WorldWideScience

Sample records for relativized degree spectra

  1. Rethinking Relativism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, George J.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses Allan Bloom's "The Closing of the American Mind," examining his critique of relativism, particularly cultural relativism. The paper states that the existence of cultural relativism is a cause and sign of significant fragmentation and separateness in modern society and the university. (SM)

  2. Effect of isospin degree of freedom on transverse momentum spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Sukhjit; Swati

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of isospin degree of freedom, incident energy as well as system mass on the behavior of transverse momentum spectra, dN/p t dp t , of neutrons and protons. We find that most of the nucleons suffer soft collisions. The effect of isospin degree of freedom on transverse spectra diminishes with the increase in the incident energy. In Fermi energy region, transverse momentum spectra of both protons and neutrons show sensitivity toward the density dependence of symmetry energy. (author)

  3. Relativization of phases in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesche, B.

    1981-01-01

    The idea of relativism is applied to gauge theories in order to eliminate nonphysical degrees of freedom. Spinor electrodynamics is taken as an example to show how this program might be put into practice. (author)

  4. Relativism and anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Srđan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the impact of relativism within anthropology as a discipline. Relativistic conceptions, account for in this analysis, emerged both from philosophy (philosophy of science in particular and anthropology. These conceptions have influenced the discipline directly, through development of the concept of cultural relativism, and indirectly, through the relativists' approach to the concept of scientific research. The different sources of relativism have shaped several paradigms of culture research, most notably those which accept epistemological cultural relativism. However, normative relativism influenced the discipline more profoundly, and has been present in two separate forms: the first, being more or less consistent with the basic philosophical and anthropological relativistic theses, and the other, basically born out of the general relativistic scheme, implying and in some cases trying to conceptualize the existence of global cultural invariants or cultural universals.

  5. Objectivity And Moral Relativism

    OpenAIRE

    Magni, Sergio Filippo

    2017-01-01

    The relativity of morals has usually been taken as an argument against the objectivity of ethics. However, a more careful analysis can show that there are forms of moral objectivism which have relativistic implications, and that moral relativism can be compatible with the objectivity of ethics. Such an objectivity is not always in contrast to moral relativism and it is possible to be relativists without having to give up the claim of objectivity in ethics

  6. Relativism: Protagoras and Nelson Goodman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Saadati Khamseh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discussion of the many faces of relativism occupies a highly prominent place in the epistemological literature. Protagoras in ancient Greece and Nelson Goodman in the modern period are two most notable proponent of relativism. In the present article, I discuss and explain relativistic approaches of this two important relativist. I will first briefly define and review some faces of relativism. Then I will discuss and elaborate Protagorean or true-for-me relativism and Goodman’s radical relativism in turn. I will argue that there are crucial difficulties in Protagorean and radical relativism, and that these difficulties, as the realist philosophers insist, make these two faces of relativism be undefensible. No doubt, these two shapes of relativism have paved the way for anti-realism. In the end, it will appear that Goodman’s radical relativism and so the theory of worldmaking, like Protagorean relativism, suffers from a fatal flaw: the flaw of self-refuting.

  7. Moral Relativism: A Philosopher's Antidote for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Henry

    1977-01-01

    The author identifies four main sources of moral relativism; defines cultural and ethical relativism, and social and personal moral relativism; and presents three arguments to refute moral relativism. (AV)

  8. Nihilism, relativism, and Engelhardt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wreen, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper is a critical analysis of Tristram Engelhardt's attempts to avoid unrestricted nihilism and relativism. The focus of attention is his recent book, The Foundations of Bioethics (Oxford University Press, 1996). No substantive or "content-full" bioethics (e.g., that of Roman Catholicism or the Samurai) has an intersubjectively verifiable and universally binding foundation, Engelhardt thinks, for unaided secular reason cannot show that any particular substantive morality (or moral code) is correct. He thus seems to be committed to either nihilism or relativism. The first is the view that there is not even one true or valid moral code, and the second is the view that there is a plurality of true or valid moral codes. However, Engelhardt rejects both nihilism and relativism, at least in unrestricted form. Strictly speaking, he himself is a universalist, someone who believes that there is a single true moral code. Two argumentative strategies are employed by him to fend off unconstrained nihilism and relativism. The first argues that although all attempts to establish a content-full morality on the basis of secular reason fail, secular reason can still establish a content-less, purely procedural morality. Although not content-full and incapable of providing positive direction in life, much less a meaning of life, such a morality does limit the range of relativism and nihilism. The second argues that there is a single true, content-full morality. Grace and revelation, however, are needed to make it available to us; secular reason alone is not up to the task. This second line of argument is not pursued in The Foundations at any length, but it does crop up at times, and if it is sound, nihilism and relativism can be much more thoroughly routed than the first line of argument has it. Engelhardt's position and argumentative strategies are exposed at length and accorded a detailed critical examination. In the end, it is concluded that neither strategy will do, and

  9. Relativism in Feyerabend's later writings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This paper reconstructs, and distinguishes between, Feyerabend's different forms of relativism in his later writings. Science in a Free Society remains close to familiar forms of relativism, while, at the same time, developing an original but under-argued form of political relativism, and rejecting "conversion" models of cultural exchange. Farewell to Reason moves away from common renderings of relativism, and develops a range of different new forms. Central here are links between relativism, skepticism and infallibilism. In the last six years of his life, Feyerabend often criticizes a peculiar radical form of relativism that arguably no-one has ever proposed or defended. In the same context, Feyerabend sketches an "ontological" form of relativism. It combines "Kantian humility", metaphysical pluralism and constructivism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Foundations for Moral Relativism

    OpenAIRE

    Velleman, J. David

    2015-01-01

    In this new edition of Foundations for Moral Relativism, a distinguished moral philosopher tames a bugbear of current debate about cultural difference. J. David Velleman shows that different communities can indeed be subject to incompatible moralities, because their local mores are rationally binding. At the same time, he explains why the mores of different communities, even when incompatible, are still variations on the same moral themes. The book thus maps out a universe of many moral world...

  11. Relativism, Objectivity and Moral Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partington, Geoffrey

    1979-01-01

    Reaction against the naive moral absolutism of past historical writing has frequently led to unconditional moral and cultural relativism which is equally dangerous. A viable solution is contingent relativism in historical judgments, combining explicit and examinable criteria of human values and concern for contexts of time and place. (Author/SJL)

  12. Ethical Relativism and Behavior Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, Richard F.

    1980-01-01

    Argues that behavior therapists are really ethical relativists and sometimes ethical skeptics. Ethical naturalism found in operant behavior therapy does entail ethical relativism. Other authors respond to these views. (Author)

  13. Comparative Methodology and Postmodern Relativism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert

    1997-09-01

    The author addresses the problems of conducting comparative studies in education if one adopts a viewpoint of postmodern relativism. While acknowledging the value of postmodernist thought in opening up a new understanding of the educational process, he finds that postmodernism raises difficulties when one attempts to deal with the differences and interactions between cultures. He rejects the extremes of both relativism and universalism and argues that comparative studies should be based on a balance between the two.

  14. Anthropology, cultural relativism and principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Manuel Conderana Cerrillo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available There exists the risk that axiological relativism make educational tasks impossible to perform. This article intends to answer the question of how this risk could be avoided: Is it possible to support the fact that there are certain issues which could be accepted as valid by any culture? Could this fact be achieved without mena- cing the so called legitimate cultural diversity due to human freedom? Professor María García Amilbury offers an answer which stands upon the Aristotelic idea of a «natural» telos of mankind. Once the deficiencies of the Aristotelic argument have been uncove- red, an alternative answer coming from the «ethic intuitionism» theory is considered by the author. Key words: Gnoseologic cultural relativism, Axiologic cultural relativism, Ethical intuitionism, Ethical principles. 

  15. Cultural relativism and psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrega, H

    1989-07-01

    Psychiatry has had a long-standing association with sociology and, especially, cultural anthropology. These social sciences have been influential in developing the concept of cultural relativism and applying it to psychiatry, sometimes in a challenging way and with much detriment. The concept has been used by some antipsychiatrists in attempts to discredit psychiatric practice. Contemporary psychiatrists endorsing a form of biological determinism have tended to either disregard the concept or judge it as trivial if not nonsensical. This study describes the concept of cultural relativism, reviews its applications to illness, and analyzes its implications from a historical and theoretical point of view. Its varied aspects, power, and limitations are discussed.

  16. Moral Relativism on the Ropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabler, Mel; Gabler, Norma

    1987-01-01

    Finds that most current public school sex education programs and all values clarification programs are based on moral relativism and are intellectually indefensible because they are (1) methodologically defective, (2) present tautologies instead of values, (3) depend on circular reasoning, and (4) undemocratic. (NKA)

  17. Coupling between slow and fast degrees of freedom in systems with complex spectra: Driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgac, A.; Dang, G.D.; Kusnezov, D.

    1995-01-01

    We consider many-body systems which display slow modes and have complex spectra of intrinsic states, as atomic nuclei, atomic clusters, deformable cavities, and so forth. The effects of the coupling between the intrinsic and the slow degrees of freedom is analyzed, by assuming random matrix properties for the intrinsic degrees of freedom and the fact that the time evolution of the slow degree of freedom modifies the intrinsic configuration of the system. By neglecting the reaction of the intrinsic degrees of freedom on the slow modes, we derive evolution equations for intrinsic state population probabilities, the average excitation energy, and their fluctuations. These evolution equations are characterized by strong memory effects, and only in the long time limit does the dynamics become Markovian. Copyright copyright 1995 Academic Press, Inc

  18. Constructivism, relativism, and chemical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerri, Eric

    2003-05-01

    Whereas most scientists are highly critical of constructivism and relativism in the context of scientific knowledge acquisition, the dominant school of chemical education researchers appears to support a variety of such positions. By reference to the views of Herron, Spencer, and Bodner, I claim that these authors are philosophically confused, and that they are presenting a damaging and anti-scientific message to other unsuspecting educators. Part of the problem, as I argue, is a failure to distinguish between pedagogical constructivism regarding students' understanding of science, and constructivism about the way that scientific knowledge is acquired by expert scientists.

  19. Quasi-monoenergetic neutron energy spectra for 246 and 389 MeV (7)Li(p,n) reactions at angles from 0 degrees to 300 degrees

    CERN Document Server

    Iwamoto, Y; Nakamura, T; Nakashima, H; Mares, V; Itoga, T; Matsumoto, T; Nakane, Y; Feldbaumer, E; Jaegerhofer, L; Pioch, C; Tamii, A; Satoh, D; Masuda, A; Sato, T; Iwase, H; Yashima, H; Nishiyama, J; Hagiwara, M; Hatanaka, K; Sakamoto, Y

    2011-01-01

    The authors measured the neutron energy spectra of a quasi-monoenergetic (7)Li(p,n) neutron source with 246 and 389 MeV protons set at seven angles (0 degrees, 2.5 degrees, 5 degrees, 10 degrees, 15 degrees, 20 degrees and 30 degrees), using a time-of-flight (TOF) method employing organic scintillators NE213 at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) of Osaka University. The energy spectra of the source neutrons were precisely deduced down to 2 MeV at 0 degrees and 10 MeV at other angles. The cross-sections of the peak neutron production reaction at 0 degrees were on the 35-40 mb line of other experimental data, and the peak neutron angular distribution agreed well with the Taddeucci formula. Neutron energy spectra below 100 MeV at all angles were comparable, but the shapes of the continuum above 150 MeV changed considerably with the angle. In order to consider the correction required to derive the response in the peak region from the measured total response for high-energy neutron monitors such as DAR...

  20. Floor response spectra for multi-degree-of-freedom systems by Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, R.H.; Sachs, K.

    1975-01-01

    A method of generating floor response spectra from a given ground response spectrum is given. This time-saving approach makes use of Fourier spectrum techniques and the randomness of phase angles. In matrix form a structure having many degrees-of-freedom is described by the equation of motion with M, C, K as the mass-, damping-, and stiffness matrices and Z being the acceleration time history of the earthquake and I a direction vector. If the Fourier spectrum FZ of the ground motion is known, then by standard methods the Fourier spectrum of the equipment response can be obtained. The assumption of random phase angles for the synthetic time history Z seems reasonable. The response is then also a superposition of cosine waves. Good agreement with time history methods is obtained. This method is much faster than time history methods, which are being used in most applications

  1. Relativism: A demon roaming through science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojnov Dušan B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The advocates of the so-called "hard science" view relativism as an extreme undesirable standpoint. The ill fame of relativism is most frequently explained by the opinion that relativism is striving, in general, for the position where "everything is possible", thus hindering the progress of science and leading to its destruction in the long run. Those opposing relativism, consider relativistic position, in the best of cases, depressing and solipsistic, and, in the worst of cases, extremely destructive. Regarding the fact that such an attitude most often results from the ignorance (sometimes from profound ignorance of the basic principles of relativistic doctrine, a more elaborate consideration was given herein to the relativistic doctrine: its definitions, opposing other doctrines and diverse orientations. In short, relativism is founded neither upon a view that everything is possible, nor is its application impossible in science nor are its implications so destructive for science as stated by the opponents of this attitude. In addition, the article considers the issue of harmonizing relativism with multiperspectivism of science. Therefore, the presentation to follow should be taken as an attempt to define relativism more closely and to point out its potentials and the road science can take in the time to come.

  2. Japanese Buddhism, Relativization, and Glocalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Dessì

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the field of study on Japanese religions, the issue of globalization tends to be associated with the missionary activities of some successful new religious movements, and there is a certain reluctance to approach analytically the dynamics of glocalization/hybridization and the power issues at stake. In this article, I address these and other related problems by taking my cue from the relativizing effects of globalization and a working definition of religion based on the concept of authority. To this aim, I focus on two case studies. The first concerns the ongoing greening of Japanese Buddhism. The second revolves around the adoption of meditational techniques by priests and lay practitioners in Hawaiian Shin Buddhism. My findings show that there are at least four factors underlying the glocalization of Japanese Buddhism, that is, global consciousness, resonance with the local tradition, decontextualization, and quest for power. Moreover, they indicate that it is possible to distinguish between two types of glocalization (glocalization and chauvinistic glocalization and two configurations of glocalization (juxtaposition and integration.

  3. Evolutionary Economics and Moral Relativism - Some Thoughts

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Doubts about the decidability of moral questions have often been used as an excuse for economists to eschew any normative propositions. Evolutionary economics, still lacking a well-developed normative branch, gives rise to a form of descriptive moral relativism. This paper wants to explore the consequences of adopting a form of meta-ethical and normative moral relativism as well. It develops a normative position called ‘naturalistic relativism’, which is a naturalistically reconstructed neo-p...

  4. Is relativism the limit of my world?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Elizondo Orozco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In his book Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, Wittgenstein put ethics among the things that our language cannot grasp. Later, in the Philosophical Investigations he extended the possibilities of meaning, which resulted in some speculations about an alternative way to grasp or to express ethical judgements. If this is possible, then some questions arise: Does this imply a Metaethical Cognitivism? If the conditions of expression in the language have been relativized, does this imply an ethical relativism or, even, a type of subjectivism? In this article, I will try to argue first against those who defend an ethical relativism using Wittgenstein´s later philosophy and, after this, I will defend that the opponents of ethical relativism that use the Philosophical Investigations as a weapon in their arguments, are also wrong. My suggestion is that there is no prove in that book that shows that Wittgenstein opened the possibility for language to express the “Superior” [Höheres], and that the application of the concepts he introduced will not let us defend an ethical relativism, but some sort of epistemic relativism that could be amplified or used by Metaethics.

  5. Production spectra of zero-degree neutral particles measured by the LHCf experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberio A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, latest published physics results from p-p and p-Pb collisions (at √s = 7, 2.76 TeV and sNN = 5.02 TeV, respectively compared with Monte Carlo predictions of DPMJET, EPOS, PYTHIA, QGSJET and SIBYLL event generators will be presented. In particular, the inclusive energy spectra of neutrons in p-p collisions and the transverse and longitudinal momentum spectra of neutral pions for different pseudo-rapidity ranges in p-p and p-Pb collisions will be shown; then, test of Feynman scaling hypothesis using neutral pion spectra will be discussed. Preliminary results of photon inclusive energy spectra in p-p collisions at √s = 13 TeV will be also presented.

  6. Between relativism and pluralism: Philosophical and political relativism in Feyerabend's late work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    Relativism is one of the most problematic terms associated with philosophical discourse, with Feyerabend considered among the most important twentieth century theorists subscribing to it. This paper provides a detailed overview of relativist positions advanced in Feyerabend's mid-to-late work and investigates the associated epistemic and political applications. Emphasis is placed on how Feyerabend supported certain aspects of relativism, and at what stage he rejected others. It is noted that Feyerabend had already imposed limitations on relativism in Farewell to Reason, in which he entertained the possibility of epistemic definition within stable contexts, and advanced the notion that opportunities and equality associated with political and cultural units could only be valid within a democratic system. In Conquest of Abundance, political relativism is largely discarded, while epistemological relativism is increasingly treated as an appeal for diversity in all areas. In this re-reading of his work, it becomes clear that Feyerabend was already advocating a moderate form of epistemic and political relativism in the middle of his career, which he subsequently developed in the direction of "ontological pluralism" in his later work. This paper thus shows that Feyerabend's relativism should not be completely rejected, but rather that it continues to offer interesting food for thought. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Multiculturalism and Cultural Relativism after the Commemoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitborde, Lawrence B.

    1993-01-01

    Discussed multiculturalism and culturalism in light of the 1992 quincentennial of the Columbian voyages. Argues that historical accuracy and multiculturalism are not incompatible. Concludes that cultural relativism is necessary to prepare students to live in contemporary U.S. society. (CFR)

  8. Values Education: A Response to Moral Relativism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Joseph H.

    There is a growing agreement that the moral relativism or value neutral education of the 1970s has been a failure, and many groups and individuals are calling for values education to become part of school curriculum. This paper focuses on the administration of values education and discusses the public policy debate surrounding it. Several…

  9. Beyond Relativism to Ethical Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Keith D.; Donlevy, J. Kent

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the ethical conundrum of educational decision makers when faced with a plethora of conflicting value-based decisions. It offers an analysis of a well-known fable as the foil to demonstrate the problematic nature of ethical relativism and postmodern ethics in resolving that conundrum, while advocating the use of five core…

  10. Varying versions of moral relativism: the philosophy and psychology of normative relativism

    OpenAIRE

    Quintelier, Katinka; Fessler, Daniel MT

    2012-01-01

    Among naturalist philosophers, both defenders and opponents of moral relativism argue that prescriptive moral theories (or normative theories) should be constrained by empirical findings about human psychology. Empiricists have asked if people are or can be moral relativists, and what effect being a moral relativist can have on an individual’s moral functioning. This research is underutilized in philosophers’ normative theories of relativism; at the same time, the empirical work, while useful...

  11. Cultural relativism and cultural diversity: implications for nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C

    1997-09-01

    This article examines the doctrine of cultural relativism in nursing practice. To introduce the issue, an overview of the intellectual history of cultural relativism is presented. The academic themes of the debate surrounding cultural relativism are illustrated with an example of the social controversy in France involving cultural relativism as used to defend the practice of female genital excision among immigrant communities. The dilemma faced by nursing in making cross-cultural judgments is then examined in the light of the academic and social debates. The article concludes with a theoretical resolution of the issue of cultural relativism for nursing practice that is based on hermeneutic philosophy.

  12. Is relativism the limit of my world?

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Elizondo Orozco

    2016-01-01

    In his book Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, Wittgenstein put ethics among the things that our language cannot grasp. Later, in the Philosophical Investigations he extended the possibilities of meaning, which resulted in some speculations about an alternative way to grasp or to express ethical judgements. If this is possible, then some questions arise: Does this imply a Metaethical Cognitivism? If the conditions of expression in the language have been relativized, does this imply an ethical re...

  13. Boson and fermion degrees of freedom in the orthosymplectic extension of the IVBM: Odd-odd nuclear spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganev, H. G.; Georgieva, A. I.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamical symmetry group Sp(12, R) of the Interacting Vector Boson Model (IVBM) is extended to the orthosymplectic group OSp(2Ω/12, R) in order to incorporate fermion degrees of freedom. The structure of even-even nuclei is used as a core on which the collective excitations of the neighboring odd-mass and odd-odd nuclei are build on. Hence, the spectra of odd-mass and odd-odd nuclei arise as a result of the coupling of the fermion degrees of freedom, specified by the fermion sector SOF (2Ω) to the boson core, whose states belong to an Sp(12, R) irreducible representation. The orthosymplectic dynamical symmetry is applied for the simultaneous description of the spectra of some neighboring nuclei from rare earth region. The theoretical predictions for different low-lying collective bands with positive and negative parity are compared with the experiment. The obtained results reveal the applicability of the model and its boson-fermion extension.

  14. Relativism and the social scientific study of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risjord, M

    1993-04-01

    Does the social scientific study of medicine require a commitment to relativism? Relativism claims that some subject (e.g., knowledge claims or moral judgments) is relative to a background (e.g., a culture or conceptual scheme) and that judgments about the subject are incommensurable. Examining the concept of success as it appears in orthodox and nonorthodox medical systems, we see that judgments of success are relative to a background medical system. Relativism requires the social scientific study of medicine to be value free in the sense that a medical system must be described without evaluating its elements. When social scientists do evaluate the successfulness of a nonorthodox medical system, they give a crucial role to the nonorthodox conception of success. This strategy does not vitiate value-freedom and it entails a relativism about success. The social scientific study of medicine, therefore, does require relativism in the form of a relativism about success.

  15. Varying versions of moral relativism : The philosophy and psychology of normative relativism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quintelier, Katinka J P; Fessler, Daniel M T

    2012-01-01

    Among naturalist philosophers, both defenders and opponents of moral relativism argue that prescriptive moral theories (or normative theories) should be constrained by empirical findings about human psychology. Empiricists have asked if people are or can be moral relativists, and what effect being a

  16. A Defense of Ethical Relativism as Rhetorically Grounded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummett, Barry

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the philosophical stance of ethical relativism. Notes that relativism is sometimes accused of being caught between moral impotence and self-contradiction. Argues that grounding relative ethical values in rhetorical communication allows relativists to judge other cultures without inconsistency. (PD)

  17. Cultural diversity and the case against ethical relativism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannigan, M

    2000-01-01

    The movement to respect cultural diversity, known as multiculturalism, poses a daunting challenge to healthcare ethics. Can we construct a defensible passage from the fact of cultural differences to any claims regarding morality? Or does multiculturalism lead to ethical relativism? Macklin argues that, in view of a leading distinction between universalism in ethics and moral absolutism, the only reasonable passage avoids both absolutism and relativism. She presents a strong case against ethical relativism and its pernicious consequences for cross-cultural issues in healthcare. She also provides sound criteria for the assessment of a culture's moral progress.

  18. Understanding Cultural Relativism: A critical Appraisal of the Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Yohannes Eshetu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to reveal the cons and pros of ethical relativism, especially conventionalism. This article is written with the intention of showing some of the practical upshots of conventionalism without totally denying some of its virtues in a world where diversity of cultures and customs is apparent. The article inquires the question: Is ethical relativism tenable? The review article relies on reviewing secondary sources. What I am arguing in this article is that despite...

  19. [Clinical trials: vulnerability and ethical relativism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Research in human beings is an important chapter of medical ethics. In recent years, investigation has been taken over by profit driven corporations that must guarantee the medical and commercial application of results. This new model of investigation has generated conflicts of interest in doctor-patient, researcher-subject relationship. The inevitable debate and media reaction has led. These trials of controversial design to regions of the globe where the vulnerability of the populations continues to allow their undertaking. This article includes a historical perspective on experimentation in human beings and the conditions that led to its regulation: the Nuremberg CODE, followed by the Helsinky Declaration in its different versions, and the Belmont Report, that defend the subject according to the ethic of principles used in western medicine. There is then a review of the attempts to change international regulation to reintroduce clinical trials with placebo--which since 1996 is only permitted where there are no therapeutic or diagnostic methods--on populations that would otherwise have no access to treatment. This then leads on to the issue of double standards in medical investigation defended by many investigators and some official entities. The article concludes that it may be prudent to allow local ethical commissions to approve deviation from the established norm if such is necessary to resolve urgent questions of health in the country, but it is unacceptable that any such emergency is used as a reason to reduce the ethical prerequisites, in clinical trials. It also concludes that true urgency is in making available to all who need it the effective products already in existence. Furthermore, that the acceptance of ethical relativism can result in the exploitation of vulnerable third world populations for research programmes that cannot be undertaken in their sponsoring countries due to the ethical restrictions in place.

  20. Feyerabend, truth, and relativisms: Footnotes to the Italian debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattei, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    There is a substantial literature on Feyerabend's relativism-including a few papers in this collection-but fewer specific studies of the ways that his writings and ideas have been taken up among the non-academic public. This is odd, given his obvious interest in the lives and concerns of persons who were not 'intellectuals'-a term that, for him, had a pejorative ring to it. It is also odd, given the abundance of evidence of how Feyerabend's relativism played a role in a specific national and cultural context-namely, contemporary Italian debates about relativism. This paper offers a study of how Feyerabend's ideas have been deployed by Italian intellectuals and cultural commentators-including the current Pope-and critically assesses them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MacIntyre's Moral Theory and Moral Relativism

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Abedi Renani

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, I seek to explain the similarity and disparity between MacIntyre’s moral theory and moral relativism. I will argue that MacIntyre’s moral theory can escape the charge of moral relativism because both his earlier social and his later metaphysical approaches appeal to some criteria, the human telos or universal human qualities respectively. The notion of telos is wider than the notion of function which is defined in social contexts. If there is a context-transcending notion of te...

  2. Conflict, Cultural Diversity and Relativism in Contemporary Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper seeks to interrogate the ideal of using drama to highlight the cultural differences within the Nigerian polity and advance the argument that there is need for playwrights to creatively orchestrate this diversity and in the process examine the model of relativism and tolerance amongst the various federating units in the ...

  3. Pluralism, Relativism, and the Question of Evidence in Shakespearean Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, John S.

    1996-01-01

    Argues for a revision of relativism in literary interpretation that supports, rather than undermines, efforts to explore the possibility of judgments of relative plausibility. Illustrates norms of interpretation and canons of evidence with examples drawn from interpretations of Shakespearean plays. Allays fears that any form of relativism…

  4. Cultural Relativism: As Strategy for Teaching the "Culturally-Different."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Cecelia Nails

    "Cultural relativism" exists when individuals can choose the values and responsible life styles that afford the natural and best vehicles of productive and positive expression. This paper suggests a strategy for accomplishing this kind of cultural acceptance in the present educational system. It calls for the transmission of basic, unbiased data…

  5. Family Counseling: Cultural Sensitivity, Relativism, and the Cultural Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Kathleen M.

    1998-01-01

    Cultural sensitivity, cultural relativism, and the cultural defense are defined and described. Each concept is addressed in terms of its relationship to couple and family counseling. The role of counselor must be broadened and deepened to include the role of cultural broker. (Author/EMK)

  6. Assessing and Promoting Cultural Relativism in Students of Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcauliffe, Garrett John; Grothaus, Tim; Jensen, Margaret; Michel, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Multicultural counseling is often promoted as a core element in counselor development. As such, educational efforts aim to increase counselors' cultural relativism, or their ability to recognize their own enculturation and to appreciate the value of other cultural norms. This mixed qualitative-quantitative study explored the relationship between…

  7. Suicide terrorism, moral relativism, and the situationist narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, David R

    2014-08-01

    Lankford challenges two popular views of suicide terrorists: first, that they are psychologically normal and, second, that they are heroic, not unlike professional soldiers. I augment Lankford's critique by tracing these views to a simplistic situationist narrative and to a careless form of moral relativism to which many scholars adhere. Conceptual weaknesses of these positions are briefly discussed.

  8. Beyond Cultural Relativism: An Ecological Model for Rhetorical Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackin, Jim

    A model intended to overcome the cultural relativism of determining what is an ethical act draws an analogy to environmental studies. Beginning with the concepts of "telos" (final purpose) and "archai" (priority), the notion of an ecosystem of ethics avoids limitation to a particular historical definition of good. Since the…

  9. Spacetime quantum probabilities II: Relativized descriptions and Popperian propensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugur-Schächter, M.

    1992-02-01

    In the first part of this work(1) we have explicated the spacetime structure of the probabilistic organization of quantum mechanics. We have shown that each quantum mechanical state, in consequence of the spacetime characteristics of the epistemic operations by which the observer produces the state to be studied and the processes of qualification of these, brings in a tree-like spacetime structure, a “quantum mechanical probability tree,” that transgresses the theory of probabilities as it now stands. In this second part we develop the general implications of these results. Starting from the lowest level of cognitive action and creating an appropriate symbolism, we construct a “relativizing epistemic syntax,” a “general method of relativized conceptualization” where—systematically—each description is explicitly referred to the epistemic operations by which the observer produces the entity to be described and obtains qualifications of it. The method generates a typology of increasingly complex relativized descriptions where the question of realism admits of a particularly clear pronouncement. Inside this typology the epistemic processes that lie—UNIVERSALLY—at the basis of any conceptualization, reveal a tree-like spacetime structure. It appears in particular that the spacetime structure of the relativized representation of a probabilistic description, which transgresses the nowadays theory of probabilities, is the general mould of which the quantum mechanical probability trees are only particular realizations. This entails a clear definition of the descriptional status of quantum mechanics. While the recognition of the universal cognitive content of the quantum mechanical formalism opens up vistas toward mathematical developments of the relativizing epistemic syntax. The relativized representation of a probabilistic description leads with inner necessity to a “morphic” interpretation of probabilities that can be regarded as a formalized and

  10. The `Nature of Science' and the Perils of Epistemic Relativism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Maltrana, Diego; Benitez, Federico; Vera, Francisco; Rivera, Rodrigo

    2017-11-01

    There is an increasing demand in the field of science education for the incorporation of philosophical and sociological aspects that are related to the scientific enterprise in school curricula, to the extent that the incorporation of these aspects is now considered a necessity. Several of these aspects can be categorised within the framework of the nature of science, or NOS. We warn that a possible misinterpretation of the common view of NOS tenets can lead to epistemic relativism. We pay special attention to the empirical and objective nature of science because these important features, properly understood, can help eliminate subjective flaws and protect against relativism. Some of the epistemological concepts that are relevant to this discussion are disambiguated in an attempt to prevent the temptation to take views to an extreme, as has occurred in some cases. We expect this analysis to contribute to the extant literature by improving how science is presented in the classroom without oversimplifying scientific practice.

  11. The structure of relation algebras generated by relativizations

    CERN Document Server

    Givant, Steven R

    1994-01-01

    The foundation for an algebraic theory of binary relations was laid by De Morgan, Peirce, and Schröder during the second half of the nineteenth century. Modern development of the subject as a theory of abstract algebras, called "relation algebras", was undertaken by Tarski and his students. This book aims to analyze the structure of relation algebras that are generated by relativized subalgebras. As examples of their potential for applications, the main results are used to establish representation theorems for classes of relation algebras and to prove existence and uniqueness theorems for simple closures (i.e., for minimal simple algebras containing a given family of relation algebras as relativized subalgebras). This book is well written and accessible to those who are not specialists in this area. In particular, it contains two introductory chapters on the arithmetic and the algebraic theory of relation algebras. This book is suitable for use in graduate courses on algebras of binary relations or algebraic...

  12. A relativized quark model for radiative baryon transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warns, M.; Schroeder, H.; Pfeil, W.; Rollnik, H.

    1989-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the electromagnetic form factors of baryons and their resonances using the framework of a relativized constituent quark model. Beyond the usual single-quark transition ansatz, we incorporate relativistic corrections which are well-determined by the intrinsic strong interaction and confinement forces between the quarks. Furthermore we separate off for the compound three-quark system the relativistic center-of-mass motion by an approximately Lorentz-invariant approach. In this way for the first time recoil effects could be explicitly studied. Using the harmonic oscillator wavefunctions with the configuration mixing as derived in the Isgur-Karl model, after restoring gauge invariance our relativized interaction hamiltonian can be used to calculate the transversely and longitudinally polarized photon transition form factors of the baryons. (orig.)

  13. Morphosyntatic aspects of relativization in shipibo-konibo (pano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Valenzuela Bismark

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article discusses crucial morpho-syntactic aspects of relative constructions in Shipibo-Konibo, a Panoan language spoken in the Peruvian Amazon. The analysis is predominantly based on data extracted from spontaneous texts. Shipibo-Konibo exhibits a number of features that are uncommon in the languages of the world, such as the coexistence of prenominal, postnominal, and internally-headed relative clauses using the gap strategy. Also, the anaphoric pronoun strategy is attested in subject relativization, even when the relative clause precedes its head nominal. Although the same form can be employed to relativize different syntactic positions (A, S, O, in transitive internallyheaded relative clauses it is the object argument that must be interpreted as nucleus and hence as co-referential with an argument in the matrix clause. Given that internally-headed relatives also allow for intransitive subject relativization, they show an absolutive distribution. This constitutes the only instance of syntactic ergativity in an otherwise morphologically ergative but syntactically accusative language.

  14. Understanding Cultural Relativism: A critical Appraisal of the Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Eshetu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review article is to reveal the cons and pros of ethical relativism, especially conventionalism. This article is written with the intention of showing some of the practical upshots of conventionalism without totally denying some of its virtues in a world where diversity of cultures and customs is apparent. The article inquires the question: Is ethical relativism tenable? The review article relies on reviewing secondary sources. What I am arguing in this article is that despite the attraction of ethical relativism as an intellectual weapon to fight against ethnocentrism and cultural intolerance, the view still goes against the idea of intercultural comparison, criticism and moral argumentation, so that it would have serious disastrous implication on practice, especially on the universal character of human rights and shutters all together any sort of moral progress and reform. The article concludes that we can set forth certain objective moral codes, discovered through rational intercultural dialogue and discussion which could be applied regardless of cultural specificities upon which cultural inter-comparison, discussion and moral argumentation is possible.

  15. Duties, Oughts and Jesse Prinz’s Agent-Relativism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Oliveira de Azevedo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2013v12n2p143 In The Emotional Construction of Morals (2007, Jesse Prinz offers a coherent naturalist approach on the foundations of human moral normativity. He classifies his view as a sensibility theory, a realist approach conspicuously opposed to the anti-realist bent of traditional emotivism. I sympathize with Prinz’s general approach; nevertheless, I have some specific disagreements. The first concerns the “is-ought” problem. I don’t think it is possible to build a realist, and a naturalist, approach in ethics without answering the famous problem with a positive stance. That is, without showing that it is actually possible to make the suspect transition—at least if we take “normativity” as a natural fact (as Hume, I think, actually thought. Here I will evaluate what I think are the main issues of Prinz’s approach. One issue that deserves to be commented on is the contrast between Prinz’s view and John Searle's well-known approach regarding the is-ought problem. Prinz thinks that Searle’s argument favouring the passage from an "is" to an "ought" is not cogent, but the correct understanding of Searle's argument requires assuming “obligations” (and duties as factual. Therefore, what a naturalist theory must explain is how it is possible to pass from the fact that one is under a particular obligation to the supposed required action (or, in more fashionable words, how duties can be “agent-relative reasons for action”. In effect, I will present my approach on the concept of “reason for action,” influenced by Judith Jarvis Thomson’s approach, and her distinction between “duties” and “oughts.” In the final section I will make some comments on the problem of relativism. I agree with Prinz that descriptive relativism is true; but Prinz is committed to a form of agent-relativism. I will present arguments against agent-relativism that depend on the acceptance of a clear

  16. Apparatus for rapid adjustment of the degree of alignment of NMR samples in aqueous media: verification with residual quadrupolar splittings in (23)Na and (133)Cs spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchel, Philip W; Chapman, Bogdan E; Müller, Norbert; Bubb, William A; Philp, David J; Torres, Allan M

    2006-06-01

    NMR spectra of (23)Na(+) and (133)Cs(+) in gelatine in a silicone rubber tube that was stretched to various extents showed remarkably reproducible resonance multiplicity. The relative intensities of the components of the split peaks had ratios, 3:4:3, and 7:12:15:16:15:12:7, respectively, that conformed with those predicted using a Mathematica program. The silicone-rubber tube was sealed at its lower end by a small rubber stopper and placed inside a thick-walled glass tube. Gelatine was injected in solution into the silicone tube and 'set' by cooling below 30 degrees C. A plastic thumb-screw held the silicone tube at various degrees of extension, up to approximately 2-fold. After constituting the gel in buffers containing NaCl and CsCl, both (23)Na and (133)Cs NMR spectroscopy revealed that after stretching the initial single Lorentzian line was split into a well-resolved triplet and a heptet, respectively. This was interpreted as being due to coupling between the electric quadrupoles of the nuclei and the average electric field gradient tensor of the collagen molecules of gelatine; these molecules became progressively more aligned in the direction of the main magnetic field, B(0), of the vertical bore magnet, as the gel was stretched. This apparatus provides a simple way of demonstrating fundamental physical characteristics of quadrupolar cations, some characteristics of gelatine under stretching, and a way to invoke static distortion of red blood cells. It should be useful with these and other cell types, for studies of metabolic and membrane transport characteristics that may change when the cells are distorted, and possibly for structural studies of macromolecules.

  17. The hypothesis of postmodern pedagogy. Education, truth and relativism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier LAUDO CASTILLO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to recover the debate on the postmodern pedagogy with a double aim. On the one hand, contribute to clarify and make more coherent the conceptual order on pedagogy in relation to Postmodernism. On the other, clearing the way for the real possibilities of what might be or are being, educational theories and practices constitutive of a postmodern pedagogy. The research was conducted through the hermeneutic of philosophical and pedagogical texts. First, the postmodern is presented in the epistemological level and clarifying his relation to different types of relativism. Second, we discuss and defend the possibility and the existence of a postmodern pedagogy taking into a special account the question of the normativity. Thirdly, we develop the arguments that, from a hermeneutic and pragmatist view, relativism offered as educational trend. In this part we offer an integration of postfoundationalism and other postmodern principles in educational thinking and suggests some lines to develop in the future. Finally, we conclude with a synthesis of the outcomes and their implications for pedagogy and educational theory.

  18. Global citizenship and the challenge from cultural relativism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hylland Eriksen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Do human beings live in a shared world or in several? The traditional answer from social and cultural anthropology has been that although the physical world is uniform, the world as it is perceived by humans is fundamentally and irreducibly diverse, since human worlds are culturally constructed and cultures are unique and particular in character. As a result of this perspective, there has always been a tense relationship between anthropology and universalist claims, as in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. This chapter charts the dialogue and tension between the cultural relativism of classic anthropology and human rights universalism, but the main focus is on the consequences of globalisation for anthropological thinking about diversity and human universals. It is argued that as a direct result of the increased interconnectedness of human societies, classic cultural relativism has become both epistemologically obsolete and normatively objectionable. Although the moral worlds inhabited by humans are still diverse, they are now connected in ways which have implications for the ethics of anthropological research. By discussing a handful of examples, the analytical and moral dilemmas are exposed, and the contrast with mid-20th century anthropology, when the world was still widely seen as ‘an archipelago of cultures’, is made abundantly clear.

  19. Relativized problems with abelian phase group in topological dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, D

    1976-04-01

    Let (X, T) be the equicontinuous minimal transformation group with X = pi(infinity)Z(2), the Cantor group, and S = [unk](infinity)Z(2) endowed with the discrete topology acting on X by right multiplication. For any countable group T we construct a function F:X x S --> T such that if (Y, T) is a minimal transformation group, then (X x Y, S) is a minimal transformation group with the action defined by (x, y)s = [xs, yF(x, s)]. If (W, T) is a minimal transformation group and varphi:(Y, T) --> (W, T) is a homomorphism, then identity x varphi:(X x Y, S) --> (X x W, S) is a homomorphism and has many of the same properties that varphi has. For this reason, one may assume that the phase group is abelian (or S) without loss of generality for many relativized problems in topological dynamics.

  20. SYMBOLIC LANDSCAPE OF CONSCIOUSNESS: MAN BETWEEN REPRESENTATIONALISM, FUNCTIONALISM AND RELATIVISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Kretov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study is to clarify the changed interpretation of symbol in the context of the ontological turn in cultural anthropology and philosophical anthropology and their correlation with the functioning of the semantic field of culture, and in particular with religious symbols. The paper also considers an epistemological-ideological positions of representationalism, functionalism and relativism with respect to philosopheme of symbol. Methodology. The authors implemented theoretical and conceptual analysis in synchronic and diachronic aspects, the methodology of comparative consideration of the character within the analytical and existential paradigms in the 20th century philosophy. Originality. The work presents the study of correlation between aspect consideration of the nature and specific character in representationalism, functionalism and relativism within the philosophical projects of the cognitive position. The authors substantiated the position of symbol ontologization in the contemporary cultural and philosophical anthropology and the importance of convergence of the symbol concept and philosopheme with the concepts of an object and a thing. They fixed the value of the ontological turn in cultural anthropology for philosophical anthropology. The authors specifically examined the correlation between the declared symbol interpretation, project of object-oriented ontology and the modern philosophy of science. They substantiated ontological concept of symbolic landscape of modern philosophical anthropology, social philosophy and philosophy of mind. The symbol and religious symbolism have the significant importance for human identity, the symbol is considered to be the tool of human’s self-knowledge. Conclusions. The paper outlines the specific character of existence of symbol philosopheme in communicative field of modern man, the social media space, in particular the role of religious symbols for the construction of

  1. Confronting The Threat of Relativism : Views from Islamic Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Nasrin Nasir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the issue of ethics and most importantly moral values are being seen as merely based upon opinions and emotions. This has led towards a relativisation of moral values and thus towards the erosion of values amongst societies. This paper would analyze and suggest ways of  preserving values for the structuring of developmental ideas for thinkers in developing countries. Coming from an Islamic standpoint the ideas of virtues have to be rooted within the transcendent or the Absolute. Such defense of virtues are definitely beyond the grasp of usual western philosophy as the philosophy that is propagated by Islam is not a mere intellectual exercise but a transformative exercise which connects the profane to the sacred, the outer to the inner and the physical world to the spiritual world. The loci or the focus point is the human being thus developing the idea of being human via the inculcation of and preservation of virtues is of utmost importance. The virtues most important in Islam such as justice, moderation or temperance have been discussed by various muslim philosophers. These virtues are rooted in the Absolute and through His presence in the various levels of existences are they known. For Using ideas from malay cosmology and soteriology based upon the writings of Malay scholars, this paper would highlight ways to preserve and ensure Malay society does not fall under the threat of relativism of moral values.

  2. Accusative resumptive pronoun in the Czech relative clauses with absolute relativizer co

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fried, Mirjam

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2010), s. 16-29 ISSN 1804-137X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90610518 Keywords : relative clauses * relativizer * resumptive pronoun * corpus analysis Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  3. Pluralism v. relativism : an appraisal of Isaiah Berlin´s defence of pluralism

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Ana Vasconcelos

    2015-01-01

    Isaiah Berlin’s conception of pluralism is often confused with relativism. The purpose of this thesis is to assess the solidity of his arguments concerning the distinction between the two theories against the backdrop of two interpretations by two very different thinkers that similarly approximate pluralism to relativism: John Gray, the radical pluralist, and Leo Strauss, the steward of naturalism. Berlin tendered a conception of pluralism whereby the inevitable conflict among ...

  4. Concepts in health promotion: the notion of relativism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, E

    1989-01-01

    'Health promotion' is a new and powerful concept. By some professionals in the field as well as by actors in the policy making spheres, though, the notion may be received with considerable scepticism. We have attributed this scepticism, as well as barriers to include notions of health promotion in day-to-day work, to a lack of knowledge of essential concepts in the health promotion context. In this article we first explore the quintessential nature of 'health' (a capacity of people, rather than an end product of medical care) before we set out to analyze some crucial components of health promotion: integral-ness, intersectorality, holism, and ecology. Integral intervention mixes appear to have synergetic, and therefore cost-effective, results. An intersectoral approach will be necessary to address all determinants of health in an adequate way. Alas, neither integral, nor intersectoral health programs have been documented in depth. The notions of holism and ecology seem to suffer from obscurantism and esoteric elitism, though commendable in their scope. Here, we introduce 'relativism' to combine various valuable approaches into one more comprehensive scheme. Moreover, a 'relativist' approach to health promotion might induce better and more fruitful cooperation among professions. Finally, some research gaps have been identified. Policy development studies remain to have top priority in development of health promotion. Better documentation of efforts in this field will be of crucial importance. Further development of, and research on how to apply relativist approaches may be recommended. Cooperation, and opening up a dialogue between different professions and actors is of great importance in this field.

  5. Degrees of democraticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Bergström

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available People have tended to load their different conceptions of democracy with their own political ideals; in this paper it is argued that normative and definitional questions should rather be separated, so that political philosophers and political scientists may adopt the same concept of democracy, even if they disagree normatively or politically. Moreover, it is argued that we should replace an absolute notion of democracy by a relativized notion, which allows for different degrees of democraticity. This facilitates the separation of normative and conceptual issues and it is convenient in contexts in which “democratic deficits” are discussed – as e.g. when democracy is to be implemented on a supranational level. Moreover, it has the consequence that democratic deficits are not necessarily bad. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1837342

  6. Value Relativism and Perspective Taking are Two Distinct Facets of Wisdom-Related Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzmann, Ute; Nowak, Jana; Thomas, Stefanie; Nestler, Steffen

    2017-12-18

    There has been mixed evidence for age differences in wisdom-related knowledge across the adult life span. This study investigated two potential moderators of the link between age and wisdom-related knowledge: the wisdom criteria and the wisdom tasks. To test these moderators, 40 younger and 40 older participants completed four wisdom tasks differing in context-richness. Independent trained raters coded the resulting think-aloud protocols in terms of value relativism, as defined in the Berlin wisdom paradigm, and perspective taking, as defined by Grossmann. The type of task did not show any main or interaction effects on the present two wisdom criteria. However, age differences in the two wisdom criteria were multidirectional: whereas perspective taking did not differ by age group, value relativism was lower in older than younger adults. In addition, value relativism, but not perspective taking, was related to measures of fluid and crystallized intelligence, whereas perspective taking, but not value relativism, was related to a measure of life investment. This study provides evidence for the idea that value relativism and perspective taking are two distinct facets of wisdom-related knowledge. Implications for future age-comparative research interested in wisdom are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Reasons for relativism: Feyerabend on the 'Rise of Rationalism' in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    This paper argues that essential features of Feyerabend's philosophy, namely his radicalization of critical rationalism and his turn to relativism, could be understood better in the light of his engagement with early Greek thought. In contrast to his earlier, Popperian views he came to see the Homeric worldview as a genuine alternative, which was not falsified by the Presocratics. Unlike socio-psychological and externalist accounts my reading of his published and unpublished material suggests that his alternative reconstruction of the ancient beginnings of the Western scientific tradition motivate and justify his moderate Protagorean relativism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Realism and Relativism in the Development of Nursing as a Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali; Richter, Solina; Salami, Bukola Oladunni

    In today's era of nursing, the role of a unique disciplinary knowledge that is grounded in philosophy is essential to inform nursing practice, fill knowledge gaps, improve the quality of nursing education, and guide the theoretical development of nursing. Realism and relativism have contributed to the development of the nursing discipline by providing the basis of evidence-based nursing practice, nursing research, nursing education, and theoretical construction. This article explores the role of realism and relativism in the development of the discipline of nursing and presents their contributions to the work of nurse clinicians, nurse researchers, nurse educators, and nurse theorists.

