WorldWideScience

Sample records for relativity theory

  1. Special theory of relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Kilmister, Clive William

    1970-01-01

    Special Theory of Relativity provides a discussion of the special theory of relativity. Special relativity is not, like other scientific theories, a statement about the matter that forms the physical world, but has the form of a condition that the explicit physical theories must satisfy. It is thus a form of description, playing to some extent the role of the grammar of physics, prescribing which combinations of theoretical statements are admissible as descriptions of the physical world. Thus, to describe it, one needs also to describe those specific theories and to say how much they are limit

  2. Elements of relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawden, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    The book on elements of relativity theory is intended for final year school students or as an early university course in mathematical physics. Special principle of relativity, lorentz transformation, velocity transformations, relativistic mechanics, and general theory of relativity, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  3. Relativity theory - topical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmutzer, E.

    1979-01-01

    Issued on the occasion of Albert Einstein's 100th birthday the book deals topically with the special and general relativity theory. The latest experiments to confirm the relativity theory are described and the historical development of the theory is presented in detail. Emphasis is given to the disclosure of deep insights into the nature of matter. Of interest to experts in physical and natural sciences and to mathematicians

  4. Relative Thinking Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ofer H. Azar

    2005-01-01

    The article presents a theory that I denote “Relative Thinking Theory,” which claims that people consider relative differences and not only absolute differences when making various economics decisions, even in those cases where the rational model dictates that people should consider only absolute differences. The article reviews experimental evidence for this behavior, summarizing briefly several experiments I conducted, as well as some earlier related literature. It then discusses how we can...

  5. Relativity theory and gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondi, H.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on relativity theory and gravitation is presented as a preface to the first of the articles submitted to the Journal on general relativity. Newtonian gravitation and and observation, relativity, and the sources of the gravitational field, are all discussed. (UK)

  6. Theory of relations

    CERN Document Server

    Fraïssé, R

    2011-01-01

    The first part of this book concerns the present state of the theory of chains (= total or linear orderings), in connection with some refinements of Ramsey's theorem, due to Galvin and Nash-Williams. This leads to the fundamental Laver's embeddability theorem for scattered chains, using Nash-Williams' better quasi-orderings, barriers and forerunning.The second part (chapters 9 to 12) extends to general relations the main notions and results from order-type theory. An important connection appears with permutation theory (Cameron, Pouzet, Livingstone and Wagner) and with logics (existence criter

  7. Quantum relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banai, M.

    1983-11-01

    A quantum relativity theory formulated in terms of Davis' quantum relativity principle is outlined. The first task in this theory as in classical relativity theory is to model space-time, the arena of natural processes. It is argued that the quantum space-time models of Banai introduced in an earlier paper is formulated in terms of Davis' quantum relativity. Then it is shown that the recently proposed classical relativistic quantum theory of Prugovecki and his corresponding classical relativistic quantum model of space-time open the way to introduce in a consistent way the quantum space-time model (the 'canonically quantized Minkowski space') proposed by Banai earlier. The main new aspect of the quantum mechanics of the quantum relativistic particles is, in this model of space-time, that it provides a true mass eigenvalue problem and, that the excited mass states of such particles can be interpreted as classifically relativistic (massive) quantum particles ('elementary particles'). The question of field theory over quantum relativistic models of space-time is also discussed. Finally, it is suggested that 'quarks' should be considered as quantum relativistic particles. (author)

  8. The theories of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deruelle, N.; Uzan, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    This book is a quite complete route towards general relativity via special relativity with a start point at Newton's mechanics. The mathematical formulation is based on tensors. All the relativistic aspects of only classical physics - it means no quantum mechanics - are exposed. This book is divided into 3 books and each book represents a consistent knowledge of physics at a certain time in the past: in Newton's time, in the second half of the 19. century and today. The advantage of this presentation is to make the reader feels the changes over time in the concepts of time, space, gravity, cosmology. Each book is divided into 3, 4 and 5 parts which are sub-divided into numerous chapters. Book 1: Space, time and gravity in Newton's theory, with part 1: kinematics, part 2: dynamics and part 3: gravity. Book 2: Special relativity and Maxwell's theory, with part 1: kinematics, part 2: dynamics, part 3: electromagnetism and part 4: electrodynamics. And Book 3: General relativity and gravity, with part 1: curved space-time and gravity, part 2: Schwarzschild solution and black holes, part 3: general relativity and experiments, part 4: Friedman-Lemaitre solutions and cosmology, and part 5: elements or Riemann geometry. The 3. book dedicated to general relativity, tackles topics like the relationships between space-time curvature and gravity, Schwarzschild solutions and black holes, gravitational waves, Friedmann-Lemaitre solutions and cosmology, and Riemann geometry. (A.C.)

  9. Gravity, general relativity theory and alternative theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'dovich, Ya.B.; Grishchuk, L.P.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.

    1986-01-01

    The main steps in plotting the current gravitation theory and some prospects of its subsequent development are reviewed. The attention is concentrated on a comparison of the relativistic gravitational field with other physical fields. Two equivalent formulations of the general relativity (GR) - geometrical and field-theoretical - are considered in detail. It is shown that some theories of gravity constructed as the field theories at a flat background space-time are in fact just different formulations of GR and not alternative theories

  10. New view of relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, Luiz Cesar

    2014-01-01

    This article results from Introducing the Dimensional Continuous Space-Time Theory that was published in reference 1. The Dimensional Continuous Space-Time Theory shows a series of facts relative to matter, energy, space and concludes that empty space is inelastic, absolutely stationary, motionless, perpetual, without possibility of deformation neither can it be destroyed or created. A elementary cell of empty space or a certain amount of empty space can be occupied by any quantity of energy or matter without any alteration or deformation. As a consequence of these properties and being a integral part of the theory, the principles of Relativity Theory must be changed to become simple and intuitive.

  11. Basic statements of relativity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Muschik

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Some basic statements of relativity theory, starting out with geometry and observers up to Einstein's field equations, are collected in a systematical order without any proof, to serve as a short survey of tools and results.

  12. Investigations into quantum theory and relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, I.D.

    1982-03-01

    This thesis falls into two parts. The first is concerned with damping theory as a particular approach to the description of the dynamical evolution of non-closed systems. Appealing ultimately to the Liouville/Von-Neuman equation in the weak coupling regime, the current-voltage characteristics of both the normal and Josephson tunnelling junctions, treated as open systems are obtained. It is then shown that the same results may be obtained via the combined scattering and density matrix formalism (which does not appeal to the Liouville/Von-Neuman equation), and that this method has certain advantages over the conventional formalism. In the second part an extended (non-quantum) theory of relativity in a five dimensional space is developed and a number of interesting consequences thereof obtained. In particular a generalised set of Maxwell equations for electro-dynamics is derived, and some of the implications of the new set of equations are described. Furthermore a treatment of the five-dimensional analogue of the Schwarzschild problem in general relativity is given, together with the resulting implications for planetary motion. (author)

  13. Quantum information and relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, Asher; Terno, Daniel R.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the intimate relationship between quantum mechanics, information theory, and relativity theory. Taken together these are the foundations of present-day theoretical physics, and their interrelationship is an essential part of the theory. The acquisition of information from a quantum system by an observer occurs at the interface of classical and quantum physics. The authors review the essential tools needed to describe this interface, i.e., Kraus matrices and positive-operator-valued measures. They then discuss how special relativity imposes severe restrictions on the transfer of information between distant systems and the implications of the fact that quantum entropy is not a Lorentz-covariant concept. This leads to a discussion of how it comes about that Lorentz transformations of reduced density matrices for entangled systems may not be completely positive maps. Quantum field theory is, of course, necessary for a consistent description of interactions. Its structure implies a fundamental tradeoff between detector reliability and localizability. Moreover, general relativity produces new and counterintuitive effects, particularly when black holes (or, more generally, event horizons) are involved. In this more general context the authors discuss how most of the current concepts in quantum information theory may require a reassessment

  14. Verifying the Theory of Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, S.

    1975-01-01

    This article, based on a talk the author gave to the 'Innominates', an interdisciplinary faculty group at the University of Chicago, focuses on events of the years surrounding the British Expeditions to Brazil and West Africa in 1919 that led to the confirmation of Einstein's theory of relativity. (BT)

  15. The Special Theory of Relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cial theory of relativity were published in the journal. Annalen der Physik, and were titled 'On the electro- dynamics of ... Historical Background. In order to set Einstein's work in proper perspective, re- call that, in ... ideas of absolute space and time firmly entrenched, most physicists thought that this speed was correct only in.

  16. The special theory of relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Devanathan, V

    2015-01-01

    THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY, designed as a text book for undergraduate and postgraduate students, deals with the Michelson-Morley experiment, the concept of unified space and time, the Lorentz transformation of physical quantities, length contraction, time dilation, the Minkowski space, the mass-energy relation, the concept of four-vectors, the relativistic mechanics, the laws of transformation between centre of momentum and laboratory systems, the relativistic kinematics, the unification of laws of electricity and magnetism into laws of electromagnetism, the invariance of Maxwell's equations under Lorentz transformation and the Lorentz transformation of electromagnetic quantities. KEY FEATURES: * Review Questions * Problems * Solutions to Problems * Multiple Choice Questions

  17. Coding Theory, Cryptography and Related Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, Johannes; Stichtenoth, Henning; Tapia-Recillas, Horacio

    Proceedings of anInternational Conference on Coding Theory, Cryptography and Related Areas, held in Guanajuato, Mexico. in april 1998......Proceedings of anInternational Conference on Coding Theory, Cryptography and Related Areas, held in Guanajuato, Mexico. in april 1998...

  18. Generalized string theory mapping relations between gravity and gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J.

    2003-01-01

    A previous study of the Kawai, Lewellen and Tye (KLT) relations between gravity and gauge theories, imposed by the relationship of closed and open strings, are here extended in the light of general relativity and Yang-Mills theory as effective field theories. We discuss the possibility of generalizing the traditional KLT mapping in this effective setting. A generalized mapping between the effective Lagrangians of gravity and Yang-Mills theory is presented, and the corresponding operator relations between gauge and gravity theories at the tree level are further explored. From this generalized mapping remarkable diagrammatic relations are found, linking diagrams in gravity and Yang-Mills theory, as well as diagrams in pure effective Yang-Mills theory. Also the possibility of a gravitational coupling to an antisymmetric field in the gravity scattering amplitude is considered, and shown to allow for mixed open-closed string solutions, i.e., closed heterotic strings

  19. Double Exponential Relativity Theory Coupled Theoretically with Quantum Theory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz; Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Here the problem of special relativity is analyzed into the context of a new theoretical formulation: the Double Exponential Theory of Special Relativity with respect to which the current Special or Restricted Theory of Relativity (STR) turns to be a particular case only

  20. On Palacios-Gordon's theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, P.S.

    1981-01-01

    Since the early days of Einstein's special theory of relativity (1905), it is known that this theory suffers from some epistemological problems. Over the years, many theoreticians have endeavored to overcome these problems, rejecting either the 'Principle of Relativity' or the 'Light Principle'. Palacios and Gordon rejected the former and advanced an alternative theory governed by Voigt's transformation equations (1887). In the present paper, Palacios-Gordon's theory has been critically examined and some of its drawbacks are discovered. It becomes obvious that neither Einstein's special theory of relativity nor Palacios-Gordon's theory of relativity provides a flawless fit to the real world. It is speculated that suitable synthesis of these two theories might resolve all the controversial issues of special theory of relativity. (author)

  1. Vantage Theory and Linguistic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Rob MacLaury's Vantage Theory, VT, models the way in which a cognizer constructs, recalls, uses, and modifies a category in terms of point of view or vantage. Alongside of VT, there is place for the kind of semantic specification found in the lexicon. VT2 [Allan, Keith, 2002. "Vantage theory, VT2, and number." "Language Sciences" 24(5-6), 679-703…

  2. Hispanic Culture and Relational Cultural Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Traditional personality theories do not consider the impact of culture on personality development. Yet, to provide culturally relevant services to the increasing Hispanic population in the U.S., more culturally relevant theories must be identified. This paper presents Relational Cultural Theory (RCT) as an alternative model to understanding…

  3. Chaos Theory and International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    King Oscar II 12 James E. Glenn, Chaos Theory: The Essentials for Military Applications (Newport, RI...Adolf Hitler in Germany, Alexander’s conquest of the Persian Empire, the arrival of Attila to Europe, the onset of the two Gulf Wars, the Arab Spring

  4. The Lorentz Theory of Electrons and Einstein's Theory of Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Stanley

    1969-01-01

    Traces the development of Lorentz's theory of electrons as applied to the problem of the electrodynamics of moving bodies. Presents evidence that the principle of relativity did not play an important role in Lorentz's theory, and that though Lorentz eventually acknowledged Einstein's work, he was unwilling to completely embrace the Einstein…

  5. The end of International Relations theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunne, Tim; Hansen, Lene; Wight, Colin

    2013-01-01

    With a view to providing contextual background for the Special Issue, this opening article analyses several dimensions of ‘The end of International Relations theory?’ It opens with a consideration of the status of different types of theory. Thereafter, we look at the proliferation of theories...... to the alternatives currently being practised: integrative pluralism. The article ends on a cautiously optimistic note: given the disciplinary competition that now exists in relation to explaining and understanding global social forces, International Relations may find resilience because it has become theory...

  6. Kinematical Test Theories for Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lämmerzahl, Claus; Braxmaier, Claus; Dittus, Hansjörg; Müller, Holger; Peters, Achim; Schiller, Stephan

    A comparison of certain kinematical test theories for Special Relativity including the Robertson and Mansouri-Sext test theories is presented and the accuracy of the experimental results testing Special Relativity are expressed in terms of the parameters appearing in these test theories. The theoretical results are applied to the most precise experimental results obtained recently for the isotropy of light propagation and the constancy of the speed of light.

  7. How I Created the Theory of Relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yoshimasa A.

    1982-01-01

    This translation of a lecture given in Kyoto (Japan) on 14 December l922 sheds light on Einstein's path to the theory of relativity and offers insights into many other aspects of his work on relativity. (Author/JN)

  8. Simple recursion relations for general field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Clifford; Shen, Chia-Hsien; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    On-shell methods offer an alternative definition of quantum field theory at tree-level, replacing Feynman diagrams with recursion relations and interaction vertices with a handful of seed scattering amplitudes. In this paper we determine the simplest recursion relations needed to construct a general four-dimensional quantum field theory of massless particles. For this purpose we define a covering space of recursion relations which naturally generalizes all existing constructions, including those of BCFW and Risager. The validity of each recursion relation hinges on the large momentum behavior of an n-point scattering amplitude under an m-line momentum shift, which we determine solely from dimensional analysis, Lorentz invariance, and locality. We show that all amplitudes in a renormalizable theory are 5-line constructible. Amplitudes are 3-line constructible if an external particle carries spin or if the scalars in the theory carry equal charge under a global or gauge symmetry. Remarkably, this implies the 3-line constructibility of all gauge theories with fermions and complex scalars in arbitrary representations, all supersymmetric theories, and the standard model. Moreover, all amplitudes in non-renormalizable theories without derivative interactions are constructible; with derivative interactions, a subset of amplitudes is constructible. We illustrate our results with examples from both renormalizable and non-renormalizable theories. Our study demonstrates both the power and limitations of recursion relations as a self-contained formulation of quantum field theory.

  9. Canonical perturbation theory in linearized general relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, R.; Pavlenko, Yu.G.

    1986-01-01

    Canonical perturbation theory in linearized general relativity theory is developed. It is shown that the evolution of arbitrary dynamic value, conditioned by the interaction of particles, gravitation and electromagnetic fields, can be presented in the form of a series, each member of it corresponding to the contribution of certain spontaneous or induced process. The main concepts of the approach are presented in the approximation of a weak gravitational field

  10. Relativity. The theory and its philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide a completely self-contained treatment of the philosophical foundations of the theory of relativity. The chapter headings are: mathematical preliminaries; relativity and Newtonian mechanics; the principle of special relativity; empiricism, rationalism and special relativity; special relativity and conventionalism; the commensurability of classical and relativistic mechanics; more mathematics; the path to general relativity; an outline of general relativity; relativity and covariance; spacetime and geometry. (U.K.)

  11. On skein relations in class S theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Yuji; Watanabe, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    Loop operators of a class S theory arise from networks on the corresponding Riemann surface, and their operator product expansions are given in terms of the skein relations, that we describe in detail in the case of class S theories of type A. As two applications, we explicitly determine networks corresponding to dyonic loops of N=4SU(3) super Yang-Mills, and compute the superconformal index of a nontrivial network operator of the T 3 theory.

  12. Relativity the theory and its philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Angel, Roger B

    1980-01-01

    Relativity: The Theory and its Philosophy provides a completely self-contained treatment of the philosophical foundations of the theory of relativity. It also surveys the most essential mathematical techniques and concepts that are indispensable to an understanding of the foundations of both the special and general theories of relativity. In short, the book includes a crash course in applied mathematics, ranging from elementary trigonometry to the classical tensor calculus.Comprised of 11 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to fundamental mathematical concepts such as sets, relatio

  13. Maxwell's electromagnetic theory and special relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Graham

    2008-05-28

    This paper presents a brief history of electromagnetic theory from ancient times up to the work of Maxwell and the advent of Einstein's special theory of relativity. It is divided into five convenient periods and the intention is to describe these developments for the benefit of a lay scientific audience and with the minimum of technical detail.

  14. Possible violations of the relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiomno, J.

    1985-01-01

    A review of previous works of the author and collaborators on possible violations of the Theory of Relativity (SR) is made. It is shown that there is no contradiction of the predictions of the Lorentz Aether Theory, in the form presented in these papers, with existing experiments. Further experiments to detect these violations (or to confirm SR) are indicated. (Author) [pt

  15. On the Finsler relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asanov, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    Possibility for revealing the Finsler metric space-time properties in kinematics and dynamics of local nonprobe particles is investigated. Spherically-symmetric S particle in a static gravitational field is considered. It is shown that S particle follows S line of a ''renormalized'' gravitational field. The situation is alternative to the case of a probe particle. It is also shown that the Finsler properties of real space-time can be revealed in kinematic and ''dynamics of S particles relative to a ''nonrenormalization'' field. So, the Finsler kinematic dualism is the geometrical analogue of physical dualism between probe particles and S particles. Noted are difficulties related to problems of determining the Lagrangian density for the gravitational field which leads to the Finsler geodesic ones

  16. Magnetic fields, special relativity and potential theory elementary electromagnetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Kilmister, C W

    1972-01-01

    Magnetic Fields, Special Relativity and Potential Theory is an introduction to electromagnetism, special relativity, and potential theory, with emphasis on the magnetic field of steady currents (magnetostatics). Topics covered range from the origin of the magnetic field and the magnetostatic scalar potential to magnetization, electromagnetic induction and magnetic energy, and the displacement current and Maxwell's equations. This volume is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of magnetostatics, followed by a chapter on the methods of solving potential problems drawn from elec

  17. Modern approach to relativity theory (radar formulation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1991-01-01

    The main peculiarities of the radar formulation of the relativity theory are presented. This formulation operates with the retarded (light) distances and relativistic or radar length introduced on their basis. 21 refs.; 1 tab

  18. The special theory of relativity bound with relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Dingle, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The Special Theory of Relativity:Based on a short course of lectures delivered in the late 1930s, this short book presents the theory of Special Relativity by formulating a redefinition of the measurement of length, and thus will appeal to students of physics who wish to think through Einstein's thought without the encumbrance of quasi-scientific concepts and language. Relativity: A Very Elementary Exposition:This brief lecture, delivered in October 1921 and published for the first time in 1925, offers an explanation of Einstein's theory of Special Relativity for the non-scientist, giving a ge

  19. Victories and defeats in general relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, C.

    1977-01-01

    Only within the last 20 years has it been possible to conduct far-reaching experimental tests of the validity of Einstein's General Relativity Theory. Experimental confirmation in some fields is embarrassed by considerable difficulties in applying the theory to cosmic systems, which indicate that such major systems lie at the limit of the theory's applicability. The lecture here reproduced discusses both the successes and the limitations of the theory, starting with its replacement of the absolute space-time theory of Newton and its historical replacement by the relativistic gravitational postulates of Einstein which, in spite of its more complicated postulates, nevertheless introduced a great simplicity and comprehensiveness into the overall conception of nature. This theoretical 'beauty', however, can only be trusted if vindicated experimentally, which has to a considerable extent proved to be the case. For weak fields Newtonian and Einsteinian concepts coincide, while for stronger fields, and velocities not far from that of light, Einstein's theory is superior, giving,for example, an excellent correspondence with the precession of the perehelion of Mercury. On a larger scale, however, the theory appears to lead to conclusions which would invalidate the very concepts of space and time, even within a finite time-interval. A more generalized theory seems to be required. (A.D.N.)

  20. Between general relativity and quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayski, J.

    1982-01-01

    Some possibilities of reconciling general relativity with quantum theory are discussed. The procedure of quantization is certainly not unique, but depends upon the choice of the coordinate conditions. Most versions of quantization predict the existence of gravitons, but it is also possible to formulate a quantum theory with a classical gravity whereby the expectation values of Tsub(μν) constitute the sources of the classical metric field. (author)

  1. Quadratic mass relations in topological bootstrap theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.E.; Uschersohn, J.

    1980-01-01

    From the requirement of reality of discontinuities of scattering amplitudes at the spherical level of the topological bootstrap theory, a large number of mass relations for hadrons is derived. Quadratic mass formulas for the symmetry-breaking pattern of both mesons and baryon is obtained and their relation to conventional models of symmetry breaking is briefly discussed

  2. Development of Einstein's general theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, B.K.

    1980-01-01

    Starting from Poincare's Lorentz-invariant theory of gravity formulated in 1906, development of Einstein's general theory of relativity during 1906-1916 is discussed. Three stages in this development are recognised. In the first stage during 1907-1914, Einstein tried to extend the relativity principle of uniform motion to the frames in non-uniform motion. For this purpose, he introduced the principle of equivalence which made it possible to calculate the effect of homogeneous gravitational field on arbitrary physical processes. During the second stage comprising years 1912-1914 overlapping the first stage, Einstein and Grossmann were struggling to translate physical postulates into the language of the absolute differential calculus. In the period 1915-1916, Einstein formulated the field equations of general relativity. While discussing these developmental stages, theories of gravitation formulated by Abraham, Nordstroem and Mie are also discussed. (M.G.B.)

  3. Diffusion in the special theory of relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Joachim

    2009-11-01

    The Markovian diffusion theory is generalized within the framework of the special theory of relativity. Since the velocity space in relativity is a hyperboloid, the mathematical stochastic calculus on Riemanian manifolds can be applied but adopted here to the velocity space. A generalized Langevin equation in the fiber space of position, velocity, and orthonormal velocity frames is defined from which the generalized relativistic Kramers equation in the phase space in external force fields is derived. The obtained diffusion equation is invariant under Lorentz transformations and its stationary solution is given by the Jüttner distribution. Besides, a nonstationary analytical solution is derived for the example of force-free relativistic diffusion.

  4. On the relation of the theoretical foundations of quantum theory and general relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kober, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The specific content of the present thesis is presented in the following way. First the most important contents of quantum theory and general relativity theory are presented. In connection with the general relativity theory the mathematical property of the diffeomorphism invariance plays the deciding role, while concerning the quantum theory starting from the Copenhagen interpretation first the measurement problem is treated, before basing on the analysis of concrete phenomena and the mathematical apparatus of quantum theory the nonlocality is brought into focus as an important property. This means that both theories suggest a relationalistic view of the nature of the space. This analysis of the theoretical foundations of quantum theory and general relativity theory in relation to the nature of the space obtains only under inclusion of Kant's philosophy and his analysis of the terms space and time as fundamental forms of perception its full persuasive power. Then von Weizsaeckers quantum theory of the ur-alternatives is presented. Finally attempts are made to apply the obtained knowledge to the question of the quantum-theoretical formulation of general relativity theory.

  5. Reasonable fermionic quantum information theories require relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friis, Nicolai

    2016-01-01

    We show that any quantum information theory based on anticommuting operators must be supplemented by a superselection rule deeply rooted in relativity to establish a reasonable notion of entanglement. While quantum information may be encoded in the fermionic Fock space, the unrestricted theory has a peculiar feature: the marginals of bipartite pure states need not have identical entropies, which leads to an ambiguous definition of entanglement. We solve this problem, by proving that it is removed by relativity, i.e., by the parity superselection rule that arises from Lorentz invariance via the spin-statistics connection. Our results hence unveil a fundamental conceptual inseparability of quantum information and the causal structure of relativistic field theory. (paper)

  6. Consistency relations in effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munshi, Dipak; Regan, Donough, E-mail: D.Munshi@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: D.Regan@sussex.ac.uk [Astronomy Centre, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-01

    The consistency relations in large scale structure relate the lower-order correlation functions with their higher-order counterparts. They are direct outcome of the underlying symmetries of a dynamical system and can be tested using data from future surveys such as Euclid. Using techniques from standard perturbation theory (SPT), previous studies of consistency relation have concentrated on continuity-momentum (Euler)-Poisson system of an ideal fluid. We investigate the consistency relations in effective field theory (EFT) which adjusts the SPT predictions to account for the departure from the ideal fluid description on small scales. We provide detailed results for the 3D density contrast δ as well as the scaled divergence of velocity θ-bar . Assuming a ΛCDM background cosmology, we find the correction to SPT results becomes important at k ∼> 0.05 h/Mpc and that the suppression from EFT to SPT results that scales as square of the wave number k , can reach 40% of the total at k ≈ 0.25 h/Mpc at z = 0. We have also investigated whether effective field theory corrections to models of primordial non-Gaussianity can alter the squeezed limit behaviour, finding the results to be rather insensitive to these counterterms. In addition, we present the EFT corrections to the squeezed limit of the bispectrum in redshift space which may be of interest for tests of theories of modified gravity.

  7. Einstein and the Special Theory of Relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    some detail how Einstein evolved this theory and get a glimpse of his unique ... The Principle of Relativity: The laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames. .... ing on the railway platform will see them occur at different places. However ...

  8. Connecting and unmasking relativity and quantum theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, de W.L.; Willigenburg, van L.G.

    2015-01-01

    The answer lies right in front of us, but we refuse to see it. Both relativity and quantum theory, the two pillars of fundamental physics, are modified in this paper to make them also explain the physical phenomena they describe. With this explanation, all current inconsistencies between the two

  9. Albert Einstein and the relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlickova, E.

    1975-01-01

    A bibliography is presented of Albert Einstein's works, listing his correspondence, biographical literature, articles on A. Einstein published in Czech journals, principal relativity theory monographs and popular, historical and philosophical publications. The bibliographical records are listed alphabetically. Most references give the abbreviations of libraries where the publications are available. (J.P.)

  10. Hundres Years of Theory of Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Franek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, all civilised worl will remind the 100 years anniversary of Publishing the original work on special theory of relativity by Albert Einstein. This contribution is a brief review of its principial ideas in the field of electrodynamics.

  11. A test theory of special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansouri, R.; Sexl, R.U.

    1977-01-01

    Various second-order optical tests of special relativity are discussed within the framework of a test theory developed previously. Owing to the low accuracy of the Kennedy-Thorndike experiment, the Lorentz contraction is known by direct experiments only to an accuracy of a few percent. To improve this accuracy several experiments are suggested. (author)

  12. Testing special relativity theory using Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras S, H.; Hernandez A, L.; Baltazar R, A.; Escareno J, E.; Mares E, C. A.; Hernandez V, C.; Vega C, H. R.

    2010-10-01

    The validity of the special relativity theory has been tested using the Compton scattering. Since 1905 several experiments has been carried out to show that time, mass, and length change with the velocity, in this work the Compton scattering has been utilized as a simple way to show the validity to relativity. The work was carried out through Monte Carlo calculations and experiments with different gamma-ray sources and a gamma-ray spectrometer with a 3 x 3 NaI (Tl) detector. The pulse-height spectra were collected and the Compton edge was observed. This information was utilized to determine the relationship between the electron's mass and energy using the Compton -knee- position, the obtained results were contrasted with two collision models between photon and electron, one model was built using the classical physics and another using the special relativity theory. It was found that calculations and experiments results fit to collision model made using the special relativity. (Author)

  13. New relations for gauge-theory amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J. J. M.; Johansson, H.

    2008-01-01

    We present an identity satisfied by the kinematic factors of diagrams describing the tree amplitudes of massless gauge theories. This identity is a kinematic analog of the Jacobi identity for color factors. Using this we find new relations between color-ordered partial amplitudes. We discuss applications to multiloop calculations via the unitarity method. In particular, we illustrate the relations between different contributions to a two-loop four-point QCD amplitude. We also use this identity to reorganize gravity tree amplitudes diagram by diagram, offering new insight into the structure of the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) relations between gauge and gravity tree amplitudes. This insight leads to similar but novel relations. We expect this to be helpful in higher-loop studies of the ultraviolet properties of gravity theories.

  14. Special relativity and classical field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Susskind, Leonard

    2017-01-01

    Physicist Leonard Susskind and data engineer Art Friedman are back. This time, they introduce readers to Einstein's special relativity and Maxwell's classical field theory. Using their typical brand of real math, enlightening drawings, and humor, Susskind and Friedman walk us through the complexities of waves, forces, and particles by exploring special relativity and electromagnetism. It's a must-read for both devotees of the series and any armchair physicist who wants to improve their knowledge of physics' deepest truths.

  15. Relativity the special and the general theory

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2015-01-01

    After completing the final version of his general theory of relativity in November 1915, Albert Einstein wrote a book about relativity for a popular audience. His intention was "to give an exact insight into the theory of relativity to those readers who, from a general scientific and philosophical point of view, are interested in the theory, but who are not conversant with the mathematical apparatus of theoretical physics." The book remains one of the most lucid explanations of the special and general theories ever written. In the early 1920s alone, it was translated into ten languages, and fifteen editions in the original German appeared over the course of Einstein's lifetime. This new edition of Einstein's celebrated book features an authoritative English translation of the text along with an introduction and a reading companion by Hanoch Gutfreund and Jürgen Renn that examines the evolution of Einstein's thinking and casts his ideas in a broader present-day context. A special chapter explores the history...

  16. Constructing a chinese international relations theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P.M.; Nielsen, R.T.

    2013-01-01

    Chinese scholars are debating whether, and how, to innovate a Chinese theory of International Relations (IR). This article examines the driving forces behind this theoretical debate. It challenges the commonsensical link between external events in the subject matter (i.r.) and theorizing (IR......), which suggests that the innovation of a Chinese IR theory is a natural product of China's geopolitical rise, its growing political ambitions, and discontent with Western hegemony. We propose instead a sociological approach to intellectual innovation which opens the black box of knowledge production...... attention from their peers-theorizing a Chinese IR theory being one important way of doing this. The external layer-which ranges from power politics to sociopolitical developments-affects this process indirectly by providing more research funds and autonomy to the more immediate institutional environment...

  17. Recursive relations for a quiver gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jaemo; Sim, Woojoo

    2006-01-01

    We study the recursive relations for a quiver gauge theory with the gauge group SU(N 1 ) x SU(N 2 ) with bifundamental fermions transforming as (N 1 , N-bar 2 ). We work out the recursive relation for the amplitudes involving a pair of quark and antiquark and gluons of each gauge group. We realize directly in the recursive relations the invariance under the order preserving permutations of the gluons of the first and the second gauge group. We check the proposed relations for MHV, 6-point and 7-point amplitudes and find the agreements with the known results and the known relations with the single gauge group amplitudes. The proposed recursive relation is much more efficient in calculating the amplitudes than using the known relations with the amplitudes of the single gauge group

  18. Fuzzy relational calculus theory, applications and software

    CERN Document Server

    Peeva, Ketty

    2004-01-01

    This book examines fuzzy relational calculus theory with applications in various engineering subjects. The scope of the text covers unified and exact methods with algorithms for direct and inverse problem resolution in fuzzy relational calculus. Extensive engineering applications of fuzzy relation compositions and fuzzy linear systems (linear, relational and intuitionistic) are discussed. Some examples of such applications include solutions of equivalence, reduction and minimization problems in fuzzy machines, pattern recognition in fuzzy languages, optimization and inference engines in textile and chemical engineering, etc. A comprehensive overview of the authors' original work in fuzzy relational calculus is also provided in each chapter. The attached CD-Rom contains a toolbox with many functions for fuzzy calculations, together with an original algorithm for inverse problem resolution in MATLAB. This book is also suitable for use as a textbook in related courses at advanced undergraduate and graduate level...

  19. Ideal related K-theory with coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilers, Soren; Restorff, Gunnar; Ruiz, Efren

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we define an invariant, which we believe should be the substitute for total K-theory in the case when there is one distinguished ideal. Moreover, some diagrams relating the new groups to the ordinary K-groups with coefficients are constructed. These diagrams will in most cases help...... to determine the new groups, and will in a companion paper be used to prove a universal multi-coefficient theorem for the one distinguished ideal case for a large class of algebras......In this paper, we define an invariant, which we believe should be the substitute for total K-theory in the case when there is one distinguished ideal. Moreover, some diagrams relating the new groups to the ordinary K-groups with coefficients are constructed. These diagrams will in most cases help...

  20. Quantum Theory finally reconciled with Special Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Tommasini, Daniele

    2001-01-01

    In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) pointed out that Quantum Mechanics apparently implied some mysterious, instantaneous action at a distance. This paradox is supposed to be related to the probabilistic nature of the theory, but since deterministic alternatives involving "Hidden Variables" hardly agree with the experiments, the scientific community is now accepting this ``quantum nonlocality" as if it were a reality. However, I have argued recently that Quantum Electrodynamics is free ...

  1. Relational Compositions in Fuzzy Class Theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Běhounek, Libor; Daňková, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 8 (2009), s. 1005-1036 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Pro jects: GA AV ČR KJB100300502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : fuzzy relation * sup-T-composition * inf-R-composition * BK- pro duct * fuzzy class theory * formal truth value Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.138, year: 2009

  2. The special theory of relativity foundations, theory, verification, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Christodoulides, Costas

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive, university-level introduction to Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity. In addition to the purely theoretical aspect, emphasis is also given to its historical development as well as to the experiments that preceded the theory and those performed in order to test its validity. The main body of the book consists of chapters on Relativistic Kinematics and Dynamics and their applications, Optics and Electromagnetism. These could be covered in a one-semester course. A more advanced course might include the subjects examined in the other chapters of the book and its appendices. As a textbook, it has some unique characteristics: It provides detailed proofs of the theorems, offers abundant figures and discusses numerous examples. It also includes a number of problems for readers to solve, the complete solutions of which are given at the end of the book. It is primarily intended for use by university students of physics, mathematics and engineering. However, as the mathematics nee...

  3. [Ortega and the theory of relativity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Posada, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Ortega y Gasset's thinking on Einstein and relativity, set out in the course of his extensive works, is constructed in the light of three of his fundamental ideas: 1) science, a special form of belief; 2) physics, a science par excellence; and 3) relativity, the intellectual fact of the highest order of its time; dedicating special attention to the essay: "The historical meaning of Einstein's theory". And it is completed with his critical attitude to the so-called "fundamental crisis" and his diagnosis of the grave problems suffered by physics in the wake of the relativistic and quantum revolutions.

  4. A general theory of quantum relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minic, Djordje; Tze, C.-H.

    2004-01-01

    The geometric form of standard quantum mechanics is compatible with the two postulates: (1) the laws of physics are invariant under the choice of experimental setup and (2) every quantum observation or event is intrinsically statistical. These postulates remain compatible within a background independent extension of quantum theory with a local intrinsic time implying the relativity of the concept of a quantum event. In this extension the space of quantum events becomes dynamical and only individual quantum events make sense observationally. At the core of such a general theory of quantum relativity is the three-way interplay between the symplectic form, the dynamical metric and non-integrable almost complex structure of the space of quantum events. Such a formulation provides a missing conceptual ingredient in the search for a background independent quantum theory of gravity and matter. The crucial new technical element in our scheme derives from a set of recent mathematical results on certain infinite-dimensional almost Kahler manifolds which replace the complex projective spaces of standard quantum mechanics

  5. From twistor string theory to recursion relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia

    2009-01-01

    Witten's twistor string theory gives rise to an enigmatic formula 1 known as the 'connected prescription' for tree-level Yang-Mills scattering amplitudes. We derive a link representation for the connected prescription by Fourier transforming it to mixed coordinates in terms of both twistor and dual twistor variables. We show that it can be related to other representations of amplitudes by applying the global residue theorem to deform the contour of integration. For six and seven particles we demonstrate explicitly that certain contour deformations rewrite the connected prescription as the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten representation, thereby establishing a concrete link between Witten's twistor string theory and the dual formulation for the S matrix of the N=4 SYM recently proposed by Arkani-Hamed et al. Other choices of integration contour also give rise to 'intermediate prescriptions'. We expect a similar though more intricate structure for more general amplitudes.

  6. Introduction to the theory of relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Bergmann, Peter Gabriel

    1976-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage of special theory (frames of reference, Lorentz transformation, more), general theory (principle of equivalence, more) and unified theory (Weyl's gauge-invariant geometry, more.) Foreword by Albert Einstein.

  7. The Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, C

    2004-01-01

    A brief review of some of the most important features of the Extended Relativity theory in Clifford-spaces ( $C$-spaces) is presented whose " point" coordinates are noncommuting Clifford-valued quantities and which incoporate the lines, areas, volumes, .... degrees of freedom associated with the collective particle, string, membrane, ... dynamics of the $p$-loop histories (closed p-branes) living in target $D$-dimensional spacetime backgrounds. $C$-space Relativity naturally incoporates the ideas of an invariant length (Planck scale), maximal acceleration, noncommuting coordinates, supersymmetry, holography, superluminal propagation, higher derivative gravity with torsion and variable dimensions/signatures that allows to study the dynamics of all (closed ) p-branes, for all values of $ p $, in a unified footing. It resolves the ordering ambiguities in QFT and the problem of time in Cosmology. A discussion of the maximal-acceleration Relativity principle in phase-spaces follows along with the study of the inva...

  8. Relational quadrilateralland II: The Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Edward; Kneller, Sophie

    2014-04-01

    We provide the quantum treatment of the relational quadrilateral. The underlying reduced configuration spaces are ℂℙ2 and the cone over this. We consider exact free and isotropic HO potential cases and perturbations about these. Moreover, our purely relational kinematical quantization is distinct from the usual one for ℂℙ2, which turns out to carry absolutist connotations instead. Thus, this paper is the first to note absolute-versus-relational motion distinctions at the kinematical rather than dynamical level. It is also an example of value to the discussion of kinematical quantization along the lines of Isham, 1984. The relational quadrilateral is the simplest RPM whose mathematics is not standard in atomic physics (the triangle and four particles on a line are both based on 𝕊2 and ℝ3 mathematics). It is far more typical of the general quantum relational N-a-gon than the previously studied case of the relational triangle. We consider useful integrals as regards perturbation theory and the peaking interpretation of quantum cosmology. We subsequently consider problem of time (PoT) applications of this: quantum Kuchař beables, the Machian version of the semiclassical approach and the timeless naïve Schrödinger interpretation. These go toward extending the combined Machian semiclassical-Histories-Timeless Approach of [Int. J. Mod. Phys. D23 (2014) 1450014] to the case of the quadrilateral, which will be treated in subsequent papers.

  9. Special theory of relativity: lectures and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Y.

    2004-01-01

    This book is a clear and complete presentation of restricted relativity in which the author follows the historical path from puzzling experimental facts to the building of a new theory. It is shown how scientists had to challenge intuitive notions of time and space to explain and give consistency to experimental results. The text is spread with a lot of explanatory notes that contribute to a better understanding of the topic. This book aims at an audience of people already acquainted with general physics: students, scientists or teachers looking for a pedagogical reference book. This work is divided into 10 chapters: 1) The speed of light; 2) The Galilean transformation and optics; 3) Michelson's experiment and the relativity principle; 4) The Lorentz transformation; 5) Lorentz contraction and time dilation; 6) Relativistic kinematics; 7) Energy and momentum; 8) Relativistic dynamics; 9) Tensor calculus - Space-time, and 10) The invariance of Maxwell equations. (A.C.)

  10. Relationalism or why diplomats find international relations theory strange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    In this conclusion, which reflects critically on the relational approach to diplomacy and its wider consequences, I argue that diplomats are estranged from IR theory and vice versa - because International Relations scholars generally subscribe to substantialism, whereas diplomats tend to think...... by diplomatic scholars). Relationalism takes as its point of departure the idea that social phenomena making up world politics always develop in relation to other social phenomena. Thus, for example, states are not born into' this world as fully developed states that then "exist"; states are made in continuous...... scholarship and diplomatic knowledge and practice are important for how we understand (and construct) world politics, including war, international cooperation, and responses to human and natural catastrophes....

  11. Relativity and equivalence principles in the gauge theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, D.; Sardanashvili, G.

    1981-01-01

    Roles of relativity (RP) and equivalence principles (EP) in the gauge theory of gravity are shown. RP in the gravitational theory in formalism of laminations can be formulated as requirement of covariance of equations relative to the GL + (4, R)(X) gauge group. In such case RP turns out to be identical to the gauge principle in the gauge theory of a group of outer symmetries, and the gravitational theory can be directly constructed as the gauge theory. In general relativity theory the equivalence theory adds RP and is intended for description of transition to a special relativity theory in some system of reference. The approach described takes into account that in the gauge theory, besides gauge fields under conditions of spontaneous symmetry breaking, the Goldstone and Higgs fields can also arise, to which the gravitational metric field is related, what is the sequence of taking account of RP in the gauge theory of gravitation [ru

  12. Finsler geometry, relativity and gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asanov, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides a self-contained account of the Finslerian techniques which aim to synthesize the ideas of Finslerian metrical generalization of Riemannian geometry to merge with the primary physical concepts of general relativity and gauge field theories. The geometrization of internal symmetries in terms of Finslerian geometry, as well as the formulation of Finslerian generalization of gravitational field equations and equations of motion of matter, are two key points used to expound the techniques. The Clebsch representation of the canonical momentum field is used to formulate the Hamilton-Jacobi theory for homogeneous Lagrangians of classical mechanics. As an auxillary mathematical apparatus, the author uses invariance identities which systematically reflect the covariant properties of geometrical objects. The results of recent studies of special Finsler spaces are also applied. The book adds substantially to the mathematical monographs by Rund (1959) and Rund and Bear (1972), all basic results of the latter being reflected. It is the author's hope that thorough exploration of the materrial presented will tempt the reader to revise the habitual physical concepts supported conventionally by Riemannian geometry. (Auth.)

  13. Relating c 0 conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guruswamy, S.; Ludwig, A.W.W.

    1998-03-01

    A 'canonical mapping' is established between the c = -1 system of bosonic ghosts at the c = 2 complex scalar theory and, a similar mapping between the c = -2 system of fermionic ghosts and the c = 1 Dirac theory. The existence of this mapping is suggested by the identity of the characters of the respective theories. The respective c 0 theories share the same space of states, whereas the spaces of conformal fields are different. Upon this mapping from their c 0) complex scalar and the Dirac theories inherit hidden nonlocal sl(2) symmetries. (author)

  14. Possible Experiments to test Einstein's Special Relativity Theory

    OpenAIRE

    de Haan, Victor Otto

    2011-01-01

    All of the experiments supporting Einstein's Special Relativity Theory are also supportive of the Lorentz ether theory, or many other ether theories. However, a growing number of experiments show deviations from Einstein's Special Relativity Theory, but are supporting more extended theories. Some of these experiments are reviewed and analyzed. Unfortunately, many experiments are not of high quality, never repeated and mostly both. It is proposed that the most promising experiments should be r...

  15. Perturbative Gravity and Gauge Theory Relations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Søndergaard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the amazing Kawai-Lewellen-Tye relations, connecting perturbative gravity and gauge theories at tree level. The main focus is on n-point derivations and general properties both from a string theory and pure field theory point of view. In particular, the field theory part is based on some very recent developments.

