WorldWideScience

Sample records for relaxation measurements performed

  1. Relaxation strain measurements in cellular dislocation structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, C.Y.; Quesnel, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The conventional picture of what happens during a stress relaxation usually involves imagining the response of a single dislocation to a steadily decreasing stress. The velocity of this dislocation decreases with decreasing stress in such a way that we can measure the stress dependence of the dislocation velocity. Analysis of the data from a different viewpoint enables us to calculate the apparent activation volume for the motion of the dislocation under the assumption of thermally activated glie. Conventional thinking about stress relaxation, however, does not consider the eventual fate of this dislocation. If the stress relaxes to a low enough level, it is clear that the dislocation must stop. This is consistent with the idea that we can determine the stress dependence of the dislocation velocity from relaxation data only for those cases where the dislocation's velocity is allowed to approach zero asymptotically, in short, for those cases where the dislocation never stops. This conflict poses a dilemma for the experimentalist. In real crystals, however, obstacles impede the dislocation's progress so that those dislocations which are stopped at a given stress will probably never resume motion under the influence of the steadily declining stress present during relaxation. Thus one could envision stress relaxation as a process of exhaustion of mobile dislocations, rather than a process of decreasing dislocation velocity. Clearly both points of view have merit and in reality both mechanisms contribute to the phenomena

  2. Picosecond absorption relaxation measured with nanosecond laser photoacoustics

    OpenAIRE

    Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-01-01

    Picosecond absorption relaxation—central to many disciplines—is typically measured by ultrafast (femtosecond or picosecond) pump-probe techniques, which however are restricted to optically thin and weakly scattering materials or require artificial sample preparation. Here, we developed a reflection-mode relaxation photoacoustic microscope based on a nanosecond laser and measured picosecond absorption relaxation times. The relaxation times of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin molecules, b...

  3. Picosecond absorption relaxation measured with nanosecond laser photoacoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V

    2010-10-18

    Picosecond absorption relaxation-central to many disciplines-is typically measured by ultrafast (femtosecond or picosecond) pump-probe techniques, which however are restricted to optically thin and weakly scattering materials or require artificial sample preparation. Here, we developed a reflection-mode relaxation photoacoustic microscope based on a nanosecond laser and measured picosecond absorption relaxation times. The relaxation times of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin molecules, both possessing extremely low fluorescence quantum yields, were measured at 576 nm. The added advantages in dispersion susceptibility, laser-wavelength availability, reflection sensing, and expense foster the study of natural-including strongly scattering and nonfluorescent-materials.

  4. Measuring the equations of state in a relaxed magnetohydrodynamic plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, M.; Barbano, L. J.; Suen-Lewis, E. M.; Shrock, J. E.; Light, A. D.; Brown, M. R.; Schaffner, D. A.

    2018-01-01

    We report measurements of the equations of state of a fully relaxed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) laboratory plasma. Parcels of magnetized plasma, called Taylor states, are formed in a coaxial magnetized plasma gun, and are allowed to relax and drift into a closed flux conserving volume. Density, ion temperature, and magnetic field are measured as a function of time as the Taylor states compress and heat. The theoretically predicted MHD and double adiabatic equations of state are compared to experimental measurements. We find that the MHD equation of state is inconsistent with our data.

  5. Introduction to electronic relaxation in solids: mechanisms and measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonville, P.

    1983-01-01

    The fluctuations of electronic magnetic moments in solids may be investigated by several techniques, either electronic or nuclear. This paper is an introduction of the most frequently encountered paramagnetic relaxation mechanisms (phonons, conduction electrons, exchange or dipolar interactions) in condensed matter, and to the different techniques used for measuring relaxation frequencies: electronic paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance, Moessbauer spectroscopy, inelastic neutron scattering, measurement of longitudinal ac susceptibility and γ-γ perturbed angular correlations. We mainly focus our attention on individual ionic fluctuation spectra, the majority of the experimental work refered to concerning rare earth systems [fr

  6. Resonant tunneling measurements of size-induced strain relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, Can Deniz

    Lattice mismatch strain available in such semiconductor heterostructures as Si/SiGe or GaAs/AlGaAs can be employed to alter the electronic and optoelectronic properties of semiconductor structures and devices. When deep submicron structures are fabricated from strained material, strained layers relax by sidewall expansion giving rise to size- and geometry-dependent strain gradients throughout the structure. This thesis describes a novel experimental technique to probe the size-induced strain relaxation by studying the tunneling current characteristics of strained p-type Si/SiGe resonant tunneling diodes. Our current-voltage measurements on submicron strained p-Si/SiGe double- and triple-barrier resonant tunneling structures as a function of device diameter, D, provide experimental access to both the average strain relaxation (which leads to relative shifts in the tunneling current peak positions) and strain gradients (which give rise to a fine structure in the current peaks due to inhomogeneous strain-induced lateral quantization). We find that strain relaxation is significant, with a large fraction of the strain energy relaxed on average in D ≤ 0.25 m m devices. Further, the in-plane potentials that arise from inhomogeneous strain gradients are large. In the D ˜ 0.2 m m devices, the corresponding lateral potentials are approximately parabolic exceeding ˜ 25 meV near the perimeter. These potentials create discrete hole states in double-barrier structures (single well), and coupled hole states in triple-barrier structures (two wells). Our results are in excellent agreement with finite-element strain calculations in which the strained layers are permitted to relax to a state of minimum energy by sidewall expansion. Size-induced strain relaxation will undoubtedly become a serious technological issue once strained devices are scaled down to the deep submicron regime. Interestingly, our calculations predict and our measurements are consistent with the appearance of

  7. MR imaging of the stomach and relaxation measurement with intraluminal hyperpolarized 129Xenon gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagawa, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Atsuomi; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Kinoshita, Yoshimasa; Hattori, Mineyuki; Hiraga, Takashi; Iida, Hidehiro

    2001-01-01

    Using laser optical pumping, the nuclear spin polarization of noble gases can be strongly enhanced. The purpose of this study was to make a simple apparatus that can provide hyperpolarized 129 Xe gas, which can then be used in an attempt to obtain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We would also like to study the relaxation behavior of hyperpolarized 129 Xe gas through the measurement of the relaxation time. First, we demonstrated that hyperpolarized 129 Xe gas can be applied to magnetic resonance imaging of the stomach, by using a rat as a model. This was performed under a 4.7 T magnet field using the following imaging parameters for the hyperpolarized 129 Xe gas: TR=50 ms, TE=15 ms, FOV=10 x 10 cm 2 , matrix size 64 x 64, THK=2.54 cm. By using these parameters, we were able to obtain a hyperpolarized image of the stomach in rats for the first time. Next, we measured the relaxation times of the hyperpolarized 129 Xe gas enclosed in cavities such as the stomach of rats as well as in phantoms created by glass and gelatin bulbs. The cavity size dependency of the relaxation time was analyzed on the basis of the kinetic theory of gases. This analysis showed a linear relationship between the relaxation rate (1/T 1 ) and a square inverse of the cavity diameter (1/d 2 ). From this relationship, the wall effect on the 129 Xe relaxation can be estimated in the novel parameter t 1 , wall . This shows drastic dependency on the material of the wall, suggesting a potential use of the relaxation experiment as a diagnostic tool for organ surfaces in the future. (author)

  8. Plasma density measurements from the GEOS-1 relaxation sounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etcheto, J.; Bloch, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    The relaxation sounder uses the characteristics of the propagation of radiowaves to sound the plasma surrounding the spacecraft. It determines, in particular, the plasma frequency, which gives the electron density. Measurements over the whole dayside of the magnetosphere, from the evening to the night sectors, are now available. The behaviour of the plasma resonance depends on local time, the nighttime echoes being generally weaker. Density measurements thus obtained are shown and discussed in the context of what is presently known about the plasma distribution in the magnetosphere. In particular, the density around apogee is studied as a function of magnetic activity. On the dayside, it appears to vary between a few and a few tens of electrons per cubic centimeter. The evolution of the density profile for several consecutive days is studied and interpreted tracing back the drift of the particles. (Auth.)

  9. Improving the Performance of Poor Readers through Autogenic Relaxation Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Herbert

    1980-01-01

    Reports that the addition of 15 minutes of relaxation training to weekly remedial reading periods for disabled readers throughout a school year raised concentration levels and decreased anxiety, neuroticism, and number of reading errors. Describes a few types of relaxation exercises that may be helpful. (ET)

  10. Carboxylated magnetic nanoparticles as MRI contrast agents: Relaxation measurements at different field strengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedlovszky-Hajdu, Angela, E-mail: angela.hajdu@net.sote.hu [Laboratory of Nanochemistry, Department of Biophysics and Radiation Biology, Semmelweis University, Nagyvarad Sq 4, H-1089 Budapest (Hungary); Tombacz, Etelka, E-mail: tombacz@chem.u-szeged.hu [Department of Physical Chemistry and Material Science, University of Szeged, Aradi Vt. Sq 1, Szeged 6720 (Hungary); Banyai, Istvan, E-mail: banyai.istvan@science.unideb.hu [Department of Colloid and Environmental Chemistry, University of Debrecen (Hungary); Babos, Magor, E-mail: babosmagor@yahoo.com [Euromedic Diagnostics Szeged Ltd., Semmelweis St 6, Szeged 6720 (Hungary); Palko, Andras, E-mail: palko@radio.szote.u-szeged.hu [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Szeged (Hungary)

    2012-09-15

    At the moment the biomedical applications of magnetic fluids are the subject of intensive scientific interest. In the present work, magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized and stabilized in aqueous medium with different carboxylic compounds (citric acid (CA), polyacrylic acid (PAA), and sodium oleate (NaOA)), in order to prepare well stabilized magnetic fluids (MFs). The magnetic nanoparticles can be used in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as contrast agents. Magnetic resonance relaxation measurements of the above MFs were performed at different field strengths (i.e., 0.47, 1.5 and 9.4 T) to reveal the field strength dependence of their magnetic responses, and to compare them with that of ferucarbotran, a well-known superparamagnetic contrast agent. The measurements showed characteristic differences between the tested magnetic fluids stabilized by carboxylic compounds and ferucarbotran. It is worthy of note that our magnetic fluids have the highest r2 relaxivities at the field strength of 1.5 T, where the most of the MRI works in worldwide. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic resonance relaxation measurements were done at different field strengths. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results show characteristic differences between the tested carboxylated MFs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer r1 and r2 relaxivities depend on the thickness of the protecting layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MFs have high r2/r1 ratios at each magnetic field.

  11. Evaluation of relaxation time measurements by magnetic resonance imaging. A phantom study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L; Thomsen, C; Henriksen, O

    1987-01-01

    Several circumstances may explain the great variation in reported proton T1 and T2 relaxation times usually seen. This study was designed to evaluate the accuracy of relaxation time measurements by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) operating at 1.5 tesla. Using a phantom of nine boxes with different...... concentrations of CuSO4 and correlating the calculated T1 and T2 values with reference values obtained by two spectrometers (corrected to MRI-proton frequency = 64 MHz) we found a maximum deviation of about 10 per cent. Measurements performed on a large water phantom in order to evaluate the homogeneity...... in the imaging plane showed a variation of less than 10 per cent within 10 cm from the centre of the magnet in all three imaging planes. Changing the gradient field strength apparently had no influence on the T2 values recorded. Consequently diffusion processes seem without significance. It is concluded...

  12. State of health assessment for lithium batteries based on voltage–time relaxation measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghdadi, Issam; Briat, Olivier; Gyan, Philippe; Vinassa, Jean Michel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Calendar aging under different storage conditions for three different battery technologies studied. • Two scenarios of aging under power cycling at two different temperatures investigated for one battery technology. • Relaxation profile of battery voltage just after full charge is highly correlated to aging. • Linear dependence between just after charge open circuit voltage and remaining capacity demonstrated. • No computational method and direct prediction of battery state of health or remaining capacity. - Abstract: The performance of lithium batteries degrades over time. The degradation rate strongly depends on stress conditions during use and even at rest. Thus, accurate and rapid diagnosis of battery state of health (SOH) is necessary for electric vehicle manufacturers to manage their vehicle fleets and warranties. This paper demonstrates a simple method for assessing SOH related to battery energy capability (SOH E ). The presented method is based on the monitoring of U relax over aging. U relax is the open-circuit voltage of the battery measured after full charging and 30 min of rest. A linear dependence between U relax and remaining capacity is noted. This correlation is demonstrated for three different commercial battery technologies (different chemistries) aged under different calendar and power cycling aging conditions. It was determined that the difference between two U relax voltages measured at two different aging states is proportional to SOH E decay. The mean error of the linear model is less than 2% for certain cases. This method could also be a highly useful and rapid tool for a complete battery pack diagnosis.

  13. A simple measurement method of molecular relaxation in a gas by reconstructing acoustic velocity dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Liu, Tingting; Zhang, Xiangqun; Li, Caiyun

    2018-01-01

    Recently, a decomposition method of acoustic relaxation absorption spectra was used to capture the entire molecular multimode relaxation process of gas. In this method, the acoustic attenuation and phase velocity were measured jointly based on the relaxation absorption spectra. However, fast and accurate measurements of the acoustic attenuation remain challenging. In this paper, we present a method of capturing the molecular relaxation process by only measuring acoustic velocity, without the necessity of obtaining acoustic absorption. The method is based on the fact that the frequency-dependent velocity dispersion of a multi-relaxation process in a gas is the serial connection of the dispersions of interior single-relaxation processes. Thus, one can capture the relaxation times and relaxation strengths of N decomposed single-relaxation dispersions to reconstruct the entire multi-relaxation dispersion using the measurements of acoustic velocity at 2N  +  1 frequencies. The reconstructed dispersion spectra are in good agreement with experimental data for various gases and mixtures. The simulations also demonstrate the robustness of our reconstructive method.

  14. Chip-Based Measurements of Brownian Relaxation of Magnetic Beads Using a Planar Hall Effect Magnetic Field Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Snakenborg, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    using only the self-field arising from the bias current applied to the sensors as excitation field. We present measurements on a suspension of magnetic beads with a nominal diameter of 250 nm vs. temperature and find that the observations are consistent with the Cole-Cole model for Brownian relaxation...... with a constant hydrodynamic bead diameter when the temperature dependence of the viscosity of water is taken into account. These measurements demonstrate the feasibility of performing measurements of the Brownian relaxation response in a lab-on-a-chip system and constitute the first step towards an integrated...... biosensor based on the detection of the dynamic response of magnetic beads....

  15. Effect of yoga relaxation techniques on performance of digit-letter substitution task by teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan Balaram

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims : Memory and selective attention are important skills for academic and professional performance. Techniques to improve these skills are not taught either in education or company training courses. Any system which can systematically improve these skills will be of value in schools, universities, and workplaces. Aims:To investigate possible improvements in memory and selective attention, as measured by the Digit-Letter Substitution Task (DLST, due to practice of Cyclic Meditation (CM, a yoga relaxation technique, as compared to Supine Rest (SR. Materials and Methods : Subjects consisted of 253 school students, 156 boys, 97 girls, in the age range 13-16 years, who were attending a 10-day yoga training course during summer vacation. The selected subjects had English as their medium of instruction in school and they acted as their own controls. They were allocated to two groups, and tested on the DLST, immediately before and after 22.5 minutes practice of CM on one day, and immediately before and after an equal period of SR on the other day. The first group performed CM on day 9 and SR on day 10. For the second group, the order was reversed. Results : Within each group pre-post test differences were significant for both the relaxation techniques. The magnitude of net score improvement was greater after SR (7.85% compared to CM (3.95%. Significance levels were P < 0.4 x 10 -9 for SR and P < 0.1 x 10 -3 for CM. The number of wrong attempts also increased significantly on both interventions, even after removing two outlier data points on day 1 in the SR group. Conclusions: Both CM and SR lead to improvement in performance on the DLST. However, these relaxation techniques lead to more wrong cancellation errors.

  16. First measurements of H2O2 and organic peroxide surface fluces by the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valverde-Canossa, J.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Rappenglück, B.; Steinbrecher, R.; Klemm, O.; Schuster, G.; Moortgat, G.K.

    2006-01-01

    The relaxed eddy-accumulation (REA) technique was specially adapted to a high-performance liquid chromatographer (enzymatic method) and scrubbing coils to measure concentrations and fluxes of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and organic peroxides with a carbon chain C4, of which only methylhydroperoxide

  17. Development of stress relaxation measurement by a small size C-ring specimen method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimanuki, Shizuka; Nakata, Kiyotomo; Kasahara, Shigeki; Kuniya, Jiro

    2002-01-01

    A stress relaxation measurement method has been developed by using C-ring specimens, and a specimen size effect has been evaluated taking radiation-induced stress relaxation into consideration. C-ring specimens were stressed by forcing a wedge in the gap. Giving an appropriate eccentric configuration in the half of the ring opposite the gap, the stress gradient along the circumference was eliminated in the section and the stress level could be varied by changing the gap spacing. The validity of the C-ring test method was confirmed by thermally stress relaxation experiments at annealing temperatures from 300 to 600degC for 1 min to 200 h in carbon steel: considerable stress relaxation could be measured for all levels of applied stress even at relatively low annealing temperatures. The relaxation results obtained from the C-ring test were in good agreement with those from a uniaxial tensile stress relaxation test. The smaller C-ring specimen with about 40 mm diameter, which is required for radiation-induced stress relaxation test, also showed adequate accuracy on stress relaxation at 600 to 830degC in stainless steel, compared with the large size C-ring specimen test. (author)

  18. On-chip measurements of Brownian relaxation vs. concentration of 40nm magnetic beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2012-01-01

    We present on-chip Brownian relaxation measurements on a logarithmic dilution series of 40 nm beads dispersed in water with bead concentrations between 16 mu g/ml and 4000 mu g/ml. The measurements are performed using a planar Hall effect bridge sensor at frequencies up to 1 MHz. No external fields...... are needed as the beads are magnetized by the field generated by the applied sensor bias current. We show that the Brownian relaxation frequency can be extracted from fitting the Cole-Cole model to measurements for bead concentrations of 64 mu g/ml or higher and that the measured dynamic magnetic response...... is proportional to the bead concentration. For bead concentrations higher than or equal to 500 mu g/ml, we extract a hydrodynamic diameter of 47(1) nm for the beads, which is close to the nominal bead size of 40 nm. Furthermore, we study the signal vs. bead concentration at a fixed frequency close to the Brownian...

  19. Fast hydrogen exchange affects 15N relaxation measurements in intrinsically disordered proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seho; Wu, Kuen-Phon; Baum, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Unprotected amide protons can undergo fast hydrogen exchange (HX) with protons from the solvent. Generally, NMR experiments using the out-and-back coherence transfer with amide proton detection are affected by fast HX and result in reduced signal intensity. When one of these experiments, 1 H– 15 N HSQC, is used to measure the 15 N transverse relaxation rate (R 2 ), the measured R 2 rate is convoluted with the HX rate (k HX ) and has higher apparent R 2 values. Since the 15 N R 2 measurement is important for analyzing protein backbone dynamics, the HX effect on the R 2 measurement is investigated and described here by multi-exponential signal decay. We demonstrate these effects by performing 15 N R 2 CPMG experiments on α-synuclein, an intrinsically disordered protein, in which the amide protons are exposed to solvent. We show that the HX effect on R 2 CPMG can be extracted by the derived equation. In conclusion, the HX effect may be pulse sequence specific and results from various sources including the J coupling evolution, the change of steady state water proton magnetization, and the D 2 O content in the sample. To avoid the HX effect on the analysis of relaxation data of unprotected amides, it is suggested that NMR experimental conditions insensitive to the HX should be considered or that intrinsic R 2 CPMG values be obtained by methods described herein.

  20. The influence of measurement and relaxation time on flux jumps in high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaobin; Zhou Youhe; Tu Shandong

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the magnetization and relaxation time on flux jumps in high temperature superconductors (HTSC) under varying magnetic field is studied using the fundamental electromagnetic field equations and the thermal diffusion equation; temperature variety corresponding to flux jump is also discussed. We find that for a low sweep rate of the applied magnetic field, the measurement and relaxation times can reduce flux jump and to constrain the number of flux jumps, even stabilizing the HTSC, since much heat produced by the motion of magnetic flux can transfer into coolant during the measurement and relaxation times. As high temperature superconductors are subjected to a high sweep rate or a strong pulsed magnetic field, magnetization undergoes from stability or oscillation to jump for different pause times. And the period of temperature oscillation is equal to the measurement and relaxation time.

  1. Developing Effective Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-14

    University When Performance Measurement Goes Bad Laziness Vanity Narcissism Too Many Pettiness Inanity 52 Developing Effective...Kasunic, October 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Narcissism Measuring performance from the organization’s point of view, rather than from

  2. Measurements of spin-lattice relaxation time in mixed alkali halide crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannus, A.

    1983-01-01

    Using magneto-optic techniques the ground state spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of 'F' centers in mixed Alkali Halide cristals (KCl-KBr), was studied. A computer assisted system to optically measure short relaxation times (approx. = 1mS), was described. The technique is based on the measurement of the Magnetic Circular Dicroism (MCD) presented by F centers. The T1 magnetic field dependency at 2 K (up to 65 KGauss), was obtained as well as the MCD spectra for different relative concentration at the mixed matrices. The theory developed by Panepucci and Mollenauer for F centers spin-lattice relaxation in pure matrices was modified to explain the behaviour of T1 in mixed cristals. The Direct Process results (T approx. = 2.0 K) compared against that theory shows that the main relaxation mecanism, up to 25 KGauss, continues to be phonon modulation of the hiperfine iteraction between F electrons and surrounding nuclei. (Author) [pt

  3. Effect of carrier relaxation lifetime on the performance of InAs/InP quantum-dash lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2011-12-01

    The effect of carrier relaxation process into the quantum dash (Qdash) ground state (GS) is examined theoretically by carrier-photon rate equation model incorporating the inhomogeneous broadening. Increase in the relaxation time and the inhomogeneous broadening degrades the threshold current density. Moreover, our results show that a relaxation time of less than 2 ps gives optimum laser performance. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. Measurement of N and C diffusion in Sm2Fe17 by magnetic relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mommer, N.; Hirscher, M.; Gerlach, M.; Van Lier, J.; Kronmueller, H.; Kubis, M.; Mueller, K.-H.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic after-effect (MAE) measurements of nitrided and carburized Sm 2 Fe 17 compounds were performed in the temperature range of 140 K to 480 K. Both nitrided and carburized compounds show relaxation maxima at 285 and 300 K, respectively, which are absent in pure Sm 2 Fe 17 compounds. Therefore, these relaxation maxima are attributed to jumps of interstitially dissolved nitrogen or carbon atoms. Numerical evaluation yielded an activation enthalpy Q N (0.84±0.05) eV and a pre-exponential factor τ 0 N =3.10 -15±1 s for the short-range diffusion of N atoms. The corresponding values for the carbon diffusion are Q C =(0.91±0.05) eV and τ 0 C =1.10 -15±1 s. The carbon and nitrogen content of the samples was determined from the increase in mass during nitrogenation or carburization to Sm 2 Fe 17 N 1.2 and Sm 2 Fe 17 C 2.6 . (orig.)

  5. Performance Measurement und Environmental Performance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Anke

    2000-01-01

    Die Zielsetzung der vorliegenden Dissertationsschrift besteht in der Entwicklung einer systematisierten Vorgehensweise, eines Controllingmodells, zur unternehmensinternen Umweltleistungsmessung. Das entwickelte Environmental Performance Measurement (EPM)-Modell umfaßt die fünf Stufen Festlegung der Ziele der Umweltleistungsmessung (1. Stufe), Erfassung der Umwelteinflüsse nach der ökologischen Erfolgsspaltung (2. Stufe), Bewertung der Umwelteinflüsse auf der Grundlage des qualitätszielbezogen...

  6. Effects of Relaxing Music on Mental Fatigue Induced by a Continuous Performance Task: Behavioral and ERPs Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Ren, Jie; Wang, Biye; Zhu, Qin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether listening to relaxing music would help reduce mental fatigue and to maintain performance after a continuous performance task. The experiment involved two fatigue evaluation phases carried out before and after a fatigue inducing phase. A 1-hour AX-continuous performance test was used to induce mental fatigue in the fatigue-inducing phase, and participants' subjective evaluation on the mental fatigue, as well as their neurobehavioral performance in a Go/NoGo task, were measured before and after the fatigue-inducing phase. A total of 36 undergraduate students (18-22 years) participated in the study and were randomly assigned to the music group and control group. The music group performed the fatigue-inducing task while listening to relaxing music, and the control group performed the same task without any music. Our results revealed that after the fatigue-inducing phase, (a) the music group demonstrated significantly less mental fatigue than control group, (b) reaction time significantly increased for the control group but not for the music group, (c) larger Go-P3 and NoGo-P3 amplitudes were observed in the music group, although larger NoGo-N2 amplitudes were detected for both groups. These results combined to suggest that listening to relaxing music alleviated the mental fatigue associated with performing an enduring cognitive-motor task.

  7. Fast hydrogen exchange affects {sup 15}N relaxation measurements in intrinsically disordered proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seho; Wu, Kuen-Phon; Baum, Jean, E-mail: jean.baum@rutgers.edu [Rutgers University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Unprotected amide protons can undergo fast hydrogen exchange (HX) with protons from the solvent. Generally, NMR experiments using the out-and-back coherence transfer with amide proton detection are affected by fast HX and result in reduced signal intensity. When one of these experiments, {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N HSQC, is used to measure the {sup 15}N transverse relaxation rate (R{sub 2}), the measured R{sub 2} rate is convoluted with the HX rate (k{sub HX}) and has higher apparent R{sub 2} values. Since the {sup 15}N R{sub 2} measurement is important for analyzing protein backbone dynamics, the HX effect on the R{sub 2} measurement is investigated and described here by multi-exponential signal decay. We demonstrate these effects by performing {sup 15}N R{sub 2}{sup CPMG} experiments on {alpha}-synuclein, an intrinsically disordered protein, in which the amide protons are exposed to solvent. We show that the HX effect on R{sub 2}{sup CPMG} can be extracted by the derived equation. In conclusion, the HX effect may be pulse sequence specific and results from various sources including the J coupling evolution, the change of steady state water proton magnetization, and the D{sub 2}O content in the sample. To avoid the HX effect on the analysis of relaxation data of unprotected amides, it is suggested that NMR experimental conditions insensitive to the HX should be considered or that intrinsic R{sub 2}{sup CPMG} values be obtained by methods described herein.

  8. Novel spin dynamics in ferrimagnetic molecular chains from 1H NMR and μSR spin-lattice relaxation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micotti, E.; Lascialfari, A.; Rigamonti, A.; Aldrovandi, S.; Caneschi, A.; Gatteschi, D.; Bogani, L.

    2004-01-01

    The spin dynamics in the helical chain Co(hfac) 2 NITPhOMe has been investigated by 1 H NMR and μSR relaxation. In the temperature range 15< T<60 K, the results are consistent with the relaxation of the homogeneous magnetization. For T≤15 K, NMR and μSR evidence a second spin relaxation mechanism, undetected by the magnetization measurements. From the analysis of these data, insights on this novel relaxation process are derived

  9. Novel spin dynamics in ferrimagnetic molecular chains from 1H NMR and μSR spin-lattice relaxation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micotti, E.; Lascialfari, A.; Rigamonti, A.; Aldrovandi, S.; Caneschi, A.; Gatteschi, D.; Bogani, L.

    2004-05-01

    The spin dynamics in the helical chain Co(hfac) 2NITPhOMe has been investigated by 1H NMR and μSR relaxation. In the temperature range 15relaxation of the homogeneous magnetization. For T⩽15 K, NMR and μSR evidence a second spin relaxation mechanism, undetected by the magnetization measurements. From the analysis of these data, insights on this novel relaxation process are derived.

  10. Multidimensional dynamic piezoresponse measurements. Unraveling local relaxation behavior in relaxor-ferroelectrics via big data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudevan, Rama K.; Zhang, Shujun; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Bassiri-Gharb, Nazanin

    2015-01-01

    Compositional and charge disorder in ferroelectric relaxors lies at the heart of the unusual properties of these systems, such as aging and non-ergodicity, polarization rotations, and a host of temperature and field-driven phase transitions. However, much information about the field-dynamics of the polarization in the prototypical ferroelectric relaxor (1-x)Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3-x PbTiO 3 (PMN-xPT) remains unprobed at the mesoscopic level. We use a piezoresponse force microscopy-based dynamic multimodal relaxation spectroscopy technique, enabling the study of ferroelectric switching and polarization relaxation at mesoscopic length scales, and carry out measurements on a PMN-0.28PT sample with minimal polishing. Results indicate that beyond a threshold DC bias the average relaxation increases as the system attempts to relax to the previous state. Phenomenological fitting reveals the presence of mesoscale heterogeneity in relaxation amplitudes and clearly suggests the presence of two distinct amplitudes. Independent component analysis reveals the presence of a disorder component of the relaxation, which is found to be strongly anti-correlated with the maximum piezoresponse at that location, suggesting smaller disorder effects where the polarization reversal is large and vice versa. The disorder in the relaxation amplitudes is postulated to arise from rhombohedral and field-induced tetragonal phase in the crystal, with each phase associated with its own relaxation amplitude. As a result, these studies highlight the crucial importance of the mixture of ferroelectric phases in the compositions in proximity of the morphotropic phase boundary in governing the local response and further highlight the ability of PFM voltage and time spectroscopies, in conjunction with big-data multivariate analyses, to locally map disorder and correlate it with parameters governing the dynamic behavior

  11. The effects of music relaxation and muscle relaxation techniques on sleep quality and emotional measures among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Haimov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, an anxiety disorder with lifetime prevalence of 7.8%, is characterized by symptoms that develop following exposure to traumatic life events and that cause an immediate experience of intense fear, helplessness or horror. PTSD is marked by recurrent nightmares typified by the recall of intrusive experiences and by extended disturbance throughout sleep. Individuals with PTSD respond poorly to drug treatments for insomnia. The disadvantages of drug treatment for insomnia underline the importance of non-pharmacological alternatives. Thus, the present study had three aims: first, to compare the efficiency of two relaxation techniques (muscular relaxation and progressive music relaxation in alleviating insomnia among individuals with PTSD using both objective and subjective measures of sleep quality; second, to examine whether these two techniques have different effects on psychological indicators of PTSD, such as depression and anxiety; and finally, to examine how initial PTSD symptom severity and baseline emotional measures are related to the efficiency of these two relaxation methods. Thirteen PTSD patients with no other major psychiatric or neurological disorders participated in the study. The study comprised one seven-day running-in, no-treatment period, followed by two seven-day experimental periods. The treatments constituted either music relaxation or muscle relaxation techniques at desired bedtime. These treatments were randomly assigned. During each of these three experimental periods, subjects’ sleep was continuously monitored with a wrist actigraph (Ambulatory Monitoring, Inc., and subjects were asked to fill out several questionnaires concerned with a wide spectrum of issues, such as sleep, depression, and anxiety. Analyses revealed a significant increase in objective and subjective sleep efficiency and a significant reduction in depression level following music relaxation. Moreover, following music

  12. Solution conformation and dynamics of a tetrasaccharide related to the LewisX antigen deduced by NMR relaxation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poveda, Ana; Asensio, Juan Luis; Martin-Pastor, Manuel; Jimenez-Barbero, Jesus

    1997-01-01

    1 H-NMR cross-relaxation rates and nonselective longitudinal relaxation times have been obtained at two magnetic fields (7.0 and 11.8 T) and at a variety of temperatures for the branched tetrasaccharide methyl 3-O-α-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl-β-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 4)[3-O-α-fucosyl] -glucopyranoside (1), an inhibitor of astrocyte growth. In addition, 13 C-NMR relaxation data have also been recorded at both fields. The 1 H-NMR relaxation data have been interpreted using different motional models to obtain proton-proton correlation times. The results indicate that the GalNAc and Fuc rings display more extensive local motion than the two inner Glc and Gal moieties, since those present significantly shorter local correlation times. The 13 C-NMR relaxation parameters have been interpreted in terms of the Lipari-Szabo model-free approach. Thus, order parameters and internal motion correlation times have been deduced. As obtained for the 1 H-NMR relaxation data, the two outer residues possess smaller order parameters than the two inner rings. Internal correlation times are in the order of 100 ps. The hydroxymethyl groups have also different behaviour,with the exocyclic carbon on the glucopyranoside unit showing the highestS 2 . Molecular dynamics simulations using a solvated system have also been performed and internal motion correlation functions have been deduced from these calculations. Order parameters and interproton distances have been compared to those inferred from the NMR measurements. The obtained results are in fair agreement with the experimental data

  13. Solution conformation and dynamics of a tetrasaccharide related to the Lewis{sup X} antigen deduced by NMR relaxation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poveda, Ana [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigacion (Spain); Asensio, Juan Luis; Martin-Pastor, Manuel; Jimenez-Barbero, Jesus [Instituto de Quimica Organica, CSIC, Grupo de Carbohidratos (Spain)

    1997-07-15

    {sup 1}H-NMR cross-relaxation rates and nonselective longitudinal relaxation times have been obtained at two magnetic fields (7.0 and 11.8 T) and at a variety of temperatures for the branched tetrasaccharide methyl 3-O-{alpha}-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl-{beta}-galactopyranosyl-(1{sup {yields}}4)[3-O-{alpha}-fucosyl] -glucopyranoside (1), an inhibitor of astrocyte growth. In addition, {sup 13}C-NMR relaxation data have also been recorded at both fields. The {sup 1}H-NMR relaxation data have been interpreted using different motional models to obtain proton-proton correlation times. The results indicate that the GalNAc and Fuc rings display more extensive local motion than the two inner Glc and Gal moieties, since those present significantly shorter local correlation times. The{sup 13}C-NMR relaxation parameters have been interpreted in terms of the Lipari-Szabo model-free approach. Thus, order parameters and internal motion correlation times have been deduced. As obtained for the{sup 1}H-NMR relaxation data, the two outer residues possess smaller order parameters than the two inner rings. Internal correlation times are in the order of 100 ps. The hydroxymethyl groups have also different behaviour,with the exocyclic carbon on the glucopyranoside unit showing the highestS{sup 2}. Molecular dynamics simulations using a solvated system have also been performed and internal motion correlation functions have been deduced from these calculations. Order parameters and interproton distances have been compared to those inferred from the NMR measurements. The obtained results are in fair agreement with the experimental data.

  14. Improved labeling strategy for 13C relaxation measurements of methyl groups in proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Andrew L.; Urbauer, Jeffrey L.; Wand, A. Joshua

    1997-01-01

    Selective incorporation of 13 C into the methyl groups of protein side chains is described as a means for simplifying the measurement and interpretation of 13 C relaxation parameters.High incorporation (>90%) is accomplished by using pyruvate(3- 13 C, 99%) as the sole carbon source in the growth media for protein overexpression in E. coli. This improved labeling scheme increases the sensitivity of the relaxation experiments by approximately fivefold when compared to randomly fractionally 13 C-labeled protein, allowing high-quality measurements on relatively dilute (<1 mM)protein samples at a relatively low cost

  15. Relaxation time measurements of white and grey matter in multiple sclerosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinck, P.A.; Appel, B.; Moens, E.; Academisch Ziekenhuis Middelheim, Antwerp

    1987-01-01

    In a patient population of some 450 with definite, probable, and possible multiple sclerosis referred to us for MRI, some 40 suffering from definite MS were chosen randomly for relaxation time measurements of plaque-free grey and white matter. T 1 values could not be used for diagnostic purposes owing to their broad standard deviation. Overall white matter T 2 was slightly higher in MS patients than in a non-MS population (94 ms versus 89 ms). Because these changes are not visible in MR images, relaxation time measurements may prove valuable for differential diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  16. Relationship between relaxation by guided imagery and performance of working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudetz, J A; Hudetz, A G; Klayman, J

    2000-02-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that relaxation by guided imagery improves working-memory performance of healthy participants. 30 volunteers (both sexes, ages 17-56 years) were randomly assigned to one of three groups and administered the WAIS-III Letter-Number Sequencing Test before and after 10-min. treatment with guided imagery or popular music. The control group received no treatment. Groups' test scores were not different before treatment. The mean increased after relaxation by guided imagery but not after music or no treatment. This result supports the hypothesis that working-memory scores on the test are enhanced by guided imagery and implies that human information processing may be enhanced by prior relaxation.

  17. Electron spin relaxation can enhance the performance of a cryptochrome-based magnetic compass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kattnig, Daniel R; Sowa, Jakub K; Solov'yov, Ilia A

    2016-01-01

    thaliana cryptochrome 1 were obtained from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and used to calculate the spin relaxation caused by modulation of the exchange and dipolar interactions. We find that intermediate spin relaxation rates afford substantial enhancements in the sensitivity of the reaction yields....... Here we argue that certain spin relaxation mechanisms can enhance its performance. We focus on the flavin-tryptophan radical pair in cryptochrome, currently the only candidate magnetoreceptor molecule. Correlation functions for fluctuations in the distance between the two radicals in Arabidopsis...... to an Earth-strength magnetic field. Supported by calculations using toy radical pair models, we argue that these enhancements could be consistent with the molecular dynamics and magnetic interactions in avian cryptochromes....

  18. Research on Creep Relaxation Non-uniformity and Effect on Performance of Combined Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingya; He, Jingfei; Zhao, Lijia

    2017-11-01

    The combined rotor of gas turbine is connected by a certain number of rod bolts. It works in the high temperature environment for a long time, and the rod bolts will creep and relax. Under the influence of elastic interaction, the loss of pretightening force of rod bolts at different positions is non-uniform, which will cause the connection of the combined rotor to be out of tune. In this paper, the creep relaxation non-uniformity model for a class F heavy duty gas turbine is established. On the basis of this, the performance degradation and structural strength change of combined rotor resulting from creep relaxation non-uniformity of rod bolts are studied. The results show that the ratio of preload mistuning increases with time and then converges, and there is a threshold inflection point in about seven thousand hours.

  19. Mental training, relaxation techniques and pedagogical instructions to reduce Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) in flute students

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Viejo Llaneza; Ana Laucirica Larrinaga

    2016-01-01

    Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) is, frequently, one of the problems faced by a musical performer in his or her career. This study observes way in which stage fright affects in musicians, which is a possible factor that may later lead to anxiety in public performances and, furthermore, how we can intervene to mitigate or reduce its effects. An initial interview was conducted with four upper division students of transverse flute. This was followed by some training techniques - relaxation techni...

  20. Performance Measurement at Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Klarissa

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes empirical approaches to testing the reliability, validity, and organizational effectiveness of student evaluations of teaching (SET) as a performance measurement instrument in knowledge management at the institutional level of universities. Departing from Weber’s concept...

  1. On-chip Brownian relaxation measurements of magnetic nanobeads in the time domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2013-01-01

    the time and frequency domain methods on Brownian relaxation detection of clustering of streptavidin coated magnetic beads in the presence of different concentrations of biotin-conjugated bovine serum albumin and obtain comparable results. In the time domain, a measurement is carried out in less than 30 s...

  2. MR pulse sequences for selective relaxation time measurements: a phantom study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Jensen, K E; Jensen, M

    1990-01-01

    a Siemens Magnetom wholebody magnetic resonance scanner operating at 1.5 Tesla was used. For comparison six imaging pulse sequences for relaxation time measurements were tested on the same phantom. The spectroscopic pulse sequences all had an accuracy better than 10% of the reference values....

  3. In vivo relaxation time measurements on a murine tumor model--prolongation of T1 after photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y H; Hawk, R M; Ramaprasad, S

    1995-01-01

    RIF tumors implanted on mice feet were investigated for changes in relaxation times (T1 and T2) after photodynamic therapy (PDT). Photodynamic therapy was performed using Photofrin II as the photosensitizer and laser light at 630 nm. A home-built proton solenoid coil in the balanced configuration was used to accommodate the tumors, and the relaxation times were measured before, immediately after, and up to several hours after therapy. Several control experiments were performed untreated tumors, tumors treated with Photofrin II alone, or tumors treated with laser light alone. Significant increases in T1s of water protons were observed after PDT treatment. In all experiments, 31P spectra were recorded before and after the therapy to study the tumor status and to confirm the onset of PDT. These studies show significant prolongation of T1s after the PDT treatment. The spin-spin relaxation measurements, on the other hand, did not show such prolongation in T2 values after PDT treatment.

  4. The performance measurement manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, R G

    1991-01-01

    The leading indicators of business performance cannot be found in financial data alone. Quality, customer satisfaction, innovation, market share--metrics like these often reflect a company's economic condition and growth prospects better than its reported earnings do. Depending on an accounting department to reveal a company's future will leave it hopelessly mired in the past. More and more managers are changing their company's performance measurement systems to track nonfinancial measures and reinforce new competitive strategies. Five activities are essential: developing an information architecture; putting the technology in place to support this architecture; aligning bonuses and other incentives with the new system; drawing on outside resources; and designing an internal process to ensure the other four activities occur. New technologies and more sophisticated databases have made the change to nonfinancial performance measurement systems possible and economically feasible. Industry and trade associations, consulting firms, and public accounting firms that already have well-developed methods for assessing market share and other performance metrics can add to the revolution's momentum--as well as profit from the business opportunities it presents. Every company will have its own key measures and distinctive process for implementing the change. But making it happen will always require careful preparation, perseverance, and the conviction of the CEO that it must be carried through. When one leading company can demonstrate the long-term advantage of its superior performance on quality or innovation or any other nonfinancial measure, it will change the rules for all its rivals forever.

  5. Enterprise performance measurement systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milija Bogavac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement systems are an extremely important part of the control and management actions, because in this way a company can determine its business potential, its market power, potential and current level of business efficiency. The significance of measurement consists in influencing the relationship between the results of reproduction (total volume of production, value of production, total revenue and profit and investments to achieve these results (factors of production spending and hiring capital in order to achieve the highest possible quality of the economy. (The relationship between the results of reproduction and investment to achieve them quantitatively determines economic success as the quality of the economy. Measuring performance allows the identification of the economic resources the company has, so looking at the key factors that affect its performance can help to determine the appropriate course of action.

  6. Productivity and Performance Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Spring, Martin

    This study explores conceptually how performance measurement as discussed in the literature, enables or constrains the ability to manage and improve productivity. It uses an inter-disciplinary literature review to identify five areas of concern relating productivity accounting to the ability...... to improve productivity: “Productivity representation”; “productivity incentives”, “productivity intervention”; “productivity trade-off or synergy” and “productivity strategy and context”. The paper discusses these areas of concern and expands our knowledge of how productivity and performance measurement...

  7. Measuring Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Gillen, David

    2014-01-01

    Set in the airport industry, this paper measures firm performance using both desirable and bad outputs (i.e. airport delays). We first estimate a model that does not include the bad outputs and then a model that includes bad outputs. The results show important differences in the efficiency...

  8. Benchmarking and Performance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, J. Stephen

    This paper defines benchmarking and its relationship to quality management, describes a project which applied the technique in a library context, and explores the relationship between performance measurement and benchmarking. Numerous benchmarking methods contain similar elements: deciding what to benchmark; identifying partners; gathering…

  9. Measurement of short transverse relaxation times by pseudo-echo nutation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Maude; Moyne, Christian; Canet, Daniel

    2018-07-01

    Very short NMR transverse relaxation times may be difficult to measure by conventional methods. Nutation experiments constitute an alternative approach. Nutation is, in the rotating frame, the equivalent of precession in the laboratory frame. It consists in monitoring the rotation of magnetization around the radio-frequency (rf) field when on-resonance conditions are fulfilled. Depending on the amplitude of the rf field, nutation may be sensitive to the two relaxation rates R1 and R2. A full theoretical development has been worked out for demonstrating how these two relaxation rates could be deduced from a simple nutation experiment, noticing however that inhomogeneity of the rf field may lead to erroneous results. This has led us to devise new experiments which are the equivalent of echo techniques in the rotating frame (pseudo spin-echo nutation experiment and pseudo gradient-echo experiment). Full equations of motion have been derived. Although complicated, they indicate that the sum of the two relaxation rates can be obtained very accurately and not altered by rf field inhomogeneity. This implies however an appropriate data processing accounting for the oscillations which are superposed to the echo decays and, anyway, theoretically predicted. A series of experiments has been carried out for different values of the rf field amplitude on samples of water doped with a paramagnetic compound at different concentrations. Pragmatically, as R1 can be easily measured by conventional methods, its value is entered in the data processing algorithm which then returns exclusively the value of the transverse relaxation time. Very consistent results are obtained that way.

  10. Transverse magnetic field effects on the relaxation time of the magnetization in Mn12 measured by 55Mn-NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Kumagai, K.; Borsa, F.; Gatteschi, D.

    2003-01-01

    The longitudinal (H Z ) and transverse (H T ) magnetic field dependence of the relaxation time of the magnetization in Mn12 in its S=10 ground state was measured by NMR. The minima in the relaxation time at the fields for level crossing are due to the quantum tunneling of the magnetization. The shortening of the relaxation time under the application of H T is shown to be due mainly to the reduction of the energy barrier

  11. Transport relaxation measurements and glassy state effects in superconducting MgB{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olutas, M. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, 14280 Bolu (Turkey)], E-mail: olutas_m@ibu.edu.tr; Yetis, H.; Altinkok, A.; Kilic, A.; Kilic, K. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, 14280 Bolu (Turkey)

    2008-09-15

    Time dependent effects in superconducting MgB{sub 2} have been studied systematically for the first time by transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) as a function of transport current (I), temperature (T) and external magnetic field (H). At very low dissipation levels (below {approx}1 {mu}V), it was observed that the sample voltage grows up smoothly in time by exhibiting the details of initial stage of relaxation process. At high dissipation levels, steady state corresponding to constant flow rate is maintained within a very short time and monitoring of details of flux dynamic evolving along sample becomes difficult on long time scales. Another interesting behavior is the appearance of voltage peak when the transport current was reduced to a finite value. After peak, it was observed that the sample voltage relaxes smoothly by leveling off within a very short time. The evolution of V-t curves suggests that formation of resistive flow channels along sample develops easily, which is quite similar to that of obtained for the superconducting ceramic samples whose grain boundaries are improved. Time dependent effects were also observed in magnetovoltage measurements (V-H curves) as the field sweep rate (dH/dt) varies. The observations were interpreted mainly in terms of flux trapping in grains.

  12. Transport relaxation measurements and glassy state effects in superconducting MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olutas, M.; Yetis, H.; Altinkok, A.; Kilic, A.; Kilic, K.

    2008-01-01

    Time dependent effects in superconducting MgB 2 have been studied systematically for the first time by transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) as a function of transport current (I), temperature (T) and external magnetic field (H). At very low dissipation levels (below ∼1 μV), it was observed that the sample voltage grows up smoothly in time by exhibiting the details of initial stage of relaxation process. At high dissipation levels, steady state corresponding to constant flow rate is maintained within a very short time and monitoring of details of flux dynamic evolving along sample becomes difficult on long time scales. Another interesting behavior is the appearance of voltage peak when the transport current was reduced to a finite value. After peak, it was observed that the sample voltage relaxes smoothly by leveling off within a very short time. The evolution of V-t curves suggests that formation of resistive flow channels along sample develops easily, which is quite similar to that of obtained for the superconducting ceramic samples whose grain boundaries are improved. Time dependent effects were also observed in magnetovoltage measurements (V-H curves) as the field sweep rate (dH/dt) varies. The observations were interpreted mainly in terms of flux trapping in grains

  13. Reducing Anxiety and Improving Academic Performance Through a Biofeedback Relaxation Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritzeta, Aitor; Soroa, Goretti; Balluerka, Nekane; Muela, Alexander; Gorostiaga, Arantxa; Aliri, Jone

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of a biofeedback relaxation training program on anxiety and academic performance. The program consisted of five biofeedback sessions coupled with three training activities focused on deep breathing, guided imagery, and muscle relaxation. The participants were second-year psychology undergraduates from the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU, northern Spain). The experimental group comprised 152 students (M age  = 19.6, SD = 0.74; 74% women) and the control group 81 students (M age   = 19.4, SD = 0.92; 71% women). Results showed that after participating in the program, students in the experimental group had lower levels of anxiety and increased academic performance. Furthermore, they scored lower on anxiety and higher on academic performance in comparison with the control subjects. This suggests that the inclusion of biofeedback training programs in educational contexts could be a way of reducing anxiety and improving academic performance. It may also deepen our understanding of the dynamic interplay between psychophysiological, cognitive, and emotional processes.

  14. Using Technical Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Christopher J.; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russel E.

    2011-01-01

    All programs have requirements. For these requirements to be met, there must be a means of measurement. A Technical Performance Measure (TPM) is defined to produce a measured quantity that can be compared to the requirement. In practice, the TPM is often expressed as a maximum or minimum and a goal. Example TPMs for a rocket program are: vacuum or sea level specific impulse (lsp), weight, reliability (often expressed as a failure rate), schedule, operability (turn-around time), design and development cost, production cost, and operating cost. Program status is evaluated by comparing the TPMs against specified values of the requirements. During the program many design decisions are made and most of them affect some or all of the TPMs. Often, the same design decision changes some TPMs favorably while affecting other TPMs unfavorably. The problem then becomes how to compare the effects of a design decision on different TPMs. How much failure rate is one second of specific impulse worth? How many days of schedule is one pound of weight worth? In other words, how to compare dissimilar quantities in order to trade and manage the TPMs to meet all requirements. One method that has been used successfully and has a mathematical basis is Utility Analysis. Utility Analysis enables quantitative comparison among dissimilar attributes. It uses a mathematical model that maps decision maker preferences over the tradeable range of each attribute. It is capable of modeling both independent and dependent attributes. Utility Analysis is well supported in the literature on Decision Theory. It has been used at Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne for internal programs and for contracted work such as the J-2X rocket engine program. This paper describes the construction of TPMs and describes Utility Analysis. It then discusses the use of TPMs in design trades and to manage margin during a program using Utility Analysis.

  15. Microwave Amplitude Modulation Technique to Measure Spin-Lattice (T 1) and Spin-Spin (T 2) Relaxation Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sushil K.

    The measurement of very short spin-lattice, or longitudinal, relaxation (SLR) times (i.e., 10-10 Misra, 1998), and polymer resins doped with rare-earth ions (Pescia et al., 1999a; Pescia et al. 1999b). The ability to measure such fast SLR data on amorphous Si and copper-chromium-tin spinel led to an understanding of the role of exchange interaction in affecting spin-lattice relaxation, while the data on polymer resins doped with rare-earth ions provided evidence of spin-fracton relaxation (Pescia et al., 1999a, b). But such fast SLR times are not measurable by the most commonly used techniques of saturation- and inversion-recovery (Poole, 1982; Alger, 1968), which only measure spin-lattice relaxation times longer than 10-6 s. A summary of relevant experimental data is presented in Table 1.

  16. Towards quantitative measurements of relaxation times and other parameters in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofts, P.S.; Du Boulay, E.P.G.H.

