May, Stephen
2014-01-01
In many language policy and political theory discussions, there is an overt skepticism, and at times outright hostility, towards the ongoing maintenance of private and, especially, public multilingualism, particularly when these include/incorporate the languages of linguistic minorities. For linguistic minority individuals, ongoing multilingualism…
Burgoyne, K.; Whiteley, H. E.; Hutchinson, J. M.
2011-01-01
Background: A significant number of pupils in UK schools learn English as an additional language (EAL). Relative differences between the educational attainment of this group and monolingual, English-speaking pupils call for an exploration of the literacy needs of EAL learners. Aims: This study explores the developmental progression of reading and…
Burgoyne, K; Whiteley, H E; Hutchinson, J M
2011-06-01
A significant number of pupils in UK schools learn English as an additional language (EAL). Relative differences between the educational attainment of this group and monolingual, English-speaking pupils call for an exploration of the literacy needs of EAL learners. This study explores the developmental progression of reading and listening comprehension skills and a range of reading-related skills in EAL learners, whose first language is of South Asian origin, and their monolingual peers. Participants were 39 children learning EAL and 39 monolingual, English-speaking children who were all in school Year 3 at the start of the study. Children completed standardized measures of comprehension, vocabulary, reading accuracy, and reading fluency in school Year 3 and again in Year 4. The results suggest that, although children learning EAL often demonstrate fast and accurate reading accuracy skills, lower levels of vocabulary knowledge place significant constraints on EAL learners' comprehension of spoken and written texts. Reciprocal relationships between vocabulary and comprehension may lead to increasing gaps in reading comprehension between monolingual and EAL pupils over time. It is proposed that support for the development of vocabulary skills in children learning EAL is needed in early years' classrooms. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.
George, N.R.; Kanero, J.; Chwilla, D.J.; Weiss, D.J.
2016-01-01
Verbs and prepositions pose significant challenges in second language learning, as languages differ in how they map these relational terms onto events. Second language learners must put aside their language-specific lens to uncover how a new language operates, perhaps having to rediscover semantic d
Kilmister, Clive William
1970-01-01
Special Theory of Relativity provides a discussion of the special theory of relativity. Special relativity is not, like other scientific theories, a statement about the matter that forms the physical world, but has the form of a condition that the explicit physical theories must satisfy. It is thus a form of description, playing to some extent the role of the grammar of physics, prescribing which combinations of theoretical statements are admissible as descriptions of the physical world. Thus, to describe it, one needs also to describe those specific theories and to say how much they are limit
Rethinking monolingual instructional strategies in multilingual classrooms
Jim Cummins
2007-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Three inter-related assumptions regarding best practice in second/foreign language teaching and bilingual/immersion education continue to dominate classroom instruction. These assumptions are that: (a the target language (TL should be used exclusively for instructional purposes without recourse to students’ first language (L1; (b translation between L1 and TL has no place in the language classroom; and (c within immersion and bilingual programs, the two languages should be kept rigidly separate. Research evidence provides minimal support for these assumptions and they are also inconsistent with the instructional implications of current theory in the areas of cognitive psychology and applied linguistics. Based on current research and theory, a set of bilingual instructional strategies are proposed and concrete examples are provided to illustrate how these strategies can be used together with monolingual strategies in a balanced and complementary way.
Einstein's theory of relativity
Born, Max
2012-01-01
Semi-technical account includes a review of classical physics (origin of space and time measurements, Ptolemaic and Copernican astronomy, laws of motion, inertia, more) and of Einstein's theories of relativity.
Fraïssé, R
2011-01-01
The first part of this book concerns the present state of the theory of chains (= total or linear orderings), in connection with some refinements of Ramsey's theorem, due to Galvin and Nash-Williams. This leads to the fundamental Laver's embeddability theorem for scattered chains, using Nash-Williams' better quasi-orderings, barriers and forerunning.The second part (chapters 9 to 12) extends to general relations the main notions and results from order-type theory. An important connection appears with permutation theory (Cameron, Pouzet, Livingstone and Wagner) and with logics (existence criter
Aerts, Diederik
2015-01-01
We put forward a new view of relativity theory that makes the existence of a flow of time compatible with the four-dimensional block universe. To this end, we apply the creation-discovery view elaborated for quantum mechanics to relativity theory and in such a way that time and space become creations instead of discoveries and an underlying non-temporal and non-spatial reality comes into existence. We study the nature of this underlying non-temporal and non-spatial reality and reinterpret many aspects of the theory within this new view. We show that data of relativistic measurements are sufficient to derive the three-dimensionality of physical space. The nature of light and massive entities is reconsidered, and an analogy with human cognition is worked out.
[Chronotherapy and relativity theory].
Polishchuk, N A
2008-01-01
The course of time itself in alive organisms is treated from positions of the special theory of the relativity created by A. Einstein in 1905 and added by the Nobel winners H.A.Lorentsem, M. Plankom, M. fon Laue. These achievements of fundamental physics have been put in a basis of special medical technology "Resonant chronophytotherapy" (SMT RCPT) which is applied in practice of treatment of chronic diseases for 27 years. Grass tinctures in various dosages are used in SMT RCPT, which patients take once a day during precisely designated time. Parameters "dosage-time" daily vary. SMT RCPT have been conducted in treatment of epilepsy bronchial asthma, rheumatism, sclerodermia, hypertension, chronic glomerulonephritis, vegeto-vascular dystonia, female sterility, circular alopecia, vitiligo, eczema, psoriasis, onychomycosis. SMT RCPT does have adverse events, has no contra-indications to its use, directed, first of all, on elimination of nonspecific signs of a disease, reduces dependence and complications of the use of chemical synthetic preparations. SMT RCPT can be combined with any kind of specific treatment. Internet-variant of SMT RCPT has been developed. Chronomedicine is priority tendency in industrialized countries of the world--the USA, the Great Britain, Germany, France, Russia, China, Japan and appears on lead positions among alternative methods of treatment, both traditional, and non-traditional.
Bunta, Ferenc; Douglas, Michael
2013-01-01
Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of supporting both English and Spanish on language outcomes in bilingual children with hearing loss (HL) who used listening devices (cochlear implants and hearing aids). The English language skills of bilingual children with HL were compared to those of their monolingual English-speaking peers'…
Bunta, Ferenc; Douglas, Michael
2013-01-01
Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of supporting both English and Spanish on language outcomes in bilingual children with hearing loss (HL) who used listening devices (cochlear implants and hearing aids). The English language skills of bilingual children with HL were compared to those of their monolingual English-speaking peers'…
Do bilinguals outperform monolinguals?
Sejdi Sejdiu
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The relationship between second dialect acquisition and the psychological capacity of the learner is still a divisive topic that generates a lot of debate. A few researchers contend that the acquisition of the second dialect tends to improve the cognitive abilities in various individuals, but at the same time it could hinder the same abilities in other people. Currently, immersion is a common occurrence in some countries. In the recent past, it has significantly increased in its popularity, which has caused parents, professionals, and researchers to question whether second language acquisition has a positive impact on cognitive development, encompassing psychological ability. In rundown, the above might decide to comprehend the effects of using a second language based on the literal aptitudes connected with the native language. The issue of bilingualism was seen as a disadvantage until recently because of two languages being present which would hinder or delay the development of languages. However, recent studies have proven that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in tasks which require more attention.
Zakamska, Nadia L
2015-01-01
Special Relativity is taught to physics sophomores at Johns Hopkins University in a series of eight lectures. Lecture 1 covers the principle of relativity and the derivation of the Lorentz transform. Lecture 2 covers length contraction and time dilation. Lecture 3 covers Minkowski diagrams, simultaneous events and causally connected events, as well as velocity transforms. Lecture 4 covers energy and momentum of particles and introduces 4-vectors. Lecture 5 covers energy and momentum of photons and collision problems. Lecture 6 covers Doppler effect and aberration. Lecture 7 covers relativistic dynamics. Optional Lecture 8 covers field transforms. The main purpose of these notes is to introduce 4-vectors and the matrix notation and to demonstrate their use in solving standard problems in Special Relativity. The pre-requisites for the class are calculus-based Classical Mechanics and Electricity & Magnetism, and Linear Algebra is highly recommended.
Barac, Raluca; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen
2016-01-01
This study examined executive control in sixty-two 5-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual using behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) measures. All children performed equivalently on simple response inhibition (gift delay), but bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on interference suppression and complex response…
Verifying the Theory of Relativity
Chandrasekhar, S.
1975-01-01
This article, based on a talk the author gave to the 'Innominates', an interdisciplinary faculty group at the University of Chicago, focuses on events of the years surrounding the British Expeditions to Brazil and West Africa in 1919 that led to the confirmation of Einstein's theory of relativity. (BT)
Chaos Theory and International Relations
2016-12-01
remedy that leads warriors to victory.113 Sequentially, by the early years of the 19th century realism expanded to embrace art (Figure 18), science ...MASTER OF SCIENCE IN PHYSICS AND MASTER OF ARTS IN SECURITY STUDIES (CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS) from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL December... predict those crises, using or modifying existing political theories. Over the years , political scientists have made several efforts to determine the
The special theory of relativity
Devanathan, V
2015-01-01
THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY, designed as a text book for undergraduate and postgraduate students, deals with the Michelson-Morley experiment, the concept of unified space and time, the Lorentz transformation of physical quantities, length contraction, time dilation, the Minkowski space, the mass-energy relation, the concept of four-vectors, the relativistic mechanics, the laws of transformation between centre of momentum and laboratory systems, the relativistic kinematics, the unification of laws of electricity and magnetism into laws of electromagnetism, the invariance of Maxwell's equations under Lorentz transformation and the Lorentz transformation of electromagnetic quantities. KEY FEATURES: * Review Questions * Problems * Solutions to Problems * Multiple Choice Questions
Brain Network Activity in Monolingual and Bilingual Older Adults
Grady, Cheryl L.; Luk, Gigi; Craik, Fergus I.M.; Bialystok, Ellen
2016-01-01
Bilingual older adults typically have better performance on tasks of executive control (EC) than do their monolingual peers, but differences in brain activity due to language experience are not well understood. Based on studies showing a relation between the dynamic range of brain network activity and performance on EC tasks, we hypothesized that life-long bilingual older adults would show increased functional connectivity relative to monolinguals in networks related to EC. We assessed intrinsic functional connectivity and modulation of activity in task vs. fixation periods in two brain networks that are active when EC is engaged, the frontoparietal control network (FPC) and the salience network (SLN). We also examined the default mode network (DMN), which influences behavior through reduced activity during tasks. We found stronger intrinsic functional connectivity in the FPC and DMN in bilinguals than in monolinguals. Although there were no group differences in the modulation of activity across tasks and fixation, bilinguals showed stronger correlations than monolinguals between intrinsic connectivity in the FPC and task-related increases of activity in prefrontal and parietal regions. This bilingual difference in network connectivity suggests that language experience begun in childhood and continued throughout adulthood influences brain networks in ways that may provide benefits in later life. PMID:25445783
Conformal Relativity: Theory and Observations
Pervushin, V; Zorin, A
2005-01-01
Theoretical and observational arguments are listed in favor of a new principle of relativity of units of measurements as the basis of a conformal-invariant unification of General Relativity and Standard Model by replacement of all masses with a scalar (dilaton) field. The relative units mean conformal observables: the coordinate distance, conformal time, running masses, and constant temperature. They reveal to us a motion of a universe along its hypersurface in the field space of events like a motion of a relativistic particle in the Minkowski space, where the postulate of the vacuum as a state with minimal energy leads to arrow of the geometric time. In relative units, the unified theory describes the Cold Universe Scenario, where the role of the conformal dark energy is played by a free minimal coupling scalar field in agreement with the most recent distance-redshift data from type Ia supernovae. In this Scenario, the evolution of the Universe begins with the effect of intensive creation of primordial W-Z-b...
Coding Theory, Cryptography and Related Areas
Buchmann, Johannes; Stichtenoth, Henning; Tapia-Recillas, Horacio
Proceedings of anInternational Conference on Coding Theory, Cryptography and Related Areas, held in Guanajuato, Mexico. in april 1998......Proceedings of anInternational Conference on Coding Theory, Cryptography and Related Areas, held in Guanajuato, Mexico. in april 1998...
Creativity Theories and Related Teachers' Beliefs
Saracho, Olivia
2012-01-01
Creativity theories have been investigated in relation to explicit or implicit theories, which have dominated the field. The flourishing attention about creativity motivated many researchers to examine implicit and explicit theories to understand creativity in their studies. Explicit theories are those formulated by psychologists or other social…
Lexical Selection Differences between Monolingual and Bilingual Listeners
Friesen, Deanna C.; Chung-Fat-Yim, Ashley; Bialystok, Ellen
2015-01-01
Three studies are reported investigating how monolinguals and bilinguals resolve within-language competition when listening to isolated words. Participants saw two pictures that were semantically-related, phonologically-related, or unrelated and heard a word naming one of them while event-related potentials were recorded. In Studies 1 and 2, the pictures and auditory cue were presented simultaneously and the related conditions produced interference for both groups. Monolinguals showed reduced N400s to the semantically-related pairs but there was no modulation in this component by bilinguals. Study 3 inserted an interval between picture and word onset. For picture onset, both groups exhibited reduced N400s to semantically-related pictures; for word onset, both groups showed larger N400s to phonologically-related pictures. Overall, bilinguals showed less integration of related items in simultaneous (but not sequential) presentation, presumably because of interference from the activated non-English language. Thus, simple lexical selection for bilinguals includes more conflict than it does for monolinguals. PMID:26684415
A Relational Localisation Theory for Topological Algebras
2012-01-01
In this thesis, we develop a relational localisation theory for topological algebras, i.e., a theory that studies local approximations of a topological algebra’s relational counterpart. In order to provide an appropriate framework for our considerations, we first introduce a general Galois theory between continuous functions and closed relations on an arbitrary topological space. Subsequently to this rather foundational discussion, we establish the desired localisation theory comprising the i...
Parameterized Special Theory of Relativity (PSTR)
2012-01-01
We have parameterized Einstein’s thought experiment with atomic clocks, supposing that we knew neither if the space and time are relative or absolute, nor if the speed of light was ultimate speed or not. We have obtained a Parameterized Special Theory of Relativity (PSTR), first introduced in 1982. Our PSTR generalized not only Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity, but also our Absolute Theory of Relativity, and introduced three more possible Relativities to be studied in ...
Vantage Theory and Linguistic Relativity
Allan, Keith
2010-01-01
Rob MacLaury's Vantage Theory, VT, models the way in which a cognizer constructs, recalls, uses, and modifies a category in terms of point of view or vantage. Alongside of VT, there is place for the kind of semantic specification found in the lexicon. VT2 [Allan, Keith, 2002. "Vantage theory, VT2, and number." "Language Sciences" 24(5-6), 679-703…
Vantage Theory and Linguistic Relativity
Allan, Keith
2010-01-01
Rob MacLaury's Vantage Theory, VT, models the way in which a cognizer constructs, recalls, uses, and modifies a category in terms of point of view or vantage. Alongside of VT, there is place for the kind of semantic specification found in the lexicon. VT2 [Allan, Keith, 2002. "Vantage theory, VT2, and number." "Language Sciences" 24(5-6), 679-703…
Race Relations in Sociological Theory.
Rex, John
This book seeks to develop sociological theory adequate to deal with the various uses to which racism has been put. How particular political orders apply "scientific" rationalizations, including race, to disguise their true origins in force, violence, and usurpation is demonstrated. Analysis of exploitative conditions starts with an objective…
The Lorentz Theory of Electrons and Einstein's Theory of Relativity
Goldberg, Stanley
1969-01-01
Traces the development of Lorentz's theory of electrons as applied to the problem of the electrodynamics of moving bodies. Presents evidence that the principle of relativity did not play an important role in Lorentz's theory, and that though Lorentz eventually acknowledged Einstein's work, he was unwilling to completely embrace the Einstein…
SYNONYMS IN GERMAN ONLINE MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARIES
Paloma Sánchez Hernández
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This study includes both theoretical and qualitative research and falls within the framework of semantics and lexicography. It is based on work conducted as a part of the COMBIDIGILEX research project: MINECO-FEDER FFI2015-64476-P. The lexicographical description proposed in the COMBIDIGILEX project is based on the foundations of bilingual lexicography from an onomasiological perspective, including paradigmatic information and syntagmatic analysis, which is useful to users creating texts for students at an advanced level. The project analyses verbal lexemes in German and Spanish based on a paradigmatic, syntagmatic, orthographic and morphological perspective (among others. Subsequently, a contrastive analysis was conducted between both languages. In this contribution, we first analyse what paradigmatic information is, including its relevance to a dictionary. Paradigmatic information includes not only synonyms and antonyms but also hyperonyms and hyponyms, which often complete the lexicographical article in a general dictionary. Paradigmatic relations can be observed in light of semantic definitions or may independently become part of the lexical entry. Forming the paradigmatic information of an entry in an independent manner is known as “intentionelle Paradigmatik”, and it constitutes a series of advantages in the dictionary (Hausmann 1991b: 2794. This type of information aids the processes of production and expands vocabulary. Next, we examine the appearance of synonyms in three German online monolingual dictionaries – DWDS, WORTSCHATZLEXIKON and DUDEN ONLINE – from the semantic perspective of cognition verbs. The primary objective of the study is to demonstrate the relevance of this type of information as well as the needs it covers from a user’s perspective. Offering the user a series of lexical elements along with information on semantic relations of a paradigmatic nature thus addresses the issue of users having an array of
Monolingual and Bilingual Children's Social Preferences for Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers
Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Behrend, Douglas A.; Said, Lyakout Mohamed; Girgis, Helana; Poulin-Dubois, Diane
2017-01-01
Past research has shown that young monolingual children exhibit language-based social biases: they prefer native language to foreign language speakers. The current research investigated how children's language preferences are influenced by their own bilingualism and by a speaker's bilingualism. Monolingual and bilingual 4- to 6-year-olds heard…
The end of International Relations theory?
Dunne, Tim; Hansen, Lene; Wight, Colin
2013-01-01
to the alternatives currently being practised: integrative pluralism. The article ends on a cautiously optimistic note: given the disciplinary competition that now exists in relation to explaining and understanding global social forces, International Relations may find resilience because it has become theory......With a view to providing contextual background for the Special Issue, this opening article analyses several dimensions of ‘The end of International Relations theory?’ It opens with a consideration of the status of different types of theory. Thereafter, we look at the proliferation of theories...
How I Created the Theory of Relativity.
Ono, Yoshimasa A.
1982-01-01
This translation of a lecture given in Kyoto (Japan) on 14 December l922 sheds light on Einstein's path to the theory of relativity and offers insights into many other aspects of his work on relativity. (Author/JN)
Wewalaarachchi, Thilanga D; Wong, Liang Hui; Singh, Leher
2017-03-02
Although bilingual learners represent the linguistic majority, much less is known about their lexical processing in comparison with monolingual learners. In the current study, bilingual and monolingual toddlers were compared on their ability to recognize familiar words. Children were presented with correct pronunciations and mispronunciations, with the latter involving a vowel, consonant, or tone substitution. A robust ability to recognize words when their labels were correctly pronounced was observed in both groups. Both groups also exhibited a robust ability to reject vowel, tone, and consonant mispronunciations as possible labels for familiar words. However, time course analyses revealed processing differences based on language background; relative to Mandarin monolinguals, Mandarin-English bilingual toddlers demonstrated reduced efficiency in recognizing correctly pronounced words. With respect to mispronunciations, Mandarin-English bilingual learners demonstrated reduced sensitivity to tone mispronunciations relative to Mandarin monolingual toddlers. Moreover, the relative cost of mispronunciations differed for monolingual and bilingual toddlers. Monolingual toddlers demonstrated least sensitivity to consonants followed by vowels and tones, whereas bilingual toddlers demonstrated least sensitivity to tone, followed by consonants and then by vowels. Time course analyses revealed that both groups were sensitive to vowel and consonant variation. Results reveal both similarities and differences in monolingual and bilingual learners' processing of familiar words in Mandarin Chinese.
Compiling the First Monolingual Lusoga Dictionary
Minah Nabirye
2011-10-01
Full Text Available
Abstract: In this research article a study is made of the approach followed to compile the first-ever monolingual dictionary for Lusoga. Lusoga is a Bantu language spoken in Uganda by slightly over two mil-lion people. Being an under-resourced language, the Lusoga orthography had to be designed, a grammar written, and a corpus built, before embarking on the compilation of the dictionary. This compilation was aimed at attaining an academic degree, hence requiring a rigorous research methodology. Firstly, the prevail-ing methods for compiling dictionaries were mainly practical and insufficient in explaining the theoretical linguistic basis for dictionary compilation. Since dictionaries are based on meaning, the theory of meaning was used to account for all linguistic data considered in dictionaries. However, meaning is considered at a very abstract level, far removed from the process of compiling dictionaries. Another theory, the theory of modularity, was used to bridge the gap between the theory of meaning and the compilation process. The modular theory explains how the different modules of a language contribute information to the different parts of the dictionary article or dictionary information in general. Secondly, the research also had to contend with the different approaches for analysing Bantu languages for Bantu and European audiences. A descrip-tion of the Bantu- and European-centred approaches to Bantu studies was undertaken in respect of (a the classification of Lusoga words, and (b the specification of their citations. As a result, Lusoga lexicography deviates from the prevailing Bantu classification and citation of nouns, adjectives and verbs in particular. The dictionary was tested on two separate occasions and all the feedback was considered in the compilation pro-cess. This article, then, gives an overall summary of all the steps involved in the compilation of the Eiwanika ly'Olusoga, i.e. the Monolingual Lusoga Dictionary
Relativity the theory and its philosophy
Angel, Roger B
1980-01-01
Relativity: The Theory and its Philosophy provides a completely self-contained treatment of the philosophical foundations of the theory of relativity. It also surveys the most essential mathematical techniques and concepts that are indispensable to an understanding of the foundations of both the special and general theories of relativity. In short, the book includes a crash course in applied mathematics, ranging from elementary trigonometry to the classical tensor calculus.Comprised of 11 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to fundamental mathematical concepts such as sets, relatio
Maxwell's electromagnetic theory and special relativity.
Hall, Graham
2008-05-28
This paper presents a brief history of electromagnetic theory from ancient times up to the work of Maxwell and the advent of Einstein's special theory of relativity. It is divided into five convenient periods and the intention is to describe these developments for the benefit of a lay scientific audience and with the minimum of technical detail.
Magnetic fields, special relativity and potential theory elementary electromagnetic theory
Chirgwin, B H; Kilmister, C W
1972-01-01
Magnetic Fields, Special Relativity and Potential Theory is an introduction to electromagnetism, special relativity, and potential theory, with emphasis on the magnetic field of steady currents (magnetostatics). Topics covered range from the origin of the magnetic field and the magnetostatic scalar potential to magnetization, electromagnetic induction and magnetic energy, and the displacement current and Maxwell's equations. This volume is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of magnetostatics, followed by a chapter on the methods of solving potential problems drawn from elec
The special theory of relativity bound with relativity
Dingle, Herbert
2014-01-01
The Special Theory of Relativity:Based on a short course of lectures delivered in the late 1930s, this short book presents the theory of Special Relativity by formulating a redefinition of the measurement of length, and thus will appeal to students of physics who wish to think through Einstein's thought without the encumbrance of quasi-scientific concepts and language. Relativity: A Very Elementary Exposition:This brief lecture, delivered in October 1921 and published for the first time in 1925, offers an explanation of Einstein's theory of Special Relativity for the non-scientist, giving a ge
Simple Recursion Relations for General Field Theories
Cheung, Clifford; Trnka, Jaroslav
2015-01-01
On-shell methods offer an alternative definition of quantum field theory at tree-level, replacing Feynman diagrams with recursion relations and interaction vertices with a handful of seed scattering amplitudes. In this paper we determine the simplest recursion relations needed to construct a general four-dimensional quantum field theory of massless particles. For this purpose we define a covering space of recursion relations which naturally generalizes all existing constructions, including those of BCFW and Risager. The validity of each recursion relation hinges on the large momentum behavior of an n-point scattering amplitude under an m-line momentum shift, which we determine solely from dimensional analysis, Lorentz invariance, and locality. We show that all amplitudes in a renormalizable theory are 5-line constructible. Amplitudes are 3-line constructible if an external particle carries spin or if the scalars in the theory carry equal charge under a global or gauge symmetry. Remarkably, this implies the 3-...
Parameterized Special Theory of Relativity (PSTR
Smarandache F.
2012-04-01
Full Text Available We have parameterized Einstein’s thought experiment with atomic clocks, supposing that we knew neither if the space and time are relative or absolute, nor if the speed of light was ultimate speed or not. We have obtained a Parameterized Special Theory of Relativity (PSTR, first introduced in 1982. Our PSTR generalized not only Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity, but also our Absolute Theory of Relativity, and introduced three more possible Relativities to be studied in the future. After the 2011 CERN’s superluminal neutrino experiments, we recall our ideas and invite researchers to deepen the study of PSTR, ATR, and check the three new mathematically emerged Relativities 4.3, 4.4, and 4.5.
Michael Singh
2017-01-01
The argument advanced in this Special Issue of Education Sciences favors democratizing knowledge production and dissemination across the humanities and social sciences through the mainstreaming of multilingual researchers capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire. An important contribution of the papers in this Special Issue is the promise that post-monolingual research methodology holds for collaborative projects among multilingual and monolingual researchers that ta...
Lexical knowledge of monolingual and bilingual children
Verhallen, M.; Schoonen, R.
1993-01-01
The aim of the present study is to gain insight into the lexico-semantic knowledge of bilingual children growing up in a second-language immersion environment. The research focus is on aspects of lexical knowledge that are relevant for school success. Data were obtained by asking 40 monolingual
Monolingual Dictionary Use in an EFL Context
Ali, Holi Ibrahim Holi
2012-01-01
Caledonian College of Engineering, Oman, has been encouraging its students to use monolingual dictionaries rather than bilingual or bilingualized ones in classroom and during the exams. This policy with has been received with mixed feelings and attitudes. Therefore, this study strives to explore teachers' and students' attitudes about the use of…
Dalton, Bridget; Proctor, C. Patrick; Uccelli, Paola; Mo, Elaine; Snow, Catherine E.
2011-01-01
This study examined the relative contribution of reading comprehension strategies and interactive vocabulary in Improving Comprehension Online (ICON), a universally designed web-based scaffolded text environment designed to improve fifth-grade monolingual English and bilingual students' reading achievement. Seventy-five monolingual English and 31…
Effects of semantic richness on lexical processing in monolinguals and bilinguals
Vanessa Taler
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The effect of number of senses (NoS, a measure of semantic richness, was examined in monolingual English speakers (n=17 and bilingual speakers of English and French (n=18. Participants completed lexical decision tasks while EEG was recorded: monolinguals completed the task in English only, and bilinguals completed two lexical decision tasks, one in English and one in French. Effects of NoS were observed in both participant groups, with shorter response times and reduced N400 amplitudes to high relative to low NoS items. These effects were stronger in monolinguals than in bilinguals. Moreover, we found dissociations across languages in bilinguals, with stronger behavioral NoS effects in English and stronger event-related potential (ERP NoS effects in French. This finding suggests that different aspects of linguistic performance may be stronger in each of a bilingual’s two languages.
Effects of Semantic Richness on Lexical Processing in Monolinguals and Bilinguals
Taler, Vanessa; López Zunini, Rocío; Kousaie, Shanna
2016-01-01
The effect of number of senses (NoS), a measure of semantic richness, was examined in monolingual English speakers (n = 17) and bilingual speakers of English and French (n = 18). Participants completed lexical decision tasks while EEG was recorded: monolinguals completed the task in English only, and bilinguals completed two lexical decision tasks, one in English and one in French. Effects of NoS were observed in both participant groups, with shorter response times and reduced N400 amplitudes to high relative to low NoS items. These effects were stronger in monolinguals than in bilinguals. Moreover, we found dissociations across languages in bilinguals, with stronger behavioral NoS effects in English and stronger event-related potential (ERP) NoS effects in French. This finding suggests that different aspects of linguistic performance may be stronger in each of a bilingual’s two languages. PMID:27524963
Grundy, John G; Chung-Fat-Yim, Ashley; Friesen, Deanna C; Mak, Lorinda; Bialystok, Ellen
2017-06-01
Three studies examined the hypothesis that bilinguals can more rapidly disengage attention from irrelevant information than monolinguals by investigating the impact of previous trial congruency on performance in a simple flanker task. In Study 1, monolingual and bilingual young adults completed two versions of a flanker task. There were no differences between language groups on mean reaction time using standard analyses for congruent or incongruent trials or the size of the flanker effect. Sequential congruency effects (SCEs) however, which account for previous trial congruency, were smaller for bilinguals than for monolinguals. This finding was strongest at the shortest response-to-stimulus interval (RSI). Study 2 replicated this effect using a slightly different flanker task and a shorter RSI than study 1. Study 3 showed that at long RSIs, where behavioral SCE differences between groups disappear because of sufficient time to recover from the previous trial, event-related potentials demonstrated a continued influence of previous trial congruency for monolinguals but not bilinguals at both the N2 and the P3, replicating the reaction time effects in Studies 1 and 2. Together, these studies demonstrate that bilinguals experience less influence from previous trial congruency and have greater ability to disengage attention from the previous trial in order to focus attention on the current trial than is found for monolinguals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Public Relations and Neo-institutional theory
Fredriksson, Magnus; Pallas, Josef; Wehmeier, Stefan
2013-01-01
This special section seeks to enrich research on the field by using neo-institutional theory to describe, explain and understand the activities, processes and dynamics of public relations. By this we open up for a wider understanding of public relations, its preconditions, its performances and its consequences for shaping the social. We argue that public relations could be analyzed as an institutionalized practice with certain set of governing mechanisms including taken-for-granted activities...
Diffusion in the special theory of relativity.
Herrmann, Joachim
2009-11-01
The Markovian diffusion theory is generalized within the framework of the special theory of relativity. Since the velocity space in relativity is a hyperboloid, the mathematical stochastic calculus on Riemanian manifolds can be applied but adopted here to the velocity space. A generalized Langevin equation in the fiber space of position, velocity, and orthonormal velocity frames is defined from which the generalized relativistic Kramers equation in the phase space in external force fields is derived. The obtained diffusion equation is invariant under Lorentz transformations and its stationary solution is given by the Jüttner distribution. Besides, a nonstationary analytical solution is derived for the example of force-free relativistic diffusion.
Relating field theories via stochastic quantization
Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne
2010-01-01
This note aims to subsume several apparently unrelated models under a common framework. Several examples of well-known quantum field theories are listed which are connected via stochastic quantization. We highlight the fact that the quantization method used to obtain the quantum crystal is a discrete analog of stochastic quantization. This model is of interest for string theory, since the (classical) melting crystal corner is related to the topological A-model. We outline several ideas for interpreting the quantum crystal on the string theory side of the correspondence, exploring interpretations in the Wheeler-De Witt framework and in terms of a non-Lorentz invariant limit of topological M-theory.
Relating field theories via stochastic quantization
Dijkgraaf, Robbert [KdV Institute for Mathematics, University of Amsterdam, Plantage Muidergracht 24, 1018 TV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Orlando, Domenico [Institute for the Mathematics and Physics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa-no-Ha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-shi, 277-8568 Chiba (Japan); Reffert, Susanne, E-mail: susanne.reffert@impu.j [Institute for the Mathematics and Physics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa-no-Ha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-shi, 277-8568 Chiba (Japan)
2010-01-11
This note aims to subsume several apparently unrelated models under a common framework. Several examples of well-known quantum field theories are listed which are connected via stochastic quantization. We highlight the fact that the quantization method used to obtain the quantum crystal is a discrete analog of stochastic quantization. This model is of interest for string theory, since the (classical) melting crystal corner is related to the topological A-model. We outline several ideas for interpreting the quantum crystal on the string theory side of the correspondence, exploring interpretations in the Wheeler-De Witt framework and in terms of a non-Lorentz invariant limit of topological M-theory.
Relating Field Theories via Stochastic Quantization
Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Reffert, Susanne
2009-01-01
This note aims to subsume several apparently unrelated models under a common framework. Several examples of well-known quantum field theories are listed which are connected via stochastic quantization. We highlight the fact that the quantization method used to obtain the quantum crystal is a discrete analog of stochastic quantization. This model is of interest for string theory, since the (classical) melting crystal corner is related to the topological A-model. We outline several ideas for interpreting the quantum crystal on the string theory side of the correspondence, exploring interpretations in the Wheeler-De Witt framework and in terms of a non-Lorentz invariant limit of topological M-theory.
Manifest Covariant Hamiltonian Theory of General Relativity
Cremaschini, Claudio
2016-01-01
The problem of formulating a manifest covariant Hamiltonian theory of General Relativity in the presence of source fields is addressed, by extending the so-called "DeDonder-Weyl" formalism to the treatment of classical fields in curved space-time. The theory is based on a synchronous variational principle for the Einstein equation, formulated in terms of superabundant variables. The technique permits one to determine the continuum covariant Hamiltonian structure associated with the Einstein equation. The corresponding continuum Poisson bracket representation is also determined. The theory relies on first-principles, in the sense that the conclusions are reached in the framework of a non-perturbative covariant approach, which allows one to preserve both the 4-scalar nature of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian densities as well as the gauge invariance property of the theory.
Spatial role-taking ability among bilingual and monolingual kindergarten children.
Gorrell, J
1987-03-01
Fifty-seven children enrolled in a bilingual Spanish kindergarten program, assigned to appropriate language and age-related groups, were shown a graduated sequence of increasingly complex arrangements of multicolored blocks and were asked to judge how the original arrangement would look from the opposite and the side perspectives. A series of 2(younger vs. older) X 3(Spanish Monolingual vs. English Monolingual vs. Spanish-English Bilingual) ANOVAs for each of the types of responses (correct, incorrect, egocentric) showed a significant main effect for age on the incorrect answers. No differences associated with egocentrism were obtained. There was no relationship between age and success with simple and complex spatial tasks. As opposed to other studies that suggest certain cognitive advantages for young bilingual children, this study indicates no perceptible differences associated with being monolingual or bilingual at the ages of 5 and 6 for spatial tasks.
Special Relativity: Scientific or Philosophical Theory?
Sochi, Taha
2016-01-01
In this article, we argue that the theory of special relativity, as formulated by Einstein, is a philosophical rather than a scientific theory. What is scientific and experimentally supported is the formalism of the relativistic mechanics embedded in the Lorentz transformations and their direct mathematical, experimental and observational consequences. This is in parallel with the quantum mechanics where the scientific content and experimental support of this branch of physics is embedded in the formalism of quantum mechanics and not in its philosophical interpretations such as the Copenhagen school or the parallel worlds explanations. Einstein theory of special relativity gets unduly credit from the success of the relativistic mechanics of Lorentz transformations. Hence, all the postulates and consequences of Einstein interpretation which have no direct experimental or observational support should be reexamined and the relativistic mechanics of Lorentz transformations should be treated in education, academia...
Hundres Years of Theory of Relativity
Jaroslav Franek
2005-01-01
Full Text Available In 2005, all civilised worl will remind the 100 years anniversary of Publishing the original work on special theory of relativity by Albert Einstein. This contribution is a brief review of its principial ideas in the field of electrodynamics.
Connecting and unmasking relativity and quantum theory
Koning, de W.L.; Willigenburg, van L.G.
2015-01-01
The answer lies right in front of us, but we refuse to see it. Both relativity and quantum theory, the two pillars of fundamental physics, are modified in this paper to make them also explain the physical phenomena they describe. With this explanation, all current inconsistencies between the two van
Is quantum theory compatible with special relativity?
M Bahrami; A Shafiee; M Saravani; M Golshani
2013-03-01
How a proposed quantum nonlocal phenomenon could be incompatible with the requirements of special relativity is studied. To show this, the least set of assumptions about the formalism and the interpretation of non-relativistic quantum theory is considered. Then, without any reference to the collapse assumption or any other stochastic processes, an experiment is proposed, involving two quantum systems, that interacted at an arbitrary time, with results which seem to be in conflict with requirements of special relativity.
Relativity the special and the general theory
Einstein, Albert
2015-01-01
After completing the final version of his general theory of relativity in November 1915, Albert Einstein wrote a book about relativity for a popular audience. His intention was "to give an exact insight into the theory of relativity to those readers who, from a general scientific and philosophical point of view, are interested in the theory, but who are not conversant with the mathematical apparatus of theoretical physics." The book remains one of the most lucid explanations of the special and general theories ever written. In the early 1920s alone, it was translated into ten languages, and fifteen editions in the original German appeared over the course of Einstein's lifetime. This new edition of Einstein's celebrated book features an authoritative English translation of the text along with an introduction and a reading companion by Hanoch Gutfreund and Jürgen Renn that examines the evolution of Einstein's thinking and casts his ideas in a broader present-day context. A special chapter explores the history...
Relationalism or why diplomats find international relations theory strange
Adler-Nissen, Rebecca
2015-01-01
In this conclusion, which reflects critically on the relational approach to diplomacy and its wider consequences, I argue that diplomats are estranged from IR theory and vice versa - because International Relations scholars generally subscribe to substantialism, whereas diplomats tend to think...... of these phenomena (e.g. states or individuals) and ascribing certain characteristics to them, they develop substantive theories. Consequently, diplomacy is reduced to the mechanics of states bumping into each other or a system of reciprocal signaling. However, most diplomats know, in an embodied but often...
General Relativity As an Aether Theory
Dupre, Maurice J
2010-01-01
Most early twentieth century relativists --- Lorentz, Einstein, Eddington, for examples --- claimed that general relativity was merely a theory of the aether. We shall confirm this claim by deriving the Einstein equations using aether theory. We shall use a combination of Lorentz's and Kelvin's conception of the aether. Our derivation of the Einstein equations will not use the vanishing of the covariant divergence of the stress-energy tensor, but instead equate the Ricci tensor to the sum of the usual stress-energy tensor and a stress-energy tensor for the aether, a tensor based on Kelvin's aether theory. A crucial first step is generalizing the Cartan formalism of Newtonian gravity to allow spatial curvature, as conjectured by Gauss and Riemann.
Relationalism or why diplomats find international relations theory strange
Adler-Nissen, Rebecca
2015-01-01
unarticulated sense, that world politics is deeply relational. Their job is to make those relations "work," and they are convinced that important knowledge can be gained by consulting and meeting with foreign powers, that is, "the other." As such, they subscribe to a relational thinking (shared to some extent......In this conclusion, which reflects critically on the relational approach to diplomacy and its wider consequences, I argue that diplomats are estranged from IR theory and vice versa - because International Relations scholars generally subscribe to substantialism, whereas diplomats tend to think...... of these phenomena (e.g. states or individuals) and ascribing certain characteristics to them, they develop substantive theories. Consequently, diplomacy is reduced to the mechanics of states bumping into each other or a system of reciprocal signaling. However, most diplomats know, in an embodied but often...
Four paradoxes about the special theory of relativity
Li, Xiao-Jun; Li, Xiao-Niu; Li, Yong-An
2016-01-01
Various paradoxes about the relativity theory have been developed since the birth of this theory. Each paradox somewhat shows people's query about the relativity theory, and solving of each paradox demonstrates the correctness of relativity theory once again. In this paper, four paradoxes about the special theory of relativity are brought forward: displacement paradox, electromagnetic transformation paradox, Doppler paradox and magnetic force paradox. We hope some researchers can reasonably explain these paradoxes, and then knowledge of the relativity theory will become more abundant.
Michael Singh
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The argument advanced in this Special Issue of Education Sciences favors democratizing knowledge production and dissemination across the humanities and social sciences through the mainstreaming of multilingual researchers capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire. An important contribution of the papers in this Special Issue is the promise that post-monolingual research methodology holds for collaborative projects among multilingual and monolingual researchers that tap into intercultural divergences across languages. Together these papers give warrant to multilingual researchers, including Higher Degree Researchers develop their capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire, an educational innovation that could be of immense benefit to scholars working predominantly monolingual universities. Through their thought provoking papers presented in this Special Issue, these researchers invites those working in the education sciences to seriously consider the potential benefits of multiplying the intellectual resources used for theorizing that is possible through activating, mobilizing and deploying researchers’ multilingual resources in knowledge production and dissemination.
Fuzzy relational calculus theory, applications and software
Peeva, Ketty
2004-01-01
This book examines fuzzy relational calculus theory with applications in various engineering subjects. The scope of the text covers unified and exact methods with algorithms for direct and inverse problem resolution in fuzzy relational calculus. Extensive engineering applications of fuzzy relation compositions and fuzzy linear systems (linear, relational and intuitionistic) are discussed. Some examples of such applications include solutions of equivalence, reduction and minimization problems in fuzzy machines, pattern recognition in fuzzy languages, optimization and inference engines in textile and chemical engineering, etc. A comprehensive overview of the authors' original work in fuzzy relational calculus is also provided in each chapter. The attached CD-Rom contains a toolbox with many functions for fuzzy calculations, together with an original algorithm for inverse problem resolution in MATLAB. This book is also suitable for use as a textbook in related courses at advanced undergraduate and graduate level...
Constructing a chinese international relations theory
Kristensen, P.M.; Nielsen, R.T.
2013-01-01
Chinese scholars are debating whether, and how, to innovate a Chinese theory of International Relations (IR). This article examines the driving forces behind this theoretical debate. It challenges the commonsensical link between external events in the subject matter (i.r.) and theorizing (IR...... where control over rewards such as research funds, promotion, and publications affects what kind of work is done, with theorizing being increasingly rewarded....
The Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford Spaces
Castro C.
