WorldWideScience

Sample records for relativity disk evolution

  1. Evolution of magnetic disk subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Satoru

    1994-06-01

    The higher recording density of magnetic disk realized today has brought larger storage capacity per unit and smaller form factors. If the required access performance per MB is constant, the performance of large subsystems has to be several times better. This article describes mainly the technology for improving the performance of the magnetic disk subsystems and the prospects of their future evolution. Also considered are 'crosscall pathing' which makes the data transfer channel more effective, 'disk cache' which improves performance coupling with solid state memory technology, and 'RAID' which improves the availability and integrity of disk subsystems by organizing multiple disk drives in a subsystem. As a result, it is concluded that since the performance of the subsystem is dominated by that of the disk cache, maximation of the performance of the disk cache subsystems is very important.

  2. Dust evolution in protoplanetary disks

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez , Jean-François; Fouchet , Laure; T. Maddison , Sarah; Laibe , Guillaume

    2007-01-01

    6 pages, 5 figures, to appear in the Proceedings of IAU Symp. 249: Exoplanets: Detection, Formation and Dynamics (Suzhou, China); International audience; We investigate the behaviour of dust in protoplanetary disks under the action of gas drag using our 3D, two-fluid (gas+dust) SPH code. We present the evolution of the dust spatial distribution in global simulations of planetless disks as well as of disks containing an already formed planet. The resulting dust structures vary strongly with pa...

  3. Gas Evolution in Protoplanetary Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woitke, Peter; Dent, Bill; Thi, Wing-Fai; Sibthorpe, Bruce; Rice, Ken; Williams, Jonathan; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Brown, Joanna; Kamp, Inga; Pascucci, Ilaria; Alexander, Richard; Roberge, Aki

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes a Splinter Session at the Cool Stars XV conference in St. Andrews with 3 review and 4 contributed talks. The speakers have discussed various approaches to understand the structure and evolution of the gas component in protoplanetary disks. These ranged from observational

  4. The Evolution of Spiral Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershady, Matthew A.; Andersen, David R.

    We report on aspects of an observational study to probe the mass assembly of large galaxy disks. In this contribution we focus on a new survey of integral-field Hα velocity-maps of nearby, face on disks. Preliminary results yield disk asymmetry amplitudes consistent with estimates based on the scatter in the local Tully-Fisher relation. We also show how the high quality of integral-field echelle spectroscopy enables determinations of kinematic inclinations to i ~20 °. This holds the promise that nearly-face-on galaxies can be included in the Tully-Fisher relation. Finally, we discuss the prospects for measuring dynamical asymmetries of distant galaxies.

  5. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John

    2013-10-01

    Self-gravitating systems evolve toward the most tightly bound configuration that is reachable via the evolution processes that are available to them. They do this by spreading -- the inner parts shrink while the outer parts expand -- provided that some physical process efficiently transports energy or angular momentum outward. The reason is that self-gravitating systems have negative specific heats. As a result, the evolution of stars, star clusters, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, black hole accretion disks and galaxy disks are fundamentally similar. How evolution proceeds then depends on the evolution processes that are available to each kind of self-gravitating system. These processes and their consequences for galaxy disks are the subjects of my lectures and of this Canary Islands Winter School. I begin with a review of the formation, growth and death of bars. Then I review the slow (`secular') rearrangement of energy, angular momentum, and mass that results from interactions between stars or gas clouds and collective phenomena such as bars, oval disks, spiral structure and triaxial dark haloes. The `existence-proof' phase of this work is largely over: we have a good heuristic understanding of how nonaxisymmetric structures rearrange disk gas into outer rings, inner rings and stuff dumped onto the centre. The results of simulations correspond closely to the morphology of barred and oval galaxies. Gas that is transported to small radii reaches high densities. Observations confirm that many barred and oval galaxies have dense central concentrations of gas and star formation. The result is to grow, on timescales of a few Gyr, dense central components that are frequently mistaken for classical (elliptical-galaxy-like) bulges but that were grown slowly out of the disk (not made rapidly by major mergers). The resulting picture of secular galaxy evolution accounts for the richness observed in galaxy structure. We can distinguish between classical and pseudo

  6. Chemical evolution of the galactic disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyse, R.F.G.; Gilmore, G.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of enriched material in the stars and gas of their Galaxy contains information pertaining to the chemical evolution of the Milky Way from its formation epoch to the present day, and provides general constraints on theories of galaxy formation. The separate stellar components of the Galaxy cannot readily be understood if treated in isolation, but a reasonably self-consistent model for Galactic chemical evolution may be found if one considers together the chemical properties of the extreme spheroid, thick disk and thin disk populations of the Galaxy. The three major stellar components of the Galaxy are characterized by their distinct spatial distributions, metallicity structure, and kinematics, with the newly-identified thick disk being approximately three times more massive than the classical metal-poor, non-rotating extreme spheroid. Stellar evolution in the thick disk straightforwardly provides the desired pre-enrichment for resolution of the thin disk G dwarf problem

  7. Disk Evolution and the Fate of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Lee; Ciesla, Fred; Gressel, Oliver; Alexander, Richard

    2017-10-01

    We review the general theoretical concepts and observational constraints on the distribution and evolution of water vapor and ice in protoplanetary disks, with a focus on the Solar System. Water is expected to freeze out at distances greater than 1-3 AU from solar-type central stars; more precise estimates are difficult to obtain due to uncertainties in the complex processes involved in disk evolution, including dust growth, settling, and radial drift, and the level of turbulence and viscous dissipation within disks. Interferometric observations are now providing constraints on the positions of CO snow lines, but extrapolation to the unresolved regions where water ice sublimates will require much better theoretical understanding of mass and angular momentum transport in disks as well as more refined comparison of observations with sophisticated disk models.

  8. PROTOPLANETARY DISK HEATING AND EVOLUTION DRIVEN BY SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafikov, Roman R., E-mail: rrr@ias.edu [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    Scattered light imaging of protoplanetary disks often reveals prominent spiral arms, likely excited by massive planets or stellar companions. Assuming that these arms are density waves, evolving into spiral shocks, we assess their effect on the thermodynamics, accretion, and global evolution of the disk. We derive analytical expressions for the direct (irreversible) heating, angular momentum transport, and mass accretion rate induced by disk shocks of arbitrary amplitude. These processes are very sensitive to the shock strength. We show that waves of moderate strength (density jump at the shock ΔΣ/Σ ∼ 1) result in negligible disk heating (contributing at the ∼1% level to the energy budget) in passive, irradiated protoplanetary disks on ∼100 au scales, but become important within several au. However, shock heating is a significant (or even dominant) energy source in disks of cataclysmic variables, stellar X-ray binaries, and supermassive black hole binaries, heated mainly by viscous dissipation. Mass accretion induced by the spiral shocks is comparable to (or exceeds) the mass inflow due to viscous stresses. Protoplanetary disks featuring prominent global spirals must be evolving rapidly, in ≲0.5 Myr at ∼100 au. A direct upper limit on the evolution timescale can be established by measuring the gravitational torque due to the spiral arms from the imaging data. We find that, regardless of their origin, global spiral waves must be important agents of the protoplanetary disk evolution. They may serve as an effective mechanism of disk dispersal and could be related to the phenomenon of transitional disks.

  9. PROTOPLANETARY DISK HEATING AND EVOLUTION DRIVEN BY SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2016-01-01

    Scattered light imaging of protoplanetary disks often reveals prominent spiral arms, likely excited by massive planets or stellar companions. Assuming that these arms are density waves, evolving into spiral shocks, we assess their effect on the thermodynamics, accretion, and global evolution of the disk. We derive analytical expressions for the direct (irreversible) heating, angular momentum transport, and mass accretion rate induced by disk shocks of arbitrary amplitude. These processes are very sensitive to the shock strength. We show that waves of moderate strength (density jump at the shock ΔΣ/Σ ∼ 1) result in negligible disk heating (contributing at the ∼1% level to the energy budget) in passive, irradiated protoplanetary disks on ∼100 au scales, but become important within several au. However, shock heating is a significant (or even dominant) energy source in disks of cataclysmic variables, stellar X-ray binaries, and supermassive black hole binaries, heated mainly by viscous dissipation. Mass accretion induced by the spiral shocks is comparable to (or exceeds) the mass inflow due to viscous stresses. Protoplanetary disks featuring prominent global spirals must be evolving rapidly, in ≲0.5 Myr at ∼100 au. A direct upper limit on the evolution timescale can be established by measuring the gravitational torque due to the spiral arms from the imaging data. We find that, regardless of their origin, global spiral waves must be important agents of the protoplanetary disk evolution. They may serve as an effective mechanism of disk dispersal and could be related to the phenomenon of transitional disks.

  10. THE ROLE OF MULTIPLICITY IN DISK EVOLUTION AND PLANET FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Adam L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Ireland, Michael J. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Hillenbrand, Lynne A. [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astrophysics, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Martinache, Frantz [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Subaru Telescope, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2012-01-20

    The past decade has seen a revolution in our understanding of protoplanetary disk evolution and planet formation in single-star systems. However, the majority of solar-type stars form in binary systems, so the impact of binary companions on protoplanetary disks is an important element in our understanding of planet formation. We have compiled a combined multiplicity/disk census of Taurus-Auriga, plus a restricted sample of close binaries in other regions, in order to explore the role of multiplicity in disk evolution. Our results imply that the tidal influence of a close ({approx}<40 AU) binary companion significantly hastens the process of protoplanetary disk dispersal, as {approx}2/3 of all close binaries promptly disperse their disks within {approx}<1 Myr after formation. However, prompt disk dispersal only occurs for a small fraction of wide binaries and single stars, with {approx}80%-90% retaining their disks for at least {approx}2-3 Myr (but rarely for more than {approx}5 Myr). Our new constraints on the disk clearing timescale have significant implications for giant planet formation; most single stars have 3-5 Myr within which to form giant planets, whereas most close binary systems would have to form giant planets within {approx}<1 Myr. If core accretion is the primary mode for giant planet formation, then gas giants in close binaries should be rare. Conversely, since almost all single stars have a similar period of time within which to form gas giants, their relative rarity in radial velocity (RV) surveys indicates either that the giant planet formation timescale is very well matched to the disk dispersal timescale or that features beyond the disk lifetime set the likelihood of giant planet formation.

  11. Chemical Evolution of a Protoplanetary Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Dmitry A.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we review recent progress in our understanding of the chemical evolution of protoplanetary disks. Current observational constraints and theoretical modeling on the chemical composition of gas and dust in these systems are presented. Strong variations of temperature, density, high-energy radiation intensities in these disks, both radially and vertically, result in a peculiar disk chemical structure, where a variety of processes are active. In hot, dilute and heavily irradiated atmosphere only the most photostable simple radicals and atoms and atomic ions exist, formed by gas-phase processes. Beneath the atmosphere a partly UV-shielded, warm molecular layer is located, where high-energy radiation drives rich ion-molecule and radical-radical chemistry, both in the gas phase and on dust surfaces. In a cold, dense, dark disk midplane many molecules are frozen out, forming thick icy mantles where surface chemistry is active and where complex polyatomic (organic) species are synthesized. Dynamical processes affect disk chemical composition by enriching it in abundances of complex species produced via slow surface processes, which will become detectable with ALMA.

  12. EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE PROTOSTARS VIA DISK ACCRETION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yorke, Harold W.

    2010-01-01

    Mass accretion onto (proto-)stars at high accretion rates M-dot * > 10 -4 M sun yr -1 is expected in massive star formation. We study the evolution of massive protostars at such high rates by numerically solving the stellar structure equations. In this paper, we examine the evolution via disk accretion. We consider a limiting case of 'cold' disk accretion, whereby most of the stellar photosphere can radiate freely with negligible backwarming from the accretion flow, and the accreting material settles onto the star with the same specific entropy as the photosphere. We compare our results to the calculated evolution via spherically symmetric accretion, the opposite limit, whereby the material accreting onto the star contains the entropy produced in the accretion shock front. We examine how different accretion geometries affect the evolution of massive protostars. For cold disk accretion at 10 -3 M sun yr -1 , the radius of a protostar is initially small, R * ≅ a few R sun . After several solar masses have accreted, the protostar begins to bloat up and for M * ≅ 10 M sun the stellar radius attains its maximum of 30-400 R sun . The large radius ∼100 R sun is also a feature of spherically symmetric accretion at the same accreted mass and accretion rate. Hence, expansion to a large radius is a robust feature of accreting massive protostars. At later times, the protostar eventually begins to contract and reaches the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) for M * ≅ 30 M sun , independent of the accretion geometry. For accretion rates exceeding several 10 -3 M sun yr -1 , the protostar never contracts to the ZAMS. The very large radius of several hundreds R sun results in the low effective temperature and low UV luminosity of the protostar. Such bloated protostars could well explain the existence of bright high-mass protostellar objects, which lack detectable H II regions.

  13. THICK-DISK EVOLUTION INDUCED BY THE GROWTH OF AN EMBEDDED THIN DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos, Alvaro; Helmi, Amina; Kazantzidis, Stelios

    2010-01-01

    We perform collisionless N-body simulations to investigate the evolution of the structural and kinematical properties of simulated thick disks induced by the growth of an embedded thin disk. The thick disks used in the present study originate from cosmologically common 5:1 encounters between initially thin primary disk galaxies and infalling satellites. The growing thin disks are modeled as static gravitational potentials and we explore a variety of growing-disk parameters that are likely to influence the response of thick disks. We find that the final thick-disk properties depend strongly on the total mass and radial scale length of the growing thin disk, and much less sensitively on its growth timescale and vertical scale height as well as the initial sense of thick-disk rotation. Overall, the growth of an embedded thin disk can cause a substantial contraction in both the radial and vertical direction, resulting in a significant decrease in the scale lengths and scale heights of thick disks. Kinematically, a growing thin disk can induce a notable increase in the mean rotation and velocity dispersions of thick-disk stars. We conclude that the reformation of a thin disk via gas accretion may play a significant role in setting the structure and kinematics of thick disks, and thus it is an important ingredient in models of thick-disk formation.

  14. Island universes structure and evolution of disk galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    DE JONG, R. S

    2007-01-01

    This book contains an up-to-date review of the structure and evolution of disk galaxies from both the observational and theoretical point of view. The book is the proceedings of the "Island Universes" conference held at the island of Terschelling, The Netherlands in July 2005, which attracted about 130 experts and students in the field. The conference was organized as a tribute to Dr. Piet C. van der Kruit for receiving the honorary Jacobus C. Kapteyn Professorship in Astronomy. The eight topical themes discussed at the meeting are reflected in these proceedings: 1) Properties of Stellar Disks, 2) Kinematics and Dynamics of Disk Galaxies, 3) Bars, Spiral Structure, and Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies, 4) The Outskirts and Environment of Disk Galaxies, 5) Interstellar Matter, 6) (Evolution of) Star Formation in Galactic Disks, 7) Disk Galaxies through Cosmic Time, and 8) Formation Models of Disk Galaxies. These proceedings are concluded with a conference summary reflecting on the most significant recent pro...

  15. Chemical evolution of the solar neighborhood. II. The age-metallicity relation and the history of star formation in the galactic disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twarog, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    The age-metallicty relation for the disk in the neighborhood of the Sun is derived from four-color and Hβ photometry of a large sample of southern F dwarfs, analyzed in combination with theoretical isochrones. It is found that the mean metallicity of the disk increased by about a factor of 5 between 12 and 5 billion years ago and has increased only slightly since then; this conclusion is independent of the helium abundance assumed for the models

  16. Orbital Evolution of Moons in Weakly Accreting Circumplanetary Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Yuri I.; Gressel, Oliver [Niels Bohr International Academy, The Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100, Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Kobayashi, Hiroshi [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8602 (Japan); Takahashi, Sanemichi Z., E-mail: yuri.fujii@nbi.ku.dk [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8578 (Japan)

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the formation of hot and massive circumplanetary disks (CPDs) and the orbital evolution of satellites formed in these disks. Because of the comparatively small size-scale of the sub-disk, quick magnetic diffusion prevents the magnetorotational instability (MRI) from being well developed at ionization levels that would allow MRI in the parent protoplanetary disk. In the absence of significant angular momentum transport, continuous mass supply from the parental protoplanetary disk leads to the formation of a massive CPD. We have developed an evolutionary model for this scenario and have estimated the orbital evolution of satellites within the disk. We find, in a certain temperature range, that inward migration of a satellite can be stopped by a change in the structure due to the opacity transitions. Moreover, by capturing second and third migrating satellites in mean motion resonances, a compact system in Laplace resonance can be formed in our disk models.

  17. Dust Evolution Can Produce Scattered Light Gaps in Protoplanetary Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Birnstiel, Tilman; Andrews, Sean M.; Pinilla, Paola; Kama, Mihkel

    2015-01-01

    Recent imaging of protoplanetary disks with high resolution and contrast have revealed a striking variety of substructure. Of particular interest are cases where near-infrared scattered light images show evidence for low-intensity annular "gaps." The origins of such structures are still uncertain, but the interaction of the gas disk with planets is a common interpretation. We study the impact that the evolution of the solid material can have on the observable properties of disks in a simple s...

  18. Evolution of disk galaxies and the origin of SO galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.B.; Tinsley, B.M.; Caldwell, C.N.

    1980-01-01

    We reconsider the relation between spiral and SO galaxies in the light of recent data on the colors and morphology of disk systems, and on the content of clusters at different redshifts. Star formation will strongly deplete the gas in most spirals in a fraction of the Hubble time, so we suggest that the gas in spirals has been replenished by infall from residual envelopes, probably including gas-rich companions and tidal debris. SO's may then be disk systems that lost their gas-rich envelopes at an early stage and consumed their remaining gas by star formation. This picture is consistent with the color of SO's if most of their star formation stopped at least a few gigayears ago, and it is consistent with their small disk-to-bulge ratios relative to spirals, since this is a direct result of the early truncation of star formation. Numerical simulations show that the gas envelopes of disk galaxies in clusters are largely stripped away when the clusters collapse, but star formation can continue in the spirals for several gigayears while their remaining disk gas is consumed. These results can explain the blue galaxies observed by Butcher and Oemler in two condensed clusters at zapprox.0.4: these clusters are seen just before most of their galaxies run out of gas, so that star formation is still occurring in them but will soon die out, causing the spirals to evolve into SO's with normal present colors. A rapid evolution of the galaxy content of condensed clusters is predicted at moderate redshifts, ranging from a large fraction of blue galaxies at zapprox.0.4 to very few at zapprox.0

  19. Ringed Accretion Disks: Evolution of Double Toroidal Configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: daniela.pugliese@fpf.slu.cz, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

    2017-04-01

    We investigate ringed accretion disks composed of two tori (rings) orbiting on the equatorial plane of a central supermassive Kerr black hole. We discuss the emergence of the instability phases of each ring of the macro-configuration (ringed disk) according to the Paczynski violation of mechanical equilibrium. In the full general relativistic treatment, we consider the effects of the geometry of the Kerr spacetimes relevant to the characterization of the evolution of these configurations. The discussion of ring stability in different spacetimes enables us to identify particular classes of central Kerr attractors depending on their dimensionless spin. As a result of this analysis, we set constraints on the evolutionary schemes of the ringed disks relative to the torus morphology and on their rotation relative to the central black hole and to each other. The dynamics of the unstable phases of this system is significant for the high-energy phenomena related to accretion onto supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei and the extremely energetic phenomena in quasars, which could be observed in their X-ray emission.

  20. Modeling Protoplanetary Disks to Characterize the Evolution of their Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Magdelena; van der Marel, Nienke; Williams, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Stars form from gravitationally collapsing clouds of gas and dust. Most young stars retain a protoplanetary disk for a few million years. This disk’s dust reemits stellar flux in the infrared, producing a spectral energy distribution (SED) observable by Spitzer and other telescopes. To understand the inner clearing of dust cavities and evolution in the SED, we used the Chiang & Goldreich two-layer approximation. We first wrote a python script based on refinements by Dullemond that includes a hot, puffed inner rim, shadowed mid region, flaring outer disk, and a variable inner cavity. This was then coupled with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedure to fit the observed SEDs of disks in the star forming Lupus region. The fitting procedure recovers physical characteristics of the disk including temperature, size, mass, and surface density. We compare the characteristics of circumstellar disks without holes and more evolved transition disks with cleared inner regions.

  1. Evolution of disk galaxies and the SO problem, revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bothun, G.D.

    1982-01-01

    We begin by summerizing the relevant properties of clusters of galaxies in relation to their ability to alter the course of galaxy evolution. Previous work on the effect of environment on the evolution of disk galaxies is also summerized and critiqued. The extensive data base of Bothun is then used to reexamine the issue of the role of the environment in motivating the evolution of disk galaxies. This data base consists of radio and optical observations of approx.350 galaxies in the clusters Peg I, Cancer, Pices, Coma, A1367, Z74--23, Hercules, A539, and A400. The data are portrayed in the color-gas content plane [log M/sub H//L/sub B/ vs. (B--V)/sup T/ 0 ], and theoretical evolutionary tracks have been constructed in that plane to serve as an adjunct to data interpretation. All analysis is done solely on the basis of the measurable quantities themselves, as opposed to morphological considerations. We find that spiral galaxies exhibit such a wide range in their integrated properties that attempting to force then into ''narrow'' morphological bins is neither practical or physically meaningful. With respect to the question of environmental modification of disk galaxies in clusters, we find the great majority of the data to mitigate strongly against any global environmental processes as having been important in determining the particular evolutionary history of cluster galaxies. Our basic conclusion is that initial conditions of formation and variations in star formation histories have been more important than environmental influences in determining the present-day character of spiral galaxies in clusters. The key parameter may well be the amount of neutral hydrogen remaining after star formation in the bulge component has ceased

  2. PROTOPLANETARY DISK STRUCTURE WITH GRAIN EVOLUTION: THE ANDES MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimkin, V.; Wiebe, D.; Pavlyuchenkov, Ya.; Zhukovska, S.; Semenov, D.; Henning, Th.; Vasyunin, A.; Birnstiel, T.

    2013-01-01

    We present a self-consistent model of a protoplanetary disk: 'ANDES' ('AccretioN disk with Dust Evolution and Sedimentation'). ANDES is based on a flexible and extendable modular structure that includes (1) a 1+1D frequency-dependent continuum radiative transfer module, (2) a module to calculate the chemical evolution using an extended gas-grain network with UV/X-ray-driven processes and surface reactions, (3) a module to calculate the gas thermal energy balance, and (4) a 1+1D module that simulates dust grain evolution. For the first time, grain evolution and time-dependent molecular chemistry are included in a protoplanetary disk model. We find that grain growth and sedimentation of large grains onto the disk midplane lead to a dust-depleted atmosphere. Consequently, dust and gas temperatures become higher in the inner disk (R ∼ 50 AU), in comparison with the disk model with pristine dust. The response of disk chemical structure to the dust growth and sedimentation is twofold. First, due to higher transparency a partly UV-shielded molecular layer is shifted closer to the dense midplane. Second, the presence of big grains in the disk midplane delays the freeze-out of volatile gas-phase species such as CO there, while in adjacent upper layers the depletion is still effective. Molecular concentrations and thus column densities of many species are enhanced in the disk model with dust evolution, e.g., CO 2 , NH 2 CN, HNO, H 2 O, HCOOH, HCN, and CO. We also show that time-dependent chemistry is important for a proper description of gas thermal balance.

  3. DYNAMICAL EVOLUTION OF VISCOUS DISKS AROUND Be STARS. I. PHOTOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haubois, X.; Carciofi, A. C. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Rivinius, Th. [European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Okazaki, A. T. [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkai-Gakuen University, Toyohira-ku, Sapporo 062-8605 (Japan); Bjorkman, J. E., E-mail: xhaubois@astro.iag.usp.br [Ritter Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    Be stars possess gaseous circumstellar disks that modify in many ways the spectrum of the central B star. Furthermore, they exhibit variability at several timescales and for a large number of observables. Putting the pieces together of this dynamical behavior is not an easy task and requires a detailed understanding of the physical processes that control the temporal evolution of the observables. There is an increasing body of evidence that suggests that Be disks are well described by standard {alpha}-disk theory. This paper is the first of a series that aims at studying the possibility of inferring several disk and stellar parameters through the follow-up of various observables. Here we study the temporal evolution of the disk density for different dynamical scenarios, including the disk build-up as a result of a long and steady mass injection from the star, the disk dissipation that occurs after mass injection is turned off, as well as scenarios in which active periods are followed by periods of quiescence. For those scenarios, we investigate the temporal evolution of continuum photometric observables using a three-dimensional non-LTE radiative transfer code. We show that light curves for different wavelengths are specific of a mass loss history, inclination angle, and {alpha} viscosity parameter. The diagnostic potential of those light curves is also discussed.

  4. An Analytical Model for the Evolution of the Protoplanetary Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khajenabi, Fazeleh; Kazrani, Kimia; Shadmehri, Mohsen, E-mail: f.khajenabi@gu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Golestan University, Gorgan 49138-15739 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    We obtain a new set of analytical solutions for the evolution of a self-gravitating accretion disk by holding the Toomre parameter close to its threshold and obtaining the stress parameter from the cooling rate. In agreement with the previous numerical solutions, furthermore, the accretion rate is assumed to be independent of the disk radius. Extreme situations where the entire disk is either optically thick or optically thin are studied independently, and the obtained solutions can be used for exploring the early or the final phases of a protoplanetary disk evolution. Our solutions exhibit decay of the accretion rate as a power-law function of the age of the system, with exponents −0.75 and −1.04 for optically thick and thin cases, respectively. Our calculations permit us to explore the evolution of the snow line analytically. The location of the snow line in the optically thick regime evolves as a power-law function of time with the exponent −0.16; however, when the disk is optically thin, the location of the snow line as a function of time with the exponent −0.7 has a stronger dependence on time. This means that in an optically thin disk inward migration of the snow line is faster than an optically thick disk.

  5. GIANT PLANET MIGRATION, DISK EVOLUTION, AND THE ORIGIN OF TRANSITIONAL DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Richard D.; Armitage, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    We present models of giant planet migration in evolving protoplanetary disks. Our disks evolve subject to viscous transport of angular momentum and photoevaporation, while planets undergo Type II migration. We use a Monte Carlo approach, running large numbers of models with a range in initial conditions. We find that relatively simple models can reproduce both the observed radial distribution of extrasolar giant planets, and the lifetimes and accretion histories of protoplanetary disks. The use of state-of-the-art photoevaporation models results in a degree of coupling between planet formation and disk clearing, which has not been found previously. Some accretion across planetary orbits is necessary if planets are to survive at radii ∼<1.5 AU, and if planets of Jupiter mass or greater are to survive in our models they must be able to form at late times, when the disk surface density in the formation region is low. Our model forms two different types of 'transitional' disks, embedded planets and clearing disks, which show markedly different properties. We find that the observable properties of these systems are broadly consistent with current observations, and highlight useful observational diagnostics. We predict that young transition disks are more likely to contain embedded giant planets, while older transition disks are more likely to be undergoing disk clearing.

  6. Dust in Protoplanetary Disks: Properties and Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.; Testi, L.; Calvet, N.; Henning, T.; Waters, R.; Wilner, D.

    2007-01-01

    We review the properties of dust in protoplanetary disks around optically visible pre-main-sequence stars obtained with a variety of observational techniques, from measurements of scattered light at visual and infrared wavelengths to mid-infrared spectroscopy and millimeter interferometry. A general

  7. SILICATE EVOLUTION IN BROWN DWARF DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, B.

    2009-01-01

    We present a compositional analysis of the 10 μm silicate spectra for brown dwarf disks in the Taurus and Upper Scorpius (UppSco) star-forming regions, using archival Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph observations. A variety in the silicate features is observed, ranging from a narrow profile with a peak at 9.8 μm, to nearly flat, low-contrast features. For most objects, we find nearly equal fractions for the large-grain and crystalline mass fractions, indicating both processes to be active in these disks. The median crystalline mass fraction for the Taurus brown dwarfs is found to be 20%, a factor of ∼2 higher than the median reported for the higher mass stars in Taurus. The large-grain mass fractions are found to increase with an increasing strength in the X-ray emission, while the opposite trend is observed for the crystalline mass fractions. A small 5% of the Taurus brown dwarfs are still found to be dominated by pristine interstellar medium-like dust, with an amorphous submicron grain mass fraction of ∼87%. For 15% of the objects, we find a negligible large-grain mass fraction, but a >60% small amorphous silicate fraction. These may be the cases where substantial grain growth and dust sedimentation have occurred in the disks, resulting in a high fraction of amorphous submicron grains in the disk surface. Among the UppSco brown dwarfs, only usd161939 has a signal-to-noise ratio high enough to properly model its silicate spectrum. We find a 74% small amorphous grain and a ∼26% crystalline mass fraction for this object.

  8. THE LONG-TERM EVOLUTION OF PHOTOEVAPORATING PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Zhu Zhaohuan [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Gammie, Charles, E-mail: jaehbae@umich.edu, E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu, E-mail: zhuzh@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: gammie@illinois.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    We perform calculations of our one-dimensional, two-zone disk model to study the long-term evolution of the circumstellar disk. In particular, we adopt published photoevaporation prescriptions and examine whether the photoevaporative loss alone, coupled with a range of initial angular momenta of the protostellar cloud, can explain the observed decline of the frequency of optically thick dusty disks with increasing age. In the parameter space we explore, disks have accreting and/or non-accreting transitional phases lasting for {approx}< 20% of their lifetime, which is in reasonable agreement with observed statistics. Assuming that photoevaporation controls disk clearing, we find that the initial angular momentum distribution of clouds needs to be weighted in favor of slowly rotating protostellar cloud cores. Again, assuming inner disk dispersal by photoevaporation, we conjecture that this skewed angular momentum distribution is a result of fragmentation into binary or multiple stellar systems in rapidly rotating cores. Accreting and non-accreting transitional disks show different evolutionary paths on the M-dot-R{sub wall} plane, which possibly explains the different observed properties between the two populations. However, we further find that scaling the photoevaporation rates downward by a factor of 10 makes it difficult to clear the disks on the observed timescales, showing that the precise value of the photoevaporative loss is crucial to setting the clearing times. While our results apply only to pure photoevaporative loss (plus disk accretion), there may be implications for models in which planets clear disks preferentially at radii of the order of 10 AU.

  9. THE EVOLUTION OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS IN THE ARCHES CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olczak, C.; Kaczmarek, T.; Pfalzner, S.; Harfst, S.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2012-01-01

    Most stars form in a cluster environment. These stars are initially surrounded by disks from which potentially planetary systems form. Of all cluster environments, starburst clusters are probably the most hostile for planetary systems in our Galaxy. The intense stellar radiation and extreme density favor rapid destruction of circumstellar disks via photoevaporation and stellar encounters. Evolving a virialized model of the Arches cluster in the Galactic tidal field, we investigate the effect of stellar encounters on circumstellar disks in a prototypical starburst cluster. Despite its proximity to the deep gravitational potential of the Galactic center, only a moderate fraction of members escapes to form an extended pair of tidal tails. Our simulations show that encounters destroy one-third of the circumstellar disks in the cluster core within the first 2.5 Myr of evolution, preferentially affecting the least and most massive stars. A small fraction of these events causes rapid ejection and the formation of a weaker second pair of tidal tails that is overpopulated by disk-poor stars. Two predictions arise from our study. (1) If not destroyed by photoevaporation protoplanetary disks of massive late B- and early O-type stars represent the most likely hosts of planet formation in starburst clusters. (2) Multi-epoch K- and L-band photometry of the Arches cluster would provide the kinematically selected membership sample required to detect the additional pair of disk-poor tidal tails.

  10. THE LONG-TERM EVOLUTION OF PHOTOEVAPORATING PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee; Zhu Zhaohuan; Gammie, Charles

    2013-01-01

    We perform calculations of our one-dimensional, two-zone disk model to study the long-term evolution of the circumstellar disk. In particular, we adopt published photoevaporation prescriptions and examine whether the photoevaporative loss alone, coupled with a range of initial angular momenta of the protostellar cloud, can explain the observed decline of the frequency of optically thick dusty disks with increasing age. In the parameter space we explore, disks have accreting and/or non-accreting transitional phases lasting for ∼ wall plane, which possibly explains the different observed properties between the two populations. However, we further find that scaling the photoevaporation rates downward by a factor of 10 makes it difficult to clear the disks on the observed timescales, showing that the precise value of the photoevaporative loss is crucial to setting the clearing times. While our results apply only to pure photoevaporative loss (plus disk accretion), there may be implications for models in which planets clear disks preferentially at radii of the order of 10 AU

  11. THE VLA VIEW OF THE HL TAU DISK: DISK MASS, GRAIN EVOLUTION, AND EARLY PLANET FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica UNAM, Apartado Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Henning, Thomas; Linz, Hendrik; Birnstiel, Til; Boekel, Roy van; Klahr, Hubert [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Chandler, Claire J.; Pérez, Laura [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Anglada, Guillem; Macias, Enrique; Osorio, Mayra [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Flock, Mario [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Menten, Karl [Jansky Fellow of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (United States); Testi, Leonardo [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Torrelles, José M. [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC) and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (UB-IEEC), Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Zhu, Zhaohuan, E-mail: c.carrasco@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: l.rodriguez@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: r.galvan@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: henning@mpia.de, E-mail: linz@mpia.de [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    The first long-baseline ALMA campaign resolved the disk around the young star HL Tau into a number of axisymmetric bright and dark rings. Despite the very young age of HL Tau, these structures have been interpreted as signatures for the presence of (proto)planets. The ALMA images triggered numerous theoretical studies based on disk–planet interactions, magnetically driven disk structures, and grain evolution. Of special interest are the inner parts of disks, where terrestrial planets are expected to form. However, the emission from these regions in HL Tau turned out to be optically thick at all ALMA wavelengths, preventing the derivation of surface density profiles and grain-size distributions. Here, we present the most sensitive images of HL Tau obtained to date with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at 7.0 mm wavelength with a spatial resolution comparable to the ALMA images. At this long wavelength, the dust emission from HL Tau is optically thin, allowing a comprehensive study of the inner disk. We obtain a total disk dust mass of (1–3) × 10{sup −3} M {sub ⊙}, depending on the assumed opacity and disk temperature. Our optically thin data also indicate fast grain growth, fragmentation, and formation of dense clumps in the inner densest parts of the disk. Our results suggest that the HL Tau disk may be actually in a very early stage of planetary formation, with planets not already formed in the gaps but in the process of future formation in the bright rings.

  12. THE VLA VIEW OF THE HL TAU DISK: DISK MASS, GRAIN EVOLUTION, AND EARLY PLANET FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Henning, Thomas; Linz, Hendrik; Birnstiel, Til; Boekel, Roy van; Klahr, Hubert; Chandler, Claire J.; Pérez, Laura; Anglada, Guillem; Macias, Enrique; Osorio, Mayra; Flock, Mario; Menten, Karl; Testi, Leonardo; Torrelles, José M.; Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2016-01-01

    The first long-baseline ALMA campaign resolved the disk around the young star HL Tau into a number of axisymmetric bright and dark rings. Despite the very young age of HL Tau, these structures have been interpreted as signatures for the presence of (proto)planets. The ALMA images triggered numerous theoretical studies based on disk–planet interactions, magnetically driven disk structures, and grain evolution. Of special interest are the inner parts of disks, where terrestrial planets are expected to form. However, the emission from these regions in HL Tau turned out to be optically thick at all ALMA wavelengths, preventing the derivation of surface density profiles and grain-size distributions. Here, we present the most sensitive images of HL Tau obtained to date with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at 7.0 mm wavelength with a spatial resolution comparable to the ALMA images. At this long wavelength, the dust emission from HL Tau is optically thin, allowing a comprehensive study of the inner disk. We obtain a total disk dust mass of (1–3) × 10 −3 M ⊙ , depending on the assumed opacity and disk temperature. Our optically thin data also indicate fast grain growth, fragmentation, and formation of dense clumps in the inner densest parts of the disk. Our results suggest that the HL Tau disk may be actually in a very early stage of planetary formation, with planets not already formed in the gaps but in the process of future formation in the bright rings

  13. Evolution of accretion disks in tidal disruption events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Rong-Feng [Current address: Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. (Israel); Matzner, Christopher D., E-mail: rf.shen@mail.huji.ac.il, E-mail: matzner@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    During a stellar tidal disruption event (TDE), an accretion disk forms as stellar debris returns to the disruption site and circularizes. Rather than being confined within the circularizing radius, the disk can spread to larger radii to conserve angular momentum. A spreading disk is a source of matter for re-accretion at rates that may exceed the later stellar fallback rate, although a disk wind can suppress its contribution to the central black hole accretion rate. A spreading disk is detectible through a break in the central accretion rate history or, at longer wavelengths, by its own emission. We model the evolution of TDE disk size and accretion rate by accounting for the time-dependent fallback rate, for the influence of wind losses in the early advective stage, and for the possibility of thermal instability for accretion rates intermediate between the advection-dominated and gas-pressure-dominated states. The model provides a dynamic basis for modeling TDE light curves. All or part of a young TDE disk will precess as a solid body because of the Lense-Thirring effect, and precession may manifest itself as a quasi-periodic modulation of the light curve. The precession period increases with time. Applying our results to the jetted TDE candidate Swift J1644+57, whose X-ray light curve shows numerous quasi-periodic dips, we argue that the data best fit a scenario in which a main-sequence star was fully disrupted by an intermediate mass black hole on an orbit significantly inclined from the black hole equator, with the apparent jet shutoff at t = 500 days corresponding to a disk transition from the advective state to the gas-pressure-dominated state.

  14. THE DIFFERENT EVOLUTION OF GAS AND DUST IN DISKS AROUND SUN-LIKE AND COOL STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascucci, I.; Apai, D.; Luhman, K.; Henning, Th.; Bouwman, J.; Meyer, M. R.; Lahuis, F.; Natta, A.

    2009-01-01

    Planet formation is profoundly impacted by the properties of protoplanetary disks and their central star. However, how disk properties vary with stellar parameters remains poorly known. Here, we present the first comprehensive, comparative Spitzer/IRS study of the dust and gas properties of disks around young Sun-like stars (K1-M5) and cool stars/brown dwarfs (M5-M9). The comparison of these two large samples of over 60 sources reveal major differences in the evolution of both the dust and gas components. We report the first detection of organic molecules in disks around brown dwarfs. The detection rate statistics and the line flux ratios of HCN and C 2 H 2 show a striking difference between the two samples, demonstrating a significant underabundance of HCN relative to C 2 H 2 in the disk surface of cool stars. We propose this to originate from the large difference in the UV irradiation around the two types of sources. The statistical comparison of the 10 μm silicate emission features also reveals a difference between the two samples. Cool stars and brown dwarfs show weaker features arising from more processed silicate grains in the disk atmosphere. These findings complement previous indications of flatter disk structures and longer disk lifetimes around cool stars. Our results highlight important differences in the chemical and physical evolution of protoplanetary disks as a function of stellar mass, temperature, and radiation field which should be taken into account in planet formation models. We note that the different chemistry of preplanetary materials in the disk may also influence the bulk composition and volatile content of the forming planets. In particular, if exogenous HCN has played a key role in the synthesis of prebiotic molecules on Earth as proposed, then prebiotic chemistry may unfold differently on planets around cool stars.

  15. Internal and environmental secular evolution of disk galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John

    2015-03-01

    This Special Session is devoted to the secular evolution of disk galaxies. Here `secular' means `slow' i.e., evolution on time scales that are generally much longer than the galaxy crossing or rotation time. Internal and environmentally driven evolution both are covered. I am indebted to Albert Bosma for reminding me at the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School on Secular Evolution that our subject first appeared in print in a comment made by Ivan King (1977) in his introductory talk at the Yale University meeting on The Evolution of Galaxies and Stellar Populations: `John Kormendy would like us to consider the possibility that a galaxy can interact with itself.. . . I'm not at all convinced, but John can show you some interesting pictures.' Two of the earliest papers that followed were Kormendy (1979a, b); the first discusses the interaction of galaxy components with each other, and the second studies these phenomena in the context of a morphological survey of barred galaxies. The earliest modeling paper that we still use regularly is Combes & Sanders (1981), which introduces the now well known idea that box-shaped bulges in edge-on galaxies are side-on, vertically thickened bars. It is gratifying to see how this subject has grown since that time. Hundreds of papers have been written, and the topic features prominently at many meetings (e.g., Block et al. 2004; Falcoń-Barroso & Knapen 2012, and this Special Session). My talk here introduces both internal and environmental secular evolution; a brief abstract follows. My Canary Islands Winter School review covers both subjects in more detail (Kormendy 2012). Kormendy & Kennicutt (2004) is a comprehensive review of internal secular evolution, and Kormendy & Bender (2012) covers environmental evolution. Both of these subject make significant progress at this meeting. Secular evolution happens because self-gravitating systems evolve toward the most tightly bound configuration that is reachable by the evolution processes

  16. Disk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); L. Liu (Lei); M. Tamer Özsu

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractIn disk storage, data is recorded on planar, round and rotating surfaces (disks, discs, or platters). A disk drive is a peripheral device of a computer system, connected by some communication medium to a disk controller. The disk controller is a chip, typically connected to the CPU of

  17. DUST PROPERTIES AND DISK STRUCTURE OF EVOLVED PROTOPLANETARY DISKS IN Cep OB2: GRAIN GROWTH, SETTLING, GAS AND DUST MASS, AND INSIDE-OUT EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Henning, Thomas; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Bouwman, Jeroen; Sturm, Bernhard; Patel, Nimesh; Juhász, Attila

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph spectra of 31 T Tauri stars (TTS) and IRAM/1.3 mm observations for 34 low- and intermediate-mass stars in the Cep OB2 region. Including our previously published data, we analyze 56 TTS and 3 intermediate-mass stars with silicate features in Tr 37 (∼4 Myr) and NGC 7160 (∼12 Myr). The silicate emission features are well reproduced with a mixture of amorphous (with olivine, forsterite, and silica stoichiometry) and crystalline grains (forsterite, enstatite). We explore grain size and disk structure using radiative transfer disk models, finding that most objects have suffered substantial evolution (grain growth, settling). About half of the disks show inside-out evolution, with either dust-cleared inner holes or a radially dependent dust distribution, typically with larger grains and more settling in the innermost disk. The typical strong silicate features nevertheless require the presence of small dust grains, and could be explained by differential settling according to grain size, anomalous dust distributions, and/or optically thin dust populations within disk gaps. M-type stars tend to have weaker silicate emission and steeper spectral energy distributions than K-type objects. The inferred low dust masses are in a strong contrast with the relatively high gas accretion rates, suggesting global grain growth and/or an anomalous gas-to-dust ratio. Transition disks in the Cep OB2 region display strongly processed grains, suggesting that they are dominated by dust evolution and settling. Finally, the presence of rare but remarkable disks with strong accretion at old ages reveals that some very massive disks may still survive to grain growth, gravitational instabilities, and planet formation.

  18. Evolution and Photoevaporation of Protoplanetary Disks in Clusters: The Role of Pre-stellar Core Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lin; Chang, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    We explore the effects of progenitor pre-stellar core properties on the evolution of disks with external photoevaporation in clusters. Since the strength of external photoevaporation is largely determined by the depth of the gravitational potential well of the disk, the external photoevaporation rate is the function of star mass and disk size. The properties of a core collapse set up the initial conditions of protoplanetary disks, so they influence the evolutions of star mass and disk size. Our calculations show that the core properties can dramatically influence the efficiency of external photoevaporation. For the core with low angular velocity, most core mass directly falls onto the central star or onto the disk near the star. External photoevaporation is suppressed even if external radiation from nearby massive stars are strong. In this case, the disk evolution in clusters is primarily driven by its own internal viscosity. However, if the core angular velocity is high, most core mass falls onto the disk far from the central star. External photoevaporation is so strong that the disk mass is severely evaporated. Finally, the star mass is very low and the disk lifetime is very short. Our calculations could interpret some observational features of disks in clusters, such as the diameter distribution of disks in the Trapezium cluster and the correlation between mass accretion rate and star mass. We suggest that the disk mass determined by (sub)millimeter wavelength observations may be underestimated.

  19. The First 40 Million Years of Circumstellar Disk Evolution: The Signature of Terrestrial Planet Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Huan Y. A.; Rieke, George H.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Gáspár, András, E-mail: hyameng@lpl.arizona.edu [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2017-02-10

    We characterize the first 40 Myr of evolution of circumstellar disks through a unified study of the infrared properties of members of young clusters and associations with ages from 2 Myr up to ∼40 Myr: NGC 1333, NGC 1960, NGC 2232, NGC 2244, NGC 2362, NGC 2547, IC 348, IC 2395, IC 4665, Chamaeleon I, Orion OB1a and OB1b, Taurus, the β Pictoris Moving Group, ρ Ophiuchi, and the associations of Argus, Carina, Columba, Scorpius–Centaurus, and Tucana–Horologium. Our work features: (1) a filtering technique to flag noisy backgrounds; (2) a method based on the probability distribution of deflections, P ( D ), to obtain statistically valid photometry for faint sources; and (3) use of the evolutionary trend of transitional disks to constrain the overall behavior of bright disks. We find that the fraction of disks three or more times brighter than the stellar photospheres at 24 μ m decays relatively slowly initially and then much more rapidly by ∼10 Myr. However, there is a continuing component until ∼35 Myr, probably due primarily to massive clouds of debris generated in giant impacts during the oligarchic/chaotic growth phases of terrestrial planets. If the contribution from primordial disks is excluded, the evolution of the incidence of these oligarchic/chaotic debris disks can be described empirically by a log-normal function with the peak at 12–20 Myr, including ∼13% of the original population, and with a post-peak mean duration of 10–20 Myr.

  20. The First 40 Million Years of Circumstellar Disk Evolution: The Signature of Terrestrial Planet Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Huan Y. A.; Rieke, George H.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Gáspár, András

    2017-01-01

    We characterize the first 40 Myr of evolution of circumstellar disks through a unified study of the infrared properties of members of young clusters and associations with ages from 2 Myr up to ∼40 Myr: NGC 1333, NGC 1960, NGC 2232, NGC 2244, NGC 2362, NGC 2547, IC 348, IC 2395, IC 4665, Chamaeleon I, Orion OB1a and OB1b, Taurus, the β Pictoris Moving Group, ρ Ophiuchi, and the associations of Argus, Carina, Columba, Scorpius–Centaurus, and Tucana–Horologium. Our work features: (1) a filtering technique to flag noisy backgrounds; (2) a method based on the probability distribution of deflections, P ( D ), to obtain statistically valid photometry for faint sources; and (3) use of the evolutionary trend of transitional disks to constrain the overall behavior of bright disks. We find that the fraction of disks three or more times brighter than the stellar photospheres at 24 μ m decays relatively slowly initially and then much more rapidly by ∼10 Myr. However, there is a continuing component until ∼35 Myr, probably due primarily to massive clouds of debris generated in giant impacts during the oligarchic/chaotic growth phases of terrestrial planets. If the contribution from primordial disks is excluded, the evolution of the incidence of these oligarchic/chaotic debris disks can be described empirically by a log-normal function with the peak at 12–20 Myr, including ∼13% of the original population, and with a post-peak mean duration of 10–20 Myr.

  1. The First 40 Million Years of Circumstellar Disk Evolution: The Signature of Terrestrial Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huan Y. A.; Rieke, George H.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Gáspár, András

    2017-02-01

    We characterize the first 40 Myr of evolution of circumstellar disks through a unified study of the infrared properties of members of young clusters and associations with ages from 2 Myr up to ˜40 Myr: NGC 1333, NGC 1960, NGC 2232, NGC 2244, NGC 2362, NGC 2547, IC 348, IC 2395, IC 4665, Chamaeleon I, Orion OB1a and OB1b, Taurus, the β Pictoris Moving Group, ρ Ophiuchi, and the associations of Argus, Carina, Columba, Scorpius-Centaurus, and Tucana-Horologium. Our work features: (1) a filtering technique to flag noisy backgrounds; (2) a method based on the probability distribution of deflections, P(D), to obtain statistically valid photometry for faint sources; and (3) use of the evolutionary trend of transitional disks to constrain the overall behavior of bright disks. We find that the fraction of disks three or more times brighter than the stellar photospheres at 24 μm decays relatively slowly initially and then much more rapidly by ˜10 Myr. However, there is a continuing component until ˜35 Myr, probably due primarily to massive clouds of debris generated in giant impacts during the oligarchic/chaotic growth phases of terrestrial planets. If the contribution from primordial disks is excluded, the evolution of the incidence of these oligarchic/chaotic debris disks can be described empirically by a log-normal function with the peak at 12-20 Myr, including ˜13% of the original population, and with a post-peak mean duration of 10-20 Myr.

  2. Effect of increasing helium content and disk dwarfs evolution on the chemical enrichment of the galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caimmi, R [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1979-07-01

    The author deals with two main effects: First the empirical metal abundance distribution in Main Sequence disk dwarfs of the solar neighbourhood, and second, the theoretical possibility of (i) an increased helium content as the Galaxy evolves, and (ii) the presence of evolutionary effects in disk dwarfs (i.e., the age of some or all stars considered up to the subgiant phase is not necessarily longer than the age of the galactic disk). Account is taken of a linear increase of helium content with metal content, and some constraints are imposed relative to initial, solar and present-day observed values of Y and Z, and to observed relative helium to heavy element enrichment, ..delta..Y/..delta..Z. In this way, little influence is found on the empirical metal abundance distribution in the range 0<=..delta..Y/..delta..Z<=3, while larger values of ..delta..Y/..delta..Zwould lead to a more significant influence. 'Evolved' and 'unevolved' theoretical metal abundance distributions are derived by accounting for a two-phase model of chemical evolution of galaxies and for a linear mass dependence of star lifetimes in the spectral range G2V-G8V and are compared with the empirical distribution. All are in satisfactory agreement due to systematic shift data by different observations; several values of collapse time Tsub(c) and age of the Galaxy T are also considered. Finally, models of chemical evolution invoking homogeneous collapse without infall and inhomogeneous collapse with infall, are briefly discussed relative to the empirical metal abundance distribution in Main Sequence disk dwarfs of the solar neighbourhood.

  3. On the structure of circumbinary accretion disks and the tidal evolution of commensurable satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, D.N.C.; Papaloizou, J.

    1979-01-01

    The investigation is continued of tidal torques on accretion disk flows in the vicinity of close binary systems. It is shown that the tidal effect can truncate the inner edge of circumbinary accretion discs. If the viscous dissipation is weak in such disks, density enhancement can be produced at the outer Lindblad resonance. The results are applied to contact binaries and the formation of commensurable satellites in the solar system. In order to determine whether the present configurations are a result of formation, or subsequent tidal evolution, the forced eccentricity of resonant satellites is related to the Q values of the planet and satellites. It is found that while the Galilean satellites may owe their present configuration, in part, to tidal effects, this is unlikely for other commensurable pairs. (author)

  4. Dust in Proto-Planetary Disks: Properties and Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Natta, A.; Testi, L.; Calvet, N.; Henning, Th.; Waters, R.; Wilner, D.

    2006-01-01

    We review the properties of dust in protoplanetary disks around optically visible pre-main sequence stars obtained with a variety of observational techniques, from measurements of scattered light at visual and infrared wavelengths to mid-infrared spectroscopy and millimeter interferometry. A general result is that grains in disks are on average much larger than in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). In many disks, there is evidence that a large mass of dust is in grains with millimeter and...

  5. HYDROCARBON EMISSION RINGS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS INDUCED BY DUST EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergin, Edwin A.; Du, Fujun; Schwarz, K.; Zhang, K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 311 West Hall, 1085 S. University Ave, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Cleeves, L. Ilsedore [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Blake, G. A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, MC 150-21, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Visser, R. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    We report observations of resolved C{sub 2}H emission rings within the gas-rich protoplanetary disks of TW Hya and DM Tau using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array. In each case the emission ring is found to arise at the edge of the observable disk of millimeter-sized grains (pebbles) traced by submillimeter-wave continuum emission. In addition, we detect a C{sub 3}H{sub 2} emission ring with an identical spatial distribution to C{sub 2}H in the TW Hya disk. This suggests that these are hydrocarbon rings (i.e., not limited to C{sub 2}H). Using a detailed thermo-chemical model we show that reproducing the emission from C{sub 2}H requires a strong UV field and C/O > 1 in the upper disk atmosphere and outer disk, beyond the edge of the pebble disk. This naturally arises in a disk where the ice-coated dust mass is spatially stratified due to the combined effects of coagulation, gravitational settling and drift. This stratification causes the disk surface and outer disk to have a greater permeability to UV photons. Furthermore the concentration of ices that transport key volatile carriers of oxygen and carbon in the midplane, along with photochemical erosion of CO, leads to an elemental C/O ratio that exceeds unity in the UV-dominated disk. Thus the motions of the grains, and not the gas, lead to a rich hydrocarbon chemistry in disk surface layers and in the outer disk midplane.

  6. Evolution of protoplanetary disks from their taxonomy in scattered light: Group I vs. Group II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garufi, A.; Meeus, G.; Benisty, M.; Quanz, S.P.; Banzatti, A.; Kama, M.; Canovas, H.; Eiroa, C.; Schmid, H.M.; Stolker, T.; Pohl, A.; Rigliaco, E.; Ménard, F.; Meyer, M.R.; van Boekel, R.; Dominik, C.

    Context. High-resolution imaging reveals a large morphological variety of protoplanetary disks. To date, no constraints on their global evolution have been found from this census. An evolutionary classification of disks was proposed based on their IR spectral energy distribution, with the Group I

  7. DISK EVOLUTION IN THE THREE NEARBY STAR-FORMING REGIONS OF TAURUS, CHAMAELEON, AND OPHIUCHUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, E.; Watson, Dan M.; McClure, M. K.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze samples of Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra of T Tauri stars in the Ophiuchus, Taurus, and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions, whose median ages lie in the <1-2 Myr range. The median mid-infrared spectra of objects in these three regions are similar in shape, suggesting, on average, similar disk structures. When normalized to the same stellar luminosity, the medians follow each other closely, implying comparable mid-infrared excess emission from the circumstellar disks. We use the spectral index between 13 and 31 μm and the equivalent width of the 10 μm silicate emission feature to identify objects whose disk configuration departs from that of a continuous, optically thick accretion disk. Transitional disks, whose steep 13-31 μm spectral slope and near-IR flux deficit reveal inner disk clearing, occur with about the same frequency of a few percent in all three regions. Objects with unusually large 10 μm equivalent widths are more common (20%-30%); they could reveal the presence of disk gaps filled with optically thin dust. Based on their medians and fraction of evolved disks, T Tauri stars in Taurus and Chamaeleon I are very alike. Disk evolution sets in early, since already the youngest region, the Ophiuchus core (L1688), has more settled disks with larger grains. Our results indicate that protoplanetary disks show clear signs of dust evolution at an age of a few Myr, even as early as ∼1 Myr, but age is not the only factor determining the degree of evolution during the first few million years of a disk's lifetime.

  8. STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF CIRCUMBINARY DISKS AROUND SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2013-01-01

    We explore properties of circumbinary disks around supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries in centers of galaxies by reformulating standard viscous disk evolution in terms of the viscous angular momentum flux F J . If the binary stops gas inflow and opens a cavity in the disk, then the inner disk evolves toward a constant-F J (rather than a constant M-dot ) state. We compute disk properties in different physical regimes relevant for SMBH binaries, focusing on the gas-assisted evolution of systems starting at separations 10 –4 – 10 –2 pc, and find the following. (1) Mass pileup at the inner disk edge caused by the tidal barrier accelerates binary inspiral. (2) Binaries can be forced to merge even by a disk with a mass below that of the secondary. (3) Torque on the binary is set non-locally, at radii far larger than the binary semi-major axis; its magnitude does not reflect disk properties in the vicinity of the binary. (4) Binary inspiral exhibits hysteresis—it depends on the past evolution of the disk. (5) The Eddington limit can be important for circumbinary disks even if they accrete at sub-Eddington rates, but only at late stages of the inspiral. (6) Gas overflow across the orbit of the secondary can be important for low secondary mass, high- M-dot systems, but mainly during the inspiral phase dominated by the gravitational wave emission. (7) Circumbinary disks emit more power and have harder spectra than constant M-dot disks; their spectra are very sensitive to the amount of overflow across the secondary orbit

  9. Evolution of rotating star clusters at the inelastic-collision stage. II. Dynamics of a disk of gas and stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanova, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamics of a gas--star disk embedded in a dense, mildly oblate (flattening epsilon-c or approx. =0.2--0.3 the stable disk will survive for at least half the cluster evolution time. The possibility of a thin disk of stars existing inside a dense star cluster is considered. For small epsilon-c and for disk member stars having > or approx. =0.04 the mass of the cluster members, collisions between cluster and disk stars will have no effect on the disk evolution prior to instability

  10. LONG-TERM EVOLUTION OF PLANET-INDUCED VORTICES IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Wen; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai; Lubow, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of large-scale asymmetric features in protoplanetary disks suggest that large-scale vortices exist in such disks. Massive planets are known to be able to produce deep gaps in protoplanetary disks. The gap edges could become hydrodynamically unstable to the Rossby wave/vortex instability and form large-scale vortices. In this study we examine the long-term evolution of these vortices by carrying out high-resolution two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations that last more than 10 4 orbits (measured at the planet's orbit). We find that the disk viscosity has a strong influence on both the emergence and lifetime of vortices. In the outer disk region where asymmetric features are observed, our simulation results suggest that the disk viscous α needs to be low, ∼10 –5 -10 –4 , to sustain vortices to thousands and up to 10 4 orbits in certain cases. The chance of finding a vortex feature in a disk then decreases with smaller planet orbital radius. For α ∼ 10 –3 or larger, even planets with masses of 5 M J will have difficulty either producing or sustaining vortices. We have also studied the effects of different disk temperatures and planet masses. We discuss the implications of our findings on current and future protoplanetary disk observations

  11. SDP_golofs01_3: Stellar Disk Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, G.

    2010-03-01

    n a collaboration between the HSC, P. Harvey (Mission Scientist) and the three instrument consortia we propose to apply the full power of Herschel to investigate the properties of circum-stellar disks. The versatility of Herschel allows us to address several key questions: How do the disks evolve with time? Planets clearly form out of circum-stellar disks and there is growing evidence that the time scale is short, 1 - 10 Myr, for the main accretion phase. During this time period, the stellar radiation and stellar winds clean the disks from most of their dust and gas, eventually making them transparent. However, collisions and evaporation from comet- like bodies will continue to produce dust and gas. This activity declines with time, and we will pursue this scenario by observing a sample of IR excess stars of known age, ranging from a few million years to the age of the sun. Are there analogues to our Kuiper belt around nearby stars? The Kuiper belt is a dust belt surrounding the Sun, located outside the orbit of Neptune, which has a key role in stabilizing orbits of the KE-objects and this dynamical aspect makes it particularly interesting to search for stars that may host KE-belt analogues. Herschel offers a unique sensitivity beyond 100 m and we propose an extensive survey of nearby stars seeking cold dust emission. What will a closer IR look at the "Fabulous Four" (and some other resolved disks) reveal? Several nearby MS stars with IR excesses have circumstellar dust structures that can be resolved by Herschel. Imaging these structures in the six PACS+SPIRE bands will enable us to explore the dust properties, notably the size distribution and albedo.. What is the composition of young disks? We propose a detailed spectroscopic investigation of four bright disks, including a full spectral scan with PACS, an FTS scan at full resolution and HIFI observations of selected frequencies. The aim is to constrain the properties of both the dust and gas components.

  12. Physical properties of dusty protoplanetary disks in Lupus: evidence for viscous evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazzari, M.; Testi, L.; Natta, A.; Ansdell, M.; Carpenter, J.; Guidi, G.; Hogerheijde, M.; Manara, C. F.; Miotello, A.; van der Marel, N.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Williams, J. P.

    2017-10-01

    Context. The formation of planets strongly depends on the total amount as well as on the spatial distribution of solids in protoplanetary disks. Thanks to the improvements in resolution and sensitivity provided by ALMA, measurements of the surface density of mm-sized grains are now possible on large samples of disks. Such measurements provide statistical constraints that can be used to inform our understanding of the initial conditions of planet formation. Aims: We aim to analyze spatially resolved observations of 36 protoplanetary disks in the Lupus star forming complex from our ALMA survey at 890 μm, aiming to determine physical properties such as the dust surface density, the disk mass and size, and to provide a constraint on the temperature profile. Methods: We fit the observations directly in the uv-plane using a two-layer disk model that computes the 890 μm emission by solving the energy balance at each disk radius. Results: For 22 out of 36 protoplanetary disks we derive robust estimates of their physical properties. The sample covers stellar masses between 0.1 and 2 M⊙, and we find no trend in the relationship between the average disk temperatures and the stellar parameters. We find, instead, a correlation between the integrated sub-mm flux (a proxy for the disk mass) and the exponential cut-off radii (a proxy of the disk size) of the Lupus disks. Comparing these results with observations at similar angular resolution of Taurus-Auriga and Ophiuchus disks found in literature and scaling them to the same distance, we observe that the Lupus disks are generally fainter and larger at a high level of statistical significance. Considering the 1-2 Myr age difference between these regions, it is possible to tentatively explain the offset in the disk mass-size relation with viscous spreading, however with the current measurements other mechanisms cannot be ruled out.

  13. Models of disk chemical evolution focusing the pure dynamical radial mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Re Fiorentin P.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We performed N-body simulations to study the dynamical evolution of a stellar disk inside a Dark Matter (DM halo. Our results evidence how a standard -radially decreasing- metallicity gradient produces a negative vϕ vs. [Fe/H] correlation, similar to that shown by the thin disk stars, while an inverse radial gradient generates a positive rotation-metallicity correlation, as that observed in the old thick population.

  14. The evolution of stellar metallicity gradients of the Milky Way disk from LSS-GAC main sequence turn-off stars: a two-phase disk formation history?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Mao-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Huang, Yang; Wang, Chun; Ren, Juan-Juan; Chen, Bing-Qiu; Sun, Ning-Chen; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto; Huo, Zhi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurements of stellar metallicity gradients in the radial and vertical directions of the disk and their temporal variations provide important constraints on the formation and evolution of the Milky Way disk. We use 297 042 main sequence turn-off stars selected from the LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anti-center (LSS-GAC) to determine the radial and vertical gradients of stellar metallicity, Δ[Fe/H]/ΔR and Δ[Fe/H]/Δ|Z| of the Milky Way disk in the direction of the anticenter. We determine ages of those turn-off stars by isochrone fitting and measure the temporal variations of metallicity gradients. We have carried out a detailed analysis of the selection effects resulting from the selection, observation and data reduction of LSS-GAC targets and the potential biases of a magnitude limited sample on the determinations of metallicity gradients. Our results show that the gradients, both in the radial and vertical directions, exhibit significant spatial and temporal variations. The radial gradients yielded by stars with the oldest ages (≳ 11 Gyr) are essentially zero at all heights from the disk midplane, while those given by younger stars are always negative. The vertical gradients deduced from stars with the oldest ages (≳ 11 Gyr) are negative and only show very weak variations with Galactocentric distance in the disk plane, R, while those yielded by younger stars show strong variations with R. After being essentially flat at the earliest epochs of disk formation, the radial gradients steepen as age decreases, reaching a maximum (steepest) at age 7–8 Gyr, and then they flatten again. Similar temporal trends are also found for the vertical gradients. We infer that the assembly of the Milky Way disk may have experienced at least two distinct phases. The earlier phase is probably related to a slow, pressure-supported collapse of gas, when the gas settles down to the disk mainly in the vertical direction. In the later phase, there are

  15. On the conventive instability evolution in a rotating gas disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonov, S.V.; Solov'ev, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism of formation of spiral configuration in a rotating gravitating gas disk, caused by the nonlinear development of the convective instability, is considered. The mechanism suggested may be considered as the model of formation of the galaxy spiral configuration in a rotating pregalactic gas disk due to the development of the convective instability. Unlike the popular at present conception of ''density waves'', formation of the spiral configuration, from this point of view, is the single process of the development of instability in the pregalactic gas cloud. The further advantageous star formation in the vicinity of the central region, in a strip and sleeves is caused by higher concentration of gas density and temperature in these regions

  16. LONG-TERM EVOLUTION OF PROTOSTELLAR AND PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. I. OUTBURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhaohuan; Hartmann, Lee; Gammie, Charles F.; Book, Laura G.; Simon, Jacob B.; Engelhard, Eric

    2010-01-01

    As an initial investigation into the long-term evolution of protostellar disks, we explore the conditions required to explain the large outbursts of disk accretion seen in some young stellar objects. We use one-dimensional time-dependent disk models with a phenomenological treatment of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) and gravitational torques to follow disk evolution over long timescales. Comparison with our previous two-dimensional disk model calculations indicates that the neglect of radial effects and two-dimensional disk structure in the one-dimensional case makes only modest differences in the results; this allows us to use the simpler models to explore parameter space efficiently. We find that the mass infall rates typically estimated for low-mass protostars generally result in AU-scale disk accretion outbursts, as predicted by our previous analysis. We also confirm quasi-steady accretion behavior for high mass infall rates if the values of α-parameter for the MRI are small, while at this high accretion rate convection from the thermal instability may lead to some variations. We further constrain the combinations of the α-parameter and the MRI critical temperature, which can reproduce observed outburst behavior. Our results suggest that dust sublimation may be connected with full activation of the MRI. This is consistent with the idea that small dust captures ions and electrons to suppress the MRI. In a companion paper, we will explore both long-term outburst and disk evolution with this model, allowing for infall from protostellar envelopes with differing angular momenta.