  16. Symmetry, Contingency, Complexity: Accommodating Uncertainty in Public Relations Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Priscilla

    2000-01-01

    Explores the potential of complexity theory as a unifying theory in public relations, where scholars have recently raised problems involving flux, uncertainty, adaptiveness, and loss of control. Describes specific complexity-based methodologies and their potential for public relations studies. Offers an account of complexity theory, its…

  17. Can one tell Einstein's unimodular theory from Einstein's general relativity?

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Enrique

    2005-01-01

    The so called unimodular theory of gravitation is compared with general relativity in the quadratic (Fierz-Pauli) regime, using a quite broad framework, and it is argued that quantum effects allow in principle to discriminate between both theories.

  18. The role of Einstein's general relativity theory in today's physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicak, J.

    The relationships are discussed of the general relativity theory to other fields of today's physics. Recent results are reported of studies into gravitational radiation, relativistic astrophysics, cosmology and the quantum theory. (Z.M.)

  19. Unitarity relations in c=1 Liouville theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors consider the S-matrix of c = 1 Liouville theory with vanishing cosmological constant. The authors examine some of the constraints imposed by unitarity. These completely determine (N,2) amplitudes at tree level in terms of the (N,1) amplitudes when the plus tachyon momenta take generic values. A surprising feature of the matrix model results is the lack of particle creation branch cuts in the higher genus amplitudes. In fact, the authors show that the naive field theory limit of Liouville theory would predict such branch cuts. However, unitarity in the full string theory ensures that such cuts do not appear in genus one (N,1) amplitudes. The authors conclude with some comments about the genus one (N,2) amplitudes

  20. 70 years of the general theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Diaz-Balart, F.; Cabezas Solorzano, R.

    1986-06-01

    In view of the 70th anniversary of the discovery of the General Theory of Relativity, an analysis was made of the special and general theories. The basic postulates, their consequences in the formulation of the theories, the main results, some aspects related to the experimental verification and its applications are presented, as are some elements of the mathematical formalism of the theories, to facilitate the logical interrelationships between its results and consequences. (author)

  1. On the equivalence of vacuum equations of gauge quadratic theory of gravity and general relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhitnikov, V.V.; Ponomarev, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    An attempt is made to compare the solution of field equations, corresponding to quadratic equations for the fields (g μν , Γ μν α ) in gauge gravitation theory (GGT) with general relativity theory solutions. Without restrictions for a concrete type of metrics only solutions of equations, for which torsion turns to zero, are considered. Equivalence of vacuum equations of gauge quadratic theory of gravity and general relativity theory is proved using the Newman-Penrose formalism

  2. The theory of relativity and other essays

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2011-01-01

    E=mc2: It may be Einstein's most well-known contribution to modern science, but how many people understand the thought process or physics behind this famous equation?In this collection of his seven most important essays on physics, Einstein guides his reader step-by-step through the many layers of scientific theory that formed a starting point for his discoveries. By both supporting and refuting the theories and scientific efforts of his predecessors, Einstein reveals in a clear voice the origins and meaning of such significant topics as physics and reality, the fundamentals of theoretical ph

  3. General relativity invariance and string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aref'eva, I.Ya.; Volovich, I.V.

    1987-04-01

    The general covariance principle in the string field theory is considered. The algebraic properties of the string Lie derivative are discussed. The string vielbein and spin connection are introduced and an action invariant under general co-ordinate transformation is proposed. (author). 18 refs

  4. Modeling and Performing Relational Theories in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Elizabeth A.; West, Carrie L.

    2011-01-01

    Although directly related to students' everyday lives, the abstract and even intimidating nature of relational theories often bars students from recognizing the immediate relevance to their relationships. The theories of symbolic interactionism, social exchange, relational dialectics, social penetration, and uncertainty reduction offer students…

  5. Some relations of parameters in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, K.

    1986-01-01

    Two schemes of parameter relations, linear relation and non-linear relation are discussed. The linear relation of coupling constants is derived directly from an underlying symmetry of the classical theory and is preserved usually in the quantum theory. The non-linear relation is not derived by a same manner but is derived by more involved way which is intrinsically connected with quantum theory. An underlying symmetry which leads the linear relation is shown to be essential in the non-linear relation too. Some extension is also discussed

  6. Relation Between Filtration and Soil Consolidation Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strzelecki Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a different, than commonly used, form of equations describing the filtration of a viscous compressible fluid through a porous medium in isothermal conditions. This mathematical model is compared with the liquid flow equations used in the theory of consolidation. It is shown that the current commonly used filtration model representation significantly differs from the filtration process representation in Biot’s and Terzaghi’s soil consolidation models, which has a bearing on the use of the methods of determining the filtration coefficient on the basis of oedometer test results. The present analysis of the filtration theory equations should help interpret effective parameters of the non-steady filtration model. Moreover, equations for the flow of a gas through a porous medium and an interpretation of the filtration model effective parameters in this case are presented.

  7. Relation Between Filtration and Soil Consolidation Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Strzelecki Tomasz; Strzelecki Michał

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a different, than commonly used, form of equations describing the filtration of a viscous compressible fluid through a porous medium in isothermal conditions. This mathematical model is compared with the liquid flow equations used in the theory of consolidation. It is shown that the current commonly used filtration model representation significantly differs from the filtration process representation in Biot’s and Terzaghi’s soil consolidation models, which has a bearing on...

  8. Generalization of the test theory of relativity to noninertial frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolghasem, G.H.; Khajehpour, M.R.H.; Mansouri, R.

    1988-08-01

    We present a generalized test theory of special relativity, using a noninertial frame. Within the framework of the special theory of relativity the transport- and Einstein-synchronizations are equivalent on a rigidly rotating disk. But in any theory with a preferred frame such an equivalence does not hold. The time difference resulting from the two synchronization procedures is a measurable quantity within the reach of existing clock systems on the earth. The final result contains a term which depends on the angular velocity of the rotating system, and hence measures an absolute effect. This term is of crucial importance in our test theory of the special relativity. (author). 13 refs

  9. Spring School on Superstring Theory and Related Topics

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    ICTP's annual Spring School on Superstring Theory and Related Topics provides pedagogical treatment of these subjects through lectures by some of the world's top string theorists. The activity is intended for theoretical physicists or mathematicians with knowledge of quantum field theory, general relativity and string theory. It is organized in collaboration with the Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP) and the Italian Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN).

  10. Relativity, symmetry and the structure of quantum theory

    CERN Document Server

    Klink, William H; Schweiger, Wolfgang

    Quantum theory is one of the most successful of all physical theories. Our everyday world is dominated by devices that function because of knowledge of the quantum world. Yet many, physicists and non-physicists alike, find the theory which explains the behavior of the quantum world baffling and strange. This book is the first in a series of three that argues that relativity and symmetry determine the structure of quantum theory. That is to say, the structure of quantum theory is what it is because of relativity and symmetry. There are different types of relativity, each leading to a particular type of quantum theory. This book deals specifically with what we call Newton relativity, the form of relativity built into Newtonian mechanics, and the quantum theory to which it gives rise, which we call Galilean (often misleadingly called non-relativistic) quantum theory. Key Features: • Meaning and significance of the term of relativity; discussion of the principle of relativity. • Relation of symmetry to relati...

  11. Africa and the Principles and Theories of International Relations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To what extent have the principles and theories of international relations (as formulated) accommodated the specific needs and circumstances of Africa? In other words, how can the circumstances and peculiarities of Africa be made to shape and influence the established principles and theories of international relations as ...

  12. Relations between grand unified and monopole theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, D.I.

    1983-01-01

    Two kinds of interrelationships between GUTs and monopole theories are discussed: how the duality conjectures could have a bearing on understanding GUTs, and how some of the mathematical technology used in monopole studies can yield simple (Dynkin) diagrammatic rules for some of the common GUT group theory calculations. A compact notation for semisimple Lie algebras is supplied by Dynkin diagrams. Minimal fundamental weights are seen to define minimal representations into which matter may be placed, and also define a special direction for the adjoint Higgs field. Minimal weights play a special role, therefore, both in defining matter multiplets and in symmetry breaking. After considering gauge groups G broken down to U(1) X K/Z (with K semisimple) by an adjoint representation (AR) Higgs, it is asked how the representations of G will look when decomposed into irreducible representations of U(1) X K, by proving two theorems as given. The point is pedagogical: using concepts like the Weyl group, practical calculations can be performed with simple Dynkin diagrams

  13. Remarks on the relation between different (open) string field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Alwis, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that the different three-string vertices, related by conformal transformations, are in the same BRST cohomology class. We use this result to discuss the relation between different (open) string field theories. (orig.)

  14. DSR Theories, Conformal Group and Generalized Commutation Relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiva, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the relationship of DSR theories and Conformal Group is reviewed. On the other hand, the relation between DSR Magueijo Smolin generators and generalized commutation relations is also shown

  15. Progress on study of nuclear data theory and related fields at the Theory Group of CNDC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhigang, Ge [China Nuclear Data Center, CIAE (China)

    1996-06-01

    The Theory Group of CNDC (China Nuclear Data Center) has made a lot of progress in nuclear reaction theory and its application as well as many other related fields in 1995. The recent progress in nuclear reaction theory study and its applications, the recent progress in the nuclear data calculation and related code development are introduced. The production rate of radioactive nuclear beam induced by 70 MeV protons on {sup 72}Ge target were calculated. The calculated results are presented.

  16. Some relations between twisted K-theory and E8 gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathai, Varghese; Sati, Hisham

    2004-01-01

    Recently, Diaconescu, Moore and Witten provided a nontrivial link between K-theory and M-theory, by deriving the partition function of the Ramond-Ramond fields of Type IIA string theory from an E8 gauge theory in eleven dimensions. We give some relations between twisted K-theory and M-theory by adapting the method of Diaconescu-Moore-Witten and Moore-Saulina. In particular, we construct the twisted K-theory torus which defines the partition function, and also discuss the problem from the E8 loop group picture, in which the Dixmier-Douady class is the Neveu-Schwarz field. In the process of doing this, we encounter some mathematics that is new to the physics literature. In particular, the eta differential form, which is the generalization of the eta invariant, arises naturally in this context. We conclude with several open problems in mathematics and string theory. (author)

  17. Pure Relationality as a Sociological Theory of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Whimster

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to explain the success of populist politicians use of social media, we need to subtract the social from relationality and separate social relationships from network theory applications. A pure theory of relationality is suggested by Werner Heisenberg’s breakthrough in quantum mechanics. It is argued that sociology, to its detriment, has failed to incorporate a theory of communication, one adequate to the explosion of social media and the recent rise of populist politics, here instanced by Donald Trump. Realizing the underlying importance of communication technology in all social relationships, and treating these two aspects in a complementary fashion, is the purpose of this essay in sociological theory.

  18. Iz ''general relativity'' necessary for the Einstein gravitation theory gravitation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondi, G.

    1982-01-01

    Main principles of relativity and gravitation theories are deeply analyzed. Problems of boundaries of applicability for these theories and possible ways of their change and generalization are discussed. It is shown that the notion of general relativity does not introduce any post-newton physics - it only deals with coordinate transformations. It is supposed that ''general relativity'' is a physically senseless phrase which can be considered only as a historical remainder of an interesting philosophic discourse. The paper reveals that there exists appropriate physical substantiation of the Einstein gravitation theory not including a physically senseless concept of general relativity and promoting its fundamental relations with the experiment

  19. Some dual relations in twistor theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarski, J.

    1983-08-01

    The option of employing twistors or dual twistors in integral representations, etc., is considered. In particular, dual-space analyses are presented which relate to the problem of background electromagnetic fields, and to the inverse transformation. (author)

  20. Quantum theory and Einstein's general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzeszkowski, H.H.v.; Treder, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    The paper concerns Einstein's general relativity, wave mechanics and the quantization of Einstein's gravitation equations. The principle of equivalence and its association with both wave mechanics and quantum gravity, is discussed. (U.K.)

  1. Introduction:Bourdieu and International Relations theory

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This book rethinks the key concepts of International Relations by drawing on the work of Pierre Bourdieu.The last few years have seen a genuine wave of publications promoting sociology in international relations. Scholars have suggested that Bourdieu’s vocabulary can be applied to study security, diplomacy, migration and global environmental politics. Yet we still lack a systematic and accessible analysis of what Bourdieu-inspired IR might look like. This book provides the answer. It offers a...

  2. A theory of strong interactions ''from'' general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldirola, P.; Recami, E.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper a previous letter (where, among other things, a classical ''quark confinement'' was derived from general relativity plus dilatation-covariance), is completed by showing that the theory is compatible also with quarks ''asymptotic freedom''. Then -within a bi-scale theory of gravitational and strong interactions- a classical field theory is proposed for the (strong) interactions between hadrons. Various consequences are briefly analysed

  3. Experimental testing of constructivism and related theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidelman, U

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to show that experimental scientific methods can be applied to explain how the analytic mechanism of the left cerebral hemisphere and the synthetic mechanism of the right one create complex cognitive constructions like ontology and mathematics. Nominalism and ordinal mathematical concepts are related to the analytic left hemisphere while Platonism and cardinal mathematical concepts are related to the synthetic right one. Thus persons with a dominant left hemisphere tend to prefer nominalist ontology and have more aptitude for ordinal mathematics than for cardinal mathematics, while persons with a dominant right hemisphere tend to prefer platonist ontology and have more aptitude for cardinal mathematics than for ordinal mathematics. It is further explained how the Kantism temporal mode of perceiving experience can be related to the left hemisphere while the Kantian spatial mode of perceiving experience can be related to the right hemisphere. This relation can be tested experimentally, thus the Kantian source of constructivism, and through it constructivism itself, can be tested experimentally.

  4. Quantum theory and Einstein's general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzeszkowski, H. von; Treder, H.

    1982-01-01

    We dicusss the meaning and prove the accordance of general relativity, wave mechanics, and the quantization of Einstein's gravitation equations themselves. Firstly, we have the problem of the influence of gravitational fields on the de Broglie waves, which influence is in accordance with Einstein's weak principle of equivalence and the limitation of measurements given by Heisenberg's uncertainty relations. Secondly, the quantization of the gravitational fields is a ''quantization of geometry.'' However, classical and quantum gravitation have the same physical meaning according to limitations of measurements given by Einstein's strong principle of equivalence and the Heisenberg uncertainties for the mechanics of test bodies

  5. Reflections on Dead Theory in International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    In this short autobiographical essay, I trace my journey in the discipline of International Relations. While entering the discipline, I, along with a host of my classmates, were enamoured by the exciting possibilities of thinking theoretically. Almost a decade later, those promises look bleak. From the perspective of a student in the discipline, I…

  6. Test theories of special relativity: a general critique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, A.K.A.; Tiomno, J.

    1988-01-01

    Absolute Spacetime Theories conceived for the purpose of testing Special Relativity (SR) are reviewed. It is found that most theories proposed were in fact SR in different coordinate systems, since in general no specific SR violations were introduced. Models based on possible SR violating mechanisms are considered. Misconceptions in recently published papers are examined. (author) [pt

  7. Equivalence of the theories of reciprocity and general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.

    1976-01-01

    Khan's theory (Nuovo Cimento; 57B:321 (1968) and Int. J. Theor. Phys.; 6:383 (1972)) of reciprocity has been shown to be equivalent to the theory of general relativity (in a conformally flat space-time) in that the same predictions are made physically. It is is proved that, since 'centrifugal forces' are used by Khan, gravitational phenomena are being considered equal in status to electromagnetic phenomena, and hence the difference claimed to exist between Milne's theory and Khan's theory disappears. (author)

  8. Reply to the "Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity" and Related Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper answers twelve most common questions on the basics of Einstein’s theory of relativity. The answers remove most key problems with a real, solid understanding of the theory.

  9. The mathematical theory of general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Katkar, L N

    2014-01-01

    This book is prepared for M. Sc. Students of Mathematics and Physics. The aim of writing this book is to give the reader a feeling for the necessity and beauty of the laws of general relativity. The contents of the book will attract both mathematicians and physicists which provides motivation and applications of many ideas and powerful mathematical methods of modern analysis and differential geometry. An attempt has been made to make the presentation comprehensive, rigorous and yet simple. Most calculations and transformations have been carried out in great detail. KEY FEATURE: Numerous solved examples using the well known mathematical techniques viz., the tensors and the differential forms in each chapter.

  10. Quantum effects from a purely geometrical relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Homer G

    2005-01-01

    A purely geometrical relativity theory results from a construction that produces from three-dimensional space a happy unification of Kaluza's five-dimensional theory and Weyl's conformal theory. The theory can provide geometrical explanations for the following observed phenomena, among others: (a) visibility lifetimes of elementary particles of lengths inversely proportional to their rest masses; (b) the equality of charge magnitude among all charged particles interacting at an event; (c) the propensity of electrons in atoms to be seen in discretely spaced orbits; and (d) 'quantum jumps' between those orbits. This suggests the possibility that the theory can provide a deterministic underpinning of quantum mechanics like that provided to thermodynamics by the molecular theory of gases

  11. The relationship between theory of mind and relational frame theory : convergence of perspective-taking measures

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriks, A.; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; McEnteggart, Ciara; de Mey, H.; Witteman, C.; Janssen, G.; Egger, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Perspective-taking difficulties have been demonstrated in autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, among other clinical presentations, and are traditionally examined from a Theory of Mind (ToM) point of view. Relational Frame Theory (RFT) offers a behavioural and contextual interpretation of perspective-taking, proposing that this ability can be studied in more detail by examining specific perspective-taking relations. To implement relational perspective-taking measures in clin...

  12. Theoretical physics 4 special theory of relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    This concise textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to special relativity, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, thus developing the relativistic expansion of classical mechanics and electrodynamics. The first part of the book introduces Lorentz transformations, time dilation, length contraction and Minkowski diagrams. More complex themes are covered in the second part of the book, which describes the four-dimensional covariant formulation for classical mechanics and electrodynamics, including discussion of Maxwell’s equations, the Lorentz force and the covariant Lagrangian formulation. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical mechanics and electrodynamics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples ...

  13. Relating β+ radionuclides' properties by order theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero, N.Y.; Guillermo Restrepo; Cohen, I.M.; Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Buenos Aires

    2013-01-01

    We studied 27 β + radionuclides taking into account some of their variants encoding information of their production, such as integral yield, threshold energy and energy of projectiles used to generate them; these radionuclides are of current use in clinical diagnostic imaging by positron emission tomography (PET). The study was conducted based on physical, physico-chemical, nuclear, dosimetric and quantum properties, which characterise the β + radionuclides selected, with the aim of finding meaningful relationships among them. In order to accomplish this objective the mathematical methodology known as formal concept analysis was employed. We obtained a set of logical assertions (rules) classified as implications and associations, for the set of β + radionuclides considered. Some of them show that low mass defect is related to high and medium values of maximum β + energy, and with even parity and low mean lives; all these parameters are associated to the dose received by a patient subjected to a PET analysis. (author)

  14. On Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Crothers S. J.

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of conceptual anomalies occurring in the Standard exposition of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. These anomalies relate to issues in both mathematics and in physics and penetrate to the very heart of Einstein’s theory. This paper reveals and amplifies a few such anomalies, including the fact that Einstein’s field equations for the so-called static vacuum configuration, R = 0 , violates his Principle of Equiv- alence, and is therefore ...

  15. The relationship between Theory of Mind and Relational Frame Theory: Convergence of perspective-taking measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.L.; Barnes-Holmes, Y.; McEnteggart, C.; Mey, H.R.A. De; Witteman, C.L.M.; Janssen, G.T.L.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Perspective-taking difficulties have been demonstrated in autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, among other clinical presentations, and are traditionally examined from a Theory of Mind (ToM) point of view. Relational Frame Theory (RFT) offers a behavioural and contextual

  16. On the mathematical theory of classical fields and general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Klainerman, S

    1993-01-01

    From the perspective of an analyst, like myself, the General Theory of Relativity provides an extrordinary rich and vastly virgin territory. It is the aim of my lecture to provide, first, an account of those aspects of the theory which attract me most and second a perspective of what has been accomplished so far in that respect. In trying to state our main objectives it helps to view General Relativity in the broader context of Classical Field Theory. EinsteiniVacuum equations, or shortly E—V, is already sufficiently complicated. I will thus restrict my attention to them.

  17. Mapping the frontier of theory in industrial relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tapia, Maite; Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Kochan, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    well industrial relations meta-theories, when combined with efforts to build middle-range theories, provide distinctive explanations and different predictions for the alternatives that have emerged to date to fill the void. We propose new directions for theory and research that expand the range...... of actors or institutions that shape employment relations and include social identities outside of the employment relationship as the basis for mobilizing collective actions and voice. Finally, we suggest using these theoretical arguments to test among alternatives as a means of revitalizing and reshaping...

  18. Relational Frame Theory and Industrial/Organizational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Bond, Frank W.; Hayes, Steven C.

    2006-01-01

    The current paper argues that a Relational Frame Theory account of complex human behavior including an analysis of relational frames, relational networks, rules and the concept of self can provide a potentially powerful new perspective on phenomena in the applied science of industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology. In this article, we first…

  19. General relativity and gauge gravity theories of higher order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopleva, N.P.

    1998-01-01

    It is a short review of today's gauge gravity theories and their relations with Einstein General Relativity. The conceptions of construction of the gauge gravity theories with higher derivatives are analyzed. GR is regarded as the gauge gravity theory corresponding to the choice of G ∞4 as the local gauge symmetry group and the symmetrical tensor of rank two g μν as the field variable. Using the mathematical technique, single for all fundamental interactions (namely variational formalism for infinite Lie groups), we can obtain Einstein's theory as the gauge theory without any changes. All other gauge approaches lead to non-Einstein theories of gravity. But above-mentioned mathematical technique permits us to construct the gauge gravity theory of higher order (for instance SO (3,1)-gravity) so that all vacuum solutions of Einstein equations are the solutions of the SO (3,1)-gravity theory. The structure of equations of SO(3,1)-gravity becomes analogous to Weeler-Misner geometrodynamics one

  20. Rastall's and related theories are conservative gravitational theories although physically inequivalent to general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, L.L.; Alabama Univ., Huntsville

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that (1) the proper framework for testing Rastall's theory and its generalisations is in the case of non-negligible (i.e. discernible) gravitational effects such as gravity gradients; 2) these theories have conserved integral four-momentum and angular momentum; and (3) the Nordtvedt effect then provides limits on the parameters which arise as the result of the non-zero divergence of the energy-momentum tensor. (author)

  1. Rastall's and related theories are conservative gravitational theories although physically inequivalent to general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, L. L.

    1983-01-01

    The proper framework for testing Rastall's theory and its generalizations is in the case of non-negligible (i.e. discernible) gravitational effects such as gravity gradients. These theories have conserved integral four-momentum and angular momentum. The Nordtvedt effect then provides limits on the parameters which arise as the result of the non-zero divergence of the energy-momentum tensor.

  2. Derivation of Einstein-Cartan theory from general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Richard

    2015-04-01

    General relativity cannot describe exchange of classical intrinsic angular momentum and orbital angular momentum. Einstein-Cartan theory fixes this problem in the least invasive way. In the late 20th century, the consensus view was that Einstein-Cartan theory requires inclusion of torsion without adequate justification, it has no empirical support (though it doesn't conflict with any known evidence), it solves no important problem, and it complicates gravitational theory with no compensating benefit. In 1986 the author published a derivation of Einstein-Cartan theory from general relativity, with no additional assumptions or parameters. Starting without torsion, Poincaré symmetry, classical or quantum spin, or spinors, it derives torsion and its relation to spin from a continuum limit of general relativistic solutions. The present work makes the case that this computation, combined with supporting arguments, constitutes a derivation of Einstein-Cartan theory from general relativity, not just a plausibility argument. This paper adds more and simpler explanations, more computational details, correction of a factor of 2, discussion of limitations of the derivation, and discussion of some areas of gravitational research where Einstein-Cartan theory is relevant.

  3. Interpreting doubly special relativity as a modified theory of measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberati, Stefano; Sonego, Sebastiano; Visser, Matt

    2005-01-01

    In this article we develop a physical interpretation for the deformed (doubly) special relativity theories (DSRs), based on a modification of the theory of measurement in special relativity. We suggest that it is useful to regard the DSRs as reflecting the manner in which quantum gravity effects induce Planck-suppressed distortions in the measurement of the 'true' energy and momentum. This interpretation provides a framework for the DSRs that is manifestly consistent, nontrivial, and in principle falsifiable. However, it does so at the cost of demoting such theories from the level of fundamental physics to the level of phenomenological models - models that should in principle be derivable from whatever theory of quantum gravity one ultimately chooses to adopt

  4. The relativity theory and the nature of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selleri, F.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper and its continuation, old and recent ideas concerning the nature of time are reviewed by starting from March's refusal of Newton's absolute time. Modern experimental evidence shows that the slowing down of moving clocks is a real phenomenon, Such is also the so-called twin paradox owing its name to its evident incompatibility with the philosophy of relativism (which should not be confused with the theory of relativity). Lorentz reformulation of relativity theory started by postulating physical effects of the ether, but adopted Einstein's clock synchronization: more than anything else this stopped Lorentz from understanding the advantages of different synchronization procedures. One of the problems of the usual approach is the necessity of a superdeterministic universe, as stressed by Popper. Recent results obtained by the author show that a theory is possible, based on relative time but on absolute simultaneity, in which all the conceptual difficulties of relativity are avoided. (Author) 21 refs

  5. The relativity theory and the nature of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selleri, F.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper and its continuation, old and recent ideas concerning the nature of time are reviewed by starting from Mach's refusal of Newton's absolute time. Modern experimental evidence shows that the slowing down of moving clocks is a real phenomenon. Such is also the so-called twin paradox owing its name to its evident incompatibility with the philosophy of relativism (which should not be confused with the theory of relativity). Lorentz' reformulation of relativity theory started by postulating physical effects of the ether, but adopted Einstein's clock synchronization: more than anything else this stopped Lorentz from understanding the advantages of different synchronization procedures. One of the problems of the usual approach is the necessity of a super deterministic universe, as stressed by Popper. Recent results obtained by the author show that a theory is possible, based on relative time but on absolute simultaneity, in which all the conceptual difficulties of relativity are avoided. (Author) 21 refs

  6. Closing in on chemical bonds by opening up relativity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Cynthia K

    2008-03-01

    This paper develops a connection between the phenomenology of chemical bonding and the theory of relativity. Empirical correlations between electron numbers in atoms and chemical bond stabilities in molecules are first reviewed and extended. Quantitative chemical bond strengths are then related to ionization potentials in elements. Striking patterns in ionization potentials are revealed when the data are viewed in an element-independent way, where element-specific details are removed via an appropriate scaling law. The scale factor involved is not explained by quantum mechanics; it is revealed only when one goes back further, to the development of Einstein's special relativity theory.

  7. The Bjorken-Paschos relation in the unified gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.K.

    1980-07-01

    We have examined in the unified gauge theory with the integrally-charged quark model the Bjorken-Paschos relation within the impulse approximation of the parton picture. We find that the relation is valid for the forward scattering region and provides a reliable way to test the charge assignment of the quarks and the gluons. (author)

  8. Testing the Contingency Theory of Accommodation in Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancel, Amanda E.; Mitrook, Michael A.; Cameron, Glen T.

    1999-01-01

    Interviews 18 public-relations professionals to provide grounding and refinement of the contingency theory of accommodation in public relations. Supports a continuum from pure accommodation to pure advocacy and a matrix of variables affecting the continuum. Concludes that the practitioners' view of their communication world offers validity to the…

  9. Indefinite-metric quantum field theory of general relativity, 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Noboru

    1979-01-01

    The canonical commutation relations are analyzed in detail in the indefinite-metric quantum field theory of gravity based on the vierbein formalism. It is explicitly verified that the BRS charge, the local-Lorentz-BRS charge and the Poincare generators satisfy the expected commutation relations. (author)

  10. Indefinite-metric quantum field theory of general relativity, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Noboru

    1978-01-01

    The canonical commutation relations are analyzed in detail in the manifestly covariant quantum field theory of general relativity proposed previously. It is explicitly proved that the BRS charge is indeed the generator of the BRS transformation both in the Landau gauge and in the non-Landau one. The equivalence between the field equations and the Heisenberg equations is confirmed. (author)

  11. Quantum relativity theory and quantum space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banai, M.

    1984-01-01

    A quantum relativity theory formulated in terms of Davis' quantum relativity principle is outlined. The first task in this theory as in classical relativity theory is to model space-time, the arena of natural processes. It is shown that the quantum space-time models of Banai introduced in another paper is formulated in terms of Davis's quantum relativity. The recently proposed classical relativistic quantum theory of Prugovecki and his corresponding classical relativistic quantum model of space-time open the way to introduce, in a consistent way, the quantum space-time model (the quantum substitute of Minkowski space) of Banai proposed in the paper mentioned. The goal of quantum mechanics of quantum relativistic particles living in this model of space-time is to predict the rest mass system properties of classically relativistic (massive) quantum particles (''elementary particles''). The main new aspect of this quantum mechanics is that it provides a true mass eigenvalue problem, and that the excited mass states of quantum relativistic particles can be interpreted as elementary particles. The question of field theory over quantum relativistic model of space-time is also discussed. Finally it is suggested that ''quarks'' should be considered as quantum relativistic particles. (author)

  12. Relating the archetypes of logarithmic conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutzig, Thomas; Ridout, David

    2013-01-01

    Logarithmic conformal field theory is a rich and vibrant area of modern mathematical physics with well-known applications to both condensed matter theory and string theory. Our limited understanding of these theories is based upon detailed studies of various examples that one may regard as archetypal. These include the c=−2 triplet model, the Wess–Zumino–Witten model on SL(2;R) at level k=−1/2 , and its supergroup analogue on GL(1|1). Here, the latter model is studied algebraically through representation theory, fusion and modular invariance, facilitating a subsequent investigation of its cosets and extended algebras. The results show that the archetypes of logarithmic conformal field theory are in fact all very closely related, as are many other examples including, in particular, the SL(2|1) models at levels 1 and −1/2 . The conclusion is then that the archetypal examples of logarithmic conformal field theory are practically all the same, so we should not expect that their features are in any way generic. Further archetypal examples must be sought

  13. Relating the archetypes of logarithmic conformal field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutzig, Thomas, E-mail: tcreutzig@mathematik.tu-darmstadt.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Phillips Hall, CB 3255, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Fachbereich Mathematik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstraße 7, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Ridout, David, E-mail: david.ridout@anu.edu.au [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Mathematical Sciences Institute, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2013-07-21

    Logarithmic conformal field theory is a rich and vibrant area of modern mathematical physics with well-known applications to both condensed matter theory and string theory. Our limited understanding of these theories is based upon detailed studies of various examples that one may regard as archetypal. These include the c=−2 triplet model, the Wess–Zumino–Witten model on SL(2;R) at level k=−1/2 , and its supergroup analogue on GL(1|1). Here, the latter model is studied algebraically through representation theory, fusion and modular invariance, facilitating a subsequent investigation of its cosets and extended algebras. The results show that the archetypes of logarithmic conformal field theory are in fact all very closely related, as are many other examples including, in particular, the SL(2|1) models at levels 1 and −1/2 . The conclusion is then that the archetypal examples of logarithmic conformal field theory are practically all the same, so we should not expect that their features are in any way generic. Further archetypal examples must be sought.

  14. Relativistic theory of gravitation and nonuniqueness of the predictions of general relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Loskutov, Yu.M.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that while the predictions of relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) for the gravitational effects are unique and consistent with the experimental data available, the relevant predictions of general relativity theory are not unique. Therewith the above nonuniqueness manifests itself in some effects in the first order in the gravitational interaction constant in others in the second one. The absence in GRT of the energy-momentum and angular momentum conservation laws for the matter and gravitational field taken together and its inapplicability to give uniquely determined predictions for the gravitational phenomena compel to reject GRT as a physical theory

  15. Conformal Field Theory, Automorphic Forms and Related Topics

    CERN Document Server

    Weissauer, Rainer; CFT 2011

    2014-01-01

    This book, part of the series Contributions in Mathematical and Computational Sciences, reviews recent developments in the theory of vertex operator algebras (VOAs) and their applications to mathematics and physics.   The mathematical theory of VOAs originated from the famous monstrous moonshine conjectures of J.H. Conway and S.P. Norton, which predicted a deep relationship between the characters of the largest simple finite sporadic group, the Monster, and the theory of modular forms inspired by the observations of J. MacKay and J. Thompson.   The contributions are based on lectures delivered at the 2011 conference on Conformal Field Theory, Automorphic Forms and Related Topics, organized by the editors as part of a special program offered at Heidelberg University that summer under the sponsorship of the MAThematics Center Heidelberg (MATCH).

  16. A new interpretation of the special theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonomano, V.

    1975-01-01

    Assuming the 'Big Bang' theory as well as the usual axioms in the Special Theory of Relativity, the time dilations and length contractions are treated as real physical effects. This becomes possible by relating everything to the hypothetical frame, Ssub(a), at rest relative to the 'Big Bang' event. This frame in many senses plays the role of the classical aether frame. A clock's real rhythm, as opposed to its rhythm observed by restricted methods, is then a function of its velocity relative to Ssub(a) (assuming a uniform gravitational field). It is further assumed that gravitational radiation is composed of 'electromagnetic-like' waves. Therefore when a clock changes its velocity in a uniform gravitational field it must receive a a different total energy due to the average frequency shift (Doppler effect), the time dilations are then caused by the change in energy due to this frequency shift. That is, no two clocks can be in the 'same' gravitational field unless they have no relative velocity, and therefore the Special Theory of Relativity is a special case of the General Theory from this viewpoint. Two feasible experimental tests, using the Moessbauer effect, are described that would decide on these viewpoints. The principle of equivalence and the 'twin paradox' are also discussed. (author)

  17. From Newton's laws to Einstein's theory of relativity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fang, Li-chih; Chʻu, Yao-chʻüan; Fang, Li Zhi; Fang, L. Z; Li, Zhi Fang; Fang, Lizhi

    1987-01-01

    ...-Morley Experiment Constant New Velocity of Light Speed The of COMPOSITION OF SPEED OF LIGHT The Law of CHAPTER Salviati's Theory of W h o IV TO ship Two Relativity Shot First? CHAPTER V A ROD Space and * T h e Lifetime Moving Lorentz F R O M GALILEO'S PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY THE S P E C I A L T H E O R Y OF RELATIVITY principles of th...

  18. Applications of Jarzynski's relation in lattice gauge theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nada, Alessandro; Caselle, Michele; Costagliola, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Jarzynski's equality is a well-known result in statistical mechanics, relating free-energy differences between equilibrium ensembles with fluctuations in the work performed during non-equilibrium transformations from one ensemble to the other. In this work, an extension of this relation to lattice...... gauge theory will be presented, along with numerical results for the ℤ2 gauge model in three dimensions and for the equation of state in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions. Then, further applications will be discussed, in particular for the Schrödinger functional and for the study of QCD...

  19. The Concept of Security in International Relations Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Orozco

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold War and the emergence of globalisation have transformed the reality of International Relations, which has meant a change in the theories which this reality had assumed. The concept of security reveals itself as an organisational idea on the different phenomena of globalisation, carrying out a programme of research that goes beyond the realistic presumptions of military power or of the idealistic principles of research for peace. This article explores the new meanings of security for International Relations theory and discusses the theoretical models that influence policy design and that aim to confront the problems and challenges of security in globalisation.

  20. Indefinite-metric quantum field theory of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Noboru

    1978-01-01

    Quantum field theory of Einstein's general relativity is formulated in the indefinitemetric Hilbert space in such a way that asymptotic fields are manifestly Lorentz covariant and the physical S-matrix is unitary. The general coordinate transformation is transcribed into a q-number transformation, called the BRS transformation. Its abstract definition is presented on the basis of the BRS transformation for the Yang-Mills theory. The BRS transformation for general relativity is then explicitly constructed. The gauge-fixing Lagrangian density and the Faddeev-Popov one are introduced in such a way that their sum behaves like a scalar density under the BRS transformation. One can then proceed in the same way as in the Kugo-Ojima formalism of the Yang-Mills theory to establish the unitarity of the physical S-matrix. (author)

  1. Scalar mass relations and flavor violations in supersymmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; California Univ., Berkeley, CA

    1996-01-01

    Supersymmetry provides the most promising solution to the gauge hierarchy problem. For supersymmetry to stablize the hierarchy, it must be broken at the weak scale. The combination of weak scale supersymmetry and grand unification leads to a successful prediction of the weak mixing angle to within 1% accuracy. If supersymmetry is a symmetry of nature, the mass spectrum and the flavor mixing pattern of the scalar superpartners of all the quarks and leptons will provide important information about a more fundamental theory at higher energies. We studied the scalar mass relations which follow from the assumption that at high energies there is a grand unified theory which leads to a significant prediction of the weak mixing angle; these will serve as important tests of grand unified theories. Two intragenerational mass relations for each of the light generations are derived. A third relation is also found which relates the Higgs masses and the masses of all three generation scalars. In a realistic supersymmetric grand unified theory, nontrivial flavor mixings are expected to exist at all gaugino vertices. This could lead to important contributions to the neutron electric dipole moment, the decay mode p → K 0 μ + , weak scale radiative corrections to the up-type quark masses, and lepton flavor violating signals such as μ → eγ. These also provide important probes of physics at high energy scales. Supersymmetric theories involving a spontaneously broken flavor symmetry can provide a solution to the supersymmetric flavor-changing problem and an understanding of the fermion masses and mixings. We studied the possibilities and the general conditions under which some fermion masses and mixings can be obtained radiatively. We also constructed theories of flavor in which the first generation fermion masses arise from radiative corrections while flavor-changing constraints are satisfied. 69 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs

  2. An experiment designed to verify the general theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdin, Maurice

    1960-01-01

    The project for an experiment which uses the effect of gravitation on Maser-type clocks placed on the ground at two different heights and which is designed to verify the general theory of relativity. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 250, p. 299-301, sitting of 11 January 1960 [fr

  3. Interacting bosons model and relation with BCS theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, R.

    1990-01-01

    The Nambu mechanism for BCS theory is extended with inclusion of quadrupole pairing in addition to the usual monopole pairing. An effective Hamiltonian is constructed and its relation to the IBM is discussed. The faced difficulties and a possible generalization of this model are discussed. (author)

  4. The program ORTOCARTAN for applications in the relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasinski, A.

    1985-01-01

    A general outline of the program ORTOCARTAN for algebraic computing in the relativity theory is presented. A short history of the program is given. The base-programming language is LISP. The details of the calculation are presented. An example of application of the ORTOCARTAN is given

  5. Exploring Spiritual Beliefs in Relation to Adlerian Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanski, Patricia J.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes one counselor's exploration of her spiritual beliefs in relation to Adler's theory of counseling and human development in an effort to move toward ideological consistency and to enhance competence in addressing spiritual dimensions of clients' development. (Contains 34 references.) (GCP)

  6. Can quantum theory and special relativity peacefully coexist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seevinck, M.P.

    This white paper aims to identify an open problem in ‘Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality’—namely whether quantum theory and special relativity are formally compatible—, to indicate what the underlying issues are, and put forward ideas about how the problem might be addressed.

  7. Can quantum theory and special relativity peacefully coexist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seevinck, M.P.; Briggs, A.

    2010-01-01

    This white paper aims to identify an open problem in ‘Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality’—namely whether quantum theory and special relativity are formally compatible—, to indicate what the underlying issues are, and put forward ideas about how the problem might be addressed.

  8. Violations of Einstein's Relativity: Motivations, Theory, and Phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    One of the most difficult questions in present-day physics concerns a fundamental theory of space, time, and matter that incorporates a consistent quantum description of gravity. There are various theoretical approaches to such a quantum-gravity theory. Nevertheless, experimental progress is hampered in this research field because many models predict deviations from established physics that are suppressed by some power of the Planck scale, which currently appears to be immeasurably small. However, tests of relativity theory provide one promising avenue to overcome this phenomeno-logical obstacle: many models for underlying physics can accommodate a small breakdown of Lorentz symmetry, and numerous feasible Lorentz-symmetry tests have Planck reach. Such mild violations of Einstein's relativity have therefore become the focus of recent research efforts. This mini course provides a brief survey of the key ideas in this research field and is geared at both experimentalists and theorists. In particular, several theoretical mechanisms leading to deviations from relativity theory are presented; the standard theoretical framework for relativity violations at currently accessible energy scales (i.e., the SME) is reviewed, and various present and near-future experimental efforts within this field are discussed.

  9. Changing Race Relations in Organizations: A Comparison of Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Desegregated Classroom: The Effects of Cooperation on Prosocial Behavior and Academic Performance. Working Paper, Department of Psychology. Santa Cruz, CA... Behavior Changing Race Relations in Organizations: A Comparison of Theories Clayton P. .Alderfer Working Paper #66 DTIC ~ELECTE0 B DITRUTION STATEMENTA...unfavorable stereotypes of blacks, they have less reason to change. White stereotypes have long served as rationalizations for white dominance. In

  10. On complicated continuum models in general relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsypkin, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    A set of Euler's equations is obtained in the framework of the general relativity theory from the variational equation in the supposition that lagrangian of the material depends on additional (in comparison with classical theories) thermodynamic parameters and taking into account possible irreversible processes. Momentum equations for continuous medium of a thermodynamic closed set are shown to be the consequence of field equations. The problem about the type of energy-momentum material tensor in the presence of derivatives from additional thermodynamic parameters in the number of lagrangian arguments is considered

  11. Indefinite-metric quantum field theory of general relativity, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Noboru

    1979-01-01

    The indefinite-metric quantum field theory of general relativity is extended to the coupled system of the gravitational field and a Dirac field on the basis of the vierbein formalism. The six extra degrees of freedom involved in vierbein are made unobservable by introducing an extra subsidiary condition Q sub(s) + phys> = 0, where Q sub(s) denotes a new BRS charge corresponding to the local Lorentz invariance. It is shown that a manifestly covariant, unitary, canonical theory can be constructed consistently on the basis of the vierbein formalism. (author)

  12. On experiments to detect possible failures of relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Junior, W.A.; Tiomno, J.

    1985-01-01

    Two recently proposed experiments by Kolen and Torr, designed to show failures of Einstein's Special Relativity (SR) are analysed. It is pointed out that these papers contain a number of imprecisions and misconceptions which are cleared out. Also the very spread misconception about anysotropy of propagation of light in vacuum in Lorentz Aether Theory (LAT) is analysed showing that the anysotropy is only a coordinate effect. Comparison of the correct results in LAT theory, leading to violation of SR, with new theoretical and experimental results of Torr et al is made. Some of these new results are shown to be incorrect and/or inconsistent with both SR and LAT. (Author) [pt

  13. Critical Race Theory and the Limits of Relational Theory in Social Work with Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Camille R; Grumbach, Giesela

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a conceptual framework for expanding the use of relational theory with African-American women. Relational theory (RT) informs practice with women but is inadequate in addressing all aspects of culture and identity. RT presumes that all women desire or are able to make therapeutic connections, yet race, gender, and cultural experiences influence their ability to do so. Successful practice with minority women must address racism and its impact. Critical race theory (CRT) that incorporates a solution-focused (SF) approach is well-suited to address the limits of RT. This overview of a CRT/SF approach describes treatment for diverse women that extends RT and enhances effective social work practice to provide culturally sensitive treatment to women.

  14. Role of information theoretic uncertainty relations in quantum theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jizba, Petr, E-mail: p.jizba@fjfi.cvut.cz [FNSPE, Czech Technical University in Prague, Břehová 7, 115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic); ITP, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Dunningham, Jacob A., E-mail: J.Dunningham@sussex.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Joo, Jaewoo, E-mail: j.joo@surrey.ac.uk [Advanced Technology Institute and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    Uncertainty relations based on information theory for both discrete and continuous distribution functions are briefly reviewed. We extend these results to account for (differential) Rényi entropy and its related entropy power. This allows us to find a new class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations (ITURs). The potency of such uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics is illustrated with a simple two-energy-level model where they outperform both the usual Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty relation and Shannon entropy based uncertainty relation. In the continuous case the ensuing entropy power uncertainty relations are discussed in the context of heavy tailed wave functions and Schrödinger cat states. Again, improvement over both the Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty principle and Shannon ITUR is demonstrated in these cases. Further salient issues such as the proof of a generalized entropy power inequality and a geometric picture of information-theoretic uncertainty relations are also discussed.

