    Modification to the cross-over (C. O.) rate of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) was attempted by using in vitro plant regeneration. F1 hybrids with the same genetical homozygous background were compared at two loci: "bs-ms32" on chromosome I, and "aa-d" on chromosome II. For each, the genetic distance separating the two markers was about 20 to 30 map units. One cotyledon of each F2 hybrid seedling was used as in vitro tissue culture material, while the rest of the plantlet was grown as a control. Recombination rates of the selfed progenies from each regenerated and matched control couple were compared. For the first set of markers 59,000 seeds were analysed (5 controls' and 7 regenerated progenies), and for the second, 11,000 (5 controls' and 8 regenerated progenies). There were significant increases in the genetic distance between markers in about half the regenerated individuals. For the first set the increases ranged from 6.07 to 6.91 units out of a control distance of the 19.84 to 25.65, corresponding to lengthenings of 30.59 to 35.29%. For the second set they ranged from 4.92 to 6.04 out of a control distance of 25.05 to 26.57, representing increases of 19.64 to 22.75%. Such a phenomenon can be important either from a fundamental or practical viewpoint, regarding selection efficiency in plants, and potential for gene reassortment.

  8. Collisionless relaxation in spiral galaxy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohl, F.

    1974-01-01

    The increase in random kinetic energy of stars by rapidly fluctuating gravitational fields (collisionless or violent relaxation) in disk galaxy models is investigated for three interaction potentials of the stars corresponding to (1) point stars, (2) rod stars of length 2 kpc, and (3) uniform density spherical stars of radius 2 kpc. To stabilize the galaxy against the large scale bar forming instability, a fixed field corresponding to a central core or halo component of stars was added with the stars containing at most 20 percent of the total mass of the galaxy. Considerable heating occurred for both the point stars and the rod stars, whereas the use of spherical stars resulted in a very low heating rate. The use of spherical stars with the resulting low heating rate will be desirable for the study of large scale galactic stability or density wave propagation, since collective heating effects will no longer mask the phenomena under study.

  9. Leaf litter decomposition rates increase with rising mean annual temperature in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori D. Bothwell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Decomposing litter in forest ecosystems supplies nutrients to plants, carbon to heterotrophic soil microorganisms and is a large source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Despite its essential role in carbon and nutrient cycling, the temperature sensitivity of leaf litter decay in tropical forest ecosystems remains poorly resolved, especially in tropical montane wet forests where the warming trend may be amplified compared to tropical wet forests at lower elevations. We quantified leaf litter decomposition rates along a highly constrained 5.2 °C mean annual temperature (MAT gradient in tropical montane wet forests on the Island of Hawaii. Dominant vegetation, substrate type and age, soil moisture, and disturbance history are all nearly constant across this gradient, allowing us to isolate the effect of rising MAT on leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release. Leaf litter decomposition rates were a positive linear function of MAT, causing the residence time of leaf litter on the forest floor to decline by ∼31 days for each 1 °C increase in MAT. Our estimate of the Q10 temperature coefficient for leaf litter decomposition was 2.17, within the commonly reported range for heterotrophic organic matter decomposition (1.5–2.5 across a broad range of ecosystems. The percentage of leaf litter nitrogen (N remaining after six months declined linearly with increasing MAT from ∼88% of initial N at the coolest site to ∼74% at the warmest site. The lack of net N immobilization during all three litter collection periods at all MAT plots indicates that N was not limiting to leaf litter decomposition, regardless of temperature. These results suggest that leaf litter decay in tropical montane wet forests may be more sensitive to rising MAT than in tropical lowland wet forests, and that increased rates of N release from decomposing litter could delay or prevent progressive N limitation to net primary productivity with climate warming.

  10. Effect of Temper Condition on Stress Relaxation Behavior of an Aluminum Copper Lithium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sumeet; Beura, Vikrant Kumar; Singh, Amit; Yadava, Manasij; Nayan, Niraj

    2018-04-01

    Deformation behavior of an Al-Cu-Li alloy in different temper conditions (solutionized and T8) is investigated using stress relaxation tests. Fundamental parameters such as the apparent and physical activation volume, strain rate sensitivity, effective stress, and exhaustion rate of mobile dislocation density are determined from single and multiple relaxation tests. It was found that dislocation-dislocation interaction controls the kinetics of plastic deformation in the solutionized sample, whereas dislocation-precipitate interaction is the overriding factor in the presence of T1 precipitates. The apparent activation volume was found to be significantly lower in the presence of T1 precipitates compared with solutionized samples. Strain rate sensitivity and effective stress were found to be higher in the presence of T1 precipitates. In addition, multiple relaxation tests showed that irrespective of microstructural features (solutes, semi-coherent precipitates), the mobile dislocation density reduces during the relaxation period. Further evidence regarding reduction in mobile dislocation density is obtained from uniaxial tensile tests carried out after stress relaxation tests, where both solutionized and T8 samples show an increase in strength. Additional discussion on relaxation strain is included to provide a complete overview regarding the time-dependent deformation behavior of the Al-Cu-Li alloy in different temper conditions.

  11. Delayed storm-time increases in the whistler rate at mid-latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, M.K.

    1975-01-01

    The occurrence of whistlers during 105 magnetic storms in the period 1963 to 1968 is studied. Evidence that more whistlers occur during the storm recovery period is presented. Assuming that the increased whistler rate implies the presence of more ducts, similarities are noted between the storm-time duct population and the incidence of mid-latitude spread-F in both time and space. It is suggested that a fresh examination of the physical processes involved in spread-F may aid understanding of the formation of whistler ducts. (author)

  12. An attempt to explain strength increase due to high loading rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibl, J.; Curbach, M.

    1989-01-01

    Most materials such as steel, concrete, ceramics, polymers, etc. show an increase of strength due to high loading rates. A number of mathematical equations are available to describe this behaviour. Nevertheless the physical reasons for these observations are still unknown. The common behaviour of a number of materials leads to the assumption that at least some explanations are material independent. Due to this reason the results of the research done at the Institute for Concrete Structures in Karlsruhe are presented in this paper to furnish new ideas for the material research due to dynamic loading. (orig.)

  13. Generalized approach to non-exponential relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Non-exponential relaxation is a universal feature of systems as diverse as glasses, spin ... which changes from a simple exponential to a stretched exponential and a power law by increasing the constraints in the system. ... Current Issue

  14. Intraventricular filling under increasing left ventricular wall stiffness and heart rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaee, Milad; Lai, Hong Kuan; Schovanec, Joseph; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Nagueh, Sherif

    2015-11-01

    Heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) is a clinical syndrome that is prevalent in over 50% of heart failure patients. HFNEF patients show increased left ventricle (LV) wall stiffness and clinical diagnosis is difficult using ejection fraction (EF) measurements. We hypothesized that filling vortex circulation strength would decrease with increasing LV stiffness irrespective of heart rate (HR). 2D PIV and hemodynamic measurements were acquired on LV physical models of varying wall stiffness under resting and exercise HRs. The LV models were comparatively tested in an in vitro flow circuit consisting of a two-element Windkessel model driven by a piston pump. The stiffer LV models were tested in comparison with the least stiff baseline model without changing pump amplitude, circuit compliance and resistance. Increasing stiffness at resting HR resulted in diminishing cardiac output without lowering EF below 50% as in HFNEF. Increasing HR to 110 bpm in addition to stiffness resulted in lowering EF to less than 50%. The circulation strength of the intraventricular filling vortex diminished with increasing stiffness and HR. The results suggest that filling vortex circulation strength could be potentially used as a surrogate measure of LV stiffness. This research was supported by the Oklahoma Center for Advancement of Science and Technology (HR14-022).

  15. Increasing rate of atrial fibrillation from 2003 to 2011 in patients with ischaemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, S F; Christensen, L. M.; Christensen, A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The general awareness of atrial fibrillation is increasing. The key to prevent atrial fibrillation related stroke is oral anticoagulation therapy; however, it has often been proposed that oral anticoagulation therapy is under-utilized despite indication. The aim of the stu...... increase in the use of oral anticoagulation therapy, most probably reflecting an increased awareness and questioning assumed current under-use of oral anticoagulation therapy in secondary stroke prevention.......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The general awareness of atrial fibrillation is increasing. The key to prevent atrial fibrillation related stroke is oral anticoagulation therapy; however, it has often been proposed that oral anticoagulation therapy is under-utilized despite indication. The aim of the study...... was to examine the trends in atrial fibrillation rate in patients after acute ischaemic stroke and to determine whether the use of oral anticoagulation therapy increased from 2003 to 2011. METHODS: In the nationwide Danish Stroke Registry 55 551 patients (≥18 years) admitted with acute ischaemic stroke were...

  16. Regularities of intermediate adsorption complex relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manukova, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental data, characterizing the regularities of intermediate adsorption complex relaxation in the polycrystalline Mo-N 2 system at 77 K are given. The method of molecular beam has been used in the investigation. The analytical expressions of change regularity in the relaxation process of full and specific rates - of transition from intermediate state into ''non-reversible'', of desorption into the gas phase and accumUlation of the particles in the intermediate state are obtained

  17. Levitation and guidance force relaxations of the single-seeded and multi-seeded YBCO superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdioglu, M.; Ozturk, K.; Kabaer, M.; Ekici, M.

    2018-01-01

    The stable levitation and guidance forces at higher force levels are important parameters for technological applicability of high temperature superconductors (HTSs) in Maglev and Flywheel energy storage systems. In this study, we have investigated the levitation and guidance force relaxation of both the single-seeded and multi-seeded YBCOs for different (HTS)-permanent magnetic guideway (PMG) arrangements in different cooling heights (CH). The measured saturated force values of Halbach PMG arrangements are bigger than the maximum force values of other PMGs. It is determined that the normalized magnetic levitation force (MLF) and normalized guidance force (GF) relaxation rate values decrease while the relaxation rates increase with increasing magnetic pole number and the effective external magnetic field area for both the single-seeded and multi-seeded YBCO. Also it can be said that the force stability at the higher force value of Halbach PMG arrangement indicates that the relaxation quality of Halbach PMG is better than that of the others. Additionally, it can be said that both the MLF and GF relaxation qualities of the multi-seeded YBCOs are better than that of the single-seeded ones. This magnetic force and relaxation results of the single-seeded and multi-seeded YBCOs are useful to optimize the loading capacity and lateral reliability of HTS Maglev and similar magnetic bearing systems.

  18. Increasing arterial oxygen partial pressure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation is associated with improved rates of hospital admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindelboeck, Walter; Schindler, Otmar; Moser, Adrian; Hausler, Florian; Wallner, Simon; Strasser, Christa; Haas, Josef; Gemes, Geza; Prause, Gerhard

    2013-06-01

    As recent clinical data suggest a harmful effect of arterial hyperoxia on patients after resuscitation from cardiac arrest (CA), we aimed to investigate this association during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the earliest and one of the most crucial phases of recirculation. We analysed 1015 patients who from 2003 to 2010 underwent out-of-hospital CPR administered by emergency medical services serving 300,000 inhabitants. Inclusion criteria for further analysis were nontraumatic background of CA and patients >18 years of age. One hundred and forty-five arterial blood gas analyses including oxygen partial pressure (paO2) measurement were obtained during CPR. We observed a highly significant increase in hospital admission rates associated with increases in paO2 in steps of 100 mmHg (13.3 kPa). Subsequently, data were clustered according to previously described cutoffs (≤ 60 mmHg [8 kPa

  19. [Light pollution increases morbidity and mortality rate from different causes in male rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukalev, A V; Vinogradova, I A; Zabezhinskiĭ, M A; Semenchenko, A V; Anisimov, V N

    2012-01-01

    The influence of different light regimes (constant light--LL; constant darkness--DD; standard light regime--LD, 12 hours light 12 hours darkness; natural lightening of the North-West of Russia--NL) on the dynamics of life's morbidity rate, spontaneous tumorigenesis and frequency of some kinds of non-tumor pathology revealed at the post-mortem examination of male rats was studied. It was found out that the maintenance of animals at LL and NL conditions led to the increase of the number of infectious diseases, substantially faster development of spontaneous tumors and the increase of non-tumor diseases in comparison with the animals kept at LD (standard light) regime. Light deprivation (DD) led to substantial reduction of development of new growth, of non-tumor and infectious diseases in comparison with the similar parameters in standard light regime.

  20. Relaxation creep model of impending earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgounov, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics of the Earth, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-04-01

    The alternative view of the current status and perspective of seismic prediction studies is discussed. In the problem of the ascertainment of the uncertainty relation Cognoscibility-Unpredictability of Earthquakes, priorities of works on short-term earthquake prediction are defined due to the advantage that the final stage of nucleation of earthquake is characterized by a substantial activation of the process while its strain rate increases by the orders of magnitude and considerably increased signal-to-noise ratio. Based on the creep phenomenon under stress relaxation conditions, a model is proposed to explain different images of precursors of impending tectonic earthquakes. The onset of tertiary creep appears to correspond to the onset of instability and inevitably fails unless it unloaded. At this stage, the process acquires the self-regulating character to the greatest extent the property of irreversibility, one of the important components of prediction reliability. Data in situ suggest a principal possibility to diagnose the process of preparation by ground measurements of acoustic and electromagnetic emission in the rocks under constant strain in the condition of self-relaxed stress until the moment of fracture are discussed in context. It was obtained that electromagnetic emission precedes but does not accompany the phase of macrocrak development.

  1. Increasing Biogas Production Rate from Cattle Manure Using Rumen Fluid as Inoculums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiyono Budiyono

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In this study, rumen fluid of animal ruminant was used as inoculums to increase biogas production rate from cattle manure at mesophilic condition. A series of laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure (M was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid (R and tap water (W in several ratio resulting six different M:W:R ratio contents i.e. 1:1:0; 1:0.75:0.25; 1:0.5:0.5; 1:0.25:0.75; and 1:0:1 (correspond to 0; 12.5; 25, 37.5; 50, and 100 % rumen, respectively and six different total solid (TS contents i.e. 2.6, 4.6, 6.2, 7.4, 9.2, 12.3, and 18.4 %. The operating temperatures were at room temperature. The results showed that the rumen fluid inoculated to biodigester significantly effected the biogas production. Rumen fluid inoculums caused biogas production rate and efficiency increase more than two times in compare to manure substrate without rumen fluid inoculums. The best performance for biogas production was the digester with rumen fluid and TS content in the range of 25-50 % and 7.4 and 9.2 %, respectively. These results suggest that, based on TS content effects to biogas yield, rumen fluid inoculums exhibit the similar effect with other inoculums. Increasing rumen content will also increase biogas production. Due to the optimum total solid (TS content for biogas production between 7-9 % (or correspond to more and less manure and total liquid 1:1, the rumen fluid content of 50 % will give the best performance for biogas production. The future work will be carried out to study the dynamics of biogas production if both the rumen fluid inoculums and manure are fed in the continuous system Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.31-38 [How to cite this article: Budiyono, Widiasa, I.N., Johari, S. and Sunarso. (2014. Increasing Biogas

  2. Elevated atmospheric CO2 increases microbial growth rates and enzymes activity in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Dorodnikov, Maxim; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2010-05-01

    Increasing the belowground translocation of assimilated carbon by plants grown under elevated CO2 can cause a shift in the structure and activity of the microbial community responsible for the turnover of organic matter in soil. We investigated the long-term effect of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere on microbial biomass and specific growth rates in root-free and rhizosphere soil. The experiments were conducted under two free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) systems: in Hohenheim and Braunschweig, as well as in the intensively managed forest mesocosm of the Biosphere 2 Laboratory (B2L) in Oracle, AZ. Specific microbial growth rates (μ) were determined using the substrate-induced respiration response after glucose and/or yeast extract addition to the soil. We evaluated the effect of elevated CO2 on b-glucosidase, chitinase, phosphatase, and sulfatase to estimate the potential enzyme activity after soil amendment with glucose and nutrients. For B2L and both FACE systems, up to 58% higher μ were observed under elevated vs. ambient CO2, depending on site, plant species and N fertilization. The μ-values increased linearly with atmospheric CO2 concentration at all three sites. The effect of elevated CO2 on rhizosphere microorganisms was plant dependent and increased for: Brassica napus=Triticum aestivumyeast extract then for those growing on glucose, i.e. the effect of elevated CO2 was smoothed on rich vs. simple substrate. So, the r/K strategies ratio can be better revealed by studying growth on simple (glucose) than on rich substrate mixtures (yeast extract). After adding glucose, enzyme activities under elevated CO2 were 1.2-1.9-fold higher than under ambient CO2. This indicates the increased activity of microorganisms, which leads to accelerated C turnover in soil under elevated CO2. Our results clearly showed that the functional characteristics of the soil microbial community (i.e. specific growth rates and enzymes activity) rather than total microbial biomass

  3. Impact of Increased Football Field Width on Player High-Speed Collision Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jacob R; Khalsa, Siri S; Smith, Brandon W; Park, Paul

    2017-07-01

    High-acceleration head impact is a known risk for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) based on studies using helmet accelerometry. In football, offensive and defensive players are at higher risk of mTBI due to increased speed of play. Other collision sport studies suggest that increased playing surface size may contribute to reductions in high-speed collisions. We hypothesized that wider football fields lead to a decreased rate of high-speed collisions. Computer football game simulation was developed using MATLAB. Four wide receivers were matched against 7 defensive players. Each offensive player was randomized to one of 5 typical routes on each play. The ball was thrown 3 seconds into play; ball flight time was 2 seconds. Defensive players were delayed 0.5 second before reacting to ball release. A high-speed collision was defined as the receiver converging with a defensive player within 0.5 second of catching the ball. The simulation counted high-speed collisions for 1 team/season (65 plays/game for 16 games/season = 1040 plays/season) averaged during 10 seasons, and was validated against existing data using standard field width (53.3 yards). Field width was increased in 1-yard intervals up to 58.3 yards. Using standard field width, 188 ± 4 high-speed collisions were seen per team per season (18% of plays). When field width increased by 3 yards, high-speed collision rate decreased to 135 ± 3 per team per season (28% decrease; P football field width can lead to substantial decline in high-speed collisions, with potential for reducing instances of mTBI in football players. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased Total Anesthetic Time Leads to Higher Rates of Surgical Site Infections in Spinal Fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Ross C; Murphy, Meghan; Maloney, Patrick; Kor, Daryl; Nassr, Ahmad; Freedman, Brett; Fogelson, Jeremy; Bydon, Mohamad

    2017-06-01

    A retrospective review of a consecutive series of spinal fusions comparing patient and procedural characteristics of patients who developed surgical site infections (SSIs) after spinal fusion. It is known that increased surgical time (incision to closure) is associated with a higher rate of postoperative SSIs. We sought to determine whether increased total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) is a factor in the development of SSIs as well. In spine surgery for deformity and degenerative disease, SSI has been associated with operative time, revealing a nearly 10-fold increase in SSI rates in prolonged surgery. Surgical time is associated with infections in other surgical disciplines as well. No studies have reported whether total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) has an association with SSIs. Surgical records were searched in a retrospective fashion to identify all spine fusion procedures performed between January 2010 and July 2012. All SSIs during that timeframe were recorded and compared with the list of cases performed between 2010 and 2012 in a case-control design. There were 20 (1.7%) SSIs in this fusion cohort. On univariate analyses of operative factors, there was a significant association between total anesthetic time (Infection 7.6 ± 0.5 hrs vs. no infection -6.0 ± 0.1 hrs, P operative time (infection 5.5 ± 0.4 hrs vs. no infection - 4.4 ± 0.06 hrs, P infections, whereas level of pathology and emergent surgery were not significant. On multivariate logistic analysis, BMI and total anesthetic time remained independent predictors of SSI whereas ASA status and operative time did not. Increasing BMI and total anesthetic time were independent predictors of SSIs in this cohort of over 1000 consecutive spinal fusions. 3.

  5. Increasing age and tear size reduce rotator cuff repair healing rate at 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mustafa S; Cooper, Cushla; Cook, Jonathan; Cooper, David; Dakin, Stephanie G; Snelling, Sarah; Carr, Andrew J

    2017-12-01

    Background and purpose - There is a need to understand the reasons why a high proportion of rotator cuff repairs fail to heal. Using data from a large randomized clinical trial, we evaluated age and tear size as risk factors for failure of rotator cuff repair. Patients and methods - Between 2007 and 2014, 65 surgeons from 47 hospitals in the National Health Service (NHS) recruited 447 patients with atraumatic rotator cuff tendon tears to the United Kingdom Rotator Cuff Trial (UKUFF) and 256 underwent rotator cuff repair. Cuff integrity was assessed by imaging in 217 patients, at 12 months post-operation. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influence of age and intra-operative tear size on healing. Hand dominance, sex, and previous steroid injections were controlled for. Results - The overall healing rate was 122/217 (56%) at 12 months. Healing rate decreased with increasing tear size (small tears 66%, medium tears 68%, large tears 47%, and massive tears 27% healed). The mean age of patients with a healed repair was 61 years compared with 64 years for those with a non-healed repair. Mean age increased with larger tear sizes (small tears 59 years, medium tears 62 years, large tears 64 years, and massive tears 66 years). Increasing age was an independent factor that negatively influenced healing, even after controlling for tear size. Only massive tears were an independent predictor of non-healing, after controlling for age. Interpretation - Although increasing age and larger tear size are both risks for failure of rotator cuff repair healing, age is the dominant risk factor.

  6. Delivery after external cephalic version, is there an increased rate of cesarian section?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago Leal, Victor; Pradillo Aramendi, Tamara; Nicolas Montero, Estefania; Ocaña Martínez, Vanesa; Del Barrio Fernández, Pablo; Martínez-Cortés, Luis

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the obstetric outcomes after successful external cephalic version (cases) with a group of pregnant women with a spontaneous cephalic fetal position at delivery (controls). Retrospective review of the cohort of study was performed at the University Hospital of Getafe (Madrid, Spain) between January 2012 and January 2013. 1516 patients (48 cases; 1468 controls). We compared the type of delivery in pregnant women after ECV performed successfully (cases) with spontaneous cephalic presentations (controls). Pregnancies with vaginal delivery contraindicated, elective cesarean section (CS) justified by maternal disease, multiple pregnancies, or pregnancies below 37 weeks were excluded. Maternal age, BMI, parity, gestational age at delivery, and onset of labor (spontaneous or induced) were controlled. Prevalence of CS and operative delivery in both groups. Women who underwent a successful ECV had a significantly higher CS rate compared with the women of the control group (12/48 [25%] vs. 202/1468 [13.76%]; P=0.028). There was no difference in the rate of operative delivery (6/48 [12.5%] vs. 177/1468 [12.05%] P=0.92). Deliveries following a successful ECV are associated with an increased CS rate compared with deliveries of fetuses with spontaneous cephalic presentations.

  7. Increased pregnancy rate with use of the Clearblue Easy Fertility Monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Janet E; Wakelin, Melanie; Ellis, Jayne E

    2007-02-01

    To determine the effect on pregnancy rates through use of the Clearblue Easy Fertility Monitor (CEFM) in women trying to conceive. Prospective study, in which volunteers were randomly assigned either to use or not to use the CEFM. All participants could also use other aids to conception. Data were self-reported by volunteers using daily diaries, supplied and collected by mail. Home use, under conditions normally experienced by over-the-counter purchasers of the marketed device. Women who were trying to conceive; 653 (CEFM 305, control 348) provided evaluable information. CEFM was used for two cycles. Cumulative pregnancy rates over two cycles of use. The cumulative pregnancy rate for 2 cycles was significantly higher in the CEFM group (22.7%) compared with the control group (14.4%). More women who had been trying to conceive for conceive for >6 months (odds ratio: 2.67). Previous pregnancy and younger age of partners were also significant prognostic factors, but use of other aids to conception was not. After adjustment for other factors, CEFM use remained a significant factor affecting the chance of conceiving within two cycles (odds ratio: 1.89). CEFM users found the device to be easy/very easy to use (90%) and convenient/very convenient (80%). Use of the CEFM increases the likelihood of getting pregnant during the first two cycles of use compared with its nonuse, in women who had been trying to conceive for up to 2 years.