    1990-01-01

    The nature and physical significance of the relaxation times T1 and T2 and of proton density are described. Methods of measuring T1 and T2 are discussed with emphasis on the establishment of precision and the maintenance of accuracy. Reported standards of success are briefly reviewed. We expect sensitivities of the order of 1% to be achievable in serial studies. Although early hopes of disease diagnosis by tissue characterisation were not realised, strict scientific method and careful calibration have made it pracitcable to apply relaxation time measurement to research into disease process. Serial measurements in patients and correlation with similar studies in animal models, biopsy results and autopsy material taken together have provided new knowledge about cerebral oedema, water compartmentation, alcoholism and the natural history of multiple sclerosis. There are prospects of using measurement to monitor treatment in other diseases with diffuse brain abnormalities invisible on the usual images. Secondarily derived parameters and notably the quantification of blood-brain barrier defect after injection of Gadolinium-DTPA also offer prospects of valuable data. (orig.)

  17. Strategic Measures of Teacher Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanowski, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Managing the human capital in education requires measuring teacher performance. To measure performance, administrators need to combine measures of practice with measures of outcomes, such as value-added measures, and three measurement systems are needed: classroom observations, performance assessments or work samples, and classroom walkthroughs.…

  18. Fast-electron-relaxation measurement for laser-solid interaction at relativistic laser intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.; Shepherd, R.; Chung, H. K.; Kemp, A.; Hansen, S. B.; Wilks, S. C.; Ping, Y.; Widmann, K.; Fournier, K. B.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Dyer, G.; Faenov, A.; Pikuz, T.

    2007-01-01

    We present measurements of the fast-electron-relaxation time in short-pulse (0.5 ps) laser-solid interactions for laser intensities of 10 17 , 10 18 , and 10 19 W/cm 2 , using a picosecond time-resolved x-ray spectrometer and a time-integrated electron spectrometer. We find that the laser coupling to hot electrons increases as the laser intensity becomes relativistic, and that the thermalization of fast electrons occurs over time scales on the order of 10 ps at all laser intensities. The experimental data are analyzed using a combination of models that include Kα generation, collisional coupling, and plasma expansion

  19. Analysis of the backbone dynamics of capsicein using 15N NMR relaxation rate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Heijenoort, C.; Bouaziz, S.; Guittet, E.

    1994-01-01

    15 N relaxation times T 1 and T 1ρ , and heteronuclear steady state nOes, were measured on capsicein, a 98 residue protein. The classical analysis of these data using directly the Lipari and Szabo formalism was shown to give incoherent results, probably due to the presence of a slow exchange along the whole protein. This global exchange broadening made the usual preliminary evaluation of the overall correlation time of capsicein using the Lipari and Szabo expression for the spectral densities impossible. (authors). 2 figs., 23 refs

  20. Measuring 13Cβ chemical shifts of invisible excited states in proteins by relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstroem, Patrik; Lin Hong; Kay, Lewis E.

    2009-01-01

    A labeling scheme is introduced that facilitates the measurement of accurate 13 C β chemical shifts of invisible, excited states of proteins by relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy. The approach makes use of protein over-expression in a strain of E. coli in which the TCA cycle enzyme succinate dehydrogenase is knocked out, leading to the production of samples with high levels of 13 C enrichment (30-40%) at C β side-chain carbon positions for 15 of the amino acids with little 13 C label at positions one bond removed (∼5%). A pair of samples are produced using [1- 13 C]-glucose/NaH 12 CO 3 or [2- 13 C]-glucose as carbon sources with isolated and enriched (>30%) 13 C β positions for 11 and 4 residues, respectively. The efficacy of the labeling procedure is established by NMR spectroscopy. The utility of such samples for measurement of 13 C β chemical shifts of invisible, excited states in exchange with visible, ground conformations is confirmed by relaxation dispersion studies of a protein-ligand binding exchange reaction in which the extracted chemical shift differences from dispersion profiles compare favorably with those obtained directly from measurements on ligand free and fully bound protein samples

  1. In vivo measurements of relaxation process in the human liver by MRI. The role of respiratory gating/triggering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Henriksen, O; Ring, P

    1988-01-01

    In vivo estimation of relaxation processes in the liver by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be helpful for characterization of various pathological conditions in the liver. However, such measurements may be significantly hampered by movement of the liver with the respiration. The effect...... of synchronization of data acquisition to the respiratory cycle on measured T1- and T2-relaxation curves was studied in normal subjects, patients with diffuse liver disease, and patients with focal liver pathology. Multi spin echo sequences with five different repetition times were used. The measurements were...... carried out with and without respiratory gating/triggering. In the healthy subjects as well as in the patients with diffuse liver diseases respiratory synchronization did not alter the obtained relaxation curves. However, in the patients with focal pathology the relaxation curves were significantly...

  2. Audio-Visual and Autogenic Relaxation Alter Amplitude of Alpha EEG Band, Causing Improvements in Mental Work Performance in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikicin, Mirosław; Kowalczyk, Marek

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of regular audio-visual relaxation combined with Schultz's autogenic training on: (1) the results of behavioral tests that evaluate work performance during burdensome cognitive tasks (Kraepelin test), (2) changes in classical EEG alpha frequency band, neocortex (frontal, temporal, occipital, parietal), hemisphere (left, right) versus condition (only relaxation 7-12 Hz). Both experimental (EG) and age-and skill-matched control group (CG) consisted of eighteen athletes (ten males and eight females). After 7-month training EG demonstrated changes in the amplitude of mean electrical activity of the EEG alpha bend at rest and an improvement was significantly changing and an improvement in almost all components of Kraepelin test. The same examined variables in CG were unchanged following the period without the intervention. Summing up, combining audio-visual relaxation with autogenic training significantly improves athlete's ability to perform a prolonged mental effort. These changes are accompanied by greater amplitude of waves in alpha band in the state of relax. The results suggest usefulness of relaxation techniques during performance of mentally difficult sports tasks (sports based on speed and stamina, sports games, combat sports) and during relax of athletes.

  3. Freight performance measures : approach analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    This report reviews the existing state of the art and also the state of the practice of freight performance measurement. Most performance measures at the state level have aimed at evaluating highway or transit infrastructure performance with an empha...

  4. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  5. In vivo measurements of the T1 relaxation processes in the bone marrow in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, K.E.; Nielsen, H.; Thomsen, C.; Soerensen, P.G.; Karle, H.; Christoffersen, P.; Henriksen, O.; Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen; Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen

    1989-01-01

    Nine patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were examined with magnetic resonance imaging and in vivo T1 relaxation time measurements of the vertebral bone marrow in a 1.5 tesla whole body scanner. Two patients underwent transformation to acute myeloid leukemia and were evaluated at follow-up examinations. At the time of diagnosis the T1 relaxation times of the vertebral bone marrow were significantly prolonged compared with normal values. The T1 relaxation times of the vertebral bone marrow in patients with MDS showed significantly lower values compared with patients with acute leukemia and did not differ from patients with polycythemia vera. (orig.)

  6. Instrumentation problems in the measurement of relaxation time T1 in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy-Willig, A.; Roucayrol, J.C.; Bittoun, J.; Courtieu, J.

    1986-01-01

    Longitudinal relaxation (T 1 ) of protons is a sensitive though non specific tool of tissue characterization. T 1 measurement from magnetic resonance images is unprecise, due to several phenomena that we review: time intervals shorter than in spectroscopic sequences; flip angle inhomogeneity; slice selection and spin echoes. In vivo the molecular inhomogeneity can prevent to measure a true T 1 ; motion and blood flow are important causes of errors. The relative effects of these factors are examined from in vitro and in vivo images acquired at 1.5 T. From a mono-echo single-slice saturation sequence reliable values of T 1 are obtained in vitro, the measurement time being compatible with clinical imaging. In vivo, problems due to various causes of motions are still unresolved [fr

  7. The feasibility of parameterizing four-state equilibria using relaxation dispersion measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Pilong; Martins, Ilídio R. S.; Rosen, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    Coupled equilibria play important roles in controlling information flow in biochemical systems, including allosteric molecules and multidomain proteins. In the simplest case, two equilibria are coupled to produce four interconverting states. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of determining the degree of coupling between two equilibria in a four-state system via relaxation dispersion measurements. A major bottleneck in this effort is the lack of efficient approaches to data analysis. To this end, we designed a strategy to efficiently evaluate the smoothness of the target function surface (TFS). Using this approach, we found that the TFS is very rough when fitting benchmark CPMG data to all adjustable variables of the four-state equilibria. After constraining a portion of the adjustable variables, which can often be achieved through independent biochemical manipulation of the system, the smoothness of TFS improves dramatically, although it is still insufficient to pinpoint the solution. The four-state equilibria can be finally solved with further incorporation of independent chemical shift information that is readily available. We also used Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate how well each adjustable parameter can be determined in a large kinetic and thermodynamic parameter space and how much improvement can be achieved in defining the parameters through additional measurements. The results show that in favorable conditions the combination of relaxation dispersion and biochemical manipulation allow the four-state equilibrium to be parameterized, and thus coupling strength between two processes to be determined.

  8. Finite magnetic relaxation in x-space magnetic particle imaging: Comparison of measurements and ferrohydrodynamic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhavalikar, R; Hensley, D; Maldonado-Camargo, L; Croft, L R; Ceron, S; Goodwill, P W; Conolly, S M; Rinaldi, C

    2016-08-03

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is an emerging tomographic imaging technology that detects magnetic nanoparticle tracers by exploiting their non-linear magnetization properties. In order to predict the behavior of nanoparticles in an imager, it is possible to use a non-imaging MPI relaxometer or spectrometer to characterize the behavior of nanoparticles in a controlled setting. In this paper we explore the use of ferrohydrodynamic magnetization equations for predicting the response of particles in an MPI relaxometer. These include a magnetization equation developed by Shliomis (Sh) which has a constant relaxation time and a magnetization equation which uses a field-dependent relaxation time developed by Martsenyuk, Raikher and Shliomis (MRSh). We compare the predictions from these models with measurements and with the predictions based on the Langevin function that assumes instantaneous magnetization response of the nanoparticles. The results show good qualitative and quantitative agreement between the ferrohydrodynamic models and the measurements without the use of fitting parameters and provide further evidence of the potential of ferrohydrodynamic modeling in MPI.

  9. Relaxation and gas drainage boreholes for high performance longwall operations in low permeability coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imgrund, Thomas [DMT GmbH und Co. KG, Essen (Germany); Bauer, Frank [Hazemag und EPR GmbH, Duelmen (Germany). Mining

    2013-06-15

    With an increasing depth of cover, gas emission control and gas outbursts prevention has become an increasingly important issue in coal mining. Deep multi-seam mining often requires operation in an environment characterised by a high gas content and gas pressure. Control of gas related risks has to be realised during heading and close to the longwall by proper risk assessment and flexible drilling schemes. These cover exploration and relaxation drilling, in-seam drilling for pre-drainage and cross measure drilling for drainage of roof and the floor gas emissions. DMT provides comprehensive solutions based on a scientific background. These solutions are engineered considering their technical feasibility. Hazemag Mining offers a large number of complete machinery including tools systems for the implementation of those solutions. (orig.)

  10. Performance Measurement Baseline Change Request

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Performance Measurement Baseline Change Request template is used to document changes to scope, cost, schedule, or operational performance metrics for SSA's Major...

  11. Measurement of N and C diffusion in Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} by magnetic relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mommer, N.; Hirscher, M.; Gerlach, M.; Van Lier, J.; Kronmueller, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Kubis, M.; Mueller, K.-H. [Institut fuer Festkoerper und Werkstofforschung, Institut fuer Metallische Werkstoffe, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

    1998-10-02

    Magnetic after-effect (MAE) measurements of nitrided and carburized Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} compounds were performed in the temperature range of 140 K to 480 K. Both nitrided and carburized compounds show relaxation maxima at 285 and 300 K, respectively, which are absent in pure Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} compounds. Therefore, these relaxation maxima are attributed to jumps of interstitially dissolved nitrogen or carbon atoms. Numerical evaluation yielded an activation enthalpy Q{sup N} (0.84{+-}0.05) eV and a pre-exponential factor {tau}{sub 0}{sup N}=3.10{sup -15{+-}1} s for the short-range diffusion of N atoms. The corresponding values for the carbon diffusion are Q{sup C}=(0.91{+-}0.05) eV and {tau}{sub 0}{sup C}=1.10{sup -15{+-}1} s. The carbon and nitrogen content of the samples was determined from the increase in mass during nitrogenation or carburization to Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 17}N{sub 1.2} and Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 17}C{sub 2.6}. (orig.) 18 refs.

  12. Transit performance measures in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This research is the result of a California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) request to assess the most commonly : available transit performance measures in California. Caltrans wanted to understand performance measures and data used by : Metr...

  13. Residual stress relaxation measurements across interfaces at macro-and micro-scales using slitting and DIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, A; Daynes, N; Hamilton, D; Horne, G; Hodgson, D Z L; Shterenlikht, A [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Heard, P J; Scott, T B, E-mail: mexas@bristol.ac.u [Interface Analysis Centre, University of Bristol, Bristol BS2 8BS (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    In this paper digital image correlation is used to measure relaxation of residual stresses across an interface. On the macro scale the method is applied to a tri-layer bonded aluminium sample, where the middle layer is in tension and the top and the bottom layers are in compression. High contrast speckle pattern was sprayed onto the surface. The relaxation was done with the slitting saw. Three dimensional image correlation was used. On the micro scale the technique was applied to a heat treated large grain brass loaded in tension. Mechanical and electro polishing was used for surface preparation. A focused ion beam was used for slitting across a grain boundary and for imaging. Grain orientation was measured using electron back-scattering diffraction. Two dimensional image correlation was employed. In all macro- and micro-scale experiments the range of measured relaxation was sub-pixel, almost at the limit of the resolution of the image correlation algorithms. In the macro-scale experiments, the limiting factor was low residual stress, due to low shear strength of the Araldite glue used for bonding. Finite element simulation of the relaxation agreed only qualitatively with the experimental results at both size scales. The methodology is intended for use with inverse methods, i.e. the measured relaxation is applied as the boundary conditions to an appropriate FE model which produces stresses equal to the relaxed residual stresses, but with opposite sign. The main conclusion is that the digital image correlation method could be used to measure relaxation caused by slitting in heterogeneous materials and structures at both macro- and micro-scales. However, the repeatability of the techniques needs to be improved before residual stresses can be determined confidently. Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge Airbus UK for provision of materials. They thank Dr Richard Burguete, Airbus UK, and Prof Peter Flewitt, Department of Physics, University of Bristol, for

  14. Residual stress relaxation measurements across interfaces at macro-and micro-scales using slitting and DIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, A; Daynes, N; Hamilton, D; Horne, G; Hodgson, D Z L; Shterenlikht, A; Heard, P J; Scott, T B

    2009-01-01

    In this paper digital image correlation is used to measure relaxation of residual stresses across an interface. On the macro scale the method is applied to a tri-layer bonded aluminium sample, where the middle layer is in tension and the top and the bottom layers are in compression. High contrast speckle pattern was sprayed onto the surface. The relaxation was done with the slitting saw. Three dimensional image correlation was used. On the micro scale the technique was applied to a heat treated large grain brass loaded in tension. Mechanical and electro polishing was used for surface preparation. A focused ion beam was used for slitting across a grain boundary and for imaging. Grain orientation was measured using electron back-scattering diffraction. Two dimensional image correlation was employed. In all macro- and micro-scale experiments the range of measured relaxation was sub-pixel, almost at the limit of the resolution of the image correlation algorithms. In the macro-scale experiments, the limiting factor was low residual stress, due to low shear strength of the Araldite glue used for bonding. Finite element simulation of the relaxation agreed only qualitatively with the experimental results at both size scales. The methodology is intended for use with inverse methods, i.e. the measured relaxation is applied as the boundary conditions to an appropriate FE model which produces stresses equal to the relaxed residual stresses, but with opposite sign. The main conclusion is that the digital image correlation method could be used to measure relaxation caused by slitting in heterogeneous materials and structures at both macro- and micro-scales. However, the repeatability of the techniques needs to be improved before residual stresses can be determined confidently. Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge Airbus UK for provision of materials. They thank Dr Richard Burguete, Airbus UK, and Prof Peter Flewitt, Department of Physics, University of Bristol, for

  15. Measuring the Company Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the logics of the efficient capital investment, the management of the investment of the saving capital in the company’s assets must conclude, on the end of the financial year, with a plus ofreal value (NPV > 0. From this point of view, in this paper we suggest the usage of an investment valuationmodel for the assessment of the company managerial and technological performance. Supposing the book value is a proxy of the just value (of assets and operational results and supposing the capital cost iscorrectly estimated, we evaluate the company’s performance both by the net present value model, and also by the company’s ability to create a surplus of the invested capital (NPV >0.Our paper also aims to identify the performance of the financial breakeven point (for which NPV is at least equal to zero as the minimum acceptable level for the company’s activity. Under this critical sales point, the company goes through the undervaluation of shareholders fortune even if the company’s sales are greater than accounting breakeven point. The performance’s activity level is one which the managers recover and surpass the cost of capital, cost which stand for the normal activity benchmark.The risks of applying of our suggested model we support go down to the confidence of accounting data and of the cost of capital estimating. In spite all of this, the usage of a sensitivity analysis to search anaverage NPV would leads to the company’s performance valuation within investment logic with a high information power.

  16. Measuring the Company Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the logics of the efficient capital investment, the management of the investment of the saving capital in the company’s assets must conclude, on the end of the financial year, with a plus of real value (NPV > 0. From this point of view, in this paper we suggest the usage of an investment valuation model for the assessment of the company managerial and technological performance. Supposing the book value is a proxy of the just value (of assets and operational results and supposing the capital cost is correctly estimated, we evaluate the company’s performance both by the net present value model, and also by the company’s ability to create a surplus of the invested capital (NPV >0. Our paper also aims to identify the performance of the financial breakeven point (for which NPV is at least equal to zero as the minimum acceptable level for the company’s activity. Under this critical sales point, the company goes through the undervaluation of shareholders fortune even if the company’s sales are greater than accounting breakeven point. The performance’s activity level is one which the managers recover and surpass the cost of capital, cost which stand for the normal activity benchmark. The risks of applying of our suggested model we support go down to the confidence of accounting data and of the cost of capital estimating. In spite all of this, the usage of a sensitivity analysis to search an average NPV would leads to the company’s performance valuation within investment logic with a high information power.

  17. Consequences of recent loophole-free experiments on a relaxation of measurement independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnilo, Alejandro A.

    2017-02-01

    Recent experiments using innovative optical detectors and techniques have strongly increased the capacity of testing the violation of the Bell's inequalities in Nature. Most of them have used the Eberhard's inequality (EI) to close the "detection" loophole. Closing the "locality" loophole has been attempted by spacelike separated detections and fast changes of the bases of observation, driven by random number generators of new design. Also, pulsed pumping and time-resolved data recording to close the "time-coincidence" loophole, and sophisticated statistical methods to close the "memory" loophole, have been used. In this paper, the meaning of the EI is reviewed. A simple hidden variables theory based on a relaxation of the condition of "measurement independence," which was devised long ago for the Clauser-Horne-Shimony and Holt inequality, is adapted to the EI case. It is used here to evaluate the significance of the results of the recent experiments, which are briefly described. A table summarizes the main results.

  18. Measurement and Characterization of Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Chemistry Using Relaxation Dispersion NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khirich, Gennady; Holliday, Michael J; Lin, Jasper C; Nandy, Aditya

    2018-03-01

    One-dimensional heteronuclear relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy at 13 C natural abundance successfully characterized the dynamics of the hydrogen-deuterium exchange reaction occurring at the N ε position in l-arginine by monitoring C δ in varying amounts of D 2 O. A small equilibrium isotope effect was observed and quantified, corresponding to ΔG = -0.14 kcal mol -1 . A bimolecular rate constant of k D = 5.1 × 10 9 s -1 M -1 was determined from the pH*-dependence of k ex (where pH* is the direct electrode reading of pH in 10% D 2 O and k ex is the nuclear spin exchange rate constant), consistent with diffusion-controlled kinetics. The measurement of ΔG serves to bridge the millisecond time scale lifetimes of the detectable positively charged arginine species with the nanosecond time scale lifetime of the nonobservable low-populated neutral arginine intermediate species, thus allowing for characterization of the equilibrium lifetimes of the various arginine species in solution as a function of fractional solvent deuterium content. Despite the system being in fast exchange on the chemical shift time scale, the magnitude of the secondary isotope shift due to the exchange reaction at N ε was accurately measured to be 0.12 ppm directly from curve-fitting D 2 O-dependent dispersion data collected at a single static field strength. These results indicate that relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy is a robust and general method for studying base-catalyzed hydrogen-deuterium exchange chemistry at equilibrium.

  19. Relaxation characteristics of hastelloy X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko

    1980-02-01

    Relaxation diagrams of Hastelloy X (relaxation curves, relaxation design diagrams, etc.) were generated from the creep constitutive equation of Hastelloy X, using inelastic stress analysis code TEPICC-J. These data are in good agreement with experimental relaxation data of ORNL-5479. Three typical inelastic stress analyses were performed for various relaxation behaviors of the high-temperature structures. An attempt was also made to predict these relaxation behaviors by the relaxation curves. (author)

  20. Novel spin dynamics in ferrimagnetic molecular chains from {sup 1}H NMR and {mu}SR spin-lattice relaxation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micotti, E. E-mail: micotti@fisicavolta.unipv.it; Lascialfari, A.; Rigamonti, A.; Aldrovandi, S.; Caneschi, A.; Gatteschi, D.; Bogani, L

    2004-05-01

    The spin dynamics in the helical chain Co(hfac){sub 2}NITPhOMe has been investigated by {sup 1}H NMR and {mu}SR relaxation. In the temperature range 15relaxation of the homogeneous magnetization. For T{<=}15 K, NMR and {mu}SR evidence a second spin relaxation mechanism, undetected by the magnetization measurements. From the analysis of these data, insights on this novel relaxation process are derived.

  1. Measurement accuracy of a stressed contact lens during its relaxation period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compertore, David C.; Ignatovich, Filipp V.

    2018-02-01

    We examine the dioptric power and transmitted wavefront of a contact lens as it releases its handling stresses. Handling stresses are introduced as part of the contact lens loading process and are common across all contact lens measurement procedures and systems. The latest advances in vision correction require tighter quality control during the manufacturing of the contact lenses. The optical power of contact lenses is one of the critical characteristics for users. Power measurements are conducted in the hydrated state, where the lens is resting inside a solution-filled glass cuvette. In a typical approach, the contact lens must be subject to long settling times prior to any measurements. Alternatively, multiple measurements must be averaged. Apart from potential operator dependency of such approach, it is extremely time-consuming, and therefore it precludes higher rates of testing. Comprehensive knowledge about the settling process can be obtained by monitoring multiple parameters of the lens simultaneously. We have developed a system that combines co-aligned a Shack-Hartmann transmitted wavefront sensor and a time-domain low coherence interferometer to measure several optical and physical parameters (power, cylinder power, aberrations, center thickness, sagittal depth, and diameter) simultaneously. We monitor these parameters during the stress relaxation period and show correlations that can be used by manufacturers to devise methods for improved quality control procedures.

  2. Economic measures of performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Cogeneration systems can reduce the total cost of utility service, and, in some instances where power is sold to an electric utility, can even produce a positive net revenue stream. This is, the total cogeneration revenue is greater than the cogeneration system's operating cost plus the cost of supplemental fuel and power. Whether it is sited at an existing facility or new construction, cogeneration systems do require an incremental investment over and above that which would be required if the end user were to utilize more conventional utility services. While the decision as to whether or not one should invest in cogeneration may consider such intangibles as predictability of future utility costs, reliability of electrical supply and the quality of that supply, the decision ultimately becomes one of basic economics. This chapter briefly reviews several economic measures with regard to ease of use, accuracy and financial objective

  3. Temperature-Induced Lattice Relaxation of Perovskite Crystal Enhances Optoelectronic Properties and Solar Cell Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Banavoth, Murali

    2016-12-14

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite crystals have recently become one of the most important classes of photoactive materials in the solar cell and optoelectronic communities. Albeit improvements have focused on state-of-the-art technology including various fabrication methods, device architectures, and surface passivation, progress is yet to be made in understanding the actual operational temperature on the electronic properties and the device performances. Therefore, the substantial effect of temperature on the optoelectronic properties, charge separation, charge recombination dynamics, and photoconversion efficiency are explored. The results clearly demonstrated a significant enhancement in the carrier mobility, photocurrent, charge carrier lifetime, and solar cell performance in the 60 ± 5 °C temperature range. In this temperature range, perovskite crystal exhibits a highly symmetrical relaxed cubic structure with well-aligned domains that are perpendicular to a principal axis, thereby remarkably improving the device operation. This finding provides a new key variable component and paves the way toward using perovskite crystals in highly efficient photovoltaic cells.

  4. THE MEASURABILITY OF CONTROLLING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Laval

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The urge to increase the performance of company processes is ongoing. Surveys indicate however, that many companies do not measure the controlling performance with a defined set of key performance indicators. This paper will analyze three categories of controlling key performance indicators based on their degree of measurability and their impact on the financial performance of a company. Potential measures to optimize the performance of the controlling department will be outlined and put in a logical order. The aligning of the controlling activity with the respective management expectation will be discussed as a key success factor of this improvement project.

  5. Direct measurements of relaxation times of phosphorus metabolites in the human myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, R.; Krahe, T.; Neubauer, S.; Hillenbrand, H.; Entzeroth, C.; Horn, M.; Lackner, K.; Ertl, G.

    1992-01-01

    The T 1 relaxation times of the phosphorus metabolites in human heart muscle measurable by 31 P-MR spectra were determined in 12 individuals using a 1.5 Tesla system. Several spectra were recorded consecutively with a pulse repetition time of 1.6s to 24 s. The T 1 times of creatine phosphate (CP), of γ-, α-, β-adenosintriphosphate (ATP), 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) together with anorganic phosphate) and phosphodiester (PDE) showed mean measurements of 6.1±0.5, 5.4±0.5, 5.0±0.5, 5.8±1.0, 7.6±1.0, and 5.0±1.0s (M±SE). The accuracy of the ISIS technique was tested with a special phantom. T 1 times were also measured in standard solutions (20mM CP, 10mM ATP); CP was 8.7±0.2s and γ-ATP was 9.9±0.7s. Corrections for partially saturated 31 P-MR spectra - at least for CP/ATP ratios - are relatively small. (orig.) [de

  6. Carbonyl carbon transverse relaxation dispersion measurements and ms-{mu}s timescale motion in a protein hydrogen bond network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishima, Rieko [National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Molecular Structural Biology Unit (United States); Baber, James; Louis, John M.; Torchia, Dennis A. [National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Molecular Structural Biology Unit (United States)

    2004-06-15

    A constant-time, Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) transverse relaxation, R{sub 2}, dispersion experiment for carbonyl carbons was designed and executed to detect {mu}s-ms time-scale dynamics of protein backbone carbonyl sites. Because of the large (ca. 55 Hz) C{sub {alpha}}-C' J-coupling, the carbonyl signal intensity is strongly modulated as the spacing between CPMG pulses is varied, in uniformly {sup 13}C enriched proteins, unless care is taken to minimize the perturbation of the C{sub {alpha}} magnetization by the CPMG pulses. CPMG pulse trains consisting of either a band-selective pulse, such as RE-BURP, or rectangular (with an excitation null in the C{sub {alpha}} region of the spectrum) pulses were employed in order to minimize C' signal modulation by C{sub {alpha}}-C' J-coupling. The performance of these types of CPMG refocusing pulses was assessed by computer simulation, and by comparing dispersion profiles measured for (1) uniformly [{sup 13}C,{sup 15}N, {sup 2}H] ({sup 2}H at non-labile hydrogen sites) labeled, and (2) uniformly {sup 15}N/selectively-{sup 13}C' labeled samples of HIV-1 protease bound to a potent inhibitor, DMP323. In addition, because the uniformly {sup 13}C/{sup 15}N/{sup 2}H labeled sample was well suited to measure {sup 15}N and {sup 1}H R{sub 2} dispersion as well as {sup 13}C' dispersion, conformational exchange in the inter subunit {beta}-sheet hydrogen-bond network of the inhibitor-bound protease was elucidated using relaxation dispersion data of all three types of nuclei.

  7. Carbonyl carbon transverse relaxation dispersion measurements and ms-μs timescale motion in a protein hydrogen bond network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishima, Rieko; Baber, James; Louis, John M.; Torchia, Dennis A.

    2004-01-01

    A constant-time, Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) transverse relaxation, R 2 , dispersion experiment for carbonyl carbons was designed and executed to detect μs-ms time-scale dynamics of protein backbone carbonyl sites. Because of the large (ca. 55 Hz) C α -C' J-coupling, the carbonyl signal intensity is strongly modulated as the spacing between CPMG pulses is varied, in uniformly 13 C enriched proteins, unless care is taken to minimize the perturbation of the C α magnetization by the CPMG pulses. CPMG pulse trains consisting of either a band-selective pulse, such as RE-BURP, or rectangular (with an excitation null in the C α region of the spectrum) pulses were employed in order to minimize C' signal modulation by C α -C' J-coupling. The performance of these types of CPMG refocusing pulses was assessed by computer simulation, and by comparing dispersion profiles measured for (1) uniformly [ 13 C, 15 N, 2 H] ( 2 H at non-labile hydrogen sites) labeled, and (2) uniformly 15 N/selectively- 13 C' labeled samples of HIV-1 protease bound to a potent inhibitor, DMP323. In addition, because the uniformly 13 C/ 15 N/ 2 H labeled sample was well suited to measure 15 N and 1 H R 2 dispersion as well as 13 C' dispersion, conformational exchange in the inter subunit β-sheet hydrogen-bond network of the inhibitor-bound protease was elucidated using relaxation dispersion data of all three types of nuclei

  8. Comparison of Physiological and Psychological Relaxation Using Measurements of Heart Rate Variability, Prefrontal Cortex Activity, and Subjective Indexes after Completing Tasks with and without Foliage Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin-Ae; Song, Chorong; Oh, Yun-Ah; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Son, Ki-Cheol

    2017-09-20

    The objective of this study was to compare physiological and psychological relaxation by assessing heart rate variability (HRV), prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective indexes while subjects performed a task with and without foliage plants. In a crossover experimental design, 24 university students performed a task transferring pots with and without a foliage plant for 3 min. HRV and oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration in the prefrontal cortex were continuously measured. Immediately thereafter, subjective evaluation of emotions was performed using a modified semantic differential (SD) method and a profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS). Results showed that the natural logarithmic (ln) ratio of low frequency/high frequency, as an estimate of sympathetic nerve activity, was significantly lower while performing the task with foliage plants for the average 3 min measurement interval. Oxy-Hb concentration in the left prefrontal cortex showed a tendency to decrease in the 2-3 min interval in the task with foliage plants compared to the task without plants. Moreover, significant psychological relaxation according to POMS score and SD was demonstrated when the task involved foliage plants. In conclusion, the task involving foliage plants led to more physiological and psychological relaxation compared with the task without foliage plants.

  9. Comparison of Physiological and Psychological Relaxation Using Measurements of Heart Rate Variability, Prefrontal Cortex Activity, and Subjective Indexes after Completing Tasks with and without Foliage Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin-Ae Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare physiological and psychological relaxation by assessing heart rate variability (HRV, prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective indexes while subjects performed a task with and without foliage plants. In a crossover experimental design, 24 university students performed a task transferring pots with and without a foliage plant for 3 min. HRV and oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb concentration in the prefrontal cortex were continuously measured. Immediately thereafter, subjective evaluation of emotions was performed using a modified semantic differential (SD method and a profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS. Results showed that the natural logarithmic (ln ratio of low frequency/high frequency, as an estimate of sympathetic nerve activity, was significantly lower while performing the task with foliage plants for the average 3 min measurement interval. Oxy-Hb concentration in the left prefrontal cortex showed a tendency to decrease in the 2–3 min interval in the task with foliage plants compared to the task without plants. Moreover, significant psychological relaxation according to POMS score and SD was demonstrated when the task involved foliage plants. In conclusion, the task involving foliage plants led to more physiological and psychological relaxation compared with the task without foliage plants.

  10. 13C spin relaxation measurements in RNA: Sensitivity and resolution improvement using spin-state selective correlation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisbouvier, Jerome; Brutscher, Bernhard; Simorre, Jean-Pierre; Marion, Dominique

    1999-01-01

    A set of new NMR pulse sequences has been designed for the measurement of 13 C relaxation rate constants in RNA and DNA bases: the spin-lattice relaxation rate constant R(C z ), the spin-spin relaxation rate constant R(C + ), and the CSA-dipolar cross-correlated relaxation rate constant Γ C,CH xy . The use of spin-state selective correlation techniques provides increased sensitivity and spectral resolution. Sensitivity optimised C-C filters are included in the pulse schemes for the suppression of signals originating from undesired carbon isotopomers. The experiments are applied to a 15% 13 C-labelled 33-mer RNA-theophylline complex. The measured R(C + )/Γ C,CH xy ratios indicate that 13 C CSA tensors do not vary significantly for the same type of carbon (C 2 , C 6 , C 8 ), but that they differ from one type to another. In addition, conformational exchange effects in the RNA bases are detected as a change in the relaxation decay of the narrow 13 C doublet component when varying the spacing of a CPMG pulse train. This new approach allows the detection of small exchange effects with a higher precision compared to conventional techniques

  11. Intrinsic spin and momentum relaxation in organic single-crystalline semiconductors probed by ESR and Hall measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumi, Junto; Häusermann, Roger; Watanabe, Shun; Mitsui, Chikahiko; Okamoto, Toshihiro; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Takeya, Jun

    Spin and charge momentum relaxation mechanism has been argued among organic semiconductors with various methods, devices, and materials. However, little is known in organic single-crystalline semiconductors because it has been hard to obtain an ideal organic crystal with an excellent crystallinity and controllability required for accurate measurements. By using more than 1-inch sized single crystals which are fabricated via contentious edge-casting method developed by our group, we have successfully demonstrated a simultaneous determination of spin and momentum relaxation time for gate-induced charges of 3,11-didecyldinaphtho[2,3- d:2',3'- d']benzo[1,2- b:4,5- b']dithiophene, by combining electron spin resonance (ESR) and Hall effect measurements. The obtained temperature dependences of spin and momentum relaxation times are in good agreement in terms of power law with a factor of approximately -2. It is concluded that Elliott-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism can be dominant at room temperature regime (200 - 300 K). Probing characteristic time scales such as spin-lattice, spin-spin, and momentum relaxation times, demonstrated in the present work, would be a powerful tool to elucidate fundamental spin and charge transport mechanisms. We acknowledge the New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization (NEDO) for financial support.

  12. Electron Spin Relaxation Can Enhance the Performance of a Cryptochrome-Based Magnetic Compass Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    interactions. Wefind that intermediate spin relaxation rates afford substantial enhancements in the sensitivity of the reaction yields to an Earth...resulting in intermediate relaxation rates (106 s−1<kSTD<10 8 s−1) therefore boost the compass sensitivity well above the level expected for a time...steps along the Trp-triad are complete within a nanosecondwhich is too fast for singlet–triplet coherence to be generated in the intermediate radical

  13. Comparative performance of the conjugate gradient and SOR [Successive Over Relaxation] methods for computational thermal hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.B.; Anghaie, S.; Domanus, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    Finite difference approximations to the continuity, momentum, and energy equations in thermal hydraulics codes result in a system of N by N equations for a problem having N field points. In a three dimensional problem, N increases as the problem becomes larger or more complex, and more rapidly as the computational mesh size is reduced. As a consequence, the execution time required to solve the problem increases, which may lead to placing limits on the problem resolution or accuracy. A conventinal method of solution of these systems of equations is the Successive Over Relaxation (SOR) technique. However, for a wide range of problems the execution time may be reduced by using a more efficient linear equation solver. One such method is the conjugate gradient method which was implemented in COMMIX-1B thermal hydraulics code. It was found that the execution time required to solve the resulting system of equations was reduced by a factor of about 2 for some problems. This paper summarizes the characteristics of these iterative solution procedures and compares their performance in modeling of a variety of reactor thermal hydraulic problems, using the COMMIX-1B computer code

  14. Measuring and improving infrastructure performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Measuring and Improving Infrastructure Performance, National Research Council

    .... Developing a framework for guiding attempts at measuring the performance of infrastructure systems and grappling with the concept of defining good performance are the major themes of this book...

  15. Ethene, propene, butene and isoprene emissions from a ponderosa pine forest measured by relaxed eddy accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Robert C.; Deventer, Malte Julian; Turnipseed, Andrew A.; Warneke, Carsten; Ortega, John; Shen, Steve; Martinez, Luis; Koss, Abigail; Lerner, Brian M.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Smith, James N.; Guenther, Alex B.; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2017-11-01

    Alkenes are reactive hydrocarbons that influence local and regional atmospheric chemistry by playing important roles in the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone and in the formation of secondary organic aerosols. The simplest alkene, ethene (ethylene), is a major plant hormone and ripening agent for agricultural commodities. The group of light alkenes (C2-C4) originates from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources, but their biogenic sources are poorly characterized, with limited field-based flux observations. Here we report net ecosystem fluxes of light alkenes and isoprene from a semiarid ponderosa pine forest in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, USA using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) technique during the summer of 2014. Ethene, propene, butene and isoprene emissions have strong diurnal cycles, with median daytime fluxes of 123, 95, 39 and 17 µg m-2 h-1, respectively. The fluxes were correlated with each other, followed general ecosystem trends of CO2 and water vapor, and showed similar sunlight and temperature response curves as other biogenic VOCs. The May through October flux, based on measurements and modeling, averaged 62, 52, 24 and 18 µg m-2 h-1 for ethene, propene, butene and isoprene, respectively. The light alkenes contribute significantly to the overall biogenic source of reactive hydrocarbons: roughly 18 % of the dominant biogenic VOC, 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. The measured ecosystem scale fluxes are 40-80 % larger than estimates used for global emissions models for this type of ecosystem.

  16. Disentangling distribution effects and nature of the dynamics in relaxation measurements: the RMR method

    CERN Document Server

    Sappey, R; Ocio, M; Hammann, J

    2000-01-01

    We discuss here the nature of the low-temperature magnetic relaxation in samples of magnetic nanoparticles. In addition to usual magnetic viscosity measurement, we have used the residual memory ratio (RMR) method. This procedure enables us to overcome the uncertainties usually associated with the energy barrier distribution, thus giving a more detailed insight on the nature of the observed dynamics. A custom-made apparatus coupling dilution refrigeration and SQUID magnetometry allowed measurements of very diluted samples at temperatures ranging between 60 mK and 7 K. Two types of particles have been studied: gamma-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 of moderate anisotropy, and CoFe sub 2 O sub 4 of higher anisotropy where quantum effects are more likely to occur. In both cases, the data cannot simply be interpreted in terms of mere thermally activated dynamics of independent particles. The deviation from thermal activation seems to go opposite of what is expected from the possible effect of particle interactions. We therefore b...

  17. 31P spin-lattice relaxation time measurements in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Eiji; Maeda, Munehiro; Kuki, Satoru; Tsukamoto, Kenji; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Seo, Yoshiteru; Murakami, Masataka; Watari, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    Spin-lattice relaxation time (T 1 ) of phosphorus compounds in the perfused heart, liver, kidney and erythrocytes of rats were measured by the DESPOT (Driven-equilibrium single-pulse observation of T 1 ) method at 8.45 T. This method is a rapid and accurate technique for the measurement of T 1 values. T 1 values of phosphomonoesters (PME), 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG), inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphodiesters (PDE), phosphocreatine (PCr) and three phosphates of ATP were ranged from 0.15±0.02 sec (β-ATP in the liver) to 8.5±1.6 sec (PDE in the kidney). T 1 value of β-ATP in the liver was 1/4-1/5 of those in the mandibular gland, heart, erythrocytes and kidney. T 1 values obtained from biological materials are useful for selecting the optimal pulse repetition times and pulse angles to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of 13 P spectra, and for correcting distortions of signal intensities in the spectra. (author)

  18. A relaxed eddy accumulation system for measuring vertical fluxes of nitrous acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Ren

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A relaxed eddy accumulation (REA system combined with a nitrous acid (HONO analyzer was developed to measure atmospheric HONO vertical fluxes. The system consists of three major components: (1 a fast-response sonic anemometer measuring both vertical wind velocity and air temperature, (2 a fast-response controlling unit separating air motions into updraft and downdraft samplers by the sign of vertical wind velocity, and (3 a highly sensitive HONO analyzer based on aqueous long path absorption photometry that measures HONO concentrations in the updrafts and downdrafts. A dynamic velocity threshold (±0.5σw, where σw is a standard deviation of the vertical wind velocity was used for valve switching determined by the running means and standard deviations of the vertical wind velocity. Using measured temperature as a tracer and the average values from two field deployments, the flux proportionality coefficient, β, was determined to be 0.42 ± 0.02, in good agreement with the theoretical estimation. The REA system was deployed in two ground-based field studies. In the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex study in Bakersfield, California in summer 2010, measured HONO fluxes appeared to be upward during the day and were close to zero at night. The upward HONO flux was highly correlated to the product of NO2 and solar radiation. During the Biosphere Effects on Aerosols and Photochemistry Experiment (BEARPEX 2009 at Blodgett Forest, California in July 2009, the overall HONO fluxes were small in magnitude and were close to zero. Causes for the different HONO fluxes in the two different environments are briefly discussed.

  19. The impact of muscle relaxation techniques on the quality of life of cancer patients, as measured by the FACT-G questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parás-Bravo, Paula; Salvadores-Fuentes, Paloma; Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; Paz-Zulueta, María; Santibañez-Margüello, Miguel; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Boixadera-Planas, Ester; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2017-01-01

    Patients with cancer frequently suffer from emotional distress, characterized by psychological symptoms such as anxiety or depression. The presence of psychological symptoms combined with the complex nature of oncology processes can negatively impact patients' quality of life. We aimed to determine the impact of a relaxation protocol on improving quality of life in a sample of oncological patients treated in the Spanish National Public Health System. We conducted a multicenter interventional study without a control group. In total, 272 patients with different oncologic pathologies and showing symptoms of anxiety were recruited from 10 Spanish public hospitals. The intervention comprised abbreviated progressive muscle relaxation training, according to Bernstein and Borkovec. This was followed by weekly telephone calls to each patient over a 1-month period. We collected sociodemographic variables related to the disease process, including information about mental health and the intervention. Patients' quality of life was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) questionnaire. Bivariate and univariate analyses were performed, along with an analysis of multiple correspondences to identify subgroups of patients with similar variations on the FACT-G. Patients showed statistically significant improvements on the FACT-G overall score (W = 16806; pPatients with cancer who learned and practiced abbreviated progressive muscle relaxation experienced improvement in their perceived quality of life as measured by the FACT-G. Our findings support a previous assumption that complementary techniques (including relaxation techniques) are effective in improving the quality of life of patients with cancer.

  20. The Politics of Performance Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Bente; Larsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Performance measurements are meant to improve public decision making and organizational performance. But performance measurements are far from always rational tools for problem solving, they are also political instruments. The central question addressed in this article is how performance...... impact on the political decision making process, as the focus on performance goals entails a kind of reductionism (complex problems are simplified), sequential decision making processes (with a division in separate policy issues) and short-sighted decisions (based on the need for making operational goals)....... measurement affects public policy. The aim is to conceptualize the political consequences of performance measurements and of special concern is how performance systems influence how political decisions are made, what kind of political decisions are conceivable, and how they are implemented. The literature...

  1. Structure, Dynamics, and Kinetics of Weak Protein-Protein Complexes from NMR Spin Relaxation Measurements of Titrated Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, L.; Licinio, A.; Jensen, M.R.; Blackledge, M.; Ortega Roldan, J.L.; Van Nuland, N.; Lescop, E.

    2011-01-01

    We have recently presented a titration approach for the determination of residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) from experimentally inaccessible complexes. Here, we extend this approach to the measurement of 15 N spin relaxation rates and demonstrate that this can provide long-range structural, dynamic, and kinetic information about these elusive systems. (authors)

  2. USE OF RELAXED EDDY ACCUMULATION TO MEASURE BIOSPHERE-ATMOSPHERE EXCHANGE OF ISOPRENE AND OTHER BIOLOGICAL TRACE GASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The micrometeorological flux measurement technique known as relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) holds promise as a powerful new tool for ecologists. The more popular eddy covariance (eddy correlation) technique requires the use of sensors that can respond at fast rates (10 Hz), and t...

  3. Solute induced relaxation in glassy polymers: Experimental measurements and nonequilibrium thermodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minelli, Matteo; Doghieri, Ferruccio

    2014-01-01

    Data for kinetics of mass uptake from vapor sorption experiments in thin glassy polymer samples are here interpreted in terms of relaxation times for volume dilation. To this result, both models from non-equilibrium thermodynamics and from mechanics of volume relaxation contribute. Different kind of sorption experiments have been considered in order to facilitate the direct comparison between kinetics of solute induced volume dilation and corresponding data from process driven by pressure or temperature jumps

  4. Diagnostic colonoscopy: performance measurement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznets, Naomi

    2002-07-01

    This is the fifth of a series of best practices studies undertaken by the Performance Measurement Initiative (PMI), the centerpiece of the Institute for Quality Improvement (IQI), a not-for-profit quality improvement subsidiary of the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) (Performance Measurement Initiative, 1999a, 1999b, 2000a, 2000b). The IQI was created to offer clinical performance measurement and improvement opportunities to ambulatory health care organizations and others interested in quality patient care. The purpose of the study was to provide opportunities to initiate clinical performance measurement on key processes and outcomes for this procedure and use this information for clinical quality improvement. This article provides performance measurement information on how organizations that have demonstrated and validated differences in clinical practice can have similar outcomes, but at a dramatically lower cost. The intent of the article is to provide organizations with alternatives in practice to provide a better value to their patients.

  5. A High-Performance Fluorescence Immunoassay Based on the Relaxation of Quenching, Exemplified by Detection of Cardiac Troponin I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Wan Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The intramolecular fluorescence self-quenching phenomenon is a major drawback in developing high-performance fluorometric biosensors which use common fluorophores as signal generators. We propose two strategies involving liberation of the fluorescent molecules by means of enzymatic fragmentation of protein or dehybridization of double-stranded DNA. In the former, bovine serum albumin (BSA was coupled with the fluorescent BODIPY dye (Red BSA, and then immobilized on a solid surface. When the insolubilized Red BSA was treated with proteinase K (10 units/mL for 30 min, the fluorescent signal was significantly increased (3.5-fold compared to the untreated control. In the second case, fluorophore-tagged DNA probes were linked to gold nanoparticles by hybridization with capture DNA strands densely immobilized on the surface. The quenched fluorescence signal was recovered (3.7-fold by thermal dehybridization, which was induced with light of a specific wavelength (e.g., 530 nm for less than 1 min. We next applied the Red BSA self-quenching relaxation technique employing enzymatic fragmentation to a high-performance immunoassay of cardiac troponin I (cTnI in a microtiter plate format. The detection limit was 0.19 ng/mL cTnI, and the fluorescent signal was enhanced approximately 4.1-fold compared with the conventional method of direct measurement of the fluorescent signal from a non-fragmented fluorophore-labeled antibody.

  6. Measuring diffusion-relaxation correlation maps using non-uniform field gradients of single-sided NMR devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira d'Eurydice, Marcel; Galvosas, Petrik

    2014-11-01

    Single-sided NMR systems are becoming a relevant tool in industry and laboratory environments due to their low cost, low maintenance and capacity to evaluate quantity and quality of hydrogen based materials. The performance of such devices has improved significantly over the last decade, providing increased field homogeneity, field strength and even controlled static field gradients. For a class of these devices, the configuration of the permanent magnets provides a linear variation of the magnetic field and can be used in diffusion measurements. However, magnet design depends directly on its application and, according to the purpose, the field homogeneity may significantly be compromised. This may prevent the determination of diffusion properties of fluids based on the natural inhomogeneity of the field using known techniques. This work introduces a new approach that extends the applicability of diffusion-editing CPMG experiments to NMR devices with highly inhomogeneous magnetic fields, which do not vary linearly in space. Herein, we propose a method to determine a custom diffusion kernel based on the gradient distribution, which can be seen as a signature of each NMR device. This new diffusion kernel is then utilised in the 2D inverse Laplace transform (2D ILT) in order to determine diffusion-relaxation correlation maps of homogeneous multi-phasic fluids. The experiments were performed using NMR MObile Lateral Explore (MOLE), which is a single-sided NMR device designed to maximise the volume at the sweet spot with enhanced depth penetration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing the effects of subject motion on T2 relaxation under spin tagging (TRUST) cerebral oxygenation measurements using volume navigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Jeffrey N; Tisdall, M Dylan; McDaniel, Patrick; Gagoski, Borjan; Bolar, Divya S; Grant, Patricia Ellen; Adalsteinsson, Elfar

    2017-12-01

    Subject motion may cause errors in estimates of blood T 2 when using the T 2 -relaxation under spin tagging (TRUST) technique on noncompliant subjects like neonates. By incorporating 3D volume navigators (vNavs) into the TRUST pulse sequence, independent measurements of motion during scanning permit evaluation of these errors. The effects of integrated vNavs on TRUST-based T 2 estimates were evaluated using simulations and in vivo subject data. Two subjects were scanned with the TRUST+vNav sequence during prescribed movements. Mean motion scores were derived from vNavs and TRUST images, along with a metric of exponential fit quality. Regression analysis was performed between T 2 estimates and mean motion scores. Also, motion scores were determined from independent neonatal scans. vNavs negligibly affected venous blood T 2 estimates and better detected subject motion than fit quality metrics. Regression analysis showed that T 2 is biased upward by 4.1 ms per 1 mm of mean motion score. During neonatal scans, mean motion scores of 0.6 to 2.0 mm were detected. Motion during TRUST causes an overestimate of T 2 , which suggests a cautious approach when comparing TRUST-based cerebral oxygenation measurements of noncompliant subjects. Magn Reson Med 78:2283-2289, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on Social Performance and Quality of Life in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hassanpour Dehkordi

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that the progressive muscle relaxation technique can effectively reduce the duration of rehabilitation, days of hospitalization and healthcare costs, as well as improve the quality of life, mood, and mental health in the elderly people.

  9. Facilities projects performance measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erben, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The two DOE-owned facilities at Hanford, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), and the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT), are described. The performance measurement systems used at these two facilities are next described

  10. Performance Measures, Benchmarking and Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Felicity

    This paper discusses performance measurement in university libraries, based on examples from the University of Wollongong (UoW) in Australia. The introduction highlights the integration of information literacy into the curriculum and the outcomes of a 1998 UoW student satisfaction survey. The first section considers performance indicators in…

  11. On-chip measurements of Brownian relaxation of magnetic beads with diameters from 10 nm to 250 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of planar Hall effect magnetoresistive sensors for AC susceptibility measurements of magnetic beads with frequencies ranging from DC to 1 MHz. This wide frequency range allows for measuring Brownian relaxation of magnetic beads with diameters ranging from 10 nm to 250 nm....... Brownian relaxation is measured for six different magnetic bead types and their hydrodynamic diameters are determined. The hydrodynamic diameters are found to be within 40% of the nominal bead diameters. We discuss the applicability of the different bead types for volume-based biosensing with respect...... to sedimentation, magnetic trapping, and signal per bead. Among the investigated beads, we conclude that the beads with a nominal diameter of 80 nm are best suited for future on-chip volume-based biosensing experiments using planar Hall effect sensors....