2005-04-01
Full Text Available An introduction to some of the most important features of the Extended Relativity theory in Clifford-spaces (C-spaces is presented whose “point” coordinates are non-commuting Clifford-valued quantities which incorporate lines, areas, volumes, hyper-volumes. . . degrees of freedom associated with the collective particle, string, membrane, p-brane. . . dynamics of p-loops (closed p-branes in target D-dimensional spacetime backgrounds. C-space Relativity naturally incorporates the ideas of an invariant length (Planck scale, maximal acceleration, non-commuting coordinates, supersymmetry, holography, higher derivative gravity with torsion and variable dimensions/signatures. It permits to study the dynamics of all (closed p-branes, for all values of p, on a unified footing. It resolves the ordering ambiguities in QFT, the problem of time in Cosmology and admits superluminal propagation (tachyons without violations of causality. A discussion of the maximal-acceleration Relativity principle in phase-spaces follows and the study of the invariance group of symmetry transformations in phase-space allows to show why Planck areas are invariant under acceleration-boosts transformations. This invariance feature suggests that a maximal-string tension principle may be operating in Nature. We continue by pointing out how the relativity of signatures of the underlying n-dimensional spacetime results from taking different n-dimensional slices through C-space. The conformal group in spacetime emerges as a natural subgroup of the Clifford group and Relativity in C-spaces involves natural scale changes in the sizes of physical objects without the introduction of forces nor Weyl’s gauge field of dilations. We finalize by constructing the generalization of Maxwell theory of Electrodynamics of point charges to a theory in C-spaces that involves extended charges coupled to antisymmetric tensor fields of arbitrary rank. In the concluding remarks we outline briefly
GENERAL RELATIVITY AND THEORY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVE
Trunev A. P.
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The article presents the theory of the electromagnetic type of rocket motor. The apparatus consists of a magnetron and a conical cavity in which electromagnetic oscillations are excited. We explain the mechanism of trust in such a device based on Maxwell's theory and the Abraham force. We built a dynamic model of the motor and calculated the optimal parameters. It is shown, that the laws of conservation of momentum and energy for the rocket motor of electromagnetic type are true, taking into account the gravitational field. In simulation, the movement used the theory of relativity. The source of the motion in an electromagnetic drive is the mass conversion in various kinds of radiation. The optimization of the operating parameters of the device is done, namely by the excitation frequency, the magnitude of heat losses of electromagnetic energy by thermal radiation in the IR spectrum, the parameters of heat transfer and forced from the temperature dependence of the resistance of the material of the cavity walls. It was found that the effective conversion of electromagnetic energy in the trust force necessary to minimize the deviation of the excitation frequency of the primary resonance frequency of the cavity. The mechanism of formation of trust under change the metrics of space-time, taking into account the contribution of the Yang-Mills theory and electromagnetic field tensor of energymomentum has been proposed
[Ortega and the theory of relativity].
González de Posada, Francisco
2006-01-01
Ortega y Gasset's thinking on Einstein and relativity, set out in the course of his extensive works, is constructed in the light of three of his fundamental ideas: 1) science, a special form of belief; 2) physics, a science par excellence; and 3) relativity, the intellectual fact of the highest order of its time; dedicating special attention to the essay: "The historical meaning of Einstein's theory". And it is completed with his critical attitude to the so-called "fundamental crisis" and his diagnosis of the grave problems suffered by physics in the wake of the relativistic and quantum revolutions.
Michael Singh
2017-02-01
Full Text Available This paper reports on the ground-breaking research in the study of languages in doctoral education. It argues for democratizing the production and dissemination of original contributions to knowledge through activating and mobilizing multilingual Higher Degree Researchers’ (HDRs capabilities for theorizing through them using their full linguistic repertoire. This paper contributes to this study’s development of post-monolingual research methodology which provides a theoretic-pedagogical framework for multilingual HDRs (a to use their full linguistic repertoire in their research; (b to develop their capabilities for theorizing and (c to construct potentially valuable theoretical tools using metaphors, images, concepts and modes of critique. This paper is based on a longitudinal program of collaborative research whereby monolingual Anglophone and multilingual HDRs jointly developed their capabilities for theorizing through producing Anglo-Chinese analytical tools, and the associated pedagogies for using their languages in doctoral research. This longitudinal research program has been undertaken in the field of doctoral education to further a defining feature of democracy, namely linguistic diversity. This research has been conducted with the aims of promoting the multilingualism of Australian universities and activating linguistic communities of scholars to use their full linguistic repertoire in their research. The main finding arising from this program of research has been the development of post-monolingual research methodology which (a uses the divergences within and between languages to undertake theorizing and (b in co-existence with the tensions posed by monolingualism, especially the insistence on using extant theories available in only one language. Doctoral pedagogies of intellectual/racial equality provide multilingual HDRs with insights into the debates about the geopolitics governing the use of languages in the production and
The special theory of relativity foundations, theory, verification, applications
Christodoulides, Costas
2016-01-01
This book offers a comprehensive, university-level introduction to Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity. In addition to the purely theoretical aspect, emphasis is also given to its historical development as well as to the experiments that preceded the theory and those performed in order to test its validity. The main body of the book consists of chapters on Relativistic Kinematics and Dynamics and their applications, Optics and Electromagnetism. These could be covered in a one-semester course. A more advanced course might include the subjects examined in the other chapters of the book and its appendices. As a textbook, it has some unique characteristics: It provides detailed proofs of the theorems, offers abundant figures and discusses numerous examples. It also includes a number of problems for readers to solve, the complete solutions of which are given at the end of the book. It is primarily intended for use by university students of physics, mathematics and engineering. However, as the mathematics nee...
From twistor string theory to recursion relations
Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia
2009-10-01
Witten’s twistor string theory gives rise to an enigmatic formula known as the “connected prescription” for tree-level Yang-Mills scattering amplitudes. We derive a link representation for the connected prescription by Fourier transforming it to mixed coordinates in terms of both twistor and dual twistor variables. We show that it can be related to other representations of amplitudes by applying the global residue theorem to deform the contour of integration. For six and seven particles we demonstrate explicitly that certain contour deformations rewrite the connected prescription as the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten representation, thereby establishing a concrete link between Witten’s twistor string theory and the dual formulation for the S matrix of the N=4 SYM recently proposed by Arkani-Hamed Other choices of integration contour also give rise to “intermediate prescriptions.” We expect a similar though more intricate structure for more general amplitudes.
Constructing a chinese international relations theory
Kristensen, P.M.; Nielsen, R.T.
2013-01-01
Chinese scholars are debating whether, and how, to innovate a Chinese theory of International Relations (IR). This article examines the driving forces behind this theoretical debate. It challenges the commonsensical link between external events in the subject matter (i.r.) and theorizing (IR......), which suggests that the innovation of a Chinese IR theory is a natural product of China's geopolitical rise, its growing political ambitions, and discontent with Western hegemony. We propose instead a sociological approach to intellectual innovation which opens the black box of knowledge production......, and argue that theoretical innovation, in China and elsewhere, is best understood as an interplay between internal and external layers. The internal academic context comprises intellectuals pursuing prominence, with each intellectual trying to carve out a maximally distinct position in order to receive...
Super-relativity in the quantum theory
Leifer, P
2007-01-01
The relativity to the measuring device in quantum theory, i.e. the covariance of local dynamical variables relative transformations to moving quantum reference frame in Hilbert space, may be achieved only by the rejection of super-selection rule. In order to avoid the subjective nuance, I emphasis that the notion of "measurement" here, is nothing but the covariant differentiation procedure in the functional quantum phase space $CP(N-1)$, having pure objective sense of evolution. Transition to the local moving quantum reference frame leads to some particle-like solutions of quasi-linear field PDE in the dynamical space-time. Thereby, the functionally covariant quantum dynamics gives the perspective to unify the Einstein relativity and quantum principles which are obviously contradictable under the standard approaches.
The Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford Spaces
Castro, C
2004-01-01
A brief review of some of the most important features of the Extended Relativity theory in Clifford-spaces ( $C$-spaces) is presented whose " point" coordinates are noncommuting Clifford-valued quantities and which incoporate the lines, areas, volumes, .... degrees of freedom associated with the collective particle, string, membrane, ... dynamics of the $p$-loop histories (closed p-branes) living in target $D$-dimensional spacetime backgrounds. $C$-space Relativity naturally incoporates the ideas of an invariant length (Planck scale), maximal acceleration, noncommuting coordinates, supersymmetry, holography, superluminal propagation, higher derivative gravity with torsion and variable dimensions/signatures that allows to study the dynamics of all (closed ) p-branes, for all values of $ p $, in a unified footing. It resolves the ordering ambiguities in QFT and the problem of time in Cosmology. A discussion of the maximal-acceleration Relativity principle in phase-spaces follows along with the study of the inva...
The Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford Spaces
Castro, C
2004-01-01
A brief review of some of the most important features of the Extended Relativity theory in Clifford-spaces ($C$-spaces) is presented whose " point" coordinates are noncommuting Clifford-valued quantities and which incorporate the lines, areas, volumes,.... degrees of freedom associated with the collective particle, string, membrane,... dynamics of $p$-loops (closed p-branes) living in target $D$-dimensional spacetime backgrounds. $C$-space Relativity naturally incorporates the ideas of an invariant length (Planck scale), maximal acceleration, noncommuting coordinates, supersymmetry, holography, higher derivative gravity with torsion and variable dimensions/signatures that allows to study the dynamics of all (closed) p-branes, for all values of $ p $, on a unified footing. It resolves the ordering ambiguities in QFT and the problem of time in Cosmology. A discussion of the maximal-acceleration Relativity principle in phase-spaces follows along with the study of the invariance group of symmetry transformations ...
The effective theory of Borel equivalence relations
Fokina, E.B.; Friedman, S.-D.; Törnquist, Asger Dag
2010-01-01
The study of Borel equivalence relations under Borel reducibility has developed into an important area of descriptive set theory. The dichotomies of Silver [20] and Harrington, Kechris and Louveau [6] show that with respect to Borel reducibility, any Borel equivalence relation strictly above...... under effectively Borel reducibility. The resulting structure is complex, even for equivalence relations with finitely many equivalence classes. However use of Kleene's O as a parameter is sufficient to restore the picture from the noneffective setting. A key lemma is that of the existence of two...... effectively Borel sets of reals, neither of which contains the range of the other under any effectively Borel function; the proof of this result applies Barwise compactness to a deep theorem of Harrington (see [5,16]) establishing for any recursive ordinal α the existence of Π singletons whose α...
Holography And Related Topics In String Theory
Thompson, D M
2005-01-01
This thesis covers research into the holographic entropy bound, the D-brane descent relations, and properties of AdS2 solutions in supersymmetric and nonsupersymmetric string theories. The first chapter introduces these topics and the connections between them. In chapter two, the holographic Bousso bound is studied and its modification due to quantum effects is presented. The Bousso bound requires that one quarter the area of a closed codimension two spacelike surface exceeds the entropy flux across a certain lightsheet terminating on the surface. The bound can be violated by quantum effects such as Hawking radiation. It is proposed that, at the quantum level, the bound be modified by adding to the area the quantum entanglement entropy across the surface. The validity of this quantum Bousso bound is proven in a two-dimensional large-N dilaton gravity theory. On the topic of D-branes, chapter three introduces the descent relations among branes of different dimensionality and stability. The descent relations re...
Bilingual and monolingual children attend to different cues when learning new words
Eliana eColunga
2012-05-01
Full Text Available The way in which children learn language can vary depending on their language environment. Previous work suggests that bilingual children may be more sensitive to pragmatic cues from a speaker when learning new words than monolingual children are. On the other hand, monolingual children may rely more heavily on object properties than bilingual children do. In this study we manipulate these two sources of information within the same paradigm, using eye gaze as a pragmatic cue and similarity along different dimensions as an object cue. In the crucial condition, object and pragmatic cues were inconsistent with each other. Our results showed that in this ambiguous condition monolingual children attend more to object property cues whereas bilingual children attend more to pragmatic cues. Control conditions showed that monolingual children were sensitive to eye gaze and bilingual children were sensitive to similarity by shape; it was only when the cues were inconsistent that children’s preference for one or the other cue was apparent. Our results suggest that children learn to weigh different cues depending on their relative informativeness in their environment
Introduction to the theory of relativity
Bergmann, Peter Gabriel
1976-01-01
Comprehensive coverage of special theory (frames of reference, Lorentz transformation, more), general theory (principle of equivalence, more) and unified theory (Weyl's gauge-invariant geometry, more.) Foreword by Albert Einstein.
Reducible gauge theories in very special relativity
Upadhyay, Sudhaker, E-mail: sudhakerupadhyay@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, 208016, Kanpur (India)
2015-12-14
In this paper we analyze the tensor field (reducible gauge) theories in the context of very special relativity (VSR). Particularly, we study the VSR gauge symmetry as well as VSR BRST symmetry of Kalb–Ramond and Abelian 3-form fields involving a fixed null vector. We observe that the Kalb–Ramond and Abelian 3-form fields and corresponding ghosts get masses in the VSR framework. The effective action in VSR-type axial gauge is greatly simplified compared with the VSR-type Lorenz gauge. Further, we quantize these models using a Batalin–Vilkovisy (BV) formulation in VSR.
Reducible gauge theories in very special relativity
Upadhyay, Sudhaker [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India)
2015-12-15
In this paper we analyze the tensor field (reducible gauge) theories in the context of very special relativity (VSR). Particularly, we study the VSR gauge symmetry as well as VSR BRST symmetry of Kalb-Ramond and Abelian 3-form fields involving a fixed null vector. We observe that the Kalb-Ramond and Abelian 3-form fields and corresponding ghosts get masses in the VSR framework. The effective action in VSR-type axial gauge is greatly simplified compared with the VSR-type Lorenz gauge. Further, we quantize these models using a Batalin-Vilkovisy (BV) formulation in VSR. (orig.)
Receptive Vocabulary Differences in Monolingual and Bilingual Adults
Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi
2012-01-01
English receptive vocabulary scores from 797 monolingual and 808 bilingual participants between the ages of 17 and 89 years old were aggregated from 20 studies to compare standard scores across language groups. The distribution of scores was unimodal for both groups but the mean score was significantly different, with monolinguals obtaining higher…
Language Learning from Inconsistent Input: Bilingual and Monolingual Toddlers Compared
Bree, Elise; Verhagen, Josje; Kerkhoff, Annemarie; Doedens, Willemijn; Unsworth, Sharon
2017-01-01
This study examines novel language learning from inconsistent input in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. We predicted an advantage for the bilingual toddlers on the basis of the structural sensitivity hypothesis. Monolingual and bilingual 24-month-olds performed two novel language learning experiments. The first contained consistent input, and…
Beginning To Read among Monolingual and Bilingual Children.
Valadez, Concepcion M.; And Others
This study examined language and reading ability in English monolinguals, Spanish monolinguals, and two bilingual groups at the beginning of kindergarten and at the beginning of first grade. The study also compared the family background of the children on home literacy, parent education, and the parents' aspirations for their children. In…
GUT relations from string theory compactifications
Tatar, Radu [Division of Theoretical Physics, Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Watari, Taizan [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa-no-ha 5-1-5, 277-8592 (Japan)], E-mail: watari@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp
2009-03-21
Wilson line on a non-simply connected manifold is a nice way to break SU(5) unified symmetry, and to solve the doublet-triplet splitting problem. This mechanism also requires, however, that the two Higgs doublets are strictly vector-like under all underlying gauge symmetries, and consequently there is a limit in a class of modes and their phenomenology for which the Wilson line can be used. An alternative is to turn on a non-flat line bundle in the U(1){sub Y} direction on an internal manifold, which does not have to be non-simply connected. The U(1){sub Y} gauge field has to remain in the massless spectrum, and its coupling has to satisfy the GUT relation. In string theory compactifications, however, it is not that easy to satisfy these conditions in a natural way; we call it U(1){sub Y} problem. In this article, we explain how the problem is solved in some parts of moduli space of string theory compactifications. Two major ingredients are an extra strongly coupled U(1) gauge field and parametrically large volume for compactification, which is also essential in accounting for the hierarchy between the Planck scale and the GUT scale. Heterotic M-theory vacua and F-theory vacua are discussed. This article also shows that the toroidal orbifold GUT approach using discrete Wilson lines corresponds to the non-flat line-bundle breaking above when orbifold singularities are blown up. Thus, the orbifold GUT approach also suffers from the U(1){sub Y} problem, and this article shows how to fix it.
Monolingual accounting dictionaries for EFL text production
Sandro Nielsen
2006-10-01
Full Text Available Monolingual accounting dictionaries are important for producing financial reporting texts in English in an international setting, because of the lack of specialised bilingual dictionaries. As the intended user groups have different factual and linguistic competences, they require specific types of information. By identifying and analysing the users' factual and linguistic competences, user needs, use-situations and the stages involved in producing accounting texts in English as a foreign language, lexicographers will have a sound basis for designing the optimal English accounting dictionary for EFL text production. The monolingual accounting dictionary needs to include information about UK, US and international accounting terms, their grammatical properties, their potential for being combined with other words in collocations, phrases and sentences in order to meet user requirements. Data items that deal with these aspects are necessary for the international user group as they produce subject-field specific and register-specific texts in a foreign language, and the data items are relevant for the various stages in text production: draft writing, copyediting, stylistic editing and proofreading.
Boerma, Tessel; Leseman, Paul; Wijnen, Frank; Blom, Elma
2017-01-01
Background: The language profiles of children with language impairment (LI) and bilingual children can show partial, and possibly temporary, overlap. The current study examined the persistence of this overlap over time. Furthermore, we aimed to better understand why the language profiles of these two groups show resemblance, testing the hypothesis that the language difficulties of children with LI reflect a weakened ability to maintain attention to the stream of linguistic information. Consequent incomplete processing of language input may lead to delays that are similar to those originating from reductions in input frequency. Methods: Monolingual and bilingual children with and without LI (N = 128), aged 5-8 years old, participated in this study. Dutch receptive vocabulary and grammatical morphology were assessed at three waves. In addition, auditory and visual sustained attention were tested at wave 1. Mediation analyses were performed to examine relationships between LI, sustained attention, and language skills. Results: Children with LI and bilingual children were outperformed by their typically developing (TD) and monolingual peers, respectively, on vocabulary and morphology at all three waves. The vocabulary difference between monolinguals and bilinguals decreased over time. In addition, children with LI had weaker auditory and visual sustained attention skills relative to TD children, while no differences between monolinguals and bilinguals emerged. Auditory sustained attention mediated the effect of LI on vocabulary and morphology in both the monolingual and bilingual groups of children. Visual sustained attention only acted as a mediator in the bilingual group. Conclusion: The findings from the present study indicate that the overlap between the language profiles of children with LI and bilingual children is particularly large for vocabulary in early (pre)school years and reduces over time. Results furthermore suggest that the overlap may be explained by
Tessel Boerma
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Background: The language profiles of children with language impairment (LI and bilingual children can show partial, and possibly temporary, overlap. The current study examined the persistence of this overlap over time. Furthermore, we aimed to better understand why the language profiles of these two groups show resemblance, testing the hypothesis that the language difficulties of children with LI reflect a weakened ability to maintain attention to the stream of linguistic information. Consequent incomplete processing of language input may lead to delays that are similar to those originating from reductions in input frequency.Methods: Monolingual and bilingual children with and without LI (N = 128, aged 5–8 years old, participated in this study. Dutch receptive vocabulary and grammatical morphology were assessed at three waves. In addition, auditory and visual sustained attention were tested at wave 1. Mediation analyses were performed to examine relationships between LI, sustained attention, and language skills.Results: Children with LI and bilingual children were outperformed by their typically developing (TD and monolingual peers, respectively, on vocabulary and morphology at all three waves. The vocabulary difference between monolinguals and bilinguals decreased over time. In addition, children with LI had weaker auditory and visual sustained attention skills relative to TD children, while no differences between monolinguals and bilinguals emerged. Auditory sustained attention mediated the effect of LI on vocabulary and morphology in both the monolingual and bilingual groups of children. Visual sustained attention only acted as a mediator in the bilingual group.Conclusion: The findings from the present study indicate that the overlap between the language profiles of children with LI and bilingual children is particularly large for vocabulary in early (preschool years and reduces over time. Results furthermore suggest that the overlap may be
Bilinguals Have Different Hemispheric Lateralization in Visual Word Processing from Monolinguals
Sze-Man Lam
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Previous bilingual studies showed reduced hemispheric asymmetry in visual tasks such as face perception in bilinguals compared with monolinguals, suggesting experience in reading one or two languages could be a modulating factor. Here we examined whether difference in hemispheric asymmetry in visual tasks can also be observed in bilinguals who have different language backgrounds. We compared the behavior of three language groups in a tachistoscopic English word sequential matching task: English monolinguals (or alphabetic monolinguals, A-Ms, bilinguals with an alphabetic-L1 and English-L2 (alphabetic-alphabetic bilinguals, AA-Bs, and bilinguals with Chinese-L1 and English-L2 (logographic-alphabetic bilinguals, LA-Bs. The results showed that AA-Bs had a stronger right visual field/ left hemispheric (LH advantage than A-Ms and LA-Bs, suggesting that different language learning experiences can influence how visual words are processed in the brain. In addition, we showed that this effect could be accounted for by a computational model that implements a theory of hemispheric asymmetry in perception (i.e., the Double Filtering by Frequency theory; Ivry & Robertson, 1998; the modeling data suggested that this difference may be due to both the difference in participants' vocabulary size and the difference in word-to-sound mapping between alphabetic and logographic languages.
Costumero, Víctor; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Ávila, César
2015-12-01
The existence of a behavioral advantage of bilinguals over monolinguals during executive tasks is controversial. A new approach to this issue is to investigate the effect of bilingualism on neural control when performing these tasks as a window to understand when behavioral differences are produced. Here, we tested if early bilinguals use more language-related networks than monolinguals while performing a go/no-go task that includes infrequent no-go and go trials. The RTs and accuracy in both groups did not differ. An independent component analyses (ICA) revealed, however, that bilinguals used the left fronto-parietal network and the salience network more than monolinguals while processing go infrequent cues and no-go cues, respectively. It was noteworthy that the modulation of these networks had opposite correlates with performance in bilinguals and monolinguals, which suggests that between-group differences were more qualitative than quantitative. Our results suggest that bilinguals may differently develop the involvement of the executive control networks that comprise the left inferior frontal gyrus during cognitive control tasks than monolinguals.
Perturbative Gravity and Gauge Theory Relations: A Review
Thomas Søndergaard
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the amazing Kawai-Lewellen-Tye relations, connecting perturbative gravity and gauge theories at tree level. The main focus is on n-point derivations and general properties both from a string theory and pure field theory point of view. In particular, the field theory part is based on some very recent developments.
Evaluation of some Information Retrieval models for Gujarati Ad hoc Monolingual Tasks
J., Joshi Hardik; Jyoti, Pareek
2012-01-01
This paper describes the work towards Gujarati Ad hoc Monolingual Retrieval task for widely used Information Retrieval (IR) models. We present an indexing baseline for the Gujarati Language represented by Mean Average Precision (MAP) values. Our objective is to obtain a relative picture of a better IR model for Gujarati Language. Results show that Classical IR models like Term Frequency Inverse Document Frequency (TF_IDF) performs better when compared to few recent probabilistic IR models. Th...
Differential Allocation of Attention During Speech Perception in Monolingual and Bilingual Listeners
Astheimer, Lori B.; Berkes, Matthias; Bialystok, Ellen
2015-01-01
Attention is required during speech perception to focus processing resources on critical information. Previous research has shown that bilingualism modifies attentional processing in nonverbal domains. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to determine whether bilingualism also modifies auditory attention during speech perception. We measured attention to word onsets in spoken English for monolinguals and Chinese-English bilinguals. Auditory probes were inserted at four times...
Profile of phonological awareness in bilingual and monolingual children
Souza,Lourdes Bernadete Rocha de; Leite,Aline Gisele Conceição
2014-01-01
Purpose: To compare the performance of phonological awareness skills in bilingual and monolingual students of both genders. Methods: This research presents an observational, cross-sectional descriptive study conducted with 17 students from the 3rd grade, aged between seven years and 8 years and 11 months, with similar socioeconomic level, from two private schools, being one a monolingual school, and the other a bilingual one. Children at risk for auditory deprivation of any degree, those...
Bilingual and Monolingual Children Prefer Native-Accented Speakers
Andre L. eSouza
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Adults and young children prefer to affiliate with some individuals rather than others. Studies have shown that monolingual children show in-group biases for individuals who speak their native language without a foreign accent (Kinzler, Dupoux, & Spelke, 2007. Some studies have suggested that bilingual children are less influenced than monolinguals by language variety when attributing personality traits to different speakers (Anisfeld & Lambert, 1964, which could indicate that bilinguals have fewer in-group biases and perhaps greater social flexibility. However, no previous studies have compared monolingual and bilingual children’s reactions to speakers with unfamiliar foreign accents. In the present study, we investigated the social preferences of 5-year-old English and French monolinguals and English-French bilinguals. Contrary to our predictions, both monolingual and bilingual preschoolers preferred to be friends with native-accented speakers over speakers who spoke their dominant language with an unfamiliar foreign accent. This result suggests that both monolingual and bilingual children have strong preferences for in-group members who use a familiar language variety, and that bilingualism does not lead to generalized social flexibility.
Astheimer, Lori B; Berkes, Matthias; Bialystok, Ellen
Attention is required during speech perception to focus processing resources on critical information. Previous research has shown that bilingualism modifies attentional processing in nonverbal domains. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to determine whether bilingualism also modifies auditory attention during speech perception. We measured attention to word onsets in spoken English for monolinguals and Chinese-English bilinguals. Auditory probes were inserted at four times in a continuous narrative: concurrent with word onset, 100 ms before or after onset, and at random control times. Greater attention was indexed by an increase in the amplitude of the early negativity (N1). Among monolinguals, probes presented after word onsets elicited a larger N1 than control probes, replicating previous studies. For bilinguals, there was no N1 difference for probes at different times around word onsets, indicating less specificity in allocation of attention. These results suggest that bilingualism shapes attentional strategies during English speech comprehension.
Differential Allocation of Attention During Speech Perception in Monolingual and Bilingual Listeners
Astheimer, Lori B.; Berkes, Matthias; Bialystok, Ellen
2016-01-01
Attention is required during speech perception to focus processing resources on critical information. Previous research has shown that bilingualism modifies attentional processing in nonverbal domains. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to determine whether bilingualism also modifies auditory attention during speech perception. We measured attention to word onsets in spoken English for monolinguals and Chinese-English bilinguals. Auditory probes were inserted at four times in a continuous narrative: concurrent with word onset, 100 ms before or after onset, and at random control times. Greater attention was indexed by an increase in the amplitude of the early negativity (N1). Among monolinguals, probes presented after word onsets elicited a larger N1 than control probes, replicating previous studies. For bilinguals, there was no N1 difference for probes at different times around word onsets, indicating less specificity in allocation of attention. These results suggest that bilingualism shapes attentional strategies during English speech comprehension. PMID:27110579
Román, P; González, J; Ventura-Campos, N; Rodríguez-Pujadas, A; Sanjuán, A; Ávila, C
2015-11-01
Research has shown that semantic processing of sentences engages more activity in the bilingual compared to the monolingual brain and, more specifically, in the inferior frontal gyrus. The present study aims to extend those results and examines whether semantic and also grammatical sentence processing involve different cerebral structures when testing in the native language. In this regard, highly proficient Spanish/Catalan bilinguals and Spanish monolinguals made grammatical and semantic judgments in Spanish while being scanned. Results showed that both types of judgments recruited more cerebral activity for bilinguals in language-related areas including the superior and middle temporal gyri. Such neural differences co-occurred with similar performance at the behavioral level. Taken together, these data suggest that early bilingualism shapes the brain and cognitive processes in sentence comprehension even in their native language; on the other hand, they indicate that brain over activation in bilinguals is not constrained to a specific area.
The theory of relativity and other essays
Einstein, Albert
2011-01-01
E=mc2: It may be Einstein's most well-known contribution to modern science, but how many people understand the thought process or physics behind this famous equation?In this collection of his seven most important essays on physics, Einstein guides his reader step-by-step through the many layers of scientific theory that formed a starting point for his discoveries. By both supporting and refuting the theories and scientific efforts of his predecessors, Einstein reveals in a clear voice the origins and meaning of such significant topics as physics and reality, the fundamentals of theoretical ph
A principle of relativity for quantum theory
Zaopo, Marco
2012-01-01
In non relativistic physics it is assumed that both chronological ordering and causal ordering of events (telling wether there exists a causal relationship between two events or not) are absolute, observer independent properties. In relativistic physics on the other hand chronological ordering depends on the observer who assigns space-time coordinates to physical events and only causal ordering is regarded as an observer independent property. In this paper it is shown that quantum theory can be considered as a physical theory in which causal (as well as chronological) ordering of probabilistic events happening in experiments may be regarded as an observer dependent property.
Colvin, Cassandra; Fozdar, Farida; Volet, Simone
2015-01-01
This research examines the understandings and experiences of mono-cultural, mono-lingual local students in relation to intercultural interactions within small group learning activities at university. Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital are employed to illuminate a number of barriers to intercultural interaction. Using qualitative…
Colvin, Cassandra; Fozdar, Farida; Volet, Simone
2015-01-01
This research examines the understandings and experiences of mono-cultural, mono-lingual local students in relation to intercultural interactions within small group learning activities at university. Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital are employed to illuminate a number of barriers to intercultural interaction. Using qualitative…
Special Theory of Relativity, Conceptual Change and History of Science.
Villani, Alberto; Arruda, Sergio M.
1998-01-01
Analyzes the problem students have in learning the Theory of Relativity. Points out that the results of the study are ambiguous and intriguing. Describes the publication of Lorentz's Transformation Equations, the presentation of two postulates by Einstein, and the rejection of the Electron Theory and the final acceptance of the Theory of…
Language Growth in English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children from 2.5 to 5 Years.
Hoff, Erika; Ribot, Krystal M
2017-08-10
To describe the trajectories of English and Spanish language growth in typically developing children from bilingual homes and compare those with the trajectories of English growth in children from monolingual homes, to assess effects of dual language exposure on language growth in typically developing children. Expressive vocabularies were assessed at 6-month intervals from age 30 to 60 months, in English for monolinguals and English and Spanish for bilinguals. Use of English and Spanish in the home was assessed via parental report. Multilevel modeling, including parent education as a covariate, revealed that children from bilingual homes lagged 6 months to 1 year behind monolingual children in English vocabulary growth. The size of the lag was related to the relative amount of English use in the home, but the relation was not linear. Increments in English use conferred the greatest benefit most among homes with already high levels of English use. These homes also were likely to have 1 parent who was a native English speaker. Bilingual children showed stronger growth in English than in Spanish. Bilingual children can lag 6 months to 1 year behind monolingual children in normal English language development. Such lags may not necessarily signify clinically relevant delay if parents report that children also have skills in the home language. Shorter lags are associated with 2 correlated factors: more English exposure and more exposure from native English speakers. Early exposure to Spanish in the home does not guarantee acquisition of Spanish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A monolingual mind can have two time lines: Exploring space-time mappings in Mandarin monolinguals.
Yang, Wenxing; Sun, Ying
2016-06-01
Can a mind accommodate two time lines? Miles, Tan, Noble, Lumsden and Macrae (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 18, 598-604, 2011) shows that Mandarin-English bilinguals have both a horizontal space-time mapping consistent with linguistic conventions within English and a vertical representation of time commensurate with Mandarin. However, the present study, via two experiments, demonstrates that Mandarin monolinguals possess two mental time lines, i.e., one horizontal and one vertical line. This study concludes that a Mandarin speaker has two mental time lines not because he/she has acquired L2 English, but because there are both horizontal and vertical expressions in Mandarin spatiotemporal metaphors. Specifically, this study highlights the fact that a horizontal time line does exist in a Mandarin speaker's cognition, even if he/she is a Mandarin monolingual instead of a ME bilingual. Taken together, the evidence in hand is far from sufficient to support Miles et al.'s (2011) conclusion that ME bilinguals' horizontal concept of time is manipulated by English. Implications for theoretical issues concerning the language-thought relationship in general and the effect of bilingualism on cognition in particular are discussed.
Spring School on Superstring Theory and Related Topics
2017-01-01
ICTP's annual Spring School on Superstring Theory and Related Topics provides pedagogical treatment of these subjects through lectures by some of the world's top string theorists. The activity is intended for theoretical physicists or mathematicians with knowledge of quantum field theory, general relativity and string theory. It is organized in collaboration with the Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP) and the Italian Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN).
The Rod Contraction-Clock Retardation Ether Theory and the Special Theory of Relativity
Erlichson, Herman
1973-01-01
Discusses the historical rod contraction-block retardation (RC-CR) ether theory to illustrate its relationship to the special theory of relativity and the possibility of experimental differences between them. Indicates that the RC-CR theory is worthy of the attention of both physicists and science philosophers. (CC)
The auditory attention status in Iranian bilingual and monolingual people
Nayiere Mansoori
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Bilingualism, as one of the discussing issues of psychology and linguistics, can influence the speech processing. Of several tests for assessing auditory processing, dichotic digit test has been designed to study divided auditory attention. Our study was performed to compare the auditory attention between Iranian bilingual and monolingual young adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 students including 30 Turkish-Persian bilinguals and 30 Persian monolinguals aged between 18 to 30 years in both genders. Dichotic digit test was performed on young individuals with normal peripheral hearing and right hand preference. Results: No significant correlation was found between the results of dichotic digit test of monolinguals and bilinguals (p=0.195, and also between the results of right and left ears in monolingual (p=0.460 and bilingual (p=0.054 groups. The mean score of women was significantly more than men (p=0.031. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between bilinguals and monolinguals in divided auditory attention; and it seems that acquisition of second language in lower ages has no noticeable effect on this type of auditory attention.
Does the Saenger gedanken experiment advance Einstein's special relativity theory?
Schmidt, Werner
1987-12-01
The basics of Einstein's theory of special relativity are reviewed, and the impact of the Saenger gedanken experiment on the theory is considered. The application of this experiment to the clock paradox is stressed. The relevance of special relativity on some current astrophysical problems is addressed.
Causal Rate Distortion Function and Relations to Filtering Theory
Charalambous, Charalambos D; Kourtellaris, Christos K
2011-01-01
A causal rate distortion function is defined, its solution is described, and its relation to filtering theory is discusssed. The relation to filtering is obtained via a causal constraint imposed on the reconstruction kernel to be realizable.
The general theory of relativity a mathematical exposition
Das, Anadijiban
2012-01-01
The General Theory of Relativity: A Mathematical Exposition will serve readers as a modern mathematical introduction to the general theory of relativity. Throughout the book, examples, worked-out problems, and exercises (with hints and solutions) are furnished. Topics in this book include, but are not limited to: • tensor analysis • the special theory of relativity • the general theory of relativity and Einstein’s field equations • spherically symmetric solutions and experimental confirmations • static and stationary space-time domains • black holes • cosmological models • algebraic classifications and the Newman-Penrose equations • the coupled Einstein-Maxwell-Klein-Gordon equations • appendices covering mathematical supplements and special topics Mathematical rigor, yet very clear presentation of the topics make this book a unique text for both university students and research scholars. Anadijiban Das has taught courses on Relativity Theory at The University College of Dublin, Irelan...
Ethics problems and theories in public relations
Grunig, James E.
2015-01-01
Public relations professionals encounter ethical problems as individuals who make decisions about their professional lives. They also serve as ethical counselors to organizations, a role in which they help organizations behave in ethical, responsible, and sustainable ways. This introduction defines ethics and social responsibility and discusses the possibilities and obstacles that public relations professionals face in the role of ethical counselor. Seven research problems in public relations...
Mulder, K.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.; Schreuder, R.; Baayen, Harald
2014-01-01
This study investigated primary and secondary morphological family size effects in monolingual and bilingual processing, combining experimentation with computational modeling. Family size effects were investigated in an English lexical decision task for Dutch-English bilinguals and English monolingu
Rosenblum, Tamar; Pinker, Steven A.
1983-01-01
Results showed that monolingual and bilingual preschoolers understand equally that objects may be renamed. However, monolinguals were more likely to mention the object's properties when justifying an answer, whereas bilinguals were more likely to mention social context. (Author/MP)
Flexibility in task switching by monolinguals and bilinguals*
WISEHEART, MELODY; VISWANATHAN, MYTHILI; BIALYSTOK, ELLEN
2015-01-01
Many bilinguals routinely switch between their languages, yet mixed evidence exists about the transfer of language switching skills to broader domains that require attentional control such as task switching. Monolingual and bilingual young adults performed a nonverbal task-switching paradigm in which they viewed colored pictures of animals and indicated either the animal or its color in response to a cue. Monolinguals and bilinguals performed similarly when switching between tasks (local switch cost) in a mixed-task block, but bilinguals demonstrated a smaller mixing effect (global switch cost) than monolinguals, indicating better ability to reconfigure stimulus–response associations. These results suggest that regular practice using multiple languages confers a broader executive function advantage shown as improved flexibility in task switching. PMID:26877705
Effective Look-up Techniques to Approach a Monolingual Dictionary
Nauman Al Amin Ali El Sayed
2013-07-01
Full Text Available A dictionary is (a learning tool that can help the language learner in acquiring great knowledge of and about a foreign language. Almost all language learners buy or at least possess, at one time, a monolingual or bilingual dictionary, to which the learner may refer to look up the meaning of words. Unfortunately, using dictionary to look up the meaning of words seems to be the most important service, which a dictionary is expected to provide to language learners. In fact, a dictionary provides much data about language to its readers such as telling them about: the word spelling, phonology, phonetics, etymology, stylistics and definitions among other aspects. This paper sheds light on how the dictionary can teach its readers with special focus on monolingual dictionary. Hence, the discussion of this paper will centre on how dictionaries can teach students rather than on how students can learn from them. Keywords: monolingual dictionary, learning strategies, language acquisition, lexicography
Novel word retention in bilingual and monolingual speakers
Pui Fong eKan
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The goal of this research was to examine word retention in bilinguals and monolinguals. Long-term word retention is an essential part of vocabulary learning. Previous studies have documented that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in terms of retrieving newly-exposed words. Yet, little is known about whether or to what extent bilinguals are different from monolinguals in word retention. Participants were 30 English-speaking monolingual adults and 30 bilingual adults who speak Spanish as a home language and learned English as a second language during childhood. In a previous study (Kan, Sadagopan, Janich, & Andrade, 2014, the participants were exposed to the target novel words in English, Spanish, and Cantonese. In this current study, word retention was measured a week after the fast mapping task. No exposures were given during the one-week interval. Results showed that bilinguals and monolinguals retain a similar number of words. However, participants produced more words in English than in either Spanish or Cantonese. Correlation analyses revealed that language knowledge plays a role in the relationships between fast mapping and word retention. Specifically, within- and across-language relationships between bilinguals’ fast mapping and word retention were found in Spanish and English, by contrast, within-language relationships between monolinguals’ fast mapping and word retention were found in English and across-language relationships between their fast mapping and word retention performance in English and Cantonese. Similarly, bilinguals differed from monolinguals in the relationships among the word retention scores in three languages. Significant correlations were found among bilinguals’ retention scores. However, no such correlations were found among monolinguals’ retention scores. The overall findings suggest that bilinguals’ language experience and language knowledge most likely contribute to how they learn and retain new words.
Some Relations between Twisted K-theory and E8 Gauge Theory
Mathai, V; Mathai, Varghese; Sati, Hisham
2004-01-01
Recently, Diaconescu, Moore and Witten provided a nontrivial link between K-theory and M-theory, by deriving the partition function of the Ramond-Ramond fields of Type IIA string theory from an E8 gauge theory in eleven dimensions. We give some relations between twisted K-theory and M-theory by adapting the method of Diaconescu-Moore-Witten and Moore-Saulina. In particular, we construct the twisted K-theory torus which defines the partition function, and also discuss the problem from the E8 loop group picture, in which the Dixmier-Douady class is the Neveu-Schwarz field. In the process of doing this, we encounter some mathematics that is new to the physics literature. In particular, the eta differential form, which is the generalization of the eta invariant, arises naturally in this context. We conclude with several open problems in mathematics and string theory.
Relativity, symmetry and the structure of quantum theory I Galilean quantum theory
Klink, William H
2015-01-01
Quantum theory is one of the most successful of all physical theories. Our everyday world is dominated by devices that function because of knowledge of the quantum world. Yet many, physicists and non-physicists alike, find the theory which explains the behavior of the quantum world baffling and strange. This book is the first in a series of three that argues that relativity and symmetry determine the structure of quantum theory. That is to say, the structure of quantum theory is what it is because of relativity and symmetry. There are different types of relativity, each leading to a particular type of quantum theory. This book deals specifically with what we call Newton relativity, the form of relativity built into Newtonian mechanics, and the quantum theory to which it gives rise, which we call Galilean (often misleadingly called non-relativistic) quantum theory. Key Features: • Meaning and significance of the term of relativity; discussion of the principle of relativity. • Relation of symmetry to relati...
Experimental testing of constructivism and related theories.
Fidelman, U
1991-10-01
The purpose of this article is to show that experimental scientific methods can be applied to explain how the analytic mechanism of the left cerebral hemisphere and the synthetic mechanism of the right one create complex cognitive constructions like ontology and mathematics. Nominalism and ordinal mathematical concepts are related to the analytic left hemisphere while Platonism and cardinal mathematical concepts are related to the synthetic right one. Thus persons with a dominant left hemisphere tend to prefer nominalist ontology and have more aptitude for ordinal mathematics than for cardinal mathematics, while persons with a dominant right hemisphere tend to prefer platonist ontology and have more aptitude for cardinal mathematics than for ordinal mathematics. It is further explained how the Kantism temporal mode of perceiving experience can be related to the left hemisphere while the Kantian spatial mode of perceiving experience can be related to the right hemisphere. This relation can be tested experimentally, thus the Kantian source of constructivism, and through it constructivism itself, can be tested experimentally.
Reflections on Dead Theory in International Relations
Thakur, Vineet
2016-01-01
In this short autobiographical essay, I trace my journey in the discipline of International Relations. While entering the discipline, I, along with a host of my classmates, were enamoured by the exciting possibilities of thinking theoretically. Almost a decade later, those promises look bleak. From the perspective of a student in the discipline, I…
Mapping the frontier of theory in industrial relations
Tapia, Maite; Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Kochan, Thomas A.
2015-01-01
The widespread decline of trade unions and the emergence of various alternative forms of worker voice and representation have posed a challenge to the field of industrial relations and generated significant rethinking of the future directions for this field of study. In this article, we examine how...... well industrial relations meta-theories, when combined with efforts to build middle-range theories, provide distinctive explanations and different predictions for the alternatives that have emerged to date to fill the void. We propose new directions for theory and research that expand the range...... industrial relations as well as carrying forward the problem-solving norms that have characterized the field since its inception....
