WorldWideScience

Sample records for relativistic quantum systems

  1. Relativistic Quantum Transport in Graphene Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-09

    dimensional Dirac material systems. 2 List of Publications 1. X. Ni, L. Huang, Y.-C. Lai, and L. M. Pecora, “Effect of chaos on relativistic quantum...development of relativistic quantum devices based on graphene or alternative two-dimensional Dirac material systems. In the project period, we studied

  2. On the Velocity of Moving Relativistic Unstable Quantum Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Urbanowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study properties of moving relativistic quantum unstable systems. We show that in contrast to the properties of classical particles and quantum stable objects the velocity of freely moving relativistic quantum unstable systems cannot be constant in time. We show that this new quantum effect results from the fundamental principles of the quantum theory and physics: it is a consequence of the principle of conservation of energy and of the fact that the mass of the quantum unstable system is not defined. This effect can affect the form of the decay law of moving relativistic quantum unstable systems.

  3. Relativistic quantum theory of composite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogami, I.

    1978-01-01

    A relativistic quantum theory free from the difficulties of tachyons and ghosts is formulated to describe the scattering processes between composite systems of spinless quarks. To evade the complication brewed by introducing gluon fields or strings, valence quarks are effectively assumed to be in the relative motion of harmonic oscillation correlating with the motion of the composite system as a whole. A quark-antiquark system is represented by a bilocal field describing a sequence of mesons and every meson is identified with the composite system in a definite eigenstate of relative motion. The quantization is performed in the interaction picture, so that the microcausal condition is satisfied by local fields which result from the decomposition of bilocal fields. Imposing a weakened macrocausal condition on the whole motion of the extended system, a causal bilocal propagator is defined and a consistent time ordering among bilocal fields is defined. The invariant S-matrix is obtained and the graphical method for the calculation of its elements is developed in parallel with the conventional local field theory. For the (bilocal field) 3 interaction any malignant divergence does not appear excepting those in the renormalizable local field theory. The theory provides one promising and comprehensive phenomenology of hadrons which is suitable especially to describe the hard structure of hadrons. (author)

  4. Quadratic algebra approach to relativistic quantum Smorodinsky-Winternitz systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquette, Ian

    2011-01-01

    There exists a relation between the Klein-Gordon and the Dirac equations with scalar and vector potentials of equal magnitude and the Schroedinger equation. We obtain the relativistic energy spectrum for the four relativistic quantum Smorodinsky-Winternitz systems from their quasi-Hamiltonian and the quadratic algebras studied by Daskaloyannis in the nonrelativistic context. We also apply the quadratic algebra approach directly to the initial Dirac equation for these four systems and show that the quadratic algebras obtained are the same than those obtained from the quasi-Hamiltonians. We point out how results obtained in context of quantum superintegrable systems and their polynomial algebras can be applied to the quantum relativistic case.

  5. Relativistic quantum Darwinism in Dirac fermion and graphene systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xuan; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Pecora, Louis

    2012-02-01

    We solve the Dirac equation in two spatial dimensions in the setting of resonant tunneling, where the system consists of two symmetric cavities connected by a finite potential barrier. The shape of the cavities can be chosen to yield both regular and chaotic dynamics in the classical limit. We find that certain pointer states about classical periodic orbits can exist, which are signatures of relativistic quantum Darwinism (RQD). These localized states suppress quantum tunneling, and the effect becomes less severe as the underlying classical dynamics in the cavity is chaotic, leading to regularization of quantum tunneling. Qualitatively similar phenomena have been observed in graphene. A physical theory is developed to explain relativistic quantum Darwinism and its effects based on the spectrum of complex eigenenergies of the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian describing the open cavity system.

  6. Relativistic quantum logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittelstaedt, P.

    1983-01-01

    on the basis of the well-known quantum logic and quantum probability a formal language of relativistic quantum physics is developed. This language incorporates quantum logical as well as relativistic restrictions. It is shown that relativity imposes serious restrictions on the validity regions of propositions in space-time. By an additional postulate this relativistic quantum logic can be made consistent. The results of this paper are derived exclusively within the formal quantum language; they are, however, in accordance with well-known facts of relativistic quantum physics in Hilbert space. (author)

  7. Towards relativistic quantum geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridao, Luis Santiago [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina); Bellini, Mauricio, E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, C.P. 7600, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2015-12-17

    We obtain a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum geometry by using a Weylian-like manifold with a geometric scalar field which provides a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum theory in which the algebra of the Weylian-like field depends on observers. An example for a Reissner–Nordström black-hole is studied.

  8. Relativistic quantum kinetic analysis of a pion--nucleon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    A relativistic plasma of nucleons interacting through pions via the usual isospin-invariant Yukawa coupling is analyzed in the framework of the covariant Wigner function technique. The method is manifestly covariant and the temperature effects are considered. The relativistic quantum BBGKY hierarchy for the pion--nucleon system is derived. By generalizing the Bogolioubov analysis of the classical BBGKY hierarchy a non-perturbative renormalizable method is elaborated which allows the solution of the kinetic problem in form of power series of two cluster parameters which measure the importance of correlations. In the lowest order of the cluster expansion (Hartree approximation of zero-order approximation) the quasi-nucleon Fock space is introduced, the fermion Wigner function in the thermodynamic equilibrium is obtained and the vacuum effects are renormalized. In this approximation the plasma behaves as a perfect Fermi gas of nucleons and antinucleons, but there exists an abnormal configuration with a uniform pion condensate which is unstable. In the next approximation (quadratic in the small parameters) the quasi-pion dispersion relation is obtained and the vacuum polarization tensor is renormalized. The quasi-pion rest-mass spectra (''plasma frequency'') and the effective-coupling behaviour as functions of the thermodynamic state are given. By estimating the size of the cluster parameters the self-consistency of the approximation scheme is proved. The quasi-pion Fock space is introduced and the quasi-pion equilibrium Wigner function is obtained. From these results the problem of the higher-order corrections to the Hartree thermodynamics is outlined

  9. Relativistic Quantum Revivals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strange, P.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum revivals are now a well-known phenomena within nonrelativistic quantum theory. In this Letter we display the effects of relativity on revivals and quantum carpets. It is generally believed that revivals do not occur within a relativistic regime. Here we show that while this is generally true, it is possible, in principle, to set up wave packets with specific mathematical properties that do exhibit exact revivals within a fully relativistic theory.

  10. Quantum dynamics characteristic and the flow of information for an open quantum system under relativistic motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Yang; Wang, Dong; Fang, Bao-Long; Ye, Liu

    2018-03-01

    In this letter, the dynamics characteristics of quantum entanglement (negativity) and distinguishability (trace distance), and the flow of information for an open quantum system under relativistic motion are investigated. Explicitly, we propose a scenario that a particle A held by Alice suffers from an amplitude damping (AD) noise in a flat space-time and another particle B by Bob entangled with A travels with a fixed acceleration under a non-inertial frame. The results show that quantum distinguishability and entanglement are very vulnerable and fragile under the collective influence of AD noise and Unruh effect. Both of them will decrease with the growing intensity of the Unruh effect and the AD thermal bath. It means that the abilities of quantum distinguishability and entanglement to suppress the collective decoherence (AD noise and Unruh effect) are very weak. Furthermore, it turns out that the reduced quantum distinguishability of Alice’s system and Bob in the physically accessible region is distributed to another quantum distinguishability for Alice’s environment and Bob in the physically inaccessible region. That is, the information regarding the scenario is that the lost quantum distinguishability, as a fixed information, flows from the systems to the collective decoherence environment.

  11. Relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollitrault, J.Y.

    1998-12-01

    These notes form an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics. The mathematical formalism has been reduced to the minimum in order to enable the reader to calculate elementary physical processes. The second quantification and the field theory are the logical followings of this course. The reader is expected to know analytical mechanics (Lagrangian and Hamiltonian), non-relativistic quantum mechanics and some basis of restricted relativity. The purpose of the first 3 chapters is to define the quantum mechanics framework for already known notions about rotation transformations, wave propagation and restricted theory of relativity. The next 3 chapters are devoted to the application of relativistic quantum mechanics to a particle with 0,1/5 and 1 spin value. The last chapter deals with the processes involving several particles, these processes require field theory framework to be thoroughly described. (A.C.)

  12. Relativistic quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Horwitz, Lawrence P

    2015-01-01

    This book describes a relativistic quantum theory developed by the author starting from the E.C.G. Stueckelberg approach proposed in the early 40s. In this framework a universal invariant evolution parameter (corresponding to the time originally postulated by Newton) is introduced to describe dynamical evolution. This theory is able to provide solutions for some of the fundamental problems encountered in early attempts to construct a relativistic quantum theory. A relativistically covariant construction is given for which particle spins and angular momenta can be combined through the usual rotation group Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. Solutions are defined for both the classical and quantum two body bound state and scattering problems. The recently developed quantum Lax-Phillips theory of semigroup evolution of resonant states is described. The experiment of Lindner and coworkers on interference in time is discussed showing how the property of coherence in time provides a simple understanding of the results. Th...

  13. Handbook of relativistic quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wenjian

    2017-01-01

    This handbook focuses on the foundations of relativistic quantum mechanics and addresses a number of fundamental issues never covered before in a book. For instance: How can many-body theory be combined with quantum electrodynamics? How can quantum electrodynamics be interfaced with relativistic quantum chemistry? What is the most appropriate relativistic many-electron Hamiltonian? How can we achieve relativistic explicit correlation? How can we formulate relativistic properties? - just to name a few. Since relativistic quantum chemistry is an integral component of computational chemistry, this handbook also supplements the ''Handbook of Computational Chemistry''. Generally speaking, it aims to establish the 'big picture' of relativistic molecular quantum mechanics as the union of quantum electrodynamics and relativistic quantum chemistry. Accordingly, it provides an accessible introduction for readers new to the field, presents advanced methodologies for experts, and discusses possible future perspectives, helping readers understand when/how to apply/develop the methodologies.

  14. Handbook of relativistic quantum chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenjian (ed.) [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Center for Computational Science and Engineering

    2017-03-01

    This handbook focuses on the foundations of relativistic quantum mechanics and addresses a number of fundamental issues never covered before in a book. For instance: How can many-body theory be combined with quantum electrodynamics? How can quantum electrodynamics be interfaced with relativistic quantum chemistry? What is the most appropriate relativistic many-electron Hamiltonian? How can we achieve relativistic explicit correlation? How can we formulate relativistic properties? - just to name a few. Since relativistic quantum chemistry is an integral component of computational chemistry, this handbook also supplements the ''Handbook of Computational Chemistry''. Generally speaking, it aims to establish the 'big picture' of relativistic molecular quantum mechanics as the union of quantum electrodynamics and relativistic quantum chemistry. Accordingly, it provides an accessible introduction for readers new to the field, presents advanced methodologies for experts, and discusses possible future perspectives, helping readers understand when/how to apply/develop the methodologies.

  15. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoine, J-P

    2004-01-01

    The aim of relativistic quantum mechanics is to describe the finer details of the structure of atoms and molecules, where relativistic effects become nonnegligible. It is a sort of intermediate realm, between the familiar nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and fully relativistic quantum field theory, and thus it lacks the simplicity and elegance of both. Yet it is a necessary tool, mostly for quantum chemists. Pilkuhn's book offers to this audience an up-to-date survey of these methods, which is quite welcome since most previous textbooks are at least ten years old. The point of view of the author is to start immediately in the relativistic domain, following the lead of Maxwell's equations rather than classical mechanics, and thus to treat the nonrelativistic version as an approximation. Thus Chapter 1 takes off from Maxwell's equations (in the noncovariant Coulomb gauge) and gradually derives the basic aspects of Quantum Mechanics in a rather pedestrian way (states and observables, Hilbert space, operators, quantum measurement, scattering,. Chapter 2 starts with the Lorentz transformations, then continues with the Pauli spin equation and the Dirac equation and some of their applications (notably the hydrogen atom). Chapter 3 is entitled 'Quantum fields and particles', but falls short of treating quantum field theory properly: only creation/annihilation operators are considered, for a particle in a box. The emphasis is on two-electron states (the Pauli principle, the Foldy--Wouthuysen elimination of small components of Dirac spinors, Breit projection operators. Chapter 4 is devoted to scattering theory and the description of relativistic bound states. Chapter 5, finally, covers hyperfine interactions and radiative corrections. As we said above, relativistic quantum mechanics is by nature limited in scope and rather inelegant and Pilkuhn's book is no exception. The notation is often heavy (mostly noncovariant) and the mathematical level rather low. The central topic

  16. Propagation of a TE surface mode in a relativistic electron beam–quantum plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Aziz, M.

    2012-01-01

    The dispersion properties of a transverse electric (TE) surface waves propagating along the interface between a magneto-quantum plasma–relativistic beam system and vacuum are studied by using the quantum hydrodynamic model. The general dispersion relations are derived and analyzed in some special cases of interest. Moreover, the effects of density gradients for the beam and plasma on the dispersion properties of surface waves are investigated. The kind of dispersion relations depends strongly on the ambient magnetic field B o via the gyro-frequency ω c , the quantum parameters, and the width of the plasma layer as well as the relativistic factor for the electron beam. It is found that the quantum effects play a crucial role to facilitate the propagation of TE surface waves. -- Highlights: ► Propagation of TE surface waves on bounded magneto-quantum plasma by relativistic beam is studied. ► The quantum plasma consists of transitional layer adjacent to uniform layer. ► Influence of quantum effects on the propagation of TE surface waves are taken into account. ► Effects of homogeneity and inhomogeneity for beam on TE surface waves are considered. ► It is found that quantum effects facilitate the propagation of TE surface modes.

  17. Relativistic quantum mechanics; Mecanique quantique relativiste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollitrault, J.Y. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique]|[Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-12-01

    These notes form an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics. The mathematical formalism has been reduced to the minimum in order to enable the reader to calculate elementary physical processes. The second quantification and the field theory are the logical followings of this course. The reader is expected to know analytical mechanics (Lagrangian and Hamiltonian), non-relativistic quantum mechanics and some basis of restricted relativity. The purpose of the first 3 chapters is to define the quantum mechanics framework for already known notions about rotation transformations, wave propagation and restricted theory of relativity. The next 3 chapters are devoted to the application of relativistic quantum mechanics to a particle with 0,1/5 and 1 spin value. The last chapter deals with the processes involving several particles, these processes require field theory framework to be thoroughly described. (A.C.) 2 refs.

  18. Computational derivation of quantum relativist electromagnetic systems with forward-backward space-time shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Daniel M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of our preceding paper dealing with computational derivation of the Klein-Gordon quantum relativist equation and the Schroedinger quantum equation with forward and backward space-time shifts. The first part introduces forward and backward derivatives for discrete and continuous systems. Generalized complex discrete and continuous derivatives are deduced. The second part deduces the Klein-Gordon equation from the space-time complex continuous derivatives. These derivatives take into account forward-backward space-time shifts related to an internal phase velocity u. The internal group velocity v is related to the speed of light u.v=c 2 and to the external group and phase velocities u.v=v g .v p . Without time shift, the Schroedinger equation is deduced, with a supplementary term, which could represent a reference potential. The third part deduces the Quantum Relativist Klein-Gordon equation for a particle in an electromagnetic field

  19. Form factor of relativistic two-particle system and covariant hamiltonian formulation of quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skachkov, N.; Solovtsov, I.

    1979-01-01

    Based on the hamiltonian formulation of quantum field theory proposed by Kadyshevsky the three-dimensional relativistic approach is developed for describing the form factors of composite systems. The main features of the diagram technique appearing in the covariant hamiltonian formulation of field theory are discussed. The three-dimensional relativistic equation for the vertex function is derived and its connection with that for the quasipotential wave function is found. The expressions are obtained for the form factor of the system through equal-time two-particle wave functions both in momentum and relativistic configurational representations. An explicit expression for the form factor is found for the case of two-particle interaction through the Coulomb potential

  20. Observer dependence of quantum states in relativistic quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malin, S.

    1982-01-01

    Quantum states can be understood as either (i) describing quantum systems or (ii) representing observers' knowledge about quantum systems. These different meanings are shown to imply different transformation properties in relativistic field theories. The rules for the reduction of quantum states and the transformation properties of quantum states under Lorentz transformations are derived for case (ii). The results obtained are applied to a quantum system recently presented and analyzed by Aharonov and Albert. It is shown that the present results, combined with Aharonov and Albert's, amount to a proof of Bohr's view that quantum states represent observers' knowledge about quantum systems

  1. Relativistic quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molotkov, S. N.

    2011-01-01

    A new protocol of quantum key distribution is proposed to transmit keys through free space. Along with quantum-mechanical restrictions on the discernibility of nonorthogonal quantum states, the protocol uses additional restrictions imposed by special relativity theory. Unlike all existing quantum key distribution protocols, this protocol ensures key secrecy for a not strictly one-photon source of quantum states and an arbitrary length of a quantum communication channel.

  2. Relativistic quantum mechanics an introduction to relativistic quantum fields

    CERN Document Server

    Maiani, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Written by two of the world's leading experts on particle physics and the standard model - including an award-winning former Director General of CERN - this textbook provides a completely up-to-date account of relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. It describes the formal and phenomenological aspects of the standard model of particle physics, and is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students studying both theoretical and experimental physics.

  3. Quantum gates via relativistic remote control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín-Martínez, Eduardo, E-mail: emartinm@uwaterloo.ca [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Dept. Applied Math., University of Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Sutherland, Chris [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-12-12

    We harness relativistic effects to gain quantum control on a stationary qubit in an optical cavity by controlling the non-inertial motion of a different probe atom. Furthermore, we show that by considering relativistic trajectories of the probe, we enhance the efficiency of the quantum control. We explore the possible use of these relativistic techniques to build 1-qubit quantum gates.

  4. Relativistic quantum chemistry on quantum computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veis, L.; Visnak, J.; Fleig, T.

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed a remarkable interest in the application of quantum computing for solving problems in quantum chemistry more efficiently than classical computers allow. Very recently, proof-of-principle experimental realizations have been reported. However, so far only...... the nonrelativistic regime (i.e., the Schrodinger equation) has been explored, while it is well known that relativistic effects can be very important in chemistry. We present a quantum algorithm for relativistic computations of molecular energies. We show how to efficiently solve the eigenproblem of the Dirac......-Coulomb Hamiltonian on a quantum computer and demonstrate the functionality of the proposed procedure by numerical simulations of computations of the spin-orbit splitting in the SbH molecule. Finally, we propose quantum circuits with three qubits and nine or ten controlled-NOT (CNOT) gates, which implement a proof...

  5. Localization and Entanglement in Relativistic Quantum Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yngvason, Jakob

    These notes are a slightly expanded version of a lecture presented in February 2012 at the workshop "The Message of Quantum Science—Attempts Towards a Synthesis" held at the ZIF in Bielefeld. The participants were physicists with a wide range of different expertise and interests. The lecture was intended as a survey of a small selection of the insights into the structure of relativistic quantum physics that have accumulated through the efforts of many people over more than 50 years. (Including, among many others, R. Haag, H. Araki, D. Kastler, H.-J. Borchers, A. Wightman, R. Streater, B. Schroer, H. Reeh, S. Schlieder, S. Doplicher, J. Roberts, R. Jost, K. Hepp, J. Fröhlich, J. Glimm, A. Jaffe, J. Bisognano, E. Wichmann, D. Buchholz, K. Fredenhagen, R. Longo, D. Guido, R. Brunetti, J. Mund, S. Summers, R. Werner, H. Narnhofer, R. Verch, G. Lechner, ….) This contribution discusses some facts about relativistic quantum physics, most of which are quite familiar to practitioners of Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT) [Also known as Local Quantum Physics (Haag, Local quantum physics. Springer, Berlin, 1992).] but less well known outside this community. No claim of originality is made; the goal of this contribution is merely to present these facts in a simple and concise manner, focusing on the following issues: Explaining how quantum mechanics (QM) combined with (special) relativity, in particular an upper bound on the propagation velocity of effects, leads naturally to systems with an infinite number of degrees of freedom (relativistic quantum fields).