  12. Electron spin relaxation enhancement measurements of interspin distances in human, porcine, and Rhodobacter electron transfer flavoprotein ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF QO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Alistair J.; Usselman, Robert J.; Watmough, Nicholas; Simkovic, Martin; Frerman, Frank E.; Eaton, Gareth R.; Eaton, Sandra S.

    2008-02-01

    Electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) is a membrane-bound electron transfer protein that links primary flavoprotein dehydrogenases with the main respiratory chain. Human, porcine, and Rhodobacter sphaeroides ETF-QO each contain a single [4Fe-4S] 2+,1+ cluster and one equivalent of FAD, which are diamagnetic in the isolated enzyme and become paramagnetic on reduction with the enzymatic electron donor or with dithionite. The anionic flavin semiquinone can be reduced further to diamagnetic hydroquinone. The redox potentials for the three redox couples are so similar that it is not possible to poise the proteins in a state where both the [4Fe-4S] + cluster and the flavoquinone are fully in the paramagnetic form. Inversion recovery was used to measure the electron spin-lattice relaxation rates for the [4Fe-4S] + between 8 and 18 K and for semiquinone between 25 and 65 K. At higher temperatures the spin-lattice relaxation rates for the [4Fe-4S] + were calculated from the temperature-dependent contributions to the continuous wave linewidths. Although mixtures of the redox states are present, it was possible to analyze the enhancement of the electron spin relaxation of the FAD semiquinone signal due to dipolar interaction with the more rapidly relaxing [4Fe-4S] + and obtain point-dipole interspin distances of 18.6 ± 1 Å for the three proteins. The point-dipole distances are within experimental uncertainty of the value calculated based on the crystal structure of porcine ETF-QO when spin delocalization is taken into account. The results demonstrate that electron spin relaxation enhancement can be used to measure distances in redox poised proteins even when several redox states are present.

  13. Transverse magnetic field effects on the relaxation time of the magnetization in Mn12 measured by {sup 55}Mn-NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Kumagai, K.; Borsa, F.; Gatteschi, D

    2003-05-01

    The longitudinal (H{sub Z}) and transverse (H{sub T}) magnetic field dependence of the relaxation time of the magnetization in Mn12 in its S=10 ground state was measured by NMR. The minima in the relaxation time at the fields for level crossing are due to the quantum tunneling of the magnetization. The shortening of the relaxation time under the application of H{sub T} is shown to be due mainly to the reduction of the energy barrier.

  14. HIGHLY RESOLVED MEASUREMENTS OF PERIODIC RADIAL ELECTRIC FIELD AND ASSOCIATED RELAXATIONS IN EDGE BIASING EXPERIMENTS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peleman, P.; Xu, Y.; Spolaore, M.; Brotánková, Jana; Devynck, P.; Stöckel, Jan; Van Oost, G.; Boucher, C.

    363-365, č. 17 (2007), s. 638-642 ISSN 0022-3115. [ Plasma Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices/17th./. Hefei, 22.05.2007-26.05.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Relaxations * Edge transport * Plasma flow * Radial electric fields Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2007

  15. On-chip measurement of the Brownian relaxation frequency of magnetic beads using magnetic tunneling junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donolato, M.; Sogne, E.; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the detection of the Brownian relaxation frequency of 250 nm diameter magnetic beads using a lab-on-chip platform based on current lines for exciting the beads with alternating magnetic fields and highly sensitive magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensors with a superparamagnetic free...

  16. In-vivo measurement of proton relaxation time (T1 and T2) in paediatric brain by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumura, Michio

    1986-01-01

    The clinical application of MRI led to the detailed imaging of the three-dimentional structure of the brain. Thus, significant information has been obtained with respect to the diagnosis of various diseases, rating severity, evaluation of curative effects, etc. On the other hand, the proportion of the comparative length of the relaxation time to the signal intensity of the images (especially the Spin-Echo image) was not necessarily linear. Consquently, the evaluation of severity was not easy to make. However, if we can obtain T 1 and T 2 precisely as the parameters costituting the images, it will be possible to overcome the above-mentioned difficulties. Further, the usefulness of MRI in activities such as determining the water metabolism of the brain is expected to increase even more. By means of VISTA-MR (0.15 Tesla, resistive magnet ; Picker International Co.) we measured the proton relaxation time (spin-lattice relaxation time (T 1 ) and spin-spin relaxation time (T 2 )) of various intracerebral lesions in paediatric cases. As the control group, 43 children, 4 adolescents and 6 adults were used. The T 1 and T 2 in the normal infantile cases prolonged significantly as compared with adult case. Thereafter, they become shortened by aging. In the age of two or three years, they reach the normal level of adult case. In the cases of degenerative disease, brain tumor, and cerebral contusion, the remarkable prolongation of both T 1 and T 2 , compared with normal value of the same age was observed. In the cases of brain atrophy and epilepsy, T 1 and T 2 were slightly short or within normal value of the same age. In the cases of intracerebral hemorrhage, T 1 was shortened. The in-vivo proton relaxation time obtained by MRI have various limits, but they can be a noninvasive and useful index in evaluation of severity or curative effects in various cerebral diseases. (author)

  17. Performance of biometric quality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grother, Patrick; Tabassi, Elham

    2007-04-01

    We document methods for the quantitative evaluation of systems that produce a scalar summary of a biometric sample's quality. We are motivated by a need to test claims that quality measures are predictive of matching performance. We regard a quality measurement algorithm as a black box that converts an input sample to an output scalar. We evaluate it by quantifying the association between those values and observed matching results. We advance detection error trade-off and error versus reject characteristics as metrics for the comparative evaluation of sample quality measurement algorithms. We proceed this with a definition of sample quality, a description of the operational use of quality measures. We emphasize the performance goal by including a procedure for annotating the samples of a reference corpus with quality values derived from empirical recognition scores.

  18. VOC flux measurements using a novel Relaxed Eddy Accumulation GC-FID system in urban Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C.; Schade, G.; Boedeker, I.

    2008-12-01

    Houston experiences higher ozone production rates than most other major cities in the US, which is related to high anthropogenic VOC emissions from both area/mobile sources (car traffic) and a large number of petrochemical facilities. The EPA forecasts that Houston is likely to still violate the new 8-h NAAQS in 2020. To monitor neighborhood scale pollutant fluxes, we established a tall flux tower installation a few kilometers north of downtown Houston. We measure energy and trace gas fluxes, including VOCs from both anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources in the urban surface layer using eddy covariance and related techniques. Here, we describe a Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) system combined with a dual-channel GC-FID used for VOC flux measurements, including first results. Ambient air is sampled at approximately 15 L min-1 through a 9.5 mm OD PFA line from 60 m above ground next to a sonic anemometer. Subsamples of this air stream are extracted through an ozone scrubber and pushed into two Teflon bag reservoirs, from which they are transferred to the GC pre-concentration units consisting of carbon-based adsorption traps encapsulated in heater blocks for thermal desorption. We discuss the performance of our system and selected measurement results from the 2008 spring and summer seasons in Houston. We present diurnal variations of the fluxes of the traffic tracers benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) during different study periods. Typical BTEX fluxes ranged from -0.36 to 3.10 mg m-2 h-1 for benzene, and -0.47 to 5.04 mg m-2 h-1 for toluene, and exhibited diurnal cycles with two dominant peaks related to rush-hour traffic. A footprint analysis overlaid onto a geographic information system (GIS) will be presented to reveal the dominant emission sources and patterns in the study area.

  19. Redox-controlled backbone dynamics of human cytochrome c revealed by 15N NMR relaxation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Koichi; Kamiya, Masakatsu; Uchida, Takeshi; Kawano, Keiichi; Ishimori, Koichiro

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The dynamic parameters for the backbone dynamics in Cyt c were determined. → The backbone mobility of Cyt c is highly restricted due to the covalently bound heme. → The backbone mobility of Cyt c is more restricted upon the oxidation of the heme. → The redox-dependent dynamics are shown in the backbone of Cyt c. → The backbone dynamics of Cyt c would regulate the electron transfer from Cyt c. -- Abstract: Redox-controlled backbone dynamics in cytochrome c (Cyt c) were revealed by 2D 15 N NMR relaxation experiments. 15 N T 1 and T 2 values and 1 H- 15 N NOEs of uniformly 15 N-labeled reduced and oxidized Cyt c were measured, and the generalized order parameters (S 2 ), the effective correlation time for internal motion (τ e ), the 15 N exchange broadening contributions (R ex ) for each residue, and the overall correlation time (τ m ) were estimated by model-free dynamics formalism. These dynamic parameters clearly showed that the backbone dynamics of Cyt c are highly restricted due to the covalently bound heme that functions as the stable hydrophobic core. Upon oxidation of the heme iron in Cyt c, the average S 2 value was increased from 0.88 ± 0.01 to 0.92 ± 0.01, demonstrating that the mobility of the backbone is further restricted in the oxidized form. Such increases in the S 2 values were more prominent in the loop regions, including amino acid residues near the thioether bonds to the heme moiety and positively charged region around Lys87. Both of the regions are supposed to form the interaction site for cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) and the electron pathway from Cyt c to CcO. The redox-dependent mobility of the backbone in the interaction site for the electron transfer to CcO suggests an electron transfer mechanism regulated by the backbone dynamics in the Cyt c-CcO system.

  20. Metastability exchange optical pumping in 3He gas up to 30 mT. Efficiency measurements and evidence of laser-induced nuclear relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batz, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Advances in metastability exchange optical pumping (MEOP) of 3 He at high laser powers, with its various applications, but also at high gas pressures p 3 and high magnetic field strengths B, have provided strong motivation for revisiting the understanding and for investigating the limitations of this powerful technique. For this purpose, we present systematic experimental and theoretical studies of efficiency and of relaxation mechanisms in B≤30 mT and p 3 =0.63-2.45 mbar. 3 He nuclear polarisation is measured by light absorption in longitudinal configuration where weak light beams at 1083 nm parallel to magnetic field and cell axis with opposite circular polarisations are used to probe the distribution of populations in the metastable state. This method is systematically tested to evaluate potential systematic biases and is shown to be reliable for the study of OP dynamics despite the redistribution of populations by OP light. Nuclear polarisation loss associated to the emission of polarised light by the plasma discharge used for MEOP is found to decrease above 10 mT, as expected, due to hyperfine decoupling in highly excited states. However, this does not lead to improved MEOP efficiency at high laser power. We find clear evidence of additional laser-induced relaxation instead. The strong OP-enhanced polarisation losses, currently limiting MEOP performances, are quantitatively investigated using an angular momentum budget approach and a recently developed comprehensive model that describes the combined effects of OP, ME and relaxation, validated by comparison to experimental results.

  1. Measuring oxygen surface exchange kinetics on mixed-conducting composites by electrical conductivity relaxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Bobing; Wang, Yunlong; Zhu, Zhuoying; Xia, Changrong; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The oxygen release kinetics of mixed-conducting Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6 d–Sm0.2Ce0.8O2 d (SFM–SDC) dualphase composites has been investigated, at 750 C, as a function of the SDC phase volume fraction using electrical conductivity relaxation (ECR) under reducing atmospheres, extending our previous work on

  2. Quantitative comparison of errors in 15N transverse relaxation rates measured using various CPMG phasing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myint Wazo; Cai Yufeng; Schiffer, Celia A.; Ishima, Rieko

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen-15 Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) transverse relaxation experiment are widely used to characterize protein backbone dynamics and chemical exchange parameters. Although an accurate value of the transverse relaxation rate, R 2 , is needed for accurate characterization of dynamics, the uncertainty in the R 2 value depends on the experimental settings and the details of the data analysis itself. Here, we present an analysis of the impact of CPMG pulse phase alternation on the accuracy of the 15 N CPMG R 2 . Our simulations show that R 2 can be obtained accurately for a relatively wide spectral width, either using the conventional phase cycle or using phase alternation when the r.f. pulse power is accurately calibrated. However, when the r.f. pulse is miscalibrated, the conventional CPMG experiment exhibits more significant uncertainties in R 2 caused by the off-resonance effect than does the phase alternation experiment. Our experiments show that this effect becomes manifest under the circumstance that the systematic error exceeds that arising from experimental noise. Furthermore, our results provide the means to estimate practical parameter settings that yield accurate values of 15 N transverse relaxation rates in the both CPMG experiments.

  3. Mesures de contraintes in-situ. Méthode de relaxation des carottes Measuring in-Situ Stresses. Relaxation Method with Core Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perreau P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, on se propose de présenter les premiers résultats de l'étude de la méthode d'évaluation des contraintes par mesure de déformations différées d'une carotte après son extraction. Le travail correspondant a été réalisé dans le cadre du projet ARTEP Fracturation hydraulique . Les principes de cette méthode et les quelques éléments d'interprétation récemment publiés dans la littérature sont exposés dans un premier temps. Les résultats de deux campagnes de mesures sur deux puits de la SNEA-P (Soudron, novembre 1985 et Lanot, juillet 1986 sont ensuite présentés. Ces essais ont mis en évidence que les déformations différées d'une carotte dues au relachement des contraintes sont effectivement mesurables. Cependant, une interprétation quantitative de ces mesures nécessite une amélioration des conditions expérimentales (stabilisation thermique, stabilisation de l'état de saturation. This article describes the first results of research on a method of evaluating stresses by measuring the differred deformations of a core sample after it has been extracted. The corresponding research was done within the framework of an ARTEP project on Hydraulic Fracturing . The principles of this method and several interpretation aspects published recently in the literature are described in the first part. Then the results of two measurement campaigns using two SNEA-P wells (Soudron in November 1985 and Lanot in July 1986 are described. These tests revealed that the differed deformations of a core sample due to the relaxing of stresses can effectively be measured. However, a quantitative interpretation of these measurements requires an improvement to be made in the experimental conditions (thermal stabilization, stabilization of the state of saturation.

  4. The impact of muscle relaxation techniques on the quality of life of cancer patients, as measured by the FACT-G questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Parás-Bravo

    Full Text Available Patients with cancer frequently suffer from emotional distress, characterized by psychological symptoms such as anxiety or depression. The presence of psychological symptoms combined with the complex nature of oncology processes can negatively impact patients' quality of life. We aimed to determine the impact of a relaxation protocol on improving quality of life in a sample of oncological patients treated in the Spanish National Public Health System.We conducted a multicenter interventional study without a control group. In total, 272 patients with different oncologic pathologies and showing symptoms of anxiety were recruited from 10 Spanish public hospitals. The intervention comprised abbreviated progressive muscle relaxation training, according to Bernstein and Borkovec. This was followed by weekly telephone calls to each patient over a 1-month period. We collected sociodemographic variables related to the disease process, including information about mental health and the intervention. Patients' quality of life was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G questionnaire. Bivariate and univariate analyses were performed, along with an analysis of multiple correspondences to identify subgroups of patients with similar variations on the FACT-G.Patients showed statistically significant improvements on the FACT-G overall score (W = 16806; p<0.001, with an initial mean score of 55.33±10.42 and a final mean score of 64.49±7.70. We also found significant improvements for all subscales: emotional wellbeing (W = 13118; p<0.001, functional wellbeing (W = 16155.5; p<0.001, physical wellbeing (W = 8885.5; p<0.001, and social and family context (W = -1840; p = 0.037.Patients with cancer who learned and practiced abbreviated progressive muscle relaxation experienced improvement in their perceived quality of life as measured by the FACT-G. Our findings support a previous assumption that complementary techniques (including

  5. Scalable Performance Measurement and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamblin, Todd [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Concurrency levels in large-scale, distributed-memory supercomputers are rising exponentially. Modern machines may contain 100,000 or more microprocessor cores, and the largest of these, IBM's Blue Gene/L, contains over 200,000 cores. Future systems are expected to support millions of concurrent tasks. In this dissertation, we focus on efficient techniques for measuring and analyzing the performance of applications running on very large parallel machines. Tuning the performance of large-scale applications can be a subtle and time-consuming task because application developers must measure and interpret data from many independent processes. While the volume of the raw data scales linearly with the number of tasks in the running system, the number of tasks is growing exponentially, and data for even small systems quickly becomes unmanageable. Transporting performance data from so many processes over a network can perturb application performance and make measurements inaccurate, and storing such data would require a prohibitive amount of space. Moreover, even if it were stored, analyzing the data would be extremely time-consuming. In this dissertation, we present novel methods for reducing performance data volume. The first draws on multi-scale wavelet techniques from signal processing to compress systemwide, time-varying load-balance data. The second uses statistical sampling to select a small subset of running processes to generate low-volume traces. A third approach combines sampling and wavelet compression to stratify performance data adaptively at run-time and to reduce further the cost of sampled tracing. We have integrated these approaches into Libra, a toolset for scalable load-balance analysis. We present Libra and show how it can be used to analyze data from large scientific applications scalably.

  6. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  7. Mechanical relaxation in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiki, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The basic properties of glasses and the characteristics of mechanical relaxation in glasses were briefly reviewed, and then our studies concerned were presented. Experimental methods adopted were viscosity, internal friction, ultrasonic attenuation, and Brillouin scattering measurements. The specimens used were several kinds of inorganic, organic, and metallic glasses. The measurements were mainly carried out from the room temperature up to the glass transition temperature, and the relaxation time was determined as a function of temperature. The 'double relaxation' composed of two Arrhenius-type relaxations was observed in many materials. In both relaxations, the 'compensation effect' showing a correlation of the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy was observed. These results were explained by considering the 'complex relaxation' due to cooperative motions of atoms or group of atoms. Values of activation energy near the glass transition determined by the various experimental methods were compared with each other

  8. Performance Measurement of Research Activitities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten; Jensen, Tina Blegind; Peyton, Margit Malmmose

    Performance measurements have made their entry into the world of universities. Every research activity is registered in a database and the output measures form the foundation for managerial decisions. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the registration practices among researchers...... the registrations as a way to be promoted and to legitimise and account for their work; on the other hand, the economic incentives behind ranking lists and bibliographic research indicators threaten the individual researcher's freedom. The findings also show how managers have difficulties in translating back...

  9. From performance measurement to learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny; Triantafillou, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few decades accountability has accommodated an increasing number of different political, legal and administrative goals. This article focuses on the administrative aspect of accountability and explores the potential perils of a shift from performance measurement to learning. While...... overload. We conclude with some comments on limiting the undesirable consequences of such a move. Points for practitioners Public administrators need to identify and weigh the (human, political and economic) benefits and costs of accountability regimes. While output-focused performance measurement regimes...... to comply with accountability requirements, because of the first point. Third, the costs of compliance are likely to increase because learning requires more participation and dialogue. Fourth, accountability as learning may generate a ‘change for the sake of change’ mentality, creating further government...

  10. Restricted lithium ion dynamics in PEO-based block copolymer electrolytes measured by high-field nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Tan Vu; Messinger, Robert J.; Sarou-Kanian, Vincent; Fayon, Franck; Bouchet, Renaud; Deschamps, Michaël

    2017-10-01

    The intrinsic ionic conductivity of polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based block copolymer electrolytes is often assumed to be identical to the conductivity of the PEO homopolymer. Here, we use high-field 7Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation and pulsed-field-gradient (PFG) NMR diffusion measurements to probe lithium ion dynamics over nanosecond and millisecond time scales in PEO and polystyrene (PS)-b-PEO-b-PS electrolytes containing the lithium salt LiTFSI. Variable-temperature longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) 7Li NMR relaxation rates were acquired at three magnetic field strengths and quantitatively analyzed for the first time at such fields, enabling us to distinguish two characteristic time scales that describe fluctuations of the 7Li nuclear electric quadrupolar interaction. Fast lithium motions [up to O (ns)] are essentially identical between the two polymer electrolytes, including sub-nanosecond vibrations and local fluctuations of the coordination polyhedra between lithium and nearby oxygen atoms. However, lithium dynamics over longer time scales [O (10 ns) and greater] are slower in the block copolymer compared to the homopolymer, as manifested experimentally by their different transverse 7Li NMR relaxation rates. Restricted dynamics and altered thermodynamic behavior of PEO chains anchored near PS domains likely explain these results.

  11. Application of potential relaxation transient measurements to corrosion of steel in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, S.E.; Skyes, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Corrosion of steel in concrete is an electrochemical process that involves the process occurring at the interface and also in the bulk diffusion of species. This paper present studies on corrosion of Swedish Iron in concrete utilizing potential relaxation transients. This rapid new D.C. technique (developed at Oxford University, U.K.) analyzes the decay in terms of different resistor (R) - capacitor(c) combinations, thus identifying the individual processes as their time constants(tau). The resistance of the concrete is also separated. The merits and demerits of the technique are discussed. (author)

  12. Muon spin relaxation measurements of spin-correlation decay in spin-glass AgMn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, R.H.; Cooke, D.W.; Leon, M.; Schillaci, M.E. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); MacLaughlin, D.E.; Gupta, L.C. (California Univ., Riverside (USA))

    1984-01-01

    The field (H) dependence of the muon longitudinal spin-lattice relaxation rate well below the spin glass temperature in AgMn is found to obey an algebraic form given by (H)sup(..gamma..-1), with ..gamma.. = 0.54 +- 0.05. This suggests that Mn spin correlations decay with time as tsup(-..gamma..), in agreement with mean field theories of spin-glass dynamics which yield ..gamma..

  13. Muon spin relaxation measurements of spin-correlation decay in spin-glass AgMn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffner, R.H.; Cooke, D.W.; Leon, M.; Schillaci, M.E.; MacLaughlin, D.E.; Gupta, L.C.

    1984-01-01

    The field (H) dependence of the muon longitudinal spin-lattice relaxation rate well below the spin glass temperature in AgMn is found to obey an algebraic form given by (H)sup(γ-1), with γ = 0.54 +- 0.05. This suggests that Mn spin correlations decay with time as tsup(-γ), in agreement with mean field theories of spin-glass dynamics which yield γ < approx. 0.5. Near the glass temperature the agreement between the data and theory is not as good. (Auth.)

  14. Increasing the sensitivity of NMR diffusion measurements by paramagnetic longitudinal relaxation enhancement, with application to ribosome–nascent chain complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Sammy H. S.; Waudby, Christopher A.; Cassaignau, Anaïs M. E.; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John

    2015-01-01

    The translational diffusion of macromolecules can be examined non-invasively by stimulated echo (STE) NMR experiments to accurately determine their molecular sizes. These measurements can be important probes of intermolecular interactions and protein folding and unfolding, and are crucial in monitoring the integrity of large macromolecular assemblies such as ribosome–nascent chain complexes (RNCs). However, NMR studies of these complexes can be severely constrained by their slow tumbling, low solubility (with maximum concentrations of up to 10 μM), and short lifetimes resulting in weak signal, and therefore continuing improvements in experimental sensitivity are essential. Here we explore the use of the paramagnetic longitudinal relaxation enhancement (PLRE) agent NiDO2A on the sensitivity of 15 N XSTE and SORDID heteronuclear STE experiments, which can be used to monitor the integrity of these unstable complexes. We exploit the dependence of the PLRE effect on the gyromagnetic ratio and electronic relaxation time to accelerate recovery of 1 H magnetization without adversely affecting storage on N z during diffusion delays or introducing significant transverse relaxation line broadening. By applying the longitudinal relaxation-optimized SORDID pulse sequence together with NiDO2A to 70S Escherichia coli ribosomes and RNCs, NMR diffusion sensitivity enhancements of up to 4.5-fold relative to XSTE are achieved, alongside ∼1.9-fold improvements in two-dimensional NMR sensitivity, without compromising the sample integrity. We anticipate these results will significantly advance the use of NMR to probe dynamic regions of ribosomes and other large, unstable macromolecular assemblies.Graphical Abstract

  15. Surface-NMR measurements of the longitudinal relaxation time T1 in a homogeneous sandy aquifer in Skive, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walbrecker, J.; Behroozmand, A.

    2011-12-01

    Efficient groundwater management requires reliable means of characterizing shallow groundwater aquifers. One key parameter in this respect is hydraulic conductivity. Surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a geophysical exploration technique that can potentially provide this type of information in a noninvasive, cost-effective way. The technique is based on measuring the precession of nuclear spins of protons in groundwater molecules. It involves large loop antennas deployed on Earth's surface to generate electromagnetic pulses tuned to specifically excite and detect groundwater proton spins. Naturally, the excited state of spins is transitory - once excited, spins relax back to their equilibrium state. This relaxation process is strongly influenced by the spin environment, which, in the case of groundwater, is defined by the aquifer. By employing empirical relations, changes in relaxation behavior can be used to identify changes in aquifer hydraulic conductivity, making the NMR relaxation signal a very important piece of information. Particularly, efforts are made to record the longitudinal relaxation parameter T1, because it is known from laboratory studies that it often reliably correlates with hydraulic conductivity, even in the presence of magnetic species. In surface NMR, T1 data are collected by recording the NMR signal amplitude following two sequential excitation pulses as a function of the delay time τ between the two pulses. In conventional acquisition, the two pulses have a mutual phase shift of π. Based on theoretical arguments it was recently shown that T1 times acquired according to this conventional surface-NMR scheme are systematically biased. It was proposed that the bias can be minimized by cycling the phase of the two pulses between π and zero in subsequent double-pulse experiments, and subtracting the resulting signal amplitudes (phase-cycled pseudosaturation recovery scheme, pcPSR). We present the first surface-NMR T1 data set recorded

  16. Opcode counting for performance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gara, Alan; Satterfield, David L.; Walkup, Robert E.

    2018-03-20

    Methods, systems and computer program products are disclosed for measuring a performance of a program running on a processing unit of a processing system. In one embodiment, the method comprises informing a logic unit of each instruction in the program that is executed by the processing unit, assigning a weight to each instruction, assigning the instructions to a plurality of groups, and analyzing the plurality of groups to measure one or more metrics. In one embodiment, each instruction includes an operating code portion, and the assigning includes assigning the instructions to the groups based on the operating code portions of the instructions. In an embodiment, each type of instruction is assigned to a respective one of the plurality of groups. These groups may be combined into a plurality of sets of the groups.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting with short relaxation intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amthor, Thomas; Doneva, Mariya; Koken, Peter; Sommer, Karsten; Meineke, Jakob; Börnert, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a technique for improving the performance of Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) in repetitive sampling schemes, in particular for 3D MRF acquisition, by shortening relaxation intervals between MRF pulse train repetitions. A calculation method for MRF dictionaries adapted to short relaxation intervals and non-relaxed initial spin states is presented, based on the concept of stationary fingerprints. The method is applicable to many different k-space sampling schemes in 2D and 3D. For accuracy analysis, T 1 and T 2 values of a phantom are determined by single-slice Cartesian MRF for different relaxation intervals and are compared with quantitative reference measurements. The relevance of slice profile effects is also investigated in this case. To further illustrate the capabilities of the method, an application to in-vivo spiral 3D MRF measurements is demonstrated. The proposed computation method enables accurate parameter estimation even for the shortest relaxation intervals, as investigated for different sampling patterns in 2D and 3D. In 2D Cartesian measurements, we achieved a scan acceleration of more than a factor of two, while maintaining acceptable accuracy: The largest T 1 values of a sample set deviated from their reference values by 0.3% (longest relaxation interval) and 2.4% (shortest relaxation interval). The largest T 2 values showed systematic deviations of up to 10% for all relaxation intervals, which is discussed. The influence of slice profile effects for multislice acquisition is shown to become increasingly relevant for short relaxation intervals. In 3D spiral measurements, a scan time reduction of 36% was achieved, maintaining the quality of in-vivo T1 and T2 maps. Reducing the relaxation interval between MRF sequence repetitions using stationary fingerprint dictionaries is a feasible method to improve the scan efficiency of MRF sequences. The method enables fast implementations of 3D spatially

  18. Effects of Relaxing and Arousing Music during Imagery Training on Dart-Throwing Performance, Physiological Arousal Indices, and Competitive State Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Garry; Morris, Tony; Kueh, Yee Cheng; Terry, Peter C

    2018-01-01

    Music that is carefully selected to match the requirements of activities and the characteristics of individuals has been shown to produce significant impacts on performance enhancement (Priest et al., 2004). There is also evidence that music can enhance imagery (Grocke and Wigram, 2007), although few studies have investigated the effects of music on imagery in the context of sport skills. In the present study, the effects of relaxing and arousing music during imagery on dart-throwing performance, physiological arousal indices, and competitive state anxiety, were investigated among 63 novice dart throwers. Participants had moderate-to-high imagery ability and were randomly assigned to unfamiliar relaxing music (URM), unfamiliar arousing music (UAM), or no music (NM) groups. Performance was assessed by 40 dart throws at a concentric circles dartboard before and after 12 imagery sessions over 4 weeks. Measures of galvanic skin response (GSR), peripheral temperature (PT), and heart rate (HR) were taken during imagery sessions 1 and 12, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 Revised (CSAI-2R) was administered prior to the pre- and post-intervention performance task. Dart-throwing gain scores were significantly higher for URM than for UAM and NM, with no significant difference between UAM and NM (URM = 37.24 ± 5.66, UAM = 17.57 ± 5.30, and NM = 13.19 ± 6.14, F 2,62 = 5.03, p = 0.01, η 2 = 0.14). GSR, PT, and HR reflected lower arousal for URM than for UAM or NM. Significant decreases in somatic anxiety were evident for URM and UAM but not NM. Significant decreases in cognitive anxiety were evident for URM and NM but not UAM. Significant increases in self-confidence were evident for URM but not UAM or NM. Performance improved in all three conditions but URM was associated with the largest performance gain, the lowest physiological indices of arousal, and the most positive CSAI-2R profiles. Listening to relaxing music during imagery may have benefits for

  19. Effects of Relaxing and Arousing Music during Imagery Training on Dart-Throwing Performance, Physiological Arousal Indices, and Competitive State Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Kuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Music that is carefully selected to match the requirements of activities and the characteristics of individuals has been shown to produce significant impacts on performance enhancement (Priest et al., 2004. There is also evidence that music can enhance imagery (Grocke and Wigram, 2007, although few studies have investigated the effects of music on imagery in the context of sport skills. In the present study, the effects of relaxing and arousing music during imagery on dart-throwing performance, physiological arousal indices, and competitive state anxiety, were investigated among 63 novice dart throwers. Participants had moderate-to-high imagery ability and were randomly assigned to unfamiliar relaxing music (URM, unfamiliar arousing music (UAM, or no music (NM groups. Performance was assessed by 40 dart throws at a concentric circles dartboard before and after 12 imagery sessions over 4 weeks. Measures of galvanic skin response (GSR, peripheral temperature (PT, and heart rate (HR were taken during imagery sessions 1 and 12, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 Revised (CSAI-2R was administered prior to the pre- and post-intervention performance task. Dart-throwing gain scores were significantly higher for URM than for UAM and NM, with no significant difference between UAM and NM (URM = 37.24 ± 5.66, UAM = 17.57 ± 5.30, and NM = 13.19 ± 6.14, F2,62 = 5.03, p = 0.01, η2 = 0.14. GSR, PT, and HR reflected lower arousal for URM than for UAM or NM. Significant decreases in somatic anxiety were evident for URM and UAM but not NM. Significant decreases in cognitive anxiety were evident for URM and NM but not UAM. Significant increases in self-confidence were evident for URM but not UAM or NM. Performance improved in all three conditions but URM was associated with the largest performance gain, the lowest physiological indices of arousal, and the most positive CSAI-2R profiles. Listening to relaxing music during imagery may have benefits for

  20. In-situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurements of relaxation in Fe/MgO/Fe epitaxial magnetic tunnel junctions during annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastwood, D.S. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Ali, M.; Hickey, B.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 1JT (United Kingdom); Tanner, B.K., E-mail: b.k.tanner@dur.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    The relaxation of Fe/MgO/Fe tunnel junctions grown epitaxially on (001) MgO substrates has been measured by in-situ grazing incidence in-plane X-ray diffraction during the thermal annealing cycle. We find that the Fe layers are fully relaxed and that there are no irreversible changes during annealing. The MgO tunnel barrier is initially strained towards the Fe but on annealing, relaxes and expands towards the bulk MgO value. The strain dispersion is reduced in the MgO by about 40% above 480 K post-annealing. There is no significant change in the “twist” mosaic. Our results indicate that the final annealing stage of device fabrication, crucial to attainment of high TMR, induces substantial strain relaxation at the MgO barrier/lower Fe electrode interface. - Highlights: • Lattice relaxation of Fe/MgO/Fe epitaxial magnetic tunnel junctions measured. • In-plane lattice parameter of Fe equal to bulk value; totally relaxed. • MgO barrier initially strained towards the Fe but relaxes on annealing. • Reduction in strain dispersion in the MgO barrier by 40% above about 470 K. • No change in the in-plane “twist” mosaic throughout the annealing cycle.

  1. Performance measurement and pay for performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijl, van H.F.J.M.; Kleingeld, P.A.M.; Algera, J.A.; Rutten, M.L.; Sonnentag, S.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter, which takes a (re)design perspective, focuses on the management of employees’ contributions to organisational goal attainment. The control loop for the self-regulation of task performance is used as a frame of reference. Several subsets of design requirements are described and related

  2. In vivo measurements of the T1 relaxation processes in the bone marrow in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. A magnetic resonance imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, K.E.; Nielsen, H.; Thomsen, C.; Soerensen, P.G.; Karle, H.; Christoffersen, P.; Henriksen, O. (Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Magnetic Resonance; Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Hematology; Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Pathology)

    Nine patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were examined with magnetic resonance imaging and in vivo T1 relaxation time measurements of the vertebral bone marrow in a 1.5 tesla whole body scanner. Two patients underwent transformation to acute myeloid leukemia and were evaluated at follow-up examinations. At the time of diagnosis the T1 relaxation times of the vertebral bone marrow were significantly prolonged compared with normal values. The T1 relaxation times of the vertebral bone marrow in patients with MDS showed significantly lower values compared with patients with acute leukemia and did not differ from patients with polycythemia vera. (orig.).

  3. An analysis of the NMR-CT image by the measurement of proton-relaxation times in tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Shoji; Horikawa, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Chuzo; Hirakawa, Kimiyoshi; Nishikawa, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Koji; Kiri, Motosada.

    1984-01-01

    NMR-CT images were analyzed by measuring the proton-relaxation times in tissues. The NMR-CT images were obtained in 10 normal volunteers and 16 patients with brain tumors with a prototype superconducting magnet (Shimadzu Corp., Japan) operating at 0.2 T and 0.375 T. A smooth T 1 relaxation curve was obtained in each part of the brain and the brain tumor by the use of the data of the NMR-CT image; consequently, the in vivo T 1 value was proved to be reliable. The in vivo T 1 value showed the specific value corresponding to each region of the normal brain in all cases. Cerebral gray matter normally had the longest T 1 value, followed by the medulla oblongata, the pons, and white matter. The T 1 value of each region of the brain varied to the same degree in proportion to the strength of the static magnetic field. The in vivo T 1 values of the brain tumor varied with the histological type. All were longer than any part of the brain parenchyma, being between 480 and 780 msec at 0.2 T. The prolongation of the T 1 value does not always correspond to the degree of the malignancy in a tumor. The in vitro T 1 and T 2 values were also prolonged in all tumors. Although the absolute value of T 1 did not coincide between the in vitro and in vivo data, the tendency of the prolongation was the same between them. This result indicated that the NMR-CT images could be analysed by the use of the data of the in vitro T 1 and T 2 values in the tumor tissues. It is important to analyse the NMR-CT image by both in vivo and in vitro examinations of the relaxation times. (J.P.N.)

  4. Metastability exchange optical pumping in {sup 3}He gas up to 30 mT. Efficiency measurements and evidence of laser-induced nuclear relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batz, Marion

    2011-07-08

    Advances in metastability exchange optical pumping (MEOP) of {sup 3}He at high laser powers, with its various applications, but also at high gas pressures p{sub 3} and high magnetic field strengths B, have provided strong motivation for revisiting the understanding and for investigating the limitations of this powerful technique. For this purpose, we present systematic experimental and theoretical studies of efficiency and of relaxation mechanisms in B{<=}30 mT and p{sub 3}=0.63-2.45 mbar. {sup 3}He nuclear polarisation is measured by light absorption in longitudinal configuration where weak light beams at 1083 nm parallel to magnetic field and cell axis with opposite circular polarisations are used to probe the distribution of populations in the metastable state. This method is systematically tested to evaluate potential systematic biases and is shown to be reliable for the study of OP dynamics despite the redistribution of populations by OP light. Nuclear polarisation loss associated to the emission of polarised light by the plasma discharge used for MEOP is found to decrease above 10 mT, as expected, due to hyperfine decoupling in highly excited states. However, this does not lead to improved MEOP efficiency at high laser power. We find clear evidence of additional laser-induced relaxation instead. The strong OP-enhanced polarisation losses, currently limiting MEOP performances, are quantitatively investigated using an angular momentum budget approach and a recently developed comprehensive model that describes the combined effects of OP, ME and relaxation, validated by comparison to experimental results.

  5. Performance measurement for information systems: Industry perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Peter C.; Yoes, Cissy; Hamilton, Kay

    1992-01-01

    Performance measurement has become a focal topic for information systems (IS) organizations. Historically, IS performance measures have dealt with the efficiency of the data processing function. Today, the function of most IS organizations goes beyond simple data processing. To understand how IS organizations have developed meaningful performance measures that reflect their objectives and activities, industry perspectives on IS performance measurement was studied. The objectives of the study were to understand the state of the practice in IS performance techniques for IS performance measurement; to gather approaches and measures of actual performance measures used in industry; and to report patterns, trends, and lessons learned about performance measurement to NASA/JSC. Examples of how some of the most forward looking companies are shaping their IS processes through measurement is provided. Thoughts on the presence of a life-cycle to performance measures development and a suggested taxonomy for performance measurements are included in the appendices.

  6. Measurement of in-plane magnetic relaxation in RE-123 coated conductors by use of scanning Hall probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiohara, K.; Higashikawa, K.; Inoue, M.; Kiss, T.; Iijima, Y.; Saitoh, T.; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We have investigated electric field criterion of in-plane critical current density. ► We could measure magnetic relaxation in a remanent state. ► The SHPM results show good agreement with the measurements by the 4-probe method. -- Abstract: We have investigated electric field criterion of in-plane critical current density in a coated conductor characterized by scanning Hall-probe microscopy (SHPM). From remanent field distribution and its relaxation measurements, we could obtain critical current distribution and induced electric field simultaneously by considering the Biot-Savart law and the Faraday’s law, respectively. These results lead us to evaluate a distribution of local critical current density and the corresponding criterion of electric field. As a result, it was found that the electric field criterion for the SHPM analysis was several orders lower than that used in the conventional 4-probe resistive method. However, the data point obtained by the SHPM shows good agreement with E–J curve analytically extended from the measurements by the 4-probe method. This means that we could characterize in-plane distribution of critical current density in a coated conductor at an electric field criterion quantitatively by this method in a nondestructive manner. These findings will be very important information since the uniformity of local critical current density in a coated conductor at extremely low electric fields is a key issue (1) especially for DC applications, (2) for quality control of coated conductors, and (3) for the standardization of the characterization of critical current among different methods

  7. 45 CFR 305.2 - Performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAM PERFORMANCE MEASURES, STANDARDS, FINANCIAL INCENTIVES, AND PENALTIES § 305.2 Performance measures. (a) The child support incentive system measures State performance levels in five program areas... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance measures. 305.2 Section 305.2 Public...

  8. NMR diffusion and relaxation measurements of organic molecules adsorbed in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjerdaaker, Lars

    2002-01-01

    The work in this thesis can be divided into two parts. The first part is focused on dynamic investigations of plastic crystals, both in bulk phases but also confined in porous materials (paper 1-3). This part was done together with professor Liudvikas Kimtys, Vilnius, Lithuania. The second part, with emphasis on diffusion, employed PFG NMR to measure the true intra-crystalline diffusivity, including development of a new pulse sequence with shorter effective diffusion time. This work was performed in collaboration with Dr. Geir H. Soerland, Trondheim, Norway and has resulted in three papers (paper 4-6). Paper 1-3: In these papers the dynamics of three organic compounds confined within mesoporous silica have been studied, and the results are discussed with reference to the bulk material. The three investigated compounds form disordered (plastic) phases of high symmetry on solidification (solid I). Thus, bulk cyclohexane exhibits a disordered phase between the solid-solid phase transition at 186 K and the melting point at 280 K. X-ray diffraction measurements have shown that solid I is face-centred cubic (Z=4, a=0.861 nm at 195 K), while the ordered solid II is monoclinic. Tert-butyl cyanide exhibits a plastic phase between the solid-solid transition point at 233 K and the melting point at 292 K. Neutron scattering techniques have established that solid I is tetragonal (Z=2, a=b=0.683 nm, c=0.674 nm, beta=90 deg at 234 K), while solid II is monoclinic. Finally, the disordered phase of pivalic acid melts at 310 K and undergoes a solid-solid phase transition at 280 K. The disordered phase is face-centred cubic, (Z=4, a=0.887 nm), while the low temperature phase (solid II) is triclinic. Paper 4-6; If one is aiming to measure true intra-crystallite diffusivities in porous media the distance travelled by the molecules during the pulse must be shorter than the size of the crystallite. The length of the diffusion time is therefore important. Working with heterogeneous media

  9. The effect of improvisation-assisted desensitization, and music-assisted progressive muscle relaxation and imagery on reducing pianists' music performance anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngshin

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two music therapy approaches, improvisation-assisted desensitization, and music-assisted progressive muscle relaxation and imagery on ameliorating the symptoms of music performance anxiety (MPA) among student pianists. Thirty female college pianists (N = 30) were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (a) improvised music-assisted desensitization group (n = 15), or (b) music-assisted progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and imagery group (n = 15). All participants received 6 weekly music therapy sessions according to their assigned group. Two lab performances were provided; one before and one after the 6 music therapy sessions, as the performance stimuli for MPA. All participants completed pretest and posttest measures that included four types of visual analogue scales (MPA, stress, tension, and comfort), the state portion of Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Music Performance Anxiety Questionnaire (MPAQ) developed by Lehrer, Goldman, and Strommen (1990). Participants' finger temperatures were also measured. When results of the music-assisted PMR and imagery condition were compared from pretest to posttest, statistically significant differences occurred in 6 out of the 7 measures-MPA, tension, comfort, STAI, MPAQ, and finger temperature, indicating that the music-assisted PMR and imagery treatment was very successful in reducing MPA. For the improvisation-assisted desensitization condition, the statistically significant decreases in tension and STAI, with increases in finger temperature indicated that this approach was effective in managing MPA to some extent. When the difference scores for the two approaches were compared, there was no statistically significant difference between the two approaches for any of the seven measures. Therefore, no one treatment condition appeared more effective than the other. Although statistically significant differences were not found between

  10. Optical Transient-Grating Measurements of Spin Diffusion and Relaxation in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Christopher P.

    2005-01-01

    Spin diffusion in n-GaAs quantum wells, as measured by our optical transient-grating technique, is strongly suppressed relative to that of charge. Over a broad range of temperatures and dopings, the suppression of Ds relative to Dc agrees quantitatively with the prediction of ''spin Coulomb dra'' theory, which takes into account the exchange of spin in electron-electron collisions. Moreover, the spin-diffusion length, Ls, is a nearly constant 1 micrometer over the same range of T and n, despite Ds's varying by nearly two orders of magnitude. This constancy supports the D'yakonov-Perel'-Kachorovskii model of spin relaxation through interrupted precessional dephasing in the spin-orbit field

  11. Measurement of the relaxation rate of the magnetization in Mn12O12-acetate using proton NMR echo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang; Lascialfari; Borsa; Gatteschi

    2000-03-27

    We present a novel method to measure the relaxation rate W of the magnetization of Mn 12O (12)-acetate (Mn12) magnetic molecular cluster in its S = 10 ground state at low T. It is based on the observation of an exponential growth in time of the proton NMR signal during the thermal equilibration of the magnetization of the molecules. We can explain the novel effect with a simple model which relates the intensity of the proton echo signal to the microscopic reversal of the magnetization of each individual Mn12 molecule during the equilibration process. The method should find wide application in the study of magnetic molecular clusters in off-equilibrium conditions.

  12. Measurement of the Relaxation Rate of the Magnetization in Mn12O12 -Acetate Using Proton NMR Echo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Z. H.; Lascialfari, A.; Borsa, F.; Gatteschi, D.

    2000-01-01

    We present a novel method to measure the relaxation rate W of the magnetization of Mn 12 O 12 -acetate (Mn12) magnetic molecular cluster in its S=10 ground state at low T . It is based on the observation of an exponential growth in time of the proton NMR signal during the thermal equilibration of the magnetization of the molecules. We can explain the novel effect with a simple model which relates the intensity of the proton echo signal to the microscopic reversal of the magnetization of each individual Mn12 molecule during the equilibration process. The method should find wide application in the study of magnetic molecular clusters in off-equilibrium conditions. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  13. Optical Transient-Grating Measurements of Spin Diffusion andRelaxation in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Christopher Phillip [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Spin diffusion in n-GaAs quantum wells, as measured by our optical transient-grating technique, is strongly suppressed relative to that of charge. Over a broad range of temperatures and dopings, the suppression of Ds relative to Dc agrees quantitatively with the prediction of ''spin Coulomb dra'' theory, which takes into account the exchange of spin in electron-electron collisions. Moreover, the spin-diffusion length, Ls, is a nearly constant 1 micrometer over the same range of T and n, despite Ds's varying by nearly two orders of magnitude. This constancy supports the D'yakonov-Perel'-Kachorovskii model of spin relaxation through interrupted precessional dephasing in the spin-orbit field.

  14. Characterization of dynamics in complex lyophilized formulations: I. Comparison of relaxation times measured by isothermal calorimetry with data estimated from the width of the glass transition temperature region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieng, Norman; Mizuno, Masayasu; Pikal, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The purposes of this study are to characterize the relaxation dynamics in complex freeze dried formulations and to investigate the quantitative relationship between the structural relaxation time as measured by thermal activity monitor (TAM) and that estimated from the width of the glass transition temperature (ΔT(g)). The latter method has advantages over TAM because it is simple and quick. As part of this objective, we evaluate the accuracy in estimating relaxation time data at higher temperatures (50 °C and 60 °C) from TAM data at lower temperature (40 °C) and glass transition region width (ΔT(g)) data obtained by differential scanning calorimetry. Formulations studied here were hydroxyethyl starch (HES)-disaccharide, HES-polyol, and HES-disaccharide-polyol at various ratios. We also re-examine, using TAM derived relaxation times, the correlation between protein stability (human growth hormone, hGH) and relaxation times explored in a previous report, which employed relaxation time data obtained from ΔT(g). Results show that most of the freeze dried formulations exist in single amorphous phase, and structural relaxation times were successfully measured for these systems. We find a reasonably good correlation between TAM measured relaxation times and corresponding data obtained from estimates based on ΔT(g), but the agreement is only qualitative. The comparison plot showed that TAM data are directly proportional to the 1/3 power of ΔT(g) data, after correcting for an offset. Nevertheless, the correlation between hGH stability and relaxation time remained qualitatively the same as found with using ΔT(g) derived relaxation data, and it was found that the modest extrapolation of TAM data to higher temperatures using ΔT(g) method and TAM data at 40 °C resulted in quantitative agreement with TAM measurements made at 50 °C and 60 °C, provided the TAM experiment temperature, is well below the Tg of the sample. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  15. Brush seal performance measurement system

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Serdar; Akşit, Mahmut Faruk; Aksit, Mahmut Faruk; Duran, Ertuğrul Tolga; Duran, Ertugrul Tolga

    2009-01-01

    Brush seals are rapidly replacing conventional labyrinth seals in turbomachinery applications. Upon pressure application, seal stiffness increases drastically due to frictional bristle interlocking. Operating stiffness is critical to determine seal wear life. Typically, seal stiffness is measured by pressing a curved shoe to brush bore. The static-unpressurized measurement is extrapolated to pressurized and high speed operating conditions. This work presents a seal stiffness measurement syste...

  16. High Temperature Performance Evaluation of As-serviced 25Cr35Ni Type Heat-resistant Steel Based on Stress Relaxation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Jun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on an as-serviced 25Cr35Ni type steel, the high temperature property evaluation using stress relaxation test(SRT method and residual life prediction were studied. The results show that creep rupture property decreases because of the formation of network carbides along grain boundaries and coarsening of secondary carbides in the austenitic matrix. Based on the relationship of stress relaxation strain rate curves obtained at different temperatures, and the extrapolation equation of stress relaxation rate-rupture time, it is capable to perform residual life evaluation by combining SRT data and a small amount of creep rupture test(CRT. Good agreement is observed for predicting results performed by current method and traditional method.

  17. Mobility and reliability performance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This project grew out of the fact that mobility was identified early on as one of the key performance focus areas of NCDOTs : strategic transformation effort. The Transformation Management Team (TMT) established a TMT Mobility Workstream Team : in...

  18. Interpreting equilibrium-conductivity and conductivity-relaxation measurements to establish thermodynamic and transport properties for multiple charged defect conducting ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huayang; Ricote, Sandrine; Coors, W Grover; Kee, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    A model-based interpretation of measured equilibrium conductivity and conductivity relaxation is developed to establish thermodynamic, transport, and kinetics parameters for multiple charged defect conducting (MCDC) ceramic materials. The present study focuses on 10% yttrium-doped barium zirconate (BZY10). In principle, using the Nernst-Einstein relationship, equilibrium conductivity measurements are sufficient to establish thermodynamic and transport properties. However, in practice it is difficult to establish unique sets of properties using equilibrium conductivity alone. Combining equilibrium and conductivity-relaxation measurements serves to significantly improve the quantitative fidelity of the derived material properties. The models are developed using a Nernst-Planck-Poisson (NPP) formulation, which enables the quantitative representation of conductivity relaxations caused by very large changes in oxygen partial pressure.

  19. A study on magnetic relaxation times of various organs and body fluids using superconducting magnetic resonance imaging system part I: measurement of relative signal intensity and T2 relaxation time in various portions of brain and cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Ghi Jai; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Jae Ho; Han, Man Chang; Kim, Chu Wan

    1988-01-01

    This study was undertake to determine if routine clinical magnetic resonance imaging sequences using only two different repetition times (TRs) and with only two sequential echo times (TEs) can be used to measure reproducible relative signal intensity and T2 relaxation time for normal brain tissues and cerebrospinal fluid using a 2.0T superconducting system. In 47 patients 6 different anatomic sites were measured. For each anatomic location, the mean and standard deviation of these values were determined. On T1-weighted (SE 500msec/30msec) images, in globus pallidus and thalamus, of the CSF, cortical gray matter and retrobulbar fat tissue varied more, with a standard deviation of 11-14% on T1-weighted images. On T2-weighted (SE 3000msec/30msec and 3000msec/80msec) images, the relative signal intensity of all anatomic regions varied more than on T1-weighted images. The standard deviation of T2 relaxation times also varied from 10% (fat tissue) to 18% (CSF). These variations might be due to partial volume averaging, signal alteration of CSF secondary to CSF pulsatile motion, etc. Knowing that relative signal intensity and T2 relaxation times calculated from routine imaging sequences are reproducible in only limited area, these normal ranges can be used to investigate changes occurring in disease states of the limited regions.