  9. A new metric for quantifying burn severity: The Relativized Burn Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Gregory K. Dillon; Carol Miller

    2014-01-01

    Satellite-inferred burn severity data have become increasingly popular over the last decade for management and research purposes. These data typically quantify spectral change between pre-and post-fire satellite images (usually Landsat). There is an active debate regarding which of the two main equations, the delta normalized burn ratio (dNBR) and its relativized form...

  10. Social Epistemology and Its Politically Correct Words: Avoiding Absolutism, Relativism, Consensualism, and Vulgar Pragmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Leigh

    2005-01-01

    Where social epistemology has been applied in environmental education research, certain words have come to be associated with it, such as, "social," "contextualized," "strategic," "political," "pragmatic," "democratic," and "participatory." In this paper, I first suggest interpretations of these words that potentially avoid absolutism, relativism,…

  11. A Snowslide of Entities : Does Sosa’s Existential Relativism Provide a Barrier Against Being Buried?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidel, M.; Thinius, A.; Bahr, A.; Seidel, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses Sosa’s via media between existential relativism and absolutism. We discuss three implications of Sosa’s account which require some further clarification. First, we distinguish three alternative readings of Sosa’s account – the indexicalist, the homonymist and the (proper)

  12. The Rescue from Relativism: Two Failed Attempts and an Alternative Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donmoyer, Robert

    1985-01-01

    Critiques attempts to resurrect aspects of positivism and argues that the work of certain post-positivist philosophers (in particular, Toulmin's discussions of the role that purpose plays in rational decisionmaking) provides a more adequate response to the problems associated with relativism. (Author/GC)

  13. Output, Input Enhancement, and the Noticing Hypothesis: An Experimental Study on ESL Relativization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Shinichi

    2002-01-01

    Investigates potentially facilitative effects of internal and external attention-drawing devices--output and visual input enhancement--on acquisition of English relativization by adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners. Addresses whether producing output promotes noticing of formal elements in target language input and affects subsequent…

  14. Justice and Caring and the Problem of Moral Relativism: Reframing the Gender Question in Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brell, Carl D., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the issue of moral relativism as it pertains to conceptualizations of gender effect on moral development. Reviews positions of theorists regarding the importance of formal and contextually relative criteria to the development of moral reasoning. Argues that neither a justice nor a caring ethic alone can solve the problem of moral…

  15. I'm OK, You're (Not) OK: Teaching in a World of Relativism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Phyllis Mentzell

    1995-01-01

    Examines three techniques to overcome relativism: (1) a hierarchical view, in which the socially constructed view is superior; (2) a belief that a true understanding of personal experience will lead to political awareness; and (3) an assertion that the socially constructed view is more ethical than other views. Argues that first two approaches are…

  16. Relativsätze in den Dialekten des Deutschen: Vergleich und Typologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischer, Jürg

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a cross-dialectal typology of relative clauses in various German dialects and Yiddish according to their form and function. A great variety of different types of relativizers and relative clauses can be observed, including various pronouns, particles, and zero relatives. Combinations of these types occur, one of the most typical involving a resumptive element in a clause introduced by a particle. The Accessibility Hierarchy, a concept developed in typology, is used with great profit for this study. It turns out that for the German relativization system, a basic opposition between subject and direct object as opposed to oblique holds in virtually every variety, whereas the indirect object is much less stable. In the varieties observed, significantly more relative particles and resumptive elements occur as compared to Standard German, which turns out to be quite atypical.

  17. Against Relativism. The Importance of Truth in the Ethics of St. John Paul II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Probucka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is the analysis and critique of axiological relativism, typical of contemporary Western culture. Its supporters deny the objective status of moral norms and values. Axiological relativism leads to moral indifference based on blurring the difference between good and evil, and negating the belief that human action may be morally better or worse. I present the anti ‑relativistic position of St. John Paul II, particularly in relation to the truth, understood as a cognitive and moral value. According to the Pope, a civilization based on the belief of the relative nature of good and evil leads to widespread hypocrisy and is destined to a slow decline.

  18. Uncovering values-based practice: VBP's implicit commitments to subjectivism and relativism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Ben

    2013-06-01

    Despite assertions to the contrary, KWM Fulford's values-based practice is implicitly committed to subjectivism when it comes to reasoning about values. This renders the approach unworkable. The act of merely uncovering underlying values is not enough to effect change and, therefore, resolve problems if we have no way, even in principle, of determining which values are right and which are wrong. Fulford's only departure from subjectivism about value is his commitment to 'framework values', which seems grounded in a version of ethical relativism. I argue that we need to reject both subjectivism and relativism if progress within ethical discussions about practice is to be meaningful and a real possibility. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Conventional Principles in Science: On the foundations and development of the relativized a priori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Milena; Farr, Matt

    2015-11-01

    The present volume consists of a collection of papers originally presented at the conference Conventional Principles in Science, held at the University of Bristol, August 2011, which featured contributions on the history and contemporary development of the notion of 'relativized a priori' principles in science, from Henri Poincaré's conventionalism to Michael Friedman's contemporary defence of the relativized a priori. In Science and Hypothesis, Poincaré assessed the problematic epistemic status of Euclidean geometry and Newton's laws of motion, famously arguing that each has the status of 'convention' in that their justification is neither analytic nor empirical in nature. In The Theory of Relativity and A Priori Knowledge, Hans Reichenbach, in light of the general theory of relativity, proposed an updated notion of the Kantian synthetic a priori to account for the dynamic inter-theoretic status of geometry and other non-empirical physical principles. Reichenbach noted that one may reject the 'necessarily true' aspect of the synthetic a priori whilst preserving the feature of being constitutive of the object of knowledge. Such constitutive principles are theory-relative, as illustrated by the privileged role of non-Euclidean geometry in general relativity theory. This idea of relativized a priori principles in spacetime physics has been analysed and developed at great length in the modern literature in the work of Michael Friedman, in particular the roles played by the light postulate and the equivalence principle - in special and general relativity respectively - in defining the central terms of their respective theories and connecting the abstract mathematical formalism of the theories with their empirical content. The papers in this volume guide the reader through the historical development of conventional and constitutive principles in science, from the foundational work of Poincaré, Reichenbach and others, to contemporary issues and applications of the

  20. Moral relativism and the premisibility of promoting moral judgments across divergent value systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Kine

    2005-01-01

    "When in Rome do as the Romans do - but what if the Romans go in for some rather nasty doings" (Blackburn 2003:12)? This is Simon Blackburn's challenge towards relativism. The relativist position is often presented as the ultimate example of moral tolerance promptly stating that "anything goes". Because no universally acknowledged hierarchy of moral vaues can be discovered or referred to, all moral claims are judged only in reference to the social context from which they originate (Shafer-Lan...

  1. The incompatibility of the United Nations' goals and conventionalist ethical relativism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, Loretta M

    2005-09-01

    The Universal Draft Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights seeks to provide moral direction to nations and their citizens on a series of bioethical concerns. In articulating principles, it ranks respect for human rights, human dignity and fundamental freedoms ahead of respect for cultural diversity and pluralism. This ranking is controversial because it entails the rejection of the popular theory, conventionalist ethical relativism. If consistently defended, this theory also undercuts other United Nations activities that assume member states and people around the world can reach trans-cultural judgments having moral authority about health, pollution, aggression, rights, slavery, and so on. To illustrate problems with conventionalist ethical relativism and the importance of rejecting it for reasons of health, human rights, human dignity and fundamental freedoms, the widespread practice of female genital circumcision or cutting is discussed. These surgeries are virtually a test case for conventionalist ethical relativism since they are widely supported within these cultures as religious and health practices and widely condemned outside them, including by the United Nations.

  2. A critique of Bernstein's beyond objectivism and relativism: science, hermeneutics, and praxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusitz, Jonathan; Kramer, Eric

    2011-06-01

    This analysis comments on Bernstein's lack of clear understanding of subjectivity, based on his book, Beyond Objectivism and Relativism: Science, Hermeneutics, and Praxis. Bernstein limits his interpretation of subjectivity to thinkers such as Gadamer and Habermas. The authors analyze the ideas of classic scholars such as Edmund Husserl and Friedrich Nietzsche. Husserl put forward his notion of transcendental subjectivity and phenomenological ramifications of the relationship between subjectivity and objectivity. Nietzsche referred to subjectivity as "perspectivism," the inescapable fact that any and all consciousnesses exist in space and time. Consciousness is fundamentally constituted of cultural, linguistic, and historical dimensions.

  3. The Metaphysics of Morris R. Cohen: From Realism to Objective Relativism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoone, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    Morris Cohen is mainly remembered as a philosopher of history and law, a friend of jurists (Oliver Wendell Holmes, Felix Frankfurter), and a teacher of more prominent philosophers (e.g., Ernest Nagel, Paul Weiss, Morton White). But his unique position as a student of the work of Russell and Peirce led him to make a distinctive contribution to the debate over realism in in the 1910s. Largely ignored and completely uncited, his early papers formulated what would later be called "objective relativism," influencing the later work of Columbia naturalism, hence American philosophy, from the 1940s to the 1960s.

  4. Why Pluralism, Relativism, and Panthareism: An Ethical Landscape with Sport in the Background*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosiewicz Jerzy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In reference to the monograph entitled “Sports and Ethics: Philosophical Studies”, published in the “Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research” quarterly (2014, vol. 62, and in particular in reference to the paper entitled “The Normative Ethics and Sport” (Kosiewicz, 2014, pp. 5-22, the article presents new and at the same time supplementary views on the relationships between sports and normative ethics. The main objective of the paper is to provide a rationale as to why these relationships may be viewed in the context of the assumptions of ethical pluralism, ethical relativism, ethical panthareism, and axionormative negationism.

  5. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1978-01-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  6. Beyond Progressive Liberalism and Cultural Relativism: Towards Critical Postmodernist, Socio-historically Situated Perspectives in Classroom Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angel; Luk, Jasmine

    2002-01-01

    Proposes that classroom studies in the Teaching English as a Second or Other Language (TESOL) field tend to subscribe to either of the following two normative orders: Progressive liberalism or cultural relativism, without reflexively recognizing and meta-analyzing these normative frameworks and their social, historical, and political situatedness.…

  7. HRD Degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the growing movement toward accreditation for human resources development professionals. She covers the issue of diversity, undergraduate versus graduate degrees, and future trends. (CH)

  8. O currículo entre o relativismo e o universalismo Curriculum: between relativism and universalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Forquin

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto examina a questão do relativismo e do universalismo no currículo. Segundo o autor, os relativistas defendem o questionamento da validade do que se ensina. Já para os universalistas, há saberes "públicos" aos quais todos devem ter acesso e que apresentam valor independentemente de circunstâncias e interesses particulares. Após analisar as implicações pedagógicas das duas perspectivas, o autor advoga que escolas e professores ofereçam a cada aluno a possibilidade de compreender a multiplicidade das vozes que se falam no mundo como uma polifonia cristalina.This article examines the issues of relativism and universalism in the curriculum. According to the author, the relativist approach holds that the validity of what is taught should be questioned. For the universalist approach, there is a common body of knowledge that everyone should learn and that are valuable regardless of particular circumstances and interests. The author discusses the pedagogical implications of the two perspectives and argues that schools and teachers should offer their students the possibility of regarding the multiplicity of voices in the world as analogous to polyphony.

  9. Between Relativism and Imperialism: Navigating Moral Diversity in Cross-Cultural Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    The need for explicit theoretical reflection on cross-cultural bioethics continues to grow as the spread of communication technologies and increased human migration has made interactions between medical professionals and patients from different cultural backgrounds much more common. I claim that this need presents us with the following dilemma. On the one hand, we do not want to operate according to an imperialist ethical framework that denies and silences the legitimacy of cultural values other than our own. On the other hand, we do not want to backslide into a form of cultural relativism that is unable to critically appraise cultural practices that are harmful, unjust, or oppressive. I examine two prominent attempts - the principlism of Tom Beauchamp and James Childress and the Contractarianism of Robert Baker - to frame cross-cultural bioethics between these two extremes and argue that both approaches have significant flaws. The principlist approach fails to provide a non-question begging way to identify cross-cultural norms that does not already assume the universal legitimacy of moral principles dominant in North American society. Baker's contractarianism cannot grapple with the realities of political power imbalances that often characterize cross-cultural moral disputes. I suggest that a naturalized feminist framework, though not free of its own theoretical difficulties, provides the best alternative for approaching moral diversity respectfully and critically. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Between Moral Relativism and Moral Hypocrisy: Reframing the Debate on "FGM".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Brian D

    2016-06-01

    The spectrum of practices termed "Female Genital Mutilation" (or FGM) by the World Health Organization is sometimes held up as a counterexample to moral relativism. Those who advance this line of thought suggest the practices are so harmful in terms of their physical and emotional consequences, as well as so problematic in terms of their sexist or oppressive implications, that they provide sufficient, rational grounds for the assertion of a universal moral claim--namely, that all forms of FGM are wrong, regardless of the cultural context. However, others point to cultural bias and moral double standards on the part of those who espouse this argument, and have begun to question the received interpretation of the relevant empirical data on FGM as well. In this article I assess the merits of these competing perspectives. I argue that each of them involves valid moral concerns that should be taken seriously in order to move the discussion forward. In doing so, I draw on the biomedical "enhancement" literature in order to develop a novel ethical framework for evaluating FGM (and related interventions--such as female genital "cosmetic" surgery and nontherapeutic male circumcision) that takes into account the genuine harms that are at stake in these procedures, but which does not suffer from being based on cultural or moral double standards.

  11. Universalismo versus relativismo no julgamento moral Universalism versus relativism in moral judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. B. Biaggio

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a posição de diversos autores que têm-se destacado no estudo do julgamento moral, quanto à questão do universalismo versus relativismo. Há valores universais? Há uma seqüência evolutiva de estágios de maturidade moral que se encontre em todas as culturas? Com base em análises e críticas de James Rest, Orlando Lourenço, Lutz Eckensberger e John Snarey, são analisadas posições universalistas, como as de Piaget e Kohlberg (com seus fundamentos em Kant e as posições relativistas, tendo como ponto extremo a de Shweder. Entre os dois campos extremos são comentadas as posições de Turiel, Gilligan, e outros autores.This article analyses positions of distinguished authors in the field of moral development, regarding the issue of universalism versus relativism. Based on analyses and critiques by James Rest, Orlando Lourenço, Lutz Eckensberger, and John Snarey, the author reviews unversalistic positions such as those of Piaget and Kohlberg (with their roots in Kant, and relativistic positions, having as their extreme the position of Shweder. Between the two extremes,the stands of Turiel, Gilligan and other authors are discussed.

  12. [From relativism to evaluation. Recent trends in the historiography of science and the humanities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Historians of science have taken leave of finalism. No longer do they write teleological histories of scientific progress. Instead of a grand narrative on the triumph of science they now tend to write small stories on local knowledge. This is the result of several decades of criticism of Whig history. Starting with neo-marxist critique in the interwar years, enhanced in the social history of the 1970s, science was seen as an economic commodity and as a social product. Cultural history and anthropology added the view that scientists and scholars are mere mortals, muddling through messy life. This critique was topped off with postmodern criticism of knowledge as power, which translates into the accusation that historiography is only legitimating cultural and political oppression. To counter these allegations, many historians have insulated themselves into a kind of retro-historicism that shies away from any teleology, coherence, meaning and evaluation. It depicts the production of knowledge as a practical, local activity that is strictly limited to its cultural context. No claims to truth, validity, let alone progress or even development were allowed. This situation of rampant relativism could not last. Total abstinence of any evaluation of knowledge claims, quality of research or success of theories has proven unsatisfactory. The need has arisen to study broader issues of traveling knowledge and longer lines of scientific development. There is a shift of interest into traditions of knowledge that spring the bonds of locality and context. Why do some scientific theories and research practices succeed in surpassing paradigms and bridging epistemic ruptures? In this respect disciplines are in the process of being rehabilitated. Instead of oppressive structures they become the vehicles of sustained knowledge growth. Especially the role of education and academic training is focused on. Facing up to the charges of conceptual anachronism, historians of knowledge now opt

  13. Bakhtinian Thought and the Defence of Narrative: Overcoming Universalism and Relativism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Owen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In light of recalcitrant global problems such as the prevalence of various levels and forms of inequality and increased environmental destruction, there is a growing recognition of the limitations, epistemological, political, social, cultural, ethical and ecological, of the modes of thought that have dominantly governed and continue to govern our worldview. The modernist project, despite various attempts to give voice to those previously denied, has come under criticism for tendencies to totalise experience and overlook or exclude differences. On the other hand, the postmodernist glorification of difference and tendency to isolate and fragment has generated a kind of debilitating uncertainty in the form of absolute relativism rendering any pursuit of meaning meaningless. Alongside the recognition of these limitations are attempts to overcome the negative effects of these modes of understanding and to create new ways of understanding ourselves, our relationship to others, human and non-human and to the larger world process in which we find ourselves. Despite the supposed opposition between the modern and postmodern projects, the two share in common the tendency to undermine another mode of understanding that by its very nature both precludes and succeeds them. The mode of understanding referred to is narrative understanding which has the potential to pave a middle way between modernity’s totalising exclusions and postmodernity’s fragmenting nihilism, furthermore when the narrative approach is seriously undertaken it becomes clear that the formerly polarised dominant modes of thought are part of a wider, more heterogeneous process. The following article examines and highlights in detail some of the problems surrounding the modern and postmodern modes of thought in order to demonstrate the usefulness of narrative theory in overcoming these problems. In order to augment the defence of narrative theory this article also draws considerably from

  14. Decision of Habeas Corpus n. 126.292: Relativization of the Principle of Presumption of Innocence and the Constitutional Jurisdiction in Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton da Cunha Iribure Júnior

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to analyze the breach of the presumption of innocence with the anticipation of the sentence before the final judgment of conviction, in a recent decision of the Supreme Court. Adopted documentary analytical methodology. Assumes that fundamental rights are not absolute and must be relativized. Deals with the constitutional jurisdiction in this perspective and the limits of the judicial role in the exercise of interpretation of the law. One of the conclusions is that the relativization of fundamental rights in Brazil follows tendency to give in proceedings other than the Constitutional Court.

  15. Children's thinking about diversity of belief in the early school years: judgments of relativism, tolerance, and disagreeing persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainryb, Cecilia; Shaw, Leigh A; Langley, Marcie; Cottam, Kim; Lewis, Renee

    2004-01-01

    Children's thinking about diversity of belief in 4 realms--morality, taste, facts, and ambiguous facts--was examined. Ninety-six participants (ages 5, 7, and 9) were interviewed about beliefs different from their own that were endorsed by characters with different status; their judgments of relativism, tolerance, and disagreeing persons were assessed. Five-year-olds made fewer relative and tolerant judgments than 7- and 9-year-olds. Nevertheless, participants of all ages organized their judgments according to the realm of diversity, thought that some beliefs are relative and some are nonrelative, and made tolerant judgments of some divergent beliefs (and their proponents) but not of others. The findings suggest that, in the early school years, children have multiple and well-differentiated perspectives on belief diversity.

  16. Beta spectra. II-Positron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1981-01-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 30 positron emitters have been computed, introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. The spectra are ploted vs. energy, once normalised, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (author)

  17. O relativismo cultural é válido nas ciências da saúde? Exame de suas bases filosóficas Is the cultural relativism valid in health science? Discussion of the validity of health sciences in cultural relativism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Bastian

    1971-06-01

    Full Text Available Examina-se o conceito do relativismo cultural sob bases filosóficas e sua validade nas ciências da saúde. Analisam-se os têrmos absoluto, relativo e universal, chegando-se a um modêlo operacional do relativismo cultural nas ciências da saúde.The concept of cultural relativism on a philosophical basis and its validity in health sciences, is examined. The concepts of the absolute, the relative and the universal are analysed and a working model for cultural relativism in the health sciences is attained.

  18. Content and Target Aspects of the Relativism Concept of National Stereotypes in the Higher School Foreign Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Sorokina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the innovative educational concept of teaching the foreign languages to the senior university students. The research methodology is based on M. Bennett’s model of intercultural sensitivitydevelopment necessary for the gradual transformation of ethnocentrism into ethno-relativism. The development of students’ relativistic perception of national stereotypes is perceived by the author as an important factor of both the natural cognitive mechanism and intercultural communication. The author argues that relativistic perception of national stereotypes can be achieved by fostering the intercultural world outlook, and therefore recommends incorporating a relativistic world view component in educational content structure along with the traditional components of knowledge, skills, attitudes, motives, creative activity expertise, etc.The paper emphasizes three consequent educational modules of ethnodifferentiation, ethno-integration and ethno-relativity in the proposed methodological system. The gradual fulfillment of educational goals, relatedto the above modules, can ensure the transformation of students’ perception of national stereotypes at the cognitive, affective, and behavioral levels. The proposed educational concept, approbated in the GermanLanguage Department of Zabaykalsky State University in 2010 – 2013, along with the research data prove the effectiveness of the given method, and demonstrate a substantial development of students’ intercultural competence and a decline in the ethnocentrism level.

  19. Relativism, regulation and the dangers of indifferent science: the Sir Roy Cameron lecture of the Royal College of Pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Colin L

    2010-01-12

    The evaluation of data obtained from scientific investigations is not easy and the process often seems counterintuitive to the uninformed. Some commentators hold the conviction that ideological motives colour all deliberations-this makes it easy to suggest that in any scientific debate an opponent's reason for holding a particular viewpoint or belief depends on his or her motives, rather than their knowledge base. This position may be useful in providing the grounds on which to mount a polemic against any perceived threat (drugs in modern medicine, pesticides in intensive agriculture or genetically modified organisms). However, its existence is not a reason to ignore the fact that the data obtained by use of the scientific method may be of a different kind from that which depends on opinions, honed by prejudices. Here I use prejudice to mean a bias that may be favourable or unfavourable to a particular viewpoint, rather than to a willful disregard of fact or an unreasoning predilection to arrive at a particular answer--the Precautionary Principle is a good example of only considering results that fit a preconceived viewpoint. The conviction that opinions cannot be based on independent thought has led to a disregard of professionalism and the development of the view that who pays you determines your opinion--not your science. This is relativism, which embodies the assertion that knowledge is relative and that ethical truths depend on the individuals and groups holding them-there are no absolutes. This compounds the problems of regulatory toxicology which is always beset by unavoidable uncertainties and suffers from being based on the use of the results of testing procedures many decades old which have themselves failed to incorporate new knowledge about the processes we investigate (see Hartung, 2009). A more vigorous assertion of the particular values of the scientific viewpoint and a willingness to incorporate new knowledge into regulatory decision making is

  20. Spectra of Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.E.; Haemers, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    This book gives an elementary treatment of the basic material about graph spectra, both for ordinary, and Laplace and Seidel spectra. The text progresses systematically, by covering standard topics before presenting some new material on trees, strongly regular graphs, two-graphs, association

  1. Spectra of alkali atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, Budi; Arumbinang, Haryono.

    1981-01-01

    Emission spectra of alkali atoms has been determined by using spectrometer at the ultraviolet to infra red waves range. The spectra emission can be obtained by absorption spectrophotometric analysis. Comparative evaluations between experimental data and data handbook obtained by spark method were also presented. (author tr.)

  2. Polarization Spectra of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    We present simulated spectra of the flux and degree of polarization of starlight that is reflected by extrasolar giant planets (EGPs). In particular the polarization depends strongly on the structure of the planetary atmosphere, and appears to be a valuable tool for the characterization of EGPs.

  3. The Degree Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    , empirical data relevant to the development of the degree adverb function is presented and possible relevant constructions identified. It is argued that the degree adverb function of that possibly occurs later than the historical dictionaries indicate. The degree adverb function of this is challenging...

  4. Solar Energetic Particle Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. M.; Boezio, M.; Bravar, U.; Bruno, A.; Christian, E. R.; de Nolfo, G. A.; Martucci, M.; Mergè, M.; Munini, R.; Ricci, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Stochaj, S.

    2017-12-01

    We report updated event-integrated spectra from several SEP events measured with PAMELA. The measurements were made from 2006 to 2014 in the energy range starting at 80 MeV and extending well above the neutron monitor threshold. The PAMELA instrument is in a high inclination, low Earth orbit and has access to SEPs when at high latitudes. Spectra have been assembled from these high-latitude measurements. The field of view of PAMELA is small and during the high-latitude passes it scans a wide range of asymptotic directions as the spacecraft orbits. Correcting for data gaps, solid angle effects and improved background corrections, we have compiled event-integrated intensity spectra for twenty-eight SEP events. Where statistics permit, the spectra exhibit power law shapes in energy with a high-energy exponential roll over. The events analyzed include two genuine ground level enhancements (GLE). In those cases the roll-over energy lies above the neutron monitor threshold ( 1 GV) while the others are lower. We see no qualitative difference between the spectra of GLE vs. non-GLE events, i.e., all roll over in an exponential fashion with rapidly decreasing intensity at high energies.

  5. Tunneling spectra of graphene on copper unraveled

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xin; Stradi, Daniele; Liu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    mechanisms, etc. The interpretation of the spectra can be complicated, however. Specifically for graphene grown on copper, there have been conflicting reports of tunneling spectra. A clear understanding of the mechanisms behind the variability is desired. In this work, we have revealed that the root cause...... of the variability in tunneling spectra is the variation in graphene-substrate coupling under various experimental conditions, providing a salutary perspective on the important role of 2D material-substrate interactions. The conclusions are drawn from measured data and theoretical calculations for monolayer, AB......-stacked bilayer, and twisted bilayer graphene coexisting on the same substrates in areas with and without intercalated oxygen, demonstrating a high degree of consistency. The Van Hove singularities of the twisted graphene unambiguously indicate the Dirac energy between them, lending strong evidence to our...

  6. Parameterization of rotational spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunmei; Liu Tong

    1992-01-01

    The rotational spectra of the strongly deformed nuclei with low rotational frequencies and weak band mixture are analyzed. The strongly deformed nuclei are commonly encountered in the rare-earth region (e. g., 150 220). A lot of rotational band knowledge are presented

  7. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  8. Dynamical analysis of highly excited molecular spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, M.E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is new methods for analysis of spectra and dynamics of highly excited vibrational states of molecules. In these systems, strong mode coupling and anharmonicity give rise to complicated classical dynamics, and make the simple normal modes analysis unsatisfactory. New methods of spectral analysis, pattern recognition, and assignment are sought using techniques of nonlinear dynamics including bifurcation theory, phase space classification, and quantization of phase space structures. The emphasis is chaotic systems and systems with many degrees of freedom.

  9. Artificial intelligence analysis of paraspinal power spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, C W; Atsma, W J

    1996-10-01

    OBJECTIVE: As an aid to discrimination of sufferers with back pain an artificial intelligence neural network was constructed to differentiate paraspinal power spectra. DESIGN: Clinical investigation using surface electromyography. METHOD: The surface electromyogram power spectra from 60 subjects, 33 non-back-pain sufferers and 27 chronic back pain sufferers were used to construct a back propagation neural network that was then tested. Subjects were placed on a test frame in 30 degrees of lumbar forward flexion. An isometric load of two-thirds maximum voluntary contraction was held constant for 30 s whilst surface electromyograms were recorded at the level of the L(4-5). Paraspinal power spectra were calculated and loaded into the input layer of a three-layer back propagation network. The neural network classified the spectra into normal or back pain type. RESULTS: The back propagation neural was shown to have satisfactory convergence with a specificity of 79% and a sensitivity of 80%. CONCLUSIONS: Artificial intelligence neural networks appear to be a useful method of differentiating paraspinal power spectra in back-pain sufferers.

  10. X-ray absorption spectra and emission spectra of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yonglun; Yang Li; Wang Minsheng; Li Jiaming

    2002-01-01

    The author reports a theoretical method to calculate the resolved absorption spectra and emission spectra (optically thin) of hot dense plasmas. Due to its fully relativistic treatment incorporated with the quantum defect theory, it calculates the absorption spectra and emission spectra for single element or multi-element plasmas with little computational efforts. The calculated absorption spectra of LTE gold plasmas agree well with the experimental ones. It also calculates the optical thin emission spectra of LTE gold plasmas, which is helpful to diagnose the plasmas of relevant ICF plasmas. It can also provide the relevant parameters such as population density of various ionic stages, precise radiative properties for ICF studies

  11. Lattice vibration spectra. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, H.D.; Willich, P.

    1977-01-01

    The FIR absorption spectra of pyrite type compounds RuS 2 , RuSsub(2-x)Sesub(x), RuSe 2 , RuTe 2 , OsS 2 , OsSe 2 , and PtP 2 as well as loellingite type phosphides FeP 2 , RuP 2 , and OsP 2 are reported. For RuS 2 , RuSe 2 , RuTe 2 , OsS 2 , and PtP 2 all of the five infrared allowed modes (k = 0) are observed. As a first result of a numerical normal coordinate treatment vibration forms of pyrite structure are communicated. The spectra show that lattice forces of corresponding sulfides, tellurides, and phosphides are about the same strength, but increase strongly by substitution of iron by ruthenium and especially of ruthenium by osmium. The lattice constants of the RuSsub(2-x)Sesub(x) solid solution obey Vegard's rule. (author)

  12. Deconvoluting double Doppler spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, K.F.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.; Chan, K.L.; Tang, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    The successful deconvolution of data from double Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation (D-DBAR) spectroscopy is a promising area of endeavour aimed at producing momentum distributions of a quality comparable to those of the angular correlation technique. The deconvolution procedure we test in the present study is the constrained generalized least square method. Trials with computer simulated DDBAR spectra are generated and deconvoluted in order to find the best form of regularizer and the regularization parameter. For these trials the Neumann (reflective) boundary condition is used to give a single matrix operation in Fourier space. Experimental D-DBAR spectra are also subject to the same type of deconvolution after having carried out a background subtraction and using a symmetrize resolution function obtained from an 85 Sr source with wide coincidence windows. (orig.)

  13. Spectra, Winter 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    additional copies or more information, please email spectra@nrl.navy.mil. LEADINGEDGE 1 Contents 30 Navy Launches UAV from Submerged Submarine 31... multitasking have become mainstream concerns. For example, the New York Times in 2005 and Time magazine in 2006 both reported stories about...interruptions and multitasking , and how they affect performance by increasing human er- ror. In 2005, the information technol- ogy research firm Basex

  14. Thermoluminescence spectra of amethyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Q. [Suzhou Railway Teachers College (China). Dept. of Physics; Yang, B. [Beijing Normal University (China). Dept. of Physics; Wood, R.A.; White, D.R.R.; Townsend, P.D.; Luff, B.J. [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences

    1994-04-01

    Thermoluminescence and cathodoluminescence data from natural and synthetic amethyst and synthetic quartz samples are compared. The spectra include features from the quartz host lattice and from impurity-generated recombination sites. Emission features exist throughout the wavelength range studied, 250-800 nm. The near infrared emission at 740-750 nm appears to be characteristic of the amethyst and is proposed to be due to Fe ion impurity. (Author).

  15. Auger spectra of alkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rye, R.R.; Jennison, D.R.; Houston, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The gas-phase Auger line shapes of the linear alkanes C 1 through C 6 and of neopentane are presented and analyzed. The general shape of the spectra are characteristic of carbon in a tetrahedral environment with the major feature in all cases occurring at approx.249 eV. The relatively large spectral changes found between methane and ethane results from the direct interaction of the terminal methyl groups in ethane, and the spectra of the higher alkanes are shown to be a composite of contributions from terminal methyl and interior methylene group carbon atoms. Theoretical analysis based on a one-electron approximation is shown to be capable of making a molecular orbital assignment by comparing calculated vertical transitions to features in the Auger spectra of ethane and propane, and, in the case of ethane, of differentiating between the 2 E/sub g/ and 2 A/sub 1g/ assignment of the ground state of (C 2 H 6 ) + . A one-electron based molecular orbital treatment, however, is shown to partially break down in propane and neopentane. Analysis of neopentane and the observed absence of any noticeable major peak energy shift with increasing molecular size (as predicted by the one-electron treatment) suggests that some Auger final states occur in which both valence holes are localized on the same subunit of the molecule

  16. Pattern recognition in spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebran, M; Paletou, F

    2017-01-01

    We present a new automated procedure that simultaneously derives the effective temperature T eff , surface gravity log g , metallicity [ Fe/H ], and equatorial projected rotational velocity v e sin i for stars. The procedure is inspired by the well-known PCA-based inversion of spectropolarimetric full-Stokes solar data, which was used both for Zeeman and Hanle effects. The efficiency and accuracy of this procedure have been proven for FGK, A, and late type dwarf stars of K and M spectral types. Learning databases are generated from the Elodie stellar spectra library using observed spectra for which fundamental parameters were already evaluated or with synthetic data. The synthetic spectra are calculated using ATLAS9 model atmospheres. This technique helped us to detect many peculiar stars such as Am, Ap, HgMn, SiEuCr and binaries. This fast and efficient technique could be used every time a pattern recognition is needed. One important application is the understanding of the physical properties of planetary surfaces by comparing aboard instrument data to synthetic ones. (paper)

  17. Relativization of the material “res judicata” in the brazilian civil suit Relativização da coisa julgada material no processo civil brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Araujo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It also addresses the debate about the revitalization of the res judicata in the civil suit of the individual cognitive tutelage when the sentence goes against constitutional norms or principles. It highlights that only the existent sentences, which lead to res judicata unconstitutional or unjust, may be relativized. It sees the principle of proportionality as a method or criterion adequate to solve the conflict of values that arises when the law enforcer is faced with an unfair or unconstitutional sentence. Only the consideration upon values, in a true case, is able to determine whether the res judicata must be kept or not in the juridical order. To relativize the res judicata unconstitutional a de-constitutive action is proposed, with the same characteristics of a rescinding action, but not subject to terms of duration.Trata da polêmica sobre a relativização da coisa julgada no processo civil de tutela cognitiva individual, quando a sentença afronta normas ou princípios constitucionais. Enfoca que somente as sentenças existentes, que produzem coisa julgada inconstitucional ou injusta, podem ser relativizadas. Aponta o princípio da proporcionalidade como método ou critério adequado para resolver o conflito de valores. Somente a ponderação de valores, no caso concreto, é capaz de determinar se a coisa julgada deve ser mantida ou não na ordem jurídica. Para relativizar a coisa julgada inconstitucional propõe o cabimento de uma ação desconstitutiva, com as mesmas características da ação rescisória, mas não sujeita a prazo.

  18. Deconvolution of Positrons' Lifetime spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderin Hidalgo, L.; Ortega Villafuerte, Y.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we explain the iterative method previously develop for the deconvolution of Doppler broadening spectra using the mathematical optimization theory. Also, we start the adaptation and application of this method to the deconvolution of positrons' lifetime annihilation spectra

  19. Vibrational spectra of aminoacetonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, B.; Hansen, E.L.; Nicolaisen, F.M.; Nielsen, O.F.

    1975-01-01

    The preparation of pure, stable aminoacetonitrile(1-amino, 1'-cyanomethane)CH 2 NH 2 CN (1) is described. The Raman spectrum, now complete, and a novel infrared spectrum extending over the 50-3600 cm -1 region are reported. A tentative normal vibration analysis is presented and supported by Raman and infrared data from the spectra of CH 2 NHDCN (2) and CH 2 ND 2 CN (3). The predominance of the trans rotamer may be attributed to intramolecular hydrogen bonding but this is too unimportant to influence the vibrational frequencies of gaseous 1, 2, and 3. However, large gas/liquid frequency shifts occur. (author)

  20. ALICE Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    De Marco, N

    2013-01-01

    Two identical sets of calorimeters are located on both sides with respect to the beam Interaction Point (IP), 112.5 m away from it. Each set of detectors consists of a neutron (ZN) and a proton (ZP) Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC), positioned on remotely controlled platforms. The ZN is placed at zero degree with respect to the LHC beam axis, between the two beam pipes, while the ZP is positioned externally to the outgoing beam pipe. The spectator protons are separated from the ion beams by means of the dipole magnet D1.

  1. Physics to a degree

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, EG

    2014-01-01

    Physics to a Degree provides an extensive collection of problems suitable for self-study or tutorial and group work at the level of an undergraduate physics course. This novel set of exercises draws together the core elements of an undergraduate physics degree and provides students with the problem solving skills needed for general physics' examinations and for real-life situations encountered by the professional physicist. Topics include force, momentum, gravitation, Bernoulli's Theorem, magnetic fields, blackbody radiation, relativistic travel, mechanics near the speed of light, radioactive

  2. Epilogue: degrees of transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this epilogue the results of the analyses of four different languages in the preceding papers are compared. It is shown that the degrees of transparency of these languages can be represented on an implicational scale, and that the features themselves can be ranked on a transparency scale as well.

  3. Registered Nurse (Associate Degree).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…

  4. Degree distribution in discrete case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li-Na; Chen, Bin; Yan, Zai-Zai

    2011-01-01

    Vertex degree of many network models and real-life networks is limited to non-negative integer. By means of measure and integral, the relation of the degree distribution and the cumulative degree distribution in discrete case is analyzed. The degree distribution, obtained by the differential of its cumulative, is only suitable for continuous case or discrete case with constant degree change. When degree change is not a constant but proportional to degree itself, power-law degree distribution and its cumulative have the same exponent and the mean value is finite for power-law exponent greater than 1. -- Highlights: → Degree change is the crux for using the cumulative degree distribution method. → It suits for discrete case with constant degree change. → If degree change is proportional to degree, power-law degree distribution and its cumulative have the same exponent. → In addition, the mean value is finite for power-law exponent greater than 1.

  5. Catalogue of neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxerolle, M.; Massoutie, M.; Kurdjian, J.

    1987-09-01

    Neutron dosimetry problems have arisen as a result of developments in the applications of nuclear energy. The largest number of possible irradiation situations has been collected: they are presented in the form of a compilation of 44 neutron spectra. Diagrams show the variations of energy fluence and energy fluence weighted by the dose equivalent/fluence conversion factor, with the logarithm of the corresponding energy. The equivalent dose distributions are presented as percentages for the following energy bins: 0.01 eV/0.5 eV/50 keV/1 MeV/5 MeV/15 MeV. The dose equivalent, the mean energy and the effective energy for the dose equivalent for 1 neutron cm -2 are also given [fr

  6. Corporal Punishment of Children: an instance of the Challenge of Cultural Relativism and the Universality of Human Rights of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hamzeh Zeinali

    2012-04-01

    and children's rights in the family is the most challenging area related to child protection against victimizing within the family of which corporal punishment of children is one. Referring to cultural relativism in countries that are committed to the implementation of United Nations documents in the context of criminal legislation on the one hand and being obliged to observe the religious rulings in this context on the other hand, make the balance very difficult to maintain. This article examines this issue in the light of international human rights and in general and specific documents about children in global and regional levels. امروزه کشورهای دنیا نسبت به شناسایی ارزش‌ها، اصول، قواعد و هنجارهای حقوق بشر، راهکاری تضمین، اجرا و نظارت بر آن‌ها از رهگذر مجموعه‌ای از اسناد، آموزه‌ها، رویه‌ها و نهادها اقدام کرد ه‌اند که از آن تحت عنوان نظام بین‌المللی حقوق بشر یاد می‌کنند. بر اساس این نظام، در پرتو مجموع مقررات بین‌المللی مربوط به حقوق بشر، یک نظام حمایتی به وجود آمده که با تمام اصول و نهادهایش درصدد استفاده همگان از ارزش‌های مشترک جهانی و تضمین احترام به آن‌ها برای افراد بشر است. شکل‌گیری این نظام و اجماع جهانی بر سر ارزش‌ها، اصول، قواعد و هنجارهای حقوق بشر موجبات جهان‌شمولی حقوق بشر را فراهم کرده است که بیش از هر چیز در کرامت انسانی ذاتی مردمان سراسر گیتی ریشه دارد. در نتیجه شکل‌گیری نظام بین‌المللی حقوق بشر کودکان، حمایت ویژه از کودکان به صورت عام و در برابر

  7. Inelastic response spectra of simple degrading systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreaus, U.; Ceradini, G.; D'Asdia, P.; Gaudenzi, P.

    1985-01-01

    Ductility was first stated, for single-degree-of-freedom elastic-perfectly plastic systems as the ratio of maximum to yield displacements. An alternative approach, aimed to reduce design forces for ductile structures and based on the energy dissipated during earthquake allows to obtain more reliable ductility factors even when system restoring characteristics are affected by deterioration during loading history. Inelastic response of SDOF systems has been investigated under seimic excitation, assuming stable and degrading constitutive laws to model their structural behaviour. Energy spectra and ductility requirent diagrams are generated and compared with those of the corresponding elastic-perfectly plastic systems. (orig.)

  8. Design energy spectra for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    López Almansa, Francisco; Yazgan, Ahmet Utku; Benavent Climent, Amadeo

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes design energy spectra in terms of velocity, derived through linear dynamic analyses on Turkish registers and intended for regions with design peak acceleration 0.3 g or higher. In the long and mid period ranges the analyses are linear, taking profit of the rather insensitivity of the spectra to the structural parameters other than the fundamental period; in the short period range, the spectra are more sensitive to the structural parameters and nonlinear analyses would be re...

  9. Spectra of chemical trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, K.

    1982-01-01

    A method is developed for obtaining the spectra of trees of NMR and chemical interests. The characteristic polynomials of branched trees can be obtained in terms of the characteristic polynomials of unbranched trees and branches by pruning the tree at the joints. The unbranched trees can also be broken down further until a tree containing just two vertices is obtained. The effectively reduces the order of the secular determinant of the tree used at the beginning to determinants of orders atmost equal to the number of vertices in the branch containing the largest number of vertices. An illustrative example of a NMR graph is given for which the 22 x 22 secular determinant is reduced to determinants of orders atmost 4 x 4 in just the second step of the algorithm. The tree pruning algorithm can be applied even to trees with no symmetry elements and such a factoring can be achieved. Methods developed here can be elegantly used to find if two trees are cospectral and to construct cospectral trees

  10. Sequencing BPS spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gukov, Sergei [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Mathematik,Vivatsgasse 7, D-53111 Bonn (Germany); Nawata, Satoshi [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Centre for Quantum Geometry of Moduli Spaces, University of Aarhus,Nordre Ringgade 1, DK-8000 (Denmark); Saberi, Ingmar [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stošić, Marko [CAMGSD, Departamento de Matemática, Instituto Superior Técnico,Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Mathematical Institute SANU,Knez Mihajlova 36, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Sułkowski, Piotr [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-03-02

    This paper provides both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincaré polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel “sliding” property, which can be explained by using (refined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identification of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d N=2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. Lastly, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.

  11. Sequencing BPS spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gukov, Sergei; Nawata, Satoshi; Saberi, Ingmar; Stošić, Marko; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincaré polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel “sliding” property, which can be explained by using (refined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identification of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d N=2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. Lastly, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.

  12. Fluctuation analysis of rotational spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doessing, T.; Bracco, A.; Broglia, R.A.; Matsuo, M.

    1996-01-01

    The compound state rotational degree of freedom is ''damped'' in the sense that the electric quadrupole decay of a single quantum state with angular momentum I exhibits a spectrum of final states all having spin I-2. In actual experiments, the cascade of γ-rays associated with each of the members of the ensemble of compound nuclei uses each of the ''discrete'' transitions many more times than the ''continuum'' transitions. Relatively large and small fluctuations in the recorded coincidence spectrum ensue, respectively. The analysis of the fluctuations will be shown to be instrumental to gain insight into the phenomenon of rotational damping. For this purpose, two- and higher-fold coincidence spectra emitted from rotating nuclei are analyzed with respect to the count fluctuations. The coincidences from consecutive γ-rays emitted from discrete rotational bands generate ridges in the E γ1 .E γ2 spectrum, and the fluctuation analysis of the ridges is based upon the ansatz of a random selection of transition energies from band to band. This ansatz is supported by a cranked mean-field calculation for the nucleus 168 Yb, as well as by analyzing resolved bands in 168 Yb and its neighbors. The fluctuation analysis of the central valley (E γ1 =E γ2 ) is based upon the ansatz of fluctuations in the intensity of the transitions of Porter-Thomas type superposed on a smooth spectrum of transition energies. This ansatz is again supported by a mixed-band calculation. The mathematical treatment of count fluctuations is formulated in general (orig.)