  6. Relationship between quantum walks and relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrashekar, C. M.; Banerjee, Subhashish; Srikanth, R.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum walk models have been used as an algorithmic tool for quantum computation and to describe various physical processes. This article revisits the relationship between relativistic quantum mechanics and the quantum walks. We show the similarities of the mathematical structure of the decoupled and coupled forms of the discrete-time quantum walk to that of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, respectively. In the latter case, the coin emerges as an analog of the spinor degree of freedom. Discrete-time quantum walk as a coupled form of the continuous-time quantum walk is also shown by transforming the decoupled form of the discrete-time quantum walk to the Schroedinger form. By showing the coin to be a means to make the walk reversible and that the Dirac-like structure is a consequence of the coin use, our work suggests that the relativistic causal structure is a consequence of conservation of information. However, decoherence (modeled by projective measurements on position space) generates entropy that increases with time, making the walk irreversible and thereby producing an arrow of time. The Lieb-Robinson bound is used to highlight the causal structure of the quantum walk to put in perspective the relativistic structure of the quantum walk, the maximum speed of walk propagation, and earlier findings related to the finite spread of the walk probability distribution. We also present a two-dimensional quantum walk model on a two-state system to which the study can be extended.

  7. Relativistic quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniewski, Jedrzej

    Special relativity states that information cannot travel faster than the speed of light, which means that communication between agents occupying distinct locations incurs some minimal delay. Alternatively, we can see it as temporary communication constraints between distinct agents and such constraints turn out to be useful for cryptographic purposes. In relativistic cryptography we consider protocols in which interactions occur at distinct locations at well-defined times and we investigate why such a setting allows to implement primitives which would not be possible otherwise. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  8. Relativistic quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radchenko, I V; Kravtsov, K S; Kulik, S P; Molotkov, S N

    2014-01-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a concept of secret key exchange supported by fundamentals of quantum physics. Its perfect realization offers unconditional key security, however, known practical schemes are potentially vulnerable if the quantum channel loss exceeds a certain realization-specific bound. This discrepancy is caused by the fact that any practical photon source has a non-zero probability of emitting two or more photons at a time, while theory needs exactly one. We report an essentially different QKD scheme based on both quantum physics and theory of relativity. It works flawlessly with practical photon sources at arbitrary large channel loss. Our scheme is naturally tailored for free-space optical channels, and may be used in ground-to-satellite communications, where losses are prohibitively large and unpredictable for conventional QKD. (letters)

  9. Optimization of a relativistic quantum mechanical engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Francisco J; Ferré, Michel; Orellana, P A; Rojas, René G; Vargas, P

    2016-08-01

    We present an optimal analysis for a quantum mechanical engine working between two energy baths within the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics, adopting a first-order correction. This quantum mechanical engine, with the direct energy leakage between the energy baths, consists of two adiabatic and two isoenergetic processes and uses a three-level system of two noninteracting fermions as its working substance. Assuming that the potential wall moves at a finite speed, we derive the expression of power output and, in particular, reproduce the expression for the efficiency at maximum power.

  10. Relativistic quantum chaos-An emergent interdisciplinary field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Cheng; Xu, Hong-Ya; Huang, Liang; Grebogi, Celso

    2018-05-01

    Quantum chaos is referred to as the study of quantum manifestations or fingerprints of classical chaos. A vast majority of the studies were for nonrelativistic quantum systems described by the Schrödinger equation. Recent years have witnessed a rapid development of Dirac materials such as graphene and topological insulators, which are described by the Dirac equation in relativistic quantum mechanics. A new field has thus emerged: relativistic quantum chaos. This Tutorial aims to introduce this field to the scientific community. Topics covered include scarring, chaotic scattering and transport, chaos regularized resonant tunneling, superpersistent currents, and energy level statistics-all in the relativistic quantum regime. As Dirac materials have the potential to revolutionize solid-state electronic and spintronic devices, a good understanding of the interplay between chaos and relativistic quantum mechanics may lead to novel design principles and methodologies to enhance device performance.

  11. Relativistic quantum chaos—An emergent interdisciplinary field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Cheng; Xu, Hong-Ya; Huang, Liang; Grebogi, Celso

    2018-05-01

    Quantum chaos is referred to as the study of quantum manifestations or fingerprints of classical chaos. A vast majority of the studies were for nonrelativistic quantum systems described by the Schrödinger equation. Recent years have witnessed a rapid development of Dirac materials such as graphene and topological insulators, which are described by the Dirac equation in relativistic quantum mechanics. A new field has thus emerged: relativistic quantum chaos. This Tutorial aims to introduce this field to the scientific community. Topics covered include scarring, chaotic scattering and transport, chaos regularized resonant tunneling, superpersistent currents, and energy level statistics—all in the relativistic quantum regime. As Dirac materials have the potential to revolutionize solid-state electronic and spintronic devices, a good understanding of the interplay between chaos and relativistic quantum mechanics may lead to novel design principles and methodologies to enhance device performance.

  12. Point form relativistic quantum mechanics and relativistic SU(6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    The point form is used as a framework for formulating a relativistic quantum mechanics, with the mass operator carrying the interactions of underlying constituents. A symplectic Lie algebra of mass operators is introduced from which a relativistic harmonic oscillator mass operator is formed. Mass splittings within the degenerate harmonic oscillator levels arise from relativistically invariant spin-spin, spin-orbit, and tensor mass operators. Internal flavor (and color) symmetries are introduced which make it possible to formulate a relativistic SU(6) model of baryons (and mesons). Careful attention is paid to the permutation symmetry properties of the hadronic wave functions, which are written as polynomials in Bargmann spaces.

  13. Quantum ion-acoustic solitary waves in weak relativistic plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Small amplitude quantum ion-acoustic solitary waves are studied in an unmagnetized two- species relativistic quantum plasma system, comprised of electrons and ions. The one-dimensional quantum hydrodynamic model (QHD) is used to obtain a deformed Korteweg–de Vries (dKdV) equation by reductive ...

  14. Dynamical symmetries of two-dimensional systems in relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fulin; Song Ci; Chen Jingling

    2009-01-01

    The two-dimensional Dirac Hamiltonian with equal scalar and vector potentials has been proved commuting with the deformed orbital angular momentum L. When the potential takes the Coulomb form, the system has an SO(3) symmetry, and similarly the harmonic oscillator potential possesses an SU(2) symmetry. The generators of the symmetric groups are derived for these two systems separately. The corresponding energy spectra are yielded naturally from the Casimir operators. Their non-relativistic limits are also discussed

  15. Quantum theoretical physics is statistical and relativistic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, C.

    1980-01-01

    A new theoretical framework for the quantum mechanism is presented. It is based on a strict deterministic behavior of single systems. The conventional QM equation, however, is found to describe statistical results of many classical systems. It will be seen, moreover, that a rigorous synthesis of our theory requires relativistic kinematics. So, QM is not only a classical statistical theory, it is, of necessity, a relativistic theory. The equation of the theory does not just duplicate QM, it indicates an inherent nonlinearity in QM which is subject to experimental verification. It is shown, therefore, that conventional QM is a corollary of classical deterministic principles. It is suggested that this concept of nature conflicts with that prevalent in modern physics. (author)

  16. Relativistic nuclear physics and quantum chromodynamics. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The data of investigations on problems of high energy physics are given. Special attention pays to quantum chromodynamics at large distances, cumulative processes, multiquark states and relativistic nuclear collisions

  17. Relativistic quantum mechanics of leptons and fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandy, W.T. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This book serves as an advanced text on the Dirac theory, and provides a monograph summarizing the description of relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics as classical field theories. It presents a broad, detailed, and up-to-date exposition of relativistic quantum mechanics, including the two-body problem. It also demonstrates the extent to which the behavior of stable particles and their interactions can be understood without introducing operator (second-quantized) fields. The subsequent difficulties are studied in detail and possible resolutions are presented through quantum field theory

  18. Causal localizations in relativistic quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrigiano, Domenico P. L.; Leiseifer, Andreas D.

    2015-07-01

    Causal localizations describe the position of quantum systems moving not faster than light. They are constructed for the systems with finite spinor dimension. At the center of interest are the massive relativistic systems. For every positive mass, there is the sequence of Dirac tensor-localizations, which provides a complete set of inequivalent irreducible causal localizations. They obey the principle of special relativity and are fully Poincaré covariant. The boosters are determined by the causal position operator and the other Poincaré generators. The localization with minimal spinor dimension is the Dirac localization. Thus, the Dirac equation is derived here as a mere consequence of the principle of causality. Moreover, the higher tensor-localizations, not known so far, follow from Dirac's localization by a simple construction. The probability of localization for positive energy states results to be described by causal positive operator valued (PO-) localizations, which are the traces of the causal localizations on the subspaces of positive energy. These causal Poincaré covariant PO-localizations for every irreducible massive relativistic system were, all the more, not known before. They are shown to be separated. Hence, the positive energy systems can be localized within every open region by a suitable preparation as accurately as desired. Finally, the attempt is made to provide an interpretation of the PO-localization operators within the frame of conventional quantum mechanics attributing an important role to the negative energy states.

  19. sl (6,r) as the group of symmetries for non relativistic quantum systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is shown that the 13 one parameter generators of the Lie group SL(6, R) are the maximal group of symmetries for nonrelativistic quantum systems. The group action on the set of states S Ĥ (H complex Hilbert space) preserves transition probabilities as well as the dynamics of the system. By considering a prolongation of ...

  20. Non-relativistic quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Puri, Ravinder R

    2017-01-01

    This book develops and simplifies the concept of quantum mechanics based on the postulates of quantum mechanics. The text discusses the technique of disentangling the exponential of a sum of operators, closed under the operation of commutation, as the product of exponentials to simplify calculations of harmonic oscillator and angular momentum. Based on its singularity structure, the Schrödinger equation for various continuous potentials is solved in terms of the hypergeometric or the confluent hypergeometric functions. The forms of the potentials for which the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation is exactly solvable are derived in detail. The problem of identifying the states of two-level systems which have no classical analogy is addressed by going beyond Bell-like inequalities and separability. The measures of quantumness of mutual information in two two-level systems is also covered in detail. Offers a new approach to learning quantum mechanics based on the history of quantum mechanics and its postu...

  1. Analysis of the EPR-experiment by relativistic quantum logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittelstaedt, P.

    1984-01-01

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-experiment is analysed in the framework of an abstract language for relativistic quantum physics, which can be founded on the most general possibilities of physical observations and without any recourse to the Hilbert-space formulation of relativistic quantum theory. -Within this approach one obtains nonlocal correlations between the two EPR-systems in accordance with recent experiments and with quantum theory. These correlations can, however, not be used in order to produce superluminal signals and thus to violate Einstein-causality and special relativity. (author)

  2. Relativistic implications of the quantum phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Stephen G

    2012-01-01

    The quantum phase leads to projective representations of symmetry groups in quantum mechanics. The projective representations are equivalent to the unitary representations of the central extension of the group. A celebrated example is Wigner's formulation of special relativistic quantum mechanics as the projective representations of the inhomogeneous Lorentz group. However, Wigner's formulation makes no mention of the Weyl-Heisenberg group and the hermitian representation of its algebra that are the Heisenberg commutation relations fundamental to quantum physics. We put aside the relativistic symmetry and show that the maximal quantum symmetry that leaves the Heisenberg commutation relations invariant is the projective representations of the conformally scaled inhomogeneous symplectic group. The Weyl-Heisenberg group and noncommutative structure arises directly because the quantum phase requires projective representations. We then consider the relativistic implications of the quantum phase that lead to the Born line element and the projective representations of an inhomogeneous unitary group that defines a noninertial quantum theory. (Understanding noninertial quantum mechanics is a prelude to understanding quantum gravity.) The remarkable properties of this symmetry and its limits are studied.

  3. Consistent resolution of some relativistic quantum paradoxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    A relativistic version of the (consistent or decoherent) histories approach to quantum theory is developed on the basis of earlier work by Hartle, and used to discuss relativistic forms of the paradoxes of spherical wave packet collapse, Bohm's formulation of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, and Hardy's paradox. It is argued that wave function collapse is not needed for introducing probabilities into relativistic quantum mechanics, and in any case should never be thought of as a physical process. Alternative approaches to stochastic time dependence can be used to construct a physical picture of the measurement process that is less misleading than collapse models. In particular, one can employ a coarse-grained but fully quantum-mechanical description in which particles move along trajectories, with behavior under Lorentz transformations the same as in classical relativistic physics, and detectors are triggered by particles reaching them along such trajectories. States entangled between spacelike separate regions are also legitimate quantum descriptions, and can be consistently handled by the formalism presented here. The paradoxes in question arise because of using modes of reasoning which, while correct for classical physics, are inconsistent with the mathematical structure of quantum theory, and are resolved (or tamed) by using a proper quantum analysis. In particular, there is no need to invoke, nor any evidence for, mysterious long-range superluminal influences, and thus no incompatibility, at least from this source, between relativity theory and quantum mechanics

  4. Relativistic quantum metrology: exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette

    2014-05-22

    We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory. Quantum field theory properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in quantum field theory including proper times and accelerations. Indeed, the techniques can be applied to develop a novel generation of relativistic quantum technologies for gravimeters, clocks and sensors. As an example, we present a high precision device which in principle improves the state-of-the-art in quantum accelerometers by exploiting relativistic effects.

  5. Relativistic predictive quantum potential: the N-body case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garuccio, A.; Kyprianidis, A.; Vigier, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    It is generalized to a system of N scalar particles the casual description with action at a distance already given for two-particle systems in EPR type of experiments. The many body quantum potential is shown to satisfy the predictivity constraints established by Droz-Vincent for relativistic mechanics

  6. Time Operator in Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani, Sina

    2017-07-01

    It is first shown that the Dirac’s equation in a relativistic frame could be modified to allow discrete time, in agreement to a recently published upper bound. Next, an exact self-adjoint 4 × 4 relativistic time operator for spin-1/2 particles is found and the time eigenstates for the non-relativistic case are obtained and discussed. Results confirm the quantum mechanical speculation that particles can indeed occupy negative energy levels with vanishingly small but non-zero probablity, contrary to the general expectation from classical physics. Hence, Wolfgang Pauli’s objection regarding the existence of a self-adjoint time operator is fully resolved. It is shown that using the time operator, a bosonic field referred here to as energons may be created, whose number state representations in non-relativistic momentum space can be explicitly found.

  7. The Wigner function in the relativistic quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, K., E-mail: kowalski@uni.lodz.pl; Rembieliński, J.

    2016-12-15

    A detailed study is presented of the relativistic Wigner function for a quantum spinless particle evolving in time according to the Salpeter equation. - Highlights: • We study the Wigner function for a quantum spinless relativistic particle. • We discuss the relativistic Wigner function introduced by Zavialov and Malokostov. • We introduce relativistic Wigner function based on the standard definition. • We find analytic expressions for relativistic Wigner functions.

  8. Dirac's aether in relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroni, N.C.; Bari Univ.; Vigier, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The paper concerns Dirac's aether model, based on a stochastic covariant distribution of subquantum motions. Stochastic derivation of the relativistic quantum equations; deterministic nonlocal interpretation of the Aspect-Rapisarda experiments on the EPR paradox; and photon interference with itself; are all discussed. (U.K.)

  9. A New Perspective on Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Otto C W

    2011-01-01

    Based on a linear realization formulation of a quantum relativity, - proposed relativity for 'quantum space-time', we introduce the new Poincare-Snyder relativity and Snyder relativity as relativities in between the latter and the well known Galilean and Einstein cases. While there is supposed to be not separate notion of classical and quantum mechanics at the level of the very unconventional quantum relativity, the Poincare-Snyder relativity is more like a mathematically extended form of Einstein relativity on which we can write down a formal canonical classical and quantum mechanics. We discuss how the Poincare-Snyder relativity may provide a stronger framework for the description of the usual (Einstein) relativistic quantum mechanics and present a first look of the interesting picture from the new perspective.

  10. Relativistic quantum mechanics of bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, P.; Home, D.; Sinha Roy, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    We show that it is possible to use the Klein-Gordon, Proca and Maxwell formulations to construct multi-component relativistic configuration space wavefunctions of spin-0 and spin-1 bosons in an external field. These wavefunctions satisfy the first-order Kemmer-Duffin equation. The crucial ingredient is the use of the future-causal normal n μ (n μ n μ =1, n 0 >0) to the space-like hypersurfaces foliating space-time, inherent in the concept of a relativistic wavefunction, to construct a conserved future-causal probability current four-vector from the second-rank energy-momentum tensor, following Holland's prescription. The existence of a Hermitian position operator, localized solutions, compatibility with the second quantized theories and the question of interpretation are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Relativistic classical limit of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, G.R.; Rafelski, J.

    1993-01-01

    We study the classical limit of the equal-time relativistic quantum transport theory. We discuss in qualitative terms the need to fold first the Wigner function with a coarse-graining function. Only then does the singularity at ℎ→0 seem to be manageable. In the limit ℎ→0, we obtain the relativistic Vlasov equations for the particle and the antiparticle sector of the Fock space. Similarly, we address the evolution equations of the spin and the magnetic-moment density

  12. Two point function for a simple general relativistic quantum model

    OpenAIRE

    Colosi, Daniele

    2007-01-01

    We study the quantum theory of a simple general relativistic quantum model of two coupled harmonic oscillators and compute the two-point function following a proposal first introduced in the context of loop quantum gravity.

  13. Dirac particle in a box, and relativistic quantum Zeno dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, Govind; Belyi, Sergey

    2004-01-01

    After developing a complete set of eigenfunctions for a Dirac particle restricted to a box, the quantum Zeno dynamics of a relativistic system is considered. The evolution of a continuously observed quantum mechanical system is governed by the theorem put forth by Misra and Sudarshan. One of the conditions for quantum Zeno dynamics to be manifest is that the Hamiltonian is semi-bounded. This Letter analyzes the effects of continuous observation of a particle whose time evolution is generated by the Dirac Hamiltonian. The theorem by Misra and Sudarshan is not applicable here since the Dirac operator is not semi-bounded

  14. Relativistic supersymmetric quantum mechanics based on Klein-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2004-01-01

    Witten's the non-relativistic formalism of supersymmetric quantum mechanics was based on a factorization and partnership between Schroedinger equations. We show how it accommodates a transition to the partnership between relativistic Klein-Gordon equations

  15. Classification of quantum relativistic orientable objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitman, D M; Shelepin, A L

    2011-01-01

    Extending our previous work 'Fields on the Poincare group and quantum description of orientable objects' (Gitman and Shelepin 2009 Eur. Phys. J. C 61 111-39), we consider here a classification of orientable relativistic quantum objects in 3+1 dimensions. In such a classification, one uses a maximal set of ten commuting operators (generators of left and right transformations) in the space of functions on the Poincare group. In addition to the usual six quantum numbers related to external symmetries (given by left generators), there appear additional quantum numbers related to internal symmetries (given by right generators). Spectra of internal and external symmetry operators are interrelated, which, however, does not contradict the Coleman-Mandula no-go theorem. We believe that the proposed approach can be useful for the description of elementary spinning particles considered as orientable objects. In particular, it gives a group-theoretical interpretation of some facts of the existing phenomenological classification of spinning particles.

  16. Study of quantum spin correlations of relativistic electron pairs - Testing nonlocality of relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodek, K.; Rozpędzik, D.; Zejma, J.; Caban, P.; Rembieliński, J.; Włodarczyk, M.; Ciborowski, J.; Enders, J.; Köhler, A.; Kozela, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Polish-German project QUEST aims at studying relativistic quantum spin correlations of the Einstein-Rosen-Podolsky-Bohm type, through measurement of the correlation function and the corresponding probabilities for relativistic electron pairs. The results will be compared to theoretical predictions obtained by us within the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics, based on assumptions regarding the form of the relativistic spin operator. Agreement or divergence will be interpreted in the context of non-uniqueness of the relativistic spin operator in quantum mechanics as well as dependence of the correlation function on the choice of observables representing the spin. Pairs of correlated electrons will originate from the Mo/ller scattering of polarized 15 MeV electrons provided by the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC, TU Darmstadt, incident on a Be target. Spin projections will be determined using the Mott polarimetry technique. Measurements (starting 2013) are planned for longitudinal and transverse beam polarizations and different orientations of the beam polarization vector w.r.t. the Mo/ller scattering plane. This is the first project to study relativistic spin correlations for particles with mass

  17. Non-relativistic Limit of a Dirac Polaron in Relativistic Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, A

    2006-01-01

    A quantum system of a Dirac particle interacting with the quantum radiation field is considered in the case where no external potentials exist. Then the total momentum of the system is conserved and the total Hamiltonian is unitarily equivalent to the direct integral $\\int_{{\\bf R}^3}^\\oplus\\overline{H({\\bf p})}d{\\bf p}$ of a family of self-adjoint operators $\\overline{H({\\bf p})}$ acting in the Hilbert space $\\oplus^4{\\cal F}_{\\rm rad}$, where ${\\cal F}_{\\rm rad}$ is the Hilbert space of the quantum radiation field. The fibre operator $\\overline{H({\\bf p})}$ is called the Hamiltonian of the Dirac polaron with total momentum ${\\bf p} \\in {\\bf R}^3$. The main result of this paper is concerned with the non-relativistic (scaling) limit of $\\overline{H({\\bf p})}$. It is proven that the non-relativistic limit of $\\overline{H({\\bf p})}$ yields a self-adjoint extension of a Hamiltonian of a polaron with spin $1/2$ in non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics.