  17. THE INNER DISK STRUCTURE, DISK-PLANET INTERACTIONS, AND TEMPORAL EVOLUTION IN THE β PICTORIS SYSTEM: A TWO-EPOCH HST/STIS CORONAGRAPHIC STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apai, Dániel; Schneider, Glenn [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Grady, Carol A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland CA 96002 (United States); Wyatt, Mark C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Lagrange, Anne-Marie [Université Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000, Grenoble (France); Kuchner, Marc J.; Stark, Christopher J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lubow, Stephen H., E-mail: apai@arizona.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-02-20

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph coronagraphic images of the β Pic debris disk obtained at two epochs separated by 15 yr. The new images and the re-reduction of the 1997 data provide the most sensitive and detailed views of the disk at optical wavelengths as well as the yet smallest inner working angle optical coronagraphic image of the disk. Our observations characterize the large-scale and inner-disk asymmetries and we identify multiple breaks in the disk radial surface brightness profile. We study in detail the radial and vertical disk structure and show that the disk is warped. We explore the disk at the location of the β Pic b super-Jupiter and find that the disk surface brightness slope is continuous between 0.''5 and 2.''0, arguing for no change at the separations where β Pic b orbits. The two epoch images constrain the disk's surface brightness evolution on orbital and radiation pressure blow-out timescales. We place an upper limit of 3% on the disk surface brightness change between 3'' and 5'', including the locations of the disk warp, and the CO and dust clumps. We discuss the new observations in the context of high-resolution multi-wavelength images and divide the disk asymmetries in two groups: axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric. The axisymmetric structures (warp, large-scale butterfly, etc.) are consistent with disk structure models that include interactions of a planetesimal belt and a non-coplanar giant planet. The non-axisymmetric features, however, require a different explanation.

  18. THE LATE STAGES OF PROTOPLANETARY DISK EVOLUTION: A MILLIMETER SURVEY OF UPPER SCORPIUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, Geoffrey S.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Ménard, Francois; Duchêne, Gaspard; Pinte, Christophe; Phillips, Neil

    2012-01-01

    We present deep 1.2 mm photometry of 37 stars in the young (5 Myr) Upper Scorpius OB association, sensitive to ∼4 × 10 –3 M Jup of cool millimeter dust. Disks around four low- and solar-mass stars are detected, as well as one debris disk around an intermediate-mass star, with dust masses ranging from 3.6 × 10 –3 to 1.0 × 10 –1 M Jup . The source with the most massive disk exhibits a transition-disk spectral energy distribution. Combining our results with previous studies, we find that the millimeter-detection fraction of Class II sources has significantly decreased from younger ages, and comparison with near-infrared and Hα measurements indicates that the present disks have undergone significant evolution in composition or structure at all radii. The disks of Upper Scorpius represent the tail-end of the depletion of primordial disks; while a few near-solar-mass stars may still sustain giant planet formation, this process has finished around higher mass stars.

  19. DPM evolution: a disk operations management engine for DPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, A.; Furano, F.; Keeble, O.; Bitzes, G.

    2017-10-01

    The DPM (Disk Pool Manager) project is the most widely deployed solution for storage of large data repositories on Grid sites, and is completing the most important upgrade in its history, with the aim of bringing important new features, performance and easier long term maintainability. Work has been done to make the so-called “legacy stack” optional, and substitute it with an advanced implementation that is based on the fastCGI and RESTful technologies. Beside the obvious gain in making optional several legacy components that are difficult to maintain, this step brings important features together with performance enhancements. Among the most important features we can cite the simplification of the configuration, the possibility of working in a totally SRM-free mode, the implementation of quotas, free/used space on directories, and the implementation of volatile pools that can pull files from external sources, which can be used to deploy data caches. Moreover, the communication with the new core, called DOME (Disk Operations Management Engine) now happens through secure HTTPS channels through an extensively documented, industry-compliant protocol. For this leap, referred to with the codename “DPM Evolution”, the help of the DPM collaboration has been very important in the beta testing phases, and here we report about the technical choices.

  20. THE MID-INFRARED EVOLUTION OF THE FU ORIONIS DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Joel D.; Jones, Olivia C.; Poteet, Charles A.; Sargent, Benjamin A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Keller, Luke D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY (United States); Yang, Yao-Lun; Evans II, Neal J. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Fischer, William J. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Rebull, Luisa M. [IPAC, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    We present new SOFIA-FORCAST observations obtained in 2016 February of the archetypal outbursting low-mass young stellar object FU Orionis, and we compare the continuum, solid-state, and gas properties with mid-infrared data obtained at the same wavelengths in 2004 with Spitzer -IRS. In this study, we conduct the first mid-infrared spectroscopic comparison of an FUor over a long time period. Over a 12-year period, UBVR monitoring indicates that FU Orionis has continued its steady decrease in overall brightness by ∼14%. We find that this decrease in luminosity occurs only at wavelengths ≲20 μ m. In particular, the continuum shortward of the silicate emission complex at 10 μ m exhibits a ∼12% (∼3 σ ) drop in flux density but no apparent change in slope; both the Spitzer and SOFIA spectra are consistent with a 7200 K blackbody. Additionally, the detection of water absorption is consistent with the Spitzer spectrum. The silicate emission feature at 10 μ m continues to be consistent with unprocessed grains, unchanged over 12 years. We conclude that either the accretion rate in FU Orionis has decreased by ∼12–14% over this time baseline or the inner disk has cooled, but the accretion disk remains in a superheated state outside the innermost region.

  1. ON THE EVOLUTION OF THE CO SNOW LINE IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Rebecca G. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, UCB 440, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Livio, Mario [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    CO is thought to be a vital building block for prebiotic molecules that are necessary for life. Thus, understanding where CO existed in a solid phase within the solar nebula is important for understanding the origin of life. We model the evolution of the CO snow line in a protoplanetary disk. We find that the current observed location of the CO snow line in our solar system, and in the solar system analog TW Hydra, cannot be explained by a fully turbulent disk model. With time-dependent disk models we find that the inclusion of a dead zone (a region of low turbulence) can resolve this problem. Furthermore, we obtain a fully analytic solution for the CO snow line radius for late disk evolutionary times. This will be useful for future observational attempts to characterize the demographics and predict the composition and habitability of exoplanets.

  2. ON THE EVOLUTION OF THE CO SNOW LINE IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Rebecca G.; Livio, Mario

    2014-01-01

    CO is thought to be a vital building block for prebiotic molecules that are necessary for life. Thus, understanding where CO existed in a solid phase within the solar nebula is important for understanding the origin of life. We model the evolution of the CO snow line in a protoplanetary disk. We find that the current observed location of the CO snow line in our solar system, and in the solar system analog TW Hydra, cannot be explained by a fully turbulent disk model. With time-dependent disk models we find that the inclusion of a dead zone (a region of low turbulence) can resolve this problem. Furthermore, we obtain a fully analytic solution for the CO snow line radius for late disk evolutionary times. This will be useful for future observational attempts to characterize the demographics and predict the composition and habitability of exoplanets

  3. The TWA 3 Young Triple System: Orbits, Disks, Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellogg, Kendra [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Prato, L.; Avilez, I.; Wasserman, L. H.; Levine, S. E.; Bosh, A. S. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Schaefer, G. H. [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Ruíz-Rodríguez, D. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bonanos, Alceste Z. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, 15236 Penteli (Greece); Guenther, E. W. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Neuhäuser, R. [Astrophysikalisches Institut und Universitäts-Sternwarte, FSU Jena, Schillergäßchen 2-3, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Morzinski, Katie M.; Close, Laird; Hinz, Phil; Males, Jared R. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bailey, Vanessa, E-mail: kkellogg@uwo.ca, E-mail: lprato@lowell.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    We have characterized the spectroscopic orbit of the TWA 3A binary and provide preliminary families of probable solutions for the TWA 3A visual orbit, as well as for the wide TWA 3A–B orbit. TWA 3 is a hierarchical triple located at 34 pc in the ∼10 Myr old TW Hya association. The wide component separation is 1.″55; the close pair was first identified as a possible binary almost 20 years ago. We initially identified the 35-day period orbital solution using high-resolution infrared spectroscopy that angularly resolved the A and B components. We then refined the preliminary orbit by combining the infrared data with a reanalysis of our high-resolution optical spectroscopy. The orbital period from the combined spectroscopic solution is ∼35 days, the eccentricity is ∼0.63, and the mass ratio is ∼0.84; although this high mass ratio would suggest that optical spectroscopy alone should be sufficient to identify the orbital solution, the presence of the tertiary B component likely introduced confusion in the blended optical spectra. Using millimeter imaging from the literature, we also estimate the inclinations of the stellar orbital planes with respect to the TWA 3A circumbinary disk inclination and find that all three planes are likely misaligned by at least ∼30°. The TWA 3A spectroscopic binary components have spectral types of M4.0 and M4.5; TWA 3B is an M3. We speculate that the system formed as a triple, is bound, and that its properties were shaped by dynamical interactions between the inclined orbits and disk.

  4. Chemical Evolution and Star Formation History of the Disks of Spirals in Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J.

    2011-05-01

    Milky Way (MW), M31 and M33 are the only three spiral galaxies in our Local group. MW and M31 have similar mass, luminosity and morphology, while M33 is only about one tenth of MW in terms of its baryonic mass. Detailed theoretical researches on these three spirals will help us to understand the formation and evolution history of both spiral galaxies and Local group. Referring to the phenomenological chemical evolution model adopted in MW disk, a similar model is established to investigate the star formation and chemical enrichment history of these three local spirals. Firstly, the properties of M31 disk are studied by building a similar chemical evolution model which is able to successfully describe the MW disk. It is expected that a simple unified phenomenological chemical evolution model could successfully describe the radial and global properties of both disks. Comparing with the former work, we adopt an extensive data set as model constraints, including the star formation profile of M31 disk derived from the recent UV data of GALEX. The comparison among the observed properties of these two disks displays very interesting similarities in their radial profiles when the distance from the galactic center is expressed in terms of the corresponding scale length. This implies some common processes in their formation and evolution history. Based on the observed data of the gas mass surface density and SFR surface density, the SFR radial profile of MW can be well described by Kennicutt-Schmidt star formation law (K-S law) or modified K-S law (SFR is inversely proportional to the distance from the galactic center), but this is not applicable to the M31 disk. Detailed calculations show that our unified model describes fairly well all the main properties of the MW disk and most properties of M31 disk, provided that the star formation efficiency of M31 disk is adjusted to be twice as large as that of MW disk (as anticipated from the lower gas fraction of M31). However, the

  5. THE HERSCHEL DIGIT SURVEY OF WEAK-LINE T TAURI STARS: IMPLICATIONS FOR DISK EVOLUTION AND DISSIPATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieza, Lucas A.; Olofsson, Johan; Henning, Thomas; Harvey, Paul M.; Evans, Neal J. II; Najita, Joan; Merín, Bruno; Liebhart, Armin; Güdel, Manuel; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Pinte, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    As part of the 'Dust, Ice, and Gas In Time (DIGIT)' Herschel Open Time Key Program, we present Herschel photometry (at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm) of 31 weak-line T Tauri star (WTTS) candidates in order to investigate the evolutionary status of their circumstellar disks. Of the stars in our sample, 13 had circumstellar disks previously known from infrared observations at shorter wavelengths, while 18 of them had no previous evidence for a disk. We detect a total of 15 disks as all previously known disks are detected at one or more Herschel wavelengths and two additional disks are identified for the first time. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of our targets seem to trace the dissipation of the primordial disk and the transition to the debris disk regime. Of the 15 disks, 7 appear to be optically thick primordial disks, including 2 objects with SEDs indistinguishable from those of typical Classical T Tauri stars, 4 objects that have significant deficit of excess emission at all IR wavelengths, and 1 'pre-transitional' object with a known gap in the disk. Despite their previous WTTS classification, we find that the seven targets in our sample with optically thick disks show evidence for accretion. The remaining eight disks have weaker IR excesses similar to those of optically thin debris disks. Six of them are warm and show significant 24 μm Spitzer excesses, while the last two are newly identified cold debris-like disks with photospheric 24 μm fluxes, but significant excess emission at longer wavelengths. The Herschel photometry also places strong constraints on the non-detections, where systems with F 70 /F 70,* ∼> 5-15 and L disk /L * ∼> 10 –3 to 10 –4 can be ruled out. We present preliminary models for both the optically thick and optically thin disks and discuss our results in the context of the evolution and dissipation of circumstellar disks.

  6. The Quasar Accretion Disk Size-Black Hole Mass Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Christopher W.; Kochanek, C. S.; Morgan, Nicholas D.; Falco, Emilio E.

    2010-04-01

    We use the microlensing variability observed for 11 gravitationally lensed quasars to show that the accretion disk size at a rest-frame wavelength of 2500 Å is related to the black hole mass by log(R 2500/cm) = (15.78 ± 0.12) + (0.80 ± 0.17)log(M BH/109 M sun). This scaling is consistent with the expectation from thin-disk theory (R vprop M 2/3 BH), but when interpreted in terms of the standard thin-disk model (T vprop R -3/4), it implies that black holes radiate with very low efficiency, log(η) = -1.77 ± 0.29 + log(L/L E), where η =L/(\\dot{M}c^2). Only by making the maximum reasonable shifts in the average inclination, Eddington factors, and black hole masses can we raise the efficiency estimate to be marginally consistent with typical efficiency estimates (η ≈ 10%). With one exception, these sizes are larger by a factor of ~4 than the size needed to produce the observed 0.8 μm quasar flux by thermal radiation from a thin disk with the same T vprop R -3/4 temperature profile. While scattering a significant fraction of the disk emission on large scales or including a large fraction of contaminating line emission can reduce the size discrepancy, resolving it also appears to require that accretion disks have flatter temperature/surface brightness profiles. Based on observations obtained with the Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) 1.3 m, which is operated by the SMARTS Consortium, the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium, the WIYN Observatory which is owned and operated by the University of Wisconsin, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO), the 6.5 m Magellan Baade telescope, which is a collaboration between the observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington (OCIW), University of Arizona, Harvard University, University of Michigan, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and observations made

  7. Optical veiling, disk accretion, and the evolution of T Tauri stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, L.W.; Kenyon, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    High-resolution spectra of 31 K7-M1 T Tauri stars (TTs) in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud demonstrate that most of these objects exhibit substantial excess emission at 5200 A. Extrapolations of these data consistent with low-resolution spectrophotometry indicate that the extra emission is comparable to the stellar luminosity in many cases. If this continuum emission arises in the boundary layers of accreting disks, more than about 30 percent of all TTs may be accreting material at a rate which is sufficiently rapid to alter their evolution from standard Hayashi tracks. It is estimated that roughly 10 percent of the final stellar mass is accreted in the TT phase. This amount of material is comparable to the minimum gravitationally unstable disk mass estimated by Larson and it is speculated that the TT phase represents the final stages of disk accretion driven by gravitational instabilities. 40 refs

  8. Evolution of the Radial Abundance Gradient and Cold Gas along the Milky Way Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q. S.; Chang, R. X.; Yin, J.

    2014-03-01

    We have constructed a phenomenological model of the chemical evolution of the Milky Way disk, and treated the molecular and atomic gas separately. Using this model, we explore the radial profiles of oxygen abundance, the surface density of cold gas, and their time evolutions. It is shown that the model predictions are very sensitive to the adopted infall time-scale. By comparing the model predictions with the observations, we find that the model adopting the star formation law based on H_2 can properly predict the observed radial distributions of cold gas and oxygen abundance gradient along the disk. We also compare the model results with the predictions of the model which adopts the instantaneous recycling approximation (IRA), and find that the IRA assumption has little influence on the model results, especially in the low-density gas region.

  9. PRECISE BLACK HOLE MASSES FROM MEGAMASER DISKS: BLACK HOLE-BULGE RELATIONS AT LOW MASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Peng, Chien Y.; Kim, Minjin; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Braatz, James A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette; Condon, James J.; Lo, K. Y.; Henkel, Christian; Reid, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    The black hole (BH)-bulge correlations have greatly influenced the last decade of efforts to understand galaxy evolution. Current knowledge of these correlations is limited predominantly to high BH masses (M BH ∼>10 8 M sun ) that can be measured using direct stellar, gas, and maser kinematics. These objects, however, do not represent the demographics of more typical L 2 O megamasers in circumnuclear disks. The masers trace the Keplerian rotation of circumnuclear molecular disks starting at radii of a few tenths of a pc from the central BH. Modeling of the rotation curves, presented by Kuo et al., yields BH masses with exquisite precision. We present stellar velocity dispersion measurements for a sample of nine megamaser disk galaxies based on long-slit observations using the B and C spectrograph on the Dupont telescope and the Dual Imaging Spectrograph on the 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point. We also perform bulge-to-disk decomposition of a subset of five of these galaxies with Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging. The maser galaxies as a group fall below the M BH -σ * relation defined by elliptical galaxies. We show, now with very precise BH mass measurements, that the low-scatter power-law relation between M BH and σ * seen in elliptical galaxies is not universal. The elliptical galaxy M BH -σ * relation cannot be used to derive the BH mass function at low mass or the zero point for active BH masses. The processes (perhaps BH self-regulation or minor merging) that operate at higher mass have not effectively established an M BH -σ * relation in this low-mass regime.

  10. THE LONG-TERM DYNAMICAL EVOLUTION OF DISK-FRAGMENTED MULTIPLE SYSTEMS IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yun [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Yiheyuan Lu 5, Haidian Qu, Beijing 100871 (China); Kouwenhoven, M. B. N. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, 111 Ren’ai Road, Suzhou Dushu Lake Science and Education Innovation District, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215123 (China); Stamatellos, D. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute for Mathematics, Physics and Astronomy, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Goodwin, Simon P., E-mail: t.kouwenhoven@xjtlu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-10

    The origin of very low-mass hydrogen-burning stars, brown dwarfs (BDs), and planetary-mass objects (PMOs) at the low-mass end of the initial mass function is not yet fully understood. Gravitational fragmentation of circumstellar disks provides a possible mechanism for the formation of such low-mass objects. The kinematic and binary properties of very low-mass objects formed through disk fragmentation at early times (<10 Myr) were discussed in our previous paper. In this paper we extend the analysis by following the long-term evolution of disk-fragmented systems up to an age of 10 Gyr, covering the ages of the stellar and substellar populations in the Galactic field. We find that the systems continue to decay, although the rates at which companions escape or collide with each other are substantially lower than during the first 10 Myr, and that dynamical evolution is limited beyond 1 Gyr. By t = 10 Gyr, about one third of the host stars are single, and more than half have only one companion left. Most of the other systems have two companions left that orbit their host star in widely separated orbits. A small fraction of companions have formed binaries that orbit the host star in a hierarchical triple configuration. The majority of such double-companion systems have internal orbits that are retrograde with respect to their orbits around their host stars. Our simulations allow a comparison between the predicted outcomes of disk fragmentation with the observed low-mass hydrogen-burning stars, BDs, and PMOs in the solar neighborhood. Imaging and radial velocity surveys for faint binary companions among nearby stars are necessary for verification or rejection of the formation mechanism proposed in this paper.

  11. THE HERSCHEL DIGIT SURVEY OF WEAK-LINE T TAURI STARS: IMPLICATIONS FOR DISK EVOLUTION AND DISSIPATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieza, Lucas A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Olofsson, Johan; Henning, Thomas [Max Planck Institute fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Harvey, Paul M.; Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Najita, Joan [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 86719 (United States); Merin, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, ESA, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Liebhart, Armin; Guedel, Manuel [Department of Astronomy, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Augereau, Jean-Charles; Pinte, Christophe, E-mail: lcieza@ifa.hawaii.edu [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique (IPAG) UMR 5274, BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2013-01-10

    As part of the 'Dust, Ice, and Gas In Time (DIGIT)' Herschel Open Time Key Program, we present Herschel photometry (at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m) of 31 weak-line T Tauri star (WTTS) candidates in order to investigate the evolutionary status of their circumstellar disks. Of the stars in our sample, 13 had circumstellar disks previously known from infrared observations at shorter wavelengths, while 18 of them had no previous evidence for a disk. We detect a total of 15 disks as all previously known disks are detected at one or more Herschel wavelengths and two additional disks are identified for the first time. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of our targets seem to trace the dissipation of the primordial disk and the transition to the debris disk regime. Of the 15 disks, 7 appear to be optically thick primordial disks, including 2 objects with SEDs indistinguishable from those of typical Classical T Tauri stars, 4 objects that have significant deficit of excess emission at all IR wavelengths, and 1 'pre-transitional' object with a known gap in the disk. Despite their previous WTTS classification, we find that the seven targets in our sample with optically thick disks show evidence for accretion. The remaining eight disks have weaker IR excesses similar to those of optically thin debris disks. Six of them are warm and show significant 24 {mu}m Spitzer excesses, while the last two are newly identified cold debris-like disks with photospheric 24 {mu}m fluxes, but significant excess emission at longer wavelengths. The Herschel photometry also places strong constraints on the non-detections, where systems with F {sub 70}/F {sub 70,*} {approx}> 5-15 and L {sub disk}/L {sub *} {approx}> 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -4} can be ruled out. We present preliminary models for both the optically thick and optically thin disks and discuss our results in the context of the evolution and dissipation of circumstellar disks.

  12. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Separating disk chemical substructures with cluster models. Evidence of a separate evolution in the metal-poor thin disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Schultheis, M.; Guiglion, G.; Mikolaitis, Š.; Kordopatis, G.; Hill, V.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Alfaro, E. J.; Bensby, T.; Koposov, S. E.; Costado, M. T.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Magrini, L.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.; Chiappini, C.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Recent spectroscopic surveys have begun to explore the Galactic disk system on the basis of large data samples, with spatial distributions sampling regions well outside the solar neighborhood. In this way, they provide valuable information for testing spatial and temporal variations of disk structure kinematics and chemical evolution. Aims: The main purposes of this study are to demonstrate the usefulness of a rigorous mathematical approach to separate substructures of a stellar sample in the abundance-metallicity plane, and provide new evidence with which to characterize the nature of the metal-poor end of the thin disk sequence. Methods: We used a Gaussian mixture model algorithm to separate in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane a clean disk star subsample (essentially at RGC -0.25 dex) highlight a change in the slope at solar metallicity. This holds true at different radial regions of the Milky Way. The distribution of Galactocentric radial distances of the metal-poor part of the thin disk ([Fe/H] Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit (CASU) at the Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, and by the FLAMES/UVES reduction team at INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri. These data have been obtained from the Gaia-ESO Survey Data Archive, prepared and hosted by the Wide Field Astronomy Unit, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, which is funded by the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council.

  13. EFFECTS OF CIRCUMNUCLEAR DISK GAS EVOLUTION ON THE SPIN OF CENTRAL BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maio, Umberto; Dotti, Massimo; Petkova, Margarita; Perego, Albino; Volonteri, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Mass and spin are the only two parameters needed to completely characterize black holes (BHs) in general relativity. However, the interaction between BHs and their environment is where complexity lies, as the relevant physical processes occur over a large range of scales. That is particularly relevant in the case of supermassive black holes (SMBHs), hosted in galaxy centers, and surrounded by swirling gas and various generations of stars. These compete with the SMBH for gas consumption and affect both dynamics and thermodynamics of the gas itself. How the behavior of such a fiery environment influences the angular momentum of the gas accreted onto SMBHs, and, hence, BH spins, is uncertain. We explore the interaction between SMBHs and their environment via first three-dimensional sub-parsec resolution simulations (ranging from ∼0.1 pc to ∼1 kpc scales) that study the evolution of the SMBH spin by including the effects of star formation, stellar feedback, radiative transfer, and metal pollution according to the proper stellar yields and lifetimes. This approach is crucial in investigating the impact of star formation processes and feedback effects on the angular momentum of the material that could accrete on the central hole. We find that star formation and feedback mechanisms can locally inject significant amounts of entropy in the surrounding medium, and impact the inflow inclination angles and Eddington fractions. As a consequence, the resulting trends show upper-intermediate equilibrium values for the spin parameter of a ≅ 0.6-0.9, corresponding to radiative efficiencies ε ≅ 9%-15%. These results suggest that star formation feedback taking place in the circumnuclear disk during the infall alone cannot induce very strong chaotic trends in the gas flow, quite independently from the different numerical parameters.

  14. Isotopic evolution of the protoplanetary disk and the building blocks of Earth and the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Martin; Bizzarro, Martin; Fernandes, Vera Assis

    2018-03-01

    Nucleosynthetic isotope variability among Solar System objects is often used to probe the genetic relationship between meteorite groups and the rocky planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars), which, in turn, may provide insights into the building blocks of the Earth–Moon system. Using this approach, it has been inferred that no primitive meteorite matches the terrestrial composition and the protoplanetary disk material from which Earth and the Moon accreted is therefore largely unconstrained. This conclusion, however, is based on the assumption that the observed nucleosynthetic variability of inner-Solar-System objects predominantly reflects spatial heterogeneity. Here we use the isotopic composition of the refractory element calcium to show that the nucleosynthetic variability in the inner Solar System primarily reflects a rapid change in the mass-independent calcium isotope composition of protoplanetary disk solids associated with early mass accretion to the proto-Sun. We measure the mass-independent 48Ca/44Ca ratios of samples originating from the parent bodies of ureilite and angrite meteorites, as well as from Vesta, Mars and Earth, and find that they are positively correlated with the masses of their parent asteroids and planets, which are a proxy of their accretion timescales. This correlation implies a secular evolution of the bulk calcium isotope composition of the protoplanetary disk in the terrestrial planet-forming region. Individual chondrules from ordinary chondrites formed within one million years of the collapse of the proto-Sun reveal the full range of inner-Solar-System mass-independent 48Ca/44Ca ratios, indicating a rapid change in the composition of the material of the protoplanetary disk. We infer that this secular evolution reflects admixing of pristine outer-Solar-System material into the thermally processed inner protoplanetary disk associated with the accretion of mass to the proto-Sun. The identical calcium isotope composition of Earth

  15. Disk Evolution, Element Abundances and Cloud Properties of Young Gas Giant Planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Helling

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the chemical pre-conditions for planet formation, in terms of gas and ice abundances in a protoplanetary disk, as function of time and position, and the resulting chemical composition and cloud properties in the atmosphere when young gas giant planets form, in particular discussing the effects of unusual, non-solar carbon and oxygen abundances. Large deviations between the abundances of the host star and its gas giants seem likely to occur if the planet formation follows the core-accretion scenario. These deviations stem from the separate evolution of gas and dust in the disk, where the dust forms the planet cores, followed by the final run-away accretion of the left-over gas. This gas will contain only traces of elements like C, N and O, because those elements have frozen out as ices. PRODIMO protoplanetary disk models are used to predict the chemical evolution of gas and ice in the midplane. We find that cosmic rays play a crucial role in slowly un-blocking the CO, where the liberated oxygen forms water, which then freezes out quickly. Therefore, the C/O ratio in the gas phase is found to gradually increase with time, in a region bracketed by the water and CO ice-lines. In this regions, C/O is found to approach unity after about 5 Myrs, scaling with the cosmic ray ionization rate assumed. We then explore how the atmospheric chemistry and cloud properties in young gas giants are affected when the non-solar C/O ratios predicted by the disk models are assumed. The DRIFT cloud formation model is applied to study the formation of atmospheric clouds under the influence of varying premordial element abundances and its feedback onto the local gas. We demonstrate that element depletion by cloud formation plays a crucial role in converting an oxygen-rich atmosphere gas into carbon-rich gas when non-solar, premordial element abundances are considered as suggested by disk models.

  16. Dynamical Evolution of the Debris Disk after a Satellite Catastrophic Disruption around Saturn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyodo, Ryuki; Charnoz, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis of the recent origin of Saturn’s rings and its midsized moons is actively debated. It was suggested that a proto-Rhea and a proto-Dione might have collided recently, giving birth to the modern system of midsized moons. It has also been suggested that the rapid viscous spreading of the debris may have implanted mass inside Saturn’s Roche limit, giving birth to its modern ring system. However, this scenario has only been investigated in a very simplified way for the moment. This paper investigates it in detail to assess its plausibility by using N -body simulations and analytical arguments. When the debris disk is dominated by its largest remnant, N -body simulations show that the system quickly reaccretes into a single satellite without significant spreading. On the other hand, if the disk is composed of small particles, analytical arguments suggest that the disk experiences dynamical evolutions in three steps. The disk starts significantly excited after the impact and collisional damping dominates over the viscous spreading. After the system flattens, the system can become gravitationally unstable when particles are smaller than ∼100 m. However, the particles grow faster than spreading. Then, the system becomes gravitationally stable again and accretion continues at a slower pace, but spreading is inhibited. Therefore, the debris is expected to reaccrete into several large bodies. In conclusion, our results show that such a scenario may not form today’s ring system. In contrast, our results suggest that today’s midsized moons are likely reaccreted from such a catastrophic event.

  17. Dynamical Evolution of the Debris Disk after a Satellite Catastrophic Disruption around Saturn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyodo, Ryuki [Earth-Life Science Institute/Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Tokyo (Japan); Charnoz, Sébastien [Institut de Physique du Globe, 75005 Paris (France)

    2017-07-01

    The hypothesis of the recent origin of Saturn’s rings and its midsized moons is actively debated. It was suggested that a proto-Rhea and a proto-Dione might have collided recently, giving birth to the modern system of midsized moons. It has also been suggested that the rapid viscous spreading of the debris may have implanted mass inside Saturn’s Roche limit, giving birth to its modern ring system. However, this scenario has only been investigated in a very simplified way for the moment. This paper investigates it in detail to assess its plausibility by using N -body simulations and analytical arguments. When the debris disk is dominated by its largest remnant, N -body simulations show that the system quickly reaccretes into a single satellite without significant spreading. On the other hand, if the disk is composed of small particles, analytical arguments suggest that the disk experiences dynamical evolutions in three steps. The disk starts significantly excited after the impact and collisional damping dominates over the viscous spreading. After the system flattens, the system can become gravitationally unstable when particles are smaller than ∼100 m. However, the particles grow faster than spreading. Then, the system becomes gravitationally stable again and accretion continues at a slower pace, but spreading is inhibited. Therefore, the debris is expected to reaccrete into several large bodies. In conclusion, our results show that such a scenario may not form today’s ring system. In contrast, our results suggest that today’s midsized moons are likely reaccreted from such a catastrophic event.

  18. THE RISE AND FALL OF PASSIVE DISK GALAXIES: MORPHOLOGICAL EVOLUTION ALONG THE RED SEQUENCE REVEALED BY COSMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, Kevin; Hopkins, Philip; Ma, Chung-Pei; Scarlata, Claudia; Capak, Peter; Carollo, C. M.; Oesch, Pascal; Ellis, Richard S.; Salvato, Mara; Scoville, Nick; Drory, Niv; Leauthaud, Alexie; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Murray, Norman; Ilbert, Olivier; Pozzetti, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    The increasing abundance of passive 'red-sequence' galaxies since z ∼ 1-2 is mirrored by a coincident rise in the number of galaxies with spheroidal morphologies. In this paper, however, we show in detail, that, the correspondence between galaxy morphology and color is not perfect, providing insight into the physical origin of this evolution. Using the COSMOS survey, we study a significant population of red-sequence galaxies with disk-like morphologies. These passive disks typically have Sa-Sb morphological types with large bulges, but they are not confined to dense environments. They represent nearly one-half of all red-sequence galaxies and dominate at lower masses (∼ 10 M sun ) where they are increasingly disk-dominated. As a function of time, the abundance of passive disks with M * ∼ 11 M sun increases, but not as fast as red-sequence spheroidals in the same mass range. At higher mass, the passive disk population has declined since z ∼ 1, likely because they transform into spheroidals. Based on these trends, we estimate that as much as 60% of galaxies transitioning onto the red sequence evolve through a passive disk phase. The origin of passive disks therefore has broad implications for our understanding of how star formation shuts down. Because passive disks tend to be more bulge-dominated than their star-forming counterparts, a simple fading of blue disks does not fully explain their origin. We explore the strengths and weaknesses of several more sophisticated explanations, including environmental effects, internal stabilization, and disk regrowth during gas-rich mergers. While previous work has sought to explain color and morphological transformations with a single process, these observations open the way to new insight by highlighting the fact that galaxy evolution may actually proceed through several separate stages.

  19. Millimetre spectral indices of transition disks and their relation to the cavity radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla, P.; Benisty, M.; Birnstiel, T.; Ricci, L.; Isella, A.; Natta, A.; Dullemond, C. P.; Quiroga-Nuñez, L. H.; Henning, T.; Testi, L.

    2014-04-01

    Context. Transition disks are protoplanetary disks with inner depleted dust cavities that are excellent candidates for investigating the dust evolution when there is a pressure bump. A pressure bump at the outer edge of the cavity allows dust grains from the outer regions to stop their rapid inward migration towards the star and to efficiently grow to millimetre sizes. Dynamical interactions with planet(s) have been one of the most exciting theories to explain the clearing of the inner disk. Aims: We look for evidence of millimetre dust particles in transition disks by measuring their spectral index αmm with new and available photometric data. We investigate the influence of the size of the dust depleted cavity on the disk integrated millimetre spectral index. Methods: We present the 3-mm (100 GHz) photometric observations carried out with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer of four transition disks: LkHα 330, UX Tau A, LRLL 31, and LRLL 67. We used the available values of their fluxes at 345 GHz to calculate their spectral index, as well as the spectral index for a sample of twenty transition disks. We compared the observations with two kinds of models. In the first set of models, we considered coagulation and fragmentation of dust in a disk in which a cavity is formed by a massive planet located at different positions. The second set of models assumes disks with truncated inner parts at different radii and with power-law dust-size distributions, where the maximum size of grains is calculated considering turbulence as the source of destructive collisions. Results: We show that the integrated spectral index is higher for transition disks (TD) than for regular protoplanetary disks (PD) with mean values of bar{αmmTD} = 2.70 ± 0.13 and bar{αmmPD} = 2.20 ± 0.07 respectively. For transition disks, the probability that the measured spectral index is positively correlated with the cavity radius is 95%. High angular resolution imaging of transition disks is needed to

  20. The low-mass stellar population in the young cluster Tr 37. Disk evolution, accretion, and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Kim, Jinyoung Serena; Sobolev, Andrej; Getman, Konstantin; Henning, Thomas; Fang, Min

    2013-11-01

    Aims: We present a study of accretion and protoplanetary disks around M-type stars in the 4 Myr-old cluster Tr 37. With a well-studied solar-type population, Tr 37 is a benchmark for disk evolution. Methods: We used low-resolution spectroscopy to identify and classify 141 members (78 new ones) and 64 probable members, mostly M-type stars. Hα emission provides information about accretion. Optical, 2MASS, Spitzer, and WISE data are used to trace the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and search for disks. We construct radiative transfer models to explore the structures of full-disks, pre-transition, transition, and dust-depleted disks. Results: Including the new members and the known solar-type stars, we confirm that a substantial fraction (~2/5) of disks show signs of evolution, either as radial dust evolution (transition/pre-transition disks) or as a more global evolution (with low small-dust masses, dust settling, and weak/absent accretion signatures). Accretion is strongly dependent on the SED type. About half of the transition objects are consistent with no accretion, and dust-depleted disks have weak (or undetectable) accretion signatures, especially among M-type stars. Conclusions: The analysis of accretion and disk structure suggests a parallel evolution of dust and gas. We find several distinct classes of evolved disks, based on SED type and accretion status, pointing to different disk dispersal mechanisms and probably different evolutionary paths. Dust depletion and opening of inner holes appear to be independent processes: most transition disks are not dust-depleted, and most dust-depleted disks do not require inner holes. The differences in disk structure between M-type and solar-type stars in Tr 37 (4 Myr old) are not as remarkable as in the young, sparse, Coronet cluster (1-2 Myr old), suggesting that other factors, like the environment/interactions in each cluster, are likely to play an important role in the disk evolution and dispersal. Finally, we

  1. Mechanistic Switching by Hydronium Ion Activity for Hydrogen Evolution and Oxidation over Polycrystalline Platinum Disk and Platinum/Carbon Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya

    2014-07-22

    Fundamental electrochemical reactions, namely the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR), are re-evaluated under various pH conditions over polycrystalline Pt disk electrodes and Pt/C electrodes to investigate the overpotential and Tafel relations. Kinetic trends are observed and can be classified into three pH regions: acidic (1-5), neutral (5-9), and alkaline (9-13). Under neutral conditions, in which H2O becomes the primary reactant, substantial overpotential, which is not affected by pH and the supporting electrolyte type, is required for electrocatalysis in both directions. This ion independence, including pH, suggests that HER/HOR performance under neutral conditions solely reflects the intrinsic electrocatalytic activity of Pt in the rate determining steps, which involve electron transfer with water molecules. A global picture of the HER/HOR, resulting from mechanistic switching accompanied by change in pH, is detailed.

  2. EVOLUTION OF GASEOUS DISK VISCOSITY DRIVEN BY SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION. II. STRUCTURE AND EMISSIONS FROM STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Changshuo; Wang Jianmin

    2010-01-01

    High spatial resolution observations show that high-redshift galaxies are undergoing intensive evolution of dynamical structure and morphologies displayed by the Hα, Hβ, [O III], and [N II] images. It has been shown that supernova explosion (SNexp) of young massive stars during the star formation epoch, as kinetic feedback to host galaxies, can efficiently excite the turbulent viscosity. We incorporate the feedback into the dynamical equations through mass dropout and angular momentum transportation driven by the SNexp-excited turbulent viscosity. The empirical Kennicutt-Schmidt law is used for star formation rates (SFRs). We numerically solve the equations and show that there can be intensive evolution of structure of the gaseous disk. Secular evolution of the disk shows interesting characteristics: (1) high viscosity excited by SNexp can efficiently transport the gas from 10 kpc to ∼1 kpc forming a stellar disk whereas a stellar ring forms for the case with low viscosity; (2) starbursts trigger SMBH activity with a lag of ∼10 8 yr depending on SFRs, prompting the joint evolution of SMBHs and bulges; and (3) the velocity dispersion is as high as ∼100 km s -1 in the gaseous disk. These results are likely to vary with the initial mass function (IMF) that the SNexp rates rely on. Given the IMF, we use the GALAXEV code to compute the spectral evolution of stellar populations based on the dynamical structure. In order to compare the present models with the observed dynamical structure and images, we use the incident continuum from the simple stellar synthesis and CLOUDY to calculate emission line ratios of Hα, Hβ, [O III], and [N II], and Hα brightness of gas photoionized by young massive stars formed on the disks. The models can produce the main features of emission from star-forming galaxies. We apply the present model to two galaxies, BX 389 and BX 482 observed in the SINS high-z sample, which are bulge and disk-dominated, respectively. Two successive

  3. SOFT X-RAY IRRADIATION OF SILICATES: IMPLICATIONS FOR DUST EVOLUTION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaravella, A.; Cecchi-Pestellini, C.; Jiménez-Escobar, A. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, P.za Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Chen, Y.-J.; Huang, C.-H. [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32054, Taiwan (China); Muñoz Caro, G. M. [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Carretera de Ajalvir, km 4, Torrejón de Ardoz, E-28850 Madrid (Spain); Venezia, A. M., E-mail: aciaravella@astropa.unipa.it [ISMN—CNR, Via Ugo La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    The processing of energetic photons on bare silicate grains was simulated experimentally on silicate films submitted to soft X-rays of energies up to 1.25 keV. The silicate material was prepared by means of a microwave assisted sol–gel technique. Its chemical composition reflects the Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} stoichiometry with residual impurities due to the synthesis method. The experiments were performed using the spherical grating monochromator beamline at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center in Taiwan. We found that soft X-ray irradiation induces structural changes that can be interpreted as an amorphization of the processed silicate material. The present results may have relevant implications in the evolution of silicate materials in X-ray-irradiated protoplanetary disks.

  4. EVOLUTION OF WARPED ACCRETION DISKS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. I. ROLES OF FEEDING AT THE OUTER BOUNDARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan-Rong; Wang, Jian-Min; Cheng, Cheng; Qiu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the alignment processes of spinning black holes and their surrounding warped accretion disks in a frame of two different types of feeding at the outer boundaries. We consider (1) fixed flows in which gas is continually fed with a preferred angular momentum, and (2) free flows in which there is no gas supply and the disks diffuse freely at their outer edges. As expected, we find that for the cases of fixed flows the black hole disk systems always align on timescales of several 10 6 yr, irrespective of the initial inclinations. If the initial inclination angles are larger than π/2, the black hole accretion transits from retrograde to prograde fashion, and the accreted mass onto the black holes during these two phases is comparable. On the other hand, for the cases of free flows, both alignments and anti-alignments can occur, depending on the initial inclinations and the ratios of the angular momentum of the disks to that of the black holes. In such cases, the disks will be consumed within timescales of 10 6 yr by black holes accreting at the Eddington limit. We propose that there is a close connection between the black hole spin and the lifetime for which the feeding persists, which determines the observable episodic lifetimes of active galactic nuclei. We conclude that careful inclusion of the disk feeding at the outer boundaries is crucial for modeling the evolution of the black hole spin.

  5. THE DIFFERENT EVOLUTION OF GAS AND DUST IN DISKS AROUND SUN-LIKE AND COOL STARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascucci, I.; Apai, D.; Luhman, K.; Henning, Th.; Bouwman, J.; Meyer, M. R.; Lahuis, F.; Natta, A.

    2009-01-01

    Planet formation is profoundly impacted by the properties of protoplanetary disks and their central star. However, how disk properties vary with stellar parameters remains poorly known. Here, we present the first comprehensive, comparative Spitzer/IRS study of the dust and gas properties of disks

  6. Time-Dependent Simulations of the Formation and Evolution of Disk-Accreted Atmospheres Around Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoekl, Alexander; Dorfi, Ernst

    2014-05-01

    In the early, embedded phase of evolution of terrestrial planets, the planetary core accumulates gas from the circumstellar disk into a planetary envelope. This atmosphere is very significant for the further thermal evolution of the planet by forming an insulation around the rocky core. The disk-captured envelope is also the staring point for the atmospheric evolution where the atmosphere is modified by outgassing from the planetary core and atmospheric mass loss once the planet is exposed to the radiation field of the host star. The final amount of persistent atmosphere around the evolved planet very much characterizes the planet and is a key criterion for habitability. The established way to study disk accumulated atmospheres are hydrostatic models, even though in many cases the assumption of stationarity is unlikely to be fulfilled. We present, for the first time, time-dependent radiation hydrodynamics simulations of the accumulation process and the interaction between the disk-nebula gas and the planetary core. The calculations were performed with the TAPIR-Code (short for The adaptive, implicit RHD-Code) in spherical symmetry solving the equations of hydrodynamics, gray radiative transport, and convective energy transport. The models range from the surface of the solid core up to the Hill radius where the planetary envelope merges into the surrounding protoplanetary disk. Our results show that the time-scale of gas capturing and atmospheric growth strongly depends on the mass of the solid core. The amount of atmosphere accumulated during the lifetime of the protoplanetary disk (typically a few Myr) varies accordingly with the mass of the planet. Thus, a core with Mars-mass will end up with about 10 bar of atmosphere while for an Earth-mass core, the surface pressure reaches several 1000 bar. Even larger planets with several Earth masses quickly capture massive envelopes which in turn become gravitationally unstable leading to runaway accretion and the eventual

  7. STAR FORMATION IN DISK GALAXIES. I. FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUDS VIA GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY AND CLOUD COLLISIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the formation and evolution of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in a Milky-Way-like disk galaxy with a flat rotation curve. We perform a series of three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement numerical simulations that follow both the global evolution on scales of ∼20 kpc and resolve down to scales ∼ H ≥ 100 cm -3 and track the evolution of individual clouds as they orbit through the galaxy from their birth to their eventual destruction via merger or via destructive collision with another cloud. After ∼140 Myr a large fraction of the gas in the disk has fragmented into clouds with masses ∼10 6 M sun and a mass spectrum similar to that of Galactic GMCs. The disk settles into a quasi-steady-state in which gravitational scattering of clouds keeps the disk near the threshold of global gravitational instability. The cloud collision time is found to be a small fraction, ∼1/5, of the orbital time, and this is an efficient mechanism to inject turbulence into the clouds. This helps to keep clouds only moderately gravitationally bound, with virial parameters of order unity. Many other observed GMC properties, such as mass surface density, angular momentum, velocity dispersion, and vertical distribution, can be accounted for in this simple model with no stellar feedback.

  8. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Natta, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Scholz, A., E-mail: lricci@astro.caltech.edu [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  9. RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: EQUILIBRIUM CONFIGURATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: d.pugliese.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-15

    We investigate a model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the general relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can then be determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We present also a perturbation analysis based on evolution of the oscillating components of the ringed disk. The dynamics of the unstable phases of the ringed disk evolution seems to be promising in relation to high-energy phenomena demonstrated in active galactic nuclei.

  10. Relations between the galactic evolution and the stellar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.

    1984-01-01

    After a quick definition of the galactic evolution and a summary of the basic ingredients (namely the abundances of the chemical elements observed in different astrophysical sites), the parameters directly related to the stellar evolution which govern the galactic evolution are outlined. They are the rates of star formation, the initial mass functions and the various nucleosynthetic yields. The 'classical' models of chemical evolution of galaxies are then briefly recalled. Finally, attention is drawn to three recent contributions concerning both the galactic evolution and the stellar evolution. They are (i) some prediction of the rate of star formation for low mass stars made from the planetary nebula abundance distribution (ii) the chemical evolution of C, O and Fe and (iii) the chemical evolution of the galactic interstellar medium. (Auth.)

  11. Precision Scaling Relations for Disk Galaxies in the Local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, A.; Salucci, P.; Danese, L.

    2018-05-01

    We build templates of rotation curves as a function of the I-band luminosity via the mass modeling (by the sum of a thin exponential disk and a cored halo profile) of suitably normalized, stacked data from wide samples of local spiral galaxies. We then exploit such templates to determine fundamental stellar and halo properties for a sample of about 550 local disk-dominated galaxies with high-quality measurements of the optical radius R opt and of the corresponding rotation velocity V opt. Specifically, we determine the stellar M ⋆ and halo M H masses, the halo size R H and velocity scale V H, and the specific angular momenta of the stellar j ⋆ and dark matter j H components. We derive global scaling relationships involving such stellar and halo properties both for the individual galaxies in our sample and for their mean within bins; the latter are found to be in pleasing agreement with previous determinations by independent methods (e.g., abundance matching techniques, weak-lensing observations, and individual rotation curve modeling). Remarkably, the size of our sample and the robustness of our statistical approach allow us to attain an unprecedented level of precision over an extended range of mass and velocity scales, with 1σ dispersion around the mean relationships of less than 0.1 dex. We thus set new standard local relationships that must be reproduced by detailed physical models, which offer a basis for improving the subgrid recipes in numerical simulations, that provide a benchmark to gauge independent observations and check for systematics, and that constitute a basic step toward the future exploitation of the spiral galaxy population as a cosmological probe.

  12. CONSTRAINED EVOLUTION OF A RADIALLY MAGNETIZED PROTOPLANETARY DISK: IMPLICATIONS FOR PLANETARY MIGRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Matthew [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 1A7 (Canada); Thompson, Christopher [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2015-12-10

    We consider the inner ∼1 AU of a protoplanetary disk (PPD) at a stage where angular momentum transport is driven by the mixing of a radial magnetic field into the disk from a T Tauri wind. Because the radial profile of the imposed magnetic field is well constrained, a constrained calculation of the disk mass flow becomes possible. The vertical disk profiles obtained in Paper I imply a stronger magnetization in the inner disk, faster accretion, and a secular depletion of the disk material. Inward transport of solids allows the disk to maintain a broad optical absorption layer even when the grain abundance becomes too small to suppress its ionization. Thus, a PPD may show a strong mid- to near-infrared spectral excess even while its mass profile departs radically from the minimum-mass solar nebula. The disk surface density is buffered at ∼30 g cm{sup −2}; below this, X-rays trigger magnetorotational turbulence at the midplane strong enough to loft millimeter- to centimeter-sized particles high in the disk, followed by catastrophic fragmentation. A sharp density gradient bounds the inner depleted disk and propagates outward to ∼1–2 AU over a few megayears. Earth-mass planets migrate through the inner disk over a similar timescale, whereas the migration of Jupiters is limited by the supply of gas. Gas-mediated migration must stall outside 0.04 AU, where silicates are sublimated and the disk shifts to a much lower column. A transition disk emerges when the dust/gas ratio in the MRI-active layer falls below X{sub d} ∼ 10{sup −6} (a{sub d}/μm), where a{sub d} is the grain size.

  13. Constrained evolution in numerical relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew William

    The strongest potential source of gravitational radiation for current and future detectors is the merger of binary black holes. Full numerical simulation of such mergers can provide realistic signal predictions and enhance the probability of detection. Numerical simulation of the Einstein equations, however, is fraught with difficulty. Stability even in static test cases of single black holes has proven elusive. Common to unstable simulations is the growth of constraint violations. This work examines the effect of controlling the growth of constraint violations by solving the constraints periodically during a simulation, an approach called constrained evolution. The effects of constrained evolution are contrasted with the results of unconstrained evolution, evolution where the constraints are not solved during the course of a simulation. Two different formulations of the Einstein equations are examined: the standard ADM formulation and the generalized Frittelli-Reula formulation. In most cases constrained evolution vastly improves the stability of a simulation at minimal computational cost when compared with unconstrained evolution. However, in the more demanding test cases examined, constrained evolution fails to produce simulations with long-term stability in spite of producing improvements in simulation lifetime when compared with unconstrained evolution. Constrained evolution is also examined in conjunction with a wide variety of promising numerical techniques, including mesh refinement and overlapping Cartesian and spherical computational grids. Constrained evolution in boosted black hole spacetimes is investigated using overlapping grids. Constrained evolution proves to be central to the host of innovations required in carrying out such intensive simulations.

  14. Calibrated Tully-fisher Relations For Improved Photometric Estimates Of Disk Rotation Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Reinabelle; Mandelbaum, R.; Gunn, J. E.; Pizagno, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present calibrated scaling relations (also referred to as Tully-Fisher relations or TFRs) between rotation velocity and photometric quantities-- absolute magnitude, stellar mass, and synthetic magnitude (a linear combination of absolute magnitude and color)-- of disk galaxies at z 0.1. First, we selected a parent disk sample of 170,000 galaxies from SDSS DR7, with redshifts between 0.02 and 0.10 and r band absolute magnitudes between -18.0 and -22.5. Then, we constructed a child disk sample of 189 galaxies that span the parameter space-- in absolute magnitude, color, and disk size-- covered by the parent sample, and for which we have obtained kinematic data. Long-slit spectroscopy were obtained from the Dual Imaging Spectrograph (DIS) at the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m for 99 galaxies, and from Pizagno et al. (2007) for 95 galaxies (five have repeat observations). We find the best photometric estimator of disk rotation velocity to be a synthetic magnitude with a color correction that is consistent with the Bell et al. (2003) color-based stellar mass ratio. The improved rotation velocity estimates have a wide range of scientific applications, and in particular, in combination with weak lensing measurements, they enable us to constrain the ratio of optical-to-virial velocity in disk galaxies.

  15. Relation between Hydrogen Evolution and Hydrodesulfurization Catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Šaric, Manuel; Moses, Poul Georg; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A relation between hydrogen evolution and hydrodesulfurization catalysis was found by density functional theory calculations. The hydrogen evolution reaction and the hydrogenation reaction in hydrodesulfurization share hydrogen as a surface intermediate and, thus, have a common elementary step...

  16. Evolution of the magnetized, neutrino-cooled accretion disk in the aftermath of a black hole-neutron star binary merger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein Nouri, Fatemeh; Duez, Matthew D.; Foucart, Francois; Deaton, M. Brett; Haas, Roland; Haddadi, Milad; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Ott, Christian D.; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela

    2018-04-01

    Black hole-torus systems from compact binary mergers are possible engines for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). During the early evolution of the postmerger remnant, the state of the torus is determined by a combination of neutrino cooling and magnetically driven heating processes, so realistic models must include both effects. In this paper, we study the postmerger evolution of a magnetized black hole-neutron star binary system using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) from an initial postmerger state provided by previous numerical relativity simulations. We use a finite-temperature nuclear equation of state and incorporate neutrino effects in a leakage approximation. To achieve the needed accuracy, we introduce improvements to SpEC's implementation of general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), including the use of cubed-sphere multipatch grids and an improved method for dealing with supersonic accretion flows where primitive variable recovery is difficult. We find that a seed magnetic field triggers a sustained source of heating, but its thermal effects are largely cancelled by the accretion and spreading of the torus from MHD-related angular momentum transport. The neutrino luminosity peaks at the start of the simulation, and then drops significantly over the first 20 ms but in roughly the same way for magnetized and nonmagnetized disks. The heating rate and disk's luminosity decrease much more slowly thereafter. These features of the evolution are insensitive to grid structure and resolution, formulation of the MHD equations, and seed field strength, although turbulent effects are not fully converged.

  17. DISK GALAXY SCALING RELATIONS IN THE SFI++: INTRINSIC SCATTER AND APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saintonge, Amelie; Spekkens, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    We study the scaling relations between the luminosities, sizes, and rotation velocities of disk galaxies in the SFI++, with a focus on the size-luminosity (RL) and size-rotation velocity (RV) relations. Using isophotal radii instead of disk scale lengths as a size indicator, we find relations that are significantly tighter than previously reported: the correlation coefficients of the template RL and RV relations are r = 0.97 and r= 0.85, respectively, which rival that of the more widely studied LV (Tully-Fisher) relation. The scatter in the SFI++ RL relation is 2.5-4 times smaller than previously reported for various samples, which we attribute to the reliability of isophotal radii relative to disk scale lengths. After carefully accounting for all measurement errors, our scaling relation error budgets are consistent with a constant intrinsic scatter in the LV and RV relations for velocity widths log W ∼> 2.4, with evidence for increasing intrinsic scatter below this threshold. The scatter in the RL relation is consistent with constant intrinsic scatter that is biased by incompleteness at the low-L end. Possible applications of the unprecedentedly tight SFI++ RV and RL relations are investigated. Just like the Tully-Fisher relation, the RV relation can be used as a distance indicator: we derive distances to galaxies with primary Cepheid distances that are accurate to 25%, and reverse the problem to measure a Hubble constant H 0 = 72 ± 7 km s -1 Mpc -1 . Combining the small intrinsic scatter of our RL relation (ε int = 0.034 ± 0.001log [h -1 kpc]) with a simple model for disk galaxy formation, we find an upper limit in the range of disk spin parameters that is a factor of ∼7 smaller than that of the halo spin parameters predicted by cosmological simulations. This likely implies that the halos hosting Sc galaxies have a much narrower distribution of spin parameters than previously thought.

  18. Accretion Disk Assembly During Common Envelope Evolution: Implications for Feedback and LIGO Binary Black Hole Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murguia-Berthier, Ariadna; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Antoni, Andrea; Macias, Phillip [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); MacLeod, Morgan, E-mail: armurgui@ucsc.edu [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    During a common envelope (CE) episode in a binary system, the engulfed companion spirals to tighter orbital separations under the influence of drag from the surrounding envelope material. As this object sweeps through material with a steep radial gradient of density, net angular momentum is introduced into the flow, potentially leading to the formation of an accretion disk. The presence of a disk would have dramatic consequences for the outcome of the interaction because accretion might be accompanied by strong, polar outflows with enough energy to unbind the entire envelope. Without a detailed understanding of the necessary conditions for disk formation during CE, therefore, it is difficult to accurately predict the population of merging compact binaries. This paper examines the conditions for disk formation around objects embedded within CEs using the “wind tunnel” formalism developed by MacLeod et al. We find that the formation of disks is highly dependent on the compressibility of the envelope material. Disks form only in the most compressible of stellar envelope gas, found in envelopes’ outer layers in zones of partial ionization. These zones are largest in low-mass stellar envelopes, but comprise small portions of the envelope mass and radius in all cases. We conclude that disk formation and associated accretion feedback in CE is rare, and if it occurs, transitory. The implication for LIGO black hole binary assembly is that by avoiding strong accretion feedback, CE interactions should still result in the substantial orbital tightening needed to produce merging binaries.

  19. Calibrated Tully-fisher Relations For Improved Photometric Estimates Of Disk Rotation Velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes, Reinabelle; Mandelbaum, R.; Gunn, J. E.; Pizagno II, Jim

    We present calibrated scaling relations (also referred to as Tully-Fisher relations or TFRs) between rotation velocity and photometric quantities-- absolute magnitude, stellar mass, and synthetic magnitude (a linear combination of absolute magnitude and color)-- of disk galaxies at z 0.1. First, we

  20. Extragalactic SETI: The Tully-Fisher Relation as a Probe of Dysonian Astroengineering in Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zackrisson, Erik; Calissendorff, Per; Asadi, Saghar; Nyholm, Anders

    2015-09-01

    If advanced extraterrestrial civilizations choose to construct vast numbers of Dyson spheres to harvest radiation energy, this could affect the characteristics of their host galaxies. Potential signatures of such astroengineering projects include reduced optical luminosity, boosted infrared luminosity, and morphological anomalies. Here, we apply a technique pioneered by Annis to search for Kardashev type III civilizations in disk galaxies, based on the predicted offset of these galaxies from the optical Tully-Fisher (TF) relation. By analyzing a sample of 1359 disk galaxies, we are able to set a conservative upper limit of ≲ 3% on the fraction of local disks subject to Dysonian astroengineering on galaxy-wide scales. However, the available data suggests that a small subset of disk galaxies actually may be underluminous with respect to the TF relation in the way expected for Kardashev type III objects. Based on the optical morphologies and infrared-to-optical luminosity ratios of such galaxies in our sample, we conclude that none of them stand out as strong Kardashev type III candidates and that their inferred properties likely have mundane explanations. This allows us to set a tentative upper limit at ≲ 0.3% on the fraction of Karashev type III disk galaxies in the local universe.

  1. Stochastic 2-D galaxy disk evolution models. Resolved stellar populations in the galaxy M33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineikis, T.; Vansevičius, V.

    We improved the stochastic 2-D galaxy disk models (Mineikis & Vansevičius 2014a) by introducing enriched gas outflows from galaxies and synthetic color-magnitude diagrams of stellar populations. To test the models, we use the HST/ACS stellar photometry data in four fields located along the major axis of the galaxy M33 (Williams et al. 2009) and demonstrate the potential of the models to derive 2-D star formation histories in the resolved disk galaxies.

  2. RADIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STARS, GAS, AND DUST IN SINGS GALAXIES. III. MODELING THE EVOLUTION OF THE STELLAR COMPONENT IN GALAXY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Mateos, J. C.; Boissier, S.; Gil de Paz, A.; Zamorano, J.; Gallego, J.; Kennicutt, R. C. Jr; Moustakas, J.; Prantzos, N.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the evolution of 42 spiral galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey. We make use of ultraviolet (UV), optical, and near-infrared radial profiles, corrected for internal extinction using the total-infrared to UV ratio, to probe the emission of stellar populations of different ages as a function of galactocentric distance. We fit these radial profiles with models that describe the chemical and spectro-photometric evolution of spiral disks within a self-consistent framework. These backward evolutionary models successfully reproduce the multi-wavelength profiles of our galaxies, except for the UV profiles of some early-type disks for which the models seem to retain too much gas. From the model fitting we infer the maximum circular velocity of the rotation curve V C and the dimensionless spin parameter λ. The values of V C are in good agreement with the velocities measured in H I rotation curves. Even though our sample is not volume limited, the resulting distribution of λ is close to the lognormal function obtained in cosmological N-body simulations, peaking at λ ∼ 0.03 regardless of the total halo mass. We do not find any evident trend between λ and Hubble type, besides an increase in the scatter for the latest types. According to the model, galaxies evolve along a roughly constant mass-size relation, increasing their scale lengths as they become more massive. The radial scale length of most disks in our sample seems to have increased at a rate of 0.05-0.06 kpc Gyr -1 , although the same cannot be said of a volume-limited sample. In relative terms, the scale length has grown by 20%-25% since z = 1 and, unlike the former figure, we argue that this relative growth rate can be indeed representative of a complete galaxy sample.

  3. Radial Distribution of Stars, Gas, and Dust in SINGS Galaxies. III. Modeling the Evolution of the Stellar Component in Galaxy Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Mateos, J. C.; Boissier, S.; Gil de Paz, A.; Zamorano, J.; Kennicutt, R. C., Jr.; Moustakas, J.; Prantzos, N.; Gallego, J.

    2011-04-01

    We analyze the evolution of 42 spiral galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey. We make use of ultraviolet (UV), optical, and near-infrared radial profiles, corrected for internal extinction using the total-infrared to UV ratio, to probe the emission of stellar populations of different ages as a function of galactocentric distance. We fit these radial profiles with models that describe the chemical and spectro-photometric evolution of spiral disks within a self-consistent framework. These backward evolutionary models successfully reproduce the multi-wavelength profiles of our galaxies, except for the UV profiles of some early-type disks for which the models seem to retain too much gas. From the model fitting we infer the maximum circular velocity of the rotation curve V C and the dimensionless spin parameter λ. The values of V C are in good agreement with the velocities measured in H I rotation curves. Even though our sample is not volume limited, the resulting distribution of λ is close to the lognormal function obtained in cosmological N-body simulations, peaking at λ ~ 0.03 regardless of the total halo mass. We do not find any evident trend between λ and Hubble type, besides an increase in the scatter for the latest types. According to the model, galaxies evolve along a roughly constant mass-size relation, increasing their scale lengths as they become more massive. The radial scale length of most disks in our sample seems to have increased at a rate of 0.05-0.06 kpc Gyr-1, although the same cannot be said of a volume-limited sample. In relative terms, the scale length has grown by 20%-25% since z = 1 and, unlike the former figure, we argue that this relative growth rate can be indeed representative of a complete galaxy sample.

  4. SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF YOUNG STARS IN IC 348: THE ROLE OF DISKS IN ANGULAR MOMENTUM EVOLUTION OF YOUNG, LOW-MASS STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Blanc, Thompson S.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Covey, Kevin R.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical work suggests that a young star's angular momentum content and rotation rate may be strongly influenced by magnetic interactions with its circumstellar disk. A generic prediction of these 'disk-locking' theories is that a disk-locked star will be forced to co-rotate with the Keplerian angular velocity of the inner edge of the disk; that is, the disk's inner-truncation radius should equal its co-rotation radius. These theories have also been interpreted to suggest a gross correlation between young stars' rotation periods and the structural properties of their circumstellar disks, such that slowly rotating stars possess close-in disks that enforce the star's slow rotation, whereas rapidly rotating stars possess anemic or evacuated inner disks that are unable to brake the stars and instead the stars spin up as they contract. To test these expectations, we model the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 33 young stars in IC 348 with known rotation periods and infrared excesses indicating the presence of circumstellar disks. For each star, we match the observed SED, typically sampling 0.6-8.0 μm, to a grid of 200,000 pre-computed star+disk radiative transfer models, from which we infer the disk's inner-truncation radius. We then compare this truncation radius to the disk's co-rotation radius, calculated from the star's measured rotation period. We do not find obvious differences in the disk truncation radii of slow rotators versus rapid rotators. This holds true both at the level of whether close-in disk material is present at all, and in analyzing the precise location of the inner disk edge relative to the co-rotation radius among the subset of stars with close-in disk material. One interpretation is that disk locking is unimportant for the IC 348 stars in our sample. Alternatively, if disk locking does operate, then it must operate on both the slow and rapid rotators, potentially producing both spin-up and spin-down torques, and the transition from the

  5. On the evolution of cluster scaling relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diemer, Benedikt; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; More, Surhud

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of scaling relations between the observable properties of clusters and their total mass is key to realizing their potential as cosmological probes. In this study, we investigate whether the evolution of cluster scaling relations is affected by the spurious evolution of mass caused by the evolving reference density with respect to which halo masses are defined (pseudo-evolution). We use the relation between mass, M, and velocity dispersion, σ, as a test case, and show that the deviation from the M-σ relation of cluster-sized halos caused by pseudo-evolution is smaller than 10% for a wide range of mass definitions. The reason for this small impact is a tight relation between the velocity dispersion and mass profiles, σ(relation is generically expected for a variety of density profiles, as long as halos are in approximate Jeans equilibrium. Thus, as the outer 'virial' radius used to define the halo mass, R, increases due to pseudo-evolution, halos approximately preserve their M-σ relation. This result highlights the fact that tight scaling relations are the result of tight equilibrium relations between radial profiles of physical quantities. We find exceptions at very small and very large radii, where the profiles deviate from the relations they exhibit at intermediate radii. We discuss the implications of these results for other cluster scaling relations and argue that pseudo-evolution should have a small effect on most scaling relations, except for those that involve the stellar masses of galaxies. In particular, we show that the relation between stellar-mass fraction and total mass is affected by pseudo-evolution and is largely shaped by it for halo masses ≲ 10 14 M ☉ .