  15. Role of information theoretic uncertainty relations in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jizba, Petr; Dunningham, Jacob A.; Joo, Jaewoo

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty relations based on information theory for both discrete and continuous distribution functions are briefly reviewed. We extend these results to account for (differential) Rényi entropy and its related entropy power. This allows us to find a new class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations (ITURs). The potency of such uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics is illustrated with a simple two-energy-level model where they outperform both the usual Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty relation and Shannon entropy based uncertainty relation. In the continuous case the ensuing entropy power uncertainty relations are discussed in the context of heavy tailed wave functions and Schrödinger cat states. Again, improvement over both the Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty principle and Shannon ITUR is demonstrated in these cases. Further salient issues such as the proof of a generalized entropy power inequality and a geometric picture of information-theoretic uncertainty relations are also discussed

  16. On Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crothers S. J.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of conceptual anomalies occurring in the Standard exposition of Einstein's Theory of Relativity. These anomalies relate to issues in both mathematics and in physics and penetrate to the very heart of Einstein's theory. This paper reveals and amplifies a few such anomalies, including the fact that Einstein's field equations for the so-called static vacuum configuration, $R_{mu u} = 0$, violates his Principle of Equivalence, and is therefore erroneous. This has a direct bearing on the usual concept of conservation of energy for the gravitational field and the conventional formulation for localisation of energy using Einstein's pseudo-tensor. Misconceptions as to the relationship between Minkowski spacetime and Special Relativity are also discussed, along with their relationships to the pseudo-Riemannian metric manifold of Einstein's gravitational field, and their fundamental geometric structures pertaining to spherical symmetry.

  17. On Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crothers S. J.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of conceptual anomalies occurring in the Standard exposition of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. These anomalies relate to issues in both mathematics and in physics and penetrate to the very heart of Einstein’s theory. This paper reveals and amplifies a few such anomalies, including the fact that Einstein’s field equations for the so-called static vacuum configuration, R = 0 , violates his Principle of Equiv- alence, and is therefore erroneous. This has a direct bearing on the usual concept of conservation of energy for the gravitational field and the conventional formulation for localisation of energy using Einstein’s pseudo-tensor. Misconceptions as to the relationship between Minkowski spacetime and Special Relativity are also discussed, along with their relationships to the pseudo-Riemannian metric manifold of Einstein’s gravitational field, and their fundamental geometric structures pertaining to spherical symmetry.

  18. Mayer expansions for Euclidean lattice field theory: Convergence properties and relation with perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordt, A.

    1985-10-01

    The author describes the Mayer expansion in Euclidean lattice field theory by comparing it with the statistical mechanics of polymer systems. In this connection he discusses the Borel summability and the analyticity of the activities on the lattice. Furthermore the relations between renormalization and the Mayer expansion are considered. (HSI)

  19. Action-Based Jurisprudence: Praxeological Legal Theory in Relation to Economic Theory, Ethics, and Legal Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Graf

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Action-based legal theory is a discrete branch of praxeology and the basis of an emerging school of jurisprudence related to, but distinct from, natural law. Legal theory and economic theory share content that is part of praxeology itself: the action axiom, the a priori of argumentation, universalizable property theory, and counterfactual-deductive methodology. Praxeological property-norm justification is separate from the strictly ethical “ought” question of selecting ends in an action context. Examples of action-based jurisprudence are found in existing “Austro-libertarian” literature. Legal theory and legal practice must remain distinct and work closely together if justice is to be found in real cases. Legal theorizing was shaped in religious ethical contexts, which contributed to confused field boundaries between law and ethics. The carrot and stick influence of rulers on theorists has distorted conventional economics and jurisprudence in particular directions over the course of centuries. An action-based approach is relatively immune to such sources of distortion in its methods and conclusions, but has tended historically to be marginalized from conventional institutions for this same reason.

  20. Theory and experiments in general relativity and other metric theories of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciufolini, I.

    1984-01-01

    In Chapter I, after an introduction to theories of gravity alternative to general relativity, metric theories, and the post-Newtonian parameterized (PNN) formalism, a new class of metric theories of gravity is defined. As a result the post-Newtonian approximation of the new theories is not described by the PPN formalism. In fact under the weak field and slow motion hypothesis, the post-Newtonian expression of the metric tensor contains an infinite set of new terms and correspondingly an infinite set of new PPN parameters. Chapter II, III, and IV are devoted to new experiments to test general relativity and other metric theories of gravity. In particular, in chapter IV, it is shown that two general relativistics effects, the Lense-Thirring and De Sitter-Fokker precessions of the nodal lines of an Earth artificial satellite are today detectable using high altitude laser ranged artificial satellites such as Lageos. The orbit of this satellite is known with unprecedented accuracy. The author then describes a method of measuring these relativistic precessions using Lageos together with another high altitude laser ranged similar satellite with appropriately chosen orbital parameters

  1. Non-Abelian gauge field theory in scale relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottale, Laurent; Celerier, Marie-Noeelle; Lehner, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    Gauge field theory is developed in the framework of scale relativity. In this theory, space-time is described as a nondifferentiable continuum, which implies it is fractal, i.e., explicitly dependent on internal scale variables. Owing to the principle of relativity that has been extended to scales, these scale variables can themselves become functions of the space-time coordinates. Therefore, a coupling is expected between displacements in the fractal space-time and the transformations of these scale variables. In previous works, an Abelian gauge theory (electromagnetism) has been derived as a consequence of this coupling for global dilations and/or contractions. We consider here more general transformations of the scale variables by taking into account separate dilations for each of them, which yield non-Abelian gauge theories. We identify these transformations with the usual gauge transformations. The gauge fields naturally appear as a new geometric contribution to the total variation of the action involving these scale variables, while the gauge charges emerge as the generators of the scale transformation group. A generalized action is identified with the scale-relativistic invariant. The gauge charges are the conservative quantities, conjugates of the scale variables through the action, which find their origin in the symmetries of the ''scale-space.'' We thus found in a geometric way and recover the expression for the covariant derivative of gauge theory. Adding the requirement that under the scale transformations the fermion multiplets and the boson fields transform such that the derived Lagrangian remains invariant, we obtain gauge theories as a consequence of scale symmetries issued from a geometric space-time description

  2. Categories of relations as models of quantum theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Heunen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Categories of relations over a regular category form a family of models of quantum theory. Using regular logic, many properties of relations over sets lift to these models, including the correspondence between Frobenius structures and internal groupoids. Over compact Hausdorff spaces, this lifting gives continuous symmetric encryption. Over a regular Mal'cev category, this correspondence gives a characterization of categories of completely positive maps, enabling the formulation of quantum features. These models are closer to Hilbert spaces than relations over sets in several respects: Heisenberg uncertainty, impossibility of broadcasting, and behavedness of rank one morphisms.

  3. From field theory to phenomenology: the history of dispersion relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, A.

    1989-01-01

    The authors chart the history of quantum field theory (QFT) in the 1950s with reference to the ideas of dispersion relations. QFT failed to explain strong interaction physics and so was discarded. Connections are drawn between a central group of particle theorists working on applying Kramers-Kronig light scattering relations to high energy particle scattering and the way physics developed. The concepts of single and double dispersion relations and Regge poles, when connected with the large quantity of empirical data from the large particle accelerators of the 1950s, could not be embodied within QFT, which then fell into decline. (UK)

  4. Relative judgment theory and the mediation of facial recognition: Implications for theories of eyewitness identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, Ryan M; Gronlund, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    Many in the eyewitness identification community believe that sequential lineups are superior to simultaneous lineups because simultaneous lineups encourage inappropriate choosing due to promoting comparisons among choices (a relative judgment strategy), but sequential lineups reduce this propensity by inducing comparisons of lineup members directly to memory rather than to each other (an absolute judgment strategy). Different versions of the relative judgment theory have implicated both discrete-state and continuous mediation of eyewitness decisions. The theory has never been formally specified, but (Yonelinas, J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 20:1341-1354, 1994) dual-process models provide one possible specification, thereby allowing us to evaluate how eyewitness decisions are mediated. We utilized a ranking task (Kellen and Klauer, J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 40:1795-1804, 2014) and found evidence for continuous mediation when facial stimuli match from study to test (Experiment 1) and when they mismatch (Experiment 2). This evidence, which is contrary to a version of relative judgment theory that has gained a lot of traction in the legal community, compels reassessment of the role that guessing plays in eyewitness identification. Future research should continue to test formal explanations in order to advance theory, expedite the development of new procedures that can enhance the reliability of eyewitness evidence, and to facilitate the exploration of task factors and emergent strategies that might influence when recognition is continuously or discretely mediated.

  5. Squark and slepton mass relations in grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.; Hall, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    In the minimal supersymmetric standard model, assuming universal scalar masses at large energies, there are four intragenerational relations between the masses of the squarks and sleptons for each light generation. In this paper we study the scalar mass relations which follow only from the assumption that at large energies there is a grand unified theory which leads to a significant prediction of the weak mixing angle. Two new intragenerational mass relations for each of the light generations are derived. In addition, a third mass relation is found which relates the Higgs boson masses, the masses of the third generation scalars, and the masses of the scalars of the lighter generations. Verification of a fourth mass relation, involving only the charged slepton masses, provides a signal for SO(10) unification

  6. Some foundational problems in the special theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammer, M.

    1979-01-01

    Attention is drawn to some of the issues of the foundations of special relativity with the aim of contributing possibly to their clarification. Roemer's determination of the velocity of light is reviewed and important issues on the historical development of the theory outlined. The group-theoretical and light-geometrical approaches are discussed and the nature of length contraction considered. (Auth./C.F.)

  7. One hundred years of the special theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernikov, N.A.

    2006-01-01

    Special theory of relativity is considered here as an episode from non-Euclidean geometry. Special attention is drawn to the fact that the replacement of the fifth Euclidean postulate with the Lobachevsky postulate about the parallel straight lines in the velocity space of a material point leads to the replacement of the postulate about one and the same time rate with the postulate about one and the same light velocity in all inertial reference systems

  8. Covariant theory of gravitation in the framework of special relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, R. S.; Brentan, H. B.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we study the magnetic effects of gravity in the framework of special relativity. Imposing covariance of the gravitational force with respect to the Lorentz transformations, we show from a thought experiment that a magnetic-like force must be present whenever two or more bodies are in motion. The exact expression for this gravitomagnetic force is then derived purely from special relativity and the consequences of such a covariant theory are developed. For instance, we show that the gravitomagnetic fields satisfy a system of differential equations similar to the Maxwell equations of electrodynamics. This implies that the gravitational waves spread out with the speed of light in a flat spacetime, which is in agreement with the recent results concerning the gravitational waves detection. We also propose that the vector potential can be associated with the interaction momentum in the same way as the scalar potential is usually associated with the interaction energy. Other topics are also discussed, for example, the transformation laws for the fields, the energy and momentum stored in the gravitomagnetic fields, the invariance of the gravitational mass and so on. We remark that is not our intention here to propose an alternative theory of gravitation but, rather, only a first approximation for the gravitational phenomena, so that it can be applied whenever the gravitational force can be regarded as an ordinary effective force field and special relativity can be used with safety. To make this point clear we present briefly a comparison between our approach and that based on the (linearized) Einstein's theory. Finally, we remark that although we have assumed nothing from the electromagnetic theory, we found that gravity and electricity share many properties in common -these similarities, in fact, are just a requirement of special relativity that must apply to any physically acceptable force field.

  9. Effective Learning Environments in Relation to Different Learning Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Guney, Ali; Al, Selda

    2012-01-01

    There are diverse learning theories which explain learning processes which are discussed within this paper, through cognitive structure of learning process. Learning environments are usually described in terms of pedagogical philosophy, curriculum design and social climate. There have been only just a few studies about how physical environment is related to learning process. Many researchers generally consider teaching and learning issues as if independent from physical environment, whereas p...

  10. Arctic Sovereignty Disputes: International Relations Theory in the High North

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Russians continue to retain their long-range strategic bombing fleets, consisting of the TU-160 Supersonic ( Blackjack ), an all-weather aircraft with...icebreakers, and the only operational heavy icebreaker, it is already beyond service life expectations and recently suffered a major engine failure...DISPUTES: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY IN THE HIGH NORTH by Darrin D. Davis December 2011 Thesis Co-Advisors: Anne L. Clunan

  11. Features of projectile motion in the special theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, Ghassan Y

    2006-01-01

    A relativistic projectile motion in a vacuum is examined by means of elementary consequences of special relativity. Exact analytical expressions were found for the kinematics variables using basic mathematical tools. The trajectory equation was established and the area under the trajectory traversed by the relativistic projectile was determined. It was found that, unlike non-relativistic projectile motion, the launching angles that maximize both the horizontal range as well as the area under the trajectory are functions of the initial speed. It is anticipated that this paper will be consistent with the intuition of students and serve as a resource for further problems usually encountered in the special theory of relativity

  12. Remarks on doubly special relativity theories and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinterleitner, F

    2008-01-01

    Modifications of special relativity by the introduction of an invariant energy and/or momentum level (so-called doubly special relativity theories, DSR) or by an energy-momentum dependence of the Planck constant (generalized uncertainty principle, GUP) are compared with classical gravitational effects in an interaction process. For the low-energy limit of the usual formulations of DSR to be equivalent to Newtonian gravity, a restrictive condition is found. GUP yields an effective repulsion, in analogy to gravitational repulsion in loop quantum cosmology

  13. Approximate theory the electromagnetic energy of solenoid in special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prastyaningrum, I; Kartikaningsih, S.

    2017-01-01

    Solenoid is a device that is often used in electronic devices. A solenoid is electrified will cause a magnetic field. In our analysis, we just focus on the electromagnetic energy for solenoid form. We purpose to analyze by the theoretical approach in special relativity. Our approach is begun on the Biot Savart law and Lorentz force. Special theory relativity can be derived from the Biot Savart law, and for the energy can be derived from Lorentz for, by first determining the momentum equation. We choose the solenoid form with the goal of the future can be used to improve the efficiency of the electrical motor. (paper)

  14. Nonlinear closure relations theory for transport processes in nonequilibrium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnino, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    A decade ago, a macroscopic theory for closure relations has been proposed for systems out of Onsager's region. This theory is referred to as the thermodynamic field theory (TFT). The aim of this work was to determine the nonlinear flux-force relations that respect the thermodynamic theorems for systems far from equilibrium. We propose a formulation of the TFT where one of the basic restrictions, namely, the closed-form solution for the skew-symmetric piece of the transport coefficients, has been removed. In addition, the general covariance principle is replaced by the De Donder-Prigogine thermodynamic covariance principle (TCP). The introduction of TCP requires the application of an appropriate mathematical formalism, which is referred to as the entropy-covariant formalism. By geometrical arguments, we prove the validity of the Glansdorff-Prigogine universal criterion of evolution. A new set of closure equations determining the nonlinear corrections to the linear ('Onsager') transport coefficients is also derived. The geometry of the thermodynamic space is non-Riemannian. However, it tends to be Riemannian for high values of the entropy production. In this limit, we recover the transport equations found by the old theory. Applications of our approach to transport in magnetically confined plasmas, materials submitted to temperature, and electric potential gradients or to unimolecular triangular chemical reactions can be found at references cited herein. Transport processes in tokamak plasmas are of particular interest. In this case, even in the absence of turbulence, the state of the plasma remains close to (but, it is not in) a state of local equilibrium. This prevents the transport relations from being linear.

  15. Chiral trace relations in Ω-deformed N=2 theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beccaria, Matteo; Fachechi, Alberto; Macorini, Guido [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica Ennio De Giorgi,Università del Salento, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN - Sezione di LecceVia Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2017-05-04

    We consider N=2SU(2) gauge theories in four dimensions (pure or mass deformed) and discuss the properties of the simplest chiral observables in the presence of a generic Ω-deformation. We compute them by equivariant localization and analyze the structure of the exact instanton corrections to the classical chiral ring relations. We predict exact relations valid at all instanton number among the traces 〈Trφ{sup n}〉, where φ is the scalar field in the gauge multiplet. In the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit, such relations may be explained in terms of the available quantized Seiberg-Witten curves. Instead, the full two-parameter deformation enjoys novel features and the ring relations require non trivial additional derivative terms with respect to the modular parameter. Higher rank groups are briefly discussed emphasizing non-factorization of correlators due to the Ω-deformation. Finally, the structure of the deformed ring relations in the N=2{sup ⋆} theory is analyzed from the point of view of the Alday-Gaiotto-Tachikawa correspondence proving consistency as well as some interesting universality properties.

  16. A Rolling Element Bearing Fault Diagnosis Approach Based on Multifractal Theory and Gray Relation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingchao; Cao, Yunpeng; Ying, Yulong; Li, Shuying

    2016-01-01

    Bearing failure is one of the dominant causes of failure and breakdowns in rotating machinery, leading to huge economic loss. Aiming at the nonstationary and nonlinear characteristics of bearing vibration signals as well as the complexity of condition-indicating information distribution in the signals, a novel rolling element bearing fault diagnosis method based on multifractal theory and gray relation theory was proposed in the paper. Firstly, a generalized multifractal dimension algorithm was developed to extract the characteristic vectors of fault features from the bearing vibration signals, which can offer more meaningful and distinguishing information reflecting different bearing health status in comparison with conventional single fractal dimension. After feature extraction by multifractal dimensions, an adaptive gray relation algorithm was applied to implement an automated bearing fault pattern recognition. The experimental results show that the proposed method can identify various bearing fault types as well as severities effectively and accurately.

  17. Hyperscaling relations in mass-deformed conformal gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Zwicky, Roman

    2010-01-01

    We present a number of analytical results which should guide the interpretation of lattice data in theories with an infrared fixed point (IRFP) deformed by a mass term δL=-mqq. From renormalization group (RG) arguments we obtain the leading scaling exponent, F∼m η F , for all decay constants of the lowest lying states other than the ones affected by the chiral anomaly and the tensor ones. These scaling relations provide a clear cut way to distinguish a theory with an IRFP from a confining theory with heavy fermions. Moreover, we present a derivation relating the scaling of ∼m η qq to the scaling of the density of eigenvalues of the massless Dirac operator ρ(λ)∼λ η qq . RG arguments yield η qq =(3-γ * )/(1+γ * ) as a function of the mass anomalous dimension γ * at the IRFP. The arguments can be generalized to other condensates such as 2 >∼m 4/(1+γ * ) . We describe a heuristic derivation of the result on the condensates, which provides interesting connections between different approaches. Our results are compared with existing data from numerical studies of SU(2) with two adjoint Dirac fermions.

  18. On special and general relativity theory. 24. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein, Albert

    2009-01-01

    The present booklet shall mediate to such an as possible exact view in relativity theory, who are especially interested for the theory from a generally scientific, philosophical, point of view, without mastering the mathematical apparatus. The lecture presupposes some maturity knowledge and - in spite of the shortness of the booklet - quite much perseverance and strength of mind. The author has token very much efforts in order to present the main thoughts as distinctly and simply as possible, in the whole in such a sequence and in such connection, as it has really been arose. With the aim of distinctiveness it seemed to me unavoidable to repeat myself frequently without paying the smallest regard to the elegance of the presentation; I maintained conscientiously the prescription of the ingenious theoretician L. Boltzmann, elegance should by the object of the taylors ans shoemakers [de

  19. A Solution to the Cosmological Problem of Relativity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Daryl

    After nearly a century of scientific investigation, the standard cosmological theory continues to have many unexplained problems, which invariably amount to one troubling statement: we know of no good reason for the Universe to appear just as it does, which is described extremely well by the flat ΛCDM cosmological model. Therefore, the problem is not that the physical model is at all incompatible with observation, but that, as our empirical results have been increasingly constrained, it has also become increasingly obvious that the Universe does not meet our prior expectations; e.g., the evidence suggests that the Universe began from a singularity of the theory that is used to describe it, and with space expanding thereafter in cosmic time, even though relativity theory is thought to imply that no such objective foliation of the spacetime continuum should reasonably exist. Furthermore, the expanding Universe is well-described as being flat, isotropic, and homogeneous, even though its shape and expansion rate are everywhere supposed to be the products of local energy-content---and the necessary prior uniform distribution, of just the right amount of matter for all three of these conditions to be met, could not have been causally determined to begin with. And finally, the empirically constrained density parameters now indicate that all of the matter that we directly observe should make up only four percent of the total, so that the dominant forms of energy in the Universe should be dark energy in the form of a cosmological constant, Λ, and cold dark matter (CDM). The most common ways of attacking these problems have been: to apply modifications to the basic physical model, e.g. as in the inflation and quintessence theories which strive to resolve the horizon, flatness, and cosmological constant problems; to use particle physics techniques in order to formulate the description of dark matter candidates that might fit with observations; and, in the case of the Big

  20. A modified Lorentz theory as a test theory of special relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T.; Torr, D. G.; Gagnon, D. R.

    1988-01-01

    Attention has been given recently to a modified Lorentz theory (MLT) that is based on the generalized Galilean transformation. Some explicit formulas within the framework of MLT, dealing with the one-way velocity of light, slow-clock transport, and the Doppler effect are derived. A number of typical experiments are analyzed on this basis. Results indicate that the empirical equivalence between MLT and special relativity is still maintained to second order terms. The results of previous works that predict that the MLT might be distinguished from special relativity at the third order by Doppler centrifuge tests capable of a fractional frequency detection threshold of 10 to the -15th are confirmed.

  1. Functional methods underlying classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryukov, A

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the physical content of a recently proposed mathematical framework that unifies the standard formalisms of classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory. In the framework states of a classical particle are identified with Dirac delta functions. The classical space is ''made'' of these functions and becomes a submanifold in a Hilbert space of states of the particle. The resulting embedding of the classical space into the space of states is highly non-trivial and accounts for numerous deep relations between classical and quantum physics and relativity. One of the most striking results is the proof that the normal probability distribution of position of a macroscopic particle (equivalently, position of the corresponding delta state within the classical space submanifold) yields the Born rule for transitions between arbitrary quantum states.

  2. Applying social theory to understand health-related behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Daniel; Borgstrom, Erica

    2016-06-01

    Health-related behaviours are a concern for contemporary health policy and practice given their association with a range of illness outcomes. Many of the policies and interventions aimed at changing health-related behaviours assume that people are more or less free to choose their behaviour and how they experience health. Within sociology and anthropology, these behaviours are viewed not as acts of choice but as actions and practices situated within a larger sociocultural context. In this paper, we outline three theoretical perspectives useful in understanding behaviours that may influence one's health in this wider context: theories of social practice, social networks and interactionism. We argue that by better understanding how health-related behaviours are performed in people's everyday lives, more suitable interventions and clinical management can be developed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Theories of International Relations and the Explanation of Foreign Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUSELLI, Gino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 50 years after the publication of the first and influential article in international relations (IR analyzing foreign aid motivations, A theory of foreign aid, by Hans Morgenthau, IR scholarship has not yet accomplished a consistent theoretical body explaining international development cooperation. Most of the empirical studies on foreign aid have been contributions from other disciplines, especially economics. Research from the field of international relations has been mostly descriptive or poorly connected with IR paradigms.This article proposes to analyze motivations of foreign aid allocations decisions of donors. These motivations will be examined from the theoretical perspective of the international relations scholarship. In this way, it is sought to contribute, from the discipline of IR, to the explanation of the process in which developed countries make transfers of resources to developing countries.

  4. Theory of Nonlocal Point Transformations in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tessarotto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A discussion of the functional setting customarily adopted in General Relativity (GR is proposed. This is based on the introduction of the notion of nonlocal point transformations (NLPTs. While allowing the extension of the traditional concept of GR-reference frame, NLPTs are important because they permit the explicit determination of the map between intrinsically different and generally curved space-times expressed in arbitrary coordinate systems. For this purpose in the paper the mathematical foundations of NLPT-theory are laid down and basic physical implications are considered. In particular, explicit applications of the theory are proposed, which concern (1 a solution to the so-called Einstein teleparallel problem in the framework of NLPT-theory; (2 the determination of the tensor transformation laws holding for the acceleration 4-tensor with respect to the group of NLPTs and the identification of NLPT-acceleration effects, namely, the relationship established via general NLPT between particle 4-acceleration tensors existing in different curved space-times; (3 the construction of the nonlocal transformation law connecting different diagonal metric tensors solution to the Einstein field equations; and (4 the diagonalization of nondiagonal metric tensors.

  5. Non-Western International Relations Theory: Myth or Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mikhailovna Lebedeva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Russian and foreign literature increasingly raises the question on national theories of international relations. A special interest is manifested towards non-Western theories of international relations. The article analyzes the reasons for such interest. It is noted that the main motive for scholars to search for national schools is the transformation of the political organization of the world that emerged in the West and was developing largely on the Western model. This transformation encompasses three levels of political organization of the modern world: the Westphalian system, the system of international (interstate relations and the political systems of a state. Three levels of political organization of the world changing at the same time today reinforce each other and generate synergies. With such a large-scale transformation, when all three levels are “moving”, the world is facing for the first time, although the change of the second and especially the third levels were before. As far as the system of political organization of the world undergoes major changes, IR theories, which appeared in the West, are in crisis. Researchers’ attention to non-Western, primarily Asian TMO to find answers due to the following reasons: 1 the rapid economic growth of the region; 2 the development of scientific research in Asia; 3 the crisis of the Western model of political organization in the world that encourages the search for solutions in other civilizational structures. The article substantiates the necessity and possibility of “project activities” for reforming the political organization of the world and include practices that exist in different regions of the world. In order to implement such activities, the work of specialists from different brunches of social sciences is required.

  6. Einstein's pathway to the special theory of relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Galina

    2015-01-01

    This book pieces together the jigsaw puzzle of Einstein's journey to discovering the special theory of relativity. Between 1902 and 1905, Einstein sat in the Patent Office and may have made calculations on old pieces of paper that were once patent drafts. One can imagine Einstein trying to hide from his boss, writing notes on small sheets of paper, and, according to reports, seeing to it that the small sheets of paper on which he was writing would vanish into his desk-drawer as soon as he heard footsteps approaching his door. He probably discarded many pieces of papers and calculations and flu

  7. Cyborg pantocrator: international relations theory from decisionism to rational choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhot, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    International relations theory took shape in the 1950s in reaction to the behavioral social science movement, emphasizing the limits of rationality in a context of high uncertainty, weak rules, and the possibility of lethal conflict. Yet the same discipline rapidly developed "rational choice" models applied to foreign policy decision making or nuclear strategy. This paper argues that this transformation took place almost seamlessly around the concept of "decision." Initially associated with an antirationalist or "decisionist" approach to politics, the sovereign decision became the epitome of political rationality when it was redescribed as "rational choice," thus easing the cultural acceptance of political realism in the postwar years. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Reintroducing the concept of force into relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, S.; Qadir, A.; Valanju, P.

    1979-07-01

    It is suggested that re-introducing forces into relativity theory may provide new insights and results. A look at the Kerr-Newmann geometry, and special cases of it, from this viewpoint indicates that there can be a short range repulsion in general. This repulsion suggests that naked singularities may be physically feasible. It is also found that there is a gravito-electric repulsion which would be important to consider in a grand unification scheme of strong, weak and electromagnetic forces. 8 references

  9. Reintroducing the concept of force into relativity theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahajan, S.; Qadir, A.; Valanju, P.

    1979-07-01

    It is suggested that re-introducing forces into relativity theory may provide new insights and results. A look at the Kerr-Newmann geometry, and special cases of it, from this viewpoint indicates that there can be a short range repulsion in general. This repulsion suggests that naked singularities may be physically feasible. It is also found that there is a gravito-electric repulsion which would be important to consider in a grand unification scheme of strong, weak and electromagnetic forces. 8 references.

  10. Implicit ligand theory for relative binding free energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hai; Minh, David D. L.

    2018-03-01

    Implicit ligand theory enables noncovalent binding free energies to be calculated based on an exponential average of the binding potential of mean force (BPMF)—the binding free energy between a flexible ligand and rigid receptor—over a precomputed ensemble of receptor configurations. In the original formalism, receptor configurations were drawn from or reweighted to the apo ensemble. Here we show that BPMFs averaged over a holo ensemble yield binding free energies relative to the reference ligand that specifies the ensemble. When using receptor snapshots from an alchemical simulation with a single ligand, the new statistical estimator outperforms the original.

  11. Implementing software based on relation frame theory to develop and increase relational cognitive skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, Giovambattista; Messina, Concetta; Mongelli, Francesca; Sireci, Maria Josè; Collotta, Mario

    2017-11-01

    Relational Frame Theory is a post-skinnerian theory of language and cognition based on more than thirty years of basic and applied research. It defines language and cognitive skills as an operant repertoire of responses to arbitrarily related stimuli specific, as far as is now known, of the human species. RFT has been proved useful in addressing cognitive barriers to human action in psychotherapy and also improving children skills in reading, IQ testing, and in metaphoric and categorical repertoires. We present a frame of action where RFT can be used in programming software to help autistic children to develop cognitive skills within a developmental vision.

  12. Neurath's ship: The constitutive relation between normative and descriptive theories of rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Waldmann, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    I defend the claim that in psychological theories concerned with theoretical or practical rationality there is a constitutive relation between normative and descriptive theories: Normative theories provide idealized descriptive accounts of rational agents. However, we need to resist the temptation to collapse descriptive theories with any specific normative theory. I show how a partial separation is possible. peerReviewed

  13. The relation between multilocus population genetics and social evolution theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andy; West, Stuart A; Barton, Nicholas H

    2007-02-01

    Evolution at multiple gene positions is complicated. Direct selection on one gene disturbs the evolutionary dynamics of associated genes. Recent years have seen the development of a multilocus methodology for modeling evolution at arbitrary numbers of gene positions with arbitrary dominance and epistatic relations, mode of inheritance, genetic linkage, and recombination. We show that the approach is conceptually analogous to social evolutionary methodology, which focuses on selection acting on associated individuals. In doing so, we (1) make explicit the links between the multilocus methodology and the foundations of social evolution theory, namely, Price's theorem and Hamilton's rule; (2) relate the multilocus approach to levels-of-selection and neighbor-modulated-fitness approaches in social evolution; (3) highlight the equivalence between genetical hitchhiking and kin selection; (4) demonstrate that the multilocus methodology allows for social evolutionary analyses involving coevolution of multiple traits and genetical associations between nonrelatives, including individuals of different species; (5) show that this methodology helps solve problems of dynamic sufficiency in social evolution theory; (6) form links between invasion criteria in multilocus systems and Hamilton's rule of kin selection; (7) illustrate the generality and exactness of Hamilton's rule, which has previously been described as an approximate, heuristic result.

  14. General Theory of Relativity: Will It Survive the Next Decade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolami, Orfeu; Paramos, Jorge; Turyshev, Slava G.

    2006-01-01

    The nature of gravity is fundamental to our understanding of our own solar system, the galaxy and the structure and evolution of the Universe. Einstein's general theory of relativity is the standard model that is used for almost ninety years to describe gravitational phenomena on these various scales. We review the foundations of general relativity, discuss the recent progress in the tests of relativistic gravity, and present motivations for high-accuracy gravitational experiments in space. We also summarize the science objectives and technology needs for the laboratory experiments in space with laboratory being the entire solar system. We discuss the advances in our understanding of fundamental physics anticipated in the near future and evaluate discovery potential for the recently proposed gravitational experiments.

  15. Gauge theories, duality relations and the tensor hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Hartong, Jelle; Huebscher, Mechthild; OrtIn, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We compute the complete 3- and 4-dimensional tensor hierarchies, i.e. sets of p-form fields, with 1 ≤ p ≤ D, which realize an off-shell algebra of bosonic gauge transformations. We show how these tensor hierarchies can be put on-shell by introducing a set of duality relations, thereby introducing additional scalars and a metric tensor. These so-called duality hierarchies encode the equations of motion of the bosonic part of the most general gauged supergravity theories in those dimensions, including the (projected) scalar equations of motion. We construct gauge-invariant actions that include all the fields in the tensor hierarchies. We elucidate the relation between the gauge transformations of the p-form fields in the action and those of the same fields in the tensor hierarchy.

  16. Unified field theory on the basis of the projective theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessner, G.

    1982-01-01

    A unified field theory is developed on the basis of the five-dimensional vacuum equations R/sub munu/ = 0 in the projective theory of relativity. The four-dimensional field equations following from R/sub munu/ = 0 by projection are a generalized Einstein-Maxwell theory, for which the generalization is given by a scalar field. The particle concept based on these equations represents the intrinsic particle properties, which are the rest mass, or the energy in case of photons and neutrinos, the charge and the spin by integrals of the field distribution extended over spacelike hypersurfaces. The energy concept is based on Moller's energy-momentum complex. Moller's argument against his energy-momentum complex is discussed and refuted. The spin concept is derived from the axial symmetry of the field distribution. The stationary axially symmetric field is studied in detail. In the spherically symmetric static case the solutions of the field equations are given and investigated for their particle properties. It is shown that one and only one type of solution yields a good approach to the distribution of charge and rest mass in the proton. However, none of the spherically symmetric solutions represents the electron

  17. Relativity theory and time perception: single or multiple clocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhusi, Catalin V; Meck, Warren H

    2009-07-22

    Current theories of interval timing assume that humans and other animals time as if using a single, absolute stopwatch that can be stopped or reset on command. Here we evaluate the alternative view that psychological time is represented by multiple clocks, and that these clocks create separate temporal contexts by which duration is judged in a relative manner. Two predictions of the multiple-clock hypothesis were tested. First, that the multiple clocks can be manipulated (stopped and/or reset) independently. Second, that an event of a given physical duration would be perceived as having different durations in different temporal contexts, i.e., would be judged differently by each clock. Rats were trained to time three durations (e.g., 10, 30, and 90 s). When timing was interrupted by an unexpected gap in the signal, rats reset the clock used to time the "short" duration, stopped the "medium" duration clock, and continued to run the "long" duration clock. When the duration of the gap was manipulated, the rats reset these clocks in a hierarchical order, first the "short", then the "medium", and finally the "long" clock. Quantitative modeling assuming re-allocation of cognitive resources in proportion to the relative duration of the gap to the multiple, simultaneously timed event durations was used to account for the results. These results indicate that the three event durations were effectively timed by separate clocks operated independently, and that the same gap duration was judged relative to these three temporal contexts. Results suggest that the brain processes the duration of an event in a manner similar to Einstein's special relativity theory: A given time interval is registered differently by independent clocks dependent upon the context.

  18. Relativity theory and time perception: single or multiple clocks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin V Buhusi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Current theories of interval timing assume that humans and other animals time as if using a single, absolute stopwatch that can be stopped or reset on command. Here we evaluate the alternative view that psychological time is represented by multiple clocks, and that these clocks create separate temporal contexts by which duration is judged in a relative manner. Two predictions of the multiple-clock hypothesis were tested. First, that the multiple clocks can be manipulated (stopped and/or reset independently. Second, that an event of a given physical duration would be perceived as having different durations in different temporal contexts, i.e., would be judged differently by each clock.Rats were trained to time three durations (e.g., 10, 30, and 90 s. When timing was interrupted by an unexpected gap in the signal, rats reset the clock used to time the "short" duration, stopped the "medium" duration clock, and continued to run the "long" duration clock. When the duration of the gap was manipulated, the rats reset these clocks in a hierarchical order, first the "short", then the "medium", and finally the "long" clock. Quantitative modeling assuming re-allocation of cognitive resources in proportion to the relative duration of the gap to the multiple, simultaneously timed event durations was used to account for the results.These results indicate that the three event durations were effectively timed by separate clocks operated independently, and that the same gap duration was judged relative to these three temporal contexts. Results suggest that the brain processes the duration of an event in a manner similar to Einstein's special relativity theory: A given time interval is registered differently by independent clocks dependent upon the context.

  19. [Relational frame theory - a theoretical framework for contextual behavioral science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensche, M; Schweiger, U

    2015-05-01

    Therapists have to deal with verbal systems and often work with verbal exchange. Therefore, a psychological theory is required, which teaches the therapist how to accomplish this task. The BRT is a theory of human language and cognition that explains how people use their verbal behavior as stimuli in their interrelations and how they act and react, based on the resulting relationships. This behavior is learned very early in the course of language acquisition and functions as a generalized operant. A prerequisite for this is the ability of people to undergo mental simulation. This enables them to construct diverse relational frameworks between individual stimuli. Without relational frameworks, people cannot function. The ability to establish a relational framework is a prerequisite for the formation of rule-governed behavior. Rule-governed behavior economizes complex decision processes, creates interpersonal security and enables dealing with events before they take place. On the other hand, the same properties that enable people to solve problems effectively can also contribute to rigid adherence to rules and experience avoidance. Relational frameworks, once established, outweigh other sources of behavioral regulation. Thus, it can become the basis of psychopathology. Poor contextual control makes it difficult for people to devote flexible, focused and voluntary attention to the present and align their actions with the immediate present. Contextual psychotherapy methods that are based on the BRT start precisely at this point: Targeted establishment of new contingencies in the therapeutic interaction through systematic strengthening of metacognitive mode and through the establishment of new rules that make possible a change in the rule-governed behavior enable undermining of dysfunctional rule-governed behavior and build up desirable behavior. This allows any therapeutic process to be more effective - regardless of the patient's expressed symptoms. © Georg Thieme

  20. Foundations of relativity theory. 7. ed.; Grundzuege der Relativitaetstheorie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einstein, Albert

    2009-07-01

    In the present elaboration of four speeches, which I have held at the Princeton University in May 1921 I wanted to summarize the main thoughts and mathematical methods of relativity theory. Thereby I have attempted to leave out all less essential but to treat the fundamental so that the whole can serve as introduction for all those which master the elements of advanced mathematics but want not apply all to much time and inconvenience to the object. Completeness can this short presentation self-evidently not require so much as I have not treated the more subtle, more mathematically interesting developments, which are based on the variational calculus. My main goal was to let the fundamental in the whole way of thought of the theory clearly come forward. [German] ''In der vorliegenden Ausarbeitung von vier Vortraegen, die ich an der Universitaet Princeton im Mai 1921 gehalten habe, wollte ich die Hauptgedanken und mathematischen Methoden der Relativitaetstheorie zusammenfassen. Dabei habe ich mich bemueht, alles weniger Wesentliche wegzulassen, das Grundsaetzliche aber doch so zu behandeln, dass das Ganze als Einfuehrung fuer alle diejenigen dienen kann, welche die Elemente der hoeheren Mathematik beherrschen, aber nicht allzuviel Zeit und Muehe auf den Gegenstand verwenden wollen. Auf Vollstaendigkeit kann diese kurze Darlegung selbstverstaendlich keinen Anspruch machen, zumal ich die feineren, mehr mathematisch interessanten Entwicklungen, welche sich auf Variationsrechnung gruenden, nicht behandelt habe. Mein Hauptziel war es, das Grundsaetzliche in dem ganzen Gedankengang der Theorie klar hervortreten zu lassen.'' Albert Einstein (Vorwort zur 1. Auflage der ''Vier Vorlesungen ueber Relativitaetstheorie'') (orig.)

  1. Relation of a unified quantum field theory of spinors to the structure of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kober, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Based on a unified quantum field theory of spinors assumed to describe all matter fields and their interactions we construct the space-time structure of general relativity according to a general connection within the corresponding spinor space. The tetrad field and the corresponding metric field are composed from a space-time dependent basis of spinors within the internal space of the fundamental matter field. Similar to twistor theory the Minkowski signature of the space-time metric is related to this spinor nature of elementary matter, if we assume the spinor space to be endowed with a symplectic structure. The equivalence principle and the property of background independence arise from the fact that all elementary fields are composed from the fundamental spinor field. This means that the structure of space-time according to general relativity seems to be a consequence of a fundamental theory of matter fields and not a presupposition as in the usual setting of relativistic quantum field theories.

  2. Does general relativity theory possess the classical newtonian limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.I.; Logunov, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed comparison of newtonian approximation of the Einstein theory and the Newton theory of gravity is made. A difference of principle between these two theories is clarified at the stage of obtaining integrals of motion. Exact eqautions of motion and Einstein equations shows the existence only zero integrals of motion as well as in the newtonian approximation. A conclusion is that GRT has no classical newtonian limit, since the integrals of motion in the Newton theory of gravity and in the newtonian approximation of the Einstein theory do not coincide [ru

  3. Many-Body Theory of Pyrochlore Iridates and Related Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Runzhi

    In this thesis we focus on two problems. First we propose a numerical method for generating optimized Wannier functions with desired properties. Second we perform the state of the art density functional plus dynamical mean-field calculations in pyrochlore iridates, to investigate the physics induced by the cooperation of spin-orbit coupling and electron correlation. We begin with the introduction for maximally localized Wannier functions and other related extensions. Then we describe the current research in the field of spin-orbit coupling and its interplay with correlation effects, followed by a brief introduction of the `hot' materials of iridates. Before the end of the introduction, we discuss the numerical methods employed in our work, including the density functional theory; dynamical mean-field theory and its combination with the exact diagonalization impurity solver. Then we propose our approach for constructing an optimized set of Wannier functions, which is a generalization of the functionality of the classic maximal localization method put forward by Marzari and Vanderbilt. Our work is motivated by the requirement of the effective description of the local subspace of the Hamiltonian by the beyond density functional theory methods. In extensions of density functional theory such as dynamical mean-field theory, one may want highly accurate description of particular local orbitals, including correct centers and symmetries; while the basis for the remaining degrees of freedom is unimportant. Therefore, we develop the selectively localized Wannier function approach which allows for a greater localization in the selected subset of Wannier functions and at the same time allows us to fix the centers and ensure the point symmetries. Applications in real materials are presented to demonstrate the power of our approach. Next we move to the investigation of pyrochlore iridates, focussing on the metal-insulator transition and material dependence in these compounds. We

  4. A comment on a proposed ''crucial experiment'' to test Einstein's special theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Jr, W.A.; Buonamano, V.

    1976-01-01

    A proposed ''crucial experiment'' to test Einstein's special theory of relativity is analysed and it is shown that it falls into the set of unsatisfactory proposals that attempt to make an experimental distinction between Einstein's special theory of relativity and a ''Lorentzian type'' special theory of relativity

  5. Comment on a proposed ''crucial experiment'' to test Einstein's special theory of relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Jr, W A [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil); Buonamano, V [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Instituto de Matematica

    1976-08-11

    A proposed ''crucial experiment'' to test Einstein's special theory of relativity is analysed and it is shown that it falls into the set of unsatisfactory proposals that attempt to make an experimental distinction between Einstein's special theory of relativity and a ''Lorentzian type'' special theory of relativity.

  6. How to test the special theory of relativity on rotating earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolghasem, H.; Khadjehpoor, M.R.; Mansouri, R.

    1988-02-01

    In the framework of a one parameter test theory of special relativity, the difference between Transport- and Einstein synchronization on the rotating earth is calculated. For the special theory of relativity this difference vanishes. Therefore, experiments in which these synchronization procedures are compared, test the special theory of relativity. (author). 8 refs

  7. On the relation of the theoretical foundations of quantum theory and general relativity theory; Ueber die Beziehung der begrifflichen Grundlagen der Quantentheorie und der Allgemeinen Relativitaetstheorie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kober, Martin

    2010-07-01

    The specific content of the present thesis is presented in the following way. First the most important contents of quantum theory and general relativity theory are presented. In connection with the general relativity theory the mathematical property of the diffeomorphism invariance plays the deciding role, while concerning the quantum theory starting from the Copenhagen interpretation first the measurement problem is treated, before basing on the analysis of concrete phenomena and the mathematical apparatus of quantum theory the nonlocality is brought into focus as an important property. This means that both theories suggest a relationalistic view of the nature of the space. This analysis of the theoretical foundations of quantum theory and general relativity theory in relation to the nature of the space obtains only under inclusion of Kant's philosophy and his analysis of the terms space and time as fundamental forms of perception its full persuasive power. Then von Weizsaeckers quantum theory of the ur-alternatives is presented. Finally attempts are made to apply the obtained knowledge to the question of the quantum-theoretical formulation of general relativity theory.