  13. When Graduate Degrees Prostitute the Educational Process: Degrees Gone Wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumadue, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    Graduate degrees prostitute the educational process when they are sold to consumers by unaccredited degree/diploma mills as being equivalent to legitimate, bona-fide degrees awarded by accredited graduate schools. This article carefully analyzes the serious problems of bogus degrees and their association with the religious higher education…

  14. Subnucleon freedom degrees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1985-03-01

    The nucleon is nothing but the fundamental state of a complex object, the Baryon. It has a great number of excited states which are significative of its quark structure. The aim of nuclear physics today is to understand the interaction dynamics in nuclei of particles whose existence is known by high energy physics. This lecture aims at defining the frontier of current comprehension in this field by some examples. First quarks and gluons are presented. Proofs of existence of pinpoint particles inside the nucleus are given. Then a direct proof of the concept validity of the nucleon orbit in the nucleus is given. Mesonic freedom degrees are also studied. Some experience examples in which meson exchange exist clearly are shown. At last, the role of subnucleonic effects in the nuclear reactions is shown [fr

  15. Seismic design spectra for nuclear power plants, state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalopoulos, A.P.; Shukla, D.K.

    1976-01-01

    The State-of-the-Art of nuclear power plant design involves the use of design response spectra together with a modal analysis of a mathematical idealization of the actual structure. The design response spectra give the maximum response to ground shaking for a family of single degree-of-freedom viscously damped oscillators. These spectra are usually described as an accelerogram giving ground acceleration as a function of time. The definition of a 'standard' design response spectra is reviewed and illustrated by data relevant to 'hard' or rock sites. Finally, the paper recommends a set of design response spectra applicable to rock sites

  16. Degree-degree correlations in random graphs with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstad, van der R.W.; Litvak, N.

    2014-01-01

    Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar

  17. Degree-Degree Dependencies in Random Graphs with Heavy-Tailed Degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hofstad, Remco; Litvak, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar

  18. Inversion degree and saturation magnetization of different nanocrystalline cobalt ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concas, G.; Spano, G.; Cannas, C.; Musinu, A.; Peddis, D.; Piccaluga, G.

    2009-01-01

    The inversion degree of a series of nanocrystalline samples of CoFe 2 O 4 ferrites has been evaluated by a combined study, which exploits the saturation magnetization at 4.2 K and 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The samples, prepared by sol-gel autocombustion, have different thermal history and particle size. The differences observed in the saturation magnetization of these samples are explained in terms of different inversion degrees, as confirmed by the analysis of the components in the Moessbauer spectra. It is notable that the inversion degrees of the samples investigated are set among the highest values reported in the literature.

  19. Raman spectra of lithium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Bi, Dongxue; Voinov, Y. P.; Vodchits, A. I.; Gorshunov, B. P.; Yurasov, N. I.; Yurasova, I. I.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to the results of investigating the spontaneous Raman scattering spectra in the lithium compounds crystals in a wide spectral range by the fibre-optic spectroscopy method. We also present the stimulated Raman scattering spectra in the lithium hydroxide and lithium deuteride crystals obtained with the use of powerful laser source. The symmetry properties of the lithium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide monohydrate and lithium deuteride crystals optical modes were analyzed by means of the irreducible representations of the point symmetry groups. We have established the selection rules in the Raman and infrared absorption spectra of LiOH, LiOH·H2O and LiD crystals.

  20. FSFE: Fake Spectra Flux Extractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Simeon

    2017-10-01

    The fake spectra flux extractor generates simulated quasar absorption spectra from a particle or adaptive mesh-based hydrodynamic simulation. It is implemented as a python module. It can produce both hydrogen and metal line spectra, if the simulation includes metals. The cloudy table for metal ionization fractions is included. Unlike earlier spectral generation codes, it produces absorption from each particle close to the sight-line individually, rather than first producing an average density in each spectral pixel, thus substantially preserving more of the small-scale velocity structure of the gas. The code supports both Gadget (ascl:0003.001) and AREPO.

  1. Infrared spectra of mineral species

    CERN Document Server

    Chukanov, Nikita V

    2014-01-01

    This book details more than 3,000 IR spectra of more than 2,000 mineral species collected during last 30 years. It features full descriptions and analytical data of each sample for which IR spectrum was obtained.

  2. Correlation Functions and Power Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The present lecture note is a supplement to the textbook Digital Signal Processing by J. Proakis and D.G. Manolakis used in the IMM/DTU course 02451 Digital Signal Processing and provides an extended discussion of correlation functions and power spectra. The definitions of correlation functions...... and spectra for discrete-time and continuous-time (analog) signals are pretty similar. Consequently, we confine the discussion mainly to real discrete-time signals. The Appendix contains detailed definitions and properties of correlation functions and spectra for analog as well as discrete-time signals....... It is possible to define correlation functions and associated spectra for aperiodic, periodic and random signals although the interpretation is different. Moreover, we will discuss correlation functions when mixing these basic signal types. In addition, the note include several examples for the purpose...

  3. Multifractal spectra in shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, L. R.; Deane, Anil E.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical simulations of three-dimensional homogeneous shear flow and fully developed channel flow, are used to calculate the associated multifractal spectra of the energy dissipation field. Only weak parameterization of the results with the nondimensional shear is found, and this only if the flow has reached its asymptotic development state. Multifractal spectra of these flows coincide with those from experiments only at the range alpha less than 1.

  4. Sequential Analysis of Gamma Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayez-Hassan, M.; Hella, Kh.M.

    2009-01-01

    This work shows how easy one can deal with a huge number of gamma spectra. The method can be used for radiation monitoring. It is based on the macro feature of the windows XP connected to QBASIC software. The routine was used usefully in generating accurate results free from human errors. One hundred measured gamma spectra were fully analyzed in 10 minutes using our fast and automated method controlling the Genie 2000 gamma acquisition analysis software.

  5. Response spectra in alluvial soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekharan, A.R.; Paul, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    For aseismic design of structures, the ground motion data is assumed either in the form of ground acceleration as a function of time or indirectly in the form of response spectra. Though the response spectra approach has limitations like not being applicable for nonlinear problems, it is usually used for structures like nuclear power plants. Fifty accelerograms recorded at alluvial sites have been processed. Since different empirical formulas relating acceleration with magnitude and distance give a wide scatter of values, peak ground acceleration alone cannot be the parameter as is assumed by a number of authors. The spectra corresponding to 5% damping have been normalised with respect to three parameters, namely, peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity and a nondimensional quantity ad/v 2 . Envelopee of maxima and minima as well as average response spectra has been obtained. A comparison with the USAEC spectra has been made. A relation between ground acceleration, ground velocity and ad/v 2 has been obtained which would nearly give the same magnification of the response. A design response spectra for alluvial soils has been recommended. (author)

  6. Synthesis of audio spectra using a diffraction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, V; Eswaran, C

    2006-12-01

    It is shown that the intensity variations of an audio signal in the frequency domain can be obtained by using a mathematical function containing a series of weighted complex Bessel functions. With proper choice of values for two parameters, this function can transform an input spectrum of discrete frequencies of unit intensity into the known spectra of different musical instruments. Specific examples of musical instruments are considered for evaluating the performance of this method. It is found that this function yields musical spectra with a good degree of accuracy.

  7. Automated complex spectra processing of actinide α-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anichenkov, S.V.; Popov, Yu.S.; Tselishchev, I.V.; Mishenev, V.B.; Timofeev, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier described algorithms of automated processing of complex α - spectra of actinides with the use of Ehlektronika D3-28 computer line, connected with ICA-070 multichannel amplitude pulse analyzer, were realized. The developed program enables to calculated peak intensity and the relative isotope content, to conduct energy calibration of spectra, to calculate peak center of gravity and energy resolution, to perform integral counting in particular part of the spectrum. Error of the method of automated processing depens on the degree of spectrum complication and lies within the limits of 1-12%. 8 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  8. Characterizing Sky Spectra Using SDSS BOSS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, Lina Maria; Strauss, Michael A.

    2018-01-01

    In the optical/near-infrared spectra gathered by a ground-based telescope observing very faint sources, the strengths of the emission lines due to the Earth’s atmosphere can be many times larger than the fluxes of the sources we are interested in. Thus the limiting factor in faint-object spectroscopy is the degree to which systematics in the sky subtraction can be minimized. Longwards of 6000 Angstroms, the night-sky spectrum is dominated by multiple vibrational/rotational transitions of the OH radical from our upper atmosphere. While the wavelengths of these lines are the same in each sky spectrum, their relative strengths vary considerably as a function of time and position on the sky. The better we can model their strengths, the better we can hope to subtract them off. We expect that the strength of lines from common upper energy levels will be correlated with one another. We used flux-calibrated sky spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (SDSS BOSS) to explore these correlations. Our aim is to use these correlations for creating improved sky subtraction algorithms for the Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) on the 8.2-meter Subaru Telescope. When PFS starts gathering data in 2019, it will be the most powerful multi-object spectrograph in the world. Since PFS will be gathering data on sources as faint as 24th magnitude and fainter, it's of upmost importance to be able to accurately measure and subtract sky spectra from the data that we receive.

  9. [Raman spectra of monkey cerebral cortex tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ji-chun; Guo, Jian-yu; Cai, Wei-ying; Wang, Zu-geng; Sun, Zhen-rong

    2010-01-01

    Monkey cerebral cortex, an important part in the brain to control action and thought activities, is mainly composed of grey matter and nerve cell. In the present paper, the in situ Raman spectra of the cerebral cortex of the birth, teenage and aged monkeys were achieved for the first time. The results show that the Raman spectra for the different age monkey cerebral cortex exhibit most obvious changes in the regions of 1000-1400 and 2800-3000 cm(-1). With monkey growing up, the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1313 and 2885 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH2 chain vibrational mode of lipid become stronger and stronger whereas the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1338 and 2932 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH3 chain vibrational mode of protein become weaker and weaker. In addition, the two new Raman bands at 1296 and 2850 cm(-1) are only observed in the aged monkey cerebral cortex, therefore, the two bands can be considered as a character or "marker" to differentiate the caducity degree with monkey growth In order to further explore the changes, the relative intensity ratios of the Raman band at 1313 cm(-1) to that at 1338 cm(-1) and the Raman band at 2885 cm(-1) to that at 2 932 cm(-1), I1313/I1338 and I2885/I2932, which are the lipid-to-protein ratios, are introduced to denote the degree of the lipid content. The results show that the relative intensity ratios increase significantly with monkey growth, namely, the lipid content in the cerebral cortex increases greatly with monkey growth. So, the authors can deduce that the overmuch lipid is an important cause to induce the caducity. Therefore, the results will be a powerful assistance and valuable parameter to study the order of life growth and diagnose diseases.

  10. Realism, Relativism, and Evolutionary Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, M.

    Against recent attempts to forge a reconciliation between constructionism and realism, I contend that, in psychology at least, stirring up conflict is a more fruitful strategy. To illustrate this thesis, I confront a school of psychology with strong realist leanings, evolutionary psychology, with

  11. Relativism: Protagoras and Nelson Goodman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    اسماعیل سعادتی خمسه

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available پروتاگوراس در یونان باستان و نلسون گودمن در دورۀ جدید دو تن از برجسته­ترین مدافعان نسبی­گرایی به شمار می­روند. گاه ممکن است نثر آن دو فریبنده بنماید، و چه بسا این امر شرح و تفسیر منظور و مراد حقیقی آنها را دشوار سازد. پروتاگوراس و گودمن، با وجود برخی تفاوتها، به دفاع از این دیدگاه به ظاهر افراطی می­پردازند که همه وقایع، به معنای حقیقی کلمه، وابسته به دیدگاه انسان است. هدف این مقاله شرح و بررسی رویکردهای نسبی­گرایانه این دو اندیشمند برجستۀ نسبی­گراست. ابتدا به اجمال برخی از چهره­های نسبی­گرایی تعریف و توصیف می­شود .سپس به ترتیب  نسبی­گرایی پروتاگوراس( یا صادق- برای- من و نسبی­گرایی افراطی گودمن مورد بررسی و ارزیابی قرار می­گیرد. استدلال کرده­ام که هر دو قسم نسبی­گرایی مورد بحث دچار مشکلات اساسی بوده و این مشکلات، به باور فیلسوف واقع­گرا، هر دو آنها را غیر قابل دفاع می­سازد. بی تردید، این دو شکل از نسبی­گرایی زمینه را برای رویکرد ضد واقع­گرایی هموار کرده است؛ ولی در نهایت آشکار می­شود که نسبی­گرایی افراطی گودمن و بنابر این نظریۀ جهان­سازی او همچون نسبی­­گرایی صادق -برای- من پروتاگوراس مشتمل بر نقصی ویرانگرند و نمی­توانند از اثر براهین ضد نسبی­گرایی­ای که از منظر واقع­گرایانه اقامه شده است در امان باشند. با این حال باید پذیرفت که متهم کردن نسبی­گرایی به خودشکن بودن و عدم انسجام درونی از شیوع و محبوبیت آن نکاسته است.

  12. Simon, Indoctrination and Ethical Relativism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Paul A.

    1981-01-01

    Points to three deficiencies in values clarification as a program of moral education; i.e., failure to distinguish the intellectual traits essential in moral valuing; failure to contribute to students' moral development; and failure to consider the purpose and mechanics of moral argument. Concludes that values clarification promotes ethical…

  13. Biological Action Spectra (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruijl, F.R. de

    2000-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces a wide variety of biological responses: ranging in humans from well-known short-term effects like sunburn to long-term effects like skin cancer. The wavelength dependencies ('action spectra') of the responses can differ significantly, depending on the UV-targeted molecules (their absorption spectra), their localisation (transmission to the target depth) and the photochemical reactions involved (e.g. quantum yields, competing reaction). An action spectrum (e.g. of sunburn) is usually determined in a wavelength by wavelength analysis of the response. This is not always possible (e.g. in case of skin cancer), and an action spectrum may then be extracted mathematically from differences in responses to broadband UV sources of various spectral compositions (yielding 'biological spectral weights'). However, relative spectral weights may shift with exposure levels and contributions from different wavelengths may not always add up. Under these circumstances conventional analyses will yield different action spectra for different experimental conditions. (author)

  14. Double photoionisation spectra of molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Eland, John

    2017-01-01

    This book contains spectra of the doubly charged positive ions (dications) of some 75 molecules, including the major constituents of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres and prototypes of major chemical groups. It is intended to be a new resource for research in all areas of molecular spectroscopy involving high energy environments, both terrestrial and extra-terrestrial. All the spectra have been produced by photoionisation using laboratory lamps or synchrotron radiation and have been measured using the magnetic bottle time-of-flight technique by coincidence detection of correlated electron pairs. Full references to published work on the same species are given, though for several molecules these are the first published spectra. Double ionisation energies are listed and discussed in relation to the molecular electronic structure of the molecules. A full introduction to the field of molecular double ionisation is included and the mechanisms by which double photoionisation can occur are examined in detail. A p...

  15. QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Cid Fernandes, R., E-mail: jos@iac.es, E-mail: abml@iac.es, E-mail: rjt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cid@astro.ufsc.br [Departamento de Fisica-CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-09-10

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  16. The structure of BPS spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Pietro

    In this thesis we develop and apply novel techniques for analyzing BPS spectra of supersymmetric quantum field theories of class S. By a combination of wall-crossing, spectral networks and quiver methods we explore the BPS spectra of higher rank four-dimensional N = 2 super Yang-Mills, uncovering surprising new phenomena. Focusing on the SU(3) case, we prove the existence of wild BPS spectra in field theory, featuring BPS states of higher spin whose degeneracies grow exponentially with the energy. The occurrence of wild BPS states is surprising because it appears to be in tension with physical expectations on the behavior of the entropy as a function of the energy scale. The solution to this puzzle comes from realizing that the size of wild BPS states grows rapidly with their mass, and carefully analyzing the volume-dependence of the entropy of BPS states. We also find some interesting structures underlying wild BPS spectra, such as a Regge-like relation between the maximal spin of a BPS multiplet and the square of its mass, and the existence of a universal asymptotic distribution of spin-j irreps within a multiplet of given charge. We also extend the spectral networks construction by introducing a refinement in the topological classification of 2d-4d BPS states, and identifying their spin with a topological invariant known as the "writhe of soliton paths". A careful analysis of the 2d-4d wall-crossing behavior of this refined data reveals that it is described by motivic Kontsevich-Soibelman transformations, controlled by the Protected Spin Character, a protected deformation of the BPS index encoding the spin of BPS states. Our construction opens the way for the systematic study of refined BPS spectra in class S theories. We apply it to several examples, including ones featuring wild BPS spectra, where we find an interesting relation between spectral networks and certain functional equations. For class S theories of A 1 type, we derive an alternative technique for

  17. Automatic identification of mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabloes, F.

    1992-01-01

    Several approaches to preprocessing and comparison of low resolution mass spectra have been evaluated by various test methods related to library search. It is shown that there is a clear correlation between the nature of any contamination of a spectrum, the basic principle of the transformation or distance measure, and the performance of the identification system. The identification of functionality from low resolution spectra has also been evaluated using several classification methods. It is shown that there is an upper limit to the success of this approach, but also that this can be improved significantly by using a very limited amount of additional information. 10 refs

  18. Investigation of gamma spectra analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huailong; Liu Suping; Hao Fanhua; Gong Jian; Liu Xiaoya

    2006-01-01

    In the investigation of radiation fingerprint comparison, it is found out that some of the popular gamma spectra analysis software have shortcomings, which decrease the radiation fingerprint comparison precision. So a new analysis software is developed for solving the problems. In order to display the advantage of developed program, some typical simulative warhead gamma spectra are analyzed respectively by present software and GAMMAVISION and GENNIE2000. Present software can be applied not only in nuclear warheads deep-cuts verification, but also in any radiation measurement field. (authors)

  19. Ultraviolet spectra of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.; Seaton, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Features observed in infrared spectra suggest that certain very low excitation (VLE) nebulae have low C/O abundance ratios (Cohen and Barlow 1980; Aitken and Roche 1982). Fluxes in the multiplets [O II] lambda 2470 and C II] lambda 2326 have been measured for the VLE nebula He He 2-131 = HD 138403 using IUE high-dispersion spectra. An analysis similar to that of Harrington et al. (1980) for IC 418 gives C/O = 0.3 for He 2-131, compared with C/O = 1.3 for IC 418 and 0.6 for the Sun. (author)

  20. Investigation of gamma spectra analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huailong; Liu Suping; Hao Fanhua

    2006-12-01

    During the investigation of radiation fingerprint comparison, it is found out that the popular gamma spectra analysis softwares are faultful, which decrease the precision of radiation fingerprint comparison. So a new analysis software is development for solving the problems. In order to display the advantage of new program, some typical simulative gamma spectra of radiation source are analyzed respectively by our software and GAMMAVISION and GENNIE2000. The software can be applied not only in nuclear warheads deep-cuts verification, but also in any radiation measurement field. (authors)

  1. Raman spectra studies of dipeptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, Simone.

    1977-10-01

    This work deals with the homogenous and heterogeneous dipeptides derived from alanine and glycine, in the solid state or in aqueous solutions, in the zwitterions or chlorhydrates form. The Raman spectra comparative study of these various forms of hydrogenated or deuterated compounds allows to specify some of the attributions which are necessary in the conformational study of the like tripeptides. These compounds contain only one peptidic group; therefore there is no possibility of intramolecular hydrogen bond which caracterise vibrations of non bonded peptidic groups and end groups. Infrared spectra of solid dipeptides will be presented and discussed in the near future [fr

  2. Multiculturalismo, relativismo, fondamentalismo (Multiculturalism, relativism, fundamentalism - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2010v8n16p33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Esposito

    2010-09-01

    do indivíduo, se inverte na submissão dos indivíduos ao Estado – visto como verdade – que lhes oferece legitimidade, dando-lhes literalmente o “ser”. A verdade do eu se transforma na vontade geral e a liberdade do singular passa a coincidir com seu pertencimento ao corpo do Estado, de modo que a relação entre o eu e a verdade pode e deve se realizar apenas na forma política. A permanência de identidades e comunidades religiosas no interior de um horizonte cultural laico faz com que o discurso religioso no debate público seja considerado uma proposta possível de racionalidade. Mais do que uma mera tolerância do Estado com relação à liberdade religiosa, trata-se de um primeiro nível de integração cognitiva das razões religiosas na racionalidade laica, no âmbito da ética. Quando se passa a considerações de verdade diferentes, com relação ao eu e ao mundo, existe uma assimetria da verdade metafísica e religiosa em relação a uma simples visão ética do mundo.Palavras-chave: Multiculturalismo, Estado, Liberdade, relativismo, fundamentalismo. ABSTRACT If indeed there is something timeless and absolute, the mutability of the contingent is expressed in relativism, in a way that objective reality and subjective sense become separated from their origin. The most disturbing aspect of contemporary culture lays is in the conceptual enmity between the self and the truth, with consequences in the conception of freedom. When such freedom is taken as individual autonomy, it becomes itself in the submission of individuals to the state which is always seen as the truth that gives them legitimacy. The truth of the self becomes in the general will and the freedom of the individual happens to belong to the body of the state, so that the relationship between the self and the truth can and should be performed only in political form. The permanence of identities and religious communities within a secular cultural horizon makes the religious discourse in

  3. Spectra of random networks in the weak clustering regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron, Thomas K. DM.; Ji, Peng; Kurths, Jürgen; Rodrigues, Francisco A.

    2018-03-01

    The asymptotic behavior of dynamical processes in networks can be expressed as a function of spectral properties of the corresponding adjacency and Laplacian matrices. Although many theoretical results are known for the spectra of traditional configuration models, networks generated through these models fail to describe many topological features of real-world networks, in particular non-null values of the clustering coefficient. Here we study effects of cycles of order three (triangles) in network spectra. By using recent advances in random matrix theory, we determine the spectral distribution of the network adjacency matrix as a function of the average number of triangles attached to each node for networks without modular structure and degree-degree correlations. Implications to network dynamics are discussed. Our findings can shed light in the study of how particular kinds of subgraphs influence network dynamics.

  4. Classical Trajectories and Quantum Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielnik, Bogdan; Reyes, Marco A.

    1996-01-01

    A classical model of the Schrodinger's wave packet is considered. The problem of finding the energy levels corresponds to a classical manipulation game. It leads to an approximate but non-perturbative method of finding the eigenvalues, exploring the bifurcations of classical trajectories. The role of squeezing turns out decisive in the generation of the discrete spectra.

  5. Vibrational spectra of ordered perovskites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corsmit, A.F.; Hoefdraad, H.E.; Blasse, G.

    1972-01-01

    The vibrational spectra of the molecular M6+O6 (M = Mo, Te, W) group in ordered perovskites of the type Ba2M2+M6+O6 are reported. These groups have symmetry Oh, whereas their site symmetry is also Oh. An assignment of the internal vibrations is presented.

  6. Raman spectra of graphene ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, R; Furukawa, M; Dresselhaus, G; Dresselhaus, M S

    2010-01-01

    Raman spectra of graphene nanoribbons with zigzag and armchair edges are calculated within non-resonant Raman theory. Depending on the edge structure and polarization direction of the incident and scattered photon beam relative to the edge direction, a symmetry selection rule for the phonon type appears. These Raman selection rules will be useful for the identification of the edge structure of graphene nanoribbons.

  7. Explanation of earthquake response spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, John

    2017-01-01

    This is a set of five slides explaining how earthquake response spectra are derived from strong-motion records and simple models of structures and their purpose within seismic design and assessment. It dates from about 2002 and I have used it in various introductory lectures on engineering seismology.

  8. The Kilo-Degree Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J. T. A.; Kuijken, K.; Applegate, D.; Begeman, K.; Belikov, A.; Blake, C.; Bout, J.; Boxhoorn, D.; Buddelmeijer, H.; Buddendiek, A.; Cacciato, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Choi, A.; Cordes, O.; Covone, G.; Dall'Ora, M.; Edge, A.; Erben, T.; Franse, J.; Getman, F.; Grado, A.; Harnois-Deraps, J.; Helmich, E.; Herbonnet, R.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hoekstra, H.; Huang, Z.; Irisarri, N.; Joachimi, B.; Köhlinger, F.; Kitching, T.; La Barbera, F.; Lacerda, P.; McFarland, J.; Miller, L.; Nakajima, R.; Napolitano, N. R.; Paolillo, M.; Peacock, J.; Pila-Diez, B.; Puddu, E.; Radovich, M.; Rifatto, A.; Schneider, P.; Schrabback, T.; Sifon, C.; Sikkema, G.; Simon, P.; Sutherland, W.; Tudorica, A.; Valentijn, E.; van der Burg, R.; van Uitert, E.; van Waerbeke, L.; Velander, M.; Kleijn, G. V.; Viola, M.; Vriend, W.-J.

    2013-01-01

    The Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS), a 1500-square-degree optical imaging survey with the recently commissioned OmegaCAM wide-field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST), is described. KiDS will image two fields in u-,g-,r- and i-bands and, together with the VIKING survey, produce nine-band (u- to

  9. Research Degrees as Professional Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnacle, Robyn; Dall'Alba, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing trend within higher education and, more specifically, in higher degrees by research, to treat a professional skills set as a desirable graduate outcome. The increasing value that is being placed on a professional skills set in large part reflects growing interest around the world in the role of research degrees in labour…

  10. Infrared spectroscopy: a tool for determination of the degree of conversion in dental composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Gonçalves Palmeira Moraes

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Infrared spectroscopy is one of the most widely used techniques for measurement of conversion degree in dental composites. However, to obtain good quality spectra and quantitative analysis from spectral data, appropriate expertise and knowledge of the technique are mandatory. This paper presents important details to use infrared spectroscopy for determination of the conversion degree.

  11. Particle evaporation spectra with inclusion of thermal shape fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.; Bowman, D.R.

    1987-04-01

    The origin of the substantial sub-Coulomb component observed in proton and 4 He evaporation spectra at high excitation energy is attributed to the thermal excitation of shape degrees of freedom. A critique of the Hauser-Feshbach theory as used in evaporation codes is presented. A new formalism including the thermal excitation of collective modes as well as quantal penetration in the framework of a transition state approach is derived. 5 figs

  12. Set our Master's degrees free

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padman, Rachael

    2010-04-01

    Making UK undergraduate physics degrees longer must have seemed like a good idea at the time. Back in the early 1990s the standard three-year Bachelor's physics degree (four years in Scotland) was under pressure at both ends. The A-level curriculum - one of the requirements for entry onto a degree course - was being increasingly modularized, and dumbed down. Physics students were arriving at university less well prepared than in the past and there was an increasing awareness that graduates of five-year continental degree courses were better equipped for a professional scientific career than those in the UK. At the same time, local education authorities in the UK were required to provide full funding for a first degree, whether for three or four years.

  13. Skyshine spectra of gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swarup, Janardan

    1980-01-01

    A study of the spectra of gamma photons back-scattered in vertical direction by infinite air above ground (skyshine) is presented. The source for these measurements is a 650 Ci Cobalt-60 point-source and the skyshine spectra are reported for distances from 150 m to 325 m from the source, measured with a 5 cm x 5 cm NaI(Tl) detector collimated with collimators of 12 mm and 20 mm diameter and 5 cm length. These continuous spectra are unfolded with Gold's iterative technique. The photon-spectra so obtained have a distinct line at 72 keV due to multiply-scattered photons. This is an energy where photoelectric and Compton cross-sections for multiply-scattered photons balance each other. The intensity of the line(I) decreases exponentially with distance (d) from the source obeying a relation of the type I = Isub(o)esup(-μd) where μ is called as ''Multiply-Scatter Coefficient'', a constant of the medium which is air in these measurements. This relationship is explained in terms of a halo around the source comprising of multiply-scattered gamma photons, Isub(0) being the intensity of these scattered photons at the location of cobalt-source. A fraction called as ''Back-scattered Fraction'', the ratio of Isub(0) to the number of original photons from the cobalt-source entering the infinite air, is also calculated. It is shown that with a properly calibrated detector system, this fraction can be used to determine the strength of a large gamma source, viz. a nuclear explosion in air, and for mineral prospecting. These conclusions are general and can be applied to any other infinite medium. Some forward-scatter (transmission) spectra of cobalt-60 source through 10 cm of Pb and 2.5 cm of Al are also reported. (auth.)

  14. HadISST (1-degree)/HadISST (1-degree)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly version of HadISST sea surface temperature component (1-degree). See Rayner, N. A., Parker, D. E., Horton, E. B., Folland, C. K., Alexander, L. V., Rowell,...

  15. Degree-degree correlations in directed networks with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, W.L.F.; Litvak, Nelli

    2013-01-01

    In network theory, Pearson's correlation coefficients are most commonly used to measure the degree assortativity of a network. We investigate the behavior of these coefficients in the setting of directed networks with heavy-tailed degree sequences. We prove that for graphs where the in- and

  16. Degree-degree dependencies in directed networks with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, W.L.F.; Litvak, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    In network theory, Pearson’s correlation coefficients are most commonly used to measure the degree assortativity of a network. We investigate the behavior of these coefficients in the setting of directed networks with heavy-tailed degree sequences. We prove that for graphs where the in- and

  17. ACCELERATED FITTING OF STELLAR SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Conroy, Charlie [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rix, Hans-Walter [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-20

    Stellar spectra are often modeled and fitted by interpolating within a rectilinear grid of synthetic spectra to derive the stars’ labels: stellar parameters and elemental abundances. However, the number of synthetic spectra needed for a rectilinear grid grows exponentially with the label space dimensions, precluding the simultaneous and self-consistent fitting of more than a few elemental abundances. Shortcuts such as fitting subsets of labels separately can introduce unknown systematics and do not produce correct error covariances in the derived labels. In this paper we present a new approach—Convex Hull Adaptive Tessellation (chat)—which includes several new ideas for inexpensively generating a sufficient stellar synthetic library, using linear algebra and the concept of an adaptive, data-driven grid. A convex hull approximates the region where the data lie in the label space. A variety of tests with mock data sets demonstrate that chat can reduce the number of required synthetic model calculations by three orders of magnitude in an eight-dimensional label space. The reduction will be even larger for higher dimensional label spaces. In chat the computational effort increases only linearly with the number of labels that are fit simultaneously. Around each of these grid points in the label space an approximate synthetic spectrum can be generated through linear expansion using a set of “gradient spectra” that represent flux derivatives at every wavelength point with respect to all labels. These techniques provide new opportunities to fit the full stellar spectra from large surveys with 15–30 labels simultaneously.

  18. Reconstruction of neutron spectra through neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Hernandez D, V.M.; Manzanares A, E.

    2003-01-01

    A neural network has been used to reconstruct the neutron spectra starting from the counting rates of the detectors of the Bonner sphere spectrophotometric system. A group of 56 neutron spectra was selected to calculate the counting rates that would produce in a Bonner sphere system, with these data and the spectra it was trained the neural network. To prove the performance of the net, 12 spectra were used, 6 were taken of the group used for the training, 3 were obtained of mathematical functions and those other 3 correspond to real spectra. When comparing the original spectra of those reconstructed by the net we find that our net has a poor performance when reconstructing monoenergetic spectra, this attributes it to those characteristic of the spectra used for the training of the neural network, however for the other groups of spectra the results of the net are appropriate with the prospective ones. (Author)

  19. The system Cu-Rh-S at 900 degrees, 700 degrees, 540 degrees and 500 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven; Makovicky, E.

    2007-01-01

    Phase relations in the dry condensed system Cu-Rh-S were determined at 900, 700, 540 and 500 degrees C. At 900 degrees C, the system contains digenite, four rhodium sulfides (Rh17S15, Rh3S4, Rh2S3 and RhS similar to 3), three ternary sulfides (CuRh2S4, CuxRhS3+x and a fibrous sulfide in the range...

  20. Biological Action Spectra (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruijl, F.R. de

    2000-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces a wide variety of biological responses: ranging in humans from well-known short-term effects like sunburn to long-term effects like skin cancer. The wavelength dependencies ('action spectra') of the responses can differ significantly, depending on the UV-targeted molecules (their absorption spectra), their localisation (transmission to the target depth) and the photochemical reactions involved (e.g. quantum yields, competing reaction). An action spectrum (e.g. of sunburn) is usually determined in a wavelength by wavelength analysis of the response. This is not always possible (e.g. in case of skin cancer), and an action spectrum may then be extracted mathematically from differences in responses to broadband UV sources of various spectral compositions (yielding 'biological spectral weights'). However, relative spectral weights may shift with exposure levels and contributions from different wavelengths may not always add up. Under these circumstances conventional analyses will yield different action spectra for different experimental conditions. (author)

  1. Parameterization of MARVELS Spectra Using Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilda, Sankalp; Ge, Jian; MARVELS

    2018-01-01

    Like many large-scale surveys, the Multi-Object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS) was designed to operate at a moderate spectral resolution ($\\sim$12,000) for efficiency in observing large samples, which makes the stellar parameterization difficult due to the high degree of blending of spectral features. Two extant solutions to deal with this issue are to utilize spectral synthesis, and to utilize spectral indices [Ghezzi et al. 2014]. While the former is a powerful and tested technique, it can often yield strongly coupled atmospheric parameters, and often requires high spectral resolution (Valenti & Piskunov 1996). The latter, though a promising technique utilizing measurements of equivalent widths of spectral indices, has only been employed with respect to FKG dwarfs and sub-giants and not red-giant branch stars, which constitute ~30% of MARVELS targets. In this work, we tackle this problem using a convolution neural network (CNN). In particular, we train a one-dimensional CNN on appropriately processed PHOENIX synthetic spectra using supervised training to automatically distinguish the features relevant for the determination of each of the three atmospheric parameters – T_eff, log(g), [Fe/H] – and use the knowledge thus gained by the network to parameterize 849 MARVELS giants. When tested on the synthetic spectra themselves, our estimates of the parameters were consistent to within 11 K, .02 dex, and .02 dex (in terms of mean absolute errors), respectively. For MARVELS dwarfs, the accuracies are 80K, .16 dex and .10 dex, respectively.

  2. Hadronic degrees of freedom in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Naohiko

    2001-01-01

    Relativistic heavy-ion collisions at AGS energies are studied by using an new developed hadronic cascade model, HANDEL which includes a few hadronic degrees of freedom. The spectra of hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus reactions at AGS energies are well reproduced by HANDEL. It is confirmed that the infinite matter described by HANDEL has particle fractions which are expected from grand canonical ensemble. When we compare the thermal evolution of Au+Au collision from HANDEL with the result from JAM which has larger hadronic degree of freedoms, we find both models give similar evolution of temperature, against naive expectation. We argue that this results can be interpretated if the particles in formation time works as the additional effective hadronic degrees of freedom. (author)

  3. Design spectra development considering short time histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, E.O.

    1983-01-01

    The need for generation of seismic acceleration histories to prescribed response spectra arises several ways in structural dynamics. For example, one way of obtaining floor spectra is to generate a history from a foundation spectra and then solve for the floor motion from which a floor spectrum can be obtained. Two separate programs, MODQKE and MDOF, were written to provide a capability of obtaining equipment spectra from design spectra. MODQKE generates or modifies acceleration histories to conform with design spectra pertaining to, say, a foundation. MDOF is a simple linear modal superposition program that solves for equipment support histories using the design spectra conforming histories as input. Equipment spectra, then, are obtained from the support histories using MODQKE

  4. Gamma-ray burst spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teegarden, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    A review of recent results in gamma-ray burst spectroscopy is given. Particular attention is paid to the recent discovery of emission and absorption features in the burst spectra. These lines represent the strongest evidence to date that gamma-ray bursts originate on or near neutron stars. Line parameters give information on the temperature, magnetic field and possibly the gravitational potential of the neutron star. The behavior of the continuum spectrum is also discussed. A remarkably good fit to nearly all bursts is obtained with a thermal-bremsstrahlung-like continuum. Significant evolution is observed of both the continuum and line features within most events

  5. Wavelet spectra of JACEE events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Naomichi; Biyajima, Minoru; Ohsawa, Akinori.

    1995-01-01

    Pseudo-rapidity distributions of two high multiplicity events Ca-C and Si-AgBr observed by the JACEE are analyzed by a wavelet transform. Wavelet spectra of those events are calculated and compared with the simulation calculations. The wavelet spectrum of the Ca-C event somewhat resembles that simulated with the uniform random numbers. That of Si-AgBr event, however, is not reproduced by simulation calculations with Poisson random numbers, uniform random numbers, or a p-model. (author)

  6. Uranium spectra in the ICP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, A.A.; Qamar, S.; Atta, M.A. (Khan (A.Q.) Research Labs., Rawalpindi (Pakistan))

    1994-05-01

    Uranium spectra have been studied by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). In total, 8361 uranium lines were observed in the wavelength range of 235-500 nm. This article is an electronic publication in Spectrochimica Acta Electronica (SAE), the electronic section of Spectrochimica Acta Part B (SAB). The hard copy text is accompanied by a disk with data files and test files for an IBM-compatible computer. The main article discusses the scientific aspects of the subject and explains the purpose of the data files. (Author).

  7. Identified hadron spectra from PHOBOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Gábor I.; the PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wysłouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2004-08-01

    Transverse momentum spectra of pions, kaons and protons, as well as antiparticle to particle ratios near mid-rapidity from d+Au collisions at \\sqrt{sNN} = 200 GeV have been measured by the PHOBOS experiment at RHIC. The transverse momentum range of particle identification was extended to beyond 3 GeV/c using the TOF detector and a new trigger system. The pseudorapidity dependence of the nuclear modification factor for charged hadrons in d+Au collisions is presented.

  8. Uranium spectra in the ICP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazi, A.A.; Qamar, S.; Atta, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Uranium spectra have been studied by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). In total, 8361 uranium lines were observed in the wavelength range of 235-500 nm. This article is an electronic publication in Spectrochimica Acta Electronica (SAE), the electronic section of Spectrochimica Acta Part B (SAB). The hard copy text is accompanied by a disk with data files and test files for an IBM-compatible computer. The main article discusses the scientific aspects of the subject and explains the purpose of the data files. (Author)

  9. Operator functions and localization of spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Gil’, Michael I

    2003-01-01

    "Operator Functions and Localization of Spectra" is the first book that presents a systematic exposition of bounds for the spectra of various linear nonself-adjoint operators in a Hilbert space, having discrete and continuous spectra. In particular bounds for the spectra of integral, differential and integro-differential operators, as well as finite and infinite matrices are established. The volume also presents a systematic exposition of estimates for norms of operator-valued functions and their applications.

  10. Raman spectra of SDW superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rout, G.C. [Condensed Matter Physics Group, Department of Physics, Government Science College, Chatrapur, Orissa 761 020 (India)]. E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.in; Bishoyi, K.C. [P.G. Department of Physics, F.M. College (Autonomous), Balasore, Orissa 756 001 (India); Behera, S.N. [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India)

    2005-03-15

    We report the calculation of the phonon response of the coexistent spin density wave (SDW) and superconducting (SC) state and predict the observation of SC gap in the Raman spectra of rare-earth nickel borocarbide superconductors. The SDW state normally does not couple to the lattice and hence, the phonons in the system are not expected to be affected by the SDW state. But there is a possibility of observing SC gap mode in the Raman spectra of a SDW superconductor due to the coupling of the SC gap excitation to the Raman active phonons in the system via the electron-phonon (e-p) interaction. A theoretical model is used for the coexistent phase and electron-phonon interaction. Phonon Green's function is calculated by Zubarev's technique and the phonon self-energy due to e-p interaction which is given by electron density response function in the coexistent state corresponding to the SDW wave vector q = Q is evaluated. The results so obtained exhibit agreement with the experimental observations.

  11. Raman spectra of SDW superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, G.C.; Bishoyi, K.C.; Behera, S.N.

    2005-01-01

    We report the calculation of the phonon response of the coexistent spin density wave (SDW) and superconducting (SC) state and predict the observation of SC gap in the Raman spectra of rare-earth nickel borocarbide superconductors. The SDW state normally does not couple to the lattice and hence, the phonons in the system are not expected to be affected by the SDW state. But there is a possibility of observing SC gap mode in the Raman spectra of a SDW superconductor due to the coupling of the SC gap excitation to the Raman active phonons in the system via the electron-phonon (e-p) interaction. A theoretical model is used for the coexistent phase and electron-phonon interaction. Phonon Green's function is calculated by Zubarev's technique and the phonon self-energy due to e-p interaction which is given by electron density response function in the coexistent state corresponding to the SDW wave vector q = Q is evaluated. The results so obtained exhibit agreement with the experimental observations

  12. Emissive spectra of shock-heated argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jingyou; Gu Yan; Peng Qixian; Bai Yulin; Li Ping

    2003-01-01

    To study the radiant properties of argon under weak shock compression, an aluminum target filled with gaseous argon at ambient states was impacted by a tungsten alloy projectile which was launched from a two-stage light gun to 2.00 km/s. The radiant signals of single shock-compressed argon were recorded by a six-channel pyrometer and oscilloscopes, which varied with time linearly for the five channels from 405 nm to 700 nm and exponentially for the channel 800 nm, and the corresponding velocity of shock wave was determined to be 4.10 ± 0.09 km/s. By the present experiment, it has been shown that the absorbability of the shock-heated argon is low for visual light and the optical depths of argon gas turn from thin to thick as wavelengths gradually increase. The time-resolved spectra in the rising-front of the radiant signal in the re-shocked argon were recorded by means of an OMA, and strong emissive spectrum bands near 450 nm light-wave length but no linear spectrum were found. The emissive spectrum properties of shock-compression argon were qualitatively explained by the state parameters and ionization degree

  13. Non-LTE Stellar Population Synthesis of Globular Clusters Using Synthetic Integrated Light Spectra. I. Constructing the IL Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mitchell. E.; Short, C. Ian

    2017-02-01

    We present an investigation of the globular cluster population synthesis method of McWilliam & Bernstein, focusing on the impact of non-LTE (NLTE) modeling effects and color-magnitude diagram (CMD) discretization. Johnson-Cousins-Bessel U - B, B-V, V-I, and J-K colors are produced for 96 synthetic integrated light (IL) spectra with two different discretization prescriptions and three degrees of NLTE treatment. These color values are used to compare NLTE- and LTE-derived population ages. Relative contributions of different spectral types to the IL spectra for different wavebands are measured. IL NLTE spectra are shown to be more luminous in the UV and optical than LTE spectra, but show stronger absorption features in the IR. The main features showing discrepancies between NLTE and LTE IL spectra may be attributed to light metals, primarily Fe I, Ca I, and Ti I, as well as TiO molecular bands. Main-sequence stars are shown to have negligible NLTE effects at IR wavelengths compared to more evolved stars. Photometric color values are shown to vary at the millimagnitude level as a function of CMD discretization. Finer CMD sampling for the upper main sequence and turnoff, base of the red giant branch, and the horizontal branch minimizes this variation. Differences in ages derived from LTE and NLTE IL spectra are found to range from 0.55 to 2.54 Gyr, comparable to the uncertainty in GC ages derived from color indices with observational uncertainties of 0.01 mag, the limiting precision of the Harris catalog.

  14. Life after a Humanities Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masola, Athambile

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of a humanities graduate after leaving the academy. The author considers her own education in light of the historical changes in South Africa's education system. The article is a personal account of the questions and challenges encountered in choosing a humanities degree in a context where a tertiary education…

  15. Special Degree Programs for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuing Education for Adults, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Briefly describes Bachelor of Liberal Studies programs at six colleges and universities, the Master of Liberal Studies program at Boston University, and the Master of Engineering degree at the University of California at Los Angeles, as well as programs being conducted on a graduate level by Arthur D. Little, Inc. for government and industrial…

  16. Astronautics Degrees for Space Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruntman, M.; Brodsky, R.; Erwin, D.; Kunc, J.

    The Astronautics Program (http://astronautics.usc.edu) of the University of Southern California (USC) offers a full set of undergraduate and graduate degree programs in Aerospace Engineering with emphasis in Astronautics. The Bachelor of Science degree program in Astronautics combines basic science and engineering classes with specialized astronautics classes. The Master of Science degree program in Astronautics offers classes in various areas of space technology. The Certificate in Astronautics targets practicing engineers and scientists who enter space-related fields and/or who want to obtain training in specific space-related areas. Many specialized graduate classes are taught by adjunct faculty working at the leading space companies. The Master of Science degree and Certificate are available through the USC Distance Education Network (DEN). Today, the Internet allows us to reach students anywhere in the world through webcasting. The majority of our graduate students, as well as those pursuing the Certificate, work full time as engineers in the space industry and government research and development centers. The new world of distance learning presents new challenges and opens new opportunities. We show how the transformation of distance learning and particularly the introduction of webcasting transform organization of the program and class delivery. We will describe in detail the academic focus of the program, student reach, and structure of program components. Program development is illustrated by the student enrollment dynamics and related industrial trends; the lessons learned emphasize the importance of feedback from the students and from the space industry.

  17. Degree sequence in message transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamuna, M.

    2017-11-01

    Message encryption is always an issue in current communication scenario. Methods are being devised using various domains. Graphs satisfy numerous unique properties which can be used for message transfer. In this paper, I propose a message encryption method based on degree sequence of graphs.

  18. Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree)

    OpenAIRE

    Tiseira Izaguirre, Andrés Omar; Blanco Rodríguez, David; Carreres Talens, Marcos; FAJARDO PEÑA, PABLO

    2013-01-01

    Apuntes de la asignatura Tecnología Aeroespacial Tiseira Izaguirre, AO.; Blanco Rodríguez, D.; Carreres Talens, M.; Fajardo Peña, P. (2013). Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree). Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/35263

  19. Multiscale climate emulator of multimodal wave spectra: MUSCLE-spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Ana; Hegermiller, Christie A.; Antolinez, Jose A. A.; Camus, Paula; Vitousek, Sean; Ruggiero, Peter; Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Tomás, Antonio; Mendez, Fernando J.