  8. White-nose syndrome increases torpid metabolic rate and evaporative water loss in hibernating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Liam P; Mayberry, Heather W; Willis, Craig K R

    2017-12-01

    Fungal diseases of wildlife typically manifest as superficial skin infections but can have devastating consequences for host physiology and survival. White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fungal skin disease that has killed millions of hibernating bats in North America since 2007. Infection with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans causes bats to rewarm too often during hibernation, but the cause of increased arousal rates remains unknown. On the basis of data from studies of captive and free-living bats, two mechanistic models have been proposed to explain disease processes in WNS. Key predictions of both models are that WNS-affected bats will show 1 ) higher metabolic rates during torpor (TMR) and 2 ) higher rates of evaporative water loss (EWL). We collected bats from a WNS-negative hibernaculum, inoculated one group with P. destructans , and sham-inoculated a second group as controls. After 4 mo of hibernation, TMR and EWL were measured using respirometry. Both predictions were supported, and our data suggest that infected bats were more affected by variation in ambient humidity than controls. Furthermore, disease severity, as indicated by the area of the wing with UV fluorescence, was positively correlated with EWL, but not TMR. Our results provide the first direct evidence that heightened energy expenditure during torpor and higher EWL independently contribute to WNS pathophysiology, with implications for the design of potential treatments for the disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. The coffee diterpene cafestol increases plasma triacylglycerol by increasing the production rate of large VLDL apolipoprotein B in healthy normolipidemic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de B.; Caslake, M.J.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Bedford, D.; Demacker, P.N.; Katan, M.B.; Packard, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Cafestol is a diterpene in unfiltered coffee that raises plasma triacylglycerol in humans. Objective: We studied whether cafestol increases plasma triacylglycerol by increasing the production rate or by decreasing the fractional catabolic rate of VLDL1 [Svedberg flotation unit (Sf)

  10. Desensitization Using Bortezomib and High-dose Immunoglobulin Increases Rate of Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong Cheol; Jambaldorj, Enkthuya; Kwon, Hyuk Yong; Kim, Myung-Gyu; Im, Hye Jin; Jeon, Hee Jung; In, Ji Won; Han, Miyeun; Koo, Tai Yeon; Chung, Junho; Song, Eun Young; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-02-01

    Combination therapy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and rituximab showed a good transplant rate in highly sensitized wait-listed patients for deceased donor kidney transplantation (DDKT), but carried the risk of antibody-mediated rejection. The authors investigated the impact of a new combination therapy of bortezomib, IVIG, and rituximab on transplantation rate.This study was a prospective, open-labeled clinical trial. The desensitization regimen consisted of 2 doses of IVIG (2  g/kg), a single dose of rituximab (375  mg/m), and 4 doses of bortezomib (1.3  mg/m). The transplant rate was analyzed. Anti-Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DRB antibodies were determined by a Luminex solid-phase bead assay at baseline and after 2, 3, and 6 months in the desensitized patients.There were 19 highly sensitized patients who received desensitization and 17 patients in the control group. Baseline values of class I and II panel reactive antibody (%, peak mean fluorescence intensity) were 83  ±  16.0 (14952  ±  5820) and 63  ±  36.0 (10321  ±  7421), respectively. Deceased donor kidney transplantation was successfully performed in 8 patients (42.1%) in the desensitization group versus 4 (23.5%) in the control group. Multivariate time-varying covariate Cox regression analysis showed that desensitization increased the probability of DDKT (hazard ratio, 46.895; 95% confidence interval, 3.468-634.132; P = 0.004). Desensitization decreased mean fluorescence intensity values of class I panel reactive antibody by 15.5% (20.8%) at 2 months. In addition, a liberal mismatch strategy in post hoc analysis increased the benefit of desensitization in donor-specific antibody reduction. Desensitization was well tolerated, and acute rejection occurred only in the control group.In conclusion, a desensitization protocol using bortezomib, high-dose IVIG, and rituximab increased the DDKT rate in highly sensitized, wait-listed patients.

  11. Jaundice increases the rate of complications and one-year mortality in patients with hypoxic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Bernhard; Drolz, Andreas; Michl, Barbara; Schellongowski, Peter; Bojic, Andja; Nikfardjam, Miriam; Zauner, Christian; Heinz, Gottfried; Trauner, Michael; Fuhrmann, Valentin

    2012-12-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH) is the most frequent cause of acute liver injury in critically ill patients. No clinical data exist about new onset of jaundice in patients with HH. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and clinical effect of jaundice in critically ill patients with HH. Two hundred and six consecutive patients with HH were screened for the development of jaundice during the course of HH. Individuals with preexisting jaundice or liver cirrhosis at the time of admission (n = 31) were excluded from analysis. Jaundice was diagnosed in patients with plasma total bilirubin levels >3 mg/dL. One-year-survival, infections, and cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal (GI), renal, and hepatic complications were prospectively documented. New onset of jaundice occurred in 63 of 175 patients with HH (36%). In patients who survived the acute event of HH, median duration of jaundice was 6 days (interquartile range, 3-8). Patients who developed jaundice (group 1) needed vasopressor treatment (P jaundice (group 2). One-year survival rate was significantly lower in group 1, compared to group 2 (8% versus 25%, respectively; P jaundice was associated with an increased frequency of complications during follow-up (54% in group 1 versus 35% in group 2; P Jaundice is a common finding during the course of HH. It leads to an increased rate of complications and worse outcome in patients with HH. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  12. Potential increases in natural disturbance rates could offset forest management impacts on ecosystem carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, John B.; Jensen, Nicholas R.; Domke, Grant M.; D’Amato, Anthony W.

    2013-01-01

    Forested ecosystems contain the majority of the world’s terrestrial carbon, and forest management has implications for regional and global carbon cycling. Carbon stored in forests changes with stand age and is affected by natural disturbance and timber harvesting. We examined how harvesting and disturbance interact to influence forest carbon stocks over the Superior National Forest, in northern Minnesota. Forest inventory data from the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program were used to characterize current forest age structure and quantify the relationship between age and carbon stocks for eight forest types. Using these findings, we simulated the impact of alternative management scenarios and natural disturbance rates on forest-wide terrestrial carbon stocks over a 100-year horizon. Under low natural mortality, forest-wide total ecosystem carbon stocks increased when 0% or 40% of planned harvests were implemented; however, the majority of forest-wide carbon stocks decreased with greater harvest levels and elevated disturbance rates. Our results suggest that natural disturbance has the potential to exert stronger influence on forest carbon stocks than timber harvesting activities and that maintaining carbon stocks over the long-term may prove difficult if disturbance frequency increases in response to climate change.

  13. Increased rate of acceleration on Pine Island Glacier strongly coupled to changes in gravitational driving stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. T. Scott

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica, has been undergoing several related changes for at least two decades; these include acceleration, thinning and grounding line retreat. During the first major ground-based study between 2006 and 2008, GPS receivers were used to monitor ice flow from 55 km to 171 km inland, along the central flowline. At four sites both acceleration and thinning rates over the last two years exceeded rates observed at any other time over the last two decades. At the downstream site acceleration was 6.4% over 2007 and thinning was 3.5±0.5 ma−1. Acceleration and thinning have spread rapidly inland with the acceleration 171 km inland at 4.1% over 2007, greater than any measured annual flow increase along the whole glacier prior to 2006. Increases in surface slope, and hence gravitational driving stress, correlate well with the acceleration and no sustained change in longitudinal stress gradient is needed to explain the force balance. There is no indication that the glacier is approaching a new steady state.

  14. Escherichia coli-Derived Uracil Increases the Antibacterial Activity and Growth Rate of Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Eun-Mi

    2016-05-28

    Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) is a representative probiotic. In particular, L. plantarum is the first commensal bacterium to colonize the intestine of infants. For this reason, the initial settlement of L. plantarum can play an important role in determining an infant's health as well as their eventual health status as an adult. In addition, L. plantarum combats pathogenic infections (such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), one of the early pathogenic colonizers in an unhealthy infant gut) by secreting antimicrobial substances. The aim of this research was to determine how L. plantarum combats E. coli infection and why it is a representative probiotic in the intestine. Consequently, this research observed that E. coli releases uracil. L. plantarum specifically recognizes E. coli-derived uracil, which increases the growth rate and production of antimicrobial substance of L. plantarum. In addition, through the inhibitory activity test, this study postulates that the antimicrobial substance is a protein and can be considered a bacteriocin-like substance. Therefore, this research assumes that L. plantarum exerts its antibacterial ability by recognizing E. coli and increasing its growth rate as a result, and this phenomenon could be one of the reasons for L. plantarum settling in the intestine of infants as a beneficial bacterium.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting with short relaxation intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amthor, Thomas; Doneva, Mariya; Koken, Peter; Sommer, Karsten; Meineke, Jakob; Börnert, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a technique for improving the performance of Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) in repetitive sampling schemes, in particular for 3D MRF acquisition, by shortening relaxation intervals between MRF pulse train repetitions. A calculation method for MRF dictionaries adapted to short relaxation intervals and non-relaxed initial spin states is presented, based on the concept of stationary fingerprints. The method is applicable to many different k-space sampling schemes in 2D and 3D. For accuracy analysis, T 1 and T 2 values of a phantom are determined by single-slice Cartesian MRF for different relaxation intervals and are compared with quantitative reference measurements. The relevance of slice profile effects is also investigated in this case. To further illustrate the capabilities of the method, an application to in-vivo spiral 3D MRF measurements is demonstrated. The proposed computation method enables accurate parameter estimation even for the shortest relaxation intervals, as investigated for different sampling patterns in 2D and 3D. In 2D Cartesian measurements, we achieved a scan acceleration of more than a factor of two, while maintaining acceptable accuracy: The largest T 1 values of a sample set deviated from their reference values by 0.3% (longest relaxation interval) and 2.4% (shortest relaxation interval). The largest T 2 values showed systematic deviations of up to 10% for all relaxation intervals, which is discussed. The influence of slice profile effects for multislice acquisition is shown to become increasingly relevant for short relaxation intervals. In 3D spiral measurements, a scan time reduction of 36% was achieved, maintaining the quality of in-vivo T1 and T2 maps. Reducing the relaxation interval between MRF sequence repetitions using stationary fingerprint dictionaries is a feasible method to improve the scan efficiency of MRF sequences. The method enables fast implementations of 3D spatially

  16. Seaweed richness and herbivory increase rate of community recovery from disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Kristin M; Stachowicz, John J

    2012-04-01

    The importance of herbivores and of plant diversity for community succession and recovery from disturbance is well documented. However, few studies have assessed the relative magnitude of, or potential interactions between, these factors. To determine the combined effect of herbivory and surrounding algal species richness on the recovery of a rocky intertidal community, we conducted a 27-month field experiment assessing algal recruitment and succession in cleared patches that mimic naturally forming gaps in the ambient community. We crossed two herbivore treatments, ambient and reduced abundance, with monocultures and polycultures of the four most common algal species in a mid-high rocky intertidal zone of northern California. We found that both the presence of herbivores and high surrounding algal richness increased recovery rates, and the effect of algal richness was twice the magnitude of that of herbivores. The increased recovery rate of patches containing herbivores was due to the consumption of fast-growing, early colonist species that preempt space from perennial, late-successional species. Mechanisms linking algal richness and recovery are more numerous. In polycultures, herbivore abundance and species composition is altered, desiccation rates are lower, and propagule recruitment, survival, and growth are higher compared to monocultures, all of which could contribute the observed effect of surrounding species richness. Herbivory and species richness should jointly accelerate recovery wherever palatable species inhibit late-successional, herbivore-resistant species and recruitment and survival of new colonists is promoted by local species richness. These appear to be common features of rocky-shore seaweed, and perhaps other, communities.

  17. Trends of increases in potential risk factors and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavasit, V; Kriengsinyos, W; Photi, J; Tontisirin, K

    2017-07-01

    Over the past three decades, undernutrition in Thailand has drastically reduced by over seven times. However, since 1995 the number of patients afflicted with non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, has rapidly increased, even among the young. Unhealthy life styles due to urbanization are a major reason for this increase. Less physical activity and low consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as high consumption of added free sugar, are common. Every year, the Thai people increase their consumption of energy from fat and protein, while lowering their intake of energy from complex carbohydrates. Per capita and on average, a Thai individual consumes up to 20% of total energy from added free sugar. Barker's hypothesis and Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis (DOHaD) can partially explain the increase in diabetes mellitus at this rapid rate. To alleviate the problem, the main strategy has been consumer education to reduce diabetes mellitus prevalence. Sugar elimination from infant formula is mandatory and sugar taxation is being considered. Simplified nutrition labeling is voluntarily as part of consumer education, as well as encouraging food industries to produce healthier food products. Currently, a multi-sectoral approach is used for alleviating diabetes mellitus in Thailand.

  18. Translocation of threatened New Zealand falcons to vineyards increases nest attendance, brooding and feeding rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Kross

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic landscapes can be rich in resources, and may in some cases provide potential habitat for species whose natural habitat has declined. We used remote videography to assess whether reintroducing individuals of the threatened New Zealand falcon Falco novaeseelandiae into a highly modified agricultural habitat affected the feeding rates of breeding falcons or related breeding behavior such as nest attendance and brooding rates. Over 2,800 recording hours of footage were used to compare the behavior of falcons living in six natural nests (in unmanaged, hilly terrain between 4 km and 20 km from the nearest vineyard, with that of four breeding falcon pairs that had been transported into vineyards and nested within 500 m of the nearest vineyard. Falcons in vineyard nests had higher feeding rates, higher nest attendance, and higher brooding rates. As chick age increased, parents in vineyard nests fed chicks a greater amount of total prey and larger prey items on average than did parents in hill nests. Parents with larger broods brought in larger prey items and a greater total sum of prey biomass. Nevertheless, chicks in nests containing siblings received less daily biomass per individual than single chicks. Some of these results can be attributed to the supplementary feeding of falcons in vineyards. However, even after removing supplementary food from our analysis, falcons in vineyards still fed larger prey items to chicks than did parents in hill nests, suggesting that the anthropogenic habitat may be a viable source of quality food. Although agricultural regions globally are rarely associated with raptor conservation, these results suggest that translocating New Zealand falcons into vineyards has potential for the conservation of this species.

  19. Evolution of movement rate increases the effectiveness of marine reserves for the conservation of pelagic fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Jonathan A; Otto, Sarah P; Pauly, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Current debates about the efficacy of no-take marine reserves (MR) in protecting large pelagic fish such as tuna and sharks have usually not considered the evolutionary dimension of this issue, which emerges because the propensity to swim away from a given place, like any other biological trait, will probably vary in a heritable fashion among individuals. Here, based on spatially explicit simulations, we investigated whether selection to remain in MRs to avoid higher fishing mortality can lead to the evolution of more philopatric fish. Our simulations, which covered a range of life histories among tuna species (skipjack tuna vs. Atlantic bluefin tuna) and shark species (great white sharks vs. spiny dogfish), suggested that MRs were most effective at maintaining viable population sizes when movement distances were lowest. Decreased movement rate evolved following the establishment of marine reserves, and this evolution occurred more rapidly with higher fishing pressure. Evolutionary reductions in movement rate led to increases in within-reserve population sizes over the course of the 50 years following MR establishment, although this varied among life histories, with skipjack responding fastest and great white sharks slowest. Our results suggest the evolution of decreased movement can augment the efficacy of marine reserves, especially for species, such as skipjack tuna, with relatively short generation times. Even when movement rates did not evolve substantially over 50 years (e.g., given long generation times or little heritable variation), marine reserves were an effective tool for the conservation of fish populations when mean movement rates were low or MRs were large.

  20. Ethical analyses of institutional measures to increase health care worker influenza vaccination rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Richard K

    2013-12-16

    Health care worker (HCW) influenza vaccination rates are modest. This paper provides a detailed ethical analysis of the major options to increase HCW vaccination rates, comparing how major ethical theories would address the options. The main categories of interventions to raise rates include education, incentives, easy access, competition with rewards, assessment and feedback, declination, mandates with alternative infection control measures, and mandates with administrative action as consequences. The aforementioned interventions, except mandates, arouse little ethical controversy. However, these efforts are time and work intensive and rarely achieve vaccination rates higher than about 70%. The primary concerns voiced about mandates are loss of autonomy, injustice, lack of due process, and subsuming the individual for institutional ends. Proponents of mandates argue that they are ethical based on beneficence, non-maleficence, and duty. A number of professional associations support mandates. Arguments by analogy can be made by mandates for HCW vaccination against other diseases. The ethical systems used in the analyses include evolutionary ethics, utilitarianism, principalism (autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice), Kantism, and altruism. Across these systems, the most commonly preferred options are easy access, assessment and feedback, declinations, and mandates with infection control measures as consequences for non-compliance. Given the ethical imperatives of non-maleficence and beneficence, the limited success of lower intensive interventions, and the need for putting patient safety ahead of HCW convenience, mandates with additional infection control measures as consequences for non-compliance are preferred. For those who opt out of vaccination due to conscience concerns, such mandates provide a means to remain employed but not put patient safety at risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Early postoperative fluoroquinolone use is associated with an increased revision rate after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancienne, Jourdan M; Brockmeier, Stephen F; Rodeo, Scott A; Young, Chris; Werner, Brian C

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the association of postoperative fluoroquinolone use following arthroscopic primary rotator cuff repair with failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair. An insurance database was queried for patients undergoing rotator cuff repair from 2007 to 2015. These patients were divided into three groups: (1) patients prescribed fluoroquinolones within 6 months postoperatively (divided into 0-2, 2-4, and 4-6 months), (2) a matched negative control cohort of patients not prescribed fluoroquinolones, and (3) a matched positive control cohort of patients prescribed fluoroquinolones between 6 and 18 months following rotator cuff repair. Rates of failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair were compared within 2 years. A total of 1292 patients were prescribed fluoroquinolones within 6 months after rotator cuff repair, including 442 within 2 months, 433 within 2 to 4 months, and 417 within 4 to 6 months, and were compared to 5225 matched negative controls and 1597 matched positive controls. The rate of revision rotator cuff repair was significantly higher in patients prescribed fluoroquinolones within 2 months (6.1 %) compared to matched negative (2.2 %, P = 0.0009) and positive controls (2.4 %, P = 0.0026). There were no significant differences in the rate of revision rotator cuff repair when fluoroquinolones were prescribed >2 months after rotator cuff repair. Early use of fluoroquinolones following rotator cuff repair was independently associated with significantly increased rates of failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair. This is the first clinical study examining the association of postoperative fluoroquinolone use with failure following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. III.

  2. Intrinsic spin-relaxation induced negative tunnel magnetoresistance in a single-molecule magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haiqing; Wang, Qiang; Xue, Hai-Bin; Jiao, HuJun; Liang, J.-Q.

    2013-06-01

    We investigate theoretically the effects of intrinsic spin-relaxation on the spin-dependent transport through a single-molecule magnet (SMM), which is weakly coupled to ferromagnetic leads. The tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) is obtained by means of the rate-equation approach including not only the sequential but also the cotunneling processes. It is shown that the TMR is strongly suppressed by the fast spin-relaxation in the sequential region and can vary from a large positive to slight negative value in the cotunneling region. Moreover, with an external magnetic field along the easy-axis of SMM, a large negative TMR is found when the relaxation strength increases. Finally, in the high bias voltage limit the TMR for the negative bias is slightly larger than its characteristic value of the sequential region; however, it can become negative for the positive bias caused by the fast spin-relaxation.

  3. The potential impact of increased treatment rates for alcohol dependence in the United Kingdom in 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Kevin D; Rehm, Jürgen; Rehm, Maximilien X; Gmel, Gerrit; Drummond, Colin

    2014-02-05

    Alcohol consumption has been linked to a considerable burden of disease in the United Kingdom (UK), with most of this burden due to heavy drinking and Alcohol Dependence (AD). However, AD is undertreated in the UK, with only 8% of those individuals with AD being treated in England and only 6% of those individuals with AD being treated in Scotland. Thus, the objective of this paper is to quantify the deaths that would have been avoided in the UK in 2004 if the treatment rate for AD had been increased. Data on the prevalence of AD, alcohol consumption, and mortality were obtained from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, the Global Information System on Alcohol and Health, and the 2004 Global Burden of Disease study respectively. Data on the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment and Motivational Interviewing/Cognitive Behavioural Therapy were obtained from Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses. Simulations were used to model the number of deaths under different treatment scenarios. Sensitivity analyses were performed to model the effects of Brief Interventions and to examine the effect of using AD prevalence data obtained from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. In the UK, 320 female and 1,385 male deaths would have been avoided if treatment coverage of pharmacological treatment had been increased to 20%. This decrease in the number of deaths represents 7.9% of all alcohol-attributable deaths (7.0% of all alcohol-attributable deaths for women and 8.1% of all alcohol-attributable deaths for men). If we used lower AD prevalence rates obtained from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, then treatment coverage of pharmacological treatment in hospitals for 20% of the population with AD would have resulted in the avoidance of 529 deaths in 2004 (99 deaths avoided for women and 430 deaths avoided for men). Increasing AD treatment in the UK would have led to a large number of deaths being avoided in 2004. Increased AD

  4. Molecular order and T1-relaxation, cross-relaxation in nitroxide spin labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Derek

    2018-05-01

    Interpretation of saturation-recovery EPR experiments on nitroxide spin labels whose angular rotation is restricted by the orienting potential of the environment (e.g., membranes) currently concentrates on the influence of rotational rates and not of molecular order. Here, I consider the dependence on molecular ordering of contributions to the rates of electron spin-lattice relaxation and cross relaxation from modulation of N-hyperfine and Zeeman anisotropies. These are determined by the averages and , where θ is the angle between the nitroxide z-axis and the static magnetic field, which in turn depends on the angles that these two directions make with the director of uniaxial ordering. For saturation-recovery EPR at 9 GHz, the recovery rate constant is predicted to decrease with increasing order for the magnetic field oriented parallel to the director, and to increase slightly for the perpendicular field orientation. The latter situation corresponds to the usual experimental protocol and is consistent with the dependence on chain-labelling position in lipid bilayer membranes. An altered dependence on order parameter is predicted for saturation-recovery EPR at high field (94 GHz) that is not entirely consistent with observation. Comparisons with experiment are complicated by contributions from slow-motional components, and an unexplained background recovery rate that most probably is independent of order parameter. In general, this analysis supports the interpretation that recovery rates are determined principally by rotational diffusion rates, but experiments at other spectral positions/field orientations could increase the sensitivity to order parameter.