  20. Real T1 relaxation time measurement and diurnal variation analysis of intervertebral discs in a healthy population of 50 volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galley, J.; Maestretti, G.; Koch, G.; Hoogewoud, H-M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To measure the real T1 relaxation time of the lumbar intervertebral discs in a young and healthy population, using different inversion recovery times, and assess diurnal variation. Material and methods: Intervertebral discs from D12 to S1 of 50 healthy volunteers from 18 to 25 years old were evaluated twice the same day, in the morning and in the late afternoon. Dedicated MRI sequences with different inversion recovery times (from 100 to 2500 ms) were used to calculate the real T1 relaxation time. Three regions of interest (ROIs) were defined in each disc, the middle representing the nucleus pulposus (NP) and the outer parts the annulus fibrosus (AF) anterior and posterior. Diurnal variation and differences between each disc level were analyzed. Results: T1 mean values in the NP were 1142 ± 12 ms in the morning and 1085 ± 13 ms in the afternoon, showing a highly significant decrease of 57 ms (p < 0.001). A highly significant difference between the levels of the spine was found. The mean T1 of the anterior part of the AF was 577 ± 9 ms in the morning and 554 ± 8 ms in the afternoon. For the posterior part, the mean values were 633 ± 8 ms in the morning and 581 ± 7 ms in the evening. It shows a highly significant decrease of 23 ms for the anterior part and 51 ms for the posterior part (all p < 0.001). Conclusion: T1 mapping is a promising method of intervertebral disc evaluation. Significant diurnal variation and difference between levels of the lumbar spine were demonstrated. A potential use for longitudinal study in post-operative follow up or sport medicine needs to be evaluated.

  1. Real T1 relaxation time measurement and diurnal variation analysis of intervertebral discs in a healthy population of 50 volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galley, J., E-mail: galleyjulien@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, HFR Fribourg, Hôpital Cantonal (Switzerland); Maestretti, G. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, HFR Fribourg, Hôpital Cantonal (Switzerland); Koch, G.; Hoogewoud, H-M. [Department of Radiology, HFR Fribourg, Hôpital Cantonal (Switzerland)

    2017-02-15

    Purpose: To measure the real T1 relaxation time of the lumbar intervertebral discs in a young and healthy population, using different inversion recovery times, and assess diurnal variation. Material and methods: Intervertebral discs from D12 to S1 of 50 healthy volunteers from 18 to 25 years old were evaluated twice the same day, in the morning and in the late afternoon. Dedicated MRI sequences with different inversion recovery times (from 100 to 2500 ms) were used to calculate the real T1 relaxation time. Three regions of interest (ROIs) were defined in each disc, the middle representing the nucleus pulposus (NP) and the outer parts the annulus fibrosus (AF) anterior and posterior. Diurnal variation and differences between each disc level were analyzed. Results: T1 mean values in the NP were 1142 ± 12 ms in the morning and 1085 ± 13 ms in the afternoon, showing a highly significant decrease of 57 ms (p < 0.001). A highly significant difference between the levels of the spine was found. The mean T1 of the anterior part of the AF was 577 ± 9 ms in the morning and 554 ± 8 ms in the afternoon. For the posterior part, the mean values were 633 ± 8 ms in the morning and 581 ± 7 ms in the evening. It shows a highly significant decrease of 23 ms for the anterior part and 51 ms for the posterior part (all p < 0.001). Conclusion: T1 mapping is a promising method of intervertebral disc evaluation. Significant diurnal variation and difference between levels of the lumbar spine were demonstrated. A potential use for longitudinal study in post-operative follow up or sport medicine needs to be evaluated.

  2. In vivo measurements of T1 relaxation times of 31P-metabolites in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Jensen, K E; Henriksen, O

    1989-01-01

    The T1 relaxation times were estimated for 31P-metabolites in human skeletal muscle. Five healthy volunteers were examined in a 1.5 Tesla wholebody imaging system using an inversion recovery pulse sequence. The calculated T1 relaxation times ranged from 5.517 sec for phosphocreatine to 3.603 sec...

  3. Traffic Management Systems Performance Measurement: Final Report

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, James H.; Kelly, Gregory

    1997-01-01

    This report documents a study of performance measurement for Transportation Management Centers (TMCs). Performance measurement requirements were analyzed, data collection and management techniques were investigated, and case study traffic data system improvement plans were prepared for two Caltrans districts.

  4. Performance measurement and insurance liabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, A; Huijgen, C

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the authors develop an attribution framework for evaluating the investment performance of institutional investors such as insurance companies. The model is useful in identifying the investment skills of insurance companies. This is accomplished by developing a dual benchmark for the

  5. Measurement of P-31 MR relaxation times and concentrations in human brain and brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, K.; Naruse, S.; Hubesch, B.; Gober, I.; Lawry, T.; Boska, M.; Matson, G.B.; Weiner, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of high-energy phosphates and pH were made in human brain and brain tumors using P-31 MR imaging. Using a Philips Gyroscan 1.5-T MRMRS, MR images were used to select a cuboidal volume of interest and P-31 MR spectra were obtained from that volume using the ISIS technique. An external quantitation standard was used. T 1 s were measured by inversion recovery. Quantitative values for metabolites were calculated using B 1 field plot of the head coil. The results for normal brain phosphates are as follows; adenosine triphosphate, 2.2 mM; phosphocreatin, 5.3 mM; inorganic phosphate, 1.6 mM. Preliminary studies with human brain tumors show a decrease of all phosphate compounds. These experiments are the first to quantitate metabolites in human brain

  6. Generalized W1;1-Young Measures and Relaxation of Problems with Linear Growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baia, M.; Krömer, Stefan; Kružík, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2018), s. 1076-1119 ISSN 0036-1410 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-15264S; GA ČR(CZ) GF16-34894L Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : lower semicontinuity * quasiconvexity * Young measures Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/2018/MTR/kruzik-0487019.pdf

  7. Muon spin relaxation measurements of the fluctuation modes in spin-glass AgNm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, R.H.; Leon, M.; Schillaci, M.E.; MacLaughlin, D.E.; Dodds, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Recently reported zero-field ..mu..SR measurements below the spin-glass transition temperature in AgMn (1.6 at%) show a temperature dependent inhomogeneous width. The authors discuss these data in terms of a model in which the local field undergoes limited-amplitude fluctuations. The authors find that both very slow (approx. = 0.3 ..mu..s/sup -1/) and rapid (approx. = 3000 ..mu..s/sup -1/) fluctuations are required. 10 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  8. Eva versus Other Performance Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Hechmi Soumaya

    2013-01-01

    Create value not only intended to satisfy shareholders. This is also the way to ensure the ability of the company to ensure its sustainability and finance its growth. The company will not attract new capital if it destroys value. "The concept of value creation is none other than the intersection of strategy (create value) and technique (evaluate the company)"(Powilewicz, 2002). The basic idea behind the different measures of value creation by a company is that a company creates value for its ...

  9. Internet Performance and Reliability Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, Les

    2003-01-01

    Collaborative HEP research is dependent on good Internet connectivity. Although most local- and wide-area networks are carefully watched, there is little monitoring of connections that cross many networks. This paper describes work in progress at several sites to monitor Internet end-to-end performance between hundreds of HEP sites worldwide. At each collection site, ICMP ping packets are automatically sent periodically to sites of interest. The data is recorded and made available to analysis nodes, which collect the data from multiple collection sites and provide analysis and graphing. Future work includes improving the efficiency and accuracy of ping data collection

  10. Relaxation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Environ Corporation's relaxation system is built around a body lounge, a kind of super easy chair that incorporates sensory devices. Computer controlled enclosure provides filtered ionized air to create a feeling of invigoration, enhanced by mood changing aromas. Occupant is also surrounded by multidimensional audio and the lighting is programmed to change colors, patterns, and intensity periodically. These and other sensory stimulators are designed to provide an environment in which the learning process is stimulated, because research has proven that while an individual is in a deep state of relaxation, the mind is more receptive to new information.

  11. PRINCIPLES OF THE SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    BEATA ŒLUSARCZYK; SEBASTIAN KOT

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of performance in every business management is a crucial activity allowing for effectiveness increase. The lack of suitable performance measurement is especially noticed in complex systems as supply chains. Responsible persons cannot manage effectively without suitable set of measures those are base for comparison to previous data or effects of other supply chain functioning. The analysis shows that it is very hard to find balanced set of supply chain performance measures those sh...

  12. In vivo measurements of the T1 relaxation processes in the bone marrow in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. A magnetic resonance imaging study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K E; Nielsen, H; Thomsen, C

    1989-01-01

    Nine patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were examined with magnetic resonance imaging and in vivo T1 relaxation time measurements of the vertebral bone marrow in a 1.5 tesla whole body scanner. Two patients underwent transformation to acute myeloid leukemia and were evaluated at follow-...... not differ from patients with polycythemia vera....

  13. Performance Measurement in Global Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2013-01-01

    there is a requirement for the process to be monitored and measured relative to the business strategy of an organisation. It was found that performance measurement is a process that helps achieve sustainable business success, encouraging a learning culture within organisations. To this day, much of the research into how...... performance is measured has focussed on the process of product development. However, exploration of performance measurement related to global product development is relatively unexplored and a need for further research is evident. This paper contributes towards understanding how performance is measured...

  14. A whole-air relaxed eddy accumulation measurement system for sampling vertical vapour exchange of elemental mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Sommar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An apparatus relying on relaxed eddy accumulation (REA methodology has been designed and developed for continuous-field measurements of vertical Hg0 fluxes over cropland ecosystems. This micro-meteorological technique requires sampling of turbulent eddies into up- and downdraught channels at a constant flow rate and accurate timing, based on a threshold involving the sign of vertical wind component (w. The fully automated system is of a whole-air type drawing air at a high velocity to the REA sampling apparatus and allowing for the rejection of samples associated with w-fluctuations around zero. Conditional sampling was executed at 10-Hz resolution on a sub-stream by two fast-response three-way solenoid switching valves connected in parallel to a zero Hg0 air supply through their normally open ports. To suppress flow transients resulting from switching, pressure differentials across the two upstream ports of the conditional valves were minimised using a control unit. The Hg0 concentrations of the up- and downdraught channel were sequentially (each by two consecutive 5-minute gas samples determined after enhancement collection onto gold traps by an automated cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer (CVAFS instrument. A protocol of regular reference sampling periods was implemented during field campaigns to continuously adjust for bias that may exist between the two conditional sampling channels. Using a 5-minute running average was conditional threshold, nearly-constant relaxation coefficients (β s of ~0.56 were determined during two bi-weekly field deployments when turbulence statistics were assured for good quality, in accordance with previously reported estimates. The fully developed REA-CVAFS system underwent Hg0 flux field trial runs at a winter wheat cropland located in the North China Plain. Over a 15-d period during early May 2012, dynamic, often bi-directional, fluxes were observed during the course of a day with a tendency of

  15. Long-term measurement of terpenoid flux above a Larix kaempferi forest using a relaxed eddy accumulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Tomoki; Tani, Akira; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Saigusa, Nobuko; Ueyama, Masahito

    2014-02-01

    Terpenoids emitted from forests contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosols and affect the carbon budgets of forest ecosystems. To investigate seasonal variation in terpenoid flux involved in the aerosol formation and carbon budget, we measured the terpenoid flux of a Larix kaempferi forest between May 2011 and May 2012 by using a relaxed eddy accumulation method. Isoprene was emitted from a fern plant species Dryopteris crassirhizoma on the forest floor and monoterpenes from the L. kaempferi. α-Pinene was the dominant compound, but seasonal variation of the monoterpene composition was observed. High isoprene and monoterpene fluxes were observed in July and August. The total monoterpene flux was dependent on temperature, but several unusual high positive fluxes were observed after rain fall events. We found a good correlation between total monoterpene flux and volumetric soil water content (r = 0.88), and used this correlation to estimate monoterpene flux after rain events and calculate annual terpenoid emissions. Annual carbon emission in the form of total monoterpenes plus isoprene was determined to be 0.93% of the net ecosystem exchange. If we do not consider the effect of rain fall, carbon emissions may be underestimated by about 50%. Our results suggest that moisture conditions in the forest soil is a key factor controlling the monoterpene emissions from the forest ecosystem.

  16. Health Plan Performance Measurement within Medicare Subvention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    the causes of poor performance (Siren & Laffel, 1996). Although outcomes measures such as nosocomial infection rates, admission rates for select...defined. Traditional outcomes measures include infection rates, morbidity, and mortality. The problem with these traditional measures is... Maternal /Child Care Indicators Nursing Staffing Indicators Outcome Indicators Technical Outcomes Plan Performance Stability of Health Plan

  17. High-throughput and simultaneous analysis of eight central-acting muscle relaxants in human plasma by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in the positive and negative ionization modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Tadashi; Hattori, Hideki; Kaneko, Rina; Ito, Kenjiro; Iwai, Masae; Mizutani, Yoko; Arinobu, Tetsuya; Ishii, Akira; Seno, Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    In this report, a high-throughput and sensitive method for analysis of eight central-acting muscle relaxants in human plasma by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) in the positive and negative ionization modes using tolbutamide as internal standard is presented. After pretreatment of a plasma sample by solid-phase extraction with an Oasis HLB cartridge, muscle relaxants were analyzed by UPLC with Acquity UPLC BEH C(18) column and Acquity TQD tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization interface. The calibration curves for muscle relaxants spiked into human plasma equally showed good linearities in the nanogram per milliliter order range. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) was as low as 0.1-2 ng/mL. The method gave satisfactory recovery rates, accuracy, and precision for quality control samples spiked with muscle relaxants. To further validate the present method, 250 mg of chlorphenesin carbamate was orally administered to a healthy male volunteer, and the concentrations of chlorphenesin carbamate in plasma were measured 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after dosing; their concentrations in human plasma were between 0.62 and 2.44 μg/mL. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing simultaneous analysis of over more than two central-acting muscle relaxants by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This has been realized by the capability of our instrument for simultaneous multiple reaction monitoring of the target compounds in both positive and negative ionization modes. Therefore, the present method seems very useful in forensic and clinical toxicology and pharmacokinetic studies.

  18. Measuring Distribution Performance? Benchmarking Warrants Your Attention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson, Sean J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Alvarez, Paul [The Wired Group

    2018-04-13

    Identifying, designing, and measuring performance metrics is critical to securing customer value, but can be a difficult task. This article examines the use of benchmarks based on publicly available performance data to set challenging, yet fair, metrics and targets.

  19. Synthesis of work-zone performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The main objective of this synthesis was to identify and summarize how agencies collect, analyze, and report different work-zone : traffic-performance measures, which include exposure, mobility, and safety measures. The researchers also examined comm...

  20. Measuring the performance of business incubators

    OpenAIRE

    VANDERSTRAETEN, Johanna; MATTHYSSENS, Paul; VAN WITTELOOSTUIJN, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on incubator performance measurement. First, we report the findings of an extensive literature review. Both existing individual measures and more comprehensive measurement systems are discussed. This literature review shows that most incubator researchers and practitioners only use one or a few indicators for performance evaluation, and that existing measurement systems do not recognize the importance of short, medium and long-term results, do not always include an incubato...

  1. The service of public services performance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2014-01-01

    that performance measurement serves as “rituals of verification” which promotes the interests of political masters and their mistresses rather than public service. Another area of concern is the cost of performance measurement. Hood & Peters (2004:278) note that performance measurement is likely to “distract...... measurement suggests a range of contested and contradictory propositions. Its alleged benefits include public assurance, better functioning of supply markets for public services, and direct improvements of public services. But the literature also demonstrates the existence of significant concern about...... the actual impact, the costs and unintended consequences associated with performance measurement. This paper identifies the main rationales and rationalities in the scholarly discourse on public services performance measurement. It concludes with some suggestions on how to deal with the many rationales...

  2. COMPANY PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT AND REPORTING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicu Ioana Elena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the priorities of economic research has been and remains the re-evaluation of the notion of performance and especially exploring and finding some indicators that would reflect as accurately as possible the subtleties of the economic entity. The main purpose of this paper is to highlight the main company performance measurement and reporting methods. Performance is a concept that raises many question marks concerning the most accurate or the best method of reporting the performance at the company level. The research methodology has aimed at studying the Romanian and foreign specialized literature dealing with the analyzed field, studying magazines specialized on company performance measurement. If the financial performance measurement indicators are considered to offer an accurate image of the situation of the company, the modern approach through non-financial indicators offers a new perspective upon performance measurement, which is based on simplicity. In conclusion, after the theoretical study, I have noticed that the methods of performance measurement, reporting and interpretation are various, the opinions regarding the best performance measurement methods are contradictive and the companies prefer resorting to financial indicators that still play a more important role in the consolidation of the company performance measurement than the non-financial indicators do.

  3. A Critique of Health System Performance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Health system performance measurement is a ubiquitous phenomenon. Many authors have identified multiple methodological and substantive problems with performance measurement practices. Despite the validity of these criticisms and their cross-national character, the practice of health system performance measurement persists. Theodore Marmor suggests that performance measurement invokes an "incantatory response" wrapped within "linguistic muddle." In this article, I expand upon Marmor's insights using Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework to suggest that, far from an aberration, the "linguistic muddle" identified by Marmor is an indicator of a broad struggle about the representation and classification of public health services as a public good. I present a case study of performance measurement from Alberta, Canada, examining how this representational struggle occurs and what the stakes are. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Does hospital financial performance measure up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleverley, W O; Harvey, R K

    1992-05-01

    Comparisons are continuously being made between the financial performance, products and services, of the healthcare industry and those of non-healthcare industries. Several useful measures of financial performance--profitability, liquidity, financial risk, asset management and replacement, and debt capacity, are used by the authors to compare the financial performance of the hospital industry with that of the industrial, transportation and utility sectors. Hospitals exhibit weaknesses in several areas. Goals are suggested for each measure to bring hospitals closer to competitive levels.

  5. On music performance, theories, measurement en diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, R.; Honing, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of musical performances is of interest to studies in musicology, music psychology and music performance practice, but in general it has not been considered the main issue: when analyzing Western classical music, these disciplines usually focus on the score rather than the performance.

  6. Electron spin relaxation enhancement measurements of interspin distances in human, porcine, and Rhodobacter electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Alistair J; Usselman, Robert J; Watmough, Nicholas; Simkovic, Martin; Frerman, Frank E; Eaton, Gareth R; Eaton, Sandra S

    2008-02-01

    Electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) is a membrane-bound electron transfer protein that links primary flavoprotein dehydrogenases with the main respiratory chain. Human, porcine, and Rhodobacter sphaeroides ETF-QO each contain a single [4Fe-4S](2+,1+) cluster and one equivalent of FAD, which are diamagnetic in the isolated enzyme and become paramagnetic on reduction with the enzymatic electron donor or with dithionite. The anionic flavin semiquinone can be reduced further to diamagnetic hydroquinone. The redox potentials for the three redox couples are so similar that it is not possible to poise the proteins in a state where both the [4Fe-4S](+) cluster and the flavoquinone are fully in the paramagnetic form. Inversion recovery was used to measure the electron spin-lattice relaxation rates for the [4Fe-4S](+) between 8 and 18K and for semiquinone between 25 and 65K. At higher temperatures the spin-lattice relaxation rates for the [4Fe-4S](+) were calculated from the temperature-dependent contributions to the continuous wave linewidths. Although mixtures of the redox states are present, it was possible to analyze the enhancement of the electron spin relaxation of the FAD semiquinone signal due to dipolar interaction with the more rapidly relaxing [4Fe-4S](+) and obtain point-dipole interspin distances of 18.6+/-1A for the three proteins. The point-dipole distances are within experimental uncertainty of the value calculated based on the crystal structure of porcine ETF-QO when spin delocalization is taken into account. The results demonstrate that electron spin relaxation enhancement can be used to measure distances in redox poised proteins even when several redox states are present.

  7. Development of a Behavioral Performance Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cabus Klotzle

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the fifties, several measures have been developed in order to measure the performance of investments or choices involving uncertain outcomes. Much of these measures are based on Expected Utility Theory, but since the nineties a number of measures have been proposed based on Non-Expected Utility Theory. Among the Theories of Non-Expected Utility highlights Prospect Theory, which is the foundation of Behavioral Finance. Based on this theory this study proposes a new performance measure in which are embedded loss aversion along with the likelihood of distortions in the choice of alternatives. A hypothetical example is presented in which various performance measures, including the new measure are compared. The results showed that the ordering of the assets varied depending on the performance measure adopted. According to what was expected, the new performance measure clearly has captured the distortion of probabilities and loss aversion of the decision maker, ie, those assets with the greatest negative deviations from the target were those who had the worst performance.

  8. DEVICE FOR MEASURMENT OF RELAXATION TIME OF THE BLEACHED STATE OF OPTICAL MATERIALS BY THE «PUMP-PROBE» METHOD IN SUB-ΜS TIME DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Glazunov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of passive shutters to control the duration of the light pulses is an important aspect in the miniature and microchip lasers. One of the key spectroscopic characteristics which determine the properties of the material, which can be used as a passive shutter is relaxation time of its bleached state.We describe a device for determination of relaxation time of the bleached state in optical materials by the «pump-probe» method in the sub-μs time domain. This device allows one to determine relaxation times for materials which absorb at the light wavelength of 1.5 μm, e.g., materials doped with cobalt ions Co2+. The results of test examinations of the device are described, and the relaxation time of the bleached state of Co2+ ions is measured for a novel material – transparent glass-ceramics with Co2+:Ga2 O3 nanophase – amounting to 190 ± 6 ns. 

  9. On the Use of Molecular Weight Cutoff Cassettes to Measure Dynamic Relaxivity of Novel Gadolinium Contrast Agents: Example Using Hyaluronic Acid Polymer Complexes in Phosphate-Buffered Saline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Kasraie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine whether standard extracellular contrast agents of Gd(III ions in combination with a polymeric entity susceptible to hydrolytic degradation over a finite period of time, such as Hyaluronic Acid (HA, have sufficient vascular residence time to obtain comparable vascular imaging to current conventional compounds and to obtain sufficient data to show proof of concept that HA with Gd-DTPA ligands could be useful as vascular imaging agents. We assessed the dynamic relaxivity of the HA bound DTPA compounds using a custom-made phantom, as well as relaxation rates at 10.72 MHz with concentrations ranging between 0.09 and 7.96 mM in phosphate-buffered saline. Linear dependences of static longitudinal relaxation rate (R1 on concentration were found for most measured samples, and the HA samples continued to produce high signal strength after 24 hours after injection into a dialysis cassette at 3T, showing superior dynamic relaxivity values compared to conventional contrast media such as Gd-DTPA-BMA.

  10. Performance measures for a dialysis setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiuzhu; Itoh, Kenji

    2018-03-01

    This study from Japan extracted performance measures for dialysis unit management and investigated their characteristics from professional views. Two surveys were conducted using self-administered questionnaires, in which dialysis managers/staff were asked to rate the usefulness of 44 performance indicators. A total of 255 managers and 2,097 staff responded. Eight performance measures were elicited from dialysis manager and staff responses: these were safety, operational efficiency, quality of working life, financial effectiveness, employee development, mortality, patient/employee satisfaction and patient-centred health care. These performance measures were almost compatible with those extracted in overall healthcare settings in a previous study. Internal reliability, content and construct validity of the performance measures for the dialysis setting were ensured to some extent. As a general trend, both dialysis managers and staff perceived performance measures as highly useful, especially for safety, mortality, operational efficiency and patient/employee satisfaction, but showed relatively low concerns for patient-centred health care and employee development. However, dialysis managers' usefulness perceptions were significantly higher than staff. Important guidelines for designing a holistic hospital/clinic management system were yielded. Performance measures must be balanced for outcomes and performance shaping factors (PSF); a common set of performance measures could be applied to all the healthcare settings, although performance indicators of each measure should be composed based on the application field and setting; in addition, sound causal relationships between PSF and outcome measures/indicators should be explored for further improvement. © 2017 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  11. MEASUREMENT: ACCOUNTING FOR RELIABILITY IN PERFORMANCE ESTIMATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Brian; Sutter, Robert; Burroughs, Thomas; Dunagan, W Claiborne

    2014-01-01

    When evaluating physician performance measures, physician leaders are faced with the quandary of determining whether departures from expected physician performance measurements represent a true signal or random error. This uncertainty impedes the physician leader's ability and confidence to take appropriate performance improvement actions based on physician performance measurements. Incorporating reliability adjustment into physician performance measurement is a valuable way of reducing the impact of random error in the measurements, such as those caused by small sample sizes. Consequently, the physician executive has more confidence that the results represent true performance and is positioned to make better physician performance improvement decisions. Applying reliability adjustment to physician-level performance data is relatively new. As others have noted previously, it's important to keep in mind that reliability adjustment adds significant complexity to the production, interpretation and utilization of results. Furthermore, the methods explored in this case study only scratch the surface of the range of available Bayesian methods that can be used for reliability adjustment; further study is needed to test and compare these methods in practice and to examine important extensions for handling specialty-specific concerns (e.g., average case volumes, which have been shown to be important in cardiac surgery outcomes). Moreover, it's important to note that the provider group average as a basis for shrinkage is one of several possible choices that could be employed in practice and deserves further exploration in future research. With these caveats, our results demonstrate that incorporating reliability adjustment into physician performance measurements is feasible and can notably reduce the incidence of "real" signals relative to what one would expect to see using more traditional approaches. A physician leader who is interested in catalyzing performance improvement

  12. Towards integrating environmental performance in divisional performance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins C Ngwakwe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests an integration of environmental performance measurement (EPM into conventional divisional financial performance measures as a catalyst to enhance managers’ drive toward cleaner production and sustainable development. The approach is conceptual and normative; and using a hypothetical firm, it suggests a model to integrate environmental performance measure as an ancillary to conventional divisional financial performance measures. Vroom’s motivation theory and other literature evidence indicate that corporate goals are achievable in an environment where managers’ efforts are recognised and thus rewarded. Consequently the paper suggests that environmentally motivated managers are important to propel corporate sustainability strategy toward desired corporate environmental governance and sustainable economic development. Thus this suggested approach modestly adds to existing environmental management accounting (EMA theory and literature. It is hoped that this paper may provide an agenda for further research toward a practical application of the suggested method in a firm.

  13. Chambers versus Relaxed Eddy Accumulation: an intercomparison study of two methods for short-term measurements of biogenic CO2 fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasek, Alina; Zimnoch, Miroslaw; Gorczyca, Zbigniew; Chmura, Lukasz; Necki, Jaroslaw

    2014-05-01

    The presented work is a part of comprehensive study aimed at thorough characterization of carbon cycle in the urban environment of Krakow, southern Poland. In the framework of this study two independent methods were employed to quantify biogenic CO2 flux in the city: (i) closed chambers, and (ii) Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA). The results of a three-day intensive intercomparison campaign performed in July 2013 and utilizing both measurement methods are reported here. The chamber method is a widely used approach for measurements of gas exchange between the soil and the atmosphere. The system implemented in this study consisted of a single chamber operating in a closed-dynamic mode, combined with Vaisala CarboCAP infrared CO2 sensor in a mobile setup. An alternative flux measurement method, covering larger area is represented by REA, which is a modification of the eddy covariance method. It consists of a 3D anemometer (Gill Windmaster Pro) and the system collecting updraft and downdraft samples to 5-litre Tedlar bags. The CO2 mixing ratios in the collected samples are measured by Picarro G2101i analyzer. The setup consists of two sets of bags so that the sampling can be performed continuously with 15-min temporal resolution. A 48-hectares open meadow located close the city center was chosen as a test site for comparison of the two methods of CO2 flux measurements outlined above. In the middle of the meadow a 3-metre high tripod was installed with the anemometer and REA inlet system. For a period of 46 hours the system was measuring net CO2 flux from the surrounding area. A meteorological conditions and intensity of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were also recorded. In the same time, CO2 flux from several points around the REA inlet was measured with the chamber system, resulting in 93 values for both respiration and net CO2 flux. Chamber results show rather homogenous distribution of the soil CO2 flux (the mean value equal to 40.9 ± 2.2 mmol/m2h), with

  14. Introduction to control system performance measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Garner, K C

    1968-01-01

    Introduction to Control System Performance Measurements presents the methods of dynamic measurements, specifically as they apply to control system and component testing. This book provides an introduction to the concepts of statistical measurement methods.Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the applications of automatic control systems that pervade almost every area of activity ranging from servomechanisms to electrical power distribution networks. This text then discusses the common measurement transducer functions. Other chapters consider the basic wave

  15. Oxygen surface exchange kinetics measurement by simultaneous optical transmission relaxation and impedance spectroscopy: Sr(Ti,Fe)O3-x thin film case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Nicola H; Kim, Jae Jin; Tuller, Harry L

    2018-01-01

    We compare approaches to measure oxygen surface exchange kinetics, by simultaneous optical transmission relaxation (OTR) and AC-impedance spectroscopy (AC-IS), on the same mixed conducting SrTi 0.65 Fe 0.35 O 3-x film. Surface exchange coefficients were evaluated as a function of oxygen activity in the film, controlled by gas partial pressure and/or DC bias applied across the ionically conducting yttria-stabilized zirconia substrate. Changes in measured light transmission through the film over time (relaxations) resulted from optical absorption changes in the film corresponding to changes in its oxygen and oxidized Fe (~Fe 4+ ) concentrations; such relaxation profiles were successfully described by the equation for surface exchange-limited kinetics appropriate for the film geometry. The k chem values obtained by OTR were significantly lower than the AC-IS derived k chem values and k q values multiplied by the thermodynamic factor (bulk or thin film), suggesting a possible enhancement in k by the metal current collectors (Pt, Au). Long-term degradation in k chem and k q values obtained by AC-IS was also attributed to deterioration of the porous Pt current collector, while no significant degradation was observed in the optically derived k chem values. The results suggest that, while the current collector might influence measurements by AC-IS, the OTR method offers a continuous, in situ , and contact-free method to measure oxygen exchange kinetics at the native surfaces of thin films.

  16. Oxygen surface exchange kinetics measurement by simultaneous optical transmission relaxation and impedance spectroscopy: Sr(Ti,Fe)O3-x thin film case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Nicola H.; Kim, Jae Jin; Tuller, Harry L.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract We compare approaches to measure oxygen surface exchange kinetics, by simultaneous optical transmission relaxation (OTR) and AC-impedance spectroscopy (AC-IS), on the same mixed conducting SrTi0.65Fe0.35O3-x film. Surface exchange coefficients were evaluated as a function of oxygen activity in the film, controlled by gas partial pressure and/or DC bias applied across the ionically conducting yttria-stabilized zirconia substrate. Changes in measured light transmission through the film over time (relaxations) resulted from optical absorption changes in the film corresponding to changes in its oxygen and oxidized Fe (~Fe4+) concentrations; such relaxation profiles were successfully described by the equation for surface exchange-limited kinetics appropriate for the film geometry. The kchem values obtained by OTR were significantly lower than the AC-IS derived kchem values and kq values multiplied by the thermodynamic factor (bulk or thin film), suggesting a possible enhancement in k by the metal current collectors (Pt, Au). Long-term degradation in kchem and kq values obtained by AC-IS was also attributed to deterioration of the porous Pt current collector, while no significant degradation was observed in the optically derived kchem values. The results suggest that, while the current collector might influence measurements by AC-IS, the OTR method offers a continuous, in situ, and contact-free method to measure oxygen exchange kinetics at the native surfaces of thin films. PMID:29511391

  17. Internal Performance Measurement Systems: Problems and Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten; Mitchell, Falconer; Nørreklit, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    This article pursues two aims: to identify problems and dangers related to the operational use of internal performance measurement systems of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) type and to provide some guidance on how performance measurement systems may be designed to overcome these problems....... The analysis uses and extends N rreklit's (2000) critique of the BSC by applying the concepts developed therein to contemporary research on the BSC and to the development of practice in performance measurement. The analysis is of relevance for many companies in the Asia-Pacific area as an increasing numbers...

  18. Four-year measurement of methane flux over a temperate forest with a relaxed eddy accumulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakabe, A.; Kosugi, Y.; Ueyama, M.; Hamotani, K.; Takahashi, K.; Iwata, H.; Itoh, M.

    2013-12-01

    Forests are generally assumed to be an atmospheric methane (CH4) sink (Le Mer and Roger, 2001). However, under Asian monsoon climate, forests are subject to wide spatiotemporal range in soil water status, where forest soils often became water-saturated condition heterogeneously. In such warm and humid conditions, forests may act as a CH4 source and/or sink with considerable spatiotemporal variations. Micrometeorological methods such as eddy covariance (EC) method continuously measure spatially-representative flux at a canopy scale without artificial disturbance. In this study, we measured CH4 fluxes over a temperate forest during four-year period using a CH4 analyzer based on tunable diode laser spectroscopy detection with a relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method (Hamotani et al., 1996, 2001). We revealed the amplitude and seasonal variations of canopy-scale CH4 fluxes. The REA method is the attractive alternative to the EC method to measure trace-gas flux because it allows the use of analyzers with an optimal integration time. We also conducted continuous chamber measurements on forest floor to reveal spatial variations in soil CH4 fluxes and its controlling processes. The observations were made in an evergreen coniferous forest in central Japan. The site has a warm temperate monsoon climate with wet summer. Some wetlands were located in riparian zones along streams within the flux footprint area. For the REA method, the sonic anemometer (SAT-550, Kaijo) was mounted on top of the 29-m-tall tower and air was sampled from just below the sonic anemometer to reservoirs according to the direction of vertical wind velocity (w). After accumulating air for 30 minutes, the air in the reservoirs was pulled into a CO2/H2O gas analyzer (LI-840, Li-Cor) and a CH4 analyzer (FMA-200, Los Gatos Research). Before entering the analyzers, the sampled air was dried using a gas dryer (PD-50 T-48; Perma Pure Inc.). The REA flux is obtained from the difference in the mean concentrations

  19. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, C.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis? It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment's final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis? A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results

  20. Telerobotic system performance measurement - Motivation and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondraske, George V.; Khoury, George J.

    1992-01-01

    A systems performance-based strategy for modeling and conducting experiments relevant to the design and performance characterization of telerobotic systems is described. A developmental testbed consisting of a distributed telerobotics network and initial efforts to implement the strategy described is presented. Consideration is given to the general systems performance theory (GSPT) to tackle human performance problems as a basis for: measurement of overall telerobotic system (TRS) performance; task decomposition; development of a generic TRS model; and the characterization of performance of subsystems comprising the generic model. GSPT employs a resource construct to model performance and resource economic principles to govern the interface of systems to tasks. It provides a comprehensive modeling/measurement strategy applicable to complex systems including both human and artificial components. Application is presented within the framework of a distributed telerobotics network as a testbed. Insight into the design of test protocols which elicit application-independent data is described.

  1. Performance measurement in transport sector analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Išoraitė

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the following issues: 1. Performance measurement in literature. The performance measurement has an important role to play in the efficient and effective management of organizations. Kaplan and Johnson highlighted the failure of the financial measures to reflect changes in the competitive circumstances and strategies of modern organizations. Many authors have focused attention on how organizations can design more appropriate measurement systems. Based on literature, consultancy experience and action research, numerous processes have been developed that organizations can follow in order to design and implement systems. Many frameworks have been proposed that support these processes. The objective of such frameworks is to help organizations define a set of measures that reflect their objectives and assess their performance appropriately. 2. Transport sector performance and its impacts measuring. The purpose of transport measurement is to identify opportunities enhancing transport performance. Successful transport sector management requires a system to analyze its efficiency and effectiveness as well as plan interventions if transport sector performance needs improvement. Transport impacts must be measurable and monitorable so that the person responsible for the project intervention can decide when and how to influence them. Performance indicators provide a means to measure and monitor impacts. These indicators essentially reflect quantitative and qualitative aspects of impacts at given time and places. 3. Transport sector output and input. Transport sector inputs are the resources required to deliver transport sector outputs. Transport sector inputs are typically: human resources, particularly skilled resources (including specialists consulting inputs; technology processes such as equipment and work; and finance, both public and private. 4. Transport sector policy and institutional framework; 5. Cause – effect linkages; 6

  2. Road weather management performance measures : 2012 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    In 2007, the Road Weather Management Program (RWMP) conducted a study with stakeholders from the transportation and meteorological communities to define eleven performance measures that would enable the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to determ...

  3. Performance measures for metropolitan planning organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Performance measurement is a topic of increasing importance to transportation agencies, as issues with : funding shortfalls and concerns about transportation system efficiency lead to a shift in how transportation : decision making is carried out. In...

  4. Smart city performance measurement framework. CITYkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Airaksinen, M.; Seppa, I.P.; Huovilla, A.; Neumann, H.M.; Iglar, B.; Bosch, P.R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a holistic performance measurement framework for harmonized and transparent monitoring and comparability of the European cities activities during the implementation of Smart City solutions. The work methodology was based on extensive collaboration and communication with European

  5. Study of vortex dynamics with local magnetic relaxation measurements in the superconducting compound Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, St.

    2000-01-01

    This experimental study of the magnetic field-temperature phase diagram and of the vortex dynamics in high- T c superconductors focuses on Bismuth-based cuprates: Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 . In type-II superconductors, mixed state characterized by the presence of vortices (quanta of magnetic flux) is divided by a transition line determined by two features of magnetization loops. For T > 40 K, magnetization loops vs applied field show a step evidence of a first order transition. From 20 to 40 K, a second peak replacing the step correspond to an abrupt increase of irreversibility interpreted as a bulk current. We want to understand the nature of the second peak (thermodynamic or nonequilibrium property) and separate phenomena contributing to irreversibility (flux pinning, geometrical or surface effects). Magnetic measurement techniques are nondestructive and have a resolution of few microns. Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 single crystals are optimized by localizing defectives regions with a magneto-optic technique for flux imaging and elimination of these regions with a wire saw. Local magnetization loops and relaxation measurements performed with a microscopic Hall probe array allow to distinguish irreversibility sources. The shape of induction profiles indicates which current dominate between surface current and bulk pinning induced current. Two crossover with time and a direct observation of two phases coexistence in induction profiles enlighten phenomena in play. The measured electric field-current density characteristics lead to barrier energy U(j) controlling thermally activated flux motion. Three relations (U(j) (surface, bulk low and high field) explain second peak. (author)

  6. Work zone performance measures pilot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Currently, a well-defined and validated set of metrics to use in monitoring work zone performance do not : exist. This pilot test was conducted to assist state DOTs in identifying what work zone performance : measures can and should be targeted, what...

  7. ASUPT Automated Objective Performance Measurement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, Wayne L.; And Others

    To realize its full research potential, a need exists for the development of an automated objective pilot performance evaluation system for use in the Advanced Simulation in Undergraduate Pilot Training (ASUPT) facility. The present report documents the approach taken for the development of performance measures and also presents data collected…

  8. Environmental Measurements Laboratory 2002 Unit Performance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-10-01

    This EML Unit Performance Plan provides the key goals and performance measures for FY 2002 and continuing to FY 2003. The purpose of the Plan is to inform EML's stakeholders and customers of the Laboratory's products and services, and its accomplishments and future challenges. Also incorporated in the Unit Performance Plan is EML's Communication Plan for FY 2002.

  9. In-situ measurement of the strain relaxation of GaN nanograins during X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Hyeokmin; Lee, Sanghwa; Sohn, Yuri; Kim, Chinkyo

    2008-01-01

    GaN nanograins were grown on a c-plane sapphire substrate and their strain relaxation due to X-ray irradiation was investigated in-situ by utilizing synchrotron xray scattering. The GaN nanograins were constantly exposed to the synchrotron X-ray and θ-2θ scans through the (002) Bragg peak of GaN were repeatedly carried out during the irradiation. The Bragg peak of the compressively strained GaN nanograins gradually shifted toward higher angle, which implies that the GaN nanograins in compressive strain experienced strain relaxation during X-ray irradiation. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Assessment of a relaxed eddy accumulation for measurements of fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds: Study over arable crops and a mature beech forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallagher, M.W.; Clayborough, R.; Beswick, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    A relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system, based on the design by Beverland et al. (Journal of Geophysics Research 101 (D17) 22, 807-22, 815), for the measurement of biogenic VOC species was evaluated by intercomparison with an eddy correlation CO2 flux system over a mature deciduous beech canopy...... (Fagus Sylvatica) during the FOREXNOX program. Measurements from a site where winter wheat and barley (Hordeum Vulgare ann Triticum Aestivum) were being harvested are also presented. The system was inter-compared with two different eddy correlation systems for measuring CO2 fluxes. Good results were...

  11. Measuring performance in virtual reality phacoemulsification surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, Per; Laurell, Carl-Gustaf; Simawi, Wamidh; Skarman, Eva; Nordh, Leif; Nordqvist, Per

    2008-02-01

    We have developed a virtual reality (VR) simulator for phacoemulsification surgery. The current work aimed at developing a relative performance index that characterizes the performance of an individual trainee. We recorded measurements of 28 response variables during three iterated surgical sessions in 9 experienced cataract surgeons, separately for the sculpting phase and the evacuation phase of phacoemulsification surgery and compared their outcome to that of a reference group of naive trainees. We defined an individual overall performance index, an individual class specific performance index and an individual variable specific performance index. We found that on an average the experienced surgeons performed at a lower level than a reference group of naive trainees but that this was particularly attributed to a few surgeons. When their overall performance index was further analyzed as class specific performance index and variable specific performance index it was found that the low level performance was attributed to a behavior that is acceptable for an experienced surgeon but not for a naive trainee. It was concluded that relative performance indices should use a reference group that corresponds to the measured individual since the definition of optimal surgery may vary among trainee groups depending on their level of experience.

  12. APPROXIMATIONS TO PERFORMANCE MEASURES IN QUEUING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambo, N. S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Approximations to various performance measures in queuing systems have received considerable attention because these measures have wide applicability. In this paper we propose two methods to approximate the queuing characteristics of a GI/M/1 system. The first method is non-parametric in nature, using only the first three moments of the arrival distribution. The second method treads the known path of approximating the arrival distribution by a mixture of two exponential distributions by matching the first three moments. Numerical examples and optimal analysis of performance measures of GI/M/1 queues are provided to illustrate the efficacy of the methods, and are compared with benchmark approximations.

  13. Effectiveness of relaxation techniques before diagnostic screening of cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Aiger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychophysiological arousal was observed in cancer patients during the application of relaxation techniques prior to a diagnostic scan (PET-CT. The aim of the study is twofold: firstly, it is sought to establish whether such techniques can minimize patient arousal before diagnostic screening begins, and secondly to measure which of them are most effective. The dependent variable is electrodermal activity, recording the attentional level and emotional response, and the independent variable comprises the relaxation techniques used, namely Jacobson, breathing and visualization. The 39 patients were split into experimental groups to whom the relaxation techniques (Jacobson, breathing exercises, and visualization were applied before they went for the PET-CT. An activity-module procedure was applied to track electrodermal activity during the relaxation sessions, consisting of instructions, timeout; wait, task; relaxation and end of the recording session. The control group received no relaxation techniques before the PET-CT. Session-end results show that patients who perform relaxation techniques achieve greater attentional focus using Jacobson's technique (M = .212 and enhanced emotional containment using visualization (M = .206. It is concluded that relaxation techniques minimize the state of activation during the waiting period before a diagnostic scan.

  14. Reconsidering the measurement of ancillary service performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, D T; Rauscher, J A

    1987-08-01

    Prospective payment reimbursement systems have forced hospitals to review their costs more carefully. The result of the increased emphasis on costs is that many hospitals use costs, rather than margin, to judge the performance of ancillary services. However, arbitrary selection of performance measures for ancillary services can result in managerial decisions contrary to hospital objectives. Managerial accounting systems provide models which assist in the development of performance measures for ancillary services. Selection of appropriate performance measures provides managers with the incentive to pursue goals congruent with those of the hospital overall. This article reviews the design and implementation of managerial accounting systems, and considers the impact of prospective payment systems and proposed changes in capital reimbursement on this process.

  15. Measurement Of Shariah Stock Performance Using Risk Adjusted Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhairan Y Yunan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the shariah stock performance using risk adjusted performance method. There are three parameters to measure the stock performance i.e. Sharpe, Treynor, and Jensen. This performance’s measurements calculate the return and risk factor from shariah stocks. The data that used on this research is using the data of stocks at Jakarta Islamic Index. Sampling method that used on this paper is purposive sampling. This research is using ten companies as a sample. The result shows that from three parameters, the stock that have a best performance are AALI, ANTM, ASII, CPIN, INDF, KLBF, LSIP, and UNTR.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v7i1.1364

  16. Developing Human Performance Measures (PSAM8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey C. Joe

    2006-01-01

    Through the reactor oversight process (ROP), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors the performance of utilities licensed to operate nuclear power plants. The process is designed to assure public health and safety by providing reasonable assurance that licensees are meeting the cornerstones of safety and designated crosscutting elements. The reactor inspection program, together with performance indicators (PIs), and enforcement activities form the basis for the NRC's risk-informed, performance based regulatory framework. While human performance is a key component in the safe operation of nuclear power plants and is a designated cross-cutting element of the ROP, there is currently no direct inspection or performance indicator for assessing human performance. Rather, when human performance is identified as a substantive cross cutting element in any 1 of 3 categories (resources, organizational or personnel), it is then evaluated for common themes to determine if follow-up actions are warranted. However, variability in human performance occurs from day to day, across activities that vary in complexity, and workgroups, contributing to the uncertainty in the outcomes of performance. While some variability in human performance may be random, much of the variability may be attributed to factors that are not currently assessed. There is a need to identify and assess aspects of human performance that relate to plant safety and to develop measures that can be used to successfully assure licensee performance and indicate when additional investigation may be required. This paper presents research that establishes a technical basis for developing human performance measures. In particular, we discuss: (1) how historical data already gives some indication of connection between human performance and overall plant performance, (2) how industry led efforts to measure and model human performance and organizational factors could serve as a data source and basis for a

  17. Objective measurement of minimal fat in normal skeletal muscles of healthy children using T2 relaxation time mapping (T2 maps) and MR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Serai, Suraj; Merrow, Arnold C; Wang, Lily; Horn, Paul S; Laor, Tal

    2014-02-01

    Various skeletal muscle diseases result in fatty infiltration, making it important to develop noninvasive biomarkers to objectively measure muscular fat. We compared T2 relaxation time mapping (T2 maps) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) with physical characteristics previously correlated with intramuscular fat to validate T2 maps and MRS as objective measures of skeletal muscle fat. We evaluated gluteus maximus muscles in 30 healthy boys (ages 5-19 years) at 3 T with T1-weighted images, T2-W images with fat saturation, T2 maps with and without fat saturation, and MR spectroscopy. We calculated body surface area (BSA), body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile (BMI %). We performed fat and inflammation grading on T1-W imaging and fat-saturated T2-W imaging, respectively. Mean T2 values from T2 maps with fat saturation were subtracted from T2 maps without fat saturation to determine T2 fat values. We obtained lipid-to-water ratios by MR spectroscopy. Pearson correlation was used to assess relationships between BSA, BMI, BMI %, T2 fat values, and lipid-to-water ratios for each boy. Twenty-four boys completed all exams; 21 showed minimal and 3 showed no fatty infiltration. None showed muscle inflammation. There was correlation between BSA, BMI, and BMI %, and T2 fat values (P values and lipid-to-water ratios (P skeletal muscles, even in microscopic amounts, and validate each other. Both techniques might enable detection of minimal pathological fatty infiltration in children with skeletal muscle disorders.

  18. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, C.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment's final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  19. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, C

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis? It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment`s final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis? A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  20. Ambulatory care registered nurse performance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Beth Ann; Haas, Sheila A; Chow, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    On March 1-2, 2010, a state-of-the-science invitational conference titled "Ambulatory Care Registered Nurse Performance Measurement" was held to focus on measuring quality at the RN provider level in ambulatory care. The conference was devoted to ambulatory care RN performance measurement and quality of health care. The specific emphasis was on formulating a research agenda and developing a strategy to study the testable components of the RN role related to care coordination and care transitions, improving patient outcomes, decreasing health care costs, and promoting sustainable system change. The objectives were achieved through presentations and discussion among expert inter-professional participants from nursing, public health, managed care, research, practice, and policy. Conference speakers identified priority areas for a unified practice, policy, and research agenda. Crucial elements of the strategic dialogue focused on issues and implications for nursing and inter-professional practice, quality, and pay-for-performance.

  1. Procedure to Measure Indoor Lighting Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Blair, N.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    This document provides standard definitions of performance metrics and methods to determine them for the energy performance of building interior lighting systems. It can be used for existing buildings and for proposed buildings. The primary users for whom these documents are intended are building energy analysts and technicians who design, install, and operate data acquisition systems, and who analyze and report building energy performance data. Typical results from the use of this procedure are the monthly and annual energy used for lighting, energy savings from occupancy or daylighting controls, and the percent of the total building energy use that is used by the lighting system. The document is not specifically intended for retrofit applications. However, it does complement Measurement and Verification protocols that do not provide detailed performance metrics or measurement procedures.

  2. Performance measures for transform data coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, J.; Andrews, H. C.; Pratt, W. K.

    1972-01-01

    This paper develops performance criteria for evaluating transform data coding schemes under computational constraints. Computational constraints that conform with the proposed basis-restricted model give rise to suboptimal coding efficiency characterized by a rate-distortion relation R(D) similar in form to the theoretical rate-distortion function. Numerical examples of this performance measure are presented for Fourier, Walsh, Haar, and Karhunen-Loeve transforms.

  3. Measurement of strain and strain relaxation in free-standing Si membranes by convergent beam electron diffraction and finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, H., E-mail: hongye18@mm.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Ikeda, K.; Hata, S.; Nakashima, H. [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Wang, D.; Nakashima, H. [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Bridge-shaped free-standing Si membranes (FSSM), strained by low-pressure (LP) Si{sub x}N{sub y}, plasma-enhanced (PE) Si{sub x}N{sub y} and Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} stressors, were measured by convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) and the finite element method (FEM). The results of CBED show that, while the strain along the length of the FSSM is compressive in an LPSi{sub x}N{sub y}/Si sample, those along the length of the FSSM are tensile in PESi{sub x}N{sub y}/Si and Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}/Si samples. The average absolute values of strains are different in FSSM with LPSi{sub x}N{sub y}, PESi{sub x}N{sub y} and Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} as stressors. The FEM was used to compensate the results of CBED taking into account the strain relaxation in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) sample preparation. The FEM results give the strain properties in three dimensions, and are in good agreement with the results of CBED. There is approximately no strain relaxation along the length of FSSM, and the elastic strains along the other two axes in FSSM are partially relaxed by thinning down for the preparation of TEM samples.

  4. Measurement of strain and strain relaxation in free-standing Si membranes by convergent beam electron diffraction and finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, H.; Ikeda, K.; Hata, S.; Nakashima, H.; Wang, D.; Nakashima, H.