    2017-02-01

    Characterization of multimodal directional wave spectra is important for many offshore and coastal applications, such as marine forecasting, coastal hazard assessment, and design of offshore wave energy farms and coastal structures. However, the multivariate and multiscale nature of wave climate variability makes this complex problem tractable using computationally expensive numerical models. So far, the skill of statistical-downscaling model-based parametric (unimodal) wave conditions is limited in large ocean basins such as the Pacific. The recent availability of long-term directional spectral data from buoys and wave hindcast models allows for development of stochastic models that include multimodal sea-state parameters. This work introduces a statistical downscaling framework based on weather types to predict multimodal wave spectra (e.g., significant wave height, mean wave period, and mean wave direction from different storm systems, including sea and swells) from large-scale atmospheric pressure fields. For each weather type, variables of interest are modeled using the categorical distribution for the sea-state type, the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution for wave height and wave period, a multivariate Gaussian copula for the interdependence between variables, and a Markov chain model for the chronology of daily weather types. We apply the model to the southern California coast, where local seas and swells from both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres contribute to the multimodal wave spectrum. This work allows attribution of particular extreme multimodal wave events to specific atmospheric conditions, expanding knowledge of time-dependent, climate-driven offshore and coastal sea-state conditions that have a significant influence on local nearshore processes, coastal morphology, and flood hazards.

  20. Scikit-spectra: Explorative Spectroscopy in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Hughes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scikit-spectra is an intuitive framework for explorative spectroscopy in Python. Scikit-spectra leverages the Pandas library for powerful data processing to provide datastructures and an API designed for spectroscopy. Utilizing the new IPython Notebook widget system, scikit-spectra is headed towards a GUI when you want it, API when you need it approach to spectral analysis. As an application, analysis is presented of the surface-plasmon resonance shift in a solution of gold nanoparticles induced by proteins binding to the gold’s surface. Please refer to the scikit-spectra website for full documentation and support: http://hugadams.github.io/scikit-spectra/

  1. An RGB approach to extraordinary spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusche, Sascha; Theilmann, Florian

    2015-09-01

    After Newton had explained a series of ordinary spectra and Goethe had pointed out its complementary counterpart, Nussbaumer discovered a series of extraordinary spectra which are geometrically identical and colourwise analogous to Newton’s and Goethe’s spectra. To understand the geometry and colours of extraordinary spectra, the wavelength composition is explored with filters and spectroscopic setups. Visualized in a dispersion diagram, the wavelength composition is interpreted in terms of additive colour mixing. Finally, all spectra are simulated as the superposition of red, green, and blue images that are shifted apart. This RGB approach makes it easy to understand the complex relationship between wavelengths and colours.

  2. Method of spectra parametrization of (n, x) and (n, nx) reactions induced by DT-neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, D.V.; Kovrigin, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    A method for parmetrization of experimental spectra has been developed for more convenient carrying out a process of separating competing mechanisms contributions in spectra of the (n, x) and (n, nx) reactions induced with DT neutrons. Differential cross sections of competing partial processes are used. as expanding coefficients. Model spectra may be represented in the form of tabulated-given functions calculated separately from formulae of any complexity degree. Fit of model expressions is performed by the least square method (lsm). Step-by-step algorithm of nonlinear optimization is used for search for lsm- evaluations of theoretical models parameters [ru

  3. Different spectra with the same neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H. R.; Ortiz R, J. M.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Martinez B, M. R.; Hernandez A, B.; Ortiz H, A. A.; Mercado, G. A.

    2010-01-01

    Using as source term the spectrum of a 239 Pu-Be source several neutron spectra have been calculated using Monte Carlo methods. The source term was located in the centre of spherical moderators made of light water, heavy water and polyethylene of different diameters. Also a 239 Pu-Be source was used to measure its neutron spectrum, bare and moderated by water. The neutron spectra were measured at 100 cm with a Bonner spheres spectrometer. Monte Carlo calculations were used to calculate the neutron spectra of bare and water-moderated spectra that were compared with those measured with the spectrometer. Resulting spectra are similar to those found in power plants with PWR, BWR and Candu nuclear reactors. Beside the spectra the dosimetric features were determined. Using moderators and a single neutron source can be produced neutron spectra alike those found in workplaces, this neutron fields can be utilized to calibrate neutron dosimeters and area monitors. (Author)

  4. ExoCross: Spectra from molecular line lists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Al-Refaie, Ahmed; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2018-03-01

    ExoCross generates spectra and thermodynamic properties from molecular line lists in ExoMol, HITRAN, or several other formats. The code is parallelized and also shows a high degree of vectorization; it works with line profiles such as Doppler, Lorentzian and Voigt and supports several broadening schemes. ExoCross is also capable of working with the recently proposed method of super-lines. It supports calculations of lifetimes, cooling functions, specific heats and other properties. ExoCross converts between different formats, such as HITRAN, ExoMol and Phoenix, and simulates non-LTE spectra using a simple two-temperature approach. Different electronic, vibronic or vibrational bands can be simulated separately using an efficient filtering scheme based on the quantum numbers.

  5. Influence of fluctuating strain on exciton reflection spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben

    1982-01-01

    The influence of an internal distribution of strain on the exciton reflection spectra is investigated. The resulting fluctuating optical constants give rise to a fluctuating phase of reflectivity. The standard deviation σ of these phase fluctuations is the quantity which can be observed...... to derive the dependence of the phase of reflectivity on the direction of the fluctuating optical axis. The results obtained for σ are compared with the experimental depolarization spectra of ZnO. The only fitting parameter is the common standard deviation of the strain components. It is found......, for example, between crossed polarizers or from ellipsometric measurements. Assuming the phase fluctuations to obey a Gaussian distribution, σ can be expressed in a simple way in terms of the degree of polarization or the depolarization of the reflected light. σ is then derived in terms of the standard...

  6. Equipment response spectra for base-isolated shear beam structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, G.; Su, L.

    1992-01-01

    Equipment response spectra in base-isolated structure under seismic ground excitations are studied. The equipment is treated as a single-degree-of-freedom system attached to a nonuniform elastic beam structural model. Several leading base isolation systems, including the laminated rubber bearing, the resilient-friction base isolator with and without a sliding upper plate, and the EDF system are considered. Deflection and acceleration response spectra for the equipment and the shear beam structure subject to a sinusoidal and the accelerogram of the N00W component of El Centro 1940 earthquake are evaluated. Primary-secondary interaction effects are included in the analysis. Several numerical parametric studies are carried out and the effectiveness of different base isolation systems in protecting the nonstructural components is studied. It is shown that use of properly designed base isolation systems provides considerable protection for secondary systems, as well as, the structure against severe seismic loadings. (orig.)

  7. Schottky spectra and crystalline beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestrikov, D.V.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we revise the current dependence of the Schottky noise power of a cooled proton beam previously measured at NAP-M. More careful study of experimental data indicates a linear decrease in the inverse Schottky noise power with an increase in the beam intensity (N). The root of this function determines a threshold current which occurs at N = N th ≅1.2 x 10 8 particles. The inspection of measured Schottky spectra shows that this threshold does not correspond to some collective instability of the measured harmonic of the linear beam density. The found value of N th does not depend on the longitudinal beam temperature. For the case of NAP-M lattice, the study of the spectral properties of the Schottky noise in the crystalline string predicts the current dependence of the equilibrium momentum spread of the beam, which qualitatively agrees with that, recalculated from the NAP-M data. (orig.)

  8. Fractal analysis of power spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, S.

    1982-01-01

    A general argument is presented concerning the Hausdorff dimension D of the power spectrum curve for a system of N weakly-coupled oscillators. Explicit upper and lower bounds for D are derived in terms of the number N of interacting modes. The mathematical reasoning relies upon the celebrated KAM theorem concerning the perturbation of Hamiltonian systems and the finite measure of the set of destroyed tori in phase space; this set can be related to Hausdorff dimension by certain mathematical theorems. An important consequence of these results is a simple empirical test for the applicability of Hamiltonian perturbation theory in the analysis of an experimentally observed spectrum. As an illustration, the theory is applied to the interpretation of a recent numerical analysis of both the power spectrum of the Sun and certain laboratory spectra of hydrodynamic turbulence. (Auth.)

  9. Spectra processing with computer graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, H.

    1979-01-01

    A program of processng gamma-ray spectra in rock analysis is described. The peak search was performed by applying a cross-correlation function. The experimental data were approximated by an analytical function represented by the sum of a polynomial and a multiple peak function. The latter is Gaussian, joined with the low-energy side by an exponential. A modified Gauss-Newton algorithm is applied for the purpose of fitting the data to the function. The processing of the values derived from a lunar sample demonstrates the effect of different choices of polynomial orders for approximating the background for various fitting intervals. Observations on applications of interactive graphics are presented. 3 figures, 1 table

  10. Polarization-dependent spectra in the photoassociative ionization of cold atoms in a bright sodium beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Serrano, Jaime; DeGraffenreid, William; Weiner, John

    2002-01-01

    We report measurements of cold photoassociative ionization (PAI) spectra obtained from collisions within a slow, bright Na atomic beam. A high-brightness atom flux, obtained by optical cooling and focusing of the atom beam, permits a high degree of alignment and orientation of binary collisions with respect to the laboratory atom-beam axis. The results reveal features of PAI spectra not accessible in conventional magneto-optical trap studies. We take advantage of this high degree of alignment to selectively excite autoionizing doubly excited states of specific symmetry

  11. Degree-based graph construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyunju; Toroczkai, Zoltan; Erdos, Peter L; Miklos, Istvan; Szekely, Laszlo A

    2009-01-01

    Degree-based graph construction is a ubiquitous problem in network modelling (Newman et al 2006 The Structure and Dynamics of Networks (Princeton Studies in Complexity) (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press), Boccaletti et al 2006 Phys. Rep. 424 175), ranging from social sciences to chemical compounds and biochemical reaction networks in the cell. This problem includes existence, enumeration, exhaustive construction and sampling questions with aspects that are still open today. Here we give necessary and sufficient conditions for a sequence of nonnegative integers to be realized as a simple graph's degree sequence, such that a given (but otherwise arbitrary) set of connections from an arbitrarily given node is avoided. We then use this result to present a swap-free algorithm that builds all simple graphs realizing a given degree sequence. In a wider context, we show that our result provides a greedy construction method to build all the f-factor subgraphs (Tutte 1952 Can. J. Math. 4 314) embedded within K n setmn S k , where K n is the complete graph and S k is a star graph centred on one of the nodes. (fast track communication)

  12. Influence of temperature on water and aqueous glucose absorption spectra in the near- and mid-infrared regions at physiologically relevant temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P.S.; Bak, J.; Andersson-Engels, S.

    2003-01-01

    transmission cell controlled within 0.02 degreesC. Pathlengths of 50 mum and 0.4 mm were used in the mid- and near-infrared spectral region, respectively. Difference spectra were used to determine the effect of temperature on the water spectra quantitatively. These spectra were obtained by subtracting the 37...... degreesC water spectrum from the spectra measured at other temperatures. The difference spectra reveal that the effect of temperature is highest in the vicinity of the strong absorption bands, with a number of isosbestic points with no temperature dependence and relatively flat plateaus in between......Near- and mid-infrared absorption spectra of pure water and aqueous 1.0 g/dL glucose solutions in the wavenumber range 8000-950 cm(-1) were measured in the temperature range 30-42 C in steps of 2 degreesC. Measurements were carried out with an FT-IR spectrometer and a variable pathlength...

  13. Determination of the optical absorption spectra of thin layers from their photoacoustic spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychto, Leszek; Maliński, Mirosław; Patryn, Aleksy; Tivanov, Mikhail; Gremenok, Valery

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a new method for computations of the optical absorption coefficient spectra from the normalized photoacoustic amplitude spectra of thin semiconductor samples deposited on the optically transparent and thermally thick substrates. This method was tested on CuIn(Te0.7Se0.3)2 thin films. From the normalized photoacoustic amplitude spectra, the optical absorption coefficient spectra were computed with the new formula as also with the numerical iterative method. From these spectra, the value of the energy gap of the thin film material and the type of the optical transitions were determined. From the experimental optical transmission spectra, the optical absorption coefficient spectra were computed too, and compared with the optical absorption coefficient spectra obtained from photoacoustic spectra.

  14. Constructive Dimension and Turing Degrees

    OpenAIRE

    Bienvenu, Laurent; Doty, David; Stephan, Frank

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the constructive Hausdorff and packing dimensions of Turing degrees. The main result is that every infinite sequence S with constructive Hausdorff dimension dim_H(S) and constructive packing dimension dim_P(S) is Turing equivalent to a sequence R with dim_H(R) 0. Furthermore, if dim_P(S) > 0, then dim_P(R) >= 1 - epsilon. The reduction thus serves as a *randomness extractor* that increases the algorithmic randomness of S, as measured by constructive dimension. A number of...

  15. Structure of high-resolution NMR spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Corio, PL

    2012-01-01

    Structure of High-Resolution NMR Spectra provides the principles, theories, and mathematical and physical concepts of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.The book presents the elementary theory of magnetic resonance; the quantum mechanical theory of angular momentum; the general theory of steady state spectra; and multiple quantum transitions, double resonance and spin echo experiments.Physicists, chemists, and researchers will find the book a valuable reference text.

  16. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzold, D.E.; Goward, S.N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the mid latitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 μm, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future. (author)

  17. Energy spectra of quantum rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, A; Lüscher, S; Ihn, T; Heinzel, T; Ensslin, K; Wegscheider, W; Bichler, M

    2001-10-25

    Quantum mechanical experiments in ring geometries have long fascinated physicists. Open rings connected to leads, for example, allow the observation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, one of the best examples of quantum mechanical phase coherence. The phase coherence of electrons travelling through a quantum dot embedded in one arm of an open ring has also been demonstrated. The energy spectra of closed rings have only recently been studied by optical spectroscopy. The prediction that they allow persistent current has been explored in various experiments. Here we report magnetotransport experiments on closed rings in the Coulomb blockade regime. Our experiments show that a microscopic understanding of energy levels, so far limited to few-electron quantum dots, can be extended to a many-electron system. A semiclassical interpretation of our results indicates that electron motion in the rings is governed by regular rather than chaotic motion, an unexplored regime in many-electron quantum dots. This opens a way to experiments where even more complex structures can be investigated at a quantum mechanical level.

  18. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Donald E.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the midlatitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 microns, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future.

  19. Ultraviolet spectra of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, J.P.; Seaton, M.J.; Adams, S.; Lutz, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed study of NGC 7662 is based on UV results obtained from 15 IUE spectra and on observations of other workers at optical, IR and radio wavelengths. Improved techniques are used to extract IUE data for an extended source. Relative fluxes in the different apertures which have been used are obtained using the brightness contours of Coleman, Reay and Worswick. There is close agreement between the reddening deduced from the ratios He II (lambda 1640)/(lambda 4686) and (radio)/(Hβ) and the nebular continuum emission observed with the IUE large slots agrees closely with that predicted using absolute radio and Hβ fluxes. The fluxes in nebular emission lines observed with the small slots are smaller than expected from brightness distributions; it is concluded that, for an extended source, the small slots have aperture transmission factors of 0.85 for SWP and 0.46 for LWR. The central star is fainter than has been previously supposed (by more than two magnitudes). The blackbody He II Zanstra temperature of 113 000 K is consistent with the UV colour temperature. Previous work on colour temperatures of central stars is discussed critically. Two models are discussed. (author)

  20. Methodology for analyzing weak spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankovich, T.L.; Swainson, I.P.

    2000-02-01

    There is considerable interest in quantifying radionuclide transfer between environmental compartments. However, in many cases, it can be a challenge to detect concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides due to their low levels in environmental samples. As a result, it is valuable to develop analytical protocols to ensure consistent analysis of the areas under weak peaks. The current study has focused on testing how reproducibly peak areas and baselines can be determined using two analytical approaches. The first approach, which can be carried out using Maestro software, involves extracting net counts under a curve without fitting a functional form to the peak, whereas the second approach, which is used by most other peak fitting programs, determines net counts from spectra by fitting a Gaussian form to the data. It was found that the second approach produces more consistent peak area and baseline measurements, with the ability to de-convolute multiple, overlapping peaks. In addition, programs, such as Peak Fit, which can be used to fit a form to spectral data, often provide goodness of fit analyses, since the Gaussian form can be described using a characteristic equation against which peak data can be tested for their statistical significance. (author)

  1. Neutron and photon spectra in LINACs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega-Carrillo, H.R.; Martínez-Ovalle, S.A.; Lallena, A.M.; Mercado, G.A.; Benites-Rengifo, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10 –6 and 1 MeV. Neutron and the Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage. - Highlights: ► With MCNPX code realistic models of two LINACs were built. ► Photon and neutron spectra below the flattening filter and at the isocenter were calculated. ► Neutron spectrum at the flattening filter was compared against the Tosi et al. source-term model. ► Tosi et al. model underestimates the neutron contribution below 1 MeV. ► Photon spectra look alike to those published in literature.

  2. Optical absorption spectra of Ag-11 isomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of the three most; stable structural isomers of the Ag-11 cluster were calculated using the time-dependent, density functional theory within the Casida formalism. The slightly different, spectra, of the isomers may permit the identification of the ground-stale confi......The optical absorption spectra of the three most; stable structural isomers of the Ag-11 cluster were calculated using the time-dependent, density functional theory within the Casida formalism. The slightly different, spectra, of the isomers may permit the identification of the ground...

  3. Depth distributions of light action spectra for skin chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.

    2010-03-01

    Light action spectra over wavelengths of 300-1000 nm are calculated for components of the human cutaneous covering: melanin, basal (bloodless) tissue, and blood oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin. The transformation of the spectra with depth in biological tissue results from two factors. The first is the wavelength dependence of the absorption coefficient corresponding to a particular skin chromophore and the second is the spectral selectivity of the radiation flux in biological tissue. This factor is related to the optical properties of all chromophores. A significant change is found to take place in the spectral distribution of absorbed radiant power with increasing depth. The action spectrum of light for the molecular oxygen contained in all components of biological tissue is also studied in the 625-645 nm range. The spectra are found to change with both the volume fraction of blood vessels and the degree of oxygenation of the blood. These results are useful for analyzing processes associated with optical absorption that are possible mechanisms for the interaction of light with biological tissues: photodissociation of oxyhemoglobin and the light-oxygen effect.

  4. Area spectra of near extremal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Deyou; Yang, Haitang; Zu, Xiaotao

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by Maggiore's new interpretation of quasinormal modes, we investigate area spectra of a near extremal Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole and a higher-dimensional near extremal Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter black hole. The result shows that the area spectra are equally spaced and irrelevant to the parameters of the black holes. (orig.)

  5. Composite Spectra Paper 1: HR 6902

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    spectra; in many cases we have used the maximum width permitted by the optics of ... 10 mЕ, corresponding to 1 µm the plate, are the norm. ..... an inequality ..... on the spectra of HR 6902, we have thought it appropriate to weight the four ...

  6. Thermoluminescence spectra measured with a Michelson interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschberger, P.

    1991-01-01

    A Michelson interferometer was redesigned to prove its capabilities in the measurement of short-lived, low-intensity thermoluminescence spectra. Interferograms are collected during heating up the thermoluminescent probe in a heater plate. A personal computer controls the data acquisition and processes the Fourier transform. As the results show, even a comparatively simple and limited setup leads to relevant and reproducible spectra. (author)

  7. Near IR spectra of symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrillat, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The author reports on recent observations from the near IR spectra of symbiotic stars. The helium and oxygen lines useful for the construction of theoretical models are identified. Observations for cool stars and novae (nebular phase) are outlined and the spectra of specific symbiotic stars between lambdalambda 8000-11000 are presented and discussed. (Auth./C.F.)

  8. Aircraft Measurements of Atmospheric Kinetic Energy Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Lilly, D. K.

    1983-01-01

    Wind velocity data obtained from a jet airliner are used to construct kinetic energy spectra over the range of wavelengths from 2.5 to 2500 km. The spectra exhibit an approximate -5/3 slope for wavelengths of less than about 150 km, steepening to about -2.2 at larger scales. These results support...

  9. PCA: Principal Component Analysis for spectra modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Peter D.; Oliver, Seb; Farrah, Duncan; Wang, Lingyu; Efstathiou, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    The mid-infrared spectra of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) contain a variety of spectral features that can be used as diagnostics to characterize the spectra. However, such diagnostics are biased by our prior prejudices on the origin of the features. Moreover, by using only part of the spectrum they do not utilize the full information content of the spectra. Blind statistical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) consider the whole spectrum, find correlated features and separate them out into distinct components. This code, written in IDL, classifies principal components of IRS spectra to define a new classification scheme using 5D Gaussian mixtures modelling. The five PCs and average spectra for the four classifications to classify objects are made available with the code.

  10. General Notes on Processes and Their Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Cepciansky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency spectrum performs one of the main characteristics of a process. The aim of the paper is to show the coherence between the process and its own spectrum and how the behaviour and properties of a process itself can be deduced from its spectrum. Processes are categorized and general principles of their spectra calculation and recognition are given. The main stress is put on power spectra of electric and optic signals, as they also perform a kind of processes. These spectra can be directly measured, observed and examined by means of spectral analyzers and they are very important characteristics which can not be omitted at transmission techniques in telecommunication technologies. Further, the paper also deals with non electric processes, mainly with processes and spectra at mass servicing and how these spectra can be utilised in praxis.

  11. Magnetic field control of 90 Degree-Sign , 180 Degree-Sign , and 360 Degree-Sign domain wall resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidi, Roya, E-mail: royamajidi@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, 16788-15811 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-01

    In the present work, we have compared the resistance of the 90 Degree-Sign , 180 Degree-Sign , and 360 Degree-Sign domain walls in the presence of external magnetic field. The calculations are based on the Boltzmann transport equation within the relaxation time approximation. One-dimensional Neel-type domain walls between two domains whose magnetization differs by angle of 90 Degree-Sign , 180 Degree-Sign , and 360 Degree-Sign are considered. The results indicate that the resistance of the 360 Degree-Sign DW is more considerable than that of the 90 Degree-Sign and 180 Degree-Sign DWs. It is also found that the domain wall resistance can be controlled by applying transverse magnetic field. Increasing the strength of the external magnetic field enhances the domain wall resistance. In providing spintronic devices based on magnetic nanomaterials, considering and controlling the effect of domain wall on resistivity are essential.

  12. Design spectra development considering short time histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, E.O.

    1983-01-01

    Two separate programs, MODQKE and MDOF, were written to provide a capability of obtaining equipment spectra from design spectra. MODQKE generates or modifies acceleration histories to conform with design spectra pertaining to, say, a foundation. MDOF is a simple linear modal superposition program that solves for equipment support histories using the design spectra conforming histories as input. Equipment spectra, then, are obtained from the support histories using MODQKE. MODQKE was written to modify or provide new histories with special attention paid to short seismic records. A technique from the open literature was borrowed to generate an initial history that approximates a given response spectrum. Further refinement is done with smoothing cycles in which several correction signals are added to the history in a way that produces a least squares fit between actual and prescribed spectra. Provision is made for history shaping, a baseline correction, and final scaling. MODQKE performance has been demonstrated with seven examples having zero to ten percent damping ratios, and 2.5 seconds to 20 seconds durations and a variety of target spectra. The examples show the program is inexpensive to use. MDOF is a simple modal superposition program. It has no eigensolver, and the user supplies mode shapes, frequencies, and participation factors as input. Floor spectra can be generated from design spectra by using a history from MODQKE that conforms to the design spectrum as input to MDOF. Floor motions from MDOF can be fed back to MODQKE without modification to obtain the floor spectra. A simple example is given to show how equipment mass effects can be incorporated into the MDOF solution. Any transient solution capability can be used to replace MDOF. For example, a direct transient approach may be desirable if both the equipment and floor structures are to be included in the model with different damping fractions. (orig./HP)

  13. Opposite Degree Algorithm and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Guang Yue

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The opposite (Opposite Degree, referred to as OD algorithm is an intelligent algorithm proposed by Yue Xiaoguang et al. Opposite degree algorithm is mainly based on the concept of opposite degree, combined with the idea of design of neural network and genetic algorithm and clustering analysis algorithm. The OD algorithm is divided into two sub algorithms, namely: opposite degree - numerical computation (OD-NC algorithm and opposite degree - Classification computation (OD-CC algorithm.

  14. Preliminary report on an intercomparison of methods for processing Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Houtermans, H.; Schaerf, K.

    1978-01-01

    An intercomparison has been organized by the IAEA for the purpose of evaluating methods for processing Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectra. These spectra cover an energy range of about 1MeV and, with one exception, contain only well separated single peaks; another spectrum contains double peaks with various relative intensities and degrees of overlap. The spectra were prepared in such a way that the areas and positions of all peaks, relative to a standard spectrum which is also provided, are known exactly. The intercomparison enables the user to test the ability of his methods (1) to detect small peaks near the limit of detectability; (2) to determine the position and area of more easily detectable peaks, and (3) to determine the position and area of overlapping double peaks. The method of preparation of the spectra and the organization of the intercomparison are described in this report. (author)

  15. Spectra of sparse random matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, Reimer

    2008-01-01

    We compute the spectral density for ensembles of sparse symmetric random matrices using replica. Our formulation of the replica-symmetric ansatz shares the symmetries of that suggested in a seminal paper by Rodgers and Bray (symmetry with respect to permutation of replica and rotation symmetry in the space of replica), but uses a different representation in terms of superpositions of Gaussians. It gives rise to a pair of integral equations which can be solved by a stochastic population-dynamics algorithm. Remarkably our representation allows us to identify pure-point contributions to the spectral density related to the existence of normalizable eigenstates. Our approach is not restricted to matrices defined on graphs with Poissonian degree distribution. Matrices defined on regular random graphs or on scale-free graphs, are easily handled. We also look at matrices with row constraints such as discrete graph Laplacians. Our approach naturally allows us to unfold the total density of states into contributions coming from vertices of different local coordinations and an example of such an unfolding is presented. Our results are well corroborated by numerical diagonalization studies of large finite random matrices

  16. Determination of the fast neutrons spectra by the Elastic scattering method (n, p)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizalde D, J.

    1973-01-01

    This work consists in determining the fast neutron spectra emitted by a Pu-Be isotopic source. The implemented technique is based in the spectrometry (n, p). This consists in making to fall on a fast neutrons beams (polyenergetic) over a thin film of hydrogenated material, detecting the spectra of emitted protons at a fix angle. The polyethylene film and the used solid state detector are inside of a vacuum chamber. The detector is placed at 30 degree with respect to direction of the incident neutrons beam. The protons spectra is stored in a multichannel. the energy is obtained with the prior calibration of the system. The data processing involves the transformation of the protons spectra observed at the falling on neutrons spectra over the film. The energy of the neutrons is related with that of the protons, according to the collision kinematical equations. The cross section of elastic collision of the neutrons with the hydrogen atoms is obtained from literature. Applying these relations to the observed spectra it is obtained the falling on neutron spectra over the film. (Author)

  17. Spectra of conformal sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tlapak, Vaclav

    2015-04-01

    In this thesis the spectra of conformal sigma models defined on (generalized) symmetric spaces are analysed. The spaces where sigma models are conformal without the addition of a Wess-Zumino term are supermanifolds, in other words spaces that include fermionic directions. After a brief review of the general construction of vertex operators and the background field expansion, we compute the diagonal terms of the one-loop anomalous dimensions of sigma models on semi-symmetric spaces. We find that the results are formally identical to the symmetric case. However, unlike for sigma models on symmetric spaces, off diagonal terms that lead to operator mixing are also present. These are not computed here. We then present a detailed analysis of the one-loop spectrum of the supersphere S 3 vertical stroke 2 sigma model as one of the simplest examples. The analysis illustrates the power and simplicity of the construction. We use this data to revisit a duality with the OSP(4 vertical stroke 2) Gross-Neveu model that was proposed by Candu and Saleur. With the help of a recent all-loop result for the anomalous dimension of (1)/(2)BPS operators of Gross-Neveu models, we are able to recover the entire zero-mode spectrum of the supersphere model. We also argue that the sigma model constraints and its equations of motion are implemented correctly in the Gross-Neveu model, including the one-loop data. The duality is further supported by a new all-loop result for the anomalous dimension of the ground states of the sigma model. However, higher-gradient operators cannot be completely recovered. It is possible that this discrepancy is related to a known instability of the sigma model. The instability of sigma models is due to symmetry preserving high-gradient operators that become relevant at arbitrarily small values of the coupling. This feature has been observed long ago in one-loop calculations of the O(N)-vector model and soon been realized to be a generic property of sigma models

  18. Statistical properties of Fermi GBM GRBs' spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, István I.; Balázs, Lajos G.; Horvath, Istvan; Tóth, L. Viktor; Bagoly, Zsolt

    2018-03-01

    Statistical studies of gamma-ray burst (GRB) spectra may result in important information on the physics of GRBs. The Fermi GBM catalogue contains GRB parameters (peak energy, spectral indices, and intensity) estimated fitting the gamma-ray spectral energy distribution of the total emission (fluence, flnc), and during the time of the peak flux (pflx). Using contingency tables, we studied the relationship of the models best-fitting pflx and flnc time intervals. Our analysis revealed an ordering of the spectra into a power law - Comptonized - smoothly broken power law - Band series. This result was further supported by a correspondence analysis of the pflx and flnc spectra categorical variables. We performed a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to find a relationship between categorical (spectral) and model independent physical data. LDA resulted in highly significant physical differences among the spectral types, that is more pronounced in the case of the pflx spectra, than for the flnc spectra. We interpreted this difference as caused by the temporal variation of the spectrum during the outburst. This spectral variability is confirmed by the differences in the low-energy spectral index and peak energy, between the pflx and flnc spectra. We found that the synchrotron radiation is significant in GBM spectra. The mean low-energy spectral index is close to the canonical value of α = -2/3 during the peak flux. However, α is ˜ -0.9 for the spectra of the fluences. We interpret this difference as showing that the effect of cooling is important only for the fluence spectra.

  19. Scaling properties of the transverse mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffner-Bielich, J.

    2002-01-01

    Motivated from the formation of an initial state of gluon-saturated matter, we discuss scaling relations for the transverse mass spectra at BNL's relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC). We show on linear plots, that the transverse mass spectra for various hadrons can be described by an universal function in m t . The transverse mass spectra for different centralities can be rescaled into each other. Finally, we demonstrate that m t -scaling is also present in proton-antiproton collider data and compare it to m t -scaling at RHIC. (orig.)

  20. IRAS low-resolution spectra of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; Volk, K.

    1989-01-01

    The spectra of external galaxies are selected and extracted from the IRAS LRS database. Twenty-one objects present viable spectra. One is a peculiar star-forming E-S0 galaxy. The remainder are all starburst or H II region galaxies. Their average spectrum demonstrates the importance of the PAH emission bands in the 8-23-micron region and reinforces the conclusion reached from ground-based spectra, that there is a strong correlation between the PAH bands and the starburst or H II region character of a galaxy. 32 refs

  1. Parametrization relating the fermionic mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppe, A.

    1993-01-01

    When parametrizing the fermionic mass spectra in terms of the unit matrix and a recursive matrix scrR 0 , which corresponds to an underlying scaling pattern in the mass spectra, each fermionic sector is characterized by three parameters: k, α, and R. Using the set of relations displayed by the parameters of the different sectors, it is possible to formulate a ''family Lagrangian'' which for each sector encompasses all the families. Relations between quark masses are furthermore deduced from these ''family Lagrangians.'' Using the relations between the parameters of the different charge sectors, it is also possible to ''derive'' the quark mass spectra from the (charged) leptonic mass spectrum

  2. Power spectra of currents off Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Current measurements were carried out using a recording current meter across the continental shelf off Bombay, Maharashtra, India at 4 stations from an anchored ship. Power spectra were computed for selected lengths of records. Spectral energy...

  3. Contribution to the study of turbulence spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, R.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus suitable for turbulence measurement between ranges of 1 to 5000 cps and from 6 to 16,000 cps was developed and is described. Turbulence spectra downstream of the grills were examined with reference to their general characteristics, their LF qualities, and the effects of periodic turbulence. Medium and HF are discussed. Turbulence spectra in the boundary layers are similarly examined, with reference to their fluctuations at right angles to the wall, and to lateral fluctuations. Turbulence spectra in a boundary layer with suction to the wall is discussed. Induced turbulence, and turbulence spectra at high Reynolds numbers. Calculations are presented relating to the effect of filtering on the value of the correlations in time and space.

  4. Experimental phase diagram for random laser spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dardiry, Ramy G S; Mooiweer, Ronald; Lagendijk, Ad

    2012-01-01

    We systematically study the presence of narrow spectral features in a wide variety of random laser samples. Less gain or stronger scattering are shown to lead to a crossover from spiky to smooth spectra. A decomposition of random laser spectra into a set of Lorentzians provides unprecedented detail in the analysis of random laser spectra. We suggest an interpretation in terms of mode competition that enables an understanding of the observed experimental trends. In this interpretation, smooth random laser spectra are a consequence of competing modes for which the loss and gain are proportional. Spectral spikes are associated with modes that are uncoupled from the mode competition in the bulk of the sample. (paper)

  5. On two-spectra inverse problems

    OpenAIRE

    Guliyev, Namig J.

    2018-01-01

    We consider a two-spectra inverse problem for the one-dimensional Schr\\"{o}dinger equation with boundary conditions containing rational Herglotz--Nevanlinna functions of the eigenvalue parameter and provide a complete solution of this problem.

  6. Angular Spectra of Polarized Galactic Foregrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Jung; Lazarian, A.

    2003-01-01

    It is believed that magnetic field lines are twisted and bend by turbulent motions in the Galaxy. Therefore, both Galactic synchrotron emission and thermal emission from dust reflects statistics of Galactic turbulence. Our simple model of Galactic turbulence, motivated by results of our simulations, predicts that Galactic disk and halo exhibit different angular power spectra. We show that observed angular spectra of synchrotron emission are compatible with our model. We also show that our mod...

  7. Reflux and Belching After 270 Degree Versus 360 Degree Laparoscopic Posterior Fundoplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, Joris A.; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Hazebroek, Eric J.; Broeders, Ivo A.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Smout, André J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate differences in effects of 270 degrees (270 degrees LPF) and 360 degrees laparoscopic posterior fundoplication (360 degrees LPF) on reflux characteristics and belching. Background: Three hundred sixty degrees LPF greatly reduces the ability of the stomach to vent ingested

  8. Generation of synthetic gamma spectra with MATLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmerio, Julian J.; Coppo, Anibal D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this work is the simulation of gamma spectra using the MATLAB program to generate the calibration curves in efficiency, which will be used to measure radioactive waste in drums. They are necessary for the proper characterization of these drums. A Monte Carlo simulation was basically developed with the random number generator Mersenne Twister and nuclear data obtained from NIST. This paper shows the results obtained and difficulties encountered until today. The physical correction of the simulated spectra has been the only aspect we have been working, up to this moment. Procedures: A simplified representation of the 'Laboratorio de Verificacion y Control de la Calidad' was chosen. Drums with cemented liquid waste are routinely measured in this laboratory. The commercial program MCNP was also used to get a valid reference in the field of simulation of spectra. We analyzed the spectra obtained by MATLAB in the light of classical literature photon detection and the spectrum obtained by MCNP. Conclusions: Currently the program developed seems adequate to simulate a measurement in the 'Laboratorio de Verificacion y Control de la Calidad'. The spectra obtained by MATLAB seem to physically represent what is observed in real spectra. However, it is a slow program. The current development efforts are directed to improve the speed of simulation. An alternative is to use the CUDA language for NVIDIA video cards to parallelized the simulation. An adequate simulation of the electronic measuring chain is also needed to obtain better representations of the shapes of the peaks. (author)

  9. Identifying Broadband Rotational Spectra with Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Daniel P.; Prozument, Kirill

    2017-06-01

    A typical broadband rotational spectrum may contain several thousand observable transitions, spanning many species. Identifying the individual spectra, particularly when the dynamic range reaches 1,000:1 or even 10,000:1, can be challenging. One approach is to apply automated fitting routines. In this approach, combinations of 3 transitions can be created to form a "triple", which allows fitting of the A, B, and C rotational constants in a Watson-type Hamiltonian. On a standard desktop computer, with a target molecule of interest, a typical AUTOFIT routine takes 2-12 hours depending on the spectral density. A new approach is to utilize machine learning to train a computer to recognize the patterns (frequency spacing and relative intensities) inherit in rotational spectra and to identify the individual spectra in a raw broadband rotational spectrum. Here, recurrent neural networks have been trained to identify different types of rotational spectra and classify them accordingly. Furthermore, early results in applying convolutional neural networks for spectral object recognition in broadband rotational spectra appear promising. Perez et al. "Broadband Fourier transform rotational spectroscopy for structure determination: The water heptamer." Chem. Phys. Lett., 2013, 571, 1-15. Seifert et al. "AUTOFIT, an Automated Fitting Tool for Broadband Rotational Spectra, and Applications to 1-Hexanal." J. Mol. Spectrosc., 2015, 312, 13-21. Bishop. "Neural networks for pattern recognition." Oxford university press, 1995.

  10. 45 CFR 2400.41 - Degree programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... degree in history or political science (including government or politics), the degree of Master of Arts in Teaching in history or political science (including government or politics), or a related master's degree in education that permits a concentration in American history, American government, social studies...

  11. How Adult Online Graduates Portray Their Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study investigated how adult graduates of online Bachelor's degree programs describe the online aspect of their degree. Online education is promoted as a method for adult students to access the benefits of a college degree. Therefore, it is important for prospective online students, higher education institutions and…

  12. Lens positioner with five degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobierecki, M.W.; Rienecker, F. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A device for positioning lenses precisely with five degrees of freedom (three translations and two angular rotations). The unique features of the device are its compact design, large clear aperture, and high degree of positioning accuracy combined with five degrees of freedom in axis motion. Thus, the device provides precision and flexibility in positioning of optical components

  13. Proposal and Evaluation of Subordinate Standard Solar Irradiance Spectra for Applications in Solar Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jessen, Wilko [German Aerospace Center (DLR); Wilbert, Stefan [German Aerospace Center (DLR); Gueymard, Christian A. [Solar Consulting Services; Polo, Jesus [CIEMAT; Bian, Zeqiang [China Meteorological Administration; Driesse, Anton [Photovoltaic Performance Labs; Marzo, Aitor [University of Antofagasta; Armstrong, Peter [Masdar Institute of Science & Technology; Vignola, Frank [University of Oregon; Ramirez, Lourdes [CIEMAT

    2018-04-01

    Reference solar irradiance spectra are needed to specify key parameters of solar technologies such as photovoltaic cell efficiency, in a comparable way. The IEC 60904-3 and ASTM G173 standards present such spectra for Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) and Global Tilted Irradiance (GTI) on a 37 degrees tilted sun-facing surface for one set of clear-sky conditions with an air mass of 1.5 and low aerosol content. The IEC/G173 standard spectra are the widely accepted references for these purposes. Hence, the authors support the future replacement of the outdated ISO 9845 spectra with the IEC spectra within the ongoing update of this ISO standard. The use of a single reference spectrum per component of irradiance is important for clarity when comparing and rating solar devices such as PV cells. However, at some locations the average spectra can differ strongly from those defined in the IEC/G173 standards due to widely different atmospheric conditions and collector tilt angles. Therefore, additional subordinate standard spectra for other atmospheric conditions and tilt angles are of interest for a rough comparison of product performance under representative field conditions, in addition to using the main standard spectrum for product certification under standard test conditions. This simplifies the product selection for solar power systems when a fully-detailed performance analysis is not feasible (e.g. small installations). Also, the effort for a detailed yield analyses can be reduced by decreasing the number of initial product options. After appropriate testing, this contribution suggests a number of additional spectra related to eight sets of atmospheric conditions and tilt angles that are currently considered within ASTM and ISO working groups. The additional spectra, called subordinate standard spectra, are motivated by significant spectral mismatches compared to the IEC/G173 spectra (up to 6.5%, for PV at 37 degrees tilt and 10-15% for CPV). These mismatches

  14. Parity violation constraints using cosmic microwave background polarization spectra from 2006 and 2007 observations by the QUaD polarimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, E Y S; Ade, P; Bock, J; Bowden, M; Brown, M L; Cahill, G; Castro, P G; Church, S; Culverhouse, T; Friedman, R B; Ganga, K; Gear, W K; Gupta, S; Hinderks, J; Kovac, J; Lange, A E; Leitch, E; Melhuish, S J; Memari, Y; Murphy, J A; Orlando, A; Piccirillo, L; Pryke, C; Rajguru, N; Rusholme, B; Schwarz, R; O'Sullivan, C; Taylor, A N; Thompson, K L; Turner, A H; Zemcov, M

    2009-04-24

    We constrain parity-violating interactions to the surface of last scattering using spectra from the QUaD experiment's second and third seasons of observations by searching for a possible systematic rotation of the polarization directions of cosmic microwave background photons. We measure the rotation angle due to such a possible "cosmological birefringence" to be 0.55 degrees +/-0.82 degrees (random) +/-0.5 degrees (systematic) using QUaD's 100 and 150 GHz temperature-curl and gradient-curl spectra over the spectra over the multipole range 200

  15. The geometric content of the interacting boson model for molecular spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levit, S.; Smilansky, U.

    1981-12-01

    The recently proposed algebraic model for collective spectra of diatomic molecules is analysed in terms of conventional geometrical degrees of freedom. We present a mapping of the algebraic Hamiltonian onto an exactly solvable geometrical Hamiltonian with the Morse potential. This mapping explains the success of the algebraic model in reproducing the low lying part of molecular spectra. At the same time the mapping shows that the expression for the dipole transition operator in terms of boson operators differs from the simplest IBM expression and in general must include many-body boson terms. The study also provides an insight into the problem of possible interpretations of the bosons in the nuclear IBM. (author)

  16. Lyapunov spectra and conjugate-pairing rule for confined atomic fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernadi, Stefano; Todd, B.D.; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2010-01-01

    In this work we present nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation results for the Lyapunov spectra of atomic fluids confined in narrow channels of the order of a few atomic diameters. We show the effect that realistic walls have on the Lyapunov spectra. All the degrees of freedom of the confin...... evolved Lyapunov vectors projected into a reduced dimensional phase space. We finally observe that the phase-space compression due to the thermostat remains confined into the wall region and does not significantly affect the purely Newtonian fluid region....

  17. Dual fluorescence excitation spectra of methyl salicylate in a free jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbrook, Lou Ann; Kenny, Jonathan E.; Kohler, Bryan E.; Scott, Gary W.

    1981-11-01

    Separate fluorescence excitation spectra of the blue- and UV-emitting forms of methyl salicylate cooled in a free-jet expansion are reported. This study represents the first observation of the detailed vibrational structure of these transitions. The two excitation spectra have no features in common, and their intensity patterns are very different. Many individual lines are ˜2 cm-1 wide (nearly laser limited), although in the excitation spectrum of the UV emission, spectral congestion persists at high energies despite the high degree of cooling. (AIP)

  18. Comparative analysis of quasi-linear spectra of organic boron compounds and their heterocyclic and aromatic analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimova, L.A.; Volkova, V.P.; Kugemova, M.E.; Mikhajlov, B.M.

    1976-01-01

    Quasiline absorption and luminescence spectra of polycyclic compounds containing boron, nitrogen, or oxygen atoms have been obtained and studied for the first time. Electron-vibrating spectra of these compounds have been compared with the corresponding spectra of nitrogen- and oxygen-containing heterocycles as well as with spectra of their aromatic analog - phenanthrene. Vibrational analysis of the spectra of all the compounds reveals, within the accuracy limit of measurements, the relative closeness of the vibrational frequencies. However, the great difference between the positions of electron transitions points to a change in π-electron structure of the molecules when heteroatoms are introduced. High sensitivity of the frequency of electron transition to structural changes makes it possible to determine the degree of influence of separate heteroatoms

  19. Good abundances from bad spectra - I. Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. Bryn; Gilmore, Gerard; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1996-01-01

    Stellar spectra derived from multiple-object fibre-fed spectroscopic radial-velocity surveys, of the type feasible with, among other examples, AUTOFIB, 2dF, HYDRA, NESSIE, and the Sloan survey, differ significantly from those traditionally used for determination of stellar abundances. The spectra tend to be of moderate resolution (around 1A) and signal-to-noise ratio (around 10-20 per resolution element), and cannot usually have reliable continuum shapes determined over wavelength ranges in excess of a few tens of Angstroms. None the less, with care and a calibration of stellar effective temperature from photometry, independent of the spectroscopy, reliable iron abundances can be derived. We have developed techniques to extract true iron abundances and surface gravities from low-signal-to-noise ratio, intermediate-resolution spectra of G-type stars in the 4000-5000A wavelength region. Spectroscopic indices sensitive to iron abundance and gravity are defined from a set of narrow (few-several A wide) wavelength intervals. The indices are calibrated theoretically using synthetic spectra. Given adequate data and a photometrically determined effective temperature, one can derive estimates of the stellar iron abundance and surface gravity. We have also defined a single abundance indicator for the analysis of very low-signal-to-noise ratio spectra; with the further assumption of a value for the stellar surface gravity, this is able to provide useful iron abundance information from spectra having signal-to-noise ratios as low as 10 (1-A elements). The theoretical basis and calibration using synthetic spectra are described in this paper. The empirical calibration of these techniques by application to observational data is described in a separate paper (Jones, Wyse & Gilmore). The technique provides precise iron abundances, with zero-point correct to ~0.1 dex, and is reliable, with typical uncertainties being <~0.2 dex. A derivation of the in situ thick disc metallicity

  20. Medium-range structural properties of vitreous germania obtained through first-principles analysis of vibrational spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomazzi, Luigi; Umari, P; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2005-08-12

    We analyze the principal vibrational spectra of vitreous GeO(2) and derive therefrom structural properties referring to length scales beyond the basic tetrahedral unit. We generate a model structure that yields a neutron structure factor in accord with experiment. The inelastic-neutron, the infrared, and the Raman spectra, calculated within a density-functional approach, also agree with respective experimental spectra. The accord for the Raman spectrum supports a Ge-O-Ge angle distribution centered at 135 degrees. The Raman feature X(2) is found to result from vibrations in three-membered rings, and therefore constitutes a distinctive characteristic of the medium-range structure.