  5. Sponge biomass and bioerosion rates increase under ocean warming and acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, James K H; Mello-Athayde, Matheus A; Schönberg, Christine H L; Kline, David I; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Dove, Sophie

    2013-12-01

    The combination of ocean warming and acidification as a result of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is considered to be a significant threat to calcifying organisms and their activities on coral reefs. How these global changes impact the important roles of decalcifying organisms (bioeroders) in the regulation of carbonate budgets, however, is less understood. To address this important question, the effects of a range of past, present and future CO2 emission scenarios (temperature + acidification) on the excavating sponge Cliona orientalis Thiele, 1900 were explored over 12 weeks in early summer on the southern Great Barrier Reef. C. orientalis is a widely distributed bioeroder on many reefs, and hosts symbiotic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Our results showed that biomass production and bioerosion rates of C. orientalis were similar under a pre-industrial scenario and a present day (control) scenario. Symbiodinium population density in the sponge tissue was the highest under the pre-industrial scenario, and decreased towards the two future scenarios with sponge replicates under the 'business-as-usual' CO2 emission scenario exhibiting strong bleaching. Despite these changes, biomass production and the ability of the sponge to erode coral carbonate materials both increased under the future scenarios. Our study suggests that C. orientalis will likely grow faster and have higher bioerosion rates in a high CO2 future than at present, even with significant bleaching. Assuming that our findings hold for excavating sponges in general, increased sponge biomass coupled with accelerated bioerosion may push coral reefs towards net erosion and negative carbonate budgets in the future. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Increased rates of large‐magnitude explosive eruptions in Japan in the late Neogene and Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R. S. J.; Wallace, L. M.; Engwell, S. L.; Scourse, E. M.; Barnard, N. H.; Kandlbauer, J.; Brown, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Tephra layers in marine sediment cores from scientific ocean drilling largely record high‐magnitude silicic explosive eruptions in the Japan arc for up to the last 20 million years. Analysis of the thickness variation with distance of 180 tephra layers from a global data set suggests that the majority of the visible tephra layers used in this study are the products of caldera‐forming eruptions with magnitude (M) > 6, considering their distances at the respective drilling sites to their likely volcanic sources. Frequency of visible tephra layers in cores indicates a marked increase in rates of large magnitude explosive eruptions at ∼8 Ma, 6–4 Ma, and further increase after ∼2 Ma. These changes are attributed to major changes in tectonic plate interactions. Lower rates of large magnitude explosive volcanism in the Miocene are related to a strike‐slip‐dominated boundary (and temporary cessation or deceleration of subduction) between the Philippine Sea Plate and southwest Japan, combined with the possibility that much of the arc in northern Japan was submerged beneath sea level partly due to previous tectonic extension of northern Honshu related to formation of the Sea of Japan. Changes in plate motions and subduction dynamics during the ∼8 Ma to present period led to (1) increased arc‐normal subduction in southwest Japan (and resumption of arc volcanism) and (2) shift from extension to compression of the upper plate in northeast Japan, leading to uplift, crustal thickening and favorable conditions for accumulation of the large volumes of silicic magma needed for explosive caldera‐forming eruptions. PMID:27656115

  7. Corrosion and runoff rates of Cu and three Cu-alloys in marine environments with increasing chloride deposition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Zhang, Xian; Goidanich, Sara; Le Bozec, Nathalie; Herting, Gunilla; Leygraf, Christofer

    2014-02-15

    Bare copper sheet and three commercial Cu-based alloys, Cu15Zn, Cu4Sn and Cu5Al5Zn, have been exposed to four test sites in Brest, France, with strongly varying chloride deposition rates. The corrosion rates of all four materials decrease continuously with distance from the coast, i.e. with decreasing chloride load, and in the following order: Cu4Sn>Cu sheet>Cu15Zn>Cu5Al5Zn. The patina on all materials was composed of two main layers, Cu2O as the inner layer and Cu2(OH)3Cl as the outer layer, and with a discontinuous presence of CuCl in between. Additional minor patina constituents are SnO2 (Cu4Sn), Zn5(OH)6(CO3)2 (Cu15Zn and Cu5Al5Zn) and Zn6Al2(OH)16CO3·4H2O/Zn2Al(OH)6Cl·2H2O/Zn5Cl2(OH)8·H2O and Al2O3 (Cu5Al5Zn). The observed Zn- and Zn/Al-containing corrosion products might be important factors for the lower sensitivity of Cu15Zn and Cu5Al5Zn against chloride-induced atmospheric corrosion compared with Cu sheet and Cu4Sn. Decreasing corrosion rates with exposure time were observed for all materials and chloride loads and attributed to an improved adherence with time of the outer patina to the underlying inner oxide. Flaking of the outer patina layer was mainly observed on Cu4Sn and Cu sheet and associated with the gradual transformation of CuCl to Cu2(OH)3Cl of larger volume. After three years only Cu5Al5Zn remains lustrous because of a patina compared with the other materials that appeared brownish-reddish. Significantly lower release rates of metals compared with corresponding corrosion rates were observed for all materials. Very similar release rates of copper from all four materials were observed during the fifth year of marine exposure due to an outer surface patina that with time revealed similar constituents and solubility properties. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Charge carrier relaxation model in disordered organic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Sun, Pengxiao; Liu, Ming

    2013-01-01

    The relaxation phenomena of charge carrier in disordered organic semiconductors have been demonstrated and investigated theoretically. An analytical model describing the charge carrier relaxation is proposed based on the pure hopping transport theory. The relation between the material disorder, electric field and temperature and the relaxation phenomena has been discussed in detail, respectively. The calculated results reveal that the increase of electric field and temperature can promote the relaxation effect in disordered organic semiconductors, while the increase of material disorder will weaken the relaxation. The proposed model can explain well the stretched-exponential law by adopting the appropriate parameters. The calculation shows a good agreement with the experimental data for organic semiconductors

  9. Le Chatelier's principle with multiple relaxation channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, R.; Levine, R. D.

    1986-05-01

    Le Chatelier's principle is discussed within the constrained variational approach to thermodynamics. The formulation is general enough to encompass systems not in thermal (or chemical) equilibrium. Particular attention is given to systems with multiple constraints which can be relaxed. The moderation of the initial perturbation increases as additional constraints are removed. This result is studied in particular when the (coupled) relaxation channels have widely different time scales. A series of inequalities is derived which describes the successive moderation as each successive relaxation channel opens up. These inequalities are interpreted within the metric-geometry representation of thermodynamics.

  10. Relaxation Dynamics of Nanoparticle-Tethered Polymer Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Sung A

    2015-09-08

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Relaxation dynamics of nanoparticle-tethered cis-1,4-polyisoprene (PI) are investigated using dielectric spectroscopy and rheometry. A model system composed of polymer chains densely grafted to spherical SiO2 nanoparticles to form self-suspended suspensions facilitates detailed studies of slow global chain and fast segmental mode dynamics under surface and geometrical confinement-from experiments performed in bulk materials. We report that unentangled polymer molecules tethered to nanoparticles relax far more slowly than their tethered entangled counterparts. Specifically, at fixed grafting density we find, counterintuitively, that increasing the tethered polymer molecular weight up to values close to the entanglement molecular weight speeds up chain relaxation dynamics. Decreasing the polymer grafting density for a fixed molecular weight has the opposite effect: it dramatically slows down chain relaxation, increases interchain coupling, and leads to a transition in rheological response from simple fluid behavior to viscoelastic fluid behavior for tethered PI chains that are unentangled by conventional measures. Increasing the measurement temperature produces an even stronger elastic response and speeds up molecular relaxation at a rate that decreases with grafting density and molecular weight. These observations are discussed in terms of chain confinement driven by crowding between particles and by the existence of an entropic attractive force produced by the space-filling constraint on individual chains in a self-suspended material. Our results indicate that the entropic force between densely grafted polymer molecules couples motions of individual chains in an analogous manner to reversible cross-links in associating polymers.

  11. An increase in rates of obstetric haemorrhage in a setting of high HIV seroprevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Shabalala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obstetric haemorrhage (OH is the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide, although, indirectly, HIV is also a leading cause of maternal mortality in some settings with a high HIV seroprevalence. Objective. To determine the possible association between increasing rates of OH and HIV or its treatment. Methods. We conducted a retrospective chart review of women with OH at King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban, South Africa, over a 3-year period (2009 - 2011, during which the drug regimen for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission was evolving from single-dose nevirapine to antenatal zidovudine combined with intrapartum nevirapine (also referred to as dual therapy, and finally to a combination or highly active antiretroviral therapy (cART or HAART. Cases of OH (including abruptio placentae, placenta praevia, unspecified antepartum haemorrhage (APH, and postpartum haemorrhage (PPH were identified from maternity delivery records, and the relevant data extracted. Results. We analysed the records of 448 women diagnosed with OH. Even though the incidence of OH was low, the study found an increasing number of cases during the 3-year period. PPH – not APH – was associated with HIV seropositivity (odds ratio 1.84, 95% confi­dence interval 1.14 - 2.95. cART was not associated with an increased risk of haemorrhage. Conclusion. HIV was associated with a high risk of PPH, and its possible association with HIV treatment needs further research.

  12. 'Show me the money': financial incentives increase chlamydia screening rates among tertiary students: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Marian J; Schmidt, Matthias; Davis, Belinda K; Baynes, Anne M; O'Keefe, Elissa J; Bavinton, Tim P; McNiven, Michelle; Martin, Sarah J; Bowden, Francis J

    2010-03-01

    We hypothesise that text-messaging and financial incentives would increase tertiary student participation in chlamydia screening. A cross-sectional study was conducted over two phases on eight tertiary campuses during 2007. During Phase 1 (6 months) study activities were advertised through student organisations and media. Education and screening were offered during a range of student activities. During Phase 2 (4 days) education and screening were offered via text messages. Non-financial incentives were offered during Phase 1 and a $10 cash incentive was offered during Phase 2. Rates of specimens provided by students and the direct costs incurred during each phase were compared. 2786 students attended the 31 activities conducted in Phase 1. Of these, 627 students (22.5%) provided urine specimens for chlamydia testing. During Phase 2, the dissemination of 866 text messages resulted in urine specimens from 392 students (45.3%). Costs per test were AUD $175.11 in Phase 1 and AUD $27.13 in Phase 2. Compared with more labour intensive (and therefore more expensive) screening activities conducted over a 6-month period, offering a small financial incentive to tertiary students through text messaging over a 4-day period significantly increased participation in on-campus chlamydia screening. This model could readily be applied to other populations to increase participation in chlamydia screening.

  13. Estimating Finite Rate of Population Increase for Sharks Based on Vital Parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ming Liu

    Full Text Available The vital parameter data for 62 stocks, covering 38 species, collected from the literature, including parameters of age, growth, and reproduction, were log-transformed and analyzed using multivariate analyses. Three groups were identified and empirical equations were developed for each to describe the relationships between the predicted finite rates of population increase (λ' and the vital parameters, maximum age (Tmax, age at maturity (Tm, annual fecundity (f/Rc, size at birth (Lb, size at maturity (Lm, and asymptotic length (L∞. Group (1 included species with slow growth rates (0.034 yr(-1 < k < 0.103 yr(-1 and extended longevity (26 yr < Tmax < 81 yr, e.g., shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus, dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus, etc.; Group (2 included species with fast growth rates (0.103 yr(-1 < k < 0.358 yr(-1 and short longevity (9 yr < Tmax < 26 yr, e.g., starspotted smoothhound Mustelus manazo, gray smoothhound M. californicus, etc.; Group (3 included late maturing species (Lm/L∞ ≧ 0.75 with moderate longevity (Tmax < 29 yr, e.g., pelagic thresher Alopias pelagicus, sevengill shark Notorynchus cepedianus. The empirical equation for all data pooled was also developed. The λ' values estimated by these empirical equations showed good agreement with those calculated using conventional demographic analysis. The predictability was further validated by an independent data set of three species. The empirical equations developed in this study not only reduce the uncertainties in estimation but also account for the difference in life history among groups. This method therefore provides an efficient and effective approach to the implementation of precautionary shark management measures.

  14. Generator replacement is associated with an increased rate of ICD lead alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, Joshua D; Cruz, Cesar; Hoskins, Michael H; Jones, Paul; El-Chami, Mikhael F; Lloyd, Michael S; Leon, Angel; DeLurgio, David B; Langberg, Jonathan J

    2014-10-01

    Lead malfunction is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). We have shown that the failure of recalled high-voltage leads significantly increases after ICD generator replacement. However, generator replacement has not been recognized as a predictor of lead failure in general. The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of ICD generator exchange on the rate of ICD lead alerts. A time-dependent Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze a database of remotely monitored ICDs. The model assessed the impact of generator exchange on the rate of lead alerts after ICD generator replacement. The analysis included 60,219 patients followed for 37 ± 19 months. The 5-year lead survival was 99.3% (95% confidence interval 99.2%-99.4%). Of 60,219 patients, 7458 patients (12.9%) underwent ICD generator exchange without lead replacement. After generator replacement, the rate of lead alerts was more than 5-fold higher than in controls with leads of the same age without generator replacement (hazard ratio 5.19; 95% confidence interval 3.45-7.84). A large number of lead alerted within 3 months of generator replacement. Lead alerts were more common in patients with single- vs dual-chamber ICDs and in younger patients. Sex was not associated with lead alerts. Routine generator replacement is associated with a 5-fold higher risk of lead alert compared to age-matched leads without generator replacement. This suggests the need for intense surveillance after generator replacement and the development of techniques to minimize the risk of lead damage during generator replacement. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Winter Insulation By Snow Accumulation in a Subarctic Treeline Ecosystem Increases Summer Carbon Cycling Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, T.; Subke, J. A.; Wookey, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of snow accumulation on soil carbon and nutrient cycling is attracting substantial attention from researchers. We know that deeper snow accumulation caused by high stature vegetation increases winter microbial activity and therefore carbon and nitrogen flux rates. However, until now the effect of snow accumulation, by buffering winter soil temperature, on subsequent summer soil processes, has scarcely been considered. We carried out an experiment at an alpine treeline in subarctic Sweden in which soil monoliths, contained within PVC collars, were transplanted between forest (deep winter snow) and tundra heath (shallow winter snow). We measured soil CO2efflux over two growing seasons and quantified soil microbial biomass after the second winter. We showed that respiration rates of transplanted forest soil were significantly reduced compared with control collars (remaining in the forest) as a consequence of colder, but more variable, winter temperatures. We hypothesised that microbial biomass would be reduced in transplanted forests soils but found there was no difference compared to control. We therefore further hypothesised that the similarly sized microbial pool in the control is assembled differently to the transplant. We believe that the warmer winters in forests foster more active consortia of decomposer microbes as a result of different abiotic selection pressures. Using an ecosystem scale experimental approach, we have identified a mechanism that influences summer carbon cycling rates based solely on the amount of snow that accumulates the previous winter. We conclude that modification of snow depth as a consequence of changes in vegetation structure is an important mechanism influencing soil C stocks in ecosystems where snow persists for a major fraction of the year.

  16. Dietary supplement increases plasma norepinephrine, lipolysis, and metabolic rate in resistance trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling Brian K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplements targeting fat loss and increased thermogenesis are prevalent within the sport nutrition/weight loss market. While some isolated ingredients have been reported to be efficacious when used at high dosages, in particular in animal models and/or via intravenous delivery, little objective evidence is available pertaining to the efficacy of a finished product taken by human subjects in oral form. Moreover, many ingredients function as stimulants, leading to increased hemodynamic responses. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a finished dietary supplement on plasma catecholamine concentration, markers of lipolysis, metabolic rate, and hemodynamics. Methods Ten resistance trained men (age = 27 ± 4 yrs; BMI = 25 ± 3 kg· m-2; body fat = 9 ± 3%; mean ± SD ingested a dietary supplement (Meltdown®, Vital Pharmaceuticals or a placebo, in a random order, double blind cross-over design, with one week separating conditions. Fasting blood samples were collected before, and at 30, 60, and 90 minutes post ingestion and were assayed for epinephrine (EPI, norepinephrine (NE, glycerol, and free fatty acids (FFA. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated for all variables. Gas samples were collected from 30–60 minutes post ingestion for measurement of metabolic rate. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all blood collection times. Results AUC was greater for the dietary supplement compared to the placebo for NE (1332 ± 128 pg·mL-1·90 min-1 vs. 1003 ± 133 pg·mL-1·90 min-1; p = 0.03, glycerol (44 ± 3 μg·mL-1·90 min-1 vs. 26 ± 2 μg·mL-1·90 min-1; p -1·90 min-1 vs. 0.88 ± 0.12 mmol·L-1·90 min-1; p = 0.0003. No difference between conditions was noted for EPI AUC (p > 0.05. For all variables, values were highest at 90 minutes post ingestion. Total kilocalorie expenditure during the 30 minute collection period was 29.6% greater (p = 0.02 for the dietary supplement (35 ± 3

  17. Reducing job insecurity and increasing performance ratings: does impression management matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guo-hua; Zhao, Helen Hailin; Niu, Xiong-ying; Ashford, Susan J; Lee, Cynthia

    2013-09-01

    Prior research on job insecurity has demonstrated its detrimental effects on both employees and the organization, yet no research has detailed how people actively deal with it. Drawing from proactivity research, this article argues that job insecurity prompts a proactive use of impression management tactics in the workplace. The effectiveness of these tactics depends on the level of supervisory liking for the employee and the attributions supervisors make regarding the employee's motives for the impression management behaviors (i.e., for the good of the organization or for self-interest). A 3-wave survey study of 271 Chinese employees and their supervisors showed that employees experiencing job insecurity in Time 1 reported using a variety of tactics to impress their supervisors at Time 2 and that these tactics curbed the affect associated with job insecurity and enhanced supervisor rated performance, through supervisor's liking and attributed motives. The relationship between impression management and increased supervisor-rated performance was moderated by supervisor attributions; the relationship between impression management and reduced affective job insecurity depended on supervisor liking. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Using Roadside Billboard Posters to Increase Admission Rates to Problem Gambling Services: Reflections on Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderwood, Kimberly A; Wellington, William J

    2015-07-01

    Based on the stimulus-response model of advertising, this study sought to increase admission rates to a local problem gambling service (PGS) in Windsor, Ontario, Canada, by adding a series of locally based 10 foot by 20 foot roadside billboard posters to PGS's existing communications tools for a 24-week period. Using proof of performance reports, a pre-post survey of new callers to PGS, a website visit counter, and a media awareness survey, the findings showed that at least some individuals were influenced by billboard exposure, but admission rates continued to decline during the billboard campaign period. While one possible explanation for the communications failure was that the whole PGS communications campaign was below the minimal threshold for communications perception, another possible explanation is that the stimulus-response model of advertising used may not have been appropriate for such advertising that targets behavior change. Reflections on using an information-processing model instead of a stimulus-response model, and considerations of a two-step flow of communication, are provided. Recommendations are made regarding matching communications messages to stages of behavior change, use of online promotion, and strategies for future research. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  19. Increased transcapillary escape rate of albumin and IgG in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Jensen, H A; Westrup, M

    1977-01-01

    Transcapillary escape rates of albumin and IgG (fractions of intravascular mass of albumin and IgG that pass to the extravascular space per unit time) were determined simultaneously from the initial disappearance of intravenously injected 131I human albumin and 125I human IgG in seven untreated...... subjects suffering from essential hypertension. The average mean arterial blood pressure of these subjects 193/119 mmHg; four subjects had grade I-III funduscopic changes. Transcapillary escape rates of albumin (TERalb) and IgG (TERIgG) were found significantly increased in the hypertensive subjects......, average 7.8 +/- 0.9 (SD) and 4.7 +/- 1.0 (SD) %/h, respectively, compared with normal values of mean 5.2 +/- 1.0 (SD) and 3.0 +/- 0.7 (SD) %/h, respectively (P less than 0.01). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the mean arterial blood pressure and TER of albumin and of Ig...

  20. Increased transcapillary escape rate of albumin in patients with cirrhosis of the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Ranek, L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    The transcapillary escape rate of albumin (TERalb), i.e. the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin that passes to the extravascular space per unit time, was determined from the disappearance of intravenously injected 125I-labelled human serum albumin during the first 60 min after injection...... in nine patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Six of the patients had ascites. The wedged hepatic venous pressure or splenic pulp pressure ranged from 20 to 30 mmHg, mean 26 mmHg. Plasma albumin concentration was low, but plasma volume was slightly enlarged, and thus the intravascular mass of albumin...... was only moderately reduced. The transcapillary escape rate of albumin was significantly elevated in all the cirrhotics, mean 10.2%/h, range 8.8 to 12.3%/h, in comparison to values for twenty-eight normal subjects 5.4%/h, range 3.5-7.2%/h. Our results can best be explained by increased filtration out...

  1. A regulated response to impaired respiration slows behavioral rates and increases lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cristina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available When mitochondrial respiration or ubiquinone production is inhibited in Caenorhabditis elegans, behavioral rates are slowed and lifespan is extended. Here, we show that these perturbations increase the expression of cell-protective and metabolic genes and the abundance of mitochondrial DNA. This response is similar to the response triggered by inhibiting respiration in yeast and mammalian cells, termed the "retrograde response". As in yeast, genes switched on in C. elegans mitochondrial mutants extend lifespan, suggesting an underlying evolutionary conservation of mechanism. Inhibition of fstr-1, a potential signaling gene that is up-regulated in clk-1 (ubiquinone-defective mutants, and its close homolog fstr-2 prevents the expression of many retrograde-response genes and accelerates clk-1 behavioral and aging rates. Thus, clk-1 mutants live in "slow motion" because of a fstr-1/2-dependent pathway that responds to ubiquinone. Loss of fstr-1/2 does not suppress the phenotypes of all long-lived mitochondrial mutants. Thus, although different mitochondrial perturbations activate similar transcriptional and physiological responses, they do so in different ways.

  2. Increased heart rate variability in mice overexpressing the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thireau, Jérôme; Poisson, Denise; Zhang, Bei Li; Gillet, Ludovic; Le Pécheur, Marie; Andres, Christian; London, Jacqueline; Babuty, Dominique

    2008-08-15

    Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is implicated in various pathological conditions including Down's syndrome, neurodegenerative diseases, and afflictions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). To assess the SOD1 contribution to ANS dysfunction, especially its influence on cardiac regulation, we studied the heart rate variability (HRV) and cardiac arrhythmias in conscious 12-month-old male and female transgenic mice for the human SOD1 gene (TghSOD1). TghSOD1 mice presented heart rate reduction as compared with control FVB/N individuals. All HRV parameters reflecting parasympathetic activity were increased in TghSOD1. Pharmacological studies confirmed that the parasympathetic tone was exacerbated and the sympathetic pathway was functional in TghSOD1 mice. A high frequency of atrioventricular block and premature ventricular contractions was observed in TghSOD1. By biochemical assays we found that SOD1 activities were multiplied by 9 and 4 respectively in the heart and brainstem of transgenic mice. A twofold decrease in cholinesterase activity was observed in the heart but not in the brainstem. We demonstrate that SOD1 overexpression induces an ANS dysfunction by an exacerbated vagal tone that may be related to impaired cardiac activity of the cholinesterases and may explain the high occurrence of arrhythmias.

  3. Body mass and weight thresholds for increased prosthetic joint infection rates after primary total joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübbeke, Anne; Zingg, Matthieu; Vu, Diemlan; Miozzari, Hermes H; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis; Uçkay, Ilker; Harbarth, Stephan; Hoffmeyer, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of deep infection after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Our objective was to determine whether there may be body mass index (BMI) and weight thresholds indicating a higher prosthetic joint infection rate. We included all 9,061 primary hip and knee arthroplasties (mean age 70 years, 61% women) performed between March 1996 and December 2013 where the patient had received intravenous cefuroxime (1.5 g) perioperatively. The main exposures of interest were BMI (5 categories: prosthetic joint infection. The mean follow-up time was 6.5 years (0.5-18 years). 111 prosthetic joint infections were observed: 68 postoperative, 16 hematogenous, and 27 of undetermined cause. Incidence rates were similar in the first 3 BMI categories (infection from the early postoperative period onward (adjusted HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.6). BMI ≥ 35 or weight ≥ 100 kg may serve as a cutoff for higher perioperative dosage of antibiotics.

  4. Does attention speed up processing? Decreases and increases of processing rates in visual prior entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tünnermann, Jan; Petersen, Anders; Scharlau, Ingrid

    2015-03-02

    Selective visual attention improves performance in many tasks. Among others, it leads to "prior entry"--earlier perception of an attended compared to an unattended stimulus. Whether this phenomenon is purely based on an increase of the processing rate of the attended stimulus or if a decrease in the processing rate of the unattended stimulus also contributes to the effect is, up to now, unanswered. Here we describe a novel approach to this question based on Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention, which we use to overcome the limitations of earlier prior-entry assessment with temporal order judgments (TOJs) that only allow relative statements regarding the processing speed of attended and unattended stimuli. Prevalent models of prior entry in TOJs either indirectly predict a pure acceleration or cannot model the difference between acceleration and deceleration. In a paradigm that combines a letter-identification task with TOJs, we show that indeed acceleration of the attended and deceleration of the unattended stimuli conjointly cause prior entry. © 2015 ARVO.

  5. [Increased sympathetic activity assessed by spectral analysis of heart rate variability in patients with CRPS I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, J; Troeger, C

    2010-02-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I) is a painful neuropathic disorder with an antecedent disproportionate trauma leading to spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia, impaired motor function, swelling, changes in sweating and vascular abnormalities without nerve injury. Whether this syndrome is the result of central or peripheral autonomic dysfunction is still a matter of debate. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of the sympathetic nervous system in patients with CRPS I by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. This is a pilot study on 6 patients (mean age 50 years; 4 female, 2 male) diagnosed as suffering from CRPS I and 6 age-matched healthy controls. In the pain-free interval and after taking rest for 5 min, 512 subsequent heart beats were obtained with an ECG standard lead II in the supine and then sitting position. Using an autoregressive model, power spectral densities were calculated for the following frequency bands: CRPS I compared to the healthy controls in the supine position (LF/HF=4.01 vs. LF/HF=1.27; p=0.041). The application of stress by changing to the sitting position even increased that difference (6.72 vs. 1.93). Our results support the hypothesis that the pathogenesis of the early stage CRPS I might be related to an increased sympathetic activity. By assessing the autonomic influence on the heart rate variability in CRPS I patients we could also conclude that this disturbance occurs rather at a central level. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  6. Increasing BCI communication rates with dynamic stopping towards more practical use: an ALS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainsah, B. O.; Collins, L. M.; Colwell, K. A.; Sellers, E. W.; Ryan, D. B.; Caves, K.; Throckmorton, C. S.