    2011-01-01

    Bridge-shaped free-standing Si membranes (FSSM), strained by low-pressure (LP) Si x N y , plasma-enhanced (PE) Si x N y and Si x Ge 1-x stressors, were measured by convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) and the finite element method (FEM). The results of CBED show that, while the strain along the length of the FSSM is compressive in an LPSi x N y /Si sample, those along the length of the FSSM are tensile in PESi x N y /Si and Si x Ge 1-x /Si samples. The average absolute values of strains are different in FSSM with LPSi x N y , PESi x N y and Si x Ge 1-x as stressors. The FEM was used to compensate the results of CBED taking into account the strain relaxation in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) sample preparation. The FEM results give the strain properties in three dimensions, and are in good agreement with the results of CBED. There is approximately no strain relaxation along the length of FSSM, and the elastic strains along the other two axes in FSSM are partially relaxed by thinning down for the preparation of TEM samples.

  5. Muon spin-relaxation measurements of spin-correlation decay in spin-glass AgMn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffner, R.H.; Cooke, D.W.; Leon, M.; Schillaci, M.E.; MacLaughlin, D.E.; Gupta, L.C.

    1983-01-01

    The field (H) dependence of the muon longitudinal spin-lattice relaxation rate well below the spin-glass temperature in AgMn is found to obey an algebraic form given by (H)/sup nu-1/, with nu = 0.54 +- 0.05. This suggests that Mn spin correlations decay with time as t - /sup nu/, in agreement with mean field theories of spin-glass dynamics which yield nu less than or equal to 0.5. Near the glass temperature the agreement between the data and theory is not as good

  6. Inter-comparison of Flux-Gradient and Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Methods for Measuring Ammonia Flux Above a Corn Canopy in Central Illinois, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, A. J.; Koloutsou-Vakakis, S.; Rood, M. J.; Lichiheb, N.; Heuer, M.; Myles, L.

    2017-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is a precursor to fine particulate matter (PM) in the ambient atmosphere. Agricultural activities represent over 80% of anthropogenic emissions of NH3 in the United States. The use of nitrogen-based fertilizers contribute > 50% of total NH3 emissions in central Illinois. The U.S. EPA Science Advisory Board has called for improved methods to measure, model, and report atmospheric NH3 concentrations and emissions from agriculture. High uncertainties in the temporal and spatial distribution of NH3 emissions contribute to poor performance of air quality models in predicting ambient PM concentrations. This study reports and compares NH­3 flux measurements of differing temporal resolution obtained with two methods: relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) and flux-gradient (FG). REA and FG systems were operated concurrently above a corn canopy at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI) Energy Farm during the 2014 corn-growing season. The REA system operated during daytime, providing average fluxes over four-hour sampling intervals, where time resolution was limited by detection limit of denuders. The FG system employed a cavity ring-down spectrometer, and was operated continuously, reporting 30 min flux averages. A flux-footprint evaluation was used for quality control, resulting in 1,178 qualified FG measurements, 82 of which were coincident with REA measurements. Similar emission trends were observed with both systems, with peak NH3 emission observed one week after fertilization. For all coincident samples, mean NH3 flux was 205 ± 300 ng-N-m2s-1 and 110 ± 256 ng-N-m2s-1 as measured with REA and FG, respectively, where positive flux indicates emission. This is the first reported inter-comparison of REA and FG methods as used for quantifying NH3 fluxes from cropland. Preliminary analysis indicates the improved temporal resolution and continuous sampling enabled by FG allow for the identification of emission pulses

  7. Capturing molecular multimode relaxation processes in excitable gases based on decomposition of acoustic relaxation spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Kesheng

    2017-08-01

    Existing two-frequency reconstructive methods can only capture primary (single) molecular relaxation processes in excitable gases. In this paper, we present a reconstructive method based on the novel decomposition of frequency-dependent acoustic relaxation spectra to capture the entire molecular multimode relaxation process. This decomposition of acoustic relaxation spectra is developed from the frequency-dependent effective specific heat, indicating that a multi-relaxation process is the sum of the interior single-relaxation processes. Based on this decomposition, we can reconstruct the entire multi-relaxation process by capturing the relaxation times and relaxation strengths of N interior single-relaxation processes, using the measurements of acoustic absorption and sound speed at 2N frequencies. Experimental data for the gas mixtures CO2-N2 and CO2-O2 validate our decomposition and reconstruction approach.

  8. Corporate Social Performance: From Output Measurement to Impact Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E.H. Maas (Karen)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAll organisations have social, environmental and economic impacts that effect people, their communities and the natural environment. Impacts include intended as well as unintended effects and negative as well as positive effects. Current practice in performance measurement tends to focus

  9. Application of data mining in performance measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Michael F. S.; Chung, Walter W.; Wong, Tai Sun

    2001-10-01

    This paper proposes a structured framework for exploiting data mining application for performance measures. The context is set in an airline company is illustrated for the use of such framework. The framework takes in consideration of how a knowledge worker interacts with performance information at the enterprise level to support them to make informed decision in managing the effectiveness of operations. A case study of applying data mining technology for performance data in an airline company is illustrated. The use of performance measures is specifically applied to assist in the aircraft delay management process. The increasingly dispersed and complex operations of airline operation put much strain on the part of knowledge worker in using search, acquiring and analyzing information to manage performance. One major problem faced with knowledge workers is the identification of root causes of performance deficiency. The large amount of factors involved in the analyze the root causes can be time consuming and the objective of applying data mining technology is to reduce the time and resources needed for such process. The increasing market competition for better performance management in various industries gives rises to need of the intelligent use of data. Because of this, the framework proposed here is very much generalizable to industries such as manufacturing. It could assist knowledge workers who are constantly looking for ways to improve operation effectiveness through new initiatives and the effort is required to be quickly done to gain competitive advantage in the marketplace.

  10. Frequency Control Performance Measurement and Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illian, Howard F.

    2010-12-20

    Frequency control is an essential requirement of reliable electric power system operations. Determination of frequency control depends on frequency measurement and the practices based on these measurements that dictate acceptable frequency management. This report chronicles the evolution of these measurements and practices. As technology progresses from analog to digital for calculation, communication, and control, the technical basis for frequency control measurement and practices to determine acceptable performance continues to improve. Before the introduction of digital computing, practices were determined largely by prior experience. In anticipation of mandatory reliability rules, practices evolved from a focus primarily on commercial and equity issues to an increased focus on reliability. This evolution is expected to continue and place increased requirements for more precise measurements and a stronger scientific basis for future frequency management practices in support of reliability.

  11. CITYkeys Smart city performance measurement system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huovila, A.; Airaksinen, M.; Pinto-Seppa, I.; Piira, K.; Bosch, P.R.; Penttinen, T.; Neumann, H.M.; Kontinakis, N.

    2017-01-01

    Cities are tackling their economic, social and environmental challenges through smart city solutions. To demonstrate that these solutions achieve the desired impact, an indicator-based assessment system is needed. This paper presents the process of developing CITYkeys performance measurement system

  12. The Validity of Subjective Performance Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kenneth J.; Winter, Søren C.; O'Toole, Laurence J.

    2015-01-01

    to provide, and are highly policy specific rendering generalization difficult. But are perceptual performance measures valid, and do they generate unbiased findings? We examine these questions in a comparative study of middle managers in schools in Texas and Denmark. The findings are remarkably similar...

  13. Performance Measurement in Helicopter Training and Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prophet, Wallace W.

    For almost 15 years, HumRRO Division No. 6 has conducted an active research program on techniques for measuring the flight performance of helicopter trainees and pilots. This program addressed both the elemental aspects of flying (i.e., maneuvers) and the mission- or goal-oriented aspects. A variety of approaches has been investigated, with the…

  14. Testing for Distortions in Performance Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2015-01-01

    Distorted performance measures in compensation contracts elicit suboptimal behavioral responses that may even prove to be dysfunctional (gaming). This paper applies the empirical test developed by Courty and Marschke (Review of Economics and Statistics, 90, 428-441) to detect whether the widely...

  15. Testing for Distortions in Performance Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Distorted performance measures in compensation contracts elicit suboptimal behavioral responses that may even prove to be dysfunctional (gaming). This paper applies the empirical test developed by Courty and Marschke (2008) to detect whether the widely used class of Residual Income based performa...

  16. Performance measurement in industrial R&D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssens-van Drongelen, I.C.; Nixon, Bill; Pearson, Alan

    2000-01-01

    Currently, the need for R&D performance measurements that are both practically useful and theoretically sound seems to be generally acknowledged; indeed, the rising cost of R&D, greater emphasis on value management and a trend towards decentralization are escalating the need for ways of evaluating

  17. External Innovation Implementation Determinants and Performance Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coates, Matthew; Bals, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    for innovation implementation based on a case study in the pharmaceutical industry. The results of 25 expert interviews and a survey with 67 respondents led to the resulting framework and a corresponding performance measurement system. The results reveal the importance of supporting systems and show differences...

  18. 20 CFR 638.302 - Performance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Performance measurement. 638.302 Section 638.302 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Funding, Site Selection, and Facilities Management...

  19. Tools for Measuring and Improving Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurow, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains the need for meaningful performance measures in libraries and the Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to data collection. Five tools representing different stages of a TQM inquiry are covered (i.e., the Shewhart Cycle, flowcharts, cause-and-effect diagrams, Pareto charts, and control charts), and benchmarking is addressed. (Contains…

  20. Performance measures for world class maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labib, A.W.

    1998-01-01

    A main problem in maintenance in general, and in power plants and related equipment in particular, is the lack of a practical, consistent, and adaptive performance measure that provides a focused feedback and integrates preventive and corrective modes of maintenance. The presentation defines concepts of world class and benchmarking. Desirable features in an appropriate performance measure are identified. It then, demonstrates current practices in maintenance and criticises their shortcomings. An alternative model is presented through a case study. The model monitors performance from a general view, and then offers a focused analysis. The main conclusion is that the proposed model offers an adaptive and a dynamic framework, and hence production and maintenance are integrated in a 'real time' environment. The system is also flexible in working with any other criteria whether they are of a quantitative or a qualitative nature. (orig.) 16 refs

  1. Performance measures for world class maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labib, A.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    A main problem in maintenance in general, and in power plants and related equipment in particular, is the lack of a practical, consistent, and adaptive performance measure that provides a focused feedback and integrates preventive and corrective modes of maintenance. The presentation defines concepts of world class and benchmarking. Desirable features in an appropriate performance measure are identified. It then, demonstrates current practices in maintenance and criticises their shortcomings. An alternative model is presented through a case study. The model monitors performance from a general view, and then offers a focused analysis. The main conclusion is that the proposed model offers an adaptive and a dynamic framework, and hence production and maintenance are integrated in a `real time` environment. The system is also flexible in working with any other criteria whether they are of a quantitative or a qualitative nature. (orig.) 16 refs.

  2. Performance measures for world class maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labib, A W [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1999-12-31

    A main problem in maintenance in general, and in power plants and related equipment in particular, is the lack of a practical, consistent, and adaptive performance measure that provides a focused feedback and integrates preventive and corrective modes of maintenance. The presentation defines concepts of world class and benchmarking. Desirable features in an appropriate performance measure are identified. It then, demonstrates current practices in maintenance and criticises their shortcomings. An alternative model is presented through a case study. The model monitors performance from a general view, and then offers a focused analysis. The main conclusion is that the proposed model offers an adaptive and a dynamic framework, and hence production and maintenance are integrated in a `real time` environment. The system is also flexible in working with any other criteria whether they are of a quantitative or a qualitative nature. (orig.) 16 refs.

  3. Experiments in paramagnetic relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijphart, E.E.

    1976-01-01

    This thesis presents two attempts to improve the resolving power of the relaxation measurement technique. The first attempt reconsiders the old technique of steady state saturation. When used in conjunction with the pulse technique, it offers the possibility of obtaining additional information about the system in which all-time derivatives are zero; in addition, non-linear effects may be distinguished from each other. The second attempt involved a systematic study of only one system: Cu in the Tutton salts (K and Rb). The systematic approach, the high accuracy of the measurement and the sheer amount of experimental data for varying temperature, magnetic field and concentration made it possible in this case to separate the prevailing relaxation mechanisms reliably

  4. Improvement an enterprises marketing performance measurement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Business conditions in which modern enterprises do business are more and more complex. The complexity of the business environment is caused by activities of external and internal factors, which imposes the need for the turn in management focus. One of key turns is related to the need of adaptation and development of new business performance evaluation systems. The evaluation of marketing contribution to business performance is very important however a complex task as well. The marketing theory and practice indicates the need for developing adequate standards and systems for evaluating the efficiency of marketing decisions. The better understanding of marketing standards and ways that managers use is a very important factor that affects the efficiency of strategic decision-making. The paper presents the results of researching the way in which managers perceive and apply marketing performance measures. The data that were received through the field research sample enabled the consideration of the managers' attitudes on practical ways of implementing marketing performance measurement and identifying measures that managers imply as used mostly in business practice.

  5. Total performance measurement and management: TPM2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheather, G. [University of Technology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1996-10-01

    As the rate of incremental improvement activities and business process re-engineering programs increase, product development times reduce, collaborative endeavours between OEMs and out-sourcing suppliers increase, as agile manufacturing responds to the demands of a global marketplace, the `virtual` organisation is becoming a reality. In this context, customers, partners, suppliers and manufacturers are increasingly separated by field geography, time zone, and availability, but linked by distributed information systems. Measuring and monitoring business performance in this environment requires a entirely different framework and set of key performance indicators (KPIs) usually associated with traditional financial accounting approaches. These approaches are critiqued, then the paper introduces a new concept `Total Performance Measurement Management` (TPM2), to distinguish it from the conventional TPM (Total Productive Management). A model for combining both financial and non-financial KPIs relevant to real-time performance measures stretching across strategic, business unit and operational levels, is presented. The results of the model confirm the hypothesis that it is feasible to develop a TPM2 framework for achieving enterprise wide strategic objectives. (author). 6 tabs., 18 figs., refs.

  6. Performance expectations of measurement control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    The principal index for designing and assessing the effectiveness of safeguards is the sensitivity and reliability of gauging the true status of material balances involving material flows, transfers, inventories, and process holdup. The measurement system must not only be capable of characterizing the material for gradation or intensity of protection, but also be responsive to needs for detection and localization of losses, provide confirmation that no diversion has occurred, and help meet requirements for process control, health and safety. Consequently, the judicious application of a measurement control and quality assurance program is vital to a complete understanding of the capabilities and limitations of the measurement system including systematic and random components of error for weight, volume, sampling, chemical, isotopic, and nondestructive determinations of material quantities in each material balance area. This paper describes performance expectations or criteria for a measurement control program in terms of ''what'' is desired and ''why'', relative to safeguards and security objectives

  7. Devise for measuring the nuclear quadrupole resonance weak signal relaxation at the ISSh-1-12 spectrometer with the SIGMA digital storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyavskij, V.N.; Konstantinov, G.I.

    1984-01-01

    The device, consisting of an analog memory device and the Karr-Parsell pulse programming device (radio frequency pulse train is 90 deg - tau - 180 deg - 2 tau - 180 deg - 2 tau ..., where tau is the interval between 90 deg - and 180 deg - pulses), is described. The device is destined for measurement of the time T 2 of nuclear quadrupole resonance spin-spin relaxation weak signal with signal-to-noise ratio 0 - 10 4 ), pulse numbers in series are 2-1024, start output signal amplitude >= 22 V, duration is 1 μs. The device may be also used in pulsed nuclear magnetic and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

  8. Coming up short on nonfinancial performance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittner, Christopher D; Larcker, David F

    2003-11-01

    Companies in increasing numbers are measuring customer loyalty, employee satisfaction, and other nonfinancial areas of performance that they believe affect profitability. But they've failed to relate these measures to their strategic goals or establish a connection between activities undertaken and financial outcomes achieved. Failure to make such connections has led many companies to misdirect their investments and reward ineffective managers. Extensive field research now shows that businesses make some common mistakes when choosing, analyzing, and acting on their nonfinancial measures. Among these mistakes: They set the wrong performance targets because they focus too much on short-term financial results, and they use metrics that lack strong statistical validity and reliability. As a result, the companies can't demonstrate that improvements in nonfinancial measures actually affect their financial results. The authors lay out a series of steps that will allow companies to realize the genuine promise of nonfinancial performance measures. First, develop a model that proposes a causal relationship between the chosen nonfinancial drivers of strategic success and specific outcomes. Next, take careful inventory of all the data within your company. Then use established statistical methods for validating the assumed relationships and continue to test the model as market conditions evolve. Finally, base action plans on analysis of your findings, and determine whether those plans and their investments actually produce the desired results. Nonfinancial measures will offer little guidance unless you use a process for choosing and analyzing them that relies on sophisticated quantitative and qualitative inquiries into the factors actually contributing to economic results.

  9. Measurement of solute proton spin-lattice relaxation times in water using the 1,3,3,1 sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, S.S.; Mole, P.A.; Coulson, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    1 H NMR spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of the N-CH3 proton resonances of phosphocreatine (PCr) and creatine (Cr) in water solutions were obtained using the 1,3,3,1 pulse sequence. These T1 values were equivalent to those obtained in D 2 O and water using either the conventional inversion-recovery experiment or the 1,3,3,1 pulse sequence. Thus, the 1,3,3,1 sequence of proton NMR can provide an independent means along with phosphorous NMR for assess PCr and for the study of the creatine kinase reaction (PCr + ADP in equilibrium ATP + Cr) in aqueous solutions and perhaps in biological preparations

  10. Approaches towards airport economic performance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana STRYČEKOVÁ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to assess how economic benchmarking is being used by airports as a means of performance measurement and comparison of major international airports in the world. The study focuses on current benchmarking practices and methods by taking into account different factors according to which it is efficient to benchmark airports performance. As methods are considered mainly data envelopment analysis and stochastic frontier analysis. Apart from them other approaches are discussed by airports to provide economic benchmarking. The main objective of this article is to evaluate the efficiency of the airports and answer some undetermined questions involving economic benchmarking of the airports.

  11. MODERN INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASURING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU CATALINA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Any significant management action can be assessed both in terms of success of immediate goals and as effect of the organization ability to embrace change. Market competition intensifies with the development of Romanian society and its needs. Companies that offer different products and services need to impose certain advantages and to increase their performances. The paper will present modern tools for measuring and evaluating organizational performance, namely: Balanced Scorecard, Deming model and Baldrige model. We also present an example for Balance Scorecard, of an organizations belonging to the cosmetics industry.

  12. Acceleration of natural-abundance solid-state MAS NMR measurements on bone by paramagnetic relaxation from gadolinium-DTPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroue, Kamal H.; Zhang, Rongchun; Zhu, Peizhi; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-07-01

    Reducing the data collection time without affecting the signal intensity and spectral resolution is one of the major challenges for the widespread application of multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, especially in experiments conducted on complex heterogeneous biological systems such as bone. In most of these experiments, the NMR data collection time is ultimately governed by the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1). For over two decades, gadolinium(III)-DTPA (Gd-DTPA, DTPA = Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) has been one of the most widely used contrast-enhancement agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we demonstrate that Gd-DTPA can also be effectively used to enhance the longitudinal relaxation rates of protons in solid-state NMR experiments conducted on bone without significant line-broadening and chemical-shift-perturbation side effects. Using bovine cortical bone samples incubated in different concentrations of Gd-DTPA complex, the 1H T1 values were calculated from data collected by 1H spin-inversion recovery method detected in natural-abundance 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR experiments. Our results reveal that the 1H T1 values can be successfully reduced by a factor of 3.5 using as low as 10 mM Gd-DTPA without reducing the spectral resolution and thus enabling faster data acquisition of the 13C CPMAS spectra. These results obtained from 13C-detected CPMAS experiments were further confirmed using 1H-detected ultrafast MAS experiments on Gd-DTPA doped bone samples. This approach considerably improves the signal-to-noise ratio per unit time of NMR experiments applied to bone samples by reducing the experimental time required to acquire the same number of scans.

  13. Strategic Performance Measurement of Research and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parisi, Cristiana; Rossi, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The paper used an in depth case study to investigate how firms can integrate the strategic performance measurement of R&D with the Balanced Scorecard. Moreover, the paper investigated the crucial role of controller in the decision making process of this integration.The literature review of R......-financial ratio as the R&D measures to introduce in the Balanced Scorecard.In choosing our case study, we have selected the pharmaceutical industry because of its relevant R&D investment. Within the sector we chose the Italian affiliate of a traditional industry leader, Eli Lilly Italia,that was characterized...

  14. Spin transport and relaxation in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Wei; McCreary, K.M.; Pi, K.; Wang, W.H.; Li Yan; Wen, H.; Chen, J.R.; Kawakami, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    We review our recent work on spin injection, transport and relaxation in graphene. The spin injection and transport in single layer graphene (SLG) were investigated using nonlocal magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. Spin injection was performed using either transparent contacts (Co/SLG) or tunneling contacts (Co/MgO/SLG). With tunneling contacts, the nonlocal MR was increased by a factor of ∼1000 and the spin injection/detection efficiency was greatly enhanced from ∼1% (transparent contacts) to ∼30%. Spin relaxation was investigated on graphene spin valves using nonlocal Hanle measurements. For transparent contacts, the spin lifetime was in the range of 50-100 ps. The effects of surface chemical doping showed that for spin lifetimes in the order of 100 ps, charged impurity scattering (Au) was not the dominant mechanism for spin relaxation. While using tunneling contacts to suppress the contact-induced spin relaxation, we observed the spin lifetimes as long as 771 ps at room temperature, 1.2 ns at 4 K in SLG, and 6.2 ns at 20 K in bilayer graphene (BLG). Furthermore, contrasting spin relaxation behaviors were observed in SLG and BLG. We found that Elliot-Yafet spin relaxation dominated in SLG at low temperatures whereas Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation dominated in BLG at low temperatures. Gate tunable spin transport was studied using the SLG property of gate tunable conductivity and incorporating different types of contacts (transparent and tunneling contacts). Consistent with theoretical predictions, the nonlocal MR was proportional to the SLG conductivity for transparent contacts and varied inversely with the SLG conductivity for tunneling contacts. Finally, bipolar spin transport in SLG was studied and an electron-hole asymmetry was observed for SLG spin valves with transparent contacts, in which nonlocal MR was roughly independent of DC bias current for electrons, but varied significantly with DC bias current for holes. These results are very important for

  15. The relationships between suggestibility, influenceability, and relaxability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Frey, Olga; Szpitalak, Malwina

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the relationships between relaxability and various aspects of suggestibility and influenceability. The Jacobson Progressive Muscle Relaxation procedure was used to induce relaxation. Tests of direct suggestibility, relating to the susceptibility of overt suggestions, and indirect suggestibility, referring to indirect hidden influence, as well as self-description questionnaires on suggestibility and the tendency to comply were used. Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List, measuring various kinds of activation and used as a pre- and posttest, determined the efficacy of the relaxation procedure. Indirect, direct, and self-measured suggestibility proved to be positively related to the ability to relax, measured by Thayer's subscales relating to emotions. Compliance was not related to relaxability. The results are discussed in terms of the aspects of relaxation training connected with suggestibility.

  16. Key indicators for organizational performance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Haddadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Each organization for assessing the amount of utility and desirability of their activities, especially in complex and dynamic environments, requires determining and ranking the vital performance indicators. Indicators provide essential links among strategy, execution and ultimate value creation. The aim of this paper is to develop a framework, which identifies and prioritizes Key Performance Indicators (KPIs that a company should focus on them to define and measure progress towards organizational objectives. For this purpose, an applied research was conducted in 2013 in an Iranian telecommunication company. We first determined the objectives of the company with respect to four perspectives of BSC (Balanced Scorecard framework. Next, performance indicators were listed and paired wise comparisons were accomplished by company's high-ranked employees through standard Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP questionnaires. This helped us establish the weight of each indicator and to rank them, accordingly.

  17. Measurement-based reliability/performability models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Mei-Chen

    1987-01-01

    Measurement-based models based on real error-data collected on a multiprocessor system are described. Model development from the raw error-data to the estimation of cumulative reward is also described. A workload/reliability model is developed based on low-level error and resource usage data collected on an IBM 3081 system during its normal operation in order to evaluate the resource usage/error/recovery process in a large mainframe system. Thus, both normal and erroneous behavior of the system are modeled. The results provide an understanding of the different types of errors and recovery processes. The measured data show that the holding times in key operational and error states are not simple exponentials and that a semi-Markov process is necessary to model the system behavior. A sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the significance of using a semi-Markov process, as opposed to a Markov process, to model the measured system.

  18. In-situ measurement of magnetic field gradient in a magnetic shield by a spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jian-Cheng; Wang Tao; Li Yang; Cai Hong-Wei; Zhang Hong

    2015-01-01

    A method of measuring in-situ magnetic field gradient is proposed in this paper. The magnetic shield is widely used in the atomic magnetometer. However, there is magnetic field gradient in the magnetic shield, which would lead to additional gradient broadening. It is impossible to use an ex-situ magnetometer to measure magnetic field gradient in the region of a cell, whose length of side is several centimeters. The method demonstrated in this paper can realize the in-situ measurement of the magnetic field gradient inside the cell, which is significant for the spin relaxation study. The magnetic field gradients along the longitudinal axis of the magnetic shield are measured by a spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) magnetometer by adding a magnetic field modulation in the probe beam’s direction. The transmissivity of the cell for the probe beam is always inhomogeneous along the pump beam direction, and the method proposed in this paper is independent of the intensity of the probe beam, which means that the method is independent of the cell’s transmissivity. This feature makes the method more practical experimentally. Moreover, the AC-Stark shift can seriously degrade and affect the precision of the magnetic field gradient measurement. The AC-Stark shift is suppressed by locking the pump beam to the resonance of potassium’s D1 line. Furthermore, the residual magnetic fields are measured with σ + - and σ – -polarized pump beams, which can further suppress the effect of the AC-Stark shift. The method of measuring in-situ magnetic field gradient has achieved a magnetic field gradient precision of better than 30 pT/mm. (paper)

  19. Team performance measures for abnormal plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, J.C.; Seaver, D.A.; Holmes, C.W.; Gaddy, C.D.; Toquam, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    In order to work effectively, control room crews need to possess well-developed team skills. Extensive research supports the notion that improved quality and effectiveness are possible when a group works together, rather than as individuals. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has recognized the role of team performance in plant safety and has attempted to evaluate licensee performance as part of audits, inspections, and reviews. However, reliable and valid criteria for team performance have not yet been adequately developed. The purpose of the present research was to develop such reliable and valid measures of team skills. Seven dimensions of team skill performance were developed on the basis of input from NRC operator licensing examiners and from the results of previous research and experience in the area. These dimensions included two-way communications, resource management, inquiry, advocacy, conflict resolution/decision-making, stress management, and team spirit. Several different types of rating formats were developed for use with these dimensions, including a modified Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) format and a Behavioral Frequency format. Following pilot-testing and revision, observer and control room crew ratings of team performance were obtained using 14 control room crews responding to simulator scenarios at a BWR and a PWR reactor. It is concluded, overall, that the Behavioral Frequency ratings appeared quite promising as a measure of team skills but that additional statistical analyses and other follow-up research are needed to refine several of the team skills dimensions and to make the scales fully functional in an applied setting

  20. 31P and 1H NMR studies of the structure of enzyme-bound substrate complexes of lobster muscle arginine kinase: Relaxation measurements with Mn(II) and Co(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarori, G.K.; Ray, B.D.; Rao, B.D.N.

    1989-01-01

    The paramagnetic effects of Mn(II) and Co(II) on the spin-lattice relaxation rates of 31 P nuclei of ATP and ADP and of Mn(II) on the spin-lattice relaxation rate of the δ protons of arginine bound to arginine kinase from lobster tail muscle have been measured. Temperature variation of 31 P relaxation rates in E-MnADP and E-MnATP yields activation energies (ΔE) in the range 6-10 kcal/mol. Thus, the 31 P relaxation rates in these complexes are exchange limited and cannot provide structural information. However, the relaxation rates in E-CoADP and E-CoATP exhibit frequency dependence and ΔE values in the range 1-2 kcal/mol; i.e., these rates depend upon 31 P-Co(II) distances. These distances were calculated to be in the range 3.2-4.5 angstrom, appropriate for direct coordination between Co(II) and the phosphoryl groups. The paramagnetic effect of Mn(II) on the 1 H spin-lattice relaxation rate of the δ protons of arginine in the E-MnADP-Arg complex was also measured at three frequencies. From the frequency dependence of the relaxation rate an effective τ C of 0.6 ns has also been calculated, which is most likely to be the electron spin relaxation rate (τ S1 ) for Mn(II) in this complex. The distance estimated on the basis of the reciprocal sixth root of the average relaxation rate of the δ protons was 10.9 ± 0.3 angstrom

  1. Performance measurement with fuzzy data envelopment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tavana, Madjid

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of global competition and ever-increasing economic uncertainties has led organizations to search for more efficient and effective ways to manage their business operations.  Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has been widely used as a conceptually simple yet powerful tool for evaluating organizational productivity and performance. Fuzzy DEA (FDEA) is a promising extension of the conventional DEA proposed for dealing with imprecise and ambiguous data in performance measurement problems. This book is the first volume in the literature to present the state-of-the-art developments and applications of FDEA. It is designed for students, educators, researchers, consultants and practicing managers in business, industry, and government with a basic understanding of the DEA and fuzzy logic concepts.

  2. IASI instrument: technical description and measured performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Ph.; Blumstein, D.; Buil, C.; Carlier, T.; Chalon, G.; Astruc, P.; Clauss, A.; Siméoni, D.; Tournier, B.

    2017-11-01

    IASI is an infrared atmospheric sounder. It will provide meteorologist and scientific community with atmospheric spectra. The IASI system includes 3 instruments that will be mounted on the Metop satellite series, a data processing software integrated in the EPS (EUMETSAT Polar System) ground segment and a technical expertise centre implemented in CNES Toulouse. The instrument is composed of a Fourier transform spectrometer and an associated infrared imager. The optical configuration is based on a Michelson interferometer and the interferograms are processed by an on-board digital processing subsystem, which performs the inverse Fourier transforms and the radiometric calibration. The infrared imager co-registers the IASI soundings with AVHRR imager (AVHRR is another instrument on the Metop satellite). The presentation will focus on the architectures of the instrument, the description of the implemented technologies and the measured performance of the first flight model. CNES is leading the IASI program in association with EUMETSAT. The instrument Prime is ALCATEL SPACE.

  3. Enhanced atomic mobility due to low dose neutron irradiation as measured in a 30Ag at % Zn alloy by Zener relaxation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbwachs, M.; Hillairet, J.; Gonzalez, H.; Cost, J.

    1975-01-01

    Mean atomic jump rates were measured during and after short-time neutron irradiations of a fcc Ag-30 at. percent Zn alloy by monitoring the rate of the Zener relaxation. Measurements made at 40 0 C immediately after rapid suppression of the flux showed significant enhancement of the atomic mobility for a flux of approximately 10 11 fast n/cm 2 .sec and an irradiation time of only 30 sec. The subsequent decrease of the atomic mobility to the thermal equilibrium value was studied and found to follow simple exponential decay. The results are discussed in terms of the nature and concentration of mobile defects created by cascades, the mechanism for defect annihilation and the concentration of sinks

  4. Pressure dependence of thermal conductivity and specific heat in CeRh2Si2 measured by an extended thermal relaxation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigori, Shijo; Seida, Osamu

    2018-05-01

    We have developed a new technique for measuring thermal conductivity and specific heat under pressure by improving a thermal relaxation method. In this technique, a cylindrical sample with a small disc heater is embedded in the pressure-transmitting medium, then temperature variations of the sample and heater were directly measured by thermocouples during a heating and cooling process. Thermal conductivity and specific heat are estimated by comparing the experimental data with temperature variations simulated by a finite element method. The obtained thermal conductivity and specific heat of the test sample CeRh2Si2 exhibit a small enhancement and a clear peak arising from antiferromagnetic transition, respectively. The observation of these typical behaviors for magnetic compounds indicate that the technique is valid for the study on thermal properties under pressure.

  5. Measuring the performance of maintenance service outsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Antonio Miguel; Rincon, Adriana Maria Rios; Haugan, Gregory L

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this paper are (1) to identify the characteristics of maintenance service providers that directly impact maintenance service quality, using 18 independent covariables; (2) to quantify the change in risk these covariables present to service quality, measured in terms of equipment turnaround time (TAT). A survey was applied to every maintenance service provider (n = 19) for characterization purposes. The equipment inventory was characterized, and the TAT variable recorded and monitored for every work order of each service provider (N = 1,025). Finally, the research team conducted a statistical analysis to accomplish the research objectives. The results of this study offer strong empirical evidence that the most influential variables affecting the quality of maintenance service performance are the following: type of maintenance, availability of spare parts in the country, user training, technological complexity of the equipment, distance between the company and the hospital, and the number of maintenance visits performed by the company. The strength of the results obtained by the Cox model built are supported by the measure of the Rp,e(2) = 0.57 with a value of Rp,e= 0.75. Thus, the model explained 57% of the variation in equipment TAT, with moderate high positive correlation between the dependent variable (TAT) and independent variables.

  6. Human performance assessment: methods and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, Gisle; Droeivoldsmo, Asgeir

    2000-10-01

    The Human Error Analysis Project (HEAP) was initiated in 1994. The aim of the project was to acquire insights on how and why cognitive errors occur when operators are engaged in problem solving in advanced integrated control rooms. Since human error had not been studied in the HAlden Man-Machine LABoratory (HAMMLAB) before, it was also necessary to carry out research in methodology. In retrospect, it is clear that much of the methodological work is relevant to human-machine research in general, and not only to research on human error. The purpose of this report is, therefore, to give practitioners and researchers an overview of the methodological parts of HEAP. The scope of the report is limited to methods used throughout the data acquisition process, i.e., data-collection methods, data-refinement methods, and measurement methods. The data-collection methods include various types of verbal protocols, simulator logs, questionnaires, and interviews. Data-refinement methods involve different applications of the Eyecon system, a flexible data-refinement tool, and small computer programs used for rearranging, reformatting, and aggregating raw-data. Measurement methods involve assessment of diagnostic behaviour, erroneous actions, complexity, task/system performance, situation awareness, and workload. The report concludes that the data-collection methods are generally both reliable and efficient. The data-refinement methods, however, should be easier to use in order to facilitate explorative analyses. Although the series of experiments provided an opportunity for measurement validation, there are still uncertainties connected to several measures, due to their reliability still being unknown. (Author). 58 refs.,7 tabs

  7. Performance measurements of hybrid PIN diode arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jernigan, J.G.; Arens, J.F.; Collins, T.; Herring, J.; Shapiro, S.L.; Wilburn, C.D.

    1990-05-01

    We report on the successful effort to develop hybrid PIN diode arrays and to demonstrate their potential as components of vertex detectors. Hybrid pixel arrays have been fabricated by the Hughes Aircraft Co. by bump bonding readout chips developed by Hughes to an array of PIN diodes manufactured by Micron Semiconductor Inc. These hybrid pixel arrays were constructed in two configurations. One array format having 10 x 64 pixels, each 120 μm square, and the other format having 256 x 256 pixels, each 30 μm square. In both cases, the thickness of the PIN diode layer is 300 μm. Measurements of detector performance show that excellent position resolution can be achieved by interpolation. By determining the centroid of the charge cloud which spreads charge into a number of neighboring pixels, a spatial resolution of a few microns has been attained. The noise has been measured to be about 300 electrons (rms) at room temperature, as expected from KTC and dark current considerations, yielding a signal-to-noise ratio of about 100 for minimum ionizing particles. 4 refs., 13 figs

  8. VPN (Virtual Private Network) Performance Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, Calixto; Goncalves, Joao G.M.; Sequeira, Vitor [Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy). Inst. for the Protection and Security of the Citizen; Vandaele, Roland; Meylemans, Paul [European Commission, DG-TREN (Luxembourg)

    2003-05-01

    Virtual Private Networks (VPN) is an important technology allowing for secure communications through insecure transmission media (i.e., Internet) by adding authentication and encryption to the existing protocols. This paper describes some VPN performance indicators measured over international communication links. An ISDN based VPN link was established between the Joint Research Centre, Ispra site, Italy, and EURATOM Safeguards in Luxembourg. This link connected two EURATOM Safeguards FAST surveillance stations, and used different vendor solutions hardware (Cisco router 1720 and Nokia CC-500 Gateway). To authenticate and secure this international link, we have used several methods at the different levels of the seven-layered ISO network protocol stack (i.e., Callback feature, CHAP - Challenge Handshake Protocol - authentication protocol). The tests made involved the use of different encryption algorithms and the way session secret keys are periodically renewed, considering these elements influence significantly the transmission throughput. Future tests will include the use of a wide variety of wireless media transmission and terminal equipment technologies, in particular PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants) and Notebook PCs. These tests aim at characterising the functionality of VPNs whenever field inspectors wish to contact headquarters to access information from a central archive database or transmit local measurements or documents. These technologies cover wireless transmission needs at different geographical scales: roombased level Bluetooth, floor or building level Wi-Fi and region or country level GPRS.

  9. Measurement of the Relaxation Rate of the Magnetization in Mn{sub 12}O{sub 12} -Acetate Using Proton NMR Echo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Z. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Lascialfari, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' A. Volta' ' e Unita' , INFM di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia, (Italy); Borsa, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' A. Volta' ' e Unita' , INFM di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia, (Italy); Gatteschi, D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via Maragliano 77, 50144 Firenze, (Italy)

    2000-03-27

    We present a novel method to measure the relaxation rate W of the magnetization of Mn{sub 12}O {sub 12} -acetate (Mn12) magnetic molecular cluster in its S=10 ground state at low T . It is based on the observation of an exponential growth in time of the proton NMR signal during the thermal equilibration of the magnetization of the molecules. We can explain the novel effect with a simple model which relates the intensity of the proton echo signal to the microscopic reversal of the magnetization of each individual Mn12 molecule during the equilibration process. The method should find wide application in the study of magnetic molecular clusters in off-equilibrium conditions. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  10. The inverted chevron plot measured by NMR relaxation reveals a native-like unfolding intermediate in acyl-CoA binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Kaare; Poulsen, F. M.; Akke, M.

    2006-01-01

    those from stopped-flow kinetics and define an "inverted chevron" plot. The combination of NMR relaxation and stopped-flow kinetic measurements allowed determination of k f and k u in the range from 0.48 M GuHCl to 1.28 M GuHCl. Individually, the stopped-flow and NMR data fit two-state models...... for folding. However, although the values of k f determined by the two methods agree, the values of k u do not. As a result, a combined analysis of all data does not comply with a two-state model but indicates that an unfolding intermediate exists on the native side of the dominant energy barrier...

  11. Breathing and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Doctor Relaxation is the absence of tension in muscle groups and a minimum or absence ... Drill Meditation Progressive Muscle Relaxation Minimizing Shortness of Breath Visualization This information has been approved by Shelby ...

  12. Thermal relaxation of molecular oxygen in collisions with nitrogen atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrienko, Daniil A., E-mail: daniila@umich.edu; Boyd, Iain D. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan, 1320 Beal Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108 (United States)

    2016-07-07

    Investigation of O{sub 2}–N collisions is performed by means of the quasi-classical trajectory method on the two lowest ab initio potential energy surfaces at temperatures relevant to hypersonic flows. A complete set of bound–bound and bound–free transition rates is obtained for each precollisional rovibrational state. Special attention is paid to the vibrational and rotational relaxations of oxygen as a result of chemically non-reactive interaction with nitrogen atoms. The vibrational relaxation of oxygen partially occurs via the formation of an intermediate NO{sub 2} complex. The efficient energy randomization results in rapid vibrational relaxation at low temperatures, compared to other molecular systems with a purely repulsive potential. The vibrational relaxation time, computed by means of master equation studies, is nearly an order of magnitude lower than the relaxation time in N{sub 2}–O collisions. The rotational nonequilibrium starts to play a significant effect at translational temperatures above 8000 K. The present work provides convenient relations for the vibrational and rotational relaxation times as well as for the quasi-steady dissociation rate coefficient and thus fills a gap in data due to a lack of experimental measurements for this system.

  13. Measurement of alveolar oxygen partial pressure in the rat lung using Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill spin-spin relaxation times of hyperpolarized 3He and 129Xe at 74 mT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraayvanger, Ryan J; Bidinosti, Christopher P; Dominguez-Viqueira, William; Parra-Robles, Juan; Fox, Matthew; Lam, Wilfred W; Santyr, Giles E

    2010-11-01

    Regional measurement of alveolar oxygen partial pressure can be obtained from the relaxation rates of hyperpolarized noble gases, (3) He and (129) Xe, in the lungs. Recently, it has been demonstrated that measurements of alveolar oxygen partial pressure can be obtained using the spin-spin relaxation rate (R(2) ) of (3) He at low magnetic field strengths (oxygen partial pressure measurements based on Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill R(2) values of hyperpolarized (3) He and (129) Xe in vitro and in vivo in the rat lung at low magnetic field strength (74 mT) are presented. In vitro spin-spin relaxivity constants for (3) He and (129) Xe were determined to be (5.2 ± 0.6) × 10(-6) Pa(-1) sec(-1) and (7.3 ± 0.4) × 10(-6) Pa(-1) s(-1) compared with spin-lattice relaxivity constants of (4.0 ± 0.4) × 10(-6) Pa(-1) s(-1) and (4.3 ± 1.3) × 10(-6) Pa(-1) s(-1), respectively. In vivo experimental measurements of alveolar oxygen partial pressure using (3) He in whole rat lung show good agreement (r(2) = 0.973) with predictions based on lung volumes and ventilation parameters. For (129) Xe, multicomponent relaxation was observed with one component exhibiting an increase in R(2) with decreasing alveolar oxygen partial pressure. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Fifteen Minutes of Chair-Based Yoga Postures or Guided Meditation Performed in the Office Can Elicit a Relaxation Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey W. Melville

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared acute (15 min yoga posture and guided meditation practice, performed seated in a typical office workspace, on physiological and psychological markers of stress. Twenty participants (39.6±9.5 yr completed three conditions: yoga, meditation, and control (i.e., usual work separated by ≥24 hrs. Yoga and meditation significantly reduced perceived stress versus control, and this effect was maintained postintervention. Yoga increased heart rate while meditation reduced heart rate versus control (<0.05. Respiration rate was reduced during yoga and meditation versus control (<0.05. Domains of heart rate variability (e.g., SDNN and Total Power were significantly reduced during control versus yoga and meditation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were reduced secondary to meditation versus control only (<0.05. Physiological adaptations generally regressed toward baseline postintervention. In conclusion, yoga postures or meditation performed in the office can acutely improve several physiological and psychological markers of stress. These effects may be at least partially mediated by reduced respiration rate.

  15. Exposure to nature versus relaxation during lunch breaks and recovery from work: development and design of an intervention study to improve workers’ health, well-being, work performance and creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this research project is to understand and to improve workers’ recovery from work stress. Although recovery during lunch breaks is the most common within-workday break, it has received only minor research attention. Therefore, we will study whether lunch breaks including a relaxation session or exposure to nature have more favorable outcomes than usually spent lunch breaks concerning: a) recovery processes, b) health, c) well-being, d) job performance and e) creativity. We approach recovery by combining the theoretical frameworks of work and environmental psychology. Methods/Design We conduct an intervention study in a sample of 268 knowledge-workers who engage in different lunch break activities for 15-minutes per day, two weeks in a row. We randomly assign participants to three experimental conditions: 1) exposure to nature, 2) relaxation and 3) control group (lunch break spent as usual). Online questionnaires before and after the intervention assess long term changes regarding recovery processes and the major outcome variables. Before, during and after the intervention, SMS and paper-pencil questionnaires measure the same constructs four times a day with fewer items. We also measure blood pressure and collect saliva samples to map cortisol excretion across the intervention period. A timed experimental task (i.e., the Alternative Uses Task) is used to examine differences in creativity between the three groups after the intervention period. Discussion By combining the knowledge of work and environmental psychology about recovery and restorative experiences, by merging three recovery perspectives (settings, processes, and outcomes) and by using data triangulation, we produce valid results that broaden our view on mechanisms underlying recovery and enhance our understanding about their links to psychological, behavioural and physiological outcomes, resulting in a more comprehensive picture of work stress recovery in general. Trial

  16. Exposure to nature versus relaxation during lunch breaks and recovery from work: development and design of an intervention study to improve workers' health, well-being, work performance and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bloom, Jessica; Kinnunen, Ulla; Korpela, Kalevi

    2014-05-22

    The objective of this research project is to understand and to improve workers' recovery from work stress. Although recovery during lunch breaks is the most common within-workday break, it has received only minor research attention. Therefore, we will study whether lunch breaks including a relaxation session or exposure to nature have more favorable outcomes than usually spent lunch breaks concerning: a) recovery processes, b) health, c) well-being, d) job performance and e) creativity. We approach recovery by combining the theoretical frameworks of work and environmental psychology. We conduct an intervention study in a sample of 268 knowledge-workers who engage in different lunch break activities for 15-minutes per day, two weeks in a row. We randomly assign participants to three experimental conditions: 1) exposure to nature, 2) relaxation and 3) control group (lunch break spent as usual). Online questionnaires before and after the intervention assess long term changes regarding recovery processes and the major outcome variables. Before, during and after the intervention, SMS and paper-pencil questionnaires measure the same constructs four times a day with fewer items. We also measure blood pressure and collect saliva samples to map cortisol excretion across the intervention period. A timed experimental task (i.e., the Alternative Uses Task) is used to examine differences in creativity between the three groups after the intervention period. By combining the knowledge of work and environmental psychology about recovery and restorative experiences, by merging three recovery perspectives (settings, processes, and outcomes) and by using data triangulation, we produce valid results that broaden our view on mechanisms underlying recovery and enhance our understanding about their links to psychological, behavioural and physiological outcomes, resulting in a more comprehensive picture of work stress recovery in general. ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol Registration System

  17. 45 CFR 305.40 - Penalty performance measures and levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES PROGRAM PERFORMANCE MEASURES, STANDARDS, FINANCIAL INCENTIVES, AND PENALTIES § 305.40 Penalty performance measures and levels. (a) There are three performance measures for which States must... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Penalty performance measures and levels. 305.40...

  18. Structural relaxation in annealed hyperquenched basaltic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoju; Mauro, John C.; Potuzak, M.

    2012-01-01

    The enthalpy relaxation behavior of hyperquenched (HQ) and annealed hyperquenched (AHQ) basaltic glass is investigated through calorimetric measurements. The results reveal a common onset temperature of the glass transition for all the HQ and AHQ glasses under study, indicating that the primary...... relaxation is activated at the same temperature regardless of the initial departure from equilibrium. The analysis of secondary relaxation at different annealing temperatures provides insights into the enthalpy recovery of HQ glasses....

  19. Nuclear magnetic relaxation in picolines solutions in carbon tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurga, J.; Pajak, Z.; Jurga, K.; Jurga, S.

    1973-01-01

    Spin-lattice relaxation times of the ring and CH 3 group have been measured in order to establish the temperature dependence of the longitudinal relaxation times for picolins in carbon tetrachloride solutions. The information concerning the intramolecular contribution to the relaxation times have been obtained. The high resolution NPR spectrometer operating at 25 MHz has been used. The measurements have been performed in the temperature range from -60degC to 80degC. The experimental results are compared to the predictions given by the Nora Hill and Debye models and it has been found that the Nora Hill model fits the experimental data better than the Debye model. (S.B.)

  20. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: is it time to relax BSE-related measures in the context of international trade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, D; Adkin, A

    2011-04-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has presented serious challenges to both the World Organisation for Animal Health and national governments, in defining and implementing appropriate national control measures, and in agreeing trade rules that permit safe trade in cattle and bovine products. Precautionary trade rules were initially necessary, based upon the science of sheep scrapie, but research into BSE later enabled BSE-specific trade rules to be developed. As a result, current rules on trade are underpinned by a sound body of knowledge on BSE. Declining epidemics in most affected countries confirm the appropriateness of current precautions. Nevertheless, risk is primarily dependent on the prevalence of infection with BSE. In the face of low prevalence scenarios, certain precautionary measures in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code may now be considered excessive. A thorough review is therefore deemed appropriate.

  1. High Job Performance Through Co-Developing Performance Measures With Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Bianca A.C.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.; Wouters, Marc

    2017-01-01

    According to various studies, employee participation in the development of performance measures can increase job performance. This study focuses on how this job performance elevation occurs. We hypothesize that when employees have participated in the development of performance measures, they

  2. Continuous Flow Hygroscopicity-Resolved Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (Hy-Res REA) Method of Measuring Size-Resolved Sea-Salt Particle Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhidze, N.; Royalty, T. M.; Phillips, B.; Dawson, K. W.; Petters, M. D.; Reed, R.; Weinstein, J.; Hook, D.; Wiener, R.

    2017-12-01

    The accurate representation of aerosols in climate models requires direct ambient measurement of the size- and composition-dependent particle production fluxes. Here we present the design, testing, and analysis of data collected through the first instrument capable of measuring hygroscopicity-based, size-resolved particle fluxes using a continuous-flow Hygroscopicity-Resolved Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (Hy-Res REA) technique. The different components of the instrument were extensively tested inside the US Environmental Protection Agency's Aerosol Test Facility for sea-salt and ammoniums sulfate particle fluxes. The new REA system design does not require particle accumulation, therefore avoids the diffusional wall losses associated with long residence times of particles inside the air collectors of the traditional REA devices. The Hy-Res REA system used in this study includes a 3-D sonic anemometer, two fast-response solenoid valves, two Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs), a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), and a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA). A linear relationship was found between the sea-salt particle fluxes measured by eddy covariance and REA techniques, with comparable theoretical (0.34) and measured (0.39) proportionality constants. The sea-salt particle detection limit of the Hy-Res REA flux system is estimated to be 6x105 m-2s-1. For the conditions of ammonium sulfate and sea-salt particles of comparable source strength and location, the continuous-flow Hy-Res REA instrument was able to achieve better than 90% accuracy of measuring the sea-salt particle fluxes. In principle, the instrument can be applied to measure fluxes of particles of variable size and distinct hygroscopic properties (i.e., mineral dust, black carbon, etc.).

  3. CONSIDERATIONS ON MEASURING PERFORMANCE AND MARKET STRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Spiridon Cosmin Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    According to neoclassical theory, the relationship between the price, respectively of marginal cost and market structures, the methods for determining the performance of a firm or of an industry, deviate from the model of perfect competition. Assessing performance involves performing comparisons, reporting that their reference level can be a standard value, or a statistical value which can be a national-regional average, a homogeneous group, or an average value at a market level. Modern theor...

  4. Measuring individual work performance: Identifying and selecting indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; de Vet, H.C.W.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions.

  5. Measuring individual work performance: identifying and selecting indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Vet, H.C de; Beek, A.J. van der

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions. OBJECTIVE: This

  6. Developing integrated benchmarks for DOE performance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barancik, J.I.; Kramer, C.F.; Thode, Jr. H.C.