  18. Quadratic hamiltonians and relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razumov, A.V.; Solov'ev, V.O.; Taranov, A.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    For the case of a charged scalar field described by a quadratic hamiltonian the equivalent relativistic quantum mechanics is constructed in one-particle sector. Complete investigation of a charged relativistic particle motion in the Coulomb field is carried out. Subcritical as well as supercritical cases are considered. In the course of investigation of the charged scalar particle in the Coulomb field the diagonalization of the quadratic hamiltonian describing the charged scalar quantized field interaction with the external Coulomb field has taken place. Mathematically this problem is bound to the construction of self-conjugated expansions of the symmetric operator. The construction of such expansion is necessary at any small external field magnitude [ru

  19. On the relativistic quantum mechanics of two interacting spinless particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizov, V.A.; Sazdjian, H.; Todorov, I.T.

    1984-05-01

    The L 2 -scalar product ∫ PHI*(x)PSI(x) d 3 x is not appropriate for the space of states describing the center-of-mass relative motion of two relativistic particles whose interaction is given by an energy dependent quasipotential. The problem already appears in the relativistic quantum mechanics of a Klein-Gordon charged particle in an external field. We extend the methods developed for that case to study a two-particle system with an energy independent scalar interaction as well as the relativistic Coulomb problem. We write down a Poincare invariant inner product for which the eigenfunctions corresponding to different energy eigenvalues are orthogonal. We also construct a perturbative expansion for bound-state energy eigenvalues corresponding to an arbitrary energy dependent (quasipotential) correction to an unperturbed Hamiltonian with a known spectrum. The description of observables and transition probabilities for eigenvalue problems with a polynomial dependence on the spectral parameter is also discussed

  20. Relativistic quantum similarities in atoms in position and momentum spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, P.; Sarsa, A.; Buendia, E.; Galvez, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    A study of different quantum similarity measures and their corresponding quantum similarity indices is carried out for the atoms from H to Lr (Z=1-103). Relativistic effects in both position and momentum spaces have been studied by comparing the relativistic values to the non-relativistic ones. We have used the atomic electron density in both position and momentum spaces obtained within relativistic and non-relativistic numerical-parameterized optimized effective potential approximations. -- Highlights: → Quantum similarity measures and indices in electronic structure of atoms. → Position and momentum electronic densities. → Similarity of relativistic and non-relativistic densities. → Similarity of core and valence regions of different atoms. → Dependence with Z along the Periodic Table.

  1. A relativistic theory for continuous measurement of quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diosi, L.

    1990-04-01

    A formal theory for the continuous measurement of relativistic quantum fields is proposed. The corresponding scattering equations were derived. The proposed formalism reduces to known equations in the Markovian case. Two recent models for spontaneous quantum state reduction have been recovered in the framework of this theory. A possible example of the relativistic continuous measurement has been outlined in standard Quantum Electrodynamics. The continuous measurement theory possesses an alternative formulation in terms of interacting quantum and stochastic fields. (author) 23 refs

  2. Relativistic quantum vorticity of the quadratic form of the Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, Felipe A; Mahajan, Swadesh M

    2015-01-01

    We explore the fluid version of the quadratic form of the Dirac equation, sometimes called the Feynman–Gell-Mann equation. The dynamics of the quantum spinor field is represented by equations of motion for the fluid density, the velocity field, and the spin field. In analogy with classical relativistic and non-relativistic quantum theories, the fully relativistic fluid formulation of this equation allows a vortex dynamics. The vortical form is described by a total tensor field that is the weighted combination of the inertial, electromagnetic and quantum forces. The dynamics contrives the quadratic form of the Dirac equation as a total vorticity free system. (paper)

  3. Classification of quantum relativistic orientable objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, D M [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, 05315-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Shelepin, A L, E-mail: gitman@dfn.if.usp.br, E-mail: alex@shelepin.msk.ru [Moscow Institute of Radio Engineering, Electronics and Automation, Prospect Vernadskogo, 78, 117454 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-15

    Extending our previous work 'Fields on the Poincare group and quantum description of orientable objects' (Gitman and Shelepin 2009 Eur. Phys. J. C 61 111-39), we consider here a classification of orientable relativistic quantum objects in 3+1 dimensions. In such a classification, one uses a maximal set of ten commuting operators (generators of left and right transformations) in the space of functions on the Poincare group. In addition to the usual six quantum numbers related to external symmetries (given by left generators), there appear additional quantum numbers related to internal symmetries (given by right generators). Spectra of internal and external symmetry operators are interrelated, which, however, does not contradict the Coleman-Mandula no-go theorem. We believe that the proposed approach can be useful for the description of elementary spinning particles considered as orientable objects. In particular, it gives a group-theoretical interpretation of some facts of the existing phenomenological classification of spinning particles.

  4. Multiple-event probability in general-relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmann, Frank; Mondragon, Mauricio; Perez, Alejandro; Rovelli, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the definition of quantum probability in the context of 'timeless' general-relativistic quantum mechanics. In particular, we study the probability of sequences of events, or multievent probability. In conventional quantum mechanics this can be obtained by means of the 'wave function collapse' algorithm. We first point out certain difficulties of some natural definitions of multievent probability, including the conditional probability widely considered in the literature. We then observe that multievent probability can be reduced to single-event probability, by taking into account the quantum nature of the measuring apparatus. In fact, by exploiting the von-Neumann freedom of moving the quantum/classical boundary, one can always trade a sequence of noncommuting quantum measurements at different times, with an ensemble of simultaneous commuting measurements on the joint system+apparatus system. This observation permits a formulation of quantum theory based only on single-event probability, where the results of the wave function collapse algorithm can nevertheless be recovered. The discussion also bears on the nature of the quantum collapse

  5. A signed particle formulation of non-relativistic quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellier, Jean Michel, E-mail: jeanmichel.sellier@parallel.bas.bg

    2015-09-15

    A formulation of non-relativistic quantum mechanics in terms of Newtonian particles is presented in the shape of a set of three postulates. In this new theory, quantum systems are described by ensembles of signed particles which behave as field-less classical objects which carry a negative or positive sign and interact with an external potential by means of creation and annihilation events only. This approach is shown to be a generalization of the signed particle Wigner Monte Carlo method which reconstructs the time-dependent Wigner quasi-distribution function of a system and, therefore, the corresponding Schrödinger time-dependent wave-function. Its classical limit is discussed and a physical interpretation, based on experimental evidences coming from quantum tomography, is suggested. Moreover, in order to show the advantages brought by this novel formulation, a straightforward extension to relativistic effects is discussed. To conclude, quantum tunnelling numerical experiments are performed to show the validity of the suggested approach.

  6. Local supersymmetry in non-relativistic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urrutia, L.F.; Zanelli, J.

    1989-10-01

    Classical and quantum non-relativistic interacting systems invariant under local supersymmetry are constructed by the method of taking square roots of the bosonic constraints which generate timelike reparametrization, leaving the action unchanged. In particular, the square root of the Schroedinger constraint is shown to be the non-relativistic limit of the Dirac constraint. Contact is made with the standard models of Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics through the reformulation of the locally invariant systems in terms of their true degrees of freedom. Contrary to the field theory case, it is shown that the locally invariant systems are completely equivalent to the corresponding globally invariant ones, the latter being the Heisenberg picture description of the former, with respect to some fermionic time. (author). 14 refs

  7. Relativistic entanglement from relativistic quantum mechanics in the rest-frame instant form of dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusanna, Luca

    2011-01-01

    After a review of the problems induced by the Lorentz signature of Minkowski space-time, like the need of a clock synchronization convention for the definition of 3-space and the complexity of the notion of relativistic center of mass, there is the introduction of a new formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics compatible with the theory of relativistic bound states. In it the zeroth postulate of non-relativistic quantum mechanics is not valid and the physics is described in the rest frame by a Hilbert space containing only relative variables. The non-locality of the Poincare' generators imply a kinematical non-locality and non-separability influencing the theory of relativistic entanglement and not connected with the standard quantum non-locality.

  8. Relativistic quantum mechanics and introduction to field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yndurain, F.J. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica

    1996-12-01

    The following topics were dealt with: relativistic transformations, the Lorentz group, Klein-Gordon equation, spinless particles, spin 1/2 particles, Dirac particle in a potential, massive spin 1 particles, massless spin 1 particles, relativistic collisions, S matrix, cross sections, decay rates, partial wave analysis, electromagnetic field quantization, interaction of radiation with matter, interactions in quantum field theory and relativistic interactions with classical sources.

  9. Relativistic quantum mechanics and introduction to field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yndurain, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: relativistic transformations, the Lorentz group, Klein-Gordon equation, spinless particles, spin 1/2 particles, Dirac particle in a potential, massive spin 1 particles, massless spin 1 particles, relativistic collisions, S matrix, cross sections, decay rates, partial wave analysis, electromagnetic field quantization, interaction of radiation with matter, interactions in quantum field theory and relativistic interactions with classical sources

  10. Relativistic-particle quantum mechanics (applications and approximations) II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coester, F.

    1981-01-01

    In this lecture I hope to show that relativistic-particle quantum mechanics with direct interactions is a useful tool for building models applicable to hadron systems at intermediate energies. To do this I will first describe a class of models designed to incorporate nucleon-nucleon interactions, pion production, absorption and scattering into a single dynamical framework without dressing the nucleons with pion clouds. The second major topic concerns electromagnetic interactions. In the previous lecture I specifically excluded long-rang forces and zero-mass particles. Since many of the experimental data in hadron physics involve electromagnetic interactions this limitation is a major defect which must be addressed

  11. A quantum relativistic integrable model as the continuous limit of the six-vertex model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Y.K.

    1992-01-01

    The six-vertex model in two-dimensional statistical mechanics is used to construct the L-matrix of a one-dimensional quantum relativistic integrable model through a continuous limit. This is the first step to extend the method used earlier by the author to construct quantum completely integrable systems from other well-known two-dimensional vertex models. (orig.)

  12. Relativistic positioning systems: perspectives and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll Bartolomé

    2013-11-01

    Relativistic positioning systems are interesting technical objects for applications around the Earth and in the Solar system. But above all else, they are basic scientific objects allowing developing relativity from its own concepts. Some past and future features of relativistic positioning sys- tems, with special attention to the developments that they suggest for an epistemic relativity (relativistic experimental approach to physics), are analyzed. This includes relativistic stereometry, which, together with relativistic positioning systems, allows to introduce the general relativistic notion of (finite) laboratory (space-time region able to perform experiments of finite size).

  13. Lectures on relativistic quantum mechanics and path integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.M.F.

    1989-02-01

    The question posed is why bother with relativistic quantum mechanics? Three reasons are given: First that there are many experimental phenomena which cannot be explained in non-relativistic terms. Secondly it would be unsatisfactory if relativity and quantum mechanics could not be united. Thirdly, there are theoretical reasons why new effects can be expected at relativistic velocities. The objectives of the course are to set up relativistic analogues of the Schroedinger equation and to understand their consequences. In doing so there are some questions which are raised and discussed such as can a first order equation be used to describe spin 0 particles and a second order equation be used to describe spin 1/ 2 (author)

  14. Relativity, Symmetry, and the Structure of Quantum Theory, Volume 2; Point form relativistic quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, William H.; Schweiger, Wolfgang

    2018-03-01

    This book covers relativistic quantum theory from the point of view of a particle theory, based on the irreducible representations of the Poincaré group, the group that expresses the symmetry of Einstein relativity. There are several ways of formulating such a theory; this book develops what is called relativistic point form quantum mechanics, which, unlike quantum field theory, deals with a fixed number of particles in a relativistically invariant way. A chapter is devoted to applications of point form quantum mechanics to nuclear physics.

  15. Diffeomorphism Group Representations in Relativistic Quantum Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldin, Gerald A. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sharp, David H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-20

    We explore the role played by the di eomorphism group and its unitary representations in relativistic quantum eld theory. From the quantum kinematics of particles described by representations of the di eomorphism group of a space-like surface in an inertial reference frame, we reconstruct the local relativistic neutral scalar eld in the Fock representation. An explicit expression for the free Hamiltonian is obtained in terms of the Lie algebra generators (mass and momentum densities). We suggest that this approach can be generalized to elds whose quanta are spatially extended objects.

  16. Elements of non-relativistic quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Sobrino, Luis

    1996-01-01

    This book presents the basic structure of quantum mechanics, the elements needed to properly understand the subject and its applications. It is written at a level which is intermediate between the standard graduate textbooks, which it intends to supplement, and the more advanced mathematical writings in the subject. Particular attention is given to the concepts of kinematical and dynamical symmetries. The unifying thread that links the study of particles and systems of particles is the connection between Galilean invariance and the fundamental observables of a system. The mathematical appendic

  17. Relativistic quantum information in detectors–field interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, B L; Lin, Shih-Yuin; Louko, Jorma

    2012-01-01

    We review Unruh–DeWitt detectors and other models of detector–field interaction in a relativistic quantum field theory setting as a tool for extracting detector–detector, field–field and detector–field correlation functions of interest in quantum information science, from entanglement dynamics to quantum teleportation. In particular, we highlight the contrast between the results obtained from linear perturbation theory which can be justified provided switching effects are properly accounted for, and the nonperturbative effects from available analytic expressions which incorporate the backreaction effects of the quantum field on the detector behavior. (paper)

  18. Characterization of particle states in relativistic classical quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, L.P.; Rabin, Y.

    1977-02-01

    Classical and quantum relativistic mechanics are studied. The notion of a ''particle'' is defined in the classical case and the interpretation of mechanics in space-time is clarified. These notions are carried over to the quantum theory, as much as possible. The relation between the results of Feyman's path integral approach and the theory of Horwitz and Piron is discussed. The ''particle'' interpretation is shown to imply an asymptotic condition for scattering. A general method of constructing the dynamical mass spectrum of composite ''particle'' states is discussed. An interference experiment is proposed to affirm the interpretation and applicability of Stueckelberg type wave functions for actual physical phenomena. Some discussion of the relation of this relativistic quantum theory to Feynman's approach to quantum field theory is also given

  19. Structure and applications of point form relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klink, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    The framework of point form relativistic quantum mechanics is used to construct mass and current operators for hadronic systems with finite degree of freedom. For the point form all of the interactions are in the four-momentum operator and, since Lorentz transformations are kinematic, the theory is manifestly covariant. In the Bakamjian-Thomas version of the point form the four-momentum operator is written as a product of the four-velocity operator and mass operator, where the mass operator is the sum of free and interacting mass operators. Interacting mass operators can be constructed from vertices, matrix elements of local field operators evaluated at the space-time point zero, where the states are eigenstates of the four-velocity. Applications include the study of the spectra and widths of vector mesons, viewed as bound states of quark-antiquark pairs. Besides mass operators, current operators are needed to compute form factors. Form factors are matrix elements of current operators on mass operator eigenstates and are often calculated with one-body current operators (in the point form this is called the point form spectator approximation); but in a properly relativistic theory there must also be many-body current operators. Minimal currents needed to satisfy current conservation in the presence of hadronic interactions (called dynamically determined currents) are shown to be easily calculated in the point form. (author)

  20. Relativistic quantum correlations in bipartite fermionic states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The influences of relative motion, the size of the wave packet and the average momentum of the particles on different types of correlations present in bipartite quantum states are investigated. In particular, the dynamics of the quantum mutual information, the classical correlation and the quantum discord on the ...

  1. Chaos in Dirac Electron Optics: Emergence of a Relativistic Quantum Chimera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong-Ya; Wang, Guang-Lei; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2018-03-23

    We uncover a remarkable quantum scattering phenomenon in two-dimensional Dirac material systems where the manifestations of both classically integrable and chaotic dynamics emerge simultaneously and are electrically controllable. The distinct relativistic quantum fingerprints associated with different electron spin states are due to a physical mechanism analogous to a chiroptical effect in the presence of degeneracy breaking. The phenomenon mimics a chimera state in classical complex dynamical systems but here in a relativistic quantum setting-henceforth the term "Dirac quantum chimera," associated with which are physical phenomena with potentially significant applications such as enhancement of spin polarization, unusual coexisting quasibound states for distinct spin configurations, and spin selective caustics. Experimental observations of these phenomena are possible through, e.g., optical realizations of ballistic Dirac fermion systems.

  2. Chaos in Dirac Electron Optics: Emergence of a Relativistic Quantum Chimera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong-Ya; Wang, Guang-Lei; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2018-03-01

    We uncover a remarkable quantum scattering phenomenon in two-dimensional Dirac material systems where the manifestations of both classically integrable and chaotic dynamics emerge simultaneously and are electrically controllable. The distinct relativistic quantum fingerprints associated with different electron spin states are due to a physical mechanism analogous to a chiroptical effect in the presence of degeneracy breaking. The phenomenon mimics a chimera state in classical complex dynamical systems but here in a relativistic quantum setting—henceforth the term "Dirac quantum chimera," associated with which are physical phenomena with potentially significant applications such as enhancement of spin polarization, unusual coexisting quasibound states for distinct spin configurations, and spin selective caustics. Experimental observations of these phenomena are possible through, e.g., optical realizations of ballistic Dirac fermion systems.

  3. Local U(2,2) Symmetry in Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Finster, Felix

    1997-01-01

    Local gauge freedom in relativistic quantum mechanics is derived from a measurement principle for space and time. For the Dirac equation, one obtains local U(2,2) gauge transformations acting on the spinor index of the wave functions. This local U(2,2) symmetry allows a unified description of electrodynamics and general relativity as a classical gauge theory.

  4. Local U(2,2) symmetry in relativistic quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Felix

    1998-12-01

    Local gauge freedom in relativistic quantum mechanics is derived from a measurement principle for space and time. For the Dirac equation, one obtains local U(2,2) gauge transformations acting on the spinor index of the wave functions. This local U(2,2) symmetry allows a unified description of electrodynamics and general relativity as a classical gauge theory.

  5. Chaos in Dirac electron optics: Emergence of a relativistic quantum chimera

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Hong-Ya; Wang, Guang-Lei; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    We uncover a remarkable quantum scattering phenomenon in two-dimensional Dirac material systems where the manifestations of both classically integrable and chaotic dynamics emerge simultaneously and are electrically controllable. The distinct relativistic quantum fingerprints associated with different electron spin states are due to a physical mechanism analogous to chiroptical effect in the presence of degeneracy breaking. The phenomenon mimics a chimera state in classical complex dynamical ...

  6. Weyl consistency conditions in non-relativistic quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Sridip; Grinstein, Benjamín [Department of Physics, University of California,San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2016-12-05

    Weyl consistency conditions have been used in unitary relativistic quantum field theory to impose constraints on the renormalization group flow of certain quantities. We classify the Weyl anomalies and their renormalization scheme ambiguities for generic non-relativistic theories in 2+1 dimensions with anisotropic scaling exponent z=2; the extension to other values of z are discussed as well. We give the consistency conditions among these anomalies. As an application we find several candidates for a C-theorem. We comment on possible candidates for a C-theorem in higher dimensions.

  7. Relativistic Descriptions of Few-Body Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmanov, V. A.

    2011-01-01

    A brief review of relativistic effects in few-body systems, of theoretical approaches, recent developments and applications is given. Manifestations of relativistic effects in the binding energies, in the electromagnetic form factors and in three-body observables are demonstrated. The three-body forces of relativistic origin are also discussed. We conclude that relativistic effects in nuclei can be important in spite of small binding energy. At high momenta they clearly manifest themselves and are necessary to describe the deuteron e.m. form factors. At the same time, there is still a discrepancy in three-body observables which might be a result of less clarity in understanding the corresponding relativistic effects, the relativistic NN kernel and the three-body forces. Relativistic few-body physics remains to be a field of very intensive and fruitful researches. (author)

  8. Fully nonlinear heavy ion-acoustic solitary waves in astrophysical degenerate relativistic quantum plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, S.; Schlickeiser, R.

    2018-05-01

    Fully nonlinear features of heavy ion-acoustic solitary waves (HIASWs) have been investigated in an astrophysical degenerate relativistic quantum plasma (ADRQP) containing relativistically degenerate electrons and non-relativistically degenerate light ion species, and non-degenerate heavy ion species. The pseudo-energy balance equation is derived from the fluid dynamical equations by adopting the well-known Sagdeev-potential approach, and the properties of arbitrary amplitude HIASWs are examined. The small amplitude limit for the propagation of HIASWs is also recovered. The basic features (width, amplitude, polarity, critical Mach number, speed, etc.) of HIASWs are found to be significantly modified by the relativistic effect of the electron species, and also by the variation of the number density of electron, light ion, and heavy ion species. The basic properties of HIASWs, that may propagated in some realistic astrophysical plasma systems (e.g., in white dwarfs), are briefly discussed.