  1. First Derivative UV Spectra of Surface Water as a Monitor of Chlorination in Drinking Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zitko

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Many countries require the presence of free chlorine at about 0.1 mg/l in their drinking water supplies. For various reasons, such as cast-iron pipes or long residence times in the distribution system, free chlorine may decrease below detection limits. In such cases it is important to know whether or not the water was chlorinated or if nonchlorinated water entered the system by accident. Changes in UV spectra of natural organic matter in lakewater were used to assess qualitatively the degree of chlorination in the treatment to produce drinking water. The changes were more obvious in the first derivative spectra. In lakewater, the derivative spectra have a maximum at about 280 nm. This maximum shifts to longer wavelengths by up to 10 nm, decreases, and eventually disappears with an increasing dose of chlorine. The water treatment system was monitored by this technique for over 1 year and changes in the UV spectra of water samples were compared with experimental samples treated with known amounts of chlorine. The changes of the UV spectra with the concentration of added chlorine are presented. On several occasions, water, which received very little or no chlorination, may have entered the drinking water system. The results show that first derivative spectra are potentially a tool to determine, in the absence of residual chlorine, whether or not surface water was chlorinated during the treatment to produce potable water.

  2. Classical and quantum molecular dynamics in NMR spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Szymański, Sławomir

    2018-01-01

    The book provides a detailed account of how condensed-phase molecular dynamics are reflected in the line shapes of NMR spectra. The theories establishing connections between random, time-dependent molecular processes and lineshape effects are exposed in depth. Special emphasis is placed on the theoretical aspects, involving in particular intermolecular processes in solution, and molecular symmetry issues. The Liouville super-operator formalism is briefly introduced and used wherever it is beneficial for the transparency of presentation. The proposed formal descriptions of the discussed problems are sufficiently detailed to be implemented on a computer. Practical applications of the theory in solid- and liquid-phase studies are illustrated with appropriate experimental examples, exposing the potential of the lineshape method in elucidating molecular dynamics NMR-observable molecular phenomena where quantization of the spatial nuclear degrees of freedom is crucial are addressed in the last part of the book. As ...

  3. Algebraic descriptions of nuclear and molecular rotation-vibration spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roosmalen, O.S. van.

    1982-01-01

    The application of algebraic models to the description of rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom of nuclei and molecules are discussed. Simple model Hamiltonians are shown to give good agreement with the energy spectra of diatomic molecules and nuclei. Some formal aspects of path integral methods for many-boson systems are treated. The two representations for the quantum mechanical propagator are compared and appear to be identical in leading order in 1/N (N is the number of bosons). Approximations for both are static and dynamic problems are discussed. Applications of mean field techniques are also treated. A description of tri- and tetra-atomic molecules in terms of a U(4)xU(4) and U(4)xU(4)xU(4) group structure is given. Linear molecules appear to correspond with symmetries of O(4) type. S-matrix elements are calculated to test mean field methods, and the results compared with exact calculations. (Auth.)

  4. Mössbauer forward scattering: time-domain spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadykov, E. K., E-mail: esadykov@kpfu.ru; Yurichuk, A. A.; Gainov, R. R.; Vagizov, F. G. [Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The transmission of the Mössbauer radiation through an absorber being in the acoustic oscillation mode under forward scattering (FS) conditions has been analyzed. The modification of the existing models of the FS spectra (frequency and time) formation to the case of the arbitrary phase correlation of nuclear oscillations in the sample has been proposed. An adequate description of the time delayed experiments with the {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer resonance using the modulation of the single-photon wave packet by acoustic field has been obtained. One has been done in the frame of the Raman scattering of Mössbauer photons. The models extended this way can be used to control the degree of phase correlation of nuclear oscillations (or other processes) induced in the sample by external fields.

  5. Physical meaning of conductivity spectra for ZnO ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Peng-Fei; Li Sheng-Tao; Li Jian-Ying; Ding Can; Yang Yan

    2012-01-01

    With the help of broadband dielectric spectroscopy in a wide temperature and frequency range,the conductivity spectra of ZnO polycrystalline ceramics are measured and the direct-current-like (DC-like) conductivity and relaxation polarization conductivity are observed successively along the frequency axis.According to the classical Debye theory and Cole-Cole equation,the physical meanings of the two conductivities are discussed.It is found that the DC-like conductivity corresponds to electron transportation over the Schottky barrier at the grainboundary.The relaxation polarization conductivity corresponds to electronic trap relaxation of intrinsic point defects (zinc interstitial and oxygen vacancy).When in the high frequency region,the relaxation conductivity obeys the universal law with the index n equal to the index α in the Cole-Cole equation as an indictor of disorder degree.

  6. Automatic analysis of gamma spectra using a desk computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca, H.C.

    1976-10-01

    A code for the analysis of gamma spectra obtained with a Ge(Li) detector was developed for use with a desk computer (Hewlett-Packard Model 9810 A). The process is performed in a totally automatic way, data are conveniently smoothed and the background is generated by a convolutive equation. A calibration of the equipment with well-known standard sources gives the necessary data for adjusting a third degree equation by minimun squares, relating the energy with the peak position. Criteria are given for determining if certain groups of values constitute or not a peak or if it is a double line. All the peaks are adjusted to a gaussian curve and if necessary decomposed in their components. Data entry is by punched tape, ASCII Code. An alf-numeric printer provides (a) the position of the peak and its energy, (b) its resolution if it is larger than expected, (c) the area of the peak with its statistic error determined by the method of Wasson. As option, the complete spectra with the determined background can be plotted. (author) [es

  7. Quantitative interpretations of Visible-NIR reflectance spectra of blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikova, Yulia M; Smith, Jennifer M; Huffman, Debra E; Leparc, German F; García-Rubio, Luis H

    2008-10-27

    This paper illustrates the implementation of a new theoretical model for rapid quantitative analysis of the Vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectra of blood cultures. This new model is based on the photon diffusion theory and Mie scattering theory that have been formulated to account for multiple scattering populations and absorptive components. This study stresses the significance of the thorough solution of the scattering and absorption problem in order to accurately resolve for optically relevant parameters of blood culture components. With advantages of being calibration-free and computationally fast, the new model has two basic requirements. First, wavelength-dependent refractive indices of the basic chemical constituents of blood culture components are needed. Second, multi-wavelength measurements or at least the measurements of characteristic wavelengths equal to the degrees of freedom, i.e. number of optically relevant parameters, of blood culture system are required. The blood culture analysis model was tested with a large number of diffuse reflectance spectra of blood culture samples characterized by an extensive range of the relevant parameters.

  8. Phonon spectra in SiO2 glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez R, J.F.; Jimenez S, S.; Gonzalez H, J.; Vorobiev, Y.V.; Hernandez L, M.A.; Parga T, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Phonon spectra in SiO 2 sol-gel made glasses annealed under different conditions are investigated using infrared absorption and Raman scattering. These data are compared with those obtained in commercial optical-quality quartz. All the materials exhibit the same phonon bands, the exact position and the intensity depend on the measuring technique and on the sample preparation method. The phonon spectra in this material are interpreted on the basis of a simple quasi-linear description of elastic waves in an O-Si-O chain. It is shown that the main features observed in the range 400-1400 cm -1 can be predicted using a quasi-linear chain model in which the band at 1070 cm -1 is assigned to the longitudinal optical waves in the O-Si-O chain with the smallest possible wavelength at the Brillouin zone boundary, the band located around 450 cm -1 is assigned to the transversal optical waves and the band at 800 cm -1 to the longitudinal acoustical waves with the same wavelength. The degree of structural disorder can be also deduced within the framework of the proposed model. (Author)

  9. Integral characteristics of spectra of ions important for EUV lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karazija, R; Kucas, S; Momkauskaite, A

    2006-01-01

    The emission spectrum corresponding to the 4p 5 4d N+1 + 4p 6 4d N-1 4f → 4p 6 4d N transition array is concentrated in a narrow interval of wavelengths. That is due to the existence of an approximate selection rule and quenching of some lines by configuration mixing. Thus such emission of elements near Z = 50 is considered to be the main candidate for the EUV lithography source at λ = 13.5 nm. In the present work the regularities of these transition arrays are considered using their integral characteristics: average energy, total line strength, variance and interval of array containing some part of the total transition probability. Calculations for various ions of elements In, Sn, Sb, Te, I and Xe have been performed in a two-configuration pseudorelativistic approximation, which describes fairly well the main features of the spectra. The variation in the values of the main integral characteristics of the spectra with atomic number and ionization degree gives the possibility of comparing quantitatively the suitability of the emission of various ions for EUV lithography

  10. Differential dpa calculations with SPECTRA-PKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M. R.; Sublet, J.-Ch.

    2018-06-01

    The processing code SPECTRA-PKA produces energy spectra of primary atomic recoil events (or primary knock-on atoms, PKAs) for any material composition exposed to an irradiation spectrum. Such evaluations are vital inputs for simulations aimed at understanding the evolution of damage in irradiated material, which is generated in cascade displacement events initiated by PKAs. These PKA spectra present the full complexity of the input (to SPECTRA-PKA) nuclear data-library evaluations of recoil events. However, the commonly used displacements per atom (dpa) measure, which is an integral measure over all possible recoil events of the displacement damage dose, is still widely used and has many useful applications - as both a comparative and correlative quantity. This paper describes the methodology employed that allows the SPECTRA-PKA code to evaluate dpa rates using the energy-dependent recoil (PKA) cross section data used for the PKA distributions. This avoids the need for integral displacement kerma cross sections and also provides new insight into the relative importance of different reaction channels (and associated different daughter residual and emitted particles) to the total integrated dpa damage dose. Results are presented for Fe, Ni, W, and SS316. Fusion dpa rates are compared to those in fission, highlighting the increased contribution to damage creation in the former from high-energy threshold reactions.

  11. Climatology of tropospheric vertical velocity spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund, W. L.; Gage, K. S.; Balsley, B. B.; Carter, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Vertical velocity power spectra obtained from Poker Flat, Alaska; Platteville, Colorado; Rhone Delta, France; and Ponape, East Caroline Islands using 50-MHz clear-air radars with vertical beams are given. The spectra were obtained by analyzing the quietest periods from the one-minute-resolution time series for each site. The lengths of available vertical records ranged from as long as 6 months at Poker Flat to about 1 month at Platteville. The quiet-time vertical velocity spectra are shown. Spectral period ranging from 2 minutes to 4 hours is shown on the abscissa and power spectral density is given on the ordinate. The Brunt-Vaisala (B-V) periods (determined from nearby sounding balloons) are indicated. All spectra (except the one from Platteville) exhibit a peak at periods slightly longer than the B-V period, are flat at longer periods, and fall rapidly at periods less than the B-V period. This behavior is expected for a spectrum of internal waves and is very similar to what is observed in the ocean (Eriksen, 1978). The spectral amplitudes vary by only a factor of 2 or 3 about the mean, and show that under quiet conditions vertical velocity spectra from the troposphere are very similar at widely different locations.

  12. Background noise spectra of global seismic stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, M.M.; Claassen, J.P.

    1996-08-01

    Over an extended period of time station noise spectra were collected from various sources for use in estimating the detection and location performance of global networks of seismic stations. As the database of noise spectra enlarged and duplicate entries became available, an effort was mounted to more carefully select station noise spectra while discarding others. This report discusses the methodology and criteria by which the noise spectra were selected. It also identifies and illustrates the station noise spectra which survived the selection process and which currently contribute to the modeling efforts. The resulting catalog of noise statistics not only benefits those who model network performance but also those who wish to select stations on the basis of their noise level as may occur in designing networks or in selecting seismological data for analysis on the basis of station noise level. In view of the various ways by which station noise were estimated by the different contributors, it is advisable that future efforts which predict network performance have available station noise data and spectral estimation methods which are compatible with the statistics underlying seismic noise. This appropriately requires (1) averaging noise over seasonal and/or diurnal cycles, (2) averaging noise over time intervals comparable to those employed by actual detectors, and (3) using logarithmic measures of the noise.

  13. Seismic spectra of events at regional distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, D.L.; Denny, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    About 40 underground nuclear explosions detonated at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were chosen for analysis of their spectra and any relationships they might have to source parameters such as yield, depth of burial, etc. The sample covered a large yield range (less than 20 kt to greater than 1 Mt). Broadband (0.05 to 20 Hz) data recorded by the four-station seismic network operated by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory were analyzed in a search for unusual explosion signatures in their spectra. Long time windows (total wave train) as well as shorter windows (for instance, P/sub n/) were used as input to calculate the spectra. Much variation in the spectra of the long windows is typical although some gross features are similar, such as a dominant peak in the microseismic window. The variation is such that selection of corner frequencies is impractical and yield scaling could not be determined. Spectra for one NTS earthquake showed more energy in the short periods (less than 1 sec) as well as in the long periods (greater than 8 sec) compared to those for NTS explosions

  14. Diploma to degree 1976 to 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The debate on degree education for radiographers began in earnest in the mid-1970s. Initially the debate hinged around whether a degree education was necessary for radiographers. One argument was that it was felt that a degree would separate academic and clinical training but eventually when degrees were introduced practical skills were assessed formally for the first time; something that had not been achieved with the Diploma of the College of Radiographers (DCR). The DCR itself became a barrier to degree education as the College of Radiographers (CoR) insisted that it was the only qualification recognised for state registration and as such would have to remain embedded as a distinct qualification within a degree. A major breakthrough came when the Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA) recognised the DCR at the same level as an ordinary degree. Around the same time the CoR published its Degree Rationale which announced a change in policy by not insisting that the DCR was sacrosanct. Developments followed rapidly and the first honours degree in radiography was validated in 1989 despite opposition from scientific officers at the Department of Health. Degrees were approved for state registration and radiography became a graduate profession by 1993 following years of debate and after overcoming opposition from both within and external to the profession.

  15. Effect of particle size on degree of inversion in ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, M.; Butt, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    Ferrites with the spinel structure are important materials because of their structural, magnetic and electrical properties. The suitability of these materials depends on both the intrinsic behavior of the material and the effects of the grain size. Moessbauer spectroscopy was employed to investigate the cation distribution and degree of inversion in bulk and nano sized particles of CuFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/, MnFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and NiFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ ferrites. The Moessbauer spectra of all bulk ferrites showed complete magnetic behavior, whereas nanoparticle ferrites showed combination of ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic components. Moreover, the cation distribution in nanoparticle materials was also found to be different to that of their bulk counterparts indicating the particle size dependency. The inversion of Cu and Ni ions in bulk sample was greater than that of nanoparticles; whereas the inversion of Mn ions was less in bulk material as compared to the nanoparticles. Hence the degree of inversion decreased in CuFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and NiFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ samples whereas, it increased in MnFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ as the particle size decreased and thus showed the anomalous behavior in this case. The nanoparticle samples also showed paramagnetic behaviour due to superparamagnetism and this effect is more prominent in MnFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/. Moessbauer spectra of bulk and nanoparticles CuFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ is shown. (Orig./A.B.)

  16. FAST INVERSION OF SOLAR Ca II SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, C.; Choudhary, D. P.; Rezaei, R.; Louis, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a fast (<<1 s per profile) inversion code for solar Ca II lines. The code uses an archive of spectra that are synthesized prior to the inversion under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We show that it can be successfully applied to spectrograph data or more sparsely sampled spectra from two-dimensional spectrometers. From a comparison to a non-LTE inversion of the same set of spectra, we derive a first-order non-LTE correction to the temperature stratifications derived in the LTE approach. The correction factor is close to unity up to log τ ∼ –3 and increases to values of 2.5 and 4 at log τ = –6 in the quiet Sun and the umbra, respectively

  17. Rotational structure in molecular infrared spectra

    CERN Document Server

    di Lauro, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in infrared molecular spectroscopy have resulted in sophisticated theoretical and laboratory methods that are difficult to grasp without a solid understanding of the basic principles and underlying theory of vibration-rotation absorption spectroscopy. Rotational Structure in Molecular Infrared Spectra fills the gap between these recent, complex topics and the most elementary methods in the field of rotational structure in the infrared spectra of gaseous molecules. There is an increasing need for people with the skills and knowledge to interpret vibration-rotation spectra in many scientific disciplines, including applications in atmospheric and planetary research. Consequently, the basic principles of vibration-rotation absorption spectroscopy are addressed for contemporary applications. In addition to covering operational quantum mechanical methods, spherical tensor algebra, and group theoretical methods applied to molecular symmetry, attention is also given to phase conventions and their effe...

  18. Observed and theoretical spectra in the 10-100 A interval. [of solar spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. A.; Bruner, M. E.; Acton, L. W.

    1988-01-01

    The soft X-ray spectra recorded in two sounding-rocket flights in 1982 and 1985 are compared with predicted spectra. The processed densitometer trace of the full spectrum is presented, together with the new spectrum from the 1985 experiment. The intensities of the lines are then compared with predictions.

  19. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra; ESPECTROS BETA. I. Espectros simples de negatrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Malonda, A; Garcia-Torano, E

    1978-07-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  20. Algorithms for classification of astronomical object spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiewicz, P.; Szuppe, J.; Hryniewicz, K.

    2015-09-01

    Obtaining interesting celestial objects from tens of thousands or even millions of recorded optical-ultraviolet spectra depends not only on the data quality but also on the accuracy of spectra decomposition. Additionally rapidly growing data volumes demands higher computing power and/or more efficient algorithms implementations. In this paper we speed up the process of substracting iron transitions and fitting Gaussian functions to emission peaks utilising C++ and OpenCL methods together with the NOSQL database. In this paper we implemented typical astronomical methods of detecting peaks in comparison to our previous hybrid methods implemented with CUDA.

  1. Nonlinear FMR spectra in yttrium iron garnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Bunkov, P.M. Vetoshko, I.G. Motygullin, T.R. Safin, M.S. Tagirov, N.A. Tukmakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of demagnetizing effect studies in yttrium iron garnet Y3Fe5O12 thin films are reported. Experiments were performed on X-Band of electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer at room temperature. The ferromagnetic resonance (FMR spectra were obtained for one-layer single crystal YIG films for different values of the applied microwave power. Nonlinear FMR spectra transformation by the microwave power increasing in various directions of magnetic field sweep was observed. It is explained by the influence of the demagnetization action of nonequilibrium magnons.

  2. Virtual photon spectra for finite nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolynec, E.; Martins, M.N.

    1988-01-01

    The experimental results of an isochromat of the virtual photon spectrum, obtained by measuring the number of ground-state protons emitted by the 16.28 MeV isobaric analogue state in 90 Zr as a function of electron incident energy in the range 17-105 MeV, are compared with the values predicted by a calculation of the E1 DWBA virtual photon spectra for finite nuclei. It is found that the calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The DWBA virtual photon spectra for finite nuclei for E2 and M1 multipoles are also assessed. (author) [pt

  3. IUE Archival Spectra of 31 Cygni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Woon Kang

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available UV light curve of 31 Cygni has been made from the IUE high dispersion spectra. The depth of primary minimum of the light curve is 5.2 magnitudes because the B4 star's steep spectral gradient. The light curve has been analyzed by the method of Wilson and Devinney Differential Correction (WD. The radial velocities have been measured using the Mg II h lines. The spectroscopic elements have been determined by the method of WD. The change of the Mg II resonance doublet has been investigated based on the eight representative spectra taken at well distributed orbital phases.

  4. Approximation of Moessbauer spectra of metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miglierini, M.; Sitek, J.

    1988-01-01

    Moessbauer spectra of iron-rich metallic glasses are approximated by means of six broadened lines which have line position relations similar to those of α-Fe. It is shown via the results of the DISPA (dispersion mode vs. absorption mode) line shape analysis that each spectral peak is broadened owing to a sum of Lorentzian lines weighted by a Gaussian distribution in the peak position. Moessbauer parameters of amorphous metallic Fe 83 B 17 and Fe 40 Ni 40 B 20 alloys are presented, derived from the fitted spectra. (author). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 21 refs

  5. What can we learn from inclusive spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, S.

    1981-05-01

    The present experimental status on single particle inclusive measurements is described. Then, the geometrical aspect of the collision is discussed from the data of total integrated cross sections of nuclear charge or mass. The dynamical aspect of the collision, especially that for the participating region is discussed in connection with proton spectra, composite fragment spectra, pion production, ratios of π - /π + , n/p and t/ 3 He, and production of strange particles. The spectator physics is described from the data on projectile fragments

  6. Photoacoustic spectra of rare earth pentaphosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strek, W.; Lukowiak, E.; Marchewka, M.; Ratajczak, H.

    1987-01-01

    The photoacoustic (PA) spectra of raee earth pentaphosphates of the general formula REP 5 O 14 , where RE = Pr,Nd,Ho,Er,Tm, are reported. The photoacoustic bands were identified and compared with the absorption spectra. For quantitative analysis of PA bands of lanthanide (III) ions, the intensity ratio vector is introduced characterizing the intensity distribution of f-f transitions. It was found that the relative intensities of photoacoustic bands are comparable with the intensities of absorption bands. It is concluded that the nonradiative relaxation mechanism leading to the PA signal is independent of the manifold-to-manifold J-J' radiationless transitions

  7. Labeling schemes for bounded degree graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjiashvili, David; Rotbart, Noy Galil

    2014-01-01

    We investigate adjacency labeling schemes for graphs of bounded degree Δ = O(1). In particular, we present an optimal (up to an additive constant) log n + O(1) adjacency labeling scheme for bounded degree trees. The latter scheme is derived from a labeling scheme for bounded degree outerplanar...... graphs. Our results complement a similar bound recently obtained for bounded depth trees [Fraigniaud and Korman, SODA 2010], and may provide new insights for closing the long standing gap for adjacency in trees [Alstrup and Rauhe, FOCS 2002]. We also provide improved labeling schemes for bounded degree...

  8. Analysis of COSIMA spectra: Bayesian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Lehto

    2015-06-01

    secondary ion mass spectrometer (TOF-SIMS spectra. The method is applied to the COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyzer (COSIMA TOF-SIMS mass spectra where the analysis can be broken into subgroups of lines close to integer mass values. The effects of the instrumental dead time are discussed in a new way. The method finds the joint probability density functions of measured line parameters (number of lines, and their widths, peak amplitudes, integrated amplitudes and positions. In the case of two or more lines, these distributions can take complex forms. The derived line parameters can be used to further calibrate the mass scaling of TOF-SIMS and to feed the results into other analysis methods such as multivariate analyses of spectra. We intend to use the method, first as a comprehensive tool to perform quantitative analysis of spectra, and second as a fast tool for studying interesting targets for obtaining additional TOF-SIMS measurements of the sample, a property unique to COSIMA. Finally, we point out that the Bayesian method can be thought of as a means to solve inverse problems but with forward calculations, only with no iterative corrections or other manipulation of the observed data.

  9. Vibrational spectra for hydrogenated amorphous semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamitakahara, W.A.; Bouchard, A.M.; Biswas, R.; Gompf, F.; Suck, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogen vibration spectra have been measured by neutron scattering for several amorphous semiconductor materials, including a-Ge:H and a-SiC:H samples containing about 10 at. % H. The data for a-Ge:H are compared in detail with the results of realistic computer simulations

  10. RAMAN-SPECTRA OF HUMAN DENTAL CALCULUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TSUDA, H; ARENDS, J

    1993-01-01

    Raman spectra of human dental calculus have been observed for the first time by use of micro-Raman spectroscopy. The spectral features of calculus were influenced easily by heating caused by laser irradiation. Therefore, the measurements were carried out at relatively low power (5 mW, 1-mu m spot

  11. Automatic analysis of charged particle spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seres, Z.; Kiss, A.

    1975-11-01

    A computer program system is developed for off-line automatic analysis of a series of charged particle spectra measured by solid-state detectors and collected on magnetic tapes. The procedure results in complete angular distributions for the excited levels of the final nucleus up to about 15 MeV. (orig.) [de

  12. An adaptive method for γ spectra smoothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Gang; Zhou Chunlin; Li Tiantuo; Han Feng; Di Yuming

    2001-01-01

    Adaptive wavelet method and multinomial fitting gliding method are used for smoothing γ spectra, respectively, and then FWHM of 1332 keV peak of 60 Co and activities of 238 U standard specimen are calculated. Calculated results show that adaptive wavelet method is better than the other

  13. INTRAMOLECULAR ISOTOPE EFFECTS IN HYDROCARBON MASS SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, D. P.; Schachtschneider, J. H.

    1963-07-15

    Approximate calculations based on the quasi-equilibrium rate theory of the origin of mass spectra are shown to lead to an approximately correct magnitude for the intramolecular ( pi /sup -/) isotope effect on C--H bond dissociation probabilities of various deuterohydrocarbons. (auth)

  14. Library search with regular reflectance IR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staat, H.; Korte, E.H.; Lampen, P.

    1989-01-01

    Characterisation in situ for coatings and other surface layers is generally favourable, but a prerequisite for precious items such as art objects. In infrared spectroscopy only reflection techniques are applicable here. However for attenuated total reflection (ATR) it is difficult to obtain the necessary optical contact of the crystal with the sample, when the latter is not perfectly plane or flexible. The measurement of diffuse reflectance demands a scattering sample and usually the reflectance is very poor. Therefore in most cases one is left with regular reflectance. Such spectra consist of dispersion-like feature instead of bands impeding their interpretation in the way the analyst is used to. Furthermore for computer search in common spectral libraries compiled from transmittance or absorbance spectra a transformation of the reflectance spectra is needed. The correct conversion is based on the Kramers-Kronig transformation. This somewhat time - consuming procedure can be speeded up by using appropriate approximations. A coarser conversion may be obtained from the first derivative of the reflectance spectrum which resembles the second derivative of a transmittance spectrum. The resulting distorted spectra can still be used successfully for the search in peak table libraries. Experiences with both transformations are presented. (author)

  15. Chaotic spectra: How to extract dynamic information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, H.S.; Gomez Llorente, J.M.; Zakrzewski, J.; Kulander, K.C.

    1988-10-01

    Nonlinear dynamics is applied to chaotic unassignable atomic and molecular spectra with the aim of extracting detailed information about regular dynamic motions that exist over short intervals of time. It is shown how this motion can be extracted from high resolution spectra by doing low resolution studies or by Fourier transforming limited regions of the spectrum. These motions mimic those of periodic orbits (PO) and are inserts into the dominant chaotic motion. Considering these inserts and the PO as a dynamically decoupled region of space, resonant scattering theory and stabilization methods enable us to compute ladders of resonant states which interact with the chaotic quasi-continuum computed in principle from basis sets placed off the PO. The interaction of the resonances with the quasicontinuum explains the low resolution spectra seen in such experiments. It also allows one to associate low resolution features with a particular PO. The motion on the PO thereby supplies the molecular movements whose quantization causes the low resolution spectra. Characteristic properties of the periodic orbit based resonances are discussed. The method is illustrated on the photoabsorption spectrum of the hydrogen atom in a strong magnetic field and on the photodissociation spectrum of H 3 + . Other molecular systems which are currently under investigation using this formalism are also mentioned. 53 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Temperatures of fragment kinetic energy spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, W.

    1995-01-01

    Multifragmentation reactions without large compression in the initial state (proton-induced reactions, reverse kinematics, projectile fragmentation) are examined, and it is verified quantitatively that the high temperatures obtained from fragment kinetic energy spectra and lower temperatures obtained from observables such as level population or isotope ratios can be understood in a common framework

  17. A comparison of floor response spectra techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, M.J.; Galford, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Floor response spectra (FRS) conventionally have been generated using a time-history method. Babcock and Wilcox has developed a new technique, the Fast Floor Response Spectra (FFRS) method, in which dynamic analyses are done entirely in the frequency domain. This paper compares the two techniques and demonstrates that the FFRS method complies with the 'equivalency' and 'conservatism' requirements of the US NRC's Standard Review Plan. The upper end of a once-through steam generator in the B and W 205 nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) was used to demonstrate that the FFRS method is equivalent to the time-history technique. The two techniques were compared with respect to frequency content and magnitude of response for a given point on the structure. First, the specified forcing function was described in terms of an acceleration time history and an acceleration spectra enveloping that time history. The time-history forcing function was then used in a direct transient analysis to determine the response at the specified point on the NSSS. The resultant response was subsequently converted to a floor response spectra for that point. To show that the FFRS method gave equivalent and conservative results, the FFRS technique was used to determine the modal response directly from the spectral description of the forcing function. The FFRS- and time-history-generated data agreed to within 13 (worst case on conservative side) of each other with the former cutting analytical costs by 99%. (orig./HP)

  18. Microdosimetric spectra measurements of JANUS neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, I.R.; Williamson, F.S.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron radiation from the JANUS reactor at Argonne National Laboratory is being used with increasing frequency for major biological experiments. The fast neutron spectrum has a Kerma-weighted mean energy of 0.8 MeV and low gamma-ray contamination. In 1984 the JANUS fission converter plate of highly enriched uranium was replaced by one made of low-enriched uranium. We recorded microdosimetric spectra at several different positions in the high-flux irradiation room of JANUS before the change of the converter plate. Each set of measurements consisted of spectra taken at three different site diameters (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 ..mu..m) and in both ''attenuator up'' and ''attenuator down'' configurations. At two conventional dosimetry reference positions, two sets of measurements were recorded. At three biological reference positions, measurements simulating several biological irradiation conditions, were taken. The dose rate at each position was estimated and compared with dose rates obtained previously by conventional dosimetry. Comparison of the different measurements showed no major change in spectra as a function of position or irradiation condition. First results from similar sets of measurements recorded after the installment of the new converter plate indicate no major change in the spectra. 11 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Mass Spectra of Tetraselenafulvalenes, Diselenadithiafulvalenes and Tetrathiafulvalenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn

    1978-01-01

    fragmentation of the molecular ion, as the selenium fulvalenes lose an alkyne molecule, whereas the sulphur fulvalenes first lose an (SĊR) radical. An important feature of the spectra of the simple heterofulvalenes is the formation of a rearrangement ion by migration of a heteroatom. The mechanism...

  20. Analysis of low-intensity scintillation spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muravsky, V.; Tolstov, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    The maximum likelihood algorithms for nuclides activities estimation from low intensity scintillation γ-ray spectra have been created. The algorithms treat full energy peaks and Compton parts of spectra, and they are more effective than least squares estimators. The factors that could lead to the bias of activity estimates are taken into account. Theoretical analysis of the problem of choosing the optimal set of initial spectra for the spectrum model to minimize errors of the activities estimation has been carried out for the general case of the N-components with Gaussian or Poisson statistics. The obtained criterion allows to exclude superfluous initial spectra of nuclides from the model. A special calibration procedure for scintillation γ-spectrometers has been developed. This procedure is required for application of the maximum likelihood activity estimators processing all the channels of the scintillation γ-spectrum, including the Compton part. It allows one to take into account the influence of the sample mass density variation. The algorithm for testing the spectrum model adequacy to the processed scintillation spectrum has been developed. The algorithms are realized in Borland Pascal 7 as a library of procedures and functions. The developed library is compatible with Delphi 1.0 and higher versions. It can be used as the algorithmic basis for analysis of highly sensitive scintillation γ- and β-spectrometric devices. (author)

  1. Ultraviolet spectra of Mg in liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriwaki, Y.; Morita, N.

    1999-01-01

    Emission and absorption spectra of Mg atoms implanted in liquid helium have been observed in the ultraviolet region. We have presented a model of exciplex formation of Mg-He 10 and found that this model is more suitable for understanding the dynamics in the 3s3p 1 P→3s 21 S transition than the bubble model. (orig.)

  2. Raman spectra of lignin model compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Richard S. Reiner; Ashok K. Pandey; Sally A. Ralph; Kolby C. Hirth; Rajai H. Atalla

    2005-01-01

    To fully exploit the value of Raman spectroscopy for analyzing lignins and lignin containing materials, a detailed understanding of lignins’ Raman spectra needs to be achieved. Although advances made thus far have led to significant growth in application of Raman techniques, further developments are needed to improve upon the existing knowledge. Considering that lignin...

  3. Microdosimetric spectra measurements of JANUS neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, I.R.; Williamson, F.S.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron radiation from the JANUS reactor at Argonne National Laboratory is being used with increasing frequency for major biological experiments. The fast neutron spectrum has a Kerma-weighted mean energy of 0.8 MeV and low gamma-ray contamination. In 1984 the JANUS fission converter plate of highly enriched uranium was replaced by one made of low-enriched uranium. We recorded microdosimetric spectra at several different positions in the high-flux irradiation room of JANUS before the change of the converter plate. Each set of measurements consisted of spectra taken at three different site diameters (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 μm) and in both ''attenuator up'' and ''attenuator down'' configurations. At two conventional dosimetry reference positions, two sets of measurements were recorded. At three biological reference positions, measurements simulating several biological irradiation conditions, were taken. The dose rate at each position was estimated and compared with dose rates obtained previously by conventional dosimetry. Comparison of the different measurements showed no major change in spectra as a function of position or irradiation condition. First results from similar sets of measurements recorded after the installment of the new converter plate indicate no major change in the spectra. 11 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Nuclear Neutrino Spectra in Late Stellar Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misch, G. Wendell; Sun, Yang; Fuller, George

    2018-05-01

    Neutrinos are the principle carriers of energy in massive stars, beginning from core carbon burning and continuing through core collapse and after the core bounce. In fact, it may be possible to detect neutrinos from nearby pre-supernova stars. Therefore, it is of great interest to understand the neutrino energy spectra from these stars. Leading up to core collapse, beginning around core silicon burning, nuclei become dominant producers of neutrinos, particularly at high neutrino energy, so a systematic study of nuclear neutrino spectra is desirable. We have done such a study, and we present our sd-shell model calculations of nuclear neutrino energy spectra for nuclei in the mass number range A = 21 - 35. Our study includes neutrinos produced by charged lepton capture, charged lepton emission, and neutral current nuclear deexcitation. Previous authors have tabulated the rates of charged current nuclear weak interactions in astrophysical conditions, but the present work expands on this not only by providing neutrino energy spectra, but also by including the heretofore untabulated neutral current de-excitation neutrino pairs.

  5. Variations on supersymmetry breaking and neutrino spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzumati, F.; Hamaguchi, K.; Nomura, Y.; Yanagida, T.

    2000-01-01

    The problem of generating light neutrinos within supersymmetric models is discussed. It is shown that the hierarchy of scales induced by supersymmetry breaking can give rise to suppression factors of the correct order of magnitude to produce experimentally allowed neutrino spectra

  6. Autonomous System Design for Moessbauer Spectra Acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, A. L.; Zuluaga, J.; Cely, A.; Tobon, J.

    2001-01-01

    An autonomous system for Moessbauer spectroscopy based in a microcontroller has been designed. A timer of the microcontroller was used to generate the control signal for the Moessbauer linear motor, and a counter for the spectra acquisition. Additionally, the system has its own memory for data storage and a serial port to transmit the data to a computer for its later processing and display

  7. Fitting PAC spectra with a hybrid algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, M. A., E-mail: mauro@sepn.org [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (Brazil); Carbonari, A. W., E-mail: carbonar@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    A hybrid algorithm (HA) that blends features of genetic algorithms (GA) and simulated annealing (SA) was implemented for simultaneous fits of perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectra. The main characteristic of the HA is the incorporation of a selection criterion based on SA into the basic structure of GA. The results obtained with the HA compare favorably with fits performed with conventional methods.

  8. Thermal dissociation of molten KHSO4: Temperature dependence of Raman spectra and thermodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Christian B.; Kalampounias, Angelos G.; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is used to study the thermal dissociation of molten KHSO4 at temperatures of 240-450 degrees C under static equilibrium conditions. Raman spectra obtained at 10 different temperatures for the molten phase and for the vapors thereof exhibit vibrational wavenumbers and relative...... process taking place to a significant extent in the temperature range of the investigation and for determining its enthalpy to be Delta H degrees = 64.9 +/- 2.9 kJ mol(-1). The importance of these findings for the understanding of the performance of the industrially important sulfuric acid catalyst. under...

  9. Degrees of polarization for a quantum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Soto, L L; Soederholm, J; Yustas, E C; Klimov, A B; Bjoerk, G

    2006-01-01

    Unpolarized light is invariant with respect to any SU(2) polarization transformation. Since this fully characterizes the set of density matrices representing unpolarized states, we introduce the degree of polarization of a quantum state as its distance to the set of unpolarized states. We discuss different candidates of distance, and show that they induce fundamentally different degrees of polarization

  10. Dirac's minimum degree condition restricted to claws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Haitze J.; Ryjacek, Z.; Schiermeyer, I.

    1997-01-01

    Let G be a graph on n 3 vertices. Dirac's minimum degree condition is the condition that all vertices of G have degree at least . This is a well-known sufficient condition for the existence of a Hamilton cycle in G. We give related sufficiency conditions for the existence of a Hamilton cycle or a

  11. Current Trends in Associate Degree Nursing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Elaine Grant

    This study was designed to ascertain current trends in associate degree nursing programs and to discover innovative ideas and techniques which could be applied to the existing program at Miami-Dade Community College (Florida). Data was compiled from interviews with representatives of ten associate degree nursing programs in six states. Information…

  12. Competency-Based Business Degree. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In January 2015, thirteen Washington community colleges launched an online, competency-based business transfer degree--the first in the state's community and technical college system. This issue brief provides answers to commonly asked questions about the new competency-based degree.

  13. Meson degrees of freedom in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, J.

    1982-01-01

    A review is presented of the successes and shortcomings of the theory of meson degrees of freedom in nuclei with special emphasis on recent progress and on the necessity to bridge the gap with the degrees of freedom of QCD theory. (orig.)

  14. Circadian variation of EEG power spectra in NREM and REM sleep in humans: dissociation from body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijk, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    In humans, EEG power spectra in REM and NREM sleep, as well as characteristics of sleep spindles such as their duration, amplitude, frequency and incidence, vary with circadian phase. Recently it has been hypothesized that circadian variations in EEG spectra in humans are caused by variations in brain or body temperature and may not represent phenomena relevant to sleep regulatory processes. To test this directly, a further analysis of EEG power spectra - collected in a forced desynchrony protocol in which sleep episodes were scheduled to a 28-h period while the rhythms of body temperature and plasma melatonin were oscillating at their near 24-h period - was carried out. EEG power spectra were computed for NREM and REM sleep occurring between 90-120 and 270-300 degrees of the circadian melatonin rhythm, i.e. just after the clearance of melatonin from plasma in the 'morning' and just after the 'evening' increase in melatonin secretion. Average body temperatures during scheduled sleep at these two circadian phases were identical (36.72 degrees C). Despite identical body temperatures, the power spectra in NREM sleep were very different at these two circadian phases. EEG activity in the low frequency spindle range was significantly and markedly enhanced after the evening increase in plasma melatonin as compared to the morning phase. For REM sleep, significant differences in power spectra during these two circadian phases, in particular in the alpha range, were also observed. The results confirm that EEG power spectra in NREM and REM sleep vary with circadian phase, suggesting that the direct contribution of temperature to the circadian variation in EEG power spectra is absent or only minor, and are at variance with the hypothesis that circadian variations in EEG power spectra are caused by variations in temperature.

  15. Measurement of neutron energy spectra for Eg=23.1 and 26.6 MeV mono-energetic photon induced reaction on natC using laser electron photon beam at NewSUBARU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoga, Toshiro; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Sanami, Toshiya; Namito, Yoshihito; Kirihara, Yoichi; Miyamoto, Shuji; Takemoto, Akinori; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Asano, Yoshihiro

    2017-09-01

    Photo-neutron energy spectra for Eg=23.1 and 26.6 MeV mono-energetic photons on natC were measured using laser Compton scattering facility at NewSUBARU BL01. The photon energy spectra were evaluated through measurements and simulations with collimator sizes and arrangements for the laser electron photon. The neutron energy spectra for the natC(g,xn) reaction were measured at 60 degrees in horizontal and 90 degrees in horizontal and vertical with respect to incident photon. The spectra show almost isotropic angular distribution and flat energy distribution from detection threshold to upper limit defined by reaction Q-value.

  16. Quasi-classical integral method for spectra calculation of symmetric central problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobashev, A.A.; Trunov, N.N.

    2000-01-01

    The new approach to the quantization quasi-classical conditions is developed. It is based on general exact properties of the wave equations and their spectra and it does not use asymptotic decompositions. The quantization conditions for the central-symmetric potentials depend only on the totality of integrals, including the classical pulse degrees. The energy level values, calculated by means of this conditions, are in good agreement with the numerical data [ru

  17. Virtual displays for 360-degree video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Stephen; Boonsuk, Wutthigrai; Kelly, Jonathan W.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we describe a novel approach for comparing users' spatial cognition when using different depictions of 360- degree video on a traditional 2D display. By using virtual cameras within a game engine and texture mapping of these camera feeds to an arbitrary shape, we were able to offer users a 360-degree interface composed of four 90-degree views, two 180-degree views, or one 360-degree view of the same interactive environment. An example experiment is described using these interfaces. This technique for creating alternative displays of wide-angle video facilitates the exploration of how compressed or fish-eye distortions affect spatial perception of the environment and can benefit the creation of interfaces for surveillance and remote system teleoperation.

  18. Savannah River Site disaggregated seismic spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, D.E.

    1993-02-01

    The objective of this technical note is to characterize seismic ground motion at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by postulated earthquakes that may impact facilities at the site. This task is accomplished by reviewing the deterministic and probabilistic assessments of the seismic hazard to establish the earthquakes that control the hazard to establish the earthquakes that control the hazard at the site and then evaluate the associated seismic ground motions in terms of response spectra. For engineering design criteria of earthquake-resistant structures, response spectra serve the function of characterizing ground motions as a function of period or frequency. These motions then provide the input parameters that are used in the analysis of structural response. Because they use the maximum response, the response spectra are an inherently conservative design tool. Response spectra are described in terms of amplitude, duration, and frequency content, and these are related to source parameters, travel path, and site conditions. Studies by a number of investigators have shown by statistical analysis that for different magnitudes the response spectrum values are different for differing periods. These facts support Jennings' position that using different shapes of design spectra for earthquakes of different magnitudes and travel paths is a better practice than employing a single, general-purpose shape. All seismic ground motion characterization results indicate that the PGA is controlled by a local event with M w < 6 and R < 30km. The results also show that lower frequencies are controlled by a larger, more distant event, typically the Charleston source. The PGA of 0.2 g, based originally on the Blume study, is consistent with LLNL report UCRL-15910 (1990) and with the DOE position on LLNL/EPRI

  19. Improving interpretation of infrared spectra for OM characterization by subtraction of spectra from incinerated samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbrock, Ruth H.; Gerke, Horst H.; Leue, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Non-destructive methods such as diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT) have been applied to characterize organic matter (OM) at intact structural surfaces among others. However, it is often difficult to distinguish effects of organic components on DRIFT signal intensities from those of mineral components. The objective of this study was to re-evaluate DRIFT spectra from intact earthworm burrow walls and coated cracks to improve the interpretation of C-H and C=O bands. We compared DRIFT and transmission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of entire samples that were from the same pedogenetic soil horizon, but different in mineral composition and texture (i.e., glacial till versus loess). Spectra of incinerated samples were subtracted from the original spectra. Transmission FTIR and DRIFT spectra were almost identical for entire soil samples. However, the DRIFT spectra were affected by the bulk mode bands (i.e., wavenumbers 2000 to 1700 cm-1) that affected spectral resolution and reproducibility. The ratios between C-H and C=O band intensities as indicator for OM quality obtained with DRIFT were smaller than those obtained from transmission FTIR. A spectral subtraction procedure was found to reduce effects of mineral absorption bands on DRIFT spectra allowing an improved interpretation. DRIFT spectroscopy as a non-destructive method for analyzing OM composition at intact surfaces in structured soils could be calibrated with information obtained with the more detailed transmission FTIR and complementary methods.

  20. Simulation of electron energy loss spectra of nanomaterials with linear-scaling density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tait, E W; Payne, M C; Ratcliff, L E; Haynes, P D; Hine, N D M

    2016-01-01

    Experimental techniques for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) combine high energy resolution with high spatial resolution. They are therefore powerful tools for investigating the local electronic structure of complex systems such as nanostructures, interfaces and even individual defects. Interpretation of experimental electron energy loss spectra is often challenging and can require theoretical modelling of candidate structures, which themselves may be large and complex, beyond the capabilities of traditional cubic-scaling density functional theory. In this work, we present functionality to compute electron energy loss spectra within the onetep linear-scaling density functional theory code. We first demonstrate that simulated spectra agree with those computed using conventional plane wave pseudopotential methods to a high degree of precision. The ability of onetep to tackle large problems is then exploited to investigate convergence of spectra with respect to supercell size. Finally, we apply the novel functionality to a study of the electron energy loss spectra of defects on the (1 0 1) surface of an anatase slab and determine concentrations of defects which might be experimentally detectable. (paper)

  1. Using Separable Nonnegative Matrix Factorization Techniques for the Analysis of Time-Resolved Raman Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, R.; Hildebrandt, P.; Kuhlmann, U.; Liesen, J.

    2016-09-01

    The key challenge of time-resolved Raman spectroscopy is the identification of the constituent species and the analysis of the kinetics of the underlying reaction network. In this work we present an integral approach that allows for determining both the component spectra and the rate constants simultaneously from a series of vibrational spectra. It is based on an algorithm for non-negative matrix factorization which is applied to the experimental data set following a few pre-processing steps. As a prerequisite for physically unambiguous solutions, each component spectrum must include one vibrational band that does not significantly interfere with vibrational bands of other species. The approach is applied to synthetic "experimental" spectra derived from model systems comprising a set of species with component spectra differing with respect to their degree of spectral interferences and signal-to-noise ratios. In each case, the species involved are connected via monomolecular reaction pathways. The potential and limitations of the approach for recovering the respective rate constants and component spectra are discussed.