  8. General Theory of Duality. A proposal to unifiy relativity theory, quantum mechanics and string theory - cognition for a new dynamic world view in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, M.

    2005-01-01

    The chase after a world formula is presently the most iridescent task for natural science. By the development of a radical new scientistic theory, unifying not only relativity and quantum theory as also astrophysics and string theory to a common view, the author lances the first serious candidate for a TOE (Theory of Everything) in the scientific discussion. The General Theory of Duality (GDT) offers not only surprising answers to fundamental questions of physics, but also discovers the smallest component of our universe, which is still known since a longer time, which we ignored: Planck's Constant. May be possible that by this book a new world view in physics can be created. (GL)

  9. On the relation between gene flow theory and genetic gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolliams John A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In conventional gene flow theory the rate of genetic gain is calculated as the summed products of genetic selection differential and asymptotic proportion of genes deriving from sex-age groups. Recent studies have shown that asymptotic proportions of genes predicted from conventional gene flow theory may deviate considerably from true proportions. However, the rate of genetic gain predicted from conventional gene flow theory was accurate. The current note shows that the connection between asymptotic proportions of genes and rate of genetic gain that is embodied in conventional gene flow theory is invalid, even though genetic gain may be predicted correctly from it.

  10. Gift Exchange Theory: a critique in relation to organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sque, M; Payne, S A

    1994-01-01

    Organ transplantation is becoming more important as a viable method of treatment for certain severe medical conditions. It is a complex and demanding process for all involved. Nursing as a developing science must respond to cultural and economic changes. Therefore, a need exists to develop a body of empirically based knowledge to understand and support the process of organ transplantation. This paper will argue that as trading in organs is unacceptable to the moral standards of western society and outlawed in many countries, an alternative framework must be considered for understanding the mechanisms through which organs are donated and utilized. The donating and receiving of organs may be equated with gift-giving, as there is no barter of commodities involved. Therefore, a useful framework to explore this phenomenon will be one that underpins the process of giving and receiving of gifts. Gift Exchange Theory will be evaluated and critically examined in relation to organ transplantation and the role of nurses in this process.

  11. The role of time in relational quantum theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryb, S.; Thebault, K.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a solution to the problem of time for systems with a single global Hamiltonian constraint. Our solution stems from the observation that, for these theories, conventional gauge theory methods fail to capture the classical dynamics of the full system. We propose a new strategy for

  12. Phonon dispersion relations in monoatomic superlattices: a transfer matrix theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, E.L. de; Fulco, P.

    1986-01-01

    We present a lattice dynamical theory for monoatomic superlattices consisting of alternating layers of two different materials. Using a transfer matrix method we obtain explicit the equation for dispersion of the phonon's bulk modes, including the well known result in the long wave-length limit which can be obtained by elasticity theory. An illustation is shown and its features discussed. (Author) [pt

  13. Moral Judgment and Its Relation to Second-Order Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Genyue; Xiao, Wen S.; Killen, Melanie; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Recent research indicates that moral judgment and 1st-order theory of mind abilities are related. What is not known, however, is how 2nd-order theory of mind is related to moral judgment. In the present study, we extended previous findings by administering a morally relevant theory of mind task (an accidental transgressor) to 4- to 7-year-old…

  14. Perturbative Quantum Gravity and its Relation to Gauge Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bern Zvi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review we describe a non-trivial relationship between perturbative gauge theory and gravity scattering amplitudes. At the semi-classical or tree-level, the scattering amplitudes of gravity theories in flat space can be expressed as a sum of products of well defined pieces of gauge theory amplitudes. These relationships were first discovered by Kawai, Lewellen, and Tye in the context of string theory, but hold more generally. In particular, they hold for standard Einstein gravity. A method based on $D$-dimensional unitarity can then be used to systematically construct all quantum loop corrections order-by-order in perturbation theory using as input thegravity tree amplitudes expressed in terms of gauge theory ones. More generally, the unitarity method provides a means for perturbatively quantizing massless gravity theories without the usual formal apparatus associated with the quantization of constrained systems. As one application, this method was used to demonstrate that maximally supersymmetric gravity is less divergent in the ultraviolet than previously thought.

  15. Extended Nambu models: Their relation to gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, C. A.; Urrutia, L. F.

    2017-05-01

    Yang-Mills theories supplemented by an additional coordinate constraint, which is solved and substituted in the original Lagrangian, provide examples of the so-called Nambu models, in the case where such constraints arise from spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking. Some explicit calculations have shown that, after additional conditions are imposed, Nambu models are capable of reproducing the original gauge theories, thus making Lorentz violation unobservable and allowing the interpretation of the corresponding massless gauge bosons as the Goldstone bosons arising from the spontaneous symmetry breaking. A natural question posed by this approach in the realm of gauge theories is to determine under which conditions the recovery of an arbitrary gauge theory from the corresponding Nambu model, defined by a general constraint over the coordinates, becomes possible. We refer to these theories as extended Nambu models (ENM) and emphasize the fact that the defining coordinate constraint is not treated as a standard gauge fixing term. At this level, the mechanism for generating the constraint is irrelevant and the case of spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking is taken only as a motivation, which naturally bring this problem under consideration. Using a nonperturbative Hamiltonian analysis we prove that the ENM yields the original gauge theory after we demand current conservation for all time, together with the imposition of the Gauss laws constraints as initial conditions upon the dynamics of the ENM. The Nambu models yielding electrodynamics, Yang-Mills theories and linearized gravity are particular examples of our general approach.

  16. A Panorama of Modern Operator Theory and Related Topics

    CERN Document Server

    Dym, Harry; Lancaster, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This book is dedicated to the memory of Israel Gohberg (1928-2009) - one of the great mathematicians of our time - who inspired innumerable fellow mathematicians and directed many students. The volume reflects the wide spectrum of Gohberg's mathematical interests. It consists of more than 25 invited and peer-reviewed original research papers written by his former students, co-authors and friends. Included are contributions to single and multivariable operator theory, commutative and non-commutative Banach algebra theory, the theory of matrix polynomials and analytic vector-valued functions, se

  17. Reply to the "Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borissova L.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper answers twelve most common questions on the basics of Einstein's theory of relativity. The answers remove most key problems with a real, solid understanding of the theory.

  18. Ionization Potentials of Chemical Warfare Agents and Related Compounds Determined with Density Functional Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wright, J

    2000-01-01

    ...) agents at contaminated sites. Reported herein are theoretical ionization potentials for CW agents and their related compounds calculated using density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p) level of theory...

  19. Relativity theory (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1970--Feb 77

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grooms, D.W.

    1977-04-01

    Research studies are presented on special and general relativity. Gravitational theory, field theory, and space--time studies are included, as are studies involving the Minkowski space, the Schrodinger equations, the Dirac equations, and the Lorentz transformations

  20. Civil-Military Relations and Strategy: Theory and Evidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kimminau, Jon

    2001-01-01

    ... between civilian and military strategy. There are a number of propositions about such differences that lie at the heart of theories of state and group behavior at international and domestic levels...

  1. The curious history of relativity how Einstein's theory of gravity was lost and found again

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenstaedt, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Black holes may obliterate most things that come near them, but they saved the theory of general relativity. Einstein's theory was quickly accepted as the true theory of gravity after its publication in 1915, but soon took a back seat in physics to quantum mechanics and languished for decades on the blackboards of mathematicians. Not until the existence of black holes by Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose in the 1960s, after Einstein's death, was the theory revived. Almost one hundred years after general relativity replaced Newton's theory of gravitation, The Curious History of Relativity tells the story of both events surrounding general relativity and the techniques employed by Einstein and the relativists to construct, develop, and understand his almost impenetrable theory. Jean Eisenstaedt, one of the world's leading experts on the subject, also discusses the theory's place in the evolution of twentieth-century physics. He describes the main stages in the development of general relativity: its beginnings,...

  2. Principles of general relativity theory in terms of the present day physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervushin, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    A hystory of gradual unification of general relativity theory and quantum field theory on the basis of unified geometrical principles is detected. The gauge invariance principles became universal for construction of all physical theories. Quantum mechanics, electrodynamics and Einstein gravitation theory were used to form geometrical principles. Identity of inertial and gravitational masses is an experimental basis of the general relativity theory (GRT). It is shown that correct understanding of GRT bases is a developing process related to the development of the present physics and stimulating this development

  3. The Birth of Model Theory Lowenheim's Theorem in the Frame of the Theory of Relatives

    CERN Document Server

    Badesa, Calixto

    2008-01-01

    Löwenheim's theorem reflects a critical point in the history of mathematical logic, for it marks the birth of model theory--that is, the part of logic that concerns the relationship between formal theories and their models. However, while the original proofs of other, comparably significant theorems are well understood, this is not the case with Löwenheim's theorem. For example, the very result that scholars attribute to Löwenheim today is not the one that Skolem--a logician raised in the algebraic tradition, like Löwenheim--appears to have attributed to him. In The Birth of Model Theory, Cali

  4. Topics in the Foundations of General Relativity and Newtonian Gravitation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Malament, David B

    2012-01-01

    In Topics in the Foundations of General Relativity and Newtonian Gravitation Theory, David B. Malament presents the basic logical-mathematical structure of general relativity and considers a number of special topics concerning the foundations of general relativity and its relation to Newtonian gravitation theory. These special topics include the geometrized formulation of Newtonian theory (also known as Newton-Cartan theory), the concept of rotation in general relativity, and Gödel spacetime. One of the highlights of the book is a no-go theorem that can be understood to show that there is

  5. International Conference on Ergodic Theory and Related Topics

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Karin; Warstat, Volker

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the conference was to represent recent developments in measure theoretic, differentiable and topological dynamical systems as well as connections to probability theory, stochastic processes, operator theory and statistical physics. Only original research papers that do not appear elsewhere are included in the proceedings. Their topics include: C(2)-diffeomorphisms of compact Riemann manifolds, geodesic flows, chaotic behaviour in billards, nonlinear ergodic theory, central limit theorems for subadditive processes, Hausdorff measures for parabolic rational maps, Markov operators, periods of cycles, Julia sets, ergodic theorems. From the Contents: L.A. Bunimovich: On absolutely focusing mirrors.- M. Denker, M. Urbanski: The dichotomy of Hausdorff measures and equilibrium states for parabolic rational maps.- F. Ledrappier: Ergodic properties of the stable foliations.- U. Wacker: Invariance principles and central limit theorems for nonadditive stationary processes.- J. Schmeling, R. Siegmund-Schult...

  6. Charting Relations between Intersectionality Theory and the Neurodiversity Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Rose Strand

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores central elements and applications of intersectionality theory and the neurodiversity paradigm. First, the histories and tenets of intersectionality theory and neurodiversity paradigm are provided. Then, areas are explored where each of the two approaches might further engage with the principles of the other. Finally, the essay concludes by broadly considering the efforts made by the Black Lives Matter movement and the Autistic Self Advocacy Network to bring attention to and end police violence as both networks employ and attend to elements of intersectionality and neurodiversity. The way these two networks draw on both intersectionality and neurodiversity to further their mission could be a possible site for scholars to consider in the interest of advancing dialogues between intersectionality theory and the neurodiversity paradigm. Ultimately, the essay calls for a continued exploration of the potentials for intersectionality and neurodiversity to complement and complicate one another, both in terms of theoretical development and coalition building.

  7. Methods of qualitative theory of differential equations and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Lerman, L; Shilnikov, L

    2000-01-01

    Dedicated to the memory of Professor E. A. Leontovich-Andronova, this book was composed by former students and colleagues who wished to mark her contributions to the theory of dynamical systems. A detailed introduction by Leontovich-Andronova's close colleague, L. Shilnikov, presents biographical data and describes her main contribution to the theory of bifurcations and dynamical systems. The main part of the volume is composed of research papers presenting the interests of Leontovich-Andronova, her students and her colleagues. Included are articles on traveling waves in coupled circle maps, b

  8. Unification of General Relativity with Quantum Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Jun

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of quantum field theory, instead of using the action principle, we deduce the Einstein equation from purely the general covariant principle and the homogeneity of spacetime. The Einstein equation is shown to be the gauge equation to guarantee the local symmetry of spacetime translation. Gravity is an apparent force due to the curvature of spacetime resulted from the conservation of energy-momentum. In the action of quantum field theory, only electroweak-strong interactions should be considered with the curved spacetime metric determined by the Einstein equation. (general)

  9. Applications of generalizability theory and their relations to classical test theory and structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vispoel, Walter P; Morris, Carrie A; Kilinc, Murat

    2018-03-01

    Although widely recognized as a comprehensive framework for representing score reliability, generalizability theory (G-theory), despite its potential benefits, has been used sparingly in reporting of results for measures of individual differences. In this article, we highlight many valuable ways that G-theory can be used to quantify, evaluate, and improve psychometric properties of scores. Our illustrations encompass assessment of overall reliability, percentages of score variation accounted for by individual sources of measurement error, dependability of cut-scores for decision making, estimation of reliability and dependability for changes made to measurement procedures, disattenuation of validity coefficients for measurement error, and linkages of G-theory with classical test theory and structural equation modeling. We also identify computer packages for performing G-theory analyses, most of which can be obtained free of charge, and describe how they compare with regard to data input requirements, ease of use, complexity of designs supported, and output produced. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. A Theory of Evolving Natural Constants Based on the Unification of General Theory of Relativity and Dirac's Large Number Hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Huanwu

    2005-01-01

    Taking Dirac's large number hypothesis as true, we have shown [Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004) 703] the inconsistency of applying Einstein's theory of general relativity with fixed gravitation constant G to cosmology, and a modified theory for varying G is found, which reduces to Einstein's theory outside the gravitating body for phenomena of short duration in small distances, thereby agrees with all the crucial tests formerly supporting Einstein's theory. The modified theory, when applied to the usual homogeneous cosmological model, gives rise to a variable cosmological tensor term determined by the derivatives of G, in place of the cosmological constant term usually introduced ad hoc. Without any free parameter the theoretical Hubble's relation obtained from the modified theory seems not in contradiction to observations, as Dr. Wang's preliminary analysis of the recent data indicates [Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004) 703]. As a complement to Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004) 703 we shall study in this paper the modification of electromagnetism due to Dirac's large number hypothesis in more detail to show that the approximation of geometric optics still leads to null geodesics for the path of light, and that the general relation between the luminosity distance and the proper geometric distance is still valid in our theory as in Einstein's theory, and give the equations for homogeneous cosmological model involving matter plus electromagnetic radiation. Finally we consider the impact of the modification to quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics, and arrive at a systematic theory of evolving natural constants including Planck's h-bar as well as Boltzmann's k B by finding out their cosmologically combined counterparts with factors of appropriate powers of G that may remain truly constant to cosmologically long time.

  11. Special Theory of Relativity in South Korean High School Textbooks and New Teaching Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gim, Jinyeong

    2016-01-01

    South Korean high school students are being taught Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity. In this article, I examine the portrayal of this theory in South Korean high school physics textbooks and discuss an alternative method used to solve the analyzed problems. This examination of how these South Korean textbooks present this theory has…

  12. The vacuum structure, special relativity theory and quantum mechanics revisited: a field theory-no-geometry approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogolubov, N.N. Jr.; Prykarpatsky, A.K.; Ufuk Taneri

    2008-07-01

    The main fundamental principles characterizing the vacuum field structure are formulated and the modeling of the related vacuum medium and charged point particle dynamics by means of de- vised field theoretic tools are analyzed. The Maxwell electrodynamic theory is revisited and newly derived from the suggested vacuum field structure principles and the classical special relativity theory relationship between the energy and the corresponding point particle mass is revisited and newly obtained. The Lorentz force expression with respect to arbitrary non-inertial reference frames is revisited and discussed in detail, and some new interpretations of relations between the special relativity theory and quantum mechanics are presented. The famous quantum-mechanical Schroedinger type equations for a relativistic point particle in the external potential and magnetic fields within the quasiclassical approximation as the Planck constant (h/2π) → 0 and the light velocity c → ∞ are obtained. (author)

  13. Social Behaviour in Police Interviews: Relating Data to Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnes, Merijn; Linssen, Johannes Maria; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Theune, Mariet; Wapperom, Sjoerd; Broekema, Chris; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; D'Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella; Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Vincze, Laura

    2015-01-01

    We analysed a corpus of enacted police interviews to get insight into the social behaviour of interviewees and police officers in this setting. We (exhaustively) collected the terms used to describe the interactions in those interviews. Through factor analysis, we showed that the theories

  14. Effective Learning Environments in Relation to Different Learning Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guney, A.; Al, S.

    2012-01-01

    There are diverse learning theories which explain learning processes which are discussed within this paper, through cognitive structure of learning process. Learning environments are usually described in terms of pedagogical philosophy, curriculum design and social climate. There have been only just

  15. Schr"odinger's Unified Field Theory: Physics by Public Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Paul

    2009-05-01

    We will explore the circumstances surrounding Erwin Schr"odinger's announcement in January 1947 that he had developed a comprehensive unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism. We will speculate on Schr"odinger's motivations for the mode and tone of his statements, consider the reaction of the international press within the context of the postwar era, and examine Einstein's response.

  16. Survival units as the point of departure for a relational social theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Lars Bo; Gabriel, Norman

    Relational social theory can be found in the works of Hegel, Marx, Simmel, Mannheim, Mead, Saussure, Lévi-Strauss, Althusser, Foucault and Bourdieu. However, one of the most consistent relational thinkers is Norbert Elias. In order to develop his figurational and relational social theory Elias...

  17. Overview and theory relating to the concepts of competitiveness, efficiency and productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Latruffe, Laure

    2017-01-01

    This is a brief overview and theory relating to the concepts of competitiveness, efficiency and productivity: concept of competitiveness, measurement of competitiveness, determinants of competitiveness.

  18. An Exact Relation for N=1 Orientifold Field Theories with Arbitrary Superpotential

    CERN Document Server

    Armoni, Adi; Shifman, M

    2004-01-01

    We discuss a nonperturbative relation for orientifold parent/daughter pairs of supersymmetric theories with an arbitrary tree-level superpotential. We show that super-Yang-Mills (SYM) theory with matter in the adjoint representation at N-->infinity, is equivalent to a SYM theory with matter in the antisymmetric representation and a related superpotential. The gauge symmetry breaking patterns match in these theories too. The moduli spaces in the limiting case of a vanishing superpotential are also discussed. Finally we argue that there is an exact mapping between the effective superpotentials of two finite-N theories belonging to an orientifold pair.

  19. Peplau's theory of interpersonal relations: application in emergency and rural nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Joanne F

    2013-01-01

    The author in this column highlights aspects of Peplau's theory of interpersonal relations and its use both in emergency nursing and rural nursing. Long and Weinert identified the concepts of rural nursing. Some differences between Peplau's theory and rural nursing can be identified through definitions of theory and conceptual models. Despite these differences, there are some common themes between both theories that are described and compared.

  20. Test theory of special relativity: What it is and why we need it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansouri, R.

    1988-03-01

    After a critical overview on the traditional way of expressing the accuracy of experiments testing the postulates of the special theory of relativity, the four-parameter test theory is briefly introduced. The existing experiments are then classified and their accuracies are expressed in terms of the parameter of the test theory. By changing the convention of synchronization of distant clocks, it is shown how different equivalent theories can be formulated. (author). 23 refs

  1. On the question of establishing the equivalence of general relativity and relativistic theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulyabov, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: (author)In the construction of physical theories are several paradigms (according to Vladimirov Yu. S.). Depending on the number of entities are used paradigms include trialist (3 entities), dualist (2 entities) and monistic (1 entity). In trialist paradigm uses the following entities: geometry (G), particle (P) and field (F). Go to the dualist paradigms performed in the following ways: two entities take over the functions of the third, two entities merged into a single synthesis. Is also possible to limit the dualistic theory, which summarized the essence in addition assume the functions of a third. In turn, by way of grouping the entities dualistic theory can be divided into geometric (unification of geometry and field), relational (unification of geometry and particles) and field (unification of fields and particles). For the connection of the two theories should be to go to the common denominator: to trialist or monistic theories. Since the monistic theory at the moment completely unknown, may be used only trialist theory. General relativity is a typical representative of the geometric dualistic paradigm. However geometrized only gravity. Other fields non-geometrized. In turn, the relativistic theory of gravitation is a typical trialist theory. To establish a correspondence between theories should to geometrize material field in the general theory of relativity. It is proposed to implement this on the basis of a multi-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory

  2. Event-related potential evidence for the processing efficiency theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, N P; Janelle, C M

    2007-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the central tenets of the processing efficiency theory using psychophysiological measures of attention and effort. Twenty-eight participants were divided equally into either a high or low trait anxiety group. They were then required to perform a simulated driving task while responding to one of four target light-emitting diodes. Cortical activity and dual task performance were recorded under two conditions -- baseline and competition -- with cognitive anxiety being elevated in the competitive session by an instructional set. Although driving speed was similar across sessions, a reduction in P3 amplitude to cue onset in the light detection task occurred for both groups during the competitive session, suggesting a reduction in processing efficiency as participants became more state anxious. Our findings provide more comprehensive and mechanistic evidence for processing efficiency theory, and confirm that increases in cognitive anxiety can result in a reduction of processing efficiency with little change in performance effectiveness.

  3. Harnessing International Relations Theory to Security Cooperation Program Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    behavior. One of the most famous Liberal theorists is the philosopher Immanuel Kant , whose theory of “Perpetual Peace” centered on a vision where “free...democratic states would retain their sovereignty while working together to avoid war.”17 Kant ‟s vision has repeatedly been channeled into a desire...Interdependence and Liberal Institutionalist thinkers share roots with Grotius and Kant , and believe that there is a larger civil society where interstate

  4. The Standard-Relational Theory of 'Ought' and the Oughtistic Theory of Reasons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The idea that normative statements implicitly refer to standards has been around for quite some time. It is usually defended by normative antirealists, who tend to be attracted to Humean theories of reasons. But this is an awkward combination: 'A ought to X' entails that there are reasons for A to

  5. Important theories of the 20th century. Relativity, cosmology, quantum mechanics and chaos theory. 3. corr. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnebrock, Werner

    2011-01-01

    The past century changed the classical, scientific way of view enormously. The quantum theory broke with the imagination of continuity of all dynamical processes and gave space to completely new, nearly revolutionary approaches of thinking. Einstein's relativity theory put the absoluteness of time and space as well as the general validity of the Euclidean geometry in question. The absolute calculability, as it was formulated by Laplace, was by the influence of chaos theory proven as illusion. Computers made by the Mandelbrot set the presentation of new esthetic and never seen structures. Hilbert's century program of a complete formalization of mathematics failed because of the famous law of Goedel. It is the demand of this book to present all these theories and conclusions easily understandably and entertainingly.

  6. Generalisation of the test theory of special relativity to non-inertial frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolghasem, G.H.; Khajehpour, M.R.H.; Mansouri, R.

    1989-01-01

    We present a generalised test theory of special relativity, using a non-inertial frame. Within the framework of the special theory of relativity the transport and Einstein synchronisations are equivalent on a rigidly rotating disc. But in any theory with a preferred frame, such an equivalence does not hold. The time difference resulting from the two synchronisation procedures is a measurable quantity within the reach of existing clock systems on the Earth. The final result contains a term which depends on the angular velocity of the rotating system, and hence measures an absolute effect. This term is of crucial importance in our test theory of special relativity. (Author)

  7. The Relation Between Policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility and Philosophical Moral Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Frederiksen, Claus S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and philosophical moral theories. The objective is to determine which moral theories form the basis for CSR policies. Are they based on ethical egoism, libertarianism, utilitarianism or some kind of common-sense morality? To address this issue, I conducted an empirical investigation examining the relation between moral theories and CSR policies, in companies engaged in CSR. Based ...

  8. General relativity: An introduction to the theory of the gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephani, H.

    1985-01-01

    The entire treatment presented here is framed by questions which led to and now lead out of the general theory of relativity: can an absolute acceleration be defined meaningfully? Do gravitational effects propagate with infinite velocity as Newton required? Can the general theory correctly reflect the dynamics of the whole universe while consistently describing stellar evolution? Can a theory which presupposes measurement of properties of space through the interaction of matter be made compatible with a theory in which dimensions of the objects measured are so small that location loses meaning? The book gives the mathematics necessary to understand the theory and begins in Riemannian geometry. Contents, abridged: Foundations of Riemannian geometry. Foundations of Einstein's theory of gravitation. Linearised theory of gravitation, far fields and gravitational waves. Invariant characterisation of exact solutions. Gravitational collapse and black holes. Cosmology. Non-Einsteinian theories of gravitation. Index

  9. Nonextensive kinetic theory and H-theorem in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. P.; Silva, R.; Alcaniz, J. S.; Lima, J. A. S.

    2017-11-01

    The nonextensive kinetic theory for degenerate quantum gases is discussed in the general relativistic framework. By incorporating nonadditive modifications in the collisional term of the relativistic Boltzmann equation and entropy current, it is shown that Tsallis entropic framework satisfies a H-theorem in the presence of gravitational fields. Consistency with the 2nd law of thermodynamics is obtained only whether the entropic q-parameter lies in the interval q ∈ [ 0 , 2 ] . As occurs in the absence of gravitational fields, it is also proved that the local collisional equilibrium is described by the extended Bose-Einstein (Fermi-Dirac) q-distributions.

  10. Mathematical aspects of the BCS theory of superconductivity and related theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeunlich, Gerhard Albert

    2014-01-01

    The present work starts with a introduction to the BCS theory, describing superconductivity and superfluidity. The main part consist of a collection of three publications and a paper included in a conference proceedings. The introduction (Chapter 1) includes a brief historical review of the research in the field of superconductivity and superfluidity. It ends with a short summary of the technical applications of superconductivity. In Chapter 2, a derivation of the BCS functional from quantum statistics is presented. Chapter 3 explains the results of the publications mentioned above. In a first work, the validity of the negligence of the direct and exchange energy in the derivation of the BCS functional is examined. Another work addresses the connection between the BCS theory and the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  11. A Relation Between Topological Quantum Field Theory and the Kodama State

    OpenAIRE

    Oda, Ichiro

    2003-01-01

    We study a relation between topological quantum field theory and the Kodama (Chern-Simons) state. It is shown that the Kodama (Chern-Simons) state describes a topological state with unbroken diffeomorphism invariance in Yang-Mills theory and Einstein's general relativity in four dimensions. We give a clear explanation of "why" such a topological state exists.

  12. Applying Classical Ethical Theories to Ethical Decision Making in Public Relations: Perrier's Product Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Cornelius B.

    1994-01-01

    Links ethical theories to the management of the product recall of the Perrier Group of America. Argues for a nonsituational theory-based eclectic approach to ethics in public relations to enable public relations practitioners, as strategic communication managers, to respond effectively to potentially unethical organizational actions. (SR)

  13. A Historical Review of Counseling Theory Development in Relation to Definitions of Free Will and Determinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Duffy

    2003-01-01

    This review traces the development of counseling theory in relation to the philosophical constructs of free will and determinism. Problems associated with free will are discussed, and an analysis of related theoretical trends and convergent paradigms is provided. Results indicate that no major theory of counseling addresses the free will versus…

  14. Longitudinal Relations between Theory of Mind and Metacognition and the Impact of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal relation between children's theory of mind and their metacognitive knowledge with a special focus on the impact of language on this relation. Measures of theory-of-mind understanding and metamemory knowledge were assessed in 133 3-year-old children at 4 measurement points separated by half-year intervals.…

  15. Toward an Understanding of the Use of Academic Theories in Public Relations Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Joep P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a focal issue in the public relations field: the way that practitioners use academic theories. Offers an exploration of the possible modes of use of academic or scientific theory in public relations practice. Notes that the premise of this model is that scientific knowledge is seldom used in an unaltered form in practice. Closes by…

  16. Perturbation Expansion in Dynamical Nuclear Field Theory and Its Relation with Boson Expansion Theory : Nuclear Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Teruo, KISHIMOTO; Tetsuo, KAMMURI; Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba; Department of Physics, Osaka University

    1990-01-01

    With the Dynamical Nuclear Field Theory (DNFT) in the Tamm-Dancoff representation we examine higher order corrections in the vibrational mode of a spherical nuclear system. Due to the effects of bubble diagrams, the perturbation expansion in terms of the unrenormalized coupling strength and boson energy fails at full self-consistency. On the other hand, it becomes applicable in the form of linked-cluster expansion when we use thses constants renormalized by the effect of bubble diagrams, in t...

  17. Team management in the 21 st century: A human relations theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Team management in the 21 st century: A human relations theory angle. ... a team is about understanding human relation, that is, the manager understanding the ... The problem ranges from membership isolation to lack of communication and ...

  18. The Theory about didactical situations used to analyze practice related teaching and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Vibe

    2018-01-01

    Based on research showing that the students’ challenges in practice based learning can be located to the transitions between theory and practice, this study focuses on how teachers support the students in these transitions. The theoretical framework is mainly Brousseau’s ‘Theory about didactical...... the results show that the Theory of didactical situations can be a useful framework accomplishing practice related teaching and learning. In the discussion a number of challenges in relation to practice related teaching is highlighted focusing on the relation between the five situations in the theory...... situations’ that defines five situations of practice related teaching. The data includes observations combined with interviews of teachers in relation to various examples of practice related teaching in the social and health care programs. Based on the analysis of three examples of practice related teaching...

  19. Conceptual strategies and inter-theory relations: The case of nanoscale cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursten, Julia R.

    2018-05-01

    This paper introduces a new account of inter-theory relations in physics, which I call the conceptual strategies account. Using the example of a multiscale computer simulation model of nanoscale crack propagation in silicon, I illustrate this account and contrast it with existing reductive, emergent, and handshaking approaches. The conceptual strategies account develops the notion that relations among physical theories, and among their models, are constrained but not dictated by limitations from physics, mathematics, and computation, and that conceptual reasoning within those limits is required both to generate and to understand the relations between theories. Conceptual strategies result in a variety of types of relations between theories and models. These relations are themselves epistemic objects, like theories and models, and as such are an under-recognized part of the epistemic landscape of science.

  20. Theories And Success Stories Of Advertising And Public Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Wilardjo, Setia Budhi

    2012-01-01

    Now that we are looked at overall integrated marketing communication planning, we dig more deeply into the specific marketing communications tools. In this article, we explore advertising and public relations. Advertising involves communicating the company's or brand's value proposition by using paid media to inform, persuade, and remind consumers. Public relations involves building good relations with various company publics – from consumers and the general public to the media, investor, don...

  1. Is the special theory of relativity logically inconsistent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, W.

    1980-01-01

    The author's aim is to illustrate that the controversial subject of the logical inconsistency of STR is capable of two interpretations. If one retains a fidelity to the Einstein operational assumptions and methods then one may conclude that logical inconsistencies cannot be derived. If however, one wishes to base a theory upon a single world view with a single set of consistent assumptions, then STR is logically inconsistent. This inconsistency is at the present time not operationally evident. The usefulness of this second view is in its heuristic and future usefulness in the elucidation of natural phenomena. It is hoped that this discussion may somewhat reduce the contention and emotion in this field. (Auth.)

  2. GRG computer algebra system in gravitation and general relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhitnikov, V.V.; Obukhova, I.G.

    1985-01-01

    The main concepts and capabilities of the GRG specialized computer agebra system intended for performing calculations in the gravitation theory are described. The GRG system is written in the STANDARD LISP language. The program consists of two parts: the first one - for setting initial data, the second one - for specifying a consequence of calculations. The system can function in three formalisms: a coordinate, a tetradic with the Lorentz basis and a spinor ones. The major capabilities of the GRG system are the following: calculation of connectivity and curvature according to the specified metrics, tetrad and torsion; metric type determination according to Petrov; calculation of the Bianchi indentities; operation with an electromagnetic field; tetradic rotations; coordinate conversions

  3. Relations between correlation functions in gauge field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonov, Yu. A.; Shevchenko, V. I.

    1997-01-01

    Exact relations between vacuum correlations of non-Abelian field strengths are obtained. With the aid of exterior differentiation, the invariant parts of a given correlation function are expressed in terms of higher order correlation functions. The corollaries of these relations for the behavior of nonperturbative correlation functions at small and large distances are deduced

  4. War and Peace in International Relations Theory: A Classroom Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Nathan Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Simulations are increasingly common pedagogical tools in political science and international relations courses. This article develops a classroom simulation that aims to facilitate students' theoretical understanding of the topic of war and peace in international relations, and accomplishes this by incorporating important theoretical concepts…

  5. Uncertainty relation and simultaneous measurements in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, P.

    1982-01-01

    In this thesis the question for the interpretation of the uncertainty relation is picked up, and a program for the justification of its individualistic interpretation is formulated. By means of quantum mechanical models for the position and momentum measurement a justification of the interpretaton has been tried by reconstruction of the origin of the uncertainties from the conditions of the measuring devices and the determination of the relation of the measured results to the object. By means of a model of the common measurement it could be shown how the uncertainty relation results from the not eliminable mutual disturbance of the devices and the uncertainty relation for the measuring system. So finally the commutation relation is conclusive. For the illustration the split experiment is discussed, first according to Heisenberg with fixed split, then for the quantum mechanical, movable split (Bohr-Einstein). (orig./HSI) [de

  6. A theory of biological relativity: no privileged level of causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Denis

    2012-02-06

    Must higher level biological processes always be derivable from lower level data and mechanisms, as assumed by the idea that an organism is completely defined by its genome? Or are higher level properties necessarily also causes of lower level behaviour, involving actions and interactions both ways? This article uses modelling of the heart, and its experimental basis, to show that downward causation is necessary and that this form of causation can be represented as the influences of initial and boundary conditions on the solutions of the differential equations used to represent the lower level processes. These insights are then generalized. A priori, there is no privileged level of causation. The relations between this form of 'biological relativity' and forms of relativity in physics are discussed. Biological relativity can be seen as an extension of the relativity principle by avoiding the assumption that there is a privileged scale at which biological functions are determined.

  7. Africa and the Principles and Theories of International Relations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    history and diplomacy, political and administrative sciences, strategic studies and international relations, international law and organizations, and general readers ...... to assess others without considerations for historical and social differences.

  8. On experiments to detect possible failures on relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Junior, W.A.; Tiomno, J.

    1982-01-01

    Conditions under which is expected the failure of Einstein's Relativity are analysed. A complete analysis of a recently proposed experiment by Kolen-Torr is also given showing that it must give a negative result. (Author) [pt

  9. Treatise on classical elasticity theory and related problems

    CERN Document Server

    Teodorescu, Petre P

    2013-01-01

    Deformable solids have a particularly complex character; mathematical modeling is not always simple and often leads to inextricable difficulties of computation. One of the simplest mathematical models and, at the same time, the most used model, is that of the elastic body – especially the linear one. But, notwithstanding its simplicity, even this model of a real body may lead to great difficulties of computation. The practical importance of a work about the theory of elasticity, which is also an introduction to the mechanics of deformable solids, consists of the use of scientific methods of computation in a domain in which simplified methods are still used. This treatise takes into account the consideration made above, with special attention to the theoretical study of the state of strain and stress of a deformable solid. The book draws on the known specialized literature, as well as the original results of the author and his 50+ years experience as Professor of Mechanics and Elasticity at the University o...

  10. Relational description of the measurement process in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, Rodolfo; Porto, Rafael A.

    2002-01-01

    We have recently introduced a realistic, covariant, interpretation for the reduction process in relativistic quantum mechanics. The basic problem for a covariant description is the dependence of the states on the frame within which collapse takes place. A suitable use of the causal structure of the devices involved in the measurement process allowed us to introduce a covariant notion for the collapse of quantum states. However, a fully consistent description in the relativistic domain requires the extension of the interpretation to quantum fields. The extension is far from straightforward. Besides the obvious difficulty of dealing with the infinite degrees of freedom of the field theory, one has to analyse the restrictions imposed by causality concerning the allowed operations in a measurement process. In this paper we address these issues. We shall show that, in the case of partial causally connected measurements, our description allows us to include a wider class of causal operations than the one resulting from the standard way of computing conditional probabilities. This alternative description could be experimentally tested. A verification of this proposal would give stronger support to the realistic interpretations of the states in quantum mechanics. (author)

  11. Resolution of a cosmological paradox using concepts from general relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    According to the big bang theory, the universe began about 15 billion years ago and has been continually expanding ever since. If certain elementary physical concepts are naively applied to this cosmological theory, it can lead to a paradox in which distant astronomical objects seem to have lain at distances from the Earth larger than the possible size of the universe. The paradox is resolved by using concepts from general relativity theory. These concepts may appear startling to some readers

  12. Limit Formulae and Jump Relations of Potential Theory in Sobolev Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Raskop, Thomas; Grothaus, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this article we combine the modern theory of Sobolev spaces with the classical theory of limit formulae and jump relations of potential theory. Also other authors proved the convergence in Lebesgue spaces for integrable functions. The achievement of this paper is the L2 convergence for the weak derivatives of higher orders. Also the layer functions F are elements of Sobolev spaces and a two dimensional suitable smooth submanifold in R3, called regular Cm-surface. We are considering the pot...

  13. About the origins of the general theory of relativity: Einstein's search for the truth

    OpenAIRE

    Trainer, M.

    2005-01-01

    On the 20th June 1933 Professor Einstein addressed a large and enthusiastic audience in the Victorian Gothic Bute Hall of the University of Glasgow. Einstein spoke 'About the Origins of the General Theory of Relativity'. In 1905 Einstein had changed the face of physics forever with the publication of his radical new ideas on special relativity. His general theory of relativity was introduced to the world in 1915. However in 1933, Einstein faced another challenge—survival in a world of change....

  14. A rule of the equilibrium of forces in the Hermitian theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoci, S.

    1987-01-01

    When the behaviour of the singularities, which are used to represent masses, charges or currents in exact solutions to the field equations of the Hermitian theory of relativity, is restricted by a no-jump rule, conditions are obtained, which determine the relative positions of masses, charges and currents. Due to these conditions the Hermitian theory of relativity appears to provide a unified description of gravitational, colour and electromagnetic forces. (author)

  15. Einstein's relativity theory and its relevance to recent cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aichelburg, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Newtonian physics is based on absolute time and absolute space, simultaneity is unique and universal. In the Special Relativity the concept of absolute simultaneity is abandoned and time is dependent on the motion state. But both in Newtonian physics and Special Relativity time and space form a rigid background for the dynamics of matter. In General Relativity space and time are incorporated into the dynamics. The geometrical behaviour of bodies and the pace of clocks is dependent on space-time geometry which in turn is influenced by matter. In cosmology this mutual influence is driven to the extreme. Space-time is 'created together with matter'. Geometry is determined by the matter contained in the space. 14 refs., 5 figs. (Author, transl.)

  16. Reciprocal relations for transmission coefficients - Theory and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianmin; Achenbach, Jan D.; Roberts, Ronald A.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a rigorous proof of certain intuitively plausible reciprocal relations for time harmonic plane-wave transmission and reflection at the interface between a fluid and an anisotropic elastic solid. Precise forms of the reciprocity relations for the transmission coefficients and for the transmitted energy fluxes are derived, based on the reciprocity theorem of elastodynamics. It is shown that the reciprocity relations can be used in conjunction with measured values of peak amplitudes for transmission through a slab of the solid (water-solid-water) to obtain the water-solid coefficients. Experiments were performed for a slab of a unidirectional fiber-reinforced composite. Good agreement of the experimentally measured transmission coefficients with theoretical values was obtained.

  17. Survey on Dirac equation in general relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillere, P.

    1984-10-01

    Starting from an infinitesimal transformation expressed with a Killing vector and using systematically the formalism of the local tetrades, we show that, in the area of the general relativity, the Dirac equation may be formulated only versus the four local vectors which determine the gravitational potentials, their gradients and the 4-vector potential of the electromagnetic field [fr

  18. Projective interpretation of some doubly special relativity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafari, N.; Shariati, A.

    2011-01-01

    A class of projective actions of the orthogonal group on the projective space is being studied. It is shown that the Fock-Lorentz and Magueijo-Smolin transformations known as doubly special relativity are such transformations. The formalism easily leads to new types of transformations.

  19. Generalized virial relations and the theory of subdynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obcemea, Ch.; Froelich, P.; Braandas, E.J.

    1981-05-01

    In this paper, we discuss the implication of the generalized virial relations in the spectral analysis of Liouville operators. In particular, we refer to the existence problem of the analytic continuation of these super-operators and their resolvents occurring in the reduced dynamics description of open systems. For completeness, we outline the main ideas of the subdynamics approach. (author)

  20. Gauge theories, duality relations and the tensor hierarchy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hartong, Jelle; Hohm, Olaf; Huebscher, Mechthild; Ortin, Tomas; Hübscher, Mechthild

    We compute the complete 3- and 4-dimensional tensor hierarchies, i.e. sets of p-form fields, with 1 We construct gauge-invariant actions that include all the fields in the tensor hierarchies. We elucidate the relation between the gauge transformations of the p-form fields in the action and those of

  1. The general theory of relativity: the first thirty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar, S.

    1980-01-01

    The principal landmarks in the development of general relativity (exclusive of cosmology) during the first 30 years after its founding are presented. The emergence of the new gravitational laws, their experimental consequences and the consequent growth of the present concern with gravitational collapse and black holes are traced. (U.K.)

  2. Relation between entropy functional of Keizer and information theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freidkin, E.S.; Nettleton, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    An equation given by Keizer which relates the second-order functional derivative of the steady-state entropy to the inverse fluctuation correlation function is satisified by the information-theoretic entropy if the equation is extended to arbitrary nonequilibrium states

  3. The theory of relativity and super-light-speeds-I: Kinematical part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Shenglin.

    1987-05-01

    According to some local properties of Lorentz transformation, Einstein stated: ''Velocities greater than that of light have no possibility of existence''. He neglected to point out the applicable range of the special theory of relativity. In fact, it could only be applied to the sub-light-speed. This paper shows that if we think of the possibility of the existence of the super-light-speed and redescribe the special theory of relativity following Einstein's way, a new kinematical theory would be founded. The new theory would retain all kinematical meaning of the special theory of relativity when matters move with sub-light-speed and would give new content when matters move with super-light-speed. The paper also discusses the observation principle for the motions with the super-light-speed. (author). 2 refs, 1 fig

  4. Dual-process models of health-related behaviour and cognition: a review of theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, S

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this review was to synthesise a spectrum of theories incorporating dual-process models of health-related behaviour. Review of theory, adapted loosely from Cochrane-style systematic review methodology. Inclusion criteria were specified to identify all relevant dual-process models that explain decision-making in the context of decisions made about human health. Data analysis took the form of iterative template analysis (adapted from the conceptual synthesis framework used in other reviews of theory), and in this way theories were synthesised on the basis of shared theoretical constructs and causal pathways. Analysis and synthesis proceeded in turn, instead of moving uni-directionally from analysis of individual theories to synthesis of multiple theories. Namely, the reviewer considered and reconsidered individual theories and theoretical components in generating the narrative synthesis' main findings. Drawing on systematic review methodology, 11 electronic databases were searched for relevant dual-process theories. After de-duplication, 12,198 records remained. Screening of title and abstract led to the exclusion of 12,036 records, after which 162 full-text records were assessed. Of those, 21 records were included in the review. Moving back and forth between analysis of individual theories and the synthesis of theories grouped on the basis of theme or focus yielded additional insights into the orientation of a theory to an individual. Theories could be grouped in part on their treatment of an individual as an irrational actor, as social actor, as actor in a physical environment or as a self-regulated actor. Synthesising identified theories into a general dual-process model of health-related behaviour indicated that such behaviour is the result of both propositional and unconscious reasoning driven by an individual's response to internal cues (such as heuristics, attitude and affect), physical cues (social and physical environmental stimuli) as well as

  5. A generalized DEMATEL theory with a shrinkage coefficient for an indirect relation matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hsiang-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL theory with a shrinkage coefficient of indirect relation matrix is proposed, and a useful validity index, called Liu’s validity index, is also proposed for evaluating the performance of any DEMATEL model. If the shrinkage coefficient of an indirect relation matrix is equal to 1, then this new theory is identical to the traditional theory; in other words, it is a generalization of the traditional theory. Furthermore, the indirect relation is always considerably greater than the direct one in traditional DEMATEL theory, which is unreasonable and unfair because it overemphasizes the influence of the indirect relation. We prove in this paper that if the shrinkage coefficient is equal to 0.5, then the indirect relation is less than its direct relation. Because the shrinkage coefficient belongs to [0.5, 1], according to Liu’s validity index, we can find a more appropriate shrinkage coefficient to obtain a more efficient DEMATEL method. Some crucial properties of this new theory are discussed, and a simple example is provided to illustrate the advantages of the proposed theory.