    2015-02-01

    Objective. The P300 speller is a brain-computer interface (BCI) that can possibly restore communication abilities to individuals with severe neuromuscular disabilities, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), by exploiting elicited brain signals in electroencephalography (EEG) data. However, accurate spelling with BCIs is slow due to the need to average data over multiple trials to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the elicited brain signals. Probabilistic approaches to dynamically control data collection have shown improved performance in non-disabled populations; however, validation of these approaches in a target BCI user population has not occurred. Approach. We have developed a data-driven algorithm for the P300 speller based on Bayesian inference that improves spelling time by adaptively selecting the number of trials based on the acute SNR of a user’s EEG data. We further enhanced the algorithm by incorporating information about the user’s language. In this current study, we test and validate the algorithms online in a target BCI user population, by comparing the performance of the dynamic stopping (DS) (or early stopping) algorithms against the current state-of-the-art method, static data collection, where the amount of data collected is fixed prior to online operation. Main results. Results from online testing of the DS algorithms in participants with ALS demonstrate a significant increase in communication rate as measured in bits/min (100-300%), and theoretical bit rate (100-550%), while maintaining selection accuracy. Participants also overwhelmingly preferred the DS algorithms. Significance. We have developed a viable BCI algorithm that has been tested in a target BCI population which has the potential for translation to improve BCI speller performance towards more practical use for communication.

  7. Increased menopausal symptoms among Afro-Colombian women as assessed with the Menopause Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrosa, Alvaro; Blumel, Juan E; Chedraui, Peter

    2008-02-20

    Increased frequency and severity of menopausal symptoms have been associated to black race. However, this situation has not been described in any Latin American population. Compare frequency and severity of menopausal symptoms among Afro and non-Afro Hispanic Colombian climacteric women. In this cross-sectional study, healthy Afro and non-Afro-Colombian women aged 40-59 years were asked to fill out the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) questionnaire in order to compare symptom frequency and intensity. A total of 578 women were surveyed (201 Afro-Colombian and 377 non-Afro-Colombian). Mean age of the whole sample was 47.9+/-5.9 years (median 47), with no differences among studied groups in terms of age, parity, and hormone therapy (HT) use. Intensity of menopausal symptoms, assessed with the total MRS score, was found to be significantly higher among Afro-Colombian women (10.6+/-6.7 vs. 7.5+/-5.7, p=0.0001), which was due to higher somatic and psychological subscale scores. In this group, the frequency of somatic symptoms, heart discomfort and muscle and joint problems, was found to be higher than in non-Afro-Colombian women (38.8% vs. 26.8% and 77.1% vs. 43.5%, respectively, pColombian ones presented more bladder problems (24.9% vs. 14.9%, p=0.005). After adjusting for confounding factors, logistic regression analysis determined that black race increased the risk for presenting higher total MRS scorings (OR: 2.31; CI 95%: 1.55-3.45, p=0.0001). Despite the limitations of this study, as determined with the MRS Afro-Colombian women exhibited more impaired quality of life (QoL) when compared to non-Afro-Colombian ones, due to a higher rate and severity of menopausal somatic and psychological symptoms.

  8. Tunneled dialysis catheter exchange with fibrin sheath disruption is not associated with increased rate of bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliant, Amanda M; Chaudhry, Muhammad K; Yevzlin, Alexander S; Astor, Brad; Chan, Micah R

    2015-01-01

    Tunneled dialysis catheters are the most common form of vascular access among incident dialysis patients in the United States. Fibrin sheath formation is a frequent cause of late catheter dysfunction requiring an exchange procedure with balloon disruption of the fibrin sheath. It is unknown whether fibrin sheath disruption is associated with increased incidence of bacteremia or catheter failure. We reviewed all tunneled dialysis catheter exchange procedures at the University of Wisconsin between January 2008 and December 2011. The primary outcome was incidence of bacteremia, defined as positive blood cultures within 2 weeks of the procedure. Catheter failure, requiring intervention or replacement, was examined as a secondary outcome. Baseline characteristics examined included diabetic status, gender, race and age. A total of 163 procedures were reviewed; 67 (41.1%) had fibrin sheath disruption and 96 did not. Bacteremia occurred in 4.5% (3/67) of those with and 3.1% (3/97) of those without fibrin sheath disruption (p=0.65). Fibrin sheath disruption was not significantly associated with the risk of catheter failure (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87-2.10; p=0.18). Diabetes was associated with greater risk of catheter failure (aHR=1.88; 95% CI: 1.19-2.95; p=0.006), whereas higher age was associated with a lower risk of catheter failure (aHR per 10 years=0.83; 95% CI: 0.72-0.96; p=0.01). This study demonstrates that there is no significant increase in bacteremia and subsequent catheter dysfunction rates after fibrin sheath disruption compared to simple over the wire exchange. These results are encouraging given the large numbers of patients utilizing tunneled catheters for initial hemodialysis access and the known rates of fibrin sheath formation leading to catheter failure.

  9. Increased fracture rate in women with breast cancer: a review of the hidden risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Body Jean-Jacques

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with breast cancer, particularly individuals diagnosed at a relatively early age, have an increased incidence of fractures. Fractures can have serious clinical consequences including the need for major surgery, increased morbidity and mortality, increased cost of disease management, and reduced quality of life for patients. The primary cause of the increased fracture risk appears to be an accelerated decrease in bone mineral density (BMD resulting from the loss of estrogenic signaling that occurs with most treatments for breast cancer, including aromatase inhibitors. However, factors other than BMD levels alone may influence treatment decisions to reduce fracture risk in this setting. Our purpose is to review current evidence for BMD loss and fracture risk during treatment for breast cancer and discuss pharmacologic means to reduce this risk. Results Fracture risk during treatment for breast cancer may be influenced by the rate of BMD loss and the consequent rapid alterations in bone microarchitecture, in addition to the established fracture risk factors in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The rapid decrease in BMD during adjuvant chemoendocrine therapy for breast cancer may necessitate more aggressive pharmacotherapy than is indicated for healthy postmenopausal women who develop osteoporosis. Over the last few years, clinical trials have established the effectiveness of bisphosphonates and other antiresorptive agents to preserve BMD during adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer. In addition, some bisphosphonates (eg, zoledronic acid may also delay disease recurrence in women with hormone-responsive tumors, thereby providing an adjuvant benefit in addition to preserving BMD and potentially preventing fractures. Conclusions It is likely that a combined fracture risk assessment (eg, as in the WHO FRAX algorithm will more accurately identify both women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and women with breast cancer who require

  10. Stress corrosion crack initiation of Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes in an iodine vapor environment during creep, relaxation, and constant strain rate tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezequel, T.; Auzoux, Q.; Le Boulch, D.; Bono, M.; Andrieu, E.; Blanc, C.; Chabretou, V.; Mozzani, N.; Rautenberg, M.

    2018-02-01

    During accidental power transient conditions with Pellet Cladding Interaction (PCI), the synergistic effect of the stress and strain imposed on the cladding by thermal expansion of the fuel, and corrosion by iodine released as a fission product, may lead to cladding failure by Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). In this study, internal pressure tests were conducted on unirradiated cold-worked stress-relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes in an iodine vapor environment. The goal was to investigate the influence of loading type (constant pressure tests, constant circumferential strain rate tests, or constant circumferential strain tests) and test temperature (320, 350, or 380 °C) on iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking (I-SCC). The experimental results obtained with different loading types were consistent with each other. The apparent threshold hoop stress for I-SCC was found to be independent of the test temperature. SEM micrographs of the tested samples showed many pits distributed over the inner surface, which tended to coalesce into large pits in which a microcrack could initiate. A model for the time-to-failure of a cladding tube was developed using finite element simulations of the viscoplastic mechanical behavior of the material and a modified Kachanov's damage growth model. The times-to-failure predicted by this model are consistent with the experimental data.

  11. A study of internal energy relaxation in shocks using molecular dynamics based models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zheng; Parsons, Neal; Levin, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent potential energy surfaces (PESs) for the N 2 + N and N 2 + N 2 systems are used in molecular dynamics (MD) to simulate rates of vibrational and rotational relaxations for conditions that occur in hypersonic flows. For both chemical systems, it is found that the rotational relaxation number increases with the translational temperature and decreases as the rotational temperature approaches the translational temperature. The vibrational relaxation number is observed to decrease with translational temperature and approaches the rotational relaxation number in the high temperature region. The rotational and vibrational relaxation numbers are generally larger in the N 2 + N 2 system. MD-quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) with the PESs is also used to calculate the V-T transition cross sections, the collision cross section, and the dissociation cross section for each collision pair. Direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) results for hypersonic flow over a blunt body with the total collision cross section from MD/QCT simulations, Larsen-Borgnakke with new relaxation numbers, and the N 2 dissociation rate from MD/QCT show a profile with a decreased translational temperature and a rotational temperature close to vibrational temperature. The results demonstrate that many of the physical models employed in DSMC should be revised as fundamental potential energy surfaces suitable for high temperature conditions become available

  12. Greater carbon stocks and faster turnover rates with increasing agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderman, J.; Fallon, S.; Baisden, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    H.H. Janzen (2006) eloquently argued that from an agricultural perspective there is a tradeoff between storing carbon as soil organic matter (SOM) and the soil nutrient and energy benefit provided during SOM mineralization. Here we report on results from the Permanent Rotation Trial at the Waite Agricultural Institute, South Australia, indicating that shifting to an agricultural management strategy which returns more carbon to the soil, not only leads to greater carbon stocks but also increases the rate of carbon cycling through the soil. The Permanent Rotation Trial was established on a red Chromosol in 1925 with upgrades made to several treatments in 1948. Decadal soil samples were collected starting in 1963 at two depths, 0-10 and 10-22.5 cm, by compositing 20 soil cores taken along the length of each plot. We have chosen to analyze five trials representing a gradient in productivity: permanent pasture (Pa), wheat-pasture rotation (2W4Pa), continuous wheat (WW), wheat-oats-fallow rotation (WOF) and wheat-fallow (WF). For each of the soil samples (40 in total), the radiocarbon activity in the bulk soil as well as size-fractionated samples was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry at ANU's Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory (Fallon et al. 2010). After nearly 70 years under each rotation, SOC stocks increased linearly with productivity data across the trials from 24 to 58 tC ha-1. Importantly, these differences were due to greater losses over time in the low productivity trials rather than gains in SOC in any of the trials. Uptake of the bomb-spike in atmospheric 14C into the soil was greatest in the trials with the greatest productivity. The coarse size fraction always had greater Δ14C values than the bulk soil samples. Several different multi-pool steady state and non-steady state models were used to interpret the Δ14C data in terms of SOC turnover rates. Regardless of model choice, either the decay rates of all pools needed to increase or the allocation of C to

  13. Paramagnetic metal complexes as potential relaxation agents for NMR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coroiu, Ilioara; Demco, D. E.; Darabont, Al.; Bogdan, M.

    1997-01-01

    The development of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging technique as a clinical diagnostic modality has prompted the need for a new class of pharmaceuticals. These drugs must be administered to a patient in order to enhance the image contrast between the normal and diseased tissue and/or indicate the status of organ function or blood flow. Paramagnetic compounds are presently undergoing extensive evaluation as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These agents increase contrast in MRI by differentially localizing in tissue where they increase the relaxation rates of nearby water protons. The longitudinal R 1 and transverse R 2 relaxivities were measured as a function of molar concentrations for some new paramagnetic complexes like the following: dysprosium, erbium and gadolinium citrates, gadolinium methylene diphosphonate, dysprosium and gadolinium iminodiacetate, manganese para-aminobenzoate and copper nicotinate. The available theoretical approaches for quantitative understanding are presented. (authors)

  14. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) desensitization increases sea urchin spermatozoa fertilization rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrezan-Nitao, Elis; Boni, Raianna; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) is a protein complex whose opening promotes an abrupt increase in mitochondrial inner membrane permeability. Calcium signaling pathways are described in gametes and are involved in the fertilization process. Although mitochondria may act as Ca(2+) store and have a fast calcium-releasing mechanism through MPTP, its contribution to fertilization remains unclear. The work aimed to investigate the MPTP phenomenon in sea urchin spermatozoa and its role on the fertilization. Several pharmacological tools were used to evaluate the MPTP's physiology. Our results demonstrated that MPTP occurs in male gametes in a Ca(2+) - and voltage-dependent manner and it is sensitive to cyclosporine A. Additionally, our data show that MPTP opening does not alter ROS generation in sperm cells. Inhibition of MPTP in spermatozoa strongly improved the fertilization rate, which may involve mechanisms that increase the spermatozoa lifespan. The present work is the first report of the presence of a voltage- and Ca(2+) -dependent MPTP in gametes of invertebrates and indicates MPTP opening as another evolutionary feature shared by sea urchins and mammals. Studies about MPTP in sea urchin male gametes may contribute to the elucidation of several mechanisms involved in sperm infertility. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  15. Increased growth rate of vestibular schwannoma after resection of contralateral tumor in neurofibromatosis type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Matthieu; Goutagny, Stephane; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Bozorg-Grayeli, Alexis; Felce, Michele; Sterkers, Olivier; Kalamarides, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Surgical management of bilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS) in neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is often difficult, especially when both tumors threaten the brainstem. When the largest tumor has been removed, the management of the contralateral VS may become puzzling. To give new insights into the growth pattern of these tumors and to determine the best time point for treatment (surgery or medical treatment), we studied radiological growth in 11 VS (11 patients with NF2) over a long period (mean duration, 7.6 years), before and after removal of the contralateral tumor while both were threatening the brainstem. We used a quantitative approach of the radiological velocity of diametric expansion (VDE) on consecutive magnetic resonance images. Before first surgery, growth patterns of both tumors were similar in 9 of 11 cases. After the first surgery, VDE of the remaining VS was significantly elevated, compared with the preoperative period (2.5 ± 2.2 vs 4.4 ± 3.4 mm/year; P = .01, by Wilcoxon test). Decrease in hearing function was associated with increased postoperative growth in 3 cases. Growth pattern of coexisting intracranial meningiomas was not modified by VS surgery on the first side. In conclusion, removal of a large VS in a patient with NF2 might induce an increase in the growth rate of the contralateral medium or large VS. This possibility should be integrated in NF2 patient management to adequately treat the second VS. PMID:21798887

  16. Increased Rate of NAD Metabolism Shortens Plant Longevity by Accelerating Developmental Senescence in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashida, Shin-Nosuke; Itami, Taketo; Takahara, Kentaro; Hirabayashi, Takayuki; Uchimiya, Hirofumi; Kawai-Yamada, Maki

    2016-11-01

    NAD is a well-known co-enzyme that mediates hundreds of redox reactions and is the basis of various processes regulating cell responses to different environmental and developmental cues. The regulatory mechanism that determines the amount of cellular NAD and the rate of NAD metabolism remains unclear. We created Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing the NAD synthase (NADS) gene that participates in the final step of NAD biosynthesis. NADS overexpression enhanced the activity of NAD biosynthesis but not the amounts of NAD + , NADH, NADP + or NADPH. However, the amounts of some intermediates were elevated, suggesting that NAD metabolism increased. The NAD redox state was greatly facilitated by an imbalance between NAD generation and degradation in response to bolting. Metabolite profiling and transcriptional analysis revealed that the drastic modulation of NAD redox homeostasis increased tricarboxylic acid flux, causing the ectopic generation of reactive oxygen species. Vascular bundles suffered from oxidative stress, leading to a malfunction in amino acid and organic acid transportation that caused early wilting of the flower stalk and shortened plant longevity, probably due to malnutrition. We concluded that the mechanism regulating the balance between NAD synthesis and degradation is important in the systemic plant response to developmental cues during the growth-phase transition. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Increasing flux rate to shorten leaching period and ramp-up production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngantung, Billy; Agustin, Riska; Ravi'i

    2017-01-01

    J Resources Bolaang Mongondow (JBRM) has operated a dynamic heap leach in its Bakan Gold Mine since late 2013. After successfully surpassing its name plate capacity of 2.6 MT/annum in 2014, the clayey and transition ore become the next operational challenge. The presence of transition and clayey ore requires longer leaching period, hence reducing the leach pad capacity which then caused reduced production. Maintaining or even increasing production with such longer leaching ore types can be done by expanding the leach pad area which means an additional capital investment, and/or shortening the leaching cycle which compromise a portion of gold extraction. JBRM has been successfully increasing the leach pad production from 2.6 MT/annum to 3.8 MT/annum, whilst improving the gold extraction from around 70% to around 80%. This was achieved by managing the operation of the leach pad which is shortening the leach cycle by identifying and combining the optimal flux rate application versus the tonne processed in each cell, at no capital investment for expanding the cell capacity.

  18. Testosterone Deficiency Increases Hospital Readmission and Mortality Rates in Male Patients with Heart Failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Marcelo Rodrigues dos; Sayegh, Ana Luiza Carrari; Groehs, Raphaela Vilar Ramalho; Fonseca, Guilherme; Trombetta, Ivani Credidio; Barretto, Antônio Carlos Pereira; Arap, Marco Antônio; Negrão, Carlos Eduardo; Middlekauff, Holly R.; Alves, Maria-Janieire de Nazaré Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency in patients with heart failure (HF) is associated with decreased exercise capacity and mortality; however, its impact on hospital readmission rate is uncertain. Furthermore, the relationship between testosterone deficiency and sympathetic activation is unknown. We investigated the role of testosterone level on hospital readmission and mortality rates as well as sympathetic nerve activity in patients with HF. Total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) were measured in 110 hospitalized male patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% and New York Heart Association classification IV. The patients were placed into low testosterone (LT; n = 66) and normal testosterone (NT; n = 44) groups. Hypogonadism was defined as TT < 300 ng/dL and FT < 131 pmol/L. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded by microneurography in a subpopulation of 27 patients. Length of hospital stay was longer in the LT group compared to in the NT group (37 ± 4 vs. 25 ± 4 days; p = 0.008). Similarly, the cumulative hazard of readmission within 1 year was greater in the LT group compared to in the NT group (44% vs. 22%, p = 0.001). In the single-predictor analysis, TT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58–4.85; p = 0.02) predicted hospital readmission within 90 days. In addition, TT (HR, 4.65; 95% CI, 2.67–8.10; p = 0.009) and readmission within 90 days (HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.23–8.69; p = 0.02) predicted increased mortality. Neurohumoral activation, as estimated by MSNA, was significantly higher in the LT group compared to in the NT group (65 ± 3 vs. 51 ± 4 bursts/100 heart beats; p < 0.001). These results support the concept that LT is an independent risk factor for hospital readmission within 90 days and increased mortality in patients with HF. Furthermore, increased MSNA was observed in patients with LT

  19. Testosterone Deficiency Increases Hospital Readmission and Mortality Rates in Male Patients with Heart Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcelo Rodrigues dos; Sayegh, Ana Luiza Carrari; Groehs, Raphaela Vilar Ramalho; Fonseca, Guilherme [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Trombetta, Ivani Credidio [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE) (Brazil); Barretto, Antônio Carlos Pereira [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Arap, Marco Antônio [Faculdade de medicina da Universidade de São Paulo - Urologia (Brazil); Negrão, Carlos Eduardo [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Escola de Educação Física e Esporte da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Middlekauff, Holly R. [Division of Cardiology - David Geffen School of Medicine - University of California (United States); Alves, Maria-Janieire de Nazaré Nunes, E-mail: janieire.alves@incor.usp.br [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Testosterone deficiency in patients with heart failure (HF) is associated with decreased exercise capacity and mortality; however, its impact on hospital readmission rate is uncertain. Furthermore, the relationship between testosterone deficiency and sympathetic activation is unknown. We investigated the role of testosterone level on hospital readmission and mortality rates as well as sympathetic nerve activity in patients with HF. Total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) were measured in 110 hospitalized male patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% and New York Heart Association classification IV. The patients were placed into low testosterone (LT; n = 66) and normal testosterone (NT; n = 44) groups. Hypogonadism was defined as TT < 300 ng/dL and FT < 131 pmol/L. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded by microneurography in a subpopulation of 27 patients. Length of hospital stay was longer in the LT group compared to in the NT group (37 ± 4 vs. 25 ± 4 days; p = 0.008). Similarly, the cumulative hazard of readmission within 1 year was greater in the LT group compared to in the NT group (44% vs. 22%, p = 0.001). In the single-predictor analysis, TT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58–4.85; p = 0.02) predicted hospital readmission within 90 days. In addition, TT (HR, 4.65; 95% CI, 2.67–8.10; p = 0.009) and readmission within 90 days (HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.23–8.69; p = 0.02) predicted increased mortality. Neurohumoral activation, as estimated by MSNA, was significantly higher in the LT group compared to in the NT group (65 ± 3 vs. 51 ± 4 bursts/100 heart beats; p < 0.001). These results support the concept that LT is an independent risk factor for hospital readmission within 90 days and increased mortality in patients with HF. Furthermore, increased MSNA was observed in patients with LT.

  20. Testosterone Deficiency Increases Hospital Readmission and Mortality Rates in Male Patients with Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Testosterone deficiency in patients with heart failure (HF is associated with decreased exercise capacity and mortality; however, its impact on hospital readmission rate is uncertain. Furthermore, the relationship between testosterone deficiency and sympathetic activation is unknown. Objective: We investigated the role of testosterone level on hospital readmission and mortality rates as well as sympathetic nerve activity in patients with HF. Methods: Total testosterone (TT and free testosterone (FT were measured in 110 hospitalized male patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% and New York Heart Association classification IV. The patients were placed into low testosterone (LT; n = 66 and normal testosterone (NT; n = 44 groups. Hypogonadism was defined as TT < 300 ng/dL and FT < 131 pmol/L. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA was recorded by microneurography in a subpopulation of 27 patients. Results: Length of hospital stay was longer in the LT group compared to in the NT group (37 ± 4 vs. 25 ± 4 days; p = 0.008. Similarly, the cumulative hazard of readmission within 1 year was greater in the LT group compared to in the NT group (44% vs. 22%, p = 0.001. In the single-predictor analysis, TT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58–4.85; p = 0.02 predicted hospital readmission within 90 days. In addition, TT (HR, 4.65; 95% CI, 2.67–8.10; p = 0.009 and readmission within 90 days (HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.23–8.69; p = 0.02 predicted increased mortality. Neurohumoral activation, as estimated by MSNA, was significantly higher in the LT group compared to in the NT group (65 ± 3 vs. 51 ± 4 bursts/100 heart beats; p < 0.001. Conclusion: These results support the concept that LT is an independent risk factor for hospital readmission within 90 days and increased mortality in patients with HF. Furthermore, increased MSNA was observed in patients with LT.

  1. Lattice Distortion Mediated Paramagnetic Relaxation in High-Spin High-Symmetry Molecular Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Anupam

    1998-08-01

    Field-dependent maxima in the relaxation rate of the magnetic molecules Mn12-Ac and Fe8-tacn have commonly been ascribed to some resonant tunneling phenomena. We argue instead that the relaxation is purely due to phonons. The rate maxima arise because of a Jahn-Teller-like distortion caused by the coupling of phonons to degenerate Zeeman levels of the molecule at the top of the barrier. The binding energy of the distorted intermediate states lowers the barrier height and increases the relaxation rate. A nonperturbative calculation of this effect is carried out for a model system. An approximate result for the field variation near a maximum is found to agree reasonably with experiment.

  2. Thermal behaviour of the ESR Relaxation time in slightly dirty superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwachheim, G.; Machado, S.F.; Tsallis, C.