  2. Monte Carlo simulation of reflection spectra of random multilayer media strongly scattering and absorbing light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meglinskii, I V

    2001-01-01

    The reflection spectra of a multilayer random medium - the human skin - strongly scattering and absorbing light are numerically simulated. The propagation of light in the medium and the absorption spectra are simulated by the stochastic Monte Carlo method, which combines schemes for calculations of real photon trajectories and the statistical weight method. The model takes into account the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of blood vessels, water, and melanin, the degree of blood oxygenation, and the hematocrit index. The attenuation of the incident radiation caused by reflection and refraction at Fresnel boundaries of layers inside the medium is also considered. The simulated reflection spectra are compared with the experimental reflection spectra of the human skin. It is shown that a set of parameters that was used to describe the optical properties of skin layers and their possible variations, despite being far from complete, is nevertheless sufficient for the simulation of the reflection spectra of the human skin and their quantitative analysis. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  3. Investigation of relations between skin cancer lesions' images and their fluorescent spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, P.; Borisova, E.; Avramov, L.; Petkova, El.; Troyanova, P.

    2010-03-01

    This investigation is based on images obtained from healthy tissue and skin cancer lesions and their fluorescent spectra of cutaneous lesions derived after optical stimulation. Our analyses show that the lesions’ spectra of are different of those, obtained from normal tissue and the differences depend on the type of cancer. We use a comparison between these “healthy” and “unhealthy” spectra to define forms of variations and corresponding diseases. However, the value of the emitted light varies not only between the patients, but also depending on the position of the tested area inside of one lesion. These variations could be result from two reasons: different degree of damaging and different thickness of the suspicious lesion area. Regarded to the visible image of the lesion, it could be connected with the chroma of colour of the tested area and the lesion homogeneity that corresponds to particular disease. For our investigation, images and spectra of three non-melanoma cutanous malignant tumors are investigated, namely—basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and keratoacanthoma. The images were processed obtaining the chroma by elimination of the background—healthy tissue, and applying it as a basic signal for transformation from RGB to Lab colorimetric model. The chroma of the areas of emission is compared with the relative value of fluorescence spectra. Specific spectral features are used to develop hybrid diagnostic algorithm (including image and spectral features) for differentiation of these three kinds of malignant cutaneous pathologies.

  4. Cultural Relativism: Occupation and Independence Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Gail Elizabeth; Wilcock, Ann Allart

    2000-01-01

    A study focused on the experiences of 22 occupational therapy students working with people from different social and cultural backgrounds in New Zealand over a 3-year period. Results highlight issues about how occupation and independence are conceptualized across cultures. (Contains 102 references.) (JOW)

  5. Should Universalism Trump Cultural Relativism in Counseling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnier, Richard T.; Dixon, Andrea L.; Barratt, Tyler M.; Moyer, Erika L.

    2008-01-01

    Certain cultural customs and practices are viewed as abhorrent by many people, yet contemporary American counselors rarely criticize any specific culture. In this article, the authors explore why counselors abstain from such criticism. Furthermore, the authors demonstrate that universalism, often regarded as a politically incorrect and an…

  6. Relativism versus Universalism: Developing a Personal Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareis, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    At the core of intercultural communication lies the issue of cultural difference. Textbooks and courses focus on how difference can be approached and ultimately bridged by developing intercultural competence, particularly awareness of intercultural theory, knowledge of specific target cultures, and the communication skills necessary for engaging…

  7. Understanding ethnopharmacolgy: implications for cultural relativism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidhizar, Ruth; Giger, Joyce Newman

    2008-07-01

    It is commonly accepted that people differ culturally. In the Giger and Davidhizar Transcultural Assessment Model, cultural differences are evident in communication, spatial relationships and needs, social organizations (church, family, kinships, and clubs), time orientation, the ability or desire to control the environment, and biological variations (Giger & Davidhizar, 2008). While many individuals appreciate that there are differences between cultures, what is less well recognized is that people also vary according to biological variations depending on their racial and ethnic group. In the last 15 years, information about biological variations has rapidly expanded and that knowledge is essential in order to understand and provide care to individuals from another culture or another racial and ethnic group. Attention to biological variations related to race and ethnicity, the last component of the Giger and Davidhizar Transcultural Nursing Assessment Model, is a critical phenomenon that needs to be assessed in order to develop and implement a culturally sensitive plan of care in an effort to understand ethnopharmacolgy.

  8. Who is (not) afraid of (cultural) relativism?

    OpenAIRE

    Chokr, Nader N.

    2008-01-01

    I examine the thesis of “cultural relativism” (in both its descriptive and normative version) in an effort to ascertain and impeach more perspicuously the reasons for the strong appeal it continues to exert today in a globalizing/glocalising world –and this, despite the fact that it has been shown repeatedly to be inconsistent, self-defeating and misguided. Because of its highly objectionable and deeply troublesome consequences, especially from an ethical and political point of view, it shoul...

  9. Multiculturalism and the Problems of Ethical Relativism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, John

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the increasing activity among scholars and teachers to develop multicultural textbooks and curriculum materials. Recommends that teachers encourage students to be cultural relativists on all cultural issues except ethical ones. (Author/DB)

  10. Communication, Ethics, and Relativism: An Interpersonal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John

    This paper proposes that there is available in contemporary philosophy a foundation for an ethic of communication that avoids the naive belief in absolutes and yet provides a coherent, defensible, and practical set of standards to guide communication choices. The philosophers and philosophies identified are Hans-Georg Gadamer and his discussion of…

  11. [The Helsinki Declaration: relativism and vulnerability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, D; Corrêa, M

    2001-01-01

    The Helsinki Declaration is a crucial ethical landmark for clinical research involving human beings. Since the Declaration was issued, a series of revisions and modifications have been introduced into the original text, but they have not altered its humanist approach or its international force for regulating clinical research. A proposal for an extensive revision of the Declaration's underlying ethical principles has been debated for the past four years. If the proposal is approved, international clinical research involving human beings will be modified, further increasing the vulnerability of certain social groups. This article discusses the historical process involved in passing the Helsinki Declaration and the most recent debate on the new draft. The article analyzes the new text's social implications for underdeveloped countries, arguing for a political approach to the vulnerability concept.

  12. Ethical relativism in a multicultural society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Ruth

    1998-03-01

    The multicultural composition of the United States can pose problems for physicians and patients who come from diverse backgrounds. Although respect for cultural diversity mandates tolerance of the beliefs and practices of others, in some situations excessive tolerance can produce harm to patients. Careful analysis is needed to determine which values are culturally relative and which rest on an underlying universal ethical principle. A conception of justice as equality challenges the notion that it is always necessary to respect all of the beliefs and practices of every cultural group.

  13. Optical spectra of 73 stripped-envelope core-collapse supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modjaz, M.; Bianco, F. B.; Liu, Y. Q. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Blondin, S. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Kirshner, R. P.; Challis, P.; Hicken, M.; Marion, G. H. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Matheson, T. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Berlind, P.; Calkins, M. L. [F. L. Whipple Observatory, 670 Mt. Hopkins Road, P.O. Box 97, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Garnavich, P. [Department of Physics, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Jha, S., E-mail: mmodjaz@nyu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We present 645 optical spectra of 73 supernovae (SNe) of Types IIb, Ib, Ic, and broad-lined Ic. All of these types are attributed to the core collapse of massive stars, with varying degrees of intact H and He envelopes before explosion. The SNe in our sample have a mean redshift (cz) = 4200 km s{sup –1}. Most of these spectra were gathered at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) between 2004 and 2009. For 53 SNe, these are the first published spectra. The data coverage ranges from mere identification (1-3 spectra) for a few SNe to extensive series of observations (10-30 spectra) that trace the spectral evolution for others, with an average of 9 spectra per SN. For 44 SNe of the 73 SNe presented here, we have well-determined dates of maximum light to determine the phase of each spectrum. Our sample constitutes the most extensive spectral library of stripped-envelope SNe to date. We provide very early coverage (as early as 30 days before V-band max) for photospheric spectra, as well as late-time nebular coverage when the innermost regions of the SN are visible (as late as 2 yr after explosion, while for SN 1993J, we have data as late as 11.6 yr). This data set has homogeneous observations and reductions that allow us to study the spectroscopic diversity of these classes of stripped SNe and to compare these to SNe-gamma-ray bursts. We undertake these matters in follow-up papers.

  14. Observational and theoretical spectra of supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J. Craig; Swartz, Douglas A.; Harkness, Robert P.

    1993-05-01

    Progress in nuclear astrophysics by means of quantitative supernova spectroscopy is discussed with special concentration on type Ia, Ib and Ic and on SN 1987A. Spectral calculations continue to support an exploding C/O white dwarf as the best model of a SN Ia. Deflagration model W7 produces good maximum light spectra of SN Ia and seems to have a better composition distribution compared to delayed detonation models, but proper treatment of opacity remains a problem and the physical basis of SN Ia explosions is still not completely understood. All models for SN Ia predict large quantities of 56Co in the ejecta, but it is not clear that observations confirm this. Although the evolutionary origin of SN Ia remains uncertain, there is recent evidence that transfer of hydrogen in a binary system may be involved, as long suspected. There has been progress in comparing dynamical models with the optical/IR spectra of SN 1987A. The evolution of the [OI] λλ6300, 6364 feature and the presence of strong persistent HeI λ10 830 indicate that both the envelope and core material contribute substantially to the formation of emission lines in the nebular phase and that neither the core nor the envelope can be neglected. Blending with nearby hydrogen lines may affect both of these spectral features, thereby complicating the analysis of the lines. The effects of continuum transfer and photoionization have been included and are under study. The discrepancies between theoretical and observed spectra are due primarily to the one-dimensional hydrodynamic models. The spectral data are not consistent with the high density ``spike'' (in radial coordinate) of the core material that is predicted by all such models. Analysis of the light curves of SN Ib and SN Ic supernovae implies that there are significant differences in their physical properties. Some SN Ib have considerably more ejecta mass than SN Ic events. SN Ib require He-rich atmospheres to produce the observed strong optical lines of

  15. Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Herbert F

    2011-01-01

    The future challenges to medical and biological engineering, sometimes referred to as biomedical engineering or simply bioengineering, are many. Some of these are identifiable now and others will emerge from time to time as new technologies are introduced and harnessed. There is a fundamental issue regarding "Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree" that requires a common understanding of what is meant by a B.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, or Biological Engineering. In this paper we address some of the issues involved in branding the Bio/Biomedical Engineering degree, with the aim of clarifying the Bio/Biomedical Engineering brand.

  16. Career Paths for Physics Degree Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick

    Physics degree holders have a diverse set of career opportunities open to them. So what are these opportunities? Where are they employed? How much do they earn? What skills will they need? Physics degrees make up a small proportion of the degrees conferred in the US but they play an important role in meeting workforce needs at many levels. This talk will give an overview of the employment outcomes of physics bachelors, masters and PhDs. It will discuss the diverse set fields they work in and the skills they use.

  17. Nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J.R.; Shirley, D.L.

    1982-05-01

    This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the degrees awarded in academic year 1980-81 from 73 US institutions offering degree programs in nuclear engineering or nuclear options within other engineering fields. Presented here are historical data for the last decade, which provide information such as trends by degree level, foreign national student participation, female and minority student participation, and placement of graduates. Also included is a listing of the universities by type of program and number of students

  18. Remarks about the displaced spectra techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behringer, K.; Pineyro, J.

    1989-01-01

    In a recent paper a new method, called displaced spectra techniques, was presented for distinguishing between sinusoidal components and narrowband random noise contributions in otherwise random noise data. It is based on Fourier transform techniques, and uses the power spectral density (PSD) and a newly-introduced second-order displaced power spectra density (SDPSD) function. In order to distinguish between the two peak types, a validation criterion has been established. In this note, three topics are covered: a) improved numerical data for the validation criterion are given by using the refined estimation procedure of the PSD and SDPSD functions by the Welch method; b) the validation criterion requires the subtraction of the background below the peaks. A semiautomatic procedure is described; c) it was observed that peaks in the real part of the SDPSD function can be accompanied by fine structure phenomena which are unresolved in the PSD function. A few remarks are made about this problem. (author)

  19. EPR spectra of some irradiated polycrystalline perrhenate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitseva, N.G.; Constantinescu, M.; Georgescu, R.; Constantinescu, O.

    1978-10-01

    An EPR study of the paramagnetic centers formed by γ, electron and neutron irradiation of the NaReO 4 and KReO 4 was made. In the EPR spectra of the powder samples irradiated γ, with electrons and neutrons, the presence of three types of paramagnetic centers was observed. From the EPR parameters, the centers were attributed to the ReOsub(4)sup(.), ReOsub(3)sup(.) and ReOsub(2)sup(.) radicals respectively. The lower intensity of the spectra observed by KReO 4 samples irradiation showed a higher radioresistance of the KReO 4 than that of NaReO 4 . A radiolitical scheme taking into account the paramagnetic centers formation was proposed. (author)

  20. Raman spectra of filled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, S.M.; Behera, S.N.; Sarangi, S.N.; Entel, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Raman spectra of a metallic carbon nanotube filled with atoms or molecules have been investigated theoretically. It is found that there will be a three way splitting of the main Raman lines due to the interaction of the nanotube phonon with the collective excitations (plasmons) of the conduction electrons of the nanotube as well as its coupling with the phonon of the filling material. The positions and relative strengths of these Raman peaks depend on the strength of the electron-phonon interaction, phonon frequency of the filling atom and the strength of interaction of the nanotube phonon and the phonon of the filling atoms. Careful experimental studies of the Raman spectra of filled nanotubes should show these three peaks. It is also shown that in a semiconducting nanotube the Raman line will split into two and should be observed experimentally

  1. Interpreting peptide mass spectra by VEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Rune; Lundsgaard, M.; Welinder, Karen G.

    2003-01-01

    the calculated and the experimental mass spectrum of the called peptide. The program package includes four accessory programs. VEMStrans creates protein databases in FASTA format from EST or cDNA sequence files. VEMSdata creates a virtual peptide database from FASTA files. VEMSdist displays the distribution......Most existing Mass Spectra (MS) analysis programs are automatic and provide limited opportunity for editing during the interpretation. Furthermore, they rely entirely on publicly available databases for interpretation. VEMS (Virtual Expert Mass Spectrometrist) is a program for interactive analysis...... of peptide MS/MS spectra imported in text file format. Peaks are annotated, the monoisotopic peaks retained, and the b-and y-ion series identified in an interactive manner. The called peptide sequence is searched against a local protein database for sequence identity and peptide mass. The report compares...

  2. Benchmarking statistical averaging of spectra with HULLAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, Marcel; Busquet, Michel

    2008-11-01

    Knowledge of radiative properties of hot plasmas is important for ICF, astrophysics, etc When mid-Z or high-Z elements are present, the spectra are so complex that one commonly uses statistically averaged description of atomic systems [1]. In a recent experiment on Fe[2], performed under controlled conditions, high resolution transmission spectra were obtained. The new version of HULLAC [3] allows the use of the same model with different levels of details/averaging. We will take advantage of this feature to check the effect of averaging with comparison with experiment. [1] A Bar-Shalom, J Oreg, and M Klapisch, J. Quant. Spectros. Rad. Transf. 65, 43 (2000). [2] J. E. Bailey, G. A. Rochau, C. A. Iglesias et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 265002-4 (2007). [3]. M. Klapisch, M. Busquet, and A. Bar-Shalom, AIP Conference Proceedings 926, 206-15 (2007).

  3. The new NIST atomic spectra database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, D.E.; Martin, W.C.; Wiese, W.L.; Sugar, J.; Fuhr, J.R.; Olsen, K.; Musgrove, A.; Mohr, P.J.; Reader, J.; Dalton, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    The new atomic spectra database (ASD), Version 2.0, of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) contains significantly more data and covers a wider range of atomic and ionic transitions and energy levels than earlier versions. All data are integrated. It also has a new user interface and search engine. ASD contains spectral reference data which have been critically evaluated and compiled by NIST. Version 2.0 contains data on 900 spectra, with about 70000 energy levels and 91000 lines ranging from about 1 Aangstroem to 200 micrometers, roughly half of which have transition probabilities with estimated uncertainties. References to the NIST compilations and original data sources are listed in the ASD bibliography. A detailed ''Help'' file serves as a user's manual, and full search and filter capabilities are provided. (orig.)

  4. Graphics based PC analysis of alpha spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, T.C.

    1991-01-01

    New personal computer (PC) software performs interactive analysis of alpha spectra using EGA graphics. Spectra are collected with a commercial MCA board and analyzed using the software described here. The operator is required to approve each peak integration area before analysis proceeds. Sample analysis can use detector efficiencies or spike yields or both. Background corrections are made and upper limit values are calculated when specified. Nuclide identification uses a library of up to 64 nuclides with up to 8 alpha lines for each nuclide. Any one of 32 subset libraries can be used in an analysis. Analysis time is short and is limited by interaction with the operator, not by calculation time. Utilities include nuclide library editing, library subset editing, energy calibration, efficiency calibration, and background update

  5. Predicting transmittance spectra of electrophotographic color prints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Safer; Emmel, Patrick; Hersch, Roger D.

    2000-12-01

    For dry toner electrophotographic color printers, we present a numerical simulation model describing the color printer responses based on a physical characterization of the different electrophotographic process steps. The proposed model introduces a Cross Transfer Efficiency designed to predict the color transmittance spectra of multi-color prints by taking into account the transfer influence of each deposited color toner layer upon the other layers. The simulation model leads to a better understanding of the factors that have an impact on printing quality. In order to avoid the additional optical non-linearities produced by light reflection on paper, we have limited the present investigation to transparency prints. The proposed model succeeded to predict the transmittance spectra of printed wedges combining two color toner layers with a mean deviation less than CIE-LAB (Delta) E equals 2.5.

  6. Measurement and interpretation of plutonium spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaise, J.; Fred, M.S.; Carnall, W.T.; Crosswhite, H.M.; Crosswhite, H.

    1982-01-01

    The atomic spectroscopic data available for plutonium are among the rickest of any in the periodic system. They include high-resolution grating and Fourier-transform spectra as well as extensive Zeeman and isotope-shift studies. We summarize the present status of the term analysis and cite the configurations that have been identified. A least-squares adjustment of a parametric Hamiltonian for configurations of both Pu I and Pu II has shown that almost all of the expected low levels are now known. The use of a model Hamiltonian applicable to both lanthanide and actinide atomic species has been applied to the low configurations of Pu I and Pu II making use of trends predicted by ab initio calculations. This same model has been used to describe the energy levels of Pu 3+ in LaCl 3 , and an extension has permitted preliminary calculations of the spectra of other valence states

  7. The XUV spectra of highly ionised molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, M.W.D.; Peacock, N.J.; Smith, C.C.; Hobby, M.G.; Cowan, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    The spectra of molybdenum ions produced in Tokamaks in the wavelength range 10-200 A have been reproduced in a plasma formed by laser beam irradiation of solid molybdenum targets. Lines from highly ionised stages of molybdenum (Mo XXX to Mo XXXII) have been distinguished by varying the laser beam intensity. Detailed analyses of the simpler ions, Mo XV (Ni-like), Mo XVI (Co-like), Mo XXXII (Na-like), and to a lesser extent Mo XXXI (Mg-like) and Mo XVII (Fe-like), have been achieved by comparison with ab initio calculations. A general interpretation of intermediate ion stages is also given but it is shown that most of these spectra are so complex, as a result of inner-subshell excitation, that detailed term-scheme analyses are nearly impossible. (author)

  8. Graphics of diffraction spectra for PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.

    1991-09-01

    The materials can be studied by means of diffraction if these are crystalline; of the type of study will depend the technique to apply, the first step is the obtaining of a digital register that allows to build the corresponding spectra. The digital register should have well-known the initial and final angular data. The main objective of this work, is starting of a digital register of data or an arrangement CPSi type (counts per second measured by the detection system) generated by means of the diffractometer, to create the graph of the corresponding spectra in visual form in the screen of a microcomputer and if is required, to obtain the graph in printed form by means of the same computer program for microcomputer. (Author)

  9. Hadronic spectra from collisions of heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, P.

    1997-03-01

    Hadronic spectra from collisions of heavy ions at ultrarelativistic energies are discussed, concentrating on recent measurements at the SPS of central Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon, which are compared to collisions of lighter ions and at lower beam energies. Baryon stopping is seen to be larger for heavier systems and lower energies. Total yields of pions and kaons scale with the number of participants in central collisions at the SPS; in particular, the K/π ratio is constant between central S+S and Pb+Pb at the SPS. Transverse mass spectra indicate significantly larger radial flow for the heavier systems. At midrapidity, an enhancement of - >/ + > and - >/ + > at low P T are best explained by final state Coulomb interaction with the residual charge of the fireball

  10. Absorption spectra of AA-stacked graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C W; Lee, S H; Chen, S C; Lin, M F; Shyu, F L

    2010-01-01

    AA-stacked graphite shows strong anisotropy in geometric structures and velocity matrix elements. However, the absorption spectra are isotropic for the polarization vector on the graphene plane. The spectra exhibit one prominent plateau at middle energy and one shoulder structure at lower energy. These structures directly reflect the unique geometric and band structures and provide sufficient information for experimental fitting of the intralayer and interlayer atomic interactions. On the other hand, monolayer graphene shows a sharp absorption peak but no shoulder structure; AA-stacked bilayer graphene has two absorption peaks at middle energy and abruptly vanishes at lower energy. Furthermore, the isotropic features are expected to exist in other graphene-related systems. The calculated results and the predicted atomic interactions could be verified by optical measurements.

  11. XUV spectra of highly ionised molybdenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, M W.D.; Peacock, N J; Smith, C C; Hobby, M G [UKAEA, Abingdon. Culham Lab.; Cowan, R D

    1978-05-14

    The spectra of molybdenum ions produced in Tokamaks in the wavelength range 10-200 A have been reproduced in a plasma formed by laser beam irradiation of solid molybdenum targets. Lines from highly ionised stages of molybdenum (Mo XXX to Mo XXXII) have been distinguished by varying the laser beam intensity. Detailed analyses of the simpler ions, Mo XV (Ni-like), Mo XVI (Co-like), Mo XXXII (Na-like), and to a lesser extent Mo XXXI (Mg-like) and Mo XVII (Fe-like), have been achieved by comparison with ab initio calculations. A general interpretation of intermediate ion stages is also given but it is shown that most of these spectra are so complex, as a result of inner-subshell excitation, that detailed term-scheme analyses are nearly impossible.

  12. Subnuclear degrees of freedom in the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewald, S.

    1985-03-01

    The aim of the present thesis is to study the possible influence of subnuclear degrees of freedom as the Δ 33 -resonance and relativistic effects on the structure of nuclear excited states. (orig./HSI) [de

  13. String description of quarks degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadasz, L.

    1994-01-01

    This work presents a simple way of incorporating quark degrees of freedom (spin, charge and colour) into the classical string model. We introduce the model and derive from it the classical equations of motion. (author)

  14. String description of quarks degrees of freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadasz, L. [Jagiellonian Univ., Inst. of Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-10-01

    This work presents a simple way of incorporating quark degrees of freedom (spin, charge and colour) into the classical string model. We introduce the model and derive from it the classical equations of motion. (author). 7 refs.

  15. Digital dynamic amplitude-frequency spectra analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinnikov, V.A.; )

    2006-01-01

    The spectra analyzer is intended for the dynamic spectral analysis of signals physical installations and noise filtering. The recurrence Fourier transformation algorithm is used in the digital dynamic analyzer. It is realized on the basis of the fast logic FPGA matrix and the special signal ADSP microprocessor. The discretization frequency is 2 kHz-10 MHz. The number of calculated spectral coefficients is not less 512. The functional fast-action is 20 ns [ru

  16. Fourier evaluation of broad Moessbauer spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincze, I.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown by the Fourier analysis of broad Moessbauer spectra that the even part of the distribution of the dominant hyperfine interaction (hyperfine field or quadrupole splitting) can be obtained directly without using least-square fitting procedures. Also the odd part of this distribution correlated with other hyperfine parameters (e.g. isomer shift) can be directly determined. Examples for amorphous magnetic and paramagnetic iron-based alloys are presented. (author)

  17. Fourier evaluation of broad Moessbauer spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincze, I.

    1981-09-01

    It is shown by the Fourier analysis of broad Moessbauer spectra that the even part of the distribution of the dominant hyperfine interaction (hyperfine field or quadrupole splitting) can be obtained directly without using least-square fitting procedures. Also the odd part of this distribution correlated with other hyperfine parameters (e.g. isomer shift) can be directly determined. Examples covering the case of amorphous magnetic and paramagnetic iron-based alloys are presented. (author)

  18. Ghost lines in Moessbauer relaxation spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    The appearance in Moessbauer relaxation spectra of 'ghost' lines, which are narrow lines that do not correspond to transitions between real hyperfine energy levels of the resonant system, is examined. It is shown that in many cases of interest, the appearance of these 'ghost' lines can be interpreted in terms of the relaxational averaging of one or more of the static interactions of the ion. (orig.)

  19. Automation of the Analysis of Moessbauer Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Paulo A. de Jr.; Garg, R.; Garg, V. K.

    1998-01-01

    In the present report we propose the automation of least square fitting of Moessbauer spectra, the identification of the substance, its crystal structure and the access to the references with the help of a genetic algorith, Fuzzy logic, and the artificial neural network associated with a databank of Moessbauer parameters and references. This system could be useful for specialists and non-specialists, in industry as well as in research laboratories

  20. GRETEL, Ge(Li) Gamma Spectra Unfolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: The program performs the quantitative analysis of gamma-ray spectra obtained by Ge(Li) detectors, using special libraries which are prepared for each particular problem. 2 - Method of solution: The computer routines which detect and evaluate peak areas perform the following operations: - local smoothing of the spectrum; - first derivative of the smoothed spectrum, - peak location according to the change of sign of the first derivative; - computation of the net area of each peak found

  1. Electronic spectra of astrophysically interesting cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, John P., E-mail: j.p.maier@unibas.ch; Rice, Corey A., E-mail: j.p.maier@unibas.ch; Mazzotti, Fabio J., E-mail: j.p.maier@unibas.ch; Johnson, Anatoly, E-mail: j.p.maier@unibas.ch [Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 80, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-01-22

    The electronic spectra of polyacetylene cations were recorded at 20K in the laboratory in an ion trap instrument. These can then be compared with diffuse interstellar band (DIB) absorptions. Examination of recently published data shows that the attribution of a weak DIB at ∼506.9 nm to diacetylene cation is not justified. Study of the higher excited electronic states of polyacetylene cations shows that their widths can still be sufficiently narrow for consideration as DIB carriers.

  2. The Rovibronic Spectra of the Cyclopentadienyl Radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ketan; Miller, Terry A.; Stanton, John F.; Nesbitt, David

    2017-06-01

    Cyclopentadienyl (Cp) radical has been subject to numerous studies for the greater part of half a century. Experimental work has involved photo-electron spectroscopy, laser induced fluorescence excitation and emission, infrared absorption spectroscopy, and recently rotationally resolved spectra in the CH stretch region taken at JILA. Even more theoretical works appear in the literature, but substantial advances in computation have occurred since their completion. Cp's highly symmetric (D_{5h}) structure and doubly degenerate electronic ground (˜{X}^2E_1^{''}), which is subject to linear Jahn-Teller distortion, have been a great motivation for work on it. We have commenced new computational work to obtain a broad understanding of the electronic, vibrational, and rotational, i.e. rovibronic, structure of the Cp radical as revealed by its spectra, with particular emphasis on the new infrared spectra. The goal is to guide experiments and their analyses and reconcile results from spectroscopy and quantum chemistry calculations. T. Ichino, et al. J. Chem. Phys. 129, 084310 (2008) L. Yu, S. C. Foster, J. M. Williamson, M. C. Heaven and T. A. Miller J. Phys. Chem. 92, 4263 (1988) B. E. Applegate, A. J. Bezant and T. A. Miller J. Chem. Phys 114, 4869 (2001) D. Leicht, M. Kaufmann, G. Schwaab, and M. Havenith J. Chem. Phys. 145, 7 (2016), 074304.

  3. MAGNETIC ENERGY SPECTRA IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2010-01-01

    Line-of-sight magnetograms for 217 active regions (ARs) with different flare rates observed at the solar disk center from 1997 January until 2006 December are utilized to study the turbulence regime and its relationship to flare productivity. Data from the SOHO/MDI instrument recorded in the high-resolution mode and data from the BBSO magnetograph were used. The turbulence regime was probed via magnetic energy spectra and magnetic dissipation spectra. We found steeper energy spectra for ARs with higher flare productivity. We also report that both the power index, α, of the energy spectrum, E(k) ∼ k -α , and the total spectral energy, W = ∫E(k)dk, are comparably correlated with the flare index, A, of an AR. The correlations are found to be stronger than those found between the flare index and the total unsigned flux. The flare index for an AR can be estimated based on measurements of α and W as A = 10 b (αW) c , with b = -7.92 ± 0.58 and c = 1.85 ± 0.13. We found that the regime of the fully developed turbulence occurs in decaying ARs and in emerging ARs (at the very early stage of emergence). Well-developed ARs display underdeveloped turbulence with strong magnetic dissipation at all scales.

  4. VARIABILITY IN OPTICAL SPECTRA OF ε ORIONIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Gregory B.; Morrison, Nancy D.

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of a time series analysis of 130 échelle spectra of ε Ori (B0 Ia), acquired over seven observing seasons between 1998 and 2006 at Ritter Observatory. The equivalent widths of Hα (net) and He I λ5876 were measured and radial velocities were obtained from the central absorption of He I λ5876. Temporal variance spectra (TVS) revealed significant wind variability in both Hα and He I λ5876. The He I TVS have a double-peaked profile consistent with radial velocity oscillations. A periodicity search was carried out on the equivalent width and radial velocity data, as well as on wavelength-binned spectra. This analysis has revealed several periods in the variability with timescales of two to seven days. Many of these periods exhibit sinusoidal modulation in the associated phase diagrams. Several of these periods were present in both Hα and He I, indicating a possible connection between the wind and the photosphere. Due to the harmonic nature of these periods, stellar pulsations may be the origin of some of the observed variability. Periods on the order of the rotational period were also detected in the He I line in the 1998-1999 season and in both lines during the 2004-2005 season. These periods may indicate rotational modulation due to structure in the wind.

  5. Secondary charged particle spectra and kerma calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyne, J.J.; Gerstenberg, H.M.; Hennen, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    The calculation of kerma factors from known cross sections is not as simple as is often implied. The kerma factors are strongly influenced by the reaction mechanism assumed. An important example of this dependence on the reaction mechanism is the contribution of the 12 C(n,n')3α reaction to the total kerma in carbon. First, a short review will be given of the ENDF/B-V carbon cross sections which were used in the calculation of carbon kerma factors. Using the reaction channels implied in the ENDF/B-V evaluation, the contribution of various reactions to the total kerma factors in carbon will be given. A detailed analysis of the reaction mechanisms which could contribute to the (n,n')3α reaction in carbon has been carried out. First their contribution to kerma, independent of cross section, will be calculated and then the initial spectra of alpha particles produced by the various reaction mechanisms will be given. A discussion of possible ways of experimentally distinguishing the reaction mechanisms will be made by comparing their different initial spectra and their variation in kerma with neutron energy. Finally, the event-size spectra for tissue-equivalent proportional counters will be presented, giving only the contributions from the (n,n')3α reaction and its various possible reaction channels. 3 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Optical spectra analysis for breast cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkov, S. A.; Kochemasov, G. G.; Lyubynskaya, T. E.; Maslov, N. V.; Nuzhny, A. S.; da Silva, L. B.; Rubenchik, A.

    2011-11-01

    Minimally invasive probe and optical biopsy system based on optical spectra recording and analysis seem to be a promising tool for early diagnostics of breast cancer. Light scattering and absorption spectra are generated continuously as far as the needle-like probe with one emitting and several collecting optical fibers penetrates through the tissues toward to the suspicious area. That allows analyzing not only the state of local site, but also the structure of tissues along the needle trace. The suggested method has the advantages of automated on-line diagnosing and minimal tissue destruction and in parallel with the conventional diagnostic procedures provides the ground for decision-making. 165 medical trials were completed in Nizhny Novgorod Regional Oncology Centre, Russia. Independent diagnoses were the results of fine biopsy and histology. Application of wavelet expansion and clasterization techniques for spectra analysis revealed several main spectral types for malignant and benign tumors. Automatic classification algorithm demonstrated specificity ˜90% and sensitivity ˜91%. Large amount of information, fuzziness in criteria and data noisiness make neural networks to be an attractive analytic tool. The model based on three-layer perceptron was tested over the sample of 29 `cancer' and 29 `non-cancer' cases and demonstrated total separation.

  7. An investigation into the use of calculating the first derivative of absorbance spectra as a tool for forensic fibre analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, K; Palmer, R; Hutchinson, W; Drummond, P

    2007-05-01

    A range of fibre samples was measured using J&M MSP400 and J&M MSP800 microspectrophotometers across the visible and UV/visible wavelength ranges respectively. The first derivative of the absorbance spectra was then calculated and studied. When the absorbance spectra produced for some samples were broad and featureless, the first derivative spectra provided more points of comparison that facilitated discrimination. For many of the samples, calculating the first derivative did not result in any additional discrimination due to the high number of points of comparison present in the absorbance spectra. However, for the samples that exhibited a high level of intra-sample colour variation (e.g. through uneven dye uptake common in cotton and wool, etc.), which was evident in the absorbance spectra, the associated first derivative spectra highlighted this variation between the fibres and could potentially have resulted in false exclusions. The results show that whilst calculating first derivative can be a useful aid in the comparison of spectra, a high degree of caution is required when applying this method to fibres which exhibit a large intra-sample variation in colour.

  8. Infrared Spectra and Band Strengths of CH3SH, an Interstellar Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    Three solid phases of CH3SH (methanethiol or methyl mercaptan) have been prepared and their mid-infrared spectra recorded at 10-110 degrees Kelvin, with an emphasis on the 17-100 degrees Kelvin region. Refractive indices have been measured at two temperatures and used to estimate ice densities and infrared band strengths. Vapor pressures for the two crystalline phases of CH3SH at 110 degrees Kelvin are estimated. The behavior of amorphous CH3SH on warming is presented and discussed in terms of Ostwald's step rule. Comparisons to CH3OH under similar conditions are made, and some inconsistencies and ambiguities in the CH3SH literature are examined and corrected.

  9. Why do different people choose different university degrees? Motivation and the choice of degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya eSkatova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Different people choose which undergraduate degree to study at the university for different reasons. To date, there have been limited attempts to identify individual differences in motivation that drive the undergraduate degree choice. We identified that people choose university degrees for four reasons: career concerns (Career, intrinsic interest (Interest in the subject, an opportunity to help others (Helping and because they are looking for an easy option into higher education (Loafing. We investigated whether these motivation apply to the choice of undergraduate degree in two samples: (1 undergraduate (N = 989 and (2 prospective (N = 896 students. We developed the Motivations Influencing Course Choice (MICC questionnaire to measure these motivations. Scales of Helping, Career, Loafing and Interest showed good psychometric properties, showed validity with respect to general life goals and personality traits, and predicted actual and prospective degree choices. We demonstrated that medical degrees were chosen due to a mixture of Helping and Career, while engineering degrees were associated with Career and low interest in the degree. The choice of art and humanities degrees was driven by Interest and low concern about future career, accompanied with high Loafing. We also demonstrated gender differences: females were high in Helping (both samples and Interest (only in undergraduate sample motivation, while males scored higher in Career (only in undergraduate sample and Loafing (both samples. The findings can feed into both theoretical accounts of proximal motivation as well as help to improve degree programmes at universities and provide better career advice.

  10. Why do different people choose different university degrees? Motivation and the choice of degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skatova, Anya; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2014-01-01

    Different people choose undergraduate degrees to study at university for different reasons. To date, there have been limited attempts to identify individual differences in motivation that drive undergraduate degree choice. We identified that people choose university degrees for four reasons: career concerns (Career), intrinsic interest in the subject (Interest), an opportunity to help others (Helping) and because they are looking for an easy option to get into higher education (Loafing). We investigated whether these motivations apply to the choice of undergraduate degree in two samples: (1) undergraduate (N = 989) and (2) prospective (N = 896) students. We developed the Motivations Influencing Course Choice (MICC) questionnaire to measure these motivations. Scales of Helping, Career, Loafing, and Interest showed good psychometric properties, showed validity with respect to general life goals and personality traits, and predicted actual and prospective degree choices. We demonstrated that medical degrees were chosen due to a mixture of Helping and Career, while engineering degrees were associated with Career and low Interest in the degree. The choice of arts and humanities degrees was driven by Interest and low concern about future career, accompanied with high Loafing. We also demonstrated gender differences: females were high in Helping (both samples) and Interest (only in the undergraduate sample) motivation, while males scored higher in Career (only in the undergraduate sample) and Loafing (both samples). The findings can feed into both theoretical accounts of proximal motivation as well as provide help to improve degree programmes at universities and support better career advice.

  11. Photon and photoneutron spectra produced in radiotherapy Linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H. R.; Martinez O, S. A.; Benites R, J. L.; Lallena, A. M.

    2011-10-01

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10 -6 and 1 MeV. Neutron and Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage. The amount of photons and neutrons produced by the 15 MV linac is smaller than that found for the 18 MV linac. As expected, Bremsstrahlung spectra ends according to the voltage used to accelerate the electrons. (Author)

  12. Time-of-flight neutron spectra measurements in Zenith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, F R; Coates, M S; Diment, K M; Durrani, S A; Gayther, D B; Poole, M J; Reed, D L

    1962-01-15

    Neutron spectra in the second core loading of ZENITH have been measured using a neutron chopper. Spectra at two positions in the reactore core were obtained over a range of temperatures extending to 650 deg C.

  13. Quantum synchrotron spectra from semirelativistic electrons in teragauss magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brainerd, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Synchrotron spectra are calculated from quantum electrodynamic transition rates for thermal and power-law electron distributions. It is shown that quantum effects appear in thermal spectra when the photon energy is greater than the electron temperature, and in power-law spectra when the electron energy in units of the electron rest mass times the magnetic field strength in units of the critical field strength is of order unity. These spectra are compared with spectra calculated from the ultrarelativistic approximation for synchrotron emission. It is found that the approximation for the power-law spectra is good, and the approximation for thermal spectra produces the shape of the spectrum accurately but fails to give the correct normalization. Single photon pair creation masks the quantum effects for power-law distributions, so only modifications to thermal spectra are important for gamma-ray bursts. 13 references

  14. Evaluation of secondary and prompt fission neutron spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porodzinskij, Yu.V.; Sukhovitskij, E.Sh. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    A simple model allowing to split neutron emission spectra into reaction partials is suggested. Predicted spectra of (n,n`{gamma}), (n,n`f), etc appear to be much harder than usually evaluated. (author)

  15. Study on Moessbauer spectra of hemoglobin in thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xuanhui; Zhao Nanming; Zhang Xiufang

    1988-01-01

    The 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra of erythrocytes in normal subjects and nine patients of different thalassemias were studied. Together with clinical analysis, the correlation between the components in the spectra and different types of anemias was discussed. (orig.)

  16. Study on Mössbauer spectra of hemoglobin in thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuanhui, Guo; Nanming, Zhao; Xiufang, Zhang; Naifei, Gao; Youwen, Huang; Rongxin, Wang

    1988-02-01

    The57Fe Mössbauer spectra of erythrocytes in normal subjects and nine patients of different thalassemias were studied. Together with clinical analysis, the correlation between the components in the spectra and different types of anemias was discussed.

  17. Photon and photoneutron spectra produced in radiotherapy Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Martinez O, S. A. [Universidad Pedagogica y Tecnologica de Colombia, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada y Simulacion, Av. Central del Norte Km. 1, Via Paipa Tunja, Boyaca (Colombia); Benites R, J. L. [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Postgrado CBAP, Carretera Tepic Compostela Km. 9, Xalisco, Nayarit (Mexico); Lallena, A. M., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universida de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10{sup -6} and 1 MeV. Neutron and Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage. The amount of photons and neutrons produced by the 15 MV linac is smaller than that found for the 18 MV linac. As expected, Bremsstrahlung spectra ends according to the voltage used to accelerate the electrons. (Author)

  18. Theoretical microcontact spectra of metal electron-phonon coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulagina, T.N.; Zhernov, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental microcontact spectra of simple and certain transition metals are discussed. The Eliashberg thermodynamic functions for the metals are considered, as well as correlations between spectra peculiarities and parameters of metals and microbridge models

  19. Developing 360 degree feedback system for KINS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, In Soo; Cheon, B. M.; Kim, T. H.; Ryu, J. H.

    2003-12-01

    This project aims to investigate the feasibility of a 360 degree feedback systems for KINS and to design guiding rules and structures in implementing that systems. Literature survey, environmental analysis and questionnaire survey were made to ensure that 360 degree feedback is the right tool to improve performance in KINS. That review leads to conclusion that more readiness and careful feasibility review are needed before implementation of 360 degree feedback in KINS. Further the project suggests some guiding rules that can be helpful for successful implementation of that system in KINS. Those include : start with development, experiment with one department, tie it to a clear organization's goal, train everyone involve, make sure to try that system in an atmosphere of trust

  20. Developing 360 degree feedback system for KINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, In Soo; Cheon, B. M.; Kim, T. H.; Ryu, J. H. [Chungman National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    This project aims to investigate the feasibility of a 360 degree feedback systems for KINS and to design guiding rules and structures in implementing that systems. Literature survey, environmental analysis and questionnaire survey were made to ensure that 360 degree feedback is the right tool to improve performance in KINS. That review leads to conclusion that more readiness and careful feasibility review are needed before implementation of 360 degree feedback in KINS. Further the project suggests some guiding rules that can be helpful for successful implementation of that system in KINS. Those include : start with development, experiment with one department, tie it to a clear organization's goal, train everyone involve, make sure to try that system in an atmosphere of trust.

  1. Development of site specific response spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.L.; Chen, J.C.; Savy, J.B.

    1987-03-01

    For a number of years the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has employed site specific spectra (SSSP) in their evaluation of the adequacy of the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). These spectra were developed only from the spectra of the horizontal components of the ground motion and from a very limited data set. As the data set has considerably increased for Eastern North America (ENA) and as more relevant data has become available from earthquakes occurring in other parts of the world (e.g., Italy), together with the fact that recent data indicated the importance of the vertical component, it became clear that an update of the SSSP's for ENA was desirable. The methodology used in this study is similar to the previous ones in that it used actual earthquake ground motion data with magnitudes within a certain range and recorded at distances and at sites similar to those that would be chosen for the definition of an SSE. An extensive analysis of the origin and size of the uncertainty is an important part of this study. The results of this analysis of the uncertainties is used to develop criteria for selecting the earthquake records to be used in the derivation of the SSSP's. We concluded that the SSSPs were not very sensitive to the distribution of the source to site distance of the earthquake records used in the analysis. That is, the variability (uncertainty) introduced by the range of distances was relatively small compared to the variability introduced by other factors. We also concluded that the SSSP are somewhat sensitive to the distribution of the magnitudes of these earthquakes, particularly at rock sites and, by inference, at shallow soil sites. We found that one important criterion in selecting records to generate SSSP is the depth of soil at the site

  2. Prediction of peak overlap in NMR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hefke, Frederik; Schmucki, Roland; Güntert, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peak overlap is one of the major factors complicating the analysis of biomolecular NMR spectra. We present a general method for predicting the extent of peak overlap in multidimensional NMR spectra and its validation using both, experimental data sets and Monte Carlo simulation. The method is based on knowledge of the magnetization transfer pathways of the NMR experiments and chemical shift statistics from the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank. Assuming a normal distribution with characteristic mean value and standard deviation for the chemical shift of each observable atom, an analytic expression was derived for the expected overlap probability of the cross peaks. The analytical approach was verified to agree with the average peak overlap in a large number of individual peak lists simulated using the same chemical shift statistics. The method was applied to eight proteins, including an intrinsically disordered one, for which the prediction results could be compared with the actual overlap based on the experimentally measured chemical shifts. The extent of overlap predicted using only statistical chemical shift information was in good agreement with the overlap that was observed when the measured shifts were used in the virtual spectrum, except for the intrinsically disordered protein. Since the spectral complexity of a protein NMR spectrum is a crucial factor for protein structure determination, analytical overlap prediction can be used to identify potentially difficult proteins before conducting NMR experiments. Overlap predictions can be tailored to particular classes of proteins by preparing statistics from corresponding protein databases. The method is also suitable for optimizing recording parameters and labeling schemes for NMR experiments and improving the reliability of automated spectra analysis and protein structure determination.

  3. High-Degree Neurons Feed Cortical Computations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Timme

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown that functional connectivity among cortical neurons is highly varied, with a small percentage of neurons having many more connections than others. Also, recent theoretical developments now make it possible to quantify how neurons modify information from the connections they receive. Therefore, it is now possible to investigate how information modification, or computation, depends on the number of connections a neuron receives (in-degree or sends out (out-degree. To do this, we recorded the simultaneous spiking activity of hundreds of neurons in cortico-hippocampal slice cultures using a high-density 512-electrode array. This preparation and recording method combination produced large numbers of neurons recorded at temporal and spatial resolutions that are not currently available in any in vivo recording system. We utilized transfer entropy (a well-established method for detecting linear and nonlinear interactions in time series and the partial information decomposition (a powerful, recently developed tool for dissecting multivariate information processing into distinct parts to quantify computation between neurons where information flows converged. We found that computations did not occur equally in all neurons throughout the networks. Surprisingly, neurons that computed large amounts of information tended to receive connections from high out-degree neurons. However, the in-degree of a neuron was not related to the amount of information it computed. To gain insight into these findings, we developed a simple feedforward network model. We found that a degree-modified Hebbian wiring rule best reproduced the pattern of computation and degree correlation results seen in the real data. Interestingly, this rule also maximized signal propagation in the presence of network-wide correlations, suggesting a mechanism by which cortex could deal with common random background input. These are the first results to show that the extent to

  4. Adolescent obesity and future college degree attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler-Brown, Angela G; Ngo, Long H; Phillips, Russell S; Wee, Christina C

    2010-06-01

    The current impact of adolescent obesity on educational attainment is not clear. The objectives of our study were to determine whether adolescent obesity is associated with college degree attainment and how this association may have changed over time. We used data from a contemporary national cohort of over 4,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 14-18) in 1997 to assess the relationship between adolescent obesity and education. To assess for changes in this relationship over time, we also analyzed an older, similarly structured cohort of over 3,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 16-18) in 1981. Our primary outcome was college degree completion. We found that in the older cohort (adolescents in 1979), there were no differences in college degree attainment by adolescent weight status before and after adjustment. However, unadjusted analysis of the contemporary cohort (adolescents in 1997) demonstrated that those who were normal weight as adolescents had a higher prevalence of college degree attainment at follow-up compared to obese adolescents (24% vs. 10%). After adjustment for socio-demographic variables (age, sex, race, height, parental income-to-poverty ratio, parental education, aptitude test scores), obese adolescents were less likely to have attained a college degree compared to normal weight peers (adjusted risk ratio 0.61 95% confidence interval 0.38-0.83). Expectations for a future college degree did not vary by weight status and did not explain this observation. In conclusion, adolescent obesity is associated with lower likelihood of college completion. This relationship was not observed in an older cohort of adolescents.