    1992-09-30

    The objectives of this task were to describe and evaluate selected existing sources of information on occupational safety and health with emphasis on hazard and exposure assessment, abatement, training, reporting, and control identifying for exposure and outcome in preparation for developing DOE performance benchmarks. Existing resources and methodologies were assessed for their potential use as practical performance benchmarks. Strengths and limitations of current data resources were identified. Guidelines were outlined for developing new or improved performance factors, which then could become the basis for selecting performance benchmarks. Data bases for non-DOE comparison populations were identified so that DOE performance could be assessed relative to non-DOE occupational and industrial groups. Systems approaches were described which can be used to link hazards and exposure, event occurrence, and adverse outcome factors, as needed to generate valid, reliable, and predictive performance benchmarks. Data bases were identified which contain information relevant to one or more performance assessment categories . A list of 72 potential performance benchmarks was prepared to illustrate the kinds of information that can be produced through a benchmark development program. Current information resources which may be used to develop potential performance benchmarks are limited. There is need to develop an occupational safety and health information and data system in DOE, which is capable of incorporating demonstrated and documented performance benchmarks prior to, or concurrent with the development of hardware and software. A key to the success of this systems approach is rigorous development and demonstration of performance benchmark equivalents to users of such data before system hardware and software commitments are institutionalized.

  7. Dielectric Relaxation of Water: Theory and Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Narayan Prasad; Paudyal, Harihar; Johri, Manoj

    2010-06-01

    We have studied the hydrogen bond dynamics and methods for evaluation of probability and relaxation time for hydrogen bond network. Further, dielectric relaxation time has been calculated by using a diagonalization procedure by obtaining eigen values (inverse of relaxation time) of a master equation framed on the basis of Fokker-Planck equations. Microwave cavity spectrometer has been described to make measurements of relaxation time. Slater's perturbation equations are given for the analysis of the data. A comparison of theoretical and experimental data shows that there is a need for improvements in the theoretical model and experimental techniques to provide exact information about structural properties of water. (author)

  8. Measuring Student Performance in General Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ara C.; Ben-Daat, Hagit; Zhu, Mary; Atkinson, Robert; Barrows, Nathan; Gould, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    Student performance in general organic chemistry courses is determined by a wide range of factors including cognitive ability, motivation and cultural capital. Previous work on cognitive factors has tended to focus on specific areas rather than exploring performance across all problem types and cognitive skills. In this study, we have categorized…

  9. Tensions relaxation in Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuniberti, A.M.; Picasso, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    Traction and stress relaxation studies were performed on polycrystalline Zry-4 at room temperature. The effect of loading velocity on the plastic behaviour of the material is discussed, analysing log σ vs. log dε/dt at different deformation levels. The contribution introduced by the testing machine was taken into account in data evaluation. (Author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  10. The effects of progressive muscle relaxation and autogenic relaxation on young soccer players' mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hairul Anuar; Hanafi Ahmad Yusof, Hazwani

    2011-06-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of two different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and autogenic relaxation (AGR) on moods of young soccer players. sixteen adolescent athletes (mean age: 14.1 ± 1.3) received either PMR or AGR training. Using Profile of Mood States- Adolescents, their mood states were measured one week before relaxation training, before the first relaxation session, and after the twelfth relaxation session. Mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction effects and no significant main effects in any of the subscales. However, significant main effects for testing sessions were found for confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscales. Post hoc tests revealed post-intervention reductions in the confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscale scores. These two relaxation techniques induce equivalent mood responses and may be used to regulate young soccer players' mood states.

  11. The Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Autogenic Relaxation on Young Soccer Players’ Mood States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hairul Anuar; Hanafi@Ahmad Yusof, Hazwani

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to compare the effects of two different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and autogenic relaxation (AGR) on moods of young soccer players. Methods Sixteen adolescent athletes (mean age: 14.1 ± 1.3) received either PMR or AGR training. Using Profile of Mood States- Adolescents, their mood states were measured one week before relaxation training, before the first relaxation session, and after the twelfth relaxation session. Results Mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction effects and no significant main effects in any of the subscales. However, significant main effects for testing sessions were found for confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscales. Post hoc tests revealed post-intervention reductions in the confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscale scores. Conclusion These two relaxation techniques induce equivalent mood responses and may be used to regulate young soccer players’ mood states. PMID:22375225

  12. Performance measures for public transit mobility management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    "Mobility management is an innovative approach for managing and delivering coordinated public : transportation services that embraces the full family of public transit options. At a national level, there are : currently no industry recognized perform...

  13. Measured performance of the GTA rf systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denney, P.M.; Jachim, S.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the performance of the RF systems on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The RF system architecture is briefly described. Among the RF performance results presented are RF field flatness and stability, amplitude and phase control resolution, and control system bandwidth and stability. The rejection by the RF systems of beam-induced disturbances, such as transients and noise, are analyzed. The observed responses are also compared to computer-based simulations of the RF systems for validation

  14. Performance Measurement Systems in Swedish Health Care Services

    OpenAIRE

    Kollberg, Beata

    2007-01-01

    In the quality management literature, measurements are attributed great importance in improving products and processes. Systems for performance measurement assessing financial and non-financial measurements were developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The research on performance measurement systems has mainly been focused on the design of different performance measurement systems. Many authors are occupied with the study of the constructs of measures and developing prescriptive models of...

  15. ESRD - Clinical Performance Measures (CPM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Section 4558 (b) of the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) requires CMS to develop and implement by January 1, 2000, a method to measure and report the quality of renal...

  16. Measuring collections effort improves cash performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Joe

    2009-09-01

    Having a satisfied work force can lead to an improved collections effort. Hiring the right people and training them ensures employee engagement. Measuring collections effort and offering incentives is key to revenue cycle success.

  17. Superparamagnetic relaxation in alpha-Fe particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen; Pedersen, Michael Stanley

    1998-01-01

    The superparamagnetic relaxation time of carbon-supported alpha-Fe particles with an average size of 3.0 Mm has been studied over a large temperature range by the use of Mossbauer spectroscopy combined with AC and DC magnetization measurements. It is found that the relaxation time varies...

  18. Reduction in the balanced scorecard performance measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we compare PCA and ordinal logistic regression in ranking the manufacturing systems. In this regard we present an integrated framework for assessment and ranking of manufacturing systems based on management and organizational performance indicators. To achieve the objectives of this study, ...

  19. Measuring Institutional Performance in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Joel W., Ed.; Massy, William F., Ed.

    This collection of seven essays from the Stanford Forum for Higher Education Futures focuses on how downsizing, quality management, and reengineering have are affecting higher education. An introductory paper, "Introduction: Change in Higher Education: Its Effect on Institutional Performance," (Joel W. Meyerson and Sandra L. Johnson)…

  20. Efficient relaxed-Jacobi smoothers for multigrid on parallel computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang; Mittal, Rajat

    2017-03-01

    In this Technical Note, we present a family of Jacobi-based multigrid smoothers suitable for the solution of discretized elliptic equations. These smoothers are based on the idea of scheduled-relaxation Jacobi proposed recently by Yang & Mittal (2014) [18] and employ two or three successive relaxed Jacobi iterations with relaxation factors derived so as to maximize the smoothing property of these iterations. The performance of these new smoothers measured in terms of convergence acceleration and computational workload, is assessed for multi-domain implementations typical of parallelized solvers, and compared to the lexicographic point Gauss-Seidel smoother. The tests include the geometric multigrid method on structured grids as well as the algebraic grid method on unstructured grids. The tests demonstrate that unlike Gauss-Seidel, the convergence of these Jacobi-based smoothers is unaffected by domain decomposition, and furthermore, they outperform the lexicographic Gauss-Seidel by factors that increase with domain partition count.

  1. The relaxation phenomena of radicals induced in irradiated fresh mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Morishita, Norio; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Ogawa, Hideyuki; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko

    2009-01-01

    Using the γ-irradiated fresh mangoes followed by freeze-drying and powderization, electron spin resonance spectrometry of specimens was performed. As a result, a strong single peak in the flesh, the pericarp and the seed was observed at g=2.004 and attributed to organic free radicals. When relaxation times of the peak was calculated using the method of Lund et al., T 2 showed dose responses according to increasing doses while T 1 was almost constant. Dose responsibility of the relaxation time T 2 obtained from flesh specimens of the mangoes could be measured regardless of the preservation period of 1 to 9 days following γ-irradiation. Therefore, there might be possible to detect the irradiation treatment of fresh mangoes using relaxation time T 2 . (author)

  2. 75 FR 38725 - Service Performance Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... proposed rules against the importance of the information that is being gathered. This would have provided... Commission is adopting a final rule on service perfomance measurement and customer satisfaction. The final... is effective on August 5, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Stephen L. Sharfman, General Counsel...

  3. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: LASER POWER MEASUREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser power abstract The reliability of the confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM) to obtain intensity measurements and quantify fluorescence data is dependent on using a correctly aligned machine that contains a stable laser power. The laser power test appears to be one ...

  4. Quantitation of movement of the phosphoryl group during catalytic transfer in the arginine kinase reaction: {sup 31}P relaxation measurements on enzyme-bound equilibrium mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Bruce D. [Indiana University, Purdue University at Indianapolis (IUPUI), Department of Physics (United States); Jarori, Gotam K. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (India); Nageswara Rao, B.D. [Indiana University, Purdue University at Indianapolis (IUPUI), Department of Physics (United States)], E-mail: brao@iupui.edu

    2002-05-15

    {sup 31}P nuclear spin relaxation measurements have been made on enzyme-bound equilibrium mixtures of lobster-muscle arginine kinase in the presence of substituent activating paramagnetic cation Co(II) (in place of Mg(II)), i.e., on samples in which the reaction, E{center_dot}CoATP{center_dot}arginine {r_reversible} E{center_dot}CoADP{center_dot}P-arginine, is in progress. The results have been analyzed on the basis of a previously published theory (Nageswara Rao, B.D. (1995) J. Magn. Reson., B108, 289-293) to determine the structural changes in the reaction complex accompanying phosphoryl transfer. The analysis enables the determination of the change in the Co(II)-{sup 31}P ({gamma}-P(ATP)) vector as the transferable phosphoryl group moves over and attaches to arginine to form P-arginine. It is shown that the Co(II)-{sup 31}P distance of {approx}3.0 A, representing direct coordination of Co(II) to {gamma}-P(ATP), changes to {approx}4.0 A when P-arginine is formed in the enzyme-bound reaction complex. This elongation of the Co(II)-{sup 31}P vector implies an excursion of at least 1.0 A for the itinerant phosphoryl group on the surface of the enzyme.

  5. Quantitation of movement of the phosphoryl group during catalytic transfer in the arginine kinase reaction: 31P relaxation measurements on enzyme-bound equilibrium mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Bruce D.; Jarori, Gotam K.; Nageswara Rao, B.D.

    2002-01-01

    31 P nuclear spin relaxation measurements have been made on enzyme-bound equilibrium mixtures of lobster-muscle arginine kinase in the presence of substituent activating paramagnetic cation Co(II) (in place of Mg(II)), i.e., on samples in which the reaction, E·CoATP·arginine ↔ E·CoADP·P-arginine, is in progress. The results have been analyzed on the basis of a previously published theory (Nageswara Rao, B.D. (1995) J. Magn. Reson., B108, 289-293) to determine the structural changes in the reaction complex accompanying phosphoryl transfer. The analysis enables the determination of the change in the Co(II)- 31 P (γ-P(ATP)) vector as the transferable phosphoryl group moves over and attaches to arginine to form P-arginine. It is shown that the Co(II)- 31 P distance of ∼3.0 A, representing direct coordination of Co(II) to γ-P(ATP), changes to ∼4.0 A when P-arginine is formed in the enzyme-bound reaction complex. This elongation of the Co(II)- 31 P vector implies an excursion of at least 1.0 A for the itinerant phosphoryl group on the surface of the enzyme

  6. Quantitative measurement of exchange dynamics in proteins via {sup 13}C relaxation dispersion of {sup 13}CHD{sub 2}-labeled samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennella, Enrico; Schuetz, Anne K.; Kay, Lewis E., E-mail: kay@pound.med.utoronto.ca [University of Toronto, Departments of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Chemistry (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Methyl groups have emerged as powerful probes of protein dynamics with timescales from picoseconds to seconds. Typically, studies involving high molecular weight complexes exploit {sup 13}CH{sub 3}- or {sup 13}CHD{sub 2}-labeling in otherwise highly deuterated proteins. The {sup 13}CHD{sub 2} label offers the unique advantage of providing {sup 13}C, {sup 1}H and {sup 2}H spin probes, however a disadvantage has been the lack of an experiment to record {sup 13}C Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill relaxation dispersion that monitors millisecond time-scale dynamics, implicated in a wide range of biological processes. Herein we develop an experiment that eliminates artifacts that would normally result from the scalar coupling between {sup 13}C and {sup 2}H spins that has limited applications in the past. The utility of the approach is established with a number of applications, including measurement of ms dynamics of a disease mutant of a 320 kDa p97 complex.

  7. Measurements of operator performance - an experimental setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netland, K.

    1980-01-01

    The human has to be considered as an important element in a process control system, even if the degree of automation is extremely high. Other elements, e.g. computer, displays, etc., can to a large extent be described and quantified. The human (operator), is difficult to describe in a precise way, and it is just as difficult to predict his thinking and acting in a control room environment. Many factors influence his performance, such as: experience, motivation, level of knowledge, training, control environment, job organization, etc. These factors have to a certain degree to be described before guidelines for design of the man-process interfaces and the control room layout can be developed. For decades, the psychological science has obtained knowledge of the human mind and behaviour. This knowledge should have the potential of a positive input on our effort to describe the factors influencing the operator performance. Even if the human is complex, a better understanding of his thinking and acting, and a more precise description of the factors influencing his performance can be obtained. At OECD Halden Reactor Project an experimental set-up for such studies has been developed and implemented in the computer laboratory. The present set-up includes elements as a computer- and display-based control room, a simulator representing a nuclear power plant, training programme for the subjects, and methods for the experiments. Set-up modules allow reconfiguration of experiments. (orig./HP)

  8. Evaluating performance measures to determine training effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemm, R.W.; Feiza, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    This research was conceived and dedicated to helping the CECo training organization become a more integrated part of the corporate business. The target population for this study was nuclear and fossil generating station employees who directly impacted the production of electricity. The target sample (n = 150) included: instrument, mechanical, and electrical maintenance personnel; control room operators; engineers, radiation chemists, and other technical specialists; and equipment operators and attendants. A total of four instruments were utilized by this study. Three instruments were administered to the generating station personnel. These included a demographic form, a learning style profile, and a motivational style profile. The focal instrument, a performance skills rating form, was administered to supervisory personnel. Data analysis consisted of three major parts. Part one established internal consistency through Cronbach alpha statistics. Part two provides summary statistics and breakdown tables for important variables. Part three provides inferential statistics responding to the research questions. All six Performance Skills variables discriminated significantly between the trained and non-trained groups (p .001). In all cases, the mean value for the trained group exceeded the mean value for the non-trained group. Implications for further research indicate that training does have a quantifiable effect on job performance

  9. 26 CFR 801.2 - Measuring organizational performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Measuring organizational performance. 801.2 Section 801.2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL... REVENUE SERVICE § 801.2 Measuring organizational performance. The performance measures that comprise the...

  10. "Productivity performance measurement - follow-up"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Ministry of Health has published the third annual report on hospital productivity. This experience has contributed to policy goals becoming more detailed and ambitious. New policy goals are: to include hospital productivity measures at less aggregated levels, to include labour producti...... productivity and hospital psychiatric care, to provide web-based solutions that facilitate access to productivity data, and to develop new classifications of hospital levels related to structural reforms....

  11. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Barker, G J; MacKay, A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The theory of relaxation processes and their measurements are described. An overview is presented of the literature on relaxation time measurements in the normal and the developing brain, in experimental diseases in animals, and in patients with multiple sclerosis. RESULTS...... AND CONCLUSION: Relaxation time measurements provide insight into development of multiple sclerosis plaques, especially the occurrence of oedema, demyelination, and gliosis. There is also evidence that normal appearing white matter in patients with multiple sclerosis is affected. What is now needed are fast...

  12. Measuring systemic performance of the Lithuanian government

    OpenAIRE

    Nakrošis, Vitalis

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks assessing the dynamics of Lithuania's governmental perfor­mance and comparing it to other countries. It draws on a simple logical model, linking the inputs of the government to its outputs and outcomes. It was found that performance of the Lithuanian government is average and even poor, if compared with the EU aver­age or such countries as Estonia and Ireland. This is despite the fact the public mode of production is rather expensive in Lithuania and the number of public empl...

  13. Measuring performances of linux hyper visors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chierici, A.; Veraldi, R.; Salomoni, D.

    2009-01-01

    Virtualisation is a now proven software technology that is rapidly transforming the I T landscape and fundamentally changing the way people make computations and implement services. Recently, all major software producers (e.g., Microsoft and Red Hat) developed or acquired virtualisation technologies. Our institute (http://www.CNAF.INFN.it) is a Tier l for experiments carried on at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN (http://lhc.web.CERN.ch/lhc/) and is experiencing several benefits from virtualisation technologies, like improving fault tolerance, providing efficient hardware resource usage and increasing security. Currently, the virtualisation solution we adopted is xen, which is well supported by the Scientific Linux distribution, widely used by the High-Energy Physics (HEP) community. Since Scientific Linux is based on Red Hat E S, we felt the need to investigate performances and usability differences with the new k vm technology, recently acquired by Red Hat. The case study of this work is the Tier2 site for the LHCb experiment hosted at our institute; all major grid elements for this Tier2 run on xen virtual machines smoothly. We will investigate the impact on performance and stability that a migration to k vm would entail on the Tier2 site, as well as the effort required by a system administrator to deploy the migration.

  14. Study of vortex dynamics with local magnetic relaxation measurements in the superconducting compound Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}; Etude de la dynamique des vortex par des mesures locales de relaxation magnetique dans le compose supraconducteur Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, St

    2000-07-01

    This experimental study of the magnetic field-temperature phase diagram and of the vortex dynamics in high- T{sub c} superconductors focuses on Bismuth-based cuprates: Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}. In type-II superconductors, mixed state characterized by the presence of vortices (quanta of magnetic flux) is divided by a transition line determined by two features of magnetization loops. For T > 40 K, magnetization loops vs applied field show a step evidence of a first order transition. From 20 to 40 K, a second peak replacing the step correspond to an abrupt increase of irreversibility interpreted as a bulk current. We want to understand the nature of the second peak (thermodynamic or nonequilibrium property) and separate phenomena contributing to irreversibility (flux pinning, geometrical or surface effects). Magnetic measurement techniques are nondestructive and have a resolution of few microns. Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} single crystals are optimized by localizing defectives regions with a magneto-optic technique for flux imaging and elimination of these regions with a wire saw. Local magnetization loops and relaxation measurements performed with a microscopic Hall probe array allow to distinguish irreversibility sources. The shape of induction profiles indicates which current dominate between surface current and bulk pinning induced current. Two crossover with time and a direct observation of two phases coexistence in induction profiles enlighten phenomena in play. The measured electric field-current density characteristics lead to barrier energy U(j) controlling thermally activated flux motion. Three relations (U(j) (surface, bulk low and high field) explain second peak. (author)

  15. A cool-temperate young larch plantation as a net methane source - A 4-year continuous hyperbolic relaxed eddy accumulation and chamber measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, Masahito; Yoshikawa, Kota; Takagi, Kentaro

    2018-07-01

    Upland forests are thought to be methane (CH4) sinks due to oxidation by methanotrophs in aerobic soils. However, CH4 budget for upland forests are not well quantified at the ecosystem scale, when possible CH4 sources, such as small wet areas, exists in the ecosystem. Here, we quantified CH4 fluxes in a cool-temperate larch plantation based on four-year continuous measurements using the hyperbolic relaxed eddy accumulation (HREA) method and dynamic closed chambers with a laser-based analyzer. After filling data gaps for half-hourly data using machine-learning-based regressions, we found that the forest acted as a net CH4 source at the canopy scale: 30 ± 11 mg CH4 m-2 yr-1 in 2014, 56 ± 8 mg CH4 m-2 yr-1 in 2015, 154 ± 5 mg CH4 m-2 yr-1 in 2016, and 132 ± 6 mg CH4 m-2 yr-1 in 2017. Hotspot emissions from the edge of the pond could strongly contribute to the canopy-scale emissions. The magnitude of the hotspot emissions was 10-100 times greater than the order of the canopy-scale and chamber-based CH4 fluxes at the dry soils. The high temperatures with wet conditions stimulated the hotspot emissions, and thus induced canopy-scale CH4 emissions in the summer. Understanding and modeling the dynamics of hotspot emissions are important for quantifying CH4 budgets of upland forests. Micrometeorological measurements at various forests are required for revisiting CH4 budget of upland forests.

  16. Drivers of Performance Measurement Use: Empirical Evidence from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Milosavljević

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the interest of academics and practitioners for the efficiency of performance measurement system use has grown rapidly. The aim of this paper is to examine, articulate and test the relationship between maturity of performance measurement systems, strategic compliance of performance measurement and managerial orientation, on one side, and the portfolio of performance measurement uses, on the other. Data were collected from 86 Serbian companies. The results indicate that the most influential factor for diversified use of performance measurement is the maturity of the system. The paper also discusses theoretical contributions, implications for managers and scholars, and recommendations for decision-makers.

  17. Giant deviation of a relaxation time from generalized Newtonian theory in discontinuous shear thickening suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Rijan; Brown, Eric

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the transient relaxation of a discontinuous shear thickening (DST) suspension of cornstarch in water. We performed two types of relaxation experiments starting from a steady shear in a parallel-plate rheometer, followed either by stopping the top plate rotation and measuring the transient torque relaxation or by removing the torque on the plate and measuring the transient rotation of the tool. We found that at low effective weight fraction ϕeffmodel. The regime where the relaxation was inconsistent with the generalized Newtonian model was the same where we found positive normal stress during relaxation, and in some cases we found an oscillatory response, suggestive of a solidlike structure consisting of a system-spanning contact network of particles. This regime also corresponds to the same packing fraction range where we consistently found discontinuous shear thickening in rate-controlled, steady-state measurements. The relaxation time in this range scales with the inverse of the critical shear rate at the onset of shear thickening, which may correspond to a contact relaxation time for nearby particles in the structure to flow away from each other. In this range, the relaxation time was the same in both stress- and rate-controlled relaxation experiments, indicating the relaxation time is more intrinsic than an effective viscosity in this range and is needed in addition to the steady-state viscosity function to describe transient flows. The discrepancy between the measured relaxation times and the generalized Newtonian prediction was found to be as large as four orders of magnitude, and extrapolations diverge in the limit as ϕeff→ϕc as the generalized Newtonian prediction approaches 0. This quantitative discrepancy indicates the relaxation is not controlled by the dissipative terms in the constitutive relation. At the highest weight fractions, the relaxation time scales were measured to be on the order of ˜1 s. The fact that this time scale is

  18. Accurate determination of rates from non-uniformly sampled relaxation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetz, Matthew A.; Wand, A. Joshua, E-mail: wand@upenn.edu [University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Johnson Research Foundation and Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The application of non-uniform sampling (NUS) to relaxation experiments traditionally used to characterize the fast internal motion of proteins is quantitatively examined. Experimentally acquired Poisson-gap sampled data reconstructed with iterative soft thresholding are compared to regular sequentially sampled (RSS) data. Using ubiquitin as a model system, it is shown that 25 % sampling is sufficient for the determination of quantitatively accurate relaxation rates. When the sampling density is fixed at 25 %, the accuracy of rates is shown to increase sharply with the total number of sampled points until eventually converging near the inherent reproducibility of the experiment. Perhaps contrary to some expectations, it is found that accurate peak height reconstruction is not required for the determination of accurate rates. Instead, inaccuracies in rates arise from inconsistencies in reconstruction across the relaxation series that primarily manifest as a non-linearity in the recovered peak height. This indicates that the performance of an NUS relaxation experiment cannot be predicted from comparison of peak heights using a single RSS reference spectrum. The generality of these findings was assessed using three alternative reconstruction algorithms, eight different relaxation measurements, and three additional proteins that exhibit varying degrees of spectral complexity. From these data, it is revealed that non-linearity in peak height reconstruction across the relaxation series is strongly correlated with errors in NUS-derived relaxation rates. Importantly, it is shown that this correlation can be exploited to reliably predict the performance of an NUS-relaxation experiment by using three or more RSS reference planes from the relaxation series. The RSS reference time points can also serve to provide estimates of the uncertainty of the sampled intensity, which for a typical relaxation times series incurs no penalty in total acquisition time.

  19. TEACHING NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NORRIS, JEANNE E.; STEINHAUS, ARTHUR H.

    THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED TO FIND OUT WHETHER (1) THE METHODS FOR ATTAINING NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION THAT HAVE PROVED FRUITFUL IN THE ONE-TO-ONE RELATIONSHIP OF THE CLINIC CAN BE SUCCESSFULLY ADAPTED TO THE TEACHER-CLASS RELATIONSHIP OF THE CLASSROOM AND GYMNASIUM, AND (2) NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION CAN BE TAUGHT SUCCESSFULLY BY AN APPROPRIATELY TRAINED…

  20. Relaxation of Anisotropic Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deubener, Joachim; Martin, Birgit; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2004-01-01

    . When the load was removed at room temperature a permanent optical anisotropy (birefringence) was observed only perpendicular to cylinder axis and the pressure direction indicating complete elimination of thermal stresses. Relaxation of structural anisotropy was studied from reheating experiments using...... the energy release, thermo-mechanical and optical relaxation behaviour are drawn....

  1. Relaxation techniques for stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... raise your heart rate. This is called the stress response. Relaxation techniques can help your body relax and lower your blood pressure ... also many other types of breathing techniques you can learn. In many cases, you do not need much ... including those that cause stress. Meditation has been practiced for thousands of years, ...

  2. Employee participation in developing performance measures and job performance: on the role of measurement properties and incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, B.; Wouters, M.; Wilderom, C.

    2013-01-01

    Involving employees in the development of performance measures often results in better employee job performance. Yet not all prior studies find such a direct effect. This study explains these inconsistent findings. It focuses on the measurement properties of performance measures and using them for

  3. A comparative study of performance measurement standards of railway operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongjirawut Siripong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The European standard (EN 13816, is one of the widely accepted standards for measuring the quality of public passenger transport (PPT service. EN 13816 indicates 8 measurement criteria, 29 sub-criteria and 193 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs to be used to measure the performance of railway operators. Nowadays, there are other addition criteria beyond EN13816, developed by various organisations. This research firstly aims to explore the service performance measurement of railway operators used by actual railway operators at international level and in Thailand. After an intensive review of performance measurement standards, 9 standards are compiled and compared in terms of criteria, sub-criteria and KPIs using a cluster analysis methodology. The result found additional performance measurement aspects at 2 sub-criteria and 91 KPIs in addition to EN 13816. This research summarized and compared different performance measurement standards to measure service quality of metro rail line.

  4. Control of muscle relaxation during anesthesia: a novel approach for clinical routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Konrad S; Schumacher, Peter M; Hirter, Sibylle; Leibundgut, Daniel; Bouillon, Thomas W; Glattfelder, Adolf H; Zbinden, Alex M

    2006-03-01

    During general anesthesia drugs are administered to provide hypnosis, ensure analgesia, and skeletal muscle relaxation. In this paper, the main components of a newly developed controller for skeletal muscle relaxation are described. Muscle relaxation is controlled by administration of neuromuscular blocking agents. The degree of relaxation is assessed by supramaximal train-of-four stimulation of the ulnar nerve and measuring the electromyogram response of the adductor pollicis muscle. For closed-loop control purposes, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic model of the neuromuscular blocking agent mivacurium is derived. The model is used to design an observer-based state feedback controller. Contrary to similar automatic systems described in the literature this controller makes use of two different measures obtained in the train-of-four measurement to maintain the desired level of relaxation. The controller is validated in a clinical study comparing the performance of the controller to the performance of the anesthesiologist. As presented, the controller was able to maintain a preselected degree of muscle relaxation with excellent precision while minimizing drug administration. The controller performed at least equally well as the anesthesiologist.

  5. Performance Measurement of Complex Event Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Zámečníková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to find and compare existing solutions of complex event processing platforms (CEP. CEP platforms generally serve for processing and/or predicting of high frequency data. We intend to use CEP platform for processing of complex time series and integrate a solution for newly proposed method of decision making. The decision making process will be described by formal grammar. As there are lots of CEP solutions we will take the following characteristics under consideration - the processing in real time, possibility of processing of high volume data from multiple sources, platform independence, platform allowing integration with user solution and open license. At first we will talk about existing CEP tools and their specific way of use in praxis. Then we will mention the design of method for formalization of business rules used for decision making. Afterwards, we focus on two platforms which seem to be the best fit for integration of our solution and we will list the main pros and cons of each approach. Next part is devoted to benchmark platforms for CEP. Final part is devoted to experimental measurements of platform with integrated method for decision support.

  6. Relationship between Structural and Stress Relaxation in a Block-Copolymer Melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Amish J.; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec; Mochrie, Simon G. J.; Garetz, Bruce A.; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between structural relaxation on molecular length scales and macroscopic stress relaxation was explored in a disordered block-copolymer melt. Experiments show that the structural relaxation time, measured by x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy is larger than the terminal stress relaxation time, measured by rheology, by factors as large as 100. We demonstrate that the structural relaxation data are dominated by the diffusion of intact micelles while the stress relaxation data are dominated by contributions due to disordered concentration fluctuations

  7. Anomalous enthalpy relaxation in vitreous silica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng

    2015-01-01

    scans. It is known that the liquid fragility (i.e., the speed of the viscous slow-down of a supercooled liquid at its Tg during cooling) has impact on enthalpy relaxation in glass. Here, we find that vitreous silica (as a strong system) exhibits striking anomalies in both glass transition and enthalpy...... relaxation compared to fragile oxide systems. The anomalous enthalpy relaxation of vitreous silica is discovered by performing the hyperquenching-annealing-calorimetry experiments. We argue that the strong systems like vitreous silica and vitreous Germania relax in a structurally cooperative manner, whereas...... the fragile ones do in a structurally independent fashion. We discuss the origin of the anomalous enthalpy relaxation in the HQ vitreous silica....

  8. Performance measurement, expectancy and agency theory: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, R.; van Praag, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical analyses of (optimal) performance measures are typically performed within the realm of the linear agency model. This model implies that, for a given compensation scheme, the agent’s optimal effort is unrelated to the amount of noise in the performance measure. In contrast, expectancy

  9. Development of material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard; Giusca, Claudiu; Rickens, Kai; Riemer, Oltmann; Rubert, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The development of two irregular-geometry material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments is described. The material measures are designed to be used to performance verify tactile and optical areal surface topography measuring instruments. The manufacture of the material measures using diamond turning followed by nickel electroforming is described in detail. Measurement results are then obtained using a traceable stylus instrument and a commercial coherence scanning interferometer, and the results are shown to agree to within the measurement uncertainties. The material measures are now commercially available as part of a suite of material measures aimed at the calibration and performance verification of areal surface topography measuring instruments

  10. The relaxation time approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gairola, R.P.; Indu, B.D.

    1991-01-01

    A plausible approximation has been made to estimate the relaxation time from a knowledge of the transition probability of phonons from one state (r vector, q vector) to other state (r' vector, q' vector), as a result of collision. The relaxation time, thus obtained, shows a strong dependence on temperature and weak dependence on the wave vector. In view of this dependence, relaxation time has been expressed in terms of a temperature Taylor's series in the first Brillouin zone. Consequently, a simple model for estimating the thermal conductivity is suggested. the calculations become much easier than the Callaway model. (author). 14 refs

  11. PERFORMANCE MEASURES OF STUDENTS IN EXAMINATIONS: A STOCHASTIC APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Goutam Saha; GOUTAM SAHA

    2013-01-01

    Data on Secondary and Higher Secondary examination (science stream) results from Tripura (North-East India) schools are analyzed to measure the performance of students based on tests and also the performance measures of schools based on final results and continuous assessment processes are obtained. The result variation in terms of grade points in the Secondary and Higher Secondary examinations are analysed using different sets of performance measures. The transition probabilities from one g...

  12. Procedure for Measuring and Reporting Commercial Building Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barley, D.; Deru, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    This procedure is intended to provide a standard method for measuring and characterizing the energy performance of commercial buildings. The procedure determines the energy consumption, electrical energy demand, and on-site energy production in existing commercial buildings of all types. The performance metrics determined here may be compared against benchmarks to evaluate performance and verify that performance targets have been achieved.

  13. The Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS): An Integrated Suite of Tools for Measuring Performance and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statler, Irving C.; Connor, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This is a report of work in progress. In it, I summarize the status of the research and development of the Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS) for managing, processing, and analyzing digital flight-recorded data, The objectives of the NASA-FAA APMS research project are to establish a sound scientific and technological basis for flight-data analysis, to define an open and flexible architecture for flight-data analysis systems, and to articulate guidelines for a standardized database structure on which to continue to build future flight-data-analysis extensions. APMS offers to the air transport community an open, voluntary standard for flight-data-analysis software; a standard that will help to ensure suitable functionality and data interchangeability among competing software programs. APMS will develop and document the methodologies, algorithms, and procedures for data management and analyses to enable users to easily interpret the implications regarding safety and efficiency of operations. APMS does not entail the implementation of a nationwide flight-data-collection system. It is intended to provide technical tools to ease the large-scale implementation of flight-data analyses at both the air-carrier and the national-airspace levels in support of their Flight Operations and Quality Assurance (FOQA) Programs and Advanced Qualifications Programs (AQP). APMS cannot meet its objectives unless it develops tools that go substantially beyond the capabilities of the current commercially available software and supporting analytic methods that are mainly designed to count special events. These existing capabilities, while of proven value, were created primarily with the needs-of aircrews in mind. APMS tools must serve the needs of the government and air carriers, as well as aircrews, to fully support the FOQA and AQP programs. They must be able to derive knowledge not only through the analysis of single flights (special-event detection), but also through

  14. Transportation performance measures for outcome based system management and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) is mature in its development and use of : performance measures, however there was not a standard approach for selecting measures nor : evaluating if existing ones were used to inform decision-making. Thi...

  15. Performance Measures for Public Participation Methods : Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Public engagement is an important part of transportation project development, but measuring its effectiveness is typically piecemealed. Performance measurementdescribed by the Urban Institute as the measurement on a regular basis of the results (o...

  16. Measuring the marketing performances of state forest enterprises in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring the marketing performances of state forest enterprises in Turkey. ... This study covers a limited period of time (1999 - 2003), and 41 variables were developed in order to measure the marketing ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. Joint Integration Test Facility (JITF) Engineering II Performance Measurement Plans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boucher, Joanne

    2001-01-01

    ..., effectiveness, and accountability in federal programs and spending. The plan establishes six separate performance measurements, which correlate directly to customer satisfaction, Intelligence Mission Application (IMA...

  18. New’ Performance Measures: Determinants of Their Use and Their Impact on Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H.M. Verbeeten (Frank)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates the extent to which Dutch organizations use ‘new’ performance measures to deal with the perceived inadequacies of traditional accounting performance measures. In addition, the determinants of the use of these ‘new’ performance measures are documented; finally, the

  19. Vibrational relaxation in OCS mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, C.J.S.M.; Gait, P.D.; Simmie, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental measurements are reported of vibrational relaxation times which may be used to show whether there is near resonant vibration-rotation energy transfer between OCS and H 2 , D 2 or HD. Vibrational relaxation times have been measured in OCS and OCS mixtures over the temperature range 360 to 1000 K using a shock tube and a laser schlieren system. The effectiveness of the additives in reducing the relaxation time of OCS is in the order 4 He 3 He 2 2 and HD. Along this series the effect of an increase in temperature changes from the case of speeding up the rate with 4 He to retarding it with D 2 , HD and H 2 . There is no measurable difference in the effectiveness of n-D 2 and o-D 2 and little, or no, difference between n-H 2 and p-H 2 . Thus the experimental results do not give clear evidence for rotational-vibration energy transfer between hydrogen and OCS. This contrasts with the situation for CO 2 + H 2 mixtures. (author)

  20. The Impact of the Relaxation of Visits by Mainland China Tourists to Taiwan on Stock Returns and Financial Performance: The Case of Listed Tourism Industry Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Erin H. Kao; You-De Dai

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact on listed tourism industry firms of the relaxation of the policy to allow Mainland China tourists to visit Taiwan directly for sightseeing from a financial viewpoint. First, before the implementation of the policy, this study applied the "event study method" to investigate the effects on the stock prices of the announcement of the open policy. The results indicate that, except for the Aviation industry, the announcement has given rise to sign...

  1. Stress Relaxation in Entangled Polymer Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Ji-Xuan; Svaneborg, Carsten; Everaers, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    We present an extensive set of simulation results for the stress relaxation in equilibrium and step-strained bead-spring polymer melts. The data allow us to explore the chain dynamics and the shear relaxation modulus, G(t), into the plateau regime for chains with Z=40 entanglements...... and into the terminal relaxation regime for Z=10. Using the known (Rouse) mobility of unentangled chains and the melt entanglement length determined via the primitive path analysis of the microscopic topological state of our systems, we have performed parameter-free tests of several different tube models. We find...

  2. Relaxation of polarized nuclei in superconducting rhodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuuttila, T.A.; Tuoriniemi, J.T.; Lefmann, K.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear spin lattice relaxation rates were measured in normal and superconducting (sc) rhodium with nuclear polarizations up to p = 0.55. This was sufficient to influence the sc state of Rh, whose T, and B-c, are exceptionally low. Because B-c ... is unchanged, the nuclear spin entropy was fully sustained across the sc transition. The relaxation in the sc state was slower at all temperatures without the coherence enhancement close to T-c. Nonzero nuclear polarization strongly reduced the difference between the relaxation rates in the sc and normal...

  3. Corroborative evidences of TV γ -scaling of the α-relaxation originating from the primitive relaxation/JG β relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, K. L.; Paluch, M.

    2017-12-01

    Successful thermodynamic scaling of the structural alpha-relaxation time or transport coefficients of glass-forming liquids determined at various temperatures T and pressures P means the data conform to a single function of the product variable TVgamma, where V is the specific volume and gamma is a material specific constant. In the past two decades we have witnessed successful TVgamma-scaling in many molecular, polymeric, and even metallic glass-formers, and gamma is related to the slope of the repulsive part of the intermolecular potential. The advances made indicate TVgamma-scaling is an important aspect of the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of glass-formers. In this paper we show the origin of TVgamma-scaling is not from the structural alpha-relaxation time. Instead it comes from its precursor, the Johari-Goldstein beta-relaxation or the primitive relaxation of the Coupling Model and their relaxation times or tau_0 respectively. It is remarkable that all relaxation times are functions of TVgamma with the same gama, as well as the fractional exponent of the Kohlrausch correlation function of the structural alpha-relaxation. We arrive at this conclusion convincingly based on corroborative evidences from a number of experiments and molecular dynamics simulations performed on a wide variety of glass-formers and in conjunction with consistency with the predictions of the Coupling Model.

  4. Dashed line relaxing retinotomy in the management of retinal detachment with anterior proliferative vitreoretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsen CL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chui-Lien Tsen,1 Yu-Harn Horng,1 Shwu-Jiuan Sheu1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan Background: We describe the anatomical and functional outcomes of eyes that underwent a modified technique of relaxing retinotomy, dashed line relaxing retinotomy, in the management of retinal detachment with anterior proliferative vitreoretinopathy.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 54 consecutive eyes in 52 patients who received pars plana vitrectomy with relaxing retinotomy during retinal detachment repair. Perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL was used as a standard procedure to stabilize the retina during retinotomy to prevent slippage or inversion of the posterior flap. If PFCL was not available due to economic reasons, dashed line relaxing retinotomy was performed instead. Best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure measurement, lens status, and fundus examination were analyzed. We excluded patients who were followed up <4 months.Results: Regarding anatomical success rates and visual outcomes, we found no significant differences between patients treated with intraoperative PFCL and those treated with dashed line relaxing retinotomy without PFCL.Conclusion: Compared to the simple and efficient PFCL-assisted relaxing retinotomy, dashed relaxing retinotomy is not the first choice when PFCL is available. Based on our results, this modified technique may offer an alternative in patients with anterior proliferative vitreoretinopathy for whom PFCL is not available. Keywords: perfluorocarbon liquid, PFCL 

  5. Environmental Uncertainty, Performance Measure Variety and Perceived Performance in Icelandic Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall; Sigurjonsson, Throstur Olaf; Arnardottir, Audur Arna

    and the perceived performance of the company. The sample was the 300 largest companies in Iceland and the response rate was 27%. Compared to other studies the majority of the respondents use a surprisingly high number of different measures – both financial and non-financial. This made testing of the three......The use of performance measures and performance measurement frameworks has increased significantly in recent years. The type and variety of performance measures in use has been researched in various countries and linked to different variables such as the external environment, performance...... measurement frameworks, and management characteristics. This paper reports the results of a study carried out at year end 2013 of the use of performance measures by Icelandic companies and the links to perceived environmental uncertainty, management satisfaction with the performance measurement system...

  6. T2 relaxation time analysis in patients with multiple sclerosis: correlation with magnetization transfer ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, Nickolas; Papadaki, Eufrosini; Karampekios, Spyros; Maris, Thomas; Prassopoulos, Panos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas; Spilioti, Martha

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to perform T2 relaxation time measurements in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and correlate them with magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) measurements, in order to investigate in more detail the various histopathological changes that occur in lesions and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). A total number of 291 measurements of MTR and T2 relaxation times were performed in 13 MS patients and 10 age-matched healthy volunteers. Measurements concerned MS plaques (105), NAWM (80), and ''dirty'' white matter (DWM; 30), evenly divided between the MS patients, and normal white matter (NWM; 76) in the healthy volunteers. Biexponential T2 relaxation-time analysis was performed, and also possible linearity between MTR and mean T2 relaxation times was evaluated using linear regression analysis in all subgroups. Biexponential relaxation was more pronounced in ''black-hole'' lesions (16.6%) and homogeneous enhancing plaques (10%), whereas DWM, NAWM, and mildly hypointense lesions presented biexponential behavior with a lower frequency(6.6, 5, and 3.1%, respectively). Non-enhancing isointense lesions and normal white matter did not reveal any biexponentional behavior. Linear regression analysis between monoexponential T2 relaxation time and MTR measurements demonstrated excellent correlation for DWM(r=-0.78, p<0.0001), very good correlation for black-hole lesions(r=-0.71, p=0.002), good correlation for isointense lesions(r=-0.60, p=0.005), moderate correlation for mildly hypointense lesions(r=-0.34, p=0.007), and non-significant correlation for homogeneous enhancing plaques, NAWM, and NWM. Biexponential T2 relaxation-time behavior is seen in only very few lesions (mainly on plaques with high degree of demyelination and axonal loss). A strong correlation between MTR and monoexponential T2 values was found in regions where either inflammation or demyelination predominates; however, when both pathological conditions coexist, this linear

  7. Predicting Document Retrieval System Performance: An Expected Precision Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losee, Robert M., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an expected precision (EP) measure designed to predict document retrieval performance. Highlights include decision theoretic models; precision and recall as measures of system performance; EP graphs; relevance feedback; and computing the retrieval status value of a document for two models, the Binary Independent Model and the Two Poisson…

  8. A customer perspective on performance measurement in humanitarian supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffling, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The increasing importance of services in SCM leads to a stronger focus on the customer perspective. Donors and beneficiaries are two distinct customer groups of humanitarian supply chains. This paper will analyse how this impacts performance measurement for example in the commonly used balanced scorecard, which includes a customer perspective. Keywords: Performance measurement, Humanitarian logistics, Customer perspective

  9. Automating Performance Measures and Clinical Practice Guidelines: Differences and Complementarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Samson W; Martins, Susana; Oshiro, Connie; Yuen, Kaeli; Wang, Dan; Robinson, Amy; Ashcraft, Michael; Heidenreich, Paul A; Goldstein, Mary K

    2016-01-01

    Through close analysis of two pairs of systems that implement the automated evaluation of performance measures (PMs) and guideline-based clinical decision support (CDS), we contrast differences in their knowledge encoding and necessary changes to a CDS system that provides management recommendations for patients failing performance measures. We trace the sources of differences to the implementation environments and goals of PMs and CDS.

  10. Supply chain oriented performance measurement for automotive spare parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.; Beekman, L.

    2008-01-01

    Literature provides a number of conceptual frameworks and discussions on performance measurement in supply chains. However, most of these frameworks focus on a single link of a supply chain. Furthermore, there is a lack of empirical analysis and case studies on performance metrics and measurements

  11. A Study on Relationships between Functional Performance and Task Performance Measure through Experiments in NPP MCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, In Seok; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun

    2011-01-01

    Further improvements in levels of organization, management, man-machine interfaces, education, training, etc. are required, if high operating reliability of operators in huge and complex plants such as chemical plants and electrical power generating plants is to be maintained. Improvement requires good understanding of operators' behavior, including defining what is good performance for operators, especially in emergency situations. Human performance measures, therefore, are important to enhance performance and to reduce the probability of incidents and accidents in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Operators' performance measures are used for multi-objectives such as control room design, human system interface evaluation, training, procedure and so on. There are two kinds of representative methods to measure operators' performance. These methods are now known as the functional performance measure and task performance measure. Functional performance measures are basically based on the plant process parameters. Functional performance measures indicate how well the operators controlled selected critical parameters. The parameters selected in this paper are derived from the four Critical Safety Functions (CSFs) identified in the emergency operating procedures such as achievement of subcriticality, maintenance of core cooling, maintenance of heat sink and maintenance of containment integrity. Task performance measures are based on the task analysis. Task analysis is to determine the tasks required and how operators are performed. In this paper, task analysis is done with ideal path for an accident completed by experts and Emergency Operation Procedure (EOP). However, most literatures related to operators' performance have been using one of these measures and there is no research to find out the relationships between two measures. In this paper, the relationships between functional performance measure and task performance measure are investigated using experiments. Shortly

  12. The relationships between common measures of glucose meter performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmoth, Daniel R

    2012-09-01

    Glucose meter performance is commonly measured in several different ways, including the relative bias and coefficient of variation (CV), the total error, the mean absolute relative deviation (MARD), and the size of the interval around the reference value that would be necessary to contain a meter measurement at a specified probability. This fourth measure is commonly expressed as a proportion of the reference value and will be referred to as the necessary relative deviation. A deeper understanding of the relationships between these measures may aid health care providers, patients, and regulators in comparing meter performances when different measures are used. The relationships between common measures of glucose meter performance were derived mathematically. Equations are presented for calculating the total error, MARD, and necessary relative deviation using the reference value, relative bias, and CV when glucose meter measurements are normally distributed. When measurements are also unbiased, the CV, total error, MARD, and necessary relative deviation are linearly related and are therefore equivalent measures of meter performance. The relative bias and CV provide more information about meter performance than the other measures considered but may be difficult for some audiences to interpret. Reporting meter performance in multiple ways may facilitate the informed selection of blood glucose meters. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  13. MEASURING PERFORMANCE IN ORGANIZATIONS FROM MULTI-DIMENSIONAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘTEFĂNESCU CRISTIAN

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In turbulent financial and economic present conditions a major challenge for the general management of organizations and in particular for the strategic human resources management is to establish a clear, coherent and consistent framework in terms of measuring organizational performance and economic efficiency. This paper aims to conduct an exploratory research of literature concerning measuring organizational performance. Based on the results of research the paper proposes a multi-dimensional model for measuring organizational performance providing a mechanism that will allow quantification of performance based on selected criteria. The model will attempt to eliminate inconsistencies and incongruities of organizational effectiveness models developed by specialists from organization theory area, performance measurement models developed by specialists from accounting management area and models of measuring the efficiency and effectiveness developed by specialists from strategic management and entrepreneurship areas.

  14. Measures of Strategic Alliance Performance, Classified and Assessed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Jeppe; Plenborg, Thomas; Robson, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last three decades, strategic alliance performance has been an important research topic within the international business and management fields. Researchers have investigated a number of factors explaining performance but often find diverging results. Scholars have suggested that one...... reason may be that different performance measures are used as the dependent variable. But which differences exist and how can they matter? Against this backdrop, the present study makes three main contributions. First, we identify dimensions that illustrate differences and similarities between...... performance measures and provide a simple yet comprehensive classification of the different performance measures used in 167 empirical studies in the literature. Second, we suggest how differences in performance measures may influence construct validity under different circumstances. Third, we show...

  15. Relaxation parameter estimation and comparison of NLS and LLS methods for DCE MRI in the cervix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariager, Christian; Kallehauge, Jesper; Tanderup, Kari

    Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE) MRI is a promising tool for tumor treatment planning. However, prior knowledge of the T1 value within each tumor voxel is needed to utilize this technique. Therefore, a T1 relaxation measurement is performed before the DCE experiment to establish a baseline, before...... any injection of contrast agent. This T1 relaxation measurement is often performed using a variable flip angle spoiled gradient recalled echo (SPGR) sequence. T1 can then be estimated using either a linear least squares (LLS) or a non-linear least squares (NLS) fitting algorithm....

  16. On the relation between quasi-static and dynamic stress induced reversible structural relaxation of amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, P.; Stucky, T.; Boewe, M.; Neuhaeuser, H.

    1993-01-01

    Quasi-static stress relaxation and dynamic internal friction measurements of stress induced reversible structural relaxation were performed on the amorphous alloy Fe 40 Ni 40 B 20 . The kinetics can be well described by a stretched exponential Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts quasi-static relaxation. The thermally activated part of the internal friction shows an Arrhenius temperature behaviour for a fixed vibration frequency and an inverse power frequency behaviour for a fixed temperature. The activation energies calculated from the Arrhenius equation and from the frequency shift method are significantly different. In order to explain this discrepancy the relation between the quasi-static and the dynamic descriptions of the reversible relaxation is reexamined. In particular it is shown that these two activation energies are connected by the Kohlrausch exponent of the quasi-static relaxation. (orig.)

  17. Performance Measurement without Benchmarks: An Examination of Mutual Fund Returns.

    OpenAIRE

    Grinblatt, Mark; Titman, Sheridan

    1993-01-01

    This article introduces a new measure of portfolio performance and applies it to study the performance of a large sample of mutual funds. In contrast to previous studies of mutual fund performance, the measure used in this study employs portfolio holdings and does not require the use of a benchmark portfolio. It finds that the portfolio choices of mutual fund managers, particularly those that managed aggressive growth funds, earned significantly positive risk-adjusted returns in the 1976-85 p...

  18. An Examination of Organizatinal Performance Measurement System Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    DeBusk, Gerald Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation provides results of three studies, which examine the utilization of organizational performance measurement systems. Evidence gathered in the first study provides insight into the number of perspectives or components found in the evaluation of an organization's performance and the relative weight placed on those components. The evidence suggests that the number of performance measurement components and their relative composition is situational. Components depend heavily on th...

  19. A framework to improve performance measurement in engineering projects

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng , Li; Baron , Claude; Esteban , Philippe; Xue , Rui; Zhang , Qiang

    2017-01-01

    International audience; A wide range of methods and good practices have been developed for the measurement of projects performance. They help project managers to effectively monitor the project progress and evaluate results. However, from a literature review, we noticed several remaining critical issues in measuring projects performance, such as an unbalanced development of Key Performance Indicators types between lagging and leading indicators. On the other hand, systems engineering measurem...