Reply to the "Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity" and Related Questions
Rabounski D.
2008-04-01
Full Text Available This paper answers twelve most common questions on the basics of Einstein’s theory of relativity. The answers remove most key problems with a real, solid understanding of the theory.
Spring School on Superstring Theory and Related Topics
2015-01-01
The Aim of the activity is to provide pedagogical treatment of these subjects in the form of a series of lectures by individual speakers. The activity is intended for theoretical physicists or mathematicians with knowledge of quantum field theory, general relativity and string theory.
Combinatorial set theory partition relations for cardinals
Erdös, P; Hajnal, A; Rado, P
2011-01-01
This work presents the most important combinatorial ideas in partition calculus and discusses ordinary partition relations for cardinals without the assumption of the generalized continuum hypothesis. A separate section of the book describes the main partition symbols scattered in the literature. A chapter on the applications of the combinatorial methods in partition calculus includes a section on topology with Arhangel''skii''s famous result that a first countable compact Hausdorff space has cardinality, at most continuum. Several sections on set mappings are included as well as an account of
The mathematical theory of general relativity
Katkar, L N
2014-01-01
This book is prepared for M. Sc. Students of Mathematics and Physics. The aim of writing this book is to give the reader a feeling for the necessity and beauty of the laws of general relativity. The contents of the book will attract both mathematicians and physicists which provides motivation and applications of many ideas and powerful mathematical methods of modern analysis and differential geometry. An attempt has been made to make the presentation comprehensive, rigorous and yet simple. Most calculations and transformations have been carried out in great detail. KEY FEATURE: Numerous solved examples using the well known mathematical techniques viz., the tensors and the differential forms in each chapter.
Bitopological spaces theory, relations with generalized algebraic structures and applications
Dvalishvili, Badri
2005-01-01
This monograph is the first and an initial introduction to the theory of bitopological spaces and its applications. In particular, different families of subsets of bitopological spaces are introduced and various relations between two topologies are analyzed on one and the same set; the theory of dimension of bitopological spaces and the theory of Baire bitopological spaces are constructed, and various classes of mappings of bitopological spaces are studied. The previously known results as well the results obtained in this monograph are applied in analysis, potential theory, general topology, a
Relational mechanics as a gauge theory
Ferraro, Rafael
2016-02-01
Absolute space is eliminated from the body of mechanics by gauging translations and rotations in the Lagrangian of a classical system. The procedure implies the addition of compensating terms to the kinetic energy, in such a way that the resulting equations of motion are valid in any frame. The compensating terms provide inertial forces depending on the total momentum P, intrinsic angular momentum J and intrinsic inertia tensor I. Therefore, the privileged frames where Newton's equations are valid ( Newtonian frames) are completely determined by the matter distribution of the universe ( Machianization). At the Hamiltonian level, the gauge invariance leads to first class constraints that remove those degrees of freedom that make no sense once the absolute space has been eliminated. This reformulation of classical mechanics is entirely relational, since it is a dynamics for the distances between particles. It is also Machian, since the rotation of the rest of the universe produces centrifugal effects. It then provides a new perspective to consider the foundational ideas of general relativity, like Mach's principle and the weak equivalence principle. With regard to the concept of time, the absence of an absolute time is known to be a characteristic of parametrized systems. Furthermore, the scale invariance of those parametrized systems whose potentials are inversely proportional to the squared distances can be also gauged by introducing another compensating term associated with the intrinsic virial G ( shape-dynamics).
From aether theory to Special Relativity
Ferraro, Rafael
2013-01-01
At the end of the 19th century light was regarded as an electromagnetic wave propagating in a material medium called ether. The speed c appearing in Maxwell's wave equations was the speed of light with respect to the ether. Therefore, according to the Galilean addition of velocities, the speed of light in the laboratory would differ from c. The measure of such difference would reveal the motion of the laboratory (the Earth) relative to the ether (a sort of absolute motion). However the Earth's absolute motion was never evidenced. Galileo addition of velocities is based on the assumption that lengths and time intervals are invariant (independent of the state of motion). This way of thinking the spacetime emanates from our daily experience and lies at the heart of Newton's Classical Mechanics. Nevertheless, in 1905 Einstein defied Galileo addition of velocities by postulating that light travels at the same speed c in any inertial frame. In doing so, Einstein extended the principle of relativity to the electroma...
Simulation of Kinematics of Special Theory of Relativity
Matveev, V N
2012-01-01
The principles of the special theory of relativity are extremely simple. A knowledge of the Pythagorean theorem and an ability to perform the simplest algebraic operations are sufficient to be conversant with the kinematics of the special theory of relativity, as well as the time dilation and contraction of the longitudinal dimensions of moving bodies that are associated with relative motion. However, the simplicity of the fundamentals of the theory of relativity are in surprising contrast with the difficulty of the perception and at times the total nonacceptance of the consequences of the special theory of relativity by skeptics based on ordinary common sense. The authors of certain popular books on the theory of relativity explain the existence of this contrast by way of the fact that the common sense of skeptics cut its teeth on a "stark notion of our everyday life". The special theory of relativity is simulated in this article based on the simplest examples of the movement of barges, shuttles, and boats i...
Theoretical physics 4 special theory of relativity
Nolting, Wolfgang
2017-01-01
This concise textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to special relativity, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, thus developing the relativistic expansion of classical mechanics and electrodynamics. The first part of the book introduces Lorentz transformations, time dilation, length contraction and Minkowski diagrams. More complex themes are covered in the second part of the book, which describes the four-dimensional covariant formulation for classical mechanics and electrodynamics, including discussion of Maxwell’s equations, the Lorentz force and the covariant Lagrangian formulation. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical mechanics and electrodynamics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples ...
The Theory of Relativity: A Metatheory for Development?
Sinnott, Jan Dynda
1981-01-01
Reviews relativity theory in physics to derive a relativistic metatheory applicable to life span developmental psychology. The discussion points out ways in which relativistic thinking might enhance understanding of life span development and epistemology. (Author/DB)
Theory of quantum fluctuations and the Onsager relations
Goderis, D.; Verbeure, A.; Vets, P. (Universiteit Leuven (Belgium))
1989-09-01
A microscopic model is constructed within the theory of normal fluctuations for quantum systems, yielding an irreversible dynamics satisfying the Onsager relations. The property of return to equilibrium and the principle of minimal entropy production are proved.
Gravitational duality in General Relativity and Supergravity theories
Dehouck, F. [Service de physique mathematique et interactions fondamentales. Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine CP-231, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)
2011-07-15
We quickly review the current status of gravitational duality in General Relativity. We summarize and comment some recent work on constructing dual (topological) charges and understanding how this duality acts in supergravity theories.
Relating Gribov-Zwanziger theory and Yang-Mills theory in Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism
Upadhyay, Sudhaker
2011-01-01
We consider the BRST invariant Gribov-Zwanziger theory with appropriate horizon term in Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism. The usual infinitesimal BRST transformation is generalized by considering the parameter finite and field dependent. We show that such finite field dependent BRST transformation with suitable choice of finite parameter relates the generating functional of Gribov-Zwanziger theory to that of the Yang-Mills theory.
Working Memory Development in Monolingual and Bilingual Children
Morales, Julia; Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen
2013-01-01
Two studies are reported comparing the performance of monolingual and bilingual children on tasks requiring different levels of working memory. In the first study, 56 5-year-olds performed a Simon-type task that manipulated working memory demands by comparing conditions based on two rules and four rules and manipulated conflict resolution demands…
Coordination of Executive Functions in Monolingual and Bilingual Children
Bialystok, Ellen
2011-01-01
Two groups of 8-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual completed a complex classification task in which they made semantic judgments on stimuli that were presented either visually or auditorily. The task requires coordinating a variety of executive control components, specifically working memory, inhibition, and shifting. When each of…
Receptive Vocabulary Differences in Monolingual and Bilingual Children
Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi; Peets, Kathleen F.; Yang, Sujin
2010-01-01
Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738…
Language learning and control in monolinguals and bilinguals.
Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica
2012-08-01
Parallel language activation in bilinguals leads to competition between languages. Experience managing this interference may aid novel language learning by improving the ability to suppress competition from known languages. To investigate the effect of bilingualism on the ability to control native-language interference, monolinguals and bilinguals were taught an artificial language designed to elicit between-language competition. Partial activation of interlingual competitors was assessed with eye-tracking and mouse-tracking during a word recognition task in the novel language. Eye-tracking results showed that monolinguals looked at competitors more than bilinguals, and for a longer duration of time. Mouse-tracking results showed that monolinguals' mouse movements were attracted to native-language competitors, whereas bilinguals overcame competitor interference by increasing the activation of target items. Results suggest that bilinguals manage cross-linguistic interference more effectively than monolinguals. We conclude that language interference can affect lexical retrieval, but bilingualism may reduce this interference by facilitating access to a newly learned language. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Troubling Literacy: Monolingual Assumptions, Multilingual Contexts, and Language Teacher Expertise
Cross, Russell
2011-01-01
The current educational context in many English speaking countries is one where literacy is understood to be essentially monolingual in orientation; that is, an understanding of literacy around a single common language, with the emphasis on identifying universal, normative "standards" and "benchmarks", such as the…
School Leadership along the Trajectory from Monolingual to Multilingual
Ascenzi-Moreno, Laura; Hesson, Sarah; Menken, Kate
2016-01-01
This article explores the critical role of school leaders in language policy change, and specifically in shifting their language education policies and practices from monolingual to multilingual. We examine the process of language policy change in three schools that were involved in a project aimed at increasing the knowledge base of school…
Language Learning and Control in Monolinguals and Bilinguals
Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica
2012-01-01
Parallel language activation in bilinguals leads to competition between languages. Experience managing this interference may aid novel language learning by improving the ability to suppress competition from known languages. To investigate the effect of bilingualism on the ability to control native-language interference, monolinguals and bilinguals…
Stakeholder Perspectives on CLIL in a Monolingual Context
Lancaster, Nina K.
2016-01-01
This article documents the findings of a study concerning the perspectives on Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in the monolingual context of Jaén. The research has involved the design, validation and administration of two sets of questionnaires to 745 informants (692 students and 53 teachers) within eight secondary schools with a…
String theory, scale relativity and the generalized uncertainty principle
Castro, C
1995-01-01
An extension/ modification of the Stringy Heisenberg Uncertainty principle is derived within the framework of the theory of Special Scale-Relativity proposed by Nottale. Based on the fractal structure of two dimensional Quantum Gravity which has attracted considerable interest recently we conjecture that the underlying fundamental principle behind String theory should be based on an extension of Scale Relativity where both dynamics as well as scales are incorporated in the same footing.
On Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity
2008-01-01
There are a number of conceptual anomalies occurring in the Standard exposition of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. These anomalies relate to issues in both mathematics and in physics and penetrate to the very heart of Einstein’s theory. This paper reveals and amplifies a few such anomalies, including the fact that Einstein’s field equations for the so-called static vacuum configuration, R = 0 , violates his Principle of Equiv- alence, and is therefore ...
Intergenerational relations in the sociological theory perspective
Peter Ondrejkovič
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The issue of relations between the generations is one of the important factors of the dynamics of social development. Intergenerational relationships are affected by the characteristics of youth, the process of individualization, the loss of traditional certainties, "tribalism" and "nomadism", insecurity and violence. Permanently generating new tensions and insecurity, as well as fear and anxiety associated with finding new certainties, are often connected with escape from reality. The issues of globalization and ambivalence, including the opposites, are becoming the central living paradigm of the young generation. The ambivalence stems from the growth of the possibilities of social action, on one hand, and the incoming threats and risks arising from the need to manage and overcome the ever more complex and difficult life tasks, without any support in previous forms of socialization, on the other. Teachers, psychologists and social workers should be properly educated with fresh knowledge on the younger generation and the new situation that can be characterized as a megatrend.
On-Shell Recursion Relations for Generic Theories
Cheung, Clifford
2008-01-01
We show that on-shell recursion relations hold for tree amplitudes in generic two derivative theories of multiple particle species and diverse spins. For example, in a gauge theory coupled to scalars and fermions, any amplitude with at least one gluon obeys a recursion relation. In (super)gravity coupled to scalars and fermions, the same holds for any amplitude with at least one graviton. This result pertains to a broad class of theories, including QCD, N=4 SYM, and N=8 supergravity.
SQL and Relational Theory How to Write Accurate SQL Code
Date, Date
2011-01-01
SQL is full of difficulties and traps for the unwary. You can avoid them if you understand relational theory, but only if you know how to put the theory into practice. In this insightful book, author C.J. Date explains relational theory in depth, and demonstrates through numerous examples and exercises how you can apply it directly to your use of SQL. This second edition includes new material on recursive queries, "missing information" without nulls, new update operators, and topics such as aggregate operators, grouping and ungrouping, and view updating. If you have a modest-to-advanced back
Relational Frame Theory and Industrial/Organizational Psychology
Stewart, Ian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Bond, Frank W.; Hayes, Steven C.
2006-01-01
The current paper argues that a Relational Frame Theory account of complex human behavior including an analysis of relational frames, relational networks, rules and the concept of self can provide a potentially powerful new perspective on phenomena in the applied science of industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology. In this article, we first…
Hendriks, A.L.; Barnes-Holmes, Y.; McEnteggart, C.; Mey, H.R.A. De; Witteman, C.L.M.; Janssen, G.T.L.; Egger, J.I.M.
2016-01-01
Objective: Perspective-taking difficulties have been demonstrated in autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, among other clinical presentations, and are traditionally examined from a Theory of Mind (ToM) point of view. Relational Frame Theory (RFT) offers a behavioural and contextual
Smalley, L. L.
1983-01-01
The proper framework for testing Rastall's theory and its generalizations is in the case of non-negligible (i.e. discernible) gravitational effects such as gravity gradients. These theories have conserved integral four-momentum and angular momentum. The Nordtvedt effect then provides limits on the parameters which arise as the result of the non-zero divergence of the energy-momentum tensor.
Conformal Relativity versus Brans–Dicke and Superstring Theories
David B. Blaschke
2012-10-01
Full Text Available We show how conformal relativity is related to Brans–Dicke theory and to low-energy-effective superstring theory. Conformal relativity or the Hoyle–Narlikar theory is invariant with respect to conformal transformations of the metric. We show that the conformal relativity action is equivalent to the transformed Brans–Dicke action for ω = -3/2 (which is the border between standard scalar field and ghost in contrast to the reduced (graviton-dilaton low-energy-effective superstring action which corresponds to the Brans–Dicke action with ω = -1. We show that like in ekpyrotic/cyclic models, the transition through the singularity in conformal cosmology in the string frame takes place in the weak coupling regime. We also find interesting self-duality and duality relations for the graviton-dilaton actions.
Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Struys, Esli; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Mondt, Katrien; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert
2012-01-30
The impact of bilingualism on the microstructure of the white matter pathways related to language processing is assessed in elementary school children by magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI). Forty children, 8-11 years old, subdivided into 3 different groups (15 simultaneous bilinguals, 15 sequential bilinguals and 10 monolinguals), were scanned. The hypothesis was that the starting age and the manner of second language acquisition would affect the characteristics of language circuitry. In each subject the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) was obtained for four major white matter pathways: 1 - the left arcuate fasciculus/superior longitudinal fasciculus (lAF/lSLF) that connects Broca's area in the opercular and triangular regions of the left inferior frontal gyrus to the posterior language zone, 2 - the left inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus (lIFOF), connecting anterior regions in the frontal lobe with posterior regions in the temporal occipital lobes, 3 - the bundle arising from the anterior part of the corpus callosum projecting to the orbital lobe (AC-OL) and 4 - the fibers emerging from the anterior midbody (AMB) of the corpus callosum that associate with the premotor and supplementary motor cortices (AMB-PMC). The three groups did not show significant differences in mean FA over the lAF/lSLF or AMB-PMC tracts. In simultaneous bilingual subjects the lIFOF tracts had higher mean FA value compared to monolinguals and also sequential bilinguals, whereas the comparison for the AC-OL fibers yielded a significantly lower mean FA value in simultaneous bilingual subjects compared to monolinguals. In both cases the FA value for sequential bilinguals was intermediate to that of the other two groups. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of bilingualism related adaptation of white matter microstructure in the human brain.
Duality and Superconvergence Relation in Supersymmetric Gauge Theories
Tachibana, M
1998-01-01
We investigate the phase structures of various N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories including even the exceptional gauge group from the viewpoint of superconvergence of the gauge field propagator. Especially we analyze in detail whether a new type of duality recently discovered by Oehme in $SU(N_c)$ gauge theory coupled to fundamental matter fields can be found in more general gauge theories with more general matter representations or not. The result is that in the cases of theories including matter fields in only the fundamental representation, Oehme's duality holds but otherwise it does not. In the former case, superconvergence relation might give good criterion to describe the interacting non-Abelian Coulomb phase without using some information from dual magnetic theory.
Cosmic Relativity: The Fundamental Theory of Relativity, its Implications, and Experimental Tests
Unnikrishnan, C S
2004-01-01
In this paper I argue for a reassessment of special relativity. The fundamental theory of relativity applicable in this Universe has to be consistent with the existence of the massive Universe, and with the effects of its gravitational interaction on local physics. A reanalysis of the situation suggests that all relativistic effects that are presently attributed to kinematics of relative motion in flat space-time are in fact gravitational effects of the nearly homogeneous and isotropic Universe. The correct theory of relativity is the one with a preferred cosmic rest frame. Yet, the theory preserves Lorentz invariance. I outline the new theory of Cosmic Relativity, and its implications to local physics, especially to physics of clocks and to quantum physics. This theory is generally applicable to inertial and noninertial motion. Most significanlty, experimental evidence support and favour Cosmic Relativity. There are observed effects that can be consistently explained only within Cosmic Relativity. The most a...
Conformal relativity versus Brans-Dicke and superstring theories
Blaschke, D; Blaschke, David; Dabrowski, Mariusz P
2004-01-01
Conformal relativity theory which is also known as Hoyle-Narlikar theory has recently been given some new interest. It is an extended relativity theory which is invariant with respect to conformal transformations of the metric. In this paper we show how conformal relativity is related to the Brans-Dicke theory and to the low-energy-effective superstring theory. We show that conformal relativity action is equaivalent to a transformed Brans-Dicke action for Brans-Dicke parameter $\\omega = -3/2$ in contrast to a reduced (graviton-dilaton) low-energy-effective superstring action which corresponds to a Brans-Dicke action with Brans-Dicke parameter $\\omega = -1$. We also present basic cosmological solutions of conformal relativity in both Einstein and string frames. The Eintein limit for flat conformal cosmology solutions is unique and it is flat Minkowski space. This requires the scalar field/mass evolution instead of the scale factor evolution in order to explain cosmological redshift. It is interesting that like...
Vacuum fluctuations in theories with deformed dispersion relations
Arzano, Michele; Magueijo, Joao; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni
2015-01-01
We examine vacuum fluctuations in theories with modified dispersion relations which represent dimensional reduction at high energies. By changing units of energy and momentum we can obtain a description rendering the dispersion relations undeformed and transferring all the non-trivial effects to the integration measure in momentum space. Using this description we propose a general quantization procedure, which should be applicable whether or not the theory explicitly introduces a preferred frame. Based on this scheme we evaluate the power spectrum of quantum vacuum fluctuations. We find that in {\\it all} theories which run to 2 dimensions in the ultraviolet the vacuum fluctuations, in the ultraviolet regime, are scale-invariant. This is true in flat space but also for "inside the horizon" modes in an expanding universe. We spell out the conditions upon the gravity theory for this scale-invariance to be preserved as the modes are frozen-in outside the horizon. We also digress on the meaning of dimensionality (...
Ward identity implies recursion relations in Yang-Mills theory
Chen, Gang
2012-07-01
The Ward identity in gauge theory constrains the behavior of the amplitudes. We discuss the Ward identity for amplitudes with a pair of shifted lines with complex momenta. This will induce a recursion relation identical to Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten recursion relations at the finite poles of the complexified amplitudes. Furthermore, according to the Ward identity, it is also possible to transform the boundary term into a simple form, which can be obtained by a new recursion relation. For the amplitude with one off-shell line in pure Yang-Mills theory, we find this technique is effective for obtaining the amplitude even when there are boundary contributions.
Closing in on chemical bonds by opening up relativity theory.
Whitney, Cynthia K
2008-03-01
This paper develops a connection between the phenomenology of chemical bonding and the theory of relativity. Empirical correlations between electron numbers in atoms and chemical bond stabilities in molecules are first reviewed and extended. Quantitative chemical bond strengths are then related to ionization potentials in elements. Striking patterns in ionization potentials are revealed when the data are viewed in an element-independent way, where element-specific details are removed via an appropriate scaling law. The scale factor involved is not explained by quantum mechanics; it is revealed only when one goes back further, to the development of Einstein's special relativity theory.
Arslan, Seçkin; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Felser, Claudia
2015-01-01
This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers) and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference to information source, through inflectional affixes signaling either direct (-DI) or indirect (-mIş) evidentiality. We conducted an eye-tracking-during-listening experiment where participants were given access to visual 'evidence' supporting the use of either a direct or indirect evidential form. The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well. In contrast, both late and early bilinguals were less accurate and slower to respond to direct than to indirect evidentials. The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data. That is, both late and early bilinguals fixated less frequently on the target picture in the direct than in the indirect evidential condition while the monolinguals showed no difference between these conditions. Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars. We discuss our findings with regard to theories of incomplete acquisition and first language attrition.
Seçkin eArslan
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference to information source, through inflectional affixes signaling either direct (-DI or indirect (-mIş evidentiality. We conducted an eye-tracking-during-listening experiment where participants were given access to visual ‘evidence’ supporting the use of either a direct or indirect evidential form. The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well. In contrast, both late and early bilinguals were less accurate and slower to respond to direct than to indirect evidentials. The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data. That is, both late and early bilinguals fixated less frequently on the target picture in the direct than in the indirect evidential condition while the monolinguals showed no difference between these conditions. Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars. We discuss our findings with regard to theories of incomplete acquisition and first language attrition.
Arslan, Seçkin; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Felser, Claudia
2015-01-01
This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers) and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference to information source, through inflectional affixes signaling either direct (-DI) or indirect (-mIş) evidentiality. We conducted an eye-tracking-during-listening experiment where participants were given access to visual ‘evidence’ supporting the use of either a direct or indirect evidential form. The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well. In contrast, both late and early bilinguals were less accurate and slower to respond to direct than to indirect evidentials. The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data. That is, both late and early bilinguals fixated less frequently on the target picture in the direct than in the indirect evidential condition while the monolinguals showed no difference between these conditions. Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars. We discuss our findings with regard to theories of incomplete acquisition and first language attrition. PMID:26441762
Very Special Relativity as a background field theory
Ilderton, Anton
2016-01-01
We consider violation of Lorentz invariance in QED induced by a very high frequency background wave. An effective theory is obtained by averaging observables over the rapid field oscillations. This preserves Ward identities and restores translation invariance below the high frequency scale, but only partial Lorentz invariance: we show that the effective theory is C-invariant SIM(2)-QED in Very Special Relativity. Averaging generates the nonlocal terms familiar from SIM(2) theories, while the short-distance behaviour of the background field fermion propagator generates the infinite number of higher-order vertices of SIM(2)-QED.
GMOR-like relation in IR-conformal gauge theories
Patella, Agostino
2011-01-01
A generalization of the GMOR relation to the case of infrared-conformal gauge theories is discussed. The starting point is the chiral Ward identity connecting the isovector pseudoscalar susceptibility to the chiral condensate, in a mass-deformed theory. A renormalization-group analysis shows that the pseudoscalar susceptibility is not saturated by the lightest state, but a contribution from the continuum part of the spectrum survives in the chiral limit. The computation also shows how infrared-conformal gauge theories behave differently, depending on whether the anomalous dimension of the chiral condensate be smaller or larger than 1.
On the relation of Matrix theory and Maldacena conjecture
Silva, Pedro J.
1998-01-01
We report a sign that M(atrix) theory conjecture and the Maldacena conjecture for the case of D0-branes are compatible. Furthermore Maldacena point of view implies a restriction of range of validity in the DLCQ version of M(atrix) theory. The analysis is based on the uplift of type IIA supersymetric solution in the Maldacena approach to eleven dimensions, using a boost as a main tool. The relation is explored on both, IMF and DLCF versions of M(atrix) theory
Cross-Order Relations in N=4 Supersymmetric Gauge Theories
Anastasiou, C; Dixon, L J; Kosower, D A
2004-01-01
The anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory duality conjecture raises the question of how the perturbative expansion in the conformal field theory can resum to a simple function. We exhibit a relation between the one-loop and two-loop amplitudes whose generalization to higher-point and higher-loop amplitudes would answer this question. We also provide evidence for the first of these generalizations.
The utilization of fiction when teaching the theory of relativity.
Hellstrand, A.; Ott, A.
1995-09-01
This paper describes a way of teaching the theory of relativity with the aid of a novel (Stannard, R., 1989: The Time and Space of Uncle Albert (Faber and Faber)). The experiment is part of a large research project whose aim is to contribute to the formation of didactic theories by means of an evaluation of alternative methods. The preliminary examination reported here has given such remarkable results that they should also be of interest outside the project group.
Algorithmic complexity theory and the relative efficiency of financial markets
Giglio, R.; Matsushita, R.; Figueiredo, A.; Gleria, I.; Da Silva, S.
2008-11-01
Financial economists usually assess market efficiency in absolute terms. This is to be viewed as a shortcoming. One way of dealing with the relative efficiency of markets is to resort to the efficiency interpretation provided by algorithmic complexity theory. We employ such an approach in order to rank 36 stock exchanges and 20 US dollar exchange rates in terms of their relative efficiency.
Relational Processes in Career Transition: Extending Theory, Research, and Practice
Motulsky, Sue L.
2010-01-01
A growing body of work in relational theory and career decision making explores how relational processes, not just people's relationships but more broadly their connections to self, others, and society, inform career development and counseling. This article presents the results of a qualitative research study of midlife women in career transition…
Snow avalanche friction relation based on extended kinetic theory
Rauter, Matthias; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Fellin, Wolfgang; Kofler, Andreas
2016-11-01
Rheological models for granular materials play an important role in the numerical simulation of dry dense snow avalanches. This article describes the application of a physically based model from the field of kinetic theory to snow avalanche simulations. The fundamental structure of the so-called extended kinetic theory is outlined and the decisive model behavior for avalanches is identified. A simplified relation, covering the basic features of the extended kinetic theory, is developed and implemented into an operational avalanche simulation software. To test the obtained friction relation, simulation results are compared to velocity and runout observations of avalanches, recorded from different field tests. As reference we utilize a classic phenomenological friction relation, which is commonly applied for hazard estimation. The quantitative comparison is based on the combination of normalized residuals of different observation variables in order to take into account the quality of the simulations in various regards. It is demonstrated that the extended kinetic theory provides a physically based explanation for the structure of phenomenological friction relations. The friction relation derived with the help of the extended kinetic theory shows advantages to the classic phenomenological friction, in particular when different events and various observation variables are investigated.
Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Rosseel, Yves; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert; Baeken, Chris
2015-01-01
Although numerous people grow up speaking more than one language, the impact of bilingualism on brain developing neuroanatomy is still poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether the changes in the mean fractional-anisotropy (MFA) of language pathways are different between bilingual and monolingual children. Simultaneous-bilinguals, sequential-bilinguals and monolingual, male and female 10-13 years old children participated in this longitudinal study over a period of two years. We used diffusion tensor tractography to obtain mean fractional-anisotropy values of four language related pathways and one control bundle: 1-left-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus/lIFOF, 2-left-arcuate fasciculus/lAF/lSLF, 3-bundle arising from the anterior part of corpus-callosum and projecting to orbital lobe/AC-OL, 4-fibres emerging from anterior-midbody of corpus-callosum (CC) to motor cortices/AMB-PMC, 5- right-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus rIFOF as the control pathway unrelated to language. These values and their rate of change were compared between 3 groups. FA-values did not change significantly over two years for lAF/lSLF and AC-OL. Sequential-bilinguals had the highest degree of change in the MFA value of lIFOF, and AMB-PMC did not present significant group differences. The comparison of MFA of lIFOF yielded a significantly higher FA-value in simultaneous bilinguals compared to monolinguals. These findings acknowledge the existing difference of the development of the semantic processing specific pathway between children with different semantic processing procedure. These also support the hypothesis that age of second language acquisition affects the maturation and myelination of some language specific white-matter pathways.
Seyede Ghazal Mohades
Full Text Available Although numerous people grow up speaking more than one language, the impact of bilingualism on brain developing neuroanatomy is still poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether the changes in the mean fractional-anisotropy (MFA of language pathways are different between bilingual and monolingual children. Simultaneous-bilinguals, sequential-bilinguals and monolingual, male and female 10-13 years old children participated in this longitudinal study over a period of two years. We used diffusion tensor tractography to obtain mean fractional-anisotropy values of four language related pathways and one control bundle: 1-left-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus/lIFOF, 2-left-arcuate fasciculus/lAF/lSLF, 3-bundle arising from the anterior part of corpus-callosum and projecting to orbital lobe/AC-OL, 4-fibres emerging from anterior-midbody of corpus-callosum (CC to motor cortices/AMB-PMC, 5- right-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus rIFOF as the control pathway unrelated to language. These values and their rate of change were compared between 3 groups. FA-values did not change significantly over two years for lAF/lSLF and AC-OL. Sequential-bilinguals had the highest degree of change in the MFA value of lIFOF, and AMB-PMC did not present significant group differences. The comparison of MFA of lIFOF yielded a significantly higher FA-value in simultaneous bilinguals compared to monolinguals. These findings acknowledge the existing difference of the development of the semantic processing specific pathway between children with different semantic processing procedure. These also support the hypothesis that age of second language acquisition affects the maturation and myelination of some language specific white-matter pathways.
The special theory of relativity a mathematical approach
Rahaman, Farook
2014-01-01
The book expounds the major topics in the special theory of relativity. It provides a detailed examination of the mathematical foundation of the special theory of relativity, relativistic mass, relativistic mechanics and relativistic electrodynamics. As well as covariant formulation of relativistic mechanics and electrodynamics, the book discusses the relativistic effect on photons. Using a mathematical approach, the text offers graduate students a clear, concise view of the special theory of relativity. Organized into 14 chapters and two appendices, the content is presented in a logical order, and every topic has been dealt with in a simple and lucid manner. To aid understanding of the subject, the book provides numerous relevant worked examples in every chapter. The book’s mathematical approach helps students in their independent study and motivates them to research the topic further.
Relating the archetypes of logarithmic conformal field theory
Creutzig, Thomas; Ridout, David
2013-07-01
Logarithmic conformal field theory is a rich and vibrant area of modern mathematical physics with well-known applications to both condensed matter theory and string theory. Our limited understanding of these theories is based upon detailed studies of various examples that one may regard as archetypal. These include the c=-2 triplet model, the Wess-Zumino-Witten model on SL(2;R) at level k=-1/2 >, and its supergroup analogue on GL(1|1). Here, the latter model is studied algebraically through representation theory, fusion and modular invariance, facilitating a subsequent investigation of its cosets and extended algebras. The results show that the archetypes of logarithmic conformal field theory are in fact all very closely related, as are many other examples including, in particular, the SL(2|1) models at levels 1 and -1/2 >. The conclusion is then that the archetypal examples of logarithmic conformal field theory are practically all the same, so we should not expect that their features are in any way generic. Further archetypal examples must be sought.
Relating the archetypes of logarithmic conformal field theory
Creutzig, Thomas, E-mail: tcreutzig@mathematik.tu-darmstadt.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Phillips Hall, CB 3255, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Fachbereich Mathematik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstraße 7, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Ridout, David, E-mail: david.ridout@anu.edu.au [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Mathematical Sciences Institute, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)
2013-07-21
Logarithmic conformal field theory is a rich and vibrant area of modern mathematical physics with well-known applications to both condensed matter theory and string theory. Our limited understanding of these theories is based upon detailed studies of various examples that one may regard as archetypal. These include the c=−2 triplet model, the Wess–Zumino–Witten model on SL(2;R) at level k=−1/2 , and its supergroup analogue on GL(1|1). Here, the latter model is studied algebraically through representation theory, fusion and modular invariance, facilitating a subsequent investigation of its cosets and extended algebras. The results show that the archetypes of logarithmic conformal field theory are in fact all very closely related, as are many other examples including, in particular, the SL(2|1) models at levels 1 and −1/2 . The conclusion is then that the archetypal examples of logarithmic conformal field theory are practically all the same, so we should not expect that their features are in any way generic. Further archetypal examples must be sought.
Cattani, Allegra; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Farag, Rafalla; Krott, Andrea; Arreckx, Frédérique; Dennis, Ian; Floccia, Caroline
2014-11-01
significantly inversely related to the amount of exposure to English. Typically developing 2;6-year-olds who are bilingual in English and an additional language and who hear English 60% of the time or more, perform equivalently to their typically developing monolingual peers. © 2014 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Applications of Jarzynski's relation in lattice gauge theories
Nada, Alessandro; Costagliola, Gianluca; Panero, Marco; Toniato, Arianna
2016-01-01
Jarzynski's equality is a well-known result in statistical mechanics, relating free-energy differences between equilibrium ensembles with fluctuations in the work performed during non-equilibrium transformations from one ensemble to the other. In this work, an extension of this relation to lattice gauge theory will be presented, along with numerical results for the $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ gauge model in three dimensions and for the equation of state in $\\mathrm{SU}(2)$ Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions. Then, further applications will be discussed, in particular for the Schr\\"odinger functional and for the study of QCD in strong magnetic fields.
The Concept of Security in International Relations Theory
Gabriel Orozco
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The end of the Cold War and the emergence of globalisation have transformed the reality of International Relations, which has meant a change in the theories which this reality had assumed. The concept of security reveals itself as an organisational idea on the different phenomena of globalisation, carrying out a programme of research that goes beyond the realistic presumptions of military power or of the idealistic principles of research for peace. This article explores the new meanings of security for International Relations theory and discusses the theoretical models that influence policy design and that aim to confront the problems and challenges of security in globalisation.
Scale relativity and fractal space-time: theory and applications
Nottale, Laurent
2008-01-01
In the first part of this contribution, we review the development of the theory of scale relativity and its geometric framework constructed in terms of a fractal and nondifferentiable continuous space-time. This theory leads (i) to a generalization of possible physically relevant fractal laws, written as partial differential equation acting in the space of scales, and (ii) to a new geometric foundation of quantum mechanics and gauge field theories and their possible generalisations. In the second part, we discuss some examples of application of the theory to various sciences, in particular in cases when the theoretical predictions have been validated by new or updated observational and experimental data. This includes predictions in physics and cosmology (value of the QCD coupling and of the cosmological constant), to astrophysics and gravitational structure formation (distances of extrasolar planets to their stars, of Kuiper belt objects, value of solar and solar-like star cycles), to sciences of life (log-p...
Relative Entropy and Proximity of Quantum Field Theories
Balasubramanian, Vijay; Maloney, Alexander
2014-01-01
We study the question of how reliably one can distinguish two quantum field theories (QFTs). Each QFT defines a probability distribution on the space of fields. The relative entropy provides a notion of proximity between these distributions and quantifies the number of measurements required to distinguish between them. In the case of nearby conformal field theories, this reduces to the Zamolodchikov metric on the space of couplings. Our formulation quantifies the information lost under renormalization group flow from the UV to the IR and leads us to a quantification of fine-tuning. This formalism also leads us to a criterion for distinguishability of low energy effective field theories generated by the string theory landscape.
Relative entropy and proximity of quantum field theories
Balasubramanian, Vijay [David Rittenhouse Laboratories, University of Pennsylvania,Philadelphia (United States); CUNY Graduate Center, Initiative for the Theoretical Sciences,New York (United States); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, and International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Heckman, Jonathan J. [Department of Physics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,Chapel Hill (United States); Maloney, Alexander [Department of Physics, McGill University,Montreal (Canada)
2015-05-20
We study the question of how reliably one can distinguish two quantum field theories (QFTs). Each QFT defines a probability distribution on the space of fields. The relative entropy provides a notion of proximity between these distributions and quantifies the number of measurements required to distinguish between them. In the case of nearby conformal field theories, this reduces to the Zamolodchikov metric on the space of couplings. Our formulation quantifies the information lost under renormalization group flow from the UV to the IR and leads us to a quantification of fine-tuning. This formalism also leads us to a criterion for distinguishability of low energy effective field theories generated by the string theory landscape.
Conformal Field Theory, Automorphic Forms and Related Topics
Weissauer, Rainer; CFT 2011
2014-01-01
This book, part of the series Contributions in Mathematical and Computational Sciences, reviews recent developments in the theory of vertex operator algebras (VOAs) and their applications to mathematics and physics. The mathematical theory of VOAs originated from the famous monstrous moonshine conjectures of J.H. Conway and S.P. Norton, which predicted a deep relationship between the characters of the largest simple finite sporadic group, the Monster, and the theory of modular forms inspired by the observations of J. MacKay and J. Thompson. The contributions are based on lectures delivered at the 2011 conference on Conformal Field Theory, Automorphic Forms and Related Topics, organized by the editors as part of a special program offered at Heidelberg University that summer under the sponsorship of the MAThematics Center Heidelberg (MATCH).
Acquisition of German pluralization rules in monolingual and multilingual children
Eugen Zaretsky
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-yearold monolingual German and bi/multilingual immigrant children tested with a modified, validated version of the Marburger Sprachscreening (MSS language test and 476 children tested with the SETK 3-5 language test. Classified correct and wrong answers to MSS and SETK 3-5 plural items were compared. The acquisition patterns of immigrants corresponded to those of younger German children. Both monolingual German and immigrant children demonstrated generally the same universal frequency and phonetically/phonologically based error patterns, irrespective of their linguistic background, but with different tendencies such as overgeneralization of -s by German children only.
Ontology mapping approach based on set & relation theory and OCL
QIAN Peng-fei; ZHANG Shen-sheng; LIU Ying-hua
2009-01-01
An ontology mapping approach based on set & relation theory and OCL is introduced, then an ontolo-gy mapping meta-model is established which is composed of ontology related elements, mapping related elements and definition rule related elements. This ontology mapping meta-model can be regarded as a unified mechanism to realize different kinds of ontology mappings. The powerful computation capability of set and relation theory and the flexible expressive capability of OCL can be used in the computation of ontology mapping meta-model to realize the unified mapping among different ontology models. Based on the mapping meta-model, a general mapping management framework is developed to provide a common mapping storage mechanism, some mapping APIs and mapping rule APIs.
The auditory attention status in Iranian bilingual and monolingual people
Nayiere Mansoori; Seyed Ali Akbar Tahaei; Zahra Jafari; Mohammad Kamali
2013-01-01
Background and Aim: Bilingualism, as one of the discussing issues of psychology and linguistics, can influence the speech processing. Of several tests for assessing auditory processing, dichotic digit test has been designed to study divided auditory attention. Our study was performed to compare the auditory attention between Iranian bilingual and monolingual young adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 students including 30 Turkish-Persian bilinguals and 30 Persian mo...
Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children
Bialystok, Ellen; PEETS, KATHLEEN F.; Yang, Sujin; Luk, Gigi
2010-01-01
Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738 children between 3 and 10 years old and demonstrate a consistent difference in receptive vocabulary between the two groups. Two preliminary analyses s...
Acquisition of German pluralization rules in monolingual and multilingual children
Eugen Zaretsky; Lange, Benjamin P.; Euler, Harald A.; Katrin Neumann
2013-01-01
Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-year- old monolingual German and bi/multilingual immigrant children tested with a modified, validated version of the Marburger Sprachscreening (MSS) language test and 476 chi...
Can quantum theory and special relativity peacefully coexist?
Seevinck, M.P.
2010-01-01
This white paper aims to identify an open problem in 'Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality' --namely whether quantum theory and special relativity are formally compatible--, to indicate what the underlying issues are, and put forward ideas about how the problem might be addressed.
Can quantum theory and special relativity peacefully coexist?
Seevinck, M.P.
2010-01-01
This white paper aims to identify an open problem in ‘Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality’—namely whether quantum theory and special relativity are formally compatible—, to indicate what the underlying issues are, and put forward ideas about how the problem might be addressed.
Basic concepts in relativity and early quantum theory
Resnick, Robert
1972-01-01
In this book, the concepts in relativity and early quantum theory - which form the basis for what is called modern physics - are presented with great clarity by Robert Resnick, well known as a fine expositor. His presentation is lively and interspersed with historical, philosophical, and special topics that arouse and hold the reader's interest.
Can quantum theory and special relativity peacefully coexist?
Seevinck, M.P.
This white paper aims to identify an open problem in ‘Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality’—namely whether quantum theory and special relativity are formally compatible—, to indicate what the underlying issues are, and put forward ideas about how the problem might be addressed.
Special Theory of Relativity without special assumptions and tachyonic motion
E. Kapuścik
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The most general form of transformations of space-time coordinates in Special Theory of Relativity based solely on physical assumptions is described. Only the linearity of space-time transformations and the constancy of the speed of light are used as assumptions. The application to tachyonic motion is indicated.
Can quantum theory and special relativity peacefully coexist?
Seevinck, M.P.
2010-01-01
This white paper aims to identify an open problem in 'Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality' --namely whether quantum theory and special relativity are formally compatible--, to indicate what the underlying issues are, and put forward ideas about how the problem might be addressed.
Relational frame theory and Skinner's Verbal Behavior: A possible synthesis.
Barnes-Holmes, D; Barnes-Holmes, Y; Cullinan, V
2000-01-01
The current article suggests a possible synthesis of Skinner's (1957) treatment of verbal behavior with the more recent behavioral interpretation of language known as relational frame theory. The rationale for attempting to combine these two approaches is first outlined. Subsequently, each of the verbal operants described by Skinner is examined and subjected to a relational frame analysis. In each case, two types of operants are identified; one based on direct contingencies of reinforcement and the other based on arbitrarily applicable relational responding. The latter operants are labeled verbal because they can be distinguished from other forms of social behavior, and they appear to possess the symbolic or referential qualities often ascribed to human language. By applying relational frame theory to Skinner's verbal operants, we aim to contribute towards the development of a modern behavior-analytic research agenda in human language and cognition.