  6. Disk Evolution, Element Abundances and Cloud Properties of Young Gas Giant Planets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helling, Christiane; Woitke, Peter; Rimmer, Paul B.; Kamp, Inga; Thi, Wing-Fai; Meijerink, Rowin

    We discuss the chemical pre-conditions for planet formation, in terms of gas and ice abundances in a protoplanetary disk, as function of time and position, and the resulting chemical composition and cloud properties in the atmosphere when young gas giant planets form, in particular discussing the

  7. THE DYNAMICAL EVOLUTION OF LOW-MASS HYDROGEN-BURNING STARS, BROWN DWARFS, AND PLANETARY-MASS OBJECTS FORMED THROUGH DISK FRAGMENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yun; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N. [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Yiheyuan Lu 5, Haidian Qu, Beijing 100871 (China); Stamatellos, D. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute for Mathematics, Physics and Astronomy, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Goodwin, S. P., E-mail: yunli@pku.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-01

    Theory and simulations suggest that it is possible to form low-mass hydrogen-burning stars, brown dwarfs (BDs), and planetary-mass objects (PMOs) via disk fragmentation. As disk fragmentation results in the formation of several bodies at comparable distances to the host star, their orbits are generally unstable. Here, we study the dynamical evolution of these objects. We set up the initial conditions based on the outcomes of the smoothed-particle hydrodynamics simulations of Stamatellos and Whitworth, and for comparison we also study the evolution of systems resulting from lower-mass fragmenting disks. We refer to these two sets of simulations as set 1 and set 2, respectively. At 10 Myr, approximately half of the host stars have one companion left, and approximately 22% (set 1) to 9.8% (set 2) of the host stars are single. Systems with multiple secondaries in relatively stable configurations are common (about 30% and 44%, respectively). The majority of the companions are ejected within 1 Myr with velocities mostly below 5 km s{sup −1}, with some runaway escapers with velocities over 30 km s{sup −1}. Roughly 6% (set 1) and 2% (set 2) of the companions pair up into very low-mass binary systems, resulting in respective binary fractions of 3.2% and 1.2%. The majority of these pairs escape as very low-mass binaries, while others remain bound to the host star in hierarchical configurations (often with retrograde inner orbits). Physical collisions with the host star (0.43 and 0.18 events per host star for set 1 and set 2, respectively) and between companions (0.08 and 0.04 events per host star for set 1 and set 2, respectively) are relatively common and their frequency increases with increasing disk mass. Our study predicts observable properties of very low-mass binaries, low-mass hierarchical systems, the BD desert, and free-floating BDs and PMOs in and near young stellar groupings, which can be used to distinguish between different formation scenarios of very low

  8. Isotopic evolution of the protoplanetary disk and the building blocks of Earth and the Moon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiller, Martin; Bizzarro, Martin; Fernandes, Vera Assis

    2018-01-01

    Nucleosynthetic isotope variability among Solar System objects is often used to probe the genetic relationship between meteorite groups and the rocky planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars), which, in turn, may provide insights into the building blocks of the Earth-Moon system. Using this approach......, it has been inferred that no primitive meteorite matches the terrestrial composition and the protoplanetary disk material from which Earth and the Moon accreted is therefore largely unconstrained. This conclusion, however, is based on the assumption that the observed nucleosynthetic variability of inner...... into the thermally processed inner protoplanetary disk associated with the accretion of mass to the proto-Sun. The identical calcium isotope composition of Earth and the Moon reported here is a prediction of our model if the Moon-forming impact involved protoplanets or precursors that completed their accretion near...

  9. Relations between age, metallicity and kinematics of F-G stars of the Galactic disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevelev, Yu.G.; Marsakov, V.A.; Suchkov, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    The data for ∼ 5500 F-G stars are used to study their kinematics, metal abindance and HR diagram in terms of uvby photometry. The age-metallicity, velocity-metallicity, and age-velocity relations are derived. An estimate for the age of the galactic disk is obtained. The following is shown: 1) At[Fe/H] -0.1, turn out to be kinematically younger than these G dwarfs. The same paradox is revealed by G and K giants

  10. The Evolution of a Supermassive Retrograde Binary Embedded in an Accretion Disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov P. B.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this note we discuss the main results of a study of a massive binary with unequal mass ratio, q, embedded in an accretion disk, with its orbital rotation being opposed to that of the disk. When the mass ratio is sufficiently large, a gap opens in the disk, but the mechanism of gap formation is very different from the prograde case. Inward migration occurs on a timescale of tev ~ Mp/Ṁ, where Mp is the mass of the less massive component (the perturber, and Ṁ is the accretion rate. When q ≪ 1, the accretion takes place mostly onto the more massive component, with the accretion rate onto the perturber being smaller than, or of order of, q1/3 Ṁ. However, this rate increases when supermassive binary black holes are considered and gravitational wave emission is important. We estimate a typical duration of time for which the accretion onto the perturber and gravitational waves could be detected.

  11. On Painleve VI transcendents related to the Dirac operator on the hyperbolic disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisovyy, O.

    2008-01-01

    Dirac Hamiltonian on the Poincare disk in the presence of an Aharonov-Bohm flux and a uniform magnetic field admits a one-parameter family of self-adjoint extensions. We determine the spectrum and calculate the resolvent for each element of this family. Explicit expressions for Green's functions are then used to find Fredholm determinant representations for the tau function of the Dirac operator with two branch points on the Poincare disk. Isomonodromic deformation theory for the Dirac equation relates this tau function to a one-parameter class of solutions of the Painleve VI equation with γ=0. We analyze long-distance behavior of the tau function, as well as the asymptotics of the corresponding Painleve VI transcendents as s→1. Considering the limit of flat space, we also obtain a class of solutions of the Painleve V equation with β=0

  12. A NEW STELLAR CHEMO-KINEMATIC RELATION REVEALS THE MERGER HISTORY OF THE MILKY WAY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchev, I.; Chiappini, C.; Steinmetz, M.; De Jong, R. S.; Scannapieco, C. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Martig, M. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Boeche, C.; Grebel, E. K. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Zwitter, T. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Wyse, R. F. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Binney, J. J. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Bland-Hawthorn, J. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bienaymé, O.; Famaey, B. [CNRS, Observatoire Astronomique, Université de Strasbourg, 11 rue de l' Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Freeman, K. C. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Gibson, B. K. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Gilmore, G.; Kordopatis, G. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Helmi, A. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands); Lee, Y. S. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); and others

    2014-01-20

    The velocity dispersions of stars near the Sun are known to increase with stellar age, but age can be difficult to determine, so a proxy like the abundance of α elements (e.g., Mg) with respect to iron, [α/Fe], is used. Here we report an unexpected behavior found in the velocity dispersion of a sample of giant stars from the Radial Velocity Experiment survey with high-quality chemical and kinematic information, in that it decreases strongly for stars with [Mg/Fe] > 0.4 dex (i.e., those that formed in the first gigayear of the Galaxy's life). These findings can be explained by perturbations from massive mergers in the early universe, which have affected the outer parts of the disk more strongly, and the subsequent radial migration of stars with cooler kinematics from the inner disk. Similar reversed trends in velocity dispersion are also found for different metallicity subpopulations. Our results suggest that the Milky Way disk merger history can be recovered by relating the observed chemo-kinematic relations to the properties of past merger events.

  13. A NEW STELLAR CHEMO-KINEMATIC RELATION REVEALS THE MERGER HISTORY OF THE MILKY WAY DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minchev, I.; Chiappini, C.; Steinmetz, M.; De Jong, R. S.; Scannapieco, C.; Martig, M.; Boeche, C.; Grebel, E. K.; Zwitter, T.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Binney, J. J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bienaymé, O.; Famaey, B.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Kordopatis, G.; Helmi, A.; Lee, Y. S.

    2014-01-01

    The velocity dispersions of stars near the Sun are known to increase with stellar age, but age can be difficult to determine, so a proxy like the abundance of α elements (e.g., Mg) with respect to iron, [α/Fe], is used. Here we report an unexpected behavior found in the velocity dispersion of a sample of giant stars from the Radial Velocity Experiment survey with high-quality chemical and kinematic information, in that it decreases strongly for stars with [Mg/Fe] > 0.4 dex (i.e., those that formed in the first gigayear of the Galaxy's life). These findings can be explained by perturbations from massive mergers in the early universe, which have affected the outer parts of the disk more strongly, and the subsequent radial migration of stars with cooler kinematics from the inner disk. Similar reversed trends in velocity dispersion are also found for different metallicity subpopulations. Our results suggest that the Milky Way disk merger history can be recovered by relating the observed chemo-kinematic relations to the properties of past merger events

  14. The relation between stellar evolution and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayler, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of star clusters combined with the theory of stellar evolution enable us to estimate the ages of stars while cosmological observations and theories give us a value for the age of the Universe. This is the most important interaction between cosmology and stellar evolution because it is clearly necessary that stars are younger than the Universe. Stellar evolution also plays an important role in relating the present chemical composition of the Universe to its original composition. The author restricts the review to a discussion of the relation between stellar evolution and the big bang cosmological theory because there is such a good qualitative agreement between the hot big bang theory and observations. (Auth.)

  15. COMPARING THE ACCRETION DISK EVOLUTION OF BLACK HOLE AND NEUTRON STAR X-RAY BINARIES FROM LOW TO SUPER-EDDINGTON LUMINOSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Shanshan; Zhang Shuangnan

    2011-01-01

    Low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) are systems in which a low-mass companion transfers mass via Roche-lobe overflow onto a black hole (BH) or a weakly magnetized neutron star (NS). It is believed that both the solid surface and the magnetic field of an NS can affect the accretion flow and show some observable effects. Using the disk emission dominant data, we compare the disk evolution of the two types of systems from low luminosity to super-Eddington luminosity. As the luminosity decreases the disk in the NS LMXB 4U1608-522 begins to leave the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) at much higher luminosity (∼0.1 L Edd ), compared with BH LMXBs at much lower luminosity (∼0.03 L Edd ), due to the interaction between the NS magnetosphere and accretion flow. However, as the luminosity increases above a critical luminosity, the disks in BH and NS LMXBs trace the same evolutionary pattern, because the magnetosphere is restricted inside ISCO, and then both the NS surface emission and (dipole) magnetic field do not significantly affect the secular evolution of the accretion disk, which is driven by the increased radiation pressure in the inner region. We further suggest that the NS surface emission provides additional information about the accretion disk not available in BH systems. Through the observed NS surface emission, we argue that the disk thickness H/R is less than 0.3-0.4, and that the significant outflow from the inner disk edge exists at a luminosity close to Eddington luminosity.

  16. Tracing chemical evolution over the extent of the Milky Way's disk with apogee red clump stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nidever, David L.; Bovy, Jo; Bird, Jonathan C.; Andrews, Brett H.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Weinberg, David H.; Hayden, Michael; Holtzman, Jon; Feuillet, Diane; Majewski, Steven R.; García Pérez, Ana E.; Smith, Verne; Robin, Annie C.; Sobeck, Jennifer; Cunha, Katia; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Zasowski, Gail; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shetrone, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    We employ the first two years of data from the near-infrared, high-resolution SDSS-III/APOGEE spectroscopic survey to investigate the distribution of metallicity and α-element abundances of stars over a large part of the Milky Way disk. Using a sample of ≈10, 000 kinematically unbiased red-clump stars with ∼5% distance accuracy as tracers, the [α/Fe] versus [Fe/H] distribution of this sample exhibits a bimodality in [α/Fe] at intermediate metallicities, –0.9 < [Fe/H] <–0.2, but at higher metallicities ([Fe/H] ∼+0.2) the two sequences smoothly merge. We investigate the effects of the APOGEE selection function and volume filling fraction and find that these have little qualitative impact on the α-element abundance patterns. The described abundance pattern is found throughout the range 5 < R < 11 kpc and 0 < |Z| < 2 kpc across the Galaxy. The [α/Fe] trend of the high-α sequence is surprisingly constant throughout the Galaxy, with little variation from region to region (∼10%). Using simple galactic chemical evolution models, we derive an average star-formation efficiency (SFE) in the high-α sequence of ∼4.5 × 10 –10 yr –1 , which is quite close to the nearly constant value found in molecular-gas-dominated regions of nearby spirals. This result suggests that the early evolution of the Milky Way disk was characterized by stars that shared a similar star-formation history and were formed in a well-mixed, turbulent, and molecular-dominated ISM with a gas consumption timescale (SFE –1 ) of ∼2 Gyr. Finally, while the two α-element sequences in the inner Galaxy can be explained by a single chemical evolutionary track, this cannot hold in the outer Galaxy, requiring, instead, a mix of two or more populations with distinct enrichment histories.

  17. Gravitational Instabilities in Circumstellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratter, Kaitlin; Lodato, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Star and planet formation are the complex outcomes of gravitational collapse and angular momentum transport mediated by protostellar and protoplanetary disks. In this review, we focus on the role of gravitational instability in this process. We begin with a brief overview of the observational evidence for massive disks that might be subject to gravitational instability and then highlight the diverse ways in which the instability manifests itself in protostellar and protoplanetary disks: the generation of spiral arms, small-scale turbulence-like density fluctuations, and fragmentation of the disk itself. We present the analytic theory that describes the linear growth phase of the instability supplemented with a survey of numerical simulations that aim to capture the nonlinear evolution. We emphasize the role of thermodynamics and large-scale infall in controlling the outcome of the instability. Despite apparent controversies in the literature, we show a remarkable level of agreement between analytic predictions and numerical results. In the next part of our review, we focus on the astrophysical consequences of the instability. We show that the disks most likely to be gravitationally unstable are young and relatively massive compared with their host star, Md/M*≥0.1. They will develop quasi-stable spiral arms that process infall from the background cloud. Although instability is less likely at later times, once infall becomes less important, the manifestations of the instability are more varied. In this regime, the disk thermodynamics, often regulated by stellar irradiation, dictates the development and evolution of the instability. In some cases the instability may lead to fragmentation into bound companions. These companions are more likely to be brown dwarfs or stars than planetary mass objects. Finally, we highlight open questions related to the development of a turbulent cascade in thin disks and the role of mode-mode coupling in setting the maximum angular

  18. TAGGING THE CHEMICAL EVOLUTION HISTORY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapenna, Emilio; Mucciarelli, Alessio; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Origlia, Livia

    2012-01-01

    We have used high-resolution spectra obtained with the multifiber facility FLAMES at the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory to derive kinematic properties and chemical abundances of Fe, O, Mg, and Si for 89 stars in the disk of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The derived metallicity and [α/Fe], obtained as the average of O, Mg, and Si abundances, allow us to draw a preliminary scheme of the star formation history of this region of the LMC. The derived metallicity distribution shows two main components: one component (comprising ∼84% of the sample) peaks at [Fe/H] = –0.48 dex and it shows an [α/Fe] ratio slightly under solar ([α/Fe] ∼ –0.1 dex). This population probably originated in the main star formation event that occurred 3-4 Gyr ago (possibly triggered by tidal capture of the Small Magellanic Cloud). The other component (comprising ∼16% of the sample) peaks at [Fe/H] ∼ –0 dex and it shows an [α/Fe] ∼0.2 dex. This population was probably generated during the long quiescent epoch of star formation between the first episode and the most recent bursts. Indeed, in our sample we do not find stars with chemical properties similar to the old LMC globular clusters nor to the iron-rich and α-poor stars recently found in the LMC globular cluster NGC 1718 and also predicted to be in the LMC field, thus suggesting that both of these components are small (<1%) in the LMC disk population.

  19. The impact of galactic fountains on the global evolution of galaxy disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraternali, F.; Binney, J.; Marasco, A.; Marinacci, F.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the Milky Way, and its thin disc in particular, is a history of continuous accretion of fresh gas from the surrounding environment. Evidence for this accretion taking place include high-velocity clouds (HVCs) that appear to be raining down from the halo. I present a model that

  20. Debris Disks: Probing Planet Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Wyatt, Mark C.

    2018-01-01

    Debris disks are the dust disks found around ~20% of nearby main sequence stars in far-IR surveys. They can be considered as descendants of protoplanetary disks or components of planetary systems, providing valuable information on circumstellar disk evolution and the outcome of planet formation. The debris disk population can be explained by the steady collisional erosion of planetesimal belts; population models constrain where (10-100au) and in what quantity (>1Mearth) planetesimals (>10km i...

  1. Non-instantaneous gas recycling and chemical evolution in N-body disk galaxies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwiert, Bruno; Carraro, G.; Dalla Vecchia, C.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 289, 3-4 (2004), s. 441-444 ISSN 0004-640X. [From observations to self-consistent modelling of the ISM in galaxies. Porto, 03.09.2002-05.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP202/01/D075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : N-body simulations * galaxy evolution * gas recycling Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.597, year: 2004

  2. THE EVOLUTION OF BLACK HOLE SCALING RELATIONS IN GALAXY MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Peter H.; Burkert, Andreas; Naab, Thorsten

    2009-01-01

    We study the evolution of black holes (BHs) on the M BH -σ and M BH -M bulge planes as a function of time in disk galaxies undergoing mergers. We begin the simulations with the progenitor BH masses being initially below (Δlog M BH,i ∼ -2), on (Δlog M BH,i ∼ 0), and above (Δlog M BH,i ∼ 0.5) the observed local relations. The final relations are rapidly established after the final coalescence of the galaxies and their BHs. Progenitors with low initial gas fractions (f gas = 0.2) starting below the relations evolve onto the relations (Δlog M BH,f ∼ -0.18), progenitors on the relations stay there (Δlog M BH,f ∼ 0), and finally progenitors above the relations evolve toward the relations, but still remain above them (Δlog M BH,f ∼ 0.35). Mergers in which the progenitors have high initial gas fractions (f gas = 0.8) evolve above the relations in all cases (Δlog M BH,f ∼ 0.5). We find that the initial gas fraction is the prime source of scatter in the observed relations, dominating over the scatter arising from the evolutionary stage of the merger remnants. The fact that BHs starting above the relations do not evolve onto the relations indicates that our simulations rule out the scenario in which overmassive BHs evolve onto the relations through gas-rich mergers. By implication our simulations thus disfavor the picture in which supermassive BHs develop significantly before their parent bulges.

  3. Molecular diagnostics of FUV and accretion-related heating in protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamkovics, Mate; Najita, Joan R.

    2017-10-01

    Emission lines from the terrestrial planet forming regions of disks are diagnostic of both the physical processes that heat the gas and the chemistry that determines the inventory of nebular material available during the epoch of planet formation. Interpreting emission spectra is informed by models of radiative, thermal, physical, and chemical processes, such as: (i) the radiation transfer of X-rays and FUV --- both continuum and Ly-alpha, (ii) direct and indirect heating processes such as the photoelectric effect and photochemical heating, (iii) heating related to turbulent processes and viscous dissipation, and (iv) gas phase chemical reaction kinetics. Many of these processes depend on a the spatial distribution of dust grains and their properties, which temporally evolve during the lifetime of the disk and the formation of planets. Studies of disks atmospheres often predict a layered structure of hot (a few thousand K) atomic gas overlying warm (a few hundred K) molecular gas, which is generally consistent with the isothermal slab emission models that are used to interpret emission spectra. However, detailed comparison between observed spectra and models (e.g., comparing the total columns and the radial extent of warm emitting species) is rare.We present results including the implementation of Ly-alpha scattering, which is an important part of the photochemical heating and FUV heating radiation budget. By including these processes we find a new component of the disk atmosphere; hot molecular gas at ~2000K within radial distances of ~0.5AU, which is consistent with observations of UV-fluorescent H2 emission (Ádámkovics, Najita & Glassgold, 2016). Constraining the most optimistic contribution of radiative heating mechanisms via X-rays and FUV together with a favorable comparison to observations, allows us to explore and evaluate additional heating mechanisms. We find that the total columns of warm (90-400K) emitting molecules such as CO, arising directly below

  4. Evolution of heavy-element abundances in the galactic halo and disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, G.J.; Cowan, J.J.; Schramm, D.N.

    1988-05-01

    The constraints on the universal energy density and cosmological constant from cosmochronological ages and the Hubble age are reviewed. Observational evidence for the galactic chemical evolution of the heavy-element chronometers is described in the context of numerical models. The viability of the recently discovered Th/Nd stellar chronometer is discussed, along with the suggestion that high r-process abundances in metal-poor stars may have resulted from a primordial r-process, as may be required by some inhomogeneous cosmologies

  5. Tracing chemical evolution over the extent of the Milky Way's disk with apogee red clump stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nidever, David L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48104 (United States); Bovy, Jo [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Bird, Jonathan C. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Vanderbilt University, 1807 Station B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Andrews, Brett H.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Weinberg, David H. [Department of Astronomy and the Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Hayden, Michael; Holtzman, Jon; Feuillet, Diane [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Majewski, Steven R.; García Pérez, Ana E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22904 (United States); Smith, Verne [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Robin, Annie C.; Sobeck, Jennifer [Institut Utinam, CNRS UMR 6213, OSU THETA, Université de Franche-Comté, 41bis avenue de l' Observatoire, F-25000 Besançon (France); Cunha, Katia [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Allende Prieto, Carlos [Instituto de Astrofsica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Zasowski, Gail [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Schiavon, Ricardo P. [Astrophysics Research Institute, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Shetrone, Matthew, E-mail: dnidever@umich.edu [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, 32 Fowlkes Road, McDonald Observatory, TX 79734-3005 (United States); and others

    2014-11-20

    We employ the first two years of data from the near-infrared, high-resolution SDSS-III/APOGEE spectroscopic survey to investigate the distribution of metallicity and α-element abundances of stars over a large part of the Milky Way disk. Using a sample of ≈10, 000 kinematically unbiased red-clump stars with ∼5% distance accuracy as tracers, the [α/Fe] versus [Fe/H] distribution of this sample exhibits a bimodality in [α/Fe] at intermediate metallicities, –0.9 < [Fe/H] <–0.2, but at higher metallicities ([Fe/H] ∼+0.2) the two sequences smoothly merge. We investigate the effects of the APOGEE selection function and volume filling fraction and find that these have little qualitative impact on the α-element abundance patterns. The described abundance pattern is found throughout the range 5 < R < 11 kpc and 0 < |Z| < 2 kpc across the Galaxy. The [α/Fe] trend of the high-α sequence is surprisingly constant throughout the Galaxy, with little variation from region to region (∼10%). Using simple galactic chemical evolution models, we derive an average star-formation efficiency (SFE) in the high-α sequence of ∼4.5 × 10{sup –10} yr{sup –1}, which is quite close to the nearly constant value found in molecular-gas-dominated regions of nearby spirals. This result suggests that the early evolution of the Milky Way disk was characterized by stars that shared a similar star-formation history and were formed in a well-mixed, turbulent, and molecular-dominated ISM with a gas consumption timescale (SFE{sup –1}) of ∼2 Gyr. Finally, while the two α-element sequences in the inner Galaxy can be explained by a single chemical evolutionary track, this cannot hold in the outer Galaxy, requiring, instead, a mix of two or more populations with distinct enrichment histories.

  6. A SCALING RELATION BETWEEN MEGAMASER DISK RADIUS AND BLACK HOLE MASS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardle, Mark; Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Several thin, Keplerian, sub-parsec megamaser disks have been discovered in the nuclei of active galaxies and used to precisely determine the mass of their host black holes. We show that there is an empirical linear correlation between the disk radius and the black hole mass. We demonstrate that such disks are naturally formed by the partial capture of molecular clouds passing through the galactic nucleus and temporarily engulfing the central supermassive black hole. Imperfect cancellation of the angular momenta of the cloud material colliding after passing on opposite sides of the hole leads to the formation of a compact disk. The radial extent of the disk is determined by the efficiency of this process and the Bondi-Hoyle capture radius of the black hole, and naturally produces the empirical linear correlation of the radial extent of the maser distribution with black hole mass. The disk has sufficient column density to allow X-ray irradiation from the central source to generate physical and chemical conditions conducive to the formation of 22 GHz H 2 O masers. For initial cloud column densities ∼ 23.5 cm –2 the disk is non-self-gravitating, consistent with the ordered kinematics of the edge-on megamaser disks; for higher cloud columns the disk would fragment and produce a compact stellar disk similar to that observed around Sgr A* at the galactic center.

  7. Percutaneous discectomy on lumbar radiculopathy related to disk herniation: Why under CT guidance? An open study of 100 consecutive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoretti, Nicolas; Hauger, Olivier; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Amoretti, Marie-eve; Lesbats, Virginie; Yvonne, Maratos; Ianessi, Antoine; Boileau, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study conducted on 100 patients is to demonstrate that performing CT-guided percutaneous discectomy for herniated disks results in a significant improvement in pain symptoms at several times (D1, D2, D7, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months). This objective assesses the effectiveness and feasibility of this technique under CT guidance in patients presenting documented lower back pain related to disk herniation that has not improved with appropriate medical treatment. The impact of various factors on the effectiveness of discectomy will also be evaluated. At 1 week, we notes a decrease in average VAS respectively of 71% and 67% in patients treated for posterolateral and foraminal herniated disks; the result for posteromedian herniated disks is only 45% in average decrease. At 6 months post op, 79% of lateralized herniated disks have a satisfactory result (≥70% decrease in pain as compared to initial pain), whereas post median herniated disks had a satisfactory result in only 50% of cases. Percutaneous fine needle discectomy probe under combined CT and fluoroscopic guidance is a minimally invasive spine surgery which should be considered as an alternative to surgery. This technique presents several advantages: the small diameter of the probe used (maximum 16G or 1.5 mm) allows a cutaneous incision of only a few millimeters, and a trans-canal approach can be possible; it also decreases the risk of ligamentary lesion and does not cause an osseous lesion of the posterior arc or of the adjacent muscular structures.

  8. MOLECULAR GAS IN YOUNG DEBRIS DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moor, A.; Abraham, P.; Kiss, Cs.; Juhasz, A.; Kospal, A.; Pascucci, I.; Apai, D.; Henning, Th.; Csengeri, T.; Grady, C.

    2011-01-01

    Gas-rich primordial disks and tenuous gas-poor debris disks are usually considered as two distinct evolutionary phases of the circumstellar matter. Interestingly, the debris disk around the young main-sequence star 49 Ceti possesses a substantial amount of molecular gas and possibly represents the missing link between the two phases. Motivated to understand the evolution of the gas component in circumstellar disks via finding more 49 Ceti-like systems, we carried out a CO J = 3-2 survey with the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment, targeting 20 infrared-luminous debris disks. These systems fill the gap between primordial and old tenuous debris disks in terms of fractional luminosity. Here we report on the discovery of a second 49 Ceti-like disk around the 30 Myr old A3-type star HD21997, a member of the Columba Association. This system was also detected in the CO(2-1) transition, and the reliable age determination makes it an even clearer example of an old gas-bearing disk than 49 Ceti. While the fractional luminosities of HD21997 and 49 Ceti are not particularly high, these objects seem to harbor the most extended disks within our sample. The double-peaked profiles of HD21997 were reproduced by a Keplerian disk model combined with the LIME radiative transfer code. Based on their similarities, 49 Ceti and HD21997 may be the first representatives of a so far undefined new class of relatively old (∼>8 Myr), gaseous dust disks. From our results, neither primordial origin nor steady secondary production from icy planetesimals can unequivocally explain the presence of CO gas in the disk of HD21997.

  9. Stratified magnetically driven accretion-disk winds and their relations to jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumura, Keigo; Tombesi, Francesco; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Shrader, Chris; Behar, Ehud; Contopoulos, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    We explore the poloidal structure of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) winds in relation to their potential association with the X-ray warm absorbers (WAs) and the highly ionized ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs), in a single unifying approach. We present the density n(r, θ), ionization parameter ξ(r, θ), and velocity structure v(r, θ) of such ionized winds for typical values of their fluid-to-magnetic flux ratio, F, and specific angular momentum, H, for which wind solutions become super-Alfvénic. We explore the geometrical shape of winds for different values of these parameters and delineate the values that produce the widest and narrowest opening angles of these winds, quantities necessary in the determination of the statistics of AGN obscuration. We find that winds with smaller H show a poloidal geometry of narrower opening angles with their Alfvén surface at lower inclination angles and therefore they produce the highest line of sight (LoS) velocities for observers at higher latitudes with the respect to the disk plane. We further note a physical and spatial correlation between the X-ray WAs and UFOs that form along the same LoS to the observer but at different radii, r, and distinct values of n, ξ, and v consistent with the latest spectroscopic data of radio-quiet Seyfert galaxies. We also show that, at least in the case of 3C 111, the winds' pressure is sufficient to contain the relativistic plasma responsible for its radio emission. Stratified MHD disk winds could therefore serve as a unique means to understand and unify the diverse AGN outflows.

  10. Evolution of emphysema in relation to smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellomi, Massimo; Rampinelli, Cristiano; Veronesi, Giulia; Harari, Sergio; Lanfranchi, Federica; Raimondi, Sara; Maisonneuve, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    We have little knowledge about the evolution of emphysema, and relatively little is understood about its evolution in relation to smoking habits. This study aims to assess the evolution of emphysema in asymptomatic current and former smokers over 2 years and to investigate the association with subjects' characteristics. The study was approved by our Ethics Committee and all participants provided written informed consent. We measured emphysema by automatic low-dose computed tomography densitometry in 254 current and 282 former smokers enrolled in a lung-cancer screening. The measures were repeated after 2 years. The association between subjects' characteristics, smoking habits and emphysema were assessed by chi-squared and Wilcoxon tests. Univariate and multivariate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the risk of emphysema worsening according to subjects' characteristics. We assessed the trend of increasing risk of emphysema progression by smoking habits using the Mantel-Haenszel chi-squared test. The median percentage increase in emphysema over a 2-year period was significantly higher in current than in former smokers (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.6; p < 0.0001). The risk of worsening emphysema (by 30% in 2 years) in current smokers increased with smoking duration (p for trend <0.02). As emphysema is a known risk factor for lung cancer, its evaluation could be used as a potential factor for identification of a high-risk population. The evaluation of emphysema progression can be added to low-dose CT screening programmes to inform and incite participants to stop smoking. (orig.)

  11. Evolution of emphysema in relation to smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellomi, Massimo [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Radiology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan - IT, School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); Rampinelli, Cristiano [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Veronesi, Giulia [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Milan (Italy); Harari, Sergio [Fatebenefratelli-Milanocuore, Pneumology Operative Unit, San Giuseppe Hospital, Milan (Italy); Lanfranchi, Federica [University of Milan - IT, School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); Raimondi, Sara; Maisonneuve, Patrick [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Milan (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    We have little knowledge about the evolution of emphysema, and relatively little is understood about its evolution in relation to smoking habits. This study aims to assess the evolution of emphysema in asymptomatic current and former smokers over 2 years and to investigate the association with subjects' characteristics. The study was approved by our Ethics Committee and all participants provided written informed consent. We measured emphysema by automatic low-dose computed tomography densitometry in 254 current and 282 former smokers enrolled in a lung-cancer screening. The measures were repeated after 2 years. The association between subjects' characteristics, smoking habits and emphysema were assessed by chi-squared and Wilcoxon tests. Univariate and multivariate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the risk of emphysema worsening according to subjects' characteristics. We assessed the trend of increasing risk of emphysema progression by smoking habits using the Mantel-Haenszel chi-squared test. The median percentage increase in emphysema over a 2-year period was significantly higher in current than in former smokers (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.6; p < 0.0001). The risk of worsening emphysema (by 30% in 2 years) in current smokers increased with smoking duration (p for trend <0.02). As emphysema is a known risk factor for lung cancer, its evaluation could be used as a potential factor for identification of a high-risk population. The evaluation of emphysema progression can be added to low-dose CT screening programmes to inform and incite participants to stop smoking. (orig.)

  12. DEEP MIPS OBSERVATIONS OF THE IC 348 NEBULA: CONSTRAINTS ON THE EVOLUTIONARY STATE OF ANEMIC CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS AND THE PRIMORDIAL-TO-DEBRIS DISK TRANSITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, Thayne; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    We describe new, deep MIPS photometry and new high signal-to-noise optical spectroscopy of the 2.5 Myr old IC 348 Nebula. To probe the properties of the IC 348 disk population, we combine these data with previous optical/infrared photometry and spectroscopy to identify stars with gas accretion, to examine their mid-IR colors, and to model their spectral energy distributions. IC 348 contains many sources in different evolutionary states, including protostars and stars surrounded by primordial disks, two kinds of transitional disks, and debris disks. Most disks surrounding early/intermediate spectral-type stars (>1.4 M sun at 2.5 Myr) are debris disks; most disks surrounding solar and subsolar-mass stars are primordial disks. At the 1-2 σ level, more massive stars also have a smaller frequency of gas accretion and smaller mid-IR luminosities than lower-mass stars. These trends are suggestive of a stellar mass-dependent evolution of disks, where most disks around high/intermediate-mass stars shed their primordial disks on rapid, 2.5 Myr timescales. The frequency of MIPS-detected transitional disks is ∼15%-35% for stars plausibly more massive than 0.5 M sun . The relative frequency of transitional disks in IC 348 compared to that for 1 Myr old Taurus and 5 Myr old NGC 2362 is consistent with a transition timescale that is a significant fraction of the total primordial disk lifetime.

  13. Dust in protoplanetary disks: observations*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters L.B.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid particles, usually referred to as dust, are a crucial component of interstellar matter and of planet forming disks surrounding young stars. Despite the relatively small mass fraction of ≈1% (in the solar neighborhood of our galaxy; this number may differ substantially in other galaxies that interstellar grains represent of the total mass budget of interstellar matter, dust grains play an important role in the physics and chemistry of interstellar matter. This is because of the opacity dust grains at short (optical, UV wavelengths, and the surface they provide for chemical reactions. In addition, dust grains play a pivotal role in the planet formation process: in the core accretion model of planet formation, the growth of dust grains from the microscopic size range to large, cm-sized or larger grains is the first step in planet formation. Not only the grain size distribution is affected by planet formation. Chemical and physical processes alter the structure and chemical composition of dust grains as they enter the protoplanetary disk and move closer to the forming star. Therefore, a lot can be learned about the way stars and planets are formed by observations of dust in protoplanetary disks. Ideally, one would like to measure the dust mass, the grain size distribution, grain structure (porosity, fluffiness, the chemical composition, and all of these as a function of position in the disk. Fortunately, several observational diagnostics are available to derive constrains on these quantities. In combination with rapidly increasing quality of the data (spatial and spectral resolution, a lot of progress has been made in our understanding of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks. An excellent review of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks can be found in Testi et al. (2014.

  14. Dusty disks around young stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, A.

    2009-01-01

    Stars are formed through the collapse of giant molecular clouds. During this contraction the matter spins up and naturally forms a circumstellar disk. Once accretion comes to a halt, these disks are relatively stable. Some disks are known to last up to 10 Myrs. Most disks however, dissipate on

  15. The origin of the mass, disk-to-halo mass ratio, and L-V relation of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashman, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    A model is presented in which spiral galaxies only form when t(c) is roughly equal to t(f) in a hot component of the protogalactic gas. This assumption, along with a disk stability criterion, predicts a range of spiral galaxy masses roughly consistent with observation. The nature of the cooling function for a primordial plasma implies that in less massive galaxies, more gas must fragment in the halo to preserve t(c) roughly equal to t(f). Consequently, less gas survives to form the disk, so that the disk-to-halo mass ratio increases with disk mass and hence galaxy luminosity. The canonical L proportional to V exp 4 relation can be reproduced by the model, and the apparent change in the slope of this relation also arises naturally. In the hierarchical clustering scenario, the model requires that all spirals formed at about the same epoch. These results support earlier claims that much of the dark matter observed in the universe is baryonic and probably formed during protogalactic collapse. 38 refs

  16. Disk and dwarf spheroidal galaxies kinematics from general relativity with infrared renormalization group effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Davi C.; Oliveira, Paulo L.C. de; Fabris, Julio C.; Shapiro, Ilya L.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The running of coupling constants is a well known phenomenon within Quantum Field Theory. It is also known that the renormalization group method can be extended to quantum field theory on curved space time. Nonetheless, although we know that the beta function of QED go to zero in the infrared limit fast enough to lead to constant charge at the classical level (in conformity with both the Appelquist-Carazzone theorem and experimental data), no analogous proof exists for General Relativity. Some authors have proposed that the infrared beta function of General Relativity is not trivial, and as such certain small running of the gravitational coupling might take place at astrophysical scales, leading in particular to changes on the role of dark matter in galaxies. We review and extend our contribution to infrared Renormalization Group (RG) effects to General Relativity in the context of galaxies, an approach we call RGGR. We extend our previous results by analyzing a larger sample of galaxies, now also including elliptical and dwarf spheroidal galaxies, besides disk galaxies (both LSB and HSB). We compare our RGGR results to both standard dark matter profiles (NFW, Isothermal, Burkert) and alternative models of gravity (MOND, MSTG), showing that the RGGR results are similar in quality to the best dark matter profiles (the cored ones, e.g., Isothermal and Burkert), while displaying a better fitting to the data than NFW, MOND or MSTG. To the latter, we evaluated both the shape of the rotation curve and the expected stellar mass-to-light ratios. Dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies are small galaxies believed to be dominated by dark matter, with the highest fraction do dark matter per baryonic matter. These galaxies provide a strong test to any theory that mimics either all or part of the dark matter behavior. In particular, this is the only type of galaxy that MOND seems incapable of fitting the data. (author)

  17. POPULATION SYNTHESIS OF YOUNG ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS: THE EFFECT OF FALLBACK DISK ACCRETION AND MAGNETIC FIELD EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Lei; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2013-01-01

    The spin evolution of isolated neutron stars (NSs) is dominated by their magnetic fields. The measured braking indices of young NSs show that the spin-down mechanism due to magnetic dipole radiation with constant magnetic fields is inadequate. Assuming that the NS magnetic field is buried by supernova fallback matter and re-emerges after accretion stops, we carry out a Monte Carlo simulation of the evolution of young NSs, and show that most of the pulsars have braking indices ranging from –1 to 3. The results are compatible with the observational data of NSs associated with supernova remnants. They also suggest that the initial spin periods of NSs might occupy a relatively wide range

  18. Cytokine Involvement in Biological Inflammation Related to Degenerative Disorders of the Intervertebral Disk: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geer, Christopher M

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this narrative literature review is to discuss the literature regarding the potential role that cytokines play in degenerative disk disease. The inclusion criteria were studies that used inflammatory mediators in advancing disk disease processes. Research studies were limited to the last 3 decades that had free full-text available online in English. Exclusion criteria were review articles and articles pertaining to temporomandibular joints and other joints of the body other than the intervertebral disk. The following databases were searched: PubMed, EBSCOhost, and Google Scholar through March 13, 2017. A total of 82 studies were included in this review. The papers were reviewed for complex mechanisms behind the degenerative cascade, emphasizing the role of proinflammatory cytokines, which may be instrumental in processes of inflammation, neurologic pain, and disk degeneration. Interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor α were among the more notable cytokines involved in this cascade. Because monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 stimulates and activates macrophages in the event of infiltration, additional proinflammatory cytokines are released to act on molecules to promote blood and nerve ingrowth, resulting in pain signaling and tissue degradation. Excessive inflammation and/or tissue damage initiates a pathologic imbalance between anabolic and catabolic processes. This literature review describes how inflammatory and biochemical changes may trigger disk degeneration. Proinflammatory cytokines stimulate microvascular blood and nerve ingrowth, resulting in pain signaling and tissue degradation. This may sensitize a person to chemical and/or mechanical stimuli, contributing to severe low back pain.

  19. Modeling collisions in circumstellar debris disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvold, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Observations of resolved debris disks show a spectacular variety of features and asymmetries, including inner cavities and gaps, inclined secondary disks or warps, and eccentric, sharp-edged rings. Embedded exoplanets could create many of these features via gravitational perturbations, which sculpt the disk directly and by generating planetesimal collisions. In this thesis, I present the Superparticle Model/Algorithm for Collisions in Kuiper belts and debris disks (SMACK), a new method for simultaneously modeling, in 3-D, the collisional and dynamical evolution of planetesimals in a debris disk with planets. SMACK can simulate azimuthal asymmetries and how these asymmetries evolve over time. I show that SMACK is stable to numerical viscosity and numerical heating over 107 yr, and that it can reproduce analytic models of disk evolution. As an example of the algorithm's capabilities, I use SMACK to model the evolution of a debris ring containing a planet on an eccentric orbit and demonstrate that differential precession creates a spiral structure as the ring evolves, but collisions subsequently break up the spiral, leaving a narrower eccentric ring. To demonstrate SMACK's utility in studying debris disk physics, I apply SMACK to simulate a planet on a circular orbit near a ring of planetesimals that are experiencing destructive collisions. Previous simulations of a planet opening a gap in a collisionless debris disk have found that the width of the gap scales as the planet mass to the 2/7th power (alpha = 2/7). I find that gap sizes in a collisional disk still obey a power law scaling with planet mass, but that the index alpha of the power law depends on the age of the system t relative to the collisional timescale t coll of the disk by alpha = 0.32(t/ tcoll)-0.04, with inferred planet masses up to five times smaller than those predicted by the classical gap law. The increased gap sizes likely stem from the interaction between collisions and the mean motion

  20. The disk averaged star formation relation for Local Volume dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Lagos, C. D. P.; Young, T.; Jerjen, H.

    2018-05-01

    Spatially resolved H I studies of dwarf galaxies have provided a wealth of precision data. However these high-quality, resolved observations are only possible for handful of dwarf galaxies in the Local Volume. Future H I surveys are unlikely to improve the current situation. We therefore explore a method for estimating the surface density of the atomic gas from global H I parameters, which are conversely widely available. We perform empirical tests using galaxies with resolved H I maps, and find that our approximation produces values for the surface density of atomic hydrogen within typically 0.5 dex of the true value. We apply this method to a sample of 147 galaxies drawn from modern near-infrared stellar photometric surveys. With this sample we confirm a strict correlation between the atomic gas surface density and the star formation rate surface density, that is vertically offset from the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation by a factor of 10 - 30, and significantly steeper than the classical N = 1.4 of Kennicutt (1998). We further infer the molecular fraction in the sample of low surface brightness, predominantly dwarf galaxies by assuming that the star formation relationship with molecular gas observed for spiral galaxies also holds in these galaxies, finding a molecular-to-atomic gas mass fraction within the range of 5-15%. Comparison of the data to available models shows that a model in which the thermal pressure balances the vertical gravitational field captures better the shape of the ΣSFR-Σgas relationship. However, such models fail to reproduce the data completely, suggesting that thermal pressure plays an important role in the disks of dwarf galaxies.

  1. Orbit elements and kinematics of the halo stars and the old disk population: evidence for active phases in the evolution of the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsakov, V.A.; Suchkov, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    The distributions of orbits eccentricities and of angular momenta for the halo stars and for the old disk population are considered. The distributions have gaps separating the halo from the disk and diving the halo population into three groups. From the point of view of star formation during the collapse at the earliy stages of evolution the gaps evidence that threre were in the Galaxy long periods of suppression of star formation. The kinematics and the orbit elements of the halo stars and of the old disk population allow to conclude that there was no significant relaxation in the halo; the halo subsystems are not stationary, they perform radial oscillations with respect to the galactic centre; the velocity dispersion in the galactic rotation direction for the halo stars having the same age does not exceed 20-40 km/s; the dispersion of the velocity component along the galactic radius is symmetrically higher for the subsystems with a greater eccentrically and reaches 215 km/s for the stars with the greatest eccentricaities; the sing of the angular momentum in the protogalactic gas cloud probably changed at some distance form the galactic centre

  2. FORMATION OF MASSIVE GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFT: COLD STREAMS, CLUMPY DISKS, AND COMPACT SPHEROIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekel, Avishai; Sari, Re'em; Ceverino, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We present a simple theoretical framework for massive galaxies at high redshift, where the main assembly and star formation occurred, and report on the first cosmological simulations that reveal clumpy disks consistent with our analysis. The evolution is governed by the interplay between smooth and clumpy cold streams, disk instability, and bulge formation. Intense, relatively smooth streams maintain an unstable dense gas-rich disk. Instability with high turbulence and giant clumps, each a few percent of the disk mass, is self-regulated by gravitational interactions within the disk. The clumps migrate into a bulge in ∼ sun yr -1 , and each clump converts into stars in ∼0.5 Gyr. While the clumps coalesce dissipatively to a compact bulge, the star-forming disk is extended because the incoming streams keep the outer disk dense and susceptible to instability and because of angular momentum transport. Passive spheroid-dominated galaxies form when the streams are more clumpy: the external clumps merge into a massive bulge and stir up disk turbulence that stabilize the disk and suppress in situ clump and star formation. We predict a bimodality in galaxy type by z ∼ 3, involving giant-clump star-forming disks and spheroid-dominated galaxies of suppressed star formation. After z ∼ 1, the disks tend to be stabilized by the dominant stellar disks and bulges. Most of the high-z massive disks are likely to end up as today's early-type galaxies.

  3. Identifying Likely Disk-hosting M dwarfs with Disk Detective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Steven; Wisniewski, John; Kuchner, Marc J.; Disk Detective Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    M dwarfs are critical targets for exoplanet searches. Debris disks often provide key information as to the formation and evolution of planetary systems around higher-mass stars, alongside the planet themselves. However, less than 300 M dwarf debris disks are known, despite M dwarfs making up 70% of the local neighborhood. The Disk Detective citizen science project has identified over 6000 new potential disk host stars from the AllWISE catalog over the past three years. Here, we present preliminary results of our search for new disk-hosting M dwarfs in the survey. Based on near-infrared color cuts and fitting stellar models to photometry, we have identified over 500 potential new M dwarf disk hosts, nearly doubling the known number of such systems. In this talk, we present our methodology, and outline our ongoing work to confirm systems as M dwarf disks.

  4. Disk storage at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Mascetti, L; Chan, B; Espinal, X; Fiorot, A; Labrador, H Gonz; Iven, J; Lamanna, M; Presti, G Lo; Mościcki, JT; Peters, AJ; Ponce, S; Rousseau, H; van der Ster, D

    2015-01-01

    CERN IT DSS operates the main storage resources for data taking and physics analysis mainly via three system: AFS, CASTOR and EOS. The total usable space available on disk for users is about 100 PB (with relative ratios 1:20:120). EOS actively uses the two CERN Tier0 centres (Meyrin and Wigner) with 50:50 ratio. IT DSS also provide sizeable on-demand resources for IT services most notably OpenStack and NFS-based clients: this is provided by a Ceph infrastructure (3 PB) and few proprietary servers (NetApp). We will describe our operational experience and recent changes to these systems with special emphasis to the present usages for LHC data taking, the convergence to commodity hardware (nodes with 200-TB each with optional SSD) shared across all services. We also describe our experience in coupling commodity and home-grown solution (e.g. CERNBox integration in EOS, Ceph disk pools for AFS, CASTOR and NFS) and finally the future evolution of these systems for WLCG and beyond.

  5. Disk storage at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascetti, L.; Cano, E.; Chan, B.; Espinal, X.; Fiorot, A.; González Labrador, H.; Iven, J.; Lamanna, M.; Lo Presti, G.; Mościcki, JT; Peters, AJ; Ponce, S.; Rousseau, H.; van der Ster, D.

    2015-12-01

    CERN IT DSS operates the main storage resources for data taking and physics analysis mainly via three system: AFS, CASTOR and EOS. The total usable space available on disk for users is about 100 PB (with relative ratios 1:20:120). EOS actively uses the two CERN Tier0 centres (Meyrin and Wigner) with 50:50 ratio. IT DSS also provide sizeable on-demand resources for IT services most notably OpenStack and NFS-based clients: this is provided by a Ceph infrastructure (3 PB) and few proprietary servers (NetApp). We will describe our operational experience and recent changes to these systems with special emphasis to the present usages for LHC data taking, the convergence to commodity hardware (nodes with 200-TB each with optional SSD) shared across all services. We also describe our experience in coupling commodity and home-grown solution (e.g. CERNBox integration in EOS, Ceph disk pools for AFS, CASTOR and NFS) and finally the future evolution of these systems for WLCG and beyond.

  6. Fallback disks & magnetars: prospects & possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpar, M. A.

    Some bound matter in the form of a fallback disk may be an initial parameter of isolated neutron stars at birth which along with the initial rotation rate and dipole and higher multipole magnetic moments determines the evolution of neutron stars and the categories into which they fall This talk reviews the strengths and difficulties of fallback disk models in explaining properties of isolated neutron stars of different categories Evidence for and observational limits on fallback disks will also be discussed

  7. Variability of Disk Emission in Pre-main-sequence and Related Stars. IV. Investigating the Structural Changes in the Inner Disk Region of MWC 480

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rachel B.; Long, Zachary C.; Pikhartova, Monika; Sitko, Michael L.; Grady, Carol A.; Russell, Ray W.; Luria, David M.; Tyler, Dakotah B.; Bayyari, Ammar; Danchi, William; Wisniewski, John P.

    2018-04-01

    We present five epochs of near-IR observations of the protoplanetary disk around MWC 480 (HD 31648) obtained with the SpeX spectrograph on NASA’s Infrared Telescope Facility between 2007 and 2013, inclusive. Using the measured line fluxes in the Pa β and Br γ lines, we found the mass accretion rates to be (1.26–2.30) × 10‑7 M ⊙ yr‑1 and (1.4–2.01) × 10‑7 M ⊙ yr‑1, respectively, but which varied by more than 50% from epoch to epoch. The spectral energy distribution reveals a variability of about 30% between 1.5 and 10 μm during this same period of time. We investigated the variability using of the continuum emission of the disk in using the Monte-Carlo Radiative Transfer Code HOCHUNK3D. We find that varying the height of the inner rim successfully produces a change in the NIR flux but lowers the far-IR emission to levels below all measured fluxes. Because the star exhibits bipolar flows, we utilized a structure that simulates an inner disk wind to model the variability in the near-IR, without producing flux levels in the far-IR that are inconsistent with existing data. For this object, variable near-IR emission due to such an outflow is more consistent with the data than changing the scale height of the inner rim of the disk.

  8. Empirical Temperature Measurement in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Erik; Isella, Andrea; Boehler, Yann

    2018-02-01

    The accurate measurement of temperature in protoplanetary disks is critical to understanding many key features of disk evolution and planet formation, from disk chemistry and dynamics, to planetesimal formation. This paper explores the techniques available to determine temperatures from observations of single, optically thick molecular emission lines. Specific attention is given to issues such as the inclusion of optically thin emission, problems resulting from continuum subtraction, and complications of real observations. Effort is also made to detail the exact nature and morphology of the region emitting a given line. To properly study and quantify these effects, this paper considers a range of disk models, from simple pedagogical models to very detailed models including full radiative transfer. Finally, we show how the use of the wrong methods can lead to potentially severe misinterpretations of data, leading to incorrect measurements of disk temperature profiles. We show that the best way to estimate the temperature of emitting gas is to analyze the line peak emission map without subtracting continuum emission. Continuum subtraction, which is commonly applied to observations of line emission, systematically leads to underestimation of the gas temperature. We further show that once observational effects such as beam dilution and noise are accounted for, the line brightness temperature derived from the peak emission is reliably within 10%–15% of the physical temperature of the emitting region, assuming optically thick emission. The methodology described in this paper will be applied in future works to constrain the temperature, and related physical quantities, in protoplanetary disks observed with ALMA.

  9. ORIGIN OF CHEMICAL AND DYNAMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE GALACTIC THICK DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekki, Kenji; Tsujimoto, Takuji

    2011-01-01

    We adopt a scenario in which the Galactic thick disk was formed by minor merging between the first generation of the Galactic thin disk (FGTD) and a dwarf galaxy about ∼9 Gyr ago and thereby investigate chemical and dynamical properties of the Galactic thick disk. In this scenario, the dynamical properties of the thick disk have long been influenced both by the mass growth of the second generation of the Galactic thin disk (i.e., the present thin disk) and by its non-axisymmetric structures. On the other hand, the early star formation history and chemical evolution of the thin disk was influenced by the remaining gas of the thick disk. Based on N-body simulations and chemical evolution models, we investigate the radial metallicity gradient, structural and kinematical properties, and detailed chemical abundance patterns of the thick disk. Our numerical simulations show that the ancient minor merger event can significantly flatten the original radial metallicity gradient of the FGTD, in particular, in the outer part, and also can be responsible for migration of inner metal-rich stars into the outer part (R > 10 kpc). The simulations show that the central region of the thick disk can develop a bar due to dynamical effects of a separate bar in the thin disk. Whether or not rotational velocities (V φ ) can correlate with metallicities ([Fe/H]) for the simulated thick disks depends on the initial metallicity gradients of the FGTDs. The simulated orbital eccentricity distributions in the thick disk for models with higher mass ratios (∼0.2) and lower orbital eccentricities (∼0.5) of minor mergers are in good agreement with the corresponding observations. The simulated V φ -|z| relation of the thick disk in models with low orbital inclination angles of mergers are also in good agreement with the latest observational results. The vertical metallicity gradient of the simulated thick disk is rather flat or very weakly negative in the solar neighborhood. Our Galactic

  10. VARIABILITY OF DISK EMISSION IN PRE-MAIN SEQUENCE AND RELATED STARS. III. EXPLORING STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN THE PRE-TRANSITIONAL DISK IN HD 169142

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Kevin R.; Sitko, Michael L.; Swearingen, Jeremy R.; Champney, Elizabeth H.; Johnson, Alexa N.; Werren, Chelsea [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Grady, Carol A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96002 (United States); Whitney, Barbara A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North CharterStreet, Madison, WI 53706-1582 (United States); Russell, Ray W. [The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA 90009 (United States); Schneider, Glenn H. [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Momose, Munetake [Ibaraki University, 310-0056 Ibaraki, Mito, Bunkyo, 11 (Japan); Muto, Takayuki [Kogakuin University, 1-24-2 Nishishinjuku, Shinjuku, Tokyo 163-8677 (Japan); Inoue, Akio K. [Osaka Sangyo University, College of General Education, 3-1-1 Nakagaito, Daito, Osaka 574-8530 (Japan); Lauroesch, James T.; Hornbeck, Jeremy [University of Louisville Research Foundation, Inc., 2301 South 3rd Street, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Brown, Alexander [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Astrophysics Research Laboratory, 593 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States); Fukagawa, Misato [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1, Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Currie, Thayne M. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, 100 ORAU Way, Oak Ridge, TN 37830-6218 (United States); Wisniewski, John P. [University of Oklahoma, 660 Parrington Oval, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Woodgate, Bruce E., E-mail: wagnekr@mail.uc.edu, E-mail: sitkoml@ucmail.uc.edu, E-mail: swearijr@mail.uc.edu, E-mail: ehchampney@gmail.com, E-mail: astefank@andrew.cmu.edu, E-mail: ccwerren@yahoo.com, E-mail: carol.a.grady@nasa.gov, E-mail: bwhitney@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: Ray.W.Russell@aero.org [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    We present near-IR (NIR) and far-UV observations of the pre-transitional (gapped) disk in HD 169142 using NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility and Hubble Space Telescope. The combination of our data along with existing data sets into the broadband spectral energy distribution reveals variability of up to 45% between ∼1.5-10 μm over a maximum timescale of 10 yr. All observations known to us separate into two distinct states corresponding to a high near-IR state in the pre-2000 epoch and a low state in the post-2000 epoch, indicating activity within the ≲1 AU region of the disk. Through analysis of the Pa β and Br γ lines in our data we derive a mass accretion rate in 2013 May of M-dot ≈ (1.5-2.7) × 10{sup –9} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We present a theoretical modeling analysis of the disk in HD 169142 using Monte-Carlo radiative transfer simulation software to explore the conditions and perhaps signs of planetary formation in our collection of 24 yr of observations. We find that shifting the outer edge (r ≈ 0.3 AU) of the inner disk by 0.05 AU toward the star (in simulation of accretion and/or sculpting by forming planets) successfully reproduces the shift in NIR flux. We establish that the ∼40-70 AU dark ring imaged in the NIR by Quanz et al. and Momose et al. and at 7 mm by Osorio et al. may be reproduced with a 30% scaled density profile throughout the region, strengthening the link to this structure being dynamically cleared by one or more planetary mass bodies.

  11. VARIABILITY OF DISK EMISSION IN PRE-MAIN SEQUENCE AND RELATED STARS. III. EXPLORING STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN THE PRE-TRANSITIONAL DISK IN HD 169142

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Kevin R.; Sitko, Michael L.; Swearingen, Jeremy R.; Champney, Elizabeth H.; Johnson, Alexa N.; Werren, Chelsea; Grady, Carol A.; Whitney, Barbara A.; Russell, Ray W.; Schneider, Glenn H.; Momose, Munetake; Muto, Takayuki; Inoue, Akio K.; Lauroesch, James T.; Hornbeck, Jeremy; Brown, Alexander; Fukagawa, Misato; Currie, Thayne M.; Wisniewski, John P.; Woodgate, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    We present near-IR (NIR) and far-UV observations of the pre-transitional (gapped) disk in HD 169142 using NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility and Hubble Space Telescope. The combination of our data along with existing data sets into the broadband spectral energy distribution reveals variability of up to 45% between ∼1.5-10 μm over a maximum timescale of 10 yr. All observations known to us separate into two distinct states corresponding to a high near-IR state in the pre-2000 epoch and a low state in the post-2000 epoch, indicating activity within the ≲1 AU region of the disk. Through analysis of the Pa β and Br γ lines in our data we derive a mass accretion rate in 2013 May of M-dot ≈ (1.5-2.7) × 10 –9 M ☉ yr –1 . We present a theoretical modeling analysis of the disk in HD 169142 using Monte-Carlo radiative transfer simulation software to explore the conditions and perhaps signs of planetary formation in our collection of 24 yr of observations. We find that shifting the outer edge (r ≈ 0.3 AU) of the inner disk by 0.05 AU toward the star (in simulation of accretion and/or sculpting by forming planets) successfully reproduces the shift in NIR flux. We establish that the ∼40-70 AU dark ring imaged in the NIR by Quanz et al. and Momose et al. and at 7 mm by Osorio et al. may be reproduced with a 30% scaled density profile throughout the region, strengthening the link to this structure being dynamically cleared by one or more planetary mass bodies

  12. UNSTABLE PLANETARY SYSTEMS EMERGING OUT OF GAS DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Soko; Thommes, Edward W.; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of over 400 extrasolar planets allows us to statistically test our understanding of the formation and dynamics of planetary systems via numerical simulations. Traditional N-body simulations of multiple-planet systems without gas disks have successfully reproduced the eccentricity (e) distribution of the observed systems by assuming that the planetary systems are relatively closely packed when the gas disk dissipates, so that they become dynamically unstable within the stellar lifetime. However, such studies cannot explain the small semimajor axes a of extrasolar planetary systems, if planets are formed, as the standard planet formation theory suggests, beyond the ice line. In this paper, we numerically study the evolution of three-planet systems in dissipating gas disks, and constrain the initial conditions that reproduce the observed a and e distributions simultaneously. We adopt initial conditions that are motivated by the standard planet formation theory, and self-consistently simulate the disk evolution and planet migration, by using a hybrid N-body and one-dimensional gas disk code. We also take into account eccentricity damping, and investigate the effect of saturation of corotation resonances on the evolution of planetary systems. We find that the a distribution is largely determined in a gas disk, while the e distribution is determined after the disk dissipation. We also find that there may be an optimum disk mass which leads to the observed a-e distribution. Our simulations generate a larger fraction of planetary systems trapped in mean-motion resonances (MMRs) than the observations, indicating that the disk's perturbation to the planetary orbits may be important to explain the observed rate of MMRs. We also find a much lower occurrence of planets on retrograde orbits than the current observations of close-in planets suggest.

  13. ALMA Survey of Lupus Protoplanetary Disks. II. Gas Disk Radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansdell, M.; Williams, J. P.; Trapman, L.; van Terwisga, S. E.; Facchini, S.; Manara, C. F.; van der Marel, N.; Miotello, A.; Tazzari, M.; Hogerheijde, M.; Guidi, G.; Testi, L.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2018-05-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-Millimeter Array (ALMA) Band 6 observations of a complete sample of protoplanetary disks in the young (∼1–3 Myr) Lupus star-forming region, covering the 1.33 mm continuum and the 12CO, 13CO, and C18O J = 2–1 lines. The spatial resolution is ∼0.″25 with a medium 3σ continuum sensitivity of 0.30 mJy, corresponding to M dust ∼ 0.2 M ⊕. We apply Keplerian masking to enhance the signal-to-noise ratios of our 12CO zero-moment maps, enabling measurements of gas disk radii for 22 Lupus disks; we find that gas disks are universally larger than millimeter dust disks by a factor of two on average, likely due to a combination of the optically thick gas emission and the growth and inward drift of the dust. Using the gas disk radii, we calculate the dimensionless viscosity parameter, α visc, finding a broad distribution and no correlations with other disk or stellar parameters, suggesting that viscous processes have not yet established quasi-steady states in Lupus disks. By combining our 1.33 mm continuum fluxes with our previous 890 μm continuum observations, we also calculate the millimeter spectral index, α mm, for 70 Lupus disks; we find an anticorrelation between α mm and millimeter flux for low-mass disks (M dust ≲ 5), followed by a flattening as disks approach α mm ≈ 2, which could indicate faster grain growth in higher-mass disks, but may also reflect their larger optically thick components. In sum, this work demonstrates the continuous stream of new insights into disk evolution and planet formation that can be gleaned from unbiased ALMA disk surveys.

  14. EVOLUTION OF CATACLYSMIC VARIABLES AND RELATED BINARIES CONTAINING A WHITE DWARF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalomeni, B.; Rappaport, S.; Molnar, M. [Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Nelson, L. [Department of Physics, Bishop’s University, 2600 College St., Sherbrooke, Quebec, QC J1M 1Z7 (Canada); Quintin, J. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Yakut, K., E-mail: kalomeni@mit.edu, E-mail: sar@mit.edu, E-mail: momchil.molnar@gmail.com, E-mail: belinda.kalomeni@ege.edu.tr, E-mail: kadri.yakut@ege.edu.tr, E-mail: lnelson@ubishops.ca, E-mail: jquintin@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Ege University, 35100, İzmir (Turkey)

    2016-12-10

    We present a binary evolution study of cataclysmic variables (CVs) and related systems with white dwarf (WD) accretors, including for example, AM CVn systems, classical novae, supersoft X-ray sources (SXSs), and systems with giant donor stars. Our approach intentionally avoids the complications associated with population synthesis algorithms, thereby allowing us to present the first truly comprehensive exploration of all of the subsequent binary evolution pathways that zero-age CVs might follow (assuming fully non-conservative, Roche-lobe overflow onto an accreting WD) using the sophisticated binary stellar evolution code MESA. The grid consists of 56,000 initial models, including 14 WD accretor masses, 43 donor-star masses (0.1–4.7 M {sub ⊙}), and 100 orbital periods. We explore evolution tracks in the orbital period and donor-mass ( P {sub orb}– M {sub don}) plane in terms of evolution dwell times, masses of the WD accretor, accretion rate, and chemical composition of the center and surface of the donor star. We report on the differences among the standard CV tracks, those with giant donor stars, and ultrashort period systems. We show where in parameter space one can expect to find SXSs, present a diagnostic to distinguish among different evolutionary paths to forming AM CVn binaries, quantify how the minimum orbital period in CVs depends on the chemical composition of the donor star, and update the P {sub orb}( M {sub wd}) relation for binaries containing WDs whose progenitors lost their envelopes via stable Roche-lobe overflow. Finally, we indicate where in the P {sub orb}– M {sub don} the accretion disks will tend to be stable against the thermal-viscous instability, and where gravitational radiation signatures may be found with LISA.

  15. EVOLUTION OF CATACLYSMIC VARIABLES AND RELATED BINARIES CONTAINING A WHITE DWARF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalomeni, B.; Rappaport, S.; Molnar, M.; Nelson, L.; Quintin, J.; Yakut, K.

    2016-01-01

    We present a binary evolution study of cataclysmic variables (CVs) and related systems with white dwarf (WD) accretors, including for example, AM CVn systems, classical novae, supersoft X-ray sources (SXSs), and systems with giant donor stars. Our approach intentionally avoids the complications associated with population synthesis algorithms, thereby allowing us to present the first truly comprehensive exploration of all of the subsequent binary evolution pathways that zero-age CVs might follow (assuming fully non-conservative, Roche-lobe overflow onto an accreting WD) using the sophisticated binary stellar evolution code MESA. The grid consists of 56,000 initial models, including 14 WD accretor masses, 43 donor-star masses (0.1–4.7 M ⊙ ), and 100 orbital periods. We explore evolution tracks in the orbital period and donor-mass ( P orb – M don ) plane in terms of evolution dwell times, masses of the WD accretor, accretion rate, and chemical composition of the center and surface of the donor star. We report on the differences among the standard CV tracks, those with giant donor stars, and ultrashort period systems. We show where in parameter space one can expect to find SXSs, present a diagnostic to distinguish among different evolutionary paths to forming AM CVn binaries, quantify how the minimum orbital period in CVs depends on the chemical composition of the donor star, and update the P orb ( M wd ) relation for binaries containing WDs whose progenitors lost their envelopes via stable Roche-lobe overflow. Finally, we indicate where in the P orb – M don the accretion disks will tend to be stable against the thermal-viscous instability, and where gravitational radiation signatures may be found with LISA.

  16. RESOLVED IMAGES OF LARGE CAVITIES IN PROTOPLANETARY TRANSITION DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.; Espaillat, Catherine; Qi Chunhua; Brown, J. M.; Hughes, A. M.; Dullemond, C. P.; McClure, M. K.