  9. On relativistic irreducible quantum fields fulfilling CCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, K.

    1987-01-01

    Let phi be a relativistic scalar field fulfilling canonical commutation relations (CCR). Furthermore it is assumed that the time zero fields and momenta form an irreducible set. Based on estimates given by Herbst [I. W. Herbst, J. Math. Phys. 17, 1210 (1976)], and by methods developed by Powers [R. T. Powers, Commun. Math. Phys. 4, 145 (1967)], it is shown that phi has to be a free field in n>3 space dimensions. For n = 3 (resp. n = 2) restrictions that look similar to the restriction in a formal :phi 4 : 3 /sub +/ 1 (resp. :phi 6 : 2 /sub +/ 1 ) theory are obtained

  10. Local relativistic invariant flows for quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.; Hoeegh-Krahn, R.; Sirugue, M.

    1983-01-01

    For quantum fields with trigonometric interaction in arbitrary space dimension we construct a representation of the Lorentz group by automorphisms on a Banach space generated by the Weyl algebra. (orig.)

  11. An introduction to relativistic quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schweber, Silvan S

    1961-01-01

    Complete, systematic, and self-contained, this text introduces modern quantum field theory. "Combines thorough knowledge with a high degree of didactic ability and a delightful style." - Mathematical Reviews. 1961 edition.

  12. Relativistic quantum games in noninertial frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Salman; Khan, M Khalid, E-mail: sksafi@phys.qau.edu.pk [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2011-09-02

    We study the influence of the Unruh effect on quantum non-zero sum games. In particular, we investigate the quantum Prisoners' Dilemma both for entangled and unentangled initial states and show that the acceleration of the noninertial frames disturbs the symmetry of the game. It is shown that for the maximally entangled initial state, the classical strategy C-hat (cooperation) becomes the dominant strategy. Our investigation shows that any quantum strategy does no better for any player against the classical strategies. The miracle move of Eisert et al (1999 Phys. Rev. Lett.83 3077) is no more a superior move. We show that the dilemma-like situation is resolved in favor of one player or the other. (paper)

  13. Relativistic quantum games in noninertial frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Salman; Khan, M Khalid

    2011-01-01

    We study the influence of the Unruh effect on quantum non-zero sum games. In particular, we investigate the quantum Prisoners' Dilemma both for entangled and unentangled initial states and show that the acceleration of the noninertial frames disturbs the symmetry of the game. It is shown that for the maximally entangled initial state, the classical strategy C-hat (cooperation) becomes the dominant strategy. Our investigation shows that any quantum strategy does no better for any player against the classical strategies. The miracle move of Eisert et al (1999 Phys. Rev. Lett.83 3077) is no more a superior move. We show that the dilemma-like situation is resolved in favor of one player or the other. (paper)

  14. Dielectric response of planar relativistic quantum plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardos, D.C.; Frankel, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    The dielectric response of planar relativistic charged particle-antiparticle plasmas is investigated, treating Fermi and Bose plasmas. The conductivity tensor in each case is derived in the self-consistent Random Phase Approximation. The tensors are then evaluated at zero temperature for the case of no external fields, leading to explicit dispersion relations for the electrodynamic modes of the plasma. The longitudinal and transverse modes are in general coupled for plasma layers. This coupling vanishes, however, in the zero field case, allowing 'effective' longitudinal and transverse dielectric functions to be defined in terms of components of the conductivity tensor. Solutions to the longitudinal mode equations (i.e. plasmon modes) are exhibited, while purely transverse modes are found not to exist. In the case of the Bose plasma the screening of a test charge is investigated in detail. 41 refs., 1 fig

  15. Relativistic rotators: a quantum mechanical de Sitter bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, A.

    1976-02-01

    If de Sitter fiber bundle over space time is the classical picture of hadrons then for a quantum mechanical description one has to generalize the concept of a principal fiber bundle to a bundle that contains the representation of the group of motion. This idea is related to the relativistic rotator model, and the radius of the de Sitter fiber is determined from the experimental hadron spectrum

  16. On some solvable models in non-relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabani, J.; Shayo, L.K.

    1985-11-01

    The theory of self-adjoint extensions is employed to generalize some previous results in non-relativistic quantum interactions. In particular, the Hamiltonian H=-Δ+V, where Δ is the Laplacian and the potential V consists of a strongly singular interaction, a Coulomb and a delta-shell interaction is studied. The spectral properties are discussed and phase shifts as well as low energy parameters are obtained. (author)

  17. Relativistic quantum correlations in bipartite fermionic states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-21

    Sep 21, 2016 ... particles on different types of correlations present in bipartite quantum states are investigated. In particular, the ... the focus of research for the last few years. Many re- ..... figures, the qualitative behaviour of all the three types ...

  18. Spacetime alternatives in the quantum mechanics of a relativistic particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    Hartle's generalized quantum mechanics formalism is used to examine spacetime coarse grainings, i.e., sets of alternatives defined with respect to a region extended in time as well as space, in the quantum mechanics of a free relativistic particle. For a simple coarse graining and suitable initial conditions, tractable formulas are found for branch wave functions. Despite the nonlocality of the positive-definite version of the Klein-Gordon inner product, which means that nonoverlapping branches are not sufficient to imply decoherence, some initial conditions are found to give decoherence and allow the consistent assignment of probabilities

  19. Multiple-event probability in general-relativistic quantum mechanics. II. A discrete model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondragon, Mauricio; Perez, Alejandro; Rovelli, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a simple quantum mechanical model in which time and space are discrete and periodic. These features avoid the complications related to continuous-spectrum operators and infinite-norm states. The model provides a tool for discussing the probabilistic interpretation of generally covariant quantum systems, without the confusion generated by spurious infinities. We use the model to illustrate the formalism of general-relativistic quantum mechanics, and to test the definition of multiple-event probability introduced in a companion paper [Phys. Rev. D 75, 084033 (2007)]. We consider a version of the model with unitary time evolution and a version without unitary time evolution

  20. How one can construct a consistent relativistic quantum mechanics on the base of a relativistic wave equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilov, S.P. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Gitman, D.M. [Sao Paulo Univ. (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2000-07-01

    Full text follows: There is a common opinion that the construction of a consistent relativistic quantum mechanics on the base of a relativistic wave equation meets well-known difficulties related to the existence of infinite number of negative energy levels, to the existence of negative vector norms, and so on, which may be only solved in a second-quantized theory, see, for example, two basic papers devoted to the problem L.Foldy, S.Wouthuysen, Phys. Rep.78 (1950) 29; H.Feshbach, F.Villars, Rev. Mod. Phys. 30 (1958) 24, whose arguments are repeated in all handbooks in relativistic quantum theory. Even Dirac trying to solve the problem had turned last years to infinite-component relativistic wave equations, see P.A.M. Dirac, Proc. R. Soc. London, A328 (1972) 1. We believe that a consistent relativistic quantum mechanics may be constructed on the base of an extended (charge symmetric) equation, which unite both a relativistic wave equation for a particle and for an antiparticle. We present explicitly the corresponding construction, see for details hep-th/0003112. We support such a construction by two demonstrations: first, in course of a careful canonical quantization of the corresponding classical action of a relativistic particle we arrive just to such a consistent quantum mechanics; second, we demonstrate that a reduction of the QFT of a corresponding field (scalar, spinor, etc.) to one-particle sector, if such a reduction may be done, present namely this quantum mechanics. (author)

  1. Theory of Thomson scattering in a strong magnetic field, 2. [Relativistic quantum theory, cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, T [Ibaraki Univ., Mito (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1975-07-01

    A relativistic quantum theory is formulated for the Compton scattering by electrons in a strong magnetic field. It is shown that the relativistic quantum (Klein-Nishina) cross section in the center of drift system reduces exactly to the classical Thomson cross section in the limit h..omega../2..pi..<quantum number characterizing the energy levels of the electron in the magnetic field. There is one special case for which the Thomson cross section is valid irrespective of the magnitudes of ..omega.. and ..omega..sub(c); the forward scattering in the direction of the magnetic field by an electron in the ground state.

  2. Foundations of a spacetime path formalism for relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidewitz, Ed

    2006-01-01

    Quantum field theory is the traditional solution to the problems inherent in melding quantum mechanics with special relativity. However, it has also long been known that an alternative first-quantized formulation can be given for relativistic quantum mechanics, based on the parametrized paths of particles in spacetime. Because time is treated similarly to the three space coordinates, rather than as an evolution parameter, such a spacetime approach has proved particularly useful in the study of quantum gravity and cosmology. This paper shows how a spacetime path formalism can be considered to arise naturally from the fundamental principles of the Born probability rule, superposition, and Poincare invariance. The resulting formalism can be seen as a foundation for a number of previous parametrized approaches in the literature, relating, in particular, 'off-shell' theories to traditional on-shell quantum field theory. It reproduces the results of perturbative quantum field theory for free and interacting particles, but provides intriguing possibilities for a natural program for regularization and renormalization. Further, an important consequence of the formalism is that a clear probabilistic interpretation can be maintained throughout, with a natural reduction to nonrelativistic quantum mechanics

  3. Classical particle limit of non-relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchini, R.

    1984-01-01

    We study the classical particle limit of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. We show that the unitary group describing the evolution of the quantum fluctuation around any classical phase orbit has a classical limit as h → 0 in the strong operator topology for a very large class of time independent scalar and vector potentials, which in practice covers all physically interesting cases. We also show that the mean values of the quantum mechanical position and velocity operators on suitable states, obtained by time evolution of the product of a Weyl operator centred around the large coordinates and momenta and a fixed n-independent wave function, converge to the solution of the classical equations with initial data as h → 0 for a broad class of repulsive interactions

  4. Relativistic many-body bound systems. Monograph report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danos, M.; Gillet, V.

    1975-04-01

    The principles and the mathematical details of a fully relativistic nuclear theory are given. Since the concept of nuclear forces is a strictly non-relativistic construct, it must be abandoned, and the forces must be replaced explicitly by their physical origin, i.e., by the interaction between nucleons and mesons. Thus, in this monograph the description of a nucleus has been formulated as a problem of relativistic quantum field theory which is solved by nuclear physics methods; to wit: the physics is described by specifying a Lagrangian which is a functional of the constituent fields (= of the parton fields); the solutions for the physical systems then are obtained in a time-independent treatment as expansions in the parton fields: both particles and nuclei are composite systems, made up of parton configurations, which define a representation of the Hamiltonian (associated with the specified Lagrangian)

  5. Relativistic positioning systems: Numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchades Colmenero, Neus

    The position of users located on the Earth's surface or near it may be found with the classic positioning systems (CPS). Certain information broadcast by satellites of global navigation systems, as GPS and GALILEO, may be used for positioning. The CPS are based on the Newtonian formalism, although relativistic post-Newtonian corrections are done when they are necessary. This thesis contributes to the development of a different positioning approach, which is fully relativistic from the beginning. In the relativistic positioning systems (RPS), the space-time position of any user (ship, spacecraft, and so on) can be calculated with the help of four satellites, which broadcast their proper times by means of codified electromagnetic signals. In this thesis, we have simulated satellite 4-tuples of the GPS and GALILEO constellations. If a user receives the signals from four satellites simultaneously, the emission proper times read -after decoding- are the user "emission coordinates". In order to find the user "positioning coordinates", in an appropriate almost inertial reference system, there are two possibilities: (a) the explicit relation between positioning and emission coordinates (broadcast by the satellites) is analytically found or (b) numerical codes are designed to calculate the positioning coordinates from the emission ones. Method (a) is only viable in simple ideal cases, whereas (b) allows us to consider realistic situations. In this thesis, we have designed numerical codes with the essential aim of studying two appropriate RPS, which may be generalized. Sometimes, there are two real users placed in different positions, which receive the same proper times from the same satellites; then, we say that there is bifurcation, and additional data are needed to choose the real user position. In this thesis, bifurcation is studied in detail. We have analyzed in depth two RPS models; in both, it is considered that the satellites move in the Schwarzschild's space

  6. Experimental considerations for quantum-entanglement studies with relativistic fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlemme, Steffen; Peck, Marius; Enders, Joachim [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Bodek, Kazimierz; Rozpedzik, Dagmara; Zejma, Jacek [Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Caban, Pawel; Rembielinski, Jakub [University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Ciborowski, Jacek; Dragowski, Michal; Wlodarczyk, Marta [Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland); Kozela, Adam [Institute of Nuclear Physics, PAS, Cracow (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    The QUEST (Quantum entanglement of Ultra-relativistic Electrons in Singlet and Triplet states) project is aimed at the determination of the electron spin correlation function at relativistic energies. Electron pairs are created through Moeller scattering, and polarization observables are planned to be measured in Mott scattering. The predicted spin correlation function is energy dependent with values of several per cent at energies of 10-20 MeV. The results of a first test experiment at the S-DALINAC were not sensitive enough to detect entangled and Mott-scattered electron pairs at the expected energies. Further steps are either to improve the former setup or design a new polarimeter for lower energies to improve statistics due to the higher scattering cross sections. This contribution presents general considerations, test results, and an outlook.

  7. On a two-pass scheme without a faraday mirror for free-space relativistic quantum cryptography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, K. S.; Radchenko, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Korol' kov, A. V. [Academy of Cryptography (Russian Federation); Kulik, S. P., E-mail: sergei.kulik@gmail.com [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Molotkov, S. N., E-mail: sergei.molotkov@gmail.com [Academy of Cryptography (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-15

    The stability of destructive interference independent of the input polarization and the state of a quantum communication channel in fiber optic systems used in quantum cryptography plays a principal role in providing the security of communicated keys. A novel optical scheme is proposed that can be used both in relativistic quantum cryptography for communicating keys in open space and for communicating them over fiber optic lines. The scheme ensures stability of destructive interference and admits simple automatic balancing of a fiber interferometer.

  8. On a two-pass scheme without a faraday mirror for free-space relativistic quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsov, K. S.; Radchenko, I. V.; Korol’kov, A. V.; Kulik, S. P.; Molotkov, S. N.

    2013-01-01

    The stability of destructive interference independent of the input polarization and the state of a quantum communication channel in fiber optic systems used in quantum cryptography plays a principal role in providing the security of communicated keys. A novel optical scheme is proposed that can be used both in relativistic quantum cryptography for communicating keys in open space and for communicating them over fiber optic lines. The scheme ensures stability of destructive interference and admits simple automatic balancing of a fiber interferometer.

  9. Stationary self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in relativistic thermal quantum plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S. D.; Takale, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, we have employed the quantum dielectric response in thermal quantum plasma to model relativistic self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in a plasma. We have presented an extensive parametric investigation of the dependence of beam-width parameter on distance of propagation in relativistic thermal quantum plasma. We have studied the role of Fermi temperature in the phenomenon of self-focusing. It is found that the quantum effects cause much higher oscillations of beam-width parameter and better relativistic focusing of laser beam in thermal quantum plasma in comparison with that in the relativistic cold quantum plasma and classical relativistic plasma. Our computations show more reliable results in comparison to the previous works

  10. The connection of two-particle relativistic quantum mechanics with the Bethe-Salpeter equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazdjian, H.

    1986-02-01

    We show the formal equivalence between the wave equations of two-particle relativistic quantum mechanics, based on the manifestly covariant hamiltonian formalism with constraints, and the Bethe-Salpeter equation. This is achieved by algebraically transforming the latter so as to separate it into two independent equations which match the equations of hamiltonian relativistic quantum mechanics. The first equation determines the relative time evolution of the system, while the second one yields a three-dimensional eigenvalue equation. A connection is thus established between the Bethe-Salpeter wave function and its kernel on the one hand and the quantum mechanical wave function and interaction potential on the other. For the sector of solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation having non-relativistic limits, this relationship can be evaluated in perturbation theory. We also device a generalized form of the instantaneous approximation which simplifies the various expressions involved in the above relations. It also permits the evaluation of the normalization condition of the quantum mechanical wave function as a three-dimensional integral

  11. Relativistic Theory of Few Body Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz Gross

    2002-11-01

    Very significant advances have been made in the relativistic theory of few body systems since I visited Peter Sauer and his group in Hannover in 1983. This talk provides an opportunity to review the progress in this field since then. Different methods for the relativistic calculation of few nucleon systems are briefly described. As an example, seven relativistic calculations of the deuteron elastic structure functions, A, B, and T{sub 20}, are compared. The covariant SPECTATOR {copyright} theory, among the more successful and complete of these methods, is described in more detail.

  12. Notes on nonlocal projective measurements in relativistic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shih-Yuin

    2014-01-01

    In quantum mechanical bipartite systems, naive extensions of von Neumann’s projective measurement to nonlocal variables can produce superluminal signals and thus violate causality. We analyze the projective quantum nondemolition state-verification in a two-spin system and see how the projection introduces nonlocality without entanglement. For the ideal measurements of “R-nonlocal” variables, we argue that causality violation can be resolved by introducing further restrictions on the post-measurement states, which makes the measurement “Q-nonlocal”. After we generalize these ideas to quantum mechanical harmonic oscillators, we look into the projective measurements of the particle number of a single mode or a wave-packet of a relativistic quantum field in Minkowski space. It turns out that the causality-violating terms in the expectation values of the local operators, generated either by the ideal measurement of the “R-nonlocal” variable or the quantum nondemolition verification of a Fock state, are all suppressed by the IR and UV cutoffs of the theory. Thus relativistic quantum field theories with such projective measurements are effectively causal

  13. Relativistic quantum chemistry the fundamental theory of molecular science

    CERN Document Server

    Reiher, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Einstein proposed his theory of special relativity in 1905. For a long time it was believed that this theory has no significant impact on chemistry. This view changed in the 1970s when it was realized that (nonrelativistic) Schrödinger quantum mechanics yields results on molecular properties that depart significantly from experimental results. Especially when heavy elements are involved, these quantitative deviations can be so large that qualitative chemical reasoning and understanding is affected. For this to grasp the appropriate many-electron theory has rapidly evolved. Nowadays relativist

  14. Relativistic local quantum field theory for m=0 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Villasevil, A.

    1965-01-01

    A method is introduced ta deal with relativistic quantum field theory for particles with m=0. Two mappings I and J, giving rise respectively to particle and anti particle states, are defined between a test space and the physical Hilbert space. The intrinsic field operator is then defined as the minimal causal linear combinations of operators belonging to the annihilation-creation algebra associated to the germ and antigerm parts of the element. Local elements are introduced as improper test elements and local field operators are constructed in the same way as the intrinsic ones. Commutation rules are given. (Author) 17 refs

  15. A finite Zitterbewegung model for relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    Starting from steps of length h/mc and time intervals h/mc 2 , which imply a quasi-local Zitterbewegung with velocity steps ±c, we employ discrimination between bit-strings of finite length to construct a necessary 3+1 dimensional event-space for relativistic quantum mechanics. By using the combinatorial hierarchy to label the strings, we provide a successful start on constructing the coupling constants and mass ratios implied by the scheme. Agreement with experiments is surprisingly accurate. 22 refs., 1 fig

  16. A finite Zitterbewegung model for relativistic quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1990-02-19

    Starting from steps of length h/mc and time intervals h/mc{sup 2}, which imply a quasi-local Zitterbewegung with velocity steps {plus minus}c, we employ discrimination between bit-strings of finite length to construct a necessary 3+1 dimensional event-space for relativistic quantum mechanics. By using the combinatorial hierarchy to label the strings, we provide a successful start on constructing the coupling constants and mass ratios implied by the scheme. Agreement with experiments is surprisingly accurate. 22 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Nuclear chromodynamics: applications of QCD to relativistic multiquark systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Ji, C.R.

    1984-07-01

    We review the applications of quantum chromodynamics to nuclear multiquark systems. In particular, predictions are given for the deuteron reduced form factor in the high momentum transfer region, hidden color components in nuclear wavefunctions, and the short distance effective force between nucleons. A new antisymmetrization technique is presented which allows a basis for relativistic multiquark wavefunctions and solutions to their evolution to short distances. Areas in which conventional nuclear theory conflicts with QCD are also briefly reviewed. 48 references

  18. Wigner expansions for partition functions of nonrelativistic and relativistic oscillator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylka, Christian; Vojta, Guenter

    1993-01-01

    The equilibrium quantum statistics of various anharmonic oscillator systems including relativistic systems is considered within the Wigner phase space formalism. For this purpose the Wigner series expansion for the partition function is generalized to include relativistic corrections. The new series for partition functions and all thermodynamic potentials yield quantum corrections in terms of powers of h(sup 2) and relativistic corrections given by Kelvin functions (modified Hankel functions) K(sub nu)(mc(sup 2)/kT). As applications, the symmetric Toda oscillator, isotonic and singular anharmonic oscillators, and hindered rotators, i.e. oscillators with cosine potential, are addressed.