  6. On a relation between massive Yang-Mills theories and dual string models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickelsson, J.

    1983-01-01

    The relations between mass terms in Yang-Mills theories, projective representations of the group of gauge transformations, boundary conditions on vector potentials and Schwinger terms in local charge algebra commutation relations are discussed. The commutation relations (with Schwinger terms) are similar to the current algebra commutation relations of the SU(N) extended dual string model. (orig.)

  7. Relations between moral reasoning, theory of mind and executive functions in children with autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, A.; Lampmann, S.A.; Altgassen, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate relations between moral reasoning, executive functioning and Theory of Mind in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared to typically developing children and to apply the dual aspect theory of Lind (1978, 2008) to moral reasoning in

  8. Understanding Nature-Related Behaviors among Children through a Theory of Reasoned Action Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotch, Chad; Hall, Troy

    2004-01-01

    The Theory of Reasoned Action has proven to be a valuable tool for predicting and understanding behavior and, as such, provides a potentially important basis for environmental education program design. This study used a Theory of Reasoned Action approach to examine a unique type of behavior (nature-related activities) and a unique population…

  9. Trust in regulatory relations: how new insights from trust research improve regulation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Six, F.E.

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory oversight is a key feature of public governance. This study argues - based on recent trust research - that the way in which the relation between trust and control is conceptualized in the dominant responsive regulation theory (RRT) may be improved using self determination theory (SDT).

  10. Short Cuts and Extended Techniques: Rethinking Relations between Technology and Educational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumlert, Kurt; de Castell, Suzanne; Jenson, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Building upon a recent call to renew actor-network theory (ANT) for educational research, this article reconsiders relations between technology and educational theory. Taking cues from actor-network theorists, this discussion considers the technologically-mediated networks in which learning actors are situated, acted upon, and acting, and traces…

  11. Relativity theory (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1970--1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grooms, D.W.

    1976-03-01

    Research studies are presented on special and general relativity. Gravitational theory, field theory, and space--time studies are included as are studies involving the Minkowski space, the Schrodinger equations, the Dirac equations, and the Lorentz transformations. (This updated bibliography contains 136 abstracts, 4 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  12. THE EVOLUTION OF CURRENCY RELATIONS IN THE LIGHT OF MAJOR EXCHANGE RATE ADJUSTMENT THEORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy TKACH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of major exchange rate adjustment theories on the global monetary system. The reasons of the previous organization forms of monetary relations collapse at the global level are defined. The main achievements and failures of major exchange rate theories are described.

  13. Indefinite-metric quantum field theory of general relativity, 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Noboru

    1982-01-01

    In the manifestly covariant canonical formalism of quantum gravity, it is known that the equal-time commutator between a tensor field and the B field b sub(rho) is consistent with the rules of tensor analysis. Another tensorlike commutation relation is shown to exist for the equal-time commutator between a tensor and b sub(rho), but at the same time its limitation is clarified. The quantum-gravity extension of the invariant D function is defined and provied to be affine-invariant. The four-dimensional commutation relation between a tensor and b sub(rho) is investigated, and it is shown that the commutator consists of a completely tensorlike, manifestly affine-covariant part and a remainder, which is clearly distinguishable from the former. (author)

  14. Dirichlet and Related Distributions Theory, Methods and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Kai Wang; Tang, Man-Lai

    2011-01-01

    The Dirichlet distribution appears in many areas of application, which include modelling of compositional data, Bayesian analysis, statistical genetics, and nonparametric inference. This book provides a comprehensive review of the Dirichlet distribution and two extended versions, the Grouped Dirichlet Distribution (GDD) and the Nested Dirichlet Distribution (NDD), arising from likelihood and Bayesian analysis of incomplete categorical data and survey data with non-response. The theoretical properties and applications are also reviewed in detail for other related distributions, such as the inve

  15. Ethical Selves : A Sketch for a Theory of Relational Authenticity

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Philosophers who show interest in authenticity tend to narrowly focus on its capacity to help people evade conformity and affirm individuality, a simplistic reduction that neglects authenticity’s moral potential and gives credence to the many critics who dismiss it as a euphemism for excessive individualism. Yet when conceived relationally, authenticity can also allow for worthy human flourishing without falling prey to conformity’s opposite extreme—egoism. This essay proposes a sketch for a ...

  16. The theory behind the age-related positivity effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E Reed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The positivity effect refers to an age-related trend that favors positive over negative stimuli in cognitive processing. Relative to their younger counterparts, older people attend to and remember more positive than negative information. Since the effect was initially identified and the conceptual basis articulated (Mather & Carstensen, 2005 scores of independent replications and related findings have appeared in the literature. Over the same period, a number of investigations have failed to observe age differences in the cognitive processing of emotional material. When findings are considered in theoretical context, a reliable pattern of evidence emerges that helps to refine conceptual tenets. In this article we articulate the operational definition and theoretical foundations of the positivity effect and review the empirical evidence based on studies of visual attention, memory, decision-making, and neural activation. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions with emphasis on the conditions where a focus on positive information may benefit and/or impair cognitive performance in older people.

  17. Relativity, Symmetry, and the Structure of Quantum Theory, Volume 2; Point form relativistic quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, William H.; Schweiger, Wolfgang

    2018-03-01

    This book covers relativistic quantum theory from the point of view of a particle theory, based on the irreducible representations of the Poincaré group, the group that expresses the symmetry of Einstein relativity. There are several ways of formulating such a theory; this book develops what is called relativistic point form quantum mechanics, which, unlike quantum field theory, deals with a fixed number of particles in a relativistically invariant way. A chapter is devoted to applications of point form quantum mechanics to nuclear physics.

  18. Cosmological term in general relativity theory and localization of de Sitter and Einstein groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunyak, V.N.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of gauge gravitational field with the de Sitter group localization is formulated. proceeding from the de Sitter Universe tetrad components the relationship between Riemann metrics and de Sitter gauge field is established. It is shown that General relativity theory (GRT) with a cosmological term is the simplest variant of the de Sitter gauge gravitation theory passing in the limit of infinite curvature radius of the de Sitter Universe into the Poincare - invariant GRT without cosmological term. Similarly the theory of gauge gravitational field at localization of the dynamical group of the Einstein homogeneous static Universe (Einstein group RxSO(4)) is formulated

  19. A superconducting gyroscope to test Einstein's general theory of relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, C. W. F.

    1978-01-01

    Schiff (1960) proposed a new test of general relativity based on measuring the precessions of the spin axes of gyroscopes in earth orbit. Since 1963 a Stanford research team has been developing an experiment to measure the two effects calculated by Schiff. The gyroscope consists of a uniform sphere of fused quartz 38 mm in diameter, coated with superconductor, electrically suspended and spinning at about 170 Hz in vacuum. The paper describes the proposed flight apparatus and the current state of development of the gyroscope, including techniques for manufacturing and measuring the gyro rotor and housing, generating ultralow magnetic fields, and mechanizing the readout.

  20. Incompatibility of the quantum and relativity theories and a possible resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the conceptual bases of the quantum theory and the theory of relativity, each considered as fundamental theories of elementary matter. From a study of the irreducible axiomatic bases of these respective approaches to elementary matter, it is concluded that they cannot peacefully co-exist because of logical incompatibility. Among the reasons discussed for this conclusion, one is the implication of the Hamiltonian form of quantum mechanics yielding an irreducible absolute frame of reference - that of the measuring apparatus - in the basic expression for the laws of elementary particles. This difficulty leads to logical inconsistency as well as a formulation of relativistic quantum field theory that is not demonstrably mathematically consistent. In spite of their logical incompatiability, it is argued that each of these theories logically requires the other, within its own framework. The conclusion is reached that, to make further progress in our understanding of elementary matter, it is necessary to abandon the axiomatic basis of one of these theories for the other, while keeping the formal structure of the abandoned theory as an accurate mathematical approximation (under special physical conditions) for a generalized form of the retained theory. An argument is presented for the author's retention of the theory of relativity as an authentic basis of elementary matter, and how its generalization is achieved by incorporating a fully (generally) covariant expression of the inertial manifestations of matter with its force manifestations

  1. Does Social Value Orientation Theory Apply to Social Relations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Danielle Lewis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research asks whether Social Value Orientations (SVOs apply to the social relations of exchange networks. SVO literature identifies three types of orientation to rational action, determined by how actors value outcomes to self and other. Only the individualist is the self-interested, rational actor previously seen in exchange networks. The prosocial actor seeks to maximize joint outcomes and equality whereas the competitor seeks to maximize differences between self and other. The competitor and individualist are frequently collapsed into a proself type. Whereas SVO research has focused on games and social dilemmas, this research places prosocials and proselfs in equal, weak, and strong power exchange structures. We show that, if SVO applies, the behaviors of proself and prosocial will be very different. Experimental results demonstrate, however, that prosocials’ actions in exchanges are indistinguishable from activities of proselfs.

  2. Time Is Brain: The Stroke Theory of Relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Camilo R

    2018-04-25

    Since the introduction of the philosophical tenet "Time is Brain!," multiple lines of research have demonstrated that other factors contribute to the degree of ischemic injury at any one point in time, and it is now clear that the therapeutic window of acute ischemic stroke is more protracted than it was first suspected. To define a more realistic relationship between time and the ischemic process, we used computational modeling to assess how these 2 variables are affected by collateral circulatory competence. Starting from the premise that the expression "Time=Brain" is mathematically false, we reviewed the existing literature on the attributes of cerebral ischemia over time, with particular attention to relevant clinical parameters, and the effect of different variables, particularly collateral circulation, on the time-ischemia relationship. We used this information to construct a theoretical computational model and applied it to categorically different yet abnormal cerebral perfusion scenarios, allowing comparison of their behavior both overall (i.e., final infarct volume) and in real-time (i.e., instantaneous infarct growth rate). Optimal collateral circulatory competence was predictably associated with slower infarct growth rates and prolongation of therapeutic window. Modeling of identifiable specific types of perfusion maps allows forecasting of the fate of the ischemic process over time. Distinct cerebral perfusion map patterns can be readily identified in patients with acute ischemic stroke. These patterns have inherently different behaviors relative to the time-ischemia construct, allowing the possibility of improving parsing and treatment allocation. It is clearly evident that the effect of time on the ischemic process is relative. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The theory of interpersonal relations applied to the preceptor-new graduate relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Georgita T

    2013-01-01

    This article presents research results applying Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations to the preceptor-new graduate relationship and describes implications for successful transition. These results will help nursing professional development educators with more appropriate preparation and assignment of preceptors.

  4. Why are predictions of general relativity theory for gravitational effects non-unique?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loskutov, Yu.M.

    1990-01-01

    Reasons of non-uniqueness of predictions of the general relativity theory (GRT) for gravitational effects are analyzed in detail. To authors' opinion, the absence of comparison mechanism of curved and plane metrics is the reason of non-uniqueness

  5. Misconceptions in recent papers on special relativity and absolute space theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torr, D. G.; Kolen, P.

    1982-01-01

    Several recent papers which purport to substantiate or negate arguments in favor of certain theories of absolute space have been based on fallacious principles. This paper discusses three related instances, indicating where misconceptions have arisen. It is established, contrary to popular belief, that the classical Lorentz ether theory accounts for all the experimental evidence which supports the special theory of relativity. It is demonstrated that the ether theory predicts the null results obtained from pulsar timing and Moessbauer experiments. It is concluded that a measurement of the one-way velocity of light has physical meaning within the context of the Lorentz theory, and it is argued that an adequately designed experiment to measure the one-way velocity of light should be attempted.

  6. Social capital theory related to corporate social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Abramuszkinová Pavlíková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with corporate social responsibility and its relationship to strategic management dealing with acquisition, development and utilisation of essential inputs. They influence the design of processes related to the creation of products or services that satisfy customers’ needs. Authors claim that the successful securing, deployment and development of any input is of human origin or linked to human activity which means that the nature of relationships plays a crucial role. As businesses are not isolated, they operate on a global scale where the question of trust is very important. The concept of social capital stresses that trust in norms and reciprocity facilitate increased productivity in individuals, teams and organisations. Social capital promotes value-added collaboration including on-going and demonstrative transparency which can secure closer bonding among those group members. Business responsibility, CSR and Putnam’s definition of social capital is shown on real case studies as a sign of importance for credibility and effectiveness of any CSR efforts. It is evident that the good will and support garnered from CSR can be fragile and easily damaged.

  7. The second postulate of Einstein's theory of special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMorris, M.N.

    1979-01-01

    This paper argues that Einstein in his original publication on special relativity uses two separate principles concerning the velocity of light: (i) its value, c(s), is independent of the motion of its source; (ii) its value, c(o), is independent of the motion of the observer. Where commentators have not been plainly ignorant of the existence of both principles in Einstein's work, they have been uncertain as to which one should be put forward. Uncertainty has arisen in the literature because Einstein occassionally uses constant velocity of light without any qualification. This paper sets out specifically to clear up the uncertainty as to whether c(s) or c(o) is being referred to in the early sections. It is established that c(s) is used right up to the middle of the third section, when c(o) is introduced for the first time. The paper also emphasises that there was no need to introduce c(o) before this point. It clarifies another (neglected) point also, that in so far as Einstein uses c(s), this constancy of the wave propagation is not peculiar to light; but in so far as he uses c(o) it is. The occassion is also taken to point out a contradiction and a logical infelicity occurring in Einstein's paper. The intention here is to show that Einstein's original oaper, at least up to the derivation of the Lorentz transformation equations, was not as satisfactory as it could have been. (auth.)

  8. Formal scattering theory approach to S-matrix relations in supersymmetric quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, R.D.; Cannata, F.; Dedonder, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Combining the methods of scattering theory and supersymmetric quantum mechanics we obtain relations between the S matrix and its supersymmetric partner. These relations involve only asymptotic quantities and do not require knowledge of the dynamical details. For example, for coupled channels with no threshold differences the relations involve the asymptotic normalization constant of the bound state removed by supersymmetry

  9. A universal nonlinear relation among boundary states in closed string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Isao; Matsuo, Yutaka; Watanabe, Eitoku

    2004-01-01

    We show that the boundary states satisfy a nonlinear relation (the idempotency equation) with respect to the star product of closed string field theory. This relation is universal in the sense that various D-branes, including the infinitesimally deformed ones, satisfy the same equation, including the coefficient. This paper generalizes our analysis [hep-th/0306189] in the following senses. (1) We present a background-independent formulation based on conformal field theory. It illuminates the geometric nature of the relation and allows us to more systematically analyze the variations around the D-brane background. (2) We show that the Witten-type star product satisfies a similar relation but with a more divergent coefficient. (3) We determine the coefficient of the relation analytically. The result shows that the α parameter can be formally factored out, and the relation becomes universal. We present a conjecture on vacuum theory based on this computation. (author)

  10. The curious relation between theory of mind and sharing in preschool age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Jason M; Samek, Anya; List, John; Decety, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Young children have long been known to act selfishly and gradually appear to become more generous across middle childhood. While this apparent change has been well documented, the underlying mechanisms supporting this remain unclear. The current study examined the role of early theory of mind and executive functioning in facilitating sharing in a large sample (N = 98) of preschoolers. Results reveal a curious relation between early false-belief understanding and sharing behavior. Contrary to many commonsense notions and predominant theories, competence in this ability is actually related to less sharing. Thus, the relation between developing theory of mind and sharing may not be as straightforward as it seems in preschool age children. It is precisely the children who can engage in theory of mind that decide to share less with others.

  11. The role of theory of international relations in explicating global political events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Bardhok Bashota

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is rather obvious that different developments in the international relations scene are so dynamic that a theory of international relations cannot elaborate alone the ways they begin, develop and eventually end. Therefore, one must underline that using a theoretical framework of wi-der extent becomes almost indispensable. In this sense, one must underli-ne that IR theories are paths or means used by scholars to provide expla-nation on these developments. Among numerous IR theories, those app-lied the most are the three key ones: liberalism, realism and rationalism. These three theories, depending on the manner and logic of approach and effort in trying to elaborate an IR event, they gain labels in a specific form, for instance – positivist theories. They are called positivist, because they aim to pursue the example of natural science to be more accurate in their work, at least in a metaphorical sense. Therefore, the contents of this paper provide an example of physics, to adapt to the nature of theory elaborated herein. The reason and objective of this paper is to argue our thesis that “li-beral theory alone cannot elaborate on all IR developments, and more theories are required”. The two other theories, realism and ratio-nalism help build a more wholesome understanding of IR developments. Also, the two other theories are used to support or counter the arguments of liberals and liberalism in relation to interpretation, explication and forecast of IR developments, which are tasks of an IR theory. This research is realized in a temporal context of post Cold War. This period is more suitable for study, and has attracted our interest. Otherwise, the three theoretical traditions had existed even before, and any effort to elaborate in details would be historical. Also, the focus in only three main IR theories, Liberalism, Realism and Rationalism, narrow down the field of study and make it more tangible. Nevertheless, to have an easier job in

  12. Comparison of relativity theories with observer-independent scales of both velocity and length/mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Benedetti, Dario; D'Andrea, Francesco; Procaccini, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    We consider the two most studied proposals of relativity theories with observer-independent scales of both velocity and length/mass: the one discussed by Amelino-Camelia as an illustrative example for the original proposal (Preprint gr-qc/0012051) of theories with two relativistic invariants, and an alternative more recently proposed by Magueijo and Smolin (Preprint hep-th/0112090). We show that these two relativistic theories are much more closely connected than it would appear on the basis of a naive analysis of their original formulations. In particular, in spite of adopting a rather different formal description of the deformed boost generators, they end up assigning the same dependence of momentum on rapidity, which can be described as the core feature of these relativistic theories. We show that this observation can be used to clarify the concepts of particle mass, particle velocity and energy-momentum conservation rules in these theories with two relativistic invariants

  13. Minimally modified theories of gravity: a playground for testing the uniqueness of general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo-Rubio, Ra{úl; Di Filippo, Francesco; Liberati, Stefano

    2018-06-01

    In a recent paper [1], it was introduced a new class of gravitational theories with two local degrees of freedom. The existence of these theories apparently challenges the distinctive role of general relativity as the unique non-linear theory of massless spin-2 particles. Here we perform a comprehensive analysis of these theories with the aim of (i) understanding whether or not these are actually equivalent to general relativity, and (ii) finding the root of the variance in case these are not. We have found that a broad set of seemingly different theories actually pass all the possible tests of equivalence to general relativity (in vacuum) that we were able to devise, including the analysis of scattering amplitudes using on-shell techniques. These results are complemented with the observation that the only examples which are manifestly not equivalent to general relativity either do not contain gravitons in their spectrum, or are not guaranteed to include only two local degrees of freedom once radiative corrections are taken into account. Coupling to matter is also considered: we show that coupling these theories to matter in a consistent way is not as straightforward as one could expect. Minimal coupling, as well as the most straightforward non-minimal couplings, cannot be used. Therefore, before being able to address any issues in the presence of matter, it would be necessary to find a consistent (and in any case rather peculiar) coupling scheme.

  14. THE EVOLUTION OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT THEORIES: HOW CAN INSTITUTIONS RELATE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Bényei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Theories of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI have evolved over the past few decades. There are theories which try to explain the motivation behind investments, and there are others to explain why companies go abroad. To understand the motivations of firms in today’s economic environment, we have to trace the evolution of these theories. At first, researchers tried to explain capital movements with trade theories. However, because of the strict conditionality, they only explained a small part of FDI. To extend the validity of the models, researchers started to examine investments from the firms’ point of view. The models evolved from Vernon’s product life cycle model, through Hymer’s monopolistic advantage model, to Dunning’s eclectic theory. These firm-based theories highlighted the importance of entrepreneurs. Dunning’s theory includes the statements which featured in previous models. We can find monopolistic advantage, localization and internalization models in this argument. This study is an attempt to relate the issue of FDI to institutions. There is a rapidly growing literature on the subject of new institutional economics, which indicates that the effect of institutions can appear in any economic situation. These effects can be shown in Dunning’s theory, too. The consensus view seems to be that institutions play a significant role in ownership, in localization and in internalization advantages. Consequently, we can find them in the other models, too. The purpose of this paper is to ident

  15. Moral judgment and its relation to second-order theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Genyue; Xiao, Wen S; Killen, Melanie; Lee, Kang

    2014-08-01

    Recent research indicates that moral judgment and 1st-order theory of mind abilities are related. What is not known, however, is how 2nd-order theory of mind is related to moral judgment. In the present study, we extended previous findings by administering a morally relevant theory of mind task (an accidental transgressor) to 4- to 7-year-old Chinese children (N = 79) and analyzing connections with 2nd-order theory of mind understanding. Using hierarchical multiple regression analyses, we found that above and beyond age, children's 1st-order theory of mind and 2nd-order theory of mind each significantly and uniquely contributed to children's moral evaluations of the intention in the accidental transgression. These findings highlight the important roles that 1st- and 2nd-order theory of mind play in leading children to make appropriate moral judgments based on an actor's intention in a social situation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Relative energy for the Korteweg theory and related Hamiltonian flows in gas dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Giesselmann, Jan; Lattanzio, Corrado; Tzavaras, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    For an Euler system, with dynamics generated by a potential energy functional, we propose a functional format for the relative energy and derive a relative energy identity. The latter, when applied to specific energies, yields relative energy

  17. Plane symmetric cosmological micro model in modified theory of Einstein’s general relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panigrahi U.K.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated an anisotropic homogeneous plane symmetric cosmological micro-model in the presence of massless scalar field in modified theory of Einstein's general relativity. Some interesting physical and geometrical aspects of the model together with singularity in the model are discussed. Further, it is shown that this theory is valid and leads to Ein­stein's theory as the coupling parameter λ →>• 0 in micro (i.e. quantum level in general.

  18. Freud's superpotential in general relativity and in Einstein-Cartan theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhmer, Christian G.; Hehl, Friedrich W.

    2018-02-01

    The identification of a suitable gravitational energy in theories of gravity has a long history, and it is well known that a unique answer cannot be given. In the first part of this paper we present a streamlined version of the derivation of Freud's superpotential in general relativity. It is found if we once integrate the gravitational field equation by parts. This allows us to extend these results directly to the Einstein-Cartan theory. Interestingly, Freud's original expression, first stated in 1939, remains valid even when considering gravitational theories in Riemann-Cartan or, more generally, in metric-affine spacetimes.

  19. Running head: Relative judgment. When the relative judgment theory proved to be false

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A commonly accepted theory is that when witnesses can identify culprits in lineups, they will concentrate on him. On the other hand, when they cannot they compare between lineup members and choose the person most similar to the culprit. Therefore they will divide their gaze more equally between foils. An eye tracker was used with a 48-person lineup (four screens with twelve photos in each in an attempt to demonstrate the superiority of gaze behavior over the verbal response. Surprisingly witnesses usually concentrated on some foil as much as they did on the target. Alternate theories are required to explain the reduction of false identifications in sequential lineups. The advantage of large lineups was demonstrated. Police may use them in conjunction with eye trackers to find culprits that witnesses focus on despite saying that they are absent, the only known method to increase correct identifications.

  20. Least action principle with unilateral constraints on the velocity in the special theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaquiere, Augustin

    1981-01-01

    A least action principle with unilateral constraints on the velocity is applied to an example in the area of the special theory of relativity. Equations obtained for a particle with non-zero rest-mass, and speed c the speed of light, are those which are usually associated with the photon, namely: the equation of eikonale and the wave equation of d'Alembert. Extension of the theory [fr

  1. International organizations as corporate actors: Agency and emergence in theories of international relations

    OpenAIRE

    Maier-Rigaud, Remi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the implicit and explicit conceptualizations of international organizations found in the three major theories of international relations are outlined and compared. It turns out that in a neorealist framework, international organizations can be explained; however, they exhibit no autonomy and cannot therefore be conceptualized as a corporate actor. Principally, the same applies to rational choice institutionalism, although limited autonomy is conceivable. Both theories are reduc...

  2. Theory of International Relations In The Mirror of Contemporary Russian International Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Marina M. Lebedeva; Maxim V. Harkevich

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the evolution of Western theories of international relations in the postSoviet Russia, it analyzes the world view of Russian international scholars, as well as their reflection on the epistemological foundations of the probable Russian IR school. It states that pluralization of theoretical approaches continues in Russia, while liberalism is gradually givingup to realism on the way to the dominant theory. Constructivism is gaining popularity and postmodernism remains wit...

  3. 4-dimensional General Relativity from the instrinsic spatial geometry of SO(3) Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ita, Eyo Eyo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we derive 4-dimensional General Relativity from three dimensions, using the intrinsic spatial geometry inherent in Yang-Mills theory which has been exposed by previous authors as well as some properties of the Ashtekar variables. We provide various interesting relations, including the fact that General Relativity can be written as a Yang-Mills theory where the antiself-dual Weyl curvature replaces the Yang-Mills coupling constant. We have generalized the results of some previous authors, covering Einstein's spaces, to include more general spacetime geometries.

  4. On the histories of relativity. The propagation and elaboration of relativity theory in participant histories in Germany, 1905 - 1911.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, R.

    1998-06-01

    This essay explores the history and historiography of relativity through a study of the earliest, participant, histories of the subject. The author argues that participant histories from Einstein, Planck, Minkowski, and others provided an important means of shaping understandings of relativity - at a time when the theory was subject to major controversy and debate. One feature of the study is thus a detailed investigation of the use of historical resources in scientific research. Second, the accounts discussed provide a means of surveying the development of relativity in Germany. The study offers a new perspective on the complex process through which a plurality of approaches - many relativities with many histories - could become singular - one theory, one history - and through which the work of Einstein came to be sharply distinguished from that of others.

  5. The environmental design of children- nature relations: some strands of applicative theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin C. Moore

    1977-01-01

    A brief framework for children-environment relations, focused on 8- to 12-year-olds and their natural environment, is based on the principles of maturation and Gestalt therapy. The concepts of "quality" and "place" are discussed. A comprehensive ecological framework is proposed, relating theory to the material resources used in place-making,...

  6. Progress in Research and Theory: Eleven Years of International Public Relations Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, W. Timothy

    Public relations has been caught up in the drive to internationalize business. Organizations are now dealing with global constituencies on a more frequent basis, which increases the demand for international public relations. One concern raised by this development is whether or not theory and research are keeping pace with the international needs…

  7. The existence of superluminal particles is consistent with the kinematics of Einstein's special theory of relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Székely, Gergely

    2012-01-01

    Within an axiomatic framework of kinematics, we prove that the existence of faster than light particles is logically independent of Einstein's special theory of relativity. Consequently, it is consistent with the kinematics of special relativity that there might be faster than light particles.

  8. Interactive Links between Relational Aggression, Theory of Mind, and Moral Disengagement among Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Voulgaridou, Ioanna; Mandrali, Marianna; Parousidou, Chrysoula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible interactive links between theory of mind (ToM), moral disengagement and relational aggression, using a moderated mediation analysis, with gender as a moderator, in a sample of 120 Greek preadolescents. Results indicated that relational aggression was significantly positively associated with moral…

  9. Public Relations as "Practice": Applying the Theory of Alasdair MacIntyre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, Roy V.; Leeper, Kathie A.

    2001-01-01

    Considers how public relation's search for a unifying theory may be fulfilled through application of Alasdair MacIntyre's concept of a "practice," a very specific and value-laden concept. Explores what it would mean to be a public relations practice in MacIntyre's concept of the term and argues that such an approach to public relations…

  10. General relativity the most beautiful of theories : applications and trends after 100 years

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Generalising Newton's law of gravitation, general relativity is one of the pillars of modern physics. On the occasion of general relativity's centennial, leading scientists in the different branches of gravitational research review the history and recent advances in the main fields of applications of the theory, which was referred to by Lev Landau as “the most beautiful of the existing physical theories”.

  11. Understanding work-related social media use: An extension of theory of planned behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoonen, W.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.; Elving, W.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the motives of employees to engage in work related social media use - i.e. the use of personal social media accounts to communicate about work-related issues. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to explain this behavior. Because social media can enable users to express

  12. Using Relational-Cultural Theory to Conceptualize Couple Interventions in the Treatment of Sex Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Joanne E.

    2007-01-01

    Sex addictions have become an increasing concern since the growth of the sex industry, sex in advertising, and the ease of Internet access to sex. This article uses the foundational principles of Relational-Cultural Theory (RCT) to conceptualize sexual addiction and its relational impact. Particular attention is paid to the principles of…

  13. On the reciprocity-like relations in linear neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modak, R.S.; Sahni, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    The existence of certain reciprocity-like relations in neutron transport theory was shown earlier under some quite restrictive conditions. Here, these relations are shown to be valid in more general situations by using a different approach based on individual neutron trajectories. (author)

  14. Children's Theory of Mind, Self-Perceptions, and Peer Relations: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosacki, Sandra Leanne

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored Theory of Mind (ToM), self-perceptions, and teacher ratings of peer relations of 91 children (52 females, ages 6-8?years) drawn from two schools situated in a mainly Euro-Canadian, middle socioeconomic status, semi-rural central Canadian context. ToM, self-perceptions, and teacher ratings of peer relations were…

  15. Association of theory of mind with social relations and child's social competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuša Skubic

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews and evaluates the findings from the research in the field of theory of mind; how the theory of mind is connected to social relationships and how a child's social competence reflects his/hers theory of mind. It points to those factors that contribute most to considerable individual differences among children when developing a theory of mind and it stresses out the reciprocity of effects between child's social understanding and social relations with others. Positive factors for developing a theory of mind are first of all child's early quality experiences about mental states which predict a child's performance on the false belief test later on. Social-economic status, parental behavior and talk (for example appropriate use of mental states and appropriate disciplining of a child and presence of sibling of appropriate age (usually older one with whom a child develops a quality relationship are most important family factors for theory of mind development. The role of peers is most important factor outside the family, emphasized by studies. In accordance with these factors a child develops more or less successfully his/hers social understanding which plays an important part in his/hers daily life. Children with well developed theory of mind can use it in a pro-social way, or it can serve proactive or reactive aggression when children use their understanding of others as a way of manipulating and bullying, especially inside their peer group. Poorly developed theory of mind can prove to be a risk factor especially in a bad family situation, while a well developed theory of mind can play a protective role in child's development. The article points out some of the deficiencies of reviewed studies and proposes options for more complex future research of child's theory of mind.

  16. Convergence of scalar-tensor theories towards general relativity and primordial nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serna, A; Alimi, J-M; Navarro, A

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the conditions for convergence towards general relativity of scalar-tensor gravity theories defined by an arbitrary coupling function α (in the Einstein frame). We show that, in general, the evolution of the scalar field (φ) is governed by two opposite mechanisms: an attraction mechanism which tends to drive scalar-tensor models towards Einstein's theory, and a repulsion mechanism which has the contrary effect. The attraction mechanism dominates the recent epochs of the universe evolution if, and only if, the scalar field and its derivative satisfy certain boundary conditions. Since these conditions for convergence towards general relativity depend on the particular scalar-tensor theory used to describe the universe evolution, the nucleosynthesis bounds on the present value of the coupling function, α 0 , strongly differ from some theories to others. For example, in theories defined by α ∝ |φ| analytical estimates lead to very stringent nucleosynthesis bounds on α 0 (∼ -19 ). By contrast, in scalar-tensor theories defined by α ∝ φ much larger limits on α 0 (∼ -7 ) are found

  17. Convergence of scalar-tensor theories towards general relativity and primordial nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serna, A [Dept. Fisica y Computacion, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, E03202-Elche (Spain); Alimi, J-M [LAEC, CNRS-UMR 8631, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, F92195-Meudon (France); Navarro, A [Dept. Fisica, Universidad de Murcia, E30071-Murcia (Spain)

    2002-03-07

    In this paper, we analyse the conditions for convergence towards general relativity of scalar-tensor gravity theories defined by an arbitrary coupling function {alpha} (in the Einstein frame). We show that, in general, the evolution of the scalar field ({phi}) is governed by two opposite mechanisms: an attraction mechanism which tends to drive scalar-tensor models towards Einstein's theory, and a repulsion mechanism which has the contrary effect. The attraction mechanism dominates the recent epochs of the universe evolution if, and only if, the scalar field and its derivative satisfy certain boundary conditions. Since these conditions for convergence towards general relativity depend on the particular scalar-tensor theory used to describe the universe evolution, the nucleosynthesis bounds on the present value of the coupling function, {alpha}{sub 0}, strongly differ from some theories to others. For example, in theories defined by {alpha} {proportional_to} |{phi}| analytical estimates lead to very stringent nucleosynthesis bounds on {alpha}{sub 0}({approx}<10{sup -19}). By contrast, in scalar-tensor theories defined by {alpha} {proportional_to} {phi} much larger limits on {alpha}{sub 0}({approx}<10{sup -7}) are found.

  18. The Relation Between Policies Concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Philosophical Moral Theories - An Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Claus Strue

    2010-01-01

    philosophical moral theories and the ethical content of business activities have mainly concentrated on the ethical decision-making of managers. Some of the most prominent investigations in that regard propose that managers mainly act in accordance with utilitarian moral theory (Fritzsche, D. J. and H. Becker......: 1984, Academy of Management Journal27(1), 166–175; Premeaux, S. and W. Mony: 1993, Journal of Business Ethics12, 349–357; Premeaux, S.: 2004, Journal of Business Ethics52, 269–278). I conclude that CSR policies are not based on utilitarian thinking, but instead, on some kind of common-sense morality......This article examines the relation between policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and philosophical moral theories. The objective is to determine which moral theories form the basis for CSR policies. Are they based on ethical egoism, libertarianism, utilitarianism or some kind...

  19. Two-colour QCD at finite fundamental quark-number density and related theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hands, S.J.; Kogut, J.B.; Morrison, S.E.; Sinclair, D.K.

    2001-01-01

    We are simulating SU(2) Yang-Mills theory with four flavours of dynamical quarks in the fundamental representation of SU(2) 'colour' at finite chemical potential, μ for quark number, as a model for QCD at finite baryon number density. In particular we observe that for μ large enough this theory undergoes a phase transition to a state with a diquark condensate which breaks quark-number symmetry. In this phase we examine the spectrum of light scalar and pseudoscalar bosons and see evidence for the Goldstone boson associated with this spontaneous symmetry breaking. This theory is closely related to QCD at finite chemical potential for isospin, a theory which we are now studying for SU(3) colour

  20. Two-colour QCD at finite fundamental quark-number density and related theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hands, S. J.; Kogut, J. B.; Morrison, S. E.; Sinclair, D. K.

    2000-01-01

    We are simulating SU(2) Yang-Mills theory with four flavours of dynamical quarks in the fundamental representation of SU(2) colour at finite chemical potential, p for quark number, as a model for QCD at finite baryon number density. In particular we observe that for p large enough this theory undergoes a phase transition to a state with a diquark condensate which breaks quark-number symmetry. In this phase we examine the spectrum of light scalar and pseudoscalar bosons and see evidence for the Goldstone boson associated with this spontaneous symmetry breaking. This theory is closely related to QCD at finite chemical potential for isospin, a theory which we are now studying for SU(3) colour

  1. Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations: An Alternate Factor Structure for Patient Experience Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, Thomas A; Samuels, William; Norcini-Pala, Andrea; Gigliotti, Eileen

    2017-04-01

    A confirmatory factor analysis of data from the responses of 12,436 patients to 16 items on the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems-Hospital survey was used to test a latent factor structure based on Peplau's middle-range theory of interpersonal relations. A two-factor model based on Peplau's theory fit these data well, whereas a three-factor model also based on Peplau's theory fit them excellently and provided a suitable alternate factor structure for the data. Though neither the two- nor three-factor model fit as well as the original factor structure, these results support using Peplau's theory to demonstrate nursing's extensive contribution to the experiences of hospitalized patients.

  2. Skein relations and Wilson loops in Chern-Simons gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    We derive the skein relations for the fundamental representations of SO(N), Sp(2n), SU(mvertical stroken), and OSp(mvertical stroke2n). These relations can be used recursively to calculate the expectation values of Wilson lines in three-dimensional Chern-Simons gauge theory with these gauge groups. A combination of braiding and tying of Wilson lines completely describes the skein relations. (orig.)

  3. Dreams of a final theory: the failed electromagnetic unification and the origins of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battimelli, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    At the end of the 19th century, efforts were made by several researchers to build up a unified foundation for the whole of physics, grounded solely on electromagnetism. Some of the concepts usually associated with relativity were actually born in this context, before 1905. The main features of these pre-Einsteinian theories are briefly presented, and their interaction with relativity is discussed, by virtue of which ideas originated in a largely different frame were adapted and somehow incorporated into the new theory

  4. The impact of Einsteinian relativity and quantum physics theories on conceptualizations of the self in psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechberger, Elke Ruth

    1999-11-01

    Prior to the 1600s c.e., the church was the final authority for theories about the universe and humanity's role within it. However, when the mathematical theories put forth by scientists such as Copernicus and Galileo refuted traditional theological explanations about the cosmos, a shift to science as the premiere authority for theories was established, a tradition which continues to this day. In the following century, the work of Newton set forth a theory of the universe operating as a machine, where all things were potentially knowable, measurable, and predictable. His mechanistic hypotheses helped substantiate a corollary philosophy known as modernism. In the early 1900s, Einstein's theories about light and relativity began to indicate a universe significantly less absolute. His work set the stage for the development of quantum physics theories, whose hallmarks are probability, uncertainty, and complementarity. Quantum physics theories helped substantiate the philosophy known as postmodernism, where truth is nonexistent, reality is a subjectively constructed phenomenon, and the concept of an individual self is considered an illusion. Given that developments in physics have had profound impact across academic disciplines, including psychology, this study examine the effect of major revolutions in physics to corollary developments in theories about the self in psychology. It is the assertion of this work that modernist conceptualization of the self is one that is highly individualistic and defined in mechanistic terms, whereas the postmodern conceptualization of the self is significantly more socially constructed and has more interpersonally fluid, amorphous boundaries. Implications for conceptualizations of the self from either the modern or postmodern paradigm are discussed, as well as suggestions for future theory development.

  5. Testing universal relations of neutron stars with a nonlinear matter-gravity coupling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sham, Y.-H.; Lin, L.-M.; Leung, P. T.

    2014-01-01

    Due to our ignorance of the equation of state (EOS) beyond nuclear density, there is still no unique theoretical model for neutron stars (NSs). It is therefore surprising that universal EOS-independent relations connecting different physical quantities of NSs can exist. Lau et al. found that the frequency of the f-mode oscillation, the mass, and the moment of inertia are connected by universal relations. More recently, Yagi and Yunes discovered the I-Love-Q universal relations among the mass, the moment of inertia, the Love number, and the quadrupole moment. In this paper, we study these universal relations in the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) gravity. This theory differs from general relativity (GR) significantly only at high densities due to the nonlinear coupling between matter and gravity. It thus provides us an ideal case to test how robust the universal relations of NSs are with respect to the change of the gravity theory. Due to the apparent EOS formulation of EiBI gravity developed recently by Delsate and Steinhoff, we are able to study the universal relations in EiBI gravity using the same techniques as those in GR. We find that the universal relations in EiBI gravity are essentially the same as those in GR. Our work shows that, within the currently viable coupling constant, there exists at least one modified gravity theory that is indistinguishable from GR in view of the unexpected universal relations.

  6. Testing Universal Relations of Neutron Stars with a Nonlinear Matter-Gravity Coupling Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, Y.-H.; Lin, L.-M.; Leung, P. T.

    2014-02-01

    Due to our ignorance of the equation of state (EOS) beyond nuclear density, there is still no unique theoretical model for neutron stars (NSs). It is therefore surprising that universal EOS-independent relations connecting different physical quantities of NSs can exist. Lau et al. found that the frequency of the f-mode oscillation, the mass, and the moment of inertia are connected by universal relations. More recently, Yagi and Yunes discovered the I-Love-Q universal relations among the mass, the moment of inertia, the Love number, and the quadrupole moment. In this paper, we study these universal relations in the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) gravity. This theory differs from general relativity (GR) significantly only at high densities due to the nonlinear coupling between matter and gravity. It thus provides us an ideal case to test how robust the universal relations of NSs are with respect to the change of the gravity theory. Due to the apparent EOS formulation of EiBI gravity developed recently by Delsate and Steinhoff, we are able to study the universal relations in EiBI gravity using the same techniques as those in GR. We find that the universal relations in EiBI gravity are essentially the same as those in GR. Our work shows that, within the currently viable coupling constant, there exists at least one modified gravity theory that is indistinguishable from GR in view of the unexpected universal relations.

  7. Extension of Loop Quantum Gravity to Metric Theories beyond General Relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yongge

    2012-01-01

    The successful background-independent quantization of Loop Quantum Gravity relies on the key observation that classical General Relativity can be cast into the connection-dynamical formalism with the structure group of SU(2). Due to this particular formalism, Loop Quantum Gravity was generally considered as a quantization scheme that applies only to General Relativity. However, we will show that the nonperturbative quantization procedure of Loop Quantum Gravity can be extended to a rather general class of metric theories of gravity, which have received increased attention recently due to motivations coming form cosmology and astrophysics. In particular, we will first introduce how to reformulate the 4-dimensional metric f(R) theories of gravity, as well as Brans-Dicke theory, into connection-dynamical formalism with real SU(2) connections as configuration variables. Through these formalisms, we then outline the nonpertubative canonical quantization of the f(R) theories and Brans-Dicke theory by extending the loop quantization scheme of General Relativity.

  8. “The West” and “Non-West” in the Space of International Relations Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Aleksandrovna Alekseeva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently the question of “pro-Western” orientation of the IR theory turned to become in the center of the academic discussions. Its critics as well as the adherents of “non-Western” theories are partly right. Really, during more than one and a half century the theory of international relations, born and developed mostly in the West had been mostly supporting the ideas, being forms first in Europe, later in the USA. The Anglo-Saxon authors are still dominating in the discipline, not only quantitatively (the huge scale of the publications of literature and professional magazines in English plus influence of the universities and scientific centers as well as qualitatively (impressive financing opens the possibilities for the working out of the new ideas and the development of the ideas of different “schools” of thought - political realism, liberalism, constructivism, postmodernism, post-Marxism etc.. In the theories of IR was felt ideological biases. But on the wave of decolonization and later, in the context of the rising of Asian and other countries in world politics, the “Western” dominance was challenged by the IR-scholars from PR of Chine, India etc., who try to construct their own theories of international relations. The balance is slowly but continuously changing. But “Non-Western” theories are also not free from the ideological biases. Quite often they reject or severely criticize “Western” theories just because of their origin. Even more often they in fact continue to develop the same “Western” ideas, just adding to them the local thinker’s names or mentioning some national traditions or religious and cultural heritage. But if the Theory of international relations is a science, then, strictly speaking, in what country its main personalities were born and what language they were speaking, is not important. Obviously, the elements of ideology would be present. Just like any other social science, which deals not

  9. Amplitude relations in heterotic string theory and Einstein-Yang-Mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlotterer, Oliver [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2016-11-11

    We present all-multiplicity evidence that the tree-level S-matrix of gluons and gravitons in heterotic string theory can be reduced to color-ordered single-trace amplitudes of the gauge multiplet. Explicit amplitude relations are derived for up to three gravitons, up to two color traces and an arbitrary number of gluons in each case. The results are valid to all orders in the inverse string tension α{sup ′} and generalize to the ten-dimensional superamplitudes which preserve 16 supercharges. Their field-theory limit results in an alternative proof of the recently discovered relations between Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes and those of pure Yang-Mills theory. Similarities and differences between the integrands of the Cachazo-He-Yuan formulae and the heterotic string are investigated.