Relational frame theory and Skinner's Verbal Behavior: A possible synthesis
Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Cullinan, Veronica
2000-01-01
The current article suggests a possible synthesis of Skinner's (1957) treatment of verbal behavior with the more recent behavioral interpretation of language known as relational frame theory. The rationale for attempting to combine these two approaches is first outlined. Subsequently, each of the verbal operants described by Skinner is examined and subjected to a relational frame analysis. In each case, two types of operants are identified; one based on direct contingencies of reinforcement a...
The Relation between Sociocultural Theory and Teaching Methods
杨帆
2013-01-01
Up to now, it has been learned so many theories about second language acquisition (SLA), namely behaviorism theo-ries, innatism theories, psychological theories, and interactionist theories. Among these theories the interactionist theories especial-ly Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory is most in line with the real teaching philosophy.
Leher eSingh
2016-05-01
Full Text Available To construct their first lexicon, infants must determine the relationship between native phonological variation and the meanings of words. This process is arguably more complex for bilingual learners who are often confronted with phonological conflict: phonological variation that is lexically relevant in one language may be lexically irrelevant in the other. In a series of four experiments, the present study investigated English-Mandarin bilingual infants’ abilities to negotiate phonological conflict introduced by learning both a tone and a non-tone language. In a novel word learning task, bilingual children were tested on their sensitivity to tone variation in English and Mandarin contexts. Their abilities to interpret tone variation in a language-dependent manner were compared to those of monolingual Mandarin learning infants. Results demonstrated that at 12 to 13 months, bilingual infants demonstrated the ability to bind tone to word meanings in Mandarin, but to disregard tone variation when learning new words in English. In contrast, monolingual learners of Mandarin did not show evidence of integrating tones into word meanings in Mandarin at the same age even though they were learning a tone language. However, a tone discrimination paradigm confirmed that monolingual Mandarin learning infants were able to tell these tones apart at 12 to 13 months under a different set of conditions. Later, at 17 to 18 months, monolingual Mandarin learners were able to bind tone variation to word meanings when learning new words. Our findings are discussed in terms of cognitive adaptations associated with bilingualism that may ease the negotiation of phonological conflict and facilitate precocious uptake of certain properties of each language.
Proctor, C. Patrick; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Montecillo, Christine
2012-01-01
The present study investigated the role of vocabulary depth in reading comprehension among a diverse sample of monolingual and bilingual children in grades 2-4. Vocabulary depth was defined as including morphological awareness, awareness of semantic relations, and syntactic awareness. Two hundred ninety-four children from 3 schools in a…
Role of information theoretic uncertainty relations in quantum theory
Jizba, Petr, E-mail: p.jizba@fjfi.cvut.cz [FNSPE, Czech Technical University in Prague, Břehová 7, 115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic); ITP, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Dunningham, Jacob A., E-mail: J.Dunningham@sussex.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Joo, Jaewoo, E-mail: j.joo@surrey.ac.uk [Advanced Technology Institute and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)
2015-04-15
Uncertainty relations based on information theory for both discrete and continuous distribution functions are briefly reviewed. We extend these results to account for (differential) Rényi entropy and its related entropy power. This allows us to find a new class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations (ITURs). The potency of such uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics is illustrated with a simple two-energy-level model where they outperform both the usual Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty relation and Shannon entropy based uncertainty relation. In the continuous case the ensuing entropy power uncertainty relations are discussed in the context of heavy tailed wave functions and Schrödinger cat states. Again, improvement over both the Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty principle and Shannon ITUR is demonstrated in these cases. Further salient issues such as the proof of a generalized entropy power inequality and a geometric picture of information-theoretic uncertainty relations are also discussed.
Friesen, Deanna C.; Luo, Lin; Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen
2014-01-01
The verbal fluency task is a widely used neuropsychological test of word retrieval efficiency. Both category fluency (e.g., list animals) and letter fluency (e.g., list words that begin with F) place demands on semantic memory and executive control functions. However letter fluency places greater demands on executive control than category fluency, making this task well-suited to investigating potential bilingual advantages in word retrieval. Here we report analyses on category and letter fluency for bilinguals and monolinguals at four ages, namely, 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, young adults, and older adults. Three main findings emerged: 1) verbal fluency performance improved from childhood to young adulthood and remained relatively stable in late adulthood; 2) beginning at 10-years-old, the executive control requirements for letter fluency were less effortful for bilinguals than monolinguals, with a robust bilingual advantage on this task emerging in adulthood; 3) an interaction among factors showed that category fluency performance was influenced by both age and vocabulary knowledge but letter fluency performance was influenced by bilingual status. PMID:25642427
Analysis of accelerated motion in the theory of relativity
Jones, R. T.
1976-01-01
Conventional treatments of accelerated motion in the theory of relativity have led to certain difficulties of interpretation. Certain reversals in the apparent gravitational field of an accelerated body may be avoided by simpler analysis based on the use of restricted conformal transformations. In the conformal theory the velocity of light remains constant even for experimenters in accelerated motion. The problem considered is that of rectilinear motion with a variable velocity. The motion takes place along the x or x' axis of two coordinate systems.
Gravitation experiments at Stanford. [using general relativity theory
Lipa, J. A.
1980-01-01
The experimental situation in post-Newtonian gravitation is briefly reviewed in order to reexamine the extent to which experiment supports or refutes general relativity. A description is given of the equivalence principle project, the gyroscope experiment, and the search for gravity waves. It is noted that even though some doubt has been cast on the value of the perihelion advance and the gravitational redshift as precise tests of general relativity in the past few years, many competing theories have been ruled out; in particular, the results from the Viking mission significantly reduce the credibility of the Brans-Dicke theory (Brans and Dicke, 1961). The dimensionless constant omega in this theory is now forced to exceed 50, while the value originally proposed was 6 (omega being infinity in general relativity). It is noted that the gyro experiment described is capable of putting much tighter limits on this parameter, and together with the other experiments in progress will help place gravitational theory on a firmer experimental footing.
On Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity
Crothers S. J.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available There are a number of conceptual anomalies occurring in the Standard exposition of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. These anomalies relate to issues in both mathematics and in physics and penetrate to the very heart of Einstein’s theory. This paper reveals and amplifies a few such anomalies, including the fact that Einstein’s field equations for the so-called static vacuum configuration, R = 0 , violates his Principle of Equiv- alence, and is therefore erroneous. This has a direct bearing on the usual concept of conservation of energy for the gravitational field and the conventional formulation for localisation of energy using Einstein’s pseudo-tensor. Misconceptions as to the relationship between Minkowski spacetime and Special Relativity are also discussed, along with their relationships to the pseudo-Riemannian metric manifold of Einstein’s gravitational field, and their fundamental geometric structures pertaining to spherical symmetry.
On Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity
Crothers S. J.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available There are a number of conceptual anomalies occurring in the Standard exposition of Einstein's Theory of Relativity. These anomalies relate to issues in both mathematics and in physics and penetrate to the very heart of Einstein's theory. This paper reveals and amplifies a few such anomalies, including the fact that Einstein's field equations for the so-called static vacuum configuration, $R_{mu u} = 0$, violates his Principle of Equivalence, and is therefore erroneous. This has a direct bearing on the usual concept of conservation of energy for the gravitational field and the conventional formulation for localisation of energy using Einstein's pseudo-tensor. Misconceptions as to the relationship between Minkowski spacetime and Special Relativity are also discussed, along with their relationships to the pseudo-Riemannian metric manifold of Einstein's gravitational field, and their fundamental geometric structures pertaining to spherical symmetry.
Critical Race Theory and the Limits of Relational Theory in Social Work with Women.
Quinn, Camille R; Grumbach, Giesela
2015-01-01
The authors present a conceptual framework for expanding the use of relational theory with African-American women. Relational theory (RT) informs practice with women but is inadequate in addressing all aspects of culture and identity. RT presumes that all women desire or are able to make therapeutic connections, yet race, gender, and cultural experiences influence their ability to do so. Successful practice with minority women must address racism and its impact. Critical race theory (CRT) that incorporates a solution-focused (SF) approach is well-suited to address the limits of RT. This overview of a CRT/SF approach describes treatment for diverse women that extends RT and enhances effective social work practice to provide culturally sensitive treatment to women.
Vienna Circle and Logical Analysis of Relativity Theory
Andréka, H; Németi, I; Németi, P; Székely, G
2011-01-01
In this paper we present some of our school's results in the area of building up relativity theory (RT) as a hierarchy of theories in the sense of logic. We use plain first-order logic (FOL) as in the foundation of mathematics (FOM) and we build on experience gained in FOM. The main aims of our school are the following: We want to base the theory on simple, unambiguous axioms with clear meanings. It should be absolutely understandable for any reader what the axioms say and the reader can decide about each axiom whether he likes it. The theory should be built up from these axioms in a straightforward, logical manner. We want to provide an analysis of the logical structure of the theory. We investigate which axioms are needed for which predictions of RT. We want to make RT more transparent logically, easier to understand, easier to change, modular, and easier to teach. We want to obtain deeper understanding of RT. Our work can be considered as a case-study showing that the Vienna Circle's (VC) approach to doing...
Smangs, Mattias
2010-01-01
This article explores the plausibility of the conflicting theoretical assumptions underlying the main criminological perspectives on juvenile delinquents, their peer relations and social skills: the social ability model, represented by Sutherland's theory of differential associations, and the social disability model, represented by Hirschi's…
Color-kinematic duality in ABJM theory without amplitude relations
Sivaramakrishnan, Allic
2017-01-01
We explicitly show that the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson color-kinematic duality holds at tree level through at least eight points in Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory with gauge group SU(N) × SU(N). At six points we give the explicit form of numerators in terms of amplitudes, displaying the generalized gauge freedom that leads to amplitude relations. However, at eight points no amplitude relations follow from the duality, so the diagram numerators are fixed unique functions of partial amplitudes. We provide the explicit amplitude-numerator decomposition and the numerator relations for eight-point amplitudes.
Dynamical Gravitational Coupling as a Modified Theory of General Relativity
Finster, Felix
2016-01-01
A modified theory of general relativity is proposed, where the gravitational constant is replaced by a dynamical variable in space-time. The dynamics of the gravitational coupling is described by a family of parametrized null geodesics, implying that the gravitational coupling at a space-time point is determined by solving transport equations along all null geodesics through this point. General relativity with dynamical gravitational coupling (DGC) is introduced. We motivate DGC from general considerations and explain how it arises in the context of causal fermion systems. The underlying physical idea is that the gravitational coupling is determined by microscopic structures on the Planck scale which propagate with the speed of light. In order to clarify the mathematical structure, we analyze the conformal behavior and prove local existence and uniqueness of the time evolution. The differences to Einstein's theory are worked out in the examples of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model and the spherically symme...
Functional methods underlying classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory
Kryukov, Alexey A.
2013-01-01
The paper investigates the physical content of a recently proposed mathematical framework that unifies the standard formalisms of classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory. In the framework states of a classical particle are identified with Dirac delta functions. The classical space is "made" of these functions and becomes a submanifold in a Hilbert space of states of the particle. The resulting embedding of the classical space into the space of states is highly non-trivial and accou...
From 'Theories of Hegemony' to 'Hegemony Analysis' in International Relations
Antoniades, Andreas
2008-01-01
The paper deals with the phenomenon of hegemony in International Relations theory and practice. First, it develops a cartography of the existing approaches to hegemony in IR. Second, it discusses and evaluates two significant attempts to create a comprehensive framework for studying hegemony in world politics; that is, 'agential approaches' and 'critical realist approaches'. The third section discusses the limitations of these two approaches, and proposes a new comprehensive framework for ana...
Some Features of Monolingual LSP Dictionaries
rbr
The methods of description and explanation are also differ- ent. A definition of concepts in ...... rior frontal cerebral convolution (Broca's gyrus) was related to speech. He was one of the first to ... clearly this image into words. LSP or specialized ...
General Relativity as AN ÆTHER Theory
Dupré, Maurice J.; Tipler, Frank J.
Most early twentieth century relativists — Lorentz, Einstein, Eddington, for examples — claimed that general relativity was merely a theory of the æther. We shall confirm this claim by deriving the Einstein equations using æther theory. We shall use a combination of Lorentz's and Kelvin's conception of the æther. Our derivation of the Einstein equations will not use the vanishing of the covariant divergence of the stress-energy tensor, but instead equate the Ricci tensor to the sum of the usual stress-energy tensor and a stress-energy tensor for the æther, a tensor based on Kelvin's æther theory. A crucial first step is generalizing the Cartan formalism of Newtonian gravity to allow spatial curvature, as conjectured by Gauss and Riemann. In essence, we shall show that the Einstein equations are a special case of Newtonian gravity coupled to a particular type of luminiferous æther. Our derivation of general relativity is simple, and it emphasizes how inevitable general relativity is, given the truth of Newtonian gravity and the Maxwell equations.
Einstein's general theory of relativity with modern applications in cosmology
Grøn, Øyvind
2007-01-01
Many of us have experienced the same; fallen and broken something. Yet supposedly, gravity is the weakest of the fundamental forces; it is claimed to be 10-15 times weaker than electromagnetism. Still, every one of us has more or less had a personal relationship with gravity. Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity: With Modern Applications in Cosmology by Oyvind Gron and Sigbjorn Hervik is about gravity and the concept of gravity as Albert Einstein saw it- curved spaces, four-dimensional manifolds and geodesics. The book starts with the 1st principals of relativity and an introduction to Einstein’s field equations. Next up are the three classical tests of the relativity theory and an introduction to black holes. The book contains several topics not found in other textbooks, such as Kaluza-Klein theory, anisotropic models of the universe, and new developments involving brane cosmology. Gron and Hervik have included a part in the book called "Advanced Topics." These topics range from the very edge of resea...
On Superluminal Particles and the Extended Relativity Theories
Castro, Carlos
2012-09-01
Superluminal particles are studied within the framework of the Extended Relativity theory in Clifford spaces ( C-spaces). In the simplest scenario, it is found that it is the contribution of the Clifford scalar component π of the poly-vector-valued momentum which is responsible for the superluminal behavior in ordinary spacetime due to the fact that the effective mass {M} = sqrt{ M2 - π2 } is imaginary (tachyonic). However, from the point of view of C-space, there is no superluminal (tachyonic) behavior because the true physical mass still obeys M 2>0. Therefore, there are no violations of the Clifford-extended Lorentz invariance and the extended Relativity principle in C-spaces. It is also explained why the charged muons (leptons) are subluminal while its chargeless neutrinos may admit superluminal propagation. A Born's Reciprocal Relativity theory in Phase Spaces leads to modified dispersion relations involving both coordinates and momenta, and whose truncations furnish Lorentz-violating dispersion relations which appear in Finsler Geometry, rainbow-metrics models and Double (deformed) Special Relativity. These models also admit superluminal particles. A numerical analysis based on the recent OPERA experimental findings on alleged superluminal muon neutrinos is made. For the average muon neutrino energy of 17 GeV, we find a value for the magnitude |{M } | = 119.7 MeV that, coincidentally, is close to the mass of the muon m μ =105.7 MeV.
Fractality Field in the Theory of Scale Relativity
Nottale L.
2005-04-01
Full Text Available In the theory of scale relativity, space-time is considered to be a continuum that is not only curved, but also non-differentiable, and, as a consequence, fractal. The equation of geodesics in such a space-time can be integrated in terms of quantum mechanical equations. We show in this paper that the quantum potential is a manifestation of such a fractality of space-time (in analogy with Newton’s potential being a manifestation of curvature in the framework of general relativity.
A Possible Modification of Einstein's Theory of General Relativity
QIAN Shang-Wu
2004-01-01
This article suggests a new metric theory of gravitation, in which metric field is determined not only by matter and nongravitational field but also by vector graviton field, and in principle there is no need to introduce the Einstein's tensor. In order to satisfy automatically the geodesic postulate, an additional coordinate condition is needed.For the spherically symmetric static field, it leads us to quite different conclusions from those of Einstein's general relativity in the interior region of the surface of infinite redshift. Accurate to the first order of GM/r, it obtains the same results about the four experimental tests of general relativity.
Approximate theory the electromagnetic energy of solenoid in special relativity
Prastyaningrum, I.; Kartikaningsih, S.
2017-01-01
Solenoid is a device that is often used in electronic devices. A solenoid is electrified will cause a magnetic field. In our analysis, we just focus on the electromagnetic energy for solenoid form. We purpose to analyze by the theoretical approach in special relativity. Our approach is begun on the Biot Savart law and Lorentz force. Special theory relativity can be derived from the Biot Savart law, and for the energy can be derived from Lorentz for, by first determining the momentum equation. We choose the solenoid form with the goal of the future can be used to improve the efficiency of the electrical motor.
Nonlinear closure relations theory for transport processes in nonequilibrium systems.
Sonnino, Giorgio
2009-05-01
A decade ago, a macroscopic theory for closure relations has been proposed for systems out of Onsager's region. This theory is referred to as the thermodynamic field theory (TFT). The aim of this work was to determine the nonlinear flux-force relations that respect the thermodynamic theorems for systems far from equilibrium. We propose a formulation of the TFT where one of the basic restrictions, namely, the closed-form solution for the skew-symmetric piece of the transport coefficients, has been removed. In addition, the general covariance principle is replaced by the De Donder-Prigogine thermodynamic covariance principle (TCP). The introduction of TCP requires the application of an appropriate mathematical formalism, which is referred to as the entropy-covariant formalism. By geometrical arguments, we prove the validity of the Glansdorff-Prigogine universal criterion of evolution. A new set of closure equations determining the nonlinear corrections to the linear ("Onsager") transport coefficients is also derived. The geometry of the thermodynamic space is non-Riemannian. However, it tends to be Riemannian for high values of the entropy production. In this limit, we recover the transport equations found by the old theory. Applications of our approach to transport in magnetically confined plasmas, materials submitted to temperature, and electric potential gradients or to unimolecular triangular chemical reactions can be found at references cited herein. Transport processes in tokamak plasmas are of particular interest. In this case, even in the absence of turbulence, the state of the plasma remains close to (but, it is not in) a state of local equilibrium. This prevents the transport relations from being linear.
Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children*
Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi; Peets, Kathleen F.; Yang, Sujin
2015-01-01
Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738 children between 3 and 10 years old and demonstrate a consistent difference in receptive vocabulary between the two groups. Two preliminary analyses suggest that this difference does not change with different language pairs and is largely confined to words relevant to a home context rather than a school context. PMID:25750580
Bilingualism and linguistic politics in Brazil: From monolingual unreality to plurilingual reality
Elena Ortiz Preuss
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Current article discusses the linguistic policies inBrazil and problematizes explicit or underlying notions of bilingualism in official documents. Different concepts of bilingualism over time are analyzed from a bibliographic and documental study. Further, the types of bilingualism contemplated by linguistic policies are investigated. The status of Portuguese, indigenous, foreign, sign and immigrant languages in these documents is discussed, as well as the legal attitudes related to bilingualism in communities of immigrants, indigenous, deaf and descendants of Negro slaves. An initial legal ambiguity may be noted when essentially monolingual linguistic policies are prioritized. A mild progress has occurred during the last few years, mainly, those related to the acknowledgement of indigenous communities as bi/multilingual. In fact, Brazil’s plurilingual condition and its pluricultural characteristics have not been yet acknowledged.
Liu, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369509870; Kager, R.W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072294124
2016-01-01
Purpose: Facing previous mixed findings between monolingual and bilingual infants’ phonetic development during perceptual reorganization, the current study aims at examining the perceptual development of a native vowel contrast (/I/-/i/) by Dutch monolingual and bilingual infants. Design: We tested
Mondt, K.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Balériaux, D.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Hadzibeganovic, T.; Denolin, V.; Craen, P. van de
2009-01-01
Objectives Possible differences in selective attention and conflict resolution between monolingual and bilingual children were tested in an fMRI study. Methods An adopted version of the Stroop task was conducted on 19 monolingual- and bilingual (French/Dutch) children with a mean age of 8.9 years in
Global-Local and Trail-Making Tasks by Monolingual and Bilingual Children: Beyond Inhibition
Bialystok, Ellen
2010-01-01
In 3 experiments, a total of 151 monolingual and bilingual 6-year-old children performed similarly on measures of language and cognitive ability; however, bilinguals solved the global-local and trail-making tasks more rapidly than monolinguals. This bilingual advantage was found not only for the traditionally demanding conditions (incongruent…
Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia
2009-01-01
Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer…
Vale, Ana Paula
2011-01-01
This study examines the pronunciation of the first vowel in decoding disyllabic pseudowords derived from Portuguese words. Participants were 96 Portuguese monolinguals and 52 Portuguese-English bilinguals of equivalent Portuguese reading levels. The results indicate that sensitivity to vowel context emerges early, both in monolinguals and in…
Mondt, K.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Balériaux, D.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Hadzibeganovic, T.; Denolin, V.; Craen, P. van de
2009-01-01
Objectives Possible differences in selective attention and conflict resolution between monolingual and bilingual children were tested in an fMRI study. Methods An adopted version of the Stroop task was conducted on 19 monolingual- and bilingual (French/Dutch) children with a mean age of 8.9 years in
Do French-English Bilingual Children Gesture More than Monolingual Children?
Nicoladis, Elena; Pika, Simone; Marentette, Paula
2009-01-01
Previous studies have shown that bilingual adults use more gestures than English monolinguals. Because no study has compared the gestures of bilinguals and monolinguals in both languages, the high gesture rate could be due to transfer from a high gesture language or could result from the use of gesture to aid in linguistic access. In this study we…
Effects of Speech Practice on Fast Mapping in Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers
Kan, Pui Fong; Sadagopan, Neeraja; Janich, Lauren; Andrade, Marixa
2014-01-01
Purpose: This study examines the effects of the levels of speech practice on fast mapping in monolingual and bilingual speakers. Method: Participants were 30 English-speaking monolingual and 30 Spanish-English bilingual young adults. Each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 3 practice conditions prior to the fast-mapping task: (a) intensive…
General Relativity Revisited: Generalized Nordstr\\"om Theory
Bengtsson, Johan
2016-01-01
In 1945 Einstein concluded that [1]: 'The present theory of relativity is based on a division of physical reality into a metric field (gravitation) on the one hand, and into an electromagnetic field and matter on the other hand. In reality space will probably be of a uniform character and the present theory be valid only as a limiting case. For large densities of field and of matter, the field equations and even the field variables which enter into them will have no real significance.'. The dichotomy can be resolved by introducing a scalar field/potential algebraically related to the Ricci tensor for which the corresponding metric is free of additional singularities. Hence, although a fundamentally nonlinear theory, the scalar field/potential provides an analytic framework for interacting particles; described by linear superposition. The stress tensor for the scalar field includes both the sources of and the energy-momentum for the gravitational field, and has zero covariant and ordinary divergence. Hence, th...
Covariant theory of gravitation in the framework of special relativity
Vieira, R S
2016-01-01
Purely from covariance requirements regarding the special theory of relativity, we show that a moving body necessarily generates a gravitational magnetic field. Then, from the Lorentz transformations, we deduce the exact formul{\\ae} describing these gravitomagnetic fields in a flat spacetime. We also show that the gravitational mass should be regarded as an invariant quantity in the same foot as the electric charge. Thus, the differential equations satisfied by the gravitomagnetic fields are deduced, which proved to be similar to the Maxwell equations. This allowed us to show that gravitational waves indeed spread out with the speed of light, confirming a result that usually is only guessed. We also show that the gravitational vector potential can be associated to the momentum of interaction between the matter and the gravitomagnetic fields. The energy and momentum stored in the gravitomagnetic fields are also discussed. We highlight that nothing is assumed from the electromagnetic theory in our approach, nev...
Euclidean Complex Relativistic Mechanics: A New Special Relativity Theory
Vossos, Spyridon; Vossos, Elias
2015-09-01
Relativity Theory (RT) was fundamental for the development of Quantum Mechanics (QMs). Special Relativity (SR), as is applied until now, cancels the transitive attribute in parallelism, when three observers are related, because Lorentz Boost (LB) is not closed transformation. In this presentation, considering Linear Spacetime Transformation (LSTT), we demand the maintenance of Minkowski Spacetime Interval (S2). In addition, we demand this LSTT to be closed, so there is no need for axes rotation. The solution is the Vossos Matrix (ΛB) containing real and imaginary numbers. As a result, space becomes complex, but time remains real. Thus, the transitive attribute in parallelism, which is equivalent to the Euclidean Request (ER), is also valid for moving observers. Choosing real spacetime for the unmoved observer (O), all the natural sizes are real, too. Using Vossos Transformation (VT) for moving observers, the four-vectors’ zeroth component (such as energy) is real, in contrast with spatial components that are complex, but their norm is real. It is proved that moving (relative to O) human O' meter length, according to Lorentz Boost (LB). In addition, we find Rotation Matrix Vossos-Lorentz (RBL) that turns natural sizes’ complex components to real. We also prove that Speed of Light in Vacuum (c) is invariant, when complex components are used and VT is closed for three sequential observers. After, we find out the connection between two moving (relative to O) observers: X"= ΛLO"(o) ΛLO(O') X', using Lorentz Matrix (ΛL). We applied this theory, finding relations between natural sizes, that are the same as these extracted by Classic Relativity (CR), when two observers are related (i.e. relativistic Doppler shift is the same). But, the results are different, when more than two observers are related. VT of Electromagnetic Tensor (Fμv), leads to Complex Electromagnetic Fields (CEMFs) for a moving observer. When the unmoved observer O and a moving observer O' are
Perception of English vowels by bilingual Chinese-English and corresponding monolingual listeners.
Yang, Jing; Fox, Robert A
2014-06-01
This study compares the underlying perceptual structure of vowel perception in monolingual Chinese, monolingual English and bilingual Chinese-English listeners. Of particular interest is how listeners' spatial organization of vowels is affected either by their L1 or their experience with L2. Thirteen English vowels, /i, I, e, epsilon, ae, u, omega, o, (see symbol), alpha, (see symbol)I, alphaI, alphaomega/, embedded in /hVd/ syllable produced by an Ohio male speaker were presented in pairs to three groups of listeners. Each listener rated 312 vowel pairs on a nine-point dissimilarity scale. The responses from each group were analyzed using a multidimensional scaling program (ALSCAL). Results demonstrated that all three groups of listeners used high/low and front/back distinctions as the two most important dimensions to perceive English vowels. However, the vowels were distributed in clusters in the perceptual space of Chinese monolinguals, while they were appropriately separated and located in that of bilinguals and English monolinguals. Besides the two common perceptual dimensions, each group of listeners utilized a different third dimension to perceive these English vowels. English monolinguals used high-front offset. Bilinguals used a dimension mainly correlated to the distinction of monophthong/diphthong. Chinese monolinguals separated two high vowels, /i/ and /u/, from the rest of vowels in the third dimension. The difference between English monolinguals and Chinese monolinguals evidenced the effect of listeners' native language on the vowel perception. The difference between Chinese monolinguals and bilingual listeners as well as the approximation of bilingual listeners' perceptual space to that of English monolinguals demonstrated the effect of L2 experience on listeners' perception of L2 vowels.
A modified Lorentz theory as a test theory of special relativity
Chang, T.; Torr, D. G.; Gagnon, D. R.
1988-01-01
Attention has been given recently to a modified Lorentz theory (MLT) that is based on the generalized Galilean transformation. Some explicit formulas within the framework of MLT, dealing with the one-way velocity of light, slow-clock transport, and the Doppler effect are derived. A number of typical experiments are analyzed on this basis. Results indicate that the empirical equivalence between MLT and special relativity is still maintained to second order terms. The results of previous works that predict that the MLT might be distinguished from special relativity at the third order by Doppler centrifuge tests capable of a fractional frequency detection threshold of 10 to the -15th are confirmed.
Functional methods underlying classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory
Kryukov, A.
2013-04-01
The paper investigates the physical content of a recently proposed mathematical framework that unifies the standard formalisms of classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory. In the framework states of a classical particle are identified with Dirac delta functions. The classical space is "made" of these functions and becomes a submanifold in a Hilbert space of states of the particle. The resulting embedding of the classical space into the space of states is highly non-trivial and accounts for numerous deep relations between classical and quantum physics and relativity. One of the most striking results is the proof that the normal probability distribution of position of a macroscopic particle (equivalently, position of the corresponding delta state within the classical space submanifold) yields the Born rule for transitions between arbitrary quantum states.
Theories of International Relations and the Explanation of Foreign Aid
PAUSELLI, Gino
2013-06-01
Full Text Available 50 years after the publication of the first and influential article in international relations (IR analyzing foreign aid motivations, A theory of foreign aid, by Hans Morgenthau, IR scholarship has not yet accomplished a consistent theoretical body explaining international development cooperation. Most of the empirical studies on foreign aid have been contributions from other disciplines, especially economics. Research from the field of international relations has been mostly descriptive or poorly connected with IR paradigms.This article proposes to analyze motivations of foreign aid allocations decisions of donors. These motivations will be examined from the theoretical perspective of the international relations scholarship. In this way, it is sought to contribute, from the discipline of IR, to the explanation of the process in which developed countries make transfers of resources to developing countries.
Non-Western International Relations Theory: Myth or Reality?
Marina Mikhailovna Lebedeva
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In recent years, Russian and foreign literature increasingly raises the question on national theories of international relations. A special interest is manifested towards non-Western theories of international relations. The article analyzes the reasons for such interest. It is noted that the main motive for scholars to search for national schools is the transformation of the political organization of the world that emerged in the West and was developing largely on the Western model. This transformation encompasses three levels of political organization of the modern world: the Westphalian system, the system of international (interstate relations and the political systems of a state. Three levels of political organization of the world changing at the same time today reinforce each other and generate synergies. With such a large-scale transformation, when all three levels are “moving”, the world is facing for the first time, although the change of the second and especially the third levels were before. As far as the system of political organization of the world undergoes major changes, IR theories, which appeared in the West, are in crisis. Researchers’ attention to non-Western, primarily Asian TMO to find answers due to the following reasons: 1 the rapid economic growth of the region; 2 the development of scientific research in Asia; 3 the crisis of the Western model of political organization in the world that encourages the search for solutions in other civilizational structures. The article substantiates the necessity and possibility of “project activities” for reforming the political organization of the world and include practices that exist in different regions of the world. In order to implement such activities, the work of specialists from different brunches of social sciences is required.
Mitochondrial theory of aging in human age-related sarcopenia.
Parise, Gianni; De Lisio, Michael
2010-01-01
Understanding age-related sarcopenia and, more importantly, devising counterstrategies require an intimate knowledge of the underlying mechanism(s) of sarcopenia. The mitochondrial theory of aging (MTA) has been a leading theory on aging for the last decade; however, there is relatively little information from human tissue to support or rebut the involvement of the MTA in aging skeletal muscle. It is believed that mitochondria may contribute to sarcopenia in a stochastic fashion where regions of fibers containing dysfunctional mitochondria are forced to atrophy. Resistance exercise, a known hypertrophic stimulus, has been shown to improve the mitochondrial phenotype of aged skeletal muscle. Furthermore, activation of skeletal muscle stem cells by resistance exercise may attenuate sarcopenia in two ways. First by inducing nuclear addition to postmitotic fibers, and, second, by increasing the proportion of functional mitochondria donated by muscle stem cells in a process termed 'gene shifting'. In this chapter we review the evidence supporting the MTA, the potential to attenuate the MTA with a known hypertrophic stimuli and explore the role of muscle stem cells in gene shifting to determine the connection between mitochondrial dysfunction and age-related sarcopenia. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Theory of Nonlocal Point Transformations in General Relativity
Massimo Tessarotto
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A discussion of the functional setting customarily adopted in General Relativity (GR is proposed. This is based on the introduction of the notion of nonlocal point transformations (NLPTs. While allowing the extension of the traditional concept of GR-reference frame, NLPTs are important because they permit the explicit determination of the map between intrinsically different and generally curved space-times expressed in arbitrary coordinate systems. For this purpose in the paper the mathematical foundations of NLPT-theory are laid down and basic physical implications are considered. In particular, explicit applications of the theory are proposed, which concern (1 a solution to the so-called Einstein teleparallel problem in the framework of NLPT-theory; (2 the determination of the tensor transformation laws holding for the acceleration 4-tensor with respect to the group of NLPTs and the identification of NLPT-acceleration effects, namely, the relationship established via general NLPT between particle 4-acceleration tensors existing in different curved space-times; (3 the construction of the nonlocal transformation law connecting different diagonal metric tensors solution to the Einstein field equations; and (4 the diagonalization of nondiagonal metric tensors.
Einstein's pathway to the special theory of relativity
Weinstein, Galina
2015-01-01
This book pieces together the jigsaw puzzle of Einstein's journey to discovering the special theory of relativity. Between 1902 and 1905, Einstein sat in the Patent Office and may have made calculations on old pieces of paper that were once patent drafts. One can imagine Einstein trying to hide from his boss, writing notes on small sheets of paper, and, according to reports, seeing to it that the small sheets of paper on which he was writing would vanish into his desk-drawer as soon as he heard footsteps approaching his door. He probably discarded many pieces of papers and calculations and flu
Cyborg pantocrator: international relations theory from decisionism to rational choice.
Guilhot, Nicolas
2011-01-01
International relations theory took shape in the 1950s in reaction to the behavioral social science movement, emphasizing the limits of rationality in a context of high uncertainty, weak rules, and the possibility of lethal conflict. Yet the same discipline rapidly developed "rational choice" models applied to foreign policy decision making or nuclear strategy. This paper argues that this transformation took place almost seamlessly around the concept of "decision." Initially associated with an antirationalist or "decisionist" approach to politics, the sovereign decision became the epitome of political rationality when it was redescribed as "rational choice," thus easing the cultural acceptance of political realism in the postwar years.
On the Fundamental Theorem of the Theory of Relativity
Mamone-Capria, Marco
2016-12-01
A new formulation of what may be called the "fundamental theorem of the theory of relativity" is presented and proved in (3 + 1)-space-time, based on the full classification of special transformations and the corresponding velocity addition laws. A system of axioms is introduced and discussed leading to the result, and a study is made of several variants of that system. In particular the status of the group axiom is investigated with respect to the condition of the two-way isotropy of light. Several issues which are ignored or misunderstood in the literature are emphasized.
Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity Is Absolutely Wrong
Theofilos, George
2000-11-01
One of the greatest frauds perpetuated on mankind is the Special Theory Relativity. Relativity is like the Leaning Tower of Pisa, which has perfect structure, but the foundation is sitting on a swamp. The basis of relativity is the velocity of light but "c" does not give a true description of light. The missing factor is frequency. There are several characteristics of a photon and two of these are: that it travels at the speed of light in any moving frame and it has a frequency. This paper describes a proof of Einstein's error by applying a frequency to the velocity of light and then deriving a red shift equation, which is exactly the same for low velocities as the standard equation and close to Einstein's erroneous equation for high velocities. There is a 5to.9 the velocity of light. But like I said I believe relativity is wrong and it takes a simple experiment to prove who is correct. The modified equation of light is then applied to the basis of special relativity, showing where relativity is absolutely wrong.
General Theory of Relativity: Will It Survive the Next Decade?
Bertolami, Orfeu; Paramos, Jorge; Turyshev, Slava G.
2006-01-01
The nature of gravity is fundamental to our understanding of our own solar system, the galaxy and the structure and evolution of the Universe. Einstein's general theory of relativity is the standard model that is used for almost ninety years to describe gravitational phenomena on these various scales. We review the foundations of general relativity, discuss the recent progress in the tests of relativistic gravity, and present motivations for high-accuracy gravitational experiments in space. We also summarize the science objectives and technology needs for the laboratory experiments in space with laboratory being the entire solar system. We discuss the advances in our understanding of fundamental physics anticipated in the near future and evaluate discovery potential for the recently proposed gravitational experiments.
On the relation between hybrid and pure spinor string theory
Gerigk, Sebastian [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kirsch, Ingo [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2009-12-15
In this paper we revisit Berkovits' pure spinor formalism in lower dimensions. We are particularly interested in relating a six-dimensional pure spinor action previously constructed in the literature to other superstring formalisms. In order to gain some insight into six-dimensional pure spinors, we first derive their action by gauge-fixing the classical six-dimensional Green-Schwarz action. We then consider a hybrid pure spinor construction in which the spacetime symmetries of six of the ten dimensions are described in pure spinor variables, while the remaining four dimensions are parameterized in terms of RNS variables. We relate this pure spinor formalism to the Berkovits-Vafa-Witten hybrid formalism of string theory on R{sup 6} x T{sup 4}. (orig.)
Toward reconstruction of relative state formulation of quantum theory
Kurita, Y
2004-01-01
In quantum theory, it is widely accepted that all experimental results must agree with theoretical predictions based on the Copenhagen interpretation. However the classical system in the Copenhagen interpretation has not been defined yet. On the other hand, although ongoing research of decoherence is trying to elucidate the emergence of the classical world, it cannot answer why we observe one of eigenstates in observed system. These situations show that the relation between what we observe and physical law has not been elucidated. Here I elucidate the relation by developing Everett's suggestion. Further, from this point of view, I point out that today's brain science falls into circular argument because it is trying to assign what we observe in the brain to process of the subjective perception, and I suggest the future research line in brain science.
[Relational frame theory - a theoretical framework for contextual behavioral science].
Kensche, M; Schweiger, U
2015-05-01
Therapists have to deal with verbal systems and often work with verbal exchange. Therefore, a psychological theory is required, which teaches the therapist how to accomplish this task. The BRT is a theory of human language and cognition that explains how people use their verbal behavior as stimuli in their interrelations and how they act and react, based on the resulting relationships. This behavior is learned very early in the course of language acquisition and functions as a generalized operant. A prerequisite for this is the ability of people to undergo mental simulation. This enables them to construct diverse relational frameworks between individual stimuli. Without relational frameworks, people cannot function. The ability to establish a relational framework is a prerequisite for the formation of rule-governed behavior. Rule-governed behavior economizes complex decision processes, creates interpersonal security and enables dealing with events before they take place. On the other hand, the same properties that enable people to solve problems effectively can also contribute to rigid adherence to rules and experience avoidance. Relational frameworks, once established, outweigh other sources of behavioral regulation. Thus, it can become the basis of psychopathology. Poor contextual control makes it difficult for people to devote flexible, focused and voluntary attention to the present and align their actions with the immediate present. Contextual psychotherapy methods that are based on the BRT start precisely at this point: Targeted establishment of new contingencies in the therapeutic interaction through systematic strengthening of metacognitive mode and through the establishment of new rules that make possible a change in the rule-governed behavior enable undermining of dysfunctional rule-governed behavior and build up desirable behavior. This allows any therapeutic process to be more effective - regardless of the patient's expressed symptoms.
RELATIONAL THEORY APPLICATION FOR OPTIMAL DESIGN OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
D. V. Demidov
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with a method of relational theory adaptation for integrated circuits CAD systems. A new algorithm is worked out for optimal search of implicit Don’t Care values for combinational multiple-level digital circuits. The algorithm is described in terms of the adapted relational theory that gives the possibility for a very simple algorithm description for both intuitive understanding and formal analysis. The proposed method makes it possible to apply progressive experience of relational databases in efficient implementation of relational algebra operations (including distributed ones. Comparative analysis of the proposed algorithm and a classic one for optimal search of implicit Don’t Cares is carried out. The analysis has proved formal correctness of the proposed algorithm and its considerably less worst-case complexity. The search of implicit Don’t Care values in the integrated circuits design makes it easier to optimize such characteristics of IC as chip area, power, verifiability and reliability. However, the classic algorithm for optimal search of implicit Don’t Care values is not used in practice due to its very high computational complexity. Application of algorithms for sub-optimal search doesn’t give the possibility to realize the potential of IC optimization to the full. Implementation of the proposed algorithm in IC CAD (a.k.a., EDA systems is adequate due to much lower computational complexity, and potentially makes it possible to improve the quality-development time ratio of IC (chip area, power, verifiability and reliability. Developed method gives the possibility for creation of distributed EDA system with higher computational power and, consequently, for design automation of more complex IC.
The Politics of Confusion in International Relations Theory.
Watson, Bradely C. S.
1996-01-01
Critiques Kenneth N. Waltz's "Theory of International Politics," a seminal work of political theory. Waltz argues for the necessity of constructing a system or theory for explaining the actions of nation-states. Watson counters that emphasis on a constructed theory often obscures a realistic examination of events. (MJP)
Hendriks, A.; Janssen, G.T.L.; Kaarsemaker, M.; Mey, H.R.A. De
2013-01-01
Objective: One of the abilities involved in social cognition is perspective taking. According to Relational Frame Theory (RFT), perspective taking skills are based on the derivation of relations of perspective, and are learned and practiced in social interactions. Pronounced deficits in the
Schermer, V L
2000-04-01
Object relations theory and self psychology are psychoanalytic perspectives that are especially concerned with interpersonal relations and their mental representations. Object relations theory began as an intrapsychic "singleton" psychology with the work of Freud and Melanie Klein. It subsequently evolved into a multi-person psychology with the work of Bion on groups, as well as the clinical and theoretical contributions of Winnicott and Fairbairn. Kohutian self psychology, which emerged later, has been interested in the relations between the self and significant others as mirroring and idealizing "self-objects." Stolorow's "inter-subjective perspective" emerged from self psychology as a full-fledged multi-person point of view. This article considers the significance of contemporary object relations theory and self psychology as relational, multi-person perspectives in terms of their application to group psychotherapy, focusing upon the group-as-a-whole, projective identification, transitional space and object, and self/self-object relations as particularly useful constructs. A clinical vignette is provided.
Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica
2012-01-01
Previous studies have indicated that bilingualism may influence the efficiency of lexical access in adults. The goals of this research were (1) to compare bilingual and monolingual adults on their native-language vocabulary performance, and (2) to examine the relationship between short-term memory skills and vocabulary performance in monolinguals and bilinguals. In Experiment 1, English-speaking monolingual adults and simultaneous English–Spanish bilingual adults were administered measures of receptive English vocabulary and of phonological short-term memory. In Experiment 2, monolingual adults were compared to sequential English–Spanish bilinguals, and were administered the same measures as in Experiment 1, as well as a measure of expressive English vocabulary. Analyses revealed comparable levels of performance on the vocabulary and the short-term memory measures in the monolingual and the bilingual groups across both experiments. There was a stronger effect of digit-span in the bilingual group than in the monolingual group, with high-span bilinguals outperforming low-span bilinguals on vocabulary measures. Findings indicate that bilingual speakers may rely on short-term memory resources to support word retrieval in their native language more than monolingual speakers. PMID:22518091
Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Burridge, Andrea; Ribot, Krystal M; Welsh, Stephanie N
2014-10-01
The early course of language development among children from bilingual homes varies in ways that are not well described and as a result of influences that are not well understood. Here, we describe trajectories of relative change in expressive vocabulary from 22 to 48 months and vocabulary achievement at 48 months in two groups of children from bilingual homes (children with one and children with two native Spanish-speaking parents [ns = 15 and 11]) and in an SES-equivalent group of children from monolingual English homes (n = 31). The two groups from bilingual homes differed in their mean levels of English and Spanish skills, in their developmental trajectories during this period, and in the relation between language use at home and their vocabulary development. Children with two native Spanish-speaking parents showed steepest gains in total vocabulary and were more nearly balanced bilinguals at 48 months. Children with one native Spanish- and one native English-speaking parent showed trajectories of relative decline in Spanish vocabulary. At 48 months, mean levels of English skill among the bilingual children were comparable to monolingual norms, but children with two native Spanish-speaking parents had lower English scores than the SES-equivalent monolingual group. Use of English at home was a significant positive predictor of English vocabulary scores only among children with a native English-speaking parent. These findings argue that efforts to optimize school readiness among children from immigrant families should facilitate their access to native speakers of the community language, and efforts to support heritage language maintenance should include encouraging heritage language use by native speakers in the home.
Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Burridge, Andrea; Ribot, Krystal M.; Welsh, Stephanie N.
2014-01-01
The early course of language development among children from bilingual homes varies in ways that are not well described and as a result of influences that are not well understood. Here, we describe trajectories of relative change in expressive vocabulary from 22 to 48 months and vocabulary achievement at 48 months in two groups of children from bilingual homes (children with one and children with two native Spanish-speaking parents [ns = 15 and 11]) and in an SES-equivalent group of children from monolingual English homes (n = 31). The two groups from bilingual homes differed in their mean levels of English and Spanish skills, in their developmental trajectories during this period, and in the relation between language use at home and their vocabulary development. Children with two native Spanish-speaking parents showed steepest gains in total vocabulary and were more nearly balanced bilinguals at 48 months. Children with one native Spanish- and one native English-speaking parent showed trajectories of relative decline in Spanish vocabulary. At 48 months, mean levels of English skill among the bilingual children were comparable to monolingual norms, but children with two native Spanish-speaking parents had lower English scores than the SES-equivalent monolingual group. Use of English at home was a significant positive predictor of English vocabulary scores only among children with a native English-speaking parent. These findings argue that efforts to optimize school readiness among children from immigrant families should facilitate their access to native speakers of the community language, and efforts to support heritage language maintenance should include encouraging heritage language use by native speakers in the home. PMID:25089074
General Relativity as a SO(3) Gauge-Theory
Mattes, M
2003-01-01
The Einsteinian Theory of Gravitation ("General Theory of Relativity") is founded essentially; on the reception that the geometrical properties of the 4-dimensional space-time continuum are defined from the matter in it. Contrary to this, in the Newtonian Mechanics space and time obey a absolute, matter-independent meaning. This thesis offers a compromise between the two conceptions: The spontaneous splitting of space-time in a "universal time" and a "absolute space" in the sense of Newton is accepted, but this (1+3)-splitting will receive the status of a dynamical object in the sense of Einstein. Herein, the (large scale) dynamics of the (1+3) splitting is coupled only weakly to the (local) fluctuation of the matter density with the help of the Einsteinian equations, so that these will keep their validity, regarding the gravitational phenomena, in a bounded domain of space (planets, stars, galaxies). However, at a cosmic scale, the properties of the universe as whole will be determined essentially from the s...
The flow of time in the theory of relativity
Valente, Mario Bacelar
2013-01-01
Dennis Dieks advanced the view that the idea of flow of time is implemented in the theory of relativity. The 'flow' results from the successive happening/becoming of events along the time-like worldline of a material system. This leads to a view of now as local to each worldline. Each past event of the worldline has occurred once as a nowpoint, and we take there to be an ever-changing present now-point 'marking' the unfolding of a physical system. In Dieks' approach there is no preferred worldline and only along each worldline is there a Newtonian-like linear order between successive now-points. We have a flow of time per worldline. Also there is no global temporal order of the now-points of different worldlines. There is, as much, what Dieks calls a partial order. However Dieks needs for a consistency reason to impose a limitation on the assignment of the now-points along different worldlines. In this work it is made the claim that Dieks' consistency requirement is, in fact, inbuilt in the theory as a spatia...
Use of Monolingual and Bilingual Dictionaries among Students of English
Monika Kavalir
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The study of dictionary use in 32 firstyear students of English at the University of Ljubljana in the academic year 2009/2010 shows that students use a variety of dictionaries with a slight preponderance of monolingual dictionaries over bilingual ones. The bilingual dictionaries listed do not include some of the most recent and most comprehensive dictionaries while some of the most frequently used resources are quite modest sized. The students are already predominantly users of electronic and online dictionaries with a lower frequency of printed resources – a trend which is only likely to accelerate with the advent of new bilingual online dictionaries. These results have practical relevance for teachers in all sectors, from primary and secondary schools to universities, as they point towards a need for additional training in the use of bilingual dictionaries. The transition from printed to electronic and online resources can also be expected to induce changes in EFL methodology at all levels.
A linear auroral current-voltage relation in fluid theory
J. Vedin
2004-04-01
Full Text Available Progress in our understanding of auroral currents and auroral electron acceleration has for decades been hampered by an apparent incompatibility between kinetic and fluid models of the physics involved. A well established kinetic model predicts that steady upward field-aligned currents should be linearly related to the potential drop along the field line, but collisionless fluid models that reproduce this linear current-voltage relation have not been found. Using temperatures calculated from the kinetic model in the presence of an upward auroral current, we construct here approximants for the parallel and perpendicular temperatures. Although our model is rather simplified, we find that the fluid equations predict a realistic large-scale parallel electric field and a linear current-voltage relation when these approximants are employed as nonlocal equations of state. This suggests that the concepts we introduce can be applied to the development of accurate equations of state for fluid simulations of auroral flux tubes.
Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions – Space plasma physics (kinetic and MHD theory
Kristen Syrett
2017-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we extend investigations of the possible effects of cross-linguistic influence at the pragmatics-syntax interface (Hulk & Müller 2000; Müller & Hulk 2001; Serratrice, Sorace & Paoli 2004, by presenting two experiments designed to probe how Spanish monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual preschool-age children approach the ‘some, but not all’ 'scalar implicature '(SI associated with 'algunos '(‘some’. We compare 'algunos 'and 'unos '(also a ‘some’ indefinite, but one that is not context-linked and does not induce an SI, and 'algunos 'and 'todos '(the universal quantifier ‘every/all’. The performance of the children is compared to fluent adult Spanish heritage speakers. Experiment 1 is a variation of Noveck’s (2001 statement evaluation task, also replicated by Guasti et al'. '(2005. Experiment 2 is a forced-choice picture selection task. Results demonstrate that adults were the only group to consistently calculate the SI associated with 'algunos '– a finding that was expected to some extent, given that our tasks were stripped of the contextual support that could benefit children’s pragmatic reasoning. While bilingual and monolingual children displayed comparable performance across tasks, bilinguals in Experiment 2 appeared to experience difficulty with judgments related to 'todos '– a pattern we attribute (in light of independent findings to the cognitive overload in the task, not the lexical entry of this quantifier. We conclude that young monolingual and bilingual children confront the same challenges when called upon to deploy pragmatic skills in a discourse context. This article is part of the special collection:Acquisition of Quantification
Kober, Martin
2010-07-01
The specific content of the present thesis is presented in the following way. First the most important contents of quantum theory and general relativity theory are presented. In connection with the general relativity theory the mathematical property of the diffeomorphism invariance plays the deciding role, while concerning the quantum theory starting from the Copenhagen interpretation first the measurement problem is treated, before basing on the analysis of concrete phenomena and the mathematical apparatus of quantum theory the nonlocality is brought into focus as an important property. This means that both theories suggest a relationalistic view of the nature of the space. This analysis of the theoretical foundations of quantum theory and general relativity theory in relation to the nature of the space obtains only under inclusion of Kant's philosophy and his analysis of the terms space and time as fundamental forms of perception its full persuasive power. Then von Weizsaeckers quantum theory of the ur-alternatives is presented. Finally attempts are made to apply the obtained knowledge to the question of the quantum-theoretical formulation of general relativity theory.
Kheirzadeh, Shiela; Hajiabed, Mohammadreza
2016-02-01
The present interdisciplinary research investigates the differential emotional expression between Persian monolinguals and Persian-English bilinguals. In other words, the article was an attempt to answer the questions whether bilinguals and monolinguals differ in the expression of positive and negative emotions elicited through sad and happy autobiographies and measured through UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist. The result of this pioneering work indicated no significant difference between Persian monolinguals and Persian-English bilinguals in expressing happy memories while differences were observed on sad memories. Bilinguals expressed more negative emotions in their L2 than L1. This outcome support the dominant claim that second language is the preferred language for the expression of sad emotions since it is the language of emotional detachment and distance. Further analysis on the number of words bilinguals and monolinguals used to express both sad and happy autobiographies indicated that bilinguals used more words in expressing both sad and happy autobiographies.
Executive Function Differences Between Bilingual Arabic-English and Monolingual Arabic Children.
Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub
2015-10-01
This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than monolinguals, while others showed that monolinguals perform significantly better. Other studies showed no significant differences between both groups, findings which were argued to be due to methodological issues. A total of 50 Arabic monolingual and Arabic-English bilingual children ranging 7-10 years of age participated in the current study. Six executive function tasks, divided into two categories (inhibition of improper response tasks, and behavioral operational control tasks), were administered. Results did not show significant differences for most executive functions.
Julia Eka Rini
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This study tries to see whether the subjects’ “monolingualism” and “bilingualism” (monolinguals learning an L2 and bilinguals learning an L3 influence their study on English, especially writing. The term “bilinguals” also means “multilinguals” in this study. Bilinguals in this paper are classified into two; first, passive bilinguals who are only exposed to another local language, besides speaking Bahasa Indonesia at home, and second, active bilinguals who are exposed to and also speak other language(s and Bahasa Indonesia at home. The findings show that the monolingual and the active bilingual are better than the passive one; the active bilingual is better than the monolingual. However, if the passive and the active bilingual are combined, the monolingual is better than the bilinguals.
Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia
2009-01-01
Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer intrusions from previous lists even though they recalled the same number of words. For the adults, bilinguals recalled more words than monolinguals when the scores were corrected for differences in vocabulary. In addition, there was a strong effect of vocabulary in which higher vocabulary participants recalled more words irrespective of language group. These results point to the important role of vocabulary in verbal performance and memory. They also suggest that bilinguals may compensate for weaker language proficiency with their greater executive control to achieve the same or better levels of performance as monolinguals.
Jones, Gareth J.F.; Burke, Michael; Judge, John; Khasin, Anna; Lam-Adesina, Adenike M.; Wagner, Joachim
2005-01-01
The Dublin City University group participated in the monolingual, bilingual and multilingual retrieval tasks this year. The main focus of our investigation this year was extending our retrieval system to document languages other than English, and completing the multilingual task comprising four languages: English, French, Russian and Finnish. Results from our French monolingual experiments indicate that working in French is more eﬀective for retrieval than adopting document and topic translat...
Lam-Adesina, Adenike M.; Jones, Gareth J.F.
2004-01-01
The University of Exeter group participated in the monolingual, bilingual and multilingual-4 retrieval tasks this year. The main focus of our investigation this year was the small multilingual task comprising four languages, French, German, Spanish and English. We adopted a document translation strategy and tested four merging techniques to combine results from the separate document collections, as well as a merged collection strategy. For both the monolingual and bilingual tasks we explored ...
Momentum relation and classical limit in the future-not-included complex action theory
Nagao, Keiichi
2013-01-01
Studying the time development of the expectation value in the future-not-included complex action theory we point out that the momentum relation (relation analogous to $p=\\frac{\\partial L}{\\partial \\dot{q}}$), which was derived via Feynman path integral and was shown to be right in the future-included theory in our previous papers, is not valid in the future-not-included theory. We provide the correct momentum relation in the future-not-included theory, and argue that the future-not-included classical theory is described by a certain real action. In addition we provide another way to understand the time development of the future-not-included theory by utilizing the future-included theory. Furthermore, applying the method used in our previous paper to the future-not-included theory properly by introducing a formal Lagrangian, we derive the correct momentum relation in the future-not-included theory.
Momentum relation and classical limit in the future-not-included complex action theory
Nagao, Keiichi; Nielsen, Holger Bech
2013-07-01
Studying the time development of the expectation value in the future-not-included complex action theory, we point out that the momentum relation (the relation analogous to p=frac {partial L}{partial dot {q}}), which was derived via the Feynman path integral and was shown to be correct in the future-included theory in our previous papers, is not valid in the future-not-included theory. We provide the correct momentum relation in the future-not-included theory, and argue that the future-not-included classical theory is described by a certain real action. In addition, we provide another way to understand the time development of the future-not-included theory by utilizing the future-included theory. Furthermore, properly applying the method used in our previous paper to the future-not-included theory by introducing a formal Lagrangian, we derive the correct momentum relation in the future-not-included theory.
On the relation between gene flow theory and genetic gain
Woolliams John A
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract In conventional gene flow theory the rate of genetic gain is calculated as the summed products of genetic selection differential and asymptotic proportion of genes deriving from sex-age groups. Recent studies have shown that asymptotic proportions of genes predicted from conventional gene flow theory may deviate considerably from true proportions. However, the rate of genetic gain predicted from conventional gene flow theory was accurate. The current note shows that the connection between asymptotic proportions of genes and rate of genetic gain that is embodied in conventional gene flow theory is invalid, even though genetic gain may be predicted correctly from it.
Age of dementia diagnosis in community dwelling bilingual and monolingual Hispanic Americans.
Lawton, Deborah M; Gasquoine, Philip G; Weimer, Amy A
2015-05-01
Bilingualism has been reported to delay the age of retrospective report of first symptom in dementia. This study determined if the age of clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia occurred later for bilingual than monolingual, immigrant and U.S. born, Hispanic Americans. It involved a secondary analysis of the subset of 81 bi/monolingual dementia cases identified at yearly follow-up (1998 through 2008) using neuropsychological test results and objective diagnostic criteria from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging that involved a random sampling of community dwelling Hispanic Americans (N = 1789). Age of dementia diagnosis was analyzed in a 2 × 2 (bi/monolingualism × immigrant/U.S. born) ANOVA that space revealed both main effects and the interaction were non-significant. Mean age of dementia diagnosis was descriptively (but not significantly) higher in the monolingual (M = 81.10 years) than the bilingual (M = 79.31) group. Overall, bilingual dementia cases were significantly better educated than monolinguals, but U.S. born bilinguals and monolinguals did not differ significantly in education. Delays in dementia symptomatology pertaining to bilingualism are less likely to be found in studies: (a) that use age of clinical diagnosis vs. retrospective report of first dementia symptom as the dependent variable; and (b) involve clinical cases derived from community samples rather than referrals to specialist memory clinics.
A Stationary Universe and the Basics of Relativity Theory
Ostermann, P
2002-01-01
Spectral rods and atomic clocks do not indicate true cosmic space and true cosmic time. Independent of any theory of gravitation the ephemeris time is understood to be that scale on which the motion of a single ideal planet would show constant periods from periastron to periastron in the field of an ideal star. Not only atomic clocks but also planetary clocks are natural ones. Though, they don't show the same time. There is a preferred Euclidean cosmic reference frame in which the galaxies statistically are at rest. The equivalence principle is valid in local gravitational fields as well as Galilei's law of inertia at great distance from sources, where the speed of light is constant. A stationary cosmic line element of general relativity seems to be in harmony with essential observational facts, though only as far as one can expect solving the nonlinear Einstein equations neglecting all spatial inhomogeneities. A negative cosmic gravitational pressure results of one third of the critical energy density. The c...
The role of time in relational quantum theories
Gryb, S.; Thebault, K.
2011-01-01
We propose a solution to the problem of time for systems with a single global Hamiltonian constraint. Our solution stems from the observation that, for these theories, conventional gauge theory methods fail to capture the classical dynamics of the full system. We propose a new strategy for
Moral Judgment and Its Relation to Second-Order Theory of Mind
Fu, Genyue; Xiao, Wen S.; Killen, Melanie; Lee, Kang
2014-01-01
Recent research indicates that moral judgment and 1st-order theory of mind abilities are related. What is not known, however, is how 2nd-order theory of mind is related to moral judgment. In the present study, we extended previous findings by administering a morally relevant theory of mind task (an accidental transgressor) to 4- to 7-year-old…
Moral Judgment and Its Relation to Second-Order Theory of Mind
Fu, Genyue; Xiao, Wen S.; Killen, Melanie; Lee, Kang
2014-01-01
Recent research indicates that moral judgment and 1st-order theory of mind abilities are related. What is not known, however, is how 2nd-order theory of mind is related to moral judgment. In the present study, we extended previous findings by administering a morally relevant theory of mind task (an accidental transgressor) to 4- to 7-year-old…
Perturbative Quantum Gravity and its Relation to Gauge Theory
Bern Zvi
2002-01-01
Full Text Available In this review we describe a non-trivial relationship between perturbative gauge theory and gravity scattering amplitudes. At the semi-classical or tree-level, the scattering amplitudes of gravity theories in flat space can be expressed as a sum of products of well defined pieces of gauge theory amplitudes. These relationships were first discovered by Kawai, Lewellen, and Tye in the context of string theory, but hold more generally. In particular, they hold for standard Einstein gravity. A method based on $D$-dimensional unitarity can then be used to systematically construct all quantum loop corrections order-by-order in perturbation theory using as input thegravity tree amplitudes expressed in terms of gauge theory ones. More generally, the unitarity method provides a means for perturbatively quantizing massless gravity theories without the usual formal apparatus associated with the quantization of constrained systems. As one application, this method was used to demonstrate that maximally supersymmetric gravity is less divergent in the ultraviolet than previously thought.
Extended Nambu models: Their relation to gauge theories
Escobar, C. A.; Urrutia, L. F.
2017-05-01
Yang-Mills theories supplemented by an additional coordinate constraint, which is solved and substituted in the original Lagrangian, provide examples of the so-called Nambu models, in the case where such constraints arise from spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking. Some explicit calculations have shown that, after additional conditions are imposed, Nambu models are capable of reproducing the original gauge theories, thus making Lorentz violation unobservable and allowing the interpretation of the corresponding massless gauge bosons as the Goldstone bosons arising from the spontaneous symmetry breaking. A natural question posed by this approach in the realm of gauge theories is to determine under which conditions the recovery of an arbitrary gauge theory from the corresponding Nambu model, defined by a general constraint over the coordinates, becomes possible. We refer to these theories as extended Nambu models (ENM) and emphasize the fact that the defining coordinate constraint is not treated as a standard gauge fixing term. At this level, the mechanism for generating the constraint is irrelevant and the case of spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking is taken only as a motivation, which naturally bring this problem under consideration. Using a nonperturbative Hamiltonian analysis we prove that the ENM yields the original gauge theory after we demand current conservation for all time, together with the imposition of the Gauss laws constraints as initial conditions upon the dynamics of the ENM. The Nambu models yielding electrodynamics, Yang-Mills theories and linearized gravity are particular examples of our general approach.
Vispoel, Walter P; Morris, Carrie A; Kilinc, Murat
2017-01-23
Although widely recognized as a comprehensive framework for representing score reliability, generalizability theory (G-theory), despite its potential benefits, has been used sparingly in reporting of results for measures of individual differences. In this article, we highlight many valuable ways that G-theory can be used to quantify, evaluate, and improve psychometric properties of scores. Our illustrations encompass assessment of overall reliability, percentages of score variation accounted for by individual sources of measurement error, dependability of cut-scores for decision making, estimation of reliability and dependability for changes made to measurement procedures, disattenuation of validity coefficients for measurement error, and linkages of G-theory with classical test theory and structural equation modeling. We also identify computer packages for performing G-theory analyses, most of which can be obtained free of charge, and describe how they compare with regard to data input requirements, ease of use, complexity of designs supported, and output produced. (PsycINFO Database Record
Reply to the "Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity
Borissova L.
2008-04-01
Full Text Available This paper answers twelve most common questions on the basics of Einstein's theory of relativity. The answers remove most key problems with a real, solid understanding of the theory.
A Panorama of Modern Operator Theory and Related Topics
Dym, Harry; Lancaster, Peter
2012-01-01
This book is dedicated to the memory of Israel Gohberg (1928-2009) - one of the great mathematicians of our time - who inspired innumerable fellow mathematicians and directed many students. The volume reflects the wide spectrum of Gohberg's mathematical interests. It consists of more than 25 invited and peer-reviewed original research papers written by his former students, co-authors and friends. Included are contributions to single and multivariable operator theory, commutative and non-commutative Banach algebra theory, the theory of matrix polynomials and analytic vector-valued functions, se
Citation relations of theories of human information behaviour
Hamid R. Jamali
2013-01-01
Interrelation of models and theories of human information behaviour (HIB), their common roots, and the extent to which they are indebted to the fields other than library and information science (LIS) were investigated...
Citation relations of theories of human information behaviour
Hamid R Jamali
2013-01-01
Interrelation of models and theories of human information behaviour (HIB), their common roots, and the extent to which they are indebted to the fields other than library and information science (LIS) were investigated...
Dynamical Cobordisms in General Relativity and String Theory
Hellerman, Simeon
2010-01-01
We describe a class of time-dependent solutions in string- or M-theory that are exact with respect to alpha-prime and curvature corrections and interpolate in physical space between regions in which the low energy physics is well-approximated by different string theories and string compactifications. The regions are connected by expanding "domain walls" but are not separated by causal horizons, and physical excitations can propagate between them. As specific examples we construct solutions that interpolate between oriented and unoriented string theories, and also between type II and heterotic theories. Our solutions can be weakly curved and under perturbative control everywhere and can asymptote to supersymmetric at late times.
The curious history of relativity how Einstein's theory of gravity was lost and found again
Eisenstaedt, Jean
2006-01-01
Black holes may obliterate most things that come near them, but they saved the theory of general relativity. Einstein's theory was quickly accepted as the true theory of gravity after its publication in 1915, but soon took a back seat in physics to quantum mechanics and languished for decades on the blackboards of mathematicians. Not until the existence of black holes by Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose in the 1960s, after Einstein's death, was the theory revived. Almost one hundred years after general relativity replaced Newton's theory of gravitation, The Curious History of Relativity tells the story of both events surrounding general relativity and the techniques employed by Einstein and the relativists to construct, develop, and understand his almost impenetrable theory. Jean Eisenstaedt, one of the world's leading experts on the subject, also discusses the theory's place in the evolution of twentieth-century physics. He describes the main stages in the development of general relativity: its beginnings,...
Charting Relations between Intersectionality Theory and the Neurodiversity Paradigm
Lauren Rose Strand
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This essay explores central elements and applications of intersectionality theory and the neurodiversity paradigm. First, the histories and tenets of intersectionality theory and neurodiversity paradigm are provided. Then, areas are explored where each of the two approaches might further engage with the principles of the other. Finally, the essay concludes by broadly considering the efforts made by the Black Lives Matter movement and the Autistic Self Advocacy Network to bring attention to and end police violence as both networks employ and attend to elements of intersectionality and neurodiversity. The way these two networks draw on both intersectionality and neurodiversity to further their mission could be a possible site for scholars to consider in the interest of advancing dialogues between intersectionality theory and the neurodiversity paradigm. Ultimately, the essay calls for a continued exploration of the potentials for intersectionality and neurodiversity to complement and complicate one another, both in terms of theoretical development and coalition building.
International Conference on Ergodic Theory and Related Topics
Richter, Karin; Warstat, Volker
1992-01-01
The purpose of the conference was to represent recent developments in measure theoretic, differentiable and topological dynamical systems as well as connections to probability theory, stochastic processes, operator theory and statistical physics. Only original research papers that do not appear elsewhere are included in the proceedings. Their topics include: C(2)-diffeomorphisms of compact Riemann manifolds, geodesic flows, chaotic behaviour in billards, nonlinear ergodic theory, central limit theorems for subadditive processes, Hausdorff measures for parabolic rational maps, Markov operators, periods of cycles, Julia sets, ergodic theorems. From the Contents: L.A. Bunimovich: On absolutely focusing mirrors.- M. Denker, M. Urbanski: The dichotomy of Hausdorff measures and equilibrium states for parabolic rational maps.- F. Ledrappier: Ergodic properties of the stable foliations.- U. Wacker: Invariance principles and central limit theorems for nonadditive stationary processes.- J. Schmeling, R. Siegmund-Schult...
A closure relation to molecular theory of solvation for macromolecules
Kobryn, Alexander E.; Gusarov, Sergey; Kovalenko, Andriy
2016-10-01
We propose a closure to the integral equations of molecular theory of solvation, particularly suitable for polar and charged macromolecules in electrolyte solution. This includes such systems as oligomeric polyelectrolytes at a finite concentration in aqueous and various non-aqueous solutions, as well as drug-like compounds in solution. The new closure by Kobryn, Gusarov, and Kovalenko (KGK closure) imposes the mean spherical approximation (MSA) almost everywhere in the solvation shell but levels out the density distribution function to zero (with the continuity at joint boundaries) inside the repulsive core and in the spatial regions of strong density depletion emerging due to molecular associative interactions. Similarly to MSA, the KGK closure reduces the problem to a linear equation for the direct correlation function which is predefined analytically on most of the solvation shells and has to be determined numerically on a relatively small (three-dimensional) domain of strong depletion, typically within the repulsive core. The KGK closure leads to the solvation free energy in the form of the Gaussian fluctuation (GF) functional. We first test the performance of the KGK closure coupled to the reference interaction site model (RISM) integral equations on the examples of Lennard-Jones liquids, polar and nonpolar molecular solvents, including water, and aqueous solutions of simple ions. The solvation structure, solvation chemical potential, and compressibility obtained from RISM with the KGK closure favorably compare to the results of the hypernetted chain (HNC) and Kovalenko-Hirata (KH) closures, including their combination with the GF solvation free energy. We then use the KGK closure coupled to RISM to obtain the solvation structure and thermodynamics of oligomeric polyelectrolytes and drug-like compounds at a finite concentration in electrolyte solution, for which no convergence is obtained with other closures. For comparison, we calculate their solvation
Unification of General Relativity with Quantum Field Theory
NI Jun
2011-01-01
In the frame of quantum field theory, instead of using the action principle, we deduce the Einstein equation from purely the general covariant principle and the homogeneity of spacetime. The Einstein equation is shown to be the gauge equation to guarantee the local symmetry of spacetime translation. Gravity is an apparent force due to the curvature of spacetime resulted from the conservation of energy-momentum. In the action of quantum field theory, only electroweak-strong interactions should be considered with the curved spacetime metric determined by the Einstein equation.%In the frame of quantum field theory,instead of using the action principle,we deduce the Einstein equation trom purely the general covariant principle and the homogeneity of spacetime.The Einstein equation is shown to be the gauge equation to guarantee the local symmetry of spacetime translation.Gravity is an apparent force due to the curvature of spacetime resulted from the conservation of energy-momentum.In the action of quantum field theory,only electroweak-strong interactions should be considered with the curved spacetime metric determined by the Einstein equation.An unified physical theory of all interactions is a long pursued goal for physicists.The unification of electricity and magnetism by Maxwell was a great step in this direction.It is believed that in nature,there are four types of fundamental interactions:the electromagnetic interaction,weak interaction,strong interaction and gravity.Now the electromagnetic,weak and strong interactions are unified using the so-called standard model,[1] based on the Yang-Mills gauge field theory.[2] However,researchers are still not be able to unify gravitation with the other three interactions.
Methods of qualitative theory of differential equations and related topics
Lerman, L; Shilnikov, L
2000-01-01
Dedicated to the memory of Professor E. A. Leontovich-Andronova, this book was composed by former students and colleagues who wished to mark her contributions to the theory of dynamical systems. A detailed introduction by Leontovich-Andronova's close colleague, L. Shilnikov, presents biographical data and describes her main contribution to the theory of bifurcations and dynamical systems. The main part of the volume is composed of research papers presenting the interests of Leontovich-Andronova, her students and her colleagues. Included are articles on traveling waves in coupled circle maps, b
Relating Berkovits and $A_\\infty$ Superstring Field Theories; Small Hilbert Space Perspective
Erler, Theodore
2015-01-01
In a previous paper it was shown that the recently constructed action for open superstring field theory based on $A_\\infty$ algebras can be re-written in Wess-Zumino-Witten-like form, thus establishing its relation to Berkovits' open superstring field theory. In this paper we explain the relation between these two theories from a different perspective which emphasizes the small Hilbert space, and in particular the relation between the $A_\\infty$ structures on both sides.
Omwami, Edith Mukudi
2012-01-01
This paper proposes relative change theory as an alternative to the common theories used in examining education sector development in the developing regions of the world. The theory specifically seeks to explain the persisting limited impact of development aid efforts. It departs from the Marxist informed dependency and world-systems approach in…
Special Theory of Relativity in South Korean High School Textbooks and New Teaching Guidelines
Gim, Jinyeong
2016-01-01
South Korean high school students are being taught Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity. In this article, I examine the portrayal of this theory in South Korean high school physics textbooks and discuss an alternative method used to solve the analyzed problems. This examination of how these South Korean textbooks present this theory has…
Special Theory of Relativity in South Korean High School Textbooks and New Teaching Guidelines
Gim, Jinyeong
2016-01-01
South Korean high school students are being taught Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity. In this article, I examine the portrayal of this theory in South Korean high school physics textbooks and discuss an alternative method used to solve the analyzed problems. This examination of how these South Korean textbooks present this theory has…
PENG Huan-Wu
2005-01-01
Taking Dirac's large number hypothesis as true, we have shown [Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004) 703] the inconsistency of applying Einstein's theory of general relativity with fixed gravitation constant G to cosmology, and a modified theory for varying G is found, which reduces to Einstein's theory outside the gravitating body for phenomena of short duration in small distances, thereby agrees with all the crucial tests formerly supporting Einstein's theory. The modified theory, when applied to the usual homogeneous cosmological model, gives rise to a variable cosmological tensor term determined by the derivatives of G, in place of the cosmological constant term usually introduced ad hoc. Without any free parameter the theoretical Hubble's relation obtained from the modified theory seems not in contradiction to observations, as Dr. Wang's preliminary analysis of the recent data indicates [Commun.Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004) 703]. As a complement to Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004)703 we shall study in this paper the modification of electromagnetism due to Dirac's large number hypothesis in more detail to show that the approximation of geometric optics still leads to null geodesics for the path of light, and that the general relation between the luminosity distance and the proper geometric distance is still valid in our theory as in Einstein's theory, and give the equations for homogeneous cosmological model involving matter plus electromagnetic radiation. Finally we consider the impact of the modification to quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics, and arrive at a systematic theory of evolving natural constants including Planck's h as well as Boltzmann's kB by finding out their cosmologically combined counterparts with factors of appropriate powers of G that may remain truly constant to cosmologically long time.
Social Behaviour in Police Interviews: Relating Data to Theories
Bruijnes, Merijn; Linssen, Johannes Maria; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Theune, Mariet; Wapperom, Sjoerd; Broekema, Chris; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; D'Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella; Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Vincze, Laura
2015-01-01
We analysed a corpus of enacted police interviews to get insight into the social behaviour of interviewees and police officers in this setting. We (exhaustively) collected the terms used to describe the interactions in those interviews. Through factor analysis, we showed that the theories
Effective Learning Environments in Relation to Different Learning Theories
Guney, A.; Al, S.
2012-01-01
There are diverse learning theories which explain learning processes which are discussed within this paper, through cognitive structure of learning process. Learning environments are usually described in terms of pedagogical philosophy, curriculum design and social climate. There have been only just
Effective Learning Environments in Relation to Different Learning Theories
Guney, A.; Al, S.
2012-01-01
There are diverse learning theories which explain learning processes which are discussed within this paper, through cognitive structure of learning process. Learning environments are usually described in terms of pedagogical philosophy, curriculum design and social climate. There have been only just
Schr"odinger's Unified Field Theory: Physics by Public Relations
Halpern, Paul
2009-05-01
We will explore the circumstances surrounding Erwin Schr"odinger's announcement in January 1947 that he had developed a comprehensive unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism. We will speculate on Schr"odinger's motivations for the mode and tone of his statements, consider the reaction of the international press within the context of the postwar era, and examine Einstein's response.
On Painleve Related Functions Arising in Random Matrix Theory
Choup, Leonard N
2011-01-01
In deriving large n probability distribution function of the rightmost eigenvalue from the classical Random Matrix Theory Ensembles, one is faced with que question of ?finding large n asymptotic of certain coupled set of functions. This paper presents some of these functions in a new light.
Comparing Bilingual to Monolingual Learners on English Spelling: A Meta-analytic Review.
Zhao, Jing; Quiroz, Blanca; Dixon, L Quentin; Joshi, R Malatesha
2016-08-01
This study reports on a meta-analysis to examine how bilingual learners compare with English monolingual learners on two English spelling outcomes: real-word spelling and pseudo-word spelling. Eighteen studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were retrieved. The study-level variables and characteristics (e.g. sample size, study design and research instruments) were coded, and 29 independent effect sizes across the 18 retrieved studies were analysed. We found that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on real-word spelling overall and more so in early grades, but monolinguals outperformed bilinguals on pseudo-word spelling. Further, bilinguals at risk for reading difficulties did better on real-word spelling than monolinguals at risk for reading difficulties. Having investigated systematic sources of variability in effect sizes, we conclude that in comparison with their monolingual peers, bilingual learners, especially those from alphabetic L1 backgrounds, are able to master constrained skills, such as English spelling, in the current instructional context. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bogolubov, Nikolaj N; Taneri, Ufuk
2008-01-01
The main fundamental principles characterizing the vacuum field structure are formulated, the modeling of the related vacuum medium and point charged particle dynamics by means of devised field theoretic tools is analyzed. The Maxwell electrodynamic theory is revisited and newly derived from the suggested vacuum field structure principles, the classical special relativity theory relationship between the energy and the corresponding point particle mass is revisited and newly obtained. The Lorentz force expression with respect to arbitrary non-inertial reference frames is revisited and discussed in detail, some new interpretations of relations between the special relativity theory and quantum mechanics are presented. The famous quantum-mechanical Schr\\"{o}dinger type equation for a relativistic point particle in the external potential field within the quasiclassical approximation as the Plank constant $\\hbar \\to 0$ is obtained.
Hrabe, David P
2005-05-01
This paper explores the applicability of Peplau's Interpersonal Relations Theory to the context of computer-mediated communication. Although Peplau never intended her theory be applied to this mode of communication, research from the fields of communication and social psychology suggest that such application may be possible. After Peplau's theory is briefly summarized, research and theory dealing with computer-mediated communication are explored, and questions for future research endeavors are offered.
Investigating Linguistic Relativity through Bilingualism: The Case of Grammatical Gender
Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Vinson, David P.; Vigliocco, Gabriella
2008-01-01
The authors investigated linguistic relativity effects by examining the semantic effects of grammatical gender (present in Italian but absent in English) in fluent bilingual speakers as compared with monolingual speakers. In an error-induction experiment, they used responses by monolingual speakers to establish a baseline for bilingual speakers…
Investigating Linguistic Relativity through Bilingualism: The Case of Grammatical Gender
Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Vinson, David P.; Vigliocco, Gabriella
2008-01-01
The authors investigated linguistic relativity effects by examining the semantic effects of grammatical gender (present in Italian but absent in English) in fluent bilingual speakers as compared with monolingual speakers. In an error-induction experiment, they used responses by monolingual speakers to establish a baseline for bilingual speakers…
Geometrical hyperbolic systems for general relativity and gauge theories
Abrahams, A M; Choquet-Bruhat, Y; York, J W
1996-01-01
The evolution equations of Einstein's theory and of Maxwell's theory---the latter used as a simple model to illustrate the former--- are written in gauge covariant first order symmetric hyperbolic form with only physically natural characteristic directions and speeds for the dynamical variables. Quantities representing gauge degrees of freedom [the spatial shift vector \\beta^{i}(t,x^{j}) and the spatial scalar potential \\phi(t,x^{j}), respectively] are not among the dynamical variables: the gauge and the physical quantities in the evolution equations are effectively decoupled. For example, the gauge quantities could be obtained as functions of (t,x^{j}) from subsidiary equations that are not part of the evolution equations. Propagation of certain (``radiative'') dynamical variables along the physical light cone is gauge invariant while the remaining dynamical variables are dragged along the axes orthogonal to the spacelike time slices by the propagating variables. We obtain these results by (1) taking a furth...
Relating the Resource Theories of Entanglement and Quantum Coherence
Chitambar, Eric; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu
2016-07-01
Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement represent two fundamental features of nonclassical systems that can each be characterized within an operational resource theory. In this Letter, we unify the resource theories of entanglement and coherence by studying their combined behavior in the operational setting of local incoherent operations and classical communication (LIOCC). Specifically, we analyze the coherence and entanglement trade-offs in the tasks of state formation and resource distillation. For pure states we identify the minimum coherence-entanglement resources needed to generate a given state, and we introduce a new LIOCC monotone that completely characterizes a state's optimal rate of bipartite coherence distillation. This result allows us to precisely quantify the difference in operational powers between global incoherent operations, LIOCC, and local incoherent operations without classical communication. Finally, a bipartite mixed state is shown to have distillable entanglement if and only if entanglement can be distilled by LIOCC, and we strengthen the well-known Horodecki criterion for distillability.
Relating the Resource Theories of Entanglement and Quantum Coherence.
Chitambar, Eric; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu
2016-07-01
Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement represent two fundamental features of nonclassical systems that can each be characterized within an operational resource theory. In this Letter, we unify the resource theories of entanglement and coherence by studying their combined behavior in the operational setting of local incoherent operations and classical communication (LIOCC). Specifically, we analyze the coherence and entanglement trade-offs in the tasks of state formation and resource distillation. For pure states we identify the minimum coherence-entanglement resources needed to generate a given state, and we introduce a new LIOCC monotone that completely characterizes a state's optimal rate of bipartite coherence distillation. This result allows us to precisely quantify the difference in operational powers between global incoherent operations, LIOCC, and local incoherent operations without classical communication. Finally, a bipartite mixed state is shown to have distillable entanglement if and only if entanglement can be distilled by LIOCC, and we strengthen the well-known Horodecki criterion for distillability.
A Curious Relation Between Gravity and Yang-Mills Theories
Baulieu, L
2000-01-01
We find that Euclidian or Minkowski gravity in d dimensions can be formally expressed as the restriction to a slice of a supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in d+1 dimensions with SO(d+1), SO(d,1) or SO(d-1,2) internal symmetry. We suggest that renormalization effects in the bulk imply a contraction of the latter symmetry into the Poincare group ISO(d) or ISO(d-1,1).
Sundara, Megha; Polka, Linda; Genesee, Fred
2006-06-01
To trace how age and language experience shape the discrimination of native and non-native phonetic contrasts, we compared 4-year-olds learning either English or French or both and simultaneous bilingual adults on their ability to discriminate the English /d-th/ contrast. Findings show that the ability to discriminate the native English contrast improved with age. However, in the absence of experience with this contrast, discrimination of French children and adults remained unchanged during development. Furthermore, although simultaneous bilingual and monolingual English adults were comparable, children exposed to both English and French were poorer at discriminating this contrast when compared to monolingual English-learning 4-year-olds. Thus, language experience facilitates perception of the English /d-th/ contrast and this facilitation occurs later in development when English and French are acquired simultaneously. The difference between bilingual and monolingual acquisition has implications for language organization in children with simultaneous exposure.
Pitts, Casey E; Onishi, Kristine H; Vouloumanos, Athena
2015-01-01
Adults recognize that people can understand more than one language. However, it is unclear whether infants assume other people understand one or multiple languages. We examined whether monolingual and bilingual 20-month-olds expect an unfamiliar person to understand one or more than one language. Two speakers told a listener the location of a hidden object using either the same or two different languages. When different languages were spoken, monolinguals looked longer when the listener searched correctly, bilinguals did not; when the same language was spoken, both groups looked longer for incorrect searches. Infants rely on their prior language experience when evaluating the language abilities of a novel individual. Monolingual infants assume others can understand only one language, although not necessarily the infants' own; bilinguals do not. Infants' assumptions about which community of conventions people belong to may allow them to recognize effective communicative partners and thus opportunities to acquire language, knowledge, and culture.
Silverman, Rebecca D.; Proctor, C. Patrick; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hartranft, Anna M.; Doyle, Brie; Zelinke, Sarah B.
2015-01-01
The present study investigated language skills and reading comprehension with English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children in grades 2-5. Of the 377 children in the sample, 207 were English monolingual and 170 were Spanish-English bilingual. Data were collected within a cohort-sequential design for two academic years in the fall and…
Silverman, Rebecca D.; Proctor, C. Patrick; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hartranft, Anna M.; Doyle, Brie; Zelinke, Sarah B.
2015-01-01
The present study investigated language skills and reading comprehension with English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children in grades 2-5. Of the 377 children in the sample, 207 were English monolingual and 170 were Spanish-English bilingual. Data were collected within a cohort-sequential design for two academic years in the fall and…
Bunta, Ferenc; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian; Ingram, David
2009-01-01
The present study investigated phonological whole-word measures and consonant accuracy in bilingual and monolingual children to investigate how target approximations drive phonological acquisition. The study included eight bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking 3-year-olds and their monolingual peers (eight Spanish and eight American English).…
Miles, Katharine Pace; Ehri, Linnea C.; Lauterbach, Mark D.