    1978-07-01

    The thermal behaviour of the ESR relaxation rate in slightly dirty superconductors is discussed for both exchange and spin-orbit interactions between the conduction electrons and the impurities. The sensibility to the electronic density of states is exhibited by using, in a modified BCS framework, an heuristic analytic form which avoids two of three defects of a previous similar treatment. The sudden increase (decrease) of the relaxation rate immediately below the critical temperature for the exchange (spin-orbit) case is confirmed. Reasonable agreement with experimental data in LaRu 2 ; Gd is obtained [pt

  3. Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cells Increase Tumor Growth Rates and Modify Tumor Physiology: Relevance for Therapeutic Targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagan, Jonathan, E-mail: jdpagan@uams.edu; Przybyla, Beata; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Gupta, Kalpna [Vascular Biology Center and Division of Hematology-Oncology Transplantation, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, MN 72223 (United States); Griffin, Robert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2013-02-18

    Endothelial cell precursors from human peripheral blood have been shown to home to areas of neovascularization and may assist tumor growth by increasing or fortifying blood vessel growth. In the present study, the influence of these cells on tumor growth and physiology was investigated and the role of these cells as a therapeutic target or in determining treatment sensitivity was tested. After isolation from human blood and expansion in vitro, actively growing cells with verified endothelial phenotype (Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cell, BOEC) were injected i.v. into tumor bearing mice for three consecutive days. The growth rate was significantly enhanced in relatively small RERF human lung tumors (i.e., less than 150 mm{sup 3}) grown in immunocompromised mice by an average of 1.5-fold while it had no effect when injections were given to animals bearing larger tumors. There were no signs of toxicity or unwanted systemic effects. We also observed evidence of increased perfusion, vessel number, response to 15 Gy radiation and oxygenation in RERF tumors of animals injected with BOECs compared to control tumors. In addition, FSaII murine fibrosarcoma tumors were found to grow faster upon injection of BOECs. When FSaII tumors were subjected to a partial thermal ablation treatment using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) there was consistently elevated detection of fluorescently labeled and i.v. injected endothelial precursors in the tumor when analyzed with optical imaging and/or histological preparations. Importantly, we also observed that BOECs treated with the novel anti-angiogenic peptide anginex in-vitro, show decreased proliferation and increased sensitivity to radiation. In vivo, the normal increase in FSaII tumor growth induced by injected BOECs was blunted by the addition of anginex treatment. It appears that endothelial precursors may significantly contribute to tumor vessel growth, tumor progression and/or repair of tumor damage and may improve the

  4. Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cells Increase Tumor Growth Rates and Modify Tumor Physiology: Relevance for Therapeutic Targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagan, Jonathan; Przybyla, Beata; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat; Gupta, Kalpna; Griffin, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial cell precursors from human peripheral blood have been shown to home to areas of neovascularization and may assist tumor growth by increasing or fortifying blood vessel growth. In the present study, the influence of these cells on tumor growth and physiology was investigated and the role of these cells as a therapeutic target or in determining treatment sensitivity was tested. After isolation from human blood and expansion in vitro, actively growing cells with verified endothelial phenotype (Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cell, BOEC) were injected i.v. into tumor bearing mice for three consecutive days. The growth rate was significantly enhanced in relatively small RERF human lung tumors (i.e., less than 150 mm 3 ) grown in immunocompromised mice by an average of 1.5-fold while it had no effect when injections were given to animals bearing larger tumors. There were no signs of toxicity or unwanted systemic effects. We also observed evidence of increased perfusion, vessel number, response to 15 Gy radiation and oxygenation in RERF tumors of animals injected with BOECs compared to control tumors. In addition, FSaII murine fibrosarcoma tumors were found to grow faster upon injection of BOECs. When FSaII tumors were subjected to a partial thermal ablation treatment using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) there was consistently elevated detection of fluorescently labeled and i.v. injected endothelial precursors in the tumor when analyzed with optical imaging and/or histological preparations. Importantly, we also observed that BOECs treated with the novel anti-angiogenic peptide anginex in-vitro, show decreased proliferation and increased sensitivity to radiation. In vivo, the normal increase in FSaII tumor growth induced by injected BOECs was blunted by the addition of anginex treatment. It appears that endothelial precursors may significantly contribute to tumor vessel growth, tumor progression and/or repair of tumor damage and may improve the

  5. Arresting relaxation in Pickering Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Tim; Burke, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Pickering emulsions consist of droplets of one fluid dispersed in a host fluid and stabilized by colloidal particles absorbed at the fluid-fluid interface. Everyday materials such as crude oil and food products like salad dressing are examples of these materials. Particles can stabilize non spherical droplet shapes in these emulsions through the following sequence: first, an isolated droplet is deformed, e.g. by an electric field, increasing the surface area above the equilibrium value; additional particles are then adsorbed to the interface reducing the surface tension. The droplet is then allowed to relax toward a sphere. If more particles were adsorbed than can be accommodated by the surface area of the spherical ground state, relaxation of the droplet is arrested at some non-spherical shape. Because the energetic cost of removing adsorbed colloids exceeds the interfacial driving force, these configurations can remain stable over long timescales. In this presentation, we present a computational study of the ordering present in anisotropic droplets produced through the mechanism of arrested relaxation and discuss the interplay between the geometry of the droplet, the dynamical process that produced it, and the structure of the defects observed.

  6. High temperature increases the masculinization rate of the all-female (XX) rainbow trout "Mal" population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Karina; Jouanno, Elodie; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Galiana-Arnoux, Delphine; Guyomard, René; Helary, Louise; Mourot, Brigitte; Fostier, Alexis; Quillet, Edwige; Guiguen, Yann

    2014-01-01

    Salmonids are generally considered to have a robust genetic sex determination system with a simple male heterogamety (XX/XY). However, spontaneous masculinization of XX females has been found in a rainbow trout population of gynogenetic doubled haploid individuals. The analysis of this masculinization phenotype transmission supported the hypothesis of the involvement of a recessive mutation (termed mal). As temperature effect on sex differentiation has been reported in some salmonid species, in this study we investigated in detail the potential implication of temperature on masculinization in this XX mal-carrying population. Seven families issued from XX mal-carrying parents were exposed from the time of hatching to different rearing water temperatures ((8, 12 and 18°C), and the resulting sex-ratios were confirmed by histological analysis of both gonads. Our results demonstrate that masculinization rates are strongly increased (up to nearly two fold) at the highest temperature treatment (18°C). Interestingly, we also found clear differences between temperatures on the masculinization of the left versus the right gonads with the right gonad consistently more often masculinized than the left one at lower temperatures (8 and 12°C). However, the masculinization rate is also strongly dependent on the genetic background of the XX mal-carrying families. Thus, masculinization in XX mal-carrying rainbow trout is potentially triggered by an interaction between the temperature treatment and a complex genetic background potentially involving some part of the genetic sex differentiation regulatory cascade along with some minor sex-influencing loci. These results indicate that despite its rather strict genetic sex determinism system, rainbow trout sex differentiation can be modulated by temperature, as described in many other fish species.

  7. Relaxation oscillations in stimulated Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachen, G.I.; Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Light pulses created by stimulated Raman scattering having been found to exhibit a complex time dependence which resembles relaxation oscillations. A focused laser pulse generated both forward and backward Raman emissions which appeared as a series of pulses with durations much shorter than the incident laser pulse. Time dependence of the Raman emission was observed directly by use of a streak camera. The number of observed pulses increased with the intensity of the incident pulse, while separation of the pulses in time depended on the length of the focal region. Beam focusing was incorporated in the coupled wave equations for stimulated Raman scattering. These rate equations were then solved numerically, and the results are in good qualitative agreement with the experimental observations. The short Raman pulses are created by a process associated with depletion of the incident laser pulse. This process occurs under a broad range of conditions

  8. Occupational stress, relaxation therapies, exercise and biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Franklin

    2001-01-01

    Occupational stress is a widespread occurrence in the United States. It is a contributing factor to absenteeism, disease, injury and lowered productivity. In general stress management programs in the work place that include relaxation therapies, exercise, and biofeedback have been shown to reduce the physiological symptoms such as hypertension, and increase job satisfaction and job performance. Strategies to implement a successful stress management program include incorporating the coping activities into one's daily schedule, monitoring one's symptoms and stressors, and being realistic in setting up a schedule that is relevant and attainable. A short form of meditation, daily exercise program and the use of heart rate or thermal biofeedback can be helpful to a worker experiencing occupational stress.

  9. Compaction and relaxation of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, R.

    2015-06-18

    Operation of membrane systems for water treatment can be seriously hampered by biofouling. A better characterization of biofilms in membrane systems and their impact on membrane performance may help to develop effective biofouling control strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence, extent and timescale of biofilm compaction and relaxation (decompaction), caused by permeate flux variations. The impact of permeate flux changes on biofilm thickness, structure and stiffness was investigated in situ and non-destructively with optical coherence tomography using membrane fouling monitors operated at a constant crossflow velocity of 0.1 m s−1 with permeate production. The permeate flux was varied sequentially from 20 to 60 and back to 20 L m−2 h−1. The study showed that the average biofilm thickness on the membrane decreased after elevating the permeate flux from 20 to 60 L m−2 h−1 while the biofilm thickness increased again after restoring the original flux of 20 L m−2 h−1, indicating the occurrence of biofilm compaction and relaxation. Within a few seconds after the flux change, the biofilm thickness was changed and stabilized, biofilm compaction occurred faster than the relaxation after restoring the original permeate flux. The initial biofilm parameters were not fully reinstated: the biofilm thickness was reduced by 21%, biofilm stiffness had increased and the hydraulic biofilm resistance was elevated by 16%. Biofilm thickness was related to the hydraulic biofilm resistance. Membrane performance losses are related to the biofilm thickness, density and morphology, which are influenced by (variations in) hydraulic conditions. A (temporarily) permeate flux increase caused biofilm compaction, together with membrane performance losses. The impact of biofilms on membrane performance can be influenced (increased and reduced) by operational parameters. The article shows that a (temporary) pressure increase leads to more

  10. Elimination of oral candidiasis may increase stimulated whole salivary flow rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohga, Noritaka; Yamazaki, Yutaka; Sato, Jun; Asaka, Takuya; Morimoto, Masahiro; Hata, Hironobu; Satoh, Chiharu; Kitagawa, Yoshimasa

    2016-11-01

    Candida infections are frequently encountered fungal infections in the oral mucosa. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of eliminating Candida spp. on stimulated whole salivary flow rate (SWS) in patients with oral candidiasis. This study involved 66 patients with oral candidiasis. Fifty-two consecutive patients, successfully treated by antifungal therapy, were available to examine the effect of elimination of oral Candida spp. on SWS (success group); the 14 patients who tested positive for Candida after therapy were retrospectively included (control group). SWS were used to measure saliva production. Moreover, tongue pain and xerostomia were evaluated using visual analog score (VAS). By eliminating oral Candida spp., SWS significantly increased in the success group after antifungal therapy [SWS: mean value 0.89±0.51ml/min (median 0.82ml/min: 0.15-2.14) to mean value 1.16±0.58ml/min (median 1.05ml/min: 0.2-2.93), Poral Candida spp. in patients with oral candidiasis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Barbell deadlift training increases the rate of torque development and vertical jump performance in novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brennan J; Stock, Matt S; Shields, JoCarol E; Luera, Micheal J; Munayer, Ibrahim K; Mota, Jacob A; Carrillo, Elias C; Olinghouse, Kendra D

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10 weeks of barbell deadlift training on rapid torque characteristics of the knee extensors and flexors. A secondary aim was to analyze the relationships between training-induced changes in rapid torque and vertical jump performance. Fifty-four subjects (age, mean ± SD = 23 ± 3 years) were randomly assigned to a control (n = 20) or training group (n = 34). Subjects in the training group performed supervised deadlift training twice per week for 10 weeks. All subjects performed isometric strength testing of the knee extensors and flexors and vertical jumps before and after the intervention. Torque-time curves were used to calculate rate of torque development (RTD) values at peak and at 50 and 200 milliseconds from torque onset. Barbell deadlift training induced significant pre- to post-increases of 18.8-49.0% for all rapid torque variables (p torque capacities in both the knee extensors and flexors. Changes in rapid torque were associated with improvements in vertical jump height, suggesting a transfer of adaptations from deadlift training to an explosive, performance-based task. Professionals may use these findings when attempting to design effective, time-efficient resistance training programs to improve explosive strength capacities in novices.

  12. Increasing Winter Maximal Metabolic Rate Improves Intrawinter Survival in Small Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Magali; Clavijo-Baquet, Sabrina; Vézina, François

    Small resident bird species living at northern latitudes increase their metabolism in winter, and this is widely assumed to improve their chances of survival. However, the relationship between winter metabolic performance and survival has yet to be demonstrated. Using capture-mark-recapture, we followed a population of free-living black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) over 3 yr and evaluated their survival probability within and among winters. We also measured the size-independent body mass (M s ), hematocrit (Hct), basal metabolic rate (BMR), and maximal thermogenic capacity (Msum) and investigated how these parameters influenced survival within and among winters. Results showed that survival probability was high and constant both within (0.92) and among (0.96) winters. They also showed that while M s , Hct, and BMR had no significant influence, survival was positively related to Msum-following a sigmoid relationship-within but not among winter. Birds expressing an Msum below 1.26 W (i.e., similar to summer levels) had a winter. Our data therefore suggest that black-capped chickadees that are either too slow or unable to adjust their phenotype from summer to winter have little chances of survival and thus that seasonal upregulation of metabolic performance is highly beneficial. This study is the first to document in an avian system the relationship between thermogenic capacity and winter survival, a proxy of fitness.

  13. Carbon Dioxide Insufflation Increases Colonoscopic Adenoma Detection Rate Compared With Air Insufflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Christopher D; McCamley, Chere; Swan, Michael P

    2018-03-07

    To determine the effect of carbon dioxide insufflation on the most important outcome measure of colonoscopic quality: adenoma detection rate (ADR). Bowel cancer is the second most common cause of cancer deaths in males and females in Australia. Carbon dioxide has in recent times become the insufflation methodology of choice for screening colonoscopy for bowel cancer, as this has been shown to have significant advantages when compared with traditional air insufflation. Endoscopies performed over a period of 9 months immediately before and after the implementation of carbon dioxide insufflation at endoscopy centers were eligible for inclusion. The difference in ADR between the carbon dioxide and air insufflation methods was statistically significant, with an increased ADR in the carbon dioxide group. The superiority of carbon dioxide insufflation was sustained with a logistic regression model, which showed ADR was significantly impacted by insufflation method. Carbon dioxide insufflation is known to reduce abdominal pain, postprocedural duration of abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and analgesic requirements. This study represents for the first time the beneficial effect of carbon dioxide insufflation upon the key quality colonoscopy indicator of ADR.

  14. The increase elimination rate of tritium after administration of furosemide in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirovici, Maria; Jiquidi, Luminita; Reviu, Eugen

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that tritium has certain characteristics that present serious problems for dosimetry and health risk assessment. National Council on Radiation Protection recommends for persons contaminated with tritium oral intake of fluid (e.g. water, fruit juice, tea, coffee or beer), or instillation with 5 % glucose under a doctor's care, together with daily urinary monitoring. This paper tries to follow up the increase elimination rate of tritium in contaminated rats after administration of furosemide, a diuretic used in medical practice. The experiments has been realized on the Wistar rats divided into two groups. First, the control group was contaminated with 3 HHO by intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation. The second group was treated with 3 doses of 5.70 mg furosemide (i.p.) body weight at 2, 6 and 12 hours after i.p. inoculation with 3 HHO. Following exposure, the tritium elimination in excreta was monitored 18 days and blood, liver, muscle and kidney were extracted from rats at 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 18 days after contamination. The excreta and tissues were analyzed with specific tritium radiochemical methods and the samples radioactivity was measured by liquid scintillation technique. Efficiency of treatment was about 30 %. (authors)

  15. A second defibrillator chest patch electrode will increase implantation rates for nonthoracotomy defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, A J; Swartz, J F; Rodak, D J; Moore, H J; Hannan, R L; Tracy, C M; Fletcher, R D

    1996-09-01

    Nonthoracotomy defibrillator systems can be implanted with a lower morbidity and mortality, compared to epicardial systems. However, implantation may be unsuccessful in up to 15% of patients, using a monophasic waveform. It was the purpose of this study to prospectively examine the efficacy of a second chest patch electrode in a nonthoracotomy defibrillator system. Fourteen patients (mean age 62 +/- 11 years, ejection fraction = 0.29 +/- 0.12) with elevated defibrillation thresholds, defined as > or = 24 J, were studied. The initial lead system consisted of a right ventricular electrode (cathode), a left innominate vein, and subscapular chest patch electrode (anodes). If the initial defibrillation threshold was > or = 24 J, a second chest patch electrode was added. This was placed subcutaneously in the anterior chest (8 cases), or submuscularly in the subscapular space (6 cases). This resulted in a decrease in the system impedance at the defibrillation threshold, from 72.3 +/- 13.3 omega to 52.2 +/- 8.6 omega. Additionally, the defibrillation threshold decreased from > or = 24 J, with a single patch, to 16.6 +/- 2.8 J with two patches. These changes were associated with successful implantation of a nonthoracotomy defibrillator system in all cases. In conclusion, the addition of a second chest patch electrode (using a subscapular approach) will result in lower defibrillation thresholds in patients with high defibrillation thresholds, and will subsequently increase implantation rates for nonthoracotomy defibrillators.

  16. Relative rates of albumin equilibration in the skin interstitium and lymph during increased permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, M.R.; Wallace, J.R.; Bell, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    The initial equilibration of 125 I-labelled albumin between the vascular and extravascular compartments was studied in hindpaw heel skin of anesthetized rabbits. Bradykinin (0.3 μg/min) was infused into a small branch of the femoral artery. A second group of rabbits served as control. Following bradykinin, prenodal popliteal lymph flow was 4 times control flow. The lymph-to-plasma concentration ratios for total protein and albumin were, respectively, 60% and 50% larger than control. Tissue albumin concentration was twice control. After reaching a steady, elevated lymph flow, tracer albumin was infused to maintain plasma activity constant for 3 hrs. The plasma volume in tissue samples was measured using 131 I-labeled albumin injected 10 min before ending the experiment. Endogenous albumin was measured in plasma, lymph, and tissue samples using rocket electroimmunoassay. After 3 hrs of tracer infusion, lymph specific activity was 3 times greater than control. In the control group, plasma albumin equilibrated more rapidly with lymph than with tissue (p < 0.05). Following bradykinin, extravascular specific activity was 4 times control, resulting in lymph and tissue equilibrating with plasma at similar rates. Thus, increasing capillary permeability causes the extravascular albumin mass to behave as if distributed in a single compartment

  17. Is there an increased rate of additional malignancies in patients with mantle cell lymphoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barista, I; Cabanillas, F; Romaguera, J E; Khouri, I F; Yang, Y; Smith, T L; Strom, S S; Medeiros, L J; Hagemeister, F B

    2002-02-01

    To examine the frequency of additional neoplasms preceding and following the diagnosis of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). A total of 156 patients with MCL treated on the hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone alternated with methotrexate and cytosine arabinoside (Hyper-CVAD/M-A) program with or without rituximab from 1994 to 2000 were the subjects of this report. These patients were followed for a median time of 26 months, and a total of 32 (21%) additional neoplasms were diagnosed, 21 preceding the diagnosis of MCL and 11 following MCL. After excluding certain types of non-invasive neoplasms, including basal cell carcinoma, meningioma and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, we observed seven second malignancies after the diagnosis of MCL, and the 5-year cumulative incidence rate of second malignancy was 11%. The observed-to-expected (O/E) ratio was 7/0.07 = 100 [95% confidence interval (CI) 49.3 to 186.6; P <0.0001]. Of the 21 malignancies diagnosed prior to MCL, 16 were invasive and five non-invasive. There were a total of 10 urologic malignancies occurring before or after the diagnosis of MCL was established. Our findings suggest that there is an increased incidence of second malignancies in patients with MCL. In addition, the high number of cases with urinary tract cancer in our series may substantiate prior reports describing a possible association between lymphoma and urologic malignancies.

  18. Increased mortality by septicemia, interstitial pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis among bone marrow transplant recipients receiving an increased mean dose rate of total irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringden, O.; Baaryd, I.; Johansson, B.

    1983-01-01

    Seven bone marrow transplant recipients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia receiving a mean dose rate of 0.07 Gy/min of total body irradiation towards the pelvic midpoint and the lungs had an increased (p<0.01) overall death rate of 86 per cent compared with 33 per cent among 27 patients with acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with a mean dose rate of 0.04 Gy/min. Among the patients receiving the higher dose rate there was an increased mortality in causes related to radiation toxicity like early septicemia, interstitial pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, compared with all patients receiving the lower dose rate (p<0.01) and also with 10 patients from this group with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (p<0.02). (Auth.)

  19. Relaxed Binaural LCMV Beamforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutrouvelis, A.; Hendriks, R.C.; Heusdens, R.; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new binaural beamforming technique, which can be seen as a relaxation of the linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) framework. The proposed method can achieve simultaneous noise reduction and exact binaural cue preservation of the target source, similar to the

  20. Engineering and Scaling the Spontaneous Magnetization Reversal of Faraday Induced Magnetic Relaxation in Nano-Sized Amorphous Ni Coated on Crystalline Au.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Hung; Kuo, Chen-Chen

    2016-05-28

    We report on the generation of large inverse remanent magnetizations in nano-sized core/shell structure of Au/Ni by turning off the applied magnetic field. The remanent magnetization is very sensitive to the field reduction rate as well as to the thermal and field processes before the switching off of the magnetic field. Spontaneous reversal in direction and increase in magnitude of the remanent magnetization in subsequent relaxations over time were found. All of the various types of temporal relaxation curves of the remanent magnetizations are successfully scaled by a stretched exponential decay profile, characterized by two pairs of relaxation times and dynamic exponents. The relaxation time is used to describe the reduction rate, while the dynamic exponent describes the dynamical slowing down of the relaxation through time evolution. The key to these effects is to have the induced eddy current running beneath the amorphous Ni shells through Faraday induction.

  1. Engineering and Scaling the Spontaneous Magnetization Reversal of Faraday Induced Magnetic Relaxation in Nano-Sized Amorphous Ni Coated on Crystalline Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Hung; Kuo, Chen-Chen

    2016-01-01

    We report on the generation of large inverse remanent magnetizations in nano-sized core/shell structure of Au/Ni by turning off the applied magnetic field. The remanent magnetization is very sensitive to the field reduction rate as well as to the thermal and field processes before the switching off of the magnetic field. Spontaneous reversal in direction and increase in magnitude of the remanent magnetization in subsequent relaxations over time were found. All of the various types of temporal relaxation curves of the remanent magnetizations are successfully scaled by a stretched exponential decay profile, characterized by two pairs of relaxation times and dynamic exponents. The relaxation time is used to describe the reduction rate, while the dynamic exponent describes the dynamical slowing down of the relaxation through time evolution. The key to these effects is to have the induced eddy current running beneath the amorphous Ni shells through Faraday induction. PMID:28773549

  2. Is Increasing Coal Seam Gas Well Development Activity Associated with Increasing Hospitalisation Rates in Queensland, Australia? An Exploratory Analysis 1995-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Angela K; Cameron, Cate M; Watt, Kerrianne; Vink, Sue; Jagals, Paul; Page, Andrew

    2017-05-18

    The majority of Australia's coal seam gas (CSG) reserves are in Queensland, where the industry has expanded rapidly in recent years. Despite concerns, health data have not been examined alongside CSG development. This study examined hospitalisation rates as a function of CSG development activity in Queensland, during the period 1995-2011. Admissions data were examined with CSG well numbers, which served as a proxy for CSG development activity. Time series models were used to assess changes in hospitalisation rates for periods of "low", "medium", "high", and "intense" activity compared to a period of "very low" activity, adjusting for covariates. "All-cause" hospitalisation rates increased monotonically with increasing gas well development activity in females (324.0 to 390.3 per 1000 persons) and males (294.2 to 335.4 per 1000 persons). Hospitalisation rates for "Blood/immune" conditions generally increased for both sexes. Female and male hospitalisation rates for "Circulatory" conditions decreased with increasing CSG activity. Hospitalisation rates were generally low for reproductive and birth outcomes; no clear associations were observed. This study showed some outcomes were associated with increasing CSG development activity. However, as a condition of data access, the population and outcomes were aggregated to a broad geographic study area rather than using higher geographic resolution data. Higher resolution data, as well as other data sources, should be explored. Further research should be conducted with an expanded time period to determine if these trends continue as the industry grows.