    2011-01-01

    Circumstellar disks are thought to experience a rapid 'transition' phase in their evolution that can have a considerable impact on the formation and early development of planetary systems. We present new and archival high angular resolution (0.''3 ∼ 40-75 AU) Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations of the 880 μm (340 GHz) dust continuum emission from 12 such transition disks in nearby star-forming regions. In each case, we directly resolve a dust-depleted disk cavity around the central star. Using two-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations, we interpret these dust disk structures in a homogeneous, parametric model framework by reproducing their SMA continuum visibilities and spectral energy distributions. The cavities in these disks are large (R cav = 15-73 AU) and substantially depleted of small (∼μm-sized) dust grains, although their mass contents are still uncertain. The structures of the remnant material at larger radii are comparable to normal disks. We demonstrate that these large cavities are relatively common among the millimeter-bright disk population, comprising at least 1 in 5 (20%) of the disks in the bright half (and ≥26% of the upper quartile) of the millimeter luminosity (disk mass) distribution. Utilizing these results, we assess some of the physical mechanisms proposed to account for transition disk structures. As has been shown before, photoevaporation models do not produce the large cavity sizes, accretion rates, and disk masses representative of this sample. A sufficient decrease of the dust optical depths in these cavities by particle growth would be difficult to achieve: substantial growth (to meter sizes or beyond) must occur in large (tens of AU) regions of low turbulence without also producing an abundance of small particles. Given those challenges, we suggest instead that the observations are most commensurate with dynamical clearing due to tidal interactions with low-mass companions-very young (∼1 Myr) brown

  17. STELLAR MASS DEPENDENT DISK DISPERSAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Grant M.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    We use published optical spectral and infrared (IR) excess data from nine young clusters and associations to study the stellar mass dependent dispersal of circumstellar disks. All clusters older than ∼3 Myr show a decrease in disk fraction with increasing stellar mass for solar to higher mass stars. This result is significant at about the 1σ level in each cluster. For the complete set of clusters we reject the null hypothesis-that solar and intermediate-mass stars lose their disks at the same rate-with 95%-99.9% confidence. To interpret this behavior, we investigate the impact of grain growth, binary companions, and photoevaporation on the evolution of disk signatures. Changes in grain growth timescales at fixed disk temperature may explain why early-type stars with IR excesses appear to evolve faster than their later-type counterparts. Little evidence that binary companions affect disk evolution suggests that photoevaporation is the more likely mechanism for disk dispersal. A simple photoevaporation model provides a good fit to the observed disk fractions for solar and intermediate-mass stars. Although the current mass-dependent disk dispersal signal is not strong, larger and more complete samples of clusters with ages of 3-5 Myr can improve the significance and provide better tests of theoretical models. In addition, the orbits of extra-solar planets can constrain models of disk dispersal and migration. We suggest that the signature of stellar mass dependent disk dispersal due to photoevaporation may be present in the orbits of observed extra-solar planets. Planets orbiting hosts more massive than ∼1.6 M sun may have larger orbits because the disks in which they formed were dispersed before they could migrate.

  18. PLANET FORMATION IN STELLAR BINARIES. I. PLANETESIMAL DYNAMICS IN MASSIVE PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafikov, Roman R.; Silsbee, Kedron

    2015-01-01

    About 20% of exoplanets discovered by radial velocity surveys reside in stellar binaries. To clarify their origin one has to understand the dynamics of planetesimals in protoplanetary disks within binaries. The standard description, accounting for only gas drag and gravity of the companion star, has been challenged recently, as the gravity of the protoplanetary disk was shown to play a crucial role in planetesimal dynamics. An added complication is the tendency of protoplanetary disks in binaries to become eccentric, giving rise to additional excitation of planetesimal eccentricity. Here, for the first time, we analytically explore the secular dynamics of planetesimals in binaries such as α Cen and γ Cep under the combined action of (1) gravity of the eccentric protoplanetary disk, (2) perturbations due to the (coplanar) eccentric companion, and (3) gas drag. We derive explicit solutions for the behavior of planetesimal eccentricity e p in non-precessing disks (and in precessing disks in certain limits). We obtain the analytical form of the distribution of the relative velocities of planetesimals, which is a key input for understanding their collisional evolution. Disk gravity strongly influences relative velocities and tends to push the sizes of planetesimals colliding with comparable objects at the highest speed to small values, ∼1 km. We also find that planetesimals in eccentric protoplanetary disks apsidally aligned with the binary orbit collide at lower relative velocities than in misaligned disks. Our results highlight the decisive role that disk gravity plays in planetesimal dynamics in binaries

  19. On Fallback Disks around Young Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpar, M. Ali; Ertan, Ü.; Erkut, M. H.

    2006-08-01

    Some bound matter in the form of a fallback disk may be an initial parameter of isolated neutron stars at birth, which, along with the initial rotation rate and dipole (and higher multipole) magnetic moments, determines the evolution of neutron stars and the categories into which they fall. This talk reviews the possibilities of fallback disk models in explaining properties of isolated neutron stars of different categories. Recent observations of a fallback disk and observational limits on fallback disks will also be discussed.

  20. Variable extinction in HD 45677 and the evolution of dust grains in pre-main-sequence disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitko, Michael L.; Halbedel, Elaine M.; Lawrence, Geoffrey F.; Smith, J. Allyn; Yanow, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Changes in the UV extinction and IR emission were sought in the Herbig Ae/Be star candidate HD 45677 (= FS CMa) by comparing UV, optical, and IR observations made approximately 10 yr apart. HD 45677 varied significantly, becoming more than 50% brighter in the UV and optical than it was a decade ago. A comparison of the observations between epochs indicates that if the variations are due to changes in dust obscuration, the dust acts as a gray absorber into the near-IR and must be depleted in grains smaller than 1 micron. This is similar to the results obtained on the circumstellar disks of stars like Vega and Beta Pic, and suggests that radiation pressure may be responsible for the small-grain depletion. In addition, the total IR flux seems to have declined, indicating a decrease in the total mass of the dust envelope that contributes to the IR emission in this part of the spectrum. Due to the anomalous nature of the extinction, the use of normal extinction curves to deredden the spectral energy distributions of stars with circumstellar dust may lead to significant errors and should be used with great caution.

  1. Chemistry in protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    In this lecture I discuss recent progress in the understanding of the chemical evolution of protoplanetary disks that resemble our Solar system during the first ten million years. At the verge of planet formation, strong variations of temperature, density, and radiation intensities in these disks lead to a layered chemical structure. In hot, dilute and heavily irradiated atmosphere only simple radicals, atoms, and atomic ions can survive, formed and destroyed by gas-phase processes. Beneath the atmosphere a partly UV-shielded, warm molecular layer is located, where high-energy radiation drives rich chemistry, both in the gas phase and on dust surfaces. In a cold, dense, dark disk midplane many molecules are frozen out, forming thick icy mantles where surface chemistry is active and where complex (organic) species are synthesized.

  2. Coevolution of Binaries and Circumbinary Gaseous Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2018-04-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disk, and how the disk and binary interact. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disk that drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disk. To probe how these interactions impact both binary eccentricity and disk structure evolution, we ran N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gaseous protoplanetary disks surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 for 10^4 binary orbital periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disk via a parametric instability and excite disk eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disk causing eccentricity growth for both the disk and binary. Disks around sufficiently eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disk and develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance (EOLR). This wave corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. We find that in all simulations, the binary semi-major axis decays due to dissipation from the viscous disk.

  3. Wobbling The Galactic Disk with Bombardment of Satellite Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onghia, Elena

    We propose to assess the effect of impacts of large visible satellite galaxies on a disk, as well as the relevance of the continuing bombardment of the Galactic disk by dark matter clumps as predicted by the current cosmological framework that can wobble the disk, heating it and eventually exciting ragged spiral structures. In particular, we make detailed predictions for observable features such as spiral arms, rings and their associated stars in galactic disks and relate them to the physical processes that drive their formation and evolution in our Milky Way galaxy and nearby spirals. To do this, we will combine analytic methods and numerical simulations that allow us to calculate observables, which we will compare to present and forthcoming observations. Our methodology utilizes a combination of state of the art hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy evolution and multi- wavelength radiative transfer simulations. Our primary goals are: (1) To identify the physical processes that are responsible for spiral structure formation observed in our Milky Way and nearby disk galaxies, from the flocculent to grand- designed spiral galaxies and to provide observable signatures to be compared with data on nearby galaxies combining maps of 24 micron emission (Spitzer) and cold gas, CO (Heracles) and HI (THINGS). (2) To explore different morphologies of spiral galaxies: from the multi-armed galaxies to the Milky Way sized galaxies with few arms. (3) For a Milky Way disk we will assess the effect of impacts of substructures passing through the disk to origin the asymmetry in the number density of stars recently discovered from SDSS and SEGUE data and confirmed from RAVE data. We will also investigate the disk heating in the vertical plane due to the formation of vertical oscillations that are produced by the impact and migration of stars in the disk as consequence of the heating as compared to the classical stellar migration mechanism. (4) We will measure the spiral pattern speed

  4. Possible relation between pulsar rotation and evolution of magnetic inclination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun

    2018-05-01

    The pulsar timing is observed to be different from predicted by a simple magnetic dipole radiation. We choose eight pulsars whose braking index was reliably determined. Assuming the smaller values of braking index are dominated by the secular evolution of the magnetic inclination, we calculate the increasing rate of the magnetic inclination for each pulsar. We find a possible relation between the rotation frequency of each pulsar and the inferred evolution of the magnetic inclination. Due to the model-dependent fit of the magnetic inclination and other effects, more observational indicators for the change rate of magnetic inclination are needed to test the relation.

  5. The Growth of the Disk Galaxy UGC8802

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R. X.; Shen, S. Y.; Hou, J. L.

    2012-07-01

    The disk galaxy UGC8802 has high neutral gas content and a flat profile of star formation rate compared to other disk galaxies with similar stellar mass. It also shows a steep metallicity gradient. We construct a chemical evolution model to explore its growth history by assuming its disk grows gradually from continuous gas infall, which is shaped by a free parameter—the infall-peak time. By adopting the recently observed molecular surface density related star formation law, we show that a late infall-peak time can naturally explain the observed high neutral gas content, while an inside-out disk formation scenario can fairly reproduce the steep oxygen abundance gradient. Our results show that most of the observed features of UGC8802 can be well reproduced by simply "turning the knob" on gas inflow with one single parameter, which implies that the observed properties of gas-rich galaxies could also be modeled in a similar way.

  6. HD95881 : a gas rich to gas poor transition disk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, A. P.; Min, M.; Acke, B.; van Boekel, R.; Pantin, E.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; van den Ancker, M. E.; Mulders, G. D.; de Koter, A.; Bouwman, J.

    2010-01-01

    Context. Based on the far infrared excess the Herbig class of stars is divided into a group with flaring circumstellar disks (group I) and a group with flat circumstellar disks (group II). Dust sedimentation is generally proposed as an evolution mechanism to transform flaring disks into flat disks.

  7. The relation between multilocus population genetics and social evolution theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andy; West, Stuart A; Barton, Nicholas H

    2007-02-01

    Evolution at multiple gene positions is complicated. Direct selection on one gene disturbs the evolutionary dynamics of associated genes. Recent years have seen the development of a multilocus methodology for modeling evolution at arbitrary numbers of gene positions with arbitrary dominance and epistatic relations, mode of inheritance, genetic linkage, and recombination. We show that the approach is conceptually analogous to social evolutionary methodology, which focuses on selection acting on associated individuals. In doing so, we (1) make explicit the links between the multilocus methodology and the foundations of social evolution theory, namely, Price's theorem and Hamilton's rule; (2) relate the multilocus approach to levels-of-selection and neighbor-modulated-fitness approaches in social evolution; (3) highlight the equivalence between genetical hitchhiking and kin selection; (4) demonstrate that the multilocus methodology allows for social evolutionary analyses involving coevolution of multiple traits and genetical associations between nonrelatives, including individuals of different species; (5) show that this methodology helps solve problems of dynamic sufficiency in social evolution theory; (6) form links between invasion criteria in multilocus systems and Hamilton's rule of kin selection; (7) illustrate the generality and exactness of Hamilton's rule, which has previously been described as an approximate, heuristic result.

  8. An ALMA Survey of Protoplanetary Disks in the σ Orionis Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansdell, M.; Williams, J. P.; Marel, N. van der [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI (United States); Manara, C. F. [Scientific Support Office, Directorate of Science, European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Miotello, A.; Dishoeck, E. F. van [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Facchini, S. [Max-Plank-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Testi, L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2017-05-01

    The σ  Orionis cluster is important for studying protoplanetary disk evolution, as its intermediate age (∼3–5 Myr) is comparable to the median disk lifetime. We use ALMA to conduct a high-sensitivity survey of dust and gas in 92 protoplanetary disks around σ  Orionis members with M {sub *} ≳ 0.1  M {sub ⊙}. Our observations cover the 1.33 mm continuum and several CO J  = 2–1 lines: out of 92 sources, we detect 37 in the millimeter continuum and 6 in {sup 12}CO, 3 in {sup 13}CO, and none in C{sup 18}O. Using the continuum emission to estimate dust mass, we find only 11 disks with M {sub dust} ≳ 10  M {sub ⊕}, indicating that after only a few Myr of evolution most disks lack sufficient dust to form giant planet cores. Stacking the individually undetected continuum sources limits their average dust mass to 5×  lower than that of the faintest detected disk, supporting theoretical models that indicate rapid dissipation once disk clearing begins. Comparing the protoplanetary disk population in σ  Orionis to those of other star-forming regions supports the steady decline in average dust mass and the steepening of the M {sub dust}– M {sub *} relation with age; studying these evolutionary trends can inform the relative importance of different disk processes during key eras of planet formation. External photoevaporation from the central O9 star is influencing disk evolution throughout the region: dust masses clearly decline with decreasing separation from the photoionizing source, and the handful of CO detections exist at projected separations of >1.5 pc. Collectively, our findings indicate that giant planet formation is inherently rare and/or well underway by a few Myr of age.

  9. High-resolution observations of IRAS 08544-4431. Detection of a disk orbiting a post-AGB star and of a slow disk wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarrabal, V.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Winckel, H. Van; Alcolea, J.; Contreras, C. Sánchez; Santander-García, M.; Hillen, M.

    2018-06-01

    Context. Aims: In order to study the effects of rotating disks in the post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) evolution, we observe a class of binary post-AGB stars that seem to be systematically surrounded by equatorial disks and slow outflows. Although the rotating dynamics had only been well identified in three cases, the study of such structures is thought to be fundamental to the understanding of the formation of disks in various phases of the late evolution of binary stars and the ejection of planetary nebulae from evolved stars. Methods: We present ALMA maps of 12CO and 13CO J = 3-2 lines in the source IRAS 08544-4431, which belongs to the above mentioned class of objects. We analyzed the data by means of nebula models, which account for the expectedly composite source and can reproduce the data. From our modeling, we estimated the main nebula parameters, including the structure and dynamics and the density and temperature distributions. We discuss the uncertainties of the derived values and, in particular, their dependence on the distance. Results: Our observations reveal the presence of an equatorial disk in rotation; a low-velocity outflow is also found, probably formed of gas expelled from the disk. The main characteristics of our observations and modeling of IRAS 08544-4431 are similar to those of better studied objects, confirming our interpretation. The disk rotation indicates a total central mass of about 1.8 M⊙, for a distance of 1100 pc. The disk is found to be relatively extended and has a typical diameter of 4 × 1016 cm. The total nebular mass is 2 × 10-2 M⊙, of which 90% corresponds to the disk. Assuming that the outflow is due to mass loss from the disk, we derive a disk lifetime of 10 000 yr. The disk angular momentum is found to be comparable to that of the binary system at present. Assuming that the disk angular momentum was transferred from the binary system, as expected, the high values of the disk angular momentum in this and other

  10. Grain surface chemistry in protoplanetary disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboussin, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Planetary formation occurs in the protoplanetary disks of gas and dust. Although dust represents only 1% of the total disk mass, it plays a fundamental role in disk chemical evolution since it acts as a catalyst for the formation of molecules. Understanding this chemistry is therefore essential to determine the initial conditions from which planets form. During my thesis, I studied grain-surface chemistry and its impact on the chemical evolution of molecular cloud, initial condition for disk formation, and protoplanetary disk. Thanks to numerical simulations, using the gas-grain code Nautilus, I showed the importance of diffusion reactions and gas-grain interactions for the abundances of gas-phase species. Model results combined with observations also showed the effects of the physical structure (in temperature, density, AV) on the molecular distribution in disks. (author)

  11. CIRCUMSTELLAR DEBRIS DISKS: DIAGNOSING THE UNSEEN PERTURBER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvold, Erika R. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, 5241 Broad Branch Rd., Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Naoz, Smadar; Vican, Laura [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Farr, Will M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-20

    The first indication of the presence of a circumstellar debris disk is usually the detection of excess infrared emission from the population of small dust grains orbiting the star. This dust is short-lived, requiring continual replenishment, and indicating that the disk must be excited by an unseen perturber. Previous theoretical studies have demonstrated that an eccentric planet orbiting interior to the disk will stir the larger bodies in the belt and produce dust via interparticle collisions. However, motivated by recent observations, we explore another possible mechanism for heating a debris disk: a stellar-mass perturber orbiting exterior to and inclined to the disk and exciting the disk particles’ eccentricities and inclinations via the Kozai–Lidov mechanism. We explore the consequences of an exterior perturber on the evolution of a debris disk using secular analysis and collisional N -body simulations. We demonstrate that a Kozai–Lidov excited disk can generate a dust disk via collisions and we compare the results of the Kozai–Lidov excited disk with a simulated disk perturbed by an interior eccentric planet. Finally, we propose two observational tests of a dust disk that can distinguish whether the dust was produced by an exterior brown dwarf or stellar companion or an interior eccentric planet.

  12. A comparative study of x-ray emission from laser spots in laser-heated hohlraums relative to spots on simple disk targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ze, F.; Langer, S.H.; Kauffman, R.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Landen, O.; Ress, D.; Rosen, M.D.; Suter, L.J.; Wallace, R.J.; Wiedwald, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of experiments that compare the x-ray emission from a laser spot in a radiation-filled hohlraum to that from a similar laser spot on a simple disk target. The studies were done using the Nova laser facility [J. D. Lindl, Phys. Plasmas 2, 3933 (1995)] in its 0.35 μm wavelength, 1 ns square pulse configuration. Focal spot intensities were 2 endash 3.5x10 15 W/cm 2 . X-ray images measured x-ray conversion in a hohlraum and from an isolated disk simultaneously. A laser spot inside a hohlraum emitted more x rays, after subtracting the background emission from the hohlraum walls, than a spot on a disk. Numerical models suggest the enhanced spot emission inside the hohlraum is due to an increase in lateral transport relative to the disk. Filamentation in the hohlraum will also increase the spot size. The models agree fairly well with the results on spot spreading but do not explain the overall increase in conversion efficiency. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  13. Premixed direct injection disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  14. Boundary layer circulation in disk-halo galaxies. III. The dispersion relation for local disturbances and large-scale spiral waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waxman, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper concerns the geometry and physical properties of waves which arise from a shear-flow (i.e. inflection point) instability of the galactic boundary layer circulation. This circulation was shown to exist in the meridional plane of a model galaxy containing a gaseous disk embedded in a rotating gaseous halo. Previously derived equations describe the local effects of Boussinesq perturbations, in the form of spiral waves with aribitrary pitch angle, on the model disk-halo system. The equations are solved asymptotically for large values of the local Reynolds number. In passing to the limit of inviscid waves, it is possible to derive a locally valid dispersion relation. A perturbation technique is developed whereby the inviscid wave eigenvalues can be corrected for the effects of small but finite viscosity. In this way the roles of the buoyancy force, Coriolis acceleration, viscous stresses, and their interactions can be studied. It is found that, locally, the most unstable inviscid waves are leading and open with large azimuthal wavenumbers. However, these waves display little or no coherence over the face of the disk and so would not emerge as modes in a global analysis.The geometry of the dominant inviscid waves is found to be leading, tightly wound spirals. Viscous corrections shift the dominant wave form to trailing, tightly wound spirals with small azimuthal wavenumbers. These waves grow on a time scale of about 10 7 years. It is suggested that these waves can initiate spiral structure in galaxies during disk formation and that a subsequent transition to a self-gravitating acoustical mode with the same spiral geometry may occur. This transition becomes possible once the contrast in gas densities between the disk and surrounding halo becomes sufficiently large

  15. Disk Galaxies : Building Blocks of the Universe?

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In my talk I look at the origin of disk galaxies from the theoretical perspective. In particular I look at simple ways to use the properties of disk galaxies, and their evolution, to test our current paradigm for galaxy formation within the CDM scenario.

  16. TOWARD A GLOBAL EVOLUTIONARY MODEL OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xue-Ning, E-mail: xbai@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-04-20

    A global picture of the evolution  of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) is key to understanding almost every aspect of planet formation, where standard α-disk models have been continually employed for their simplicity. In the meantime, disk mass loss has been conventionally attributed to photoevaporation, which controls disk dispersal. However, a paradigm shift toward accretion driven by magnetized disk winds has taken place in recent years, thanks to studies of non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic effects in PPDs. I present a framework of global PPD evolution aiming to incorporate these advances, highlighting the role of wind-driven accretion and wind mass loss. Disk evolution is found to be largely dominated by wind-driven processes, and viscous spreading is suppressed. The timescale of disk evolution is controlled primarily by the amount of external magnetic flux threading the disks, and how rapidly the disk loses the flux. Rapid disk dispersal can be achieved if the disk is able to hold most of its magnetic flux during the evolution. In addition, because wind launching requires a sufficient level of ionization at the disk surface (mainly via external far-UV (FUV) radiation), wind kinematics is also affected by the FUV penetration depth and disk geometry. For a typical disk lifetime of a few million years, the disk loses approximately the same amount of mass through the wind as through accretion onto the protostar, and most of the wind mass loss proceeds from the outer disk via a slow wind. Fractional wind mass loss increases with increasing disk lifetime. Significant wind mass loss likely substantially enhances the dust-to-gas mass ratio and promotes planet formation.

  17. TOWARD A GLOBAL EVOLUTIONARY MODEL OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Xue-Ning

    2016-01-01

    A global picture of the evolution  of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) is key to understanding almost every aspect of planet formation, where standard α-disk models have been continually employed for their simplicity. In the meantime, disk mass loss has been conventionally attributed to photoevaporation, which controls disk dispersal. However, a paradigm shift toward accretion driven by magnetized disk winds has taken place in recent years, thanks to studies of non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic effects in PPDs. I present a framework of global PPD evolution aiming to incorporate these advances, highlighting the role of wind-driven accretion and wind mass loss. Disk evolution is found to be largely dominated by wind-driven processes, and viscous spreading is suppressed. The timescale of disk evolution is controlled primarily by the amount of external magnetic flux threading the disks, and how rapidly the disk loses the flux. Rapid disk dispersal can be achieved if the disk is able to hold most of its magnetic flux during the evolution. In addition, because wind launching requires a sufficient level of ionization at the disk surface (mainly via external far-UV (FUV) radiation), wind kinematics is also affected by the FUV penetration depth and disk geometry. For a typical disk lifetime of a few million years, the disk loses approximately the same amount of mass through the wind as through accretion onto the protostar, and most of the wind mass loss proceeds from the outer disk via a slow wind. Fractional wind mass loss increases with increasing disk lifetime. Significant wind mass loss likely substantially enhances the dust-to-gas mass ratio and promotes planet formation

  18. Gravitational Instabilities in a Young Protoplanetary Disk with Embedded Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Karna M.; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Durisen, Richard H.

    2018-01-01

    Gravitational Instabilities (GIs), a mechanism for angular momentum transport, are more prominent during the early phases of protoplanetary disk evolution when the disk is relatively massive. In my dissertation work, I performed radiative 3D hydrodynamics simulations (by employing the code, CHYMERA) and extensively studied GIs by inserting different objects in the ‘control disk’ (a 0.14 M⊙ protoplanetary disk around a 1 M⊙ star).Studying planetary migration helps us better constrain planet formation models. To study the migration of Jovian planets, in 9 separate simulations, each of the 0.3 MJ, 1 MJ, and 3 MJ planets was inserted near the Inner and Outer Lindblad Resonances and the Corotation Radius (CR) of the dominant GI-induced two-armed spiral density wave in the disk. I found the migration timescales to be longer in a GI-active disk when compared to laminar disks. The 3 MJ planet controls its own orbital evolution, while the migration of a 0.3 MJ planet is stochastic in nature. I defined a ‘critical mass’ as the mass of an arm of the dominant two-armed spiral density wave within the planet’s Hill diameter. Planets above this mass control their own destiny, and planets below this mass are scattered by the disk. This critical mass could provide a recipe for predicting the migration behavior of planets in GI-active disks.To understand the stochastic migration of low-mass planets, I performed a simulation of 240 zero-mass planet-tracers (hereafter, planets) by inserting these at a range of locations in the control disk (an equivalent of 240 simulations of Saturn-mass or lower-mass objects). I calculated a Diffusion Coefficient (3.6 AU2/ 1000 yr) to characterize the stochastic migration of planets. I analyzed the increase in the eccentricity dispersion and compared it with the observed exoplanet eccentricities. The diffusion of planets can be a slow process, resulting in the survival of small planetary cores. Stochastic migration of planets is

  19. Recent US target-physics-related research in heavy-ion inertial fusion: simulations for tamped targets and for disk experiments in accelerator test facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark, J.W.K.

    1982-03-22

    Calculations suggest that experiments relating to disk heating, as well as beam deposition, focusing and transport can be performed within the context of current design proposals for accelerator test-facilities. Since the test-facilities have lower ion kinetic energy and beam pulse power as compared to reactor drivers, we achieve high-beam intensities at the focal spot by using short focal distance and properly designed beam optics. In this regard, the low beam emittance of suggested multi-beam designs are very useful. Possibly even higher focal spot brightness could be obtained by plasma lenses which involve external fields on the beam which is stripped to a higher charge state by passing through a plasma cell. Preliminary results suggest that intensities approx. 10/sup 13/ - 10/sup 14/ W/cm/sup 2/ are achievable. Given these intensities, deposition experiments with heating of disks to greater than a million degrees Kelvin (100 eV) are expected.

  20. Characteristic evolutions in numerical relativity using six angular patches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisswig, Christian; Bishop, Nigel T; Lai, Chi Wai; Thornburg, Jonathan; Szilagyi, Bela

    2007-01-01

    The characteristic approach to numerical relativity is a useful tool in evolving gravitational systems. In the past this has been implemented using two patches of stereographic angular coordinates. In other applications, a six-patch angular coordinate system has proved effective. Here we investigate the use of a six-patch system in characteristic numerical relativity, by comparing an existing two-patch implementation (using second-order finite differencing throughout) with a new six-patch implementation (using either second- or fourth-order finite differencing for the angular derivatives). We compare these different codes by monitoring the Einstein constraint equations, numerically evaluated independently from the evolution. We find that, compared to the (second-order) two-patch code at equivalent resolutions, the errors of the second-order six-patch code are smaller by a factor of about 2, and the errors of the fourth-order six-patch code are smaller by a factor of nearly 50

  1. Characteristic evolutions in numerical relativity using six angular patches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisswig, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Bishop, Nigel T [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of South Africa, PO Box 392, Unisa 0003, South Africa (South Africa); Lai, Chi Wai [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of South Africa, PO Box 392, Unisa 0003, South Africa (South Africa); Thornburg, Jonathan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Szilagyi, Bela [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany)

    2007-06-21

    The characteristic approach to numerical relativity is a useful tool in evolving gravitational systems. In the past this has been implemented using two patches of stereographic angular coordinates. In other applications, a six-patch angular coordinate system has proved effective. Here we investigate the use of a six-patch system in characteristic numerical relativity, by comparing an existing two-patch implementation (using second-order finite differencing throughout) with a new six-patch implementation (using either second- or fourth-order finite differencing for the angular derivatives). We compare these different codes by monitoring the Einstein constraint equations, numerically evaluated independently from the evolution. We find that, compared to the (second-order) two-patch code at equivalent resolutions, the errors of the second-order six-patch code are smaller by a factor of about 2, and the errors of the fourth-order six-patch code are smaller by a factor of nearly 50.

  2. Gas Mass Tracers in Protoplanetary Disks: CO is Still the Best

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyarova, Tamara; Akimkin, Vitaly; Semenov, Dmitry; Henning, Thomas; Vasyunin, Anton; Wiebe, Dmitri

    2017-11-01

    Protoplanetary disk mass is a key parameter controlling the process of planetary system formation. CO molecular emission is often used as a tracer of gas mass in the disk. In this study, we consider the ability of CO to trace the gas mass over a wide range of disk structural parameters, and we search for chemical species that could possibly be used as alternative mass tracers to CO. Specifically, we apply detailed astrochemical modeling to a large set of models of protoplanetary disks around low-mass stars to select molecules with abundances correlated with the disk mass and being relatively insensitive to other disk properties. We do not consider sophisticated dust evolution models, restricting ourselves to the standard astrochemical assumption of 0.1 μm dust. We find that CO is indeed the best molecular tracer for total gas mass, despite the fact that it is not the main carbon carrier, provided reasonable assumptions about CO abundance in the disk are used. Typically, chemical reprocessing lowers the abundance of CO by a factor of 3, compared to the case where photodissociation and freeze-out are the only ways of CO depletion. On average, only 13% C atoms reside in gas-phase CO, albeit with variations from 2% to 30%. CO2, H2O, and H2CO can potentially serve as alternative mass tracers, with the latter two only applicable if disk structural parameters are known.

  3. Astrophysical disks Collective and Stochastic Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexei M; Kovalenko, Ilya G

    2006-01-01

    The book deals with collective and stochastic processes in astrophysical discs involving theory, observations, and the results of modelling. Among others, it examines the spiral-vortex structure in galactic and accretion disks , stochastic and ordered structures in the developed turbulence. It also describes sources of turbulence in the accretion disks, internal structure of disk in the vicinity of a black hole, numerical modelling of Be envelopes in binaries, gaseous disks in spiral galaxies with shock waves formation, observation of accretion disks in a binary system and mass distribution of luminous matter in disk galaxies. The editors adaptly brought together collective and stochastic phenomena in the modern field of astrophysical discs, their formation, structure, and evolution involving the methodology to deal with, the results of observation and modelling, thereby advancing the study in this important branch of astrophysics and benefiting Professional Researchers, Lecturers, and Graduate Students.

  4. VARIABILITY OF THE INFRARED EXCESS OF EXTREME DEBRIS DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Huan Y. A.; Rieke, George H.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Vanzi, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Debris disks with extremely large infrared excesses (fractional luminosities >10 –2 ) are rare. Those with ages between 30 and 130 Myr are of interest because their evolution has progressed well beyond that of protoplanetary disks (which dissipate with a timescale of order 3 Myr), yet they represent a period when dynamical models suggest that terrestrial planet building may still be progressing through large, violent collisions that could yield large amounts of debris and large infrared excesses. For example, our Moon was formed through a violent collision of two large protoplanets during this age range. We report two disks around the solar-like stars ID8 and HD 23514 in this age range where the 24 μm infrared excesses vary on timescales of a few years, even though the stars are not variable in the optical. Variations this rapid are difficult to understand if the debris is produced by collisional cascades, as it is for most debris disks. It is possible that the debris in these two systems arises in part from condensates from silicate-rich vapor produced in a series of violent collisions among relatively large bodies. If their evolution is rapid, the rate of detection of extreme excesses would indicate that major collisions may be relatively common in this age range.

  5. Brain evolution relating to family, play, and the separation call.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, P D

    1985-04-01

    Mammals stem from the mammal-like reptiles (therapsids) that were widely prevalent in Pangaea 250 million years ago. In the evolutionary transition from reptiles to mammals, three key developments were (1) nursing, in conjunction with maternal care; (2) audiovocal communication for maintaining maternal-offspring contact; and (3) play. The separation call perhaps ranks as the earliest and most basic mammalian vocalization, while play may have functioned originally to promote harmony in the nest. How did such family related behavior develop? In its evolution, the forebrain of advanced mammals has expanded as a triune structure that anatomically and chemically reflects ancestral commonalities with reptiles, early mammals, and late mammals. Recent findings suggest that the development of the behavioral triad in question may have depended on the evolution of the thalamocingulate division of the limbic system, a derivative from early mammals. The thalamocingulate division (which has no distinctive counterpart in the reptilian brain) is, in turn, geared in with the prefrontal neocortex that, in human beings, may be inferred to play a key role in familial acculturation.

  6. Circumstellar Gas in Young Planetary Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, A.

    Circumstellar (CS) disks orbiting young stars fall into two categories: primordial disks, composed of unprocessed interstellar dust and gas, and debris disks, produced by the destruction of solid planetary bodies. In the first class, the most abundant gas is H_2; in the second, it appears that the H_2 gas has disappeared, possibly through incorporation into gas giant planets. The lifetime of H_2 gas in a CS disk is therefore of great importance, as it dictates the timescale for the formation of giant planets. FUSE observations of H_2 in CS disk systems have shown that FUV absorption spectroscopy may sensitively probe for small amounts of gas along the line of sight to the star. Most importantly, the FUSE non-detection of H_2 gas in the Beta Pictoris disk suggests that the primordial gas lifetime is less than about 12 Myr, and that gas giant planets must form very quickly. However, this suggestion is based on one system, and needs to be tested in additional systems with a range of ages, especially since there are indications that age is not the only factor in the evolution of a CS disk. We propose for FUSE observations of 3 additional debris disk systems, Fomalhaut, HD3003, and HD2884. Fomalhaut is an intermediate age debris disk, one of the Fabulous Four CS disks first discovered in 1984. The other two disks are younger, with ages similar to that of Beta Pic. All three stars are brighter in the FUV than Beta Pic, permitting us to sensitively probe for traces of H_2 gas. We will also measure the amount of secondary atomic gas produced from planetary bodies in these disks, in an effort to understand the entire evolution of CS gas in young planetary systems.

  7. MIPS Observations of the Fabulous Four Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, K. Y. L.; Stansberry, J. A.; Rieke, G. H.; Trilling, D. E.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Werner, M. W.; Beichman, C.; Chen, C.; Marengo, M.; Megeath, T.; Backman, D.; van Cleve, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) provides long-wavelength capability with imaging bands at 24, 70, and 160 um. We will present the MIPS images of the Fabulous Four Debris Disks: Beta Pictoris (A5 V), Epsilon Eridani (K2 V), Fomalhaut (A3 V) and Vega (A0 V). These systems discovered by IRAS possess large far-infrared excess emission above photosphere, indicating the existence of a circumstellar dusty disk. Given the main-sequence ages of these stars ( ˜12 Myr for Beta Pictoris, ˜730 Myr for Epsilon Eridani, ˜200 Myr for Fomalhaut, and ˜350 Myr for Vega), the dust in the systems could not be primordial as it would have been removed by radiation pressure and Poynting-Robertson drag on relatively short time scales ( ˜1E4 yr). The second-generation dust in such debris disks is thought to arise primarily from collisions between planetesimals (asteroids) and from cometary activity; however, details about the debris formation and evolution are not well understood. With the sensitivity and angular resolution of the Spitizer Space Telescope, the structures of these nearby debris disks were mapped in great detail to study the disks' spatial structures at mid- to far-infrared wavelengths. These high spatial resolution images provide unprecedented new constraints on the the dust properties in the systems and limits on the origin of dusty debris. Support for this work was provided by NASA through Contract Number 960785 issued by JPL/Caltech.

  8. Star formation rates and abundance gradients in disk galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyse, R.F.G.; Silk, J.

    1989-01-01

    Analytic models for the evolution of disk galaxies are presented, placing special emphasis on the radial properties. These models are straightforward extensions of the original Schmidt (1959, 1963) models, with a dependence of star formation rate on gas density. The models provide successful descriptions of several measures of galactic disk evolution, including solar neighborhood chemical evolution, the presence and amplitude of metallicity and color gradients in disk galaxies, and the global rates of star formation in disk galaxies, and aid in the understanding of the apparent connection between young and old stellar populations in spiral galaxies. 67 refs

  9. The universal relation of galactic chemical evolution: the origin of the mass-metallicity relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahid, H. Jabran; Dima, Gabriel I.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Kewley, Lisa J.; Geller, Margaret J.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Silverman, John D.; Kashino, Daichi

    2014-01-01

    We examine the mass-metallicity relation for z ≲ 1.6. The mass-metallicity relation follows a steep slope with a turnover, or 'knee', at stellar masses around 10 10 M ☉ . At stellar masses higher than the characteristic turnover mass, the mass-metallicity relation flattens as metallicities begin to saturate. We show that the redshift evolution of the mass-metallicity relation depends only on the evolution of the characteristic turnover mass. The relationship between metallicity and the stellar mass normalized to the characteristic turnover mass is independent of redshift. We find that the redshift-independent slope of the mass-metallicity relation is set by the slope of the relationship between gas mass and stellar mass. The turnover in the mass-metallicity relation occurs when the gas-phase oxygen abundance is high enough that the amount of oxygen locked up in low-mass stars is an appreciable fraction of the amount of oxygen produced by massive stars. The characteristic turnover mass is the stellar mass, where the stellar-to-gas mass ratio is unity. Numerical modeling suggests that the relationship between metallicity and the stellar-to-gas mass ratio is a redshift-independent, universal relationship followed by all galaxies as they evolve. The mass-metallicity relation originates from this more fundamental universal relationship between metallicity and the stellar-to-gas mass ratio. We test the validity of this universal metallicity relation in local galaxies where stellar mass, metallicity, and gas mass measurements are available. The data are consistent with a universal metallicity relation. We derive an equation for estimating the hydrogen gas mass from measurements of stellar mass and metallicity valid for z ≲ 1.6 and predict the cosmological evolution of galactic gas masses.

  10. A New M Dwarf Debris Disk Candidate in a Young Moving Group Discovered with Disk Detective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Steven M.; Kuchner, Marc J.; Wisniewski, John P.; Gagne, Jonathan; Bans, Alissa S.; Bhattacharjee, Shambo; Currie, Thayne R.; Debes, John R.; Biggs, Joseph R; Bosch, Milton

    2016-01-01

    We used the Disk Detective citizen science project and the BANYAN II Bayesian analysis tool to identify a new candidate member of a nearby young association with infrared excess. WISE J080822.18-644357.3, an M5.5-type debris disk system with significant excess at both 12 and 22 microns, is a likely member (approx.90% BANYAN II probability) of the approx.45 Myr old Carina association. Since this would be the oldest M dwarf debris disk detected in a moving group, this discovery could be an important constraint on our understanding of M dwarf debris disk evolution.

  11. A SPITZER CENSUS OF TRANSITIONAL PROTOPLANETARY DISKS WITH AU-SCALE INNER HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzerolle, James; Allen, Lori E.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Hernandez, Jesus; Gutermuth, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Protoplanetary disks with AU-scale inner clearings, often referred to as transitional disks, provide a unique sample for understanding disk dissipation mechanisms and possible connections to planet formation. Observations of young stellar clusters with the Spitzer Space Telescope have amassed mid-infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for thousands of star-disk systems from which transition disks can be identified. From a sample of eight relatively nearby young regions (d ∼ 0) to select for robust optically thick outer disks, and 3.6-5.8 μm spectral slope and 5.8 μm continuum excess limits to select for optically thin or zero continuum excess from the inner few AU of the disks. We also identified two additional categories representing more ambiguous cases: 'warm excess' objects with transition-like SEDs but moderate excess at 5.8 μm, and 'weak excess' objects with smaller 24 μm excess that may be optically thin or exhibit advanced dust grain growth and settling. From existing Hα emission measurements, we find evidence for different accretion activity among the three categories, with a majority of the classical and warm excess transition objects still accreting gas through their inner holes and onto the central stars, while a smaller fraction of the weak transition objects are accreting at detectable rates. We find a possible age dependence on the frequency of classical transition objects, with fractions relative to the total population of disks in a given region of a few percent at 1-2 Myr rising to 10%-20% at 3-10 Myr. The trend is even stronger if the weak and warm excess objects are included. This relationship may be due to a dependence of the outer disk clearing timescale with stellar age, suggesting a variety of clearing mechanisms working at different times, or it may reflect that a smaller fraction of all disks actually undergo an inner clearing phase at younger ages. Classical transition disks appear to be less common, and weak transition

  12. Human evolution and osteoporosis-related spinal fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan M Cotter

    Full Text Available The field of evolutionary medicine examines the possibility that some diseases are the result of trade-offs made in human evolution. Spinal fractures are the most common osteoporosis-related fracture in humans, but are not observed in apes, even in cases of severe osteopenia. In humans, the development of osteoporosis is influenced by peak bone mass and strength in early adulthood as well as age-related bone loss. Here, we examine the structural differences in the vertebral bodies (the portion of the vertebra most commonly involved in osteoporosis-related fractures between humans and apes before age-related bone loss occurs. Vertebrae from young adult humans and chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, and gibbons (T8 vertebrae, n = 8-14 per species, male and female, humans: 20-40 years of age were examined to determine bone strength (using finite element models, bone morphology (external shape, and trabecular microarchitecture (micro-computed tomography. The vertebrae of young adult humans are not as strong as those from apes after accounting for body mass (p<0.01. Human vertebrae are larger in size (volume, cross-sectional area, height than in apes with a similar body mass. Young adult human vertebrae have significantly lower trabecular bone volume fraction (0.26±0.04 in humans and 0.37±0.07 in apes, mean ± SD, p<0.01 and thinner vertebral shells than apes (after accounting for body mass, p<0.01. Since human vertebrae are more porous and weaker than those in apes in young adulthood (after accounting for bone mass, even modest amounts of age-related bone loss may lead to vertebral fracture in humans, while in apes, larger amounts of bone loss would be required before a vertebral fracture becomes likely. We present arguments that differences in vertebral bone size and shape associated with reduced bone strength in humans is linked to evolutionary adaptations associated with bipedalism.

  13. Herniated disk disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.S.; Masaryk, T.J.; Modic, M.T.; Bohlman, H.; Wilber, G.; Carter, J.

    1988-01-01

    Thirty patients with symptoms of disk herniation and no previous surgery were examined with Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging. Studies obtained before and after administration of Gd-DTPA included the following sequences: sagittal and axial spin echo (SE) 500/17 (repetition time, msec/echo time, msec), sagittal SE 2,000/60, sagittal FLASH 200/13/60. Studies were interpreted separately for presence of extradural disease (EDD) characterized by morphology, mass effect, and enhancement. Post Gd-DTPA diagnoses were: normal, n = 1; herniation, n = 28; neoplasm, n = 1. Tissue diagnosis was obtained in 13. The Gd-DTPA examination correctly changed the diagnosis in one case, provided increased confidence in the diagnosis in four, and was equivalent to the precontrast study in eight. Increased conspicuity of EDD with Gd-DTPA was related to the enhancement of epidural space analogous to IV CT and enhancement of scar surrounding disk herniation. Histologically, this scar was identical to that seen in postoperative spines, Gd-DTPA appears to be a useful adjunct in cervical and thoracic degenerative disk disease

  14. Oscillations of disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the current state of research on disk oscillation theory, focusing on relativistic disks and tidally deformed disks. Since the launch of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in 1996, many high-frequency quasiperiodic oscillations (HFQPOs) have been observed in X-ray binaries. Subsequently, similar quasi-periodic oscillations have been found in such relativistic objects as microquasars, ultra-luminous X-ray sources, and galactic nuclei. One of the most promising explanations of their origin is based on oscillations in relativistic disks, and a new field called discoseismology is currently developing. After reviewing observational aspects, the book presents the basic characteristics of disk oscillations, especially focusing on those in relativistic disks. Relativistic disks are essentially different from Newtonian disks in terms of several basic characteristics of their disk oscillations, including the radial distributions of epicyclic frequencies. In order to understand the basic processes...

  15. WIND-ACCRETION DISKS IN WIDE BINARIES, SECOND-GENERATION PROTOPLANETARY DISKS, AND ACCRETION ONTO WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perets, Hagai B. [Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Kenyon, Scott J., E-mail: hperets@physics.technion.ac.il [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    Mass transfer from an evolved donor star to its binary companion is a standard feature of stellar evolution in binaries. In wide binaries, the companion star captures some of the mass ejected in a wind by the primary star. The captured material forms an accretion disk. Here, we study the evolution of wind-accretion disks, using a numerical approach which allows us to follow the long-term evolution. For a broad range of initial conditions, we derive the radial density and temperature profiles of the disk. In most cases, wind accretion leads to long-lived stable disks over the lifetime of the asymptotic giant branch donor star. The disks have masses of a few times 10{sup -5}-10{sup -3} M {sub Sun }, with surface density and temperature profiles that follow broken power laws. The total mass in the disk scales approximately linearly with the viscosity parameter used. Roughly, 50%-80% of the mass falling into the disk accretes onto the central star; the rest flows out through the outer edge of the disk into the stellar wind of the primary. For systems with large accretion rates, the secondary accretes as much as 0.1 M {sub Sun }. When the secondary is a white dwarf, accretion naturally leads to nova and supernova eruptions. For all types of secondary star, the surface density and temperature profiles of massive disks resemble structures observed in protoplanetary disks, suggesting that coordinated observational programs might improve our understanding of uncertain disk physics.

  16. WIND-ACCRETION DISKS IN WIDE BINARIES, SECOND-GENERATION PROTOPLANETARY DISKS, AND ACCRETION ONTO WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perets, Hagai B.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Mass transfer from an evolved donor star to its binary companion is a standard feature of stellar evolution in binaries. In wide binaries, the companion star captures some of the mass ejected in a wind by the primary star. The captured material forms an accretion disk. Here, we study the evolution of wind-accretion disks, using a numerical approach which allows us to follow the long-term evolution. For a broad range of initial conditions, we derive the radial density and temperature profiles of the disk. In most cases, wind accretion leads to long-lived stable disks over the lifetime of the asymptotic giant branch donor star. The disks have masses of a few times 10 –5 -10 –3 M ☉ , with surface density and temperature profiles that follow broken power laws. The total mass in the disk scales approximately linearly with the viscosity parameter used. Roughly, 50%-80% of the mass falling into the disk accretes onto the central star; the rest flows out through the outer edge of the disk into the stellar wind of the primary. For systems with large accretion rates, the secondary accretes as much as 0.1 M ☉ . When the secondary is a white dwarf, accretion naturally leads to nova and supernova eruptions. For all types of secondary star, the surface density and temperature profiles of massive disks resemble structures observed in protoplanetary disks, suggesting that coordinated observational programs might improve our understanding of uncertain disk physics.

  17. On the Evolution of the Inner Disk Radius with Flux in the Neutron Star Low-mass X-Ray Binary Serpens X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chia - Ying; Morgan, Robert A.; Cackett, Edward M.; Miller, Jon M.; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the latest Suzaku observation of the bright neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary Serpens X-1 taken in 2013 October and 2014 April. The observation was taken using the burst mode and only suffered mild pile-up effects. A broad iron line is clearly detected in the X-ray spectrum. We test different models and find that the iron line is asymmetric and best interpreted by relativistic reflection. The relativistically broadened iron line is generally believed to originate from the innermost regions of the accretion disk, where strong gravity causes a series of special and general relativistic effects. The iron line profile indicates an inner radius of approx. 8 R(sub G), which gives an upper limit on the size of the NS. The asymmetric iron line has been observed in a number of previous observations, which gives several inner radius measurements at different flux states. We find that the inner radius of Serpens X-1 does not evolve significantly over the range of L/L(sub Edd) approx. 0.4-0.6, and the lack of flux dependence of the inner radius implies that the accretion disk may be truncated outside of the innermost stable circular orbit by the boundary layer, rather than the stellar magnetic field.

  18. ON THE EVOLUTION OF THE INNER DISK RADIUS WITH FLUX IN THE NEUTRON STAR LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY SERPENS X-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Chia-Ying; Morgan, Robert A.; Cackett, Edward M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, 666 W. Hancock, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1046 (United States); Bhattacharyya, Sudip [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Strohmayer, Tod E., E-mail: ft8320@wayne.edu [X-Ray Astrophysics Lab, Astrophysics Science Division, NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We analyze the latest Suzaku observation of the bright neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary Serpens X-1 taken in 2013 October and 2014 April. The observation was taken using the burst mode and only suffered mild pile-up effects. A broad iron line is clearly detected in the X-ray spectrum. We test different models and find that the iron line is asymmetric and best interpreted by relativistic reflection. The relativistically broadened iron line is generally believed to originate from the innermost regions of the accretion disk, where strong gravity causes a series of special and general relativistic effects. The iron line profile indicates an inner radius of ∼8 R {sub G}, which gives an upper limit on the size of the NS. The asymmetric iron line has been observed in a number of previous observations, which gives several inner radius measurements at different flux states. We find that the inner radius of Serpens X-1 does not evolve significantly over the range of L / L {sub Edd} ∼ 0.4–0.6, and the lack of flux dependence of the inner radius implies that the accretion disk may be truncated outside of the innermost stable circular orbit by the boundary layer, rather than the stellar magnetic field.

  19. The HIP 79977 debris disk in polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, N.; Schmid, H. M.; Thalmann, Ch.; Boccaletti, A.; Bazzon, A.; Baruffolo, A.; Beuzit, J. L.; Claudi, R.; Costille, A.; Desidera, S.; Dohlen, K.; Dominik, C.; Feldt, M.; Fusco, T.; Ginski, C.; Gisler, D.; Girard, J. H.; Gratton, R.; Henning, T.; Hubin, N.; Janson, M.; Kasper, M.; Kral, Q.; Langlois, M.; Lagadec, E.; Ménard, F.; Meyer, M. R.; Milli, J.; Mouillet, D.; Olofsson, J.; Pavlov, A.; Pragt, J.; Puget, P.; Quanz, S. P.; Roelfsema, R.; Salasnich, B.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Sissa, E.; Suarez, M.; Szulagyi, J.; Turatto, M.; Udry, S.; Wildi, F.

    2017-11-01

    Context. Debris disks are observed around 10 to 20% of FGK main-sequence stars as infrared excess emission. They are important signposts for the presence of colliding planetesimals and therefore provide important information about the evolution of planetary systems. Direct imaging of such disks reveals their geometric structure and constrains their dust-particle properties. Aims: We present observations of the known edge-on debris disk around HIP 79977 (HD 146897) taken with the ZIMPOL differential polarimeter of the SPHERE instrument. We measure the observed polarization signal and investigate the diagnostic potential of such data with model simulations. Methods: SPHERE-ZIMPOL polarimetric data of the 15 Myr-old F star HIP 79977 (Upper Sco, 123 pc) were taken in the Very Broad Band (VBB) filter (λc = 735 nm, Δλ = 290 nm) with a spatial resolution of about 25 mas. Imaging polarimetry efficiently suppresses the residual speckle noise from the AO system and provides a differential signal with relatively small systematic measuring uncertainties. We measure the polarization flux along and perpendicular to the disk spine of the highly inclined disk for projected separations between 0.2'' (25 AU) and 1.6'' (200 AU). We perform model calculations for the polarized flux of an optically thin debris disk which are used to determine or constrain the disk parameters of HIP 79977. Results: We measure a polarized flux contrast ratio for the disk of (Fpol)disk/F∗ = (5.5 ± 0.9) × 10-4 in the VBB filter. The surface brightness of the polarized flux reaches a maximum of SBmax = 16.2 mag arcsec-2 at a separation of 0.2''-0.5'' along the disk spine with a maximum surface brightness contrast of 7.64 mag arcsec-2. The polarized flux has a minimum near the star 1''. This can be explained by a radial blow-out of small grains. The data are modelled as a circular dust belt with a well defined disk inclination I = 85( ± 1.5)° and a radius between r0 = 60 and 90 AU. The radial

  20. RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: INSTABILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: d.pugliese.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the possibility that several instability points may be formed, due to the Paczyński mechanism of violation of mechanical equilibrium, in the orbiting matter around a supermassive Kerr black hole. We consider a recently proposed model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several tori (rings) that can be corotating or counter-rotating relative to the Kerr attractor due to the history of the accretion process. Each torus is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. We prove that the number of the instability points is generally limited and depends on the dimensionless spin of the rotating attractor.

  1. Disk Storage Server

    CERN Multimedia

    This model was a disk storage server used in the Data Centre up until 2012. Each tray contains a hard disk drive (see the 5TB hard disk drive on the main disk display section - this actually fits into one of the trays). There are 16 trays in all per server. There are hundreds of these servers mounted on racks in the Data Centre, as can be seen.

  2. Understanding Floppy Disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Pamela

    1980-01-01

    The author describes the floppy disk with an analogy to the phonograph record, and discusses the advantages, disadvantages, and capabilities of hard-sectored and soft-sectored floppy disks. She concludes that, at present, the floppy disk will continue to be the primary choice of personal computer manufacturers and their customers. (KC)

  3. HNC IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graninger, Dawn; Öberg, Karin I.; Qi, Chunhua; Kastner, Joel

    2015-01-01

    The distributions and abundances of small organics in protoplanetary disks are potentially powerful probes of disk physics and chemistry. HNC is a common probe of dense interstellar regions and the target of this study. We use the Submillimeter Array (SMA) to observe HNC 3–2 toward the protoplanetary disks around the T Tauri star TW Hya and the Herbig Ae star HD 163296. HNC is detected toward both disks, constituting the first spatially resolved observations of HNC in disks. We also present SMA observations of HCN 3–2 and IRAM 30 m observations of HCN and HNC 1–0 toward HD 163296. The disk-averaged HNC/HCN emission ratio is 0.1–0.2 toward both disks. Toward TW Hya, the HNC emission is confined to a ring. The varying HNC abundance in the TW Hya disk demonstrates that HNC chemistry is strongly linked to the disk physical structure. In particular, the inner rim of the HNC ring can be explained by efficient destruction of HNC at elevated temperatures, similar to what is observed in the ISM. However, to realize the full potential of HNC as a disk tracer requires a combination of high SNR spatially resolved observations of HNC and HCN and disk-specific HNC chemical modeling

  4. HNC IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graninger, Dawn; Öberg, Karin I.; Qi, Chunhua [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kastner, Joel, E-mail: dgraninger@cfa.harvard.edu [Center for Imaging Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The distributions and abundances of small organics in protoplanetary disks are potentially powerful probes of disk physics and chemistry. HNC is a common probe of dense interstellar regions and the target of this study. We use the Submillimeter Array (SMA) to observe HNC 3–2 toward the protoplanetary disks around the T Tauri star TW Hya and the Herbig Ae star HD 163296. HNC is detected toward both disks, constituting the first spatially resolved observations of HNC in disks. We also present SMA observations of HCN 3–2 and IRAM 30 m observations of HCN and HNC 1–0 toward HD 163296. The disk-averaged HNC/HCN emission ratio is 0.1–0.2 toward both disks. Toward TW Hya, the HNC emission is confined to a ring. The varying HNC abundance in the TW Hya disk demonstrates that HNC chemistry is strongly linked to the disk physical structure. In particular, the inner rim of the HNC ring can be explained by efficient destruction of HNC at elevated temperatures, similar to what is observed in the ISM. However, to realize the full potential of HNC as a disk tracer requires a combination of high SNR spatially resolved observations of HNC and HCN and disk-specific HNC chemical modeling.

  5. KINEMATICS OF CLASSICAL CEPHEIDS IN THE NUCLEAR STELLAR DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Fukue, Kei; Yamamoto, Ryo; Kobayashi, Naoto; Hamano, Satoshi; Inno, Laura; Genovali, Katia; Bono, Giuseppe; Baba, Junichi; Fujii, Michiko S.; Aoki, Wako; Tsujimoto, Takuji; Kondo, Sohei; Ikeda, Yuji; Nishiyama, Shogo; Nagata, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Classical Cepheids are useful tracers of the Galactic young stellar population because their distances and ages can be determined from their period-luminosity and period-age relations. In addition, the radial velocities and chemical abundance of the Cepheids can be derived from spectroscopic observations, providing further insights into the structure and evolution of the Galaxy. Here, we report the radial velocities of classical Cepheids near the Galactic center, three of which were reported in 2011 and a fourth being reported for the first time. The velocities of these Cepheids suggest that the stars orbit within the nuclear stellar disk, a group of stars and interstellar matter occupying a region of ∼200 pc around the center, although the three-dimensional velocities cannot be determined until the proper motions are known. According to our simulation, these four Cepheids formed within the nuclear stellar disk like younger stars and stellar clusters therein

  6. Possible Imprints of Cold-mode Accretion on the Present-day Properties of Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Masafumi

    2018-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies suggest that a significant part of the primordial gas accretes onto forming galaxies as narrow filaments of cold gas without building a shock and experiencing heating. Using a simple model of disk galaxy evolution that combines the growth of dark matter halos predicted by cosmological simulations with a hypothetical form of cold-mode accretion, we investigate how this cold-accretion mode affects the formation process of disk galaxies. It is found that the shock-heating and cold-accretion models produce compatible results for low-mass galaxies owing to the short cooling timescale in such galaxies. However, cold accretion significantly alters the evolution of disk galaxies more massive than the Milky Way and puts observable fingerprints on their present properties. For a galaxy with a virial mass {M}{vir}=2.5× {10}12 {M}ȯ , the scale length of the stellar disk is larger by 41% in the cold-accretion model than in the shock-heating model, with the former model reproducing the steep rise in the size–mass relation observed at the high-mass end. Furthermore, the stellar component of massive galaxies becomes significantly redder (0.66 in u ‑ r at {M}{vir}=2.5× {10}12 {M}ȯ ), and the observed color–mass relation in nearby galaxies is qualitatively reproduced. These results suggest that large disk galaxies with red optical colors may be the product of cold-mode accretion. The essential role of cold accretion is to promote disk formation in the intermediate-evolution phase (0.5< z< 1.5) by providing the primordial gas having large angular momentum and to terminate late-epoch accretion, quenching star formation and making massive galaxies red.

  7. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): Roles in early development and immunity-related transcriptional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, N C N; Godahewa, G I; Lee, Jehee

    2016-12-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is involved in the regulation of cellular events by mediating signal transduction pathways. MAPK1 is a member of the extracellular-signal regulated kinases (ERKs), playing roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, and development. This is mainly in response to growth factors, mitogens, and many environmental stresses. In the current study, we have characterized the structural features of a homolog of MAPK1 from disk abalone (AbMAPK1). Further, we have unraveled its expressional kinetics against different experimental pathogenic infections or related chemical stimulants. AbMAPK1 harbors a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 23 bps, a coding sequence of 1104 bps, and a 3' UTR of 448 bp. The putative peptide comprises a predicted molecular mass of 42.2 kDa, with a theoretical pI of 6.28. Based on the in silico analysis, AbMAPK1 possesses two N-glycosylation sites, one S_TK catalytic domain, and a conserved His-Arg-Asp domain (HRD). In addition, a conservative glycine rich ATP-phosphate-binding loop and a threonine-x-tyrosine motif (TEY) important for the autophosphorylation were also identified in the protein. Homology assessment of AbMAPK1 showed several conserved regions, and ark clam (Aplysia californica) showed the highest sequence identity (87.9%). The phylogenetic analysis supported close evolutionary kinship with molluscan orthologs. Constitutive expression of AbMAPK1 was observed in six different tissues of disk abalone, with the highest expression in the digestive tract, followed by the gills and hemocytes. Highest AbMAPK1 mRNA expression level was detected at the trochophore developmental stage, suggesting its role in abalone cell differentiation and proliferation. Significant modulation of AbMAPK1 expression under pathogenic stress suggested its putative involvement in the immune defense mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Developmental changes in the adhesive disk during Giardia differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Daniel; Weiland, Malin; McArthur, Andrew G; Winiecka-Krusnell, Jadwiga; Cipriano, Michael J; Birkeland, Shanda R; Pacocha, Sarah E; Davids, Barbara; Gillin, Frances; Linder, Ewert; Svärd, Staffan

    2005-06-01

    Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite infecting the upper mammalian small intestine. Infection relies upon the ability of the parasite to attach to the intestine via a unique cytoskeletal organelle, the ventral disk. We determined the composition and structure of the disk throughout the life cycle of the parasite and identified a new disk protein, SALP-1. SALP-1 is an immunodominant protein related to striated fiber-assemblin (SFA). The disk is disassembled during encystation and stored as four fragments in the immobile cyst. Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) showed that the mRNA levels of the disk proteins decreased in encystation but two-dimensional protein gels showed that the protein levels were more constant. The parasite emerges without a functional disk but the four disk fragments are quickly reassembled into two new disks on the dividing, early excysting form. Thus, disk proteins are stored within the cyst, ready to be used in the rapid steps of excystation.

  9. An ALMA continuum survey of circumstellar disks in the upper Scorpius OB association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, John M.; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We present ALMA 880 μm continuum observations of 20 K- and M-type stars in the Upper Scorpius OB association (Upper Sco) that are surrounded by protoplanetary disks. These data are used to measure the dust content in disks around low-mass stars (0.1-1.6 M {sub ☉}) at a stellar age of 5-11 Myr. Thirteen sources were detected in the 880 μm dust continuum at ≥3σ with inferred dust masses between 0.3 and 52 M {sub ⊕}. The dust masses tend to be higher around the more massive stars, but the significance is marginal in that the probability of no correlation is p ≈ 0.03. The evolution in the dust content in disks was assessed by comparing the Upper Sco observations with published continuum measurements of disks around ∼1-2 Myr stars in the Class II stage in the Taurus molecular cloud. While the dust masses in the Upper Sco disks are on average lower than in Taurus, any difference in the dust mass distributions is significant at less than 3σ. For stellar masses between 0.49 M {sub ☉} and 1.6 M {sub ☉}, the mean dust mass in disks is lower in Upper Sco relative to Taurus by Δlog M {sub dust} = 0.44 ± 0.26.

  10. THE STELLAR SPHEROID, THE DISK, AND THE DYNAMICS OF THE COSMIC WEB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domínguez-Tenreiro, R.; Obreja, A.; Brook, C. B.; Martínez-Serrano, F. J.; Serna, A.; Stinson, G.

    2015-01-01

    Models of the advanced stages of gravitational instability predict that baryons that form the stellar populations of current galaxies at z = 0 displayed a web-like structure at high z, as part of the cosmic web (CW). We explore details of these predictions using cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. When the stellar populations of the spheroid and disk components of simulated late-type galaxies are traced back separately to high zs we found CW-like structures where spheroid progenitors are more evolved than disk progenitors. The distinction between the corresponding stellar populations, as driven by their specific angular momentum content j, can be explained in terms of the CW evolution, extended to two processes occurring at lower z. First, the spheroid progenitors strongly lose j at collapse, which contrasts with the insignificant j loss of the disk progenitors. The second is related to the lack of alignment, at assembly, between the spheroid-to-be material and the already settled proto-disk, in contrast to the alignment of disk-to-be material, in some cases resulting from circumgalactic, disk-induced gravitational torques. The different final outcomes of these low-z processes have their origins in the different initial conditions driven by the CW dynamics

  11. [Disk calcifications in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, P; Fauré, C; Denarnaud, L

    1985-05-01

    It is not unusual for intervertebral disk calcifications to be detected in pediatric practice, the 150 or so cases reported in the literature probably representing only a small proportion of lesions actually diagnosed. Case reports of 33 children with intervertebral disk calcifications were analyzed. In the majority of these patients (31 of 33) a diagnosis of "idiopathic" calcifications had been made, the cervical localization of the lesions being related to repeated ORL infections and/or trauma. A pre-existing pathologic factor was found in two cases (one child with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis treated by corticoids and one child with Williams and Van Beuren's syndrome). An uncomplicated course was noted in 31 cases, the symptomatology (pain, spinal stiffness and febricula) improving after several days. Complications developed in two cases: one child had very disabling dysphagia due to an anteriorly protruding cervical herniated disc and surgery was necessary; the other child developed cervicobrachial neuralgia due to herniated disc protrusion into the cervical spinal canal, but symptoms regressed within several days although calcifications persisted unaltered. These findings and the course of the rare complications documented in the literature suggest the need for the most conservative treatment possible in cases of disc calcifications in children.