2016-01-01
The study examined whether exposure to spellings of new vocabulary words improved monolinguals' and language minority (LM) students' (n = 25) memory for pronunciations, meanings, and spellings of the words. College students who are native English-speaking monolinguals (n = 12) and LM students who learned English as their second language (n = 13)…
Afsharrad, Mohammad; Sadeghi Benis, Aram Reza
2017-01-01
The present study aims at finding the differences between bilingual and monolingual learners across gender in the use of cognitive, metacognitive, and total reading strategies, as well as reading comprehension ability. To this end, 50 Persian-Turkish bilinguals and 36 Persian monolinguals participated in the study. A standard test of reading…
Frederiksen, Claus S.
2009-01-01
This paper examines the relation between policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and philosophical moral theories. The objective is to determine which moral theories form the basis for CSR policies. Are they based on ethical egoism, libertarianism, utilitarianism or some kind of common-sense morality? To address this issue, I conducted an empirical investigation examining the relation between moral theories and CSR policies, in companies engaged in CSR. Based ...
Schleider, Jessica L; Weisz, John R
2016-08-01
Research shows relations between entity theories-i.e., beliefs that traits and abilities are unchangeable-and youth psychopathology. A common interpretation has been that entity theories lead to psychopathology, but another possibility is that psychopathology predicts entity theories. The two models carry different implications for developmental psychopathology and intervention design. We tested each model's plausibility, examining longitudinal associations between entity theories of thoughts, feelings, and behavior and psychopathology in early adolescents across one school year (N = 59, 52 % female, ages 11-14, 0 % attrition). Baseline entity theories did not predict increases in psychopathology; instead, baseline psychopathology predicted increased entity theories over time. When symptom clusters were assessed individually, greater youth internalizing (but not externalizing) problems predicted subsequent increases in entity theories. Findings suggest that the commonly proposed predictive model may not be the only one warranting attention. They suggest that youth psychopathology may contribute to the development of certain kinds of entity theories.
Theory of ion-chirality relation in ferroelectric liquid crystals
Lahiri, T.; Pal Majumder, T.
2012-04-01
The presence of impurity ions in ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLC) could produce a significant impact on the chirality of the medium with a possible modification in the polarization profile of the system. We theoretically observed these possibilities by considering an in-plane and bulk free energy density for the sample. Based on a suitable chirality transfer formalism, we explained the role of impurity ions in altering the chiral nature of a FLC medium. A continuous transition from modulated phases to uniform phases is also predicted within the framework of this theory. Then, we investigated the possible modification in the polarization profile driven by ionic impurities.
Longitudinal Relations between Theory of Mind and Metacognition and the Impact of Language
Ebert, Susanne
2015-01-01
This study investigated the longitudinal relation between children's theory of mind and their metacognitive knowledge with a special focus on the impact of language on this relation. Measures of theory-of-mind understanding and metamemory knowledge were assessed in 133 3-year-old children at 4 measurement points separated by half-year intervals.…
Longitudinal Relations between Theory of Mind and Metacognition and the Impact of Language
Ebert, Susanne
2015-01-01
This study investigated the longitudinal relation between children's theory of mind and their metacognitive knowledge with a special focus on the impact of language on this relation. Measures of theory-of-mind understanding and metamemory knowledge were assessed in 133 3-year-old children at 4 measurement points separated by half-year intervals.…
Pratt, Cornelius B.
1994-01-01
Links ethical theories to the management of the product recall of the Perrier Group of America. Argues for a nonsituational theory-based eclectic approach to ethics in public relations to enable public relations practitioners, as strategic communication managers, to respond effectively to potentially unethical organizational actions. (SR)
Between Theory and History: "The Remains of the Day" in the International Relations Classroom.
Lang, Anthony F., Jr.; Lang, James M.
1998-01-01
Recommends using Kazuo Ishiguro's "The Remains of the Day" to teach international relations by focusing on the normative elements of international relations, the importance of history, and the relationship between theory and history. Explores the use of one theory, feminism, in the novel and provides suggestions for other novels. (CMK)
Pratt, Cornelius B.
1994-01-01
Links ethical theories to the management of the product recall of the Perrier Group of America. Argues for a nonsituational theory-based eclectic approach to ethics in public relations to enable public relations practitioners, as strategic communication managers, to respond effectively to potentially unethical organizational actions. (SR)
THE COMPARISON OF THE MONOLINGUAL AND BILINGUAL JAPANESE STUDENTS IN THE ENGLISH ACHIEVEMENT
Ienneke Indra Dewi
2007-11-01
Full Text Available Article is intended to know whether the monolingual or bilingual Japanese students are betterin the English achievement and whether the exposure of English influences the ability. The data weretaken from 60 Japanese students who are supposed to fill in the questionnaires regarding theirlanguage background. The English achievement data were taken from the students’ scores in SeniorHigh School National Examination and the data further were compared to the TOEFL English score.The analysis is carried out using ANOVA analysis. This research indicates that monolinguals arebetter learners in English and exposure is proved to influence the students’ ability in English.
Bütow, Kurt-W; Zwahlen, Roger Arthur; Morkel, Jean A.; Naidoo, Sharan
2016-01-01
Context: The disorder currently accepted as Pierre Robin syndrome/anomaly/sequence (PRS) has been plagued by controversy ever since initially being described. Controversy exists not only about the appropriate terminology and etiopathogenesis of the disorder but also about its management. Therefore, clinical findings and treatment outcomes of a large database of 266 PRS cases were compared with the current state of knowledge in the scientific literature related to history, clinical description, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, theories of oligohydramnios, mandibular catch-up growth, midfacial hyperplasia, and the early management. Aim: The aims of Part 3 debate the controversial biological theories relating to PRS. Materials and Methods: Oligo-/poly-hydramnios, mandibular catch-up growth, and midfacial hyperplasia, the three in the literature most prevailing theories related to PRS, have been compared and discussed with the findings provided by this large database of 266 Siebold-Robin sequence (SRS) and Fairbairn-Robin triad (FRT) cases. Results: History and clinical findings evaluated in this database refute the first two theories. Although manifold midfacial appearances were demonstrated in FRT cases, a third of all SRS cases presented with mid-facial hyperplasia. Conclusion: The three main biological theories regarding PRS could not be verified after thorough analysis of the database. PMID:27563605
AGT relations for abelian quiver gauge theories on ALE spaces
Pedrini, Mattia; Sala, Francesco; Szabo, Richard J.
2016-05-01
We construct level one dominant representations of the affine Kac-Moody algebra gl̂k on the equivariant cohomology groups of moduli spaces of rank one framed sheaves on the orbifold compactification of the minimal resolution Xk of the Ak-1 toric singularity C2 /Zk. We show that the direct sum of the fundamental classes of these moduli spaces is a Whittaker vector for gl̂k, which proves the AGT correspondence for pure N = 2 U(1) gauge theory on Xk. We consider Carlsson-Okounkov type Ext-bundles over products of the moduli spaces and use their Euler classes to define vertex operators. Under the decomposition gl̂k ≃ h ⊕sl̂k, these vertex operators decompose as products of bosonic exponentials associated to the Heisenberg algebra h and primary fields of sl̂k. We use these operators to prove the AGT correspondence for N = 2 superconformal abelian quiver gauge theories on Xk.
Paradis, Johanne; Jia, Ruiting
2017-01-01
Bilingual children experience more variation in their language environment than monolingual children and this impacts their rate of language development with respect to monolinguals. How long it takes for bilingual children learning English as a second language (L2) to display similar abilities to monolingual age-peers has been estimated to be 4-6…
Relative weights approach to SU(3) gauge theories with dynamical fermions at finite density
Höllwieser, Roman
2016-01-01
We derive effective Polyakov line actions for SU(3) gauge theories with staggered dynamical fermions, for a small sample of lattice couplings, lattice actions, and lattice extensions in the time direction. The derivation is via the method of relative weights, and the theories are solved at finite chemical potential by mean field theory. We find in some instances that the long-range couplings in the effective action are very important to the phase structure, and that these couplings are responsible for long-lived metastable states in the effective theory. Only one of these states corresponds to the underlying lattice gauge theory.
Higher-Loop Amplitude Monodromy Relations in String and Gauge Theory.
Tourkine, Piotr; Vanhove, Pierre
2016-11-18
The monodromy relations in string theory provide a powerful and elegant formalism to understand some of the deepest properties of tree-level field theory amplitudes, like the color-kinematics duality. This duality has been instrumental in tremendous progress on the computations of loop amplitudes in quantum field theory, but a higher-loop generalization of the monodromy construction was lacking. In this Letter, we extend the monodromy relations to higher loops in open string theory. Our construction, based on a contour deformation argument of the open string diagram integrands, leads to new identities that relate planar and nonplanar topologies in string theory. We write one and two-loop monodromy formulas explicitly at any multiplicity. In the field theory limit, at one-loop we obtain identities that reproduce known results. At two loops, we check our formulas by unitarity in the case of the four-point N=4 super-Yang-Mills amplitude.
Higher-Loop Amplitude Monodromy Relations in String and Gauge Theory
Tourkine, Piotr; Vanhove, Pierre
2016-11-01
The monodromy relations in string theory provide a powerful and elegant formalism to understand some of the deepest properties of tree-level field theory amplitudes, like the color-kinematics duality. This duality has been instrumental in tremendous progress on the computations of loop amplitudes in quantum field theory, but a higher-loop generalization of the monodromy construction was lacking. In this Letter, we extend the monodromy relations to higher loops in open string theory. Our construction, based on a contour deformation argument of the open string diagram integrands, leads to new identities that relate planar and nonplanar topologies in string theory. We write one and two-loop monodromy formulas explicitly at any multiplicity. In the field theory limit, at one-loop we obtain identities that reproduce known results. At two loops, we check our formulas by unitarity in the case of the four-point N =4 super-Yang-Mills amplitude.
Higher-loop amplitude monodromy relations in string and gauge theory
Tourkine, Piotr
2016-01-01
The monodromy relations in string theory provide a powerful and elegant formalism to understand some of the most deep properties of tree-level field theory amplitudes, like the color-kinematics duality. This duality has been instrumental in tremendous progress on the computations of loop amplitudes in quantum field theory, but a higher-loop generalisation of the monodromy construction was lacking. In this letter, we extend the monodromy relations to higher loops in open string theory. Our construction, based on a contour deformation argument inside open string diagrams, leads to new identities that relate planar and non-planar topologies in string theory. We write one and two-loop monodromy formulae explicitly at any multiplicity. In the field theory limit, at one-loop we obtain identities that reproduce known results. At two loops, we check our formulae by unitarity in the case of the four-point N=4 super-Yang-Mills amplitude.
The Theory about didactical situations used to analyze practice related teaching and learning
Aarkrog, Vibe
2017-01-01
situations’ that defines five situations of practice related teaching. The data includes observations combined with interviews of teachers in relation to various examples of practice related teaching in the social and health care programs. Based on the analysis of three examples of practice related teaching...... the results show that the Theory of didactical situations can be a useful framework accomplishing practice related teaching and learning. In the discussion a number of challenges in relation to practice related teaching is highlighted focusing on the relation between the five situations in the theory...... of didactical situations....
Bilingual Picture-Word Studies Constrain Theories of Lexical Selection
Matthew L. Hall
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Whether lexical selection is by competition is the subject of current debate in studies of monolingual language production. Here, I consider whether extant data from bilinguals can inform this debate. In bilinguals, theories that accept the notion of lexical selection by competition are divided between those positing competition among all lexical nodes versus those that restrict competition to nodes in the target language only. An alternative view rejects selection by competition altogether, putting the locus of selection in a phonological output buffer, where some potential responses are easier to exclude than others. These theories make contrasting predictions about how quickly bilinguals should name pictures when non-target responses are activated. In Part 1, I establish the empirical facts for which any successful theory must account. In Part 2, I evaluate how well each theory accounts for the data. I argue that the data do not support theories that reject lexical selection by competition, and that although theories where competition for selection is restricted to the target language can be altered to fit the data, doing so would fundamentally undermine the distinctness of their position. Theories where selection is by competition throughout both target and non-target language lexicons must also be modified to account for the data, but these modifications are relatively peripheral to the theoretical impetus of the model. Throughout, I identify areas where our empirical facts are sparse, weak, or absent, and propose additional experiments that should help to further establish how lexical selection works, in both monolinguals and bilinguals.
Connecting Through Obstruction; Relating Gauge Gravity and String Theory
Cartwright, Casey
2016-01-01
We consider topological constraints that must be satisfied by formulations of gravitation as a gauge theory. To facilitate the analysis we review and further justify the composite bundle formalism of Tresguerres as a consistent underlying structure capable of incorporating both the local Lorentz and translational degrees of freedom. Identifying an important global structure required by the composite construction, we translate this into conditions on the underlying manifold. We find that in addition to admitting the expected orientability, causality and spin structures, the underlying manifold must also admit a string structure. We take this to imply that even before considerations of quantum consistency, topological considerations of gauge gravity provide a classical motivation for extended degrees of freedom.
Defining Public Relations: Toward a Theory of Science.
Van Slyke, Judy Kulstad
Noting the lack of a widely accepted definition of public relations, this paper discusses several definitions that have been formulated and dismisses them as inadequate and fraught with understatement. It then suggests that a more appropriate and satisfactory approach to the problem might be to think of public relations as an immature and…
A theory of biological relativity: no privileged level of causation.
Noble, Denis
2012-02-06
Must higher level biological processes always be derivable from lower level data and mechanisms, as assumed by the idea that an organism is completely defined by its genome? Or are higher level properties necessarily also causes of lower level behaviour, involving actions and interactions both ways? This article uses modelling of the heart, and its experimental basis, to show that downward causation is necessary and that this form of causation can be represented as the influences of initial and boundary conditions on the solutions of the differential equations used to represent the lower level processes. These insights are then generalized. A priori, there is no privileged level of causation. The relations between this form of 'biological relativity' and forms of relativity in physics are discussed. Biological relativity can be seen as an extension of the relativity principle by avoiding the assumption that there is a privileged scale at which biological functions are determined.
Equivalence of Quantum Field Theories related by the theta-exact Seiberg-Witten map
Martin, Carmelo P; You, Jiangyang
2016-01-01
The equivalence of the noncommutative U(N) quantum field theories related by the theta-exact Seiberg-Witten maps is in this letter proven to all orders in the perturbation theory with respect to the coupling constant. We show that this duality holds for Super Yang-Mills theories with N=0,1,2,4 Supersymmetry. A direct check of this equivalence relation is performed at the one-loop in the noncommutative U(1) gauge theory with N=0,1,2,4 Supersymmetry.
Gottlieb, I. [Faculty of Physics, Department of Theoretical Physics, ' Al.I.Cuza' University, Blvd, Carol I, No. 11, Iasi, 700506 (Romania)]. E-mail: gottlieb@uaic.ro; Agop, M. [Department of Physics, Technical ' Gh. Asachi' University Blvd, Mangeron, Iasi, 700029 (Romania)
2007-11-15
An alternative to the Nottales's scale relativity theory using the concept of transfinite discreet space is established. Subsequently, quantum vacuum fluctuations, arise naturally from the model and the connection with El Naschie's {epsilon} {sup ({infinity})} spacetime is given by means of the movements with uniform acceleration in a Minkowskian vacuum.
Phillip Louw
2011-10-01
Full Text Available
Abstract: Herbert Ernst Wiegand is a very important figure in international metalexicography. A large part of his research has up to now been unavailable to the majority of the English-speaking world, because it has mainly been published in German. A new book Semantics and Lexicography seeks to break through this obscurity by providing English translations of a selection of articles spanning thirty years (from 1976 to 1996, which trace the development of Wiegand's views on semantic information. This book offers a valuable insight into the theoretical and corresponding terminological development that has already had such a remarkable impact on the "practical science" metalexicography. This article focuses on Wiegand's theories on the integration of the semasiological and onomasiological presentation of semantic information in the microstructures of general monolingual dictionaries. The theories are explicated and illustrated by examples from two Afrikaans general monolingual dictionaries and evaluated in order to establish their relevance. The conclusion is reached that the semasiological presentation of meaning is most appropriately located in the item giving the meaning paraphrase, which should form part of the semantic comment in an integrated microstructure. In the semantic comment, this item must be followed by dearly distinguished items giving onomasiological information, especially about synonymy.
Keywords: DEFINITION, FRAME, HYPONYM, ITEM GIVING THE MEANING PARAPHRASE, LEXICAL PARAPHRASE, LEXICOGRAPHIC PARAPHRASE, METALEXICOGRAPHY, NEAR-SYNONYM, OBJECT-CONSTITUTING KNOWLEDGE; ONOMASIOLOGICAL, SEMANTIC RELATION, SEMASIOLOGICAL, SYNONYM, SYNONYM DEFINITION.
Opsomming: In Ge'integreerde semasiologiese en onomasiologiese aanbod .van semantiese inligting in algemeen eentalige woordeboeke soos voorgestelin H.E. Wiegand se Semantics and Lexicography. Herbert Ernst Wiegand is 'n baiebelangrike figuur in die intemasionale
Multiphase PC/PL Relations: Comparison between Theory and observations
Kanbur, S; Ngeow, C; Musella, I; Turner, M; Magin, S; Halsey, J; Bissel, C
2009-01-01
Cepheids are fundamental objects astrophysically in that they hold the key to a CMB independent estimate of Hubble's constant. A number of researchers have pointed out the possibilities of breaking degeneracies between Omega_Matter and H0 if there is a CMB independent distance scale accurate to a few percent (Hu 2005). Current uncertainties in the distance scale are about 10% but future observations, with, for example, the JWST, will be capable of estimating H0 to within a few percent. A crucial step in this process is the Cepheid PL relation. Recent evidence has emerged that the PL relation, at least in optical bands, is nonlinear and that neglect of such a nonlinearity can lead to errors in estimating H0 of up to 2 percent. Hence it is important to critically examine this possible nonlinearity both observationally and theoretically. Existing PC/PL relations rely exclusively on evaluating these relations at mean light. However, since such relations are the average of relations at different phases. Here we re...
Arun, K G
2013-01-01
Gravitational Wave (GW) observations of coalescing compact binaries will be unique probes of strong-field, dynamical aspects of relativistic gravity. We present a short review of various schemes proposed in the literature to test General Relativity (GR) and alternative theories of gravity using inspiral waveforms. Broadly these schemes may be classified into two types: model dependent and model independent. In the model dependent category, GW observations are compared against a specific waveform model representative of a particular theory or a class of theories like Scalar-Tensor theories, Dynamical Chern-Simons theory and Massive graviton theories. Model independent tests are attempts to write down a parametrised gravitational waveform where the free parameters take different values for different theories and (at least some of) which can be constrained by GW observations. We revisit some of the proposed bounds in the case of downscaled LISA configuration (eLISA) and compare them with the original LISA config...
A Unification of General Theory of Relativity with Dirac's Large Number Hypothesis
PENG Huan-Wu
2004-01-01
Taking a hint from Dirac's large number hypothesis, we note the existence of cosmologically combined conservation laws that work cosmologically long time. We thus modify Einstein's theory of general relativity with fixed gravitation constant G to a theory for varying G, with a tensor term arising naturally from the derivatives or G in place of the cosmological constant term usually introduced ad hoc. The modified theory, when applied to cosmology, is consistent with Dirac's large number hypothesis, and gives a theoretical Hubble's relation not contradicting the observational data.For phenomena of duration and distance being short compared with those of the universe, our theory reduces to Einstein's theory with G being constant outside the gravitating matter, and thus also passes the crucial tests of Einstein's theory.
A Unification of General Theory of Relativity with Dirac＇s Large Number Hypothesis
PENGHuan-Wu
2004-01-01
Taking a hint from Dirac's large number hypothesis, we note the existence of cosmologically combined conservation laws that work cosmologically long time. We thus modify Einstein's theory of general relativity with fixed gravitation constant G to a theory for varying G, with a tensor term arising naturally from the derivatives of G in place of the cosmological constant term usually introduced ad hoc. The modified theory, when applied to cosmology, is consistent with Dirac's large number hypothesis, and gives a theoretical Hubble's relation not contradicting the observational data.For phenomena of duration and distance being short compared with those of the universe, our theory reduces to Einstein's theory with G being constant outside the gravitating matter, and thus also passes the crucial tests of Einstein's theory.
Reciprocal relations for transmission coefficients - Theory and application
Qu, Jianmin; Achenbach, Jan D.; Roberts, Ronald A.
1989-01-01
The authors present a rigorous proof of certain intuitively plausible reciprocal relations for time harmonic plane-wave transmission and reflection at the interface between a fluid and an anisotropic elastic solid. Precise forms of the reciprocity relations for the transmission coefficients and for the transmitted energy fluxes are derived, based on the reciprocity theorem of elastodynamics. It is shown that the reciprocity relations can be used in conjunction with measured values of peak amplitudes for transmission through a slab of the solid (water-solid-water) to obtain the water-solid coefficients. Experiments were performed for a slab of a unidirectional fiber-reinforced composite. Good agreement of the experimentally measured transmission coefficients with theoretical values was obtained.
Empiricism and Relationism Intertwined: Hume and Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity
2016-01-01
Einstein acknowledged that his reading of Hume influenced the development of his special theory of relativity. In this article, I juxtapose Hume’s philosophy with Einstein’s philosophical analysis related to his special relativity. I argue that there are two common points to be found in their writings, namely an empiricist theory of ideas and concepts, and a relationist ontology regarding space and time. The main thesis of this article is that these two points are intertwined in H...
Relativity, the Special Theory, explained to Children (from 7 to 107 years old)
Marle, Charles-Michel
2014-01-01
The author thinks that the main ideas or Relativity Theory can be explained to children (around the age of 15 or 16) without complicated calculations, by using very simple arguments of affine geometry. The proposed approach is presented as a conversation between the author and one of his grand-children. Limited here to the Special Theory, it will be extended to the General Theory elsewhere, as sketched in conclusion.
Venture Capital Investment Base on Grey Relational Theory
Zhang, Xubo
This paper builds a venture capital investment projects selection evaluation model base on risk-weight investment return using grey relational analysis. The risk and return in venture capital investment projects selection process is analyses. These risk and return mainly constricted in management ability, operation ability, market ability, exit obtain and investment cost. The 18 sub-indicators are the impact factors contributed to these five evaluation aspects. Grey relation analysis is use to evaluate the venture capital investment selection. Get the optimal solution of risk-weight double objective investment selection evaluation model. An example is used to demonstrate the model in this paper.
Ethical Selves: A Sketch for a Theory of Relational Authenticity
Natalie Fletcher
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Philosophers who show interest in authenticity tend to narrowly focus on its capacity to help people evade conformity and affirm individuality, a simplistic reduction that neglects authenticity’s moral potential and gives credence to the many critics who dismiss it as a euphemism for excessive individualism. Yet when conceived relationally, authenticity can also allow for worthy human flourishing without falling prey to conformity’s opposite extreme—egoism. This essay proposes a sketch for a relational conception of authenticity that can help prevent the often-destructive excess of egoism while also offsetting the undesirable deficiency of heteronomy, concertedly moving agents towards socially responsible living.
Special Theory of Relativity in South Korean High School Textbooks and New Teaching Guidelines
Gim, Jinyeong
2016-08-01
South Korean high school students are being taught Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity. In this article, I examine the portrayal of this theory in South Korean high school physics textbooks and discuss an alternative method used to solve the analyzed problems. This examination of how these South Korean textbooks present this theory has revealed two main flaws: First, the textbooks' contents present historically fallacious backgrounds regarding the origin of this theory because of a blind dependence on popular undergraduate textbooks, which ignore the revolutionary aspects of the theory in physics. And second, the current ingredients of teaching this theory are so simply enumerated and conceptually confused that students are not provided with good opportunities to develop critical capacities for evaluating scientific theories. Reviewing textbooks used in South Korea, I will, first, claim that the history of science contributes to understand not merely the origins but also two principles of this theory. Second, in addition to this claim, I argue that we should distinguish not only hypotheses from principles but also phenomena from theoretical consequences and evidence. Finally, I suggest an alternative way in which theory testing occurs in the process of evaluation among competitive theories on the basis of data, not in the simple relation between a hypothesis and evidence.
Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie
2015-01-01
This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…
Feature binding and the processing of global-local shapes in bilingual and monolingual children.
Cottini, Milvia; Pieroni, Laura; Spataro, Pietro; Devescovi, Antonella; Longobardi, Emiddia; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia
2015-04-01
In the present study, we examined the effects of bilingualism and age on a color-shape binding task (assessing visual working memory) and a global-local task (assessing inhibitory processes) in a sample of 55 bilingual and 49 monolingual children 8 and 10 years old. In the color-shape binding task, corrected recognition scores increased in older children; bilingual children performed better than monolinguals in the shape-only condition, but the two groups were equally accurate in the color-only and combination conditions. In the global-local task, accuracy was higher in bilingual than in monolingual children, particularly on incongruent trials; monolingual children showed a strong global precedence effect (higher accuracy in the global than in the local conditions and greater global-to-local interference), whereas bilingual children exhibited a small, but significant, local precedence effect (higher accuracy in the local than in the global conditions and greater local-to-global interference). These findings confirm and extend previous evidence indicating that the bilingualism advantage is more pronounced in working memory tasks involving inhibitory processes.
Executive Function Differences between Bilingual ArabicEnglish and Monolingual Arabic Children
Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub
2015-01-01
This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than…
Word Mapping and Executive Functioning in Young Monolingual and Bilingual Children
Bialystok, Ellen; Barac, Raluca; Blaye, Agnes; Poulin-Dubois, Diane
2010-01-01
The effect of bilingualism on the cognitive skills of young children was investigated by comparing performance of 162 children who belonged to one of two age groups (approximately 3- and 4.5-year-olds) and one of three language groups on a series of tasks examining executive control and word mapping. The children were monolingual English speakers,…
Priming a Perspective in Spanish Monolingual Children: The Use of Syntactic Alternatives
Gamez, Perla B.; Shimpi, Priya M.; Waterfall, Heidi R.; Huttenlocher, Janellen
2009-01-01
We used a syntactic priming paradigm to show priming effects for active and passive forms in monolingual Spanish-speaking four- and five-year-olds. In a baseline experiment, we examined children's use of the "fue"-passive form and found it was virtually non-existent in their speech, although they produced important elements of the form. Children…
Schwartz, Mila; Shaul, Yehudit
2013-01-01
The development of script schema, as a source of narrative knowledge, is an essential stage in this knowledge construction. This study focused on the role of bilingual versus monolingual preschool education in the development of script schema knowledge in Russian (L1) and Hebrew (L2) among Russian/Hebrew-speaking children in Israel. The preschool…
Khattab, Ghada
2001-05-01
VOT patterns were investigated in the production of three Lebanese-English bilinguals' aged 5, 7, and 10, six aged-matched monolingual controls from the bilinguals' immediate communities, and the parents of bilinguals and monolinguals. The aim was to examine the extent to which children exposed to two languages acquire separate VOT patterns for each language and to determine the factors that affect such acquisition. Results showed that VOT patterns for each bilingual child differed significantly across the two languages. But while the contrast in English resembled a monolingual-like model, that for Arabic exhibited persisting developmental features; explanations were offered in terms of the relationship between input and complexity of voicing lead production. Evidence was used from developmental changes that were noted for two of the bilingual subjects over a period of 18 months. English code-switches produced by the bilinguals during Arabic sessions exhibited different VOT patterns from those produced during English sessions, which underlined the importance of taking the language context into consideration. Finally, results from monolinguals and bilinguals showed that the short lag categories for the two languages were different despite a degree of overlap. Such findings require finer divisions of the three universal VOT categories to account for language-specific patterns.
The Use of Spanish by a Monolingual Kindergarten Teacher to Support English Language Learners
de Oliveira, Luciana C.; Gilmetdinova, Alsu; Pelaez-Morales, Carolina
2016-01-01
This article reports on a case study of a kindergarten, monolingual teacher and how she used Spanish, the home language of her Latino/a students who are English language learners (ELLs), in the classroom. The article focuses on how the teacher develops and uses her emerging knowledge of Spanish to scaffold students' learning, specifically when…
Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie
2015-01-01
This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…
Phoneme awareness, vocabulary and word decoding in monolingual and bilingual Dutch children
Janssen, M.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Leseman, P.P.M.
2013-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilingually raised children in the Netherlands, who receive literacy instruction in their second language only, show an advantage on Dutch phoneme-awareness tasks compared with monolingual Dutch-speaking children. Language performance of a group of 47
Yan, Stephanie; Nicoladis, Elena
2009-01-01
By school age, some bilingual children can score equivalently to monolinguals in receptive vocabulary but still lag in expressive vocabulary. In this study, we test whether bilingual children have greater difficulty with lexical access, as has been reported for adult bilinguals. School-aged French-English bilingual children were given tests of…
Lehtonen, Minna; Hulten, Annika; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti
2012-01-01
We investigated the behavioral and brain responses (ERPs) of bilingual word recognition to three fundamental psycholinguistic factors, frequency, morphology, and lexicality, in early bilinguals vs. monolinguals. Earlier behavioral studies have reported larger frequency effects in bilinguals' nondominant vs. dominant language and in some studies…
Banda, Felix
2010-01-01
This paper explores how bilingual learners and teachers challenge the monolingual discourses prescribed in language education policy and models in pursuit of voice and agency in classroom interaction. Through an examination of observation, interview and classroom interaction data in selected coloured primary and secondary schools in Cape Town, the…
Mohammad H. Keshavarz
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Some researchers argue that linguistic knowledge of one’s native language facilitates the acquisition of additional languages (see, for example, Cenoz & Valencia, 1994; Grenfell & Harris, 2006; Hakuta, 1990; Keshavarz & Astaneh, 2004. To contribute to this line of research, the present study investigated the probability of significant differences among monolingual and bilingual EFL learners in their awareness and perceived use of metacognitive reading strategies and in the subscales of these strategies (i.e., global, supportive, and problem-solving strategies. To achieve this goal, 100 Persian monolingual and 100 Azeri Turkish-Persian bilingual male and female second-year university students, majoring in English Literature, ELT, and Translation with the age range of 20-28 participated in the study. Both groups took the Nelson Test of English language proficiency and completed the Metacognitive Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI questionnaire. Participants’ reading strategy use was determined by asking them to rate their self-perceived reading ability in English on a 5-point Likert scale. The results of data analyses revealed significant differences between monolingual and bilingual learners in the use of overall and global metacognitive reading strategies with bilingual learners having greater awareness of these two strategies. However, no significant difference was found between monolingual and bilingual participants in the use of problem-solving and supportive metacognitive strategies.
Guidelines for the Establishment and Development of Monolingual Thesauri for Information Retrieval.
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).
These guidelines are applicable in the sector of information and documentation for the preparation and development of monolingual thesauri for information storage and retrieval, irrespective of the technical field being dealt with. No provision has been made for mathematical and structural chemical formulae. The guidelines are drafted for general…
Monolingual and Bilingual Preschoolers' Use of Gestures to Interpret Ambiguous Pronouns
Yow, W. Quin
2015-01-01
Young children typically do not use order-of-mention to resolve ambiguous pronouns, but may do so if given additional cues, such as gestures. Additionally, this ability to utilize gestures may be enhanced in bilingual children, who may be more sensitive to such cues due to their unique language experience. We asked monolingual and bilingual…
Executive Function Differences between Bilingual ArabicEnglish and Monolingual Arabic Children
Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub
2015-01-01
This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than…
The Use of Spanish by a Monolingual Kindergarten Teacher to Support English Language Learners
de Oliveira, Luciana C.; Gilmetdinova, Alsu; Pelaez-Morales, Carolina
2016-01-01
This article reports on a case study of a kindergarten, monolingual teacher and how she used Spanish, the home language of her Latino/a students who are English language learners (ELLs), in the classroom. The article focuses on how the teacher develops and uses her emerging knowledge of Spanish to scaffold students' learning, specifically when…
Phoneme awareness, vocabulary and word decoding in monolingual and bilingual Dutch children
Janssen, M.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Leseman, P.P.M.
2013-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilingually raised children in the Netherlands, who receive literacy instruction in their second language only, show an advantage on Dutch phoneme-awareness tasks compared with monolingual Dutch-speaking children. Language performance of a group of 47
The Influence of Emotional Arousal on Affective Priming in Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers
Altarriba, Jeanette; Canary, Tina M.
2004-01-01
The activation of arousal components for emotion-laden words in English (e.g. kiss, death) was examined in two groups of participants: English monolinguals and Spanish-English bilinguals. In Experiment 1, emotion-laden words were rated on valence and perceived arousal. These norms were used to construct prime-target word pairs that were used in…
Lehtonen, Minna; Hulten, Annika; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti
2012-01-01
We investigated the behavioral and brain responses (ERPs) of bilingual word recognition to three fundamental psycholinguistic factors, frequency, morphology, and lexicality, in early bilinguals vs. monolinguals. Earlier behavioral studies have reported larger frequency effects in bilinguals' nondominant vs. dominant language and in some studies…
Investigating Interorganizational Relations Using Latent Social Role Theory.
Linden, Russell M.; And Others
Previous research into the interpersonal aspects of interorganizational relations has emphasized the importance of latent social roles in studying community leaders. Following Merton's (1957) identification of two general types of influentials, Gouldner (1957, 1958) identified persons focusing on organizational loyalty over specialized skills as…
Exact relations between M2-brane theories with and without Orientifolds
Honda, Masazumi
2015-01-01
We study partition functions of low-energy effective theories of M2-branes, whose type IIB brane constructions include orientifolds. We mainly focus on circular quiver superconformal Chern-Simons theory on S^3, whose gauge group is O(2N+1)x USp(2N)x ... x O(2N+1)x USp(2N). This theory is a natural generalization of N=5 ABJM theory with the gauge group O(2N+1)_{2k}x USp(2N)_{-k}. We find that the partition function of this type of theory has a simple relation to the one of the M2-brane theories without the orientifolds, whose gauge group is U(N)x ... x U(N). By using this relation, we determine an exact form of the grand partition function of the O(2N+1)_2 x USp(2N)_{-1} ABJM theory, where its supersymmetry is expected to enhance to N=6. As another interesting application, we discuss that our result gives a natural physical interpretation of a relation between grand partition functions of the U(N+1)_4 x U(N)_{-4} ABJ theory and U(N)_2 x U(N)_{-2} ABJM theory, recently conjectured by Grassi-Hatsuda-Marino. We a...
Special relativity as the limit of an Aristotelian universal friction theory under Reye's assumption
Minguzzi, E
2014-01-01
This work explores a classical mechanical theory under two further assumptions: (a) there is a universal dry friction force (Aristotelian mechanics), and (b) the variation of the mass of a body due to wear is proportional to the work done by the friction force on the body (Reye's hypothesis). It is shown that mass depends on velocity as in Special Relativity, and that the velocity is constant for a particular characteristic value. In the limit of vanishing friction the theory satisfies a relativity principle as bodies do not decelerate and, therefore, the absolute frame becomes unobservable. However, the limit theory is not Newtonian mechanics, with its Galilei group symmetry, but rather Special Relativity. This result suggests to regard Special Relativity as the limit of a theory presenting universal friction and exchange of mass-energy with a reservoir (vacuum). Thus, quite surprisingly, Special Relativity follows from the absolute space (ether) concept and could have been discovered following studies of Ar...
Survival units as the point of departure for a relational social theory
Kaspersen, Lars Bo; Gabriel, Norman
makes two claims: 1) the only theoretically sustainable point of departure for a social theory is to study human beings, human society (and maybe also other animals but we leave this aside for the moment!) in a relational perspective! This claim is justified by a number of arguments among others his......Relational social theory can be found in the works of Hegel, Marx, Simmel, Mannheim, Mead, Saussure, Lévi-Strauss, Althusser, Foucault and Bourdieu. However, one of the most consistent relational thinkers is Norbert Elias. In order to develop his figurational and relational social theory Elias...... individual or a man-woman relation (family) or man-nature (subject-object). The first unit of analysis is the double relational binding of human beings in social groups. In the first order we find the relation between survival units (`state'-`state'). In a second order we find relations between families...
Ethical Selves: A Sketch for a Theory of Relational Authenticity
Natalie Fletcher
2013-01-01
Philosophers who show interest in authenticity tend to narrowly focus on its capacity to help people evade conformity and affirm individuality, a simplistic reduction that neglects authenticity’s moral potential and gives credence to the many critics who dismiss it as a euphemism for excessive individualism. Yet when conceived relationally, authenticity can also allow for worthy human flourishing without falling prey to conformity’s opposite extreme—egoism. This essay proposes a sketch for a ...
Dirichlet and Related Distributions Theory, Methods and Applications
Ng, Kai Wang; Tang, Man-Lai
2011-01-01
The Dirichlet distribution appears in many areas of application, which include modelling of compositional data, Bayesian analysis, statistical genetics, and nonparametric inference. This book provides a comprehensive review of the Dirichlet distribution and two extended versions, the Grouped Dirichlet Distribution (GDD) and the Nested Dirichlet Distribution (NDD), arising from likelihood and Bayesian analysis of incomplete categorical data and survey data with non-response. The theoretical properties and applications are also reviewed in detail for other related distributions, such as the inve
Ethical Selves : A Sketch for a Theory of Relational Authenticity
Natalie Fletcher
2013-01-01
Philosophers who show interest in authenticity tend to narrowly focus on its capacity to help people evade conformity and affirm individuality, a simplistic reduction that neglects authenticity’s moral potential and gives credence to the many critics who dismiss it as a euphemism for excessive individualism. Yet when conceived relationally, authenticity can also allow for worthy human flourishing without falling prey to conformity’s opposite extreme—egoism. This essay proposes a sketch for a ...
The theory behind the age-related positivity effect
Andrew E Reed
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The positivity effect refers to an age-related trend that favors positive over negative stimuli in cognitive processing. Relative to their younger counterparts, older people attend to and remember more positive than negative information. Since the effect was initially identified and the conceptual basis articulated (Mather & Carstensen, 2005 scores of independent replications and related findings have appeared in the literature. Over the same period, a number of investigations have failed to observe age differences in the cognitive processing of emotional material. When findings are considered in theoretical context, a reliable pattern of evidence emerges that helps to refine conceptual tenets. In this article we articulate the operational definition and theoretical foundations of the positivity effect and review the empirical evidence based on studies of visual attention, memory, decision-making, and neural activation. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions with emphasis on the conditions where a focus on positive information may benefit and/or impair cognitive performance in older people.
Relational Marketing in Mass Marketing. Theory or Actual Practice?
José Luis Wakabayashi
2012-05-01
Full Text Available The relational marketing paradigm, as well as its predecessors, has been rapidly added to marketing management’s lexicon and tool kit. In conjunction with this concept, theoreticians have devised techniques that are essential to make it operative. Paramount among them is the development of the client management process and within it, the use and application of the Customer Lifetime Value concept which is the relational approach’s corner stone, and the present value of future growth is generated by clients In working with clients, this is essential to determine the strategy that will allow the company to reach and/or preserve its competitive advantage. Evidence so far suggests that although companies are prone to adopt the relational marketing paradigm, they still enforce transactional marketing concepts. This may be the consequence of the emerging use of that concept and the Customer Lifetime Value technique in Latin American countries as part of the client management process. The failure to use this concept in dynamic industries, as in mass retail, is a topic of interest for administration sciences and in particular, marketing and this article seeks to draw attention to this fact.
Kretschmer, A.; Lampmann, S.A.; Altgassen, A.M.
2014-01-01
The aims of the present study were to investigate relations between moral reasoning, executive functioning and Theory of Mind in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared to typically developing children and to apply the dual aspect theory of Lind (1978, 2008) to moral reasoning in indi
Short Cuts and Extended Techniques: Rethinking Relations between Technology and Educational Theory
Thumlert, Kurt; de Castell, Suzanne; Jenson, Jennifer
2015-01-01
Building upon a recent call to renew actor-network theory (ANT) for educational research, this article reconsiders relations between technology and educational theory. Taking cues from actor-network theorists, this discussion considers the technologically-mediated networks in which learning actors are situated, acted upon, and acting, and traces…
THE EVOLUTION OF CURRENCY RELATIONS IN THE LIGHT OF MAJOR EXCHANGE RATE ADJUSTMENT THEORIES
Sergiy TKACH
2014-07-01
Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of major exchange rate adjustment theories on the global monetary system. The reasons of the previous organization forms of monetary relations collapse at the global level are defined. The main achievements and failures of major exchange rate theories are described.
Understanding Nature-Related Behaviors among Children through a Theory of Reasoned Action Approach
Gotch, Chad; Hall, Troy
2004-01-01
The Theory of Reasoned Action has proven to be a valuable tool for predicting and understanding behavior and, as such, provides a potentially important basis for environmental education program design. This study used a Theory of Reasoned Action approach to examine a unique type of behavior (nature-related activities) and a unique population…
A model of theory-practice relations in mathematics teacher education
Østergaard, Kaj
2015-01-01
The paper presents and discusses an ATD based (Chevallard, 2012) model of theory-practice relations in mathematics teacher education. The notions of didactic transposition and praxeology are combined and concretized in order to form a comprehensive model for analysing the theory-practice problema...
A superconducting gyroscope to test Einstein's general theory of relativity
Everitt, C. W. F.
1978-01-01
Schiff (1960) proposed a new test of general relativity based on measuring the precessions of the spin axes of gyroscopes in earth orbit. Since 1963 a Stanford research team has been developing an experiment to measure the two effects calculated by Schiff. The gyroscope consists of a uniform sphere of fused quartz 38 mm in diameter, coated with superconductor, electrically suspended and spinning at about 170 Hz in vacuum. The paper describes the proposed flight apparatus and the current state of development of the gyroscope, including techniques for manufacturing and measuring the gyro rotor and housing, generating ultralow magnetic fields, and mechanizing the readout.
Affine diffusions and related processes simulation, theory and applications
Alfonsi, Aurélien
2015-01-01
This book gives an overview of affine diffusions, from Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes to Wishart processes and it considers some related diffusions such as Wright-Fisher processes. It focuses on different simulation schemes for these processes, especially second-order schemes for the weak error. It also presents some models, mostly in the field of finance, where these methods are relevant and provides some numerical experiments. The book explains the mathematical background to understand affine diffusions and analyze the accuracy of the schemes.