  19. Relativistic quantum dynamics in strong fields: Photon emission from heavy, few-electron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, S.; Stoehlker, T.

    2005-03-01

    Recent progress in the study of the photon emission from highly-charged heavy ions is reviewed. These investigations show that high-Z ions provide a unique tool for improving the understanding of the electron-electron and electron-photon interaction in the presence of strong fields. Apart from the bound-state transitions, which are accurately described in the framework of quantum electrodynamics, much information has been obtained also from the radiative capture of (quasi-) free electrons by high-Z ions. Many features in the observed spectra hereby confirm the inherently relativistic behavior of even the simplest compound quantum systems in nature. (orig.)

  20. Beyond the hall effect: pratical engineering from relativistic quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses the successful microscopic relativistic quantum field theory viz., quantum electrodynamic (QED) as applied to condensed matter systems. A circuit version of the Heisenberg argument is presented to show that the electric and magnetic flux cannot be measured simultaneously if the usual position/momentum uncertainty of a charged particle confined in a circuit is to be preserved. The author suggests that the electronic transport of a microchip itself obeys some of the same field equations for QED in particular. A comparative list is presented

  1. Non-Hermitian interaction representation and its use in relativistic quantum mechanics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 385, č. 10 (2017), s. 162-179 ISSN 0003-4916 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-22945S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : unitary quantum systems * non-Hermitian version of Dirac's interaction picture * complete set of time-evolution equations * application in relativistic quantum mechanics * Klein-Gordon example with space-time-dependent mass Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics ( physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 2.465, year: 2016

  2. Is there a relativistic nonlinear generalization of quantum mechanics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elze, Hans-Thomas [Dipartimento di Fisica ' Enrico Fermi' , Largo Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    Yes, there is. - A new kind of gauge theory is introduced, where the minimal coupling and corresponding covariant derivatives are defined in the space of functions pertaining to the functional Schroedinger picture of a given field theory. While, for simplicity, we study the example of a U(1) symmetry, this kind of gauge theory can accommodate other symmetries as well. We consider the resulting relativistic nonlinear extension of quantum mechanics and show that it incorporates gravity in the (0+1)-dimensional limit, where it leads to the Schroedinger-Newton equations. Gravity is encoded here into a universal nonlinear extension of quantum theory. The probabilistic interpretation, i.e. Born's rule, holds provided the underlying model has only dimensionless parameters.

  3. Impact of Relativistic Electron Beam on Hole Acoustic Instability in Quantum Semiconductor Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, M.; Jamil, M.; Rasheed, A.; Areeb, F.; Javed, Asif; Sumera, P.

    2018-01-01

    We studied the influence of the classical relativistic beam of electrons on the hole acoustic wave (HAW) instability exciting in the semiconductor quantum plasmas. We conducted this study by using the quantum-hydrodynamic model of dense plasmas, incorporating the quantum effects of semiconductor plasma species which include degeneracy pressure, exchange-correlation potential and Bohm potential. Analysis of the quantum characteristics of semiconductor plasma species along with relativistic effect of beam electrons on the dispersion relation of the HAW is given in detail qualitatively and quantitatively by plotting them numerically. It is worth mentioning that the relativistic electron beam (REB) stabilises the HAWs exciting in semiconductor (GaAs) degenerate plasma.

  4. Solution of relativistic quantum optics problems using clusters of graphical processing units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, D.F., E-mail: daviel.gordon@nrl.navy.mil; Hafizi, B.; Helle, M.H.

    2014-06-15

    Numerical solution of relativistic quantum optics problems requires high performance computing due to the rapid oscillations in a relativistic wavefunction. Clusters of graphical processing units are used to accelerate the computation of a time dependent relativistic wavefunction in an arbitrary external potential. The stationary states in a Coulomb potential and uniform magnetic field are determined analytically and numerically, so that they can used as initial conditions in fully time dependent calculations. Relativistic energy levels in extreme magnetic fields are recovered as a means of validation. The relativistic ionization rate is computed for an ion illuminated by a laser field near the usual barrier suppression threshold, and the ionizing wavefunction is displayed.

  5. Studies of Ionic Photoionization Using Relativistic Random Phase Approximation and Relativistic Multichannel Quantum Defect Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Ghousia Nasreen

    The absorption of electromagnetic radiation by positive ions is one of the fundamental processes of nature which occurs in every intensely hot environment. Due to the difficulties in producing sufficient densities of ions in a laboratory, there are very few measurements of ionic photoabsorption parameters. On the theoretical side, some calculations have been made of a few major photoionization parameters, but generally speaking, most of the work done so far has employed rather simple single particle models and any theoretical work which has adequately taken into account intricate atomic many-body and relativistic effects is only scanty. In the present work, several complex aspects of atomic/ionic photoabsorption parameters have been studied. Non -resonant photoionization in neon and argon isonuclear as well as isoelectronic sequences has been studied using a very sophisticated technique, namely the relativistic random phase approximation (RRPA). This technique takes into account relativistic effects as well as an important class of major many-body effects on the same footing. The present calculations confirmed that gross features of photoionization parameters calculated using simpler models were not an artifact of the simple model. Also, the present RRPA calculations on K^+ ion and neutral Ar brought out the relative importance of various many-body effects such the inter-channel coupling. Inter-channel coupling between discrete bound state photoexcitation channels from an inner atomic/ionic level and photoionization continuum channels from an outer atomic/ionic level leads to the phenomena of autoionization resonances in the photoionization process. These resonances lead to very complex effects in the atomic/ionic photoabsorption spectra. These resonances have been calculated and studied in the present work in the neon and magnesium isoelectronic sequences using the relativistic multi-channel quantum defect theory (RMQDT) within the framework of the RRPA. The

  6. Outline of a nonlinear, relativistic quantum mechanics of extended particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    A quantum theory of intrinsically extended particles similar to de Broglie's theory of the Double Solution is proposed. A rational notion of the particle's extension is enthroned by realizing its internal structure via soliton-type solutions of nonlinear, relativistic wave equations. These droplet-type waves have a quasi-objective character except for certain boundary conditions which may be subject to stochastic fluctuations. More precisely, this assumption amounts to a probabilistic description of the center of a soliton such that it would follow the conventional quantum-mechanical formalism in the limit of zero particle radius. At short interaction distances, however, a promising nonlinear and nonlocal theory emerges. This model is not only capable of achieving a conceptually satisfying synthesis of the particle-wave dualism, but may also lead to a rational resolution of epistemological problems in the quantum-theoretical measurement process. Within experimental errors the results for, e.g., the hydrogen atom can be reproduced by appropriately specifying the nature of the nonlinear self-interaction. It is speculated that field theoretical issues raised by such notions as identical particles, field quantization and renormalization are already incorporated or resolved by this nonlocal theory, at least in principle. (author)

  7. Outline of a nonlinear, relativistic quantum mechanics of extended particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    A quantum theory of intrinsically extended particles similar to de Broglie's Theory of the Double Solution is proposed. A rational notion of the particle's extension is enthroned by realizing its internal structure via soliton-type solutions of nonlinear, relativistic wave equations. These droplet-type waves have a quasi-objective character except for certain boundary conditions which may be subject to stochastic fluctuations. More precisely, this assumption amounts to a probabilistic description of the center of a soliton such that it would follow the conventional quantum-mechanical formalism in the limit of zero particle radius. At short interaction distances, however, a promising nonlinear and nonlocal theory emerges. This model is not only capable of achieving a conceptually satisfying synthesis of the particle-wave dualism, but may also lead to a rational resolution of epistemological problems in the quantum-theoretical measurement process. Within experimental errors the results for, e.g., the hydrogen atom can be reproduced by appropriately specifying the nature of the nonlinear self-interaction. It is speculated that field theoretical issues raised by such notions as identical particles, field quantization and renormalization are already incorporated or resolved by this nonlocal theory, at least in principle. (author)

  8. Response of a relativistic quantum magnetized electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melrose, Donald B; Weise, Jeanette I

    2009-01-01

    The response 4-tensor is derived for a spin-independent, relativistic magnetized quantum electron gas. The sum over spins is carried out both directly and using a procedure due to Ritus. The 4-tensor components are written in terms of a sum over the two solutions of the resonance condition for the particle 4-momentum. It is shown that the dispersive properties may be described in terms of a single plasma dispersion function, for arbitrary occupation numbers for electrons and positrons in each Landau level. The plasma dispersion function is evaluated explicitly in the completely degenerate and nondegenerate thermal limits. The perpendicular wave number appears in the arguments of J-functions, which are proportional to generalized Laguerre polynomials, but not in the plasma dispersion function. The result generalizes a known form for the response tensor for parallel propagation (in the completely degenerate case), when the J-functions are either zero or unity, to arbitrary angles of propagation.

  9. Run-away electrons in relativistic spin (1) /(2) quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, F.E.

    1998-01-01

    The existence of run-away solutions in classical and non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics is reviewed. It is shown that the less singular high energy behavior of relativistic spin (1) /(2) quantum electrodynamics precludes an analogous behavior in that theory. However, a Landau-like anomalous pole in the photon propagation function or in the electron-massive photon forward scattering amplitude would generate a new run-away, characterized by an energy scale ω∼m e thinspexp(1/α). This contrasts with the energy scale ω∼m e /α associated with the classical and non-relativistic quantum run-aways. copyright 1998 Academic Press, Inc

  10. Solved and unsolved problems in relativistic quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutzelnigg, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The graphical abstract represents the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian in Fock space in a diagrammatic notation. A line (vertical or slanted) with an upgoing arrow represents an eletron, with a downgoing arrow a positron. A cross in the first line means the potential created by a nucleus, a broken line represents the Coulomb interaction between electrons and positrons. Highlights: ► Relativistic many-electron theory needs a Fock space and a field-dependent vacuum. ► A good starting point is QED in Coulomb gauge without transversal photons. ► The Dirac underworld picture is obsolete. ► A kinetically balanced even-tempered Gaussian basis is complete. ► ‘Quantum chemistry in Fock space is preferable over QED. - Abstract: A hierarchy of approximations in relativistic many-electron theory is discussed that starts with the Dirac equation and its expansion in a kinetically balanced basis, via a formulation of non-interacting electrons in Fock space (which is the only consistent way to deal with negative-energy states). The most straightforward approximate Hamiltonian for interacting electrons is derived from quantum electrodynamics (QED) in Coulomb gauge with the neglect of transversal photons. This allows an exact (non-perturbative) decoupling of the electromagnetic field from the fermionic field. The electric interaction of the fermions is non-retarded and non-quantized. The quantization of the fermionic field leads to a polarizable vacuum. The simplest (but somewhat problematic) approximation is a no-pair projected theory with external-field projectors. The Dirac-Coulomb operator in configuration space (first quantization) is not acceptable, even if the Brown–Ravenhall disease is much less virulent than often claimed. Effects of transversal photons, such as the Breit interaction and renormalized self-interaction can be taken care of perturbatively at the end, but there are still many open questions.

  11. Thermodynamic equilibrium in relativistic rotating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suen, W.M.; Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO; Young, K.

    1988-01-01

    The thermodynamic equilibrium configurations of relativistic rotating stars are studied using the maximum entropy principle. It is shown that the heuristic arguments for the equilibrium conditions can be developed into a maximum entropy principle in which the variations are carried out in a fixed background spacetime. This maximum principle with the fixed background assumption is technically simpler than, but has to be justified by, a maximum entropy principle without the assumption. Such a maximum entropy principle is formulated in this paper, showing that the general relativistic system can be treated on the same footing as other long-range force systems. (author)

  12. Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics as a Hamiltonian system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, D.D.; Kupershmidt, A.

    1985-01-01

    The equations of ideal relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in the laboratory frame form a noncanonical Hamiltonian system with the same Poisson bracket as for the nonrelativistic system, but with dynamical variables and Hamiltonian obtained via a regular deformation of their nonrelativistic counterparts [fr

  13. Study of the equations of a particle in Non- Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miltao, Milton Souza Ribeiro; Silva, Vanessa Santos Teles da

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The study of group theory is relevant to the treatment of physical problems, in which concepts of invariance and symmetry are important. In the field of Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics, we can do algebraic considerations taking into account the principles of symmetry, considering the framework of the study of Galileo transformations, which have characteristics of group. Therefore, we discuss the Stern-Gerlach experiment that had the historical importance of demonstrating that the electron has an intrinsic angular momentum. Through discussion of this experiment, we found that the spin appears in Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics as a feature of the algebraic structure underlying any physical theory represented by a group. From these studies, we have algebraic considerations for physical systems in non-relativistic domain, which are described by the Schroedinger and Pauli equations, describing the dynamics of particles of spin zero and 1/2 respectively, taking into account the structure of the transformations Galileo. Due to the operatorial, we represent Galileo's transformations by matrices by choosing an appropriate basis of space-time. Using these arrays, we saw group characteristics associated with these transformations, which we call the Galileo Group. We note the invariance of the Schroedinger and Pauli equations after these changes, as well as the physical state associated with it, which is represented by a radius vector in Hilbert space. (author)

  14. Chaos and maps in relativistic rynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Horwitz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic work of Zaslavskii et al showed that the classical non-relativistic electromagnetically kicked oscillator can be cast into the form of an iterative map on the phase space; the resulting evolution contains a stochastic flow to unbounded energy. Subsequent studies have formulated the problem in terms of a relativistic charged particle in interaction with the electromagnetic field. We review the structure of the covariant Lorentz force used to study this problem. We show that the Lorentz force equation can be derived as well from the manifestly covariant mechanics of Stueckelberg in the presence of a standard Maxwell field, establishing a connection between these equations and mass shell constraints. We argue that these relativistic generalizations of the problem are intrinsically inaccurate due to an inconsistency in the structure of the relativistic Lorentz force, and show that a reformulation of the relativistic problem, permitting variations (classically in both the particle mass and the effective “mass” of the interacting electromagnetic field, provides a consistent system of classical equations for describing such processes.

  15. The projective geometry of the spacetime yielded by relativistic positioning systems and relativistic location systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin , Jacques ,

    2014-01-01

    Version de travail de thèse d'habilitation à diriger des recherches; Preprint; Current positioning systems are not primary, relativistic systems. Nevertheless, genuine, relativistic and primary positioning systems have been proposed recently by Bahder, Coll et al. and Rovelli to remedy such prior defects. These new designs all have in common an equivariant conformal geometry featuring, as the most basic ingredient, the spacetime geometry. We show how this conformal aspect can be the four-dime...

  16. Introduction to the renormalization group study in relativistic quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignaco, J.A.; Roditi, I.

    1985-01-01

    An introduction to the renormalization group approach in relativistic quantum field theories is presented, beginning with a little historical about the subject. Further, this problem is discussed from the point of view of the perturbation theory. (L.C.) [pt

  17. Comparison of different boost transformations for the calculation of form factors in relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theussl, L.; Noguera, S.; Amghar, A.; Desplanques, B.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of different boost expressions, pertinent to the instant, front and point forms of relativistic quantum mechanics, is considered for the calculation of the ground-state form factor of a two-body system in simple scalar models. Results with a Galilean boost as well as an explicitly covariant calculation based on the Bethe-Salpeter approach are given for comparison. It is found that the present so-called point-form calculations of form factors strongly deviate from all the other ones. This suggests that the formalism which underlies them requires further elaboration. A proposition in this sense is made. (author)

  18. Axioms for quantum mechanics: relativistic causality, retrocausality, and the existence of a classical limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrlich, Daniel

    Y. Aharonov and A. Shimony both conjectured that two axioms - relativistic causality (``no superluminal signalling'') and nonlocality - so nearly contradict each other that only quantum mechanics reconciles them. Can we indeed derive quantum mechanics, at least in part, from these two axioms? No: ``PR-box'' correlations show that quantum correlations are not the most nonlocal correlations consistent with relativistic causality. Here we replace ``nonlocality'' with ``retrocausality'' and supplement the axioms of relativistic causality and retrocausality with a natural and minimal third axiom: the existence of a classical limit, in which macroscopic observables commute. That is, just as quantum mechanics has a classical limit, so must any generalization of quantum mechanics. In this limit, PR-box correlations violaterelativistic causality. Generalized to all stronger-than-quantum bipartite correlations, this result is a derivation of Tsirelson's bound (a theorem of quantum mechanics) from the three axioms of relativistic causality, retrocausality and the existence of a classical limit. Although the derivation does not assume quantum mechanics, it points to the Hilbert space structure that underlies quantum correlations. I thank the John Templeton Foundation (Project ID 43297) and the Israel Science Foundation (Grant No. 1190/13) for support.

  19. Relativistic quantum channel of communication through field quanta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliche, M.; Kempf, A.

    2010-01-01

    Setups in which a system Alice emits field quanta that a system Bob receives are prototypical for wireless communication and have been extensively studied. In the most basic setup, Alice and Bob are modeled as Unruh-DeWitt detectors for scalar quanta, and the only noise in their communication is due to quantum fluctuations. For this basic setup, we construct the corresponding information-theoretic quantum channel. We calculate the classical channel capacity as a function of the spacetime separation, and we confirm that the classical as well as the quantum channel capacity are strictly zero for spacelike separations. We show that this channel can be used to entangle Alice and Bob instantaneously. Alice and Bob are shown to extract this entanglement from the vacuum through a Casimir-Polder effect.

  20. Relativistic classical and quantum dynamics in intense crossed laser beams of various polarizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Verschl

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of an electron in crossed laser fields is investigated analytically. Two different standing wave configurations are compared. The counterpropagating laser waves are either linearly or circularly polarized. Both configurations have in common that there are one-dimensional trajectories on which the electron can oscillate with vanishing Lorentz force. The dynamics is analyzed for the situations when the electron moves in the vicinity of these ideal axes. If the laser intensities imply nonrelativistic electron dynamics, the system is described quantum mechanically. A semiclassical treatment renders the strongly relativistic regime accessible as well. To describe relativistic wave packets, the results of the classical analysis are employed for a Monte Carlo ensemble. This allows for a comparison of the wave packet dynamics for both configurations in the strongly relativistic regime. It is found for certain cases that relativity slows down the dynamics, i.e., for higher laser intensities, wave packet spreading and the drift away from the ideal axis of vanishing Lorentz force are shown to be increasingly suppressed.

  1. 10th Biennial Conference on Classical and Quantum Relativistic Dynamics of Particles and Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Preface The International Association for Relativistic Dynamics was organized in February 1998 in Houston, Texas, with John R. Fanchi as president. Although the subject of relativistic dynamics has been explored, from both classical and quantum mechanical points of view, since the work of Einstein and Dirac, its most striking development has been in the framework of quantum field theory. The very accurate calculations of spectral and scattering properties, for example, of the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and the Lamb shift in quantum electrodynamics, and many qualitative features of the strong and electroweak interactions, demonstrate the very great power of description achieved in this framework. Yet, many fundamental questions remain to be clarified, such as the structure of classical relativistic dynamical theories on the level of Hamilton and Lagrange in Minkowski space as well as on the curved manifolds of general relativity. There, moreover, remained the important questions of the covariant classical description of systems at high energy for which particle production effects are not large, such as discussed in Synge’s book, The Relativistic Gas , and in Balescu’s book on relativistic statistical mechanics, and the development of a consistent single and many body relativistic quantum theory. In recent years, the very high accuracy of telescopes and advanced facilities for computation have brought a high level of interest in cosmological problems such as the structure of galaxies (dark matter) and the apparently anomalous expansion of the universe (dark energy). Some of the papers reported here deal with these problems, as well as other fundamental related issues. It was for this purpose, to bring together researchers from a wide variety of fields, such as particle physics, astrophysics, cosmology, foundations of relativity theory, and mathematical physics, with a common interest in relativistic dynamics, to investigate fundamental questions of

  2. Simulations of non-relativistic quantum chromodynamics at strong and weak coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Norman Harold

    In this thesis heavy quarks are investigated using lattice nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics (NRQCD). Two major research works are presented. In the first major work, simulations are done for the three quarkonium systems cc¯, bc¯, and bb¯. The hyperfine splittings are computed at both leading and next-to-leading order in the relativistic expansion, using a large number of lattice spacings. A detailed comparison between mean-link and average plaquette tadpole renormalization schemes is undertaken with a number of features favouring the use of mean-links. These include much better scaling behavior of the hyperfine splittings and smaller relativistic corrections to the spin splittings. Signs of a breakdown in the NRQCD expansion are seen when the bare quark mass, in lattice units, falls below about one. In the second work, coefficients for the perturbative expansion of the static quark self energy are extracted from Monte Carlo simulations in the perturbative region of lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD). A very large systematic study resulted in a major extension of existing methods. Twisted boundary conditions are used to eliminate the effects of zero modes and to suppress tunneling between the degenerate Z3 vacua. The Monte Carlo results are in excellent agreement with analytic perturbation theory, which is known through second order. New results for the third order coefficient are reported. Preliminary work is reported on quark propagators which will be used to measure second order mass renormalizations for NRQCD fermions.