  3. Post-General Anesthesia Ultrasound-Guided Venous Mapping Increases Autogenous Access Placement Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Png, C Y Maximilian; Korayem, Adam; Finlay, David J

    2018-04-18

    between the groups in terms of outpatient vein mapping plans (P=0.10), however when comparing the PAUS plans to the outpatient vein mapping plans, there was again a significantly increased proportion of preferred access types in the PAUS group compared to the outpatient group (P<0.001). In the ordinal logit multivariate analysis, the only significant variable was the post-anesthesia ultrasound, which positively correlated with more favorable access configurations (coefficient=2.61, P<0.001). The bivariate logit regression for autogenous access maturation rates found no significant difference between the without-PAUS group and the PAUS group (P=0.13). Introducing a post-anesthesia ultrasound mapping to guide vein-finding significantly increases the quality and quantity of suitable veins found, subsequently leading to increased proportions preferred access placement (autogenous vs. prosthetic and forearm vs. upper extremity). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Improved meal presentation increases food intake and decreases readmission rate in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Daniela Abigail; Boaz, Mona; Krause, Ilan; Elis, Avishay; Chernov, Karina; Giabra, Mursi; Levy, Miriam; Giboreau, Agnes; Kosak, Sigrid; Mouhieddine, Mohamed; Singer, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    .5%. Improvement of meal presentation at a hospital setting can increase food intake, reduce waste food substantially and reduce readmission rate to hospital. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. The Influence of Herbivory on the net rate of Increase of Gypsy Moth Abundance: A Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

     Harry T.  Valentine

    1983-01-01

    A differential equation model of gypsy moth abundance, average larval dry weight, and food abundance was used to analyze the effects of changes in foliar chemistry on the net per capita rate of increase in a gypsy moth population. If relative consumption rate per larva is unaffected by herbivory, a reduction in the nutritional value of foliage reduces the net rate of...

  6. Anisotropic temperature relaxation of plasmas in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.H.A.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetized kinetic equation derived in an earlier paper (Hassan and Watson, 1977) is used to study the problem of relaxation of anisotropic electron and ion temperatures in a magnetized plasma. In the case of anisotropic electron temperature relaxation, it is shown that for small anisotropies the exchange of energy within the electrons between the components parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field direction determine the relaxation rate. For anisotropic ion temperature relaxation it is shown that the essential mechanism for relaxation is provided by energy transfer between ions and electrons, and that the expression for the relaxation rate perpendicular to the magnetic field contains a significant term proportional to ln eta 0 ln (msub(e)/msub(i)) (where eta 0 = Ωsub(e)/ksub(D)Vsub(e perpendicular to)), in addition to the term proportional to the Coulomb logarithm. (author)

  7. 75 FR 55292 - Amendment to Egg Research and Promotion Order and Regulations To Increase the Rate of Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ...] Amendment to Egg Research and Promotion Order and Regulations To Increase the Rate of Assessment and.... SUMMARY: This proposed rule would amend the Egg Research and Promotion Order (Order) to increase the assessment rate on egg producers paying assessments to the American Egg Board (AEB) from 10 cents to 15 cents...

  8. Acid suppression increases rates of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal injury in the presence of duodenal reflux.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: The contribution of gastric acid to the toxicity of alkaline duodenal refluxate on the esophageal mucosa is unclear. This study compared the effect of duodenal refluxate when acid was present, decreased by proton pump inhibitors (PPI), or absent. METHODS: We randomized 136 Sprague-Dawley rats into 4 groups: group 1 (n = 33) were controls; group 2 (n = 34) underwent esophagoduodenostomy promoting "combined reflux"; group 3 (n = 34) underwent esophagoduodenostomy and PPI treatment to decrease acid reflux; and group 4, the \\'gastrectomy\\' group (n = 35) underwent esophagoduodenostomy and total gastrectomy to eliminate acid in the refluxate. Esophaguses were examined for inflammatory, Barrett\\'s, and other histologic changes, and expression of proliferative markers Ki-67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). RESULTS: In all reflux groups, the incidence of Barrett\\'s mucosa was greater when acid was suppressed (group C, 62%; group D, 71%) than when not suppressed (group B, 27%; P = 0.004 and P < .001). Erosions were more frequent in the PPI and gastrectomy groups than in the combined reflux group. Edema (wet weight) and ulceration was more frequent in the gastrectomy than in the combined reflux group. Acute inflammatory changes were infrequent in the PPI group (8%) compared with the combined reflux (94%) or gastrectomy (100%) groups, but chronic inflammation persisted in 100% of the PPI group. EGFR levels were greater in the PPI compared with the combined reflux group (P = .04). Ki-67, PCNA, and combined marker scores were greater in the gastrectomy compared with the combined reflux group (P = .006, P = .14, and P < .001). CONCLUSION: Gastric acid suppression in the presence of duodenal refluxate caused increased rates of inflammatory changes, intestinal metaplasia, and molecular proliferative activity. PPIs suppressed acute inflammatory changes only, whereas chronic inflammatory changes persisted.

  9. A revised mineral nutrient supplement increases biomass and growth rate in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropat, Janette; Hong-Hermesdorf, Anne; Casero, David; Ent, Petr; Castruita, Madeli; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Malasarn, Davin

    2011-06-01

    Interest in exploiting algae as a biofuel source and the role of inorganic nutrient deficiency in inducing triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation in cells necessitates a strategy to efficiently formulate species-specific culture media that can easily be manipulated. Using the reference organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we tested the hypothesis that modeling trace element supplements after the cellular ionome would result in optimized cell growth. We determined the trace metal content of several commonly used Chlamydomonas strains in various culture conditions and developed a revised trace element solution to parallel these measurements. Comparison of cells growing in the revised supplement versus a traditional trace element solution revealed faster growth rates and higher maximum cell densities with the revised recipe. RNA-seq analysis of cultures growing in the traditional versus revised medium suggest that the variation in transcriptomes was smaller than that found between different wild-type strains grown in traditional Hutner's supplement. Visual observation did not reveal defects in cell motility or mating efficiency in the new supplement. Ni²⁺-inducible expression from the CYC6 promoter remained a useful tool, albeit with an increased requirement for Ni²⁺ because of the introduction of an EDTA buffer system in the revised medium. Other advantages include more facile preparation of trace element stock solutions, a reduction in total chemical use, a more consistent batch-to-batch formulation and long-term stability (tested up to 5 years). Under the new growth regime, we analyzed cells growing under different macro- and micronutrient deficiencies. TAG accumulation in N deficiency is comparable in the new medium. Fe and Zn deficiency also induced TAG accumulation, as suggested by Nile Red staining. This approach can be used to efficiently optimize culture conditions for other algal species to improve growth and to assay cell physiology. © 2011 The Authors

  10. Anomalous enhancement of nuclear spin relaxation rates of 109Ag and 115In at low temperatures in cubic Γ3 ground-state system PrAg2In. First observation of octupole fluctuations of f-electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanida, Hiroshi; Takagi, Shigeru; Suzuki, Hiroyuki S.; Satoh, Isamu; Komatsubara, Takemi

    2006-01-01

    Microscopic properties have been investigated on a cubic nonmagnetic non-Kramers Γ 3 doublet ground-state (GS) system PrAg 2 In by complementarily utilizing 115 In (I=9/2) and 109 Ag (I=1/2) NMR with particular emphasis on the low-frequency (low-ω) dipole and multipole (octupole and/or quadrupole) fluctuations of f-electrons as probed by the nuclear spin relaxation rates 1/ 115 T 1 and 1/ 109 T 1 . We show that 1/ 115 T 1 and 1/ 109 T 1 are anomalously enhanced respectively below≅50 K and ≅100K over those expected for the low-ω dipole fluctuations of the excited magnetic Γ 4 and Γ 5 states in a simple crystalline-electric-field model for a Γ 3 GS system. By comparing 1/( 115 T 1 T) and 1/( 109 T 1 T) and also by considering an invariant form of the hyperfine and/or quadrupole couplings of Γ 3 octupole and/or quadrupole moments with Ag/In nuclear dipole and/or quadrupole moments, we show that Γ 3 octupole fluctuations dominate 1/ 109 T 1 and quadrupole ones can possibly contribute to 1/ 115 T 1 at low T. (author)

  11. Increasing sync rate of pulse-coupled oscillators via phase response function design: theory and application to wireless networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yongqiang; Nunez, Felipe; Doyle III, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the synchronization rate of weakly connected pulse-coupled oscillators (PCOs). We prove that besides coupling strength, the phase response function is also a determinant of synchronization rate. Inspired by the result, we propose to increase the synchronization rate of PCOs by designing the phase response function. This has important significance in PCO-based clock synchronization of wireless networks. By designing the phase response function, synchronization rate is incr...

  12. Increasing the labour epidural rate in a state hospital in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access article distributed under the terms of the ... epidural rates improved to 5.16% for the audit period, with 2014 and 2015 rates of 7.44% and 3.89% respectively. ... patients present with pregnancy-related comorbidities such as.

  13. Chemical exchange effects during refocusing pulses in constant-time CPMG relaxation dispersion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myint, Wazo; Ishima, Rieko

    2009-01-01

    In the analysis of the constant-time Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CT-CPMG) relaxation dispersion experiment, chemical exchange parameters, such as rate of exchange and population of the exchanging species, are typically optimized using equations that predict experimental relaxation rates recorded as a function of effective field strength. In this process, the effect of chemical exchange during the CPMG pulses is typically assumed to be the same as during the free-precession. This approximation may introduce systematic errors into the analysis of data because the number of CPMG pulses is incremented during the constant-time relaxation period, and the total pulse duration therefore varies as a function of the effective field strength. In order to estimate the size of such errors, we simulate the time-dependence of magnetization during the entire constant time period, explicitly taking into account the effect of the CPMG pulses on the spin relaxation rate. We show that in general the difference in the relaxation dispersion profile calculated using a practical pulse width from that calculated using an extremely short pulse width is small, but under certain circumstances can exceed 1 s -1 . The difference increases significantly when CPMG pulses are miscalibrated

  14. Relaxation of synchronization on complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong; Hong, Hyunsuk

    2008-07-01

    We study collective synchronization in a large number of coupled oscillators on various complex networks. In particular, we focus on the relaxation dynamics of the synchronization, which is important from the viewpoint of information transfer or the dynamics of system recovery from a perturbation. We measure the relaxation time tau that is required to establish global synchronization by varying the structural properties of the networks. It is found that the relaxation time in a strong-coupling regime (K>Kc) logarithmically increases with network size N , which is attributed to the initial random phase fluctuation given by O(N-1/2) . After elimination of the initial-phase fluctuation, the relaxation time is found to be independent of the system size; this implies that the local interaction that depends on the structural connectivity is irrelevant in the relaxation dynamics of the synchronization in the strong-coupling regime. The relaxation dynamics is analytically derived in a form independent of the system size, and it exhibits good consistency with numerical simulations. As an application, we also explore the recovery dynamics of the oscillators when perturbations enter the system.

  15. Idiosyncratic reality claims, relaxation dispositions, and ABC relaxation theory: happiness, literal christianity, miraculous powers, metaphysics, and the paranormal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathan C; Karmin, Aaron D

    2002-12-01

    This study examined idiosyncratic reality claims, that is, irrational or paranormal beliefs often claimed to enhance relaxation and happiness and reduce stress. The Smith Idiosyncratic Reality Claims Inventory and the Smith Relaxation Dispositions Inventory (which measures relaxation and stress dispositions, or enduring states of mind frequently associated with relaxation or stress) were given to 310 junior college student volunteers. Principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation identified five idiosyncratic reality claim factors: belief in Literal Christianity; Magic; Space Aliens: After Death experiences; and Miraculous Powers of Meditation, Prayer, and Belief. No factor correlated with increased relaxation dispositions Peace, Energy, or Joy, or reduced dispositional somatic stress, worry, or negative emotion on the Smith Relaxation Dispositions Inventory. It was concluded that idiosyncratic reality claims may not be associated with reported relaxation, happiness, or stress. In contrast, previous research strongly supported self-affirming beliefs with few paranormal assumptions display such an association.

  16. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  17. Association between Carotid Intima Media Thickness and Heart Rate Variability in Adults at Increased Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu C. Baltatu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerotic carotid intima-media thickness (IMT may be associated with alterations in the sensitivity of carotid baroreceptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between carotid IMT and the autonomic modulation of heart rate variability (HRV.Methods: A total of 101 subjects were enrolled in this prospective observational study. The carotid IMT was determined by duplex ultrasonography. The cardiac autonomic function was determined through HRV measures during the Deep Breathing Test. Linear regression models, adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, body mass index, waist-hip-ratio, and left ventricular ejection fraction were used to evaluate the association between HRV parameters and carotid IMT.Results: Participants had a mean age of 60.4 ± 13.4 years and an estimated 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk score (using the Pooled Cohort Equations of 16.4 ± 17. The mean carotid media thickness was highest (0.90 ± 0.19 mm in the first quartile of the standard deviation of all RR intervals (SDNN (19.7 ± 5.1 ms and progressively declined in each subsequent quartile to 0.82 ± 0.21 mm, 0.81 ± 0.16 mm, and 0.68 ± 0.19 in quartiles 2 (36.5 ± 5.9 ms, 3 (57.7 ± 6.2 ms and 4 (100.9 ± 22.2 ms, respectively. In multivariable adjusted models, there was a statistical significant association between SDNN and carotid IMT (OR −0.002; 95%CI −0.003 to −0.001, p = 0.005. The same significant association was found between carotid IMT and other measures of HRV, including coefficient of variation of RR intervals (CV and dispersion of points along the line of identity (SD2.Conclusions: In a cohort of individuals at increased cardiovascular risk, carotid IMT as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis was associated with alterations of HRV indicating an impaired cardiac autonomic control, independently of other cardiovascular risk factors.

  18. Heart rate variability and increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penčić-Popović, Biljana; Ćelić, Vera; Ćosić, Zoran; Pavlović-Kleut, Milena; Čaparević, Zorica; Kostić, Nada; Milovanović, Branislav; Šljivić, Aleksandra; Stojčevski, Biljana

    2014-12-01

    To our knowledge there are no data about the relationship between elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and altered cardiac autonomic function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between heart rate variability (HRV) and slightly increased risk for DM2. We evaluated 69 subjects (50.0 ± 14.4 years; 30 male) without DM2, coronary artery disease and arrhythmias. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC): group I (n = 39) included subjects with 12 > FINDRISC ≥ 7; group II (n = 30) subjects with FINDRISC power--TP (7.2 ± 0.3 ln/ms2 vs 7.3 ± 0.3 ln/ms2; p = 0.029), and low frequency--LF (5.9 ± 0.4 ln/ms2 vs 6.3 ± 0.6 In/ms2; p = 0.006), over entire 24 h, as well as TP (7.1 ± 0.3 In/ms2 vs 7.3 ± 0.3 In/ms2; p = 0.004), very low frequency (6.2 ± 0.2 In/ms2 vs 6.3 ± 0.2 In/ms2; p = 0.030), LF (5.9 ± 0.4 In/ms2 vs 6.2 ± 0.3 In/ms2; p = 0.000) and high frequency (5.7 ± 0.4 In/ms2 vs 5.9 ± 0.4 In/ms2; p = 0.011) during the daytime compared to the group II. Nocturnal frequency domain analysis was similar between the groups. The low diurnal frequency was independently related to elevated risk for diabetes mellitus (beta = -0,331; p = 0.006). The obtained results suggest that even slightly elevated risk for developing diabetes mellitus may be related to impaired HRV.

  19. High power pulsed magnetron sputtering: A method to increase deposition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, Priya; McLain, Jake; Ruzic, David N; Shchelkanov, Ivan A.

    2015-01-01

    High power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) is a state-of-the-art physical vapor deposition technique with several industrial applications. One of the main disadvantages of this process is its low deposition rate. In this work, the authors report a new magnetic field configuration, which produces deposition rates twice that of conventional magnetron's dipole magnetic field configuration. Three different magnet pack configurations are discussed in this paper, and an optimized magnet pack configuration for HPPMS that leads to a higher deposition rate and nearly full-face target erosion is presented. The discussed magnetic field produced by a specially designed magnet assembly is of the same size as the conventional magnet assembly and requires no external fields. Comparison of deposition rates with different power supplies and the electron trapping efficiency in complex magnetic field arrangements are discussed

  20. Can hydrographic data provide evidence that the rate of oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is increasing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Carlisle Thacker

    Full Text Available Predictions of the rate of accumulation of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the Pacific Ocean near 32°S and 150°W based on the P16 surveys of 1991 and 2005 and on the P06 surveys of 1992 and 2003 underestimate the amount found in the P06 survey of 2009-2010, suggesting an increasing uptake rate. Assuming the accumulation rate to be constant over the two decades, analyses using all five surveys lead to upward revision of the rates based only on the first four. On the other hand, accumulation rates estimated for 2003-2010 are significantly greater than those for 1991-2003, again suggesting an increasing uptake rate. In addressing this question it is important to acknowledge the limitations of the repeat hydrography and consequent uncertainties of estimated accumulation rates.

  1. Strengthening Medicare: Will increasing the bulk-billing rate and supply of general practitioners increase access to Medicare-funded general practitioner services and does rurality matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Susan E; Alford, Katrina; Dunt, David; Peacock, Stuart; Gurrin, Lyle; Voaklander, Don

    2005-01-01

    Background Recent increases in the bulk-billing rate have been taken as an indication that the Federal government's Strengthening Medicare initiative, and particularly the bulk-billing incentives, are 'working'. Given the enduring geographic differences in the supply of general practitioners (GPs) it is timely to reconsider the impact that this increase in the provision of 'free care' will have on access to Medicare-funded GP services in rural and urban areas of Australia. Utilisation has been modelled as two different stochastic processes: the decision to consult and the frequency of consultation. Results In the decision to consult model the supply of FFS GPs is a more important predictor of utilisation than the bulk-billing rate. Paradoxically the modelling predicts that ceteris paribus increases in either GP supply or the bulk-billing rate appear to have perverse effects in some areas by decreasing utilisation. In the frequency of consultation model, GP density is not a predictor and increasing the bulk-billing rate will unambiguously increase the frequency of consultation across all areas. In both models, the positive impacts associated with changes in supply and cost are constrained outside the inner metropolitan area by reduced geographic accessibility to Medicare-funded GP services. The modelling also shows that people are more likely to consult a GP in areas of high socioeconomic disadvantage, although socioeconomic status is not a predictor of frequency of consultation. Conclusion Bulk-billing rates and the supply of FFS GPs are important features of the Australian health care system that are, potentially, amenable to policy manipulation. The implications of this research are that government policies designed to achieve similarity in these characteristics across geographic areas will not result in equity of access because they fail to address problems caused by geographic inaccessibility in rural and remote areas. Attempting to increase bulk-billing rates

  2. Increasing the bit rate in OCDMA systems using pulse position modulation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, Vahid R; Saghari, Poorya; Haghi, Mahta; Ebrahimi, Paniz; Willner, Alan E

    2007-09-17

    We have experimentally demonstrated two novel pulse position modulation techniques, namely Double Pulse Position Modulation (2-PPM) and Differential Pulse Position Modulation (DPPM) in Time-Wavelength OCDMA systems that will operate at a higher bit rate compared to traditional OOK-OCDMA systems with the same bandwidth. With 2-PPM technique, the number of active users will be more than DPPM while their bit rate is almost the same. Both techniques provide variable quality of service in OCDMA networks.

  3. Audit and Feedback: A Quality Improvement Study to Increase Pneumococcal Vaccination Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rebecca Culver; Carter, Kimberly Ferren; Jackson, Julie; Hodges, Deborah

    The purpose of this quality improvement study was to explore the impact of audit and feedback on the pneumococcal immunization rate for at-risk adults in ambulatory settings. Study findings support the hypothesis that timely, individualized audit and feedback can have a positive impact on immunization rate; generalized feedback that did not provide actionable information did not have the same impact. The difference between the interventions was significant, χ (1, N = 1993) = 124.7, P <.001.

  4. Neurodevelopmental Delay Diagnosis Rates Are Increased in a Region with Aerial Pesticide Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D. Hicks

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have implicated pesticides in childhood developmental delay (DD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The influence of the route of pesticide exposure on neurodevelopmental delay is not well defined. To study this factor, we examined ASD/DD diagnoses rates in an area near our regional medical center that employs yearly aerial pyrethroid pesticide applications to combat mosquito-borne encephalitis. The aim of this study was to determine if areas with aerial pesticide exposure had higher rates of ASD/DD diagnoses. This regional study identified higher rates of ASD/DD diagnoses in an area with aerial pesticides application. Zip codes with aerial pyrethroid exposure were 37% more likely to have higher rates of ASD/DD (adjusted RR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.06–1.78, p = 0.02. A Poisson regression model controlling for regional characteristics (poverty, pesticide use, population density, and distance to medical center, subject characteristics (race and sex, and local birth characteristics (prematurity, low birthweight, and birth rates identified a significant relationship between aerial pesticide use and ASD/DD rates. The relationship between pesticide application and human neurodevelopment deserves additional study to develop safe and effective methods of mosquito prevention, particularly as communities develop plans for Zika virus control.

  5. Neurodevelopmental Delay Diagnosis Rates Are Increased in a Region with Aerial Pesticide Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Steven D; Wang, Ming; Fry, Katherine; Doraiswamy, Vignesh; Wohlford, Eric M

    2017-01-01

    A number of studies have implicated pesticides in childhood developmental delay (DD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The influence of the route of pesticide exposure on neurodevelopmental delay is not well defined. To study this factor, we examined ASD/DD diagnoses rates in an area near our regional medical center that employs yearly aerial pyrethroid pesticide applications to combat mosquito-borne encephalitis. The aim of this study was to determine if areas with aerial pesticide exposure had higher rates of ASD/DD diagnoses. This regional study identified higher rates of ASD/DD diagnoses in an area with aerial pesticides application. Zip codes with aerial pyrethroid exposure were 37% more likely to have higher rates of ASD/DD (adjusted RR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.06-1.78, p  = 0.02). A Poisson regression model controlling for regional characteristics (poverty, pesticide use, population density, and distance to medical center), subject characteristics (race and sex), and local birth characteristics (prematurity, low birthweight, and birth rates) identified a significant relationship between aerial pesticide use and ASD/DD rates. The relationship between pesticide application and human neurodevelopment deserves additional study to develop safe and effective methods of mosquito prevention, particularly as communities develop plans for Zika virus control.

  6. Experiments in paramagnetic relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijphart, E.E.

    1976-01-01

    This thesis presents two attempts to improve the resolving power of the relaxation measurement technique. The first attempt reconsiders the old technique of steady state saturation. When used in conjunction with the pulse technique, it offers the possibility of obtaining additional information about the system in which all-time derivatives are zero; in addition, non-linear effects may be distinguished from each other. The second attempt involved a systematic study of only one system: Cu in the Tutton salts (K and Rb). The systematic approach, the high accuracy of the measurement and the sheer amount of experimental data for varying temperature, magnetic field and concentration made it possible in this case to separate the prevailing relaxation mechanisms reliably

  7. Ultrasonic relaxations in borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, G.; Tripodo, G.; Carini, G.; Cosio, E.; Bartolotta, A.; Di Marco, G.