  20. Performance Measurement, Expectancy and Agency Theory: An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Randolph Sloof; Mirjam van Praag

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical analyses of (optimal) performance measures are typically performed within the realm of the linear agency model. An important implication of this model is that, for a given compensation scheme, the agent's optimal effort choice is unrelated to the amount of noise in the performance measure. In contrast, expectancy theory as developed by psychologists predicts that effort levels are increasing in the signal-to-noise ratio. We conduct a real effort laboratory experiment to assess the...

  1. Thermal performance measurements on ATLAS-SCT KB forward modules

    CERN Document Server

    Donegà, M; D'Onofrio, M; Ferrère, D; Hirt, C; Ikegami, Y; Kohriki, T; Kondo, T; Lindsay, S; Mangin-Brinet, M; Niinikoski, T O; Pernegger, H; Perrin, E; Taylor, G; Terada, S; Unno, Y; Wallny, R; Weber, M

    2003-01-01

    The thermal design of the KB module is presented. A Finite Elements Analysis (FEA) has been used to finalize the module design. The thermal performance of an outer irradiated KB module has been measured at different cooling conditions. The thermal runaway of the module has been measured. The FEA model has been compared with the measurements and has been used to predict the thermal performance in a realistic SCT scenario.

  2. Balanced Scorecard Based Performance Measurement & Strategic Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Permatasari, Paulina

    2006-01-01

    Developing strategy and performance measurement are an integral part of management control system. Making strategic decision about planning and controlling require information regarding how different subunits in organization work. To be effective, performance measurement, both financial and non-financial must motivate manager and employees at different levels to force goal accomplishment and organization strategic. An organization's measurement system strongly affects the behavior of people b...

  3. Performance measurement in healthcare: part II--state of the science findings by stage of the performance measurement process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Carol E; Simpson, Elizabeth; Casebeer, Ann L; Birdsell, Judith M; Hayden, Katharine A; Lewis, Steven

    2006-07-01

    This paper summarizes findings of a comprehensive, systematic review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature on performance measurement according to each stage of the performance measurement process--conceptualization, selection and development, data collection, and reporting and use. It also outlines implications for practice. Six hundred sixty-four articles about organizational performance measurement from the health and business literature were reviewed after systematic searches of the literature, multi-rater relevancy ratings, citation checks and expert author nominations. Key themes were extracted and summarized from the most highly rated papers for each performance measurement stage. Despite a virtually universal consensus on the potential benefits of performance measurement, little evidence currently exists to guide practice in healthcare. Issues in conceptualizing systems include strategic alignment and scope. There are debates on the criteria for selecting measures and on the types and quality of measures. Implementation of data collection and analysis systems is complex and costly, and challenges persist in reporting results, preventing unintended effects and putting findings for improvement into action. There is a need for further development and refinement of performance measures and measurement systems, with a particular focus on strategies to ensure that performance measurement leads to healthcare improvement.

  4. Performance measurement in the context of CREM and FM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riratanaphong, C.; van der Voordt, Theo; Sarasoja, AL; Jensen, PA; van der Voordt, DJM; Coenen, C

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss trends in organisational performance measurement, to identify and discuss widely used performance criteria and key performance indicators (KPIs) in general and in the fields of Facility Management (FM) and Corporate Real Estate Management (CREM), and to identify how a more

  5. Designing a performance measurement system: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohman, Clemens; Fortuin, Leonard; Wouters, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Performance measurement (PM) by means of local performance indicators (PIs) is developing into performance management at a company-wide scale. But how should PIs at various levels in the organization be incorporated into one system that can help managers, working at levels that range from

  6. Performance measurement, expectancy and agency theory: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, R.; van Praag, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical analyses of (optimal) performance measures are typically performed within the realm of the linear agency model. An important implication of this model is that, for a given compensation scheme, the agent's optimal effort choice is unrelated to the amount of noise in the performance

  7. Designing a performance measurement system : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohman, C.T.M.; Fortuin, L.; Wouters, M.J.F.

    2004-01-01

    Performance measurement (PM) by means of local performance indicators (PIs) is developing into performance management at a company-wide scale. But how should PIs at various levels in the organization be incorporated into one system that can help managers, working at levels that range from

  8. Performance-Based Measurement: Action for Organizations and HPT Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi-Apau, Josephine A.; Moseley, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Basic measurements and applications of six selected general but critical operational performance-based indicators--effectiveness, efficiency, productivity, profitability, return on investment, and benefit-cost ratio--are presented. With each measurement, goals and potential impact are explored. Errors, risks, limitations to measurements, and a…

  9. Strategy Archetypes Adopted by Icelandic Companies, Their Fit with Performance Measures and Effects on Financial Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall; Sigurjonsson, Olaf; Arnardottir, Audur Arna

    Past research seems to suggest that companies adopting certain strategies favor certain sets of performance measures. That is to say companies using entrepreneurial focused strategies favor non-financial measures or a balanced mix of financial and non-financial measures. Companies adopting reactive...... or operational strategies seem to favor financial measures and are less likely to use non-financial measures. We take this research further by focusing not only on the link between strategy types and performance measures but also on what specific performance measures are used in connection to which strategies....... Furthermore, we examine the link between the strategies adopted, the performance measures favored and the financial performance of the companies. The empirical data collection was carried out in winter 2013 with a population of the 300 largest companies in Iceland. The survey was sent to the CFO...

  10. Stress relaxation of bi-disperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hengeller, Ludovica; Huang, Qian; Dorokhin, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    We present start-up of uniaxial extension followed by stress relaxation experiments of a bi-disperse 50 % by weight blend of 95k and 545k molecular weight polystyrene. We also show, for comparison, stress relaxation measurements of the polystyrene melts with molecular weight 95k and 545k, which...... are the components of the bi-disperse melt. The measurements show three separated relaxation regimes: a fast regime, a transition regime, and a slow regime. In the fast regime, the orientation of the long chains is frozen and the stress relaxation is due to stretch relaxation of the short chains primarily....... Conversely in the slow regime, the long chains have retracted and undergo relaxation of orientation in fully relaxed short chains....

  11. Sub-Shot-Noise Magnetometry with a Correlated Spin-Relaxation Dominated Alkali-Metal Vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kominis, I. K.

    2008-01-01

    Spin noise sets fundamental limits to the precision of measurements using spin-polarized atomic vapors, such as performed with sensitive atomic magnetometers. Spin squeezing offers the possibility to extend the measurement precision beyond the standard quantum limit of uncorrelated atoms. Contrary to current understanding, we show that, even in the presence of spin relaxation, spin squeezing can lead to a significant reduction of spin noise, and hence an increase in magnetometric sensitivity, for a long measurement time. This is the case when correlated spin relaxation due to binary alkali-atom collisions dominates independently acting decoherence processes, a situation realized in thermal high atom-density magnetometers and clocks

  12. Performance Measure as Feedback Variable in Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Danijela

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the view of image processing performance measure presenting the use of this measure as an actual value in a feedback structure. The idea behind is that the control loop, which is built in that way, drives the actual feedback value to a given set point. Since the performance measure depends explicitly on the application, the inclusion of feedback structures and choice of appropriate feedback variables are presented on example of optical character recognition in industrial application. Metrics for quantification of performance at different image processing levels are discussed. The issues that those metrics should address from both image processing and control point of view are considered. The performance measures of individual processing algorithms that form a character recognition system are determined with respect to the overall system performance.

  13. GRAPH THEORY APPROACH TO QUANTIFY UNCERTAINTY OF PERFORMANCE MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio D. Sousa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance measurement process is studied to quantify the uncertainty induced in the resulting performance measure (PM. To that end, the causes of uncertainty are identified, analysing the activities undertaken in the three following stages of the performance measurement process: design and implementation, data collection and record, and determination and analysis. A quantitative methodology based on graph theory and on the sources of uncertainty of the performance measurement process is used to calculate an uncertainty index to evaluate the level of uncertainty of a given PM or (key performance indicator. An application example is presented. The quantification of PM uncertainty could contribute to better represent the risk associated with a given decision and also to improve the PM to increase its precision and reliability.

  14. Multi-instance dictionary learning via multivariate performance measure optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2016-12-29

    The multi-instance dictionary plays a critical role in multi-instance data representation. Meanwhile, different multi-instance learning applications are evaluated by specific multivariate performance measures. For example, multi-instance ranking reports the precision and recall. It is not difficult to see that to obtain different optimal performance measures, different dictionaries are needed. This observation motives us to learn performance-optimal dictionaries for this problem. In this paper, we propose a novel joint framework for learning the multi-instance dictionary and the classifier to optimize a given multivariate performance measure, such as the F1 score and precision at rank k. We propose to represent the bags as bag-level features via the bag-instance similarity, and learn a classifier in the bag-level feature space to optimize the given performance measure. We propose to minimize the upper bound of a multivariate loss corresponding to the performance measure, the complexity of the classifier, and the complexity of the dictionary, simultaneously, with regard to both the dictionary and the classifier parameters. In this way, the dictionary learning is regularized by the performance optimization, and a performance-optimal dictionary is obtained. We develop an iterative algorithm to solve this minimization problem efficiently using a cutting-plane algorithm and a coordinate descent method. Experiments on multi-instance benchmark data sets show its advantage over both traditional multi-instance learning and performance optimization methods.

  15. Multi-instance dictionary learning via multivariate performance measure optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung; Cui, Xuefeng; Lu, Zhiwu; Gao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The multi-instance dictionary plays a critical role in multi-instance data representation. Meanwhile, different multi-instance learning applications are evaluated by specific multivariate performance measures. For example, multi-instance ranking reports the precision and recall. It is not difficult to see that to obtain different optimal performance measures, different dictionaries are needed. This observation motives us to learn performance-optimal dictionaries for this problem. In this paper, we propose a novel joint framework for learning the multi-instance dictionary and the classifier to optimize a given multivariate performance measure, such as the F1 score and precision at rank k. We propose to represent the bags as bag-level features via the bag-instance similarity, and learn a classifier in the bag-level feature space to optimize the given performance measure. We propose to minimize the upper bound of a multivariate loss corresponding to the performance measure, the complexity of the classifier, and the complexity of the dictionary, simultaneously, with regard to both the dictionary and the classifier parameters. In this way, the dictionary learning is regularized by the performance optimization, and a performance-optimal dictionary is obtained. We develop an iterative algorithm to solve this minimization problem efficiently using a cutting-plane algorithm and a coordinate descent method. Experiments on multi-instance benchmark data sets show its advantage over both traditional multi-instance learning and performance optimization methods.

  16. Non-uniform sampling of NMR relaxation data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz-Linnet, Troels; Teilum, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    The use of non-uniform sampling of NMR spectra may give significant reductions in the data acquisition time. For quantitative experiments such as the measurement of spin relaxation rates, non-uniform sampling is however not widely used as inaccuracies in peak intensities may lead to errors...... in the extracted dynamic parameters. By systematic reducing the coverage of the Nyquist grid of (15)N Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) relaxation dispersion datasets for four different proteins and performing a full data analysis of the resulting non-uniform sampled datasets, we have compared the performance...... of the multi-dimensional decomposition and iterative re-weighted least-squares algorithms in reconstructing spectra with accurate peak intensities. As long as a single fully sampled spectrum is included in a series of otherwise non-uniform sampled two-dimensional spectra, multi-dimensional decomposition...

  17. From mission to measures: performance measure development for a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farb, Amy Feldman; Burrus, Barri; Wallace, Ina F; Wilson, Ellen K; Peele, John E

    2014-03-01

    The Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) sought to create a comprehensive set of performance measures to capture the performance of the Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) program. This performance measurement system needed to provide measures that could be used internally (by both OAH and the TPP grantees) for management and program improvement as well as externally to communicate the program's progress to other interested stakeholders and Congress. This article describes the selected measures and outlines the considerations behind the TPP measurement development process. Issues faced, challenges encountered, and lessons learned have broad applicability for other federal agencies and, specifically, for TPP programs interested in assessing their own performance and progress. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Relaxation Dynamics of Nanoparticle-Tethered Polymer Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Sung A

    2015-09-08

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Relaxation dynamics of nanoparticle-tethered cis-1,4-polyisoprene (PI) are investigated using dielectric spectroscopy and rheometry. A model system composed of polymer chains densely grafted to spherical SiO2 nanoparticles to form self-suspended suspensions facilitates detailed studies of slow global chain and fast segmental mode dynamics under surface and geometrical confinement-from experiments performed in bulk materials. We report that unentangled polymer molecules tethered to nanoparticles relax far more slowly than their tethered entangled counterparts. Specifically, at fixed grafting density we find, counterintuitively, that increasing the tethered polymer molecular weight up to values close to the entanglement molecular weight speeds up chain relaxation dynamics. Decreasing the polymer grafting density for a fixed molecular weight has the opposite effect: it dramatically slows down chain relaxation, increases interchain coupling, and leads to a transition in rheological response from simple fluid behavior to viscoelastic fluid behavior for tethered PI chains that are unentangled by conventional measures. Increasing the measurement temperature produces an even stronger elastic response and speeds up molecular relaxation at a rate that decreases with grafting density and molecular weight. These observations are discussed in terms of chain confinement driven by crowding between particles and by the existence of an entropic attractive force produced by the space-filling constraint on individual chains in a self-suspended material. Our results indicate that the entropic force between densely grafted polymer molecules couples motions of individual chains in an analogous manner to reversible cross-links in associating polymers.

  19. Compaction and relaxation of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, R.

    2015-06-18

    Operation of membrane systems for water treatment can be seriously hampered by biofouling. A better characterization of biofilms in membrane systems and their impact on membrane performance may help to develop effective biofouling control strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence, extent and timescale of biofilm compaction and relaxation (decompaction), caused by permeate flux variations. The impact of permeate flux changes on biofilm thickness, structure and stiffness was investigated in situ and non-destructively with optical coherence tomography using membrane fouling monitors operated at a constant crossflow velocity of 0.1 m s−1 with permeate production. The permeate flux was varied sequentially from 20 to 60 and back to 20 L m−2 h−1. The study showed that the average biofilm thickness on the membrane decreased after elevating the permeate flux from 20 to 60 L m−2 h−1 while the biofilm thickness increased again after restoring the original flux of 20 L m−2 h−1, indicating the occurrence of biofilm compaction and relaxation. Within a few seconds after the flux change, the biofilm thickness was changed and stabilized, biofilm compaction occurred faster than the relaxation after restoring the original permeate flux. The initial biofilm parameters were not fully reinstated: the biofilm thickness was reduced by 21%, biofilm stiffness had increased and the hydraulic biofilm resistance was elevated by 16%. Biofilm thickness was related to the hydraulic biofilm resistance. Membrane performance losses are related to the biofilm thickness, density and morphology, which are influenced by (variations in) hydraulic conditions. A (temporarily) permeate flux increase caused biofilm compaction, together with membrane performance losses. The impact of biofilms on membrane performance can be influenced (increased and reduced) by operational parameters. The article shows that a (temporary) pressure increase leads to more

  20. Academic writing performance measured for research and instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firssova, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Firssova, O. (2011, January 19). Academic writing performance measured for research and instruction. Presentation at the ICO Course Domain specific research on learning and instruction: theories, methodology and curricular innovations, Utrecht, The Netherlands: Interuniversitair Centrum voor

  1. Academic writing performance measured for research and instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firssova, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Firssova, O. (2012, 19 January). Academic writing performance measured for research and instruction. Presentation given at the ICO Masterclass, Theme Domain-Specific Instruction, January 19-February 10, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

  2. Establishing and integrating performance measures : a TPCB peer exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-31

    This report highlights key recommendations and noteworthy practices identified at Establishing and Integrating Performance Measures Peer Exchange held on April 27-28, 2015 in Dimondale, Michigan and via video teleconference. This event was spon...

  3. Decentralization, Interdependence and Performance Measurement System Design : Sequences and Priorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abernethy, M.; Bouwens, J.F.M.G.; van Lent, L.A.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of decentralization and performance measurement choices in multidivisional firms.We extend the research on the economics of organizational design choices by examining the impact of two important determinants of those choices, namely, subunit interdependencies and

  4. Issues with performance measures for dynamic multi-objective optimisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Helbig, M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Dynamic and Uncertain Environments (CIDUE), Mexico, 20-23 June 2013 Issues with Performance Measures for Dynamic Multi-objective Optimisation Mard´e Helbig CSIR: Meraka Institute Brummeria, South Africa...

  5. design, construction and measured performance of a single-stage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Abstract. The design philosophy, construction and measured performances of a single stage, single entry centrifugal pump .... the tachometer spindle to be held against a recess in the motor shaft. The constructed centrifugal ...

  6. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2–9 weeks of age. Kh M Mahrose, AI Attia, IE Ismail, DE Abou-Kassem, ME Abd El-Hack ...

  7. Viscoelastic characterization of compacted pharmaceutical excipient materials by analysis of frequency-dependent mechanical relaxation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, K.; Mousavi, S.; Lundberg, B.; Strømme, M.

    2005-09-01

    A newly developed method for determining the frequency-dependent complex Young's modulus was employed to analyze the mechanical response of compacted microcrystalline cellulose, sorbitol, ethyl cellulose and starch for frequencies up to 20 kHz. A Debye-like relaxation was observed in all the studied pharmaceutical excipient materials and a comparison with corresponding dielectric spectroscopy data was made. The location in frequency of the relaxation peak was shown to correlate to the measured tensile strength of the tablets, and the relaxation was interpreted as the vibrational response of the interparticle hydrogen and van der Waals bindings in the tablets. Further, the measured relaxation strength, holding information about the energy loss involved in the relaxation processes, showed that the weakest material in terms of tensile strength, starch, is the material among the four tested ones that is able to absorb the most energy within its structure when exposed to external perturbations inducing vibrations in the studied frequency range. The results indicate that mechanical relaxation analysis performed over relatively broad frequency ranges should be useful for predicting material properties of importance for the functionality of a material in applications such as, e.g., drug delivery, drug storage and handling, and also for clarifying the origin of hitherto unexplained molecular processes.

  8. Procurement performance measurement system in the health care industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Ozdamar, Linet; Ng, Chai Peng

    2005-01-01

    The rising operating cost of providing healthcare is of concern to health care providers. As such, measurement of procurement performance will enable competitive advantage and provide a framework for continuous improvement. The objective of this paper is to develop a procurement performance measurement system. The paper reviews the existing literature in procurement performance measurement to identify the key areas of purchasing performance. By studying the three components in the supply chain collectively with the resources, procedures and output, a model is been developed. Additionally, a balanced scorecard is proposed by establishing a set of generic measures and six perspectives. A case study conducted at the Singapore Hospital applies the conceptual model to describe the purchasing department and the activities within and outside the department. The results indicate that the material management department has already made a good start in measuring the procurement process through the implementation of the balanced scorecard. There are many data that are collected but not properly collated and utilized. Areas lacking measurement include cycle time of delivery, order processing time, effectiveness, efficiency and reliability. Though a lot of hard work was involved, the advantages of establishing a measurement system outweigh the costs and efforts involved in its implementation. Results of balanced scorecard measurements provide decision-makers with critical information on efficiency and effectiveness of the purchasing department's work. The measurement model developed could be used for any hospital procurement system.

  9. The effectiveness of performance measuring in Slovenian public libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Novljan

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes methods of performance measuring in Slovenian public libraries, and calls attention to the problems attached to it. The argued presumption is that the performance measuring carried out on the state level, is not always a sufficient and adequate foundation for plarming of the developmenl and functioning of an individual library which has to cater for the needs and wishes of the population in a certain area.

  10. Performance measurement of electricity suppliers using PROMETHEE and balance scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Osati; Manouchehr Omidvari

    2016-01-01

    Performance measurement in energy industry plays an important role on increasing the productivity. Electricity is also among the most essential components of energy in mega cities like Tehran. The lack of a good service in this city may result unpleasant consequences on most civilians who live in this city. This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure the performance of six major electricity contractors in city of Tehran, Iran. The study implements grey numbers to handle any unce...

  11. Holistic Performance Measurement to Achieve Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Keni Keni

    2013-01-01

    In the past, companies used balanced scorecard to measure its performance. Now, balanced scorecard as a performance measurement tool is no longer sufficient because business has been affected by changes to the natural environment and developing social expectations. In order to achieve sustainable competitive advantage, companies are beginning to address the risks and opportunities associated with these changes in their longer-term business planning. To turn risks into opportunities, companies...

  12. From Performance Measurement to Strategic Management Model: Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Savsar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In Today’s competitive markets, one of the main conditions of the surviving of enterprises is the necessity to have effective performance management systems. Decisions must be taken by the management according to the performance of assets. In the transition from industrial society to information society, the presence of business structures have changed and the values of non-financial assets have increased in this period. So some systems have emerged based on intangible assets and to measure them instead of tangible assets and their measurements. With economic and technological development multi-dimensional evaluation in the business couldn’t be sufficient.  Performance evaluation methods can be applied in business with an integrated approach by its accordance with business strategy, linking to reward system and cause effects link established between performance measures. Balanced scorecard is one of the commonly used in measurement methods. While it was used for the first time in 1992 as a performance measurement tool today it has been used as a strategic management model besides its conventional uses. BSC contains customer perspective, internal perspective and learning and growth perspective besides financial perspective. Learning and growth perspective is determinant of other perspectives. In order to achieve the objectives set out in the financial perspective in other dimensions that need to be accomplished, is emphasized. Establishing a causal link between performance measures and targets how to achieve specified goals with strategy maps are described.

  13. Stress-relaxation in bending of zircaloy-4 at 673 K, as a function of cold-work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povolo, F.

    1983-01-01

    Stress-relaxation data, in bending, in Zircaloy-4 with different degrees of cold-work are presented. The measurements were performed at 673 K, with six different initial stresses and up to times of the order of 1000 h. The stress-relaxation curves are interpreted in terms of a creep model involving jog-drag and cell formation and some dislocation parameters are calculated from the experimental results. The influence of cold-work on these parameters is discussed. (author)

  14. Chinese Middle School Teachers' Preferences Regarding Performance Evaluation Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shujie; Xu, Xianxuan; Stronge, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Teacher performance evaluation currently is receiving unprecedented attention from policy makers, scholars, and practitioners worldwide. This study is one of the few studies of teacher perceptions regarding teacher performance measures that focus on China. We employed a quantitative dominant mixed research design to investigate Chinese teachers'…

  15. Performance measurement of workplace change in two different cultural contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riratanaphong, C.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for performance management and performance measurement that not only covers all aspects of an organisation, but which can be applied to various situations in a changing internal and external environment. The changing organisational and external contexts, such as the

  16. English Value-Added Measures: Examining the Limitations of School Performance Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Value-added "Progress" measures are to be introduced for all English schools in 2016 as "headline" measures of school performance. This move comes despite research highlighting high levels of instability in value-added measures and concerns about the omission of contextual variables in the planned measure. This article studies…

  17. Effectiveness of Human Research Protection Program Performance Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsan, Min-Fu; Nguyen, Yen

    2017-10-01

    We analyzed human research protection program performance metric data of all Department of Veterans Affairs research facilities obtained from 2010 to 2016. Among a total of 25 performance metrics, 21 (84%) showed improvement, four (16%) remained unchanged, and none deteriorated during the study period. The overall improvement from these 21 performance metrics was 81.1% ± 18.7% (mean ± SD), with a range of 30% to 100%. The four performance metrics that did not show improvement all had initial noncompliance/incidence rates of performance metrics that showed improvement ranged from 0.05% to 60%. However, of the 21 performance metrics that showed improvement, 10 had initial noncompliance/incidence rates of performance measurement is an effective tool in improving the performance of human research protection programs.

  18. Relaxed Binaural LCMV Beamforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutrouvelis, A.; Hendriks, R.C.; Heusdens, R.; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new binaural beamforming technique, which can be seen as a relaxation of the linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) framework. The proposed method can achieve simultaneous noise reduction and exact binaural cue preservation of the target source, similar to the

  19. Theory and Application of an Economic Performance Measure of Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Niu (Cuizhen); X. Guo (Xu); M.J. McAleer (Michael); W.-K. Wong (Wing-Keung)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHomm and Pigorsch (2012a) use the Aumann and Serrano index to develop a new economic performance measure (EPM), which is well known to have advantages over other measures. In this paper, we extend the theory by constructing a one-sample confidence interval of EPM, and construct

  20. Readiness to adopt a performance measurement system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Readiness to adopt a performance measurement system for substance abuse treatment: Findings from the Service Quality Measures initiative. ... system, findings show that the likelihood of adoption can be further increased through improved provider awareness and enhanced leadership support for this health innovation.

  1. Adding Shareholder Value through Project Performance Measurement, Monitoring & Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu; J.R. Turner (Rodney)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe present the various views and methods of measuring and controlling project performance, and factors affecting a project. The review indicates that there is a shift in the type and understanding of factors of project success or failure. However, the presence of various measurement

  2. New methods for mobility performance measurement in wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Slikke, R.M.A.; Berger, MAM; Bregman, DJJ; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Increased professionalism in wheelchair sports demand a more precise and quantitative measure of individual wheelchair mobility performance, to allow it to be an evaluation measure of wheelchair setting or training optimization. This research describes the application of an inertial sensor based

  3. A measure for the batting performance of cricket players : research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A single measure that can be used to assess the performance of batsmen in cricket is defined. This study shows how it can be used to rank batsmen. The batting ability of a batsman is generally measured by means of his average. His strike rate is, however, also very important and is often looked at as well. It will furthermore ...

  4. Measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in hip and knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobson, F; Hinman, R S; Hall, M

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in people with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Electronic searches were performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycINFO up to the end of June 2012. Two...... investigating measurement properties of performance measures, including responsiveness and interpretability in people with hip and/or knee OA, is needed. Consensus on which combination of measures will best assess physical function in people with hip/and or knee OA is urgently required....

  5. Mobile Handset Performance Evaluation Using Radiation Pattern Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2006-01-01

    The mean effective gain is an attractive performance measure of mobile handsets, since it incorporates both directional and polarization properties of the handset and environment. In this work the mean effective gain is computed from measured spherical radiation patterns of five different mobile...... pattern is reduced. Furthermore, the frequency dependence of the mean effective gain is investigated, and a method is proposed for reducing the required number of measurements on different frequencies....

  6. Emergency medical services key performance measurement in Asian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nik Hisamuddin; Tanaka, Hideharu; Shin, Sang Do; Ng, Yih Yng; Piyasuwankul, Thammapad; Lin, Chih-Hao; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock

    2015-01-01

    One of the key principles in the recommended standards is that emergency medical service (EMS) providers should continuously monitor the quality and safety of their services. This requires service providers to implement performance monitoring using appropriate and relevant measures including key performance indicators. In Asia, EMS systems are at different developmental phases and maturity. This will create difficultly in benchmarking or assessing the quality of EMS performance across the region. An attempt was made to compare the EMS performance index based on the structure, process, and outcome analysis. The data was collected from the Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcome Study (PAROS) data among few Asian cities, namely, Tokyo, Osaka, Singapore, Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, Taipei, and Seoul. The parameters of inclusions were broadly divided into structure, process, and outcome measurements. The data was collected by the site investigators from each city and keyed into the electronic web-based data form which is secured strictly by username and passwords. Generally, there seems to be a more uniformity for EMS performance parameters among the more developed EMS systems. The major problem with the EMS agencies in the cities of developing countries like Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur is inadequate or unavailable data pertaining to EMS performance. There is non-uniformity in the EMS performance measurement across the Asian cities. This creates difficulty for EMS performance index comparison and benchmarking. Hopefully, in the future, collaborative efforts such as the PAROS networking group will further enhance the standardization in EMS performance reporting across the region.

  7. Measurement of sample temperatures under magic-angle spinning from the chemical shift and spin-lattice relaxation rate of 79Br in KBr powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Accurate determination of sample temperatures in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with magic-angle spinning (MAS) can be problematic, particularly because frictional heating and heating by radio-frequency irradiation can make the internal sample temperature significantly different from the temperature outside the MAS rotor. This paper demonstrates the use of (79)Br chemical shifts and spin-lattice relaxation rates in KBr powder as temperature-dependent parameters for the determination of internal sample temperatures. Advantages of this method include high signal-to-noise, proximity of the (79)Br NMR frequency to that of (13)C, applicability from 20 K to 320 K or higher, and simultaneity with adjustment of the MAS axis direction. We show that spin-lattice relaxation in KBr is driven by a quadrupolar mechanism. We demonstrate a simple approach to including KBr powder in hydrated samples, such as biological membrane samples, hydrated amyloid fibrils, and hydrated microcrystalline proteins, that allows direct assessment of the effects of frictional and radio-frequency heating under experimentally relevant conditions.

  8. The impact of multi-criteria performance measurement on business performance improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fentahun Moges Kasie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between multi-criteria performance measurement (MCPM practice and business performance improvement using the raw data collected from 33 selected manufacturing companies. In addition, it proposes modified MCPM model as an effective approach to improve business performance of manufacturing companies. Design/methodology/approach:Research paper. Primary and secondary data were collected using questionnaire survey, interview and observation of records. The methodology is to evaluate business performances of sampled manufacturing companies and the extent of utilization of crucial non-financial (lagging and non-financial (leading performance measures. The positive correlation between financial business performance and practice of MCPM is clearly shown using Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis. Findings –This research paper indicates that companies which measure their performance using important financial and non-financial measures achieve better business performance. Even though certain companies are currently using non-financial measures, the researchers have learned that these financial measures were not integrated with each other, financial measures and strategic objectives. Research limitations/implications: The limitation of this paper is that the number of surveyed companies is small to make generalization and they are found in a single country. Further researches which incorporate a large number of companies from various developing nations are suggested to minimize the limitation of this research.Practical Implication: The paper shows that multi-dimensional performance measures with the inclusion of key leading indicator are essential to predict the future environment. But cost-accounting based financial measures are inadequate to do so. These are shown practically using Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis. Originality/value: The significance of multi

  9. Alternative measure for performance of HLW geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joonhang, Ahn; Chambre, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    A repository performance model that can show effects of canister multiplicity and repository configuration has been developed. Masses of a radionuclide in the repository and in the far field are proposed as performance measures. Canister multiplicity has significant effects on the release of long-lived radionuclides from the repository. As more canisters are included in the same water stream, the radionuclide concentration in the stream increases, but becomes independent of the number of canisters for sufficiently many canisters. Effects of reduction of radionuclide mass in the repository on the repository performance are clearly observed if the canister multiplicity is taken into account and the mass-based measures are applied. (author)

  10. Determinants of the use of value-based performance measures for managerial performance evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.C.; Groot, T.L.C.M.; Schoute, M.; Wiersma, E.

    2012-01-01

    As value-based (VB) performance measures include firms' cost of capital, they are considered more congruent than earnings measures. Prior studies, however, find that their use for managerial performance evaluation is less extensive than their presumed benefits would suggest. We examine how the

  11. Shielding Performance Measurements of Spent Fuel Transportation Container

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Hong-chao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The safety supervision of radioactive material transportation package has been further stressed and implemented. The shielding performance measurements of spent fuel transport container is the important content of supervision. However, some of the problems and difficulties reflected in practice need to be solved, such as the neutron dose rate on the surface of package is too difficult to measure exactly, the monitoring results are not always reliable, etc. The monitoring results using different spectrometers were compared and the simulation results of MCNP runs were considered. An improvement was provided to the shielding performance measurements technique and management of spent fuel transport.

  12. The comprehensive care project: measuring physician performance in ambulatory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmboe, Eric S; Weng, Weifeng; Arnold, Gerald K; Kaplan, Sherrie H; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Greenfield, Sheldon; Hood, Sarah; Lipner, Rebecca S

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the feasibility, reliability, and validity of comprehensively assessing physician-level performance in ambulatory practice. Ambulatory-based general internists in 13 states participated in the assessment. We assessed physician-level performance, adjusted for patient factors, on 46 individual measures, an overall composite measure, and composite measures for chronic, acute, and preventive care. Between- versus within-physician variation was quantified by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). External validity was assessed by correlating performance on a certification exam. Medical records for 236 physicians were audited for seven chronic and four acute care conditions, and six age- and gender-appropriate preventive services. Performance on the individual and composite measures varied substantially within (range 5-86 percent compliance on 46 measures) and between physicians (ICC range 0.12-0.88). Reliabilities for the composite measures were robust: 0.88 for chronic care and 0.87 for preventive services. Higher certification exam scores were associated with better performance on the overall (r = 0.19; pmeasures and by sampling feasible numbers of patients for each condition. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  13. Performance Measurement of Management System Standards Using the Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kopia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Management system standards (MSS, such as ISO standards, TQM, etc. are widely-used standards adopted by millions of organizations worldwide. It is still an unclear question whether these standards are beneficial for an organization, besides the fact that they might be required or expected by law or customers. The question, whether MSS increase the efficiency, the output, or the performance of an organization is still discussed in scientific research. One reason might be that performance measurement itself is not fully understood or in constant development ranging from pure financial evaluations over intellectual capital rating to calculating of levels of environmental, social or economic expectations known as the Trible Bottom Line. The Balanced Scorecard is one possible solution for performance measurement on a strategic and operational level and therefore useful for the measurement of the influence of MSS within organizations. This study summarized current research in the field of performance measurement in the context of MSS and IMS and the use of BSC and quantitatively and qualitatively tests the usefulness of BSC in measuring the effect of MSSs using the Execution Premium. It was found that BSC is often used, that an average number of companies integrate their measurement initiatives of their MSSs into the BSC-process, and that a high integration of MSS into the BSC improves the organizational performance. This research is useful for researchers and practitioners in order to understand the benefits of the usage of the BSC in the context of MSS or Integrated Management Systems.

  14. Business process performance measurement: a structured literature review of indicators, measures and metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Looy, Amy; Shafagatova, Aygun

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the performance of business processes has become a central issue in both academia and business, since organizations are challenged to achieve effective and efficient results. Applying performance measurement models to this purpose ensures alignment with a business strategy, which implies that the choice of performance indicators is organization-dependent. Nonetheless, such measurement models generally suffer from a lack of guidance regarding the performance indicators that exist and how they can be concretized in practice. To fill this gap, we conducted a structured literature review to find patterns or trends in the research on business process performance measurement. The study also documents an extended list of 140 process-related performance indicators in a systematic manner by further categorizing them into 11 performance perspectives in order to gain a holistic view. Managers and scholars can consult the provided list to choose the indicators that are of interest to them, considering each perspective. The structured literature review concludes with avenues for further research.

  15. The (mis)Measurement of M&A Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meglio, Olimpia; Risberg, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to further the understanding of the variety of meanings M&A scholars attach to the label “M&A performance” by providing an alternative way to interpret the claimed inconsistency of M&A research findings. While many scholars contend that the problem stems from the multiplicity of M......&A performance measures, we believe the problem rests in trying to compare different measures as if they were measuring the same feature of the organization. Through our narrative review of empirical research we analyze factors shaping the M&A – as well as the organizational – performance measurement process....... The conclusion is that it is not possible to talk about M&A performance as if it was a universal construct....

  16. Idiosyncratic reality claims, relaxation dispositions, and ABC relaxation theory: happiness, literal christianity, miraculous powers, metaphysics, and the paranormal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathan C; Karmin, Aaron D

    2002-12-01

    This study examined idiosyncratic reality claims, that is, irrational or paranormal beliefs often claimed to enhance relaxation and happiness and reduce stress. The Smith Idiosyncratic Reality Claims Inventory and the Smith Relaxation Dispositions Inventory (which measures relaxation and stress dispositions, or enduring states of mind frequently associated with relaxation or stress) were given to 310 junior college student volunteers. Principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation identified five idiosyncratic reality claim factors: belief in Literal Christianity; Magic; Space Aliens: After Death experiences; and Miraculous Powers of Meditation, Prayer, and Belief. No factor correlated with increased relaxation dispositions Peace, Energy, or Joy, or reduced dispositional somatic stress, worry, or negative emotion on the Smith Relaxation Dispositions Inventory. It was concluded that idiosyncratic reality claims may not be associated with reported relaxation, happiness, or stress. In contrast, previous research strongly supported self-affirming beliefs with few paranormal assumptions display such an association.

  17. Temperature dependence of levitation force and its relaxation in a HTS levitation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Jun; Zhang Xingyi [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Zhou Youhe, E-mail: zhouyh@lzu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)

    2010-03-01

    Using a modified Gifford-McMahon refrigerator to cool the cylindrical bulk YBaCuO superconductor within the region of 100-10 K, and using an updated high-temperature superconductor (HTS) maglev measurement system, the levitation force and its time relaxation at different temperatures between a YBaCuO bulk superconductor and a permanent magnet (PM) have been measured under zero-field cooling. It is found that decrease the cooling temperature of HTS can decrease the hysteresis of magnetization and increase the maximum levitation force of each hysteresis loop. For the relaxation of levitation force, if the temperature is continually lowered to 10 K after the relaxation measurement at given cooling temperature is performed for 600 s, the levitation force will continue to decrease sharply with the lowering of temperature even though it will get stable if the temperature is not lowered. Our results shown in this work are a benefit to the understanding of levitation systems.

  18. Relaxation of synchronization on complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong; Hong, Hyunsuk

    2008-07-01

    We study collective synchronization in a large number of coupled oscillators on various complex networks. In particular, we focus on the relaxation dynamics of the synchronization, which is important from the viewpoint of information transfer or the dynamics of system recovery from a perturbation. We measure the relaxation time tau that is required to establish global synchronization by varying the structural properties of the networks. It is found that the relaxation time in a strong-coupling regime (K>Kc) logarithmically increases with network size N , which is attributed to the initial random phase fluctuation given by O(N-1/2) . After elimination of the initial-phase fluctuation, the relaxation time is found to be independent of the system size; this implies that the local interaction that depends on the structural connectivity is irrelevant in the relaxation dynamics of the synchronization in the strong-coupling regime. The relaxation dynamics is analytically derived in a form independent of the system size, and it exhibits good consistency with numerical simulations. As an application, we also explore the recovery dynamics of the oscillators when perturbations enter the system.

  19. The use of performance measurement systems in the public sector: effects on performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speklé, R.; Verbeeten, F.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    We study the use of performance measurement systems in the public sector. We hypothesize that the way in which these systems are being used affects organizational performance, and that these performance effects depend on contractibility. Contractibility encompasses clarity of goals, the ability to

  20. Workshop on system tuning, performance measurement and performance optimization of an RSX11M system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downward, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    Topics discussed include thrashing in an RSX11M system - what to do; using solid state disk emulators as the swapping device - performance improvement, performance measurement techniques; capacity planning; bis buffering; and DECNET-11M optimization - performance that can be expected for real environments

  1. Using Radiation Pattern Measurements for Mobile Handset Performance Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2005-01-01

    The mean effective gain (MEG) is an attractive performance measure of mobile handsets, since it incorporates both directional and polarization properties of the handset and environment. In this work the MEG is computed from measured spherical radiation patterns of five different mobile handsets...... values obtained for different orientations of the handsets in the environments. For practical measurements it is important to minimize the measurement time. The paper includes a study of the variation in MEG when the number of samples in the spherical radiation pattern is reduced. Furthermore...

  2. The Development of NOAA Education Common Outcome Performance Measures (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, J.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Education Council has embarked on an ambitious Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) project that will allow it to assess education program outcomes and impacts across the agency, line offices, and programs. The purpose of this internal effort is to link outcome measures to program efforts and to evaluate the success of the agency's education programs in meeting the strategic goals. Using an outcome-based evaluation approach, the NOAA Education Council is developing two sets of common outcome performance measures, environmental stewardship and professional development. This presentation will examine the benefits and tradeoffs of common outcome performance measures that collect program results across a portfolio of education programs focused on common outcomes. Common outcome performance measures have a few benefits to our agency and to the climate education field at large. The primary benefit is shared understanding, which comes from our process for writing common outcome performance measures. Without a shared and agreed upon set of definitions for the measure of an outcome, the reported results may not be measuring the same things and would incorrectly indicate levels of performance. Therefore, our writing process relies on a commitment to developing a shared set of definitions based on consensus. We hope that by taking the time to debate and coming to agreement across a diverse set of programs, the strength of our common measures can indicate real progress towards outcomes we care about. An additional benefit is that these common measures can be adopted and adapted by other agencies and organizations that share similar theories of change. The measures are not without their drawbacks, and we do make tradeoffs as part of our process in order to continue making progress. We know that any measure is necessarily a narrow slice of performance. A slice that may not best represent the unique and remarkable contribution

  3. Performance measurement for ambulatory care: moving towards a new agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roski, J; Gregory, R

    2001-12-01

    Despite a shift in care delivery from inpatient to ambulatory care, performance measurement efforts for the different levels in ambulatory care settings such as individual physicians, individual clinics and physician organizations have not been widely instituted in the United States (U.S.). The Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS), the most widely used performance measurement set in the U.S., includes a number of measures that evaluate preventive and chronic care provided in ambulatory care facilities. While HEDIS has made important contributions to the tracking of ambulatory care quality, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the measurement set could be improved by providing quality of care information at the levels of greatest interest to consumers and purchasers of care, namely for individual physicians, clinics and physician organizations. This article focuses on the improvement opportunities for quality performance measurement systems in ambulatory care. Specific challenges to creating a sustainable performance measurement system at the level of physician organizations, such as defining the purpose of the system, the accountability logic, information and reporting needs and mechanisms for sustainable implementation, are discussed.

  4. Brownian rotational relaxation and power absorption in magnetite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goya, G.F.; Fernandez-Pacheco, R.; Arruebo, M.; Cassinelli, N.; Ibarra, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    We present a study of the power absorption efficiency in several magnetite-based colloids, to asses their potential as magnetic inductive hyperthermia (MIH) agents. Relaxation times τ were measured through the imaginary susceptibility component χ ' '(T), and analyzed within Debye's theory of dipolar fluid. The results indicated Brownian rotational relaxation and allowed to calculate the hydrodynamic radius close to the values obtained from photon correlation. The study of the colloid performances as power absorbers showed no detectable increase of temperature for dextran-coated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles, whereas a second Fe 3 O 4 -based dispersion of similar concentration could be heated up to 12K after 30min under similar experimental conditions. The different power absorption efficiencies are discussed in terms of the magnetic structure of the nanoparticles

  5. Brownian rotational relaxation and power absorption in magnetite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goya, G.F. [Institute of Nanoscience of Aragon (INA), University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)]. E-mail: goya@unizar.es; Fernandez-Pacheco, R. [Institute of Nanoscience of Aragon (INA), University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Arruebo, M. [Institute of Nanoscience of Aragon (INA), University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Cassinelli, N. [Electronics Division, Bauer and Associates, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Facultad de Ingenieria, UNLP (Argentina); Ibarra, M.R. [Institute of Nanoscience of Aragon (INA), University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    We present a study of the power absorption efficiency in several magnetite-based colloids, to asses their potential as magnetic inductive hyperthermia (MIH) agents. Relaxation times {tau} were measured through the imaginary susceptibility component {chi}{sup '}'(T), and analyzed within Debye's theory of dipolar fluid. The results indicated Brownian rotational relaxation and allowed to calculate the hydrodynamic radius close to the values obtained from photon correlation. The study of the colloid performances as power absorbers showed no detectable increase of temperature for dextran-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, whereas a second Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-based dispersion of similar concentration could be heated up to 12K after 30min under similar experimental conditions. The different power absorption efficiencies are discussed in terms of the magnetic structure of the nanoparticles.

  6. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  7. Measuring individual work performance: identifying and selecting indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Linda; Bernaards, Claire M; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; de Vet, Henrica C W; van der Beek, Allard J

    2014-01-01

    Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions. This study was designed to (1) identify indicators for each dimension, (2) select the most relevant indicators, and (3) determine the relative weight of each dimension in ratings of work performance. IWP indicators were identified from multiple research disciplines, via literature, existing questionnaires, and expert interviews. Subsequently, experts selected the most relevant indicators per dimension and scored the relative weight of each dimension in ratings of IWP. In total, 128 unique indicators were identified. Twenty-three of these indicators were selected by experts as most relevant for measuring IWP. Task performance determined 36% of the work performance rating, while the other three dimensions respectively determined 22%, 20% and 21% of the rating. Notable consensus was found on relevant indicators of IWP, reducing the number from 128 to 23 relevant indicators. This provides an important step towards the development of a standardized, generic and short measurement instrument for assessing IWP.

  8. Performance measurements at the fast flux test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumhardt, R.J.; Newland, D.J.; Praetorius, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) management recognized the need to develop a measurement system that would quantify the operational performance of the FFTF and the human resources needed to operate it. Driven by declining budgets and the need to safely manage a manpower rampdown at FFTF, an early warning system was developed. Although the initiating event for the early warning system was the need to safely manage a manpower rampdown, many related uses have evolved. The initial desired objective for the FFTF performance measurements was to ensure safety and control of key performance trends. However, the early warning system has provided a more quantitative, supportable basis upon which to make decisions. From this initial narrow focus, efforts in the FFTF plant and supporting organizations are leading to measurement of and, subsequently, improvements in productivity. Pilot projects utilizing statistical process control have started with longer range productivity improvement

  9. In situ performance curves measurements of large pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, A

    2010-01-01

    The complex energetic system on the river Lotru in Romania comprises of a series of lakes and pumping stations and a major hydroelectric power plant: Lotru-Ciunget. All the efforts have been oriented towards the maintenance of the Pelton turbines and very little attention has been directed to the pumps. In the system, there are three large pumping stations and only in the last 5 years, the pump performances have become a concern. The performances where determined using portable ultrasonic flow meters, a Yates meter, precision manometers and appropriate electrical equipment for power measurement (Power Analiser - NORMA D4000 LEM). The measurements are not supposed to interfere with the normal operation so only a limited number of tests could be performed. Based on those tests, portions of the test curves have been measured and represented in specific diagrams.

  10. In situ performance curves measurements of large pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, A.

    2010-08-01

    The complex energetic system on the river Lotru in Romania comprises of a series of lakes and pumping stations and a major hydroelectric power plant: Lotru-Ciunget. All the efforts have been oriented towards the maintenance of the Pelton turbines and very little attention has been directed to the pumps. In the system, there are three large pumping stations and only in the last 5 years, the pump performances have become a concern. The performances where determined using portable ultrasonic flow meters, a Yates meter, precision manometers and appropriate electrical equipment for power measurement (Power Analiser - NORMA D4000 LEM). The measurements are not supposed to interfere with the normal operation so only a limited number of tests could be performed. Based on those tests, portions of the test curves have been measured and represented in specific diagrams.

  11. Business sustainability performance measurement: Eco-ratio analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins C. Ngwakwe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Eco-aware customers and stakeholders are demanding for a measurement that links environmental performance with other business operations. To bridge this seemingly measurement gap, this paper suggests ‘Eco-Ratio Analysis’ and proposes an approach for conducting eco-ratio analysis. It is argued that since accounting ratios function as a tool for evaluating corporate financial viability by management and investors, eco-ratio analysis should be brought to the fore to provide a succinct measurement about the linkage between environmental performance and conventional business performance. It is hoped that this suggestion will usher in a nuance debate and approach in the teaching, research and practice of environmental management and sustainability accounting

  12. Changes in T1 relaxation processes in the bone marrow following treatment in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, K.E.; Thomsen, C.; Henriksen, O.; Hertz, H.; Johansen, H.K.; Yssing, M.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and T 1 relaxation time measurements of the vertebral bone marrow were performed in 11 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at diagnosis. Nine of the children were re-examined after chemotherapeutic treatment. The results were compared with histological data from bone marrow biopsies obtained in close association to the MR examinations. Ten age matched children were examined as a control group. A 1.5 Tesla whole body scanner was used for the measurements. The pretreatment T 1 relaxation times of the bone marrow were significantly prolonged, compared to the age matched controls. After chemotherapy the T 1 relaxation times of the children with ALL decreased significantly towards or into the normal range. A significant correlation was found between the T 1 relaxation time and the content of malignant blast cells in the bone marrow. (orig.)

  13. Developing a performance measurement system for public research centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masella, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at developing a performance measurement system (PMS for research and development (R&D activities carried out by public research centres. Public research institutions are characterized by multiple stakeholders with different needs, and the management of R&D activities requires balancing the multiple goals of different stakeholders. This characteristic is a key issue in the process of construction of the PMS. Empirical evidence is provided by an Italian public research centre, where the researchers carried out a project aimed to develop a PMS following action research principles. This project gave the possibility to researchers to interact with different stakeholders and integrate their different information needs in a comprehensive set of key performance indicators (KPIs. As a result, multidimensional framework for measuring R&D performance in a public research centre is proposed and a set of Key Performance Indicators is developed, suggesting implications for academics and practitioners.

  14. Relaxation from particle production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hook, Anson; Marques-Tavares, Gustavo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    We consider using particle production as a friction force by which to implement a “Relaxion” solution to the electroweak hierarchy problem. Using this approach, we are able to avoid superplanckian field excursions and avoid any conflict with the strong CP problem. The relaxation mechanism can work before, during or after inflation allowing for inflationary dynamics to play an important role or to be completely decoupled.

  15. Oxide thickness measurement for monitoring fuel performance at high burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, M.A.; Van Swam, L.F.P.; Brueck-Neufeld, K.

    1991-01-01

    For on-site monitoring of the fuel performance at high burnup, Advanced Nuclear Fuels uses the linear scan eddy current method to determine the oxide thickness of irradiated Zircaloy fuel cans. Direct digital data acquisition methods are employed to collect the data on magnetic storage media. This field-proven methodology allows oxide thickness measurements and rapid interpretation of the data during the reactor outages and makes it possible to immediately reinsert the assemblies for the next operating cycle. The accuracy of the poolside measurements and data acquisition/interpretation techniques have been verified through hot cell metallographic measurements of rods previously measured in the fuel pool. The accumulated data provide a valuable database against which oxide growth models have been benchmarked and allow for effective monitoring of fuel performance. (orig.) [de

  16. Measuring business performance using indicators of ecologically sustainable organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Charles G., Jr.; Snow, Charles C.

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of ecology-based performance measures as a way of augmenting the Balanced Scorecard approach to organizational performance measurement. The Balanced Scorecard, as proposed by Kaplan and Norton, focuses on four primary dimensions; financial, internal-business-process, customer, and learning and growth perspectives. Recently, many 'green' organizational theorists have developed the concept of "Ecologically Sustainable Organizations" or ESOs, a concept rooted in open systems theory. The ESO is called upon to consider resource use and conservation as a strategy for long-term viability. This paper asserts that in order to achieve ESO status, an organization must not only measure but also reward resource conservation measures. Only by adding a fifth perspective for ecological dimensions will the entity be truly motivated toward ESO status.

  17. ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Stanković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Key performance indicators are financial and non financial indicators that organizations use inorder to estimate and fortify how successful they are, aiming previously established long lastinggoals. Appropriate selection of indicators that will be used for measuring is of a greatest importance.Process organization of business is necessary to be constitute in order to realize such effective andefficient system or performance measuring via KPI. Process organization also implies customerorientation and necessary flexibility in nowadays condition of global competition.Explanation of process organization, the way of KPI selection, and practical example of KPImeasuring in Toyota dealerships are presented in this paper.