  3. Fiber bundles in non-relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moylan, P.

    1979-11-01

    The problem of describing a quantum-mechanical system with symmetry by a fiber bundle is considered. The quantization of a fiber bundle is introduced. Fiber bundles for the Kepler problem and the rotator are constructed. The fiber bundle concept provides a new model for a physical system: it provides a model for an elementary particle with extension having integral values of spin. 5 figures

  4. Theoretical physics vol. 2. Quantum mechanics, relativistic quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, elementar-particle theory, thermodynamics and statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebhan, E.

    2005-01-01

    The present second volume treats quantum mechanics, relativistic quantum mechanics, the foundations of quantum-field and elementary-particle theory as well as thermodynamics and statistics. Both volumes comprehend all fields, which are usually offered in a course about theoretical physics. In all treated fields a very careful introduction to the basic natural laws forms the starting point, whereby it is thoroughly analysed, which of them is based on empirics, which is logically deducible, and which role play basic definitions. Extendingly the matter extend of the corresponding courses starting from the relativistic quantum theory an introduction to the elementary particles is developed. All problems are very thoroughly and such extensively studied, that each step is singularly reproducible. On motivation and good understandability is cared much about. The mixing of mathematical difficulties with problems of physical nature often obstructive in the learning is so circumvented, that important mathematical methods are presented in own chapters (for instance Hilbert spaces, Lie groups). By means of many examples and problems (for a large part with solutions) the matter worked out is deepened and exercised. Developments, which are indeed important, but seem for the first approach abandonable, are pursued in excurses. This book starts from courses, which the author has held at the Heinrich-Heine university in Duesseldorf, and was in many repetitions fitted to the requirements of the students. It is conceived in such a way, that it is also after the study suited as dictionary or for the regeneration

  5. Quantum Geometry: Relativistic energy approach to cooperative electron-nucleary-transition spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Юрьевна Хецелиус

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An advanced relativistic energy approach is presented and applied to calculating parameters of electron-nuclear 7-transition spectra of nucleus in the atom. The intensities of the spectral satellites are defined in the relativistic version of the energy approach (S-matrix formalism, and gauge-invariant quantum-electrodynamical perturbation theory with the Dirac-Kohn-Sham density-functional zeroth approximation.

  6. Internal-time observable of classical relativistic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Ya'acov, Uri

    2006-01-01

    The relativistic framework with its symmetries offers a natural definition for the internal time of classical (non-quantum) physical systems as a Lorentz-invariant observable. The internal-time observable, measuring the system's aging or internal evolution, is identified with the proper time of the system derived from its centre-of-mass (CM) coordinate. For its definition as an observable it is required that the system be symmetric not only under Lorentz-Poincare transformations but also under uniform scaling, with the associated existence of a dilatation function D, and yet that D be a varying-not conserved-quantity. Two alternative definitions are discussed, and it is found that in order to maintain simultaneity of the CM time with the events that define it, it is necessary to split the dilatation function into a CM part and an internal part

  7. Relativistic quantum thermodynamics of ideal gases in two dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas, H; Pimentel, B M; Tomazelli, J L

    1999-11-01

    In this work we study the behavior of relativistic ideal Bose and Fermi gases in two space dimensions. Making use of polylogarithm functions we derive a closed and unified expression for their densities. It is shown that both type of gases are essentially inequivalent, and only in the non-relativistic limit the spinless and equal mass Bose and Fermi gases are equivalent as known in the literature.

  8. Relativistic Quantum Thermodynamics of Ideal Gases in 2 Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Blas, H.; Pimentel, B. M.; Tomazelli, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    In this work we study the behavior of relativistic ideal Bose and Fermi gases in two space dimensions. Making use of polylogarithm functions we derive a closed and unified expression for their densities. It is shown that both type of gases are essentially inequivalent, and only in the non-relativistic limit the spinless and equal mass Bose and Fermi gases are equivalent as known in the literature.

  9. Free space relativistic quantum cryptography with faint laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molotkov, S N; Potapova, T A

    2013-01-01

    A new protocol for quantum key distribution through empty space is proposed. Apart from the quantum mechanical restrictions on distinguishability of non-orthogonal states, the protocol employs additional restrictions imposed by special relativity. The protocol ensures generation of a secure key even for the source generating non-strictly single-photon quantum states and for arbitrary losses in quantum communication channel. (letter)

  10. Lorentz-covariant reduced-density-operator theory for relativistic-quantum-information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Doyeol; Lee, Hyuk-jae; Hwang, Sung Woo

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we derived a Lorentz-covariant quantum Liouville equation for the density operator which describes the relativistic-quantum-information processing from Tomonaga-Schwinger equation and an exact formal solution for the reduced density operator is obtained using the projector operator technique and the functional calculus. When all the members of the family of the hypersurfaces become flat hyperplanes, it is shown that our results agree with those of the nonrelativistic case, which is valid only in some specified reference frame. To show that our formulation can be applied to practical problems, we derived the polarization of the vacuum in quantum electrodynamics up to the second order. The formulation presented in this work is general and could be applied to related fields such as quantum electrodynamics and relativistic statistical mechanics

  11. Logical inference approach to relativistic quantum mechanics: Derivation of the Klein–Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donker, H.C.; Katsnelson, M.I.; De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.

    2016-01-01

    The logical inference approach to quantum theory, proposed earlier De Raedt et al. (2014), is considered in a relativistic setting. It is shown that the Klein–Gordon equation for a massive, charged, and spinless particle derives from the combination of the requirements that the space–time data collected by probing the particle is obtained from the most robust experiment and that on average, the classical relativistic equation of motion of a particle holds. - Highlights: • Logical inference applied to relativistic, massive, charged, and spinless particle experiments leads to the Klein–Gordon equation. • The relativistic Hamilton–Jacobi is scrutinized by employing a field description for the four-velocity. • Logical inference allows analysis of experiments with uncertainty in detection events and experimental conditions.

  12. Relativistic n-body wave equations in scalar quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emami-Razavi, Mohsen

    2006-01-01

    The variational method in a reformulated Hamiltonian formalism of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) is used to derive relativistic n-body wave equations for scalar particles (bosons) interacting via a massive or massless mediating scalar field (the scalar Yukawa model). Simple Fock-space variational trial states are used to derive relativistic n-body wave equations. The equations are shown to have the Schroedinger non-relativistic limits, with Coulombic interparticle potentials in the case of a massless mediating field and Yukawa interparticle potentials in the case of a massive mediating field. Some examples of approximate ground state solutions of the n-body relativistic equations are obtained for various strengths of coupling, for both massive and massless mediating fields

  13. Relativistic Celestial Mechanics of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeikin, Sergei; Efroimsky, Michael; Kaplan, George

    2011-09-01

    The general theory of relativity was developed by Einstein a century ago. Since then, it has become the standard theory of gravity, especially important to the fields of fundamental astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, and experimental gravitational physics. Today, the application of general relativity is also essential for many practical purposes involving astrometry, navigation, geodesy, and time synchronization. Numerous experiments have successfully tested general relativity to a remarkable level of precision. Exploring relativistic gravity in the solar system now involves a variety of high-accuracy techniques, for example, very long baseline radio interferometry, pulsar timing, spacecraft Doppler tracking, planetary radio ranging, lunar laser ranging, the global positioning system (GPS), torsion balances and atomic clocks. Over the last few decades, various groups within the International Astronomical Union have been active in exploring the application of the general theory of relativity to the modeling and interpretation of high-accuracy astronomical observations in the solar system and beyond. A Working Group on Relativity in Celestial Mechanics and Astrometry was formed in 1994 to define and implement a relativistic theory of reference frames and time scales. This task was successfully completed with the adoption of a series of resolutions on astronomical reference systems, time scales, and Earth rotation models by the 24th General Assembly of the IAU, held in Manchester, UK, in 2000. However, these resolutions only form a framework for the practical application of relativity theory, and there have been continuing questions on the details of the proper application of relativity theory to many common astronomical problems. To ensure that these questions are properly addressed, the 26th General Assembly of the IAU, held in Prague in August 2006, established the IAU Commission 52, "Relativity in Fundamental Astronomy". The general scientific goals of the new

  14. Relativistic Brownian motion and the foundations of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.

    1979-01-01

    Within the context of the generalized stochastic interpretation of quantum mechanics it is possible to deduce the quantum principles as well as to resolve the EPR paradox. Moreover, the postulates of the stochastic space-time as proposed by Frederick et al. can be deduced in a consistent way. A new possibility arises of rethinking of the existence of hidden variables in quantum mechanics

  15. Exploring the propagation of relativistic quantum wavepackets in the trajectory-based formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-Ming; Poirier, Bill

    2016-03-01

    In the context of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, Gaussian wavepacket solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation provide useful physical insight. This is not the case for relativistic quantum mechanics, however, for which both the Klein-Gordon and Dirac wave equations result in strange and counterintuitive wavepacket behaviors, even for free-particle Gaussians. These behaviors include zitterbewegung and other interference effects. As a potential remedy, this paper explores a new trajectory-based formulation of quantum mechanics, in which the wavefunction plays no role [Phys. Rev. X, 4, 040002 (2014)]. Quantum states are represented as ensembles of trajectories, whose mutual interaction is the source of all quantum effects observed in nature—suggesting a “many interacting worlds” interpretation. It is shown that the relativistic generalization of the trajectory-based formulation results in well-behaved free-particle Gaussian wavepacket solutions. In particular, probability density is positive and well-localized everywhere, and its spatial integral is conserved over time—in any inertial frame. Finally, the ensemble-averaged wavepacket motion is along a straight line path through spacetime. In this manner, the pathologies of the wave-based relativistic quantum theory, as applied to wavepacket propagation, are avoided.

  16. Symmetric low-voltage powering system for relativistic electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agafonov, A.V.; Lebedev, A.N.; Krastelev, E.G.

    2005-01-01

    A special driver for double-sided powering of relativistic magnetrons and several methods of localized electron flow forming in the interaction region of relativistic magnetrons are proposed and discussed. Two experimental installations are presented and discussed. One of them is designed for laboratory research and demonstration experiments at a rather low voltage. The other one is a prototype of a full-scale installation for an experimental research at relativistic levels of voltages on the microwave generation in the new integrated system consisting of a relativistic magnetron and symmetrical induction driver

  17. Losing energy in classical, relativistic and quantum mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, David

    A Zenonian supertask involving an infinite number of colliding balls is considered, under the restriction that the total mass of all the balls is finite. Classical mechanics leads to the conclusion that momentum, but not necessarily energy, must be conserved. In relativistic mechanics, however,

  18. Quantum spin correlations in relativistic Møller scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caban Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the relativistic spin correlation function (and the corresponding probabilities for a pair of polarized electrons originating from the Moller scattering. This particular state is easy to prepare experimentally; therefore, the results are discussed in view of a possible measurement. We also discuss the state after the Moller scattering in terms of entanglement and polarization transfer.

  19. Quantum correlations in multipartite quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Heshmati, A.; Karimi, N.; Yahyavi, M.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum entanglement is the most famous type of quantum correlation between elements of a quantum system that has a basic role in quantum communication protocols like quantum cryptography, teleportation and Bell inequality detection. However, it has already been shown that various applications in quantum information theory do not require entanglement. Quantum discord as a new kind of quantum correlations beyond entanglement, is the most popular candidate for general quantum correlations. In this paper, first we find the entanglement witness in a particular multipartite quantum system which consists of a N-partite system in 2 n -dimensional space. Then we give an exact analytical formula for the quantum discord of this system. At the end of the paper, we investigate the additivity relation of the quantum correlation and show that this relation is satisfied for a N-partite system with 2 n -dimensional space.

  20. Relativistic collective diffusion in one-dimensional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gui-Wu; Lam, Yu-Yiu; Zheng, Dong-Qin; Zhong, Wei-Rong

    2018-05-01

    The relativistic collective diffusion in one-dimensional molecular system is investigated through nonequilibrium molecular dynamics with Monte Carlo methods. We have proposed the relationship among the speed, the temperature, the density distribution and the collective diffusion coefficient of particles in a relativistic moving system. It is found that the relativistic speed of the system has no effect on the temperature, but the collective diffusion coefficient decreases to zero as the velocity of the system approaches to the speed of light. The collective diffusion coefficient is modified as D‧ = D(1 ‑w2 c2 )3 2 for satisfying the relativistic circumstances. The present results may contribute to the understanding of the behavior of the particles transport diffusion in a high speed system, as well as enlighten the study of biological metabolism at relativistic high speed situation.

  1. Electromagnetic interactions in relativistic systems of many bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A.H.

    1987-09-01

    In a previous report (Cook, 1986, 1987) on a formulation of a quasi-relativistic quantum mechanical equation of motion for many particles, little was said of the electromagnetic interactions that keep a set of particles in a bound state. That omission is to some extent repaired in this report. (author). 3 refs

  2. Two-dimensional approach to relativistic positioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, Bartolome; Ferrando, Joan Josep; Morales, Juan Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A relativistic positioning system is a physical realization of a coordinate system consisting in four clocks in arbitrary motion broadcasting their proper times. The basic elements of the relativistic positioning systems are presented in the two-dimensional case. This simplified approach allows to explain and to analyze the properties and interest of these new systems. The positioning system defined by geodesic emitters in flat metric is developed in detail. The information that the data generated by a relativistic positioning system give on the space-time metric interval is analyzed, and the interest of these results in gravimetry is pointed out

  3. Relativistic Brownian motion and the foundations of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.

    1979-01-01

    Within the context of the generalized stochastic interpretation of quantum mechanics it is possible to deduce the quantum principles as well as to resolve the EPR paradox. Moreover, the postulates of the stochastic space-time as proposed by Frederick et al. can be deduced in a consistent way. A new possibility arises of rethinking of the existence of hidden variables in quantum mechanics. (author)

  4. Construction of relativistic quantum theory: a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1986-06-01

    We construct the particulate states of quantum physics using a recursive computer program that incorporates non-determinism by means of locally arbitrary choices. Quantum numbers and coupling constants arise from the construction via the unique 4-level combinatorial hierarchy. The construction defines indivisible quantum events with the requisite supraluminal correlations, yet does not allow supraluminal communication. Measurement criteria incorporate c, h-bar and m/sub p/ or (not ''and'') G, connected to laboratory events via finite particle number scattering theory and the counter paradigm. The resulting theory is discrete throughout, contains no infinities, and, as far as we have developed it, is in agreement with quantum mechanical and cosmological fact

  5. The microcanonical ensemble of the ideal relativistic quantum gas with angular momentum conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becattini, F.; Ferroni, L.

    2007-01-01

    We derive the microcanonical partition function of the ideal relativistic quantum gas with fixed intrinsic angular momentum as an expansion over fixed multiplicities. We developed a group theoretical approach by generalizing known projection techniques to the Poincare group. Our calculation is carried out in a quantum field framework and applies to particles with any spin. It extends known results in the literature in that it does not introduce any large volume approximation, and it takes particle spin fully into account. We provide expressions of the microcanonical partition function at fixed multiplicities in the limiting classical case of large volumes and large angular momenta and in the grand-canonical ensemble. We also derive the microcanonical partition function of the ideal relativistic quantum gas with fixed parity. (orig.)

  6. Quantum theory of relativistic charged particles in external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruijsenaars, S.N.M.

    1976-01-01

    A study was made on external field theories in which the quantized field corresponds to relativistic elementary particles with non-zero rest mass. These particles are assumed to be charged, thus they have distinct antiparticles. The thesis consists of two parts. The first tries to accommodate the general features of theories of relativistic charged particles in external fields. Spin and dynamics in particular are not specified. In the second part, the results are applied to charged spin-1/2 and spin-0 particles, the dynamics of which are given by the Dirac resp. Klein-Gordon equation. The greater emphasis is on external fields which are rapidly decreasing, infinitely differentiable functions of space-time, but also considers time-independent fields. External fields, other than electromagnetic fields are also considered, e.g. scalar fields

  7. Some connections between relativistic classical mechanics, statistical mechanics, and quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remler, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    A gauge-invariant version of the Wigner representation is used to relate relativistic mechanics, statistical mechanics, and quantum field theory in the context of the electrodynamics of scalar particles. A unified formulation of quantum field theory and statistical mechanics is developed which clarifies the physics interpretation of the single-particle Wigner function. A covariant form of Ehrenfest's theorem is derived. Classical electrodynamics is derived from quantum field theory after making a random-phase approximation. The validity of this approximation is discussed

  8. Relativistic Jahn-Teller effect in tetrahedral systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opalka, Daniel; Domcke, Wolfgang; Segado, Mireia; Poluyanov, Leonid V.

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that orbitally degenerate states in highly symmetric systems are split by Jahn-Teller forces which are of relativistic origin (that is, they arise from the spin-orbit coupling operator). For the example of tetrahedral systems, the relativistic Jahn-Teller Hamiltonians of orbitally degenerate electronic states with spin 1/2 are derived. While both electrostatic and relativistic forces contribute to the Jahn-Teller activity of vibrational modes of E and T 2 symmetry in 2 T 2 states of tetrahedral systems, the electrostatic and relativistic Jahn-Teller couplings are complementary for 2 E states: The E mode is Jahn-Teller active through electrostatic forces, while the T 2 mode is Jahn-Teller active through the relativistic forces. The relativistic Jahn-Teller parameters have been computed with ab initio relativistic electronic-structure methods. It is shown for the example of the tetrahedral cluster cations of the group V elements that the relativistic Jahn-Teller couplings can be of the same order of magnitude as the familiar electrostatic Jahn-Teller couplings for the heavier elements.

  9. Angular analyses in relativistic quantum mechanics; Analyses angulaires en mecanique quantique relativiste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    This work describes the angular analysis of reactions between particles with spin in a fully relativistic fashion. One particle states are introduced, following Wigner's method, as representations of the inhomogeneous Lorentz group. In order to perform the angular analyses, the reduction of the product of two representations of the inhomogeneous Lorentz group is studied. Clebsch-Gordan coefficients are computed for the following couplings: l-s coupling, helicity coupling, multipolar coupling, and symmetric coupling for more than two particles. Massless and massive particles are handled simultaneously. On the way we construct spinorial amplitudes and free fields; we recall how to establish convergence theorems for angular expansions from analyticity hypothesis. Finally we substitute these hypotheses to the idea of 'potential radius', which gives at low energy the usual 'centrifugal barrier' factors. The presence of such factors had never been deduced from hypotheses compatible with relativistic invariance. (author) [French] On decrit un formalisme permettant de tenir compte de l'invariance relativiste, dans l'analyse angulaire des amplitudes de reaction entre particules de spin quelconque. Suivant Wigner, les etats a une particule sont introduits a l'aide des representations du groupe de Lorentz inhomogene. Pour effectuer les analyses angulaires, on etudie la reduction du produit de deux representations du groupe de Lorentz inhomogene. Les coefficients de Clebsch-Gordan correspondants sont calcules dans les couplages suivants: couplage l-s couplage d'helicite, couplage multipolaire, couplage symetrique pour plus de deux particules. Les particules de masse nulle et de masse non nulle sont traitees simultanement. Au passage, on introduit les amplitudes spinorielles et on construit les champs libres, on rappelle comment des hypotheses d'analyticite permettent d'etablir des theoremes de convergence pour les developpements angulaires. Enfin on fournit un substitut a la

  10. Radiation from systems with relativistic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternov, I.M.; Khalilov, V.R.; Bagrov, V.G.; Nikitin, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    Different methods of generation of electromagnetic radiation in the course of electron motion in external electromagnetic fields are considered. Singularities of ''free electron lasers'' (FEL), synchrotronous, ondulator and Compton radiation sources are discussed. The effect of induced radiation of electrons moving in a magnetic field is studied on the basis of the quantum theory methods. The results obtained are compared with the results of the classical theory. The theoretical and experimental results of the main singularities of the ondulator radiation (OR) are presented. It is shown that when the recoil effects are negligible and nonequidistancy of the energy spectrum of an electron in a magnetic field is of an error character, the results for the dose rate calculated by the quantum and classical theory methods completely coincide in the range of great filling numbers. Both in the quantum and classical theories the effects of the induced radiation of electrons moving in external electromagnetic fields (nonstationary in a general case) of a rather general type depend on two main mechanisms, which are nonequidistancy of the energy spectrum and the recoil effect (the quantum theory); appearance of phase and longitudinal electron bunching under the effect of an alternating radiation field (the classical theory). On the basis of the investigations the conclusion is made that OR can be successfully used for measuring the charged particle beam parameters (dispersion of angular spread and the absolute energy), as well as for measuring the amplitude of the magnetic field intensity in a space-periodic system

  11. Quantum phase space for an ideal relativistic gas in d spatial dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, M.; Vera Mendoza, H.