  12. Molecular abundances and C/O ratios in chemically evolving planet-forming disk midplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eistrup, Christian; Walsh, Catherine; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Exoplanet atmospheres are thought be built up from accretion of gas as well as pebbles and planetesimals in the midplanes of planet-forming disks. The chemical composition of this material is usually assumed to be unchanged during the disk lifetime. However, chemistry can alter the relative abundances of molecules in this planet-building material. Aims: We aim to assess the impact of disk chemistry during the era of planet formation. This is done by investigating the chemical changes to volatile gases and ices in a protoplanetary disk midplane out to 30 AU for up to 7 Myr, considering a variety of different conditions, including a physical midplane structure that is evolving in time, and also considering two disks with different masses. Methods: An extensive kinetic chemistry gas-grain reaction network was utilised to evolve the abundances of chemical species over time. Two disk midplane ionisation levels (low and high) were explored, as well as two different makeups of the initial abundances ("inheritance" or "reset"). Results: Given a high level of ionisation, chemical evolution in protoplanetary disk midplanes becomes significant after a few times 105 yr, and is still ongoing by 7 Myr between the H2O and the O2 icelines. Inside the H2O iceline, and in the outer, colder regions of the disk midplane outside the O2 iceline, the relative abundances of the species reach (close to) steady state by 7 Myr. Importantly, the changes in the abundances of the major elemental carbon and oxygen-bearing molecules imply that the traditional "stepfunction" for the C/O ratios in gas and ice in the disk midplane (as defined by sharp changes at icelines of H2O, CO2 and CO) evolves over time, and cannot be assumed fixed, with the C/O ratio in the gas even becoming smaller than the C/O ratio in the ice. In addition, at lower temperatures (C/O ratios of exoplanets to where and how the atmospheres have formed in a disk midplane, chemical evolution needs to be considered and

  13. Exploring Disks Around Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    Giant planets are thought to form in circumstellar disks surrounding young stars, but material may also accrete into a smaller disk around the planet. Weve never detected one of these circumplanetary disks before but thanks to new simulations, we now have a better idea of what to look for.Image from previous work simulating a Jupiter-mass planet forming inside a circumstellar disk. The planet has its own circumplanetary disk of accreted material. [Frdric Masset]Elusive DisksIn the formation of giant planets, we think the final phase consists of accretion onto the planet from a disk that surrounds it. This circumplanetary disk is important to understand, since it both regulates the late gas accretion and forms the birthplace of future satellites of the planet.Weve yet to detect a circumplanetary disk thus far, because the resolution needed to spot one has been out of reach. Now, however, were entering an era where the disk and its kinematics may be observable with high-powered telescopes (like the Atacama Large Millimeter Array).To prepare for such observations, we need models that predict the basic characteristics of these disks like the mass, temperature, and kinematic properties. Now a researcher at the ETH Zrich Institute for Astronomy in Switzerland, Judit Szulgyi, has worked toward this goal.Simulating CoolingSzulgyi performs a series of 3D global radiative hydrodynamic simulations of 1, 3, 5, and 10 Jupiter-mass (MJ) giant planets and their surrounding circumplanetary disks, embedded within the larger circumstellar disk around the central star.Density (left column), temperature (center), and normalized angular momentum (right) for a 1 MJ planet over temperatures cooling from 10,000 K (top) to 1,000 K (bottom). At high temperatures, a spherical circumplanetary envelope surrounds the planet, but as the planet cools, the envelope transitions around 64,000 K to a flattened disk. [Szulgyi 2017]This work explores the effects of different planet temperatures and

  14. WIND-DRIVEN ACCRETION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. II. RADIAL DEPENDENCE AND GLOBAL PICTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai Xuening, E-mail: xbai@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Non-ideal magnetohydrodynamical effects play a crucial role in determining the mechanism and efficiency of angular momentum transport as well as the level of turbulence in protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are the key to understanding PPD evolution and planet formation. It was shown in our previous work that at 1 AU, the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is completely suppressed when both ohmic resistivity and ambipolar diffusion (AD) are taken into account, resulting in a laminar flow with accretion driven by magnetocentrifugal wind. In this work, we study the radial dependence of the laminar wind solution using local shearing-box simulations. The scaling relation on the angular momentum transport for the laminar wind is obtained, and we find that the wind-driven accretion rate can be approximated as M-dot approx. 0.91 x 10{sup -8}R{sub AU}{sup 1.21}(B{sub p}/10 mG){sup 0.93} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, where B{sub p} is the strength of the large-scale poloidal magnetic field threading the disk. The result is independent of disk surface density. Four criteria are outlined for the existence of the laminar wind solution: (1) ohmic resistivity dominated the midplane region, (2) the AD-dominated disk upper layer, (3) the presence of a (not too weak) net vertical magnetic flux, and (4) sufficiently well-ionized gas beyond the disk surface. All these criteria are likely to be met in the inner region of the disk from {approx}0.3 AU to about 5-10 AU for typical PPD accretion rates. Beyond this radius, the angular momentum transport is likely to proceed due to a combination of the MRI and disk wind, and eventually completely dominated by the MRI (in the presence of strong AD) in the outer disk. Our simulation results provide key ingredients for a new paradigm on the accretion processes in PPDs.

  15. Evolution of System Safety at NASA as Related to Defense-in-Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon

    2015-01-01

    Presentation given at the Defense-in-Depth Inter-Agency Workshop on August 26, 2015 in Rockville, MD by Homayoon Dezfuli. The presentation addresses the evolution of system safety at NASA as related to Defense-in-Depth.

  16. Dust coagulation in protoplanetary disks : porosity matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, C. W.; Spaans, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    Context. Sticking of colliding dust particles through van der Waals forces is the first stage in the grain growth process in protoplanetary disks, eventually leading to the formation of comets, asteroids and planets. A key aspect of the collisional evolution is the coupling between dust and gas

  17. The evolution of immunity in relation to colonization and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Emily A; Cornwallis, Charlie K; Hasselquist, Dennis; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Westerdahl, Helena

    2018-05-01

    Colonization and migration have a crucial effect on patterns of biodiversity, with disease predicted to play an important role in these processes. However, evidence of the effect of pathogens on broad patterns of colonization and migration is limited. Here, using phylogenetic analyses of 1,311 species of Afro-Palaearctic songbirds, we show that colonization events from regions of high (sub-Saharan Africa) to low (the Palaearctic) pathogen diversity were up to 20 times more frequent than the reverse, and that migration has evolved 3 times more frequently from African- as opposed to Palaearctic-resident species. We also found that resident species that colonized the Palaearctic from Africa, as well as African species that evolved long-distance migration to breed in the Palaearctic, have reduced diversity of key immune genes associated with pathogen recognition (major histocompatibility complex class I). These results suggest that changes in the pathogen community that occur during colonization and migration shape the evolution of the immune system, potentially by adjusting the trade-off between the benefits of extensive pathogen recognition and the costs of immunopathology that result from high major histocompatibility complex class I diversity.

  18. Age-Related Evolution Patterns in Online Handwriting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing age from handwriting (HW) has important applications, as it is key to distinguishing normal HW evolution with age from abnormal HW change, potentially triggered by neurodegenerative decline. We propose, in this work, an original approach for online HW style characterization based on a two-level clustering scheme. The first level generates writer-independent word clusters from raw spatial-dynamic HW information. At the second level, each writer's words are converted into a Bag of Prototype Words that is augmented by an interword stability measure. This two-level HW style representation is input to an unsupervised learning technique, aiming at uncovering HW style categories and their correlation with age. To assess the effectiveness of our approach, we propose information theoretic measures to quantify the gain on age information from each clustering layer. We have carried out extensive experiments on a large public online HW database, augmented by HW samples acquired at Broca Hospital in Paris from people mostly between 60 and 85 years old. Unlike previous works claiming that there is only one pattern of HW change with age, our study reveals three major aging HW styles, one specific to aged people and the two others shared by other age groups. PMID:27752277

  19. Galactoseismology: From The Milky Way To XUV Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Sukanya

    The variety of discrepancies between observations and simulations on galactic scales, from the anisotropic distribution of dwarf galaxies to the "too big to fail" problem (where massive satellites in simulations are too dense relative to observations), suggests that we may not yet fully understand galaxy formation. If these satellites exist, they would leave traces of their passage in extended HI disks. Extended HI disks of galaxies reach to several times the optical radius, presenting the largest possible cross-section for interaction with sub-halos at large distances (where theoretical models expect them to be). We will provide definitive constraints on the distribution of dark matter in spiral galaxies by building on our ongoing work in characterizing galactic satellites from analysis of disturbances in extended HI disks with respect to hydrodynamical simulations. Spiral galaxies in the Local Volume (from the Milky Way to the XUV disks discovered by GALEX) exhibit a wealth of unexplained morphology, but these morphological signatures have not yet been used to place constraints on the evolution of HI disks and the dark matter distribution. We are now poised to make significant progress in Galactoseismology, i.e. connect morphological disturbances with the mass distribution. By using the FIRE model for explicit star formation and feedback, we will also develop a better understanding for the star formation history of our Galaxy and XUV Disks. Our Milky Way models will be informed by the HST proper motions, and will match the observed planar disturbances, the warp, and vertical waves recently discovered by the RAVE and LAMOST surveys. We are also carrying high resolution simulations with the Gizmo code that incorporates the FIRE model to develop a comprehensive understanding of the star formation history and star formation rate (that matches Spitzer observations) of the Milky Way. These models will provide a much needed interpretative framework for JWST and WFIRST

  20. Numerical and experimental analysis of a thin liquid film on a rotating disk related to development of a spacecraft absorption cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghri, Amir; Swanson, Theodore D.

    1989-01-01

    The numerical and experimental analysis of a thin liquid film on a rotating and a stationary disk related to the development of an absorber unit for a high capacity spacecraft absorption cooling system, is described. The creation of artificial gravity by the use of a centrifugal field was focused upon in this report. Areas covered include: (1) One-dimensional computation of thin liquid film flows; (2) Experimental measurement of film height and visualization of flow; (3) Two-dimensional computation of the free surface flow of a thin liquid film using a pressure optimization method; (4) Computation of heat transfer in two-dimensional thin film flow; (5) Development of a new computational methodology for the free surface flows using a permeable wall; (6) Analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in a thin film in the presence and absence of gravity; and (7) Comparison of theoretical prediction and experimental data. The basic phenomena related to fluid flow and heat transfer on rotating systems reported here can also be applied to other areas of space systems.

  1. Building an application for computing the resource requests such as disk, CPU, and tape and studying the time evolution of computing model

    CERN Document Server

    Noormandipour, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this project was building an application to calculate the computing resources needed by the LHCb experiment for data processing and analysis, and to predict their evolution in future years. The source code was developed in the Python programming language and the application built and developed in CERN GitLab. This application will facilitate the calculation of resources required by LHCb in both qualitative and quantitative aspects. The granularity of computations is improved to a weekly basis, in contrast with the yearly basis used so far. The LHCb computing model will benefit from the new possibilities and options added, as the new predictions and calculations are aimed at giving more realistic and accurate estimates.

  2. Evolution and Personal Religious Belief: Christian University Biology-Related Majors' Search for Reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Mark W.; Staver, John R.; Scharmann, Lawrence C.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore Christian biology-related majors' perceptions of conflicts between evolution and their religious beliefs. This naturalistic study utilized a case study design of 15 undergraduate biology-related majors at or recent biology-related graduates from a mid-western Christian university. The broad sources of data…

  3. Recent US target-physics-related research in heavy-ion inertial fusion: simulations for tamped targets and for disk experiments in accelerator test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, J.W.K.

    1982-01-01

    Within the last few years, there have also appeared in the Heavy-Ion Fusion literature several studies of targets which have outer tampers. One-dimensional simulations indicate higher target gains with a judicious amount of tamping. But for these targets, a full investigation has not been carried through in regards to conservative criteria for fluid instabilities as well as reasonable imperfections in target fabrication and illumination symmetry which all affect target ignition and burn. Comparisons of these results with the gain survey of Part I would have to be performed with care. These calculations suggest that experiments relating to high temperature disk heating, as well as beam deposition, focusing and transport can be performed within the context of current design proposals for accelerator test-facilities. Since the test-facilities have lower ion kinetic energy and beam pulse power as compared to reactor drivers, we achieve high-beam intensities at the focal spot by using short focal distance and properly designed beam optics

  4. RADIALLY MAGNETIZED PROTOPLANETARY DISK: VERTICAL PROFILE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Matthew; Thompson, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the response of a thin accretion disk to an external radial magnetic field. Our focus is on protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are exposed during their later evolution to an intense, magnetized wind from the central star. A radial magnetic field is mixed into a thin surface layer, wound up by the disk shear, and pushed downward by a combination of turbulent mixing and ambipolar and ohmic drift. The toroidal field reaches much greater strengths than the seed vertical field that is usually invoked in PPD models, even becoming superthermal. Linear stability analysis indicates that the disk experiences the magnetorotational instability (MRI) at a higher magnetization than a vertically magnetized disk when both the effects of ambipolar and Hall drift are taken into account. Steady vertical profiles of density and magnetic field are obtained at several radii between 0.06 and 1 AU in response to a wind magnetic field B r ∼ (10 −4 –10 −2 )(r/ AU) −2 G. Careful attention is given to the radial and vertical ionization structure resulting from irradiation by stellar X-rays. The disk is more strongly magnetized closer to the star, where it can support a higher rate of mass transfer. As a result, the inner ∼1 AU of a PPD is found to evolve toward lower surface density. Mass transfer rates around 10 −8 M ⊙ yr −1 are obtained under conservative assumptions about the MRI-generated stress. The evolution of the disk and the implications for planet migration are investigated in the accompanying paper

  5. RADIALLY MAGNETIZED PROTOPLANETARY DISK: VERTICAL PROFILE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Matthew [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 1A7 (Canada); Thompson, Christopher [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2015-11-10

    This paper studies the response of a thin accretion disk to an external radial magnetic field. Our focus is on protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are exposed during their later evolution to an intense, magnetized wind from the central star. A radial magnetic field is mixed into a thin surface layer, wound up by the disk shear, and pushed downward by a combination of turbulent mixing and ambipolar and ohmic drift. The toroidal field reaches much greater strengths than the seed vertical field that is usually invoked in PPD models, even becoming superthermal. Linear stability analysis indicates that the disk experiences the magnetorotational instability (MRI) at a higher magnetization than a vertically magnetized disk when both the effects of ambipolar and Hall drift are taken into account. Steady vertical profiles of density and magnetic field are obtained at several radii between 0.06 and 1 AU in response to a wind magnetic field B{sub r} ∼ (10{sup −4}–10{sup −2})(r/ AU){sup −2} G. Careful attention is given to the radial and vertical ionization structure resulting from irradiation by stellar X-rays. The disk is more strongly magnetized closer to the star, where it can support a higher rate of mass transfer. As a result, the inner ∼1 AU of a PPD is found to evolve toward lower surface density. Mass transfer rates around 10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} are obtained under conservative assumptions about the MRI-generated stress. The evolution of the disk and the implications for planet migration are investigated in the accompanying paper.

  6. Accretion Disks Around Binary Black Holes of Unequal Mass: GRMHD Simulations Near Decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Roman; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Pfeiffer, Harald, P.

    2013-01-01

    We report on simulations in general relativity of magnetized disks onto black hole binaries. We vary the binary mass ratio from 1:1 to 1:10 and evolve the systems when they orbit near the binary disk decoupling radius. We compare (surface) density profiles, accretion rates (relative to a single, non-spinning black hole), variability, effective alpha-stress levels and luminosities as functions of the mass ratio. We treat the disks in two limiting regimes: rapid radiative cooling and no radiative cooling. The magnetic field lines clearly reveal jets emerging from both black hole horizons and merging into one common jet at large distances. The magnetic fields give rise to much stronger shock heating than the pure hydrodynamic flows, completely alter the disk structure, and boost accretion rates and luminosities. Accretion streams near the horizons are among the densest structures; in fact, the 1:10 no-cooling evolution results in a refilling of the cavity. The typical effective temperature in the bulk of the disk is approx. 10(exp5) (M / 10(exp 8)M solar mass (exp -1/4(L/L(sub edd) (exp 1/4K) yielding characteristic thermal frequencies approx. 10 (exp 15) (M /10(exp 8)M solar mass) (exp -1/4(L/L (sub edd) (1+z) (exp -1)Hz. These systems are thus promising targets for many extragalactic optical surveys, such as LSST, WFIRST, and PanSTARRS.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamics of accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torkelsson, U.

    1994-04-01

    The thesis consists of an introduction and summary, and five research papers. The introduction and summary provides the background in accretion disk physics and magnetohydrodynamics. The research papers describe numerical studies of magnetohydrodynamical processes in accretion disks. Paper 1 is a one-dimensional study of the effect of magnetic buoyancy on a flux tube in an accretion disk. The stabilizing influence of an accretion disk corona on the flux tube is demonstrated. Paper 2-4 present numerical simulations of mean-field dynamos in accretion disks. Paper 11 verifies the correctness of the numerical code by comparing linear models to previous work by other groups. The results are also extended to somewhat modified disk models. A transition from an oscillatory mode of negative parity for thick disks to a steady mode of even parity for thin disks is found. Preliminary results for nonlinear dynamos at very high dynamo numbers are also presented. Paper 3 describes the bifurcation behaviour of the nonlinear dynamos. For positive dynamo numbers it is found that the initial steady solution is replaced by an oscillatory solution of odd parity. For negative dynamo numbers the solution becomes chaotic at sufficiently high dynamo numbers. Paper 4 continues the studies of nonlinear dynamos, and it is demonstrated that a chaotic solution appears even for positive dynamo numbers, but that it returns to a steady solution of mixed parity at very high dynamo numbers. Paper 5 describes a first attempt at simulating the small-scale turbulence of an accretion disk in three dimensions. There is only find cases of decaying turbulence, but this is rather due to limitations of the simulations than that turbulence is really absent in accretion disks

  8. A DWARF TRANSITIONAL PROTOPLANETARY DISK AROUND XZ TAU B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, Mayra; Macías, Enrique; Anglada, Guillem; Gómez, José F. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Carrasco-González, Carlos; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Zapata, Luis; Rodríguez, Luis F. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica UNAM, Apartado Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 825 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Nagel, Erick [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Gto 36240 (Mexico); Torrelles, José M. [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC)-Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (UB)/IEEC, Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Zhu, Zhaohuan, E-mail: osorio@iaa.es [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    We report the discovery of a dwarf protoplanetary disk around the star XZ Tau B that shows all the features of a classical transitional disk but on a much smaller scale. The disk has been imaged with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), revealing that its dust emission has a quite small radius of ∼3.4 au and presents a central cavity of ∼1.3 au in radius that we attribute to clearing by a compact system of orbiting (proto)planets. Given the very small radii involved, evolution is expected to be much faster in this disk (observable changes in a few months) than in classical disks (observable changes requiring decades) and easy to monitor with observations in the near future. From our modeling we estimate that the mass of the disk is large enough to form a compact planetary system.

  9. RED FRACTION AMONG SATELLITE GALAXIES WITH DISK-LIKE LIGHT PROFILES: EVIDENCE FOR INFLOW IN THE H I DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hester, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between color, characterized with respect to the g - r red sequence; stellar structure, as determined using the i-band Sersic index; and group membership are explored using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The new results place novel constraints on theories of galaxy evolution, despite the strong correlation between color and stellar structure. Observed correlations are of three independent types-those based on stellar structure, on the color of disk-like galaxies, and on the color of elliptical galaxies. Of particular note, the fraction of galaxies residing on the red sequence measured among galaxies with disk-like light profiles is enhanced for satellite galaxies compared to central galaxies. This fraction increases with group mass. When these new results are considered, theoretical treatments of galaxy evolution that adopt a gas accretion model centered on the hot galactic halo cannot consistently account for all observations of disk galaxies. The hypothesis is advanced that inflow within the extended H I disk prolongs star formation in satellite galaxies. When combined with partial ram pressure stripping (RPS) of this disk, this new scenario is consistent with the observations. This is demonstrated by applying an analytical model of RPS of the extended H I disk to the SDSS groups. These results motivate incorporating more complex modes of gas accretion into models of galaxy evolution, including cold mode accretion, an improved treatment of gas dynamics within disks, and disk stripping.

  10. STAR FORMATION IN DISK GALAXIES. II. THE EFFECT OF STAR FORMATION AND PHOTOELECTRIC HEATING ON THE FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasker, Elizabeth J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of star formation and diffuse photoelectric heating on the properties of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) formed in high-resolution (∼ H,c >100 cm -3 are identified as GMCs. Between 1000 and 1500 clouds are created in the simulations with masses M>10 5 M sun and 180-240 with masses M>10 6 M sun in agreement with estimates of the Milky Way's population. We find that the effect of photoelectric heating is to suppress the fragmentation of the interstellar medium, resulting in a filamentary structure in the warm gas surrounding clouds. This environment suppresses the formation of a retrograde rotating cloud population, with 88% of the clouds rotating prograde with respect to the galaxy after 300 Myr. The diffuse heating also reduces the initial star formation rate (SFR), slowing the conversation of gas into stars. We therefore conclude that the interstellar environment plays an important role in the GMC evolution. Our clouds live between 0 and 20 Myr with a high infant mortality (t' < 3 Myr) due to cloud mergers and star formation. Other properties, including distributions of mass, size, and surface density, agree well with observations. Collisions between our clouds are common, occurring at a rate of ∼ 1/4 of the orbital period. It is not clear whether such collisions trigger or suppress star formation at our current resolution. Our SFR is a factor of 10 higher than observations in local galaxies. This is likely due to the absence of localized feedback in our models.

  11. THE DARK DISK OF THE MILKY WAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, Chris W.; Bullock, James S.; Kaplinghat, Manoj

    2009-01-01

    Massive satellite accretions onto early galactic disks can lead to the deposition of dark matter in disk-like configurations that co-rotate with the galaxy. This phenomenon has potentially dramatic consequences for dark matter detection experiments. We utilize focused, high-resolution simulations of accretion events onto disks designed to be Galaxy analogues, and compare the resultant disks to the morphological and kinematic properties of the Milky Way's thick disk in order to bracket the range of co-rotating accreted dark matter. In agreement with previous results, we find that the Milky Way's merger history must have been unusually quiescent compared to median Λ cold dark matter expectations and, therefore, its dark disk must be relatively small: the fraction of accreted dark disk material near the Sun is about 20% of the host halo density or smaller and the co-rotating dark matter fraction near the Sun, defined as particles moving with a rotational velocity lag less than 50 km s -1 , is enhanced by about 30% or less compared to a standard halo model. Such a dark disk could contribute dominantly to the low energy (of order keV for a dark matter particle with mass 100 GeV) nuclear recoil event rate of direct detection experiments, but it will not change the likelihood of detection significantly. These dark disks provide testable predictions of weakly interacting massive particle dark matter models and should be considered in detailed comparisons to experimental data. Our findings suggest that the dark disk of the Milky Way may provide a detectable signal for indirect detection experiments, contributing up to about 25% of the dark matter self-annihilation signal in the direction of the center of the Galaxy, lending the signal a noticeably oblate morphology.

  12. KINEMATIC CLASSIFICATIONS OF LOCAL INTERACTING GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE MERGER/DISK CLASSIFICATIONS AT HIGH-z

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Chao-Ling; Larson, Kirsten L.; Sanders, D. B.; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Yuan, Tiantian; Kewley, Lisa J.; Casey, Caitlin M.; Smith, Howard A.; Hayward, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    The classification of galaxy mergers and isolated disks is key for understanding the relative importance of galaxy interactions and secular evolution during the assembly of galaxies. Galaxy kinematics as traced by emission lines have been used to suggest the existence of a significant population of high-z star-forming galaxies consistent with isolated rotating disks. However, recent studies have cautioned that post-coalescence mergers may also display disk-like kinematics. To further investigate the robustness of merger/disk classifications based on kinematic properties, we carry out a systematic classification of 24 local (U)LIRGs spanning a range of morphologies: from isolated spiral galaxies, ongoing interacting systems, to fully merged remnants. We artificially redshift the Wide Field Spectrograph observations of these local (U)LIRGs to z = 1.5 to make a realistic comparison with observations at high-z, and also to ensure that all galaxies have the same spatial sampling of ∼900 pc. Using both kinemetry-based and visual classifications, we find that the reliability of kinematic classification shows a strong trend with the interaction stage of galaxies. Mergers with two nuclei and tidal tails have the most distinct kinematics compared to isolated disks, whereas a significant population of the interacting disks and merger remnants are indistinguishable from isolated disks. The high fraction of mergers displaying disk-like kinematics reflects the complexity of the dynamics during galaxy interactions. Additional merger indicators such as morphological properties traced by stars or molecular gas are required to further constrain the merger/disk classifications at high-z

  13. Imprint of accretion disk-induced migration on gravitational waves from extreme mass ratio inspirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunes, Nicolás; Kocsis, Bence; Loeb, Abraham; Haiman, Zoltán

    2011-10-21

    We study the effects of a thin gaseous accretion disk on the inspiral of a stellar-mass black hole into a supermassive black hole. We construct a phenomenological angular momentum transport equation that reproduces known disk effects. Disk torques modify the gravitational wave phase evolution to detectable levels with LISA for reasonable disk parameters. The Fourier transform of disk-modified waveforms acquires a correction with a different frequency trend than post-Newtonian vacuum terms. Such inspirals could be used to detect accretion disks with LISA and to probe their physical parameters. © 2011 American Physical Society

  14. THE MASS-INDEPENDENCE OF SPECIFIC STAR FORMATION RATES IN GALACTIC DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramson, Louis E.; Gladders, Michael D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Kelson, Daniel D.; Dressler, Alan; Oemler, Augustus Jr. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Poggianti, Bianca [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Vulcani, Benedetta, E-mail: labramson@uchicago.edu [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan)

    2014-04-20

    The slope of the star formation rate/stellar mass relation (the SFR {sup M}ain Sequence{sup ;} SFR-M {sub *}) is not quite unity: specific star formation rates (SFR/M {sub *}) are weakly but significantly anti-correlated with M {sub *}. Here we demonstrate that this trend may simply reflect the well-known increase in bulge mass-fractions—portions of a galaxy not forming stars—with M {sub *}. Using a large set of bulge/disk decompositions and SFR estimates derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we show that re-normalizing SFR by disk stellar mass (sSFR{sub disk} ≡ SFR/M {sub *,} {sub disk}) reduces the M {sub *} dependence of SF efficiency by ∼0.25 dex per dex, erasing it entirely in some subsamples. Quantitatively, we find log sSFR{sub disk}-log M {sub *} to have a slope β{sub disk} in [ – 0.20, 0.00] ± 0.02 (depending on the SFR estimator and Main Sequence definition) for star-forming galaxies with M {sub *} ≥ 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} and bulge mass-fractions B/T ≲ 0.6, generally consistent with a pure-disk control sample (β{sub control} = –0.05 ± 0.04). That (SFR/M {sub *,} {sub disk}) is (largely) independent of host mass for star-forming disks has strong implications for aspects of galaxy evolution inferred from any SFR-M {sub *} relation, including manifestations of ''mass quenching'' (bulge growth), factors shaping the star-forming stellar mass function (uniform dlog M {sub *}/dt for low-mass, disk-dominated galaxies), and diversity in star formation histories (dispersion in SFR(M {sub *}, t)). Our results emphasize the need to treat galaxies as composite systems—not integrated masses—in observational and theoretical work.

  15. SECOND-GENERATION STELLAR DISKS IN DENSE STAR CLUSTERS AND CLUSTER ELLIPTICITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrobuono-Battisti, Alessandra; Perets, Hagai B.

    2016-01-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) and nuclear star clusters (NSCs) are typically composed of several stellar populations, characterized by different chemical compositions. Different populations show different ages in NSCs, but not necessarily in GCs. The youngest populations in NSCs appear to reside in disk-like structures as observed in our Galaxy and in M31. Gas infall followed by formation of second-generation (SG) stars in GCs may similarly form disk-like structures in the clusters nuclei. Here we explore this possibility and follow the long-term evolution of stellar disks embedded in GCs, and study their effects on the evolution of the clusters. We study disks with different masses by means of detailed N-body simulations and explore their morphological and kinematic signatures on the GC structures. We find that as a SG disk relaxes, the old, first-generation stellar population flattens and becomes more radially anisotropic, making the GC structure become more elliptical. The SG stellar population is characterized by a lower velocity dispersion and a higher rotational velocity compared with the primordial older population. The strength of these kinematic signatures depends both on the relaxation time of the system and on the fractional mass of the SG disk. We therefore conclude that SG populations formed in flattened configurations will give rise to two systematic trends: (1) a positive correlation between GC ellipticity and fraction of SG population and (2) a positive correlation between GC relaxation time and ellipticity. Therefore, GC ellipticities and rotation could be related to the formation of SG stars and their initial configuration.

  16. VLA Observations of the Disk around the Young Brown Dwarf 2MASS J044427+2512

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Rome, H. [The Kinkaid School, 201 Kinkaid School Drive, Houston, TX 77024 (United States); Pinilla, P. [Department of Astronomy Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Facchini, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Birnstiel, T. [University Observatory, Faculty of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany); Testi, L., E-mail: luca.ricci@rice.edu [European Southern Observatory (ESO) Headquarters, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-09-01

    We present multi-wavelength radio observations obtained with the VLA of the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young brown dwarf 2MASS J04442713+2512164 (2M0444) in the Taurus star-forming region. 2M0444 is the brightest known brown dwarf disk at millimeter wavelengths, making this an ideal target to probe radio emission from a young brown dwarf. Thermal emission from dust in the disk is detected at 6.8 and 9.1 mm, whereas the 1.36 cm measured flux is dominated by ionized gas emission. We combine these data with previous observations at shorter sub-mm and mm wavelengths to test the predictions of dust evolution models in gas-rich disks after adapting their parameters to the case of 2M0444. These models show that the radial drift mechanism affecting solids in a gaseous environment has to be either completely made inefficient, or significantly slowed down by very strong gas pressure bumps in order to explain the presence of mm/cm-sized grains in the outer regions of the 2M0444 disk. We also discuss the possible mechanisms for the origin of the ionized gas emission detected at 1.36 cm. The inferred radio luminosity for this emission is in line with the relation between radio and bolometric luminosity valid for for more massive and luminous young stellar objects, and extrapolated down to the very low luminosity of the 2M0444 brown dwarf.

  17. Heating the Primordial Soup: X-raying the Circumstellar Disk of T Cha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principe, David; Huenemoerder, D.; Kastner, J. H.; Bessell, M. S.; Sacco, G.

    2014-01-01

    The classical T Tauri Star (cTTS) T Chamaeleontis (T Cha) presents a unique opportunity to probe pre-main sequence star-disk interactions and late-stage circumstellar disk evolution. T Cha is the only known example of a nearly edge-on, actively accreting star/disk system within ~110 pc, and furthermore may be orbited by a low-mass companion or massive planet that has cleared an inner hole in its disk. The star is characterized by strong variability in the optical 3 magnitudes in the V band) as well as large and variable extinction (AV in the range of 1-5). Like most cTTS, T Cha is also a luminous X-ray source. We present preliminary results of two observations (totaling 150 ks) of T Cha with Chandra’s HETGS. Our motivations are to (a) determine the intrinsic X-ray spectrum of T Cha, so as to establish whether its X-ray emission can be attributed to accretion shocks, coronal emission, or a combination; (b) investigate whether its X-ray flux exhibits modulation that may be related to the stellar rotational period 3.3 days); and (c) take advantage of the nearly-edge-on disk viewing geometry to model the spectrum of X-rays absorbed by the gaseous disk orbiting T Cha. These results will serve as much-needed input to models of magnetospheric accretion and irradiated, planet-forming disks. This research is supported via award number GO3-14022X to RIT issued by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of NASA under contract NAS803060. Additional support is provided by National Science Foundation grant AST-1108950 to RIT.

  18. Predicting lake trophic state by relating Secchi-disk transparency measurements to Landsat-satellite imagery for Michigan inland lakes, 2003-05 and 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, L.M.; Jodoin, R.S.; Minnerick, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Inland lakes are an important economic and environmental resource for Michigan. The U.S. Geological Survey and the Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment have been cooperatively monitoring the quality of selected lakes in Michigan through the Lake Water Quality Assessment program. Sampling for this program began in 2001; by 2010, 730 of Michigan’s 11,000 inland lakes are expected to have been sampled once. Volunteers coordinated by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment began sampling lakes in 1974 and continue to sample (in 2010) approximately 250 inland lakes each year through the Michigan Cooperative Lakes Monitoring Program. Despite these sampling efforts, it still is impossible to physically collect measurements for all Michigan inland lakes; however, Landsat-satellite imagery has been used successfully in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and elsewhere to predict the trophic state of unsampled inland lakes greater than 20 acres by producing regression equations relating in-place Secchi-disk measurements to Landsat bands. This study tested three alternatives to methods previously used in Michigan to improve results for predicted statewide Trophic State Index (TSI) computed from Secchi-disk transparency (TSI (SDT)). The alternative methods were used on 14 Landsat-satellite scenes with statewide TSI (SDT) for two time periods (2003– 05 and 2007–08). Specifically, the methods were (1) satellitedata processing techniques to remove areas affected by clouds, cloud shadows, haze, shoreline, and dense vegetation for inland lakes greater than 20 acres in Michigan; (2) comparison of the previous method for producing a single open-water predicted TSI (SDT) value (which was based on an area of interest (AOI) and lake-average approach) to an alternative Gethist method for identifying open-water areas in inland lakes (which follows the initial satellite-data processing and targets the darkest pixels, representing the deepest water

  19. RINGED SUBSTRUCTURE AND A GAP AT 1 au IN THE NEAREST PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.; Bai, Xue-Ning; Öberg, Karin I.; Ricci, Luca [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Zhu, Zhaohuan [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Birnstiel, Tilman [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Carpenter, John M. [Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO), Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura-Santiago de Chile (Chile); Pérez, Laura M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Hughes, A. Meredith [Department of Astronomy, Wesleyan University, Van Vleck Observatory, 96 Foss Hill Drive, Middletown, CT 06457 (United States); Isella, Andrea, E-mail: sandrews@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We present long baseline Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the 870 μm continuum emission from the nearest gas-rich protoplanetary disk, around TW Hya, that trace millimeter-sized particles down to spatial scales as small as 1 au (20 mas). These data reveal a series of concentric ring-shaped substructures in the form of bright zones and narrow dark annuli (1–6 au) with modest contrasts (5%–30%). We associate these features with concentrations of solids that have had their inward radial drift slowed or stopped, presumably at local gas pressure maxima. No significant non-axisymmetric structures are detected. Some of the observed features occur near temperatures that may be associated with the condensation fronts of major volatile species, but the relatively small brightness contrasts may also be a consequence of magnetized disk evolution (the so-called zonal flows). Other features, particularly a narrow dark annulus located only 1 au from the star, could indicate interactions between the disk and young planets. These data signal that ordered substructures on ∼au scales can be common, fundamental factors in disk evolution and that high-resolution microwave imaging can help characterize them during the epoch of planet formation.

  20. Probing Protoplanetary Disks: From Birth to Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Erin Guilfoil

    2018-01-01

    Disks are very important in the evolution of protostars and their subsequent planets. How early disks can form has implications for early planet formation. In the youngest protostars (i.e., Class 0 sources) magnetic fields can control disk growth. When the field is parallel to the collapsing core’s rotation axis, infalling material loses angular momentum and disks form in later stages. Sub-/millimeter polarization continuum observations of Class 0 sources at ~1000 au resolution support this idea. However, in the inner (~100 au), denser regions, it is unknown if the polarization only traces aligned dust grains. Recent theoretical studies have shown that self-scattering of thermal emission in the disk may contribute significantly to the polarization. Determining the scattering contribution in these sources is important to disentangle the magnetic field. At older times (the Class II phase), the disk structure can both act as a modulator and signpost of planet formation, if there is enough of a mass reservoir. In my dissertation talk, I will present results that bear on disk evolution at both young and late ages. I will present 8 mm polarization results of two Class 0 protostars (IRAS 4A and IC348 MMS) from the VLA at ~50 au resolution. The inferred magnetic field of IRAS 4A has a circular morphology, reminiscent of material being dragged into a rotating structure. I will show results from SOFIA polarization data of the area surrounding IRAS 4A at ~4000 au. I will also present ALMA 850 micron polarization data of ten protostars in the Perseus Molecular Cloud. Most of these sources show very ordered patterns and low (~0.5%) polarization in their inner regions, while having very disordered patterns and high polarization patterns in their extended emission that may suggest different mechanisms in the inner/outer regions. Finally, I will present results from our ALMA dust continuum survey of protoplanetary disks in Rho Ophiuchus; we measured both the sizes and fluxes of

  1. Disk Defect Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — How Data Was Acquired: The data presented is from a physical simulator that simulated engine disks. Sample Rates and Parameter Description: All parameters are...

  2. From Disks to Planets: The Making of Planets and Their Early Atmospheres. An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammer, Helmut; Blanc, Michel

    2018-03-01

    protoatmospheres not only grow, but they also migrate radially as a result of their interaction with the disk, thus moving progressively from their distance of formation to their final location. The formation of planetary fluid envelopes (proto-atmospheres and oceans), is an essential product of this planet formation scenario which strongly constrains their possible evolution towards habitability. We discuss the effects of the initial conditions in the disk, of the location, size and mass of the planetary core, of the disk lifetime and of the radiation output and activity of the central star, on the formation of these envelopes and on their relative extensions with respect to the planet core. Overall, a fraction of the planets retain the primary proto-atmosphere they initially accreted from the gas disk. For those which lose it in this early evolution, outgassing of volatiles from the planetary core and mantle, together with some contributions of volatiles from colliding bodies, give them a chance to form a "secondary" atmosphere, like that of our own Earth. When the disk finally dissipates, usually before 10 Million years of age, it leaves us with the combination of a planetary system and a debris disk, each with a specific radial distribution with respect to their parent star(s). Whereas the dynamics of protoplanetary disks is dominated by gas-solid dynamical coupling, debris disks are dominated by gravitational dynamics acting on diverse families of planetesimals. Solid-body collisions between them and giant impacts on young planetary surfaces generate a new population of gas and dust in those disks. Synergies between solar system and exoplanet studies are particularly fruitful and need to be stimulated even more, because they give access to different and complementary components of debris disks: whereas the different families of planetesimals can be extensively studied in the solar system, they remain unobserved in exoplanet systems. But, in those systems, long

  3. Verbatim Floppy Disk

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    Introduced under the name "Verbatim", Latin for "literally", these disks that sized more than 5¼ inches have become almost universal on dedicated word processing systems and personal computers. This format was replaced more slowly by the 3½-inch format, introduced for the first time in 1982. Compared to today, these large format disks stored very little data. In reality, they could only contain a few pages of text.

  4. Accretion timescales and style of asteroidal differentiation in an 26Al-poor protoplanetary disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kirsten Kolbjørn; Schiller, Martin; Bizzarro, Martin

    2016-01-01

    , intrinsically linked to the thermal evolution of early-formed planetesimals. In this paper, we explore the timing and style of asteroidal differentiation by combining high-precision Mg isotope measurements of meteorites with thermal evolution models for planetesimals. In detail, we report Mg isotope data...... the source rock. We propose that their parent planetesimals started forming within ~250,000years of solar system formation from a hot (>~500K) inner protoplanetary disk region characterized by a reduced initial (26Al/27Al)0 abundance (~1-2×10-5) relative to the (26Al/27Al)0 value in CAIs of 5...

  5. Disk partition function and oscillatory rolling tachyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokela, Niko; Jaervinen, Matti; Keski-Vakkuri, Esko; Majumder, Jaydeep

    2008-01-01

    An exact cubic open string field theory rolling tachyon solution was recently found by Kiermaier et al and Schnabl. This oscillatory solution has been argued to be related by a field redefinition to the simple exponential rolling tachyon deformation of boundary conformal theory. In the latter approach, the disk partition function takes a simple form. Out of curiosity, we compute the disk partition function for an oscillatory tachyon profile, and find that the result is nevertheless almost the same

  6. Mass distributions in disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinsson, Thomas; Verheijen, Marc; Bershady, Matthew; Westfall, Kyle; Andersen, David; Swaters, Rob

    We present results on luminous and dark matter mass distributions in disk galaxies from the DiskMass Survey. As expected for normal disk galaxies, stars dominate the baryonic mass budget in the inner region of the disk; however, at about four optical scale lengths (hR ) the atomic gas starts to

  7. Hydraulic jumps in ''viscous'' accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    We propose that the dissipative process necessary for rapid accretion disk evolution is driven by hydraulic jump waves on the surface of the disk. These waves are excited by the asymmetric nature of the central rotator (e.g., neutron star magnetosphere) and spiral out into the disk to form a pattern corotating with the central object. Disk matter in turn is slowed slightly at each encounter with the jump and spirals inward. In this process, the disk is heated by true turbulence produced in the jumps. Additional effects, such as a systematic misalignment of the magnetic moment of the neutron star until it is nearly orthogonal, and systematic distortion of the magnetosphere in such a way as to form an even more asymmetric central ''paddle wheel'' may enhance the interaction with inflowing matter. The application to X-ray sources corresponds to the ''slow'' solutions of Ghosh and Lamb, and therefore to rms magnetic fields of about 4 x 10 10 gauss. Analogous phenomena have been proposed to act in the formation of galactic spiral structure

  8. IONIZATION AND DUST CHARGING IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivlev, A. V.; Caselli, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Akimkin, V. V., E-mail: ivlev@mpe.mpg.de [Institute of Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyatnitskaya Street 48, 119017 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-10

    Ionization–recombination balance in dense interstellar and circumstellar environments is a key factor for a variety of important physical processes, such as chemical reactions, dust charging and coagulation, coupling of the gas with magnetic field, and development of instabilities in protoplanetary disks. We determine a critical gas density above which the recombination of electrons and ions on the grain surface dominates over the gas-phase recombination. For this regime, we present a self-consistent analytical model, which allows us to calculate exactly the abundances of charged species in dusty gas, without making assumptions on the grain charge distribution. To demonstrate the importance of the proposed approach, we check whether the conventional approximation of low grain charges is valid for typical protoplanetary disks, and discuss the implications for dust coagulation and development of the “dead zone” in the disk. The presented model is applicable for arbitrary grain-size distributions and, for given dust properties and conditions of the disk, has only one free parameter—the effective mass of the ions, shown to have a small effect on the results. The model can be easily included in numerical simulations following the dust evolution in dense molecular clouds and protoplanetary disks.

  9. 2TB hard disk drive

    CERN Multimedia

    This particular object was used up until 2012 in the Data Centre. It slots into one of the Disk Server trays. Hard disks were invented in the 1950s. They started as large disks up to 20 inches in diameter holding just a few megabytes (link is external). They were originally called "fixed disks" or "Winchesters" (a code name used for a popular IBM product). They later became known as "hard disks" to distinguish them from "floppy disks (link is external)." Hard disks have a hard platter that holds the magnetic medium, as opposed to the flexible plastic film found in tapes and floppies.

  10. Three-dimensional discrete element method simulation of core disking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shunchuan; Wu, Haoyan; Kemeny, John

    2018-04-01

    The phenomenon of core disking is commonly seen in deep drilling of highly stressed regions in the Earth's crust. Given its close relationship with the in situ stress state, the presence and features of core disking can be used to interpret the stresses when traditional in situ stress measuring techniques are not available. The core disking process was simulated in this paper using the three-dimensional discrete element method software PFC3D (particle flow code). In particular, PFC3D is used to examine the evolution of fracture initiation, propagation and coalescence associated with core disking under various stress states. In this paper, four unresolved problems concerning core disking are investigated with a series of numerical simulations. These simulations also provide some verification of existing results by other researchers: (1) Core disking occurs when the maximum principal stress is about 6.5 times the tensile strength. (2) For most stress situations, core disking occurs from the outer surface, except for the thrust faulting stress regime, where the fractures were found to initiate from the inner part. (3) The anisotropy of the two horizontal principal stresses has an effect on the core disking morphology. (4) The thickness of core disk has a positive relationship with radial stress and a negative relationship with axial stresses.

  11. Fast, Capacious Disk Memory Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Ronald M.

    1990-01-01

    Device for recording digital data on, and playing back data from, memory disks has high recording or playback rate and utilizes available recording area more fully. Two disks, each with own reading/writing head, used to record data at same time. Head on disk A operates on one of tracks numbered from outside in; head on disk B operates on track of same number in sequence from inside out. Underlying concept of device applicable to magnetic or optical disks.

  12. Source to Accretion Disk Tilt

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, M. M.; Martin, E. L.

    2010-01-01

    Many different system types retrogradely precess, and retrograde precession could be from a tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk. However, a source to cause and maintain disk tilt is unknown. In this work, we show that accretion disks can tilt due to a force called lift. Lift results from differing gas stream supersonic speeds over and under an accretion disk. Because lift acts at the disk's center of pressure, a torque is applied around a rotation axis passing through...

  13. Galactic Angular Momentum in Cosmological Zoom-in Simulations. I. Disk and Bulge Components and the Galaxy-Halo Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowska, Aleksandra; Capelo, Pedro R.; Fall, S. Michael; Mayer, Lucio; Shen, Sijing; Bonoli, Silvia

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the angular momentum evolution of four disk galaxies residing in Milky-Way-sized halos formed in cosmological zoom-in simulations with various sub-grid physics and merging histories. We decompose these galaxies, kinematically and photometrically, into their disk and bulge components. The simulated galaxies and their components lie on the observed sequences in the j *-M * diagram, relating the specific angular momentum and mass of the stellar component. We find that galaxies in low-density environments follow the relation {j}* \\propto {M}* α past major mergers, with α ˜ 0.6 in the case of strong feedback, when bulge-to-disk ratios are relatively constant, and α ˜ 1.4 in the other cases, when secular processes operate on shorter timescales. We compute the retention factors (I.e., the ratio of the specific angular momenta of stars and dark matter) for both disks and bulges and show that they vary relatively slowly after averaging over numerous but brief fluctuations. For disks, the retention factors are usually close to unity, while for bulges, they are a few times smaller. Our simulations therefore indicate that galaxies and their halos grow in a quasi-homologous way.

  14. BLACK HOLE-NEUTRON STAR MERGERS WITH A HOT NUCLEAR EQUATION OF STATE: OUTFLOW AND NEUTRINO-COOLED DISK FOR A LOW-MASS, HIGH-SPIN CASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaton, M. Brett; Duez, Matthew D.; Foucart, Francois; O'Connor, Evan; Ott, Christian D.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Muhlberger, Curran D.

    2013-01-01

    Neutrino emission significantly affects the evolution of the accretion tori formed in black hole-neutron star mergers. It removes energy from the disk, alters its composition, and provides a potential power source for a gamma-ray burst. To study these effects, simulations in general relativity with a hot microphysical equation of state (EOS) and neutrino feedback are needed. We present the first such simulation, using a neutrino leakage scheme for cooling to capture the most essential effects and considering a moderate mass (1.4 M ☉ neutron star, 5.6 M ☉ black hole), high-spin (black hole J/M 2 = 0.9) system with the K 0 = 220 MeV Lattimer-Swesty EOS. We find that about 0.08 M ☉ of nuclear matter is ejected from the system, while another 0.3 M ☉ forms a hot, compact accretion disk. The primary effects of the escaping neutrinos are (1) to make the disk much denser and more compact, (2) to cause the average electron fraction Y e of the disk to rise to about 0.2 and then gradually decrease again, and (3) to gradually cool the disk. The disk is initially hot (T ∼ 6 MeV) and luminous in neutrinos (L ν ∼ 10 54 erg s –1 ), but the neutrino luminosity decreases by an order of magnitude over 50 ms of post-merger evolution

  15. Recurrence relations and time evolution in the three-dimensional Sawada model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.H.; Hong, J.

    1984-01-01

    Time-dependent behavior of the three-dimensional Sawada model is obtained by a method of recurrence relations. Exactly calculated quantities are the time evolution of the density-fluctuation operator and its random force. As an application, their linear coefficients, the relaxation and memory functions are used to obtain certain dynamic quantities, e.g., the mobility

  16. Evolution of public relations in the activity of organizations of ukrainian socio-cultural sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Євгенія Олегівна Кияниця

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article traces the evolution of public relations in various fields of life including socio-cultural and found creative and social potential of this activity. Analysis of historical experience of using the PR-technologies in the field of sociocultural institutions promotes understanding of importance of this activity for the efficient work of organizations of this sphere

  17. Historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI. Fission, fusion, accelerator utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tone, Tatsuzo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Overview of the historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI is given in the report. This report reviews the research and development for light water reactor, fast breeder reactor, high temperature gas reactor, fusion reactor and utilization of accelerator-based neutron source. (author)

  18. Structure and fluid evolution of Yili basin and their relation to sandstone type uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Juntang; Wang Chengwei; Feng Shirong

    2008-01-01

    Based on the summary of strata and structure distribution of Yili basin, the relation of structure and fluid evolution to sandstone type ur alum mineraliation are analyzed. It is found that uranium mineralization in Yili basin experienced ore hosting space forming, pre-alteration of hosting space, hosting space alteration and uranium formation stages. (authors)

  19. Temporal evolution of event-related desynchronization in acute stroke: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangwiriyasakul, Chayanin; Verhagen, Rens; Rutten, Wim; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria

    2014-01-01

    Objective Assessment of event-related desynchronization (ERD) may assist in predicting recovery from stroke and rehabilitation, for instance in BCI applications. Here, we explore the temporal evolution of ERD during stroke recovery. Methods Ten stroke patients and eleven healthy controls were

  20. The Evolution of Frequency Distributions: Relating Regularization to Inductive Biases through Iterated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reali, Florencia; Griffiths, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    The regularization of linguistic structures by learners has played a key role in arguments for strong innate constraints on language acquisition, and has important implications for language evolution. However, relating the inductive biases of learners to regularization behavior in laboratory tasks can be challenging without a formal model. In this…

  1. Zodiac II: Debris Disk Science from a Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, Geoffrey; Traub, Wesley; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Bruno, Robin; Unwin, Stephen; Backovsky, Stan; Brugarolas, Paul; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Chen, Pin; Hillenbrand, Lynne; hide

    2011-01-01

    Zodiac II is a proposed balloon-borne science investigation of debris disks around nearby stars. Debris disks are analogs of the Asteroid Belt (mainly rocky) and Kuiper Belt (mainly icy) in our Solar System. Zodiac II will measure the size, shape, brightness, and color of a statistically significant sample of disks. These measurements will enable us to probe these fundamental questions: what do debris disks tell us about the evolution of planetary systems; how are debris disks produced; how are debris disks shaped by planets; what materials are debris disks made of; how much dust do debris disks make as they grind down; and how long do debris disks live? In addition, Zodiac II will observe hot, young exoplanets as targets of opportunity. The Zodiac II instrument is a 1.1-m diameter SiC (Silicone carbide) telescope and an imaging coronagraph on a gondola carried by a stratospheric balloon. Its data product is a set of images of each targeted debris disk in four broad visible-wavelength bands. Zodiac II will address its science questions by taking high-resolution, multi-wavelength images of the debris disks around tens of nearby stars. Mid-latitude flights are considered: overnight test flights in the US followed by half-global flights in the Southern Hemisphere. These longer flights are required to fully explore the set of known debris disks accessible only to Zodiac II. On these targets, it will be 100 times more sensitive than the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS); no existing telescope can match the Zodiac II contrast and resolution performance. A second objective of Zodiac II is to use the near-space environment to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of SiC mirrors, internal coronagraphs, deformable mirrors, and wavefront sensing and control, all potentially needed for a future space-based telescope for high-contrast exoplanet imaging.

  2. Childhood to adolescence: dust and gas clearing in protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joanna Margaret

    Disks are ubiquitous around young stars. Over time, disks dissipate, revealing planets that formed hidden by their natal dust. Since direct detection of young planets at small orbital radii is currently impossible, other tracers of planet formation must be found. One sign of disk evolution, potentially linked to planet formation, is the opening of a gap or inner hole in the disk. In this thesis, I have identified and characterized several cold disks with large inner gaps but retaining massive primordial outer disks. While cold disks are not common, with ~5% of disks showing signs of inner gaps, they provide proof that at least some disks evolve from the inside-out. These large gaps are equivalent to dust clearing from inside the Earth's orbit to Neptune's orbit or even the inner Kuiper belt. Unlike more evolved systems like our own, the central star is often still accreting and a large outer disk remains. I identified four cold disks in Spitzer 5-40 μm spectra and modeled these disks using a 2-D radiative transfer code to determine the gap properties. Outer gap radii of 20-45 AU were derived. However, spectrophotometric identification is indirect and model-dependent. To validate this interpretation, I observed three disks with a submillimeter interferometer and obtained the first direct images of the central holes. The images agree well with the gap sizes derived from the spectrophotometry. One system, LkH&alpha 330, has a very steep outer gap edge which seems more consistent with gravitational perturbation rather than gradual processes, such as grain growth and settling. Roughly 70% of cold disks show CO v=1&rarr 0 gas emission from the inner 1 AU and therefore are unlikely to have evolved due to photoevaporation. The derived rotation temperatures are significantly lower for the cold disks than disks without gaps. Unresolved (sub)millimeter photometry shows that cold disks have steeper colors, indicating that they are optically thin at these wavelengths, unlike

  3. Kopernik, Einstein and evolution of a logic structure of relativity principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruczek, W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper shown that the development of physics as a logic structure was begun by Mikolaj Kopernik. It was consequently presented that the whole period of physic evolution, since Kopernik times through Einstein and also later, was determined by the relativity principle. That principle in this primary version was used for scienific justification of heliocentric system. As a consequence it caused the development of research on the motion, the time and the space (Gallileo, Newton and others). The article presents successive stages of the evolution of those motions, explaining the difference between Einstein's and Poincare's interpretation of them. The methodologic background of Einstein's measuring procedures was also explained. 10 refs., 7 figs. (author)

  4. Evolution of investment costs related to wood energy collective installations (2000-2006). Final report - Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    Based on a survey on 90 French projects, and on a comparison with 76 German projects and 36 Austrian projects, this document proposes a synthesis of a study which aimed at identifying and analysing the evolution of investment costs for wood collective heating systems between 2000 and 2006. Data are analysed and commented while stressing their limitations which are related to their quality, to project heterogeneity, to economic value scattering. The evolution of investment costs of French projects is analysed in terms of global cost, and of items (heat production, public works, studies and construction, item ratios)

  5. PLANETESIMAL DISK MICROLENSING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heng, Kevin; Keeton, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by debris disk studies, we investigate the gravitational microlensing of background starlight by a planetesimal disk around a foreground star. We use dynamical survival models to construct a plausible example of a planetesimal disk and study its microlensing properties using established ideas of microlensing by small bodies. When a solar-type source star passes behind a planetesimal disk, the microlensing light curve may exhibit short-term, low-amplitude residuals caused by planetesimals several orders of magnitude below Earth mass. The minimum planetesimal mass probed depends on the photometric sensitivity and the size of the source star, and is lower when the planetesimal lens is located closer to us. Planetesimal lenses may be found more nearby than stellar lenses because the steepness of the planetesimal mass distribution changes how the microlensing signal depends on the lens/source distance ratio. Microlensing searches for planetesimals require essentially continuous monitoring programs that are already feasible and can potentially set constraints on models of debris disks, the progeny of the supposed extrasolar analogues of Kuiper Belts.

  6. Dynamic Evolution of Financial Network and its Relation to Economic Crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ya-Chun; Wei, Zong-Wen; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2013-02-01

    The static topology properties of financial networks have been widely investigated since the work done by Mantegna, yet their dynamic evolution with time is little considered. In this paper, we comprehensively study the dynamic evolution of financial network by a sliding window technique. The vertices and edges of financial network are represented by the stocks from S&P500 components and correlations between pairs of daily returns of price fluctuation, respectively. Furthermore, the duration of stock price fluctuation, spanning from January 4, 1985 to September 14, 2009, makes us to carefully observe the relation between the dynamic topological properties and big financial crashes. The empirical results suggest that the financial network has the robust small-world property when the time evolves, and the topological structure drastically changes when the big financial crashes occur. This correspondence between the dynamic evolution of financial network and big financial crashes may provide a novel view to understand the origin of economic crisis.

  7. Early Disk dynamics Inferred from Isotope Systematics of Individual Chrondules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollard, Jean Francois André

    imply that they must be the product of one of the most energetic processes that operated in the early Solar System. Chondrules are the only samples available to investigate the early Solar System and the chemical and thermal evolution of the Solar protoplanetary disk. Although relative 26Al-26Mg dating....../or reservoirs over time. Finally, the fifth chapter explores the Solar System 26Al homogeneity paradigm by comparing of Al-Mg systematics in chondrules with their respective Pb-Pb ages. We report a consistent age offset between the two chronometers that we infer reflects a reduced abundance of 26Al relative...... to different reservoirs. Lastly, a reduced abundance of 26Al relative to 27Al in inner Solar System objects implies that asteroid accretion must have occurred very early in the Solar System’s formation, to allow melting and differentiation driven by 26Al decay. With respect to our Pb-Pb chondrule chronology...

  8. ENVIRONMENT AND PROTOSTELLAR EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yichen [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Tan, Jonathan C., E-mail: yczhang.astro@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Even today in our Galaxy, stars form from gas cores in a variety of environments, which may affect the properties of the resulting star and planetary systems. Here, we study the role of pressure, parameterized via ambient clump mass surface density, on protostellar evolution and appearance, focusing on low-mass Sun-like stars and considering a range of conditions from relatively low pressure filaments in Taurus, to intermediate pressures of cluster-forming clumps like the Orion Nebula Cluster, to very high pressures that may be found in the densest infrared dark clouds or in the Galactic center. We present unified analytic and numerical models for the collapse of prestellar cores, accretion disks, protostellar evolution, and bipolar outflows, coupled with radiative transfer calculations and a simple astrochemical model to predict CO gas-phase abundances. Prestellar cores in high-pressure environments are smaller and denser and thus collapse with higher accretion rates and efficiencies, resulting in higher luminosity protostars with more powerful outflows. The protostellar envelope is heated to warmer temperatures, affecting infrared morphologies (and thus classification) and astrochemical processes like CO depletion onto dust grain ice mantles (and thus CO morphologies). These results have general implications for star and planet formation, especially via their effect on astrochemical and dust grain evolution during infall to and through protostellar accretion disks.

  9. Dynamical Evolution of Ring-Satellite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Keiji

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this research was to understand dynamical processes related to the evolution of size distribution of particles in planetary rings and application of theoretical results to explain features in the present rings of giant planets. We studied velocity evolution and accretion rates of ring particles in the Roche zone. We developed a new numerical code for the evolution of ring particle size distribution, which takes into account the above results for particle velocity evolution and accretion rates. We also studied radial diffusion rate of ring particles due to inelastic collisions and gravitational encounters. Many of these results can be also applied to dynamical evolution of a planetesimal disk. Finally, we studied rotation rates of moonlets and particles in planetary rings, which would influence the accretional evolution of these bodies. We describe our key accomplishments during the past three years in more detail in the following.

  10. Herniated lumbar intervertebral disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochhauser, L.; Cacayorin, E.D.; Karcnik, T.J.; McGowan, D.P.; Clark, K.G.; Storrs, D.; Kieffer, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    From a series of 25 patients with low-back pain and sciatica who subsequently underwent surgical exploration, 24 lumbar herniated disks and one asymmetrically bulging disk were correctly diagnosed with use of a 0.5-T MR imaging unit. The radiologic findings on saggital images included a polypoid protrusion beyond the posterior margin of the vertebral bodies more clearly displayed with T1-weighted than with T-2 weighted sequences and a focal extension into the extradural space on axial views. In most, the signal intensity of HNP was isointense to the disk of origin. The study suggests that MR imaging is currently capable of accurately predicting an HNP. The diagnosis is based primarily on morphologic characteristics rather than signal intensity alterations

  11. Relativistic, accreting disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, M.A; Jaroszynski, M.; Sikora, M.

    1978-01-01

    An analytic theory of the hydrodynamical structure of accreting disks (without self-gravitation but with pressure) orbiting around and axially symmetric, stationary, compact body (e.g. black hole) is presented. The inner edge of the marginally stable accreting disk (i.e. disk with constant angular momentum density) has a sharp cusp located on the equatorial plane between rsub(ms) and rsub(mb). The existence of the cusp is also typical for any angular momentum distribution. The physical importance of the cusp follows from the close analogy with the case of a close binary system (L 1 Lagrange point on the Roche lobe). The existence of the cusp is thus a crucial phenomenon in such problems as boundary condition for the viscous stresses, accretion rate etc. (orig.) [de

  12. Relativistic, accreting disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, M A; Jaroszynski, M; Sikora, M [Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw

    1978-02-01

    An analytic theory of the hydrodynamical structure of accreting disks (without self-gravitation but with pressure) orbiting around an axially symmetric, stationary, compact body (e.g. black hole) is presented. The inner edge of the marginally stable accreting disk (i.e. disk with constant angular momentum density) has a sharp cusp located on the equatorial plane between r/sub ms/ and r/sub mb/. The existence of the cusp is also typical for any angular momentum distribution. The physical importance of the cusp follows from the close analogy with the case of a close binary system (L/sub 1/ Lagrange point on the Roche lobe). The existence of the cusp is thus a crucial phenomenon in such problems as boundary condition for the viscous stresses, accretion rate, etc.

  13. Variability of Disk Emission in Pre-Main Sequence and Related Stars. II. Variability in the Gas and Dust Emission of the Herbig Fe Star SAO 206462

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitko, Michael L.; Day, Amanda N.; Kimes, Robin L.; Beerman, Lori C.; Martus, Cameron; Lynch, David K.; Russell, Ray W.; Grady, Carol A.; Schneider, Glenn; Lisse, Carey M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We present thirteen epochs of near-infrared (0.8-5 microns) spectroscopic observations of the pre-transitional, "gapped" disk system in SAO 206462 (=HD 135344B). In all, six gas emission lines (Br(alpha) , Br(gamma), Pa(beta), Pa(delta), Pa(epsilon), and the 0.8446 microns line of O I) along with continuum measurements made near the standard J, H, K, and L photometric bands were measured. A mass accretion rate of approximately 2 x 10(exp 8)Solar Mass/yr was derived from the Br(gamma) and Pa(beta) lines. However, the fluxes of these lines varied by a factor of over two during the course of a few months. The continuum also varied, but by only approx.30%, and even decreased at a time when the gas emission was increasing. The H I line at 1.083 microns was also found to vary in a manner inconsistent with that of either the hydrogen lines or the dust. Both the gas and dust variabilities indicate significant changes in the region of the inner gas and the inner dust belt that may be common to many young disk systems. If planets are responsible for defining the inner edge of the gap, they could interact with the material on time scales commensurate with what is observed for the variations in the dust, while other disk instabilities (thermal, magneto-rotational) would operate there on longer time scales than we observe for the inner dust belt. For SAO 206462, the orbital period would likely be 1-3 years. If the changes are being induced in the disk material closer to the star than the gap, a variety of mechanisms (disk instabilities, interactions via planets) might be responsible for the changes seen. The He I feature is most likely due to a wind whose orientation changes with respect to the observer on time scales of a day or less. To further constrain the origin of the gas and dust emission will require multiple spectroscopic and interferometric observations on both shorter and longer time scales that have been sampled so far.

  14. Toward Agent-Based Models of the Development And Evolution of Business Relations and Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ian F.; Marks, Robert E.; Young, Louise

    Firms achieve competitive advantage in part through the development of cooperative relations with other firms and organisations. We describe a program of research designed to map and model the development of cooperative inter-firm relations, including the processes and paths by which firms may evolve from adversarial to more cooperative relations. Narrative-event-history methods will be used to develop stylised histories of the emergence of business relations in various contexts and to identify relevant causal mechanisms to be included in the agent-based models of relationship and network evolution. The relationship histories will provide the means of assuring the agent-based models developed.

  15. THE REDSHIFT EVOLUTION OF THE RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS, STAR FORMATION RATE, AND GAS METALLICITY OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niino, Yuu

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the relation between stellar mass (M * ), star formation rate (SFR), and metallicity (Z) of galaxies, the so-called fundamental metallicity relation, in the galaxy sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We separate the galaxies into narrow redshift bins and compare the relation at different redshifts and find statistically significant (>99%) evolution. We test various observational effects that might cause seeming Z evolution and find it difficult to explain the evolution of the relation only by the observational effects. In the current sample of low-redshift galaxies, galaxies with different M * and SFR are sampled from different redshifts, and there is degeneracy between M * /SFR and redshift. Hence, it is not straightforward to distinguish a relation between Z and SFR from a relation between Z and redshift. The separation of the intrinsic relation from the redshift evolution effect is a crucial issue in the understanding of the evolution of galaxies.

  16. Circumstellar and circumplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Eugene

    2000-11-01

    This thesis studies disks in three astrophysical contexts: (1)protoplanetary disks; (2)the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt; and (3)planetary rings. We derive hydrostatic, radiative equilibrium models of passive protoplanetary disks surrounding T Tauri and Herbig Ae/Be stars. Each disk is encased by an optically thin layer of superheated dust grains. This layer is responsible for up to ~70% of the disk luminosity at wavelengths between ~5 and 60 μm. The heated disk flares and absorbs more stellar radiation at a given stellocentric distance than a flat disk would. Spectral energy distributions are computed and found to compare favorably with the observed flattish infrared excesses of several young stellar objects. Spectral features from dust grains in the superheated layer appear in emission if the disk is viewed nearly face-on. We present the results of a pencil-beam survey of the Kuiper Belt using the Keck 10-m telescope. Two new objects are discovered. Data from all surveys are pooled to construct the luminosity function from mR = 20 to 27. The cumulative number of objects per square degree, Σ(surface area but the largest bodies contain most of the mass. To order-of-magnitude, 0.2 M⊕ and 1 × 1010 comet progenitors lie between 30 and 50 AU. The classical Kuiper Belt appears truncated at a distance of 50 AU. We propose that rigid precession of narrow eccentric planetary rings surrounding Uranus and Saturn is maintained by a balance of forces due to ring self- gravity, planetary oblateness, and interparticle collisions. Collisional impulses play an especially dramatic role near ring edges. Pressure-induced accelerations are maximal near edges because there (1)velocity dispersions are enhanced by resonant satellite perturbations, and (2)the surface density declines steeply. Remarkably, collisional forces felt by material in the last ~100 m of a ~10 km wide ring can increase equilibrium masses up to a factor of ~100. New ring surface densities are derived which accord with

  17. Nonlinear density waves in a marginally stable gravitating disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korchagin, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of short nonlinear density waves in a disk at the stability limit is studied for arbitrary values of the radial wave number k/sub r/. For waves with wave numbers that do not lie at the minimum of the dispersion curve, the behavior of the amplitude is described by a nonlinear parabolic equation; however, stationary soliton solutions cannot exist in such a system since there is no dispersion spreading of a packet. For wave numbers lying at the minimum of the dispersion curve, soliton structures with determined amplitude are possible. In stable gravitating disks and in a disk at the stability limit, two physically different types of soliton can exist

  18. z~2: An Epoch of Disk Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Raymond C.; Kassin, Susan A.; Weiner, Benjamin; Heckman, Timothy M.; Trump, Jonathan; SIGMA, DEEP2

    2018-01-01

    At z = 0, the majority of massive star-forming galaxies contain thin, rotationally supported gas disks. It was once accepted that galaxies form thin disks early: collisional gas with high velocity dispersion should dissipate energy, conserve angular momentum, and develop strong rotational support in only a few galaxy crossing times (~few hundred Myr). However, this picture is complicated at high redshift, where the processes governing galaxy assembly tend to be violent and inhospitable to disk formation. We present results from our SIGMA survey of star-forming galaxy kinematics at z = 2. These results challenge the simple picture described above: galaxies at z = 2 are unlike local well-ordered disks. Their kinematics tend to be much more disordered, as quantified by their low ratios of rotational velocity to gas velocity dispersion (Vrot/σg): less than 35% of galaxies have Vrot/σg > 3. For comparison, nearly 100% of local star-forming galaxies meet this same threshold. We combine our high redshift sample with a similar low redshift sample from the DEEP2 survey. This combined sample covers a continuous redshift baseline over 0.1 < z < 2.5, spanning 10 Gyrs of cosmic time. Over this period, galaxies exhibit remarkably smooth kinematic evolution on average. All galaxies tend towards rotational support with time, and it is reached earlier in higher mass systems. This is due to both a significant decline in gas velocity dispersion and a mild rise in ordered rotational motions. These results indicate that z = 2 is a period of disk assembly, during which the strong rotational support present in today’s massive disk galaxies is only just beginning to emerge.