  10. Improving subject recruitment, retention, and participation in research through Peplau's theory of interpersonal relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penckofer, Sue; Byrn, Mary; Mumby, Patricia; Ferrans, Carol Estwing

    2011-04-01

    Recruitment and retention of persons participating in research is one of the most significant challenges faced by investigators. Although incentives are often used to improve recruitment and retention, evidence suggests that the relationship of the patient to study personnel may be the single, most important factor in subject accrual and continued participation. Peplau's theory of interpersonal relations provides a framework to study the nurse-patient relationship during the research process. In this paper the authors provide a brief summary of research strategies that have been used for the recruitment and retention of subjects and an overview of Peplau's theory of interpersonal relations including its use in research studies. In addition, a discussion of how this theory was used for the successful recruitment and retention of women with type 2 diabetes who participated in a clinical trial using a nurse-delivered psychoeducational intervention for depression is addressed.

  11. BRS current and related anomalies in two-dimensional gravity and string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo; Inagaki, Takeshi; Suzuki, Hiroshi.

    1989-06-01

    The BRS currents in two-dimensional gravity and supergravity theories, which are related to string theory, contain anomalous terms. The origin of these anomalies can be neatly understood in a carefully defined path integral. We present the detailed calculations of these BRS and related anomalies in the holomorphic or antiholomorphic sector separately in the conformal gauge. One-loop renormalization of the Liouville action becomes transparent in our formulation. We identify a BRS-invariant BRS current (and thus nil-potent charge) and a conformally invariant ghost number current by incorporating the dynamical Weyl freedom explicitly. The formal path integral construction of various composite operators is also checked by using the operator product technique. Implications of these BRS analyses on possible non-critical string theories at d<26 or d<10 are briefly discussed. (author)

  12. The perfect theory a century of geniuses and the battle over general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Pedro G

    2014-01-01

    Physicists have been exploring, debating, and questioning the general theory of relativity ever since Albert Einstein first presented it in 1915. Their work has uncovered a number of the universe’s more surprising secrets, and many believe further wonders remain hidden within the theory’s tangle of equations, waiting to be exposed. In this sweeping narrative of science and culture, astrophysicist Pedro Ferreira brings general relativity to life through the story of the brilliant physicists, mathematicians, and astronomers who have taken up its challenge. For these scientists, the theory has been both a treasure trove and an enigma, fueling a century of intellectual struggle and triumph.. Einstein’s theory, which explains the relationships among gravity, space, and time, is possibly the most perfect intellectual achievement of modern physics, yet studying it has always been a controversial endeavor. Relativists were the target of persecution in Hitler’s Germany, hounded in Stalin’s Russia, and disdai...

  13. On unifying concepts in plasticity theory and related matters in numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havner, K.S.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews a rate-independent theory (or class of theories) of multiple-mode plastic straining which unifies various constitutive equations of macroscopic solids and single crystals. Some consideration is given to the relationship between the multiple-mode theory and thermodynamic concepts; including physical aspects of finite distortion of metal crystals. Uniqueness criteria and related minimum principles in incremental (or 'rate-type') boundary value problems are presented for the general class at finite strain. Special circumstances (one being infinitesimal strain) are defined under which the uniqueness criteria assure convergence of a form of finite element approximation in the boundary value problem. Extensive reference is made to recently published work of Hill, Rice, Sewell and Havner. A symmetry postulate pertaining to the 'effective hardening moduli' plays a key role in the general theory. This postulate permits the adoption of Sewell's multiple-mode saddle function as a potential for stress and plastic mechanism rates and leads to the connection between uniqueness and (rate-type) minimum principles. The postulate has a remarkable consequence for application of a simple form of the theory to single crystals in the tensile test. At small strain this theory reduces to the classical Taylor hardening of crystals, which has had wide application in micromechanical calculations of crystalline aggregate models. At infinitesimal strain, and at finite strain when the two dominant principal stresses are everywhere tensile, additional minimum principles are given for the 'self-straining problem' which permit the independent variation of displacement and plastic mechanism rates

  14. Higher-order corrections in the cut vertex theory and the reciprocity relation in (PHI3)6 field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, T.

    1980-01-01

    Higher-order corrections to deep inelastic and inclusive annihilation processes in the asymptotically free (PHI 3 ) 6 theory are calculated by using the method of cut vertices proposed by Mueller. Renormalization of the cut vertices is carried out up the two-loop level and it is found that, in the minimal subtraction scheme, the equality between the anomalous dimension of the space-like cut vertex and that of the corresponding time-like cut vertex does not hold beyond the leading order. Corrections to the coefficient functions are also calculated to study the Q 2 dependence of the moment up to the next-to-leading order. It is shown that the reciprocity relation suggested by Gribov and Lipatov on the basis of the leading-order calculation does not hold in the higher order. (orig.)

  15. Special relativity of non-inertial motions: A complementary theory to Einstein's SR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocanu, C.I.

    1999-01-01

    In order to describe physical reality a special (gravity-free) relativity is needed that is founded upon general non-uniform motions as they occur in our environment and hold for the non-inertial reference frame of our laboratory. Such a generalized form of special relativity can be build upon an extension, at relativistic velocities, of Maxwell-Hertz electrodynamics (MHE), which is valid for non-uniform motions, but at small velocities only. The new electromagnetic theory called (in honor to Hertz) Hertz's Relativistic Electrodynamics (HRE), is completely independent and built-up in a completely different way as regards Einstein's Special Relativity (ESR). HRE, a coordinate-free formulation does not need postulates, but confirms the constancy principle of speed of light in vacuum. All experiments of first and second order in v/c are correctly interpreted. To this theory a Hertzian kinematics and dynamics are associated. HRE with its corresponding mechanics forms Hertz's Special Relativity (HSR), as a complementary theory to ESR. According to the principle of complementarity and neglecting the gravitational effects, the Extended Special Relativity (ExSR) is a double faced theory which becomes either ESR, when the motion is inertial or HSR when the motion is non-inertial. The complementarity of both theories assumes that the two descriptions cannot be employed for the same motion, being mutually exclusive. Consequently, to every statement of one of the ExSR corresponds a complementary statement of the other ExSR. The completeness of ESR with HSR ensures an extended view over the relativity in our physical world. (author)

  16. Justice relations as determinative factor of “human - state” relation in the J.Rawls’s theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. O. Burychko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The conceptualization of relations “human ­ state” in J. Rawls’s theory is revealed in the article. It is concluded, that this relationship is determineted on value level by justice, which understands as fairness. Justice is the main virtue of social institutions, and in this case, if the institutions are unjust, their activity should be discarded or revised. Based on liberal ideas, justice linked to the notion of freedom, particularly in J. Rawls’s theory are described? That in the faire societies the equal freedom of citizens is regarded as being established beforehand state. The main principles of relations are the principle of participation and paternalism. Participation means the involvement of citizens in the constitutional process, the national process and participation in self­government. Paternalism is understood as the rational intervention of state in society in aim to prevent irrational expressions of relations between people. Conditions intervention: it must be justified by the apparent inability or lack of will; must match the understanding of justice as fairness, and based on sustainable interests. It is concluded, that the theory of J. Rawls resulting from the analytical experiment leaves a lot of questions as to achieve justice as fairness in the activities of individuals and social institutions.

  17. The End-Relational Theory of 'Ought' and the Weight of Reasons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Daan

    2010-01-01

    Stephen Finlay analyses ‘ought’ in terms of probability. According to him, normative ‘ought's are statements about the likelihood that an act will realize some (contextually supplied) end. I raise a problem for this theory. It concerns the relation between ‘ought’ and the balance of reasons. ‘A

  18. Constitutional “World Views”, Global Governance and International Relations Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larik, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the constitutional entrenchment of foreign policy preferences, or “world views”, from the vantage point of International Relations theory. Empirically, norms that sketch out certain visions of global governance have become a popular feature of constitutional design. The paper

  19. Non-splitting in Kirchberg's Ideal-related KK-Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilers, Søren; Restorff, Gunnar; Ruiz, Efren

    2011-01-01

    A. Bonkat obtained a universal coefficient theorem in the setting of Kirchberg's ideal-related KK-theory in the fundamental case of a C*-algebra with one specified ideal. The universal coefficient sequence was shown to split, unnaturally, under certain conditions. Employing certain K-theoretical ...

  20. The Four Elementary Forms of Sociality: Framework for a Unified Theory of Social Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Alan Page

    1992-01-01

    A theory is presented that postulates that people in all cultures use four relational models to generate most kinds of social interaction, evaluation, and affect. Ethnographic and field studies (n=19) have supported cultural variations on communal sharing; authority ranking; equality matching; and market pricing. (SLD)

  1. Relationships among Shyness, Social Competence, Peer Relations, and Theory of Mind among Pre-Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Kakarani, Styliani; Kolovou, Demetra

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between shyness, a number of personal and interpersonal variables (i.e. social skills, self-esteem, attachment style, advanced Theory of Mind skills and peer relations) in a sample of 243 Greek pre-adolescents. Participants completed self-reports of the variables. Results indicated that females scored…

  2. Longitudinal Effects of Theory of Mind on Later Peer Relations: The Role of Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Marcella; Lecce, Serena; Pagnin, Adriano; Banerjee, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Children's peer relations represent a key aspect of school adjustment. However, little is known about their social-cognitive precursors. To address this gap, the authors followed 70 children across the transition to primary school. At Time 1 (age 5), Time 2 (age 6), and Time 3 (age 7), children were assessed on their theory of mind, prosocial…

  3. The Relation between Executive Function and Theory of Mind Is More than Skin Deep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Stephanie M.; Claxton, Laura J.; Moses, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    A simple "expression" account of the relation between executive function (EF) and children's developing theory of mind (ToM) has difficulty accounting for the generality of the changes occurring in children's mental-state understanding during the preschool years. The current study of preschool children (N = 43) showed that EF--especially…

  4. Children's understanding of Aesop's fables: relations to reading comprehension and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Janette; Beatty, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined children's developing understanding of Aesop's fables in relation to reading comprehension and to theory of mind. Study 1 included 172 children from Junior Kindergarten through Grade 6 in a school-wide examination of the relation between reading comprehension skills and understanding of Aesop's fables told orally. Study 2 examined the relation between theory of mind and fables understanding among 186 Junior (4-year-old) and Senior (5-year-old) Kindergarten children. Study 1 results showed a developmental progression in fables understanding with children's responses becoming increasingly decontextualized as they were able to extract the life lesson. After general vocabulary, passage comprehension predicted fables understanding. Study 2 results showed a relation between young children's theory of mind development and their understanding of fables. After general vocabulary, second-order theory of mind predicted children's fables understanding. Findings point to the importance of developing mental state awareness in children's ability to judge characters' intentions and to understand the deeper message embedded in fables.

  5. Relations between Secondary Art Teachers' Personal Education Theories and Attitudes about Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjack, Sharon Kay

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was multifold: to define secondary art teachers. personal practical theories about the purposes of art education; to examine teachers. attitudes toward the inclusion of students with learning disabilities (LD) and those with emotional/behavioral disabilities (EBD) into their classrooms; and to determine the relation between…

  6. The general class of the vacuum spherically symmetric equations of the general relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbanovski, V. V.; Sorokin, O. M.; Nesterova, M. I.; Bolotnyaya, V. A.; Markov, V. N.; Kairov, T. V.; Lyash, A. A.; Tarasyuk, O. R.

    2012-01-01

    The system of the spherical-symmetric vacuum equations of the General Relativity Theory is considered. The general solution to a problem representing two classes of line elements with arbitrary functions g 00 and g 22 is obtained. The properties of the found solutions are analyzed.

  7. "Approaches to the Teaching of Special Relativity Theory in High School and University Textbooks of Argentina"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriassecq, Irene; Greca, Ileana Maria

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we presented an analysis of the representation of the special relativity theory (SRT) in the most used texts in high school, Polimodal level and university level in the teaching in the Argentine Republic, from a historic, epistemological and didactic perspective. The results show that none of the analyzed texts would allow a…

  8. Right Hemisphere Sensitivity to Novel Metaphoric Relations: Application of the Signal Detection Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashal, N.; Faust, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study used the signal detection theory to test the hypothesis that the right hemisphere (RH) is more sensitive than the left hemisphere (LH) to the distant semantic relations in novel metaphoric expressions. In two divided visual field experiments, sensitivity (d') and criterion ([beta]) were calculated for responses to different types…

  9. Constructing International Relations Simulations: Examining the Pedagogy of IR Simulations through a Constructivist Learning Theory Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asal, Victor; Kratoville, Jayson

    2013-01-01

    Simulations are being used more and more in political science generally and in international relations specifically. While there is a growing body of literature describing different simulations and a small amount of literature that empirically tests the impact of simulations, scholars have written very little linking the pedagogic theory behind…

  10. Age-Related Differences in Goals: Testing Predictions from Selection, Optimization, and Compensation Theory and Socioemotional Selectivity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penningroth, Suzanna L.; Scott, Walter D.

    2012-01-01

    Two prominent theories of lifespan development, socioemotional selectivity theory and selection, optimization, and compensation theory, make similar predictions for differences in the goal representations of younger and older adults. Our purpose was to test whether the goals of younger and older adults differed in ways predicted by these two…

  11. Einstein in matrix form exact derivation of the theory of special and general relativity without tensors

    CERN Document Server

    Ludyk, Günter

    2013-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theories of Special and General Relativity. The target audience are physicists, engineers and applied scientists who are looking for an understandable introduction to the topic - without too much new mathematics. The fundamental equations of Einsteins theory of Special and General Relativity are derived using matrix calculus, without the help of tensors. This feature makes the book special and a valuable tool for scientists and engineers with no experience in the field of tensor calculus. In part I the foundations of Special Relativity are developed, part II describes the structure and principle of General Relativity. Part III explains the Schwarzschild solution of spherical body gravity and examines the "Black Hole" phenomenon. Any necessary mathematical tools are user friendly provided, either directly in the text or in the appendices.

  12. Relative energy for the Korteweg theory and related Hamiltonian flows in gas dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Giesselmann, Jan

    2016-10-26

    For an Euler system, with dynamics generated by a potential energy functional, we propose a functional format for the relative energy and derive a relative energy identity. The latter, when applied to specific energies, yields relative energy identities for the Euler-Korteweg, the Euler-Poisson, the Quantum Hydrodynamics system, and low order approximations of the Euler-Korteweg system. For the Euler-Korteweg system we prove a stability theorem between a weak and a strong solution and an associated weak-strong uniqueness theorem. In the second part we focus on the Navier-Stokes-Korteweg system (NSK) with non-monotone pressure laws: we prove stability for the NSK system via a modified relative energy approach. We prove continuous dependence of solutions on initial data and convergence of solutions of a low order model to solutions of the NSK system. The last two results provide physically meaningful examples of how higher order regularization terms enable the use of the relative energy framework for models with energies which are not poly- or quasi-convex, but compensating via higher-order gradients.

  13. Pedagogy of complex relationality exploring complexity theory, neuro-phenomenology, and attentiveness for education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattar, Randa

    What do the new sciences of complex relationality offer education? This work draws on complexity theory, neurological understandings of biology and phenomenology, and attentiveness to study what the new sciences might offer education and the possibilities of a pedagogical understanding of embodied knowing. Complexity theory provides understandings of local-global relationality, self-organization, far-from-equilibrium conditions, and emergent dynamics that are important for describing pedagogical relationality. In itself, however, complexity theory is lacking an attention to issues of embodiment that respond directly to an ethical understanding of relationality. Phenomenology provides important views on the human experience of perception, for example, Merleau-Ponty's, whose research opens up possibilities for embodiment and attentiveness. At the level of pedagogical practice, I will pose, following biologists Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela's autopoietic self-making understanding of life, that attentiveness perspectives, which have been largely absent from western pedagogical theory and practice, are crucial to promoting embodied knowing for education. Maturana and Varela's autopoietic perspective offers an embodied understanding of living---and therefore education---which opens up necessary attentive spaces to listen to one another in non judgmental awareness in the present moment of experience. I offer insights into a relationally complex conception of education drawing on this biological and autopoietically-grounded framework. These insights are framed in the context of five clusters of relations: (1) emergence, far-from-equilibrium, and local-global relationality; (2) autopoietic autonomy, structural determination and sensory-motor coupling; (3) triggering perturbations, structural plasticity, and autopoietic organization; (4) knowing as adequate action, domains of interaction, and blind spots; and (5) attentiveness and responsive relationality. Four

  14. A representation of the exchange relation for affine Toda field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrigan, E.; Dorey, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    Vertex operators are constructed providing representations of the exchange relations containing either the S-matrix of a real coupling (simply-laced) affine Toda field theory, or its minimal counterpart. One feature of the construction is that the bootstrap relations for the S-matrices follow automatically from those for the conserved quantities, via an algebraic interpretation of the fusing of two particles to form a single bound state. (orig.)

  15. Maintaining Unity - relatives in older patients' fast-track treatment programmes. A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Lindhardt, Tove; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-12-01

    To generate a substantive grounded theory of relatives' pattern of behaviour in older patients' fast-track treatment programmes during total hip or knee replacement. Fast-track treatment programmes are designed to make total hip and knee replacements more efficient through recovery improvements. The support of relatives during older patients' trajectory is important. However, knowledge is needed on the relatives' pattern of behaviour to strengthen their involvement in fast-track treatment programmes. We used a Glaserian grounded theory approach based on a systematic generation of theory from data to explain the latent pattern of behaviour of relatives. Data were collected from 2010-2011 in orthopaedic wards at two Danish university hospitals and consisted of 14 non-participant observations, 14 postobservational interviews and five interviews. Seven relatives of patients over 70 years of age participated. The constant comparative method was the guiding principle for simultaneous data collection, data analysis and coding, while theoretically sampling and writing memos. Maintaining Unity emerged as the relatives' pattern of behaviour through which they resolved their main concern: preventing the patients from feeling alone. The relatives resolved their main concern through three interchangeable behavioural modes: Protecting Mode, by providing loving and respectful support; Substituting Mode, with practical and cognitive support; and an Adapting Mode, by trying to fit in with the patients' and health professionals' requirements. The substantive theory of Maintaining Unity offers knowledge of relatives' strong desire to provide compassionate and loving support for the older patients during fast-track treatment programmes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Revised Robertson's test theory of special relativity: space-time structure and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, J.G.; Torr, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental testing of the Lorentz transformations is based on a family of sets of coordinate transformations that do not comply in general with the principle of equivalence of the inertial frames. The Lorentz and Galilean sets of transformations are the only member sets of the family that satisfy this principle. In the neighborhood of regular points of space-time, all members in the family are assumed to comply with local homogeneity of space-time and isotropy of space in at least one free-falling elevator, to be denoted as Robertson's ab initio rest frame (H.P. Robertson, Rev. Mod. Phys. 21, 378 (1949)). Without any further assumptions, it is shown that Robertson's rest frame becomes a preferred frame for all member sets of the Robertson family except for, again, Galilean and Einstein's relativities. If one now assumes the validity of Maxwell-Lorentz electrodynamics in the preferred frame, a different electrodynamics spontaneously emerges for each set of transformations. The flat space-time of relativity retains its relevance, which permits an obvious generalization, in a Robertson context, of Dirac's theory of the electron and Einstein's gravitation. The family of theories thus obtained constitutes a covering theory of relativistic physics. A technique is developed to move back and forth between Einstein's relativity and the different members of the family of theories. It permits great simplifications in the analysis of relativistic experiments with relevant ''Robertson's subfamilies.'' It is shown how to adapt the Clifford algebra version of standard physics for use with the covering theory and, in particular, with the covering Dirac theory

  17. Einstein in matrix form. Exact derivation of the theory of special and general relativity without tensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludyk, Guenter [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Physics and Electrical Engineering

    2013-11-01

    Derives the fundamental equations of Einstein's theory of special and general relativity using matrix calculus, without the help of tensors. Provides necessary mathematical tools in a user-friendly way, either directly in the text or in the appendices. Appendices contain an introduction to classical dynamics as a refresher of known fundamental physics. Rehearses vector and matrix calculus, differential geometry, and some special solutions of general relativity in the appendices. This book is an introduction to the theories of Special and General Relativity. The target audience are physicists, engineers and applied scientists who are looking for an understandable introduction to the topic - without too much new mathematics. The fundamental equations of Einsteins theory of Special and General Relativity are derived using matrix calculus, without the help of tensors. This feature makes the book special and a valuable tool for scientists and engineers with no experience in the field of tensor calculus. In part I the foundations of Special Relativity are developed, part II describes the structure and principle of General Relativity. Part III explains the Schwarzschild solution of spherical body gravity and examines the ''Black Hole'' phenomenon. Any necessary mathematical tools are user friendly provided, either directly in the text or in the appendices.

  18. Einstein in matrix form. Exact derivation of the theory of special and general relativity without tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludyk, Guenter

    2013-01-01

    Derives the fundamental equations of Einstein's theory of special and general relativity using matrix calculus, without the help of tensors. Provides necessary mathematical tools in a user-friendly way, either directly in the text or in the appendices. Appendices contain an introduction to classical dynamics as a refresher of known fundamental physics. Rehearses vector and matrix calculus, differential geometry, and some special solutions of general relativity in the appendices. This book is an introduction to the theories of Special and General Relativity. The target audience are physicists, engineers and applied scientists who are looking for an understandable introduction to the topic - without too much new mathematics. The fundamental equations of Einsteins theory of Special and General Relativity are derived using matrix calculus, without the help of tensors. This feature makes the book special and a valuable tool for scientists and engineers with no experience in the field of tensor calculus. In part I the foundations of Special Relativity are developed, part II describes the structure and principle of General Relativity. Part III explains the Schwarzschild solution of spherical body gravity and examines the ''Black Hole'' phenomenon. Any necessary mathematical tools are user friendly provided, either directly in the text or in the appendices.

  19. Quantum work relations and response theory in parity-time-symmetric quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bo-Bo

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we show that a universal quantum work relation for a quantum system driven arbitrarily far from equilibrium extends to a parity-time- (PT -) symmetric quantum system with unbroken PT symmetry, which is a consequence of microscopic reversibility. The quantum Jarzynski equality, linear response theory, and Onsager reciprocal relations for the PT -symmetric quantum system are recovered as special cases of the universal quantum work relation in a PT -symmetric quantum system. In the regime of broken PT symmetry, the universal quantum work relation does not hold because the norm is not preserved during the dynamics.

  20. A model of theory-practice relations in mathematics teacher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Kaj

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses an ATD based (Chevallard, 2012) model of theory-practice relations in mathematics teacher education. The notions of didactic transposition and praxeology are combined and concretized in order to form a comprehensive model for analysing the theory......-practice problematique. It is illustrated how the model can be used both as a descriptive tool to analyse interactions between and interviews with student teachers and teachers and as a normative tool to design and redesign learning environments in teacher education in this case a lesson study context....

  1. The special theory of Brownian relativity: equivalence principle for dynamic and static random paths and uncertainty relation for diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzasalma, Stefano A

    2007-03-15

    The theoretical basis of a recent theory of Brownian relativity for polymer solutions is deepened and reexamined. After the problem of relative diffusion in polymer solutions is addressed, its two postulates are formulated in all generality. The former builds a statistical equivalence between (uncorrelated) timelike and shapelike reference frames, that is, among dynamical trajectories of liquid molecules and static configurations of polymer chains. The latter defines the "diffusive horizon" as the invariant quantity to work with in the special version of the theory. Particularly, the concept of universality in polymer physics corresponds in Brownian relativity to that of covariance in the Einstein formulation. Here, a "universal" law consists of a privileged observation, performed from the laboratory rest frame and agreeing with any diffusive reference system. From the joint lack of covariance and simultaneity implied by the Brownian Lorentz-Poincaré transforms, a relative uncertainty arises, in a certain analogy with quantum mechanics. It is driven by the difference between local diffusion coefficients in the liquid solution. The same transformation class can be used to infer Fick's second law of diffusion, playing here the role of a gauge invariance preserving covariance of the spacetime increments. An overall, noteworthy conclusion emerging from this view concerns the statistics of (i) static macromolecular configurations and (ii) the motion of liquid molecules, which would be much more related than expected.

  2. Alterations in theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia and non-psychotic relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, I; Krabbendam, L; Jolles, J; van Os, Jim

    2003-08-01

    It has been proposed that alterations in theory of mind underlie specific symptoms of psychosis. The present study examined whether alterations in theory of mind reflect a trait that can be detected in non-psychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia. Participants were 43 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, 41 first-degree non-psychotic relatives and 43 controls from the general population. Theory of mind was assessed using a hinting task and a false-belief task. There was a significant association between schizophrenia risk and failure on the hinting task (OR linear trend = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.22-3.31), with relatives having intermediate values between patients and controls. Adjustment for IQ and neuropsychological factors reduced the association by small amounts. The association between schizophrenia risk and failure on the false-belief tasks was not significant. Changes in theory of mind are associated with schizophrenia liability. General cognitive ability and neuropsychological measures seem to mediate only part of this association.

  3. Discovery Mondays - “Relativity Theory... strange! Did you say strange?”

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    We all know that famous equation E=mc2, but do you know its true significance? Relativity theory: what is the meaning of this strange concept which plunged the physics world into turmoil 100 years ago? What effects can be observed today? Did you know that the GPS system would not work if relativity was not taken into account? The next Discovery Monday will take you on a journey into a strange world. You will be able to witness for yourselves the consequences of Einstein's theories. How, for example, can relativity theory be tested by eclipses? What consequences does it have for the accelerators at CERN? How can it be used to measure the mass of enormous black holes? And finally, how is it linked to the puzzle surrounding the missing mass of the Universe? As part of the World Year of Physics, the next Discovery Monday will be dedicated to one of the theories that Einstein published in 1905, his “annus mirabilis”. Join us at the Microcosm (Reception Building 33, Meyrin site), on Monday 5th September ...

  4. Discovery Mondays - “Relativity Theory... strange! Did you say strange?”

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    We all know that famous equation E=mc2, but do you know its true significance? Relativity theory: what is the meaning of this strange concept which plunged the physics world into turmoil 100 years ago? What effects can be observed today? Did you know that the GPS system would not work if relativity was not taken into account? The next Discovery Monday will take you on a journey into a strange world. You will be able to witness for yourselves the consequences of Einstein's theories. How, for example, can relativity theory be tested by eclipses? What consequences does it have for the accelerators at CERN? How can it be used to measure the mass of enormous black holes? And finally, how is it linked to the puzzle surrounding the missing mass of the Universe? As part of the World Year of Physics, the next Discovery Monday will be dedicated to one of the theories that Einstein published in 1905, his “annus mirabilis”. Join us at the Microcosm (Reception Building 33, Meyrin site), on Monday 5th Septemb...

  5. The application of information theory for the research of aging and aging-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokh, David; Stambler, Ilia

    2017-10-01

    This article reviews the application of information-theoretical analysis, employing measures of entropy and mutual information, for the study of aging and aging-related diseases. The research of aging and aging-related diseases is particularly suitable for the application of information theory methods, as aging processes and related diseases are multi-parametric, with continuous parameters coexisting alongside discrete parameters, and with the relations between the parameters being as a rule non-linear. Information theory provides unique analytical capabilities for the solution of such problems, with unique advantages over common linear biostatistics. Among the age-related diseases, information theory has been used in the study of neurodegenerative diseases (particularly using EEG time series for diagnosis and prediction), cancer (particularly for establishing individual and combined cancer biomarkers), diabetes (mainly utilizing mutual information to characterize the diseased and aging states), and heart disease (mainly for the analysis of heart rate variability). Few works have employed information theory for the analysis of general aging processes and frailty, as underlying determinants and possible early preclinical diagnostic measures for aging-related diseases. Generally, the use of information-theoretical analysis permits not only establishing the (non-linear) correlations between diagnostic or therapeutic parameters of interest, but may also provide a theoretical insight into the nature of aging and related diseases by establishing the measures of variability, adaptation, regulation or homeostasis, within a system of interest. It may be hoped that the increased use of such measures in research may considerably increase diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and the fundamental theoretical mathematical understanding of aging and disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adolescent Peer Relations and Socioemotional Development in Latin America: Translating International Theory into Local Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christian; Lisboa, Carolina; Cuadros, Olga; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo

    2016-06-01

    Peer relations constitute a main developmental context for adolescents. Peers offer an instance for identity definition and set the norms of acceptable and valued characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes, representing a societal model that allows and restrains avenues for adolescents' socioemotional development. The present article departs from these considerations to review research on adolescents' peer relations in Latin America from a socioemotional perspective. First, approaches to adolescence are discussed, with a main focus on attachment and identity theories, based on a bioecological framework. Then, a review of research in Latin America on friendships, school climate, and intergroup relations is presented. The discussion addresses the tension between theories and evidence generated in developed societies and highlights the particularities of Latin American youth, stressing the need for collecting local data. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. On the relativity and equivalence principles in the gauge theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, D.; Sardanashvily, G.

    1981-01-01

    One sees the basic ideas of the gauge gravitation theory still not generally accepted in spite of more than twenty years of its history. The chief reason lies in the fact that the gauge character of gravity is connected with the whole complex of problems of Einstein General Relativity: about the reference system definition, on the (3+1)-splitting, on the presence (or absence) of symmetries in GR, on the necessity (or triviality) of general covariance, on the meaning of equivalence principle, which led Einstein from Special to General Relativity |1|. The real actuality of this complex of interconnected problems is demonstrated by the well-known work of V. Fock, who saw no symmetries in General Relativity, declared the unnecessary Equivalence principle and proposed even to substitute the designation ''chronogeometry'' instead of ''general relativity'' (see also P. Havas). Developing this line, H. Bondi quite recently also expressed doubts about the ''relativity'' in Einstein theory of gravitation. All proposed versions of the gauge gravitation theory must clarify the discrepancy between Einstein gravitational field being a pseudo-Riemannian metric field, and the gauge potentials representing connections on some fiber bundles and there exists no group, whose gauging would lead to the purely gravitational part of connection (Christoffel symbols or Fock-Ivenenko-Weyl spinorial coefficients). (author)

  8. Electrodynamics the field-free approach : electrostatics, magnetism, induction, relativity and field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Prytz, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended as an undergraduate textbook in electrodynamics at basic or advanced level. The objective is to attain a general understanding of the electrodynamic theory and its basic experiments and phenomena in order to form a foundation for further studies in the engineering sciences as well as in modern quantum physics. The outline of the book is obtained from the following principles: •         Base the theory on the concept of force and mutual interaction •         Connect the theory to experiments and observations accessible to the student •         Treat the electric, magnetic and inductive phenomena cohesively with respect to force, energy, dipoles and material •         Present electrodynamics using the same principles as in the preceding mechanics course •         Aim at explaining that theory of relativity is based on the magnetic effect •         Introduce field theory after the basic phenomena have been explored in terms of forc...

  9. Strong/weak coupling duality relations for non-supersymmetric string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, J.D.; Dienes, K.R.

    1998-01-01

    Both the supersymmetric SO(32) and E 8 x E 8 heterotic strings in ten dimensions have known strong-coupling duals. However, it has not been known whether there also exist strong-coupling duals for the non-supersymmetric heterotic strings in ten dimensions. In this paper, we construct explicit open-string duals for the circle compactifications of several of these non-supersymmetric theories, among them the tachyon-free SO(16) x SO(16) string. Our method involves the construction of heterotic and open-string interpolating models that continuously connect non-supersymmetric strings to supersymmetric strings. We find that our non-supersymmetric dual theories have exactly the same massless spectra as their heterotic counterparts within a certain range of our interpolations. We also develop a novel method for analyzing the solitons of non-supersymmetric open-string theories, and find that the solitons of our dual theories also agree with their heterotic counterparts. These are therefore the first known examples of strong/weak coupling duality relations between non-supersymmetric, tachyon-free string theories. Finally, the existence of these strong-coupling duals allows us to examine the non-perturbative stability of these strings, and we propose a phase diagram for the behavior of these strings as a function of coupling and radius. (orig.)

  10. Superposition in quantum and relativity physics: an interaction interpretation of special relativity theory. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, R.

    1975-01-01

    With the interaction interpretation, the Lorentz transformation of a system arises with selection from a superposition of its states in an observation-interaction. Integration of momentum states of a mass over all possible velocities gives the rest-mass energy. Static electrical and magnetic fields are not found to form such a superposition and are to be taken as irreducible elements. The external superposition consists of those states that are reached only by change of state of motion, whereas the internal superposition contains all the states available to an observer in a single inertial coordinate system. The conjecture is advanced that states of superposition may only be those related by space-time transformations (Lorentz transformations plus space inversion and charge conjugation). The continuum of external and internal superpositions is examined for various masses, and an argument for the unity of the superpositions is presented

  11. Parametrizations in scalar-tensor theories of gravity and the limit of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Järv, L; Kuusk, P; Saal, M; Vilson, O

    2014-01-01

    We consider a general scalar-tensor theory of gravity and review briefly different forms it can be presented (different conformal frames and scalar field parametrizations). We investigate the conditions under which its field equations and the parametrized post-Newtonian parameters coincide with those of general relativity. We demonstrate that these so-called limits of general relativity are independent of the parametrization of the scalar field, although the transformation between scalar fields may be singular at the corresponding value of the scalar field. In particular, the limit of general relativity can equivalently be determined and investigated in the commonly used Jordan and Einstein frames.

  12. Observables, skein relations, and tetrahedra in Chern-Simons gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    The observables in three-dimensional Chern-Simons gauge theory are Wilson lines and Wilson graphs. Skein relations are non-trivial identities between expectation values of distinct Wilson graphs. We discuss various kinds of skein relations and the relationships between them. By comparing different kinds of skein relations, we show how to calculate the expectation value of a general tetrahedral Wilson graph. This is shown to be the last and most difficult step in a systematic procedure for calculating the expectation values of arbitrary Wilson graphs in arbitrary representations of arbitrary gauge groups. (orig.)

  13. Adiposopathy, metabolic syndrome, quantum physics, general relativity, chaos and the Theory of Everything.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold

    2005-05-01

    Excessive fat (adiposity) and dysfunctional fat (adiposopathy) constitute the most common worldwide epidemics of our time -- and perhaps of all time. Ongoing efforts to explain how the micro (adipocyte) and macro (body organ) biologic systems interact through function and dysfunction in promoting Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia are not unlike the mechanistic and philosophical thinking processes involved in reconciling the micro (quantum physics) and macro (general relativity) theories in physics. Currently, the term metabolic syndrome refers to a constellation of consequences often associated with excess body fat and is an attempt to unify the associations known to exist between the four fundamental metabolic diseases of obesity, hyperglycemia (including Type 2 diabetes mellitus), hypertension and dyslipidemia. However, the association of adiposity with these metabolic disorders is not absolute and the metabolic syndrome does not describe underlying causality, nor does the metabolic syndrome necessarily reflect any reasonably related pathophysiologic process. Just as with quantum physics, general relativity and the four fundamental forces of the universe, the lack of an adequate unifying theory of micro causality and macro consequence is unsatisfying, and in medicine, impairs the development of agents that may globally improve both obesity and obesity-related metabolic disease. Emerging scientific and clinical evidence strongly supports the novel concept that it is not adiposity alone, but rather it is adiposopathy that is the underlying cause of most cases of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Adiposopathy is a plausible Theory of Everything for mankind's greatest metabolic epidemics.

  14. Analysing collaboration among HIV agencies through combining network theory and relational coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Nidhi; Marsteller, Jill Ann; Hsu, Yea Jen; Elliott, David L

    2016-02-01

    Agencies with different foci (e.g. nutrition, social, medical, housing) serve people living with HIV (PLHIV). Serving needs of PLHIV comprehensively requires a high degree of coordination among agencies which often benefits from more frequent communication. We combined Social Network theory and Relational Coordination theory to study coordination among HIV agencies in Baltimore. Social Network theory implies that actors (e.g., HIV agencies) establish linkages amongst themselves in order to access resources (e.g., information). Relational Coordination theory suggests that high quality coordination among agencies or teams relies on the seven dimensions of frequency, timeliness and accuracy of communication, problem-solving communication, knowledge of agencies' work, mutual respect and shared goals. We collected data on frequency of contact from 57 agencies using a roster method. Response options were ordinal ranging from 'not at all' to 'daily'. We analyzed data using social network measures. Next, we selected agencies with which at least one-third of the sample reported monthly or more frequent interaction. This yielded 11 agencies whom we surveyed on seven relational coordination dimensions with questions scored on a Likert scale of 1-5. Network density, defined as the proportion of existing connections to all possible connections, was 20% when considering monthly or higher interaction. Relational coordination scores from individual agencies to others ranged between 1.17 and 5.00 (maximum possible score 5). The average scores for different dimensions across all agencies ranged between 3.30 and 4.00. Shared goals (4.00) and mutual respect (3.91) scores were highest, while scores such as knowledge of each other's work and problem-solving communication were relatively lower. Combining theoretically driven analyses in this manner offers an innovative way to provide a comprehensive picture of inter-agency coordination and the quality of exchange that underlies

  15. Theory of International Relations In The Mirror of Contemporary Russian International Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina M. Lebedeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the evolution of Western theories of international relations in the postSoviet Russia, it analyzes the world view of Russian international scholars, as well as their reflection on the epistemological foundations of the probable Russian IR school. It states that pluralization of theoretical approaches continues in Russia, while liberalism is gradually givingup to realism on the way to the dominant theory. Constructivism is gaining popularity and postmodernism remains without followers. Russian international studies are structured by a long-standing debate about the identity of Russia. "Westerners" continue to argue with "Slavophiles."Sometimes these arguments translate into a cry for building independent national school of international relations, thereby exacerbating the problem of epistemological relativism. The bases for the school may be found in Russian spiritual philosophy, the Tartu-Moscow school of semiotics, Russian cultural studies, postcolonial tradition of national historical science.

  16. Particle theory, cosmology, and relativity. Progress report, July 1, 1981-June 30, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaisser, T.K.; Steigman, G.; Halprin, A.

    1982-01-01

    Research in high energy physics, astrophysics, and related topics are covered. Research in particle physics and cosmic rays focusses on implications of cosmic rays for particle physics above 10 TeV. The work on the early evolution of the universe contributes directly to answers to some of the fundamental questions in particle physics and cosmology. The study of electroweak interactions centers in large part on low energy tests of high energy physics, and a brief analysis of the statistical distribution of quarks among the spheres in the Fairbank quark-search experiment. The potential role of bag-like models in theories of composite leptons has been addressed. In projective relativity aspects of particle theory, a quantization scheme for geodesics in deSitter space was devised

  17. Prospect theory does not describe the feedback-related negativity value function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambrook, Thomas D; Roser, Matthew; Goslin, Jeremy

    2012-12-01

    Humans handle uncertainty poorly. Prospect theory accounts for this with a value function in which possible losses are overweighted compared to possible gains, and the marginal utility of rewards decreases with size. fMRI studies have explored the neural basis of this value function. A separate body of research claims that prediction errors are calculated by midbrain dopamine neurons. We investigated whether the prospect theoretic effects shown in behavioral and fMRI studies were present in midbrain prediction error coding by using the feedback-related negativity, an ERP component believed to reflect midbrain prediction errors. Participants' stated satisfaction with outcomes followed prospect theory but their feedback-related negativity did not, instead showing no effect of marginal utility and greater sensitivity to potential gains than losses. Copyright © 2012 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  18. [Scale Relativity Theory in living beings morphogenesis: fratal, determinism and chance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaline, J

    2012-10-01

    The Scale Relativity Theory has many biological applications from linear to non-linear and, from classical mechanics to quantum mechanics. Self-similar laws have been used as model for the description of a huge number of biological systems. Theses laws may explain the origin of basal life structures. Log-periodic behaviors of acceleration or deceleration can be applied to branching macroevolution, to the time sequences of major evolutionary leaps. The existence of such a law does not mean that the role of chance in evolution is reduced, but instead that randomness and contingency may occur within a framework which may itself be structured in a partly statistical way. The scale relativity theory can open new perspectives in evolution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of activity theory to analysis of human-related accidents: Method and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young Sik; Ham, Dong-Han; Yoon, Wan Chul

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a new approach to human-related accident analysis based on activity theory. Most of the existing methods seem to be insufficient for comprehensive analysis of human activity-related contextual aspects of accidents when investigating the causes of human errors. Additionally, they identify causal factors and their interrelationships with a weak theoretical basis. We argue that activity theory offers useful concepts and insights to supplement existing methods. The proposed approach gives holistic contextual backgrounds for understanding and diagnosing human-related accidents. It also helps identify and organise causal factors in a consistent, systematic way. Two case studies in Korean nuclear power plants are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method. Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) was also applied to the case studies. The results of using HFACS were then compared with those of using the proposed method. These case studies showed that the proposed approach could produce a meaningful set of human activity-related contextual factors, which cannot easily be obtained by using existing methods. It can be especially effective when analysts think it is important to diagnose accident situations with human activity-related contextual factors derived from a theoretically sound model and to identify accident-related contextual factors systematically. - Highlights: • This study proposes a new method for analysing human-related accidents. • The method was developed based on activity theory. • The concept of activity system model and contradiction was used in the method. • Two case studies in nuclear power plants are presented. • The method is helpful to consider causal factors systematically and comprehensively.

  20. RELATIONS BETWEEN TEACHERS’ MOTIVATION AND STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION: A SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Inok

    2014-01-01

    There is little research that examines impact teachers' motivation on students' motivation due to sparse attention to teachers' motivation. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between teachers' motivation and students' motivation using self-determination theory. Participants were 697 5th and 6th students and 35 of their teachers in Seoul, South Korea. Students completed the questionnaires for motivation, basic psychological needs, and perceptions of teacher's in...

  1. Relations between the Development of Teaching and Theory of Mind in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Margalit; Solomon, Ayelet; Strauss, Sidney; Frye, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The relations among children's theory of mind (ToM), their understanding of the intentionality of teaching, and their own peer teaching strategies were tested. Seventy-five 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds completed 11 ToM and understanding-of-teaching tasks. Subsequently, 30 of the children were randomly chosen to teach a peer how to play a board game,…

  2. How the Laser Helped to Improve the Test of Special Theory of Relativity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satya Pal

    2013-01-01

    In this paper of I have reviewed the test done for validating the special theory of relativity using masers and lasers in last one century. Michelson-Morley did the first experimental verification for the isotropy of space for the propagation of light in 1887. It has an accuracy of 1/100th of a fringe shift. The predicted fringe shift on the basis…

  3. Dispersion relations for the self-energy in noncommutative field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, F.T.; Das, Ashok; Frenkel, J.

    2002-01-01

    We study the IR-UV connection in noncommutative φ 3 theory as well as in noncommutative QED from the point of view of the dispersion relation for self-energy. We show that, although the imaginary part of the self-energy is well behaved as the parameter of noncommutativity vanishes, the real part becomes divergent as a consequence of the high energy behavior of the dispersion integral. Some other interesting features that arise from this analysis are also briefly discussed

  4. Experimental test of General Relativity theory by radar observations of planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'eva, T.I.; Kislik, M.D.; Kolyuka, Yu.F.; Tikhonov, V.F.

    1991-01-01

    Basing on the radar observations of planets, carried out in the USSR and USA in 1964-1986, a particular relativistic effect has been tested, namely the (O-C) discrepancies in radar distances, arising in the construction of a unified theory of motion on interior planets in the Newtonian approximation. The results obtained confirm the validity of General Relativity to an accuracy of about 10 -2

  5. A review of constructivism: understanding and using a relatively new theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, N

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to familiarize family medicine educators with a relatively new educational theory, "constructivism." This theory is derived from the philosophical proposition that reality is constructed by the individual. According to the more traditional theory of "objectivism," knowledge exists in the world external to personal experience. Constructivist theory postulates that personal experience cannot be separated from knowledge. In analyzing the literature, the author found that constructivism can be viewed at the cognitive (individual) and social (community) levels. Cognitive constructivism maintains that individuals develop their own models of reality using personal experience and research-based data. Two key elements of cognitive constructivism with implications for family medicine educators are promoting student independence and active learning. Social constructivism maintains that individuals use their membership in a community to continually refine and shape their models of reality. By communicating with each other (for physicians, in the "conversation of medicine"), we test our constructs. Two key elements of social constructivism with implications for application by family medicine educators are promoting collaboration and peer teaching.