    2004-01-01

    The attenuation and velocity of ultrasonic waves of frequencies in the range from 10 to 70 MHz have been measured in M 2 O-B 2 O 3 borate glasses (M: Li or Ag) as a function of temperature between 15 and 350 K. The velocity of sound waves decreases with increasing temperature in all the glasses, the decrease as the temperature is increased is larger in glasses containing silver than in those with lithium. A broad relaxation peak characterises the attenuation behaviour of the lithium and silver borate glasses at temperatures below 100 K and is paralleled by a corresponding dispersive behaviour of the sound velocity. Above 100 K, the ultrasonic velocity shows a nearly linear behaviour regulated by the vibrational anharmonicity, which decreases with increasing content of modifier oxide and is smaller in lithium than in silver borates. These results suggest that the relaxation of structural defects and the anharmonicity of borate glasses are strongly affected by two parameters: the number of bridging bonds per network forming ion and the polarising power of network modifier ions which occupy sites in the existing interstices

  8. Relaxation from particle production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hook, Anson; Marques-Tavares, Gustavo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    We consider using particle production as a friction force by which to implement a “Relaxion” solution to the electroweak hierarchy problem. Using this approach, we are able to avoid superplanckian field excursions and avoid any conflict with the strong CP problem. The relaxation mechanism can work before, during or after inflation allowing for inflationary dynamics to play an important role or to be completely decoupled.

  9. Increasing sync rate of pulse-coupled oscillators via phase response function design: theory and application to wireless networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqiang; Núñez, Felipe; Doyle, Francis J

    2012-07-25

    This paper addresses the synchronization rate of weakly connected pulse-coupled oscillators (PCOs). We prove that besides coupling strength, the phase response function is also a determinant of synchronization rate. Inspired by the result, we propose to increase the synchronization rate of PCOs by designing the phase response function. This has important significance in PCO-based clock synchronization of wireless networks. By designing the phase response function, synchronization rate is increased even under a fixed transmission power. Given that energy consumption in synchronization is determined by the product of synchronization time and transformation power, the new strategy reduces energy consumption in clock synchronization. QualNet experiments confirm the theoretical results.

  10. Age-related increase in the rate of spontaneou and γ-ray-induced hprt mutations in mouse spleen lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazlev, A.I.; Podlutskii, A.Ya.; Bradbury, R.

    1994-01-01

    Endogenous and exogenous factors continually afflict DNA of cells of organisms. A certain amount of the damage is accumulated causing mutations, increasing the risk of malignacies, impairing cell functions, and upsetting the body's homeostasis. The research reported here studies the rates of spontaneous hprt nmutationsand those induced you ggammairradiation in the splenocytes of mice at various ages. The rate of spontaneous and induced hprt gene mutations increases with aging. In gamma irradiated mice the rate of radiation-induced mutations depended on the absorbed dose and age, with the rate 2.3-3.0 fold higher in 104-110 week old mice than in younger pups. 15 refs., 1 tab

  11. The rate of synthesis and decomposition of tissue proteins in hypokinesia and increased muscular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, I. V.; Chernyy, A. V.; Fedorov, A. I.

    1978-01-01

    During hypokinesia and physical loading (swimming) of rats, the radioactivity of skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, heart, and blood proteins was determined after administration of radioactive amino acids. Tissue protein synthesis decreased during hypokinesia, and decomposition increased. Both synthesis and decomposition increased during physical loading, but anabolic processes predominated in the total tissue balance. The weights of the animals decreased in hypokinesia and increased during increased muscle activity.

  12. Magnetic relaxation in anisotropic magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1971-01-01

    The line shape and the kinematic and thermodynamic slowing down of the critical and paramagnetic relaxation in axially anisotropic materials are discussed. Kinematic slowing down occurs only in the longitudinal relaxation function. The thermodynamic slowing down occurs in either the transverse...... or longitudinal relaxation function depending on the sign of the axial anisotropy....

  13. Momentum constraint relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marronetti, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Full relativistic simulations in three dimensions invariably develop runaway modes that grow exponentially and are accompanied by violations of the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints. Recently, we introduced a numerical method (Hamiltonian relaxation) that greatly reduces the Hamiltonian constraint violation and helps improve the quality of the numerical model. We present here a method that controls the violation of the momentum constraint. The method is based on the addition of a longitudinal component to the traceless extrinsic curvature A ij -tilde, generated by a vector potential w i , as outlined by York. The components of w i are relaxed to solve approximately the momentum constraint equations, slowly pushing the evolution towards the space of solutions of the constraint equations. We test this method with simulations of binary neutron stars in circular orbits and show that it effectively controls the growth of the aforementioned violations. We also show that a full numerical enforcement of the constraints, as opposed to the gentle correction of the momentum relaxation scheme, results in the development of instabilities that stop the runs shortly

  14. Real-time relationship between PKA biochemical signal network dynamics and increased action potential firing rate in heart pacemaker cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Yael; Ganesan, Ambhighainath; Yang, Dongmei; Ziman, Bruce D.; Lyashkov, Alexey E.; Levchenko, Andre; Zhang, Jin; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2015-01-01

    cAMP-PKA protein kinase is a key nodal signaling pathway that regulates a wide range of heart pacemaker cell functions. These functions are predicted to be involved in regulation of spontaneous action potential (AP) generation of these cells. Here we investigate if the kinetics and stoichiometry of increase in PKA activity match the increase in AP firing rate in response to β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) stimulation or phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition, that alter the AP firing rate of heart sinoatrial pacemaker cells. In cultured adult rabbit pacemaker cells infected with an adenovirous expressing the FRET sensor AKAR3, the EC50 in response to graded increases in the intensity of β-AR stimulation (by Isoproterenol) the magnitude of the increases in PKA activity and the spontaneous AP firing rate were similar (0.4±0.1nM vs. 0.6±0.15nM, respectively). Moreover, the kinetics (t1/2) of the increases in PKA activity and spontaneous AP firing rate in response to β-AR stimulation or PDE inhibition were tightly linked. We characterized the system rate-limiting biochemical reactions by integrating these experimentally derived data into mechanistic-computational model. Model simulations predicted that phospholamban phosphorylation is a potent target of the increase in PKA activity that links to increase in spontaneous AP firing rate. In summary, the kinetics and stoichiometry of increases in PKA activity in response to a physiological (β-AR stimulation) or pharmacological (PDE inhibitor) stimuli match those of changes in the AP firing rate. Thus Ca2+-cAMP/PKA-dependent phosphorylation limits the rate and magnitude of increase in spontaneous AP firing rate. PMID:26241846

  15. Epistasis increases the rate of conditionally neutral substitution in an adapting population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draghi, Jeremy A; Parsons, Todd L; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2011-04-01

    Kimura observed that the rate of neutral substitution should equal the neutral mutation rate. This classic result is central to our understanding of molecular evolution, and it continues to influence phylogenetics, genomics, and the interpretation of evolution experiments. By demonstrating that neutral mutations substitute at a rate independent of population size and selection at linked sites, Kimura provided an influential justification for the idea of a molecular clock and emphasized the importance of genetic drift in shaping molecular evolution. But when epistasis among sites is common, as numerous empirical studies suggest, do neutral mutations substitute according to Kimura's expectation? Here we study simulated, asexual populations of RNA molecules, and we observe that conditionally neutral mutations--i.e., mutations that do not alter the fitness of the individual in which they arise, but that may alter the fitness effects of subsequent mutations--substitute much more often than expected while a population is adapting. We quantify these effects using a simple population-genetic model that elucidates how the substitution rate at conditionally neutral sites depends on the population size, mutation rate, strength of selection, and prevalence of epistasis. We discuss the implications of these results for our understanding of the molecular clock, and for the interpretation of molecular variation in laboratory and natural populations.

  16. Reduced dietary sodium intake increases heart rate. A meta-analysis of 63 randomized controlled trials including 72 study populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels eGraudal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs published in the period 1973–2014. 63 of the RCTs including 72 study populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p < 0.00001, corresponding to 2.4% of the baseline heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction increases heart rate by as much (2.4% as it decreases blood pressure (2.5%. This side-effect, which may cause harmful health effects, contributes to the need for a revision of the present dietary guidelines.

  17. Getting physicians to open the survey: little evidence that an envelope teaser increases response rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegenfuss Jeanette Y

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physician surveys are an important tool to assess attitudes, beliefs and self-reported behaviors of this policy relevant group. In order for a physician to respond to a mailed survey, they must first open the envelope. While there is some evidence that package elements can impact physician response rates, the impact of an envelope teaser is unknown. Here we assess this by testing the impact of adding a brightly colored "$25 incentive" sticker to the outside of an envelope on response rates and nonresponse bias in a survey of physicians. Methods In the second mailing of a survey assessing physicians' moral beliefs and views on controversial health care topics, initial nonrespondents were randomly assigned to receive a survey in an envelope with a colored "$25 incentive" sticker (teaser group or an envelope without a sticker (control group. Response rates were compared between the teaser and control groups overall and by age, gender, region of the United States, specialty and years in practice. Nonresponse bias was assessed by comparing the demographic composition of the respondents to the nonrespondents in the experimental and control condition. Results No significant differences in response rates were observed between the experimental and control conditions overall (p = 0.38 or after stratifying by age, gender, region, or practice type. Within the teaser condition, there was some variation in response rate by years since graduation. There was no independent effect of the teaser on response when simultaneously controlling for demographic characteristics (OR = 0.875, p = 0.4112. Conclusions Neither response rates nor nonresponse bias were impacted by the use of an envelope teaser in a survey of physicians in the United States.

  18. Sympathetic stimulation alters left ventricular relaxation and chamber size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwash, I G; Morgan, D E; Koilpillai, C J; Blackmore, G L; Johnstone, D E; Armour, J A

    1993-01-01

    Alterations in left ventricular (LV) contractility, relaxation, and chamber dimensions induced by efferent sympathetic nerve stimulation were investigated in nine anesthetized open-chest dogs in sinus rhythm. Supramaximal stimulation of acutely decentralized left stellate ganglia augmented heart rate, LV systolic pressure, and rate of LV pressure rise (maximum +dP/dt, 1,809 +/- 191 to 6,304 +/- 725 mmHg/s) and fall (maximum -dP/dt, -2,392 +/- 230 to -4,458 +/- 482 mmHg/s). It also reduced the time constant of isovolumic relaxation, tau (36.5 +/- 4.8 to 14.9 +/- 1.1 ms). Simultaneous two-dimensional echocardiography recorded reductions in end-diastolic and end-systolic LV cross-sectional chamber areas (23 and 31%, respectively), an increase in area ejection fraction (32%), and increases in end-diastolic and end-systolic wall thicknesses (14 and 13%, respectively). End-systolic and end-diastolic wall stresses were unchanged by stellate ganglion stimulation (98 +/- 12 to 95 +/- 9 dyn x 10(3)/cm2; 6.4 +/- 2.4 to 2.4 +/- 0.3 dyn x 10(3)/cm2, respectively). Atrial pacing to similar heart rates did not alter monitored indexes of contractility. Dobutamine and isoproterenol induced changes similar to those resulting from sympathetic neuronal stimulation. These data indicate that when the efferent sympathetic nervous system increases left ventricular contractility and relaxation, concomitant reductions in systolic and diastolic dimensions of that chamber occur that are associated with increasing wall thickness such that LV wall stress changes are minimized.

  19. Increased use of lethal methods and annual increase of suicide rates in Korean adolescents: comparison with adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2014-03-01

    The lethality of the suicide method is a strong risk factor for completed suicide. We examined whether the annual change in the pattern of suicide methods was related to the annual change in suicide rates among adolescents in South Korea and the United States. We analyzed annual data for the 2000-2009 period for South Korea and the 2000-2008 period for the United States to examine time trends in the suicide rates and suicide methods of adolescents aged 10-19 years in two countries. Data on suicide methods were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) mortality database. Suicide rates among adolescents in the United States have remained relatively steady since 2000, whereas the suicide among Korean adolescents has increased. Between 2000 and 2009, the most common suicide method among Korean adolescents was jumping for boys and girls, whereas it was hanging for girls and firearms for boys in the United States. Along with the annual increase in suicide rates in South Korea, the incidences of jumping among males and hanging (and recently jumping) among females have increased steadily, whereas suicide by self-poisoning steadily decreased. In the United States, between 2000 and 2008, the proportion of suicides committed by hanging increased, whereas those committed using firearms steadily decreased, particularly among adolescent females. These findings suggest that the increased use of lethal suicide methods is reflected in the increase in suicide rates in Korean adolescents. The most fruitful approach to addressing the rises in jumping suicides among Korean adolescents and hanging suicides among adolescents in the United States may be through population-based initiatives to reduce the physical availability (e.g., limiting access to or fencing off tall structures) and the social acceptability (e.g., effective and responsible regulations for reporting suicide) of these methods. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association

  20. Increased Ratio of Electron Transport to Net Assimilation Rate Supports Elevated Isoprenoid Emission Rate in Eucalypts under Drought1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Kaidala Ganesha Srikanta; Jamie, Ian McLeod; Prentice, Iain Colin; Atwell, Brian James

    2014-01-01

    Plants undergoing heat and low-CO2 stresses emit large amounts of volatile isoprenoids compared with those in stress-free conditions. One hypothesis posits that the balance between reducing power availability and its use in carbon assimilation determines constitutive isoprenoid emission rates in plants and potentially even their maximum emission capacity under brief periods of stress. To test this, we used abiotic stresses to manipulate the availability of reducing power. Specifically, we examined the effects of mild to severe drought on photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) and net carbon assimilation rate (NAR) and the relationship between estimated energy pools and constitutive volatile isoprenoid emission rates in two species of eucalypts: Eucalyptus occidentalis (drought tolerant) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (drought sensitive). Isoprenoid emission rates were insensitive to mild drought, and the rates increased when the decline in NAR reached a certain species-specific threshold. ETR was sustained under drought and the ETR-NAR ratio increased, driving constitutive isoprenoid emission until severe drought caused carbon limitation of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway. The estimated residual reducing power unused for carbon assimilation, based on the energetic status model, significantly correlated with constitutive isoprenoid emission rates across gradients of drought (r2 > 0.8) and photorespiratory stress (r2 > 0.9). Carbon availability could critically limit emission rates under severe drought and photorespiratory stresses. Under most instances of moderate abiotic stress levels, increased isoprenoid emission rates compete with photorespiration for the residual reducing power not invested in carbon assimilation. A similar mechanism also explains the individual positive effects of low-CO2, heat, and drought stresses on isoprenoid emission. PMID:25139160

  1. Proton NMR relaxivity of blood samples in the presence of some gadolinium and dysprosium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coroiu, I.; Darabont, Al.; Bogdan, M.

    1999-01-01

    The use of some new compounds in MRI tissue and blood characterisation based on nuclear spin relaxation time measurements cannot be sustained until the molecular sources of these variations are understood. Tissues and blood are complex molecular systems with complex NMR properties. A better comprehension of the molecular basis of relaxation offers the possibility to predict the changes expected for a given pathology. The purpose of this contribution is to evidence the different relaxation characteristics of some gadolinium and dysprosium compounds in the presence and absence of the blood and to give a possible explanation about the molecular processes that cause occurrence of changes. Some gadolinium and dysprosium compounds such as: Gd-CIT (gadolinium citrate), Dy-DTPA (DTPA-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid), iron oxide - gadolinium oxide (or dysprosium oxide)- dextran complexes were prepared. The longitudinal T 1 -1 and transverse T 2 -1 'relaxation rates' measurements have been carried out as a function of molar concentrations. All measurements have been made at room temperature (about 25 deg.C) and the proton Larmor frequency ν o = 90 MHz. The pulsed NMR spectrometer utilised was a commercial Bruker SXP4/100 spectrometer. Transverse relaxation rate measurements have been made using the Carr-Purcell method, while longitudinal relaxation rate measurements using the inversion recovery pulse sequence, 180 angle-τ-90 angle. The accuracy was about 2-3% for the longitudinal relaxation rates and about 5-7% for the transverse relaxation rates. R 1 and R 2 relaxivities, in mM -1 s -1 were determined from the least square determination of the slopes of plots 1/T 1,2 versus compound molar concentration, using at least five independent measurements at several concentrations between 0 and 2 mM. Increased R 2 relaxivity observed for dysprosium compounds in the blood presence can be explained by PRE effect. The largest gain in R 2 relaxivity seems to imply a noncovalent

  2. Gradient-induced longitudinal relaxation of hyperpolarized noble gases in the fringe fields of superconducting magnets used for magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wangzhi; Cleveland, Zackary I; Möller, Harald E; Driehuys, Bastiaan

    2011-02-01

    When hyperpolarized noble gases are brought into the bore of a superconducting magnet for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or spectroscopy studies, the gases must pass through substantial field gradients, which can cause rapid longitudinal relaxation. In this communication, we present a means of calculating this spatially dependent relaxation rate in the fringe field of typical magnets. We then compare these predictions to experimental measurements of (3)He relaxation at various positions near a medium-bore 2-T small animal MRI system. The calculated and measured relaxation rates on the central axis of the magnet agree well and show a maximum (3)He relaxation rate of 3.83×10(-3) s(-1) (T(1)=4.4 min) at a distance of 47 cm from the magnet isocenter. We also show that if this magnet were self-shielded, its minimum T(1) would drop to 1.2 min. In contrast, a typical self-shielded 1.5-T clinical MRI scanner will induce a minimum on-axis T(1) of 12 min. Additionally, we show that the cylindrically symmetric fields of these magnets enable gradient-induced relaxation to be calculated using only knowledge of the on-axis longitudinal field, which can either be measured directly or calculated from a simple field model. Thus, while most MRI magnets employ complex and proprietary current configurations, we show that their fringe fields and the resulting gradient-induced relaxation are well approximated by simple solenoid models. Finally, our modeling also demonstrates that relaxation rates can increase by nearly an order of magnitude at radial distances equivalent to the solenoid radius. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hyperfine relaxation of an optically pumped cesium vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornos, J.; Amare, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The relaxation of hyperfine orientation indirectly induced by optical pumping with a σ-polarized D 1 -light in a cesium vapor in the presence of Ar is experimentally studied. The detection technique ensures the absence of quadrupole relaxation contributions in the relaxation signals. The results from the dependences of the hyperfine relaxation rate on the temperature and argon pressure are: diffusion coefficient of Cs in Ar, D 0 = 0.101 +- 0.010 cm 2 s -1 at 0 0 C and 760 Torr; relaxation cross section by Cs-Ar collisions, σ/sub c/ = (104 +- 5) x 10 -23 cm 2 ; relaxation cross section by Cs-Cs (spin exchange) collisions, σ/sub e//sub x/ = (1.63 +- 0.13) x 10 -14 cm 2

  4. Abrupt relaxation in high-spin molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-R.; Cheng, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    Mean-field model suggests that the rate of resonant quantum tunneling in high-spin molecules is not only field-dependent but also time-dependent. The relaxation-assisted resonant tunneling in high-spin molecules produces an abrupt magnetization change during relaxation. When the applied field is very close to the resonant field, a time-dependent interaction field gradually shifts the energies of different collective spin states, and magnetization tunneling is observed as two energies of the spin states coincide

  5. Green--Kubo formula for collisional relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visscher, P.B.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we generalize the Green--Kubo method (usually used for obtaining formulas for transport coefficients involving conserved densities) to relaxation processes occurring during collisions, such as the transfer of energy from vibrational to translational modes in a molecular fluid. We show that the relaxation rate can be calculated without evaluating time correlation functions over long times, and can in fact be written as a sum over collisions which makes the relation between the Green--Kubo method and approximate independent-collision models much clearer

  6. Role of Thickness Confinement on Relaxations of the Fast Component in a Miscible A/B Blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Peter [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sharma, Ravi P. [University of Michigan; Dong, Ban Xuan [University of Michigan

    2018-01-18

    Spatial compositional heterogeneity strongly influences the dynamics of the A and B components of bulk miscible blends. Its effects are especially apparent in mixtures, such as poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME)/polystyrene (PS), where there exist significant disparities between the component glass transition temperatures (Tgs) and relaxation times. The relaxation processes characterized by distinct temperature dependencies and relaxation rates manifest different local compositional environments for temperatures above and below the glass transition temperature of the miscible blend. This same behavior is shown to exist in miscible PS/PVME films as thin as 100 nm. Moreover, in thin films, the characteristic segmental relaxation times t of the PVME component of miscible PVME/PS blends confined between aluminum (Al) substrates decrease with increasing molecular weight M of the PS component. These relaxation rates are film thickness dependent, in films up to a few hundred nanometers in thickness. This is in remarkable contrast to homopolymer films, where thickness confinement effects are apparent only on length scales on the order of nanometers. These surprisingly large length scales and M dependence are associated with the preferential interfacial enrichment - wetting layer formation - of the PVME component at the external Al interfaces, which alters the local spatial blend composition within the interior of the film. The implications are that the dynamics of miscible thin film blends are dictated in part by component Tg differences, disparities in component relaxation rates, component-substrate interactions, and chain lengths (entropy of mixing).

  7. Humid storage conditions increase the dissolution rate of diazepam from solid dispersions prepared by melt agglomeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna Cecilia; Torstenson, Anette Seo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cooling mode and storage conditions on the dissolution rate of a solid dispersion prepared by melt agglomeration. The aim has been to relate this effect to the solid state properties of the agglomerates. The cooling mode had an effect on t...

  8. Adaptation of Lactococcus lactis to high growth temperature leads to a dramatic increase in acidification rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jun; Shen, Jing; Hellgren, Lars

    2015-01-01

    temperature. At the maximal permissive temperature for the wild-type, 38 °C, TM29 grows 33% faster and has a 12% higher specific lactate production rate than its parent MG1363, which results in fast lactate accumulation. Genome sequencing was used to reveal the mutations accumulated, most of which were shown...

  9. Dropout Prevention: A Study of Prevention Programs Used by High Schools to Increase Graduation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study focused on the relationship between dropout prevention programs and graduation rates in one school district in Florida during the 2010-2011 school year. The dropout prevention program data analyzed included high school principals' perceptions in regard to perceived effectiveness, fidelity of implementation, cost efficacy,…

  10. Metabolic modeling of energy balances in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae shows that pyruvate addition increases growth rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Tjerko; Slagman, Simen Jan; Bijlsma, Jetta J.E.; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A.P.; Suarez-Diez, Maria; Schaap, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is cultured on large-scale to produce antigen for inactivated whole-cell vaccines against respiratory disease in pigs. However, the fastidious nutrient requirements of this minimal bacterium and the low growth rate make it challenging to reach sufficient biomass yield for

  11. Acute maternal rehydration increases the urine production rate in the near-term human fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haak, MC; Aarnoudse, JG; Oosterhof, H.

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the effect of a decrease of maternal plasma osmolality produced by hypotonic rehydration on the fetal urine production rate in normal near-term human fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-one healthy pregnant women attending the clinic for antenatal care were studied

  12. HCV infection among Saudi population: high prevalence of genotype 4 and increased viral clearance rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S Abdel-Moneim

    Full Text Available HCV is a major etiological agent of liver disease with a high rate of chronic evolution. The virus possesses 6 genotypes with many subtypes. The rate of spontaneous clearance among HCV infected individuals denotes a genetic determinant factor. The current study was designed in order to estimate the rate of HCV infection and ratio of virus clearance among a group of infected patients in Saudi Arabia from 2008 to 2011. It was additionally designed to determine the genotypes of the HCV in persistently infected patients. HCV seroprevalence was conducted on a total of 15,323 individuals. Seropositive individuals were tested by Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV assay to determine the ratio of persistently infected patients to those who showed spontaneous viral clearance. HCV genotyping on random samples from persistently infected patients were conducted based on the differences in the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR. Anti-HCV antibodies were detected in 7.3% of the totally examined sera. A high percentage of the HCV infected individuals experienced virus clearance (48.4%. HCV genotyping revealed the presence of genotypes 1 and 4, the latter represented 97.6% of the tested strains. Evidences of the widespread of the HCV genotype 4 and a high rate of HCV virus clearance were found in Saudi Arabia.

  13. Food supplementation does not increase demographic rates in a passerine species of conservation concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innes M.W. Sim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have examined the effects of the provision of supplementary food on aspects of avian reproductive success, but far fewer have gone on to examine the potential positive effects of food supplementation on the demographic rates which are key for population growth rate. Testing for potential effects of food shortage on vital rates is likely to be particularly important in species of high conservation concern, where populations are particularly small, isolated or decreasing rapidly. Here we test the effects of the provision of supplementary food on reproductive success, body condition at fledging and post-fledging survival of ring ouzels (Turdus torquatus, a species of high conservation concern in the UK. However, food supplementation had no detectable effect on any of these parameters. There was no significant difference in return rates of fed and unfed fledglings in the year following hatching, and most post-fledging mortality was apparently caused by predation by raptors and mustelids. We conclude that the supply of invertebrate food sources for nestlings was not a major limiting factor in our study area, at least during this two-year study. Further studies are required to quantify the precise mix of habitats used by ring ouzels, at the appropriate scale, which provide concealment from predators and access to food supplies throughout the spring and summer months.