  19. Hydrodynamic simulations of accretion disks in cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Masahito; Osaki, Yoji

    1990-01-01

    The tidal effects of secondary stars on accretion disks in cataclysmic variables are studied by two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. The time evolution of an accretion disk under a constant mass supply rate from the secondary is followed until it reaches a quasi-steady state. We have examined various cases of different mass ratios of binary systems. It is found that the accretion disk settles into a steady state of an elongated disk fixed in the rotating frame of the binary in a binary system with comparable masses of component stars. On the other hand, in the case of a low-mass secondary, the accretion disk develops a non-axisymmetric (eccentric) structure and finally settles into a periodically oscillating state in which a non-axisymmetric eccentric disk rotates in the opposite direction to the orbital motion of the binary in the rotating frame of the binary. The period of oscillation is a few percent longer than the orbital period of the binary, and it offers a natural explanation for the ''superhump'' periodicity of SU UMa stars. Our results thus confirm basically those of Whitehurst (1988, AAA 45.064.032) who discovered the tidal instability of an accretion disk in the case of a low-mass secondary. We then discuss the cause of the tidal instability. It is shown that the tidal instability of accretion disks is caused by a parametric resonance between particle orbits and an orbiting secondary star with a 1:3 period ratio. (author)

  20. A debris disk around an isolated young neutron star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongxiang; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Kaplan, David L

    2006-04-06

    Pulsars are rotating, magnetized neutron stars that are born in supernova explosions following the collapse of the cores of massive stars. If some of the explosion ejecta fails to escape, it may fall back onto the neutron star or it may possess sufficient angular momentum to form a disk. Such 'fallback' is both a general prediction of current supernova models and, if the material pushes the neutron star over its stability limit, a possible mode of black hole formation. Fallback disks could dramatically affect the early evolution of pulsars, yet there are few observational constraints on whether significant fallback occurs or even the actual existence of such disks. Here we report the discovery of mid-infrared emission from a cool disk around an isolated young X-ray pulsar. The disk does not power the pulsar's X-ray emission but is passively illuminated by these X-rays. The estimated mass of the disk is of the order of 10 Earth masses, and its lifetime (> or = 10(6) years) significantly exceeds the spin-down age of the pulsar, supporting a supernova fallback origin. The disk resembles protoplanetary disks seen around ordinary young stars, suggesting the possibility of planet formation around young neutron stars.

  1. Modeling Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Megan; Tubbs, Drake; Keller, L. D.

    2018-01-01

    Using spectra models with known parameters and comparing them to spectra gathered from real systems is often the only ways to find out what is going on in those real systems. This project uses the modeling programs of RADMC-3D to generate model spectra for systems containing protoplanetary disks. The parameters can be changed to simulate protoplanetary disks in different stages of planet formation, with different sized gaps in different areas of the disks, as well as protoplanetary disks that contain different types of dust. We are working on producing a grid of models that all have different variations in the parameters in order to generate a miniature database to use for comparisons to gathered spectra. The spectra produced from these simulations will be compared to spectra that have been gathered from systems in the Small Magellanic cloud in order to find out the contents and stage of development of that system. This allows us to see if and how planets are forming in the Small Magellanic cloud, a region which has much less metallicity than our own galaxy. The data we gather from comparisons between the model spectra and the spectra of systems in the Small Magellanic Cloud can then be applied to how planets may have formed in the early universe.

  2. The Disk Mass Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Swaters, Rob A.; Andersen, David R.; Westfall, Kyle B.; de Jong, Roelof Sybe

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the content and distribution of dark matter in spiral galaxies. To break the degeneracy in galaxy rotation curve decompositions, which allows a wide range of dark matter halo density profiles, an independent measure of the mass surface density of stellar disks is needed. Here,

  3. Neutral evolution of proteins: The superfunnel in sequence space and its relation to mutational robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirel, Josselin; Simonson, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Following Kimura's neutral theory of molecular evolution [M. Kimura, The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1983) (reprinted in 1986)], it has become common to assume that the vast majority of viable mutations of a gene confer little or no functional advantage. Yet, in silico models of protein evolution have shown that mutational robustness of sequences could be selected for, even in the context of neutral evolution. The evolution of a biological population can be seen as a diffusion on the network of viable sequences. This network is called a "neutral network." Depending on the mutation rate μ and the population size N, the biological population can evolve purely randomly (μN ≪1) or it can evolve in such a way as to select for sequences of higher mutational robustness (μN ≫1). The stringency of the selection depends not only on the product μN but also on the exact topology of the neutral network, the special arrangement of which was named "superfunnel." Even though the relation between mutation rate, population size, and selection was thoroughly investigated, a study of the salient topological features of the superfunnel that could affect the strength of the selection was wanting. This question is addressed in this study. We use two different models of proteins: on lattice and off lattice. We compare neutral networks computed using these models to random networks. From this, we identify two important factors of the topology that determine the stringency of the selection for mutationally robust sequences. First, the presence of highly connected nodes ("hubs") in the network increases the selection for mutationally robust sequences. Second, the stringency of the selection increases when the correlation between a sequence's mutational robustness and its neighbors' increases. The latter finding relates a global characteristic of the neutral network to a local one, which is attainable through experiments or molecular

  4. The Orbit of the Companion to HD 100453A: Binary-driven Spiral Arms in a Protoplanetary Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Kevin; Dong, Ruobing; Sheehan, Patrick; Apai, Dániel; Kasper, Markus; McClure, Melissa; Morzinski, Katie M.; Close, Laird; Males, Jared; Hinz, Phil; Quanz, Sascha P.; Fung, Jeffrey

    2018-02-01

    HD 100453AB is a 10 ± 2 Myr old binary whose protoplanetary disk was recently revealed to host a global two-armed spiral structure. Given the relatively small projected separation of the binary (1.″05, or ∼108 au), gravitational perturbations by the binary seemed to be a likely driving force behind the formation of the spiral arms. However, the orbit of these stars remained poorly understood, which prevented a proper treatment of the dynamical influence of the companion on the disk. We observed HD 100453AB between 2015 and 2017, utilizing extreme adaptive optics systems on the Very Large Telescope and the Magellan Clay Telescope. We combined the astrometry from these observations with published data to constrain the parameters of the binary’s orbit to a = 1.″06 ± 0.″09, e = 0.17±0.07, and i = 32.°5 ± 6.°5. We utilized publicly available ALMA 12CO data to constrain the inclination of the disk, {i}{{disk}}∼ 28^\\circ , which is relatively coplanar with the orbit of the companion and consistent with previous estimates from scattered light images. Finally, we input these constraints into hydrodynamic and radiative transfer simulations to model the structural evolution of the disk. We find that the spiral structure and truncation of the circumprimary disk in HD 100453 are consistent with a companion-driven origin. Furthermore, we find that the primary star’s rotation, its outer disk, and the companion exhibit roughly the same direction of angular momentum, and thus the system likely formed from the same parent body of material.

  5. Evolution of mitochondrial DNA and its relation to basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ping; Zhao, Huabin; Lu, Xin

    2015-08-01

    Energy metabolism is essential for the survival of animals, which can be characterized by maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and basal metabolic rate (BMR). Because of the crucial roles of mitochondria in energy metabolism, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been subjected to stronger purifying selection in strongly locomotive than weakly locomotive birds and mammals. Although maximum locomotive speed (an indicator of MMR) showed a negative correlation with the evolutionary rate of mtDNA, it is unclear whether BMR has driven the evolution of mtDNA. Here, we take advantage of the large amount of mtDNA and BMR data in 106 mammals to test whether BMR has influenced the mtDNA evolution. Our results showed that, in addition to the locomotive speed, mammals with higher BMR have subjected to stronger purifying selection on mtDNA than did those with lower BMR. The evolution of mammalian mtDNA has been modified by two levels of energy metabolism, including MMR and BMR. Our study provides a more comprehensive view of mtDNA evolution in relation to energy metabolism.

  6. A coarse grained description of time evolution: Irreversible state reduction and time-energy relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonifacio, R.; Milan Univ.

    1983-05-01

    We show that a proper coarse-grained description of time evolution leads to a finite difference equation with step tau for the density operator. This implies state reduction to the diagonal form in the energy representation and a quasi ergodic behaviour of quantum mechanical ensemble averages. An intrinsic time-energy relation tauΔE>=(h/2π)/2 is proposed, and its equivalence to a time quantization is discussed. (author)

  7. Evolution of Interethnic Relations and National Policy in USSR in 1920s − 1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Матвеевич Козьменко

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the main stages of the international relations evolution from the first days of the USSR existence to its collapse in 1991. The authors pay attention to the serious mistakes in the national policy of the Communist Party and the Soviet Government that led to the aggravation of the national situation in the USSR and finally to the national and state crisis in the Soviet Union.

  8. Genomic comparison of closely related Giant Viruses supports an accordion-like model of evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Filée, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Genome gigantism occurs so far in Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae (order Megavirales). Origin and evolution of these Giant Viruses (GVs) remain open questions. Interestingly, availability of a collection of closely related GV genomes enabling genomic comparisons offer the opportunity to better understand the different evolutionary forces acting on these genomes. Whole genome alignment for five groups of viruses belonging to the Mimiviridae and Phycodnaviridae families show that there is no tr...

  9. THE STAR FORMATION LAWS OF EDDINGTON-LIMITED STAR-FORMING DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballantyne, D. R.; Armour, J. N.; Indergaard, J.

    2013-01-01

    Two important avenues into understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies are the Kennicutt-Schmidt (K-S) and Elmegreen-Silk (E-S) laws. These relations connect the surface densities of gas and star formation (Σ gas and Σ-dot * , respectively) in a galaxy. To elucidate the K-S and E-S laws for disks where Σ gas ∼> 10 4 M ☉ pc –2 , we compute 132 Eddington-limited star-forming disk models with radii spanning tens to hundreds of parsecs. The theoretically expected slopes (≈1 for the K-S law and ≈0.5 for the E-S relation) are relatively robust to spatial averaging over the disks. However, the star formation laws exhibit a strong dependence on opacity that separates the models by the dust-to-gas ratio that may lead to the appearance of a erroneously large slope. The total infrared luminosity (L TIR ) and multiple carbon monoxide (CO) line intensities were computed for each model. While L TIR can yield an estimate of the average Σ-dot * that is correct to within a factor of two, the velocity-integrated CO line intensity is a poor proxy for the average Σ gas for these warm and dense disks, making the CO conversion factor (α CO ) all but useless. Thus, observationally derived K-S and E-S laws at these values of Σ gas that uses any transition of CO will provide a poor measurement of the underlying star formation relation. Studies of the star formation laws of Eddington-limited disks will require a high-J transition of a high density molecular tracer, as well as a sample of galaxies with known metallicity estimates.

  10. THE STAR FORMATION LAWS OF EDDINGTON-LIMITED STAR-FORMING DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, D. R.; Armour, J. N.; Indergaard, J., E-mail: david.ballantyne@physics.gatech.edu [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    Two important avenues into understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies are the Kennicutt-Schmidt (K-S) and Elmegreen-Silk (E-S) laws. These relations connect the surface densities of gas and star formation ({Sigma}{sub gas} and {Sigma}-dot{sub *}, respectively) in a galaxy. To elucidate the K-S and E-S laws for disks where {Sigma}{sub gas} {approx}> 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2}, we compute 132 Eddington-limited star-forming disk models with radii spanning tens to hundreds of parsecs. The theoretically expected slopes ( Almost-Equal-To 1 for the K-S law and Almost-Equal-To 0.5 for the E-S relation) are relatively robust to spatial averaging over the disks. However, the star formation laws exhibit a strong dependence on opacity that separates the models by the dust-to-gas ratio that may lead to the appearance of a erroneously large slope. The total infrared luminosity (L{sub TIR}) and multiple carbon monoxide (CO) line intensities were computed for each model. While L{sub TIR} can yield an estimate of the average {Sigma}-dot{sub *} that is correct to within a factor of two, the velocity-integrated CO line intensity is a poor proxy for the average {Sigma}{sub gas} for these warm and dense disks, making the CO conversion factor ({alpha}{sub CO}) all but useless. Thus, observationally derived K-S and E-S laws at these values of {Sigma}{sub gas} that uses any transition of CO will provide a poor measurement of the underlying star formation relation. Studies of the star formation laws of Eddington-limited disks will require a high-J transition of a high density molecular tracer, as well as a sample of galaxies with known metallicity estimates.

  11. The age of the galactic disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandage, A.

    1988-07-01

    The galactic disk is a dissipative structure and must, therefore be younger than the halo if galaxy formation generally proceeds by collapse. Just how much younger the oldest stars in the galactic disk are than the oldest halo stars remains an open question. A fast collapse (on a time scale no longer than the rotation period of the extended protogalaxy) permits an age gap of the order of approximately 10 to the 9th power years. A slow collapse, governed by the cooling rate of the partially pressure supported falling gas that formed into what is now the thick stellar disk, permits a longer age gap, claimed by some to be as long as 6 Gyr. Early methods of age dating the oldest components of the disk contain implicit assumptions concerning the details of the age-metallicity relation for stars in the solar neighborhood. The discovery that this relation for open clusters outside the solar circle is different that in the solar neighborhood (Geisler 1987), complicates the earlier arguments. The oldest stars in the galactic disk are at least as old as NGC 188. The new data by Janes on NGC 6791, shown first at this conference, suggest a disk age of at least 12.5 Gyr, as do data near the main sequence termination point of metal rich, high proper motion stars of low orbital eccentricity. Hence, a case can still be made that the oldest part of the galactic thick disk is similar in age to the halo globular clusters, if their ages are the same as 47 Tuc

  12. The expression and evolution of virulence in multiple infections: the role of specificity, relative virulence and relative dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ami, Frida; Routtu, Jarkko

    2013-05-03

    Multiple infections of the same host by different strains of the same microparasite species are believed to play a crucial role during the evolution of parasite virulence. We investigated the role of specificity, relative virulence and relative dose in determining the competitive outcome of multiple infections in the Daphnia magna-Pasteuria ramosa host-parasite system. We found that infections by P. ramosa clones (single genotype) were less virulent and produced more spores than infections by P. ramosa isolates (possibly containing multiple genotypes). We also found that two similarly virulent isolates of P. ramosa differed considerably in their within-host competitiveness and their effects on host offspring production when faced with coinfecting P. ramosa isolates and clones. Although the relative virulence of a P. ramosa isolate/clone appears to be a good indicator of its competitiveness during multiple infections, the relative dose may alter the competitive outcome. Moreover, spore counts on day 20 post-infection indicate that the competitive outcome is largely decided early in the parasite's growth phase, possibly mediated by direct interference or apparent competition. Our results emphasize the importance of epidemiology as well as of various parasite traits in determining the outcome of within-host competition. Incorporating realistic epidemiological and ecological conditions when testing theoretical models of multiple infections, as well as using a wider range of host and parasite genotypes, will enable us to better understand the course of virulence evolution.

  13. Identifying gaps in flaring Herbig Ae/Be disks using spatially resolved mid-infrared imaging. Are all group I disks transitional?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, K.M.; Honda, M.; Waters, L.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Dominik, C.; Min, M.; Verhoeff, A.; Meeus, G.; Ancker, van den M.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The evolution of young massive protoplanetary disks toward planetary systems is expected to correspond to structural changes in observational appearance, which includes the formation of gaps and the depletion of dust and gas. Aims: A special group of disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars do not

  14. Identifying gaps in flaring Herbig Ae/Be disks using spatially resolved mid-infrared imaging. Are all group I disks transitional?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, K.M.; Honda, M.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Dominik, C.; Min, M.; Verhoeff, A.; Meeus, G.; van den Ancker, M.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The evolution of young massive protoplanetary disks toward planetary systems is expected to correspond to structural changes in observational appearance, which includes the formation of gaps and the depletion of dust and gas. Aims. A special group of disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars do not

  15. Studies of Young, Star-forming Circumstellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaehan

    2017-08-01

    Disks of gas and dust around forming stars - circumstellar disks - last only a few million years. This is a very small fraction of the entire lifetime of Sun-like stars, several billion years. Nevertheless, by the time circumstellar disks dissipate stars complete building up their masses, giant planets finish accreting gas, and terrestrial bodies are nearly fully grown and ready for their final assembly to become planets. Understanding the evolution of circumstellar disks are thus crucial in many contexts. Using numerical simulations as the primary tool, my thesis has focused on the studies of various physical processes that can occur throughout the lifetime of circumstellar disks, from their formation to dispersal. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 emphasize the importance of early evolution, during which time a forming star-disk system obtains mass from its natal cloud: the infall phase. In Chapter 2 and 3, I have modeled episodic outbursts of accretion in protostellar systems resulting from disk instabilities - gravitational instability and magnetorotational instability. I showed that outbursts occur preferentially during the infall phase, because the mass addition provides more favorable conditions for gravitational instability to initiate the outburst cycle, and that forming stars build up a significant fraction of their masses through repeated short-lived, episodic outbursts. The infall phase can also be important for the formation of planets. Recent ALMA observations revealed sets of bright and dark rings in circumstellar disks of young, forming stars, potentially indicating early formation of planets. In Chapter 4, I showed that infall streams can create radial pressure bumps near the outer edge of the mass landing on the disk, from which vortices can form, collecting solid particles very efficiently to make initial seeds of planets. The next three chapters highlight the role of planets in setting the observational appearance and the evolution of circumstellar disks

  16. Measuring the level of interstellar inheritance in the solar protoplanetary disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Conel M. O'd.; Nittler, Larry R.; Davidson, Jemma; Ciesla, Fred J.

    2017-09-01

    The timing and extent to which the initial interstellar material was thermally processed provide fundamental constraints for models of the formation and early evolution of the solar protoplanetary disk. We argue that the nonsolar (solar Δ17O ≈ -29‰) and near-terrestrial (Δ17O ≈ 0‰) O-isotopic compositions of the Earth and most extraterrestrial materials (Moon, Mars, asteroids, and comet dust) were established very early by heating of regions of the disk that were modestly enriched (dust/gas ≥ 5-10 times solar) in primordial silicates (Δ17O ≈ -29‰) and water-dominated ice (Δ17O ≈ 24‰) relative to the gas. Such modest enrichments could be achieved by grain growth and settling of dust to the midplane in regions where the levels of turbulence were modest. The episodic heating of the disk associated with FU Orionis outbursts were the likely causes of this early thermal processing of dust. We also estimate that at the time of accretion the CI chondrite and interplanetary dust particle parent bodies were composed of 5-10% of pristine interstellar material. The matrices of all chondrites included roughly similar interstellar fractions. Whether this interstellar material avoided the thermal processing experienced by most dust during FU Orionis outbursts or was accreted by the disk after the outbursts ceased to be important remains to be established.

  17. PLANETESIMAL AND PROTOPLANET DYNAMICS IN A TURBULENT PROTOPLANETARY DISK: IDEAL UNSTRATIFIED DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chao-Chin; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Menou, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of planetesimals and planetary cores may be strongly influenced by density perturbations driven by magneto-rotational turbulence in their natal protoplanetary gas disks. Using the local shearing box approximation, we perform numerical simulations of planetesimals moving as massless particles in a turbulent, magnetized, unstratified gas disk. Our fiducial disk model shows turbulent accretion characterized by a Shakura-Sunyaev viscosity parameter of α ∼ 10 -2 , with rms density perturbations of ∼10%. We measure the statistical evolution of particle orbital properties in our simulations including mean radius, eccentricity, and velocity dispersion. We confirm random walk growth in time of all three properties, the first time that this has been done with direct orbital integration in a local model. We find that the growth rate increases with the box size used at least up to boxes of eight scale heights in horizontal size. However, even our largest boxes show velocity dispersions sufficiently low that collisional destruction of planetesimals should be unimportant in the inner disk throughout its lifetime. Our direct integrations agree with earlier torque measurements showing that type I migration dominates over diffusive migration by stochastic torques for most objects in the planetary core and terrestrial planet mass range. Diffusive migration remains important for objects in the mass range of kilometer-sized planetesimals. Discrepancies in the derived magnitude of turbulence between local and global simulations of magneto-rotationally unstable disks remains an open issue, with important consequences for planet formation scenarios.

  18. Rotational instability in the outer region of protoplanetary disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Tomohiro [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nomura, Hideko; Takeuchi, Taku, E-mail: ono.t@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2014-05-20

    We analytically calculate the marginally stable surface density profile for the rotational instability of protoplanetary disks. The derived profile can be utilized for considering the region in a rotating disk where radial pressure gradient force is comparable to the gravitational force, such as an inner edge, steep gaps or bumps, and an outer region of the disk. In this paper, we particularly focus on the rotational instability in the outer region of disks. We find that a protoplanetary disk with a surface density profile of similarity solution becomes rotationally unstable at a certain radius, depending on its temperature profile and a mass of the central star. If the temperature is relatively low and the mass of the central star is high, disks have rotationally stable similarity profiles. Otherwise, deviation from the similarity profiles of surface density could be observable, using facilities with high sensitivity, such as ALMA.

  19. Rotational instability in the outer region of protoplanetary disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Tomohiro; Nomura, Hideko; Takeuchi, Taku

    2014-01-01

    We analytically calculate the marginally stable surface density profile for the rotational instability of protoplanetary disks. The derived profile can be utilized for considering the region in a rotating disk where radial pressure gradient force is comparable to the gravitational force, such as an inner edge, steep gaps or bumps, and an outer region of the disk. In this paper, we particularly focus on the rotational instability in the outer region of disks. We find that a protoplanetary disk with a surface density profile of similarity solution becomes rotationally unstable at a certain radius, depending on its temperature profile and a mass of the central star. If the temperature is relatively low and the mass of the central star is high, disks have rotationally stable similarity profiles. Otherwise, deviation from the similarity profiles of surface density could be observable, using facilities with high sensitivity, such as ALMA.

  20. STELLAR POPULATIONS AND RADIAL MIGRATIONS IN VIRGO DISK GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roediger, Joel C.; Courteau, Stéphane; Sánchez-Blázquez, Patricia; McDonald, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We present new stellar age profiles, derived from well-resolved optical and near-infrared images of 64 Virgo cluster disk galaxies, whose analysis poses a challenge for current disk galaxy formation models. Our ability to break the age-metallicity degeneracy and the significant size of our sample represent key improvements over complementary studies of field disk galaxies. Our results can be summarized as follows: first, and contrary to observations of disk galaxies in the field, these cluster galaxies are distributed almost equally amongst the three main types of disk galaxy luminosity profiles (I/II/III), indicating that the formation and/or survival of Type II breaks is suppressed within the cluster environment. Second, we find examples of statistically significant inversions ( U -shapes ) in the age profiles of all three disk galaxy types, reminiscent of predictions from high-resolution simulations of classically truncated Type II disks in the field. These features characterize the age profiles for only about a third (≤36%) of each disk galaxy type in our sample. An even smaller fraction of cluster disks (∼11% of the total sample) exhibit age profiles that decrease outward (i.e., negative age gradients). Instead, flat and/or positive age gradients prevail (≥50%) within our Type I, II, and III subsamples. These observations thus suggest that while stellar migrations and inside-out growth can play a significant role in the evolution of all disk galaxy types, other factors contributing to the evolution of galaxies can overwhelm the predicted signatures of these processes. We interpret our observations through a scenario whereby Virgo cluster disk galaxies formed initially like their brethren in the field but which, upon falling into the cluster, were transformed into their present state through external processes linked to the environment (e.g., ram-pressure stripping and harassment). Current disk galaxy formation models, which have largely focused on field

  1. Evolution of brain region volumes during artificial selection for relative brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Zeng, Hong-Li; van der Bijl, Wouter; Öhman-Mägi, Caroline; Kotrschal, Kurt; Pelckmans, Kristiaan; Kolm, Niclas

    2017-12-01

    The vertebrate brain shows an extremely conserved layout across taxa. Still, the relative sizes of separate brain regions vary markedly between species. One interesting pattern is that larger brains seem associated with increased relative sizes only of certain brain regions, for instance telencephalon and cerebellum. Till now, the evolutionary association between separate brain regions and overall brain size is based on comparative evidence and remains experimentally untested. Here, we test the evolutionary response of brain regions to directional selection on brain size in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) selected for large and small relative brain size. In these animals, artificial selection led to a fast response in relative brain size, while body size remained unchanged. We use microcomputer tomography to investigate how the volumes of 11 main brain regions respond to selection for larger versus smaller brains. We found no differences in relative brain region volumes between large- and small-brained animals and only minor sex-specific variation. Also, selection did not change allometric scaling between brain and brain region sizes. Our results suggest that brain regions respond similarly to strong directional selection on relative brain size, which indicates that brain anatomy variation in contemporary species most likely stem from direct selection on key regions. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Development of efficient time-evolution method based on three-term recurrence relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akama, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Osamu; Nanbu, Shinkoh

    2015-01-01

    The advantage of the real-time (RT) propagation method is a direct solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation which describes frequency properties as well as all dynamics of a molecular system composed of electrons and nuclei in quantum physics and chemistry. Its applications have been limited by computational feasibility, as the evaluation of the time-evolution operator is computationally demanding. In this article, a new efficient time-evolution method based on the three-term recurrence relation (3TRR) was proposed to reduce the time-consuming numerical procedure. The basic formula of this approach was derived by introducing a transformation of the operator using the arcsine function. Since this operator transformation causes transformation of time, we derived the relation between original and transformed time. The formula was adapted to assess the performance of the RT time-dependent Hartree-Fock (RT-TDHF) method and the time-dependent density functional theory. Compared to the commonly used fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, our new approach decreased computational time of the RT-TDHF calculation by about factor of four, showing the 3TRR formula to be an efficient time-evolution method for reducing computational cost

  3. Measuring Pancharatnam's relative phase for SO(3) evolutions using spin polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Peter; Sjoeqvist, Erik

    2003-01-01

    In polarimetry, a superposition of internal quantal states is exposed to a single Hamiltonian and information about the evolution of the quantal states is inferred from projection measurements on the final superposition. In this framework, we here extend the polarimetric test of Pancharatnam's relative phase for spin-(1/2) proposed by Wagh and Rakhecha [Phys. Lett. A 197, 112 (1995)] to spin j≥1 undergoing noncyclic SO(3) evolution. We demonstrate that the output intensity for higher spin values is a polynomial function of the corresponding spin-(1/2) intensity. We further propose a general method to extract the noncyclic SO(3) phase and visibility by rigid translation of two π/2 spin flippers. Polarimetry on higher spin states may in practice be done with spin polarized atomic beams

  4. The evolution of the Y-M scaling relation in MUSIC clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembolini, F.; Yepes, G.; De Petris, M.; Gottlöber, S.; Lamagna, L.; Comis, B.

    2013-04-01

    This work describes the baryon content and Sunyaev-Zeld'ovich properties of the MUSIC (Marenostrum-MultiDark SImulations of galaxy clusters) dataset and their evolution with redshift and aperture radius. The MUSIC dataset is one of the largest samples of hydrodynamically simulated galaxy clusters (more than 2000 objects, including more than 500 clusters). We show that when the effects of cooling and stellar feedbacks are properly taken into account, the gas fraction of the MUSIC clusters consistently agrees with recent observational results. Moreover, the gas fraction has a net dependence with the total mass of the cluster and increases slightly with redshift at high overdensities. The study of the Y-M relation confirms the consistence of the self-similar model, showing no evolution with redshift at low overdensities.

  5. RESIDENCE TIMES OF PARTICLES IN DIFFUSIVE PROTOPLANETARY DISK ENVIRONMENTS. I. VERTICAL MOTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciesla, F. J.

    2010-01-01

    The chemical and physical evolution of primitive materials in protoplanetary disks are determined by the types of environments they are exposed to and their residence times within each environment. Here, a method for calculating representative paths of materials in diffusive protoplanetary disks is developed and applied to understanding how the vertical trajectories that particles take impact their overall evolution. The methods are general enough to be applied to disks with uniform diffusivity, the so-called constant-α cases, and disks with a spatially varying diffusivity, such as expected in 'layered-disks'. The average long-term dynamical evolution of small particles and gaseous molecules is independent of the specific form of the diffusivity in that they spend comparable fractions of their lifetimes at different heights in the disk. However, the paths that individual particles and molecules take depend strongly on the form of the diffusivity leading to a different range of behavior of particles in terms of deviations from the mean. As temperatures, gas densities, chemical abundances, and photon fluxes will vary with height in protoplanetary disks, the different paths taken by primitive materials will lead to differences in their chemical and physical evolution. Examples of differences in gas phase chemistry and photochemistry are explored here. The methods outlined here provide a powerful tool that can be integrated with chemical models to understand the formation and evolution of primitive materials in protoplanetary disks on timescales of 10 5 -10 6 years.

  6. DISK FORMATION IN MAGNETIZED CLOUDS ENABLED BY THE HALL EFFECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang, Hsien; Li Zhiyun

    2011-01-01

    Stars form in dense cores of molecular clouds that are observed to be significantly magnetized. A dynamically important magnetic field presents a significant obstacle to the formation of protostellar disks. Recent studies have shown that magnetic braking is strong enough to suppress the formation of rotationally supported disks in the ideal MHD limit. Whether non-ideal MHD effects can enable disk formation remains unsettled. We carry out a first study on how disk formation in magnetic clouds is modified by the Hall effect, the least explored of the three non-ideal MHD effects in star formation (the other two being ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic dissipation). For illustrative purposes, we consider a simplified problem of a non-self-gravitating, magnetized envelope collapsing onto a central protostar of fixed mass. We find that the Hall effect can spin up the inner part of the collapsing flow to Keplerian speed, producing a rotationally supported disk. The disk is generated through a Hall-induced magnetic torque. Disk formation occurs even when the envelope is initially non-rotating, provided that the Hall coefficient is large enough. When the magnetic field orientation is flipped, the direction of disk rotation is reversed as well. The implication is that the Hall effect can in principle produce both regularly rotating and counter-rotating disks around protostars. The Hall coefficient expected in dense cores is about one order of magnitude smaller than that needed for efficient spin-up in these models. We conclude that the Hall effect is an important factor to consider in studying the angular momentum evolution of magnetized star formation in general and disk formation in particular.

  7. Diffuse interstellar gas in disk galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladilo, G.

    1989-01-01

    The physical properties of the diffuse gas in our Galaxy are reviewed and considered as a starting point for interstellar (IS) studies of disk galaxies. Attention is focussed on the atomic and ionic component, detected through radio, optical, ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray observations. The cooling and heating processes in the IS gas are briefly recalled in order to introduce current models of disk and halo gas. Observations of nearby galaxies critical to test IS models are considered, including 21-cm surveys, optical and UV absorptions of bright, extragalactic sources, and X-ray emission from hot halos. Finally, further steps necessary to develop a global model for the structure and evolution of the interstellar medium are indicated. (author)

  8. Residual stresses in Inconel 718 engine disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahan Yoann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aubert&Duval has developed a methodology to establish a residual stress model for Inconel 718 engine discs. To validate the thermal, mechanical and metallurgical parts of the model, trials on lab specimens with specific geometry were carried out. These trials allow a better understanding of the residual stress distribution and evolution during different processes (quenching, ageing, machining. A comparison between experimental and numerical results reveals the residual stresses model accuracy. Aubert&Duval has also developed a mechanical properties prediction model. Coupled with the residual stress prediction model, Aubert&Duval can now propose improvements to the process of manufacturing in Inconel 718 engine disks. This model enables Aubert&Duval customers and subcontractors to anticipate distortions issues during machining. It could also be usedt to optimise the engine disk life.

  9. Vibration of imperfect rotating disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Půst L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the theoretical and numerical calculations of the flexural vibrations of a bladed disk. The main focus of this study is to elaborate the basic background for diagnostic and identification methods for ascertaining the main properties of the real structure or an experimental model of turbine disks. The reduction of undesirable vibrations of blades is proposed by using damping heads, which on the experimental model of turbine disk are applied only on a limited number of blades. This partial setting of damping heads introduces imperfection in mass, stiffness and damping distribution on the periphery and leads to more complicated dynamic properties than those of a perfect disk. Calculation of FEM model and analytic—numerical solution of disk behaviour in the limited (two modes frequency range shows the splitting of resonance with an increasing speed of disk rotation. The spectrum of resonance is twice denser than that of a perfect disk.

  10. Sporadic mass loss, spin-down, and element redistribution in young disk galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Salpeter, E.E.

    1989-01-01

    Violent conditions in young spiral disks may be conducive to the high-velocity ejection of large blobs of material powered by the concerted action of supernovae. Using explicit numerical Monte Carlo models, treating ejected bobs as galactic cannonballs traveling with little interaction through the corona, several important consequences for galactic evolution are found. Preferential escape from the galaxy or objects with high specific angular momenta lead to a significant spin-down of the disk. In addition, this process may contribute to the production of an exponential column density distribution, and a metallicity gradient. The models predict a reversal in the sign of the metallicity gradient at large radii because the metal-rich objects that return to such a low column density region suffer relatively little dilution. 39 refs

  11. Planetesimal Formation by the Streaming Instability in a Photoevaporating Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera, Daniel; Johansen, Anders; Davies, Melvyn B. [Lund Observatory, Dept. of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Box 43, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Gorti, Uma [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)

    2017-04-10

    Recent years have seen growing interest in the streaming instability as a candidate mechanism to produce planetesimals. However, these investigations have been limited to small-scale simulations. We now present the results of a global protoplanetary disk evolution model that incorporates planetesimal formation by the streaming instability, along with viscous accretion, photoevaporation by EUV, FUV, and X-ray photons, dust evolution, the water ice line, and stratified turbulence. Our simulations produce massive (60–130 M {sub ⊕}) planetesimal belts beyond 100 au and up to ∼20 M {sub ⊕} of planetesimals in the middle regions (3–100 au). Our most comprehensive model forms 8 M {sub ⊕} of planetesimals inside 3 au, where they can give rise to terrestrial planets. The planetesimal mass formed in the inner disk depends critically on the timing of the formation of an inner cavity in the disk by high-energy photons. Our results show that the combination of photoevaporation and the streaming instability are efficient at converting the solid component of protoplanetary disks into planetesimals. Our model, however, does not form enough early planetesimals in the inner and middle regions of the disk to give rise to giant planets and super-Earths with gaseous envelopes. Additional processes such as particle pileups and mass loss driven by MHD winds may be needed to drive the formation of early planetesimal generations in the planet-forming regions of protoplanetary disks.

  12. The effect of body size evolution and ecology on encephalization in cave bears and extant relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitschegger, Kristof

    2017-06-05

    The evolution of larger brain volumes relative to body size in Mammalia is the subject of an extensive amount of research. Early on palaeontologists were interested in the brain of cave bears, Ursus spelaeus, and described its morphology and size. However, until now, it was not possible to compare the absolute or relative brain size in a phylogenetic context due to the lack of an established phylogeny, comparative material, and phylogenetic comparative methods. In recent years, many tools for comparing traits within phylogenies were developed and the phylogenetic position of cave bears was resolved based on nuclear as well as mtDNA. Cave bears exhibit significantly lower encephalization compared to their contemporary relatives and intraspecific brain mass variation remained rather small. Encephalization was correlated with the combined dormancy-diet score. Body size evolution was a main driver in the degree of encephalization in cave bears as it increased in a much higher pace than brain size. In Ursus spelaeus, brain and body size increase over time albeit differently paced. This rate pattern is different in the highest encephalized bear species within the dataset, Ursus malayanus. The brain size in this species increased while body size heavily decreased compared to its ancestral stage. Early on in the evolution of cave bears encephalization decreased making it one of the least encephalized bear species compared to extant and extinct members of Ursidae. The results give reason to suspect that as herbivorous animals, cave bears might have exhibited a physiological buffer strategy to survive the strong seasonality of their environment. Thus, brain size was probably affected by the negative trade-off with adipose tissue as well as diet. The decrease of relative brain size in the herbivorous Ursus spelaeus is the result of a considerable increase in body size possibly in combination with environmental conditions forcing them to rest during winters.

  13. THE VLA NASCENT DISK AND MULTIPLICITY SURVEY: FIRST LOOK AT RESOLVED CANDIDATE DISKS AROUND CLASS 0 AND I PROTOSTARS IN THE PERSEUS MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura-Cox, Dominique M.; Harris, Robert J.; Looney, Leslie W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Tobin, John J. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2000-RA Leiden (Netherlands); Li, Zhi-Yun [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Chandler, Claire; Perez, Laura [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kratter, Kaitlin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dunham, Michael M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sadavoy, Sarah [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Melis, Carl, E-mail: segurac2@illinois.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    We present the first dust emission results toward a sample of seven protostellar disk candidates around Class 0 and I sources in the Perseus molecular cloud from the VLA Nascent Disk and Multiplicity (VANDAM) survey with ∼0.″05 or 12 AU resolution. To examine the surface brightness profiles of these sources, we fit the Ka-band 8 mm dust-continuum data in the u, v-plane to a simple, parametrized model based on the Shakura–Sunyaev disk model. The candidate disks are well-fit by a model with a disk-shaped profile and have masses consistent with known Class 0 and I disks. The inner-disk surface densities of the VANDAM candidate disks have shallower density profiles compared to disks around more evolved Class II systems. The best-fit model radii of the seven early-result candidate disks are R{sub c} > 10 AU; at 8 mm, the radii reflect lower limits on the disk size since dust continuum emission is tied to grain size and large grains radially drift inwards. These relatively large disks, if confirmed kinematically, are inconsistent with theoretical models where the disk size is limited by strong magnetic braking to <10 AU at early times.

  14. SHADOWS CAST BY A WARP IN THE HD 142527 PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, S.; Perez, S.; Casassus, S., E-mail: smarino@das.uchile.cl [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D Santiago (Chile)

    2015-01-10

    Detailed observations of gaps in protoplanetary disks have revealed structures that drive current research on circumstellar disks. One such feature is the two intensity nulls seen along the outer disk of the HD 142527 system, which are particularly well traced in polarized differential imaging. Here we propose that these are shadows cast by the inner disk. The inner and outer disk are thick, in terms of the unit-opacity surface in the H band, so that the shape and orientation of the shadows inform on the three-dimensional structure of the system. Radiative transfer predictions on a parametric disk model allow us to conclude that the relative inclination between the inner and outer disks is 70° ± 5°. This finding taps the potential of high-contrast imaging of circumstellar disks, and bears consequences on the gas dynamics of gapped disks, as well as on the physical conditions in the shadowed regions.

  15. An alternative model for the origin of gaps in circumstellar disks

    OpenAIRE

    Vorobyov, Eduard I.; Regaly, Zsolt; Guedel, Manuel; Lin, D. N. C.

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by recent observational and numerical studies suggesting that collapsing protostellar cores may be replenished from the local environment, we explore the evolution of protostellar cores submerged in the external counter-rotating environment. These models predict the formation of counter-rotating disks with a deep gap in the gas surface density separating the inner disk (corotating with the star) and the outer counter-rotating disk. The properties of these gaps are compared to those ...

  16. Accretion and early evolution of Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saji, Nikitha Susan

    in solar system materials is found to be related to selective thermal processing of dust in the early nebula given the correlation observed for these eects with Fe-peak neutron-rich isotope anomalies, whose origin is attributed to distinct nucleosnythetic sites other than classical s-, r- or p......-sized dust, of which the early protoplanetary disk is initially composed of, coalesce over the course of several millions of years to form the precursors to planets that make up the solar system today. The final assembly of Earth-like planets is complete only after a protracted latestage evolution...... that extends over at least 100 Myr, characterized by violent collisions between Mars- to Moon-sized planetary embryos. Evidence for the many details of solar system evolution - such as the diverse stellar sources that contributed material to solar system bodies to what role disk processes and late...

  17. Disk-bend ductility tests for irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Braski, D.N.

    1984-01-01

    We modified the HEDL disk-bend test machine and are using it to qualitatively screen alloys that are susceptible to embrittlement caused by irradiation. Tests designed to understand the disk-bend test in relation to a uniaxial test are discussed. Selected results of tests of neutron-irradiated material are also presented

  18. Generation and evolution of anisotropic turbulence and related energy transfer in drifting proton-alpha plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneva, Y. G.; Poedts, S.

    2018-05-01

    The power spectra of magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind typically follow a power-law dependence with respect to the observed frequencies and wave-numbers. The background magnetic field often influences the plasma properties, setting a preferential direction for plasma heating and acceleration. At the same time the evolution of the solar-wind turbulence at the ion and electron scales is influenced by the plasma properties through local micro-instabilities and wave-particle interactions. The solar-wind-plasma temperature and the solar-wind turbulence at sub- and sup-ion scales simultaneously show anisotropic features, with different components and fluctuation power in parallel with and perpendicular to the orientation of the background magnetic field. The ratio between the power of the magnetic field fluctuations in parallel and perpendicular direction at the ion scales may vary with the heliospheric distance and depends on various parameters, including the local wave properties and nonthermal plasma features, such as temperature anisotropies and relative drift speeds. In this work we have performed two-and-a-half-dimensional hybrid simulations to study the generation and evolution of anisotropic turbulence in a drifting multi-ion species plasma. We investigate the evolution of the turbulent spectral slopes along and across the background magnetic field for the cases of initially isotropic and anisotropic turbulence. Finally, we show the effect of the various turbulent spectra for the local ion heating in the solar wind.

  19. Genomic comparison of closely related Giant Viruses supports an accordion-like model of evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eFilée

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Genome gigantism occurs so far in Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae (order Megavirales. Origin and evolution of these Giant Viruses (GVs remain open questions. Interestingly, availability of a collection of closely related GV genomes enabling genomic comparisons offer the opportunity to better understand the different evolutionary forces acting on these genomes. Whole genome alignment for 5 groups of viruses belonging to the Mimiviridae and Phycodnaviridae families show that there is no trend of genome expansion or general tendency of genome contraction. Instead, GV genomes accumulated genomic mutations over the time with gene gains compensating the different losses. In addition, each lineage displays specific patterns of genome evolution. Mimiviridae (megaviruses and mimiviruses and Chlorella Phycodnaviruses evolved mainly by duplications and losses of genes belonging to large paralogous families (including movements of diverse mobiles genetic elements, whereas Micromonas and Ostreococcus Phycodnaviruses derive most of their genetic novelties thought lateral gene transfers. Taken together, these data support an accordion-like model of evolution in which GV genomes have undergone successive steps of gene gain and gene loss, accrediting the hypothesis that genome gigantism appears early, before the diversification of the different GV lineages.

  20. Genomic comparison of closely related Giant Viruses supports an accordion-like model of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filée, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Genome gigantism occurs so far in Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae (order Megavirales). Origin and evolution of these Giant Viruses (GVs) remain open questions. Interestingly, availability of a collection of closely related GV genomes enabling genomic comparisons offer the opportunity to better understand the different evolutionary forces acting on these genomes. Whole genome alignment for five groups of viruses belonging to the Mimiviridae and Phycodnaviridae families show that there is no trend of genome expansion or general tendency of genome contraction. Instead, GV genomes accumulated genomic mutations over the time with gene gains compensating the different losses. In addition, each lineage displays specific patterns of genome evolution. Mimiviridae (megaviruses and mimiviruses) and Chlorella Phycodnaviruses evolved mainly by duplications and losses of genes belonging to large paralogous families (including movements of diverse mobiles genetic elements), whereas Micromonas and Ostreococcus Phycodnaviruses derive most of their genetic novelties thought lateral gene transfers. Taken together, these data support an accordion-like model of evolution in which GV genomes have undergone successive steps of gene gain and gene loss, accrediting the hypothesis that genome gigantism appears early, before the diversification of the different GV lineages.

  1. Dynamical behaviour of gaseous halo in a disk galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeuchi, S.; Habe, A.

    1981-01-01

    Assuming that the gas in the halo of a disk galaxy is supplied from the disk as a hot gas, the authors have studied its dynamical and thermal behaviour by means of a time dependent, two-dimensional hydrodynamic code. They suppose the following boundary conditions at the disk. (i) The hot gas with the temperature Tsub(d) and the density nsub(d) is uniform at r=4-12 kpc in the disk and it is time independent. (ii) This hot gas rotates with the stellar disk in the same velocity. (iii) This hot gas can escape freely from the disk to the halo. These conditions will be verified if the filling factor of hot gas is so large as f=0.5-0.8, as proposed by McKee and Ostriker (1977). The gas motion in the halo has been studied for wider ranges of gas temperature and its density at the disk than previously studied. At the same time, the authors have clarified the observability of various types of gaseous haloes and discuss the roles of gaseous halo on the evolution of galaxies. (Auth.)

  2. Irradiation instability at the inner edges of accretion disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, Jeffrey; Artymowicz, Pawel, E-mail: fung@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2014-07-20

    An instability can potentially operate in highly irradiated disks where the disk sharply transitions from being radially transparent to opaque (the 'transition region'). Such conditions may exist at the inner edges of transitional disks around T Tauri stars and accretion disks around active galactic nuclei. We derive the criterion for this instability, which we term the 'irradiation instability', or IRI. We also present the linear growth rate as a function of β, the ratio between radiation force and gravity, and c{sub s}, the sound speed of the disk, obtained using two methods: a semi-analytic analysis of the linearized equations and a numerical simulation using the GPU-accelerated hydrodynamical code PEnGUIn. In particular, we find that IRI occurs at β ∼ 0.1 if the transition region extends as wide as ∼0.05r, and at higher β values if it is wider. This threshold value applies to c{sub s} ranging from 3% of the Keplerian orbital speed to 5%, and becomes higher if c{sub s} is lower. Furthermore, in the nonlinear evolution of the instability, disks with a large β and small c{sub s} exhibit 'clumping', extreme local surface density enhancements that can reach over 10 times the initial disk surface density.

  3. Pre-main-sequence disk accretion in Z Canis Majoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, L.; Kenyon, S.J.; Hewett, R.; Edwards, S.; Strom, K.M.; Strom, S.E.; Stauffer, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    It is suggested that the pre-main-sequence object Z CMa is a luminous accretion disk, similar in many respects to the FU Orionis variables. Z CMa shows the broad, doubled optical absorption lines expected from a rapidly rotating accretion disk. The first overtone CO absorption detected in Z CMa is blue-shifted, suggesting line formation in a disk wind. Accretion at rates about 0.001 solar mass/yr over 100 yr is required to explain the luminosity of Z CMa. The large amount of material accreted (0.1 solar mass/yr) indicates that Z CMa is in a very early stage of stellar evolution, possibly in an initial phase of massive disk accretion. 41 references

  4. Self-gravity in Magnetized Neutrino-dominated Accretion Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahamat, Narjes; Abbassi, Shahram, E-mail: abbassi@um.ac.ir [Department of Physics, School of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, P.O. Box 91775-1436 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-08-10

    In the present work we study self-gravity effects on the vertical structure of a magnetized neutrino-dominated accretion disk as a central engine for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Some of the disk physical timescales that are supposed to play a pivotal role in the late-time evolutions of the disk, such as viscous, cooling, and diffusion timescales, have been studied. We are interested in investigating the possibility of the occurrence of X-ray flares, observed in late-time GRBs’ extended emission through the “magnetic barrier” and “fragmentation” processes in our model. The results lead us to interpret self-gravity as an amplifier for Blandford–Payne luminosity (BP power) and the generated magnetic field, but a suppressor for neutrino luminosity and magnetic barrier processes via highlighting the fragmentation mechanism in the outer disk, especially for the higher mass accretion rates.

  5. Sampling from a polytope and hard-disk Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapfer, Sebastian C; Krauth, Werner

    2013-01-01

    The hard-disk problem, the statics and the dynamics of equal two-dimensional hard spheres in a periodic box, has had a profound influence on statistical and computational physics. Markov-chain Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics were first discussed for this model. Here we reformulate hard-disk Monte Carlo algorithms in terms of another classic problem, namely the sampling from a polytope. Local Markov-chain Monte Carlo, as proposed by Metropolis et al. in 1953, appears as a sequence of random walks in high-dimensional polytopes, while the moves of the more powerful event-chain algorithm correspond to molecular dynamics evolution. We determine the convergence properties of Monte Carlo methods in a special invariant polytope associated with hard-disk configurations, and the implications for convergence of hard-disk sampling. Finally, we discuss parallelization strategies for event-chain Monte Carlo and present results for a multicore implementation

  6. Pre-main-sequence disk accretion in Z Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, L.; Kenyon, S. J.; Hewett, R.; Edwards, S.; Strom, K. M.; Strom, S. E.; Stauffer, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    It is suggested that the pre-main-sequence object Z CMa is a luminous accretion disk, similar in many respects to the FU Orionis variables. Z CMa shows the broad, doubled optical absorption lines expected from a rapidly rotating accretion disk. The first overtone CO absorption detected in Z CMa is blue-shifted, suggesting line formation in a disk wind. Accretion at rates about 0.001 solar mass/yr over 100 yr is required to explain the luminosity of Z CMa. The large amount of material accreted (0.1 solar mass/yr) indicates that Z CMa is in a very early stage of stellar evolution, possibly in an initial phase of massive disk accretion.

  7. The Stability of Galaxy Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, K. B.; Andersen, D. R.; Bershady, M. A.; Martinsson, T. P. K.; Swaters, R. A.; Verheijen, M. A. W.

    2014-03-01

    We calculate the stellar surface mass density (Σ*) and two-component (gas+stars) disk stability (QRW) for 25 late-type galaxies from the DiskMass Survey. These calculations are based on fits of a dynamical model to our ionized-gas and stellar kinematic data performed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the Bayesian posterior. Marginalizing over all galaxies, we find a median value of QRW = 2.0±0.9 at 1.5 scale lengths. We also find that QRW is anti-correlated with the star-formation rate surface density (Σ*), which can be predicted using a closed set of empirical scaling relations. Finally, we find that the star-formation efficiency (Σ*/Σg) is correlated with Σ* and weakly anti-correlated with QRW. The former is consistent with an equilibrium prediction of Σ*/Σg ∝ Σ*1/2. Despite its order-of-magnitude range, we find no correlation of Σ*/ΣgΣ*1/2 with any other physical quantity derived by our study.

  8. The evolution of income inequality and relative poverty in Italy: 1987-2010

    OpenAIRE

    BIAGI FEDERICO; CASALONE Giorgia

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the evolution of poverty and inequality in Italy in the period 1987-2010. Our data are from the Bank of Italy Survey of Household Income and Wealth and the variable of interest is real income (reference year is 2009), defined using price indexes that are allowed to vary by region and that allow us to make comparisons in levels of real incomes. We construct relative poverty and inequality indexes using equivalent income obtained by applying two types of equivalence scale...

  9. The relation among the hyperbolic-function-type exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunping; Liu Xiaoping

    2004-01-01

    First, we investigate the solitary wave solutions of the Burgers equation and the KdV equation, which are obtained by using the hyperbolic function method. Then we present a theorem which will not only give us a clear relation among the hyperbolic-function-type exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations, but also provide us an approach to construct new exact solutions in complex scalar field. Finally, we apply the theorem to the KdV-Burgers equation and obtain its new exact solutions

  10. QPOs and Resonance in Accretion Disks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kluzniak, W.; Abramowicz, M. A.; Bursa, Michal; Török, G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 27, Marzo 2007 (2007), s. 18-25 ISSN 1405-2059 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300030510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : quasi-periodic oscillations * accretion disks * general relativity Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  11. THE DISK IMAGING SURVEY OF CHEMISTRY WITH SMA. I. TAURUS PROTOPLANETARY DISK DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeberg, Karin I.; Qi Chunhua; Andrews, Sean M.; Espaillat, Catherine; Van Kempen, Tim A.; Wilner, David J.; Fogel, Jeffrey K. J.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Pascucci, Ilaria

    2010-01-01

    Chemistry plays an important role in the structure and evolution of protoplanetary disks, with implications for the composition of comets and planets. This is the first of a series of papers based on data from DISCS, a Submillimeter Array survey of the chemical composition of protoplanetary disks. The six Taurus sources in the program (DM Tau, AA Tau, LkCa 15, GM Aur, CQ Tau, and MWC 480) range in stellar spectral type from M1 to A4 and offer an opportunity to test the effects of stellar luminosity on the disk chemistry. The disks were observed in 10 different lines at ∼3'' resolution and an rms of ∼100 mJy beam -1 at ∼0.5 km s -1 . The four brightest lines are CO 2-1, HCO + 3-2, CN 2 33/4/2 - 1 22/3/1 , and HCN 3-2, and these are detected toward all sources (except for HCN toward CQ Tau). The weaker lines of CN 2 22 -1 11 , DCO + 3-2, N 2 H + 3-2, H 2 CO 3 03 -2 02 , and 4 14 -3 13 are detected toward two to three disks each, and DCN 3-2 only toward LkCa 15. CH 3 OH 4 21 -3 1 2 and c-C 3 H 2 are not detected. There is no obvious difference between the T Tauri and Herbig Ae sources with regard to CN and HCN intensities. In contrast, DCO + , DCN, N 2 H + , and H 2 CO are detected only toward the T Tauri stars, suggesting that the disks around Herbig Ae stars lack cold regions for long enough timescales to allow for efficient deuterium chemistry, CO freeze-out, and grain chemistry.

  12. Why do disk galaxies present a common gas-phase metallicity gradient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R.; Zhang, Shuhui; Shen, Shiyin; Yin, Jun; Hou, Jinliang

    2017-03-01

    CALIFA data show that isolated disk galaxies present a common gas-phase metallicity gradient, with a characteristic slope of -0.1dex/re between 0.3 and 2 disk effective radius re (Sanchez et al. 2014). Here we construct a simple model to investigate which processes regulate the formation and evolution.

  13. Audit: Automated Disk Investigation Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Karabiyik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Software tools designed for disk analysis play a critical role today in forensics investigations. However, these digital forensics tools are often difficult to use, usually task specific, and generally require professionally trained users with IT backgrounds. The relevant tools are also often open source requiring additional technical knowledge and proper configuration. This makes it difficult for investigators without some computer science background to easily conduct the needed disk analysis. In this paper, we present AUDIT, a novel automated disk investigation toolkit that supports investigations conducted by non-expert (in IT and disk technology and expert investigators. Our proof of concept design and implementation of AUDIT intelligently integrates open source tools and guides non-IT professionals while requiring minimal technical knowledge about the disk structures and file systems of the target disk image.

  14. The Relation between Recombination Rate and Patterns of Molecular Evolution and Variation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, José L.; Halligan, Daniel L.; Haddrill, Penelope R.; Charlesworth, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Genetic recombination associated with sexual reproduction increases the efficiency of natural selection by reducing the strength of Hill–Robertson interference. Such interference can be caused either by selective sweeps of positively selected alleles or by background selection (BGS) against deleterious mutations. Its consequences can be studied by comparing patterns of molecular evolution and variation in genomic regions with different rates of crossing over. We carried out a comprehensive study of the benefits of recombination in Drosophila melanogaster, both by contrasting five independent genomic regions that lack crossing over with the rest of the genome and by comparing regions with different rates of crossing over, using data on DNA sequence polymorphisms from an African population that is geographically close to the putatively ancestral population for the species, and on sequence divergence from a related species. We observed reductions in sequence diversity in noncrossover (NC) regions that are inconsistent with the effects of hard selective sweeps in the absence of recombination. Overall, the observed patterns suggest that the recombination rate experienced by a gene is positively related to an increase in the efficiency of both positive and purifying selection. The results are consistent with a BGS model with interference among selected sites in NC regions, and joint effects of BGS, selective sweeps, and a past population expansion on variability in regions of the genome that experience crossing over. In such crossover regions, the X chromosome exhibits a higher rate of adaptive protein sequence evolution than the autosomes, implying a Faster-X effect. PMID:24489114

  15. GNBP domain of Anopheles darlingi: are polymorphic inversions and gene variation related to adaptive evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridi, L C; Rafael, M S

    2016-02-01

    Anopheles darlingi is the main malaria vector in humans in South America. In the Amazon basin, it lives along the banks of rivers and lakes, which responds to the annual hydrological cycle (dry season and rainy season). In these breeding sites, the larvae of this mosquito feed on decomposing organic and microorganisms, which can be pathogenic and trigger the activation of innate immune system pathways, such as proteins Gram-negative binding protein (GNBP). Such environmental changes affect the occurrence of polymorphic inversions especially at the heterozygote frequency, which confer adaptative advantage compared to homozygous inversions. We mapped the GNBP probe to the An. darlingi 2Rd inversion by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), which was a good indicator of the GNBP immune response related to the chromosomal polymorphic inversions and adaptative evolution. To better understand the evolutionary relations and time of divergence of the GNBP of An. darlingi, we compared it with nine other mosquito GNBPs. The results of the phylogenetic analysis of the GNBP sequence between the species of mosquitoes demonstrated three clades. Clade I and II included the GNBPB5 sequence, and clade III the sequence of GNBPB1. Most of these sequences of GNBP analyzed were homologous with that of subfamily B, including that of An. gambiae (87 %), therefore suggesting that GNBP of An. darling belongs to subfamily B. This work helps us understand the role of inversion polymorphism in evolution of An. darlingi.

  16. Kiloparsec-scale Simulations of Star Formation in Disk Galaxies. IV. Regulation of Galactic Star Formation Rates by Stellar Feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, Michael J.; Tan, Jonathan C.; Teyssier, Romain; Nickerson, Sarah; Rosdahl, Joakim; Van Loo, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Star formation from the interstellar medium of galactic disks is a basic process controlling the evolution of galaxies. Understanding the star formation rate (SFR) in a local patch of a disk with a given gas mass is thus an important challenge for theoretical models. Here we simulate a kiloparsec region of a disk, following the evolution of self-gravitating molecular clouds down to subparsec scales, as they form stars that then inject feedback energy by dissociating and ionizing UV photons and supernova explosions. We assess the relative importance of each feedback mechanism. We find that H 2 -dissociating feedback results in the largest absolute reduction in star formation compared to the run with no feedback. Subsequently adding photoionization feedback produces a more modest reduction. Our fiducial models that combine all three feedback mechanisms yield, without fine-tuning, SFRs that are in excellent agreement with observations, with H 2 -dissociating photons playing a crucial role. Models that only include supernova feedback—a common method in galaxy evolution simulations—settle to similar SFRs, but with very different temperatures and chemical states of the gas, and with very different spatial distributions of young stars.

  17. Kiloparsec-scale Simulations of Star Formation in Disk Galaxies. IV. Regulation of Galactic Star Formation Rates by Stellar Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Michael J. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Tan, Jonathan C. [Departments of Astronomy and Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Teyssier, Romain; Nickerson, Sarah [Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, 8049 Zurich (Switzerland); Rosdahl, Joakim [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Van Loo, Sven [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-01

    Star formation from the interstellar medium of galactic disks is a basic process controlling the evolution of galaxies. Understanding the star formation rate (SFR) in a local patch of a disk with a given gas mass is thus an important challenge for theoretical models. Here we simulate a kiloparsec region of a disk, following the evolution of self-gravitating molecular clouds down to subparsec scales, as they form stars that then inject feedback energy by dissociating and ionizing UV photons and supernova explosions. We assess the relative importance of each feedback mechanism. We find that H{sub 2}-dissociating feedback results in the largest absolute reduction in star formation compared to the run with no feedback. Subsequently adding photoionization feedback produces a more modest reduction. Our fiducial models that combine all three feedback mechanisms yield, without fine-tuning, SFRs that are in excellent agreement with observations, with H{sub 2}-dissociating photons playing a crucial role. Models that only include supernova feedback—a common method in galaxy evolution simulations—settle to similar SFRs, but with very different temperatures and chemical states of the gas, and with very different spatial distributions of young stars.

  18. Destruction of Refractory Carbon in Protoplanetary Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Dana E.; Blake, Geoffrey A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bergin, Edwin A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1107 (United States); Ciesla, Fred J. [Department of Geophysical Sciences, The University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Visser, Ruud [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Lee, Jeong-Eun [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, 1732, Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-10

    The Earth and other rocky bodies in the inner solar system contain significantly less carbon than the primordial materials that seeded their formation. These carbon-poor objects include the parent bodies of primitive meteorites, suggesting that at least one process responsible for solid-phase carbon depletion was active prior to the early stages of planet formation. Potential mechanisms include the erosion of carbonaceous materials by photons or atomic oxygen in the surface layers of the protoplanetary disk. Under photochemically generated favorable conditions, these reactions can deplete the near-surface abundance of carbon grains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by several orders of magnitude on short timescales relative to the lifetime of the disk out to radii of ∼20–100+ au from the central star depending on the form of refractory carbon present. Due to the reliance of destruction mechanisms on a high influx of photons, the extent of refractory carbon depletion is quite sensitive to the disk’s internal radiation field. Dust transport within the disk is required to affect the composition of the midplane. In our current model of a passive, constant- α disk, where α = 0.01, carbon grains can be turbulently lofted into the destructive surface layers and depleted out to radii of ∼3–10 au for 0.1–1 μ m grains. Smaller grains can be cleared out of the planet-forming region completely. Destruction may be more effective in an actively accreting disk or when considering individual grain trajectories in non-idealized disks.

  19. IBM 3390 Hard Disk Platter

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    The 3390 disks rotated faster than those in the previous model 3380. Faster disk rotation reduced rotational delay (ie. the time required for the correct area of the disk surface to move to the point where data could be read or written). In the 3390's initial models, the average rotational delay was reduced to 7.1 milliseconds from 8.3 milliseconds for the 3380 family.

  20. CAPTURE OF PLANETESIMALS BY GAS DRAG FROM CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tetsuya; Ohtsuki, Keiji; Suetsugu, Ryo; Tanigawa, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    Growing giant planets have circumplanetary disks around them in the late stage of their formation if their mass is sufficiently large. We examine capture of relatively large planetesimals that are decoupled from the gas inflow, due to gas drag from a circumplanetary disk of a growing giant planet. Assuming that the structure of the circumplanetary disk is axisymmetric, and solving the three-body problem including gas drag, we perform analytic and numerical calculations for capture of planetesimals. When planetesimal random velocity is small, planetesimals approaching in the retrograde direction are more easily captured, owing to their larger velocity relative to the gas. Planetesimals with large orbital inclinations interact with the disk for a short period of time and show lower capture rates. The effect of ablation on capture rates seems insignificant, although mass loss due to ablation would be significant in the case of high random velocity. We also examine the effect of non-uniform radial distribution of planetesimals in the protoplanetary disk due to gap opening by the planet. When the random velocity of planetesimals is small, the planetesimal capture rate decreases rapidly as the half width of the gap in the planetesimal disk increases from two planetary Hill radii to three planetary Hill radii; planetesimals with low random velocities cannot approach the planet in the case of a sufficiently wide gap. Our results show that the radial distribution and random velocity of planetesimals in the protoplanetary disk are essentially important for the understanding of capture of planetesimals by circumplanetary disks

  1. COSMIC EVOLUTION OF DUST IN GALAXIES: METHODS AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the redshift (z) evolution of dust mass and abundance, their dependences on initial conditions of galaxy formation, and physical correlations between dust, gas, and stellar contents at different z based on our original chemodynamical simulations of galaxy formation with dust growth and destruction. In this preliminary investigation, we first determine the reasonable ranges of the most important two parameters for dust evolution, i.e., the timescales of dust growth and destruction, by comparing the observed and simulated dust mass and abundances and molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) content of the Galaxy. We then investigate the z-evolution of dust-to-gas ratios (D), H 2 gas fraction (f H 2 ), and gas-phase chemical abundances (e.g., A O = 12 + log (O/H)) in the simulated disk and dwarf galaxies. The principal results are as follows. Both D and f H 2 can rapidly increase during the early dissipative formation of galactic disks (z ∼ 2-3), and the z-evolution of these depends on initial mass densities, spin parameters, and masses of galaxies. The observed A O -D relation can be qualitatively reproduced, but the simulated dispersion of D at a given A O is smaller. The simulated galaxies with larger total dust masses show larger H 2 and stellar masses and higher f H 2 . Disk galaxies show negative radial gradients of D and the gradients are steeper for more massive galaxies. The observed evolution of dust masses and dust-to-stellar-mass ratios between z = 0 and 0.4 cannot be reproduced so well by the simulated disks. Very extended dusty gaseous halos can be formed during hierarchical buildup of disk galaxies. Dust-to-metal ratios (i.e., dust-depletion levels) are different within a single galaxy and between different galaxies at different z

  2. COSMIC EVOLUTION OF DUST IN GALAXIES: METHODS AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009 (Australia)

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the redshift (z) evolution of dust mass and abundance, their dependences on initial conditions of galaxy formation, and physical correlations between dust, gas, and stellar contents at different z based on our original chemodynamical simulations of galaxy formation with dust growth and destruction. In this preliminary investigation, we first determine the reasonable ranges of the most important two parameters for dust evolution, i.e., the timescales of dust growth and destruction, by comparing the observed and simulated dust mass and abundances and molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) content of the Galaxy. We then investigate the z-evolution of dust-to-gas ratios (D), H{sub 2} gas fraction (f{sub H{sub 2}}), and gas-phase chemical abundances (e.g., A {sub O} = 12 + log (O/H)) in the simulated disk and dwarf galaxies. The principal results are as follows. Both D and f{sub H{sub 2}} can rapidly increase during the early dissipative formation of galactic disks (z ∼ 2-3), and the z-evolution of these depends on initial mass densities, spin parameters, and masses of galaxies. The observed A {sub O}-D relation can be qualitatively reproduced, but the simulated dispersion of D at a given A {sub O} is smaller. The simulated galaxies with larger total dust masses show larger H{sub 2} and stellar masses and higher f{sub H{sub 2}}. Disk galaxies show negative radial gradients of D and the gradients are steeper for more massive galaxies. The observed evolution of dust masses and dust-to-stellar-mass ratios between z = 0 and 0.4 cannot be reproduced so well by the simulated disks. Very extended dusty gaseous halos can be formed during hierarchical buildup of disk galaxies. Dust-to-metal ratios (i.e., dust-depletion levels) are different within a single galaxy and between different galaxies at different z.