  5. Molecular geometry in the ultraviolet absorption spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, S.F. de; Monteiro, L.S.; Adamis, L.M.B.; Baltar, M.C.P.; Silva, R.M. da

    1977-01-01

    The ultraviolet absorption spectra may be sensibly affected by steric effects. These effects can cause a lot of difficulties and unexpected changes in spectrum. The most general source of such difficulties is steric inhibition of resonance. In addition to this, ultraviolet epectra may be markedly changed by steric factors which change the positions of dipoles in the molecule with respect to each other and by the interaction of nonconjugated chromophores suitably located in space. We have studied in detail each of these effects presenting a lot of usual and importants examples in Organic Chemistry. Others relevants subjects were not considerated in this present work [pt

  6. Maximum entropy decomposition of quadrupole mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, U. von; Dose, V.; Golan, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present an information-theoretic method called generalized maximum entropy (GME) for decomposing mass spectra of gas mixtures from noisy measurements. In this GME approach to the noisy, underdetermined inverse problem, the joint entropies of concentration, cracking, and noise probabilities are maximized subject to the measured data. This provides a robust estimation for the unknown cracking patterns and the concentrations of the contributing molecules. The method is applied to mass spectroscopic data of hydrocarbons, and the estimates are compared with those received from a Bayesian approach. We show that the GME method is efficient and is computationally fast

  7. Spectra from foil-excited molybdenum ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Cecchi, J.L.; Kruse, T.H.

    1978-01-01

    The extreme-ultraviolet spectra (5 to 55 nm) for foil-excited molybdenum ions have been measured using 22 to 200 MeV beams from the Brookhaven National Laboratory MP tandem Van de Graaff accelerator facility, 20 μg/cm 2 C stripping foils, and a grazing incidence spectrometer. The mean ion charge states (13 to 28) and the narrow distribution widths (about 2 charge states) were accurately predictable from experimental parameters. Where possible, comparisons are given with Mo radiation from tokamaks, vacuum sparks, and laser-excited plasmas

  8. Perturbative description of inclusive energy spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupia, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany). Werner-Heisenberg-Institut

    1996-03-01

    The recent LEP-1.5 data of charged particle inclusive energy spectra are analyzed within the analytical QCD approach based on modified leading log approximation plus local parton hadron duality. The shape, the position of the maximum and the cumulant moments of the inclusive energy spectrum are well described within this model. The sensitivity of the results to the running of the coupling is pointed out. A scaling law for the one-particle invariant density E dn/d{sup 3}p at small momenta is observed, consistently with the predictions of colour coherence in soft gluon bremsstrahlung. (orig.).

  9. Perturbative description of inclusive energy spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupia, S.

    1996-01-01

    The recent LEP-1.5 data of charged particle inclusive energy spectra are analyzed within the analytical QCD approach based on modified leading log approximation plus local parton hadron duality. The shape, the position of the maximum and the cumulant moments of the inclusive energy spectrum are well described within this model. The sensitivity of the results to the running of the coupling is pointed out. A scaling law for the one-particle invariant density E dn/d 3 p at small momenta is observed, consistently with the predictions of colour coherence in soft gluon bremsstrahlung. (orig.)

  10. Process and apparatus for determining molecular spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesl, U.; Neusser, H.J.; Schlag, E.W.

    1984-01-01

    A process for determining molecular spectra in unseparated mixtures, in particular unseparated isotopic mixtures, which comprises allowing said mixture to successively flow through a photoreactor which is irradiated by an adjustable-wavelength laser and then through a mass spectrometer wherein the concentration of particles of specified mass is determined by variation of the wavelength of the laser or variation of the mass setting of the mass spectrometer in such a manner that a two-dimensional spectrum results having the parameters of wavelength and mass

  11. Multifractal spectra in homogeneous shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, A. E.; Keefe, L. R.

    1988-01-01

    Employing numerical simulations of 3-D homogeneous shear flow, the associated multifractal spectra of the energy dissipation, scalar dissipation and vorticity fields were calculated. The results for (128) cubed simulations of this flow, and those obtained in recent experiments that analyzed 1- and 2-D intersections of atmospheric and laboratory flows, are in some agreement. A two-scale Cantor set model of the energy cascade process which describes the experimental results from 1-D intersections quite well, describes the 3-D results only marginally.

  12. Beamstrahlung spectra in next generation linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.; Chen, P. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Kozanecki, W. (DAPNIA-SPP, CEN-Saclay (France))

    1992-04-01

    For the next generation of linear colliders, the energy loss due to beamstrahlung during the collision of the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} beams is expected to substantially influence the effective center-of-mass energy distribution of the colliding particles. In this paper, we first derive analytical formulae for the electron and photon energy spectra under multiple beamstrahlung processes, and for the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {gamma}{gamma} differential luminosities. We then apply our formulation to various classes of 500 GeV e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider designs currently under study.

  13. Exclusion Statistics in Conformal Field Theory Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoutens, K.

    1997-01-01

    We propose a new method for investigating the exclusion statistics of quasiparticles in conformal field theory (CFT) spectra. The method leads to one-particle distribution functions, which generalize the Fermi-Dirac distribution. For the simplest SU(n) invariant CFTs we find a generalization of Gentile parafermions, and we obtain new distributions for the simplest Z N -invariant CFTs. In special examples, our approach reproduces distributions based on 'fractional exclusion statistics' in the sense of Haldane. We comment on applications to fractional quantum Hall effect edge theories. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  14. Far-infrared spectra of acetanilide revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spire, A.; Barthes, M.; Kellouai, H.; De Nunzio, G.

    2000-03-01

    A new investigation of the temperature dependence of the far-infrared spectra of acetanilide and some isotopomers is presented. Four absorption bands are considered at 31, 42, 64, and 80 cm-1, and no significant change of their integrated intensity is observed when reducing the temperature. The temperature induced frequency shift values and other properties of these bands are consistent with an assignment as anharmonic lattice phonons. These results rule out the assignment of the 64, 80, and 106 cm-1 bands as normal modes of the polaronic excitation, as previously suggested.

  15. SIMULATION OF PARTICLE SPECTRA AT RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAHANA, D.E.; KAHANA, S.H.

    2001-01-01

    A purely hadronic simulation is performed of the recently reported data from PHOBOS at energies of √s = 56, 130 GeV using the relativistic heavy ion cascade LUCIFER which had previously given a good description of the NA49 inclusive spectra at √s = 17.2 GeV/A. The results compare well with these early measurements at RHIC and indeed successfully predict the increase in multiplicity now seen by PHOBOS and the other RHIC detectors at the nominal maximum energy of √s = 200 GeV/A, suggesting that evidence for quark-gluon matter remains elusive

  16. Boundary layer heights derived from velocity spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Kaellstrand, B. [Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    It is a well-known fact that the height of the mixed layer determines the size of the largest and most energetic eddies that can be observed in the unstable boundary layer, and consequently a peak can be observed in the power spectra of the along-wind velocity component at scales comparable to the mixed layer depth. We will now show how the mixed layer depth can be derived from the u-specta and the results will be compared with direct measurements using pibal and tethersonde measurements. (au)

  17. Photographic infrared spectra of symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrillat, Y.; Houziaux, L.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have observed six symbiotic stars during the period 1962-1977 with a grating spectrograph attached to the newtonian focus of the 120-cm telescope at Observatoire de Haute Provence. The reciprocal dispersion is 230 A.mm -1 and the region 5800 to 8800 A has been covered using hypersensitized IN plates. The minimum equivalent width for an emission line to be seen is about 0.5 A. The spectra are displayed and the main spectral characteristics are reviewed briefly. (Auth.)

  18. Einstein equations and Fermion degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetz, E.F.; Vasconcellos, C.A.Z.

    2001-01-01

    When Dirac derived the special relativistic quantum equation which brings his name, it became evident that the spin is a consequence of the space-time geometry. However, taking gravity into account (as for, instance, in the study of neutron stars), most authors do not take into account the relation between hyperbolic geometry and spin and derive an Einstein equation which implicitly takes into account only boson degrees of freedom. In this work we introduce a consistent quantum general relativistic formalism which allows us to study the effects of the existence of fermion degrees of freedom. (author)

  19. Einstein equations and Fermion degrees of freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetz, E.F.; Vasconcellos, C.A.Z. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2001-07-01

    When Dirac derived the special relativistic quantum equation which brings his name, it became evident that the spin is a consequence of the space-time geometry. However, taking gravity into account (as for, instance, in the study of neutron stars), most authors do not take into account the relation between hyperbolic geometry and spin and derive an Einstein equation which implicitly takes into account only boson degrees of freedom. In this work we introduce a consistent quantum general relativistic formalism which allows us to study the effects of the existence of fermion degrees of freedom. (author)

  20. High degree modes and instrumental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzennik, S G [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Rabello-Soares, M C; Schou, J [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)], E-mail: skorzennik@cfa.harvard.edu

    2008-10-15

    Full-disk observations taken with the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft, or the upgraded Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG) instruments, have enough spatial resolution to resolve modes up to {iota} = 1000 if not {iota} = 1500. The inclusion of such high-degree modes (i.e., {iota} {<=} 1000) improves dramatically inferences near the surface. Unfortunately, observational and instrumental effects cause the characterization of high degree modes to be quite complicated. Indeed, the characteristics of the solar acoustic spectrum are such that, for a given order, mode lifetimes get shorter and spatial leaks get closer in frequency as the degree of a mode increases. A direct consequence of this property is that individual modes are resolved only at low and intermediate degrees. At high degrees the individual modes blend into ridges and the power distribution of the ridge defines the ridge central frequency, masking the underlying mode frequency. An accurate model of the amplitude of the peaks that contribute to the ridge power distribution is needed to recover the underlying mode frequency from fitting the ridge. We present a detailed discussion of the modeling of the ridge power distribution, and the contribution of the various observational and instrumental effects on the spatial leakage, in the context of the MDI instrument. We have constructed a physically motivated model (rather than an ad hoc correction scheme) that results in a methodology that can produce unbiased estimates of high-degree modes. This requires that the instrumental characteristics are well understood, a task that has turned out to pose a major challenge. We also present our latest results, where most of the known instrumental and observational effects that affect specifically high-degree modes were removed. These new results allow us to focus our attention on changes with solar activity. Finally, we present variations of mode

  1. Independence, Odd Girth, and Average Degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwenstein, Christian; Pedersen, Anders Sune; Rautenbach, Dieter

    2011-01-01

      We prove several tight lower bounds in terms of the order and the average degree for the independence number of graphs that are connected and/or satisfy some odd girth condition. Our main result is the extension of a lower bound for the independence number of triangle-free graphs of maximum...... degree at most three due to Heckman and Thomas [Discrete Math 233 (2001), 233–237] to arbitrary triangle-free graphs. For connected triangle-free graphs of order n and size m, our result implies the existence of an independent set of order at least (4n−m−1) / 7.  ...

  2. Degree of Acetylization Chitosan Gonggong Snail Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiza, H.; Iskandar, I.; Aldo, N.

    2018-04-01

    Chitosan is a polysaccharide obtained from the deacetylation of chitin, which is generally derived from crustacean animal waste and animal skins other sea. One marine animals that have compounds that can be processed chitin chitosan is derived from the snail Gonggong marine waters of Riau Islands province. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of chitosan from the shells of snails asetilisasi Gonggong. This research is an experimental research laboratory. The results of this study indicate that the degree of chitosan shell snail deasetilisasi Gonggong is 70.27%.

  3. Georgia Power Company's college degree program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggin, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe Georgia Power Company's on-site college degree program for nuclear power plant personnel. In February 1986, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a policy statement concerning engineering expertise on shift (Generic Letter 86-04), which appeared in Volume 50, Number 208 of the October 28, 1985 Federal Register. One of the options available to nuclear power plant personnel to meet the requirement was the combined senior reactor operator/shift technical adviser position. One of the methods for meeting the option included a bachelor's degree in engineering technology for an accredited institution, including course work in the physical, mathematical, or engineering sciences

  4. The use of synthetic spectra to test the preparedness to evaluate and analyze complex gamma spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikkinen, M

    2001-10-01

    This is the report of two exercises that were run under the NKS BOK-1.1 sub-project. In these exercises synthetic gamma spectra were developed to exercise the analysis of difficult spectra typically seen after a severe nuclear accident. The spectra were analyzed twice; first, participants were given short time to give results to resemble an actual emergency preparedness situation, then a longer period of time was allowed to tune the laboratory analysis results for quality assurance purposes. The exercise did prove that it is possible to move measurement data from one laboratory to another if second opinion of the analysis is needed. It was also felt that this kind of exercise would enhance the experience the laboratories have in analyzing accident data. Participants expressed the need for additional exercises of this type, this is inexpensive and an easy way to exercise quick emergency response situations not normally seen in daily laboratory routines. (au)

  5. Vibronic spectra of Gd3+ in metaphosphate glasses: Comparison with Raman and infrared spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.W.; Brawer, S.A.; Weber, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Vibronic sidebands associated with the 6 P/sub 7/2/→ 8 S/sub 7/2/ transition of Gd 3+ -doped metaphosphate glasses are observed using line-narrowed fluorescence techniques. Glasses having metal cations of different mass and charge (La,Al,Mg,Ba) are examined. Vibronic spectra, which probe vibrations about the rare-earth element site, are compared with polarized Raman scattering data and the infrared dielectric constant obtained from near-normal reflectance measurements. Results indicate that in metaphosphate glasses vibronic selection rules are similar to HV (vertical height) Raman selection rules. The wavelengths and relative intensities of peaks in the high-frequency portion of the vibronic spectra change with respect to corresponding peaks in the Raman spectra when the mass and/or charge of Gd 3+ differs significantly from that of the metal cation

  6. Generate floor response spectra, Part 2: Response spectra for equipment-structure resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bo; Jiang, Wei; Xie, Wei-Chau; Pandey, Mahesh D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The concept of tRS is proposed to deal with tuning of equipment and structures. • Established statistical approaches for estimating tRS corresponding to given GRS. • Derived a new modal combination rule from the theory of random vibration. • Developed efficient and accurate direct method for generating floor response spectra. - Abstract: When generating floor response spectra (FRS) using the direct spectra-to-spectra method developed in the companion paper, probability distribution of t-response spectrum (tRS), which deals with equipment-structure resonance or tuning, corresponding to a specified ground response spectrum (GRS) is required. In this paper, simulation results using a large number of horizontal and vertical ground motions are employed to establish statistical relationships between tRS and GRS. It is observed that the influence of site conditions on horizontal statistical relationships is negligible, whereas the effect of site conditions on vertical statistical relationships cannot be ignored. Considering the influence of site conditions, horizontal statistical relationship suitable for all site conditions and vertical statistical relationships suitable for hard sites and soft sites, respectively, are established. The horizontal and vertical statistical relationships are suitable to estimate tRS for design spectra in USNRC R.G. 1.60 and NUREG/CR-0098, Uniform Hazard Spectra (UHS) in Western North America (WNA), or any GRS falling inside the valid coverage of the statistical relationship. For UHS with significant high frequency spectral accelerations, such as UHS in Central and Eastern North America (CENA), an amplification ratio method is proposed to estimate tRS. Numerical examples demonstrate that the statistical relationships and the amplification ratio method are acceptable to estimate tRS for given GRS and to generate FRS using the direct method in different practical situations.

  7. Generate floor response spectra, Part 2: Response spectra for equipment-structure resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bo, E-mail: b68li@uwaterloo.ca; Jiang, Wei, E-mail: w46jiang@uwaterloo.ca; Xie, Wei-Chau, E-mail: xie@uwaterloo.ca; Pandey, Mahesh D., E-mail: mdpandey@uwaterloo.ca

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The concept of tRS is proposed to deal with tuning of equipment and structures. • Established statistical approaches for estimating tRS corresponding to given GRS. • Derived a new modal combination rule from the theory of random vibration. • Developed efficient and accurate direct method for generating floor response spectra. - Abstract: When generating floor response spectra (FRS) using the direct spectra-to-spectra method developed in the companion paper, probability distribution of t-response spectrum (tRS), which deals with equipment-structure resonance or tuning, corresponding to a specified ground response spectrum (GRS) is required. In this paper, simulation results using a large number of horizontal and vertical ground motions are employed to establish statistical relationships between tRS and GRS. It is observed that the influence of site conditions on horizontal statistical relationships is negligible, whereas the effect of site conditions on vertical statistical relationships cannot be ignored. Considering the influence of site conditions, horizontal statistical relationship suitable for all site conditions and vertical statistical relationships suitable for hard sites and soft sites, respectively, are established. The horizontal and vertical statistical relationships are suitable to estimate tRS for design spectra in USNRC R.G. 1.60 and NUREG/CR-0098, Uniform Hazard Spectra (UHS) in Western North America (WNA), or any GRS falling inside the valid coverage of the statistical relationship. For UHS with significant high frequency spectral accelerations, such as UHS in Central and Eastern North America (CENA), an amplification ratio method is proposed to estimate tRS. Numerical examples demonstrate that the statistical relationships and the amplification ratio method are acceptable to estimate tRS for given GRS and to generate FRS using the direct method in different practical situations.

  8. Comparison of fish-community size spectra based on length ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimates of fish-community size spectra are promising indicators of the impact of fishing on fish assemblages. Size spectra consist of logarithmic graphs of abundance plotted against fish body size. Size spectra may either be constructed from length frequency data or estimated from the mean sizes and abundances of the ...

  9. Automated element identification for EDS spectra evaluation using quantification and integrated spectra simulation approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggert, F

    2010-01-01

    This work describes first real automated solution for qualitative evaluation of EDS spectra in X-ray microanalysis. It uses a combination of integrated standardless quantitative evaluation, computation of analytical errors to a final uncertainty, and parts of recently developed simulation approaches. Multiple spectra reconstruction assessments and peak searches of the residual spectrum are powerful enough to solve the qualitative analytical question automatically for totally unknown specimens. The integrated quantitative assessment is useful to improve the confidence of the qualitative analysis. Therefore, the qualitative element analysis becomes a part of integrated quantitative spectrum evaluation, where the quantitative results are used to iteratively refine element decisions, spectrum deconvolution, and simulation steps.

  10. Mapping SOC in a river catchment by integrating laboratory spectra wavelength with remote sensing spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Yi; Xiong, Xiong; Knadel, Maria

    There is potential to use soil ·-proximal and remote sensing derived spectra concomitantly to develop soil organic carbon (SOC) models. Yet mixing spectral data from different sources and technologies to improve soil models is still in its infancy. The objective of this study was to incorporate...... soil spectral features indicative of SOC from laboratory visible near-infrared reflectance (vis-NlR) spectra and incorporate them with remote sensing (RS) images to improve predictions of top SOC in the Skjem river catchment, Denmark. The secondary objective was to improve prediction results...

  11. Second-degree discrete Painleve equations conceal first-degree ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, A; Grammaticos, B; Joshi, N

    2010-01-01

    We examine various second-degree difference equations which have been proposed over the years and according to their authors' claims should be integrable. This study is motivated by the fact that we consider that second-degree discrete systems cannot be integrable due to the proliferation of the images (and pre-images) of the initial point. We show that in the present cases no contradiction exists. In all cases examined, we show that there exists an underlying integrable first-degree mapping which allows us to obtain an appropriate solution of the second-degree one.

  12. On statistical fluctuations in the dibaryon spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazhanskij, I.I.; Luk'yanov, V.K.; Reznik, B.L.; Titov, A.I.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this report is to show, that idea about statistical nature of dibaryon resonances corresponds to the present experimental data. Condition for cross section fluctuation occurrence is linked with value of decay width for isolated dibaryon in nucleon channel. Γ in terms of dibaryon potential quark model and q 6 → NN dibaryon decay for q 6 state with S 6 orbital symmetry and (S=I, I=0) deuteron quantum numbers are calculated as an example. np → ppπ - , dp → ppn and elastic pp-scattering are considered and distributions of cross sections and correlation functions obtained from these reactions are presented to investigate cross section fluctuations in spectra of effective masses of two-nucleon systems. Supposition about fluctuation pattern does not contradict the experiment. Curves, calculated with x l α < or approx. 0.05 partial amplitude parameter and full width of Γ < or approx. 20 MeV dibaryon resonances comply to the present experiment best. Fluctuation peculiarities -peaks in cross sections have approximately the same energy width (Γ ∼ 15-20 MeV) as the observed narrow peak in effective mass spectra of some reactions. 16 refs.; 3 figs

  13. [Fluorescence spectra analysis of the scrophularia soup].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-hua; Song, Feng; Han, Juan; Su, Jing; Qu, Fei-fei; Song, Yi-zhan; Hu, Bo-lin; Tian, Jian-guo

    2008-08-01

    The cold-water and boiled-water soaked scrophularia soups have been prepared. The emission and excitation spectra of each scrophularia soup under different conditions have been measured at room temperature. The pH values of the different scrophularia soups have been also detected. There are obvious differences between the cold-water soaked scrophularia soup and the boiled-water soaked scrophularia. For both soups the emission wavelength increases with the wavelength of the excitation, but the peaks of the emission spectra for cold-water and boiled-water soaked scrophularia soup are different, which are 441 and 532 nm, respectively. Excitation spectrum has double peaks in the cold-water soaked scrophularia soup while only one peak with longer wavelength in the boiled-water soaked one. The pH value changes from 5.5 to 4.1. According to the organic admixture fluorescence mechanism we analyzed the reasons of the experimental results. Through heating, the interaction in different fluorescence molecular and the energy transfer process in the same fluorescence molecular become more active, and the conjugate structures and the generation of hydrogen bonds, increase. The fluorescence measurement is of value for the scrophularia pharmacology analysis and provides an analytical method for the quality identification of scrophularia soup.

  14. Primordial spectra from sudden turning trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumi, Toshifumi; Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2013-12-01

    Effects of heavy fields on primordial spectra of curvature perturbations are discussed in inflationary models with a sudden turning trajectory. When heavy fields are excited after the sudden turn and oscillate around the bottom of the potential, the following two effects are generically induced: deformation of the inflationary background spacetime and conversion interactions between adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations, both of which can affect the primordial density perturbations. In this paper, we calculate primordial spectra in inflationary models with sudden turning potentials taking into account both of the two effects appropriately. We find that there are some non-trivial correlations between the two effects in the power spectrum and, as a consequence, the primordial scalar power spectrum has a peak around the scale exiting the horizon at the turn. Though both effects can induce parametric resonance amplifications, they are shown to be canceled out for the case with the canonical kinetic terms. The peak feature and the scale dependence of bispectra are also discussed.

  15. Interstellar dehydrogenated PAH anions: vibrational spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buragohain, Mridusmita; Pathak, Amit; Sarre, Peter; Gour, Nand Kishor

    2018-03-01

    Interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules exist in diverse forms depending on the local physical environment. Formation of ionized PAHs (anions and cations) is favourable in the extreme conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM). Besides in their pure form, PAHs are also likely to exist in substituted forms; for example, PAHs with functional groups, dehydrogenated PAHs etc. A dehydrogenated PAH molecule might subsequently form fullerenes in the ISM as a result of ongoing chemical processes. This work presents a density functional theory (DFT) calculation on dehydrogenated PAH anions to explore the infrared emission spectra of these molecules and discuss any possible contribution towards observed IR features in the ISM. The results suggest that dehydrogenated PAH anions might be significantly contributing to the 3.3 μm region. Spectroscopic features unique to dehydrogenated PAH anions are highlighted that may be used for their possible identification in the ISM. A comparison has also been made to see the size effect on spectra of these PAHs.

  16. Blind Source Separation For Ion Mobility Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco, S.; Pomareda, V.; Pardo, A.; Kessler, M.; Goebel, J.; Mueller, G.

    2009-01-01

    Miniaturization is a powerful trend for smart chemical instrumentation in a diversity of applications. It is know that miniaturization in IMS leads to a degradation of the system characteristics. For the present work, we are interested in signal processing solutions to mitigate limitations introduced by limited drift tube length that basically involve a loss of chemical selectivity. While blind source separation techniques (BSS) are popular in other domains, their application for smart chemical instrumentation is limited. However, in some conditions, basically linearity, BSS may fully recover the concentration time evolution and the pure spectra with few underlying hypothesis. This is extremely helpful in conditions where non-expected chemical interferents may appear, or unwanted perturbations may pollute the spectra. SIMPLISMA has been advocated by Harrington et al. in several papers. However, more modern methods of BSS for bilinear decomposition with the restriction of positiveness have appeared in the last decade. In order to explore and compare the performances of those methods a series of experiments were performed.

  17. Beta-energy averaging and beta spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatelatos, M.G.; England, T.R.

    1976-07-01

    A simple yet highly accurate method for approximately calculating spectrum-averaged beta energies and beta spectra for radioactive nuclei is presented. This method should prove useful for users who wish to obtain accurate answers without complicated calculations of Fermi functions, complex gamma functions, and time-consuming numerical integrations as required by the more exact theoretical expressions. Therefore, this method should be a good time-saving alternative for investigators who need to make calculations involving large numbers of nuclei (e.g., fission products) as well as for occasional users interested in restricted number of nuclides. The average beta-energy values calculated by this method differ from those calculated by ''exact'' methods by no more than 1 percent for nuclides with atomic numbers in the 20 to 100 range and which emit betas of energies up to approximately 8 MeV. These include all fission products and the actinides. The beta-energy spectra calculated by the present method are also of the same quality

  18. Spectra of γ rays feeding superdeformed bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritsen, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Henry, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    The spectrum of γrays coincident with SD transitions contains the transitions which populate the SD band. This spectrum can provide information on the feeding mechanism and on the properties (moment of inertia, collectivity) of excited SD states. We used a model we developed to explain the feeding of SD bands, to calculate the spectrum of feeding γrays. The Monte Carlo simulations take into account the trigger conditions present in our Eurogam experiment. Both experimental and theoretical spectra contain a statistical component and a broad E2 peak (from transitions occurring between excited states in the SD well). There is good resemblance between the measured and calculated spectra although the calculated multiplicity of an E2 bump is low by ∼30%. Work is continuing to improve the quality of the fits, which will result in a better understanding of excited SD states. In addition, a model for the last steps, which cool the γ cascade into the SD yrast line, needs to be developed. A strong M1/E2 low-energy component, which we believe is responsible for this cooling, was observed

  19. Low resolution infrared spectra of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soifer, B.T.; Neugebauer, G.; Oke, J.B.; Matthews, K.

    1980-01-01

    Low resolution spectra of a significant sample of quasars show that the Paschen α and Balmer line ratios do not agree with the radiative recombination case B result and vary widely within the quasars sampled. The range in Pα:Hβ ratios is a factor of approximately 6, while the range in Lyα:Hα ratios is a factor of approximately 5. For the Pα:Balmer series, the deviations from case B recombination are not consistent with reddening, but appear, within large dispersions, to be consistent with optical depth effects in the Balmer lines affecting the line ratios. The Lyα:Hα ratio is, however, correlated with the continuum spectral index, and can be explained as due to reddening affecting both the lines and continuum. Recent observational results based on a joint infrared/optical survey of the hydrogen line spectra of a significant number of the brightest low and high redshift quasars are summarised. This survey includes 12 quasars in the redshift range 0.07 1.5, where Hα and/or Hβ is redshifted into the 1.65μm or 2.2μm atmospheric windows. (Auth.)

  20. Continuous particle spectra and their angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, Ch.V.; Jain, R.K.; Rama Rao, J.; Ernst, J.; Machner, H.

    1996-01-01

    The angular distribution of continuous particle spectra in pre-equilibrium reactions is still an unsolved problem, particularly so at forward angles. In the present work, the angular distributions of alpha particles emitted in (α, α',x) reactions in the target elements gold and rhodium have been studied in detail. Alpha particle beams of energy 60 MeV from the Variable Energy Cyclotron of Calcutta were used in these experiments. The theoretical calculations were done using an extended exciton model of Kalbach incorporated into the Computer Code PRECO-D2. The formalism used in the exciton model was modified to include division of pre equilibrium cross section into multi-step direct (MSD) and multi-step compound (MSC) components. These MSD and MSC cross sections were used to calculate the angular distributions in terms of Legendre polynomials whose coefficients are given by simple phenomenological relations. Even with a reasonable set of parameters, the agreement between theory and experiment was far from satisfactory at forward angles. Similar conclusion was also drawn in the case of continuous particle spectra of deuterons in (d, d'x) reactions at 25 MeV in various targets. (author). 10 refs., 2 figs

  1. Fourier transform spectra of quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, V.; Ardelean, I.; Armăşelu, Anca; Apostol, D.

    2010-05-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are nanometer-sized crystals with unique photochemical and photophysical properties that are not available from either isolated molecules or bulk solids. These nanocrystals absorb light over a very broad spectral range as compared to molecular fluorophores which have very narrow excitation spectra. High-quality QDs are proper to be use in different biological and medical applications (as fluorescent labels, the cancer treatment and the drug delivery). In this article, we discuss Fourier transform visible spectroscopy of commercial quantum dots. We reveal that QDs produced by Evident Technologies when are enlightened by laser or luminescent diode light provides a spectral shift of their fluorescence spectra correlated to exciting emission wavelengths, as shown by the ARCspectroNIR Fourier Transform Spectrometer. In the final part of this paper we show an important biological application of CdSe/ZnS core-shell ODs as microbial labeling both for pure cultures of cyanobacteria (Synechocystis PCC 6803) and for mixed cultures of phototrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms.

  2. Spectra of {gamma} rays feeding superdeformed bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Henry, R.G. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The spectrum of {gamma}rays coincident with SD transitions contains the transitions which populate the SD band. This spectrum can provide information on the feeding mechanism and on the properties (moment of inertia, collectivity) of excited SD states. We used a model we developed to explain the feeding of SD bands, to calculate the spectrum of feeding {gamma}rays. The Monte Carlo simulations take into account the trigger conditions present in our Eurogam experiment. Both experimental and theoretical spectra contain a statistical component and a broad E2 peak (from transitions occurring between excited states in the SD well). There is good resemblance between the measured and calculated spectra although the calculated multiplicity of an E2 bump is low by {approximately}30%. Work is continuing to improve the quality of the fits, which will result in a better understanding of excited SD states. In addition, a model for the last steps, which cool the {gamma} cascade into the SD yrast line, needs to be developed. A strong M1/E2 low-energy component, which we believe is responsible for this cooling, was observed.

  3. Radio spectra of pulsars. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izekova, V.A.; Kuzmin, A.D.; Malofeev, V.M.; Shitov, Yu.P.

    1981-01-01

    The results of flux pulsar radioemission measurements at meter wavelength, made at Pushchino Radio Astronomical Observatory of the Lebedev Physical Institute, are presented. Flux densities at 102, 85, 61 and 39 MHz have been measured for 85, 29, 37 and 23 pulsars correspondingly. Some of them were performed at all frequencies simultaneously. On the basis of these data and high frequencies data obtained by other authors, spectra of 52 pulsars were plotted. In practically all investigated pulsars we have detected a turn-over frequency at which the flux density of pulsar radioemission attained its maximum. Its mean value is vsub(m) = 130 +- 80 MHz. Averaged on many pulsars, the spectral index is negative in the 39-61 MHz frequency range (anti ALPHA 39 sub(-) 61 = -1.4 +- 0.4) and passes through zero at frequencies of about 100 MHz, becoming positive in the 100-400 MHz frequency range. It was noticed that the spectral index in the 100-400 MHz interval depends upon such pulsar periods as α 100 sub(-) 400 = 0.7 log p + 0.9. Using the spectra, more precise radio luminosities of pulsars have been computed. (orig.)

  4. Vibration spectra of single atomic nanocontacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourahla, B; Khater, A; Rafil, O; Tigrine, R

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a simple model for an atomic nanocontact, where its mechanical properties are analysed by calculating numerically the local spectral properties at the contact atom and the nearby atoms. The standard methodology for calculating phonon spectral densities is extended to enable the calculation of localized contact modes and local density of states (DOS). The model system considered for the nanocontact consists of two sets of triple parallel semi-infinite atomic chains joined by a single atom in between. The matching method is used, in the harmonic approximation, to calculate the local Green's functions for the irreducible set of sites that constitute the inhomogeneous nanocontact domain. The Green's functions yield the vibration spectra and the DOS for the atomic sites. These are numerically calculated for different cases of elastic hardening and softening of the nanocontact domain. The purpose is to investigate how the local dynamics respond to local changes in the elastic environment. The analysis of the spectra and of the DOS identifies characteristic features and demonstrates the central role of a core subset of these sites for the dynamics of the nanocontact. The system models a situation which may be appropriate for contact atomic force microscopy

  5. Analysis of the FF Aqr spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimanskaya, N. N.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Shimansky, V. V.

    2011-07-01

    We determine the atmospheric parameters of the secondary in the close binary system FF Aqr and analyze its chemical composition. A series of high-resolution spectra are taken at different orbital phases using the coude echelle spectrometer of the 1.5-m Russian-Turkish Telescope (RTT150). We show that the absorption line intensity of heavy elements varies with phase due to the spotty nature of the cool component. We determine the abundances of heavy elements in the star's atmosphere by modelling the synthetic spectra and performing a differential analysis of the chemical composition of FF Aqr relative to the solar composition. Our analysis of the averaged spectrum of FF Aqr yielded 539 abundance estimates for 21 chemical elements. We found the metallicity of the star ([ Fe/H] = -0.11 ± 0.08) to be close solar, in agreement with the hypothesis that FF Aqr should belong to the Galactic disk. The inferred chemical composition of the objects exhibits no anomalous abundances of the α-, r-, and s-process elements like those earlier found in other systems (IN Com, LW Hya, V471 Tau). The lack of such anomalies in FF Aqr must be due to the fact that the elements heavier than 16 O cannot be synthesized in the core of the primary during the last stages of its evolution.

  6. Substitution effects on the absorption spectra of nitrophenolate isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanko, Marius; Houmøller, Jørgen; Støchkel, Kristian; Suhr Kirketerp, Maj-Britt; Petersen, Michael Åxman; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted; Rubio, Angel

    2012-10-05

    Charge-transfer excitations highly depend on the electronic coupling between the donor and acceptor groups. Nitrophenolates are simple examples of charge-transfer systems where the degree of coupling differs between ortho, meta and para isomers. Here we report the absorption spectra of the isolated anions in vacuo to avoid the complications of solvent effects. Gas-phase action spectroscopy was done with two different setups, an electrostatic ion storage ring and an accelerator mass spectrometer. The results are interpreted on the basis of CC2 quantum chemical calculations. We identified absorption maxima at 393, 532, and 399 nm for the para, meta, and ortho isomer, respectively, with the charge-transfer transition into the lowest excited singlet state. In the meta isomer, this π-π* transition is strongly redshifted and its oscillator strength reduced, which is related to the pronounced charge-transfer character, as a consequence of the topology of the conjugated π-system. Each isomer's different charge distribution in the ground state leads to a very different solvent shift, which in acetonitrile is bathochromic for the para and ortho, but hypsochromic for the meta isomer.

  7. INFORMATION CONTENT OF EXOPLANETARY TRANSIT SPECTRA: AN INITIAL LOOK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Line, Michael R.; Zhang Xi; Yung, Yuk L.; Vasisht, Gautam; Natraj, Vijay; Chen Pin

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that spectroscopy of transiting extrasolar planets can potentially provide a wealth of information about their atmospheres. Herein, we set up the inverse problem in spectroscopic retrieval. We use nonlinear optimal estimation to retrieve the atmospheric state (pioneered for Earth sounding by Rodgers). The formulation quantifies the degrees of freedom and information content of the spectrum with respect to geophysical parameters; herein, we focus specifically on temperature and composition. First, we apply the technique to synthetic near-infrared spectra and explore the influence of spectral signal-to-noise ratio and resolution (the two important parameters when designing a future instrument) on the information content of the data. As expected, we find that the number of retrievable parameters increases with increasing signal-to-noise ratio and resolution, although the gains quickly level off for large values. Second, we apply the methods to the previously studied dayside near-infrared emission spectrum of HD 189733b and compare the results of our retrieval with those obtained by others.

  8. Simulations of absorption spectra of conjugated oligomers: role of planar conformation and aggregation in condensed phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiang-Ai; Wen, Jin; Zheng, Dong; Ma, Jing

    2018-04-01

    This Review highlights the structure/property relationship underlying the morphology modulation through various factors towards the exploration of light-absorbing materials for efficient utilisation of solar power. Theoretical study using a combination of molecular dynamics imulations and the time-dependent density functional theory demonstrated that the planarity plays an important role in tuning spectral properties of oligomer aggregates. The aggregation-induced blue-shift in absorption spectra of oligothiophenes and the red-shift for oligofluorenols were rationalised in a unified way from the reduced (and increased) content of planar conformations in molecular aggregates. The planarity versus non-planarity of oligomers can be modulated by introduction of alkyl side chain or steric bulky substituents. The substitution with various groups in the ortho-position of azobenzene leads to the distorted backbone, breaking symmetry, and hence the red-shift in spectra, expanding the application in biological systems with visible light absorption. The donor-acceptor substituent groups in conjugated oligomers can increase the degree of planarity, electron delocalisation and polarisation, and charge separation, giving rise to the red-shift in spectra and enhancement in polarisability and charge mobility for device applications. The solvent dependent and pH-sensitive properties and intramolecular hydrogen bonds also caused the shift of absorption spectra with the appearance of planar conformers.

  9. Interrelationship of crystal structure, infrared spectra and physicochemical properties of perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazuev, G V; Shveikin, G P [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Khimii

    1975-12-01

    In the range 400-800 cm/sup -1/ a study has been made of infrared absorption spectra of perowskites ABO/sub 3/, where A is a rare-earth element or yttrium, B is Ti or V. A common feature of the infrared absorption spectra of perowskites ABO/sub 3/ is the presence of two intensive wide bands in the range 400-700 cm/sup -1/ one of which (low-frequency) is splitted into two or three components. The spectrum of LaTiO/sub 3/ is distinguished from spectra of other compounds. In the range measured this compound is non-transparent for electromagnetic radiation. On the basis of determination of temperature dependences of the electric resistance it is found that LaTiO/sub 3/ has metallic conductivity unlike other perowskites studied which are semiconductors. The spectrum of EuTiO/sub 3/ also differs from other spectra. It is close in its structure and position of bands to the spectrum of cubic perowskite, SrTiO/sub 3/. The splitting of the low-frequency band into two and in the case of TbVO/sub 3/ into three components is caused by deformation of crystal structures of these compounds. A direct dependence between the value of splitting and the deformation degree is observed.

  10. SPEXTRA: Optimal extraction code for long-slit spectra in crowded fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisyan, A. N.; Vinokurov, A. S.; Solovieva, Yu. N.; Sholukhova, O. N.; Kostenkov, A. E.; Fabrika, S. N.

    2017-10-01

    We present a code for the optimal extraction of long-slit 2D spectra in crowded stellar fields. Its main advantage and difference from the existing spectrum extraction codes is the presence of a graphical user interface (GUI) and a convenient visualization system of data and extraction parameters. On the whole, the package is designed to study stars in crowded fields of nearby galaxies and star clusters in galaxies. Apart from the spectrum extraction for several stars which are closely located or superimposed, it allows the spectra of objects to be extracted with subtraction of superimposed nebulae of different shapes and different degrees of ionization. The package can also be used to study single stars in the case of a strong background. In the current version, the optimal extraction of 2D spectra with an aperture and the Gaussian function as PSF (point spread function) is proposed. In the future, the package will be supplemented with the possibility to build a PSF based on a Moffat function. We present the details of GUI, illustrate main features of the package, and show results of extraction of the several interesting spectra of objects from different telescopes.

  11. Clustering analysis of line indices for LAMOST spectra with AstroStat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Xin; Sun, Wei-Min; Yan, Qi

    2018-06-01

    The application of data mining in astronomical surveys, such as the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) survey, provides an effective approach to automatically analyze a large amount of complex survey data. Unsupervised clustering could help astronomers find the associations and outliers in a big data set. In this paper, we employ the k-means method to perform clustering for the line index of LAMOST spectra with the powerful software AstroStat. Implementing the line index approach for analyzing astronomical spectra is an effective way to extract spectral features for low resolution spectra, which can represent the main spectral characteristics of stars. A total of 144 340 line indices for A type stars is analyzed through calculating their intra and inter distances between pairs of stars. For intra distance, we use the definition of Mahalanobis distance to explore the degree of clustering for each class, while for outlier detection, we define a local outlier factor for each spectrum. AstroStat furnishes a set of visualization tools for illustrating the analysis results. Checking the spectra detected as outliers, we find that most of them are problematic data and only a few correspond to rare astronomical objects. We show two examples of these outliers, a spectrum with abnormal continuumand a spectrum with emission lines. Our work demonstrates that line index clustering is a good method for examining data quality and identifying rare objects.

  12. Interpretability degrees of finitely axiomatized sequential theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Albert

    In this paper we show that the degrees of interpretability of finitely axiomatized extensions-in-the-same-language of a finitely axiomatized sequential theory-like Elementary Arithmetic EA, IΣ1, or the Gödel-Bernays theory of sets and classes GB-have suprema. This partially answers a question posed

  13. Interpretability Degrees of Finitely Axiomatized Sequential Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show that the degrees of interpretability of finitely axiomatized extensions-in-the-same-language of a finitely axiomatized sequential theory —like Elementary Arithmetic EA, IΣ1, or the Gödel-Bernays theory of sets and classes GB— have suprema. This partially answers a question

  14. Purchases of Degrees from Diploma Mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J.

    In response to a request from the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, the General Accounting Office (GAO) investigated issues concerning the proliferation of "diploma mills," which sell bogus academic degrees based on "life experience" or substandard or negligible work.…

  15. Quark degrees of freedom in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, I.

    1986-03-01

    Experimental facts which can not be interpreted in terms of nucleonic degrees of freedom are reviewed. Attempts to explain these observations by the help of the notions of quark physics are indicated. Some predicted exotic states are enumerated. The most promising models of the nucleon-nucleon interactions in terms of quarks are briefly discussed. (author)

  16. PER PhDs & Bachelor's Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan C.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the editor remarked to me that physics departments that offered a PhD with a specialization in Physics Education Research (PER) seemed to graduate more bachelor's degree recipients than those physics PhD departments that did not have the specialization. I was not convinced. That led to quite a bit of discussion between us. He compiled a…

  17. Euclidean distance degrees of real algebraic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaijens, J.A.; Draisma, J.

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of finding, in a real algebraic matrix group, the matrix closest to a given data matrix. We do so from the algebro-geometric perspective of Euclidean distance degrees. We recover several classical results; and among the new results that we prove is a formula for the Euclidean

  18. Euclidean distance degrees of real algebraic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaijens, J.A.; Draisma, J.

    2014-01-01

    We study the problem of finding, in a real algebraic matrix group, the matrix closest to a given data matrix. We do so from the algebro-geometric perspective of Euclidean distance degrees. We recover several classical results; and among the new results that we prove is a formula for the Euclidean

  19. Degree Compass: The Preferred Choice Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Leah S.; Sanders, Anthony R.; Stewart, J. Gary

    2013-01-01

    While engaged in academic reading, a college provost converged on an idea to use a preferential approach to students' selection of college courses, similar to the recommendation ideas based on Netflix and Amazon. The result of this idea came to be known as Degree Compass and was implemented on the campus of Austin Peay State University in 2011.…

  20. Astronautics degrees for the space industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruntman, M.; Brodsky, R. F.; Erwin, D. A.; Kunc, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Astronautics Program (http://astronautics.usc.edu) of the University of Southern California (USC) offers a full set of undergraduate and graduate degree programs in Aerospace Engineering with emphasis in Astronautics. The Bachelor of Science and Master of Science degree programs in Astronautics combine basic science and engineering classes with specialized classes in space technology. The Certificate in Astronautics targets practicing engineers and scientists who enter space-related fields and/or who want to obtain training in specific space-related areas. Many specialized graduate classes are taught by adjunct faculty working at the leading space companies. The Master of Science degree and Certificate are available entirely through the USC Distance Education Network (DEN). Today, the Internet allows us to reach students anywhere in the world through webcasting. The majority of our graduate students, as well as those pursuing the Certificate, work full time as engineers in the space industry and government research and development centers while earning their degrees. The new world of distance learning presents new challenges and opens new opportunities. Distance learning, and particularly the introduction of webcasting, transform the organization of the graduate program and class delivery. We describe in detail the program's academic focus, student reach, and structure of program components. Program development is illustrated by the student enrollment dynamics and related industrial trends; the lessons learned emphasize the importance of feedback from the students and from the space industry.

  1. Degree Audit Systems: Are They Worth It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Virginia

    2006-01-01

    A lot of various degree audit systems are available on the market and most often they have similar features such as the functionality they each provide, the technical platforms upon which they operate, their requirements for interfacing with the local SIS, the ease of use, and the level of effort required to implement and operate. However, the…

  2. Toward the Ideal Professional Master's Degree Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Maria P.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines work accomplished at the 1998 National Communication Association Summer Conference, presenting a model for a professional master's-degree program in public relations that integrates outcomes, assessment, curriculum, and pedagogy. Outlines program outcomes, curriculum, essential curriculum-content areas, pedagogical approaches, and…

  3. Joint Supervision of Research Degrees: Second Thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourner, Tom; Hughes, Mark

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of Britain's regulation that master's and doctoral degree candidates must have two or three program supervisors identifies four potential problems: fragmentation of supervisory responsibilities; conflicting advice; unproductive games; and absence of overall perspective on the thesis. Experience with an improved, team approach is…

  4. Master Degree Modules in Nanotechnologies for Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavka Tzanova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an European project focusing on closer cooperation in the university sector and transparency of qualifications and recognition methods. It is aimed at common MSc degree level courses development for the new skills for new jobs in the multidisciplinary nanoelectronics and a new job organisation.