  6. Integrability of a family of quantum field theories related to sigma models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridout, David [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Teschner, Joerg [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2011-03-15

    A method is introduced for constructing lattice discretizations of large classes of integrable quantum field theories. The method proceeds in two steps: The quantum algebraic structure underlying the integrability of the model is determined from the algebra of the interaction terms in the light-cone representation. The representation theory of the relevant quantum algebra is then used to construct the basic ingredients of the quantum inverse scattering method, the lattice Lax matrices and R-matrices. This method is illustrated with four examples: The Sinh-Gordon model, the affine sl(3) Toda model, a model called the fermionic sl(2 vertical stroke 1) Toda theory, and the N=2 supersymmetric Sine-Gordon model. These models are all related to sigma models in various ways. The N=2 supersymmetric Sine-Gordon model, in particular, describes the Pohlmeyer reduction of string theory on AdS{sub 2} x S{sup 2}, and is dual to a supersymmetric non-linear sigma model with a sausage-shaped target space. (orig.)

  7. Relative entropy of excited states in two dimensional conformal field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sárosi, Gábor [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, Budapest University of Technology,Budapest, H-1521 (Hungary); Ugajin, Tomonori [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara,CA 93106 (United States)

    2016-07-21

    We study the relative entropy and the trace square distance, both of which measure the distance between reduced density matrices of two excited states in two dimensional conformal field theories. We find a general formula for the relative entropy between two primary states with the same conformal dimension in the limit of a single small interval and find that in this case the relative entropy is proportional to the trace square distance. We check our general formulae by calculating the relative entropy between two generalized free fields and the trace square distance between the spin and disorder operators of the critical Ising model. We also give the leading term of the relative entropy in the small interval expansion when the two operators have different conformal dimensions. This turns out to be universal when the CFT has no primaires lighter than the stress tensor. The result reproduces the previously known special cases.

  8. Application of Item Response Theory to Tests of Substance-related Associative Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Yusuke; Grenard, Jerry L.; Ames, Susan L.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    A substance-related word association test (WAT) is one of the commonly used indirect tests of substance-related implicit associative memory and has been shown to predict substance use. This study applied an item response theory (IRT) modeling approach to evaluate psychometric properties of the alcohol- and marijuana-related WATs and their items among 775 ethnically diverse at-risk adolescents. After examining the IRT assumptions, item fit, and differential item functioning (DIF) across gender and age groups, the original 18 WAT items were reduced to 14- and 15-items in the alcohol- and marijuana-related WAT, respectively. Thereafter, unidimensional one- and two-parameter logistic models (1PL and 2PL models) were fitted to the revised WAT items. The results demonstrated that both alcohol- and marijuana-related WATs have good psychometric properties. These results were discussed in light of the framework of a unified concept of construct validity (Messick, 1975, 1989, 1995). PMID:25134051

  9. Semantic relations and compound transparency: A regression study in CARIN theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Hien

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the CARIN theory of Gagné and Shoben (1997, conceptual relations play an important role in compound interpretation. This study develops three measures gauging the role of conceptual relations, and pits these measures against measures based on latent semantic analysis (Landauer & Dumais, 1997. The CARIN measures successfully predict response latencies in a familiarity categorization task, in a semantic transparency task, and in visual lexical decision. Of the measures based on latent semantic analysis, only a measure orthogonal to the conceptual relations, which instead gauges the extent to which the concepts for the compound’s head and the compound itself are discriminated, also reached significance. Results further indicate that in tasks requiring careful assessment of the meaning of the compound, general knowledge of conceptual relations plays a central role, whereas in the lexical decision task, attention shifts to co-activated meanings and the specifics of the conceptual relations realized in the compound’s modifier family.

  10. How Is Frustration Related to Online Gamer Loyalty? A Synthesis of Multiple Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Han-Chung; Liao, Gen-Yih; Chiu, Kay-Ling; Teng, Ching-I

    2017-11-01

    Online games can frustrate their gamers, but little was known about how such frustration impacts gamer loyalty. Because novice and experienced gamers may respond differently to frustration, this study investigates how gamers' frustration influences their loyalty and how this influence may differ between novice and experienced gamers. Because of the complexity of this issue, multiple theories were synthesized to develop the theoretical model. This study collected responses from 558 online gamers. Findings indicate that frustration is positively related to novice gamers' participation in task teams, and subsequently their loyalty. However, frustration is negatively related to the self-efficacy of experienced gamers and to their loyalty.

  11. Relative entropy for hyperbolic-parabolic systems and application to the constitutive theory of thermoviscoelasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Christoforou, Cleopatra

    2017-12-10

    We extend the relative entropy identity to the class of hyperbolic-parabolic systems whose hyperbolic part is symmetrizable. The resulting identity is useful to provide measure valued weak versus strong uniqueness theorems for the hyperbolic problem. Also, it yields a convergence result in the zero-viscosity limit to smooth solutions in an Lp framework. The relative entropy identity is also developed for the system of gas dynamics for viscous and heat conducting gases, and for the system of thermoviscoelasticity with viscosity and heat-conduction. Existing differences between the example and the general hyperbolic theory are underlined.

  12. Relative entropy of excited states in conformal field theories of arbitrary dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sárosi, Gábor [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussels and International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, Brussels, B-1050 (Belgium); David Rittenhouse Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania,Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Ugajin, Tomonori [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2017-02-10

    Extending our previous work, we study the relative entropy between the reduced density matrices obtained from globally excited states in conformal field theories of arbitrary dimensions. We find a general formula in the small subsystem size limit. When one of the states is the vacuum of the CFT, our result matches with the holographic entanglement entropy computations in the corresponding bulk geometries, including AdS black branes. We also discuss the first asymmetric part of the relative entropy and comment on some implications of the results on the distinguishability of black hole microstates in AdS/CFT.

  13. Relative entropy for hyperbolic-parabolic systems and application to the constitutive theory of thermoviscoelasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Christoforou, Cleopatra; Tzavaras, Athanasios

    2017-01-01

    We extend the relative entropy identity to the class of hyperbolic-parabolic systems whose hyperbolic part is symmetrizable. The resulting identity is useful to provide measure valued weak versus strong uniqueness theorems for the hyperbolic problem. Also, it yields a convergence result in the zero-viscosity limit to smooth solutions in an Lp framework. The relative entropy identity is also developed for the system of gas dynamics for viscous and heat conducting gases, and for the system of thermoviscoelasticity with viscosity and heat-conduction. Existing differences between the example and the general hyperbolic theory are underlined.

  14. The Viewpoints of Physics Teacher Candidates towards the Concepts in Special Theory of Relativity and Their Evaluation Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Umit; Gurbuz, Fatih; Salar, Riza; Toman, Ufuk

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the viewpoints of physics teacher candidates at undergraduate level towards the concepts in special theory of relativity and the interpretations they made about these concepts were investigated. The viewpoints of the teacher candidates towards the concepts in the subject of special theory of relativity were revealed with six open…

  15. An examination of network position and childhood relational aggression: integrating resource control and social exchange theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Cappella, Elise

    2012-01-01

    Applying resource control theory and social exchange theory, we examined the social network conditions under which elementary age children were likely to engage in relational aggression. Data on classroom peer networks and peer-nominated behaviors were collected on 671 second- through fourth-grade children in 34 urban, low-income classrooms. Nested regression models with robust cluster standard errors demonstrated that the association between children's number of relationships and their levels of relational aggression was moderated by the number of relationships that their affiliates had. Children with more peer relationships (i.e., higher network centrality) exhibited higher levels of relational aggression, but only when these relationships were with peers who had fewer connections themselves (i.e., poorly connected peers). This finding remained significant even when controlling for common predictors of relational aggression including gender, overt aggression, prosocial behavior, victimization, social preference, and perceived popularity. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for advancing the literature on childhood relational aggression and their practical applications for identifying children at risk for these behaviors. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Relative entanglement entropies in 1+1-dimensional conformal field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggiero, Paola; Calabrese, Pasquale [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN,Via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy)

    2017-02-08

    We study the relative entanglement entropies of one interval between excited states of a 1+1 dimensional conformal field theory (CFT). To compute the relative entropy S(ρ{sub 1}∥ρ{sub 0}) between two given reduced density matrices ρ{sub 1} and ρ{sub 0} of a quantum field theory, we employ the replica trick which relies on the path integral representation of Tr(ρ{sub 1}ρ{sub 0}{sup n−1}) and define a set of Rényi relative entropies S{sub n}(ρ{sub 1}∥ρ{sub 0}). We compute these quantities for integer values of the parameter n and derive via the replica limit the relative entropy between excited states generated by primary fields of a free massless bosonic field. In particular, we provide the relative entanglement entropy of the state described by the primary operator i∂ϕ, both with respect to the ground state and to the state generated by chiral vertex operators. These predictions are tested against exact numerical calculations in the XX spin-chain finding perfect agreement.

  17. Teacher Perspectives of Interdisciplinary Coteaching Relationships in a Clinical Skills Course: A Relational Coordination Theory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Michelle M; Ross, Paula; Stalmeijer, Renée E; de Grave, Willem

    2018-01-01

    Phenomenon: Interdisciplinary coteaching has become a popular pedagogic model in medical education, yet there is insufficient research to guide effective practices in this context. Coteaching relationships are not always effective, which has the potential to affect the student experience. The purpose of this study was to explore interdisciplinary coteaching relationships between a physician (MD) and social behavioral scientist (SBS) in an undergraduate clinical skills course. We aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of what teachers perceive as influencing the quality of relationships to begin to construct a framework for collaborative teaching in medical education. A qualitative study was conducted consisting of 12 semistructured interviews (6 MD and 6 SBS) and 2 monodisciplinary focus groups. Sampling was purposive and aimed at maximal variation from among 64 possible faculty. The data were analyzed using the constant comparative method to develop a grounded theory. Five major themes resulted from the analysis that outline a framework for interdisciplinary coteaching: respect, shared goals, shared knowledge and understanding, communication, and complementary pairings. Insights: The first 4 themes align with elements of relational coordination theory, an organizational theory of collaborative practice that describes how work roles interact. The complementary pairings extend this theory from work roles to individuals, with unique identities and personal beliefs and values about teaching. Prior studies on coteaching have not provided a clear linkage to theory. The conceptual framework helps suggest future directions for coteaching research and has practical implications for administrative practices and faculty development. These findings contribute to the sparse research in medical education on interdisciplinary coteaching relationships.

  18. Incorporating Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations to Promote Holistic Communication Between Older Adults and Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, William H; Fain, James A

    2016-03-01

    With the increased life expectancy, older adults will interact with multiple health care providers to manage acute and chronic conditions. These interactions include nursing students who use various health care settings to meet the clinical practicum requirements of their programs. Nursing faculty are charged with facilitating students' learning throughout the program from basic human needs, to holistic communication, to advanced medical surgical concepts. Despite educating students on holistic communication, there remains a lack of a reliable framework to undertake the task of teaching holistic communication skills. Nursing students preparing to function as licensed practitioners need to develop appropriate knowledge to holistically care for older adults. The purpose of this article is to examine Hildegard Peplau's interpersonal relations theory as a framework to assist nursing students to understand holistic communication skills during their encounters with older adults. Peplau's theory provides nursing a useful set of three interlocking and oftentimes overlapping working phases for nurses' interaction with patients in the form of the nurse-patient relationship. Nursing education could adopt the three phases of Peplau's interpersonal relations theory to educate students on holistically communicating with older adults. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Distinguishing f(R) theories from general relativity by gravitational lensing effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongguang [Beijing Normal University, Department of Physics, Beijing (China); Aix Marseille Universite et Universite de Toulon, Centre de Physique Theorique (UMR 7332), Marseille (France); Wang, Xin; Li, Haida; Ma, Yongge [Beijing Normal University, Department of Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-11-15

    The post-Newtonian formulation of a general class of f(R) theories is set up in a third-order approximation. It turns out that the information of a specific form of f(R) gravity is encoded in the Yukawa potential, which is contained in the perturbative expansion of the metric components. Although the Yukawa potential is canceled in the second-order expression of the effective refraction index of light, detailed analysis shows that the difference of the lensing effect between the f(R) gravity and general relativity does appear at the third order when √(f''(0)/f{sup '}(0)) is larger than the distance d{sub 0} to the gravitational source. However, the difference between these two kinds of theories will disappear in the axially symmetric spacetime region. Therefore only in very rare case the f(R) theories are distinguishable from general relativity by gravitational lensing effect in a third-order post-Newtonian approximation. (orig.)

  20. Safeguarding Self-Governance: A Grounded Theory of Older Patients’ Pattern of Behavior in Relation to their Relatives in Fast-track Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie B.; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Lindhardt Damsgaard, Tove

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to generate a grounded theory of older patients’ pattern of behavior in relation to their relatives’ involvement in fast-track programs during total joint replacement. Sixteen patients were recruited in orthopedic wards. Data collection included 11 interviews......, shielding, distancing, and masking. Keywords: Fast-track program, grounded theory, older patients, relatives, total joint replacement.......-governance emerged in the analysis as the core category of our theory and pattern of behavior of the older patients in relation to their relatives. The older patients’ main concern was to complete the fast-track program while maintaining autonomy, which they resolved through four strategies of actions: embracing...

  1. MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND THEIR RELATION TO THE THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Moreno-Murcia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish motivational profiles for doing physical activity according to the variables from the theory of planned action in a sample of 698 students aged 14 to 16. The instruments used were the Questionnaire of Behavioral Regulation in Sport (BRQ-R and the Questionnaire of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TCP. Cluster analysis revealed two motivational profiles: a "self-determined" profile with high scores in intrinsic motivation and low scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation, and a "non self- determined" profile with low scores in intrinsic motivation and high scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation. Positive significant differences in attitudes, norms, and intent to control were found for the self-determined profile related to "non self-determined" profile

  2. Canonical quantization of nonlocal theories related to bosonization in 2 + 1D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, R.L.P.G. do; Marino, E.C.

    1991-08-01

    We present a canonical formulation for theories whose actions contain non-integer powers of the d'Alembertian operator and which were recently shown to play a central role in 2 + 1D bosonization. We show that these theories possess an infinite number of constraints and use the Dirac method in order to obtain the classical brackets. The casual and classical Green functions are obtained and their meaning in terms of field expectation values is discussed. The Wightman functions are introduced and shown to lead to the microcausality principle. A mode expansion for the field is obtained. This permits the reobtention of the Wightman functions as vacuum expectation values of products of the basic fields. Creation and annihilation operators are naturally introduced but, as shown, they are not related to definite mass particle states. This is also confirmed by the spectral decomposition of the Wightman functions. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig

  3. Pain judgements of patients' relatives: examining the use of social contract theory as theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappesser, Judith; de C Williams, Amanda C

    2008-08-01

    Observer underestimation of others' pain was studied using a concept from evolutionary psychology: a cheater detection mechanism from social contract theory, applied to relatives and friends of chronic pain patients. 127 participants estimated characters' pain intensity and fairness of behaviour after reading four vignettes describing characters suffering from pain. Four cues were systematically varied: the character continuing or stopping liked tasks; continuing or stopping disliked tasks; availability of medical evidence; and pain intensity as rated by characters. Results revealed that pain intensity and the two behavioural variables had an effect on pain estimates: high pain self-reports and stopping all tasks led to high pain estimates; pain was estimated to be lowest when characters stopped disliked but continued with liked tasks. This combination was also rated least fair. Results support the use of social contract theory as a theoretical framework to explore pain judgements.

  4. Rethinking the acculturation gap-distress theory among asian americans: Testing bidirectional indirect relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, P Priscilla

    2018-02-19

    The acculturation gap-distress theory postulates that parent-offspring acculturation mismatch precipitates greater intergenerational conflict in immigrant families, which in turn increases the risk for psychological problems among offspring. Whereas cross-sectional studies have shown support for these theory-informed relations, comparatively little is known about whether acculturation mismatch negatively affects psychological functioning, or whether offspring's psychological problems precipitate greater perceived acculturation mismatch via intergenerational cultural conflict. Furthermore, more research is needed to investigate how acculturation and family conflict affect Asian Americans transitioning into college and emerging adulthood. Across two measurement occasions, two cohorts of Asian American first-year college students (N = 555, Mage = 17.99, 56.0% women) completed survey questionnaires assessing their perception of parent-offspring acculturation discrepancies, acculturation-related intergenerational conflict, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. For both sets of psychological functioning, gender invariant structural equation models testing the bidirectional relations demonstrated adequate fit for the data. In the case of externalizing symptoms, acculturation mismatch marginally significantly predicted subsequent intergenerational conflict, but acculturation mismatch did not predict externalizing symptoms via intergenerational cultural conflict. By contrast, offspring's internalizing and externalizing symptoms respectively predicted greater self-reported intergenerational cultural conflict, which in turn predicted perceived parent-offspring acculturation mismatch over time. These indirect relations suggested that both internalizing and externalizing symptoms indirectly contributed to greater acculturation mismatch through the presence of intergenerational cultural conflict, but data did not support the acculturation gap-distress theory. Theoretical

  5. IS IT NECESSARY TO TEACH THE THEORY OF RELATIVITY IN GENERAL PHYSICS COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Kolgatin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation is to discuss and study the general structure of the course of Physics at the high school in an extended sense. In a narrower sense, the author wonders about the necessity for inclusion of the section «Theory of Relativity» in the General Physics course, and discusses the possible site of this issue in the order of presentation.Methods. A method for designing Physics course in modern conditions requires certain sophistication from a lecturer. This is due to the strong reduction of Physics course occurred in recent years, and due to a number of objective and subjective reasons. Planning the course structure, one has to make the selection of most significant questions sacrificing minor and less significant issues. This process is particularly exacerbated by severe restrictions on the time allowed for the subject. It is necessary to re-examine the content of the course due to the recent reduction in lecture hours on Physics. In this case, it would be undesirable to neglect the substantial parts of the subject content which are important conceptually or in its applications, e.g. the Relativity Theory. The author discusses two ways of disposition of the relevant material in the course structure, and correlates them with the required level of Physics teaching. In the first approach the Relativity Theory course is considered as a part of Modern Mechanics and is placed in the first semester immediately following Kinematics. In the second approach, Relativistic Physics is presented as a result of deduction, as a generalized theory explaining the unity of the world and the objective existence of physical laws; in this case, the section is better to locate after Optics, immediately before Atomic Physics.Results. As a result of consideration, the author proves the conclusion that the inclusion of the Relativistic Theory course in a number of sections of General Physics is necessary. The author offers a list of

  6. Special relativity and quantum theory: a collection of papers on the Poincari Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noz, M.E.; Kim, Y.S.

    1988-01-01

    When the present form of quantum mechanics was formulated in 1927, the most pressing problem was how to make it consistent with special relativity. This still remains a most important and urgent theoretical problem in physics. The underlying language for both disciplines is group theory, and E.P. Wigner's 1939 paper on the Poincari group laid the foundation for unifying the concepts and algorithms of quantum mechanics and special relativity. This volume comprises forty-five papers, including those by P.A.M. Dirac, R.P. Feynman, S. Weinberg, E.P. Wigner and H. Yukawa, covering representations of the Poincari group, time-energy uncertainty relation, covariant pictures of quantum bound states, Lorentz-Dirac deformation in high-enery physics, gauge degrees of freedom for massless particles, group contractions applied to the large-momentum/zero-mass limit, localization problems, and physical applications of the Lorentz group

  7. Relations between episodic memory, suggestibility, theory of mind, and cognitive inhibition in the preschool child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinder, Annika; Endestad, Tor; Magnussen, Svein

    2006-12-01

    The development of episodic memory, its relation to theory of mind (ToM), executive functions (e.g., cognitive inhibition), and to suggestibility was studied. Children (n= 115) between 3 and 6 years of age saw two versions of a video film and were tested for their memory of critical elements of the videos. Results indicated similar developmental trends for all memory measures, ToM, and inhibition, but ToM and inhibition were not associated with any memory measures. Correlations involving source memory was found in relation to specific questions, whereas inhibition and ToM were significantly correlated to resistance to suggestions. A regression analysis showed that age was the main contributor to resistance to suggestions, to correct source monitoring, and to correct responses to specific questions. Inhibition was also a significant main predictor of resistance to suggestive questions, whereas the relative contribution of ToM was wiped out when an extended model was tested.

  8. Antecedents of emotions in elite athletes: a cognitive motivational relational theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphill, Mark A; Jones, Marc V

    2007-03-01

    Cognitive motivational relational theory suggests that cognitive appraisals or core relational themes (a composite summary of appraisal components) represent the proximal determinants of athletes' emotions. Semistructured interviews with 12 current international athletes (1 woman and 11 men) ages 19 to 37 years (M age = 27 years, SD = 6.03), representing a range of sports (badminton, golf rugby union, athletics, archery, sailing, and snooker) explored the association between athletes' appraisals and emotions. Concurrent inductive and deductive content analyses suggested that primary and secondary appraisal components (goal relevance, goal congruence, ego-involvement, blame/credit, coping potential, future expectations) were associated with a range of emotions: anger anxiety, guilt, happiness, pride, relief sadness, and shame. A hierarchical content analysis provided some support for Lazarus' (1991) core relational themes. Limitations and applications of this study are discussed.

  9. A relation between deformed superspace and Lee-Wick higher-derivative theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, M.; Ferrari, A. F.; Palechor, C. A.; Senise, C. R., Jr.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a non-anticommutative superspace that relates to the Lee-Wick type of higher-derivative theories, which are known for their interesting properties and have led to proposals of phenomenologically viable higher-derivative extensions of the Standard Model. The deformation of superspace we consider does not preserve supersymmetry or associativity in general, but, we show that a non-anticommutative version of the Wess-Zumino model can be properly defined. In fact, the definition of chiral and antichiral superfields turns out to be simpler in our case than in the well known N=1/2 supersymmetric case. We show that when the theory is truncated at the first nontrivial order in the deformation parameter, supersymmetry is restored, and we end up with a well-known Lee-Wick type of higher-derivative extension of the Wess-Zumino model. Thus, we show how non-anticommutativity could provide an alternative mechanism for generating these higher-derivative theories.

  10. Theory based interventions for caries related sugar intake in adults: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rawahi, Said Hartih; Asimakopoulou, Koula; Newton, Jonathon Timothy

    2017-07-25

    Theories of behavior change are essential in the design of effective behaviour change strategies. No studies have assessed the effectiveness of interventions based on psychological theories to reduce sugar intake related to dental caries. The study assessed the effect of interventions based on Social Congition Models (SCMs) on sugar intake in adults, when compared with educational interventions or no intervention. A range of papers were considered: Systematic review Systematic Reviews with or without Meta Analyses; Randomised Controlled Trials; Controlled Clinical Trials and Before and after studies, of interventions based on Social Cognition Models aimed at dietary intake of sugar in adults. The Cochrane database including: Oral Health Group's Trials Register (2015), MEDLINE (from 1966 to September 2015), EMBASE (from 1980 to September 2015), PsycINFO (from 1966 to September 2015) were searched. No article met the full eligibility criteria for the current systematic review so no articles were included. There is a need for more clinical trials to assess the effectiveness of interventions based on psychological theory in reducing dietary sugar intake among adults. PROSPERO: CRD42015026357 .

  11. The theory of everything quantum and relativity is everywhere : a Fermat Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarzer, Norbert

    2018-01-01

    The book unifies quantum theory and the general theory of relativity. As an unsolved problem for about 100 years and influencing so many fields, this is probably of some importance to the scientific community. Examples like Higgs field, limit to classical Dirac and Klein–Gordon or Schrödinger cases, quantized Schwarzschild, Kerr, Kerr–Newman objects, and the photon are considered for illustration. An interesting explanation for the asymmetry of matter and antimatter in the early universe was found while quantizing the Schwarzschild metric. Along the way, the methods outlined in the book are also used to tackle the problem of the proof of Fermat’s last theorem, as there is a connection between quantum theory and basic mathematical laws of integers. The book shows that the proof of Fermat’s last theorem can be brought down to a few lines by applying new quantum theoretical methods. Because such proof was sought for over 370 years, this book is of definite interest to mathematicians.

  12. Equations for the gravitational field and local conserved quantities in the general theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoff, S.

    1979-07-01

    By utilization of the method of Lagrangians with covariant derivatives (MLCD) the different energy-momentum tensors (canonical, generalized canonical, symmetrical) and the relations between them are considered. On this basis, Einstein's theory of gravitation is studied as a field theory with a Lagrangian density of the type Lsub(g)=√-g.Lsub(g)(gsub(ij),Rsub(A)), (Rsub(A)=Rsub(ijkl)). It is shown that the energy-momentum tensors of the gravitational field can be defined for this theory. The symmetrical energy-momentum tensor of the gravitational field sub(gs)Tsub(k)sup(i), which in the general case is not a local conserved quantity (sub(gs)Tsub(k)sup(i)sub(;i) unequal 0) (in contrast to the material fields satisfying condition sub(Ms)Tsub(k)sup(i)sub(;i) = 0), is equal to zero for the gravitational field in vacuum (cosmological constant Λ = 0). Equations of the gravitational field of a new type are suggested, leading to equations of motion (sub(Ms)Tsub(k)sup(i) + sub(gs)Tsub(k)sup(i))sub(;i) = 0. The equations corresponding to the Lagrangian density Lsub(g)=(√-g/kappasub(o)) (R - lambda approximately), lambda approximately = const., are considered. The equations of Einstein Rsub(ij) = 0 are obtained in the case of gravitational field in vacuum. Some particular cases are examined as an illustration to material fields and the corresponding gravitational equations. (author)

  13. The Creation of Myth: Starting the First "Great Debate" in International Relations Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aleksandrovna Alekseeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available From one textbook to another wanders the story about three (sometimes - four Great debates, which formed the canonical history of the theory of international relations. In reality everything was much more complicated, and the theoretical richness much wider than many times repeated antinomic pairs - realism vs. idealism, traditionalism vs. modernism, rationalism vs. reflectivism The author regards the discussions between different trends of the political thought in the interwar period, which were later called the First "Great Debates", which, according to the author's view were pre-paradigmal.

  14. Einstein's opponents the public controversy about the theory of relativity in the 1920s

    CERN Document Server

    Wazeck, Milena

    2014-01-01

    This detailed account of the controversy surrounding the publication of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity explores the ferocious popular and academic opposition which at one time encircled one of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the twentieth century. Based on extensive archival research, this fascinating discourse includes a compelling and entertaining examination of the contemporary literature created by Einstein's detractors. Exploring the arguments and strategies, social contexts, and motivations of Einstein's detractors, and providing unique insights into the dynamics of scientific controversies, this book is ideal for anyone interested in the history and philosophy of physics, popular science, and the public understanding of science.

  15. Integrating Vygotsky's theory of relational ontology into early childhood science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, Susan A.

    2014-03-01

    In Science Education during Early Childhood: A Cultural- Historical Perspective, Wolff-Michael Roth, Maria Inês Mafra Goulart and Katerina Plakitsi explore the practical application of Vygotsky's relational ontological theory of human development to early childhood science teaching and teacher development. In this review, I interrogate how Roth et al. conceptualize "emergent curriculum" within the Eurocentric cultural-historical traditions of early childhood education that evolved primarily from the works of Vygotsky and Piaget and compare it to the conceptualizations from other prominent early childhood researchers and curriculum developers. I examine the implications of the authors' interpretation of emergence for early childhood science education and teacher preparation.

  16. Einstein's creative thinking and the general theory of relativity: a documented report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, A

    1979-01-01

    A document written by Albert Einstein has recently come to light in which the eminent scientist described the actual sequence of his thoughts leading to the development of the general theory of relativity. The key creative thought was an instance of a type of creative cognition the author has previously designated "Janusian thinking," Janusian thinking consists of actively conceiving two or more opposite or antithetical concepts, ideas, or images simultaneously. This form of high-level secondary process cognition has been found to operate widely in art, science, and other fields.

  17. Caring as emancipatory nursing praxis: the theory of relational caring complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Marilyn A; Turkel, Marian C

    2014-01-01

    In the culture of health care, nurses are challenged to understand their values and beliefs as humanistic within complex technical and economically driven bureaucratic systems. This article outlines the language of social justice and human rights and the advance of a Theory of Relational Caring Complexity, which offers insights into caring as emancipatory nursing praxis. Recommendations provide knowledge of the struggle to balance economics, technology, and caring. As nurses practice from a value-driven, philosophical, and ethical social justice framework, they will find "their voice" and realize the full potential that the power of caring has on patient and organizational outcomes.

  18. Semantic modeling for theory clarification: The realist vs liberal international relations perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, O.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Political Science Dept.

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes a natural language based, semantic information modeling methodology and explores its use and value in clarifying and comparing political science theories and frameworks. As an example, the paper uses this methodology to clarify and compare some of the basic concepts and relationships in the realist (e.g. Waltz) and the liberal (e.g. Rosenau) paradigms for international relations. The methodology can provide three types of benefits: (1) it can clarify and make explicit exactly what is meant by a concept; (2) it can often identify unanticipated implications and consequence of concepts and relationships; and (3) it can help in identifying and operationalizing testable hypotheses.

  19. Scale relativity theory and integrative systems biology: 2. Macroscopic quantum-type mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottale, Laurent; Auffray, Charles

    2008-05-01

    In these two companion papers, we provide an overview and a brief history of the multiple roots, current developments and recent advances of integrative systems biology and identify multiscale integration as its grand challenge. Then we introduce the fundamental principles and the successive steps that have been followed in the construction of the scale relativity theory, which aims at describing the effects of a non-differentiable and fractal (i.e., explicitly scale dependent) geometry of space-time. The first paper of this series was devoted, in this new framework, to the construction from first principles of scale laws of increasing complexity, and to the discussion of some tentative applications of these laws to biological systems. In this second review and perspective paper, we describe the effects induced by the internal fractal structures of trajectories on motion in standard space. Their main consequence is the transformation of classical dynamics into a generalized, quantum-like self-organized dynamics. A Schrödinger-type equation is derived as an integral of the geodesic equation in a fractal space. We then indicate how gauge fields can be constructed from a geometric re-interpretation of gauge transformations as scale transformations in fractal space-time. Finally, we introduce a new tentative development of the theory, in which quantum laws would hold also in scale space, introducing complexergy as a measure of organizational complexity. Initial possible applications of this extended framework to the processes of morphogenesis and the emergence of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular structures are discussed. Having founded elements of the evolutionary, developmental, biochemical and cellular theories on the first principles of scale relativity theory, we introduce proposals for the construction of an integrative theory of life and for the design and implementation of novel macroscopic quantum-type experiments and devices, and discuss their potential

  20. Important theories of the 20th century. Relativity, cosmology, quantum mechanics and chaos theory. 3. corr. ed.; Bedeutende Theorien des 20. Jahrhunderts. Relativitaetstheorie, Kosmologie, Quantenmechanik und Chaostheorie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnebrock, Werner [Fachhochschule Rheinland-Pfalz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The past century changed the classical, scientific way of view enormously. The quantum theory broke with the imagination of continuity of all dynamical processes and gave space to completely new, nearly revolutionary approaches of thinking. Einstein's relativity theory put the absoluteness of time and space as well as the general validity of the Euclidean geometry in question. The absolute calculability, as it was formulated by Laplace, was by the influence of chaos theory proven as illusion. Computers made by the Mandelbrot set the presentation of new esthetic and never seen structures. Hilbert's century program of a complete formalization of mathematics failed because of the famous law of Goedel. It is the demand of this book to present all these theories and conclusions easily understandably and entertainingly.

  1. Gravitation Theory: Empirical Status from Solar System Experiments: All observations to date are consistent with Einstein's general relativity theory of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordtvedt, K L

    1972-12-15

    I have reviewed the historical and contemporary experiments that guide us in choosing a post-Newtonian, relativistic gravitational theory. The foundation experiments essentially constrain gravitation theory to be a metric theory in which matter couples solely to one gravitational field, the metric field, although other cosmological gravitational fields may exist. The metric field for any metric theory can be specified (for the solar system, for our present purposes) by a series of potential terms with several parameters. A variety of experiments specify (or put limits on) the numerical values of the seven parameters in the post-Newtonian metric field, and other such experiments have been planned. The empirical results, to date, yield values of the parameters that are consistent with the predictions of Einstein's general relativity.

  2. Evolution is a cooperative process: the biodiversity-related niches differentiation theory (BNDT) can explain why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Roberto Cazzolla

    2011-01-01

    A. McFayden and G.E. Hutchinson defined a niche as a multidimensional space or hypervolume within the environment that allows an individual or a species to survive, we consider niches as a fundamental ecological variable that regulate species' composition and relation in ecosystems. Successively the niche concept has been associated to the genetic term "phenotype" by MacArthurstressing the importance on what a species or a genome can show outside, either in the environmental functions or in body characteristics. Several indexes have been developed to evaluate the grade of overlapping and similarities of species' niches, even utilizing the theory of information. However, which are the factors that determine the number of species that can coexist in a determinate environment and why a generalist species do not compete until the exclusion of the remaining species to maximize its fitness, is still quite unknown. Moreover, there are few studies and theories that clearly explain why the number of niches is so variable through ecosystems and how can several species live in the same basal niche, intended in a comprehensive sense as the range of basic conditions (temperature, humidity, food-guild, etc.). Here I show that the number of niches in an ecosystem depends on the number of species present in a particular moment and that the species themselves allow the enhancement of niches in terms of space and number. I found that using a three-dimensional model as hypervolume and testing the theory on a Mediterranean, temperate and tropical forest ecosystem it is possible to demonstrate that each species plays a fundamental role in facilitating the colonization by other species by simply modifying the environment and exponentially increasing the available niches' space and number. I resumed these hypothesis, after some preliminary empiric tests, in the Biodiversity-related Niches Differentiation Theory (BNDT), stressing with these definition that the process of niches

  3. Can You Read My Mind? Age as a Moderator in the Relationship between Theory of Mind and Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Talwar, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether age moderates the relationship between cognitive factors (theory of mind and attribution of intentions) and relational aggression. Participants (N = 426; 216 boys) between 6 and 9 years of age were asked to complete theory of mind tasks and answer an attribution of intentions questionnaire. Teachers evaluated…

  4. On the relation between the modular double of Uq(sl(2,R)) and the quantum Teichmueller theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nidaiev, Iurii; Teschner, Joerg

    2013-02-01

    We exhibit direct relations between the modular double of U q (sl(2,R)) and the quantum Teichmueller theory. Explicit representations for the fusion- and braiding operations of the quantum Teichmueller theory are immediate consequences. Our results include a simplified derivation of the Clebsch-Gordan decomposition for the principal series of representation of the modular double of U q (sl(2,R)).

  5. Theory of pairwise coupling embedded in more general local dispersion relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, V.; Bers, A.; Harten, L.

    1985-01-01

    Earlier work on the mode conversion theory by Fuchs, Ko, and Bers is detailed and expanded upon, and its relation to energy conservation is discussed. Given a local dispersion relation, D(ω; k, z) = 0, describing stable waves excited at an externally imposed frequency ω, a pairwise mode-coupling event embedded therein is extracted by expanding D(k, z) around a contour k = k/sub c/(z) given by partialD/partialk = 0. The branch points of D(k, z) = 0 are the turning points of a second-order differential-equation representation. In obtaining the fraction of mode-converted energy, the connection formula and conservation of energy must be used together. Also, proper attention must be given to distinguish cases for which the coupling disappears or persists upon confluence of the branches, a property which is shown to depend on the forward (v/sub g/v/sub ph/>0) or backward (v/sub g/v/sub ph/<0) nature of the waves. Examples occurring in ion-cyclotron and lower-hybrid heating are presented, illustrating the use of the theory

  6. On the role of the equivalence principle in the general relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertsenshtein, M.E.; Stanyukovich, K.P.; Pogosyan, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    The conditions under which the solutions of the general relativity theory equations satisfy the correspondence principle are considered. It is shown that in general relativity theory, as in a plane space any systems of coordinates satisfying the topological requirements of continuity and uniqueness are admissible. The coordinate transformations must be mutually unique, and the following requirements must be met: the transformations of the coordinates xsup(i)=xsup(i)(anti xsup(k)) must preserve the class of the function, while the transformation jacobian must be finite and nonzero. The admissible metrics in the Tolmen problem for a vacuum are considered. A prohibition of the vacuum solution of the Tolmen problem is obtained from the correspondence principle. The correspondence principle is applied to the solution of the Friedmann problem by constructing a spherical symmetric self-similar solution, in which replacement of compression by expansion occurs at a finite density. The examples adduced convince that the application of the correspondence principle makes it possible to discard physically inadmissible solutions and obtained new physical results

  7. Toward the classification of differential calculi on κ-Minkowski space and related field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurić, Tajron; Meljanac, Stjepan; Pikutić, Danijel [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Theoretical Physics Division,Bijenička c.54, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Štrajn, Rina [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari,viale Merello 92, I-09123 Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari,Cagliari (Italy)

    2015-07-13

    Classification of differential forms on κ-Minkowski space, particularly, the classification of all bicovariant differential calculi of classical dimension is presented. By imposing super-Jacobi identities we derive all possible differential algebras compatible with the κ-Minkowski algebra for time-like, space-like and light-like deformations. Embedding into the super-Heisenberg algebra is constructed using non-commutative (NC) coordinates and one-forms. Particularly, a class of differential calculi with an undeformed exterior derivative and one-forms is considered. Corresponding NC differential calculi are elaborated. Related class of new Drinfeld twists is proposed. It contains twist leading to κ-Poincaré Hopf algebra for light-like deformation. Corresponding super-algebra and deformed super-Hopf algebras, as well as the symmetries of differential algebras are presented and elaborated. Using the NC differential calculus, we analyze NC field theory, modified dispersion relations, and discuss further physical applications.

  8. Special theory of relativity: lectures and applications; Relativite restreinte: cours et applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Y

    2004-07-01

    This book is a clear and complete presentation of restricted relativity in which the author follows the historical path from puzzling experimental facts to the building of a new theory. It is shown how scientists had to challenge intuitive notions of time and space to explain and give consistency to experimental results. The text is spread with a lot of explanatory notes that contribute to a better understanding of the topic. This book aims at an audience of people already acquainted with general physics: students, scientists or teachers looking for a pedagogical reference book. This work is divided into 10 chapters: 1) The speed of light; 2) The Galilean transformation and optics; 3) Michelson's experiment and the relativity principle; 4) The Lorentz transformation; 5) Lorentz contraction and time dilation; 6) Relativistic kinematics; 7) Energy and momentum; 8) Relativistic dynamics; 9) Tensor calculus - Space-time, and 10) The invariance of Maxwell equations. (A.C.)

  9. The relation between majorization theory and quantum information from entanglement monotones perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erol, V. [Department of Computer Engineering, Institute of Science, Okan University, Istanbul (Turkey); Netas Telecommunication Inc., Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-04-21

    Entanglement has been studied extensively for understanding the mysteries of non-classical correlations between quantum systems. In the bipartite case, there are well known monotones for quantifying entanglement such as concurrence, relative entropy of entanglement (REE) and negativity, which cannot be increased via local operations. The study on these monotones has been a hot topic in quantum information [1-7] in order to understand the role of entanglement in this discipline. It can be observed that from any arbitrary quantum pure state a mixed state can obtained. A natural generalization of this observation would be to consider local operations classical communication (LOCC) transformations between general pure states of two parties. Although this question is a little more difficult, a complete solution has been developed using the mathematical framework of the majorization theory [8]. In this work, we analyze the relation between entanglement monotones concurrence and negativity with respect to majorization for general two-level quantum systems of two particles.

  10. Rainbows without unicorns: metric structures in theories with modified dispersion relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Iarley P.; Loret, Niccolo; Nettel, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Rainbow metrics are a widely used approach to the metric formalism for theories with modified dispersion relations. They have had a huge success in the quantum gravity phenomenology literature, since they allow one to introduce momentum-dependent space-time metrics into the description of systems with a modified dispersion relation. In this paper, we introduce the reader to some realizations of this general idea: the original rainbow metrics proposal, the momentum-space-inspired metric and a Finsler geometry approach. As the main result of this work we also present an alternative definition of a four-velocity dependent metric which allows one to handle the massless limit. This paper aims to highlight some of their properties and how to properly describe their relativistic realizations. (orig.)

  11. Rainbows without unicorns: metric structures in theories with modified dispersion relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Iarley P.; Loret, Niccoló; Nettel, Francisco

    2017-07-01

    Rainbow metrics are a widely used approach to the metric formalism for theories with modified dispersion relations. They have had a huge success in the quantum gravity phenomenology literature, since they allow one to introduce momentum-dependent space-time metrics into the description of systems with a modified dispersion relation. In this paper, we introduce the reader to some realizations of this general idea: the original rainbow metrics proposal, the momentum-space-inspired metric and a Finsler geometry approach. As the main result of this work we also present an alternative definition of a four-velocity dependent metric which allows one to handle the massless limit. This paper aims to highlight some of their properties and how to properly describe their relativistic realizations.

  12. Rainbows without unicorns: metric structures in theories with modified dispersion relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Iarley P. [Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); ICRANet, Pescara (Italy); CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil, Brasilia (Brazil); Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); INFN Sezione Roma 1 (Italy); Loret, Niccolo [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Division of Theoretical Physics, Zagreb (Croatia); Nettel, Francisco [Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Mexico (Mexico); INFN Sezione Roma 1 (Italy)

    2017-07-15

    Rainbow metrics are a widely used approach to the metric formalism for theories with modified dispersion relations. They have had a huge success in the quantum gravity phenomenology literature, since they allow one to introduce momentum-dependent space-time metrics into the description of systems with a modified dispersion relation. In this paper, we introduce the reader to some realizations of this general idea: the original rainbow metrics proposal, the momentum-space-inspired metric and a Finsler geometry approach. As the main result of this work we also present an alternative definition of a four-velocity dependent metric which allows one to handle the massless limit. This paper aims to highlight some of their properties and how to properly describe their relativistic realizations. (orig.)

  13. Didactic derivation of the special theory of relativity from the Klein–Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arodź, H

    2014-01-01

    We present a didactic derivation of the special theory of relativity in which Lorentz transformations are ‘discovered’ as symmetry transformations of the Klein–Gordon equation. The interpretation of Lorentz boosts as transformations to moving inertial reference frames is not assumed at the start, but it naturally appears at a later stage. The relative velocity v of two inertial reference frames is defined in terms of the elements of the pertinent Lorentz matrix, and the bound |v|< c is presented as a simple theorem that follows from the structure of the Lorentz group. The polar decomposition of Lorentz matrices is used to explain noncommutativity and nonassociativity of the relativistic composition (‘addition’) of velocities. (paper)

  14. Interpersonal Dominance in Relational Conflict: A View from Dyadic Power Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy L. Young

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation uses dyadic power theory (Dunbar, 2004; Dunbar & Burgoon, 2005a; Rollins & Bahr, 1976 to offer competing hypotheses examining the relationship between power and dominance in close relationships. Forty-seven couples engaged in a conversation while being videotaped; the tapes were coded by third-party observers for dominance. Participants rated themselves to be the most dominant when they were equal to their partners in power, followed by those who perceived they were more powerful relative to their partners. Men and women had different perceptions of power and dominance in their relationships. Men’s perceptions of power were not related to their behavioral dominance whereas when women saw themselves as more powerful, they viewed their partners as more dominant.