  3. OT2_amoor_4: A census of debris disks in nearby young moving groups with Herschel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moór, A.

    2011-09-01

    Nearly all young stars harbour circumstellar disks, that serve as the reservoir for mass accretion onto the star, and later become the birthplace of planetary systems. After the disappearance of the gas component from the disk a dusty debris disk is formed that is believed to mark the location of the planetesimal belt as well. For outlining the evolution of such debris disks traditionally open clusters and field stars were studied, however we argue that the recently discovered young moving groups are more suitable objects for such analyses, due to their proximity and good coverage of the first 50 Myr period of the planetary system evolution. In this proposal we request 70/160 um Herschel/PACS photometric observations for so-far unobserved moving group members. These observations will provide a complete coverage of all known members within 80 pc of five nearby young moving groups (beta Pic Moving Group, Tucana-Horologium, Carina, Columba, and Argus), in the A to K spectral range. Based on the new observations we will identify new debris disks, characterize the disk population within individual moving groups, and study disk evolution by comparing the groups of different ages. The results will be used to verify predictions of the self-stirring model of the evolution of planetesimal disks. We will also compare the properties of debris disks in groups of the same age, looking for additional 'environmental' parameters that affect disk structure over a whole moving group. Our study will be a significant contribution to the census of debris disks in young moving groups, increasing the number of observed sources by a factor of 1.5. Since Spitzer could perform only a limited census and the so-far approved Herschel programs added very few additional moving group obervations, our programme is expected to have a high legacy value.

  4. THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISK-PLANET TORQUES IN A LOCALLY ISOTHERMAL DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, Gennaro; Lubow, Stephen H.

    2010-01-01

    We determine an expression for the Type I planet migration torque involving a locally isothermal disk, with moderate turbulent viscosity (5 x 10 -4 ∼< α ∼< 0.05), based on three-dimensional nonlinear hydrodynamical simulations. The radial gradients (in a dimensionless logarithmic form) of density and temperature are assumed to be constant near the planet. We find that the torque is roughly equally sensitive to the surface density and temperature radial gradients. Both gradients contribute to inward migration when they are negative. Our results indicate that two-dimensional calculations with a smoothed planet potential, used to account for the effects of the third dimension, do not accurately determine the effects of density and temperature gradients on the three-dimensional torque. The results suggest that substantially slowing or stopping planet migration by means of changes in disk opacity or shadowing is difficult and appears unlikely for a disk that is locally isothermal. The scalings of the torque and torque density with planet mass and gas sound speed follow the expectations of linear theory. We also determine an improved formula for the torque density distribution that can be used in one-dimensional long-term evolution studies of planets embedded in locally isothermal disks. This formula can be also applied in the presence of mildly varying radial gradients and of planets that open gaps. We illustrate its use in the case of migrating super-Earths and determine some conditions sufficient for survival.

  5. PLANETESIMAL AND PROTOPLANET DYNAMICS IN A TURBULENT PROTOPLANETARY DISK: IDEAL STRATIFIED DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chao-Chin; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Menou, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    Due to the gravitational influence of density fluctuations driven by magneto-rotational instability in the gas disk, planetesimals and protoplanets undergo diffusive radial migration as well as changes in other orbital properties. The magnitude of the effect on particle orbits can have important consequences for planet formation scenarios. We use the local-shearing-box approximation to simulate an ideal, isothermal, magnetized gas disk with vertical density stratification and simultaneously evolve numerous massless particles moving under the gravitational field of the gas and the host star. We measure the evolution of the particle orbital properties, including mean radius, eccentricity, inclination, and velocity dispersion, and its dependence on the disk properties and the particle initial conditions. Although the results converge with resolution for fixed box dimensions, we find the response of the particles to the gravity of the turbulent gas correlates with the horizontal box size, up to 16 disk scale heights. This correlation indicates that caution should be exercised when interpreting local-shearing-box models involving gravitational physics of magneto-rotational turbulence. Based on heuristic arguments, nevertheless, the criterion L h /R ∼ O(1), where L h is the horizontal box size and R is the distance to the host star, is proposed to possibly circumvent this conundrum. If this criterion holds, we can still conclude that magneto-rotational turbulence seems likely to be ineffective at driving either diffusive migration or collisional erosion under most circumstances.

  6. The Evolution of Scientific Trajectories in Rice: Mapping the Relation between Research and Societal Priorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciarli, T.; Rafols, I.

    2016-07-01

    How do specific technologies emerge? How is the scientific research related to technologies prioritised, in governments, firms, universities, and other actors involved in research? Related to these questions is the question of how we investigate trajectories of science and technologies, and how to model their relation. In this paper we aim to answer the initial question for a case study, rice, proposing to use new data, methods, and indicators. We discuss a number of insights on the evolution of the research trajectory on rice since the 1980’s, worldwide and for a number of countries which dominate the world rankings in rice production and/or in rice publications. Using a number of socio-economic indicators at the country level, we relate priorities on the research side (publication topics) and on the societal side finding limited relations between supply and demand of research. In the paper we also discuss the combination of scientometric and socio-economic indicators, suggesting that they may be useful for future research on the relation between societal needs and research priorities. (Author)

  7. Chronological Evolution of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Children With Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Coppola, Marianna S; Shah, Namrata; Choudhri, Asim F; Morgan, Robin; Wheless, James W

    2016-02-01

    To describe and analyze the chronological evolution of the radiological findings in seven children with febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome. This is a retrospective study describing the radiological findings and evolution in seven children with febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome who presented from 2009 to 2013. The children all fit the defined clinical criteria for febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome; all had a history of normal psychomotor development who presented with acute-onset catastrophic partial status epilepticus associated with a febrile illness or unspecific infectious process. The children were identified from the author's weekly review of the pediatric inpatient service, and then the data were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Six males and one female ranging from 3 months to 9 years of age presented with status epilepticus preceded by a febrile illness. Extensive investigations for infectious, autoimmune, and metabolic etiologies were unremarkable. Multiple antiepileptic medications were attempted, including drug-induced coma in all of them, with poor response. Immunotherapy with intravenous steroids or intravenous immunoglobulin (three patients had both) was tried in six of seven patients with a poor response. Ketogenic diet was initiated in four of seven patients with limited response. Serial magnetic resonance imaging studies, done from the initial presentation through 18 months of follow-up, showed evolution from normal imaging to severe cerebral atrophy. Progressive cytotoxic edema involving mostly bilateral hippocampi and temporal lobes was appreciated in one to three weeks. At one month from seizure onset, mild to moderate cerebral atrophy and hippocampal sclerosis was appreciated that continued to progress over the next year. After six to twelve months, most of the patients showed moderate to severe cerebral atrophy and by one year, cerebellar atrophy was also appreciated. Febrile infection-related epilepsy

  8. The HCN-Water Ratio in the Planet Formation Region of Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Najita, J.; Carr, J.; Pontoppidan, K.; Salyk, C.; Dishoeck, van E.F.; Blake, G.

    2013-01-01

    We find a trend between the mid-infrared HCN/H$_{2}$O flux ratio and submillimeter disk mass among T Tauri stars in Taurus. While it may seem puzzling that the molecular emission properties of the inner disk ({lt}few AU) are related to the properties of the outer disk (beyond ~{}20 AU) probed by the

  9. The outer disks of early-type galaxies. I. Surface-brightness profiles of barred galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erwin, Peter; Pohlen, Michael; Beckman, John E.

    We present a study of 66 barred, early-type (S0-Sb) disk galaxies, focused on the disk surface brightness profile outside the bar region, with the aim of throwing light on the nature of Freeman type I and II profiles, their origins, and their possible relation to disk truncations. This paper

  10. Spectral energy distributions of T Tauri stars - disk flaring and limits on accretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, S.J.; Hartmann, L.

    1987-01-01

    The Adams et al. (1987) conclusion that much of the IR excess emission in the spectral energy distribution of T Tauri stars arises from reprocessing of stellar radiation by a dusty circumstellar disk is presently supported by analyses conducted in light of various models of these stars' spectra. A low mass reprocessing disk can, however, produce these spectra as well as a massive accretion disk. The detection of possible boundary layer radiation in the optical and near-UV regions poses the strongest limits on accretion rates. Disk accretion in the T Tauri phase does not significantly modify stellar evolution. 85 references

  11. Determination of the relations governing the evolution of the standard deviations of the distribution of pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabol, B.

    1985-04-01

    An original concept on the difference of behaviour of the high frequency (small-scale) and low frequency (large-scale) atmospheric turbulence relatively to the mean wind speed has been introduced. Through a dimensional analysis based on TAYLOR's formulation, it has been shown that the parameter of the atmospheric dispersion standard-deviations was the travel distance near the source, and the travel time far from the source. Using hypotheses on the energy spectrum in the atmosphere, a numerical application has made it possible to quantify the evolution of the horizontal standard deviation for different mean wind speeds between 0,2 and 10m/s. The areas of validity of the parameter (travel distance or travel time) are clearly shown. The first one is confined in the near field and is all the smaller if the wind speed decreases. For t > 5000s, the dependence on the wind speed of the horizontal standard-deviation expressed in function of the travel time becomes insignificant. The horizontal standard-deviation is only function of the travel time. Results are compared with experimental data obtained in the atmosphere. The similar evolution of the calculated and experimental curves confirms the validity of the hypothesis and input data in calculation. This study can be applied to radioactive effluents transport in the atmosphere

  12. Tidal Disruption Events from Eccentric Nuclear Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernke, Heather N.; Madigan, Ann-Marie

    2018-04-01

    Stars that get too close to a supermassive black hole are in danger of being tidally disrupted. Stellar two-body relaxation is commonly assumed to be the main driver of these events. Recent work has shown, however, that secular gravitational torques from eccentric nuclear disks can push stars to extreme eccentricities at much higher rates than predicted by two-body relaxation. This work did not include the effects of general relativity, however, which could quench secular torques via rapid apsidal precession. Here we show that, for a star in danger of disruption, general relativity acts on a timescale of less than an orbital period. This short timescale means that general relativity does not have enough time to have a major effect on the orbit. When driven by secular torques from eccentric nuclear disks, tidal disruption event rates are not affected by general relativity.

  13. A sample of potential disk hosting first ascent red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Amy; Debes, John

    2018-01-01

    Observations of (sub)giants with planets and disks provide the first set of proof that disks can survive the first stages of post-main-sequence evolution, even though the disks are expected to dissipate by this time. The infrared (IR) excesses present around a number of post-main-sequence (PMS) stars could be due to a traditional debris disk with planets (e.g. kappa CrB), some remnant of enhanced mass loss (e.g. the shell-like structure of R Sculptoris), and/or background contamination. We present a sample of potential disk hosting first ascent red giants. These stars all have infrared excesses at 22 microns, and possibly host circumstellar debris. We summarize the characteristics of the sample to better inform the incidence rates of thermally emitting material around giant stars. A thorough follow-up study of these candidates would serve as the first step in probing the composition of the dust in these systems that have left the main sequence, providing clues to the degree of disk processing that occurs beyond the main-sequence.

  14. Melting of polydisperse hard disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, S.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    The melting of a polydisperse hard-disk system is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations in the semigrand canonical ensemble. This is done in the context of possible continuous melting by a dislocation-unbinding mechanism, as an extension of the two-dimensional hard-disk melting problem. We find

  15. The Stability of Galaxy Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westfall, K. B.; Andersen, D. R.; Bershady, M. A.; Martinsson, T. P. K.; Swaters, R. A.; Verheijen, M. A. W.; Seigar, M.S.; Treuthardt, P.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the stellar surface mass density (Σ*) and two-component (gas+stars) disk stability (QRW) for 25 late-type galaxies from the DiskMass Survey. These calculations are based on fits of a dynamical model to our ionized-gas and stellar kinematic data performed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo

  16. Vibration of imperfect rotating disk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2011), s. 205-216 ISSN 1802-680X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1166 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : bladed disk * imperfect disk * travelling waves Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.kme.zcu.cz/acm/index.php/acm/article/view/86

  17. SIGNIFICANT ENHANCEMENT OF H{sub 2} FORMATION IN DISK GALAXIES UNDER STRONG RAM PRESSURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Benjamin; Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2016-05-10

    We show for the first time that H{sub 2} formation on dust grains can be enhanced in disk galaxies under strong ram pressure (RP). We numerically investigate how the time evolution of H i and H{sub 2} components in disk galaxies orbiting a group/cluster of galaxies can be influenced by the hydrodynamical interaction between the gaseous components of the galaxies and the hot intracluster medium. We find that compression of H i caused by RP increases H{sub 2} formation in disk galaxies before RP rapidly strips H i, cutting off the fuel supply and causing a drop in H{sub 2} density. We also find that the level of this H{sub 2} formation enhancement in a disk galaxy under RP depends on the mass of its host cluster dark matter halo, the initial positions and velocities of the disk galaxy, and the disk inclination angle with respect to the orbital plane. We demonstrate that dust growth is a key factor in the evolution of the H i and H{sub 2} mass in disk galaxies under strong RP. We discuss how the correlation between H{sub 2} fractions and surface gas densities of disk galaxies evolves with time in the galaxies under RP. We also discuss whether galaxy-wide star formation rates (SFRs) in cluster disk galaxies can be enhanced by RP if the SFRs depend on H{sub 2} densities.

  18. The evolution of the causation concept and its relation with statistical methods in Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Lisboa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A historical review places the first registers of Epidemiology in ancient Greece, with Hippocrates, who identified environmental causes of diseases. Along the centuries, the evolution of the causation concept started to be related to changes in scientific paradigms. In London, during the 17th century, the quantitative method was introduced in Epidemiology, but it was only by the end of the 19th century that the concept of the environment and a mathematical approach to understanding Public Health issues were well established. This was a very rich period to setting new concepts and systematizations in epidemiologic methodology. The beginning of the 20th century consolidated Epidemiology as a scientific discipline and the development of computers in the post-war years brought much advance in this field. Nowadays, Epidemiology plays an important role as it integrates scientific knowledge on the health/disease process to the professional area, participating in population healthcare efforts.

  19. REDSHIFT EVOLUTION IN BLACK HOLE-BULGE RELATIONS: TESTING C IV-BASED BLACK HOLE MASSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Peng, Chien Y.; Ludwig, Randi R.

    2010-01-01

    We re-examine claims for redshift evolution in black hole-bulge scaling relations based on lensed quasars. In particular, we refine the black hole (BH) mass estimates using measurements of Balmer lines from near-infrared spectroscopy obtained with Triplespec at Apache Point Observatory. In support of previous work, we find a large scatter between Balmer and UV line widths, both Mg IIλλ2796, 2803 and C IVλλ1548, 1550. There is tentative evidence that C III]λ1909, despite being a blend of multiple transitions, may correlate well with Mg II, although a larger sample is needed for a real calibration. Most importantly, we find no systematic changes in the estimated BH masses for the lensed sample based on Balmer lines, providing additional support to the interpretation that black holes were overly massive compared to their host galaxies at high redshift.

  20. Pulsars in binary systems: probing binary stellar evolution and general relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stairs, Ingrid H

    2004-04-23

    Radio pulsars in binary orbits often have short millisecond spin periods as a result of mass transfer from their companion stars. They therefore act as very precise, stable, moving clocks that allow us to investigate a large set of otherwise inaccessible astrophysical problems. The orbital parameters derived from high-precision binary pulsar timing provide constraints on binary evolution, characteristics of the binary pulsar population, and the masses of neutron stars with different mass-transfer histories. These binary systems also test gravitational theories, setting strong limits on deviations from general relativity. Surveys for new pulsars yield new binary systems that increase our understanding of all these fields and may open up whole new areas of physics, as most spectacularly evidenced by the recent discovery of an extremely relativistic double-pulsar system.

  1. Evolution of cultural traits occurs at similar relative rates in different world regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thomas E; Mace, Ruth

    2014-11-22

    A fundamental issue in understanding human diversity is whether or not there are regular patterns and processes involved in cultural change. Theoretical and mathematical models of cultural evolution have been developed and are increasingly being used and assessed in empirical analyses. Here, we test the hypothesis that the rates of change of features of human socio-cultural organization are governed by general rules. One prediction of this hypothesis is that different cultural traits will tend to evolve at similar relative rates in different world regions, despite the unique historical backgrounds of groups inhabiting these regions. We used phylogenetic comparative methods and systematic cross-cultural data to assess how different socio-cultural traits changed in (i) island southeast Asia and the Pacific, and (ii) sub-Saharan Africa. The relative rates of change in these two regions are significantly correlated. Furthermore, cultural traits that are more directly related to external environmental conditions evolve more slowly than traits related to social structures. This is consistent with the idea that a form of purifying selection is acting with greater strength on these more environmentally linked traits. These results suggest that despite contingent historical events and the role of humans as active agents in the historical process, culture does indeed evolve in ways that can be predicted from general principles.

  2. Binary evolution and observational constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loore, C. de

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of close binaries is discussed in connection with problems concerning mass and angular momentum losses. Theoretical and observational evidence for outflow of matter, leaving the system during evolution is given: statistics on total masses and mass ratios, effects of the accretion of the mass gaining component, the presence of streams, disks, rings, circumstellar envelopes, period changes, abundance changes in the atmosphere. The effects of outflowing matter on the evolution is outlined, and estimates of the fraction of matter expelled by the loser, and leaving the system, are given. The various time scales involved with evolution and observation are compared. Examples of non conservative evolution are discussed. Problems related to contact phases, on mass and energy losses, in connection with entropy changes are briefly analysed. For advanced stages the disruption probabilities for supernova explosions are examined. A global picture is given for the evolution of massive close binaries, from ZAMS, through WR phases, X-ray phases, leading to runaway pulsars or to a binary pulsar and later to a millisecond pulsar. (Auth.)

  3. Cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters: X-ray scaling relations and their evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, N.; Rasia, E.; Mazzotta, P.; Planelles, S.; Biffi, V.; Fabjan, D.; Beck, A. M.; Borgani, S.; Dolag, K.; Gaspari, M.; Granato, G. L.; Murante, G.; Ragone-Figueroa, C.; Steinborn, L. K.

    2018-03-01

    We analyse cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters to study the X-ray scaling relations between total masses and observable quantities such as X-ray luminosity, gas mass, X-ray temperature, and YX. Three sets of simulations are performed with an improved version of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics GADGET-3 code. These consider the following: non-radiative gas, star formation and stellar feedback, and the addition of feedback by active galactic nuclei (AGN). We select clusters with M500 > 1014 M⊙E(z)-1, mimicking the typical selection of Sunyaev-Zeldovich samples. This permits to have a mass range large enough to enable robust fitting of the relations even at z ˜ 2. The results of the analysis show a general agreement with observations. The values of the slope of the mass-gas mass and mass-temperature relations at z = 2 are 10 per cent lower with respect to z = 0 due to the applied mass selection, in the former case, and to the effect of early merger in the latter. We investigate the impact of the slope variation on the study of the evolution of the normalization. We conclude that cosmological studies through scaling relations should be limited to the redshift range z = 0-1, where we find that the slope, the scatter, and the covariance matrix of the relations are stable. The scaling between mass and YX is confirmed to be the most robust relation, being almost independent of the gas physics. At higher redshifts, the scaling relations are sensitive to the inclusion of AGNs which influences low-mass systems. The detailed study of these objects will be crucial to evaluate the AGN effect on the ICM.

  4. Heating the Primordial Soup: X-raying the Circumstellar Disk of RY Lupi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principe, David

    2015-09-01

    X-ray irradiation of circumstellar disks plays a vital role in their chemical evolution yet few high resolution X-ray observations exist characterizing both the disk-illuminating radiation field and the soft energy spectrum absorbed by the disk. We propose HETG spectroscopic observations of RY Lupi, a rare example of a nearly edge-on, actively accreting star-disk system within 150 pc. We aim to take advantage of its unique viewing geometry with the goals of (a) determining the intrinsic X-ray spectrum of the central pre-MS star so as to establish whether its X-ray emission can be attributed to accretion shocks or coronal emission, and (b) model the spectrum of X-rays absorbed by its gaseous disk. These results will serve as essential input to models of irradiated, planet-forming disks.

  5. Understanding Gas-Phase Ammonia Chemistry in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Lauren; Oberg, Karin I.; Cleeves, Lauren Ilsedore

    2017-01-01

    Protoplanetary disks are dynamic regions of gas and dust around young stars, the remnants of star formation, that evolve and coagulate over millions of years in order to ultimately form planets. The chemical composition of protoplanetary disks is affected by both the chemical and physical conditions in which they develop, including the initial molecular abundances in the birth cloud, the spectrum and intensity of radiation from the host star and nearby systems, and mixing and turbulence within the disk. A more complete understanding of the chemical evolution of disks enables a more complete understanding of the chemical composition of planets that may form within them, and of their capability to support life. One element known to be essential for life on Earth is nitrogen, which often is present in the form of ammonia (NH3). Recent observations by Salinas et al. (2016) reveal a theoretical discrepancy in the gas-phase and ice-phase ammonia abundances in protoplanetary disks; while observations of comets and protostars estimate the ice-phase NH3/H2O ratio in disks to be 5%, Salinas reports a gas-phase NH3/H2O ratio of ~7-84% in the disk surrounding TW Hydra, a young nearby star. Through computational chemical modeling of the TW Hydra disk using a reaction network of over 5000 chemical reactions, I am investigating the possible sources of excess gas-phase NH3 by determining the primary reaction pathways of NH3 production; the downstream chemical effects of ionization by ultraviolet photons, X-rays, and cosmic rays; and the effects of altering the initial abundances of key molecules such as N and N2. Beyond providing a theoretical explanation for the NH3 ice/gas discrepancy, this new model may lead to fuller understanding of the gas-phase formation processes of all nitrogen hydrides (NHx), and thus fuller understanding of the nitrogen-bearing molecules that are fundamental for life as we know it.

  6. NEW DEBRIS DISKS IN NEARBY YOUNG MOVING GROUPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moór, A.; Kóspál, Á.; Ábrahám, P.; Kiss, Cs. [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 67, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Balog, Z.; Henning, Th. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Csengeri, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Juhász, A., E-mail: moor@konkoly.hu [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3, OHA (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-01

    A significant fraction of nearby young moving group members harbor circumstellar debris dust disks. Due to their proximity and youth, these disks are attractive targets for studying the early evolution of debris dust and planetesimal belts. Here we present 70 and 160 μ m observations of 31 systems in the β Pic moving group, and in the Tucana–Horologium, Columba, Carina, and Argus associations, using the Herschel Space Observatory . None of these stars were observed at far-infrared wavelengths before. Our Herschel measurements were complemented by photometry from the WISE satellite for the whole sample, and by submillimeter/millimeter continuum data for one source, HD 48370. We identified six stars with infrared excess, four of them are new discoveries. By combining our new findings with results from the literature, we examined the incidence and general characteristics of debris disks around Sun-like members of the selected groups. With their dust temperatures of <45 K the newly identified disks around HD 38397, HD 48370, HD 160305, and BD-20 951 represent the coldest population within this sample. For HD 38397 and HD 48370, the emission is resolved in the 70 μ m Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrograph images, the estimated radius of these disks is ∼90 au. Together with the well-known disk around HD 61005, these three systems represent the highest mass end of the known debris disk population around young G-type members of the selected groups. In terms of dust content, they resemble the hypothesized debris disk of the ancient solar system.

  7. Evidence for magnesium isotope heterogeneity in the solar protoplanetary disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kirsten Kolbjørn; Trinquier, Anne Marie-Pierre Emilie; Paton, Chad

    2011-01-01

    With a half-life of 0.73 Myr, the 26Al-to-26Mg decay system is the most widely used short-lived chronometer for understanding the formation and earliest evolution of the solar protoplanetary disk. However, the validity of 26Al–26Mg ages of meteorites and their components relies on the critical......, and planets demonstrating the existence of widespread heterogeneity in the mass-independent 26Mg composition (µ26Mg*) of bulk solar system reservoirs with solar or near-solar Al/Mg ratios. This variability may represent heterogeneity in the initial abundance of 26Al across the solar protoplanetary disk...

  8. The Vela pulsar with an active fallback disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özsükan, Gökçe; Ekşi, K. Yavuz [Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Physics, İstanbul Technical University, Maslak 34469, İstanbul (Turkey); Hambaryan, Valeri; Neuhäuser, Ralph; Hohle, Markus M.; Ginski, Christian [Astrophysikalisches Institut und Universitäts-Sternwarte, Universität Jena, Schillergäßchen 2-3, 07745 Jena (Germany); Werner, Klaus, E-mail: eksi@itu.edu.tr [Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Eberhard Karls University, Sand 1, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2014-11-20

    Fallback disks are expected to form around young neutron stars. The presence of these disks can be revealed by their blackbody spectrum in the infrared, optical, and UV bands. We present a re-reduction of the archival optical and infrared data of the Vela pulsar, together with the existing infrared and UV spectrum of Vela, and model their unpulsed components with the blackbody spectrum of a supernova debris disk. We invoke the quiescent disk solution of Sunyaev and Shakura for the description of the disk in the propeller stage and find the inner radius of the disk to be inside the light cylinder radius. We perform a high-resolution X-ray analysis with XMM-Newton and find a narrow absorption feature at 0.57 keV that can be interpreted as the K {sub α} line of He-like oxygen (O VII). The strength of the line indicates an element over-abundance in our line of sight exceeding the amounts that would be expected from interstellar medium. The spectral feature may originate from the pulsar wind nebula and may be partly caused by the reprocessed X-ray radiation by the fallback disk. We discuss the lower-than-three braking index of Vela as partially due to the contribution of the propeller torques. Our results suggest that the pulsar mechanism can work simultaneously with the propeller processes and that the debris disks can survive the radiation pressure for at least ∼10{sup 4} yr. As Vela is a relatively close object, and a prototypical pulsar, the presence of a disk, if confirmed, may indicate the ubiquity of debris disks around young neutron stars.

  9. The Dynamics of Truncated Black Hole Accretion Disks. I. Viscous Hydrodynamic Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogg, J. Drew; Reynolds, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    Truncated accretion disks are commonly invoked to explain the spectro-temporal variability in accreting black holes in both small systems, i.e., state transitions in galactic black hole binaries (GBHBs), and large systems, i.e., low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). In the canonical truncated disk model of moderately low accretion rate systems, gas in the inner region of the accretion disk occupies a hot, radiatively inefficient phase, which leads to a geometrically thick disk, while the gas in the outer region occupies a cooler, radiatively efficient phase that resides in the standard geometrically thin disk. Observationally, there is strong empirical evidence to support this phenomenological model, but a detailed understanding of the dynamics of truncated disks is lacking. We present a well-resolved viscous, hydrodynamic simulation that uses an ad hoc cooling prescription to drive a thermal instability and, hence, produce the first sustained truncated accretion disk. With this simulation, we perform a study of the dynamics, angular momentum transport, and energetics of a truncated disk. We find that the time variability introduced by the quasi-periodic transition of gas from efficient cooling to inefficient cooling impacts the evolution of the simulated disk. A consequence of the thermal instability is that an outflow is launched from the hot/cold gas interface, which drives large, sub-Keplerian convective cells into the disk atmosphere. The convective cells introduce a viscous θ − ϕ stress that is less than the generic r − ϕ viscous stress component, but greatly influences the evolution of the disk. In the truncated disk, we find that the bulk of the accreted gas is in the hot phase.

  10. Accreting planets as dust dams in 'transition' disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, James E.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate under what circumstances an embedded planet in a protoplanetary disk may sculpt the dust distribution such that it observationally presents as a 'transition' disk. We concern ourselves with 'transition' disks that have large holes (≳ 10 AU) and high accretion rates (∼10 –9 -10 –8 M ☉ yr –1 ), particularly, those disks which photoevaporative models struggle to explain. Adopting the observed accretion rates in 'transition' disks, we find that the accretion luminosity from the forming planet is significant, and can dominate over the stellar luminosity at the gap edge. This planetary accretion luminosity can apply a significant radiation pressure to small (s ≲ 1 μm) dust particles provided they are suitably decoupled from the gas. Secular evolution calculations that account for the evolution of the gas and dust components in a disk with an embedded, accreting planet, show that only with the addition of the radiation pressure can we explain the full observed characteristics of a 'transition' disk (NIR dip in the spectral energy distribution (SED), millimeter cavity, and high accretion rate). At suitably high planet masses (≳ 3-4 M J ), radiation pressure from the accreting planet is able to hold back the small dust particles, producing a heavily dust-depleted inner disk that is optically thin to infrared radiation. The planet-disk system will present as a 'transition' disk with a dip in the SED only when the planet mass and planetary accretion rate are high enough. At other times, it will present as a disk with a primordial SED, but with a cavity in the millimeter, as observed in a handful of protoplanetary disks.

  11. Comparative analysis of mycobacterium and related actinomycetes yields insight into the evolution of mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuire Abigail

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sequence of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb strain H37Rv has been available for over a decade, but the biology of the pathogen remains poorly understood. Genome sequences from other Mtb strains and closely related bacteria present an opportunity to apply the power of comparative genomics to understand the evolution of Mtb pathogenesis. We conducted a comparative analysis using 31 genomes from the Tuberculosis Database (TBDB.org, including 8 strains of Mtb and M. bovis, 11 additional Mycobacteria, 4 Corynebacteria, 2 Streptomyces, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, Nocardia farcinia, Acidothermus cellulolyticus, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Propionibacterium acnes, and Bifidobacterium longum. Results Our results highlight the functional importance of lipid metabolism and its regulation, and reveal variation between the evolutionary profiles of genes implicated in saturated and unsaturated fatty acid metabolism. It also suggests that DNA repair and molybdopterin cofactors are important in pathogenic Mycobacteria. By analyzing sequence conservation and gene expression data, we identify nearly 400 conserved noncoding regions. These include 37 predicted promoter regulatory motifs, of which 14 correspond to previously validated motifs, as well as 50 potential noncoding RNAs, of which we experimentally confirm the expression of four. Conclusions Our analysis of protein evolution highlights gene families that are associated with the adaptation of environmental Mycobacteria to obligate pathogenesis. These families include fatty acid metabolism, DNA repair, and molybdopterin biosynthesis. Our analysis reinforces recent findings suggesting that small noncoding RNAs are more common in Mycobacteria than previously expected. Our data provide a foundation for understanding the genome and biology of Mtb in a comparative context, and are available online and through TBDB.org.

  12. Comparative analysis of Mycobacterium and related Actinomycetes yields insight into the evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Abigail Manson; Weiner, Brian; Park, Sang Tae; Wapinski, Ilan; Raman, Sahadevan; Dolganov, Gregory; Peterson, Matthew; Riley, Robert; Zucker, Jeremy; Abeel, Thomas; White, Jared; Sisk, Peter; Stolte, Christian; Koehrsen, Mike; Yamamoto, Robert T; Iacobelli-Martinez, Milena; Kidd, Matthew J; Maer, Andreia M; Schoolnik, Gary K; Regev, Aviv; Galagan, James

    2012-03-28

    The sequence of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strain H37Rv has been available for over a decade, but the biology of the pathogen remains poorly understood. Genome sequences from other Mtb strains and closely related bacteria present an opportunity to apply the power of comparative genomics to understand the evolution of Mtb pathogenesis. We conducted a comparative analysis using 31 genomes from the Tuberculosis Database (TBDB.org), including 8 strains of Mtb and M. bovis, 11 additional Mycobacteria, 4 Corynebacteria, 2 Streptomyces, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, Nocardia farcinia, Acidothermus cellulolyticus, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Propionibacterium acnes, and Bifidobacterium longum. Our results highlight the functional importance of lipid metabolism and its regulation, and reveal variation between the evolutionary profiles of genes implicated in saturated and unsaturated fatty acid metabolism. It also suggests that DNA repair and molybdopterin cofactors are important in pathogenic Mycobacteria. By analyzing sequence conservation and gene expression data, we identify nearly 400 conserved noncoding regions. These include 37 predicted promoter regulatory motifs, of which 14 correspond to previously validated motifs, as well as 50 potential noncoding RNAs, of which we experimentally confirm the expression of four. Our analysis of protein evolution highlights gene families that are associated with the adaptation of environmental Mycobacteria to obligate pathogenesis. These families include fatty acid metabolism, DNA repair, and molybdopterin biosynthesis. Our analysis reinforces recent findings suggesting that small noncoding RNAs are more common in Mycobacteria than previously expected. Our data provide a foundation for understanding the genome and biology of Mtb in a comparative context, and are available online and through TBDB.org.

  13. Characteristic phasic evolution of convulsive seizure in PCDH19-related epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hiroko; Imai, Katsumi; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Shigematsu, Hideo; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Inoue, Yushi; Higurashi, Norimichi; Hirose, Shinichi

    2016-03-01

    PCDH19-related epilepsy is a genetic disorder that was first described in 1971, then referred to as "epilepsy and mental retardation limited to females". PCDH19 has recently been identified as the responsible gene, but a detailed characterization of the seizure manifestation based on video-EEG recording is still limited. The purpose of this study was to elucidate features of the seizure semiology in children with PCDH19-related epilepsy. To do this, ictal video-EEG recordings of 26 convulsive seizures in three girls with PCDH19-related epilepsy were analysed. All seizures occurred in clusters, mainly during sleep accompanied by fever. The motor manifestations consisted of six sequential phases: "jerk", "reactive", "mild tonic", "fluttering", "mild clonic", and "postictal". Some phases were brief or lacking in some seizures, whereas others were long or pronounced. In the reactive phase, the patients looked fearful or startled with sudden jerks and turned over reactively. The tonic and clonic components were less intense compared with those of typical tonic-clonic seizures in other types of epilepsy. The fluttering phase was characterised initially by asymmetric, less rhythmic, and less synchronous tremulous movement and was then followed by the subtle clonic phase. Subtle oral automatism was observed in the postictal phase. The reactive, mild tonic, fluttering and mild clonic phases were most characteristic of seizures of PCDH19-related epilepsy. Ictal EEG started bilaterally and was symmetric in some patients but asymmetric in others. It showed asymmetric rhythmic discharges in some seizures at later phases. The electroclinical pattern of the phasic evolution of convulsive seizure suggests a focal onset seizure with secondary generalisation. Based on our findings, we propose that the six unique sequential phases in convulsive seizures suggest the diagnosis of PCDH19-related epilepsy when occurring in clusters with or without high fever in girls. [Published with

  14. Hydrogen Cyanide In Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ashley L.; Oberg, Karin; Cleeves, L. Ilsedore

    2018-01-01

    The chemistry behind star and planet formation is extremely complex and important in the formation of habitable planets. Life requires molecules containing carbon, oxygen, and importantly, nitrogen. Hydrogen cyanide, or HCN, one of the main interstellar nitrogen carriers, is extremely dangerous here on Earth. However, it could be used as a vital tool for tracking the chemistry of potentially habitable planets. As we get closer to identifying other habitable planets, we must understand the beginnings of how those planets are formed in the early protoplanetary disk. This project investigates HCN chemistry in different locations in the disk, and what this might mean for forming planets at different distances from the star. HCN is a chemically diverse molecule. It is connected to the formation for other more complex molecules and is commonly used as a nitrogen tracer. Using computational chemical models we look at how the HCN abundance changes at different locations. We use realistic and physically motivated conditions for the gas in the protoplanetary disk: temperature, density, and radiation (UV flux). We analyze the reaction network, formation, and destruction of HCN molecules in the disk environment. The disk environment informs us about stability of habitable planets that are created based on HCN molecules. We reviewed and compared the difference in the molecules with a variety of locations in the disk and ultimately giving us a better understanding on how we view protoplanetary disks.

  15. CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF THIN-DISK, HIGH-METALLICITY RED HORIZONTAL-BRANCH FIELD STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afşar, M.; Sneden, C.; For, B.-Q.

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed abundance analysis and atmospheric parameters of 76 stars from a survey to identify field Galactic red horizontal-branch (RHB) stars. High-resolution echelle spectra (R ≅ 60,000, S/N ≥ 100) were obtained with the 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. The target stars were selected only by color and parallax information. Overall metallicities and relative abundances of proton-capture elements (C, N, O, Li), α-elements (Ca and Si), and neutron-capture elements (Eu and La) were determined by either equivalent width or synthetic spectrum analyses. We used CN features at the λλ7995-8040 region in order to determine the 12 C/ 13 C ratios of our targets. Investigation of the evolutionary stages, using spectroscopic T eff and log g values along with derived 12 C/ 13 C ratios, revealed the presence of 18 probable RHB stars in our sample. We also derived kinematics of the stars with available distance information. Taking into account both the kinematics and probable evolutionary stages, we conclude that our sample contains 5 thick-disk and 13 thin-disk RHB stars. Up until now, RHB stars have been considered as members of the thick disk, and were expected to have large space velocities and sub-solar metallicities. However, our sample is dominated by low-velocity solar-metallicity RHB stars; their existence cannot be easily explained with standard stellar evolution.

  16. Constraint on the infall of H I into big disk galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bothun, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    Available 21-cm observations of late-type spirals from a variety of sources have been gathered together for purposes of constructing an H I luminosity function for spirals with M/sub B/ -1 ) has enabled increasingly larger volumes of space that surround the disk to become accessible to the Arecibo 21-cm beam. The data show absolutely no trend of increasing H I with redshift. There is likewise no tendency for an increase in observed H I mass over that predicted from the linear diameter of the galaxy, as the ratio of beam size to galaxy size increases. From these null results we can place an upper limit on the halo H I column density of N/sub H/ = 3 x 10 19 atoms cm -2 . In relative terms, the halo can contain no more than 1/3 the amount of H I already distributed in the disk. Based on these data, we argue that, if infall is still important at the present time in the evolution of big disk galaxies, then the reservoir should be detectable unless it is predominately in a form more exotic than atomic hydrogen

  17. Debris disks as signposts of terrestrial planet formation. II. Dependence of exoplanet architectures on giant planet and disk properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, S. N.; Armitage, P. J.; Moro-Martín, A.; Booth, M.; Wyatt, M. C.; Armstrong, J. C.; Mandell, A. M.; Selsis, F.; West, A. A.

    2012-05-01

    We present models for the formation of terrestrial planets, and the collisional evolution of debris disks, in planetary systems that contain multiple marginally unstable gas giants. We previously showed that in such systems, the dynamics of the giant planets introduces a correlation between the presence of terrestrial planets and cold dust, i.e., debris disks, which is particularly pronounced at λ ~ 70 μm. Here we present new simulations that show that this connection is qualitatively robust to a range of parameters: the mass distribution of the giant planets, the width and mass distribution of the outer planetesimal disk, and the presence of gas in the disk when the giant planets become unstable. We discuss how variations in these parameters affect the evolution. We find that systems with equal-mass giant planets undergo the most violent instabilities, and that these destroy both terrestrial planets and the outer planetesimal disks that produce debris disks. In contrast, systems with low-mass giant planets efficiently produce both terrestrial planets and debris disks. A large fraction of systems with low-mass (M ≲ 30 M⊕) outermost giant planets have final planetary separations that, scaled to the planets' masses, are as large or larger than the Saturn-Uranus and Uranus-Neptune separations in the solar system. We find that the gaps between these planets are not only dynamically stable to test particles, but are frequently populated by planetesimals. The possibility of planetesimal belts between outer giant planets should be taken into account when interpreting debris disk SEDs. In addition, the presence of ~ Earth-mass "seeds" in outer planetesimal disks causes the disks to radially spread to colder temperatures, and leads to a slow depletion of the outer planetesimal disk from the inside out. We argue that this may explain the very low frequency of >1 Gyr-old solar-type stars with observed 24 μm excesses. Our simulations do not sample the full range of

  18. BLACK HOLE-NEUTRON STAR MERGERS WITH A HOT NUCLEAR EQUATION OF STATE: OUTFLOW AND NEUTRINO-COOLED DISK FOR A LOW-MASS, HIGH-SPIN CASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deaton, M. Brett; Duez, Matthew D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Foucart, Francois; O' Connor, Evan [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada); Ott, Christian D.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela [TAPIR, MC 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kidder, Lawrence E.; Muhlberger, Curran D., E-mail: mbdeaton@wsu.edu, E-mail: m.duez@wsu.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    Neutrino emission significantly affects the evolution of the accretion tori formed in black hole-neutron star mergers. It removes energy from the disk, alters its composition, and provides a potential power source for a gamma-ray burst. To study these effects, simulations in general relativity with a hot microphysical equation of state (EOS) and neutrino feedback are needed. We present the first such simulation, using a neutrino leakage scheme for cooling to capture the most essential effects and considering a moderate mass (1.4 M{sub ☉} neutron star, 5.6 M{sub ☉} black hole), high-spin (black hole J/M {sup 2} = 0.9) system with the K{sub 0} = 220 MeV Lattimer-Swesty EOS. We find that about 0.08 M{sub ☉} of nuclear matter is ejected from the system, while another 0.3 M{sub ☉} forms a hot, compact accretion disk. The primary effects of the escaping neutrinos are (1) to make the disk much denser and more compact, (2) to cause the average electron fraction Y{sub e} of the disk to rise to about 0.2 and then gradually decrease again, and (3) to gradually cool the disk. The disk is initially hot (T ∼ 6 MeV) and luminous in neutrinos (L{sub ν} ∼ 10{sup 54} erg s{sup –1}), but the neutrino luminosity decreases by an order of magnitude over 50 ms of post-merger evolution.

  19. A case for Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, David A.; Gibson, Garth; Katz, Randy H.

    1988-01-01

    Increasing performance of CPUs and memories will be squandered if not matched by a similar performance increase in I/O. While the capacity of Single Large Expensive Disks (SLED) has grown rapidly, the performance improvement of SLED has been modest. Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID), based on the magnetic disk technology developed for personal computers, offers an attractive alternative to SLED, promising improvements of an order of magnitude in performance, reliability, power consumption, and scalability. This paper introduces five levels of RAIDs, giving their relative cost/performance, and compares RAID to an IBM 3380 and a Fujitsu Super Eagle.

  20. Disk tides and accretion runaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, William R.; Hahn, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    It is suggested that tidal interaction of an accreting planetary embryo with the gaseous preplanetary disk may provide a mechanism to breach the so-called runaway limit during the formation of the giant planet cores. The disk tidal torque converts a would-be shepherding object into a 'predator,' which can continue to cannibalize the planetesimal disk. This is more likely to occur in the giant planet region than in the terrestrial zone, providing a natural cause for Jupiter to predate the inner planets and form within the O(10(exp 7) yr) lifetime of the nebula.

  1. 8-inch IBM floppy disk

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    The 8-inch floppy disk was a magnetic storage disk for the data introduced commercially by IBM in 1971. It was designed by an IBM team as an inexpensive way to load data into the IBM System / 370. Plus it was a read-only bare disk containing 80 KB of data. The first read-write version was introduced in 1972 by Memorex and could contain 175 KB on 50 tracks (with 8 sectors per track). Other improvements have led to various coatings and increased capacities. Finally, it was surpassed by the mini diskette of 5.25 inches introduced in 1976.

  2. Evolution of the use of relational and NoSQL databases in the ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, D.

    2016-09-01

    The ATLAS experiment used for many years a large database infrastructure based on Oracle to store several different types of non-event data: time-dependent detector configuration and conditions data, calibrations and alignments, configurations of Grid sites, catalogues for data management tools, job records for distributed workload management tools, run and event metadata. The rapid development of "NoSQL" databases (structured storage services) in the last five years allowed an extended and complementary usage of traditional relational databases and new structured storage tools in order to improve the performance of existing applications and to extend their functionalities using the possibilities offered by the modern storage systems. The trend is towards using the best tool for each kind of data, separating for example the intrinsically relational metadata from payload storage, and records that are frequently updated and benefit from transactions from archived information. Access to all components has to be orchestrated by specialised services that run on front-end machines and shield the user from the complexity of data storage infrastructure. This paper describes this technology evolution in the ATLAS database infrastructure and presents a few examples of large database applications that benefit from it.

  3. Chromosome numbers and karyotype evolution in holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, G.M.; Palomeque, T.; Colwell, A.E.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, H.

    2004-01-01

    Chromosome numbers and karyotypes of species of Orobanche, Cistanche, and Diphelypaea (Orobanchaceae) were investigated, and 108 chromosome counts of 53 taxa, 19 counted for the first time, are presented with a thorough compilation of previously published data. Additionally, karyotypes of representatives of these genera, including Orobanche sects. Orobanche and Trionychon, are reported. Cistanche (x = 20) has large meta- to submetacentric chromosomes, while those of Diphelypaea (x = 19) are medium-sized submeta-to acrocentrics. Within three analyzed sections of Orobanche, sects. Myzorrhiza (x = 24) and Trionychon (x = 12) possess medium-sized submeta- to acrocentrics, while sect. Orobanche (x = 19) has small, mostly meta- to submetacentric, chromosomes. Polyploidy is unevenly distributed in Orobanche and restricted to a few lineages, e.g., O. sect. Myzorrhiza or Orobanche gracilis and its relatives (sect. Orobanche). The distribution of basic chromosome numbers supports the groups found by molecular phylogenetic analyses: Cistanche has x = 20, the Orobanche-group (Orobanche sect. Orobanche, Diphelypaea) has x = 19, and the Phelipanche-group (Orobanche sects. Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Trionychon) has x = 12, 24. A model of chromosome number evolution in Orobanche and related genera is presented: from two ancestral base numbers, xh = 5 and xh = 6, independent polyploidizations led to x = 20 (Cistanche) and (after dysploidization) x = 19 (Orobanche-group) and to x = 12 and x = 24 (Phelipanche-group), respectively.

  4. STAR FORMATION IN DISK GALAXIES. III. DOES STELLAR FEEDBACK RESULT IN CLOUD DEATH?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Wadsley, James; Pudritz, Ralph [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2015-03-01

    Stellar feedback, star formation, and gravitational interactions are major controlling forces in the evolution of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). To explore their relative roles, we examine the properties and evolution of GMCs forming in an isolated galactic disk simulation that includes both localized thermal feedback and photoelectric heating. The results are compared with the three previous simulations in this series, which consists of a model with no star formation, star formation but no form of feedback, and star formation with photoelectric heating in a set with steadily increasing physical effects. We find that the addition of localized thermal feedback greatly suppresses star formation but does not destroy the surrounding GMC, giving cloud properties closely resembling the run in which no stellar physics is included. The outflows from the feedback reduce the mass of the cloud but do not destroy it, allowing the cloud to survive its stellar children. This suggests that weak thermal feedback such as the lower bound expected for a supernova may play a relatively minor role in the galactic structure of quiescent Milky-Way-type galaxies, compared to gravitational interactions and disk shear.

  5. STAR FORMATION IN DISK GALAXIES. III. DOES STELLAR FEEDBACK RESULT IN CLOUD DEATH?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Wadsley, James; Pudritz, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Stellar feedback, star formation, and gravitational interactions are major controlling forces in the evolution of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). To explore their relative roles, we examine the properties and evolution of GMCs forming in an isolated galactic disk simulation that includes both localized thermal feedback and photoelectric heating. The results are compared with the three previous simulations in this series, which consists of a model with no star formation, star formation but no form of feedback, and star formation with photoelectric heating in a set with steadily increasing physical effects. We find that the addition of localized thermal feedback greatly suppresses star formation but does not destroy the surrounding GMC, giving cloud properties closely resembling the run in which no stellar physics is included. The outflows from the feedback reduce the mass of the cloud but do not destroy it, allowing the cloud to survive its stellar children. This suggests that weak thermal feedback such as the lower bound expected for a supernova may play a relatively minor role in the galactic structure of quiescent Milky-Way-type galaxies, compared to gravitational interactions and disk shear

  6. Projection Of The Stellar To Halo Mass Relation Into The Scaling Relations Of A Disc Galaxy Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancillas, Brisa; Ávila-Reese, Vladimir; Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Valls-Gabaud, David

    2017-06-01

    Several pieces of evidence suggest that disk formation is the generic process of assembly of galaxies, while the spheroidal component arises from the merging/interactions of disks as well as from their secular evolution. To understand galaxy formation and evolution, a cosmological framework is required. The current cosmological paradigm is summarized in the so-called Λ-cold dark matter model (ΛCDM). The statistical connection between the masses of the observed galaxies and those of the simulated CDM halos in large volumes leads us to the galaxy-halo mass relation, which summarizes the main astrophysical processes of galaxy formation and evolution (gas heating and cooling, SF, SN- and AGN-driven feedback, etc.). An important question is how this relation constrained by semi-empirical methods (e.g., Rodriguez-Puebla et al. 2014) is "projected" into the disk galaxy scaling relations and other galaxy correlations. To explore this question, we generate a synthetic catalog of thousands of disk/halo systems by means of an extended Mo, Mao & White (1998) model, and by using as input the baryonic-to-halo mass relation, fbar(Mh), of local disk galaxy as recently constrained by Calette et al. (2015).

  7. The Fortios disks revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António M. Monge Soares

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have used EDXRF, Micro-PIXE and optical microscopy (metallographic analysis, complemented with SEM-EDS, to first determine the elemental content, and second, to identify the process used to join the components (disk, peripheral rod and tab of several Iron Age gold buttons. These have a very similar typology and were found at three archaeological sites in the South-Western part of the Iberian Peninsula. A set of 35 buttons from Castro dos Ratinhos (7, Outeiro da Cabeça (23 and Fortios (5 were analyzed and the results published in Trabajos de Prehistoria (Soares et al. 2010. Recently Perea et al. (2016 have published analyses of other 4 gold buttons from Fortios with the same purpose, but only using one technique, SEM-EDS. As they only analysed the rough surface layer, the results are neither effective nor reliable, taking into account the constraints associated with the technique, namely the small depth reached (< 2 ?m by the incident beam and, consequently, its sensitivity to the topography of the analyzed surface. Despite these constraints, they have accepted uncritically their results and, at the same time, question our own analyses and results and the interpretation we have made. Here we discuss the approach of Perea et al. in order to determine not only the elemental content of the Fortios gold buttons, but also to identify the joining process used in their manufacture.

  8. Collisional dynamics of perturbed particle disks in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, W. W.; Stewart, G. R.

    1987-01-01

    Investigations of the collisional evolution of particulate disks subject to the gravitational perturbation of a more massive particle orbiting within the disk are underway. Both numerical N-body simulations using a novel collision algorithm and analytical kinetic theory are being employed to extend our understanding of perturbed disks in planetary rings and during the formation of the solar system. Particular problems proposed for investigation are: (1) The development and testing of general criteria for a small moonlet to clear a gap and produce observable morphological features in planetary rings; (2) The development of detailed models of collisional damping of the wavy edges observed on the Encke division of Saturn's A ring; and (3) The determination of the extent of runaway growth of the few largest planetesimals during the early stages of planetary accretion.

  9. Debris Disk Studies with the ngVLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilner, David; Matthews, Brenda; Matra, Luca; Kennedy, Grant; Wyatt, Mark; Greaves, Jane

    2018-01-01

    We discuss the potential for the ngVLA to advance understanding of debris disks around main-sequence stars. Since the dust-producing planetesimals that replenish these disks through collisions persist only in stable regions like belts and resonances, their locations and physical properties encode essential information about the formation of exoplanetary systems and their dynamical evolution. Observations at long millimeter wavelengths can play a special role because the large grains that dominate the emission are faithful tracers of the dust-producing planetesimals, unlike small grains seen at shorter wavelengths that are rapidly redistributed by stellar radiation and winds. Sensitive observations of debris disks with the ngVLA can (1) reveal structures resulting from otherwise inaccessible planets on wide orbits, (2) test collisional models using spectral slopes to constrain mm/cm grain size distributions, and (3) for select sources, probe the water content of exocomets using the 21 cm HI line.

  10. Giant Planets Can Act as Stabilizing Agents on Debris Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz-Gutiérrez, M. A.; Pichardo, B.; Peimbert, A., E-mail: mmunoz.astro@gmail.com [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. postal 70-264 Ciudad Universitaria, México (Mexico)

    2017-07-01

    We have explored the evolution of a cold debris disk under the gravitational influence of dwarf-planet-sized objects (DPs), both in the presence and absence of an interior giant planet. Through detailed long-term numerical simulations, we demonstrate that when the giant planet is not present, DPs can stir the eccentricities and inclinations of disk particles, in linear proportion to the total mass of the DPs; on the other hand, when the giant planet is included in the simulations, the stirring is approximately proportional to the mass squared. This creates two regimes: below a disk mass threshold (defined by the total mass of DPs), the giant planet acts as a stabilizing agent of the orbits of cometary nuclei, diminishing the effect of the scatterers; above the threshold, the giant contributes to the dispersion of the particles.

  11. E-modulus evolution and its relation to solids formation of pastes from commercial cements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maia, Lino; Azenha, Miguel; Geiker, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Models for early age E-modulus evolution of cement pastes are available in the literature, but their validation is limited. This paper provides correlated measurements of early age evolution of E-modulus and hydration of pastes from five commercial cements differing in limestone content. A recently...

  12. Surface phenomena and the evolution of radiating fluid spheres in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, L.; Jimenez, J.; Esculpi, M.; Ibanez, J.

    1989-01-01

    A method used to study the evolution of radiating spheres (Herrera, Jimenez, and Ruggeri) is extended to the case in which surface phenomena are taken into account. The equations have been integrated numerically for a model derived from the Schwarzschild interior solution, bringing out the effects of surface tension on the evolution of the spheres. 17 refs

  13. The relative importance of physical and biological energy in landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turowski, J. M.; Schwanghart, W.

    2017-12-01

    Landscapes are formed by the interplay of uplift and geomorphic processes, including interacting and competing physical and biological processes. For example, roots re-inforce soil and thereby stabilize hillslopes and the canopy cover of the forest may mediate the impact of precipitation. Furthermore, plants and animals act as geomorphic agents, directly altering landscape response and dynamics by their actions: tree roots may crack rocks, thus changing subsurface water flows and exposing fresh material for denudation; fungi excrete acids that accelerate rates of chemical weathering, and burrowing animals displace soil and rocks while digging holes for shelter or in search of food. Energetically, landscapes can be viewed as open systems in which topography stores potential energy above a base level. Tectonic processes add energy to the system by uplift and mechanically altering rock properties. Especially in unvegetated regions, erosion and transport by wind can be an important geomorphic process. Advection of atmospheric moisture in high altitudes provides potential energy that is converted by water fluxes through catchments. At the same time, the conversion of solar energy through atmospheric and biological processes drives primary production of living organisms. If we accept that biota influence geomorphic processes, then what is their energetic contribution to landscape evolution relative to physical processes? Using two case studies, we demonstrate that all components of energy input are negligible apart from biological production, quantified by net primary productivity (NPP) and potential energy conversion by water that is placed high up in the landscape as rainfall and leaves it as runoff. Assuming that the former is representative for biological energy and the latter for physical energy, we propose that the ratio of these two values can be used as a proxy for the relative importance of biological and physical processes in landscape evolution. All necessary

  14. STABILITY OF MAGNETIZED DISKS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PLANET FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizano, Susana; Galli, Daniele; Cai, Mike J.; Adams, Fred C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers gravitational perturbations in geometrically thin disks with rotation curves dominated by a central object, but with substantial contributions from magnetic pressure and tension. The treatment is general, but the application is to the circumstellar disks that arise during the gravitational collapse phase of star formation. We find the dispersion relation for spiral density waves in these generalized disks and derive the stability criterion for axisymmetric (m = 0) disturbances (the analog of the Toomre parameter Q T ) for any radial distribution of the mass-to-flux ratio λ. The magnetic effects work in two opposing directions: on one hand, magnetic tension and pressure stabilize the disk against gravitational collapse and fragmentation; on the other hand, they also lower the rotation rate making the disk more unstable. For disks around young stars the first effect generally dominates, so that magnetic fields allow disks to be stable for higher surface densities and larger total masses. These results indicate that magnetic fields act to suppress the formation of giant planets through gravitational instability. Finally, even if gravitational instability can form a secondary body, it must lose an enormous amount of magnetic flux in order to become a planet; this latter requirement represents an additional constraint for planet formation via gravitational instability and places a lower limit on the electrical resistivity.

  15. The effect of radial migration on galactic disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera-Ciro, Carlos; D'Onghia, Elena; Navarro, Julio; Abadi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    We study the radial migration of stars driven by recurring multi-arm spiral features in an exponential disk embedded in a dark matter halo. The spiral perturbations redistribute angular momentum within the disk and lead to substantial radial displacements of individual stars, in a manner that largely preserves the circularity of their orbits and that results, after 5 Gyr (∼40 full rotations at the disk scale length), in little radial heating and no appreciable changes to the vertical or radial structure of the disk. Our results clarify a number of issues related to the spatial distribution and kinematics of migrators. In particular, we find that migrators are a heavily biased subset of stars with preferentially low vertical velocity dispersions. This 'provenance bias' for migrators is not surprising in hindsight, for stars with small vertical excursions spend more time near the disk plane, and thus respond more readily to non-axisymmetric perturbations. We also find that the vertical velocity dispersion of outward migrators always decreases, whereas the opposite holds for inward migrators. To first order, newly arrived migrators simply replace stars that have migrated off to other radii, thus inheriting the vertical bias of the latter. Extreme migrators might therefore be recognized, if present, by the unexpectedly small amplitude of their vertical excursions. Our results show that migration, understood as changes in angular momentum that preserve circularity, can strongly affect the thin disk, but cast doubts on models that envision the Galactic thick disk as a relic of radial migration.

  16. Shifting of the resonance location for planets embedded in circumstellar disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzari, F.

    2018-03-01

    Context. In the early evolution of a planetary system, a pair of planets may be captured in a mean motion resonance while still embedded in their nesting circumstellar disk. Aims: The goal is to estimate the direction and amount of shift in the semimajor axis of the resonance location due to the disk gravity as a function of the gas density and mass of the planets. The stability of the resonance lock when the disk dissipates is also tested. Methods: The orbital evolution of a large number of systems is numerically integrated within a three-body problem in which the disk potential is computed as a series of expansion. This is a good approximation, at least over a limited amount of time. Results: Two different resonances are studied: the 2:1 and the 3:2. In both cases the shift is inwards, even if by a different amount, when the planets are massive and carve a gap in the disk. For super-Earths, the shift is instead outwards. Different disk densities, Σ, are considered and the resonance shift depends almost linearly on Σ. The gas dissipation leads to destabilization of a significant number of resonant systems, in particular if it is fast. Conclusions: The presence of a massive circumstellar disk may significantly affect the resonant behavior of a pair of planets by shifting the resonant location and by decreasing the size of the stability region. The disk dissipation may explain some systems found close to a resonance but not locked in it.

  17. Metallicity Distribution of Disk Stars and the Formation History of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyouchi, Daisuke; Chiba, Masashi

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the formation history of the stellar disk component in the Milky Way (MW) based on our new chemical evolution model. Our model considers several fundamental baryonic processes, including gas infall, reaccretion of outflowing gas, and radial migration of disk stars. Each of these baryonic processes in the disk evolution is characterized by model parameters that are determined by fitting to various observational data of the stellar disk in the MW, including the radial dependence of the metallicity distribution function (MDF) of the disk stars, which has recently been derived in the APOGEE survey. We succeeded to obtain the best set of model parameters that well reproduces the observed radial dependences of the mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis of the MDFs for the disk stars. We analyze the basic properties of our model results in detail to gain new insights into the important baryonic processes in the formation history of the MW. One of the remarkable findings is that outflowing gas, containing many heavy elements, preferentially reaccretes onto the outer disk parts, and this recycling process of metal-enriched gas is a key ingredient for reproducing the observed narrower MDFs at larger radii. Moreover, important implications for the radial dependence of gas infall and the influence of radial migration on the MDFs are also inferred from our model calculation. Thus, the MDF of disk stars is a useful clue for studying the formation history of the MW.

  18. Bend testing for miniature disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.H.; Hamilton, M.L.; Wire, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    A bend test was developed to obtain ductility measurements on a large number of alloy variants being irradiated in the form of miniature disks. Experimental results were shown to be in agreement with a theoretical analysis of the bend configuration. Disk specimens fabricated from the unstrained grip ends of previously tested tensile specimens were used for calibration purposes; bend ductilities and tensile ductilities were in good agreement. The criterion for estimating ductility was judged acceptable for screening purposes

  19. Stellar dynamics and galactic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, G.; Kuijken, K.; Wyse, R.F.G.

    1989-01-01

    Solar neighbourhood observations have the unique capability of providing detailed study of the consequences of the early evolution of the Galaxy. Important examples of this capability include determination of the distribution of luminous and unseen mass in the Galaxy, and deduction of the rate of star formation and chemical evolution in the proto-Galaxy. We describe a new method to determine the distribution of mass in the Galactic disk. We reinvestigate determinations of the local volume mass density (the Oort limit) and show there to be serious internal inconsistencies in the available data. The most likely value for the local volume mass density, based on old stars and with kinematic models consistent with the age structure of the local disk is ∼ 0.1 solar mass pc -3 , though this value is still poorly determined. Thus, there is no significant evidence for any missing mass associated with the Galactic disk. We also reinvestigate observational data on the chemical abundances and kinematics of old stars in the Galaxy. The (Intermediate Population II) thick disk stars are most likely as old as the globular clusters, and kinematically distinct from the old disk. This favours models of thick disk origin involving a discrete disruptive event, such as the accretion of a satellite of the Galaxy early in the evolution of the Galactic disk. (author)

  20. Transitional Disks Associated with Intermediate-Mass Stars: Results of the SEEDS YSO Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C.; Fukagawa, M.; Maruta, Y.; Ohta, Y.; Wisniewski, J.; Hashimoto, J.; Okamoto, Y.; Momose, M.; Currie, T.; McElwain, M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    where only half of the disk is seen in scattered light at H. We will discuss our survey results in terms of spiral arm theory, dust trapping vortices, and systematic differences in the relative scale height of these disks compared to those around Solar-mass stars. For the disks with spiral arms we discuss the planet-hosting potential, and limits on where giant planets can be located. We also discuss the implications for imaging with extreme adaptive optics instruments. Grady is supported under NSF AST 1008440 and through the NASA Origins of Solar Systems program on NNG13PB64P. JPW is supported NSF AST 100314. 0) in marked contrast to protoplanetary disks, transitional disks exhibit wide range of structural features1) arm visibility correlated with relative scale height in disk2) asymmetric and possibly variable shadowing of outer portions some transitional disks3) confirm pre-transitional disk nature of Oph IRS 48, MWC 758, HD 169142, etc.

  1. The evolution of sex roles in birds is related to adult sex ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liker, András; Freckleton, Robert P; Székely, Tamás

    2013-01-01

    Sex-role reversal represents a formidable challenge for evolutionary biologists, since it is not clear which ecological, life-history or social factors facilitated conventional sex roles (female care and male-male competition for mates) to be reversed (male care and female-female competition). Classic theories suggested ecological or life-history predictors of role reversal, but most studies failed to support these hypotheses. Recent theory however predicts that sex-role reversal should be driven by male-biased adult sex ratio (ASR). Here we test this prediction for the first time using phylogenetic comparative analyses. Consistent with theory, both mating system and parental care are strongly related to ASR in shorebirds: conventional sex roles are exhibited by species with female-biased ASR, whereas sex-role reversal is associated with male-biased ASR. These results suggest that social environment has a strong influence on breeding systems and therefore revealing the causes of ASR variation in wild populations is essential for understanding sex role evolution.

  2. Spatio-temporal evolution of water-related ecosystem services: Taihu Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyu Chen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Water-related ecosystem services (WESs arise from the interaction between water ecosystems and their surrounding terrestrial ecosystems. They are critical for human well-being as well as for the whole ecological circle. An urgent service-oriented reform for the utilization and supervision of WESs can assist in avoiding ecological risks and achieving a more sustainable development in the Taihu Basin, China (THB. Spatially distributed models allow the multiple impacts of land use/land cover conversion and climate variation on WESs to be estimated and visualized efficiently, and such models can form a useful component in the toolbox for integrated water ecosystem management. The Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs model is used here to evaluate and visualize the spatio-temporal evolution of WESs in the THB from 2000 to 2010. Results indicate that water retention service experienced a decline from 2000 to 2005 with a recovery after 2005, while there was ongoing water scarcity in urban areas. Both the water purification service and the soil retention service underwent a slight decrease over the study period. Nutrients export mainly came from developed land and cultivated land, with the hilly areas in the south of the THB forming the primary area for soil loss. The quantity and distribution of WESs were impacted significantly by the shrinkage of cultivated land and the expansion of developed land. These findings will lay a foundation for a service-oriented management of WESs in the THB and support evidence-based decision making.