    1992-01-01

    We present the closed formula for the d-dimensional invariant phase-space integral for an ideal relativistic gas in an exact integral form. In the particular cases of the nonrelativistic and the extreme relativistic limits the phase-space integrals are calculated analytically. Then we consider the d-dimensional invariant phase space with quantum statistic and derive the cluster decomposition for the grand canonical and canonical partition functions as well as for the microcanonical and grand microcanonical densities of states. As a showcase, we consider the black-body radiation in d dimensions (Author)

  12. Quantum mechanics of relativistic particles in multiply connected spaces and the Aharonov-Bohm effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamboa, J.; Rivelles, V.O.

    1990-04-01

    We consider the motion of free relativistic particles in multiply connected spaces. We show that if one of the spatial dimensions has the topology of a circle then the D dimensional spacetime is compactified to D-1 dimensions and the particle mass increases by an amount which is proportional to a quantum phase factor and inversely proportional to the radius of the circle. We also consider the relativistic Aharonov-Bohm effect and we show that the interference pattern is a universal characteristic due only to the topological properties of the experimental situation and not to the intrinsic properties of the particle. The propagators are calculated in both situations. (author) [pt

  13. In search of a primitive ontology for relativistic quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Vincent [University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    There is a recently much discussed approach to the ontology of quantum mechanics according to which the theory is ultimately about entities in 3-dimensional space and their temporal evolution. Such an ontology postulating from the start matter localized in usual physical space or spacetime, by contrast to an abstract high-dimensional space such as the configuration space of wave function realism, is called primitive ontology in the recent literature on the topic and finds its roots in Bell's notion of local beables. The main motivation for a primitive ontology lies in its explanatory power: the primitive ontology allows for a direct account of the behaviour and properties of familiar macroscopic objects. In this context, it is natural to look for a primitive ontology for relativistic quantum field theory (RQFT). The aim of this talk is to critically discuss this interpretative move within RQFT, in particular with respect to the foundational issue of the existence of unitarily inequivalent representations. Indeed the proposed primitive ontologies for RQFT rely either on a Fock space representation or a wave functional representation, which are strictly speaking only unambiguously available for free systems in flat spacetime. As a consequence, it is argued that these primitive ontologies constitute only effective ontologies and are hardly satisfying as a fundamental ontology for RQFT.

  14. Non-relativistic scalar field on the quantum plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahan, A.

    2005-01-01

    We apply the coherent state approach to the non-commutative plane to check the one-loop finiteness of the two-point and four-point functions of a non-relativistic scalar field theory in 2+1 dimensions. We show that the two-point and four-point functions of the model are finite at one-loop level and one recovers the divergent behavior of the model in the limit θ->0 + by appropriate redefinition of the non-commutativity parameter

  15. Construction of relativistic quantum theory: a progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1986-06-01

    We construct the particulate states of quantum physics using a recursive computer program that incorporates non-determinism by means of locally arbitrary choices. Quantum numbers and coupling constants arise from the construction via the unique 4-level combinatorial hierarchy. The construction defines indivisible quantum events with the requisite supraluminal correlations, yet does not allow supraluminal communication. Measurement criteria incorporate c, h-bar and m/sub p/ or (not ''and'') G, connected to laboratory events via finite particle number scattering theory and the counter paradigm. The resulting theory is discrete throughout, contains no infinities, and, as far as we have developed it, is in agreement with quantum mechanical and cosmological fact.

  16. Quaternionic non abelian relativistic quantum fields in four dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.; Hoeegh-Krohn, R.

    1986-01-01

    We give a simple construction of certain Lie-group valued Euclidean Markov random fields and quantum fields in four dimensions. These fields can be looked upon as non abelian extensions of electromagnetic fields. (orig.)

  17. Non-relativistic and relativistic quantum kinetic equations in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botermans, W.M.M.

    1989-01-01

    In this thesis an attempt is made to draw up a quantummechanical tranport equation for the explicit calculation oof collision processes between two (heavy) ions, by making proper approaches of the exact equations (non-rel.: N-particles Schroedinger equation; rel.: Euler-Lagrange field equations.). An important starting point in the drag-up of the theory is the behaviour of nuclear matter in equilibrium which is determined by individual as well as collective effects. The central point in this theory is the effective interaction between two nucleons both surrounded by other nucleons. In the derivation of the tranport equations use is made of the green's function formalism as developed by Schwinger and Keldys. For the Green's function kinematic equations are drawn up and are solved by choosing a proper factorization of three- and four-particle Green's functions in terms of one- and two-particle Green's functions. The necessary boundary condition is obtained by explicitly making use of Boltzmann's assumption that colliding particles are statistically uncorrelated. Finally a transport equation is obtained in which the mean field as well as the nucleon-nucleon collisions are given by the same (medium dependent) interaction. This interaction is the non-equilibrium extension of the interaction as given in the Brueckner theory of nuclear matter. Together, kinetic equation and interaction, form a self-consistent set of equations for the case of a non-relativistic as well as for the case of a relativistic starting point. (H.W.) 148 refs.; 6 figs.; 411 schemes

  18. Relativistic duality, and relativistic and radiative corrections for heavy-quark systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, B.; Durand, L.

    1982-01-01

    We give a JWKB proof of a relativistic duality relation which relates an appropriate energy average of the physical cross section for e + e - →qq-bar bound states→hadrons to the same energy average of the perturbative cross section for e + e - →qq-bar. We show that the duality relation can be used effectively to estimate relativistic and radiative corrections for bound-quark systems to order α/sub s//sup ts2/. We also present a formula which relates the square of the ''large'' 3 S 1 Salpeter-Bethe-Schwinger wave function for zero space-time separation of the quarks to the square of the nonrelativistic Schroedinger wave function at the origin for an effective potential which reproduces the relativistic spectrum. This formula allows one to use the nonrelativistic wave functions obtained in potential models fitted to the psi and UPSILON spectra to calculate relativistic leptonic widths for qq-bar states via a relativistic version of the van Royen--Weisskopf formula

  19. Optical-lattice Hamiltonians for relativistic quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapit, Eliot; Mueller, Erich

    2011-01-01

    We show how interpenetrating optical lattices containing Bose-Fermi mixtures can be constructed to emulate the thermodynamics of quantum electrodynamics (QED). We present models of neutral atoms on lattices in 1+1, 2+1, and 3+1 dimensions whose low-energy effective action reduces to that of photons coupled to Dirac fermions of the corresponding dimensionality. We give special attention to (2+1)-dimensional quantum electrodynamics (QED3) and discuss how two of its most interesting features, chiral symmetry breaking and Chern-Simons physics, could be observed experimentally.

  20. Heuristic models of two-fermion relativistic systems with field-type interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duviryak, A

    2002-01-01

    We use the chain of simple heuristic expedients for obtaining perturbative and exactly solvable relativistic spectra for a family of two-fermionic bound systems with Coulomb-like interaction. In the case of electromagnetic interaction the spectrum coincides up to the second order in a coupling constant with that following from the quantum electrodynamics. Discrepancy occurs only for S-states which is the well-known difficulty in the bound-state problem. The confinement interaction is considered too

  1. Estimations for the Schwinger functions of relativistic quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    Schwinger functions of a relativistic neutral scalar field the basing test function space of which is S or D are estimated by methods of the analytic continuation. Concerning the behaviour in coincident points it is shown: The two-point singularity of the n-point Schwinger function of a field theory is dominated by an inverse power of the distance of both points modulo a multiplicative constant, if the other n-2 points a sufficiently distant and remain fixed. The power thereby, depends only on n. Using additional conditions on the field the independence of the power on n may be proved. Concerning the behaviour at infinite it is shown: The n-point Schwinger functions of a field theory are globally bounded, if the minimal distance of the arguments is positive. The bound depends only on n and the minimal distance of the arguments. (orig.) [de

  2. Quantum dynamics of relativistic bosons through nonminimal vector square potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luiz P. de, E-mail: oliveira.phys@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    The dynamics of relativistic bosons (scalar and vectorial) through nonminimal vector square (well and barrier) potentials is studied in the Duffin–Kemmer–Petiau (DKP) formalism. We show that the problem can be mapped in effective Schrödinger equations for a component of the DKP spinor. An oscillatory transmission coefficient is found and there is total reflection. Additionally, the energy spectrum of bound states is obtained and reveals the Schiff–Snyder–Weinberg effect, for specific conditions the potential lodges bound states of particles and antiparticles. - Highlights: • DKP bosons in a nonminimal vector square potential are studied. • Spin zero and spin one bosons have the same results. • The Schiff–Snyder–Weinberg effect is observed.

  3. Geometric back-reaction in pre-inflation from relativistic quantum geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcodia, Marcos R.A. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Mar del Plata (Argentina); Bellini, Mauricio [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2016-06-15

    The pre-inflationary evolution of the universe describes the beginning of the expansion from a static initial state, such that the Hubble parameter is initially zero, but increases to an asymptotic constant value, in which it could achieve a de Sitter (inflationary) expansion. The expansion is driven by a background phantom field. The back-reaction effects at this moment should describe vacuum geometrical excitations, which are studied in detail in this work using relativistic quantum geometry. (orig.)

  4. Relativistic ''potential model'' for N-particle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1986-08-01

    Neither quantum field theory nor S-Matrix theory have a well defined procedure for going over to an approximation that can be reliably used in non-relativistic models for nuclear physics. We meet the problem here by constructing a finite particle number relativistic scattering theory for (scalar) particles and mesons using integral equations of the Faddeev-Yakubovsky type. Restricted to N particles and one meson, we can go from the relativistic theory to a ''potential theory'' in the integral equation formulation by using boundary states which do not contain the meson asymptotically. The meson-particle input amplitudes contain a pole at the particle mass, and the particle-particle input amplitudes are null. This gives unique definition (numerically calculable) to the particle-particle off-shell amplitude, and hence to the covariant ''scattering potential'' (but not to the noninvariant concept of ''potential energy''). As we have commented before, if we take these scattering amplitudes as iput for relativistic Faddeev equations, the results are identical to those obtained from the same model starting from three particles and one meson. In this paper we explore how far we can extend this relativistic ''potential model'' to higher numbers of particles and mesons. 10 refs

  5. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifford, T.S.; Barton, D.S.; Oerter, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider control system has been used in the commissioning of the AGS to RHIC transfer line and in the first RHIC sextant test. Much of the controls infrastructure for networks and links has been installed throughout the collider. All of the controls hardware modules needed to be built for early RHIC operations have been designed and tested. Many of these VME modules are already being used in normal AGS operations. Over 150 VME based front end computers and device controllers will be installed by the Summer of 1998 in order to be ready for Fall of 1998. A few features are being added to the front end computer core software. The bulk of the Accelerator Device Objects (ADOs) which are instantiated in the FECs, have been written and tested in the early commissioning. A configuration database has been designed. Generic control and display of ADO parameters via a spreadsheet like program on the console level computers was provided early on in the control system development. User interface tools that were developed for the AGS control system have been used in RHIC applications. Some of the basic operations programs, like alarm display and save/restore, that are used in the AGS operations have been or will be expanded to support RHIC operations. A model for application programs which involves a console level manager servicing ADOs have been verified with a few RHIC applications. More applications need to be written for the Fall of 1998 commissioning effort. A sequencer for automatic control of the fill is being written with the expectation that it will be useful in early commissioning

  6. Some Mathematical Structures Including Simplified Non-Relativistic Quantum Teleportation Equations and Special Relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woesler, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The computations of the present text with non-relativistic quantum teleportation equations and special relativity are totally speculative, physically correct computations can be done using quantum field theory, which remain to be done in future. Proposals for what might be called statistical time loop experiments with, e.g., photon polarization states are described when assuming the simplified non-relativistic quantum teleportation equations and special relativity. However, a closed time loop would usually not occur due to phase incompatibilities of the quantum states. Histories with such phase incompatibilities are called inconsistent ones in the present text, and it is assumed that only consistent histories would occur. This is called an exclusion principle for inconsistent histories, and it would yield that probabilities for certain measurement results change. Extended multiple parallel experiments are proposed to use this statistically for transmission of classical information over distances, and regarding time. Experiments might be testable in near future. However, first a deeper analysis, including quantum field theory, remains to be done in future

  7. Quantum coherence and correlations in quantum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhengjun; Li, Yongming; Fan, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Criteria of measure quantifying quantum coherence, a unique property of quantum system, are proposed recently. In this paper, we first give an uncertainty-like expression relating the coherence and the entropy of quantum system. This finding allows us to discuss the relations between the entanglement and the coherence. Further, we discuss in detail the relations among the coherence, the discord and the deficit in the bipartite quantum system. We show that, the one-way quantum deficit is equal to the sum between quantum discord and the relative entropy of coherence of measured subsystem. PMID:26094795

  8. Generation of a quantum integrable class of discrete-time or relativistic periodic Toda chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Anjan

    1994-01-01

    A new integrable class of quantum models representing a family of different discrete-time or relativistic generalisations of the periodic Toda chain (TC), including that of a recently proposed classical model close to TC [Lett. Math. Phys. 29 (1993) 165] is presented. All such models are shown to be obtainable from a single ancestor model at different realisations of the underlying quantised algebra. As a consequence the 2x2 Lax operators and the associated quantum R-matrices for these models are easily derived ensuring their quantum integrability. It is shown that the functional Bethe ansatz developed for the quantum TC is trivially generalised to achieve separation of variables also for the present models. ((orig.))

  9. Relativistic effects in a rotating coordinate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chugreev, Y.V.

    1989-01-01

    The general approach to calculating various physical effects in a rotating, noninertial reference frame based on the tetrad formalism for observables is discussed. It is shown that the method based on the search for the ''true'' coordinate transformation from an inertial to the rotating frame is ill-founded. Most special relativistic effects in a rotating frame have been calculated without any nonrelativistic restrictions. It is shown how simple physical experiments can be used to determine whether a circle is at rest in the equatorial plane of a Kerr--Newman gravitational source in the relativistic theory of gravity or is rotating about an axis through its center

  10. Relativistic Celestial Mechanics of the Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeikin, Sergei; Kaplan, George

    2011-01-01

    This authoritative book presents the theoretical development of gravitational physics as it applies to the dynamics of celestial bodies and the analysis of precise astronomical observations. In so doing, it fills the need for a textbook that teaches modern dynamical astronomy with a strong emphasis on the relativistic aspects of the subject produced by the curved geometry of four-dimensional spacetime. The first three chapters review the fundamental principles of celestial mechanics and of special and general relativity. This background material forms the basis for understanding relativistic r

  11. Quantum mechanics in general relativity and its special - relativistic limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagirov, Eh.A.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum mechanics of a neutral point-like particle in the general Riemannian space-time is constructed starting with the general Fock representation of the quantum scalar field. The known ambiguity of the representation is removed by the requirement that the quasi-one-particle wave functions in configurational space should admit the Born probabilistic interpretation after a transformation, generally nonlocal, and therefore may be considered as the one-particle wave functions. Operators of momentum and spatial position of a particle acting in the space of these transformed wave functions are deduced consecutively from basic naturally defined operators of the observables in the Fock space. They coincide with the canonical ones only in the case of the infinite velocity of light. In particular, even in the Minkowski space-time and inertial frames of reference , the operators of curvilinear coordinates do not commute

  12. PREFACE: IARD 2012: 8th Biennial Conference on Classical and Quantum Relativistic Dynamics of Particles and Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, L. P.; Land, Martin C.; Gill, Tepper; Lusanna, Luca; Salucci, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    Although the subject of relativistic dynamics has been explored, from both classical and quantum mechanical points of view, since the work of Einstein and Dirac, its most striking development has been in the framework of quantum field theory. The very accurate calculations of spectral and scattering properties, for example, of the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and the Lamb shift in quantum electrodynamics, and many qualitative features of the strong and electroweak interactions, demonstrate the very great power of description achieved in this framework. Yet, many fundamental questions remain to be clarified, such as the structure of classical relativistic dynamical theories on the level of Hamilton and Lagrange in Minkowski space as well as on the curved manifolds of general relativity. There moreover remains the important question of the covariant classical description of systems at high energy for which particle production effects are not large, such as discussed in Synge's book, The Relativistic Gas, and in Balescu's book on relativistic statistical mechanics. In recent years, the study of high energy plasmas and heavy ion collisions has emphasized the importance of developing the techniques of relativistic mechanics. The results of Lindner et al [Physical Review Letters 95 0040401 (2005)] as well as the more recent proposal of Palacios et al [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 253001 (2009)] and others, have shown that there must be a quantum theory with coherence in time. Such a theory, manifestly covariant under the transformations of special relativity with an invariant evolution parameter, such as that of Stueckelberg [Helv. Phys. Acta 14 322, 588 (1941); 15 23 (1942); see also R P Feynman Phys. Rev. 80 4401 and J S Schwinger Phys. Rev. 82 664 (1951)] could provide a suitable basis for the study of such questions, as well as many others for which the application of the standard methods of quantum field theory are difficult to manage, involving, in particular

  13. Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hanced values needed to interpret the data at higher energies point towards the importance of strong-coupling effects. ... when all secondary particles have been created. For short times in the initial phase ... It is decisive for a proper representation of the available data for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at and beyond SPS.

  14. Unstable Systems in Relativistic Quantum Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Maiani, Luciano

    1998-01-01

    We show how the state of an unstable particle can be defined in terms of stable asymptotic states. This general definition is used to discuss and to solve some old problems connected with the short-time and large-time behaviour of the non-decay amplitude.

  15. Quantum mechanics in complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehn, Ross Douglas

    This document should be considered in its separation; there are three distinct topics contained within and three distinct chapters within the body of works. In a similar fashion, this abstract should be considered in three parts. Firstly, we explored the existence of multiply-charged atomic ions by having developed a new set of dimensional scaling equations as well as a series of relativistic augmentations to the standard dimensional scaling procedure and to the self-consistent field calculations. Secondly, we propose a novel method of predicting drug efficacy in hopes to facilitate the discovery of new small molecule therapeutics by modeling the agonist-protein system as being similar to the process of Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy. Finally, we facilitate the instruction in basic quantum mechanical topics through the use of quantum games; this method of approach allows for the generation of exercises with the intent of conveying the fundamental concepts within a first year quantum mechanics classroom. Furthermore, no to be mentioned within the body of the text, yet presented in appendix form, certain works modeling the proliferation of cells types within the confines of man-made lattices for the purpose of facilitating artificial vascular transplants. In Chapter 2, we present a theoretical framework which describes multiply-charged atomic ions, their stability within super-intense laser fields, also lay corrections to the systems due to relativistic effects. Dimensional scaling calculations with relativistic corrections for systems: H, H-, H 2-, He, He-, He2-, He3- within super-intense laser fields were completed. Also completed were three-dimensional self consistent field calculations to verify the dimensionally scaled quantities. With the aforementioned methods the system's ability to stably bind 'additional' electrons through the development of multiple isolated regions of high potential energy leading to nodes of high electron density is shown

  16. Quantum spin systems on infinite lattices a concise introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Naaijkens, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    This course-based primer offers readers a concise introduction to the description of quantum mechanical systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom – and quantum spin systems in particular – using the operator algebraic approach. Here, the observables are modeled using elements of some operator algebra, usually a C*-algebra. This text introduces readers to the framework and the necessary mathematical tools without assuming much mathematical background, making it more accessible than advanced monographs. The book also highlights the usefulness of the so-called thermodynamic limit of quantum spin systems, which is the limit of infinite system size. For example, this makes it possible to clearly distinguish between local and global properties, without having to keep track of the system size. Together with Lieb-Robinson bounds, which play a similar role in quantum spin systems to that of the speed of light in relativistic theories, this approach allows ideas from relativistic field theories to be implemen...