  5. Managing "Academic Value": The 360-Degree Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Margaret R.; Corr, Philip J.

    2018-01-01

    The "raison d'etre" of all universities is to create and deliver "academic value", which we define as the sum total of the contributions from the 360-degree "angles" of the academic community, including all categories of staff, as well as external stakeholders (e.g. regulatory, commercial, professional and community…

  6. Strategies for Pursuing a Master's Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cynthia M; McIntosh, Constance E; Mensik, Jennifer S

    2016-01-01

    Health care has become very complex and is in a constant state of change. As a result of the evolving change and increasing complexity, a more educated nursing workforce is needed (Dracup K. Master's nursing programs. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. 2015; Institute of Medicine. The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health. 2010). It is now becoming necessary for registered nurses to earn an advanced degree to work at the highest level of their practice authority (Dracup K. Master's nursing programs. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. 2015; Institute of Medicine. The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health. 2010.). Preparing to reenter college may be an overwhelming prospect for some registered nurses seeking an advanced degree. However, there are some simple strategies that may help sort out the many degree options, financial obligations, decisions about brick and mortar versus online learning, commitment to degree completion, and changing career paths. This article will provide the registered nurse valuable information that will assist in the exciting process of returning to college.

  7. Contribution to reconstruction of third degree rectovestibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-05

    Feb 5, 2015 ... Abstract. The study was conducted on ten mares suffering from third degree rectovestibular laceration. Four uterine washes were performed in all cases by using diluted betadine (mixing 5ml of betadine antiseptic solution in 1 liter of sterile saline) to control vaginal and uterine infections before surgery.

  8. A six degrees of freedom mems manipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis reports about a six degrees of freedom (DOF) precision manipulator in MEMS, concerning concept generation for the manipulator followed by design and fabrication (of parts) of the proposed manipulation concept in MEMS. Researching the abilities of 6 DOF precision manipulation in MEMS is

  9. Perceived Benefits of an Undergraduate Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Cole; Martini, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Canadian university students tend to endorse employment-related reasons for attending university ahead of other reasons such as personal satisfaction or intellectual growth. In the present study, first- and fourth-year students from a mid-sized Canadian university reported on the benefits they expected to receive from their degree and rated their…

  10. The Top 100: Graduate Degrees Conferred

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, some critics and policymakers have started to question the value of a college education given the increasing costs of attending and the commensurate high debt levels of college graduates. Past and present studies also demonstrate that the average value masks important variation by degree level and field of study. This paper focuses on…

  11. The Value of a College Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Although parents, high school students, and most civic leaders in this country and around the world see a college degree as important, this perspective has been attacked over the last five years. Once the Great Recession began in December 2007, there were far fewer good jobs available for new college graduates. The soaring price of college had…

  12. Stellar parametrization from Gaia RVS spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Allende Prieto, C.; Fustes, D.; Manteiga, M.; Arcay, B.; Bijaoui, A.; Dafonte, C.; Ordenovic, C.; Ordoñez Blanco, D.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Among the myriad of data collected by the ESA Gaia satellite, about 150 million spectra will be delivered by the Radial Velocity Spectrometer (RVS) for stars as faint as GRVS~ 16. A specific stellar parametrization will be performed on most of these RVS spectra, I.e. those with enough high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), which should correspond to single stars that have a magnitude in the RVS band brighter than ~14.5. Some individual chemical abundances will also be estimated for the brightest targets. Aims: We describe the different parametrization codes that have been specifically developed or adapted for RVS spectra within the GSP-Spec working group of the analysis consortium. The tested codes are based on optimisation (FERRE and GAUGUIN), projection (MATISSE), or pattern-recognition methods (Artificial Neural Networks). We present and discuss each of their expected performances in the recovered stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, overall metallicity) for B- to K-type stars. The performances for determining of [α/Fe] ratios are also presented for cool stars. Methods: Each code has been homogeneously tested with a large grid of RVS simulated synthetic spectra of BAFGK-spectral types (dwarfs and giants), with metallicities varying from 10-2.5 to 10+ 0.5 the solar metallicity, and taking variations of ±0.4 dex in the composition of the α-elements into consideration. The tests were performed for S/N ranging from ten to 350. Results: For all the stellar types we considered, stars brighter than GRVS~ 12.5 are very efficiently parametrized by the GSP-Spec pipeline, including reliable estimations of [α/Fe]. Typical internal errors for FGK metal-rich and metal-intermediate stars are around 40 K in Teff, 0.10 dex in log(g), 0.04 dex in [M/H], and 0.03 dex in [α/Fe] at GRVS = 10.3. They degrade to 155 K in Teff, 0.15 dex in log(g), 0.10 dex in [M/H], and 0.1 dex in [α/Fe] at GRVS~ 12. Similar accuracies in Teff and [M/H] are

  13. Shaping the GeV-spectra of bright blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, L.; Reimer, A.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: The non-thermal spectra of jetted active galactic nuclei (AGN) show a variety of shapes and degrees of curvature in their low- and high energy components. From some of the brightest Fermi-LAT blazars, prominent spectral breaks at a few GeV have been regularly detected, which is inconsistent with conventional cooling effects. We study the effects of continuous time-dependent injection of electrons into the jet with differing rates, durations, locations, and power-law spectral indices, and evaluate its impact on the ambient emitting particle spectrum that is observed at a given snapshot time in the framework of a leptonic blazar emission model. With this study, we provide a basis for analyzing ambient electron spectra in terms of injection requirements, with implications for particle acceleration modes. Methods: The emitting electron spectrum is calculated by Compton cooling the continuously injected electrons, where target photons are assumed to be provided by the accretion disk and broad line region (BLR). From this setup, we calculate the non-thermal photon spectra produced by inverse Compton scattering of these external target radiation fields using the full Compton cross-section in the head-on approximation. Results: By means of a comprehensive parameter study we present the resulting ambient electron and photon spectra, and discuss the influence of each injection parameter individually. We found that varying the injection parameters has a notable influence on the spectral shapes, which in turn can be used to set interesting constraints on the particle injection scenarios. By applying our model to the flare state spectral energy distribution (SED) of 3C 454.3, we confirm a previous suggestion that explained the observed spectral changes at a few GeV by a combination of the Compton-scattered disk and BLR radiation. We determine the required injection parameters for this scenario. We also show that this spectral turn-over can also be understood as Compton

  14. Effect of second-sphere cation nature on the character of IR spectra of molybdeum(4, 5) cyanide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubritskaya, D.I.; Semenishin, D.I.; Vretsena, N.B.; Chernyak, B.I.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of nature of second-sphere cations on IR spectra of molybdeum (4, 5) cyanide complexes is studied. It is found that the increase in the first ionization potential (radius decrease) brings about the increase in the frequency of valent variations ν (CN). This proves the possibility of formation of bridge bonds Mo-CN-M in the compounds (M-alkali, alkaline earth or rare earth metal, Cs, Y). The conclusion is made on a considerable effect of the nature of second-sphere cations and oxidation degree of complexing agent atoms on the nature of IR spectra of octacyanomolybdates (4, 5)

  15. A fast and flexible reactor physics model for simulating neutron spectra and depletion in fast reactors - 202

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recktenwald, G.D.; Bronk, L.A.; Deinert, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Determining the time dependent concentration of isotopes within a nuclear reactor core is central to the analysis of nuclear fuel cycles. We present a fast, flexible tool for determining the time dependent neutron spectrum within fast reactors. The code (VBUDS: visualization, burnup, depletion and spectra) uses a two region, multigroup collision probability model to simulate the energy dependent neutron flux and tracks the buildup and burnout of 24 actinides, as well as fission products. While originally developed for LWR simulations, the model is shown to produce fast reactor spectra that show high degree of fidelity to available fast reactor benchmarks. (authors)

  16. Phase transition and angular momentum dependence of correlations in the rotational spectra of Ne20 and Ne22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satpathy, L.; Schmid, K.W.; Krewald, S.; Faessler, A.

    1974-01-01

    Multi-Configuration-Hartree-Fock (MCHF) calculations with angular momentum projection before the variation of the internal degree of freedom have been performed for the nuclei Ne 20 and Ne 22 . This procedure yields different correlated intrinsic states for the different members of a rotational band. Thus, the angular momentum dependence of correlations has been studied. Experimentally, the ground state spectra of Ne 20 and Ne 22 show properties similar to the phase transitions observed in some rare earth nuclei which have been well reproduced through the present calculations. The calculated spectra show a significant improvement compared to the ones obtained by variation before the angular momentum projection is effected. (author)

  17. An experiment on multibubble sonoluminescence spectra in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhan; XU JunFeng; HUANG Wei; CHEN WeiZhong; MIAO GuoQing

    2008-01-01

    We investigated experimentally the spectra of MBSL in sodium chloride water solution with krypton as dissolved gas. We observed and compared the spectra of hydroxyl ion at 310 nm and that of sodium atom at 589 nm. It has been found that under the same experimental condition, the intensity of sodium atom spectra is obviously higher than that of the hydroxyl ion spectra, and is more sensitive to the experimental condition. The krypton content, the concentration of sodium chloride solution, and the driving sound pressure obviously affect the spectra intensity in certain range.

  18. Pathways to a Four-Year Degree: Determinants of Degree Completion among Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Alberto F.; Burkum, Kurt R.; La Nasa, Steven M.

    The High School Sophomore Cohort of 1980 followed nine different pathways to a 4-year college degree. These paths were formed by a combination of different levels of academic preparation secured in high school and the first type of postsecondary institution attended. The pathway most likely to lead to a 4-year degree is one defined by acquiring…

  19. On the relationship between degree of hand-preference and degree of language lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, Metten; Ophoff, Roel A; Boks, Marco P; Fleer, Willemien; de Visser, Kees C L; Kahn, René S; Sommer, Iris E; Aukes, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Language lateralization and hand-preference show inter-individual variation in the degree of lateralization to the left- or right, but their relation is not fully understood. Disentangling this relation could aid elucidating the mechanisms underlying these traits. The relation between degree of

  20. Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees: Results from the 2012 Survey of Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick; Nicholson, Starr

    2014-01-01

    Interest in astronomy degrees in the U.S. remains strong, with astronomy enrollments at or near all-time highs for the 2012-13 academic year. The total number of students taking an introductory astronomy course at a degree-granting physics or astronomy department is approaching 200,000. Enrollments in introductory astronomy courses have been…

  1. Lessons Learned: Creating an Online Business Degree from a Successful On-Campus Business Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, William P.; Muraoka, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The horse has left the barn. Distance education is here to stay and the number of degree programs offered online is growing rapidly. California State University Channel Islands (CI) admitted its first students in 2002, and the undergraduate and graduate degrees in business were among its first program offerings. From its inception, the…

  2. Raman Spectra from Pesticides on the Surface of Fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, P X; Zhou Xiaofang; Cheng, Andrew Y S; Fang Yan

    2006-01-01

    Raman spectra of several vegetables and fruits were studied by micro-Raman spectrometer (514.5 nm) and Near-infrared Fourier Transform Raman spectrometer (FTRaman). It is shown that at 514.5 nm excitation, most of the spectra are from that of carotene with some very strong fluorescence in some cases. While at 1064 nm wavelength excitation, the spectra from the different samples demonstrate different characteristic Raman spectra without fluorescence. We discuss the spectroscopic difference by the two excitation wavelengths, and the application of Raman spectra for detection of pesticides left on the surface of vegetables and fruits. Raman spectra of fruits and pesticides were successfully recorded, and using the FT-Raman spectra the pesticides left on the surface of the fruits can be detected conveniently

  3. Energetic Proton Spectra Measured by the Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Danny; Shi, Run; Engebretson, Mark J.; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Manweiler, Jerry W.; Mitchell, Donald G.

    2017-10-01

    We test the hypothesis that pitch angle scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can limit ring current proton fluxes. For two chosen magnetic storms, during 17-20 March 2013 and 17-20 March 2015, we measure proton energy spectra in the region 3 ≤ L ≤ 6 using the RBSPICE-B instrument on the Van Allen Probes. The most intense proton spectra are observed to occur during the recovery periods of the respective storms. Using proton precipitation data from the POES (NOAA and MetOp) spacecraft, we deduce that EMIC wave action was prevalent at the times and L-shell locations of the most intense proton spectra. We calculate limiting ring current proton energy spectra from recently developed theory. Comparisons between the observed proton energy spectra and the theoretical limiting spectra show reasonable agreement. We conclude that the measurements of the most intense proton spectra are consistent with self-limiting by EMIC wave scattering.

  4. Planck early results. XV. Spectral energy distributions and radio continuum spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aatrokoski, J.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lavonen, N.

    2011-01-01

    Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and radio continuum spectra are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, based on the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and simultaneous multifrequency data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz......, are complemented by a set of simultaneous observations ranging from radio to gamma-rays. This is the first extensive frequency coverage in the radio and millimetre domains for an essentially complete sample of extragalactic radio sources, and it shows how the individual shocks, each in their own phase...... of development, shape the radio spectra as they move in the relativistic jet. The SEDs presented in this paper were fitted with second and third degree polynomials to estimate the frequencies of the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) peaks, and the spectral indices of low and high frequency radio data...

  5. Use of orthonormal polynomial expansion method to the description of the energy spectra of biological liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanova, N.B.; Todorov, S.T.; Ososkov, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    Orthonormal polynomial expansion method (OPEM) is applied to the data obtained by the method of energy spectra to the liquid of the biomass of wheat in the case when herbicides are used. Since the biomass of a biological object contains liquid composed mainly of water, the method of water spectra is applicable to this case as well. For comparison, the similar data obtained from control sample consisting of wheat liquid without the application of herbicides are shown. The total variance OPEM is involved including errors in both dependent and independent variables. Special criteria are used for evaluating the optimal polynomial degree and the number of iterations. The presented numerical results show good agreement with the experimental data. The developed analysis frame is of interest for future analysis in theoretical ecology.

  6. A new relation of parameters of Bohr-Mottelson rotational spectra formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mingliang; Xu Fuxin

    2003-01-01

    With the first three terms of Harris formula included and Mottelson's method followed, a new relation of the parameters of Bohr-Mottelson rotational spectra formula is brought forward. Superdeformed bands of even-even nuclei and normal deformed bands of nuclei in actinide and rare-earth are fitted with four-parameter Bohr-Mottelson rotational spectra formula. The relations of the parameters A, B, C, D are studied. The result show, for normal deformed bands, the new relation approach the experiment value in the same degree as the relation deduced from ab formula, but for superdeformed bands, the new relation is closer to the experiment than the relation deduced from ab formula. Three-parameter Harris formula may have better convergence than two-parameter Harris formula

  7. The effect of work function changes on secondary ion energy spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmaack, K.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of work function changes on experimental secondary ion energy spectra is discussed. In agreement with theory the measured ion intensities frequently exhibit an exponential work function dependence. However, the predicted velocity dependence is only observed at fairly high secondary ion energies. In the absence of a velocity dependence of the degree of ionization measured shifts of energy spectra reflect work function changes directly. Various instrumental problems are shown to aggravate a detailed comparison between experiment and theory. Significant artefacts must be expected if the extraction field is of the order of or less than the lateral field induced by a work function difference between the bombarded spot and the surrounding sample surface. (Auth.)

  8. Event terms in the response spectra prediction equation and their deviation due to stress drop variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, H.; Nakano, K.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the characteristics of strong ground motions separated from acceleration Fourier spectra and acceleration response spectra of 5% damping calculated from weak and moderate ground motions observed by K-NET, KiK-net, and the JMA Shindokei Network in Japan using the generalized spectral inversion method. The separation method used the outcrop motions at YMGH01 as reference where we extracted site responses due to shallow weathered layers. We include events with JMA magnitude equal to or larger than 4.5 observed from 1996 to 2011. We find that our frequency-dependent Q values are comparable to those of previous studies. From the corner frequencies of Fourier source spectra, we calculate Brune's stress parameters and found a clear magnitude dependence, in which smaller events tend to spread over a wider range while maintaining the same maximum value. We confirm that this is exactly the case for several mainshock-aftershock sequences. The average stress parameters for crustal earthquakes are much smaller than those of subduction zone, which can be explained by their depth dependence. We then compared the strong motion characteristics based on the acceleration response spectra and found that the separated characteristics of strong ground motions are different, especially in the lower frequency range less than 1Hz. These differences comes from the difference between Fourier spectra and response spectra found in the observed data; that is, predominant components in high frequency range of Fourier spectra contribute to increase the response in lower frequency range with small Fourier amplitude because strong high frequency component acts as an impulse to a Single-Degree-of-Freedom system. After the separation of the source terms for 5% damping response spectra we can obtain regression coefficients with respect to the magnitude, which lead to a new GMPE as shown in Fig.1 on the left. Although stress drops for inland earthquakes are 1/7 of the subduction

  9. Estimation of the sea level muon spectra at different zenith angles below 10 TeV energy

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, M; Pal, P B; Bhattacharya, D P

    2001-01-01

    The moderate energy primary cosmic ray nucleon spectrum has been calculated from the direct measurements of Webber et al. (1987), Seo et al. (1992) and Menn et al. (1997). Along with the other results surveyed by Swordy (1993). Using these directly measured primary mass composition results all particle primary nucleon energy spectrum has been constructed using superposition model to estimate the energy spectra of muons from the decay of the cosmic ray non-prompt and prompt mesons in the atmosphere. The Z-factors have been estimated from the CERN LEBC-EHS on the Lorentz invariant cross section results on pp to pi /sup +or-/X and pp to K/sup +or-/X inclusive reactions and FNAL data on pi /sup +or-/p to pi /sup +or-/X reactions, and duly corrected for A-A collisions. Using these Z-factors the meson energy spectra in the atmosphere have been calculated. The sea level muon energy spectra at zenith angles 0 degrees , 45 degrees , 72 degrees , and 75 degrees have been derived from the decay of non-prompt mesons by a...

  10. Microwave Spectrometry for the Assessment of the Structural Integrity and Restenosis Degree of Coronary Stents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arauz-Garofalo, Gianluca; Lopez-Dominguez, Victor; Garcia-Santiago, Antoni; Tejada, Javier; O'Callaghan, Joan; Rodriguez-Leor, Oriol; Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Gmag Team; Hugtp Team; Upc Team

    2013-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death worldwide. Coronary stents are one of the most important improvements to reduce deaths from cardiovascular disorders. Stents are prosthetic tube-shaped devices which are used to rehabilitate obstructed arteries. Despite their obvious advantages, reocclusion occurs in some cases arising from restenosis or structural distortions, so stented patients require chronic monitoring (involving invasive or ionizing procedures). We study microwave scattering spectra (between 2.0 - 18.0 GHz) of metallic stents in open air, showing that they behave like dipole antennas in terms of microwave scattering. They exhibit characteristic resonant frequencies in their microwave absorbance spectra that are univocally related to their length and diameter. This fact allows one to detect stent fractures or collapses. We also investigate the ``dielectric shift'' in the frequency of the resonances mentioned above due to the presence of different fluids along the stent lumen. This shift could give us information about the restenosis degree of implanted stents.

  11. On-the-fly ab initio semiclassical dynamics: Emission spectra of oligothiophenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrle, Marius; Sulc, Miroslav; Vanicek, Jiri

    2014-03-01

    We employ the thawed Gaussian approximation (TGA) [E. J. Heller, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 1544 (1975)] within an on-the-fly ab initio (OTF-AI) scheme to calculate the vibrationally resolved emission spectra of oligothiophenes up to five rings. OTF-AI-TGA is efficient enough to treat all vibrational degrees of freedom on an equal footing even in case of 5-oligothiophene (105 vibrational degrees of freedom), thus obviating the need for the crude global harmonic approximation, popular for large system. The experimental emission spectra have been almost perfectly reproduced. In order to provide a deeper insight into the associated physical and chemical processes, we present a systematic approach to assess the importance and to analyze the mutual coupling of individual vibrational degrees of freedom during the dynamics. This allows us to explain the changes in the vibrational line shapes of the oligothiophenes with increasing number of rings. Furthermore, we observe the dynamical interplay between quinoid and aromatic characters of individual rings in the oligothiophene chain during the dynamics and confirm that the quinoid character prevails in the center of the chain. This research was supported by the Swiss NSF Grant No. 200021_124936/1 and NCCR Molecular Ultrafast Science & Technology (MUST), and by the EPFL.

  12. Running of featureful primordial power spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariazzo, Stefano; Mena, Olga; Miralles, Victor; Ramírez, Héctor; Boubekeur, Lotfi

    2017-06-01

    Current measurements of the temperature and polarization anisotropy power spectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) seem to indicate that the naive expectation for the slow-roll hierarchy within the most simple inflationary paradigm may not be respected in nature. We show that a primordial power spectrum with localized features could in principle give rise to the observed slow-roll anarchy when fitted to a featureless power spectrum. From a model comparison perspective, and assuming that nature has chosen a featureless primordial power spectrum, we find that, while with mock Planck data there is only weak evidence against a model with localized features, upcoming CMB missions may provide compelling evidence against such a nonstandard primordial power spectrum. This evidence could be reinforced if a featureless primordial power spectrum is independently confirmed from bispectrum and/or galaxy clustering measurements.

  13. Boundary spectra in superspace σ-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quella, T.; Schomerus, V.; Creutzig, T.

    2007-12-01

    In this note we compute exact boundary spectra for D-instantons in σ-models on the supergroup PSL(22). Our results are obtained through an explicit summation of the perturbative expansion for conformal dimensions to all orders in the curvature radius. The analysis exploits several remarkable properties of the perturbation series that arises from rescalings of the metric on PSL(22) relative to a fixed Wess- Zumino term. According to Berkovits, Vafa and Witten, the models are relevant in the context of string theory on AdS 3 with non-vanishing RR-flux. The note concludes with a number of comments on various possible generalizations to other supergroups and higher dimensional supercoset theories. (orig.)

  14. Automated analysis of slitless spectra. II. Quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, G.; Beauchemin, M.; Borra, F.

    1988-01-01

    Automated software have been developed to process slitless spectra. The software, described in a previous paper, automatically separates stars from extended objects and quasars from stars. This paper describes the quasar search techniques and discusses the results. The performance of the software is compared and calibrated with a plate taken in a region of SA 57 that has been extensively surveyed by others using a variety of techniques: the proposed automated software performs very well. It is found that an eye search of the same plate is less complete than the automated search: surveys that rely on eye searches suffer from incompleteness at least from a magnitude brighter than the plate limit. It is shown how the complete automated analysis of a plate and computer simulations are used to calibrate and understand the characteristics of the present data. 20 references

  15. Assessment of smoothed spectra using autocorrelation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanski, P.; Kowalska, E.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, data and signal smoothing became almost standard procedures in the spectrometric and chromatographic methods. In radiometry, the main purpose to apply smoothing is minimisation of the statistical fluctuation and avoid distortion. The aim of the work was to find a qualitative parameter, which could be used, as a figure of merit for detecting distortion of the smoothed spectra, based on the linear model. It is assumed that as long as the part of the raw spectrum removed by the smoothing procedure (v s ) will be of random nature, the smoothed spectrum can be considered as undistorted. Thanks to this feature of the autocorrelation function, drifts of the mean value in the removed noise vs as well as its periodicity can be more easily detected from the autocorrelogram than from the original data

  16. Closed N-shell alkali spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, D.G.; Curtis, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    Term values and ionization potentials have been calculated for several ions in the promethium (N = 61) isoelectronic sequence. As the nuclear charge is increased, the ground configuration changes from 4f 13 5s 2 to 4f 14 5s giving the upper portion of the sequence an alkali-like character. According to our most recent Hartree-Fock calculations with first-order relativistic corrections, the ground term is 5s 2 S for Z > 77 (Ir XVII) and the first excited term is 5p 2 P 0 for Z > 84 (P 0 XXIV). Comparisons are made with calculations of Cowan in W XIV. The prospects for observation of these spectra in fast ion beams are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Dielectric spectra of proteins in conducting media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruderman, G.; Xammar Oro, J.R. de

    1990-10-01

    Dielectric measurements of serum albumin and myoglobin in solutions of varying conductivities were performed. The results presented confirm that also for protein solutions, the Maxwell predictions of a threshold frequency in conducting materials holds. The threshold frequency of a serum albumin solution was experimentally determined. Attention should be recalled that, if the dielectric spectra of proteins solutions want to be measured, three distinct frequency regions are to be observed: a low frequency region, where the sample behaves like a conductor; an intermediate region centered around the threshold frequency, where the free charges partially screen the fixed ones; and a high frequency region where the sample behaves like a good dielectric. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs

  18. Conformal Symmetry Patterns in Baryon Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchbach, Mariana; Compean, Cliffor B

    2011-01-01

    Attention is drawn to the fact that the spectra of the baryons of the lightest flavors, the nucleon and the Δ, carry quantum numbers characteristic for an unitary representation of the conformal group. We show that the above phenomenon is well explained for baryons whose internal structure is dominated by a quark-diquark configuration that resides in a conformally compactified Minkowski space time, R 1 x S 3 , and is described by means of the conformal scale equation there. The R 1 x S 3 space-time represents the boundary of the conformally compactified AdS 5 , on which one expects to encounter a conformal theory in accord with the gauge-gravity duality. Within this context, our model is congruent with AdS 5 /CFT 4 .

  19. Automated analysis of objective-prism spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, P.C.; Irwin, M.J.; Bunclark, P.; Bridgeland, M.T.; Kibblewhite, E.J.; Smith, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    A fully automated system for the location, measurement and analysis of large numbers of low-resolution objective-prism spectra is described. The system is based on the APM facility at the University of Cambridge, and allows processing of objective-prism, grens or grism data. Particular emphasis is placed on techniques to obtain the maximum signal-to-noise ratio from the data, both in the initial spectral estimation procedure and for subsequent feature identification. Comparison of a high-quality visual catalogue of faint quasar candidates with an equivalent automated sample demonstrates the ability of the APM system to identify all the visually selected quasar candidates. In addition, a large population of new, faint (msub(J)approx. 20) candidates is identified. (author)

  20. Modeling degradation in SOEC impedance spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Hauch, Anne; Knibbe, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Solid oxide cell (SOC) performance is limited by various processes. One way to investigate these processes is by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In order to quantify and characterize the processes, an equivalent circuit can be used to model the SOC impedance spectra (IS). Unfortunately......, the optimal equivalent circuit is often unknown and to complicate matters further, several processes contribute to the SOC impedance - making detailed process characterization difficult. In this work we analyze and model a series of IS measured during steam electrolysis operation of an SOC. During testing......, degradation is only observed in the Ni/YSZ electrode and not in the electrolyte or the LSM/YSZ electrode. A batch fit of the differences between the IS shows that a modified Gerischer element provides a better fit to the Ni/YSZ electrode impedance than the frequently used RQ element - albeit neither...

  1. Infrared Model Spectra for Evolving Red Supergiants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available The space and ground based infrared spectra of red supergiants are modeled and arranged in order of their evolutionary status with their theoretical model parameters. The chemical compositions of the dust shells around red supergiants are affected by the nuclear reaction and dredge-up processes of the cental stars. The processes are sensitively dependent on the initial mass, the initial chemical composition, and the evolutionary status. Miras, infrared carbon stars, and OH/IR stars have close link in their evolution in manu aspects, i,e., the chemical composition, the optical depths and the mass loss rates. The evolutionary tracks for the three classes of red supergiants on infrared two-color diagrams have been made from model calculations and IRAS observational data.

  2. Increased Elemental Specificity of Positron Annihilation Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asoka-Kumar, P.; Alatalo, M.; Ghosh, V.J.; Kruseman, A.C.; Nielsen, B.; Lynn, K.G.

    1996-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is a sensitive probe for studying the electronic structure of defects in solids. We show that the high-momentum part of the Doppler-broadened annihilation spectra can be used to distinguish different elements. This is achieved by using a new two-detector coincidence system to examine the line shape variations originating from high-momentum core electrons. Because the core electrons retain their atomic character even when atoms form a solid, these results can be directly compared to simple theoretical predictions. The new approach adds increased elemental specificity to the PAS technique, and is useful in studying the elemental variations around a defect site. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  3. A climatology of visible surface reflectance spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoogman, Peter; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Sun, Qingsong; Schaaf, Crystal; Mahr, Tobias; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We present a high spectral resolution climatology of visible surface reflectance as a function of wavelength for use in satellite measurements of ozone and other atmospheric species. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument is planned to measure backscattered solar radiation in the 290–740 nm range, including the ultraviolet and visible Chappuis ozone bands. Observation in the weak Chappuis band takes advantage of the relative transparency of the atmosphere in the visible to achieve sensitivity to near-surface ozone. However, due to the weakness of the ozone absorption features this measurement is more sensitive to errors in visible surface reflectance, which is highly variable. We utilize reflectance measurements of individual plant, man-made, and other surface types to calculate the primary modes of variability of visible surface reflectance at a high spectral resolution, comparable to that of TEMPO (0.6 nm). Using the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirection Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)/albedo product and our derived primary modes we construct a high spatial resolution climatology of wavelength-dependent surface reflectance over all viewing scenes and geometries. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment–2 (GOME-2) Lambertian Equivalent Reflectance (LER) product provides complementary information over water and snow scenes. Preliminary results using this approach in multispectral ultraviolet+visible ozone retrievals from the GOME-2 instrument show significant improvement to the fitting residuals over vegetated scenes. - Highlights: • Our goals was visible surface reflectance for satellite trace gas measurements. • Captured the range of surface reflectance spectra through EOF analysis. • Used satellite surface reflectance products for each given scene to anchor EOFs. • Generated a climatology of time/geometry dependent surface reflectance spectra. • Demonstrated potential to

  4. Spectra of small Koronis family members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C.; Rivkin, A.; Trilling, D.; Moskovitz, N.

    2014-07-01

    The space-weathering process and its implications for the relationships between S- and Q-type asteroids and ordinary chondrite meteorites are long-standing problems in asteroid science. Although the visible and near-infrared spectra of S- and Q-type objects qualitatively show the same absorption features and quantitatively show evidence of the same minerals, the S types display increased spectral slopes and muted absorption features compared to the Q types. This spectral mismatch is consistent with the effects of the space weathering process. Binzel et al. provided the missing link between Q- and S-type bodies in near-Earth space by showing a reddening of spectral slope in objects from 0.1 to 5 km that corresponded to the transition from Q- to S-type spectra. This result implied that size, and therefore age, is related to the relationship between Q- and S-type. The existence of Q-type objects in the main belt was not confirmed until Mothe-Diniz and Nesvorny (2008) found them in young S-type clusters. To investigate the trend from Q to S in the main belt, we examined space weathering within the old main-belt Koronis family using a spectrophotometric survey (Rivkin et al. 2011, Thomas et al. 2011). Rivkin et al. (2011) identified several potential Q-type objects within the Koronis family. Our Q-type candidates were identified using broad-band spectrophotometry and could not be taxonomically classified on that basis alone. We obtained follow-up visible and near-infrared spectral observations of our potential Q-type objects, (26970) Elias, (45610) 2000 DJ_{48}, and (37411) 2001 XF_{152}, using Gemini and Magellan. We will present the results of these spectral follow-up observations. Observations of (26970) Elias demonstrate that the object is more consistent with the average Q-type spectrum than the average S-type spectrum.

  5. Strong ground motion spectra for layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askar, A.; Cakmak, A.S.; Engin, H.

    1977-01-01

    This article presents an analytic method and calculations of strong motion spectra for the energy, displacement, velocity and acceleration based on the physical and geometric ground properties at a site. Although earthquakes occur with large deformations and high stress intensities which necessarily lead to nonlinear phenomena, most analytical efforts to date have been based on linear analyses in engineering seismology and soil dynamics. There are, however, a wealth of problems such as the shifts in frequency, dispersion due to the amplitude, the generation of harmonics, removal of resonance infinities, which cannot be accounted for by a linear theory. In the study, the stress-strain law for soil is taken as tau=G 0 γ+G 1 γ 3 +etaγ where tau is the stress, γ is the strain, G 0 and G 1 are the elasticity coefficients and eta is the damping and are different in each layer. The above stress-strain law describes soils with hysterisis where the hysterisis loops for various amplitudes of the strain are no longer concentric ellipses as for linear relations but are oval shapes rotated with respect to each other similar to the materials with the Osgood-Ramberg law. It is observed that even slight nonlinearities may drastically alter the various response spectra from that given by linear analysis. In fact, primary waves cause resonance conditions such that secondary waves are generated. As a result, a weak energy transfer from the primary to the secondary waves takes place, thus altering the wave spectrum. The mathematical technique that is utilized for the solution of the nonlinear equation is a special perturbation method as an extension of Poincare's procedure. The method considers shifts in the frequencies which are determined by the boundedness of the energy

  6. Spectroscopic modeling for tungsten EUV spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Suzuki, Chihiro; Morita, Shigeru; Goto, Motoshi; Sasaki, Akira; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Norimasa; Koike, Fumihiro

    2014-01-01

    We have constructed an atomic model for tungsten extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra to reconstruct characteristic spectral feature of unresolved transition array (UTA) observed at 4-7 nm for tungsten ions. In the tungsten atomic modeling, we considered fine-structure levels with the quantum principal number n up to 6 as the atomic structure and calculated the electron-impact collision cross sections by relativistic distorted-wave method, using HULLAC atomic code. We measured tungsten EUV spectra in Large Helical Device (LHD) and Compact Electron Beam Ion Trap device (CoBIT) and compared them with the model calculation. The model successfully explain series of emission peaks at 1.5-3.5 nm as n=5-4 and 6-4 transitions of W"2"4"+ - W"3"2"+ measured in CoBIT and LHD and the charge state distributions were estimated for LHD plasma. The UTA feature observed at 4-7 nm was also successfully reconstructed with our model. The peak at ∼5 nm is produced mainly by many 4f-4d transition of W"2"2"+ - W"3"5"+ ions, and the second peak at ∼6 nm is produced by 4f-4d transition of W"2"5"+ - W"2"8"+ ions, and 4d-4p inner-shell transitions, 4p"54d"n"+"1 - 4p"64d"n, of W"2"9"+ - W"3"5"+ ions. These 4d-4p inner-shell transitions become strong since we included higher excited states such as 4p"54d"n4f state, which ADAS atomic data set does not include for spectroscopic modeling with fine structure levels. (author)

  7. Curved Radio Spectra of Weak Cluster Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyesung; Ryu, Dongsu

    2015-08-01

    In order to understand certain observed features of arc-like giant radio relics such as the rareness, uniform surface brightness, and curved integrated spectra, we explore a diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) model for radio relics in which a spherical shock impinges on a magnetized cloud containing fossil relativistic electrons. Toward this end, we perform DSA simulations of spherical shocks with the parameters relevant for the Sausage radio relic in cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301, and calculate the ensuing radio synchrotron emission from re-accelerated electrons. Three types of fossil electron populations are considered: a delta-function like population with the shock injection momentum, a power-law distribution, and a power law with an exponential cutoff. The surface brightness profile of the radio-emitting postshock region and the volume-integrated radio spectrum are calculated and compared with observations. We find that the observed width of the Sausage relic can be explained reasonably well by shocks with speed {u}{{s}}˜ 3× {10}3 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and sonic Mach number {M}{{s}}˜ 3. These shocks produce curved radio spectra that steepen gradually over (0.1-10){ν }{br} with a break frequency {ν }{br}˜ 1 GHz if the duration of electron acceleration is ˜60-80 Myr. However, the abrupt increase in the spectral index above ˜1.5 GHz observed in the Sausage relic seems to indicate that additional physical processes, other than radiative losses, operate for electrons with {γ }{{e}}≳ {10}4.

  8. Spectra and physical properties of Taurid meteoroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlovič, Pavol; Tóth, Juraj; Rudawska, Regina; Kornoš, Leonard

    2017-09-01

    Taurids are an extensive stream of particles produced by comet 2P/Encke, which can be observed mainly in October and November as a series of meteor showers rich in bright fireballs. Several near-Earth asteroids have also been linked with the meteoroid complex, and recently the orbits of two carbonaceous meteorites were proposed to be related to the stream, raising interesting questions about the origin of the complex and the composition of 2P/Encke. Our aim is to investigate the nature and diversity of Taurid meteoroids by studying their spectral, orbital, and physical properties determined from video meteor observations. Here we analyze 33 Taurid meteor spectra captured during the predicted outburst in November 2015 by stations in Slovakia and Chile, including 14 multi-station observations for which the orbital elements, material strength parameters, dynamic pressures, and mineralogical densities were determined. It was found that while orbits of the 2015 Taurids show similarities with several associated asteroids, the obtained spectral and physical characteristics point towards cometary origin with highly heterogeneous content. Observed spectra exhibited large dispersion of iron content and significant Na intensity in all cases. The determined material strengths are typically cometary in the KB classification, while PE criterion is on average close to values characteristic for carbonaceous bodies. The studied meteoroids were found to break up under low dynamic pressures of 0.02-0.10 MPa, and were characterized by low mineralogical densities of 1.3-2.5 g cm-3. The widest spectral classification of Taurid meteors to date is presented.

  9. Nuclear diffuseness as a degree of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W. D.; ŚwiaŢecki, W. J.

    1998-12-01

    The response of the nuclear energy to changes in neutron and proton surface diffusenesses is investigated using the Thomas-Fermi model. Algebraic expressions are provided for the energy cost of changing the two diffusenesses away from their equilibrium values. This will make it possible to generalize the macroscopic-microscopic calculations of nuclear masses and deformation energies by the inclusion of the neutron and proton diffusenesses as degrees of freedom (to be varied along with the shape degrees of freedom). One result, which is suggested by the relatively low cost in macroscopic energy of increasing the diffuseness of a heavy nucleus by 10% (about 4 MeV), is that superheavy nuclei near Z=126, N=184 may have a fair chance of becoming stabilized by shell effects. An appendix introduces an improved measure of surface diffuseness, with certain advantages over the conventional Süssmann width b.

  10. Jamming in complex networks with degree correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore y Piontti, Ana L.; Braunstein, Lidia A.; Macri, Pablo A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the effects of the degree-degree correlations on the pressure congestion J when we apply a dynamical process on scale free complex networks using the gradient network approach. We find that the pressure congestion for disassortative (assortative) networks is lower (bigger) than the one for uncorrelated networks which allow us to affirm that disassortative networks enhance transport through them. This result agree with the fact that many real world transportation networks naturally evolve to this kind of correlation. We explain our results showing that for the disassortative case the clusters in the gradient network turn out to be as much elongated as possible, reducing the pressure congestion J and observing the opposite behavior for the assortative case. Finally we apply our model to real world networks, and the results agree with our theoretical model.

  11. Effective hadron degrees of freedom in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulders, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses several topics. The first one is the importance of a consistent treatment of extended nucleons and the subsequent requirement of accounting for quark antisymmetrization. It will probably be possible to account for these effects through quark exchange currents in much of the same way as meson exchange currents at lower values of Q 2 . In order to obtain more definite answers on intrinsic properties of nucleons and other hadronic degrees of freedom in nuclei it is important to establish to which extent hadronic degrees of freedom behaving like quasi-free nuclear constituents can be used to describe the nuclear response in inclusive and semi-inclusive electron scattering at intermediate energies

  12. Nuclear diffuseness as a degree of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.D.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    The response of the nuclear energy to changes in neutron and proton surface diffusenesses is investigated using the Thomas-Fermi model. Algebraic expressions are provided for the energy cost of changing the two diffusenesses away from their equilibrium values. This will make it possible to generalize the macroscopic-microscopic calculations of nuclear masses and deformation energies by the inclusion of the neutron and proton diffusenesses as degrees of freedom (to be varied along with the shape degrees of freedom). One result, which is suggested by the relatively low cost in macroscopic energy of increasing the diffuseness of a heavy nucleus by 10% (about 4 MeV), is that superheavy nuclei near Z=126, N=184 may have a fair chance of becoming stabilized by shell effects. An appendix introduces an improved measure of surface diffuseness, with certain advantages over the conventional Suessmann width b. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  13. Isobar degrees of freedom in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muether, H.

    1979-01-01

    A report is given on some recent investigations of the influence of isobar degrees of freedom on the ground state properties of finite nuclei like e.g. 16 O. The nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction is constructed in the freamework of an extended one-boson-exchange (OBE) model using non-covariant, time-dependent perturbation theory. The explicit consideration of fourth-order iterative diagrams involving NΔ and ΔΔ intermediate states gives an effective NN interaction in the nuclear many-body system which is less attractive than those which are obtained treating these terms phenomenologically. Therefore the binding energy calculated in the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation is smaller if these effects of isobar degrees of freedom are taken into account. This repulsive effect of isobar configurations is partly counterbalanced by the attraction obtained for three-nucleon terms with intermediate NNΔ states. (Auth.)

  14. The physical gravitational degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E; Barbour, J; Foster, B Z; Kelleher, B; Murchadha, N O

    2005-01-01

    When constructing general relativity (GR), Einstein required 4D general covariance. In contrast, we derive GR (in the compact, without boundary case) as a theory of evolving three-dimensional conformal Riemannian geometries obtained by imposing two general principles: (1) time is derived from change; (2) motion and size are relative. We write down an explicit action based on them. We obtain not only GR in the CMC gauge, in its Hamiltonian 3 + 1 reformulation, but also all the equations used in York's conformal technique for solving the initial-value problem. This shows that the independent gravitational degrees of freedom obtained by York do not arise from a gauge fixing but from hitherto unrecognized fundamental symmetry principles. They can therefore be identified as the long-sought Hamiltonian physical gravitational degrees of freedom

  15. Law Schools Customize Degrees to Students' Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Going to law school to get a law degree has become a little like going to an ice-cream parlor for a scoop of vanilla. Plenty of people still do it, but many schools' brochures--like the elaborate flavor-and-topping menus on ice-cream parlor walls--now tempt them with something different, something more. Law students can have their "juris doctor"…

  16. Nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees, 1994: Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This survey is designed to include those programs sponsored by the Department of Energy. The survey is designed to include those programs offering a major in nuclear engineering or course work equivalent to a major in other engineering disciplines that prepare the graduates to perform as nuclear engineers. This survey provides data on nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees for use in labor market analyses, information on education programs for students, and information on new graduates to employers, government agencies, academia and professional societies

  17. Minimum degree and density of binary sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Müttel, J.; Rautenbach, D.

    2010-01-01

    For d,k∈N with k ≤ 2d, let g(d,k) denote the infimum density of binary sequences (x)∈{0,1} which satisfy the minimum degree condition σ(x+) ≥ k for all i∈Z with xi=1. We reduce the problem of computing g(d,k) to a combinatorial problem related to the generalized k-girth of a graph G which...

  18. Adolescent Obesity and Future College Degree Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler-Brown, Angela G.; Ngo, Long H.; Phillips, Russell S.; Wee, Christina C.

    2009-01-01

    The current impact of adolescent obesity on educational attainment is not clear. The objectives of our study were to determine whether adolescent obesity is associated with college degree attainment and how this association may have changed over time. We used data from a contemporary national cohort of over 4,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 14–18) in 1997 to assess the relationship between adolescent obesity and education. To assess for changes in this relationship over time, we also a...

  19. Depth and degree of melting of komatiites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Claude

    1992-04-01

    High pressure melting experiments have permitted new constraints to be placed on the depth and degree of partial melting of komatiites. Komatiites from Gorgona Island were formed by relatively low degrees of pseudoinvariant melting involving L + Ol + Opx + Cpx + Gt on the solidus at 40 kbar, about 130 km depth. Munro-type komatiites were separated from a harzburgite residue (L + Ol + Opx) at pressures that were poorly constrained, but were probably around 50 kbar, about 165 km depth; the degree of partial melting was less than 40 percent. Secular variations in the geochemistry of komatiites could have formed in response to a reduction in the temperature and pressure of melting with time. The 3.5 Ga Barberton komatiites and the 2.7 Ga Munro-type komatiities could have formed in plumes that were hotter than the present-day mantle by 500 deg and 300 deg, respectively. When excess temperatures are this size, melting is deeper and volcanism changes from basaltic to momatiitic. The komatiities from Gorgona Island, which are Mesozoic in age, may be representative of komatiities that are predicted to occur in oceanic plateaus of Cretaceous age throughout the Pacific (Storey et al., 1991).

  20. [Outlier sample discriminating methods for building calibration model in melons quality detecting using NIR spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hai-Qing; Wang, Chun-Guang; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Yu, Zhi-Hong; Li, Jian-Kang

    2012-11-01

    Outlier samples strongly influence the precision of the calibration model in soluble solids content measurement of melons using NIR Spectra. According to the possible sources of outlier samples, three methods (predicted concentration residual test; Chauvenet test; leverage and studentized residual test) were used to discriminate these outliers respectively. Nine suspicious outliers were detected from calibration set which including 85 fruit samples. Considering the 9 suspicious outlier samples maybe contain some no-outlier samples, they were reclaimed to the model one by one to see whether they influence the model and prediction precision or not. In this way, 5 samples which were helpful to the model joined in calibration set again, and a new model was developed with the correlation coefficient (r) 0. 889 and root mean square errors for calibration (RMSEC) 0.6010 Brix. For 35 unknown samples, the root mean square errors prediction (RMSEP) was 0.854 degrees Brix. The performance of this model was more better than that developed with non outlier was eliminated from calibration set (r = 0.797, RMSEC= 0.849 degrees Brix, RMSEP = 1.19 degrees Brix), and more representative and stable with all 9 samples were eliminated from calibration set (r = 0.892, RMSEC = 0.605 degrees Brix, RMSEP = 0.862 degrees).