  18. Performance measurement of electricity suppliers using PROMETHEE and balance scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Osati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement in energy industry plays an important role on increasing the productivity. Electricity is also among the most essential components of energy in mega cities like Tehran. The lack of a good service in this city may result unpleasant consequences on most civilians who live in this city. This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure the performance of six major electricity contractors in city of Tehran, Iran. The study implements grey numbers to handle any uncertainty associated with numbers. The study has also adopted four main perspectives used in balanced scorecard as part of PROMETHEE method to rank different contractors.

  19. Magnetic relaxation in anisotropic magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1971-01-01

    The line shape and the kinematic and thermodynamic slowing down of the critical and paramagnetic relaxation in axially anisotropic materials are discussed. Kinematic slowing down occurs only in the longitudinal relaxation function. The thermodynamic slowing down occurs in either the transverse...... or longitudinal relaxation function depending on the sign of the axial anisotropy....

  20. Modelling and measurement of a moving magnet linear compressor performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Kun; Stone, Richard; Davies, Gareth; Dadd, Mike; Bailey, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A novel moving magnet linear compressor with clearance seals and flexure bearings has been designed and constructed. It is suitable for a refrigeration system with a compact heat exchanger, such as would be needed for CPU cooling. The performance of the compressor has been experimentally evaluated with nitrogen and a mathematical model has been developed to evaluate the performance of the linear compressor. The results from the compressor model and the measurements have been compared in terms of cylinder pressure, the ‘P–V’ loop, stroke, mass flow rate and shaft power. The cylinder pressure was not measured directly but was derived from the compressor dynamics and the motor magnetic force characteristics. The comparisons indicate that the compressor model is well validated and can be used to study the performance of this type of compressor, to help with design optimization and the identification of key parameters affecting the system transients. The electrical and thermodynamic losses were also investigated, particularly for the design point (stroke of 13 mm and pressure ratio of 3.0), since a full understanding of these can lead to an increase in compressor efficiency. - Highlights: • Model predictions of the performance of a novel moving magnet linear compressor. • Prototype linear compressor performance measurements using nitrogen. • Reconstruction of P–V loops using a model of the dynamics and electromagnetics. • Close agreement between the model and measurements for the P–V loops. • The design point motor efficiency was 74%, with potential improvements identified

  1. The Effects of Performance Measurement and Compensation on Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Marco van Herpen; C. Mirjam van Praag; Kees Cools

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes empirically the relationship between pay and performance. Economic and psychological theories predict that the design and implementation of a performance measurement and compensation system affect the motivation of employees. Our survey results demonstrate a positive relationship between the perceived characteristics of the complete compensation system and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is not affected by the design of monetary compensation, but by promotion op...

  2. Standardization of test conditions for gamma camera performance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, K.

    1982-02-01

    The way of measuring gamma camera performance is to use point sources or flood sources in air, often in combination with bar phantoms. This method has nothing in common with the use of a camera in clinical practice. Particularly in the case of low energy emitters, like Tc-99m, the influence of scattered radiation over the performance of cameras is very high. The IEC document 'Characteristics and test conditions of radionuclide imaging devices' is discussed

  3. Women in Jordanian banks and performance: Financial accounting measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Muhannad Akram Ahmad; Seif Obeid Alshbiel

    2016-01-01

    This study highlights the gender diversity issues in the banking sector taking into consideration their impact on the performance measured by profitability (ROA). As the banking sector has widely been ignored from the previous studies due to their strict system, this study empirically examined the impact of the CEO gender and board with a female director on the performance of the Jordanian commercial banks in a period from 2004 to 2013. The multiple regression analysis shows that the banks wi...

  4. Towards Effective Educational Politics through Improving the Performance Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Reisberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational field is impelled to increase performance and quality, financial discipline, strategic behaviour and its goals in order to enhance “effectiveness”. As a result the incorporation of private sector management practices into the educational field is taking place. But it is important to notice that a proliferation of private managerial practices into the educational field goes along with a conflict-laden and contradictory process. Education provides an important area of implementation for techniques of performance evaluation aimed at improving the performance of public services. One of the most common conceptual frameworks in measuring organisational performance takes the form of a production function where the educational institution is seen as analogous to a company transforming inputs into outputs and outcomes through a production process. But the problems and the vagueness in determining educational system’s inputs, outputs and outcomes cause difficulties in making political decisions and that is why clear policy prescriptions have been difficult to derive. The purpose of this article is to create a discussion whether performance measurement should be a part of decision-making in educational politics. The authors debate about incorporating private sector management practices into the educational field. The debate is based on the example of evaluating the social impact in the educational field and the performance of teachers’ work in the educational system. The article consists of three parts. Firstly, the theoretical background of the performance measurement in educational field is discussed. Secondly, the important criteria for performance measurement design and political issues are argued. Thirdly, the evaluated shortcomings in Estonian educational organisations, which restrict them to be effective, are brought out. Relieving some of these shortcomings could be in authority of Estonian educational politics.

  5. Structural relaxation dynamics and annealing effects of sodium silicate glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Mohamed; Piazza, Francesco; Guimbretière, Guillaume; Canizarès, Aurélien; Vaills, Yann

    2013-05-09

    Here we report high-precision measurements of structural relaxation dynamics in the glass transition range at the intermediate and short length scale for a strong sodium silicate glass during long annealing times. We evidence for the first time the heterogeneous dynamics at the intermediate range order by probing the acoustic longitudinal frequency in the GHz region by Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy. Or, from in-situ Raman measurements, we show that relaxation is indeed homogeneous at the interatomic length scale. Our results show that the dynamics at the intermediate range order contains two distinct relaxation time scales, a fast and a slow component, differing by about a 10-fold factor below Tg and approaching to one another past the glass transition. The slow relaxation time agrees with the shear relaxation time, proving that Si-O bond breaking constitutes the primary control of structural relaxation at the intermediate range order.

  6. Momentum constraint relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marronetti, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Full relativistic simulations in three dimensions invariably develop runaway modes that grow exponentially and are accompanied by violations of the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints. Recently, we introduced a numerical method (Hamiltonian relaxation) that greatly reduces the Hamiltonian constraint violation and helps improve the quality of the numerical model. We present here a method that controls the violation of the momentum constraint. The method is based on the addition of a longitudinal component to the traceless extrinsic curvature A ij -tilde, generated by a vector potential w i , as outlined by York. The components of w i are relaxed to solve approximately the momentum constraint equations, slowly pushing the evolution towards the space of solutions of the constraint equations. We test this method with simulations of binary neutron stars in circular orbits and show that it effectively controls the growth of the aforementioned violations. We also show that a full numerical enforcement of the constraints, as opposed to the gentle correction of the momentum relaxation scheme, results in the development of instabilities that stop the runs shortly

  7. Performance analysis and evaluation of direct phase measuring deflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Zonghua; Gao, Feng; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2018-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement of specular objects plays an important role in intelligent manufacturing applications. Phase measuring deflectometry (PMD)-based methods are widely used to obtain the 3D shapes of specular surfaces because they offer the advantages of a large dynamic range, high measurement accuracy, full-field and noncontact operation, and automatic data processing. To enable measurement of specular objects with discontinuous and/or isolated surfaces, a direct PMD (DPMD) method has been developed to build a direct relationship between phase and depth. In this paper, a new virtual measurement system is presented and is used to optimize the system parameters and evaluate the system's performance in DPMD applications. Four system parameters are analyzed to obtain accurate measurement results. Experiments are performed using simulated and actual data and the results confirm the effects of these four parameters on the measurement results. Researchers can therefore select suitable system parameters for actual DPMD (including PMD) measurement systems to obtain the 3D shapes of specular objects with high accuracy.

  8. Isochronous relaxation curves for type 304 stainless steel after monotonic and cyclic strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindeman, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Relaxation tests to 100 hr were performed on type 304 stainless steel in the temperature range 480 to 650 0 C and were used to develop isochronous relaxation curves. Behavior after monotonic and cyclic strain was compared. Relaxation differed only slightly as a consequence of the type of previous strain, provided that plastic flow preceded the relaxation period. We observed that the short-time relaxation behavior did not manifest strong heat-to-heat variation in creep strength

  9. Measured performance of four PWR liquid radioactive waste treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Mandler, J.W.; Stalker, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents results of a study of the liquid radwaste treatment and boron recovery systems of four operating PWR power plants. The performance of a given system was determined from measurements of radionuclide inventories in samples drawn from demineralizers, evaporators, filters, and gaseous cleanup systems. The plants at which measurements were made are Fort Calhoun, Zion 1 and 2, Turkey Point 3 and 4, and Rancho Seco

  10. Innovation and organisational performance: A critical review of the instruments used to measure organisational performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebogo Sethibe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Innovation is recognised as one of the most important determinant of organisational performance. Yet, the results of studies that investigate the relationship between innovation and organisational performance are inconclusive. The inconsistency has been attributed to a number of factors, which include, among others, the measures used to evaluate organisational performance. Aim: This study was set out to identify, categorise and critically analyse the instruments used to assess organisational performance when investigating the relationship between innovation and organisational performance. Setting: The study focuses on all scientific publications reporting on organisational performance, inclusive of both financial and non-financial indicators of performance, and are not limited to any specific country or industry. Methods: The systematic literature review methodology was used to identify studies which investigated the relationship between innovation and organisational performance. Once identified, articles were analysed on the way organisational performance was measured. Classification was done with reference to financial and non-financial indicators, accounting and market-based, as well as objective and subjective measures. Results: The findings show that profitability, sales growth and return on assets (ROA are the most preferred accounting-based financial measures of organisation performance. In addition, Tobin’s Q was found to be the most favoured market-based financial measure of organisational performance. The study further reveals that market share, customer satisfaction and productivity are the most popular non-financial-based measures of organisational performance. Conclusion: The use of measures of organisational performance is often left to the discussion of the researcher, which is not implicitly wrong, but does little to contribute to the body of knowledge on this important topic. Researchers are firstly urged to

  11. Composite measures for profiling hospitals on bariatric surgery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimick, Justin B.; Birkmeyer, Nancy J.; Finks, Jonathan F.; Share, David A.; English, Wayne J.; Carlin, Arthur M.; Birkmeyer, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We sought to develop a novel composite measure for profiling hospital performance with bariatric surgery. Design, Setting, and Patients Using clinical registry data from the Michigan Bariatric Surgery Collaborative (MBSC), we studied all patients undergoing bariatric surgery from 2008 to 2010. For gastric bypass surgery, we used empirical Bayes techniques to create a composite measure by combining several measures, including serious complications, reoperations, and readmissions; hospital and surgeon volume; and outcomes with other, related procedures. Hospitals were ranked based on 2008-09 and placed in one of 3 groups: 3-star (top third), 2-star (middle third), and 1-star (bottom third). We assessed how well these ratings predicted outcomes in the next year (2010), compared to other widely used measures. Main Outcome Measures Risk-adjusted serious complications. Results Composite measures explained a larger proportion of hospital-level variation in serious complication rates with gastric bypass than other measures. For example, the composite measure explained 89% of the variation compared to only 28% for risk-adjusted complication rates alone. Composite measures also appeared better at predicting future performance compared to individual measures. When ranked on the composite measure, 1-star hospitals (bottom 20%), had 2-fold higher serious complication rates (4.6% vs. 2.4%; OR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.5) compared to 3-star (top 20%) hospitals. Differences in serious complications rates between 1-star and 3-star hospitals were much smaller when hospitals were ranked using serious complications (4.0% vs. 2.7%; OR 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8-2.9) and hospital volume (3.3% vs. 3.2%; OR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.4 to 1.7) Conclusions Composite measures are much better at explaining hospital-level variation in serious complications and predicting future performance than other approaches. In this preliminary study, it appears that such composite measures may be better than existing

  12. Vibrational relaxation and energy transfer of matrix isolated HCl and DCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesenfeld, J.M.

    1977-12-01

    Vibrational kinetic and spectroscopic studies have been performed on matrix-isolated HCl and DCl between 9 and 20 K. Vibrational relaxation rates for v = 2 and v = 1 were measured by a tunable infrared laser-induced, time-resolved fluorescence technique. In an Ar matrix, vibrational decay times are faster than radiative and it is found that HCl relaxes about 35 times more rapidly than CCl, in spite of the fact that HCl must transfer more energy to the lattice than DCl. This result is explained by postulating that the rate-determining step for vibrational relaxation produces a highly rotationally excited guest in a V yield R step; rotational relaxation into lattice phonons follows rapidly. HCl v = 1, but not v = 2, excitation rapidly diffuses through the sample by a resonant dipole-dipole vibrational energy transfer process. Molecular complexes, and in particular the HCl dimer, relax too rapidly for direct observation, less than or approximately 1 ..mu..s, and act as energy sinks in the energy diffusion process. The temperature dependence for all these processes is weak--less than a factor of two between 9 and 20 K. Vibrational relaxation of HCl in N/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ matrices is unobservable, presumably due to rapid V yield V transfer to the host. A V yield R binary collision model for relaxation in solids is successful in explaining the HCl(DCl)/Ar results as well as results of other experimenters. The model considers relaxation to be the result of ''collisions'' due to molecular motion in quantized lattice normal modes--gas phase potential parameters can fit the matrix kinetic data.

  13. Vibrational relaxation and energy transfer of matrix isolated HCl and DCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesenfeld, J.M.

    1977-12-01

    Vibrational kinetic and spectroscopic studies have been performed on matrix-isolated HCl and DCl between 9 and 20 K. Vibrational relaxation rates for v = 2 and v = 1 were measured by a tunable infrared laser-induced, time-resolved fluorescence technique. In an Ar matrix, vibrational decay times are faster than radiative and it is found that HCl relaxes about 35 times more rapidly than CCl, in spite of the fact that HCl must transfer more energy to the lattice than DCl. This result is explained by postulating that the rate-determining step for vibrational relaxation produces a highly rotationally excited guest in a V yield R step; rotational relaxation into lattice phonons follows rapidly. HCl v = 1, but not v = 2, excitation rapidly diffuses through the sample by a resonant dipole-dipole vibrational energy transfer process. Molecular complexes, and in particular the HCl dimer, relax too rapidly for direct observation, less than or approximately 1 μs, and act as energy sinks in the energy diffusion process. The temperature dependence for all these processes is weak--less than a factor of two between 9 and 20 K. Vibrational relaxation of HCl in N 2 and O 2 matrices is unobservable, presumably due to rapid V yield V transfer to the host. A V yield R binary collision model for relaxation in solids is successful in explaining the HCl(DCl)/Ar results as well as results of other experimenters. The model considers relaxation to be the result of ''collisions'' due to molecular motion in quantized lattice normal modes--gas phase potential parameters can fit the matrix kinetic data

  14. Anomalous NMR Relaxation in Cartilage Matrix Components and Native Cartilage: Fractional-Order Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Richard L.; Li, Weiguo; Velasco, M. Pilar; Trujillo, Juan; Reiter, David A.; Morgenstern, Ashley; Spencer, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    We present a fractional-order extension of the Bloch equations to describe anomalous NMR relaxation phenomena (T1 and T2). The model has solutions in the form of Mittag-Leffler and stretched exponential functions that generalize conventional exponential relaxation. Such functions have been shown by others to be useful for describing dielectric and viscoelastic relaxation in complex, heterogeneous materials. Here, we apply these fractional-order T1 and T2 relaxation models to experiments performed at 9.4 and 11.7 Tesla on type I collagen gels, chondroitin sulfate mixtures, and to bovine nasal cartilage (BNC), a largely isotropic and homogeneous form of cartilage. The results show that the fractional-order analysis captures important features of NMR relaxation that are typically described by multi-exponential decay models. We find that the T2 relaxation of BNC can be described in a unique way by a single fractional-order parameter (α), in contrast to the lack of uniqueness of multi-exponential fits in the realistic setting of a finite signal-to-noise ratio. No anomalous behavior of T1 was observed in BNC. In the single-component gels, for T2 measurements, increasing the concentration of the largest components of cartilage matrix, collagen and chondroitin sulfate, results in a decrease in α, reflecting a more restricted aqueous environment. The quality of the curve fits obtained using Mittag-Leffler and stretched exponential functions are in some cases superior to those obtained using mono- and bi-exponential models. In both gels and BNC, α appears to account for microstructural complexity in the setting of an altered distribution of relaxation times. This work suggests the utility of fractional-order models to describe T2 NMR relaxation processes in biological tissues. PMID:21498095

  15. A Framework of Performance Measurement System for Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermawan Wibisono

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the current dynamic environment, measuring a company’s performance becomes exceedingly complex since Performance Measurements Systems (PMS not only measure a company’s performance but also reflect their organizational culture and philosophy. Designing and implementing PMS is an integral part of management control systems. However, traditional PMS are criticized for being obsolete, irrelevant to managerial decisionmaking, unrelated to strategic objectives and detrimental to organizational improvements. Given the shortcomings of traditional PMS, there is need for a new framework that canlead to the design of a PMS that balances short-term and long-term measures, internal and external measures, and financial and operational measures. This paper presents issuesassociated with the needs of a dynamic PMS, observe past research achievements in PMS and review past PMS frameworks that have been introduced. The paper then proposes animproved methodology for the design of a realistic PMS and its effective implementation in a manufacturing environment with case for Indonesia’s company.

  16. A Framework of Performance Measurement System for Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermawan Wibisono

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the current dynamic environment, measuring a company’s performance becomes exceedingly complex since Performance Measurements Systems (PMS not only measure a company’s performance but also reflect their organizational culture and philosophy. Designing and implementing PMS is an integral part of management control systems. However, traditional PMS are criticized for being obsolete, irrelevant to managerial decision making, unrelated to strategic objectives and detrimental to organizational improvements. Given the shortcomings of traditional PMS, there is need for a new framework that can lead to the design of a PMS that balances short-term and long-term measures, internal and external measures, and financial and operational measures. This paper presents issues associated with the needs of a dynamic PMS, observe past research achievements in PMS and review past PMS frameworks that have been introduced. The paper then proposes an improved methodology for the design of a realistic PMS and its effective implementation in a manufacturing environment with case for Indonesia’s company.

  17. Multitasking TORT Under UNICOS: Parallel Performance Models and Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.; Barnett, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    The existing parallel algorithms in the TORT discrete ordinates were updated to function in a UNI-COS environment. A performance model for the parallel overhead was derived for the existing algorithms. The largest contributors to the parallel overhead were identified and a new algorithm was developed. A parallel overhead model was also derived for the new algorithm. The results of the comparison of parallel performance models were compared to applications of the code to two TORT standard test problems and a large production problem. The parallel performance models agree well with the measured parallel overhead

  18. Multitasking TORT under UNICOS: Parallel performance models and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, A.; Azmy, Y.Y.

    1999-01-01

    The existing parallel algorithms in the TORT discrete ordinates code were updated to function in a UNICOS environment. A performance model for the parallel overhead was derived for the existing algorithms. The largest contributors to the parallel overhead were identified and a new algorithm was developed. A parallel overhead model was also derived for the new algorithm. The results of the comparison of parallel performance models were compared to applications of the code to two TORT standard test problems and a large production problem. The parallel performance models agree well with the measured parallel overhead

  19. Nuclear spin dominated relaxation of atomic tunneling systems in glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, Annina

    2016-11-16

    The measurements performed in this thesis have revealed a non phononic relaxation channel for atomic tunneling systems in glasses at very low temperatures due to the presence of nuclear electric quadrupoles. Dielectric measurements on the multicomponent glasses N-KZFS11 and HY-1, containing {sup 181}Ta and {sup 165}Ho, respectively, that both carry very large nuclear electric quadrupole moments, show a relaxation rate in the kilohertz range, that is constant for temperatures exceeding the nuclear quadrupole splitting of the relevant isotopes. The results are compared to measurements performed on the glasses Herasil and N-BK7 that both contain no large nuclear quadrupole moments. Using three different setups to measure the complex dielectric function, the measurements cover almost eight orders of magnitude in frequency from 60 Hz to 1 GHz and temperatures down to 7.5 mK. This has allowed us a detailed study of the novel effects observed within this thesis and has led to a simplified model explaining the effects of nuclear electric quadrupoles on the behavior of glasses at low temperatures. Numeric calculations based on this model are compared to the measured data.

  20. Performance tests for instruments measuring radon activity concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.R.; Buchroeder, H.; Schmidt, V.

    2009-01-01

    Performance tests of electronic instruments measuring the activity concentration of 222 Rn have been carried out with respect to the standard IEC 61577-2. In total, 9 types of instrument operating with ionization chambers or electrostatic collection have been tested for the influence of different climatic and radiological factors on the measurement characteristics. It is concluded that all types of instrument, which are commercially available, are suitable for indoor radon measurements. Because of the dependence on climatic conditions, the outdoor use is partly limited.

  1. Multilayer Relaxation and Surface Energies of Metallic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Rodriguez, Agustin M.; Ferrante, John

    1994-01-01

    The perpendicular and parallel multilayer relaxations of fcc (210) surfaces are studied using equivalent crystal theory (ECT). A comparison with experimental and theoretical results is made for AI(210). The effect of uncertainties in the input parameters on the magnitudes and ordering of surface relaxations for this semiempirical method is estimated. A new measure of surface roughness is proposed. Predictions for the multilayer relaxations and surface energies of the (210) face of Cu and Ni are also included.

  2. Automated NMR relaxation dispersion data analysis using NESSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gooley Paul R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins are dynamic molecules with motions ranging from picoseconds to longer than seconds. Many protein functions, however, appear to occur on the micro to millisecond timescale and therefore there has been intense research of the importance of these motions in catalysis and molecular interactions. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR relaxation dispersion experiments are used to measure motion of discrete nuclei within the micro to millisecond timescale. Information about conformational/chemical exchange, populations of exchanging states and chemical shift differences are extracted from these experiments. To ensure these parameters are correctly extracted, accurate and careful analysis of these experiments is necessary. Results The software introduced in this article is designed for the automatic analysis of relaxation dispersion data and the extraction of the parameters mentioned above. It is written in Python for multi platform use and highest performance. Experimental data can be fitted to different models using the Levenberg-Marquardt minimization algorithm and different statistical tests can be used to select the best model. To demonstrate the functionality of this program, synthetic data as well as NMR data were analyzed. Analysis of these data including the generation of plots and color coded structures can be performed with minimal user intervention and using standard procedures that are included in the program. Conclusions NESSY is easy to use open source software to analyze NMR relaxation data. The robustness and standard procedures are demonstrated in this article.

  3. A critical perspective on the measurement of performance in the empirical multinationality and performance literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Nicole Franziska; Schmidt, Robert; Ladwig, Tina J.

    2017-01-01

    used in empirical studies and the underlying theoretical streams that explain the effects on benefits and costs of multinationality. Our findings indicate that authors still largely rely on overall financial performance measures. Theoretical arguments, in contrast, refer to specific benefit and cost......This paper contributes to the core research in international business (IB), namely the relation between multinationality and performance, and is concerned with the quality of past empirical research designs. On the basis of 49 studies, we critically evaluate the match between performance measures...... positions that are better reflected in operational performance indicators. In our view, the idiosyncratic choice of the performance measures contributes to the varying results in past studies. We offer suggestions for improving future research designs....

  4. Performance of field measuring probes for SSC magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.; Ganetis, G.; Herrera, J.; Hogue, R.; Jain, A.; Louie, W.; Marone, A.; Wanderer, P.

    1994-01-01

    Several years of experience have been acquired on the operation of probes (open-quotes molesclose quotes) constructed for the measurement of the multipole components of the magnetic fields of SSC magnets. The field is measured by rotating coils contained in a 2.4-m long tube that is pulled through the aperture of the magnet by an external device - the transporter. In addition to the measuring coils, the tube contains motors for rotating the coil and a system for sensing local vertical using gravity sensors to provide an absolute reference for the field measurements. The authors describe the steps that must be taken in order to ensure accurate, repeatable measurements; the design changes that have been motivated by difficulties encountered (noise, vibration, variations in temperature); and other performance issues. The mechanical interface between the probe and the beam tube of the magnet is also described

  5. Performance of field measuring probes for SSC magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.; Ganetis, G.; Herrera, J.; Hogue, R.; Jain, A.; Louie, W.; Marone, A.; Wanderer, P.

    1993-01-01

    Several years of experience have been acquired on the operation of probes (''moles'') constructed for the measurement of the multipole components of the magnetic fields of SSC magnets. The field is measured by rotating coils contained in a 2.4-m long tube that is pulled through the aperture of the magnet by an external device-the transporter. In addition to the measuring coils, the tube contains motors for rotating the coil and a system for sensing local vertical using gravity sensors to provide an absolute reference for the field measurements. We describe the steps that must be taken in order to ensure accurate, repeatable measurements; the design changes that have been motivated by difficulties encountered (noise, vibration, variations in temperature); and other performance issues. The mechanical interface between the probe and the hewn tube of the magnet is also described

  6. A key performance measures for evaluating cold supply chain performance in farm industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Shashi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to develop a set of measures, evaluate their importance and effect in cold supply chain performance. This investigation reviewed previous research works on all the stages of the farm product supply chain. Based on farm product supply chain, 4 measures with 31 metrics were identified and developed to measure the cold supply chain performance. A survey was organized to establish the importance and the effect of identified measures. The 5 point Likert scale questionnaire was distributed among SC academics and practitioners. The observed finding infers that the measurement instrument was substantiating for evaluating cold supply chain performance in farm industry. The new developed metrics will help firms improve the visibility of supply among partners and in better decision making. The investigation was enfolded up through the plan of direction intended for future study.

  7. Performance measurement of workplace change: in two different cultural contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiwat Riratanaphong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, organisations must cope with the pressure of cost reduction and efficiency in order to succeed in a highly competitive business environment. However, drivers to improve social interaction and employee’s performance and as such to contribute to organisational goals and objectives make it necessary to be concerned with other performance criteria as well, such as effectiveness, flexibility, employee satisfaction, productivity and creativity. There is a growing need for performance management and performance measurement that not only covers all aspects of an organisation, but which can be applied to various situations in a changing internal and external environment. Performance measurement methods which include an integrated perspective of performance have become essential. In addition, it has been realised that corporate real estate can contribute to organisational performance (Nourse and Roulac, 1993, De Vries et al., 2008, Lindholm, 2008, Den Heijer, 2011, Jensen et al., 2012. For this reason, worldwide organisations started to implement new ways of working in a more open and flexible work environment. Although there are various objectives and drivers of workplace change, the common objectives are to reduce costs and to increase efficiency. The changing organisational and external contexts, such as the increasing demand for talented knowledge workers and changing work patterns, have led to the development of new offices that can promote social networks and interaction among employees. The new workplace does not only aim at achieving cost efficiency, but it should also support employee satisfaction and productivity. This PhD research focuses on both themes i.e. performance measurement of workplace change. The aim of this research is to provide a conceptual framework that visualises the impact of workplace change on employees’ responses to the new work environment and to present guidelines on performance measurement of workplace

  8. Relationship between performance measurements and sale price of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The sale prices of 1 609 Dorper rams sold between 1990 and 1999 were compared with their measured performances. An analysis of variance was carried out in order to determine which variables influenced sale price. The most importance factors were classification (stud vs. commercial), auction weight and coat ...

  9. Managing for Results--Linking Performance Measures and Budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, William L.; Fountain, James R., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The Government Accounting Standards Board notion of service efforts and accomplishments reporting is one step in a process of managing for results that includes strategic planning, development and use of performance measures of managing ongoing programs, and outputs to budgetary appropriation. Reports a trial application to one school district.…

  10. Key performance indicators for measuring sustainability in health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key performance indicators for measuring sustainability in health care industry in Malaysia. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 1S (2018) > ... Next, an in-depth meeting was conducted to gain insights and feedbacks with the management of a private hospital.

  11. Investment horizons : A time-dependent measure of asset performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ingve Simonsen; Anders Johansen; Mogens H. Jensen

    2005-01-01

    We review a resent {\\em time-dependent} performance measure for economical time series -- the (optimal) investment horizon approach. For stock indices, the approach shows a pronounced gain-loss asymmetry that is {\\em not} observed for the individual stocks that comprise the index. This difference may hint towards an synchronize of the draw downs of the stocks.

  12. Introducing the Balanced Scorecard: Creating Metrics to Measure Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbus, Andra

    2005-01-01

    This experiential exercise presents the concept of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) and applies it in a university setting. The Balanced Scorecard was developed 12 years ago and has grown in popularity and is used by more than 50% of the Fortune 500 companies as a performance measurement and strategic management tool. The BSC expands the traditional…

  13. Measuring supply chain performance in the agri-food sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aramyan, L.H.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords : PMS,agri-food, supply chain, efficiency, flexibility, responsiveness, food quality

    The main objective of this research is to contribute to the development of a Performance Measurement System (PMS) foragri-food supply chains that involves the entire chain (i.e. all

  14. Quantitative measures of CRE and its link with organizational performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel - Meulenbroek, H.A.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    For CREM (Corporate Real Estate Management) to be able to deliver added value to its client organisation, it has to know 1) which CRE aspects influence its employees, processes, machinery, visitors, etc, 2) how these aspects influence performance and 3) how to measure and manage them. Analysis of

  15. PECULIARITIES OF PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT IN SOVEREIGN WEALTH FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Onopko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign wealth funds as the subjects of economic relations are analyzed and the main approaches to the assessment of their activities are discussed. The dependence of the performance measurement system and the strategic objectives of the funds and economic policy objectives of the government is indicated.

  16. Performance measurement system for training simulators. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockhold, G. Jr.; Roth, D.R.

    1978-05-01

    In the first project phase, the project team has designed, installed, and test run on the Browns Ferry nuclear power plant training simulator a performance measurement system capable of automatic recording of statistical information on operator actions and plant response. Key plant variables and operator actions were monitored and analyzed by the simulator computer for a selected set of four operating and casualty drills. The project has the following objectives: (1) To provide an empirical data base for statistical analysis of operator reliability and for allocation of safety and control functions between operators and automated controls; (2) To develop a method for evaluation of the effectiveness of control room designs and operating procedures; and (3) To develop a system for scoring aspects of operator performance to assist in training evaluations and to support operator selection research. The performance measurement system has shown potential for meeting the research objectives. However, the cost of training simulator time is high; to keep research program costs reasonable, the measurement system is being designed to be an integral part of operator training programs. In the pilot implementation, participating instructors judged the measurement system to be a valuable and objective extension of their abilities to monitor trainee performance

  17. Performance Measures of Academic Faculty--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Soen, Dan; Sinuani-Stern, Zila

    2011-01-01

    This case study is the first to track the method used by an Israeli institution of higher education to assess and reward faculty members using a set of performance measures ("Excellence criteria"). The study profiles faculty members who received financial rewards for excellence during 2005-2007, based on the previous year's activities,…

  18. Individual match approach to Bowling performance measures in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Match conditions can play a significant role in player performances in a cricket match. If the pitch is in a good condition, the batsmen can achieve good scores, making it difficult for the bowlers. In the case of an uneven pitch or adverse weather conditions, the bowlers may have the upper hand. In order to measure bowlers' ...

  19. Two Measures for Enhancing Data Association Performance in SLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data association is one of the key problems in the SLAM community. Several data association failures may cause the SLAM results to be divergent. Data association performance in SLAM is affected by both data association methods and sensor information. Two measures of handling sensor information are introduced herein to enhance data association performance in SLAM. For the first measure, truncating strategy of limited features, instead of all matched features, is used for observation update. These features are selected according to an information variable. This truncating strategy is used to lower the effect of false matched features. For the other measure, a special rejecting mechanism is designed to reject suspected observations. When the predicted robot pose is obviously different from the updated robot pose, all observed sensor information at this moment is discarded. The rejecting mechanism aims at eliminating accidental sensor information. Experimental results indicate that the introduced measures perform well in improving the stability of data association in SLAM. These measures are of extraordinary value for real SLAM applications.

  20. Sampling Approaches for Multi-Domain Internet Performance Measurement Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calyam, Prasad

    2014-09-15

    The next-generation of high-performance networks being developed in DOE communities are critical for supporting current and emerging data-intensive science applications. The goal of this project is to investigate multi-domain network status sampling techniques and tools to measure/analyze performance, and thereby provide “network awareness” to end-users and network operators in DOE communities. We leverage the infrastructure and datasets available through perfSONAR, which is a multi-domain measurement framework that has been widely deployed in high-performance computing and networking communities; the DOE community is a core developer and the largest adopter of perfSONAR. Our investigations include development of semantic scheduling algorithms, measurement federation policies, and tools to sample multi-domain and multi-layer network status within perfSONAR deployments. We validate our algorithms and policies with end-to-end measurement analysis tools for various monitoring objectives such as network weather forecasting, anomaly detection, and fault-diagnosis. In addition, we develop a multi-domain architecture for an enterprise-specific perfSONAR deployment that can implement monitoring-objective based sampling and that adheres to any domain-specific measurement policies.

  1. Contracts, Performance Measurement and Accountability in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drewry, Gavin; Greve, Carsten; Tanquerel, Thierry

    This book addresses issues to do with public accountability, audit and performance measurement that are both highly topical and of crucial importance to the theory and practice of public administration in an era of contractualized public management. The literature on public sector contracting...... of audit and accountability in a variety of countries and contexts; the third part offers some wider, cross-cutting perspectives. Based on the work of the EGPA permanent study group on the history of contractualization, Contracts, Performance Measurement and Accountability in the Public Sector draws upon...... - covering both 'hard' agreements (ones that are legally enforceable) and 'soft' agreements (enforced by negotiation and mutual trust) - has been growing for some time and the present book adds a primarily European perspective on contracting, performance-based management and accountability. One important...

  2. A performance measurement using balanced scorecard and structural equation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosha Makvandi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, balanced scorecard (BSC has been widely used as a promising method for performance measurement. BSC studies organizations in terms of four perspectives including customer, internal processes, learning and growth and financial figures. This paper presents a hybrid of BSC and structural equation modeling (SEM to measure the performance of an Iranian university in province of Alborz, Iran. The proposed study of this paper uses this conceptual method, designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some university students and professors. Using SEM technique, the survey analyzes the data and the results indicate that the university did poorly in terms of all four perspectives. The survey extracts necessary target improvement by presenting necessary attributes for performance improvement.

  3. Standardization of test conditions for gamma camera performance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, K.

    1980-01-01

    The actual way of measuring gamma camera performance is to use point sources or flood sources in air, often in combination with bar phantoms. This method mostly brings best performance parameters for cameras but it has nothing in common with the use of a camera in clinical practice. Particular in the case of low energy emitters, like Tc-99m, the influence of scattered radiation over the performance of cameras is very high. Therefore it is important to have test conditions of radionuclide imaging devices, that will approach as best as practicable the measuring conditions in clinical applications. It is therefore a good news that the International Electrochemical Commission IEC has prepared a draft 'Characteristics and test conditions of radionuclide imaging devices' which is now submitted to the national committees for formal approval under the Six Months' Rule. Some essential points of this document are discussed in the paper. (orig.) [de

  4. Building and measuring a high performance network architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, William T.C.; Toole, Timothy; Fisher, Chuck; Dugan, Jon; Wheeler, David; Wing, William R; Nickless, William; Goddard, Gregory; Corbato, Steven; Love, E. Paul; Daspit, Paul; Edwards, Hal; Mercer, Linden; Koester, David; Decina, Basil; Dart, Eli; Paul Reisinger, Paul; Kurihara, Riki; Zekauskas, Matthew J; Plesset, Eric; Wulf, Julie; Luce, Douglas; Rogers, James; Duncan, Rex; Mauth, Jeffery

    2001-04-20

    Once a year, the SC conferences present a unique opportunity to create and build one of the most complex and highest performance networks in the world. At SC2000, large-scale and complex local and wide area networking connections were demonstrated, including large-scale distributed applications running on different architectures. This project was designed to use the unique opportunity presented at SC2000 to create a testbed network environment and then use that network to demonstrate and evaluate high performance computational and communication applications. This testbed was designed to incorporate many interoperable systems and services and was designed for measurement from the very beginning. The end results were key insights into how to use novel, high performance networking technologies and to accumulate measurements that will give insights into the networks of the future.

  5. The merit of cogeneration: Measuring and rewarding performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel

    2008-01-01

    Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is a thermal power generation cycle with the merit of recovering part or all of the heat that is fatally discarded by such cycles. This merit of higher efficiency is subject of rewarding by public authorities. When the EU enacts CHP promotion in a Directive (1997-2004), crucial measurement and qualification issues remain unsolved. CEN (coordinator of the European Bureaus of Standards) contributes in clarifying the measurement of CHP activities, but shortfalls remain, while CEN bypasses the debate on qualifying CHP performance. This article offers appropriate methods for measuring CHP activities based on design characteristics of the plants. The co-generated electric output is a necessary and sufficient indicator of CHP merit and performance. Regulators can extend this indicator, but should avoid the perverse effects of biased external benchmarking as the EU Directive entails

  6. Proposed system for measuring project performance using process-based key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haponava, T.; Al-Jibouri, Saad H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite some evidence of its usefulness, performance measurement by using Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) in the construction industry also has its critics. Among the shortcomings attributed to existing KPIs is the fact that almost all of them are product oriented. This means that the indicators

  7. The Curvilinear Association between Performance Measurement System Design and Strategic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Melanie L.; Mahlendorf, Matthias D.; Schäffer, Utz

    This paper reconciles prior research regarding beneficial and detrimental effects of performance measurement system (PMS) design on performance by arguing for a curvilinear association. By taking the too-much-of-a-good-thing effect as a starting point, we challenge the assumption of a linear...

  8. Strategic performance management: development of a performance measurement system at the Mayo Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtright, J W; Stolp-Smith, S C; Edell, E S

    2000-01-01

    Managing and measuring performance become exceedingly complex as healthcare institutions evolve into integrated health systems comprised of hospitals, outpatient clinics and surgery centers, nursing homes, and home health services. Leaders of integrated health systems need to develop a methodology and system that align organizational strategies with performance measurement and management. To meet this end, multiple healthcare organizations embrace the performance-indicators reporting system known as a "balanced scorecard" or a "dashboard report." This discrete set of macrolevel indicators gives senior management a fast but comprehensive glimpse of the organization's performance in meeting its quality, operational, and financial goals. The leadership of outpatient operations for Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota built on this concept by creating a performance management and measurement system that monitors and reports how well the organization achieves its performance goals. Internal stakeholders identified metrics to measure performance in each key category. Through these metrics, the organization links Mayo Clinic's vision, primary value, core principles, and day-to-day operations by monitoring key performance indicators on a weekly, monthly, or quarterly basis.

  9. PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT OF UCITS INVESTMENT FUNDS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Curkovic

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available UCITS investment funds represent an important investment opportunity for retail, as well for institutional investors in the European Union. The aim of this paper is to analyse the performance of the UCITS investment funds in Croatia and to detect relatively homogeneous groups among the UCITS funds based on its performance. The analysis includes 55 UCITS, in the period from the beginning of 2011 until the end of 2014, and it is conducted on daily data of share prices, available from Bloomberg terminal. Analysis is performed separately within the groups of different investment fund by investment strategy. The research methodology is based on the calculation of various indicators of absolute and relative risk-adjusted performance and riskiness of the funds. In general, based on analysis of performance measures, it can be concluded that funds with higher values of net assets were more successful compared to the funds with below-average asset values. Also, funds with below-average values of net assets were more volatile. At the same time, funds run by foreign own management companies were more successful by the absolute performance measures, compared to funds run by management companies with domestic ownership. On the other hand, those funds were more volatile, as well.

  10. THE PERFORMANCE OF THE ECONOMIC ENTITY MEASURED THROUGH ACCOUNTING INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Cristian Milos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The users of financial statements need information regarding the resources of an economic entity and also data regarding the way in which the entity’s management is using resources. This information helps users to quantify efficiency and performance within an entity. There are many stakeholders who do show interest in an entity’s financial reports, including existing and potential investors, employees, lenders, suppliers, customers, regulators and other government agencies and not the least the common citizens. The main purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of the performance measurement and to discuss possible reporting methods. Performance is a concept that raises many questions regarding the most accurate way or the best method for quantifying and reporting performance at the company level .So if financial performance indicators are considered to offer an accurate image of the situation of a company, the modern approach which focuses also on non-financial indicators offers new perspectives upon performance measurement, which may be really expressive and also based on simplicity.

  11. Joint Macro and Femto Field Performance and Interference Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niels T.K.; Isotalo, Tero; Pedersen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    In this paper macro performance in a co-channel macro and femto setup is studied. Measurements are performed in a live Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) network. It is concluded that femto interference does not affect macro downlink (DL) performance as long as the macro Received Si...... radius smaller than 5 meter – with realistic power settings. This makes co-channel femto deployment less promising in dense macro environments with good macro RSCP coverage.......In this paper macro performance in a co-channel macro and femto setup is studied. Measurements are performed in a live Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) network. It is concluded that femto interference does not affect macro downlink (DL) performance as long as the macro Received...... Signal Code Power (RSCP) is stronger than femto RSCP. We also conclude that a macro escape carrier is a robust DL interference management solution. In uplink (UL) direction it is shown that a single femto UE close to macro cell potentially can cause a noise rise of 6 dB in the surrounding macro cell...

  12. The impact of multi-criteria performance measurement on business performance improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Kasie, Fentahun Moges; Belay, Alemu Moges

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between multi-criteria performance measurement (MCPM) practice and business performance improvement using the raw data collected from 33 selected manufacturing companies. In addition, it proposes modified MCPM model as an effective approach to improve business performance of manufacturing companies. Design/methodology/approach:Research paper. Primary and secondary data were collected using questionnaire survey, interview an...

  13. Performance Measurement using KPKU- BUMN in X School Education Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arijanto, Sugih; Harsono, Ambar; Taroepratjeka, Harsono

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine X School's Strengths and Opportunity of Improvement through performance measurement using KPKU-BUMN (Kriteria Penilaian Kinerja Unggul - Kementerian Badan Usaha Milik Negara). KPKU-BUMN is developed based on Malcolm Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellent (MBCfPE). X school is an education foundation at Bandung that has provides education from kindergarten, elementary school, to junior and senior high school. The measurement is implemented by two aspects, Process and Result. The Process is measured by A-D-L-I approaches (Approach- Deployment-Learning- Integration), on the other hand The Result is measured by Le-T-C-I approach (Level-Trend- Comparison-Integration). There are six processes that will be measured: (1) Leadership, (2) Strategic Planning, (3) Customer Focus, (4) Measurement, Analysis and Knowledge Management, (5) Work Force Focus, and (6) Operation Focus. Meanwhile, the result are (a) product & process outcomes, (b) customer-focused outcomes, (c) workforce-focused outcomes, (d) leadership & governance outcomes, and (e) financial & market outcomes. The overall score for X School is 284/1000, which means X School is at “early result” level at “poor” global image.

  14. Measuring the performance of visual to auditory information conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shern Shiou Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual to auditory conversion systems have been in existence for several decades. Besides being among the front runners in providing visual capabilities to blind users, the auditory cues generated from image sonification systems are still easier to learn and adapt to compared to other similar techniques. Other advantages include low cost, easy customizability, and universality. However, every system developed so far has its own set of strengths and weaknesses. In order to improve these systems further, we propose an automated and quantitative method to measure the performance of such systems. With these quantitative measurements, it is possible to gauge the relative strengths and weaknesses of different systems and rank the systems accordingly. METHODOLOGY: Performance is measured by both the interpretability and also the information preservation of visual to auditory conversions. Interpretability is measured by computing the correlation of inter image distance (IID and inter sound distance (ISD whereas the information preservation is computed by applying Information Theory to measure the entropy of both visual and corresponding auditory signals. These measurements provide a basis and some insights on how the systems work. CONCLUSIONS: With an automated interpretability measure as a standard, more image sonification systems can be developed, compared, and then improved. Even though the measure does not test systems as thoroughly as carefully designed psychological experiments, a quantitative measurement like the one proposed here can compare systems to a certain degree without incurring much cost. Underlying this research is the hope that a major breakthrough in image sonification systems will allow blind users to cost effectively regain enough visual functions to allow them to lead secure and productive lives.

  15. Measurement properties of continuous text reading performance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussee, Tamara; van Nispen, Ruth M A; van Rens, Ger H M B

    2014-11-01

    Measurement properties of tests to assess reading acuity or reading performance have not been extensively evaluated. This study aims to provide an overview of the literature on available continuous text reading tests and their measurement properties. A literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase and PsycInfo. Subsequently, information on design and content of reading tests, study design and measurement properties were extracted using consensus-based standards for selection of health measurement instruments. Quality of studies, reading tests and measurement properties were systematically assessed using pre-specified criteria. From 2334 identified articles, 20 relevant articles were found on measurement properties of three reading tests in various languages: IReST, MNread Reading Test and Radner Reading Charts. All three reading tests scored high on content validity. Reproducibility studies (repeated measurements between different testing sessions) of the IReST and MNread of commercially available reading tests in different languages were missing. The IReST scored best on inter-language comparison, the MNread scored well in repeatability studies (repeated measurements under the same conditions) and the Radner showed good reproducibility in studies. Although in daily practice there are other continuous text reading tests available meeting the criteria of this review, measurement properties were described in scientific studies for only three of them. Of the few available studies, the quality and content of study design and methodology used varied. For testing existing reading tests and the development of new ones, for example in other languages, we make several recommendations, including careful description of patient characteristics, use of objective and subjective lighting levels, good control of working distance, documentation of the number of raters and their training, careful documentation of scoring rules and the use of Bland-Altman analyses or similar for

  16. Magneto-optical measurement of spin-lattice relaxation time in KBr and in the Na and Cs halogenetes and Co++ ion magnetic circular dichroism study in KCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    A magnetic circular dicroism spectrometer is described, which was used in the following experiments: 1) The spin-lattice relaxation time (T 1 ) for F centers in NaCl, NaBr, CsBr and CsCl, at 1,8 0 K in magnetic fields up to 15000Gs is described. The suitability of the theory of ref. (08) to explain the differences observed for halides of differents alkali ions as well as for different structures is verified proves that the hyperfine interaction is the most important mechanism for this kind of centers. It is also verified that, for temperatures between 6 0 K and 15 0 K, T 1 experimental values fits the theory of ref. (21) reasonably well, for F centers in KBr. This theory us an extension of that of ref. (8). 2) The MCD spectra for KCl:Co ++ and Caf 2 :Co ++ in different magnetic fields up to 56KGs, and in temperature range between 1,8 0 K and 4,2 0 K is obtained. The results are consistent with the assumption that Co ++ centers are intersticial in KCl lattice [pt

  17. Measurement of the ferric diffusion coefficient in agarose and gelatine gels by utilization of the evolution of a radiation induced edge as reflected in relaxation rate images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Torje V.; Olsen, Dag R.; Skretting, Arne

    1997-01-01

    A method has been developed to determine the diffusion coefficients of ferric ions in ferrous sulphate doped gels. A radiation induced edge was created in the gel, and two spin-echo sequences were used to acquire a pair of images of the gel at different points of time. For each of these image pairs, a longitudinal relaxation rate image was derived. From profiles through these images, the standard deviations of the Gaussian functions that characterize diffusion were determined. These data provided the basis for the determination of the ferric diffusion coefficients by two different methods. Simulations indicate that the use of single spin-echo images in this procedure may in some cases lead to a significant underestimation of the diffusion coefficient. The technique was applied to different agarose and gelatine gels that were prepared, irradiated and imaged simultaneously. The results indicate that the diffusion coefficient is lower in a gelatine gel than in an agarose gel. Addition of xylenol orange to a gelatine gel lowers the diffusion coefficient from 1.45 to 0.81 mm 2 h -1 , at the cost of significantly lower R 1 sensitivity. The addition of benzoic acid to the latter gel did not increase the R 1 sensitivity. (author) OK

  18. Ultrasonic relaxations in borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, G.; Tripodo, G.; Carini, G.; Cosio, E.; Bartolotta, A.; Di Marco, G.

    2004-01-01

    The attenuation and velocity of ultrasonic waves of frequencies in the range from 10 to 70 MHz have been measured in M 2 O-B 2 O 3 borate glasses (M: Li or Ag) as a function of temperature between 15 and 350 K. The velocity of sound waves decreases with increasing temperature in all the glasses, the decrease as the temperature is increased is larger in glasses containing silver than in those with lithium. A broad relaxation peak characterises the attenuation behaviour of the lithium and silver borate glasses at temperatures below 100 K and is paralleled by a corresponding dispersive behaviour of the sound velocity. Above 100 K, the ultrasonic velocity shows a nearly linear behaviour regulated by the vibrational anharmonicity, which decreases with increasing content of modifier oxide and is smaller in lithium than in silver borates. These results suggest that the relaxation of structural defects and the anharmonicity of borate glasses are strongly affected by two parameters: the number of bridging bonds per network forming ion and the polarising power of network modifier ions which occupy sites in the existing interstices

  19. Interstitial relaxations due to hydrostatic stress in niobium--oxygen alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, S.N.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the anelastic relaxation induced by hydrostatic stress in the range from ambient to 81 ksi were made for niobium--oxygen alloys. The anelastic responses, both for the pressurization and the pressure release experiments, were followed by measuring the relative length change between the oxygenated niobium sample and a pure niobium frame with a precision of about 2 A. The relaxation spectrum observed was shown to be made up of three distinct relaxations with unique relaxation times and strengths. The pressure dependence of the relaxation times gave the apparent activation volume for these relaxations of the order of 4 cm 3 /mole. The relaxations were observed to have relaxation strengths of the order of 10 -4 which were found to be independent of pressure up to 81 ksi. The relaxation times for these relaxations were found to occur in the same general temperature range as those for the Snoek relaxations of oxygen clusters in niobium. The temperature dependence of the relaxation times, however, gave activation energies of about 11 to 15 kcal/mole, as compared with roughly 27 to 29 kcal/mole for the Snoek relaxation of oxygen clusters in niobium. Several possible models for these relaxations were developed, however, none could predict the observed temperature dependence. The best interpretation of the data is that due to some anomalous competing relaxation the actual temperature dependence of these relaxations could not be observed. A completely self-consistent analysis is found which is based upon this assumption. (U.S.)

  20. Development of measurement standards for verifying functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, A [Life and Industrial Product Development Department Olympus Corporation, 2951 Ishikawa-machi, Hachiouji-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, H [Industrial Marketing and Planning Department Olympus Corporation, Shinjyuku Monolith, 3-1 Nishi-Shinjyuku 2-chome, Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, K, E-mail: a_fujii@ot.olympus.co.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-machi, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata (Japan)

    2011-08-19

    A new measurement standard is proposed for verifying overall functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments. Its surface is composed of sinusoidal surface waveforms of chirp signals along horizontal cross sections of the material measure. One of the notable features is that the amplitude of each cycle in the chirp signal form is geometrically modulated so that the maximum slope is kept constant. The maximum slope of the chirp-like signal is gradually decreased according to movement in the lateral direction. We fabricated the measurement standard by FIB processing, and it was calibrated by AFM. We tried to evaluate the functional performance of Laser Scanning Microscope by this standard in terms of amplitude response with varying slope angles. As a result, it was concluded that the proposed standard can easily evaluate the performance of surface texture measuring instruments.