  3. The relative importance of rapid evolution for plant-microbe interactions depends on ecological context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhorst, Casey P; Lennon, Jay T; Lau, Jennifer A

    2014-06-22

    Evolution can occur on ecological time-scales, affecting community and ecosystem processes. However, the importance of evolutionary change relative to ecological processes remains largely unknown. Here, we analyse data from a long-term experiment in which we allowed plant populations to evolve for three generations in dry or wet soils and used a reciprocal transplant to compare the ecological effect of drought and the effect of plant evolutionary responses to drought on soil microbial communities and nutrient availability. Plants that evolved under drought tended to support higher bacterial and fungal richness, and increased fungal : bacterial ratios in the soil. Overall, the magnitudes of ecological and evolutionary effects on microbial communities were similar; however, the strength and direction of these effects depended on the context in which they were measured. For example, plants that evolved in dry environments increased bacterial abundance in dry contemporary environments, but decreased bacterial abundance in wet contemporary environments. Our results suggest that interactions between recent evolutionary history and ecological context affect both the direction and magnitude of plant effects on soil microbes. Consequently, an eco-evolutionary perspective is required to fully understand plant-microbe interactions.

  4. Origins and Evolution of WUSCHEL-Related Homeobox Protein Family in Plant Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaibin Lian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX is a large group of transcription factors specifically found in plants. WOX members contain the conserved homeodomain essential for plant development by regulating cell division and differentiation. However, the evolutionary relationship of WOX members in plant kingdom remains to be elucidated. In this study, we searched 350 WOX members from 50 species in plant kingdom. Linkage analysis of WOX protein sequences demonstrated that amino acid residues 141–145 and 153–160 located in the homeodomain are possibly associated with the function of WOXs during the evolution. These 350 members were grouped into 3 clades: the first clade represents the conservative WOXs from the lower plant algae to higher plants; the second clade has the members from vascular plant species; the third clade has the members only from spermatophyte species. Furthermore, among the members of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, we observed ubiquitous expression of genes in the first clade and the diversified expression pattern of WOX genes in distinct organs in the second clade and the third clade. This work provides insight into the origin and evolutionary process of WOXs, facilitating their functional investigations in the future.

  5. Extended space expectation values of position related operators for hydrogen-like quantum system evolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalay, Berfin; Demiralp, Metin

    2014-01-01

    The expectation value definitions over an extended space from the considered Hilbert space of the system under consideration is given in another paper of the second author in this symposium. There, in that paper, the conceptuality rather than specification is emphasized on. This work uses that conceptuality to investigate the time evolutions of the position related operators' expectation values not in its standard meaning but rather in a new version of the definition over not the original Hilbert space but in the space obtained by extensions via introducing the images of the given initial wave packet under the positive integer powers of the system Hamiltonian. These images may not be residing in the same space of the initial wave packet when certain singularities appear in the structure of the system Hamiltonian. This may break down the existence of the integrals in the definitions of the expectation values. The cure is the use of basis functions in the abovementioned extended space and the sandwiching of the target operator whose expectation value is under questioning by an appropriately chosen operator guaranteeing the existence of the relevant integrals. Work specifically focuses on the hydrogen-like quantum systems whose Hamiltonians contain a polar singularity at the origin

  6. Relation of chromospheric activity to convection, rotation, and pre-main-sequence evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliland, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Pre-main-sequence, or T Tauri, stars are characterized by much larger fluxes of nonradiative origin than their main-sequence counterparts. As a class, the T Tauri stars have only moderate rotation rates, making an explanation of their chromospheric properties based on rapid rotation problematic. The recent success of correlating nonradiative fluxes to the Rossby number, Ro = P/sub rot//tau/sub conv/, a central parameter of simple dynamo theories of magnetic field generation, has led to the suggestion that the same relation might be of use in explaining the pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars if tau/sub conv/ is very large. We show that tau/sub conv/ does depend strongly on evolutionary effects above the main sequence (MS), but that this dependence alone cannot account for the high observed nonradiative fluxes. The acoustic flux is also strongly dependent on PMS evolutionary state, and when coupled to the parameterization of magnetic activity based on Ro, these two mechanisms seem capable of explaining the high observed level of chromospheric activity in T Tauri stars. The moment of inertia decreases by two to three order of magnitude during PMS evolution. Since young MS stars do not rotate two to three orders of magnitude faster than PMS stars, rapid loss or redistribution of angular momentum must occur

  7. The Acoculco caldera magmas: genesis, evolution and relation with the Acoculco geothermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Ceballos, G.; Macías, J. L.; Avellán, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Acoculco Caldera Complex (ACC) is located at the eastern part of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt; México. This caldera complex have been active since 2.7 Ma through reactivations of the system or associated magmatism. Therefore the ACC is an excellent case scenario to investigate the relation between the magmatic heat supply and the evolution processes that modified magmatic reservoirs in a potential geothermal field. We investigated the origin and the magmatic processes (magma mixing, assimilation and crystallization) that modified the ACC rocks by petrography, major oxides-trace element geochemistry, and isotopic analysis. Magma mixing is considered as the heat supply that maintain active the magmatic system, whereas assimilation yielded insights about the depth at which processes occurred. In addition, we performed a series of hydrothermal experiments in order to constrain the storage depth for the magma tapped during the caldera collapse. Rocks from the ACC were catalogued as pre, syn and post caldera. The post caldera rocks are peralkaline rhyolites, in contrast to all other rocks that are subalkaline. Our investigation is focus to investigate if the collapse modified the plumbing system and the depth at which magmas stagnate and recorded the magmatic processes.

  8. Molecular evolution of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jennifer R; McAssey, Edward V; Nambeesan, Savithri; Garcia-Navarro, Elena; Burke, John M

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary analyses aimed at detecting the molecular signature of selection during crop domestication and/or improvement can be used to identify genes or genomic regions of likely agronomic importance. Here, we describe the DNA sequence-based characterization of a pool of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower. These genes, which were identified based on homology to genes of known effect in other study systems, were initially sequenced from a panel of improved lines. All genes that exhibited a paucity of sequence diversity, consistent with the possible effects of selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower, were then sequenced from a panel of wild sunflower accessions an outgroup. These data enabled formal tests for the effects of selection in shaping sequence diversity at these loci. When selection was detected, we further sequenced these genes from a panel of primitive landraces, thereby allowing us to investigate the likely timing of selection (i.e., domestication vs. improvement). We ultimately identified seven genes that exhibited the signature of positive selection during either domestication or improvement. Genetic mapping of a subset of these genes revealed co-localization between candidates for genes involved in the determination of flowering time, seed germination, plant growth/development, and branching and QTL that were previously identified for these traits in cultivated × wild sunflower mapping populations.

  9. The evolution of the concepts of growth, development and other related, during the last decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek S. Jankiewicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of such terms as growth, differentiation, development, morphogenesis etc. is discussed. It is proposed that the term (notion development should be understood to comprise "growth", "differentiation" and even "abscission, abortion and necrosis". The term "development" is already used in such a way by some authors. The relations among the phenomena denoted by the above terms are presented in a graphic form to show that they partly overlap. The concept that growth and development represent quantitative and qualitative aspects (respectively of plant augmentation is criticized. The newly introduced terms "development hormone" or "development regulator" seem more suitable than "growth hormone" and "growth regulator", however, these later ones are correct and may be used. The traditional term "phytohormone" and the newly introduced one "phytoregulator" seem convenient, but it must be kept in mind that such substances may transmit information both on a chemical basis as well as on a biophysical one. An example here can be auxin; a change in the wavy character of its transport may serve as information. In some cases a complex of two or more substances may play the role of a hormone, for instance ACC and ethylene, of which one is easily transportable but little active and the other is very active but exerts its action rather locally. Other combinations of activities may exist in other such pairs.

  10. Axon guidance pathways served as common targets for human speech/language evolution and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Huimeng; Yan, Zhangming; Sun, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Jianhong; Ma, Caihong; Xu, Qunyuan; Wang, Rui; Jarvis, Erich D; Sun, Zhirong

    2017-11-01

    Human and several nonhuman species share the rare ability of modifying acoustic and/or syntactic features of sounds produced, i.e. vocal learning, which is the important neurobiological and behavioral substrate of human speech/language. This convergent trait was suggested to be associated with significant genomic convergence and best manifested at the ROBO-SLIT axon guidance pathway. Here we verified the significance of such genomic convergence and assessed its functional relevance to human speech/language using human genetic variation data. In normal human populations, we found the affected amino acid sites were well fixed and accompanied with significantly more associated protein-coding SNPs in the same genes than the rest genes. Diseased individuals with speech/language disorders have significant more low frequency protein coding SNPs but they preferentially occurred outside the affected genes. Such patients' SNPs were enriched in several functional categories including two axon guidance pathways (mediated by netrin and semaphorin) that interact with ROBO-SLITs. Four of the six patients have homozygous missense SNPs on PRAME gene family, one youngest gene family in human lineage, which possibly acts upon retinoic acid receptor signaling, similarly as FOXP2, to modulate axon guidance. Taken together, we suggest the axon guidance pathways (e.g. ROBO-SLIT, PRAME gene family) served as common targets for human speech/language evolution and related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. THE EVOLUTION OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT THEORIES: HOW CAN INSTITUTIONS RELATE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Bényei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Theories of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI have evolved over the past few decades. There are theories which try to explain the motivation behind investments, and there are others to explain why companies go abroad. To understand the motivations of firms in today’s economic environment, we have to trace the evolution of these theories. At first, researchers tried to explain capital movements with trade theories. However, because of the strict conditionality, they only explained a small part of FDI. To extend the validity of the models, researchers started to examine investments from the firms’ point of view. The models evolved from Vernon’s product life cycle model, through Hymer’s monopolistic advantage model, to Dunning’s eclectic theory. These firm-based theories highlighted the importance of entrepreneurs. Dunning’s theory includes the statements which featured in previous models. We can find monopolistic advantage, localization and internalization models in this argument. This study is an attempt to relate the issue of FDI to institutions. There is a rapidly growing literature on the subject of new institutional economics, which indicates that the effect of institutions can appear in any economic situation. These effects can be shown in Dunning’s theory, too. The consensus view seems to be that institutions play a significant role in ownership, in localization and in internalization advantages. Consequently, we can find them in the other models, too. The purpose of this paper is to ident

  12. The Fabulous Four Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Michael; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2004-09-01

    This program is a comprehensive study of the four bright debris disks that were spatially resolved by IRAS: Beta Pictoris, Epsilon Eridani, Fomalhaut, and Vega. All SIRTF instruments and observing modes will be used. The program has three major objectives: (1) Study of the disk spatial structure from MIPS and IRAC imaging; (2) Study of the dust grain composition using the IRS and MIPS SED mode; and (3) companion searches using IRAC. The data from this program should lead to a detailed understanding of these four systems, and will provide a foundation for understanding all of the debris disks to be studied with SIRTF. Images and spectra will be compared with models for disk structure and dust properties. Dynamical features indicative of substellar companions' effects on the disks will be searched for. This program will require supporting observations of PSF stars, some of which have been included explicitly. In the majority of cases, the spectral observations require a preferred orientation to align the slits along the disk position angles. Detector saturation issues are still being worked for this program, and will lead to AOR modifications in subsequent submissions. The results from this program will be analyzed collaboratively by the IRAC, IRS, and MIPS teams and by general GTOs Jura and Werner.

  13. Building CX peanut-shaped disk galaxy profiles. The relative importance of the 3D families of periodic orbits bifurcating at the vertical 2:1 resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsis, P. A.; Harsoula, M.

    2018-05-01

    Context. We present and discuss the orbital content of a rather unusual rotating barred galaxy model, in which the three-dimensional (3D) family, bifurcating from x1 at the 2:1 vertical resonance with the known "frown-smile" side-on morphology, is unstable. Aims: Our goal is to study the differences that occur in the phase space structure at the vertical 2:1 resonance region in this case, with respect to the known, well studied, standard case, in which the families with the frown-smile profiles are stable and support an X-shaped morphology. Methods: The potential used in the study originates in a frozen snapshot of an N-body simulation in which a fast bar has evolved. We follow the evolution of the vertical stability of the central family of periodic orbits as a function of the energy (Jacobi constant) and we investigate the phase space content by means of spaces of section. Results: The two bifurcating families at the vertical 2:1 resonance region of the new model change their stability with respect to that of most studied analytic potentials. The structure in the side-on view that is directly supported by the trapping of quasi-periodic orbits around 3D stable periodic orbits has now an infinity symbol (i.e. ∞-type) profile. However, the available sticky orbits can reinforce other types of side-on morphologies as well. Conclusions: In the new model, the dynamical mechanism of trapping quasi-periodic orbits around the 3D stable periodic orbits that build the peanut, supports the ∞-type profile. The same mechanism in the standard case supports the X shape with the frown-smile orbits. Nevertheless, in both cases (i.e. in the new and in the standard model) a combination of 3D quasi-periodic orbits around the stable x1 family with sticky orbits can support a profile reminiscent of the shape of the orbits of the 3D unstable family existing in each model.

  14. MEASURING PROTOPLANETARY DISK GAS SURFACE DENSITY PROFILES WITH ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jonathan P.; McPartland, Conor, E-mail: jpw@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-10-10

    The gas and dust are spatially segregated in protoplanetary disks due to the vertical settling and radial drift of large grains. A fuller accounting of the mass content and distribution in disks therefore requires spectral line observations. We extend the modeling approach presented in Williams and Best to show that gas surface density profiles can be measured from high fidelity {sup 13}CO integrated intensity images. We demonstrate the methodology by fitting ALMA observations of the HD 163296 disk to determine a gas mass, M {sub gas} = 0.048 M {sub ⊙}, and accretion disk characteristic size R {sub c} = 213 au and gradient γ = 0.39. The same parameters match the C{sup 18}O 2–1 image and indicate an abundance ratio [{sup 12}CO]/[C{sup 18}O] of 700 independent of radius. To test how well this methodology can be applied to future line surveys of smaller, lower mass T Tauri disks, we create a large {sup 13}CO 2–1 image library and fit simulated data. For disks with gas masses 3–10 M {sub Jup} at 150 pc, ALMA observations with a resolution of 0.″2–0.″3 and integration times of ∼20 minutes allow reliable estimates of R {sub c} to within about 10 au and γ to within about 0.2. Economic gas imaging surveys are therefore feasible and offer the opportunity to open up a new dimension for studying disk structure and its evolution toward planet formation.

  15. A self-consistent model of the three-phase interstellar medium in disk galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.

    1989-01-01

    In the present study the author analyzes a number of physical processes concerning velocity and spatial distributions, ionization structure, pressure variation, mass and energy balance, and equation of state of the diffuse interstellar gas in a three phase model. He also considers the effects of this model on the formation of molecular clouds and the evolution of disk galaxies. The primary purpose is to incorporate self-consistently the interstellar conditions in a typical late-type galaxy, and to relate these to various observed large-scale phenomena. He models idealized situations both analytically and numerically, and compares the results with observational data of the Milky Way Galaxy and other nearby disk galaxies. Several main conclusions of this study are: (1) the highly ionized gas found in the lower Galactic halo is shown to be consistent with a model in which the gas is photoionized by the diffuse ultraviolet radiation; (2) in a quasi-static and self-regulatory configuration, the photoelectric effects of interstellar grains are primarily responsible for heating the cold (T ≅ 100K) gas; the warm (T ≅ 8,000K) gas may be heated by supernova remnants and other mechanisms; (3) the large-scale atomic and molecular gas distributions in a sample of 15 disk galaxies can be well explained if molecular cloud formation and star formation follow a modified Schmidt Law; a scaling law for the radial gas profiles is proposed based on this model, and it is shown to be applicable to the nearby late-type galaxies where radio mapping data is available; for disk galaxies of earlier type, the effect of their massive central bulges may have to be taken into account

  16. ACCRETION DISKS AROUND KICKED BLACK HOLES: POST-KICK DYNAMICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, Marcelo; Faber, Joshua A.; Lombardi, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical calculations of merging black hole binaries indicate that asymmetric emission of gravitational radiation can kick the merged black hole at up to thousands of km s –1 , and a number of systems have been observed recently whose properties are consistent with an active galactic nucleus containing a supermassive black hole moving with substantial velocity with respect to its broader accretion disk. We study here the effect of an impulsive kick delivered to a black hole on the dynamical evolution of its accretion disk using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, focusing attention on the role played by the kick angle with respect to the orbital angular momentum vector of the pre-kicked disk. We find that for more vertical kicks, for which the angle between the kick and the normal vector to the disk θ ∼ 45°, matter rapidly accretes toward the black hole. There is a systematic trend for higher potential luminosities for more oblique kick angles for a given black hole mass, disk mass, and kick velocity, and we find large amplitude oscillations in time in the case of a kick oriented 60° from the vertical.

  17. Local protoplanetary disk ionisation by T Tauri star energetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraschetti, F.; Drake, J.; Cohen, O.; Garraffo, C.

    2017-10-01

    The evolution of protoplanetary disks is believed to be driven largely by viscosity. The ionization of the disk that gives rise to viscosity is caused by X-rays from the central star or by energetic particles released by shock waves travelling into the circumstellar medium. We have performed test-particle numerical simulations of GeV-scale protons traversing a realistic magnetised wind of a young solar mass star with a superposed small-scale turbulence. The large-scale field is generated via an MHD model of a T Tauri wind, whereas the isotropic (Kolmogorov power spectrum) turbulent component is synthesised along the particles' trajectories. We have combined Chandra observations of T Tauri flares with solar flare scaling for describing the energetic particle spectrum. In contrast with previous models, we find that the disk ionization is dominated by X-rays except within narrow regions where the energetic particles are channelled onto the disk by the strongly tangled and turbulent field lines; the radial thickness of such regions broadens with the distance from the central star (5 stellar radii or more). In those regions, the disk ionization due to energetic particles can locally dominate the stellar X-rays, arguably, out to large distances (10, 100 AU) from the star.

  18. Crude federalism: oil politics and the evolution of intergovernmental relations in post-Soviet Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G.N.

    2000-07-01

    The interactions and relationships between the institutions of the Russian federal system, the policy making process and the dilemmas of legislative reform as it applies to the oil sector are examined in this document. A critical element in the reform agenda, the problematic evolution of the 1995 federal Law on Production Sharing Agreements is discussed in the first part of the document. The legislative responses to the production sharing issue and the larger questions of reform in the resource sector are presented in the second part, as it relates to two resource producing regions, Tatarstan and Khanty Mansiisk. A lot of problems and delays were encountered in the passage of production sharing legislation despite the obvious advantages and benefits to be derived from such an arrangement for post-Soviet Russia. The author brings forward the argument that the problems were caused by a number of institutionally-based cleavages and other dysfunctional components contained in the Russian federal system. The dispute resolution mechanism, plagued by jurisdictional overlap and the lack of a mutually acceptable and structured system, impeded the cooperation that existed in the resource sector between governments and regions. The disruption of the policy making process and the complications in the process of political and economic reform in some of the most important regions from a production perspective resulted from asymmetries between the constituent members of the federation, in combination with the absence of an institutional framework for the management of inter-regional relations. The third element consisted in the dominant position of the executive branch at the federal and regional levels hindered the legislative process through the aggravation of the long-standing interbranch conflict. The structures and processes that characterize the Russian federal model in the post-Soviet era were explained using the vast theoretical and empirical resources available to

  19. ARTIFICIAL SELECTION FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TIME IN DROSOPHILA-MELANOGASTER IN RELATION TO THE EVOLUTION OF AGING - DIRECT AND CORRELATED RESPONSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZWAAN, B; BIJLSMA, R; HOEKSTRA, RF

    A wild-type strain of Drosophila melanogaster was successfully selected for both fast and slow larval development. The realized heritabilities (h(2)) ranged from 0.20 to 0.30 for the fast lines and 0.35 to 0.60 for the slow lines. The selection applied is relevant in relation to the evolution of

  20. The relation between the kink-type solution and the kink-bell-type solution of nonlinear evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunping

    2003-01-01

    Using a direct algebraic method, more new exact solutions of the Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov equation are presented by formula form. Then a theorem concerning the relation between the kink-type solution and the kink-bell-type solution of nonlinear evolution equations is given. Finally, the applications of the theorem to several well-known equations in physics are also discussed

  1. Measurement of Circumstellar Disk Sizes in the Upper Scorpius OB Association with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenfeld, Scott A.; Carpenter, John M.; Sargent, Anneila I.; Isella, Andrea; Ricci, Luca

    2017-12-01

    We present detailed modeling of the spatial distributions of gas and dust in 57 circumstellar disks in the Upper Scorpius OB Association observed with ALMA at submillimeter wavelengths. We fit power-law models to the dust surface density and CO J = 3–2 surface brightness to measure the radial extent of dust and gas in these disks. We found that these disks are extremely compact: the 25 highest signal-to-noise disks have a median dust outer radius of 21 au, assuming an {R}-1 dust surface density profile. Our lack of CO detections in the majority of our sample is consistent with these small disk sizes assuming the dust and CO share the same spatial distribution. Of seven disks in our sample with well-constrained dust and CO radii, four appear to be more extended in CO, although this may simply be due to the higher optical depth of the CO. Comparison of the Upper Sco results with recent analyses of disks in Taurus, Ophiuchus, and Lupus suggests that the dust disks in Upper Sco may be approximately three times smaller in size than their younger counterparts, although we caution that a more uniform analysis of the data across all regions is needed. We discuss the implications of these results for disk evolution.

  2. CONSTRAINTS ON THE RADIAL VARIATION OF GRAIN GROWTH IN THE AS 209 CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, Laura M.; Carpenter, John M.; Isella, Andrea; Ricci, Luca; Sargent, Anneila I.; Chandler, Claire J.; Andrews, Sean M.; Harris, Robert J.; Calvet, Nuria; Corder, Stuartt A.; Deller, Adam T.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Linz, Hendrik; Greaves, Jane S.; Henning, Thomas; Kwon, Woojin; Lazio, Joseph; Mundy, Lee G.; Storm, Shaye; Testi, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    We present dust continuum observations of the protoplanetary disk surrounding the pre-main-sequence star AS 209, spanning more than an order of magnitude in wavelength from 0.88 to 9.8 mm. The disk was observed with subarcsecond angular resolution (0.''2-0.''5) to investigate radial variations in its dust properties. At longer wavelengths, the disk emission structure is notably more compact, providing model-independent evidence for changes in the grain properties across the disk. We find that physical models which reproduce the disk emission require a radial dependence of the dust opacity κ ν . Assuming that the observed wavelength-dependent structure can be attributed to radial variations in the dust opacity spectral index (β), we find that β(R) increases from β 1.5 for R ∼> 80 AU, inconsistent with a constant value of β across the disk (at the 10σ level). Furthermore, if radial variations of κ ν are caused by particle growth, we find that the maximum size of the particle-size distribution (a max ) increases from submillimeter-sized grains in the outer disk (R ∼> 70 AU) to millimeter- and centimeter-sized grains in the inner disk regions (R ∼ max (R) with predictions from physical models of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks. For the dust composition and particle-size distribution investigated here, our observational constraints on a max (R) are consistent with models where the maximum grain size is limited by radial drift.

  3. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteucci, F.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Frascati

    1989-01-01

    In principle, a good model of galactic chemical evolution should fulfil the majority of well established observational constraints. The goal of this paper is to review the observational data together with the existing chemical evolution models for the Milky Way (the disk), Blue Compact and Elliptical galaxies and to show how well the models can account for the observations. Some open problems and future prospects are also discussed. (author)

  4. Mechanical and thermal stresses in a functionally graded rotating disk with variable thickness due to radially symmetry loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayat, Mehdi; Saleem, M.; Sahari, B.B.; Hamouda, A.M.S.; Mahdi, E.

    2009-01-01

    Rotating disks have many applications in the aerospace industry such as gas turbines and gears. These disks normally work under thermo mechanical loads. Minimizing the weight of such components can help reduce the overall payload in aerospace industry. For this purpose, a rotating functionally graded (FG) disk with variable thickness under a steady temperature field is considered in this paper. Thermo elastic solutions and the weight of the disk are related to the material grading index and the geometry of the disk. It is found that a disk with parabolic or hyperbolic convergent thickness profile has smaller stresses and displacements compared to a uniform thickness disk. Maximum radial stress due to centrifugal load in the solid disk with parabolic thickness profile may not be at the center unlike uniform thickness disk. Functionally graded disk with variable thickness has smaller stresses due to thermal load compared to those with uniform thickness. It is seen that for a given value of grading index, the FG disk having concave thickness profile is the lightest in weight whereas the FG disk with uniform thickness profile is the heaviest. Also for any given thickness profile, the weight of the FG disk lies in between the weights of the all-metal and the all-ceramic disks.

  5. Model to the evolution of the organic matter in the pampa's soil. Relation with cultivation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriulo, Adrian; Mary, Bruno; Guerif, Jerome; Balesdent, Jerome

    1996-08-01

    The objective of the work is to present a model to describe the evolution of the organic matter in soils of the Argentine's pampa. This model can be utilised to evaluate the evolution of the soil's fertility in the agricultural production at this moment. Three kinds of assay were done. The determination of organic carbon made possible to prove the Henin-Dupuis model and a derived model

  6. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap; Kim, Sangsub; Knauer, Christian; Schlipf, Lena; Shin, Chansu; Vigneron, Antoine E.

    2013-01-01

    We give exact and approximation algorithms for two-center problems when the input is a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in D intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap

    2013-04-01

    We give exact and approximation algorithms for two-center problems when the input is a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in D intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap; Kim, Sangsub; Knauer, Christian; Schlipf, Lena; Shin, Chansu; Vigneron, Antoine E.

    2011-01-01

    We consider new versions of the two-center problem where the input consists of a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. We give exact and approximation algorithms for these versions. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Disks around Failed Stars - a Question of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    object (at the arrow) is obviously very red. Observations with the TIMMI2 instrument at the ESO 3.6-m telescope on La Silla have shown that this comparatively old object does not possess a surrounding disk of dust and gas. Another much younger Brown Dwarf, Cha HA 2 , has one. The new measurements show that this object has a flat, dense disk (lower diagramme in PR Photo 17b/02 ), unlike the hotter (solar-like), young stars, that harbour "flared" disks with a diluted, very hot top layer (upper diagramme). Now, however, the first ground-based detection of mid-infrared radiation from two Brown Dwarfs has been achieved by a team of European astronomers [2], using the Thermal Infrared Multimode Instrument (TIMMI2) on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at the La Silla Observatory (Chile). They pointed the telescope towards a total of eight Brown Dwarf objects and recorded the emission at three different mid-infrared wavelengths (5, 9.8 and 11.9 µm). "We were delighted" , says team leader Daniel Apai, "to detect radiation from two of these with TIMMI2. These are the first observations of their kind with a ground-based instrument. And although we could only establish upper limits for the radiation from the five other objects, these results are highly significant for our attempts to understand the formation and evolution of Brown Dwarfs." One of the objects, known as Cha HA 2 and located in the southern constellation Chamaeleon [3], had earlier been observed with ISO. It is a bona-fide Brown Dwarf object and an image obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope indicates that it may possibly be double. It is a relatively young Brown Dwarf and is a member of the very young Cha I star-forming region - the age has been estimated at 2 - 4.5 million years. The ISO observations hinted at the presence of a dust disk around this object - this is fully confirmed by the new TIMMI2 observations. Moreover, the mid-IR radiation measured with this instrument interestingly shows the absence of a strong

  10. Multiplicity in Early Stellar Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reipurth, B.; Clarke, C. J.; Boss, A. P.; Goodwin, S. P.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Stassun, K. G.; Tokovinin, A.; Zinnecker, H.

    Observations from optical to centimeter wavelengths have demonstrated that multiple systems of two or more bodies is the norm at all stellar evolutionary stages. Multiple systems are widely agreed to result from the collapse and fragmentation of cloud cores, despite the inhibiting influence of magnetic fields. Surveys of class 0 protostars with millimeter interferometers have revealed a very high multiplicity frequency of about 2/3, even though there are observational difficulties in resolving close protobinaries, thus supporting the possibility that all stars could be born in multiple systems. Near-infrared adaptive optics observations of class I protostars show a lower binary frequency relative to the class 0 phase, a declining trend that continues through the class II/III stages to the field population. This loss of companions is a natural consequence of dynamical interplay in small multiple systems, leading to ejection of members. We discuss observational consequences of this dynamical evolution, and its influence on circumstellar disks, and we review the evolution of circumbinary disks and their role in defining binary mass ratios. Special attention is paid to eclipsing PMS binaries, which allow for observational tests of evolutionary models of early stellar evolution. Many stars are born in clusters and small groups, and we discuss how interactions in dense stellar environments can significantly alter the distribution of binary separations through dissolution of wider binaries. The binaries and multiples we find in the field are the survivors of these internal and external destructive processes, and we provide a detailed overview of the multiplicity statistics of the field, which form a boundary condition for all models of binary evolution. Finally, we discuss various formation mechanisms for massive binaries, and the properties of massive trapezia.

  11. Diskoseismology: Probing accretion disks. I - Trapped adiabatic oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Wagoner, Robert V.

    1991-01-01

    The normal modes of acoustic oscillations within thin accretion disks which are terminated by an innermost stable orbit around a slowly rotating black hole or weakly magnetized compact neutron star are analyzed. The dominant relativistic effects which allow modes to be trapped within the inner region of the disk are approximated via a modified Newtonian potential. A general formalism is developed for investigating the adiabatic oscillations of arbitrary unperturbed disk models. The generic behavior is explored by way of an expansion of the Lagrangian displacement about the plane of symmetry and by assuming separable solutions with the same radial wavelength for the horizontal and vertical perturbations. The lowest eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions of a particular set of radial and quadrupole modes which have minimum motion normal for the plane are obtained. These modes correspond to the standard dispersion relation of disk theory.

  12. High resolution computed tomography evaluation of cervical disk hernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halversen, G.L.; Thoen, D.D.; Satovick, R.M.; Goldstein, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Previous difficulties in the diagnosis of cervical disk hernia were related to lack of non-invasive imaging techniques, but the gap has now been filled by CT scan imaging. A total of 442 patients with pains in neck, shoulder or arm were referred for a CT scan to exclude a cervical disk hernia. Of the group studied, 2% were found to have a herniated disk, 16% a lateral hernia and 9% combined lateral hernia-narrow cervical canal due to concomitant arthrotic changes. Assessment of correlation between CT scan images and myelographic and surgical findings indicated that CT scan imaging is a very precise, non-invasive method for investigation of cervical disk hernia [fr

  13. High resolution computed tomography evaluation of cervical disk hernia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halversen, G.L.; Thoen, D.D.; Satovick, R.M.; Goldstein, M.L.

    1986-05-01

    Previous difficulties in the diagnosis of cervical disk hernia were related to lack of non-invasive imaging techniques, but the gap has now been filled by CT scan imaging. A total of 442 patients with pains in neck, shoulder or arm were referred for a CT scan to exclude a cervical disk hernia. Of the group studied, 2% were found to have a herniated disk, 16% a lateral hernia and 9% combined lateral hernia-narrow cervical canal due to concomitant arthrotic changes. Assessment of correlation between CT scan images and myelographic and surgical findings indicated that CT scan imaging is a very precise, non-invasive method for investigation of cervical disk hernia.

  14. Optimizing disk registration algorithms for nanobeam electron diffraction strain mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekin, Thomas C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, USA 94720 (United States); National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA 94720 (United States); Gammer, Christoph [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Jahnstrasse 12, Leoben, Austria 8700 (Austria); Ciston, Jim [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA 94720 (United States); Minor, Andrew M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, USA 94720 (United States); National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA 94720 (United States); Ophus, Colin, E-mail: cophus@gmail.com [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA 94720 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Scanning nanobeam electron diffraction strain mapping is a technique by which the positions of diffracted disks sampled at the nanoscale over a crystalline sample can be used to reconstruct a strain map over a large area. However, it is important that the disk positions are measured accurately, as their positions relative to a reference are directly used to calculate strain. In this study, we compare several correlation methods using both simulated and experimental data in order to directly probe susceptibility to measurement error due to non-uniform diffracted disk illumination structure. We found that prefiltering the diffraction patterns with a Sobel filter before performing cross correlation or performing a square-root magnitude weighted phase correlation returned the best results when inner disk structure was present. We have tested these methods both on simulated datasets, and experimental data from unstrained silicon as well as a twin grain boundary in 304 stainless steel.

  15. Accretion Disk Spectra of the Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources in Nearby Spiral Galaxies and Galactic Superluminal Jet Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, T

    2003-12-11

    Ultra-luminous Compact X-ray Sources (ULXs) in nearby spiral galaxies and Galactic superluminal jet sources share the common spectral characteristic that they have unusually high disk temperatures which cannot be explained in the framework of the standard optically thick accretion disk in the Schwarzschild metric. On the other hand, the standard accretion disk around the Kerr black hole might explain the observed high disk temperature, as the inner radius of the Kerr disk gets smaller and the disk temperature can be consequently higher. However, we point out that the observable Kerr disk spectra becomes significantly harder than Schwarzschild disk spectra only when the disk is highly inclined. This is because the emission from the innermost part of the accretion disk is Doppler-boosted for an edge-on Kerr disk, while hardly seen for a face-on disk. The Galactic superluminal jet sources are known to be highly inclined systems, thus their energy spectra may be explained with the standard Kerr disk with known black hole masses. For ULXs, on the other hand, the standard Kerr disk model seems implausible, since it is highly unlikely that their accretion disks are preferentially inclined, and, if edge-on Kerr disk model is applied, the black hole mass becomes unreasonably large (> 300 M{sub solar}). Instead, the slim disk (advection dominated optically thick disk) model is likely to explain the observed super-Eddington luminosities, hard energy spectra, and spectral variations of ULXs. We suggest that ULXs are accreting black holes with a few tens of solar mass, which is not unexpected from the standard stellar evolution scenario, and that their X-ray emission is from the slim disk shining at super-Eddington luminosities.

  16. Studies of Physcomitrella patens reveal that ethylene-mediated submergence responses arose relatively early in land-plant evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Yasumura, Yuki

    2012-10-18

    Colonization of the land by multicellular green plants was a fundamental step in the evolution of life on earth. Land plants evolved from fresh-water aquatic algae, and the transition to a terrestrial environment required the acquisition of developmental plasticity appropriate to the conditions of water availability, ranging from drought to flood. Here we show that extant bryophytes exhibit submergence-induced developmental plasticity, suggesting that submergence responses evolved relatively early in the evolution of land plants. We also show that a major component of the bryophyte submergence response is controlled by the phytohormone ethylene, using a perception mechanism that has subsequently been conserved throughout the evolution of land plants. Thus a plant environmental response mechanism with major ecological and agricultural importance probably had its origins in the very earliest stages of the colonization of the land. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. The nervous and visual systems of onychophorans and tardigrades: learning about arthropod evolution from their closest relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christine; Gross, Vladimir; Hering, Lars; Tepper, Benjamin; Jahn, Henry; de Sena Oliveira, Ivo; Stevenson, Paul Anthony; Mayer, Georg

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the origin and evolution of arthropods requires examining their closest outgroups, the tardigrades (water bears) and onychophorans (velvet worms). Despite the rise of molecular techniques, the phylogenetic positions of tardigrades and onychophorans in the panarthropod tree (onychophorans + tardigrades + arthropods) remain unresolved. Hence, these methods alone are currently insufficient for clarifying the panarthropod topology. Therefore, the evolution of different morphological traits, such as one of the most intriguing features of panarthropods-their nervous system-becomes essential for shedding light on the origin and evolution of arthropods and their relatives within the Panarthropoda. In this review, we summarise current knowledge of the evolution of panarthropod nervous and visual systems. In particular, we focus on the evolution of segmental ganglia, the segmental identity of brain regions, and the visual system from morphological and developmental perspectives. In so doing, we address some of the many controversies surrounding these topics, such as the homology of the onychophoran eyes to those of arthropods as well as the segmentation of the tardigrade brain. Finally, we attempt to reconstruct the most likely state of these systems in the last common ancestors of arthropods and panarthropods based on what is currently known about tardigrades and onychophorans.

  18. Explosive magnetorotational instability in Keplerian disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shtemler, Yu., E-mail: shtemler@bgu.ac.il; Liverts, E., E-mail: eliverts@bgu.ac.il; Mond, M., E-mail: mond@bgu.ac.il [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2016-06-15

    Differentially rotating disks under the effect of axial magnetic field are prone to a nonlinear explosive magnetorotational instability (EMRI). The dynamic equations that govern the temporal evolution of the amplitudes of three weakly detuned resonantly interacting modes are derived. As distinct from exponential growth in the strict resonance triads, EMRI occurs due to the resonant interactions of an MRI mode with stable Alfvén–Coriolis and magnetosonic modes. Numerical solutions of the dynamic equations for amplitudes of a triad indicate that two types of perturbations behavior can be excited for resonance conditions: (i) EMRI which leads to infinite values of the three amplitudes within a finite time, and (ii) bounded irregular oscillations of all three amplitudes. Asymptotic explicit solutions of the dynamic equations are obtained for EMRI regimes and are shown to match the numerical solutions near the explosion time.

  19. LGI1, CASPR2 and related antibodies: a molecular evolution of the phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Sophie N M; Klein, Christopher J; Waters, Patrick; Pittock, Sean J; Irani, Sarosh R

    2018-05-01

    Recent biochemical observations have helped redefine antigenic components within the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex. The related autoantibodies may be now divided into likely pathogenic entities, which target the extracellular domains of leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2), and species that target intracellular neuronal components and are likely non-pathogenic. This distinction has enhanced clinical practice as direct determination of LGI1 and CASPR2 antibodies offers optimal sensitivity and specificity. In this review, we describe and compare the clinical features associated with pathogenic LGI1 and CASPR2 antibodies, illustrate emerging laboratory techniques for antibody determination and describe the immunological mechanisms that may mediate antibody-induced pathology. We highlight marked clinical overlaps between patients with either LGI1 or CASPR2 antibodies that include frequent focal seizures, prominent amnesia, dysautonomia, neuromyotonia and neuropathic pain. Although occurring at differing rates, these commonalities are striking and only faciobrachial dystonic seizures reliably differentiate these two conditions. Furthermore, the coexistence of both LGI1 and CASPR2 antibodies in an individual occurs surprisingly frequently. Patients with either antibody respond well to immunotherapies, although systematic studies are required to determine the magnitude of the effect beyond placebo. Finally, data have suggested that CASPR2 and LGI1 modulation via genetic or autoimmune mechanisms may share common intermediate molecules. Taken together, the biochemical distinction of antigenic targets has led to important clinical advances for patient care. However, the striking syndrome similarities, coexistence of two otherwise rare antibodies and molecular insights suggest the VGKC complex may yet be a common functional effector of antibody action. Hence, we argue for a molecular evolution alongside a

  20. LGI1, CASPR2 and related antibodies: a molecular evolution of the phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Sophie N M; Klein, Christopher J; Waters, Patrick; Pittock, Sean J; Irani, Sarosh R

    2018-01-01

    Recent biochemical observations have helped redefine antigenic components within the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex. The related autoantibodies may be now divided into likely pathogenic entities, which target the extracellular domains of leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2), and species that target intracellular neuronal components and are likely non-pathogenic. This distinction has enhanced clinical practice as direct determination of LGI1 and CASPR2 antibodies offers optimal sensitivity and specificity. In this review, we describe and compare the clinical features associated with pathogenic LGI1 and CASPR2 antibodies, illustrate emerging laboratory techniques for antibody determination and describe the immunological mechanisms that may mediate antibody-induced pathology. We highlight marked clinical overlaps between patients with either LGI1 or CASPR2 antibodies that include frequent focal seizures, prominent amnesia, dysautonomia, neuromyotonia and neuropathic pain. Although occurring at differing rates, these commonalities are striking and only faciobrachial dystonic seizures reliably differentiate these two conditions. Furthermore, the coexistence of both LGI1 and CASPR2 antibodies in an individual occurs surprisingly frequently. Patients with either antibody respond well to immunotherapies, although systematic studies are required to determine the magnitude of the effect beyond placebo. Finally, data have suggested that CASPR2 and LGI1 modulation via genetic or autoimmune mechanisms may share common intermediate molecules. Taken together, the biochemical distinction of antigenic targets has led to important clinical advances for patient care. However, the striking syndrome similarities, coexistence of two otherwise rare antibodies and molecular insights suggest the VGKC complex may yet be a common functional effector of antibody action. Hence, we argue for a molecular evolution alongside a

  1. FORMATION OF ORGANIC MOLECULES AND WATER IN WARM DISK ATMOSPHERES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najita, Joan R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Adamkovics, Mate; Glassgold, Alfred E. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    Observations from Spitzer and ground-based infrared spectroscopy reveal significant diversity in the molecular emission from the inner few AU of T Tauri disks. We explore theoretically the possible origin of this diversity by expanding on our earlier thermal-chemical model of disk atmospheres. We consider how variations in grain settling, X-ray irradiation, accretion-related mechanical heating, and the oxygen-to-carbon ratio can affect the thermal and chemical properties of the atmosphere at 0.25-40 AU. We find that these model parameters can account for many properties of the detected molecular emission. The column density of the warm (200-2000 K) molecular atmosphere is sensitive to grain settling and the efficiency of accretion-related heating, which may account, at least in part, for the large range in molecular emission fluxes that have been observed. The dependence of the atmospheric properties on the model parameters may also help to explain trends that have been reported in the literature between molecular emission strength and mid-infrared color, stellar accretion rate, and disk mass. We discuss whether some of the differences between our model results and the observations (e.g., for water) indicate a role for vertical transport and freezeout in the disk midplane. We also discuss how planetesimal formation in the outer disk (beyond the snowline) may imprint a chemical signature on the inner few AU of the disk and speculate on possible observational tracers of this process.

  2. FORMATION OF ORGANIC MOLECULES AND WATER IN WARM DISK ATMOSPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najita, Joan R.; Ádámkovics, Máté; Glassgold, Alfred E.

    2011-01-01

    Observations from Spitzer and ground-based infrared spectroscopy reveal significant diversity in the molecular emission from the inner few AU of T Tauri disks. We explore theoretically the possible origin of this diversity by expanding on our earlier thermal-chemical model of disk atmospheres. We consider how variations in grain settling, X-ray irradiation, accretion-related mechanical heating, and the oxygen-to-carbon ratio can affect the thermal and chemical properties of the atmosphere at 0.25-40 AU. We find that these model parameters can account for many properties of the detected molecular emission. The column density of the warm (200-2000 K) molecular atmosphere is sensitive to grain settling and the efficiency of accretion-related heating, which may account, at least in part, for the large range in molecular emission fluxes that have been observed. The dependence of the atmospheric properties on the model parameters may also help to explain trends that have been reported in the literature between molecular emission strength and mid-infrared color, stellar accretion rate, and disk mass. We discuss whether some of the differences between our model results and the observations (e.g., for water) indicate a role for vertical transport and freezeout in the disk midplane. We also discuss how planetesimal formation in the outer disk (beyond the snowline) may imprint a chemical signature on the inner few AU of the disk and speculate on possible observational tracers of this process.

  3. Ultrafast disk lasers and amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Dirk H.; Kleinbauer, Jochen; Bauer, Dominik; Wolf, Martin; Tan, Chuong; Gebs, Raphael; Budnicki, Aleksander; Wagenblast, Philipp; Weiler, Sascha

    2012-03-01

    Disk lasers with multi-kW continuous wave (CW) output power are widely used in manufacturing, primarily for cutting and welding applications, notably in the automotive industry. The ytterbium disk technology combines high power (average and/or peak power), excellent beam quality, high efficiency, and high reliability with low investment and operating costs. Fundamental mode picosecond disk lasers are well established in micro machining at high throughput and perfect precision. Following the world's first market introduction of industrial grade 50 W picosecond lasers (TruMicro 5050) at the Photonics West 2008, the second generation of the TruMicro series 5000 now provides twice the average power (100 W at 1030 nm, or 60 W frequency doubled, green output) at a significantly reduced footprint. Mode-locked disk oscillators achieve by far the highest average power of any unamplified lasers, significantly exceeding the 100 W level in laboratory set-ups. With robust long resonators their multi-microjoule pulse energies begin to compete with typical ultrafast amplifiers. In addition, significant interest in disk technology has recently come from the extreme light laser community, aiming for ultra-high peak powers of petawatts and beyond.

  4. Origin, structure and evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi, F.L.

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments of the origin, structure and evolution of galaxies have been reviewed. The contents of this book are: Inflationary Universe; Cosmic String; Active Galaxies; Intergalactic Medium; Waves in Disk Galaxies; Dark Matter; Gas Dynamics in Disk Galaxies; Equilibrium and Stability of Spiral Galaxies

  5. RESIDENCE TIMES OF PARTICLES IN DIFFUSIVE PROTOPLANETARY DISK ENVIRONMENTS. II. RADIAL MOTIONS AND APPLICATIONS TO DUST ANNEALING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciesla, F. J.

    2011-01-01

    The origin of crystalline grains in comets and the outer regions of protoplanetary disks remains a mystery. It has been suggested that such grains form via annealing of amorphous precursors in the hot, inner region of a protoplanetary disk, where the temperatures needed for such transformations were found, and were then transported outward by some dynamical means. Here we develop a means of tracking the paths that dust grains would have taken through a diffusive protoplanetary disk and examine the types and ranges of environments that particles would have seen over a 10 6 yr time period in the dynamic disk. We then combine this model with three annealing laws to examine how the dynamic evolution of amorphous grains would have led to their physical restructuring and their delivery to various regions of the disk. It is found that 'sibling particles' - those particles that reside at the same location at a given period of time-take a wide range of unique and independent paths through the disk to arrive there. While high temperatures can persist in the disk for very long time periods, we find that those grains that are delivered to the cold outer regions of the disk are largely annealed in the first few x10 5 yr of disk history. This suggests that the crystallinity of grains in the outer disk would be determined early and remain unchanged for much of disk history, in agreement with recent astronomical observations.

  6. Similar traits, different genes? Examining convergent evolution in related weedy rice populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Carrie S; Jia, Melissa H; Jia, Yulin; Caicedo, Ana L

    2013-02-01

    Convergent phenotypic evolution may or may not be associated with convergent genotypic evolution. Agricultural weeds have repeatedly been selected for weed-adaptive traits such as rapid growth, increased seed dispersal and dormancy, thus providing an ideal system for the study of convergent evolution. Here, we identify QTL underlying weedy traits and compare their genetic architecture to assess the potential for convergent genetic evolution in two distinct populations of weedy rice. F(2) offspring from crosses between an indica cultivar and two individuals from genetically differentiated U.S. weedy rice populations were used to map QTL for four quantitative (heading date, seed shattering, plant height and growth rate) and two qualitative traits. We identified QTL on nine of the twelve rice chromosomes, yet most QTL locations do not overlap between the two populations. Shared QTL among weed groups were only seen for heading date, a trait for which weedy groups have diverged from their cultivated ancestors and from each other. Sharing of some QTL with wild rice also suggests a possible role in weed evolution for genes under selection during domestication. The lack of overlapping QTL for the remaining traits suggests that, despite a close evolutionary relationship, weedy rice groups have adapted to the same agricultural environment through different genetic mechanisms. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Phycoerythrin evolution and diversification of spectral phenotype in marine Synechococcus and related picocyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everroad, R Craig; Wood, A Michelle

    2012-09-01

    In marine Synechococcus there is evidence for the adaptive evolution of spectrally distinct forms of the major light harvesting pigment phycoerythrin (PE). Recent research has suggested that these spectral forms of PE have a different evolutionary history than the core genome. However, a lack of explicit statistical testing of alternative hypotheses or for selection on these genes has made it difficult to evaluate the evolutionary relationships between spectral forms of PE or the role horizontal gene transfer (HGT) may have had in the adaptive phenotypic evolution of the pigment system in marine Synechococcus. In this work, PE phylogenies of picocyanobacteria with known spectral phenotypes, including newly co-isolated strains of marine Synechococcus from the Gulf of Mexico, were constructed to explore the diversification of spectral phenotype and PE evolution in this group more completely. For the first time, statistical evaluation of competing evolutionary hypotheses and tests for positive selection on the PE locus in picocyanobacteria were performed. Genes for PEs associated with specific PE spectral phenotypes formed strongly supported monophyletic clades within the PE tree with positive directional selection driving evolution towards higher phycourobilin (PUB) content. The presence of the PUB-lacking phenotype in PE-containing marine picocyanobacteria from cyanobacterial lineages identified as Cyanobium is best explained by HGT into this group from marine Synechococcus. Taken together, these data provide strong examples of adaptive evolution of a single phenotypic trait in bacteria via mutation, positive directional selection and horizontal gene transfer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. THE CITY- THE PORT-THE SEA The evolutive features of a complex relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Coletta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The balanced relation between the city and the sea was at the centre of the Greek philosophy. During the flourishing of the Hellenic civilization, Plato began wondering about the appropriate characteristics of a site for an urban settlement near the sea. An ideal-type of urban settlement model resulted, based on accessibility, safety, hygienism, productivity, proximity to energy sources, prosperity.Renaissance artists appealed to the ancient knowledge in order to renew the treatises about architecture and town planning, in the perspective of building new models aiming at making perfect the structure and the soul of the city through a strictly geometric form.The harbour rose with open arms, towards the sea; a hug aiming at showing the pleasure of meeting,  guaranteeing shelter, protection, safety and friendly welcome.On the contrary, the harbour turns its back to the city and sometimes it moves the city away, in order to keep a certain distance.Physical and institutional barriers intervene between the city and the sea, claiming autonomous political-administrative and planning roles, often hindering, instead of fostering, natural osmotic processes, debasing functions, roles and social, economic, political and cultural interests of reciprocal belonging.Almost everywhere the legislative evolution has followed, and not preceded, the territorial devastation of settlements along the coasts – especially the devastation spontaneously risen – and only later has tried to hold in check a phenomenon sadly fallen in the ways of doing and the emptiness of thinking, letting the “habit of doing” prevail the conservative legislation based on placing pickets to the “not to do” approach; that situation in the light of an economic power become the director of political power, conditioned at opening eyes on doing for half-closing eyes on business.The new city-sea relation has to be studied as a valorisation, not as mere protective measures prescribed by

  9. A combined N-body and hydrodynamic code for modeling disk galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    A combined N-body and hydrodynamic computer code for the modeling of two dimensional galaxies is described. The N-body portion of the code is used to calculate the motion of the particle component of a galaxy, while the hydrodynamics portion of the code is used to follow the motion and evolution of the fluid component. A complete description of the numerical methods used for each portion of the code is given. Additionally, the proof tests of the separate and combined portions of the code are presented and discussed. Finally, a discussion of the topics researched with the code and results obtained is presented. These include: the measurement of stellar relaxation times in disk galaxy simulations; the effects of two-armed spiral perturbations on stable axisymmetric disks; the effects of the inclusion of an instellar medium (ISM) on the stability of disk galaxies; and the effect of the inclusion of stellar evolution on disk galaxy simulations

  10. Backward modelling of the subsidence evolution of the Colorado Basin, offshore Argentina and its relation to the evolution of the conjugate Orange Basin, offshore SW Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Ingo; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Cacace, Mauro

    2017-10-01

    In this study we focus on reconstructing the post-rift subsidence evolution of the Colorado Basin, offshore Argentina. We make use of detailed structural information about its present-day configuration of the sedimentary infill and the crystalline crust. This information is used as input in a backward modelling approach which relies on the assumption of local isostasy to reconstruct the amount of subsidence as induced by the sedimentary load through different time stages. We also attempt a quantification of the thermal effects on the subsidence as induced by the rifting, here included by following the uniform stretching model of lithosphere thinning and exponentially cooling through time. Based on the available information about the present-day geological state of the system, our modelling results indicate a rather continuous post-rift subsidence for the Colorado Basin, and give no significant evidence of any noticeable uplift phase. In a second stage, we compare the post-rift evolution of the Colorado Basin with the subsidence evolution as constrained for its conjugate SW African passive margin, the Orange Basin. Despite these two basins formed almost coevally and therefore in a similar large scale geodynamic context, their post-rift subsidence histories differ. Based on this result, we discuss causative tectonic processes likely to provide an explanation to the observed differences. We therefore conclude that it is most probable that additional tectonic components, other than the ridge-push from the spreading of the South Atlantic Ocean, are required to explain the observed differences in the subsidence of the two basins along the conjugate passive margins. Such additional tectonic components might be related to a dynamic mantle component in the form of either plume activity (Africa) or a subducting slab and the presence of an ongoing compressional stress system as revealed for different areas in South America.

  11. Influence of smoking status at time of surgery for herniated lumbar disk on postoperative pain and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienen, Martin N; Smoll, Nicolas R; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Schaller, Karl; Gautschi, Oliver P

    2014-07-01

    It is well established that smoking has a myriad of negative effects on varies aspects of bodily health. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the smoking status at time of surgery on the postoperative subjective pain course and health related quality of life (HRQoL) until 1 year after surgery for lumbar disc herniation (LDH). This prospective cohort study included patients ≥18 and ≤90 years of age with a symptomatic and radiological verified LDH. The current smoking patient collective (smoking 1 or more cigarettes a day) was compared with the nonsmoking collective (previous smokers without cigarette consumption for >2 months and never smokers) in respect of subjective pain sensation (measured with the visual analogue scale (VAS)) and HRQoL using the short-form (SF-12) questionnaire preoperatively, before discharge, as well as after 4 weeks and 1 year postoperatively. The primary outcome measures were the 1-year SF-12 scores (MCS and PCS) categorized into responders and non-responders. A total of 102 patients were enrolled in the study. Thirty-eight patients were current smokers (37.2%), whereas 43 (42.2%) and 21 (20.6%) patients were never-smokers and previous smokers, respectively. Four weeks and one year after surgery, both smokers and nonsmokers reported increase in the HRQoL as compared to preoperative values - the MCS increased more than the PCS. From a univariate and multivariate perspective, smoking status at time of surgery did not predict responder status. The present study results could not confirm the hypothesis that smoking at time of surgery was associated with worse outcome after surgery for LDH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Time-dependent simulations of disk-embedded planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stökl, A.; Dorfi, E. A.

    2014-03-01

    At the early stages of evolution of planetary systems, young Earth-like planets still embedded in the protoplanetary disk accumulate disk gas gravitationally into planetary atmospheres. The established way to study such atmospheres are hydrostatic models, even though in many cases the assumption of stationarity is unlikely to be fulfilled. Furthermore, such models rely on the specification of a planetary luminosity, attributed to a continuous, highly uncertain accretion of planetesimals onto the surface of the solid core. We present for the first time time-dependent, dynamic simulations of the accretion of nebula gas into an atmosphere around a proto-planet and the evolution of such embedded atmospheres while integrating the thermal energy budget of the solid core. The spherical symmetric models computed with the TAPIR-Code (short for The adaptive, implicit RHD-Code) range from the surface of the rocky core up to the Hill radius where the surrounding protoplanetary disk provides the boundary conditions. The TAPIR-Code includes the hydrodynamics equations, gray radiative transport and convective energy transport. The results indicate that diskembedded planetary atmospheres evolve along comparatively simple outlines and in particular settle, dependent on the mass of the solid core, at characteristic surface temperatures and planetary luminosities, quite independent on numerical parameters and initial conditions. For sufficiently massive cores, this evolution ultimately also leads to runaway accretion and the formation of a gas planet.

  13. Galactic chemical evolution with main-sequence mass loss and the distribution of F and G dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, J.A.; Struck-Marcell, C.

    1988-01-01

    Simple closed galactic chemical-evolution models incorporating early main-sequence stellar mass loss have been developed for disk ages of 5, 10, and 15 Gyr. Relative to models without stellar mass loss, the models are shown to produce a 30-60 percent increase in the present mass ratio of dwarfs to dwarfs plus remnants, and a 200-250 percent increase in the total mass of late F dwarfs remaining on the main sequence at the current disk age. For present disk ages 5 and 10 Gyr, the total mass of mid-F dwarfs remaining on the main sequence is also shown to increase by 90-120 percent. It is concluded that models with main-sequence mass loss have a slightly reduced gas metallicity and slightly increased gas fraction midway through the evolution. 30 references

  14. CT recognition of lateral lumbar disk herniation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.L.; Haughton, V.M.; Daniels, D.L.; Thornton, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    Although computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be useful in diagnosing posterolateral and central lumbar disk herniations, its effectiveness in demonstrating lateral herniated disks has not been emphasized. The myelographic recognition of those herniations may be difficult because root sheaths or dural sacs may not be deformed. A total of 274 CT scans interpreted as showing lumbar disk herniation was reviewed. Fourteen (5%) showed a lateral disk herniation. The CT features of a lateral herniated disk included: (1) focal protrusion of the disk margin within or lateral to the intervertebral foramen: (2) displacement of epidural fat within the intervertebral foramen; (3) absence of dural sac deformity; and (4) soft-tissue mass within or lateral to the intervertebral foramen. Because it can image the disk margin and free disk fragments irrespective of dural sac or root sheath deformity, CT may be more effective than myelography for demonstrating the presence and extent of lateral disk herniation

  15. E-modulus evolution and its relation to solids formation of pastes from commercial cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, Lino; Azenha, Miguel; Geiker, Mette; Figueiras, Joaquim

    2012-01-01

    Models for early age E-modulus evolution of cement pastes are available in the literature, but their validation is limited. This paper provides correlated measurements of early age evolution of E-modulus and hydration of pastes from five commercial cements differing in limestone content. A recently developed methodology allowed continuous monitoring of E-modulus from the time of casting. The methodology is a variant of classic resonant frequency methods, which are based on determination of the first resonant frequency of a composite beam containing the material. The hydration kinetics — and thus the rate of formation of solids — was determined using chemical shrinkage measurements. For the cements studied similar relationships between E-modulus and chemical shrinkage were observed for comparable water-to-binder ratio. For commercial cements it is suggested to model the E-modulus evolution based on the amount of binder reacted, instead of the degree of hydration.

  16. Fluorine in the solar neighborhood: Chemical evolution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitoni, E.; Matteucci, F.; Jönsson, H.; Ryde, N.; Romano, D.

    2018-04-01

    Context. In light of new observational data related to fluorine abundances in solar neighborhood stars, we present chemical evolution models testing various fluorine nucleosynthesis prescriptions with the aim to best fit those new data. Aim. We consider chemical evolution models in the solar neighborhood testing various nucleosynthesis prescriptions for fluorine production with the aim of reproducing the observed abundance ratios [F/O] versus [O/H] and [F/Fe] versus [Fe/H]. We study in detail the effects of various stellar yields on fluorine production. Methods: We adopted two chemical evolution models: the classical two-infall model, which follows the chemical evolution of halo-thick disk and thin disk phases; and the one-infall model, which is designed only for thin disk evolution. We tested the effects on the predicted fluorine abundance ratios of various nucleosynthesis yield sources, that is, asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars, Type II and Type Ia supernovae, and novae. Results: The fluorine production is dominated by AGB stars but the W-R stars are required to reproduce the trend of the observed data in the solar neighborhood with our chemical evolution models. In particular, the best model both for the two-infall and one-infall cases requires an increase by a factor of 2 of the W-R yields. We also show that the novae, even if their yields are still uncertain, could help to better reproduce the secondary behavior of F in the [F/O] versus [O/H] relation. Conclusions: The inclusion of the fluorine production by W-R stars seems to be essential to reproduce the new observed ratio [F/O] versus [O/H] in the solar neighborhood. Moreover, the inclusion of novae helps to reproduce the observed fluorine secondary behavior substantially.

  17. Landscape evolution space and the relative importance of geomorphic processes and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan D.

    2009-08-01

    The concept of landscape evolution space (LES) is introduced as a tool for assessing landscapes and geomorphic systems, intended to be a systematic means for assessing the various factors that contribute to the potential for change in geomorphic systems. The LES conceptual model is based on the energy and mass available to drive and accommodate landscape evolution. An n-dimensional landscape evolution space is defined not only by spatial coordinates, but also by the availability of mass and energy. The LES is thus a space or hypervolume representing the resources available for geomorphic evolution and landscape change. An expression for LES is derived based on elevation, material density, surface area, and inputs of solar, meteoric, and biological energy and mass. Though primarily an heuristic device, the LES model can be used to address concrete problems. Two examples are given. In one, increased surface area due to topographic roughening and dissection of an incised plateau is found to only slightly offset erosional removals of mass in terms of the magnitude of the LES. In the other, sensitivity of coastal plain rivers to several impacts of sea level and climate change is explored. The LES model also leads to the concept of a geomorphological niche, representing the resources available to drive or support a specific process or suite of processes. Considerations of landscape evolution have traditionally focused on the interplay of endogenic vs. exogenic processes, uplift vs. denudation, or soil formation vs. erosion. The LES model explicitly broadens the conceptual framework of landscape evolution beyond the traditional dialectics.

  18. Fast and Slow Precession of Gaseous Debris Disks around Planet-accreting White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ryan; Rafikov, Roman R.

    2018-04-01

    Spectroscopic observations of some metal-rich white dwarfs (WDs), believed to be polluted by planetary material, reveal the presence of compact gaseous metallic disks orbiting them. The observed variability of asymmetric, double-peaked emission-line profiles in about half of such systems could be interpreted as the signature of precession of an eccentric gaseous debris disk. The variability timescales—from decades down to 1.4 year (recently inferred for the debris disk around HE 1349–2305)—are in rough agreement with the rate of general relativistic (GR) precession in the test-particle limit. However, it has not been demonstrated that this mechanism can drive such a fast, coherent precession of a radially extended (out to 1 {R}ȯ ) gaseous disk mediated by internal stresses (pressure). Here, we use the linear theory of eccentricity evolution in hydrodynamic disks to determine several key properties of eccentric modes in gaseous debris disks around WDs. We find a critical dependence of both the precession period and radial eccentricity distribution of the modes on the inner disk radius, r in. For small inner radii, {r}in}≲ (0.2{--}0.4) {R}ȯ , the modes are GR-driven, with periods of ≈1–10 year. For {r}in}≳ (0.2{--}0.4) {R}ȯ , the modes are pressure dominated, with periods of ≈3–20 year. Correspondence between the variability periods and inferred inner radii of the observed disks is in general agreement with this trend. In particular, the short period of HE 1349–2305 is consistent with its small r in. Circum-WD debris disks may thus serve as natural laboratories for studying the evolution of eccentric gaseous disks.

  19. Evolution of sexual dichromatism in relation to nesting habits in European passerines: a test of Wallace's hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, J J; Moreno, J

    2012-08-01

    Wallace proposed in 1868 that natural rather than sexual selection could explain the striking differences in avian plumage dichromatism. Thus, he predicted that nesting habits, through their association with nest predation, could drive changes in sexual dichromatism by enabling females in cavity nesters to become as conspicuous as males, whereas Darwin (1871, The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, John Murray, London) argued that sexual selection was the sole explanation for dichromatism. Sexual dichromatism is currently used as indicating the strength of sexual selection, and therefore testing Wallace's claim with modern phylogentically controlled methodologies is of prime interest for comparing the roles of natural and sexual selection in affecting the evolution of avian coloration. Here, we have related information on nest attendance, sexual dichromatism and nesting habits (open and cavity nesting) to male and female plumage conspicuousness in European passerines. Nest incubation attendance does not explain male or female plumage conspicuousness but nest type does. Moreover, although females of monochromatic and cavity nesting species are more conspicuous than females of other species, males of monochromatic and open nesting species are those with more cryptic plumage. Finally, analyses of character evolution suggest that changes in nesting habits influence the probability of changes in both dichromatism and plumage conspicuousness of males but do not significantly affect those in females. These results strongly suggest a role of nesting habits in the evolution of plumage conspicuousness of males, and a role for sexual selection also in females, both factors affecting the evolution of sexual dichromatism. We discuss our findings in relation to the debate that Darwin and Wallace maintained more than one century ago on the importance of natural and sexual selection in driving the evolution of plumage conspicuousness and sexual dichromatism in birds

  20. The AMBRE project: The thick thin disk and thin thick disk of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, M. R.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Mikolaitis, S.; Worley, C. C.

    2017-11-01

    We analyze 494 main sequence turnoff and subgiant stars from the AMBRE:HARPS survey. These stars have accurate astrometric information from Gaia DR1, providing reliable age estimates with relative uncertainties of ±1 or 2 Gyr and allowing precise orbital determinations. The sample is split based on chemistry into a low-[Mg/Fe] sequence, which are often identified as thin disk stellar populations, and high-[Mg/Fe] sequence, which are often associated with thick disk stellar populations. We find that the high-[Mg/Fe] chemical sequence has extended star formation for several Gyr and is coeval with the oldest stars of the low-[Mg/Fe] chemical sequence: both the low- and high-[Mg/Fe] sequences were forming stars at the same time. We find that the high-[Mg/Fe] stellar populations are only vertically extended for the oldest, most-metal poor and highest [Mg/Fe] stars. When comparing vertical velocity dispersion for the low-