T-complex measures in bilingual Spanish-English and Turkish-German children and monolingual peers
Rinker, Tanja; Shafer, Valerie L.; Kiefer, Markus; Vidal, Nancy; Yu, Yan H.
2017-01-01
Background Lateral temporal neural measures (Na and T-complex Ta and Tb) of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) index maturation of auditory/speech processing. These measures are also sensitive to language experience in adults. This paper examined neural responses to a vowel sound at temporal electrodes in four- to five-year-old Spanish-English bilinguals and English monolinguals and in five- to six-year-old Turkish-German bilinguals and German monolinguals. The goal was to determine whether obligatory AEPs at temporal electrode sites were modulated by language experience. Language experience was defined in terms of monolingual versus bilingual status as well as the amount and quality of the bilingual language experience. Method AEPs were recorded at left and right temporal electrode sites to a 250-ms vowel [Ɛ] from 20 monolingual (American)-English and 18 Spanish-English children from New York City, and from 11 Turkish-German and 13 monolingual German children from Ulm, Germany. Language background information and standardized verbal and non-verbal test scores were obtained for the children. Results The results revealed differences in temporal AEPs (Na and Ta of the T-complex) between monolingual and bilingual children. Specifically, bilingual children showed smaller and/or later peak amplitudes than the monolingual groups. Ta-amplitude distinguished monolingual and bilingual children best at right electrode sites for both the German and American groups. Amount of experience and type of experience with the target language (English and German) influenced processing. Conclusions The finding of reduced amplitudes at the Ta latency for bilingual compared to monolingual children indicates that language specific experience, and not simply maturational factors, influences development of the neural processes underlying the Ta AEP, and suggests that lateral temporal cortex has an important role in language-specific speech perception development. PMID:28267801
Does Social Value Orientation Theory Apply to Social Relations?
Patricia Danielle Lewis
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This research asks whether Social Value Orientations (SVOs apply to the social relations of exchange networks. SVO literature identifies three types of orientation to rational action, determined by how actors value outcomes to self and other. Only the individualist is the self-interested, rational actor previously seen in exchange networks. The prosocial actor seeks to maximize joint outcomes and equality whereas the competitor seeks to maximize differences between self and other. The competitor and individualist are frequently collapsed into a proself type. Whereas SVO research has focused on games and social dilemmas, this research places prosocials and proselfs in equal, weak, and strong power exchange structures. We show that, if SVO applies, the behaviors of proself and prosocial will be very different. Experimental results demonstrate, however, that prosocials’ actions in exchanges are indistinguishable from activities of proselfs.
A computational theory for the learning of equivalence relations.
Lew, Sergio E; Zanutto, B Silvano
2011-01-01
Equivalence relations (ERs) are logical entities that emerge concurrently with the development of language capabilities. In this work we propose a computational model that learns to build ERs by learning simple conditional rules. The model includes visual areas, dopaminergic, and noradrenergic structures as well as prefrontal and motor areas, each of them modeled as a group of continuous valued units that simulate clusters of real neurons. In the model, lateral interaction between neurons of visual structures and top-down modulation of prefrontal/premotor structures over the activity of neurons in visual structures are necessary conditions for learning the paradigm. In terms of the number of neurons and their interaction, we show that a minimal structural complexity is required for learning ERs among conditioned stimuli. Paradoxically, the emergence of the ER drives a reduction in the number of neurons needed to maintain those previously specific stimulus-response learned rules, allowing an efficient use of neuronal resources.
Arun, K. G.; Pai, Archana
2013-01-01
Gravitational wave (GW) observations of coalescing compact binaries will be unique probes of strong-field, dynamical aspects of relativistic gravity. We present a short review of various schemes proposed in the literature to test general relativity (GR) and alternative theories of gravity using inspiral waveforms. Broadly these schemes may be classified into two types: model dependent and model independent. In the model dependent category, GW observations are compared against a specific waveform model representative of a particular theory or a class of theories such as scalar-tensor theories, dynamical Chern-Simons theory and massive graviton theories. Model independent tests are attempts to write down a parametrized gravitational waveform where the free parameters take different values for different theories and (at least some of) which can be constrained by GW observations. We revisit some of the proposed bounds in the case of downscaled LISA configuration (eLISA) and compare them with the original LISA configuration. We also compare the expected bounds on alternative theories of gravity from ground-based and space-based detectors and find that space-based GW detectors can test GR and other theories of gravity with unprecedented accuracies. We then focus on a recent proposal to use singular value decomposition of the Fisher information matrix to improve the accuracies with which post-Newtonian theory can be tested. We extend those results to the case of space-based detector eLISA and discuss its implications.
The theory of interpersonal relations applied to the preceptor-new graduate relationship.
Washington, Georgita T
2013-01-01
This article presents research results applying Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations to the preceptor-new graduate relationship and describes implications for successful transition. These results will help nursing professional development educators with more appropriate preparation and assignment of preceptors.
Green, A
1986-10-01
Several methodological factors associated with the concurrent activities (finger-tapping) paradigm were considered in a cross-sectional study investigating cerebral patterns of asymmetry in three groups of English-speaking non-Hispanic dextral males at three levels of second language (Spanish) acquisition and one control group of monolinguals. Results revealed the fluent bilinguals to be bilateral and significantly different from other groups for native language tasks in English. Moreover, a priori contrasts indicate that greater right- than left-hand disruption in concurrent tapping may be typical of monolinguals, but can be influenced by other factors. Monolingual reliability test-retest correlations were .77 and .47.
Misconceptions in recent papers on special relativity and absolute space theories
Torr, D. G.; Kolen, P.
1982-01-01
Several recent papers which purport to substantiate or negate arguments in favor of certain theories of absolute space have been based on fallacious principles. This paper discusses three related instances, indicating where misconceptions have arisen. It is established, contrary to popular belief, that the classical Lorentz ether theory accounts for all the experimental evidence which supports the special theory of relativity. It is demonstrated that the ether theory predicts the null results obtained from pulsar timing and Moessbauer experiments. It is concluded that a measurement of the one-way velocity of light has physical meaning within the context of the Lorentz theory, and it is argued that an adequately designed experiment to measure the one-way velocity of light should be attempted.
Social capital theory related to corporate social responsibility
Eva Abramuszkinová Pavlíková
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The article deals with corporate social responsibility and its relationship to strategic management dealing with acquisition, development and utilisation of essential inputs. They influence the design of processes related to the creation of products or services that satisfy customers’ needs. Authors claim that the successful securing, deployment and development of any input is of human origin or linked to human activity which means that the nature of relationships plays a crucial role. As businesses are not isolated, they operate on a global scale where the question of trust is very important. The concept of social capital stresses that trust in norms and reciprocity facilitate increased productivity in individuals, teams and organisations. Social capital promotes value-added collaboration including on-going and demonstrative transparency which can secure closer bonding among those group members. Business responsibility, CSR and Putnam’s definition of social capital is shown on real case studies as a sign of importance for credibility and effectiveness of any CSR efforts. It is evident that the good will and support garnered from CSR can be fragile and easily damaged.
New extended standard model, dark matters and relativity theory
Hwang, Jae-Kwang
2016-03-01
Three-dimensional quantized space model is newly introduced as the extended standard model. Four three-dimensional quantized spaces with total 12 dimensions are used to explain the universes including ours. Electric (EC), lepton (LC) and color (CC) charges are defined to be the charges of the x1x2x3, x4x5x6 and x7x8x9 warped spaces, respectively. Then, the lepton is the xi(EC) - xj(LC) correlated state which makes 3x3 = 9 leptons and the quark is the xi(EC) - xj(LC) - xk(CC) correlated state which makes 3x3x3 = 27 quarks. The new three bastons with the xi(EC) state are proposed as the dark matters seen in the x1x2x3 space, too. The matter universe question, three generations of the leptons and quarks, dark matter and dark energy, hadronization, the big bang, quantum entanglement, quantum mechanics and general relativity are briefly discussed in terms of this new model. The details can be found in the article titled as ``journey into the universe; three-dimensional quantized spaces, elementary particles and quantum mechanics at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/J_Hwang2''.
A theory of turbulence based on scale relativity
de Montera, Louis
2013-01-01
The internal interactions of fluids occur at all scales therefore the resulting force fields have no reason to be smooth and differentiable. The release of the differentiability hypothesis has important mathematical consequences, like scale dependence and the use of a higher algebra. The law of mechanics transfers directly these properties to the velocity of fluid particles whose trajectories in velocity space become fractal and non-deterministic. The principle of relativity is used to find the form of the equation governing velocity in scale space. The solution of this equation contains a fractal and a non-fractal term. The fractal part is shown to be equivalent to the Lagrangian version of the Kolmogorov law of fully-developed and isotropic turbulence. It is therefore associated with turbulence, whereas the non-fractal deterministic term is associated with a laminar behavior. These terms are found to be balanced when the typical velocity reaches a level at which the Reynolds number is equal to one, in agree...
Relating Berkovits and $A_\\infty$ Superstring Field Theories; Large Hilbert Space Perspective
Erler, Theodore
2015-01-01
We lift the dynamical field of the $A_\\infty$ superstring field theory to the large Hilbert space by introducing a trivial gauge invariance associated with the eta zero mode. We then provide a field redefinition which relates to the lifted field to the dynamical field of Berkovits' superstring field theory in the large Hilbert space. This generalizes the field redefinition in the small Hilbert space described in earlier works, and is useful for understanding the relation between the gauge symmetries of the theories.
Janardhan, Sujatha
2012-01-01
We present a short review of geometric and algebraic approach to causal cones and describe cone preserving transformations and their relationship with causal structure related to special and general theory of relativity. We describe Lie groups, especially matrix Lie groups, homogeneous and symmetric spaces and causal cones and certain implications of these concepts in special and general theory of relativity related to causal structure and topology of space-time. We compare and contrast the results on causal relations with those in the literature for general space-times and compare these relations with K-causal maps. We also describe causal orientations and their implications for space-time topology and discuss some more topologies on space-time which arise as an application of domain theory.
The curious relation between theory of mind and sharing in preschool age children.
Cowell, Jason M; Samek, Anya; List, John; Decety, Jean
2015-01-01
Young children have long been known to act selfishly and gradually appear to become more generous across middle childhood. While this apparent change has been well documented, the underlying mechanisms supporting this remain unclear. The current study examined the role of early theory of mind and executive functioning in facilitating sharing in a large sample (N = 98) of preschoolers. Results reveal a curious relation between early false-belief understanding and sharing behavior. Contrary to many commonsense notions and predominant theories, competence in this ability is actually related to less sharing. Thus, the relation between developing theory of mind and sharing may not be as straightforward as it seems in preschool age children. It is precisely the children who can engage in theory of mind that decide to share less with others.
Analysis of correlation functions in Toda theory and AGT-W relation for SU(3) quiver
Kanno, Shoichi; Shiba, Shotaro
2010-01-01
We give some evidences of the AGT-W relation between SU(3) quiver gauge theories and A_2 Toda theory. In particular, we derive the explicit form of 5-point correlation functions in the lower orders and confirm the agreement with Nekrasov's partition function for SU(3)xSU(3) quiver gauge theory. The algorithm to derive the correlation functions can be applied to general n-point function in A_2 Toda theory which will be useful to establish the relation for more generic quivers. Partial analysis is also given for SU(3)xSU(2) case and we comment on some technical issues which need clarification before establishing the relation.
In Pursuit of Three Theories: Authoritarianism, Relative Deprivation, and Intergroup Contact.
Pettigrew, Thomas F
2016-01-01
Throughout my career, I have pursued three theories related to intergroup prejudice--each with a different mentor. Each theory and its supporting research help us to understand prejudice and ways to ameliorate the problem. This autobiographical review article summarizes some of the advances in these three areas during the past six decades. For authoritarianism, the article advocates removing political content from its measurement, linking it with threat and dismissive-avoidant attachment, and studying how authoritarians avoid intergroup contact. Increased work on relative deprivation made possible an extensive meta-analysis that shows the theory, when appropriately measured, has far broader effects than previously thought. Increased research attention to intergroup contact similarly made possible a meta-analysis that established the pervasive effectiveness of intergroup contact to reduce prejudice under a wide range of conditions. The article closes by demonstrating how the three theories relate to each other and contribute to our understanding of prejudice and its reduction.
Quantized Brans-Dicke theory: Phase transition, strong coupling limit, and general relativity
Pal, Sridip
2016-10-01
We show that Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometry with a flat spatial section in quantized (Wheeler deWitt quantization) Brans-Dicke (BD) theory reveals a rich phase structure owing to anomalous breaking of a classical symmetry, which maps the scale factor a ↦λ a for some constant λ . In the weak coupling (ω ) limit, the theory goes from a symmetry preserving phase to a broken phase. The existence of a phase boundary is an obstruction to another classical symmetry [see V. Faraoni, Phys. Rev. D 59, 084021 (1999).] (which relates two BD theories with different couplings) admitted by BD theory with scale invariant matter content, i.e., Tμμ=0 . Classically, this prohibits the BD theory from reducing to general relativity (GR) for scale invariant matter content. We show that a strong coupling limit of both BD and GR preserves the symmetry involving the scale factor. We also show that with scale invariant matter content (radiation, i.e., P =1/3 ρ ), the quantized BD theory does reduce to GR as ω →∞ , which is in sharp contrast to classical behavior. This is a first known illustration of a scenario where quantized BD theory provides an example of anomalous symmetry breaking and resulting binary phase structure. We make a conjecture regarding the strong coupling limit of the BD theory in a generic scenario.
A relational frame theory account of the emergence of sexual fantasy.
Stockwell, Fawna M J; Moran, Daniel J
2014-01-01
Sexual fantasy is common among humans and often serves to facilitate sexual arousal. Although some fantasies may be directly related to a person's past experiences, others may be unrelated to direct history, and these are thus more difficult to explain. Relational frame theory is a comprehensive account of human language and cognition that may assist in understanding the processes involved in the emergence of sexual fantasy. This article presents a primer on relational frame theory, along with examples of how relations between stimuli may influence a person's private experience of sexual fantasy.
The role of theory of international relations in explicating global political events
Mr.Sc. Bardhok Bashota
2011-03-01
Full Text Available It is rather obvious that different developments in the international relations scene are so dynamic that a theory of international relations cannot elaborate alone the ways they begin, develop and eventually end. Therefore, one must underline that using a theoretical framework of wi-der extent becomes almost indispensable. In this sense, one must underli-ne that IR theories are paths or means used by scholars to provide expla-nation on these developments. Among numerous IR theories, those app-lied the most are the three key ones: liberalism, realism and rationalism. These three theories, depending on the manner and logic of approach and effort in trying to elaborate an IR event, they gain labels in a specific form, for instance – positivist theories. They are called positivist, because they aim to pursue the example of natural science to be more accurate in their work, at least in a metaphorical sense. Therefore, the contents of this paper provide an example of physics, to adapt to the nature of theory elaborated herein. The reason and objective of this paper is to argue our thesis that “li-beral theory alone cannot elaborate on all IR developments, and more theories are required”. The two other theories, realism and ratio-nalism help build a more wholesome understanding of IR developments. Also, the two other theories are used to support or counter the arguments of liberals and liberalism in relation to interpretation, explication and forecast of IR developments, which are tasks of an IR theory. This research is realized in a temporal context of post Cold War. This period is more suitable for study, and has attracted our interest. Otherwise, the three theoretical traditions had existed even before, and any effort to elaborate in details would be historical. Also, the focus in only three main IR theories, Liberalism, Realism and Rationalism, narrow down the field of study and make it more tangible. Nevertheless, to have an easier job in
Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Davidson, Meghan M; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita
2016-02-01
The current study examined the relationship between nonverbal working memory and morphosyntactic processing in monolingual native speakers of English and bilingual speakers of English and Spanish. We tested 42 monolingual children and 42 bilingual children between the ages of 8 and 10years matched on age and nonverbal IQ. Children were administered an auditory Grammaticality Judgment task in English to measure morphosyntactic processing and a visual N-Back task and Corsi Blocks task to measure nonverbal working memory capacity. Analyses revealed that monolinguals were more sensitive to English morphosyntactic information than bilinguals, but the groups did not differ in reaction times or response bias. Furthermore, higher nonverbal working memory capacity was associated with greater sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations in bilinguals but not in monolinguals. The findings suggest that nonverbal working memory skills link more tightly to syntactic processing in populations with lower levels of language knowledge.
Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Davidson, Meghan M.; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Kaushanskaya, Margarita
2015-01-01
The current study examined the relationship between non-verbal working memory and morphosyntactic processing in monolingual native speakers of English and bilingual speakers of English and Spanish. We tested 42 monolingual children and 42 bilingual children between the ages of 8 and 10, matched on age and non-verbal IQ. Children were administered an auditory Grammaticality Judgment task in English to measure morphosyntatic processing, and a visual N-Back task and a Corsi Blocks task to measure non-verbal working memory capacity. Analyses revealed that monolinguals were more sensitive to English morphosyntactic information than bilinguals, but the groups did not differ in reaction times or response bias. Furthermore, higher non-verbal working memory capacity was associated with greater sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations in bilinguals, but not in monolinguals. The findings suggest that non-verbal working memory skills link more tightly to syntactic processing in populations with lower levels of language knowledge. PMID:26550957
Nakajima, Sadahiko
2005-06-01
Sensory preconditioning and the Espinet effect illustrate that animals can reason about event relations. In sensory preconditioning, a combination of positive A-B and B-C relations yields a positive A-C relation. In the Espinet effect, a combination of a negative A-B relation and a positive B-C relation yields a negative A-C relation. Using analogies of Heider's balance theory of human attitudes, we predict that nonhuman animals would also infer a positive A-C relation from negative A-B and B-C relations.
ANALYTICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN EIGENVALUES OF CIRCULAR PLATE BASED ON VARIOUS PLATE THEORIES
无
2006-01-01
Based on the mathematical similarity of the axisymmetric eigenvalue problems of a circular plate between the classical plate theory(CPT), the first-order shear deformation plate theory(FPT) and the Reddy's third-order shear deformation plate theory(RPT), analytical relations between the eigenvalues of circular plate based on various plate theories are investigated. In the present paper, the eigenvalue problem is transformed to solve an algebra equation. Analytical relationships that are expressed explicitly between various theories are presented. Therefore, from these relationships one can easily obtain the exact RPT and FPT solutions of critical buckling load and natural frequencyfor a circular plate with CPT solutions. The relationships are useful for engineering application, and can be used to check the validity, convergence and accuracy of numerical results for the eigenvalue problem of plates.
The relation between acquisition of a theory of mind and the capacity to hold in mind.
Gordon, A C; Olson, D R
1998-01-01
Building on earlier work by Pascual-Leone (1970) and Case (1985), Olson (1989; 1993) set out a theory showing how a series of incremental changes in capacity for "holding in mind" could account, in part, for children's acquisition of a theory of mind. Following Piaget (1951) infants were said to employ schemata for maintaining relations with objects and events in the presence of those events. At about 18 months children became capable of holding in mind an object so as to free the perceptual system to perceive a second object and form a relation between the two, allowing for what Piaget called the "symbolic function" and what Olson described as predication. At around 4 years, the period examined in the present study, children were said to acquire the ability to represent that predicative relation as a belief or as true or false. That was the stage at which children were said to possess a theory of mind. The present study tested the hypothesized relation between development of a theory of mind and increasing computational resources. Three-, four-, and five-year-old children's performance on a pair of theory of mind tasks was compared with that on a pair of dual processing tasks designed on the basis of Baddeley's (1986) model of working memory. The resulting correlations, as high as r = .64 between the tasks, suggest that changes in capacity to hold in mind allow the expression of, and arguably the formation of, a theory of mind.
Costa, B; Dewaele, Jean-Marc
2012-01-01
The present study investigates beliefs, attitudes and practices of 101 monolingual and multilingual therapists in their interactions with multilingual patients. We adopted a\\ud mixed-method approach, using an on-line questionnaire with 27 closed questions which were analysed quantitatively and informed questions in interviews with one monolingual\\ud and two multilingual therapists. A principal component analysis yielded a four-factor solution accounting for 41% of the variance. The first dime...
On the Role of Information Theoretic Uncertainty Relations in Quantum Theory
Jizba, Petr; Dunningham, Jacob A.; Joo, Jaewoo
2014-01-01
Uncertainty relations based on information theory for both discrete and continuous distribution functions are briefly reviewed. We extend these results to account for (differential) R\\'{e}nyi entropy and its related entropy power. This allows us to find a new class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations (ITURs). The potency of such uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics is illustrated with a simple two-energy-level model where they outperform both the usual Robertson-Schr\\"{o}ding...
An internal-variable theory of thermo-viscoelastic constitutive relations at finite strain
黄筑平; 陈建康; 王文标
2000-01-01
Based on the nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory, a new thermo-viscoelastic relation at finite strain is proposed. Under the assumption that the specific heat at a fixed strain and fixed internal variables can be regarded as a constant, a new expression for the free energy which decouples the mechanical and the thermal effects is derived. Through an analysis of the mesoscopic deformation mechanism of solid polymers, a set of internal variables is introduced, and an internal-variable consti-tutive theory in thermo-viscoelasticity at finite strain is formulated. An explicit expression of a thermo-viscoelastic constitutive relation is obtained for solid polymers in the case where their molecular network has a randomly oriented distribution function at reference configuration. Moreover, the relationship be-tween the relaxation time and the temperature is also discussed. The viscoelastic constitutive theory proposed in reference is only a linear approximation of the present theory.
An internal-variable theory of thermo-viscoelastic constitutive relations at finite strain
无
2000-01-01
Based on the nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory,a new thermo-viscoelastic relation at finite strain is proposed.Under the assumption that the specific heat at a fixed strain and fixed internal variables can be regarded as a constant,a new expression for the free energy which decouples the mechanical and the thermal effects is derived.Through an analysis of the mesoscopic deformation mechanism of solid polymers,a set of internal variables is introduced,and an internal-variable constitutive theory in thermo-viscoelasticity at finite strain is formulated.An explicit expression of a thermo-viscoelastic constitutive relation is obtained for solid polymers in the case where their molecular network has a randomly oriented distribution function at reference configuration.Moreover,the relationship between the relaxation time and the temperature is also discussed.The viscoelastic constitutive theory proposed in reference is only a linear approximation of the present theory.
[Analysis of humanistic theory and interpersonal relations of nurses in newborn care].
Rolim, Karla Maria Carneiro; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; Leitão Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia M
2005-01-01
Theories are propositions created to evaluate nursing care, allowing nurses to consider and incorporate them in their professional practice. This Masters study was aimed at thinking critically about the practical usefulness of the concepts of Humanistic Nursing Theory. This descriptive-reflexive study was carried out in 2004 and used Meleis' model for the analysis of theories. The "critique of theory" segment was taken from this model to be used as an analytical tool, with emphasis on the "usefulness" parameter. The critical analysis revealed the notorious "usefulness" of interpersonal relations and dialogue, which can be used in daily practice at the Newborn Intensive Care Unit, valuing the human affective relations, which are essential for nursing care. Nursing practice should be guided by theoretical, philosophical, and methodological reference frameworks, responsible for making professionals reflect critically on themselves and their practice.
A model of theory-practice relations in mathematics teacher education
Østergaard, Kaj
2015-01-01
The paper presents and discusses an ATD based (Chevallard, 2012) model of theory-practice relations in mathematics teacher education. The notions of didactic transposition and praxeology are combined and concretized in order to form a comprehensive model for analysing the theory-practice problema......The paper presents and discusses an ATD based (Chevallard, 2012) model of theory-practice relations in mathematics teacher education. The notions of didactic transposition and praxeology are combined and concretized in order to form a comprehensive model for analysing the theory......-practice problematique. It is illustrated how the model can be used both as a descriptive tool to analyse interactions between and interviews with student teachers and teachers and as a normative tool to design and redesign learning environments in teacher education in this case a lesson study context....
Combining general relativity and quantum theory points of conflict and contact
Padmanabhan, T
2001-01-01
The issues related to bringing together the principles of general relativity and quantum theory are discussed. After briefly summarising the points of conflict between the two formalisms I focus on four specific themes in which some contact has been established in the past between GR and quantum field theory: (i) The role of planck length in the microstructure of spacetime (ii) The role of quantum effects in cosmology and origin of the universe (iii) The thermodynamics of spacetimes with horizons and especially the concept of entropy related to spacetime geometry (iv) The problem of the cosmological constant.
Moritz Schlick's reading of Poincaré's theory of relativity
Walter, Scott
2010-01-01
International audience; My discussion of Schlick's view of Poincaré's theory begins with a review of the difference between Einstein's and Poincaré's theories, that turns on the form of light-waves as judged by observers in inertial frames of reference. I summarize the evolution of Poincaré's philosophy of geometry in the early years of relativity theory, which Schlick ignored throughout his life, and in the second section of the paper, I recall Schlick's discussion of Poincaré's views on the...
Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald
2006-01-01
This paper extends the Lorenz theory, developed in [L. Egghe and R. Rousseau. Symmetric and asymmetric theory of relative concentration and applications. Scientometrics 52(2), 261-290, 2001], so that it can deal with comparing arrays of variable length. We show that in this case we need to divide the Lorenz curves by certain types of increasing functions of the array length N. We then prove that, in this theory, adding zeros to two arrays, increases their similarity, a property that is not...
[On Relation between Diabetes and Intestinal Flora from Theory of Pi-Wei].
Gong, Jing; Chen, Guang; Wang, Ding-kun; Lu, Fu-er
2016-04-01
Diabetes is seriously hazards to human health and its pathogeneses are not clear. Recent studies show that the imbalance of intestinal flora and the development of diabetes are closely related. Appropriate bacteria can improve blood sugar disorder. Treating diabetes from the theory of Pi-Wei is effective. Regulating intestinal flora has become a new pathway for treating diabetes from the theory of Pi-Wei. On the basis of intestinal flora, authors discussed the treatment of diabetes from Pi and Wei.
Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Voulgaridou, Ioanna; Mandrali, Marianna; Parousidou, Chrysoula
2016-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate possible interactive links between theory of mind (ToM), moral disengagement and relational aggression, using a moderated mediation analysis, with gender as a moderator, in a sample of 120 Greek preadolescents. Results indicated that relational aggression was significantly positively associated with moral…
Understanding work-related social media use: An extension of theory of planned behavior.
van Zoonen, W.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.; Elving, W.J.L.
2014-01-01
This study examines the motives of employees to engage in work related social media use - i.e. the use of personal social media accounts to communicate about work-related issues. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to explain this behavior. Because social media can enable users to express
General relativity the most beautiful of theories : applications and trends after 100 years
2015-01-01
Generalising Newton's law of gravitation, general relativity is one of the pillars of modern physics. On the occasion of general relativity's centennial, leading scientists in the different branches of gravitational research review the history and recent advances in the main fields of applications of the theory, which was referred to by Lev Landau as “the most beautiful of the existing physical theories”.
Vogel, Joanne E.
2007-01-01
Sex addictions have become an increasing concern since the growth of the sex industry, sex in advertising, and the ease of Internet access to sex. This article uses the foundational principles of Relational-Cultural Theory (RCT) to conceptualize sexual addiction and its relational impact. Particular attention is paid to the principles of…
Understanding work-related social media use: An extension of theory of planned behavior.
van Zoonen, W.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.; Elving, W.J.L.
2014-01-01
This study examines the motives of employees to engage in work related social media use - i.e. the use of personal social media accounts to communicate about work-related issues. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to explain this behavior. Because social media can enable users to express
Antecedents of Emotions in Elite Athletes: A Cognitive Motivational Relational Theory Perspective
Uphill, Mark A.; Jones, Marc V.
2007-01-01
Cognitive motivational relational theory suggests that cognitive appraisals or core relational themes (a composite summary of appraisal components) represent the proximal determinants of athletes' emotions. Semistructured interviews with 12 current international athletes (1 woman and 11 men) ages 19 to 37 years (M age = 27 years, SD = 6.03),…
Antecedents of Emotions in Elite Athletes: A Cognitive Motivational Relational Theory Perspective
Uphill, Mark A.; Jones, Marc V.
2007-01-01
Cognitive motivational relational theory suggests that cognitive appraisals or core relational themes (a composite summary of appraisal components) represent the proximal determinants of athletes' emotions. Semistructured interviews with 12 current international athletes (1 woman and 11 men) ages 19 to 37 years (M age = 27 years, SD = 6.03),…
Migrants' Adjustment to Career: An Analysis in Relation to Nicholson's Theory
Tharmaseelan, Nithiyaluxmy
2008-01-01
This study addressed career transitions in view of new environments along with the mobility of individuals across cultural territories. It paid attention to various adjustments individuals can make in their career in relation to their new environment and analysed those adjustment modes in relation to Nicholson's theory of work role transitions.…
Valicenti-McDermott, Maria; Tarshis, Nancy; Schouls, Melissa; Galdston, Molly; Hottinger, Kathryn; Seijo, Rosa; Shulman, Lisa; Shinnar, Shlomo
2013-07-01
Bilingualism is common worldwide and increasingly prevalent, but there is little information about bilingual children with autism spectrum disorder. The goal of the study was to compare expressive and receptive language skills in monolingual English and bilingual English-Spanish children with autism spectrum disorder. A review of the multidisciplinary evaluations done in toddlers who were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder at a university-affiliated center between 2003 and 2010 was performed. Data included demographics, developmental testing, autistic characteristics, and expressive and receptive language skills, obtained from formal speech and language evaluation. A total of 80 toddlers were identified, 40 classified as bilingual English-Spanish. Compared with monolinguals, bilingual children were more likely to vocalize and utilize gestures, with no other differences in language skills. There were no differences in cognitive functioning and autistic features between the groups. In this study, bilingualism did not negatively affect language development in young children with autism spectrum disorder.
Kupisch, Tanja
2007-01-01
This study addresses the question of whether language dominance and cross-linguistic influence are related by investigating the acquisition of determiner omission in four bilingual German-Italian children. The study begins by showing that monolingual Italian learners omit determiners less extensively than monolingual German learners. If bilingual…
Jubenville, Kathleen; Sénéchal, Monique; Malette, Melissa
2014-10-01
Two studies were conducted to assess whether (a) the incidental presence of print facilitates the acquisition of oral vocabulary, (b) the facilitative effect of print is moderated by phoneme-to-grapheme consistency, and (c) the findings obtained with monolingual children generalize to bilingual children. In total, 71 monolingual French-speaking children (M age = 9 years 2 months) in Study 1 and 64 bilingual children (M age = 9 years 3 months) in Study 2 participated in one of three conditions: consistent print, inconsistent print, or no print. Children were to learn novel labels for unfamiliar objects in a paired-associate paradigm. In both studies, print facilitated the acquisition and recall of expressive vocabulary. The effect of print consistency, however, varied across studies. As expected, monolingual children exposed to consistent print learned more novel labels than children exposed to inconsistent print. In contrast, bilingual children exposed to inconsistent print learned and recalled more labels than children exposed to consistent print. These intriguing findings might be due to differences in attention allocation during training.
Klein, Denise; Mok, Kelvin; Chen, Jen-Kai; Watkins, Kate E
2014-04-01
We examined the effects of learning a second language (L2) on brain structure. Cortical thickness was measured in the MRI datasets of 22 monolinguals and 66 bilinguals. Some bilingual subjects had learned both languages simultaneously (0-3 years) while some had learned their L2 after achieving proficiency in their first language during either early (4-7 years) or late childhood (8-13 years). Later acquisition of L2 was associated with significantly thicker cortex in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and thinner cortex in the right IFG. These effects were seen in the group comparisons of monolinguals, simultaneous bilinguals and early and late bilinguals. Within the bilingual group, significant correlations between age of acquisition of L2 and cortical thickness were seen in the same regions: cortical thickness correlated with age of acquisition positively in the left IFG and negatively in the right IFG. Interestingly, the monolinguals and simultaneous bilinguals did not differ in cortical thickness in any region. Our results show that learning a second language after gaining proficiency in the first language modifies brain structure in an age-dependent manner whereas simultaneous acquisition of two languages has no additional effect on brain development.
Association of theory of mind with social relations and child's social competence
Nuša Skubic
2012-10-01
Full Text Available The article reviews and evaluates the findings from the research in the field of theory of mind; how the theory of mind is connected to social relationships and how a child's social competence reflects his/hers theory of mind. It points to those factors that contribute most to considerable individual differences among children when developing a theory of mind and it stresses out the reciprocity of effects between child's social understanding and social relations with others. Positive factors for developing a theory of mind are first of all child's early quality experiences about mental states which predict a child's performance on the false belief test later on. Social-economic status, parental behavior and talk (for example appropriate use of mental states and appropriate disciplining of a child and presence of sibling of appropriate age (usually older one with whom a child develops a quality relationship are most important family factors for theory of mind development. The role of peers is most important factor outside the family, emphasized by studies. In accordance with these factors a child develops more or less successfully his/hers social understanding which plays an important part in his/hers daily life. Children with well developed theory of mind can use it in a pro-social way, or it can serve proactive or reactive aggression when children use their understanding of others as a way of manipulating and bullying, especially inside their peer group. Poorly developed theory of mind can prove to be a risk factor especially in a bad family situation, while a well developed theory of mind can play a protective role in child's development. The article points out some of the deficiencies of reviewed studies and proposes options for more complex future research of child's theory of mind.
Rainbows without unicorns: Metric structures in theories with Modified Dispersion Relations
Lobo, Iarley P; Nettel, Francisco
2016-01-01
"Rainbow" metrics are a widely used approach to metric formalism for theories with Modified Dispersion Relations. They have had a huge success in the Quantum Gravity Phenomenology literature, since they allow to introduce momentum-dependent spacetime metrics into the description of systems with Modified Dispersion Relation. This approach, however, presents some compatibility issues with a relativistic description, even in the case of introducing deformed spacetime symmetries to keep the theory's modified dispersion relation invariant. In this paper we would like to introduce the readers to this issue and to describe how the relativistic properties of the theory can be recovered taking into account a more complex (but also complete) momentum-space curvature framework. We also introduce a new metric structure from a Polyakov-like description of the action.
Radioscience simulations in General Relativity and in alternative theories of gravity
Hees, A; Reynaud, S; Jaekel, M -T; Poncin-Lafitte, C Le; Lainey, V; Füzfa, A; Courty, J -M; Dehant, V; Wolf, P
2012-01-01
In this paper, we focus on the possibility to test General Relativity in the Solar System with radioscience measurements. To this aim, we present a new software that simulates Range and Doppler signals directly from the space-time metric. This flexible approach allows one to perform simulations in General Relativity and in alternative metric theories of gravity. In a second step, a least-squares fit of the different initial conditions involved in the situation is performed in order to compare anomalous signals produced by a given alternative theory with the ones obtained in General Relativity. This software provides orders of magnitude and signatures stemming from hypothetical alternative theories of gravity on radioscience signals. As an application, we present some simulations done for the Cassini mission in Post-Einsteinian Gravity and in the context of MOND External Field Effect. We deduce constraints on the Post-Einsteinian parameters but find that the considered arc of the Cassini mission is not useful ...
Pragmatic language and theory of mind deficits in people with schizophrenia and their relatives.
Mazza, Monica; Di Michele, Vittorio; Pollice, Rocco; Casacchia, Massimo; Roncone, Rita
2008-01-01
Deficits in theory of mind have frequently been observed in people affected by illnesses characterized by disrupted social behaviour like autism and psychoses. In schizophrenia, a pragmatic deficit in expressive language can also be observed. The present study was designed in order to assess the suitability of theory of mind and pragmatic conversation abilities as possible cognitive endophenotypes of schizophrenia. First- and second-order false belief tasks and pragmatic deficits in expressive language were examined in 38 patients with schizophrenia, in 34 non-psychotic relatives and in 44 healthy controls. An extensive clinical and neuropsychological assessment was also conducted. Schizophrenic people and their first-degree relatives performedworse than the normal control subjects in false belief and pragmatic conversation tasks. General cognitive ability and neuropsychological measures of executive functions were not related to social cognition tasks. Theory of mind disorders and failing to understand the gricean conversational maxims are associated with schizophrenia liability. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
Studies In Field Theories: Mhv Vertices, Twistor Space, Recursion Relations And Chiral Rings
Svrcek, P
2005-01-01
In this thesis we study different aspects of four dimensional field theories. In the first chapter we give introduction and overview of the thesis. In the second chapter we review the connection between perturbative Yang-Mills and twistor string theory. Inspired by this, we propose a new way of constructing Yang-Mills scattering amplitudes from Feynman graphs in which the vertices are off-shell continuations of the tree level MHV amplitudes. The MHV diagrams lead to simple formulas for tree-level amplitudes. We then give a heuristic derivation of the diagrams from twistor string theory. In the third chapter, we explore the twistor structure of scattering amplitudes in theories for which a twistor string theory analogous to the one for N = 4 gauge theory has not yet been proposed. We study the differential equations of one-loop amplitudes of gluons in gauge theories with reduced supersymmetry and of tree level and one-loop amplitudes of gravitons in general relativity and supergravity. We find that the scat...
Convergence of scalar-tensor theories towards general relativity and primordial nucleosynthesis
Serna, A [Dept. Fisica y Computacion, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, E03202-Elche (Spain); Alimi, J-M [LAEC, CNRS-UMR 8631, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, F92195-Meudon (France); Navarro, A [Dept. Fisica, Universidad de Murcia, E30071-Murcia (Spain)
2002-03-07
In this paper, we analyse the conditions for convergence towards general relativity of scalar-tensor gravity theories defined by an arbitrary coupling function {alpha} (in the Einstein frame). We show that, in general, the evolution of the scalar field ({phi}) is governed by two opposite mechanisms: an attraction mechanism which tends to drive scalar-tensor models towards Einstein's theory, and a repulsion mechanism which has the contrary effect. The attraction mechanism dominates the recent epochs of the universe evolution if, and only if, the scalar field and its derivative satisfy certain boundary conditions. Since these conditions for convergence towards general relativity depend on the particular scalar-tensor theory used to describe the universe evolution, the nucleosynthesis bounds on the present value of the coupling function, {alpha}{sub 0}, strongly differ from some theories to others. For example, in theories defined by {alpha} {proportional_to} |{phi}| analytical estimates lead to very stringent nucleosynthesis bounds on {alpha}{sub 0}({approx}<10{sup -19}). By contrast, in scalar-tensor theories defined by {alpha} {proportional_to} {phi} much larger limits on {alpha}{sub 0}({approx}<10{sup -7}) are found.
String theories with deformed energy momentum relations, and a possible non-tachyonic bosonic string
Magueijo, J; Magueijo, Joao; Smolin, Lee
2004-01-01
We consider a prescription for introducing deformed dispersion relations in the bosonic string action. We find that in a subset of such theories it remains true that the embedding coordinates propagate linearly on the worldsheet. While both the string modes and the center of mass propagate with deformed dispersion relations, the speed of light remains energy independent. We consider the canonical quantization of these strings, and find that it is possible to choose theories so that ghost modes still decouple, as usual. However the Virasoro algebra now exhibits an energy dependent central charge. We also find that there are examples where the tachyon is eliminated from the spectrum of the free bosonic string.
Polyakov line actions from SU(3) lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermions via relative weights
Höllwieser, Roman
2016-01-01
We extract an effective Polyakov line action from an underlying SU(3) lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermions via the relative weights method. The center-symmetry breaking terms in the effective theory are fit to a form suggested by effective action of heavy-dense quarks, and the effective action is solved at finite chemical potential by a mean field approach. We show results for a small sample of lattice couplings, lattice actions, and lattice extensions in the time direction. We find in some instances that the long-range couplings in the effective action are very important to the phase structure, and that these couplings are responsible for long-lived metastable states in the effective theory. Only one of these states corresponds to the underlying lattice gauge theory.
Frederiksen, Claus Strue
2010-01-01
This article examines the relation between policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and philosophical moral theories. The objective is to determine which moral theories form the basis for CSR policies. Are they based on ethical egoism, libertarianism, utilitarianism or some kind...... philosophical moral theories and the ethical content of business activities have mainly concentrated on the ethical decision-making of managers. Some of the most prominent investigations in that regard propose that managers mainly act in accordance with utilitarian moral theory (Fritzsche, D. J. and H. Becker......: 1984, Academy of Management Journal27(1), 166–175; Premeaux, S. and W. Mony: 1993, Journal of Business Ethics12, 349–357; Premeaux, S.: 2004, Journal of Business Ethics52, 269–278). I conclude that CSR policies are not based on utilitarian thinking, but instead, on some kind of common-sense morality...
Two-colour QCD at finite fundamental quark-number density and related theories
Hands, S J; Morrison, S E; Sinclair, D K
2001-01-01
We are simulating SU(2) Yang-Mills theory with four flavours of dynamical quarks in the fundamental representation of SU(2) `colour' at finite chemical potential, mu for quark number, as a model for QCD at finite baryon number density. In particular we observe that for mu large enough this theory undergoes a phase transition to a state with a diquark condensate which breaks quark-number symmetry. In this phase we examine the spectrum of light scalar and pseudoscalar bosons and see evidence for the Goldstone boson associated with this spontaneous symmetry breaking. This theory is closely related to QCD at finite chemical potential for isospin, a theory which we are now studying for SU(3) colour.
Rechberger, Elke Ruth
1999-11-01
Prior to the 1600s c.e., the church was the final authority for theories about the universe and humanity's role within it. However, when the mathematical theories put forth by scientists such as Copernicus and Galileo refuted traditional theological explanations about the cosmos, a shift to science as the premiere authority for theories was established, a tradition which continues to this day. In the following century, the work of Newton set forth a theory of the universe operating as a machine, where all things were potentially knowable, measurable, and predictable. His mechanistic hypotheses helped substantiate a corollary philosophy known as modernism. In the early 1900s, Einstein's theories about light and relativity began to indicate a universe significantly less absolute. His work set the stage for the development of quantum physics theories, whose hallmarks are probability, uncertainty, and complementarity. Quantum physics theories helped substantiate the philosophy known as postmodernism, where truth is nonexistent, reality is a subjectively constructed phenomenon, and the concept of an individual self is considered an illusion. Given that developments in physics have had profound impact across academic disciplines, including psychology, this study examine the effect of major revolutions in physics to corollary developments in theories about the self in psychology. It is the assertion of this work that modernist conceptualization of the self is one that is highly individualistic and defined in mechanistic terms, whereas the postmodern conceptualization of the self is significantly more socially constructed and has more interpersonally fluid, amorphous boundaries. Implications for conceptualizations of the self from either the modern or postmodern paradigm are discussed, as well as suggestions for future theory development.