  15. [Relational Frame Theory--A Theoretical Framework for Contextual Behavioral Science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensche, M; Schweiger, U

    2015-07-01

    Therapists have to deal with verbal systems and often work with verbal exchange. Therefore, a psychological theory is required, which teaches the therapist how to accomplish this task. The BRT is a theory of human language and cognition that explains how people use their verbal behavior as stimuli in their interrelations and how they act and react, based on the resulting relationships. This behavior is learned very early in the course of language acquisition and functions as a generalized operant. A prerequisite for this is the ability of people to undergo mental simulation. This enables them to construct diverse relational frameworks between individual stimuli. Without relational frameworks, people cannot function. The ability to establish a relational framework is a prerequisite for the formation of rule-governed behavior. Rule-governed behavior economizes complex decision processes, creates interpersonal security and enables dealing with events before they take place. On the other hand, the same properties that enable people to solve problems effectively can also contribute to rigid adherence to rules and experience avoidance. Relational frameworks, once established, outweigh other sources of behavioral regulation. Thus, it can become the basis of psychopathology. Poor contextual control makes it difficult for people to devote flexible, focused and voluntary attention to the present and align their actions with the immediate present. Contextual psychotherapy methods that are based on the BRT start precisely at this point: Targeted establishment of new contingencies in the therapeutic interaction through systematic strengthening of metacognitive mode and through the establishment of new rules that make possible a change in the rule-governed behavior enable undermining of dysfunctional rule-governed behavior and build up desirable behavior. This allows any therapeutic process to be more effective--regardless of the patient's expressed symptoms. © Georg Thieme

  16. Inhibiting Interference - a grounded theory of health professionals' pattern of behaviour related to the relatives of older patients in fast-track treatment programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Lindhardt, Tove; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To generate a grounded theory explaining health professionals' pattern of behaviour and experience related to the relatives of older patients in fast-track treatment programmes during total joint replacement. BACKGROUND: Health professionals uphold standardised care for patients, and effect...... on quality is seen when relatives support patients during total joint replacement. Since health professionals often have problematic relationships with relatives, knowledge is needed of the health professionals' pattern of behaviour in relation to relatives of older patients in fast-track treatment programme....... DESIGN: Grounded theory according to Glaser's methodology was used to generate substantive theory of health professionals' pattern of behaviour. METHODS: Data were collected from 2010 to 2011 by 44 health professionals in orthopaedic wards at two Danish hospitals. Data from nonparticipant observations...

  17. Diffuse reflectance relations based on diffusion dipole theory for large absorption and reduced scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremmer, Rolf H; van Gemert, Martin J C; Faber, Dirk J; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

    2013-08-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, implying that it is limited to tissues where the reduced scattering coefficient dominates over the absorption coefficient. Nevertheless, up to absorption coefficients of 20  mm-1 at reduced scattering coefficients of 1 and 11.5  mm-1, we observed excellent agreement (r2=0.994) between reflectance measurements of phantoms and the diffuse reflectance equation proposed by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], derived as an approximation to one of the diffusion dipole equations of Farrell et al. [Med. Phys.19, 879-888 (1992)]. However, two parameters were fitted to all phantom experiments, including strongly absorbing samples, implying that the reflectance equation differs from diffusion theory. Yet, the exact diffusion dipole approximation at high reduced scattering and absorption also showed agreement with the phantom measurements. The mathematical structure of the diffuse reflectance relation used, derived by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], explains this observation. In conclusion, diffuse reflectance relations derived as an approximation to the diffusion dipole theory of Farrell et al. can analyze reflectance ratios accurately, even for much larger absorption than reduced scattering coefficients. This allows calibration of fiber-probe set-ups so that the object's diffuse reflectance can be related to its absorption even when large. These findings will greatly expand the application of diffuse reflection spectroscopy. In medicine, it may allow the use of blue/green wavelengths and measurements on whole blood, and in forensic science, it may allow inclusion of objects such as blood stains and cloth at crime

  18. Making the invisible, visible: challenging the knowledge structures inherent in International Relations Theory in order to create knowledge plural curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline de Matos-Ala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article problematizes the lack of plurality of knowledges in International Relations theory curricula. The increase in knowledges and scholarship from the South has not seemingly filtered into International Relations theory curricula significantly. Thus Western knowledges still dominates the narrative. It investigates how knowledge structures inherent in the discipline coupled with Western centric ontology and epistemology function to exclude or marginalize knowledge that does not conform to specific criteria. I demonstrate how the third year IR theory curriculum at Wits University, has engaged with discipline’s knowledge structures as well as its ontology and epistemology to develop a knowledge plural curricula.

  19. Revisioning Fordham's 'Defences of the self' in light of modern relational theory and contemporary neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsched, Donald E

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores the evolution of Michael Fordham's ideas concerning 'defences of the self', including his application of this concept to a group of 'difficult' adult patients in his famous 1974 paper by the same name. After tracing the relevance of Fordham's ideas to my own discovery of a 'self-care system' in the psychological material of early trauma patients (Kalsched ), I describe how Fordham's seminal notions might be revisioned in light of contemporary relational theory as well as early attachment theory and affective neuroscience. These revisionings involve an awareness that the severe woundings of early unremembered trauma are not transformable through interpretation but will inevitably be repeated in the transference, leading to mutual 'enactments' between the analytic partners and, hopefully, to a new outcome. A clinical example of one such mutual enactment between the author and his patient is provided. The paper concludes with reflections on the clinical implications of this difficult case and what it means to become a 'real person' to our patients. Finally, Jung's alchemical views on transference are shown to be useful analogies in our understanding of the necessary mutuality in the healing process with these patients. © 2015, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  20. Motivational profiles in physical education and their relation to the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Murcia, Juan Antonio; Cervelló Gimeno, Eduardo; Hernández, Elisa Huéscar; Pedreño, Noelia Belan-do; Rodríguez Marín, Jesús Jesus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish motivational profiles for doing physical activity according to the variables from the theory of planned action in a sample of 698 students aged 14 to 16. The instruments used were the Questionnaire of Behavioral Regulation in Sport (BRQ-R) and the Questionnaire of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TCP). Cluster analysis revealed two motivational profiles: a "self-determined "profile with high scores in intrinsic motivation and low scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation, and a "non self- determined "profile with low scores in intrinsic motivation and high scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation. Positive significant differences in attitudes, norms, and intent to control were found for the self-determined profile related to "non self-determined "profile. Key PointsA "self-determined "profile was found with higher scores for the four types of intrinsic motivations (general, knowledge, stimulation and achievement) and identified regulation than for introjected and external regulation.A "non self-determined "profile was found with higher scores for external, introjected regulation and amotivation than for the four types of intrinsic motivation (general, knowledge, stimulation and achievement).In the context of the "non self-determined profile "we could encourage programs that adapt to these needs in such a way that they contribute to increasing the rates of doing physical activity in the population.

  1. Some reciprocity-like relations in multi-group neutron diffusion and transport theory over bare homogeneous regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modak, R.S.; Sahni, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    Some simple reciprocity-like relations that exist in multi-group neutron diffusion and transport theory over bare homogeneous regions are presented. These relations do not involve the adjoint solutions and are directly related to numerical schemes based on an explicit evaluation of the fission matrix. (author)

  2. Exploring the feasibility of theory synthesis: a worked example in the field of health related risk-taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Pandora; Campbell, Rona

    2015-01-01

    The idea of synthesising theory is receiving attention within public health as part of a drive to design theoretically informed interventions. Theory synthesis is not a new idea, however, having been debated by sociologists for several decades. We consider the various methodological approaches to theory synthesis and test the feasibility of one such approach by synthesising a small number of sociological theories relevant to health related risk-taking. The synthesis consisted of three stages: (i) synthesis preparation, wherein parts of relevant theories were extracted and summarised; (ii) synthesis which involved comparing theories for points of convergence and divergence and bringing together those points that converge; and (iii) synthesis refinement whereby the synthesis was interrogated for further theoretical insights. Our synthesis suggests that serious and sustained risk-taking is associated with social isolation, liminality and a person's position in relation to the dominant social group. We reflect upon the methodological and philosophical issues raised by the practice of theory synthesis, concluding that it has the potential to reinvigorate theory and make it more robust and accessible for practical application. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantum fields on manifolds: an interplay between quantum theory, statistical thermodynamics and general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewell, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The author shows how the basic axioms of quantum field theory, general relativity and statistical thermodynamics lead, in a model-independent way, to a generalized Hawking-Unruh effect, whereby the gravitational fields carried by a class of space-time manifolds with event horizons thermalize ambient quantum fields. The author is concerned with a quantum field on a space-time x containing a submanifold X' bounded by event horizons. The objective is to show that, for a wide class of space-times, the global vacuum state of the field reduces, in X', to a thermal state, whose temperature depends on the geometry. The statistical thermodynaical, geometrical, and quantum field theoretical essential ingredients for the reduction of the vacuum state are discussed

  4. General relativity with small cosmological constant from spontaneous compactification of Lovelock theory in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canfora, Fabrizio; Willison, Steven; Giacomini, Alex; Troncoso, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that Einstein gravity in four dimensions with small cosmological constant and small extra dimensions can be obtained by spontaneous compactification of Lovelock gravity in vacuum. Assuming that the extra dimensions are compact spaces of constant curvature, general relativity is recovered within a certain class of Lovelock theories possessing necessarily cubic or higher order terms in curvature. This bounds the higher dimension to at least 7. Remarkably, the effective gauge coupling and Newton constant in four dimensions are not proportional to the gravitational constant in higher dimensions, but are shifted with respect to their standard values. This effect opens up new scenarios where a maximally symmetric solution in higher dimensions could decay into the compactified spacetime either by tunneling or through a gravitational analog of ghost condensation. Indeed, this is what occurs requiring both the extra dimensions and the four-dimensional cosmological constant to be small.

  5. Self-Determination Theory and students' view on the relation to their teacher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Nielsen, Louise

    2015-01-01

    In my qualitative ph.d.-project about teacher-student-relations I have observed and videorecorded four fifth grade, sixth grade and seventh grade teachers at two different schools. I have followed each teacher for 3 weeks and interviewed them several times along with 50 of their pupils. The aim o...... and the student-interviews will bring a deeper understanding of the significance of the teacher’s ability to support the students’ basic needs – for their self-asteem and for their motivation to learn....... the pupils' academic and human development.) The statements of the 50 pupils show that what is most important to them in the relationship to the teacher, is the experience of being significant.
 According to Self Determination Theory people have 3 psychological needs – for autonomy, competence...

  6. Self-Determination Theory and students' view on the relation to their teacher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge, Louise

    2013-01-01

    In my qualitative ph.d.-project about teacher-student-relations I have observed and videorecorded four fifth grade, sixth grade and seventh grade teachers at two different schools. I have followed each teacher for 3 weeks and interviewed them several times along with 50 of their pupils. The aim o...... and the student-interviews will bring a deeper understanding of the significance of the teacher’s ability to support the students’ basic needs – for their self-asteem and for their motivation to learn....... the pupils' academic and human development.) The statements of the 50 pupils show that what is most important to them in the relationship to the teacher, is the experience of being significant.
 According to Self Determination Theory people have 3 psychological needs – for autonomy, competence...

  7. Clock hypothesis of relativity theory, maximal acceleration, and Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potzel, W., E-mail: wpotzel@ph.tum.de [Technische Universität München, Physik-Department E15 (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Results obtained several years ago using the high-resolution 93.3 keV Mössbauer resonance in {sup 67}ZnO and β{sup ′}-brass have been reanalyzed with the notion that the clock hypothesis of Special Relativity Theory is not sufficient, but that a maximal acceleration a{sub m} exists and that an acceleration a contributes to the temperature dependence of the center shift by a term ±(1/2)(a/a{sub m}){sup 2}. The significance of the sign of this term is discussed in detail. For both substances a lower limit of a{sub m}>1.5⋅10{sup 21}m/s {sup 2} is inferred which is more than two orders of magnitude larger than - and thus excludes - the value a{sub m}=1⋅10{sup 19}m/s {sup 2} suggested by {sup 57}Fe rotor experiments.

  8. The Green Function cellular method and its relation to multiple scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, W.H.; Zhang, X.G.; Gonis, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates techniques for solving the wave equation which are based on the idea of obtaining exact local solutions within each potential cell, which are then joined to form a global solution. The authors derive full potential multiple scattering theory (MST) from the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and show that it as well as a closely related cellular method are techniques of this type. This cellular method appears to have all of the advantages of MST and the added advantage of having a secular matrix with only nearest neighbor interactions. Since this cellular method is easily linearized one can rigorously reduce electronic structure calculation to the problem of solving a nearest neighbor tight-binding problem

  9. Common misconceptions about the dynamical theory of crystal lattices: Cauchy relations, lattice potentials and infinite crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elcoro, Luis; Etxebarria, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    The requirement of rotational invariance for lattice potential energies is investigated. Starting from this condition, it is shown that the Cauchy relations for the elastic constants are fulfilled if the lattice potential is built from pair interactions or when the first-neighbour approximation is adopted. This is seldom recognized in widely used solid-state textbooks. Frequently, pair interaction is even considered to be the most general situation. In addition, it is shown that the demand of rotational invariance in an infinite crystal leads to inconsistencies in the symmetry of the elastic tensor. However, for finite crystals, no problems arise, and the Huang conditions are deduced using exclusively a microscopic approach for the elasticity theory, without making any reference to macroscopic parameters. This work may be useful in both undergraduate and graduate level courses to point out the crudeness of the pair-potential interaction and to explore the limits of the infinite-crystal approximation.

  10. Analysis of correlation functions in Toda theory and the Alday-Gaiotto-Tachikawa-Wyllard relation for SU(3) quiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Shoichi; Matsuo, Yutaka; Shiba, Shotaro

    2010-01-01

    We give some evidences of the Alday-Gaiotto-Tachikawa-Wyllard relation between SU(3) quiver gauge theories and A 2 Toda theory. In particular, we derive the explicit form of 5-point correlation functions in the lower orders and confirm the agreement with Nekrasov's partition function for SU(3)xSU(3) quiver gauge theory. The algorithm to derive the correlation functions can be applied to a general n-point function in A 2 Toda theory, which will be useful to establish the relation for more generic quivers. Partial analysis is also given for the SU(3)xSU(2) case, and we comment on some technical issues that need clarification before establishing the relation.

  11. Theory and practice of corrosion related to ashes and deposits in a WtE boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbinnen, Bram; De Greef, Johan; Van Caneghem, Jo

    2018-03-01

    Corrosion of heat-exchanging components is one of the main operational problems in Waste-to-Energy plants, limiting the electrical efficiency that can be reached. Corrosion is mainly related to the devolatilization and/or formation of chlorides, sulphates and mixtures thereof on the heat-exchanging surfaces. Theoretical considerations on this corrosion were already put forward in literature, but this paper now for the first time combines theory with a large scale sampling campaign of several Waste-to-Energy plants. Based on the outcome of elemental and mineralogical analysis, the distribution of Cl and S in ashes sampled throughout the plant during normal operation is explained. Cl concentrations are high (15-20%) in the first empty pass, decrease in the second and third empty pass, but increase again in the convective part, whereas the S concentrations show an inverse behavior, with the highest concentrations (30%) observed in the second and third empty pass. Sampling of deposits on specific places where corrosion possibly occurred, gives a better insight in the mechanisms related to corrosion phenomena in real-scale WtE plants and provides practical evidence for some phenomena that were only assumed on the basis of theory or lab scale experiments before. More specific, it confirms the role of oxygen content, temperatures in the different stages of the boiler, the presence of polysulphates, Pb and Zb, and the concentrations of HCl and SO 2 in the flue gas for different types of boiler corrosion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlates of hepatitis B virus health-related behaviors of Korean Americans: a situation-specific nursing theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeok; Fawcett, Jacqueline; Yang, Jin Hyang; Hann, Hie-Won

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain the evolution of a situation-specific theory developed to enhance understanding of health-related behaviors of Korean Americans (KAs) who have or are at risk for a chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The situation-specific theory evolved from an integration of the Network Episode Model, studies of health-related behaviors of people with HBV infection, and our studies of and practice experiences with Asian American individuals with HBV infection. The major concepts of the theory are sociocultural context, social network, individual-level factors, illness experience, and health-related behaviors. The major propositions of the theory are that sociocultural context, social network, and individual-level factors influence the illness experience, and that sociocultural context, social network, individual-level factors, and the illness experience influence health-related behaviors of KAs who have or are at risk for HBV infection. This situation-specific theory represents a translation of abstract concepts into clinical reality. The theory is an explanation of correlates of health-related HBV behaviors of KAs. The next step is to develop and test the effectiveness of a nursing intervention designed to promote behaviors that will enhance the health of KAs who have or are at risk for HBV infection, and that takes into account sociocultural context, social network, individual-level factors, and illness experience. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  13. Choose Your Own Adventure: Examining Social Exchange Theory and Relational Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribarsky, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    To many students, theory can be confusing and difficult to retain. Therefore, instructors who put emphasis on theory in their courses and lectures must find new ways for students to connect to the sometimes obscure material. Through a hands-on approach to learning theory, students may be challenged to examine their own beliefs and knowledge…

  14. Scanning tunneling microscopy III theory of STM and related scanning probe methods

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1993-01-01

    While the first two volumes on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and its related scanning probe (SXM) methods have mainly concentrated on intro­ ducing the experimental techniques, as well as their various applications in different research fields, this third volume is exclusively devoted to the theory of STM and related SXM methods. As the experimental techniques including the reproducibility of the experimental results have advanced, more and more theorists have become attracted to focus on issues related to STM and SXM. The increasing effort in the development of theoretical concepts for STM/SXM has led to considerable improvements in understanding the contrast mechanism as well as the experimental conditions necessary to obtain reliable data. Therefore, this third volume on STM/SXM is not written by theorists for theorists, but rather for every scientist who is not satisfied by just obtaining real­ space images of surface structures by STM/SXM. After a brief introduction (Chap. 1), N. D. Lang first co...

  15. Ecology of tern flight in relation to wind, topography and aerodynamic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenström, Anders; Åkesson, Susanne

    2016-09-26

    Flight is an economical mode of locomotion, because it is both fast and relatively cheap per unit of distance, enabling birds to migrate long distances and obtain food over large areas. The power required to fly follows a U-shaped function in relation to airspeed, from which context dependent 'optimal' flight speeds can be derived. Crosswinds will displace birds away from their intended track unless they make compensatory adjustments of heading and airspeed. We report on flight track measurements in five geometrically similar tern species ranging one magnitude in body mass, from both migration and the breeding season at the island of Öland in the Baltic Sea. When leaving the southern point of Öland, migrating Arctic and common terns made a 60° shift in track direction, probably guided by a distant landmark. Terns adjusted both airspeed and heading in relation to tail and side wind, where coastlines facilitated compensation. Airspeed also depended on ecological context (searching versus not searching for food), and it increased with flock size. Species-specific maximum range speed agreed with predicted speeds from a new aerodynamic theory. Our study shows that the selection of airspeed is a behavioural trait that depended on a complex blend of internal and external factors.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. A collective theory of happiness: words related to the word "happiness" in Swedish online newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Sikström, Sverker

    2013-06-01

    It may be suggested that the representation of happiness in online media is collective in nature because it is a picture of happiness communicated by relatively few individuals to the masses. The present study is based on articles published in Swedish daily online newspapers in 2010; the data corpus comprises 1.5 million words. We investigated which words were most (un)common in articles containing the word "happiness" as compared with articles not containing this word. The results show that words related to people (by use of all relevant pronouns: you/me and us/them); important others (e.g., grandmother, mother); the Swedish royal wedding (e.g., Prince Daniel, Princess Victoria); and the FIFA World Cup (e.g., Zlatan, Argentina, Drogba) were highly recurrent in articles containing the word happiness. In contrast, words related to objects, such as money (e.g., millions, billions), bestselling gadgets (e.g., iPad, iPhone), and companies (e.g., Google, Windows), were predictive of contexts not recurrent with the word happiness. The results presented here are in accordance with findings in the happiness literature showing that relationships, not material things, are what make people happy. We suggest that our findings mirror a collective theory of happiness, that is, a shared picture or agreement, among members of a community, concerning what makes people happy. The fact that this representation is made public on such a large scale makes it collective in nature.

  17. Theory of weak interactions and related topics. Progress report, January 1-December 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshak, R.E.

    1985-08-01

    The research program demonstrated that the acceptance of B-L local symmetry as the weak hypercharge, whose spontaneous breakdown was connected to the spontaneous breakdown of parity, predicted a light electron neutrino (Majorana) and a related heavy neutrino. The prediction of neutron oscillations following from the PUT group SU(4)/sub C/ x SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ was scrutinized. A relation was derived between the mixing time for free neutron oscillations and the lifetime for nuclear stability with respect to ΔB = 2 transitions, and a study was conducted of the effect of time-varying or spatial-varying magnetic fields on the mixing time of neutron oscillations. Reasons are given for continuing work with the left-right symmetry (LRS) and partial unification theory (PUT) groups to their grand unification realization. It was shown that, without assuming a simple GUT group, that the color group has to be SU(3) and that the only possible GUT groups are SU(5) and SU(10). The gauge boson mass relation was derived for arbitrary Higgs structure associated either with the standard SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) electroweak group or the LRS group. Also examined was the Pati-Salam type of grand unification. 31 refs

  18. The relation between theory of mind and executive functions in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Carmen; Wyper, Katy; Talwar, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) are faced with a range of physical, cognitive, behavioral, and/or learning deficits, as well as poor executive functioning and social skills. Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to understand that one's own perspective may differ from the perspective of another individual. ToM develops around age 4 and is correlated with performance on executive functioning tasks. The goals of this study were to examine ToM performance in young children with FASD, how age was related to ToM performance, and whether ToM abilities were related to underlying executive function difficulties. Fifty-three children (aged 4 to 8 years) participated: 25 children with FASD and 28 control children. All children were tested on measures of ToM, executive functioning, and receptive vocabulary. More children in the FASD group (44%) failed one or both ToM measures than in the control group (25%). Older children with FASD performed worse on ToM than younger children, but this was not the case for the control group. For the FASD group, ToM performance was correlated with a measure of inhibition, but for the control group, ToM was correlated with visual-spatial working memory. Children with FASD have difficulty on ToM tasks, and this difficulty may be related to underlying deficits in inhibition.

  19. Theory of mind reasoning in schizophrenia patients and non-psychotic relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassetta, Briana; Goghari, Vina

    2014-08-15

    Research consistently demonstrates that schizophrenia patients have theory of mind (ToM) impairments. Additionally, there is some evidence that family members of schizophrenia patients also demonstrate impairments in ToM, suggesting a genetic vulnerability for the disorder. This study assessed ToM abilities (i.e., sarcasm comprehension) in schizophrenia patients and their first-degree biological relatives during video-taped social interactions, to be representative of real-world interactions and to assess for disease-specific and/or genetic liability effects. Additionally, we assessed whether ToM abilities predicted social and global functioning in schizophrenia patients, and whether symptoms were associated with ToM deficits. Schizophrenia patients demonstrated impairments in sarcasm comprehension compared to controls and relatives, whereas relatives showed intact comprehension. Symptoms of schizophrenia significantly predicted worse ToM abilities. Furthermore, in schizophrenia patients, impaired ToM reasoning predicted worse social and global functioning. Given schizophrenia patients demonstrated impairments in ToM reasoning in a task that resembles real-life interactions, this might be a key area for remediation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Social construction and physical nihilation of the Keystone XL pipeline: Lessons from international relations theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, Robert Y.

    2013-01-01

    If a prime goal of energy policy is to achieve energy security, why is there a controversy over the proposed Keystone XL pipeline, designed to deliver new supplies of oil from within North America? This Viewpoint seeks answers in the debate over the underlying purposes of energy policy: how does one answers the question “what do we want from energy policy?” Perceptions of feasible answers and policy options change over time, as witnessed in the 1970s. Analogous shifts in opinion are changing today's policy debates and widening the contradictions in policy purposes. Attention to the existence of these contradictions, without illusions, is necessary to meet the policy challenges of the future effectively. - Highlights: • We apply international relations theory to explain the persistence of the Keystone controversy. • Key question relates to policy purposes: “what do we want from energy policy?” • Alternative purposes: maximizing economic growth or ensuring environmental sustainability. • 1970s US cases show how perceptions of each purpose's relative feasibility shift. • Different purposes generate different attitudes to policies that result in higher oil prices

  1. The specificity of parenting effects: Differential relations of parent praise and criticism to children's theories of intelligence and learning goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Donnellan, M Brent; Robins, Richard W; Trzesniewski, Kali H

    2018-04-24

    Individuals who believe that intelligence can be improved with effort (an incremental theory of intelligence) and who approach challenges with the goal of improving their understanding (a learning goal) tend to have higher academic achievement. Furthermore, parent praise is associated with children's incremental theories and learning goals. However, the influences of parental criticism, as well as different forms of praise and criticism (e.g., process vs. person), have received less attention. We examine these associations by analyzing two existing datasets (Study 1: N = 317 first to eighth graders; Study 2: N = 282 fifth and eighth graders). In both studies, older children held more incremental theories of intelligence, but lower learning goals, than younger children. Unexpectedly, the relation between theories of intelligence and learning goals was nonsignificant and did not vary with children's grade level. In both studies, overall perceived parent praise positively related to children's learning goals, whereas perceived parent criticism negatively related to incremental theories of intelligence. In Study 2, perceived parent process praise was the only significant (positive) predictor of children's learning goals, whereas perceived parent person criticism was the only significant (negative) predictor of incremental theories of intelligence. Finally, Study 2 provided some support for our hypothesis that age-related differences in perceived parent praise and criticism can explain age-related differences in children's learning goals. Results suggest that incremental theories of intelligence and learning goals might not be strongly related during childhood and that perceived parent praise and criticism have important, but distinct, relations with each motivational construct. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. From self to social cognition: Theory of Mind mechanisms and their relation to Executive Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Elisabeth E F; Jentzsch, Ines; Gomez, Juan-Carlos

    2015-05-01

    'Theory of Mind' refers to the ability to attribute mental states to oneself and other people (Premack & Woodruff, 1978). This study examined the extent to which 'Self' and 'Other' belief-attribution processes within the Theory of Mind (ToM) mechanism could be distinguished behaviourally, and whether these separable components differentially related to Executive Functioning (EF) abilities. A computerized false-belief task, utilizing a matched-design to allow direct comparison of self-oriented vs. other-oriented belief-attribution, was used to assess ToM, and a face-image Stroop task was employed to assess EF, within a population of typically-developed adults. Results revealed significantly longer reaction times when attributing beliefs to other people as opposed to recognizing and attributing beliefs to oneself. Intriguingly, results revealed that 'perspective-shift' requirements (i.e. changing from adoption of the 'self' perspective to the perspective of the 'other', or vice versa) across false-belief trials influenced reaction times. Reaction times were significantly longer when the perspective shift was from self-to-other than from other-to-self. It is suggested that the 'self' forms the stem of understanding the 'other', and is therefore processed regardless of ultimate task demands; in contrast, the 'other' perspective is only processed when explicitly required. We conclude that adopting another person's perspective, even when their belief state is matched to one's own, requires more cognitive effort than recalling and reflecting on self-oriented belief-states. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Green-Schwarz mechanism and geometric anomaly relations in 2d (0,2) F-theory vacua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Timo; Xu, Fengjun

    2018-04-01

    We study the structure of gauge and gravitational anomalies in 2d N = (0 , 2) theories obtained by compactification of F-theory on elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau 5-folds. Abelian gauge anomalies, induced at 1-loop in perturbation theory, are cancelled by a generalized Green-Schwarz mechanism operating at the level of chiral scalar fields in the 2d supergravity theory. We derive closed expressions for the gravitational and the non-abelian and abelian gauge anomalies including the Green-Schwarz counterterms. These expressions involve topological invariants of the underlying elliptic fibration and the gauge background thereon. Cancellation of anomalies in the effective theory predicts intricate topological identities which must hold on every elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau 5-fold. We verify these relations in a non-trivial example, but their proof from a purely mathematical perspective remains as an interesting open problem. Some of the identities we find on elliptic 5-folds are related in an intriguing way to previously studied topological identities governing the structure of anomalies in 6d N = (1 , 0) and 4d N = 1 theories obtained from F-theory.

  4. THE INTRINSIC EXPLANATORY VALUE OF SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ts. V. Karkalanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Why has constructivism emerged as an important force in the field of international relations and politics in the end of the 20th century? Why constructivism and not any other theoretical approach? The constructivist perspective of international relations appeared as a counterbalance to rationalism that was entrenched in US Political Science throughout the last decades. Analyzing the contemporary state of world affairs through the prism of social constructivism provides us with a unique understanding of how intersubjective perceptions lead to unique epistemic interpretations of reality, which form the ideological framework within which social constructs are being generated. Constructivism succeeds not only in identifying the motives behind the behavior of international actors, but also in unfolding the mechanism through which those motives are being envisaged and accepted through the process of social construction – here lies the greatest value of the constructivist approach in IR theory. Culture formation, nation building, imagined communities, security complexes – the constructivist approach remains an invaluable tool in the arsenal of political analysts, seeking to understand how culture, history, social order, religion, and language project their infl uence on the international arena and ultimately: why international players behave the way they do?

  5. Guaiacol hydrodeoxygenation mechanism on Pt(111): insights from density functional theory and linear free energy relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungtae; Gu, Geun Ho; Mullen, Charles A; Boateng, Akwasi A; Vlachos, Dionisios G

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory is used to study the adsorption of guaiacol and its initial hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reactions on Pt(111). Previous Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) correlations for small open-chain molecules are inadequate in estimating the reaction barriers of phenolic compounds except for the side group (methoxy) carbon-dehydrogenation. New BEP relations are established using a select group of phenolic compounds. These relations are applied to construct a potential-energy surface of guaiacol-HDO to catechol. Analysis shows that catechol is mainly produced via dehydrogenation of the methoxy functional group followed by the CHx (x<3) removal of the functional group and hydrogenation of the ring carbon, in contrast to a hypothesis of a direct demethylation path. Dehydroxylation and demethoxylation are slow, implying that phenol is likely produced from catechol but not through its direct dehydroxylation followed by aromatic carbon-ring hydrogenation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Einstein's General Theory of Relativity-with Modern Applications in Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrabes, C

    2008-01-01

    The increasing prominence of general relativity in astrophysics and cosmology is reflected in the growing number of texts, particularly at the undergraduate level. A natural attitude before opening a new one is to ask i) what makes this different from those already published? And ii) does it follow the 'physics-first approach' as for instance the book by Hartle where the basic physical concepts are introduced first with as little formalism as possible, or does it follow the more traditional 'math-first approach' for which the mathematical formalism comes first and is then applied to phyics? As announced in the title, a distinctive feature of the book by Gron and Hervik is the space (almost half the book) devoted to cosmology and in particular to some of the most recent developments in this rapidly evolving field. It is also apparent that the authors have chosen, like the majority of current books on general relativity, the 'math-first approach'. The book is divided into six parts, each of them subdivided into chapters with part VI containing a few short technical appendices. The first part of the book briefly presents in chapter I the principles of relativity, Newtonian mechanics and the Newtonian theory of gravity. In chapter II, a short introduction to special relativity is given. It seems at first surprising that the four-dimensional structure of space-time is not more fully exploited so that the reader would gain familiarity early on with notions like 4-velocity, 4-momentum and the stress-energy tensor. This is in fact postponed to part II as an illustration of the mathematical formalism. The second part is devoted to those elements of differential geometry needed in this kind of course. The authors' presentation is somewhat similar to that of the books by Misner, Thorne and Wheeler and by Straumann (2nd edition). Vectors and forms are treated separately and the formalism of differential forms is introduced in detail. The various kinds of differentiation on

  7. Work in progress Tim Radford on research that aims to find a tiny error in Einstein's theory of special relativity

    CERN Multimedia

    Radford, T

    2004-01-01

    "Ben Varcoe wants to find a relatively small mistake in Einstein's theory of special relativity. To do this, he will slow light down from 300,000 km per second to 10 metres per second - about the speed of Darren Campbell - and see how it behaves" (1 page)

  8. Teaching Theory of Mind: A Curriculum for Children with High Functioning Autism, Asperger's Syndrome, and Related Social Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordetx, Kirstina

    2012-01-01

    This book provides teachers and other professionals with a highly effective, easy-to-follow curriculum for teaching children with high-functioning autism, Asperger syndrome and related social challenges to relate to and interact with others successfully by developing a solid, basic foundation in Theory of Mind (ToM). Dr. Kirstina Ordetx provides…

  9. Applying Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to a Study of Online Course Adoption in Public Relations Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knabe, Ann Peru

    2012-01-01

    This study used Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to research public relations faculty intentions of teaching online. All of the main predictor variables (Subjective Norms, Attitude toward the Act and Perceived Behavioral Control) were statistically significant at varying degrees in predicting intent to teach public relations online. Of the…

  10. The Electromagnetic Conception of Nature at the Root of the Special and General Relativity Theories and Its Revolutionary Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetto, Enrico R. A.

    2009-01-01

    The revolution in XX century physics, induced by relativity theories, had its roots within the electromagnetic conception of Nature. It was developed through a tradition related to Brunian and Leibnizian physics, to the German "Naturphilosophie" and English XIXth physics. The electromagnetic conception of Nature was in some way realized by the…

  11. Relations between the SU(2|4) symmetric theories and the gauge gravity correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Asato

    2008-01-01

    We study theories with SU(2|4) symmetry, which include N=4 SYM on R x S 3 /Z k , 2+1 SYM on R x S 2 and the plane wave matrix model. All these theories possess many vacua. From Lin-Maldacena's method which gives the gravity dual of each vacuum, it is suggested that the theory around each vacuum of N=4 SYM on R x S 3 /Z k and 2+1 SYM on R x S 2 is equivalent to the theory around a certain vacuum of the plane wave matrix model. We show this directly on the gauge theory side. We realize theories around multi-monopole backgrounds in matrix model, and extend Taylor's matrix T-duality to that on spheres. (author)

  12. Formulation of uncertainty relation of error and disturbance in quantum measurement by using quantum estimation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Watanabe; Masahito Ueda

    2012-01-01

    Full text: When we try to obtain information about a quantum system, we need to perform measurement on the system. The measurement process causes unavoidable state change. Heisenberg discussed a thought experiment of the position measurement of a particle by using a gamma-ray microscope, and found a trade-off relation between the error of the measured position and the disturbance in the momentum caused by the measurement process. The trade-off relation epitomizes the complementarity in quantum measurements: we cannot perform a measurement of an observable without causing disturbance in its canonically conjugate observable. However, at the time Heisenberg found the complementarity, quantum measurement theory was not established yet, and Kennard and Robertson's inequality erroneously interpreted as a mathematical formulation of the complementarity. Kennard and Robertson's inequality actually implies the indeterminacy of the quantum state: non-commuting observables cannot have definite values simultaneously. However, Kennard and Robertson's inequality reflects the inherent nature of a quantum state alone, and does not concern any trade-off relation between the error and disturbance in the measurement process. In this talk, we report a resolution to the complementarity in quantum measurements. First, we find that it is necessary to involve the estimation process from the outcome of the measurement for quantifying the error and disturbance in the quantum measurement. We clarify the implicitly involved estimation process in Heisenberg's gamma-ray microscope and other measurement schemes, and formulate the error and disturbance for an arbitrary quantum measurement by using quantum estimation theory. The error and disturbance are defined in terms of the Fisher information, which gives the upper bound of the accuracy of the estimation. Second, we obtain uncertainty relations between the measurement errors of two observables [1], and between the error and disturbance in the

  13. R matrix: its relation to Titchmarsh-Weyl theory and its complex rotated analogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elander, N.; Krylstedt, P.; Braendas, E.; Engdahl, E.

    1986-01-01

    The R matrix theory in its simplest form is discussed and analyzed in terms of the classical Titchmarsh-Weyl's theory for a singular second order differential equation. It is observed that the R matrix described as an abstract R operator is contained in the framework of Weyls classical extension to an infinite interval of finite Sturm-Liuoville theory. As a result they find that the exterior complex rotation method can be synthesized with the R matrix theory to obtain a method for deriving the S matrix poles out in the complex energy or momentum planes

  14. Self-determination theory in health care and its relations to motivational interviewing: a few comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L; Ryan, Richard M

    2012-03-02

    The papers of this special issue have the dual focus of reviewing research, especially clinical trials, testing self-determination theory (SDT) and of discussing the relations between SDT and motivational interviewing (MI). Notably, trials are reviewed that examined interventions either for behaviors such as physical activity and smoking cessation, or for outcomes such as weight loss. Although interventions were based on and intended to test the SDT health-behavior-change model, authors also pointed out that they drew techniques from MI in developing the interventions. The current paper refers to these studies and also clarifies the meaning of autonomy, which is central to SDT and has been shown to be important for effective change. We clarify that the dimension of autonomy versus control is conceptually orthogonal to the dimension of independence versus dependence, and we emphasize that autonomy or volition, not independence, is the important antecedent of effective change. Finally, we point out that SDT and MI have had much in common for each has emphasized autonomy. However, a recent MI article seems to have changed MI's emphasis from autonomy to change talk as the key ingredient for change. We suggest that change talk is likely to be an element of effective change only to the degree that the change talk is autonomously enacted and that practitioners facilitate change talk in an autonomy supportive way.

  15. Self-determination theory in health care and its relations to motivational interviewing: a few comments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deci Edward L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The papers of this special issue have the dual focus of reviewing research, especially clinical trials, testing self-determination theory (SDT and of discussing the relations between SDT and motivational interviewing (MI. Notably, trials are reviewed that examined interventions either for behaviors such as physical activity and smoking cessation, or for outcomes such as weight loss. Although interventions were based on and intended to test the SDT health-behavior-change model, authors also pointed out that they drew techniques from MI in developing the interventions. The current paper refers to these studies and also clarifies the meaning of autonomy, which is central to SDT and has been shown to be important for effective change. We clarify that the dimension of autonomy versus control is conceptually orthogonal to the dimension of independence versus dependence, and we emphasize that autonomy or volition, not independence, is the important antecedent of effective change. Finally, we point out that SDT and MI have had much in common for each has emphasized autonomy. However, a recent MI article seems to have changed MI's emphasis from autonomy to change talk as the key ingredient for change. We suggest that change talk is likely to be an element of effective change only to the degree that the change talk is autonomously enacted and that practitioners facilitate change talk in an autonomy supportive way.

  16. Beliefs related to adherence to oral antidiabetic treatment according to the Theory of Planned Behavior1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannuzzi, Fernanda Freire; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; Cornélio, Marilia Estevam; São-João, Thaís Moreira; Gallani, Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify salient behavioral, normative, control and self-efficacy beliefs related to the behavior of adherence to oral antidiabetic agents, using the Theory of Planned Behavior. METHOD: cross-sectional, exploratory study with 17 diabetic patients in chronic use of oral antidiabetic medication and in outpatient follow-up. Individual interviews were recorded, transcribed and content-analyzed using pre-established categories. RESULTS: behavioral beliefs concerning advantages and disadvantages of adhering to medication emerged, such as the possibility of avoiding complications from diabetes, preventing or delaying the use of insulin, and a perception of side effects. The children of patients and physicians are seen as important social references who influence medication adherence. The factors that facilitate adherence include access to free-of-cost medication and taking medications associated with temporal markers. On the other hand, a complex therapeutic regimen was considered a factor that hinders adherence. Understanding how to use medication and forgetfulness impact the perception of patients regarding their ability to adhere to oral antidiabetic agents. CONCLUSION: medication adherence is a complex behavior permeated by behavioral, normative, control and self-efficacy beliefs that should be taken into account when assessing determinants of behavior. PMID:25296135

  17. Beliefs related to adherence to oral antidiabetic treatment according to the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannuzzi, Fernanda Freire; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; Cornélio, Marilia Estevam; São-João, Thaís Moreira; Gallani, Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme

    2014-01-01

    to identify salient behavioral, normative, control and self-efficacy beliefs related to the behavior of adherence to oral antidiabetic agents, using the Theory of Planned Behavior. cross-sectional, exploratory study with 17 diabetic patients in chronic use of oral antidiabetic medication and in outpatient follow-up. Individual interviews were recorded, transcribed and content-analyzed using pre-established categories. behavioral beliefs concerning advantages and disadvantages of adhering to medication emerged, such as the possibility of avoiding complications from diabetes, preventing or delaying the use of insulin, and a perception of side effects. The children of patients and physicians are seen as important social references who influence medication adherence. The factors that facilitate adherence include access to free-of-cost medication and taking medications associated with temporal markers. On the other hand, a complex therapeutic regimen was considered a factor that hinders adherence. Understanding how to use medication and forgetfulness impact the perception of patients regarding their ability to adhere to oral antidiabetic agents. medication adherence is a complex behavior permeated by behavioral, normative, control and self-efficacy beliefs that should be taken into account when assessing determinants of behavior.

  18. Snake scales, partial exposure, and the Snake Detection Theory: A human event-related potentials study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W.; Isbell, Lynne A.

    2017-01-01

    Studies of event-related potentials in humans have established larger early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to pictures depicting snakes than to pictures depicting other creatures. Ethological research has recently shown that macaques and wild vervet monkeys respond strongly to partially exposed snake models and scale patterns on the snake skin. Here, we examined whether snake skin patterns and partially exposed snakes elicit a larger EPN in humans. In Task 1, we employed pictures with close-ups of snake skins, lizard skins, and bird plumage. In task 2, we employed pictures of partially exposed snakes, lizards, and birds. Participants watched a random rapid serial visual presentation of these pictures. The EPN was scored as the mean activity (225–300 ms after picture onset) at occipital and parieto-occipital electrodes. Consistent with previous studies, and with the Snake Detection Theory, the EPN was significantly larger for snake skin pictures than for lizard skin and bird plumage pictures, and for lizard skin pictures than for bird plumage pictures. Likewise, the EPN was larger for partially exposed snakes than for partially exposed lizards and birds. The results suggest that the EPN snake effect is partly driven by snake skin scale patterns which are otherwise rare in nature. PMID:28387376

  19. INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF JUSTICE THEORY BY JOHN RAWLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Hernawan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Conflict of interest between employee and employer has a complexity since its biopsychology and sosioeconomic in nature. As its implication, it is difficult to create a consensus between two different interest within a legal perspective. Justice theory by John Rawls has answered the respective problem by giving legal priority upon the group of people who have less capacity in sosial and economic. According to John Rawls, law shall give orientation toward marginalized group. In industrial relations, law shall take side upon the employee who are in subordinate position.   Pertentangan kepentingan antara pekerja dan pengusaha memiliki kompleksitas karena bersifat biopsikologis dan sosio-ekonomi. Sebagai implikasinya, sulit mempertemukan dua kepentingan yang berbeda tersebut dalam satu rumusan hukum. Teori keadilan dari John Rawls telah menjawab persoalan tersebut dengan memberi prioritas hukum kepada orang-orang yang secara sosial ekonomi kurang beruntung. Hukum menurut John Rawls harus berorientasi kepada kelompok marjinal. Dalam hubungan industrial, hukum harus berpihak kepada pekerja yang berada dalam posisi subordinat.

  20. Wave-particle duality through an extended model of the scale relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannou, P D; Nica, P; Agop, M; Paun, V; Vizureanu, P

    2008-01-01

    Considering that the chaotic effect of associated wave packet on the particle itself results in movements on the fractal (continuous and non-differentiable) curves of fractal dimension D F , wave-particle duality through an extension of the scale relativity theory is given. It results through an equation of motion for the complex speed field, that in a fractal fluid, the convection, dissipation and dispersion are reciprocally compensating at any scale (differentiable or non-differentiable). From here, for an irrotational movement, a generalized Schroedinger equation is obtained. The absence of dispersion implies a generalized Navier-Stokes type equation, whereas, for the irrotational movement and the fractal dimension, D F = 2, the usual Schroedinger equation results. The absence of dissipation implies a generalized Korteweg-de Vries type equation. In such conjecture, at the differentiable scale, the duality is achieved through the flowing regimes of the fractal fluid, i.e. the wave character by means of the non-quasi-autonomous flowing regime and the particle character by means of the quasi-autonomous flowing regime. These flowing regimes are separated by '0.7 structure'. At the non-differentiable scale, a fractal potential acts as an energy accumulator and controls through the coherence the duality. The correspondence between the differentiable and non-differentiable scales implies a Cantor space-time. Moreover, the wave-particle duality implies at any scale a fractal.