  14. Leading Indicators: Increasing Statewide Bachelor's Degree Completion Rates at 4-Year Public Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jeffrey Cody

    2014-01-01

    For the United States to maintain national and global economic stability, colleges must graduate more students. Four-year completion rates have declined and less than one-third of full-time, degree-seeking students graduate in 4 years. Some researchers and policymakers have suggested "leading indicators" to track postsecondary…

  15. Web-Enhanced General Chemistry Increases Student Completion Rates, Success, and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Katie E.; Shank, John D.; Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Shibley, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    General Chemistry I historically had one of the highest failure and withdrawal rates at Penn State Berks, a four-year college within the Penn State system. The course was completely redesigned to incorporate more group work, the use of classroom response systems, peer mentors, and a stronger online presence via the learning management system…

  16. Beyond reduced-impact logging: silvicultural treatments to increase growth rates of tropical trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña-Claros, M.; Fredericksen, T.S.; Alarcón, A.; Blate, G.M.; Choque, U.; Leaño, C.; Licona, J.C.; Mostacedo, B.; Pariona, W.; Villegas, Z.; Putz, F.E.

    2008-01-01

    Use of reduced-impact logging (RIL) techniques has repeatedly been shown to reduce damage caused by logging. Unfortunately, these techniques do not necessarily ameliorate the low growth rates of many commercial species or otherwise assure recovery of the initial volume harvested during the next

  17. The Effects of Increasing the Capacity of Admission in Emergency Ward in increasing the Rate of Patient Acceptance at the Time of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Geravandi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: The emergency ward at the time of a disaster is the most important ward for providing therapy service to the injured. The purpose of this research study was to study of the effects of increasing the capacity of admission in emergency ward in increasing the rate of patient acceptance at the time of crisis at Razi Educational Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran. Methods: The present interventional study was performed to determine role of the increase of capacity to emergency ward in increase rate of patient acceptance at the time of disaster. After one year a re-evaluation of the capacity of the emergency department was conducted. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: The results of this study showed that the capacity to accept patients was 16 injured in time of disasters at the emergency ward before reform measures. After performing reforms, this capacity increased to 42 patients. The findings also showed that the implementation of appropriate capacity building increased 2.6 times, thus led to increasing the readiness and service delivery in times of crisis and emergency department of the disaster. Conclusion: Based on the findings, it could be concluded that planning and action to be carried out in hospital emergency departments by the crisis committee increased the admission capacity of the injured during the crisis.

  18. 42 CFR 413.40 - Ceiling on the rate of increase in hospital inpatient costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... October 1, 2002, is the percentage increase projected by the hospital market basket index. (4) Target... target amount for the previous cost reporting period, updated by the market basket percentage increase... each cost reporting period, the ceiling is determined by multiplying the updated target amount, as...

  19. Increased Incidence of Campylobacter spp. Infection and High Rates among Children, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Larisa; Valinsky, Lea; Moran-Gilad, Jacob; Nissan, Israel; Agmon, Vered; Peretz, Chava

    2013-01-01

    During 1999–2010, the annual incidence of Campylobacter spp. infection in Israel increased from 31.04 to 90.99 cases/100,000 population, a yearly increase of 10.24%. Children 26-fold higher than for the 30–<50 age group. PMID:24188185

  20. Effects of distribution function nonequilibrium tails on relaxation and transfer processes in rarefied gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryev, Yu.N.; Mikhalitsyn, A.N.; Yanenko, N.N.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative characteristics of the nonmonotone relaxation process are studied in a gas of pseudo-Maxwell molecules. Basic results are obtained by a direct numerical integration of the nonlinear Boltzmann equation. The evolution of initial distributions being finite or having exponential asymptotics of tails was researched. In particular, initial data obtained by selective excitation (absorption) against the Maxwell background encountered in laser physics problems have been considered. It is shown that under conditions of a developed effect of nonmonotone relaxation the overpopulation in the velocity range 4 <= upsilon <= 10 exceeds on the average 2-3 times the equilibrium value. For the given particles energy the excitation is preserved during t = 5/6 and the total relaxation time of the overpopulation wave reaches t asymptotically equals 20. The amplitudes and the relaxation time of overpopulation in the ''cupola'' region of distribution are substantially lower than in the case of a developed effect in the tail. The influence of the effect on the kinetics of threshold chemical reaction is studied. From the results it follows that in the process of nonmonotone relaxation the mean rates of binary threshold reactions can exceed more than twice the equilibrium values. This estimate is valid for all power like intermolecular repulsive potentials from the pseudo-Maxwell model up to rigid spheres. Time intervals over which the mean reaction rate exceeds considerably the equilibrium one make from 5 to 15 mean free path times increasing with the decrease in the potential ''rigidity''. (author)

  1. Asymptotic representation of relaxation oscillations in lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Grigorieva, Elena V

    2017-01-01

    In this book we analyze relaxation oscillations in models of lasers with nonlinear elements controlling light dynamics. The models are based on rate equations taking into account periodic modulation of parameters, optoelectronic delayed feedback, mutual coupling between lasers, intermodal interaction and other factors. With the aim to study relaxation oscillations we present the special asymptotic method of integration for ordinary differential equations and differential-difference equations. As a result, they are reduced to discrete maps. Analyzing the maps we describe analytically such nonlinear phenomena in lasers as multistability of large-amplitude relaxation cycles, bifurcations of cycles, controlled switching of regimes, phase synchronization in an ensemble of coupled systems and others. The book can be fruitful for students and technicians in nonlinear laser dynamics and in differential equations.

  2. Muon spin relaxation in ferromagnets. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovesey, S.W.; Karlsson, E.B.

    1991-04-01

    Expressions for the dipolar and hyperfine contributions to the relaxation rate of muons implanted in a ferromagnet are presented and analysed using the Heisenberg model of spin-waves including dipolar and Zeeman energies. Calculations for EuO indicate that relaxation is likely to be dominated by the hyperfine mechanism, even if the ratio of the hyperfine and dipolar coupling constants is small. The hyperfine mechanism is sensitive to the dipolar energy of the atomic spins, whereas the dipolar mechanisms depend essentially on the exchange energy. For both mechanisms there is an almost quadratic dependence on temperature, throughout much of the ordered magnetic phase, which reflects two-spin-wave difference events from the Raman-type relaxation processes. (author)

  3. Relationship between increased radiation dose rate in air and rainfall, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Osamu

    1985-01-01

    The influence of snow on dose rate in air (DRA) was analyzed. Attenuatin ratio of DRA due to snow depends on the amount of water per surface area. When snow reaches one m, DRA does not seem to be influenced by radioactivity from the ground, but seems to be only influenced by natural radioactivity of buildings. A method was examined to estimate background radiation doses during the snow season with counting rates of peak areas of 1.765 MeV for Bi-214 and 2.614 MeV for Tl-208. In serial measurements of environmental gamma rays, the method of measuring spectra is far superior to other methods in view of the collection of much more information. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Increase of energy efficiency in proportional adjusting of flow rate in the boiler circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Artamonov Pavel A.; Kurilenko Nikolai I.; Mamontov Gennady Ya.

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the results of theoretical studies in the field of the boiler circuit operating modes for the boiler rooms operating by the independent heat supply scheme. The 3D model of a boiler circuit for a boiler room with 3 MW rated output was developed, based on which there was made an estimation of the boiler pump performance indicators. There is proposed a method for reducing energy costs for the operation of the pumping equipment of the boiler circuit.

  5. Transfer of human frozen-thawed embryos with further cleavage during culture increases pregnancy rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat V Joshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the pregnancy rate following transfer of frozen-thawed embryos with or without overnight culture after thawing. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective analysis of frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET cycles performed between January 2006 and December 2008. Materials and Methods: Out of 518 thaw cycles, 504 resulted in embryo transfers (ETs. Of the total FET cycles, 415 were performed after an overnight culture of embryos (group A; and in 89 cycles, ET was performed within 2 hours of embryo thawing (group B. Statistical Analysis: The data were statistically analyzed using chi-square test. Results: We observed that with FET, women ≤30 years of age had a significantly higher (P=0.003 pregnancy rate (PR=28.9% as compared to women >30 years of age (17.5%. A significantly higher (P<0.001FNx08 pregnancy rate was also observed in women receiving 3 frozen-thawed embryos (29% as compared to those who received less than 3 embryos (10.7%. The difference in PR between group A (PR=24.3% and group B (PR=20.3% was not statistically significant. However, within group A, ET with cleaved embryos showed significantly ( P≤0.01 higher pregnancy rate compared to the uncleaved embryos, depending on the number of cleaved embryos transferred. Conclusion: No significant difference was noticed between FETs made with transfer of embryos with overnight culture and those without culture. However, within the cultured group, transfer of embryos cleaved during overnight culture gave significantly higher PR than transfers without any cleavage.

  6. High Yolk Testosterone Transfer Is Associated with an Increased Female Metabolic Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirren, Barbara; Ziegler, Ann-Kathrin; Canale, Cindy I; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Giraudeau, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Yolk androgens of maternal origin are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects. Although in many species short-term benefits of exposure to high yolk androgen concentrations for the offspring have been observed, females differ substantially in the amount of androgens they transfer to their eggs. It suggests that costs for the offspring or the mother constrain the evolution of maternal hormone transfer. However, to date, the nature of these costs remains poorly understood. Unlike most previous work that focused on potential costs for the offspring, we here investigated whether high yolk testosterone transfer is associated with metabolic costs (i.e., a higher metabolic rate) for the mother. We show that Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) females that deposit higher testosterone concentrations into their eggs have a higher resting metabolic rate. Because a higher metabolic rate is often associated with a shorter life span, this relationship may explain the negative association between yolk testosterone transfer and female longevity observed in the wild. Our results suggest that metabolic costs for the mother can balance the short-term benefits of yolk testosterone exposure for the offspring, thereby contributing to the maintenance of variation in maternal yolk hormone transfer in natural populations.

  7. Dielectric Relaxation Studies of Alkyl Methacrylate–Phenol Mixtures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Kirkwood correlation factor and the excess inverse relaxation time were determined and they yield information on the molecular interactions occurring in the systems. The values of the static permittivity and the relaxation time increase with an increase in the percentage of phenol in the mixtures. KEYWORDS: Dielectric ...

  8. Relaxation resistance of heat resisting alloys with cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzdyka, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    Relaxation resistance of refractory nickel-chromium alloys containing 5 to 14 % cobalt is under study. The tests involve the use of circular samples at 800 deg to 850 deg C. It is shown that an alloy containing 14% cobalt possesses the best relaxation resistance exceeding that of nickel-chromium alloys without any cobalt by a factor of 1.5 to 2. The relaxation resistance of an alloy with 5% cobalt can be increased by hardening at repeated loading

  9. 磁共振对比剂弛豫率研究及其在临床中的应用%Comparison of MRI contrast agents gadopentetate dimeglumine, gadodiamide and gadovist: their relaxation rates and effects on imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓; 刘伟

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relaxation rates and imaging effects of three MRI contrast agents gadopentetate dimeglumine(0.5 mol/L),gadodiamine and gadovist(1.0 mol/L) in the nervous system.Methods Relaxation rate differences between the three contrast agents were assessed using the GE Signa HDx 3.0 T MR scanner and phantom solutions of different albumin concentrations.Twenty leukemia patients whose initial scans had been conducted with the injection of a standard dose(0.5 mol/L)of gadopentetate dimeglumine as the contrast agent were recalled to have a follow-up scan for signs of brain infections with the same imaging protocols,except that a high concentration(1.0 mol/L)gadovist was used this time as the contrast agent.CNR and SNR in the ROI were measured for quantitative analysis.Results Changes in dosage of the three contrast agents produced no difference in intensity of the image signal for each phantom solution of a specific albumin concentration(5.0 g/L:P=0.35,6.5g/L:P =0.27,8.0 g/L:P=0.23).Two sets of scans of the leukemia patients showed that high concentration(1.0 mol/L)gadovist generated higher SNR and CNR in the ROI of the white matter,gray matter and vasculature than standard concentration(0.5 mol/L) gadopentetate dimeglumine(P< 0.05).Conclusions A half dose of high concentration(1.0 mol/L) gadovist generates better imaging enhancement than standard concentration(0.5 mol/L)gadopentetate dimegluminethe.Gadopentetate dimeglumine,gadodiamide and gadovist have no significant difference in relaxation rate.%目的 评价高浓度对比剂1.0 mol/L钆布醇和标准浓度0.5 mol/L钆喷酸葡胺在神经系统中的临床应用.方法 采用GE公司Signa HDx 3.0 T成像设备,对制作的白蛋白溶液模体成像,评估三种对比剂弛豫率.复查脑组织有无感染的20位白血病患者,初次检查使用的对比剂为标准浓度0.5 mol/L钆喷酸葡胺,复查使用的对比剂为高浓度对比剂1.0 mol/L钆布醇.所有检查使用相同的成像

  10. A controlled trial of envelope colour for increasing response rates in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Natasha; Hewitt, Catherine E; Torgerson, David J

    2011-06-01

    Postal questionnaires are widely used in health research to provide measurable outcomes in areas such as quality of life. Participants who fail to return postal questionnaires can introduce non-response bias. Previous studies within populations over the age of 65 years have shown that response rates amongst older people can be 60% or less. The current study sought to investigate whether envelope colour affected response rates in a study about the effectiveness of screening older women for osteoporosis. A total of 2803 eligible female participants aged between 70 and 85 were sent an invitation pack from their GP practice. The invitation was either in a brown or white envelope and contained a matching pre-paid reply envelope. A study questionnaire was also sent out in brown or white envelopes 1 week after consenting to participate in the trial. The overall response rate was 78%. There was little evidence of an effect of envelope colour on response to the invitation to participate in the trial (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.87-1.24). Similarly, there was no influence of envelope colour on the number of participants returning their questionnaires (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.60-1.63). There was weak evidence of an effect of envelope colour on the response rates of the consent process (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-1.00). When we updated a recent meta-analysis with the results of this study, there was a non-statistically- significant trend for greater response rates with brown envelopes compared with white envelopes (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.86-1.64, I2=92%). However, the results where influenced by one study and when this study was excluded the pooled estimate was 0.98 (95% CI 0.89-1.08, I2=0%). This study found no evidence to suggest envelope colour has an effect on response to participate in a trial or questionnaire returns. There is weak evidence to suggest envelope colour may affect consent into a trial.

  11. Increase in Clostridium difficile-related Mortality Rates, United States, 1999-2004

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Deaths related to Clostridium difficile are on the rise in the United States. Matthew Redelings from the Los Angeles County Department of Health discusses the increase and what can be done to prevent this infection.

  12. Vibrational relaxation of a triatomic molecular impurity: D2O in vitreous As2S3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rella, C.W.; Schwettman, H.A.; Engholm, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of the relaxation of the D 2 O stretch mode in vitreous As 2 S 3 are presented. Because the bending mode of the molecule offers an intra-molecular decay channel for the stretch mode, the decay scheme of the D 2 O molecule is more complex than that of diatomic molecules. The asymmetric stretch mode of D 2 O has a frequency of 2680 cm -1 . To study the relaxation of this mode we applied a pump-probe technique, using intense psec; pulses of the Stanford Free Electron Laser. Due to the small cross-section of the vibrational mode, successful efforts were made to improve the signal to noise ratio by using a laser stabilization system and a tightly focused beam to increase the intensity, by averaging the signal with a kHz repetition rate and by using samples with an optimized D 2 O concentration. A rapid relaxation rate on the order of 5 x 10 9 sec -1 at low temperature is found that increases with temperature. Recalling that the bending mode of the D 2 O molecule has a frequency of 1170 cm -1 , one would expect a decay in a third order process, involving two quanta of the bending mode plus a vibrational host quanta with a frequency of 340 cm -1 , which coincides with a fundamental frequency of the pyramidal building blocks of the glassy As 2 S 3 host. Instead, we find from the temperature dependence of the relaxation rate that the D 2 O stretching mode relaxes in a higher order process. This indicates that the relaxation dynamics of small molecules is more complex than generally assumed

  13. Genetic selection for increased mean and reduced variance of twinning rate in Belclare ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottle, D J; Gilmour, A R; Pabiou, T; Amer, P R; Fahey, A G

    2016-04-01

    It is sometimes possible to breed for more uniform individuals by selecting animals with a greater tendency to be less variable, that is, those with a smaller environmental variance. This approach has been applied to reproduction traits in various animal species. We have evaluated fecundity in the Irish Belclare sheep breed by analyses of flocks with differing average litter size (number of lambs per ewe per year, NLB) and have estimated the genetic variance in environmental variance of lambing traits using double hierarchical generalized linear models (DHGLM). The data set comprised of 9470 litter size records from 4407 ewes collected in 56 flocks. The percentage of pedigreed lambing ewes with singles, twins and triplets was 30, 54 and 14%, respectively, in 2013 and has been relatively constant for the last 15 years. The variance of NLB increases with the mean in this data; the correlation of mean and standard deviation across sires is 0.50. The breeding goal is to increase the mean NLB without unduly increasing the incidence of triplets and higher litter sizes. The heritability estimates for lambing traits were NLB, 0.09; triplet occurrence (TRI) 0.07; and twin occurrence (TWN), 0.02. The highest and lowest twinning flocks differed by 23% (75% versus 52%) in the proportion of ewes lambing twins. Fitting bivariate sire models to NLB and the residual from the NLB model using a double hierarchical generalized linear model (DHGLM) model found a strong genetic correlation (0.88 ± 0.07) between the sire effect for the magnitude of the residual (VE ) and sire effects for NLB, confirming the general observation that increased average litter size is associated with increased variability in litter size. We propose a threshold model that may help breeders with low litter size increase the percentage of twin bearers without unduly increasing the percentage of ewes bearing triplets in Belclare sheep. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Opioid treatment and hypoalbuminemia are associated with increased hospitalisation rates in chronic pancreatitis outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Søren S; Poulsen, Jakob Lykke; Broberg, Marie C H; Madzak, Adnan; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a complex and debilitating disease with high resource utilisation. Prospective data on hospital admission rates and associated risk factors are scarce. We investigated hospitalisation rates, causes of hospitalisations and associated risk factors in CP outpatients. This was a prospective cohort study comprising 170 patients with CP. The primary outcome was time to first pancreatitis related hospitalisation and secondary outcomes were the annual hospitalisation frequency (hospitalisation burden) and causes of hospitalisations. A number of clinical and demographic parameters, including pain pattern and severity, opioid use and parameters related to the nutritional state, were analysed for their association with hospitalisation rates. Of the 170 patients, 57 (33.5%) were hospitalised during the follow-up period (median 11.4 months [IQR 3.8-26.4]). The cumulative hospitalisation incidence was 7.6% (95% CI; 4.5-12.2) after 30 days and 28.8% (95% CI; 22.2-35.7) after 1 year. Eighteen of the hospitalised patients (32%) had three or more admissions per year. High dose opioid treatment (>100 mg per day) (Hazard Ratio 3.1 [95% CI; 1.1-8.5]; P = 0.03) and hypoalbuminemia (risk factors for hospitalisation. The most frequent causes of hospitalisations were pain exacerbation (40%) and common bile duct stenosis (28%). One-third of CP outpatients account for the majority of hospital admissions and associated risk factors are high dose opioid treatment and hypoalbuminemia. This information should be implemented in outpatient monitoring strategies to identify risk patients and improve treatment. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Relaxation techniques for pain management in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline A; Levett, Kate M; Collins, Carmel T; Armour, Mike; Dahlen, Hannah G; Suganuma, Machiko

    2018-03-28

    birth, and caesarean section were not reported under this comparison.MusicWhen comparing music to control interventions there was evidence of lower pain intensity in the latent phase for women receiving music (measured on a scale of 0 to 10 with low scores indicating less pain) (MD -0.73, 95% CI -1.01 to -0.45, random-effects analysis, two trials, 192 women) and very low-quality evidence of no clear benefit in the active phase (MD -0.51, 95% CI -1.10 to 0.07, three trials, 217 women). Very low-quality evidence suggested no clear benefit in terms of reducing assisted vaginal birth (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.08 to 2.05, one trial, 156 women) or caesarean section rate (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.70, two trials, 216 women). Satisfaction with pain relief, sense of control in labour, satisfaction with childbirth experience, and breastfeeding were not reported under this comparison.Audio analgesiaOne trial evaluating audio analgesia versus control only reported one outcome and showed no evidence of benefit in satisfaction with pain relief.MindfulnessOne trial evaluating mindfulness versus usual care found an increase in sense of control for the mindfulness group (using the Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory) (MD 31.30, 95% CI 1.61 to 60.99, 26 women). There is no strong evidence that the effects were any different between groups for satisfaction in childbirth, or for caesarean section rate, need for assisted vaginal delivery or need for pharmacological pain relief. No other outcomes were reported in this trial. Relaxation, yoga and music may have a role with reducing pain, and increasing satisfaction with pain relief, although the quality of evidence varies between very low to low. There was insufficient evidence for the role of mindfulness and audio-analgesia. The majority of trials did not report on the safety of the interventions. Further randomised controlled trials of relaxation modalities for pain management in labour are needed. Trials should be adequately powered and include

  16. Active Choice and Financial Incentives to Increase Rates of Screening Colonoscopy-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shivan J; Feingold, Jordyn; Vandertuyn, Matthew; Niewood, Tess; Cox, Catherine; Doubeni, Chyke A; Volpp, Kevin G; Asch, David A

    2017-11-01

    Behavioral economic approaches could increase uptake for colorectal cancer screening. We performed a randomized controlled trial of 2245 employees to determine whether an email containing a phone number for scheduling (control), an email with the active choice to opt in or opt out (active choice), or the active choice email plus a $100 incentive (financial incentive) increased colonoscopy completion within 3 months. Higher proportions of participants in the financial incentive group underwent screening (3.7%) than in the control (1.6%) or active choice groups (1.5%) (P = .01 and P < .01). We found no difference in uptake of screening between the active choice and control groups (P = .88). The $100 conditional incentive modestly but significantly increased colonoscopy use. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT02660671. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Variational formulation of relaxed and multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, R. L.; Yoshida, Z.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Hudson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    > Ideal magnetohydrodynamics (IMHD) is strongly constrained by an infinite number of microscopic constraints expressing mass, entropy and magnetic flux conservation in each infinitesimal fluid element, the latter preventing magnetic reconnection. By contrast, in the Taylor relaxation model for formation of macroscopically self-organized plasma equilibrium states, all these constraints are relaxed save for the global magnetic fluxes and helicity. A Lagrangian variational principle is presented that leads to a new, fully dynamical, relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (RxMHD), such that all static solutions are Taylor states but also allows state with flow. By postulating that some long-lived macroscopic current sheets can act as barriers to relaxation, separating the plasma into multiple relaxation regions, a further generalization, multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) is developed.

  18. Respirometry increases cortisol levels in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss: implications for measurements of metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, L.; Rennie, M. D.; Svendsen, Jon Christian

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the extent to which chasing, handling and confining Oncorhynchus mykiss to a small respirometer chamber during respirometric experiments is stressful and affects metabolic measurements. The study observed increased cortisol levels in animals tested using a chase protocol...

  19. Increased conception rates in beef cattle inseminated with nanopurified bull semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive performance is of paramount importance to the cattle industry. Since recent progress has been achieved by optimizing estrus and ovulation synchronization protocols in cows, improvements are desired to increase the fertility of bulls enrolled in artificial insemination (AI) programs. Thi...

  20. Increase in Clostridium difficile-related Mortality Rates, United States, 1999-2004

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-01-08

    Deaths related to Clostridium difficile are on the rise in the United States. Matthew Redelings from the Los Angeles County Department of Health discusses the increase and what can be done to prevent this infection.  Created: 1/8/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 1/8/2008.