“The West” and “Non-West” in the Space of International Relations Theory
Tatyana Aleksandrovna Alekseeva
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Recently the question of “pro-Western” orientation of the IR theory turned to become in the center of the academic discussions. Its critics as well as the adherents of “non-Western” theories are partly right. Really, during more than one and a half century the theory of international relations, born and developed mostly in the West had been mostly supporting the ideas, being forms first in Europe, later in the USA. The Anglo-Saxon authors are still dominating in the discipline, not only quantitatively (the huge scale of the publications of literature and professional magazines in English plus influence of the universities and scientific centers as well as qualitatively (impressive financing opens the possibilities for the working out of the new ideas and the development of the ideas of different “schools” of thought - political realism, liberalism, constructivism, postmodernism, post-Marxism etc.. In the theories of IR was felt ideological biases. But on the wave of decolonization and later, in the context of the rising of Asian and other countries in world politics, the “Western” dominance was challenged by the IR-scholars from PR of Chine, India etc., who try to construct their own theories of international relations. The balance is slowly but continuously changing. But “Non-Western” theories are also not free from the ideological biases. Quite often they reject or severely criticize “Western” theories just because of their origin. Even more often they in fact continue to develop the same “Western” ideas, just adding to them the local thinker’s names or mentioning some national traditions or religious and cultural heritage. But if the Theory of international relations is a science, then, strictly speaking, in what country its main personalities were born and what language they were speaking, is not important. Obviously, the elements of ideology would be present. Just like any other social science, which deals not
Amplitude relations in heterotic string theory and Einstein-Yang-Mills
Schlotterer, Oliver
2016-11-01
We present all-multiplicity evidence that the tree-level S-matrix of gluons and gravitons in heterotic string theory can be reduced to color-ordered single-trace amplitudes of the gauge multiplet. Explicit amplitude relations are derived for up to three gravitons, up to two color traces and an arbitrary number of gluons in each case. The results are valid to all orders in the inverse string tension α' and generalize to the ten-dimensional superamplitudes which preserve 16 supercharges. Their field-theory limit results in an alternative proof of the recently discovered relations between Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes and those of pure Yang-Mills theory. Similarities and differences between the integrands of the Cachazo-He-Yuan formulae and the heterotic string are investigated.
A New Conformal Theory of Semi-Classical Quantum General Relativity
Suhendro I.
2007-10-01
Full Text Available We consider a new four-dimensional formulation of semi-classical quantum general relativity in which the classical space-time manifold, whose intrinsic geometric properties give rise to the effects of gravitation, is allowed to evolve microscopically by means of a conformal function which is assumed to depend on some quantum mechanical wave function. As a result, the theory presented here produces a unified field theory of gravitation and (microscopic electromagnetism in a somewhat simple, effective manner. In the process, it is seen that electromagnetism is actually an emergent quantum field originating in some kind of stochastic smooth extension (evolution of the gravitational field in the general theory of relativity.
Amplitude relations in heterotic string theory and Einstein-Yang-Mills
Schlotterer, Oliver
2016-01-01
We present all-multiplicity evidence that the tree-level S-matrix of gluons and gravitons in heterotic string theory can be reduced to color-ordered single-trace amplitudes of the gauge multiplet. Explicit amplitude relations are derived for up to three gravitons, up to two color traces and an arbitrary number of gluons in each case. The results are valid to all orders in the inverse string tension alpha' and generalize to the ten-dimensional superamplitudes which preserve 16 supercharges. Their field-theory limit results in an alternative proof of the recently discovered relations between Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes and those of pure Yang-Mills theory. Similarities and differences between the integrands of the Cachazo-He-Yuan formulae and the heterotic string are investigated.
The perfect theory a century of geniuses and the battle over general relativity
Ferreira, Pedro G
2014-01-01
Physicists have been exploring, debating, and questioning the general theory of relativity ever since Albert Einstein first presented it in 1915. Their work has uncovered a number of the universe’s more surprising secrets, and many believe further wonders remain hidden within the theory’s tangle of equations, waiting to be exposed. In this sweeping narrative of science and culture, astrophysicist Pedro Ferreira brings general relativity to life through the story of the brilliant physicists, mathematicians, and astronomers who have taken up its challenge. For these scientists, the theory has been both a treasure trove and an enigma, fueling a century of intellectual struggle and triumph.. Einstein’s theory, which explains the relationships among gravity, space, and time, is possibly the most perfect intellectual achievement of modern physics, yet studying it has always been a controversial endeavor. Relativists were the target of persecution in Hitler’s Germany, hounded in Stalin’s Russia, and disdai...
Justice relations as determinative factor of “human - state” relation in the J.Rawls’s theory
Z. O. Burychko
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The conceptualization of relations “human state” in J. Rawls’s theory is revealed in the article. It is concluded, that this relationship is determineted on value level by justice, which understands as fairness. Justice is the main virtue of social institutions, and in this case, if the institutions are unjust, their activity should be discarded or revised. Based on liberal ideas, justice linked to the notion of freedom, particularly in J. Rawls’s theory are described? That in the faire societies the equal freedom of citizens is regarded as being established beforehand state. The main principles of relations are the principle of participation and paternalism. Participation means the involvement of citizens in the constitutional process, the national process and participation in selfgovernment. Paternalism is understood as the rational intervention of state in society in aim to prevent irrational expressions of relations between people. Conditions intervention: it must be justified by the apparent inability or lack of will; must match the understanding of justice as fairness, and based on sustainable interests. It is concluded, that the theory of J. Rawls resulting from the analytical experiment leaves a lot of questions as to achieve justice as fairness in the activities of individuals and social institutions.
Jasinska, K K; Petitto, L A
2013-10-01
Is the developing bilingual brain fundamentally similar to the monolingual brain (e.g., neural resources supporting language and cognition)? Or, does early-life bilingual language experience change the brain? If so, how does age of first bilingual exposure impact neural activation for language? We compared how typically-developing bilingual and monolingual children (ages 7-10) and adults recruit brain areas during sentence processing using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) brain imaging. Bilingual participants included early-exposed (bilingual exposure from birth) and later-exposed individuals (bilingual exposure between ages 4-6). Both bilingual children and adults showed greater neural activation in left-hemisphere classic language areas, and additionally, right-hemisphere homologues (Right Superior Temporal Gyrus, Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus). However, important differences were observed between early-exposed and later-exposed bilinguals in their earliest-exposed language. Early bilingual exposure imparts fundamental changes to classic language areas instead of alterations to brain regions governing higher cognitive executive functions. However, age of first bilingual exposure does matter. Later-exposed bilinguals showed greater recruitment of the prefrontal cortex relative to early-exposed bilinguals and monolinguals. The findings provide fascinating insight into the neural resources that facilitate bilingual language use and are discussed in terms of how early-life language experiences can modify the neural systems underlying human language processing.
Relative Energy for the Korteweg Theory and Related Hamiltonian Flows in Gas Dynamics
Giesselmann, Jan; Lattanzio, Corrado; Tzavaras, Athanasios E.
2017-03-01
We consider a Euler system with dynamics generated by a potential energy functional. We propose a form for the relative energy that exploits the variational structure and we derive a relative energy identity. When applied to specific energies, this yields relative energy identities for the Euler-Korteweg, the Euler-Poisson, the Quantum Hydrodynamics system, and low order approximations of the Euler-Korteweg system. For the Euler-Korteweg system we prove a stability theorem between a weak and a strong solution and an associated weak-strong uniqueness theorem. In the second part we focus on the Navier-Stokes-Korteweg system (NSK) with non-monotone pressure laws, and prove stability for the NSK system via a modified relative energy approach. We prove the continuous dependence of solutions on initial data and the convergence of solutions of a low order model to solutions of the NSK system. The last two results provide physically meaningful examples of how higher order regularization terms enable the use of the relative energy framework for models with energies which are not poly- or quasi-convex, compensated by higher-order gradients.
Relative energy for the Korteweg theory and related Hamiltonian flows in gas dynamics
Giesselmann, Jan
2016-10-26
For an Euler system, with dynamics generated by a potential energy functional, we propose a functional format for the relative energy and derive a relative energy identity. The latter, when applied to specific energies, yields relative energy identities for the Euler-Korteweg, the Euler-Poisson, the Quantum Hydrodynamics system, and low order approximations of the Euler-Korteweg system. For the Euler-Korteweg system we prove a stability theorem between a weak and a strong solution and an associated weak-strong uniqueness theorem. In the second part we focus on the Navier-Stokes-Korteweg system (NSK) with non-monotone pressure laws: we prove stability for the NSK system via a modified relative energy approach. We prove continuous dependence of solutions on initial data and convergence of solutions of a low order model to solutions of the NSK system. The last two results provide physically meaningful examples of how higher order regularization terms enable the use of the relative energy framework for models with energies which are not poly- or quasi-convex, but compensating via higher-order gradients.
The Treatment of Polysemy and Homonymy in Monolingual General ...
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ticular criterion, these findings must be compared with those of other criteria, and verified against .... The Nguni people also relate iganu (a cow with a tan skin colour) ... conceptually related in that a marula fruit and a cow of a similar colour are .... traditional medicine to cure ingubhane (a type of sickness affecting children)).
Hunefeldt, Thomas; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Ortu, Francesca; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti
2013-01-01
This study examined the relationship between "theory of mind" and attachment-related anxiety and avoidance in adolescence. The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test and the "Experiences in Close Relationships--Relationship Structures" questionnaires were administered to 402 14-19 year-old adolescents. Contrary to expectations, anxiety but not…
Bogaerds-Hazenberg, Suzanne; Hendriks, Petra
2016-01-01
It has been argued (e.g., by De Villiers and colleagues) that the acquisition of sentence embedding is necessary for the development of first-order Theory of Mind (ToM): the ability to attribute beliefs to others. This raises the question whether the acquisition of double embedded sentences is relat
The Relation between Executive Function and Theory of Mind Is More than Skin Deep
Carlson, Stephanie M.; Claxton, Laura J.; Moses, Louis J.
2015-01-01
A simple "expression" account of the relation between executive function (EF) and children's developing theory of mind (ToM) has difficulty accounting for the generality of the changes occurring in children's mental-state understanding during the preschool years. The current study of preschool children (N = 43) showed that EF--especially…
Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg
2005-01-01
An important condition of business profit in mobile commerce offers in the B2C area is the availability of wide accepted mobile payment procedures. The contribution considers mobile payment on the perspective of diffusion theory and analyses which relative advantages could arise by using mobile payment procedures.
ZHANG Qi-Ren
2007-01-01
We show that the quantum world with non-local states and original statistics is statistically separable.According to relativistic dynamics, the super-luminal signal transmission is impossible. The present quantum theory is therefore consistent with the relativity and the causality.
Non-splitting in Kirchberg's Ideal-related KK-Theory
Eilers, Søren; Restorff, Gunnar; Ruiz, Efren
2011-01-01
A. Bonkat obtained a universal coefficient theorem in the setting of Kirchberg's ideal-related KK-theory in the fundamental case of a C*-algebra with one specified ideal. The universal coefficient sequence was shown to split, unnaturally, under certain conditions. Employing certain K-theoretical ...
Longitudinal Effects of Theory of Mind on Later Peer Relations: The Role of Prosocial Behavior
Caputi, Marcella; Lecce, Serena; Pagnin, Adriano; Banerjee, Robin
2012-01-01
Children's peer relations represent a key aspect of school adjustment. However, little is known about their social-cognitive precursors. To address this gap, the authors followed 70 children across the transition to primary school. At Time 1 (age 5), Time 2 (age 6), and Time 3 (age 7), children were assessed on their theory of mind, prosocial…
Children's understanding of Aesop's fables: relations to reading comprehension and theory of mind.
Pelletier, Janette; Beatty, Ruth
2015-01-01
Two studies examined children's developing understanding of Aesop's fables in relation to reading comprehension and to theory of mind. Study 1 included 172 children from Junior Kindergarten through Grade 6 in a school-wide examination of the relation between reading comprehension skills and understanding of Aesop's fables told orally. Study 2 examined the relation between theory of mind and fables understanding among 186 Junior (4-year-old) and Senior (5-year-old) Kindergarten children. Study 1 results showed a developmental progression in fables understanding with children's responses becoming increasingly decontextualized as they were able to extract the life lesson. After general vocabulary, passage comprehension predicted fables understanding. Study 2 results showed a relation between young children's theory of mind development and their understanding of fables. After general vocabulary, second-order theory of mind predicted children's fables understanding. Findings point to the importance of developing mental state awareness in children's ability to judge characters' intentions and to understand the deeper message embedded in fables.
Some relations between duality theory for extremum problems and variational inequalities
Giandomenico Mastroeni
1994-11-01
Full Text Available After revisiting the well-known relationship with the minimax theory, some duality results for constrained extremum problems are related to variational inequalities. In particular, the connection with saddle point conditions and gap functions associated to the variational inequality are analysed.
Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Kakarani, Styliani; Kolovou, Demetra
2016-01-01
The present study examined the relationships between shyness, a number of personal and interpersonal variables (i.e. social skills, self-esteem, attachment style, advanced Theory of Mind skills and peer relations) in a sample of 243 Greek pre-adolescents. Participants completed self-reports of the variables. Results indicated that females scored…
Coppins, Laci Sharyl
2008-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the application of metacognition theory as related to reading strategies and reading comprehension in the Fifth Grade. Specifically, the researcher examined the impact of metacognition in reading comprehension, the effect of metacognition on reading strategies, and the role the teacher…
On the Theory of Resonances in Non-Relativistic QED and Related Models
Abou Salem, Walid K.; Faupin, Jeremy; Froehlich, Juerg;
We study the mathematical theory of quantum resonances in the standard model of non-relativistic QED and in Nelson's model. In particular, we estimate the survival probability of metastable states corresponding to quantum resonances and relate the resonances to poles of an analytic continuation...
Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Kakarani, Styliani; Kolovou, Demetra
2016-01-01
The present study examined the relationships between shyness, a number of personal and interpersonal variables (i.e. social skills, self-esteem, attachment style, advanced Theory of Mind skills and peer relations) in a sample of 243 Greek pre-adolescents. Participants completed self-reports of the variables. Results indicated that females scored…
Asal, Victor; Kratoville, Jayson
2013-01-01
Simulations are being used more and more in political science generally and in international relations specifically. While there is a growing body of literature describing different simulations and a small amount of literature that empirically tests the impact of simulations, scholars have written very little linking the pedagogic theory behind…
Arriassecq, Irene; Greca, Ileana Maria
2007-01-01
In this work, we presented an analysis of the representation of the special relativity theory (SRT) in the most used texts in high school, Polimodal level and university level in the teaching in the Argentine Republic, from a historic, epistemological and didactic perspective. The results show that none of the analyzed texts would allow a…
The Relation between Executive Function and Theory of Mind Is More than Skin Deep
Carlson, Stephanie M.; Claxton, Laura J.; Moses, Louis J.
2015-01-01
A simple "expression" account of the relation between executive function (EF) and children's developing theory of mind (ToM) has difficulty accounting for the generality of the changes occurring in children's mental-state understanding during the preschool years. The current study of preschool children (N = 43) showed that EF--especially…
Poisson theory and integration method for a dynamical system of relative motion
Zhang Yi; Shang Mei
2011-01-01
This paper focuses on studying the Poisson theory and the integration method of dynamics of relative motion. Equations of a dynamical system of relative motion in phase space are given. Poisson theory of the system is established. The Jacobi last multiplier of the system is defined, and the relation between the Jacobi last multiplier and the first integrals of the system is studied. Our research shows that for a dynamical system of relative motion, whose configuration is determined by n generalized coordinates, the solution of the system can be found by using the Jacobi last multiplier if (2n - 1) first integrals of the system are known. At the end of the paper, an example is given to illustrate the application of the results.
The Relation between Granger Causality and Directed Information Theory: A Review
Pierre-Olivier Amblard
2012-12-01
Full Text Available This report reviews the conceptual and theoretical links between Granger causality and directed information theory. We begin with a short historical tour of Granger causality, concentrating on its closeness to information theory. The definitions of Granger causality based on prediction are recalled, and the importance of the observation set is discussed. We present the definitions based on conditional independence. The notion of instantaneous coupling is included in the definitions. The concept of Granger causality graphs is discussed. We present directed information theory from the perspective of studies of causal influences between stochastic processes. Causal conditioning appears to be the cornerstone for the relation between information theory and Granger causality. In the bivariate case, the fundamental measure is the directed information, which decomposes as the sum of the transfer entropies and a term quantifying instantaneous coupling. We show the decomposition of the mutual information into the sums of the transfer entropies and the instantaneous coupling measure, a relation known for the linear Gaussian case. We study the multivariate case, showing that the useful decomposition is blurred by instantaneous coupling. The links are further developed by studying how measures based on directed information theory naturally emerge from Granger causality inference frameworks as hypothesis testing.
Mezzasalma, Stefano A
2007-03-15
The theoretical basis of a recent theory of Brownian relativity for polymer solutions is deepened and reexamined. After the problem of relative diffusion in polymer solutions is addressed, its two postulates are formulated in all generality. The former builds a statistical equivalence between (uncorrelated) timelike and shapelike reference frames, that is, among dynamical trajectories of liquid molecules and static configurations of polymer chains. The latter defines the "diffusive horizon" as the invariant quantity to work with in the special version of the theory. Particularly, the concept of universality in polymer physics corresponds in Brownian relativity to that of covariance in the Einstein formulation. Here, a "universal" law consists of a privileged observation, performed from the laboratory rest frame and agreeing with any diffusive reference system. From the joint lack of covariance and simultaneity implied by the Brownian Lorentz-Poincaré transforms, a relative uncertainty arises, in a certain analogy with quantum mechanics. It is driven by the difference between local diffusion coefficients in the liquid solution. The same transformation class can be used to infer Fick's second law of diffusion, playing here the role of a gauge invariance preserving covariance of the spacetime increments. An overall, noteworthy conclusion emerging from this view concerns the statistics of (i) static macromolecular configurations and (ii) the motion of liquid molecules, which would be much more related than expected.
Khattar, Randa
What do the new sciences of complex relationality offer education? This work draws on complexity theory, neurological understandings of biology and phenomenology, and attentiveness to study what the new sciences might offer education and the possibilities of a pedagogical understanding of embodied knowing. Complexity theory provides understandings of local-global relationality, self-organization, far-from-equilibrium conditions, and emergent dynamics that are important for describing pedagogical relationality. In itself, however, complexity theory is lacking an attention to issues of embodiment that respond directly to an ethical understanding of relationality. Phenomenology provides important views on the human experience of perception, for example, Merleau-Ponty's, whose research opens up possibilities for embodiment and attentiveness. At the level of pedagogical practice, I will pose, following biologists Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela's autopoietic self-making understanding of life, that attentiveness perspectives, which have been largely absent from western pedagogical theory and practice, are crucial to promoting embodied knowing for education. Maturana and Varela's autopoietic perspective offers an embodied understanding of living---and therefore education---which opens up necessary attentive spaces to listen to one another in non judgmental awareness in the present moment of experience. I offer insights into a relationally complex conception of education drawing on this biological and autopoietically-grounded framework. These insights are framed in the context of five clusters of relations: (1) emergence, far-from-equilibrium, and local-global relationality; (2) autopoietic autonomy, structural determination and sensory-motor coupling; (3) triggering perturbations, structural plasticity, and autopoietic organization; (4) knowing as adequate action, domains of interaction, and blind spots; and (5) attentiveness and responsive relationality. Four
Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Lindhardt, Tove; Frederiksen, Kirsten
2014-01-01
over 70 years of age participated. The constant comparative method was the guiding principle for simultaneous data collection, data analysis and coding, while theoretically sampling and writing memos. FINDINGS: Maintaining Unity emerged as the relatives' pattern of behaviour through which they resolved...... to fit in with the patients' and health professionals' requirements. CONCLUSION: The substantive theory of Maintaining Unity offers knowledge of relatives' strong desire to provide compassionate and loving support for the older patients during fast-track treatment programmes....
Cosmological application on five-dimensional teleparallel theory equivalent to general relativity
Gamal G. L. Nashed
2012-01-01
A theory of (4+1)-dimensional gravity has been developed on the basis of which equivalent to the theory of general relativity by teleparallel.The fundamental gravitational field variables are the 5-dimensional (5D) vector fields (pentad),defined globally on a manifold M,and gravity is attributed to the torsion.The Lagrangian density is quadratic in the torsion tensor. We then apply the field equations to two different homogenous and isotropic geometric structures which give the same line element,i.e.,FRW in five dimensions.The cosmological parameters are calculated and some cosmological problems are discussed.
The application of information theory for the research of aging and aging-related diseases.
Blokh, David; Stambler, Ilia
2017-10-01
This article reviews the application of information-theoretical analysis, employing measures of entropy and mutual information, for the study of aging and aging-related diseases. The research of aging and aging-related diseases is particularly suitable for the application of information theory methods, as aging processes and related diseases are multi-parametric, with continuous parameters coexisting alongside discrete parameters, and with the relations between the parameters being as a rule non-linear. Information theory provides unique analytical capabilities for the solution of such problems, with unique advantages over common linear biostatistics. Among the age-related diseases, information theory has been used in the study of neurodegenerative diseases (particularly using EEG time series for diagnosis and prediction), cancer (particularly for establishing individual and combined cancer biomarkers), diabetes (mainly utilizing mutual information to characterize the diseased and aging states), and heart disease (mainly for the analysis of heart rate variability). Few works have employed information theory for the analysis of general aging processes and frailty, as underlying determinants and possible early preclinical diagnostic measures for aging-related diseases. Generally, the use of information-theoretical analysis permits not only establishing the (non-linear) correlations between diagnostic or therapeutic parameters of interest, but may also provide a theoretical insight into the nature of aging and related diseases by establishing the measures of variability, adaptation, regulation or homeostasis, within a system of interest. It may be hoped that the increased use of such measures in research may considerably increase diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and the fundamental theoretical mathematical understanding of aging and disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tatum, Brian Shane
This thesis investigates the similarities in the study of time and space in literature and science during the modern period. Specifically, it focuses on the portrayal of time and space within Bram Stoker's Dracula (1897) and Joseph Conrad's Lord Jim (1899-1900), and compares the ideas presented with those later scientifically formulated by Albert Einstein in his special and general theories of relativity (1905-1915). Although both novels precede Einstein's theories, they reveal advanced complex ideas of time and space very similar to those later argued by the iconic physicist. These ideas follow a linear progression including a sense of temporal dissonance, the search for a communal sense of the present, the awareness and expansion of the individual's sense of the present, and the effect of mass on surrounding space. This approach enhances readings of Dracula and Lord Jim, illuminating the fascination with highly refined notions of time and space within modern European culture.
Discovery Mondays - “Relativity Theory... strange! Did you say strange?”
2005-01-01
We all know that famous equation E=mc2, but do you know its true significance? Relativity theory: what is the meaning of this strange concept which plunged the physics world into turmoil 100 years ago? What effects can be observed today? Did you know that the GPS system would not work if relativity was not taken into account? The next Discovery Monday will take you on a journey into a strange world. You will be able to witness for yourselves the consequences of Einstein's theories. How, for example, can relativity theory be tested by eclipses? What consequences does it have for the accelerators at CERN? How can it be used to measure the mass of enormous black holes? And finally, how is it linked to the puzzle surrounding the missing mass of the Universe? As part of the World Year of Physics, the next Discovery Monday will be dedicated to one of the theories that Einstein published in 1905, his “annus mirabilis”. Join us at the Microcosm (Reception Building 33, Meyrin site), on Monday 5th September ...
Discovery Mondays - “Relativity Theory... strange! Did you say strange?”
2005-01-01
We all know that famous equation E=mc2, but do you know its true significance? Relativity theory: what is the meaning of this strange concept which plunged the physics world into turmoil 100 years ago? What effects can be observed today? Did you know that the GPS system would not work if relativity was not taken into account? The next Discovery Monday will take you on a journey into a strange world. You will be able to witness for yourselves the consequences of Einstein's theories. How, for example, can relativity theory be tested by eclipses? What consequences does it have for the accelerators at CERN? How can it be used to measure the mass of enormous black holes? And finally, how is it linked to the puzzle surrounding the missing mass of the Universe? As part of the World Year of Physics, the next Discovery Monday will be dedicated to one of the theories that Einstein published in 1905, his “annus mirabilis”. Join us at the Microcosm (Reception Building 33, Meyrin site), on Monday 5th Septemb...
Is thinking about the future related to theory of mind and executive function? Not in preschoolers.
Hanson, Laura K; Atance, Cristina M; Paluck, Sarah W
2014-12-01
The capacity to mentally project the self into the future, or what has been termed "episodic foresight" (EpF), is becoming a popular topic of study in developmental psychology. Several theories propose that EpF is related to theory of mind (ToM) and executive function (EF). However, these links have not been tested using standard behavioral tasks in young children. Accordingly, we administered a battery of EpF, ToM, and EF tasks to 90 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds. After controlling for age and language ability, the EpF tasks were not intercorrelated, nor were they individually related to EF or ToM. As such, this study challenges the claim that EpF, at least as currently assessed in young children, is related to their developing ToM and EF abilities.
Berger, Christian; Lisboa, Carolina; Cuadros, Olga; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo
2016-06-01
Peer relations constitute a main developmental context for adolescents. Peers offer an instance for identity definition and set the norms of acceptable and valued characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes, representing a societal model that allows and restrains avenues for adolescents' socioemotional development. The present article departs from these considerations to review research on adolescents' peer relations in Latin America from a socioemotional perspective. First, approaches to adolescence are discussed, with a main focus on attachment and identity theories, based on a bioecological framework. Then, a review of research in Latin America on friendships, school climate, and intergroup relations is presented. The discussion addresses the tension between theories and evidence generated in developed societies and highlights the particularities of Latin American youth, stressing the need for collecting local data.
Kanazawa, Takuya; Yamamoto, Arata
2016-01-01
We apply QCD-inspired techniques to study nonrelativistic N -component degenerate fermions with attractive interactions. By analyzing the singular-value spectrum of the fermion matrix in the Lagrangian, we derive several exact relations that characterize spontaneous symmetry breaking U (1 )×SU (N )→Sp (N ) through bifermion condensates. These are nonrelativistic analogues of the Banks-Casher relation and the Smilga-Stern relation in QCD. Nonlocal order parameters are also introduced and their spectral representations are derived, from which a nontrivial constraint on the phase diagram is obtained. The effective theory of soft collective excitations is derived, and its equivalence to random matrix theory is demonstrated in the ɛ regime. We numerically confirm the above analytical predictions in Monte Carlo simulations.
Monolingual Teachers in Multilingual Settings: Changing Attitudes and Practices
Pritchard, Robert
2012-01-01
This article describes a 6-year, districtwide staff-development project that was implemented in an attempt to change teacher attitudes and practices as they relate to English learners (ELs). The specific goals of the project were (a) to help the district's teachers develop the knowledge base, pedagogical skills, and professional attitudes required…
Quantum field theory with a preferred direction: The very special relativity framework
Lee, Cheng-Yang
2016-02-01
The theory of very special relativity (VSR) proposed by Cohen and Glashow contains an intrinsic preferred direction. Starting from the irreducible unitary representation of the inhomogeneous VSR group I S I M (2 ), we present a rigorous construction of quantum field theory with a preferred direction. We find that although the particles and their quantum fields between the VSR and Lorentz sectors are physically different, they share many similarities. The massive spin-half and spin-one vector fields are local and satisfy the Dirac and Proca equations, respectively. This result can be generalized to higher-spin field theories. By studying the Yukawa and standard gauge interactions, we obtain a qualitative understanding on the effects of the preferred direction. Its effect is manifest for polarized processes but are otherwise absent.
Maers, Anthony F
2011-01-01
In a previous paper published in this journal, we described a new relativistic wave equation that accounts for the propagation of light from a source to an observer in two different inertial frames. This equation, which is based on the primacy of the Doppler effect, can account for the relativity of simultaneity and the observation that charged particles cannot exceed the speed of light. In contrast to the Special Theory of Relativity, it does so without the necessity of introducing the relativity of space and time. Here we show that the new relativistic wave equation based on the primacy of the Doppler effect is quantitatively more accurate than the standard theory based on the Fresnel drag coefficient or the relativity of space and time in accounting for the results of Fizeau's experiment on the optics of moving media - the very experiment that Einstein considered to be "a crucial test in favour of the theory of relativity." The new relativistic wave equation quantitatively describes other observations invo...
Prytz, Kjell
2015-01-01
This book is intended as an undergraduate textbook in electrodynamics at basic or advanced level. The objective is to attain a general understanding of the electrodynamic theory and its basic experiments and phenomena in order to form a foundation for further studies in the engineering sciences as well as in modern quantum physics. The outline of the book is obtained from the following principles: • Base the theory on the concept of force and mutual interaction • Connect the theory to experiments and observations accessible to the student • Treat the electric, magnetic and inductive phenomena cohesively with respect to force, energy, dipoles and material • Present electrodynamics using the same principles as in the preceding mechanics course • Aim at explaining that theory of relativity is based on the magnetic effect • Introduce field theory after the basic phenomena have been explored in terms of forc...
Bassetti, Benedetta A L
2014-05-01
It is generally assumed that speakers of grammatical gender languages consider grammatical gender arbitrary, but this assumption has never been tested. Research shows that the grammatical gender of nouns can affect perceptions of the masculinity or femininity of the noun's referent in speakers of languages with masculine and feminine noun classes. However, bilingualism facilitates the development of lexical arbitrariness awareness, and could therefore affect awareness of grammatical gender arbitrariness. This study then compared three groups of young adult speakers of a grammatical gender language: monolinguals, early bilinguals, and instructed second language learners. Participants evaluated the gender assignments of 25 nouns of entities (animals, abstract concepts, natural kinds, and artefacts), and answered open and closed questions about grammatical gender. Participants considered grammatical gender as semantically motivated and mostly related gender assignments to perceived masculine or feminine connotations of referents. Knowledge of an additional grammatical gender language was linked to increased awareness of the arbitrariness of first language gender assignments in both early bilinguals and later instructed learners. It is argued that grammatical gender awareness deserves further investigation. Knowing more than one grammatical gender language can increase awareness of grammatical gender arbitrariness. Implications are discussed for language teaching and language reform.
Strange, Winifred; Levy, Erika; Lehnholf, Robert
2001-05-01
Previous research in our laboratory has demonstrated that the perceived similarity of vowels across languages is not always predictable from the closeness of their target formant values in F1/F2/F3 space. In this study, perceptual similarity was established using a task in which 11 American English (AE) monolinguals were presented multiple tokens of 9 French vowels and 14 North German vowels (in separate blocks) produced in citation-form /hVb(a)/ (bi)syllables by native speakers. They selected 1 of 11 AE vowel responses to which each non-native vowel token was most similar, and rated its goodness on a 9-point Likert scale. Of special interest was the perceptual assimilation of front rounded French [y, oe] and German [y, Y, o/, oe] vowels. Acoustically, all six French and German vowels are more similar to front unrounded AE vowels. However, all six vowels were perceived to be more similar to back rounded AE vowels (range across vowels = 55% to 100%), although relatively poor exemplars. There were differences across languages in how the same vowel was assimilated (e.g., French /y/ assimilated to front AE vowels 13%, German /y/, 0% French [oe] 3%, German [oe] 45%). There were also large individual differences in listeners assimilation patterns. [Work supported by NIDCD.
Observables, skein relations, and tetrahedra in Chern-Simons gauge theory
Martin, Stephen P.
1990-07-01
The observables in three-dimensional Chern-Simons gauge theory are Wilson lines and Wilson graphs. Skein relations are non-trivial identities between expectation values of distinct Wilson graphs. We discuss various kinds of skein relations and the relationships between them. By comparing different kinds of skein relations, we show how to calculate the expectation value of a general tetrahedral Wilson graph. This is shown to be the last and most difficult step in a systematic procedure for calculating the expectation values of arbitrary Wilson graphs in arbitrary representations of arbitrary gauge groups.
Kachchaf, Rachel Rae
The purpose of this study was to compare how English language learners (ELLs) and monolingual English speakers solved multiple-choice items administered with and without a new form of testing accommodation---vignette illustration (VI). By incorporating theories from second language acquisition, bilingualism, and sociolinguistics, this study was able to gain more accurate and comprehensive input into the ways students interacted with items. This mixed methods study used verbal protocols to elicit the thinking processes of thirty-six native Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs), and 36 native-English speaking non-ELLs when solving multiple-choice science items. Results from both qualitative and quantitative analyses show that ELLs used a wider variety of actions oriented to making sense of the items than non-ELLs. In contrast, non-ELLs used more problem solving strategies than ELLs. There were no statistically significant differences in student performance based on the interaction of presence of illustration and linguistic status or the main effect of presence of illustration. However, there were significant differences based on the main effect of linguistic status. An interaction between the characteristics of the students, the items, and the illustrations indicates considerable heterogeneity in the ways in which students from both linguistic groups think about and respond to science test items. The results of this study speak to the need for more research involving ELLs in the process of test development to create test items that do not require ELLs to carry out significantly more actions to make sense of the item than monolingual students.
Decision-Making Algorithm for Multisensor Fusion Based on Grey Relation and DS Evidence Theory
Fang Ye
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Decision-making algorithm, as the key technology for uncertain data fusion, is the core to obtain reasonable multisensor information fusion results. DS evidence theory is a typical and widely applicable decision-making method. However, DS evidence theory makes decisions without considering the sensors’ difference, which may lead to illogical results. In this paper, we present a novel decision-making algorithm for uncertain fusion based on grey relation and DS evidence theory. The proposed algorithm comprehensively takes consideration of sensor’s credibility and evidence’s overall discriminability, which can solve the uncertainty problems caused by inconsistence of sensors themselves and complexity of monitoring environment and simultaneously ensure the validity and accuracy of fusion results. The innovative decision-making algorithm firstly obtains the sensor’s credibility through the introduction of grey relation theory and then defines two impact factors as sensor’s credibility and evidence’s overall discriminability according to the focal element analyses and evidence’s distance analysis, respectively; after that, it uses the impact factors to modify the evidences and finally gets more reasonable and effective results through DS combination rule. Simulation results and analyses demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can overcome the trouble caused by large evidence conflict and one-vote veto, which indicates that it can improve the ability of target judgment and enhance precision of uncertain data fusion. Thus the novel decision-making method has a certain application value.
Villar-Loubet, Olga M; Vamos, Szonja; Jones, Deborah L; Lopez, Eliot; Weiss, Stephen M
2011-06-01
This study explored feelings and attitudes with regard to HIV and sexual health among 82 monolingual Spanish-speaking, HIV-positive (n = 30) and at-risk women (n = 52), participating in the NOW en Español Project-a cognitive behavioral sexual risk-reduction intervention in Miami, Florida. Hispanic cultural values and beliefs, such as machismo, marianismo, and sexual silence, emerged throughout the intervention as important determinants of sexual behavior. Recommendations for integrating these culture-specific issues in sexual health interventions for Hispanic women are provided.
Bays, Harold
2005-05-01
Excessive fat (adiposity) and dysfunctional fat (adiposopathy) constitute the most common worldwide epidemics of our time -- and perhaps of all time. Ongoing efforts to explain how the micro (adipocyte) and macro (body organ) biologic systems interact through function and dysfunction in promoting Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia are not unlike the mechanistic and philosophical thinking processes involved in reconciling the micro (quantum physics) and macro (general relativity) theories in physics. Currently, the term metabolic syndrome refers to a constellation of consequences often associated with excess body fat and is an attempt to unify the associations known to exist between the four fundamental metabolic diseases of obesity, hyperglycemia (including Type 2 diabetes mellitus), hypertension and dyslipidemia. However, the association of adiposity with these metabolic disorders is not absolute and the metabolic syndrome does not describe underlying causality, nor does the metabolic syndrome necessarily reflect any reasonably related pathophysiologic process. Just as with quantum physics, general relativity and the four fundamental forces of the universe, the lack of an adequate unifying theory of micro causality and macro consequence is unsatisfying, and in medicine, impairs the development of agents that may globally improve both obesity and obesity-related metabolic disease. Emerging scientific and clinical evidence strongly supports the novel concept that it is not adiposity alone, but rather it is adiposopathy that is the underlying cause of most cases of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Adiposopathy is a plausible Theory of Everything for mankind's greatest metabolic epidemics.
Khosla, Nidhi; Marsteller, Jill Ann; Hsu, Yea Jen; Elliott, David L
2016-02-01
Agencies with different foci (e.g. nutrition, social, medical, housing) serve people living with HIV (PLHIV). Serving needs of PLHIV comprehensively requires a high degree of coordination among agencies which often benefits from more frequent communication. We combined Social Network theory and Relational Coordination theory to study coordination among HIV agencies in Baltimore. Social Network theory implies that actors (e.g., HIV agencies) establish linkages amongst themselves in order to access resources (e.g., information). Relational Coordination theory suggests that high quality coordination among agencies or teams relies on the seven dimensions of frequency, timeliness and accuracy of communication, problem-solving communication, knowledge of agencies' work, mutual respect and shared goals. We collected data on frequency of contact from 57 agencies using a roster method. Response options were ordinal ranging from 'not at all' to 'daily'. We analyzed data using social network measures. Next, we selected agencies with which at least one-third of the sample reported monthly or more frequent interaction. This yielded 11 agencies whom we surveyed on seven relational coordination dimensions with questions scored on a Likert scale of 1-5. Network density, defined as the proportion of existing connections to all possible connections, was 20% when considering monthly or higher interaction. Relational coordination scores from individual agencies to others ranged between 1.17 and 5.00 (maximum possible score 5). The average scores for different dimensions across all agencies ranged between 3.30 and 4.00. Shared goals (4.00) and mutual respect (3.91) scores were highest, while scores such as knowledge of each other's work and problem-solving communication were relatively lower. Combining theoretically driven analyses in this manner offers an innovative way to provide a comprehensive picture of inter-agency coordination and the quality of exchange that underlies
Causal and Topological Aspects in Special and General Theory of Relativity
Saraykar, R V
2014-01-01
In this article we present a review of a geometric and algebraic approach to causal cones and describe cone preserving transformations and their relationship with the causal structure related to special and general relativity. We describe Lie groups, especially matrix Lie groups, homogeneous and symmetric spaces and causal cones and certain implications of these concepts in special and general relativity, related to causal structure and topology of space-time. We compare and contrast the results on causal relations with those in the literature for general space-times and compare these relations with K-causal maps. We also describe causal orientations and their implications for space-time topology and discuss some more topologies on space-time which arise as an application of domain theory. For the sake of completeness, we reproduce proofs of certain theorems which we proved in our earlier work.
Lagrangian quantum field theory in momentum picture. IV. Commutation relations for free fields
Iliev, Bozhidar Z
2007-01-01
Possible (algebraic) commutation relations in the Lagrangian quantum theory of free (scalar, spinor and vector) fields are considered from mathematical view-point. As sources of these relations are employed the Heisenberg equations/relations for the dynamical variables and a specific condition for uniqueness of the operators of the dynamical variables (with respect to some class of Lagrangians). The paracommutation relations or some their generalizations are pointed as the most general ones that entail the validity of all Heisenberg equations. The simultaneous fulfillment of the Heisenberg equations and the uniqueness requirement turn to be impossible. This problem is solved via a redefinition of the dynamical variables, similar to the normal ordering procedure and containing it as a special case. That implies corresponding changes in the admissible commutation relations. The introduction of the concept of the vacuum makes narrow the class of the possible commutation relations; in particular, the mentioned re...
Dimitrov, Bogdan G
2009-01-01
On the base of the distinction between covariant and contravariant metric tensor components, a new (multivariable) cubic algebraic equation for reparametrization invariance of the gravitational Lagrangian has been derived and parametrized with complicated non - elliptic functions, depending on the (elliptic) Weierstrass function and its derivative. This is different from standard algebraic geometry, where only two-dimensional cubic equations are parametrized with elliptic functions and not multivariable ones. Physical applications of the approach have been considered in reference to theories with extra dimensions. The s.c. "length function" l(x) has been introduced and found as a solution of quasilinear differential equations in partial derivatives for two different cases of "compactification + rescaling" and "rescaling + compactification". New physically important relations (inequalities) between the parameters in the action are established, which cannot be derived in the case $l=1$ of the standard gravitati...
Lee, Jang Ho
2016-01-01
The non-native English-speaking teachers' (NNESTs) beliefs about the monolingual approach have not been sufficiently studied in the teaching of English as a foreign language (EFL). In examining the NNESTs' beliefs about that issue, the present study adapts Guy Cook's recent framework, according to which the monolingual approach is based upon four…
Whiteside, Katie E; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier
2017-07-12
This study explored whether a monolingual-normed English language battery could identify children with English as an additional language (EAL) who have persistent English language learning difficulties that affect functional academic attainment. Children with EAL (n = 43) and monolingual English-speaking children (n = 46) completed a comprehensive monolingual-normed English language battery in Year 1 (ages 5-6 years) and Year 3 (ages 7-8 years). Children with EAL and monolingual peers, who either met monolingual criteria for language impairment or typical development on the language battery in Year 1, were compared on language growth between Year 1 and Year 3 and on attainment in national curriculum assessments in Year 2 (ages 6-7 years). Children with EAL and monolingual peers who met monolingual criteria for language impairment in Year 1 continued to display comparably impaired overall language ability 2 years later in Year 3. Moreover, these groups displayed comparably low levels of academic attainment in Year 2, demonstrating comparable functional impact of their language difficulties. Monolingual-normed language batteries in the majority language may have some practical value for identifying bilingual children who need support with language learning, regardless of the origin of their language difficulties.
Nicoladis, Elena; Song, Jianhui; Marentette, Paula
2012-01-01
Previous studies have shown that preschool bilingual children lag behind same-aged monolinguals in their production of correct past tense forms. This lag has been attributed to bilinguals' less frequent exposure to either language. If so, bilingual children acquire the past tense like monolinguals, only later. In this study, we compared the…