  17. Classical and quantum dynamics of a kicked relativistic particle in a box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusupov, J. R.; Otajanov, D. M.; Eshniyazov, V. E.; Matrasulov, D. U.

    2018-03-01

    We study classical and quantum dynamics of a kicked relativistic particle confined in a one dimensional box. It is found that in classical case for chaotic motion the average kinetic energy grows in time, while for mixed regime the growth is suppressed. However, in case of regular motion energy fluctuates around certain value. Quantum dynamics is treated by solving the time-dependent Dirac equation with delta-kicking potential, whose exact solution is obtained for single kicking period. In quantum case, depending on the values of the kicking parameters, the average kinetic energy can be quasi periodic, or fluctuating around some value. Particle transport is studied by considering spatio-temporal evolution of the Gaussian wave packet and by analyzing the trembling motion.

  18. PREFACE: IARD 2010: The 7th Biennial Conference on Classical and Quantum Relativistic Dynamics of Particles and Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Lawrence; Hu, Bei-Lok; Lee, Da-Shin; Gill, Tepper; Land, Martin

    2011-12-01

    Although the subject of relativistic dynamics has been explored from both classical and quantum mechanical points of view since the work of Einstein and Dirac, its most striking development has been in the framework of quantum field theory. The very accurate calculations of spectral and scattering properties, for example, of the anamolous magnetic moment of the electron and the Lamb shift in quantum electrodynamics, and many qualitative features of the strong and electroweak interactions, demonstrate the very great power of description achieved in this framework. Yet, many fundamental questions remain to be clarified, such as the structure of classical realtivistic dynamical theories on the level of Hamilton and Lagrange in Minkowski space as well as on the curved manifolds of general relativity. There moreover remains the important question of the covariant classical description of systems at high energy for which particle production effects are not large, such as discussed in Synge's book, The Relativistic Gas, and in Balescu's book on relativistic statistical mechanics. In recent years, the study of high energy plasmas and heavy ion collisions has emphasized the importance of developing the techniques of relativistic mechanics. The results of Linder et al (Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 0040401 (2005)) as well as the more recent work of Palacios et al (Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 253001 (2009)) and others, have shown that there must be a quantum theory with coherence in time. Such a theory, manifestly covariant under the transformations of special relativity with an invariant evolution parameter, such as that of Stueckelberg (Helv. Phys. Acta 14 322, 588 (1941); 15 23 (1942); see also R P Feynman Phys. Rev. 80 4401 and J S Schwinger Phys. Rev. 82 664 (1951)) could provide a suitable basis for the study of such questions, as well as many others for which the application of the standard methods of quantum field theory are difficult to manage, involving, in particular, local

  19. Models of non-relativistic quantum gravity: the good, the bad and the healthy

    CERN Document Server

    Blas, Diego; Sibiryakov, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    Horava's proposal for non-relativistic quantum gravity introduces a preferred time foliation of space-time which violates the local Lorentz invariance. The foliation is encoded in a dynamical scalar field which we call `khronon'. The dynamics of the khronon field is sensitive to the symmetries and other details of the particular implementations of the proposal. In this paper we examine several consistency issues present in three non-relativistic gravity theories: Horava's projectable theory, the healthy non-projectable extension, and a new extension related to ghost condensation. We find that the only model which is free from instabilities and strong coupling is the non-projectable one. We elaborate on the phenomenology of the latter model including a discussion of the couplings of the khronon to matter. In particular, we obtain the parameters of the post-Newtonian expansion in this model and show that they are compatible with current observations.

  20. Schrödinger problem, Lévy processes, and noise in relativistic quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbaczewski, Piotr; Klauder, John R.; Olkiewicz, Robert

    1995-05-01

    The main purpose of the paper is an essentially probabilistic analysis of relativistic quantum mechanics. It is based on the assumption that whenever probability distributions arise, there exists a stochastic process that is either responsible for the temporal evolution of a given measure or preserves the measure in the stationary case. Our departure point is the so-called Schrödinger problem of probabilistic evolution, which provides for a unique Markov stochastic interpolation between any given pair of boundary probability densities for a process covering a fixed, finite duration of time, provided we have decided a priori what kind of primordial dynamical semigroup transition mechanism is involved. In the nonrelativistic theory, including quantum mechanics, Feynman-Kac-like kernels are the building blocks for suitable transition probability densities of the process. In the standard ``free'' case (Feynman-Kac potential equal to zero) the familiar Wiener noise is recovered. In the framework of the Schrödinger problem, the ``free noise'' can also be extended to any infinitely divisible probability law, as covered by the Lévy-Khintchine formula. Since the relativistic Hamiltonians ||∇|| and √-Δ+m2 -m are known to generate such laws, we focus on them for the analysis of probabilistic phenomena, which are shown to be associated with the relativistic wave (D'Alembert) and matter-wave (Klein-Gordon) equations, respectively. We show that such stochastic processes exist and are spatial jump processes. In general, in the presence of external potentials, they do not share the Markov property, except for stationary situations. A concrete example of the pseudodifferential Cauchy-Schrödinger evolution is analyzed in detail. The relativistic covariance of related wave equations is exploited to demonstrate how the associated stochastic jump processes comply with the principles of special relativity.

  1. Is relativistic quantum mechanics compatible with special relativity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavenda, B.H.

    2001-01-01

    The transformation from a time-dependent random walk to quantum mechanics converts a modified Bessel function into an ordinary one together with a phase factor e iπ/2 for each time the electron flips both direction and handedness. Causality requires the argument to be greater than the order of the Bessel function. Assuming equal probabilities for jumps ±1, the normalized modified Bessel function of an imaginary argument is the solution of the finite difference differential Schroedinger equation whereas the same function of a real argument satisfies the diffusion equation. In the nonrelativistic limit, the stability condition of the difference scheme contains the mass whereas in the ultrarelativistic limit only the velocity of light appears. Particle waves in the nonrelativistic limit become elastic waves in the ultrarelativistic limit with a phase shift in the frequency and wave number of π/2. The ordinary Bessel function satisfies a second order recurrence relation which is a finite difference differential wave equation, using non-nearest neighbors, whose solutions are the chirality components of a free-particle in the zero fermion mass limit. Reintroducing the mass by a phase transformation transforms the wave equation into the Klein-Gordon equation but does not admit a solution in terms of ordinary Bessel functions. However, a sign change of the mass term permits a solution in terms of a modified Bessel function whose recurrence formulas produce all the results of special relativity. The Lorentz transformation maximizes the integral of the modified Bessel function and determines the paths of steepest descent in the classical limit. If the definitions of frequency and wave number in terms of the phase were used in special relativity, the condition that the frame be inertial would equate the superluminal phase velocity with the particle velocity in violation of causality. In order to get surfaces of constant phase to move at the group velocity, an integrating

  2. Relativistic atomic matrix elements of rq for arbitrary states in the quantum-defect approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owono Owono, L.C.; Owona Angue, M.L.C.; Kwato Njock, M.G.; Oumarou, B.

    2004-01-01

    Recurrence relations used in the calculation of matrix elements of r q for arbitrary q and states of the relativistic one-electron atom with a point-like ionic core are obtained with Dirac and quasirelativistic effective radial Hamiltonians. The phenomenological and supersymmetry-inspired quantum-defect approaches introduced in previous works to model the electron-core interactions are employed. The formulas worked out on the basis of a hypervirial inspired method may be viewed as a generalization to off-diagonal cases of our recently reported results on the evaluation of expectation values of r q

  3. Larmor precession and dwell time of a relativistic particle scattered by a rectangular quantum well

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Z J; Liang, J J; Liang, J Q

    2003-01-01

    The Larmor precession of a relativistic neutral spin particle in a uniform constant magnetic field confined to the region of a one-dimensional rectangular potential well is investigated. The spin precession serves as a clock to measure the time spent by a quantum particle dwelling at a potential well. With the help of a general spin coherent state it is explicitly shown that the spin precession time is equal to the dwell time in the first-order approximation of the infinitesimal field limit. The comparison of the time in a potential well with that in free space shows apparent superluminality.

  4. The quantum structure of matter grand challenge project: Large-scale 3-D solutions in relativistic quantum dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.C.; Oberacker, V.E.; Umar, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the numerical methods used to solve the time-dependent Dirac equation on a three-dimensional Cartesian lattice. Efficient algorithms are required for computationally intensive studies of nonperturbative relativistic quantum dynamics. Discretization is achieved through the lattice basis-spline collocation method, in which quantum-state vectors and coordinate-space operators are expressed in terms of basis-spline functions on a spatial lattice. All numerical procedures reduce to a series of matrix-vector operations which we perform on the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube, making full use of parallelism. We discuss our solutions to the problems of limited node memory and node-to-node communication overhead inherent in using distributed-memory, multiple-instruction, multiple-data stream parallel computers

  5. The confined hydrogenoid ion in non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Amour, L

    2006-01-01

    We consider a system of a nucleus with an electron together with the quantized electromagnetic field. Instead of fixing the nucleus, the system is confined by its center of mass. This model is used in theoretical physics to explain the Lamb-Dicke and the M\\"ossbauer effects (see [CTDRG]). When an ultraviolet cut-off is imposed we initiate the spectral analysis of the Hamiltonian describing the system and we derive the existence of a ground state. This is achieved without conditions on the fine structure constant. [CTDRG] C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Dupont-Roc and G. Grynberg. Processus d'interaction entre photons et atomes. Edition du CNRS, 2001.

  6. Quantum Dissipative Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Major advances in the quantum theory of macroscopic systems, in combination with stunning experimental achievements, have brightened the field and brought it to the attention of the general community in natural sciences. Today, working knowledge of dissipative quantum mechanics is an essential tool for many physicists. This book - originally published in 1990 and republished in 1999 as an enlarged second edition - delves much deeper than ever before into the fundamental concepts, methods, and applications of quantum dissipative systems, including the most recent developments. In this third edi

  7. Finite and profinite quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Vourdas, Apostolos

    2017-01-01

    This monograph provides an introduction to finite quantum systems, a field at the interface between quantum information and number theory, with applications in quantum computation and condensed matter physics. The first major part of this monograph studies the so-called `qubits' and `qudits', systems with periodic finite lattice as position space. It also discusses the so-called mutually unbiased bases, which have applications in quantum information and quantum cryptography. Quantum logic and its applications to quantum gates is also studied. The second part studies finite quantum systems, where the position takes values in a Galois field. This combines quantum mechanics with Galois theory. The third part extends the discussion to quantum systems with variables in profinite groups, considering the limit where the dimension of the system becomes very large. It uses the concepts of inverse and direct limit and studies quantum mechanics on p-adic numbers. Applications of the formalism include quantum optics and ...

  8. A quantum theory of the self-energy of non-relativistic fermions and of the Coulomb-Yukawa force acting between them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, V.

    1978-01-01

    The idea of the systematic Weisskopf-Wigner approximation as used sporadically in atomic physics and quantum optics, is extended here to the interaction of a field of non-relativistic fermions with a field of relativistic bosons. It is shown that the usual (non-existing) interaction Hamiltonian of this system can be written as a sum of a countable number of self-adjoint and bounded partial Hamiltonians. The system of these Hamiltonians defines the order hierarchy of the present approximation scheme. To demonstrate its physical utility it is shown that in a certain order it provides satisfactory quantum theory of the 'self-energy' of the fermions under discussion. This is defined as the binding energy of bosons bound to the fermions and building up the latter's 'individual Coulomb or Yukawa fields' in the sense of expectation values of the corresponding field operator. In states of more than one fermion the bound photons act as a mediating agent between the fermions; this mechanism closely resembles the Coulomb or Yukawa 'forces' used in conventional non-relativistic quantum mechanics. (author)

  9. Pion propagator in relativistic quantum field theories of the nuclear many-body problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, T.; Serot, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    Pion interactions in the nuclear medium are studied using renormalizable relativistic quantum field theories. Previous studies using pseudoscalar πN coupling encountered difficulties due to the large strength of the πNN vertex. We therefore formulate renormalizable field theories with pseudovector πN coupling using techniques introduced by Weinberg and Schwinger. Calculations are performed for two specific models; the scalar-vector theory of Walecka, extended to include π and rho mesons in a non-chiral fashion, and the linear sigma-model with an additional neutral vector meson. Both models qualitatively reproduce low-energy πN phenomenology and lead to nuclear matter saturation in the relativistic Hartree formalism, which includes baryon vacuum fluctuations. The pions propagator is evaluated in the one-nucleon-loop approximation, which corresponds to a relativistic random-phase approximation built on the Hartree ground state. Virtual NN-bar loops are included, and suitable renormalization techniques are illustrated. The local-density approximation is used to compare the threshold pion self-energy to the s-wave pion-nucleus optical potential. In the non-chiral model, s-wave pion-nucleus scattering is too large in both pseudoscalar and pseudovector calculations, indicating that additional constraints must be imposed on the Lagrangian. In the chiral model, the threshold self-energy vanishes automatically in the pseudovector case, but does so for pseudoscalar coupling only if the baryon effective mass is chosen self-consistently Since extrapolation from free space to nuclear density can lead to large effects, pion propagation in the medium can determine which πN coupling is more suitable for the relativistic nuclear many-body problem. Conversely, pion interactions constrain the model Lagrangian and the nuclear matter equation of state. An approximately chiral model with pseudovector coupling is favored

  10. Arbitrary amplitude nucleus-acoustic solitons in multi-ion quantum plasmas with relativistically degenerate electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, S.; Schlickeiser, R.

    2018-02-01

    A three component degenerate relativistic quantum plasma (consisting of relativistically degenerate electrons, nondegenerate inertial light nuclei, and stationary heavy nuclei) is considered to model the linear wave and also the electrostatic solitary waves in the light nuclei-scale length. A well-known normal mode analysis is employed to investigate the linear wave properties. A mechanical-motion analog (Sagdeev-type) pseudo-potential approach, which reveals the existence of large amplitude solitary excitations, is adopted to study the nonlinear wave properties. Only the positive potential solitary excitations are found to exist in the plasma medium under consideration. The basic properties of the arbitrary amplitude electrostatic acoustic modes in the light nuclei-scale length and their existence domain in terms of soliton speed (Mach number) are examined. The modifications of solitary wave characteristics and their existence domain with the variation of different key plasma configuration parameters (e.g., electrons degeneracy parameter, inertial light nuclei number density, and degenerate electron number density) are also analyzed. Our results, which may be helpful to explain the basic features of the nonlinear wave propagation in multi-component degenerate quantum plasmas, in connection with astrophysical compact objects (e.g., white dwarfs) are briefly discussed.

  11. Notes on Translational and Rotational Properties of Tensor Fields in Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoeglazov, V. V.

    Recently, several discussions on the possible observability of 4-vector fields have been published in literature. Furthermore, several authors recently claimed existence of the helicity=0 fundamental field. We re-examine the theory of antisymmetric tensor fields and 4-vector potentials. We study the massless limits. In fact, a theoretical motivation for this venture is the old papers of Ogievetskiĭ and Polubarinov, Hayashi, and Kalb and Ramond. Ogievetskiĭ and Polubarinov proposed the concept of the notoph, whose helicity properties are complementary to those of the photon. We analyze the quantum field theory with taking into account mass dimensions of the notoph and the photon. It appears to be possible to describe both photon and notoph degrees of freedom on the basis of the modified Bargmann-Wigner formalism for the symmetric second-rank spinor. Next, we proceed to derive equations for the symmetric tensor of the second rank on the basis of the Bargmann-Wigner formalism in a straightforward way. The symmetric multispinor of the fourth rank is used. Due to serious problems with the interpretation of the results obtained on using the standard procedure we generalize it and obtain the spin-2 relativistic equations, which are consistent with the general relativity. Thus, in fact we deduced the gravitational field equations from relativistic quantum mechanics. The relations of this theory with the scalar-tensor theories of gravitation and f(R) are discussed. Particular attention has been paid to the correct definitions of the energy-momentum tensor and other Nöther currents in the electromagnetic theory, the relativistic theory of gravitation, the general relativity, and their generalizations. We estimate possible interactions, fermion-notoph, graviton-notoph, photon-notoph, and we conclude that they can probably be seen in experiments in the next few years.

  12. Generalization of uncertainty relation for quantum and stochastic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, T.; Kodama, T.

    2018-06-01

    The generalized uncertainty relation applicable to quantum and stochastic systems is derived within the stochastic variational method. This relation not only reproduces the well-known inequality in quantum mechanics but also is applicable to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equation, showing that the finite minimum uncertainty between the position and the momentum is not an inherent property of quantum mechanics but a common feature of stochastic systems. We further discuss the possible implication of the present study in discussing the application of the hydrodynamic picture to microscopic systems, like relativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  13. Quantum K-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.; Thirring, W.

    1988-01-01

    We generalize the classical notion of a K-system to a non-commutative dynamical system by requiring that an invariantly defined memory loss be 100%. We give some examples of quantum K-systems and show that they cannot contain any quasi-periodic subsystem. 13 refs. (Author)

  14. Quantum tagging: Authenticating location via quantum information and relativistic signaling constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, Adrian; Munro, William J.; Spiller, Timothy P. [Centre for Quantum Information and Foundations, DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Quantum Information Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    We define the task of quantum tagging, that is, authenticating the classical location of a classical tagging device by sending and receiving quantum signals from suitably located distant sites, in an environment controlled by an adversary whose quantum information processing and transmitting power is unbounded. We define simple security models for this task and briefly discuss alternatives. We illustrate the pitfalls of naive quantum cryptographic reasoning in this context by describing several protocols which at first sight appear unconditionally secure but which, as we show, can in fact be broken by teleportation-based attacks. We also describe some protocols which cannot be broken by these specific attacks, but do not prove they are unconditionally secure. We review the history of quantum tagging protocols, and show that protocols previously proposed by Malaney and Chandran et al. are provably insecure.

  15. Quantum Cybernetics and Complex Quantum Systems Science - A Quantum Connectionist Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Quantum cybernetics and its connections to complex quantum systems science is addressed from the perspective of complex quantum computing systems. In this way, the notion of an autonomous quantum computing system is introduced in regards to quantum artificial intelligence, and applied to quantum artificial neural networks, considered as autonomous quantum computing systems, which leads to a quantum connectionist framework within quantum cybernetics for complex quantum computing systems. Sever...

  16. Time dilation in quantum systems and decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikovski, Igor; Zych, Magdalena; Costa, Fabio; Brukner, Časlav

    2017-01-01

    Both quantum mechanics and general relativity are based on principles that defy our daily intuitions, such as time dilation, quantum interference and entanglement. Because the regimes where the two theories are typically tested are widely separated, their foundational principles are rarely jointly studied. Recent works have found that novel phenomena appear for quantum particles with an internal structure in the presence of time dilation, which can take place at low energies and in weak gravitational fields. Here we briefly review the effects of time dilation on quantum interference and generalize the results to a variety of systems. In addition, we provide an extended study of the basic principles of quantum theory and relativity that are of relevance for the effects and also address several questions that have been raised, such as the description in different reference frames, the role of the equivalence principle and the effective irreversibility of the decoherence. The manuscript clarifies some of the counterintuitive aspects arising when quantum phenomena and general relativistic effects are jointly considered. (paper)

  17. Quantum degenerate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheli, Fiorenza de [Centro de Estudios Cientificos, Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Zanelli, Jorge [Centro de Estudios Cientificos, Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andres Bello, Av. Republica 440, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-10-15

    A degenerate dynamical system is characterized by a symplectic structure whose rank is not constant throughout phase space. Its phase space is divided into causally disconnected, nonoverlapping regions in each of which the rank of the symplectic matrix is constant, and there are no classical orbits connecting two different regions. Here the question of whether this classical disconnectedness survives quantization is addressed. Our conclusion is that in irreducible degenerate systems-in which the degeneracy cannot be eliminated by redefining variables in the action-the disconnectedness is maintained in the quantum theory: there is no quantum tunnelling across degeneracy surfaces. This shows that the degeneracy surfaces are boundaries separating distinct physical systems, not only classically, but in the quantum realm as well. The relevance of this feature for gravitation and Chern-Simons theories in higher dimensions cannot be overstated.

  18. Galois quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vourdas, A

    2005-01-01

    A finite quantum system in which the position and momentum take values in the Galois field GF(p l ) is constructed from a smaller quantum system in which the position and momentum take values in Z p , using field extension. The Galois trace is used in the definition of the Fourier transform. The Heisenberg-Weyl group of displacements and the Sp(2, GF(p l )) group of symplectic transformations are studied. A class of transformations inspired by the Frobenius maps in Galois fields is introduced. The relationship of this 'Galois quantum system' with its subsystems in which the position and momentum take values in subfields of GF(p l ) is discussed

  19. Relativistic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, F.

    1986-01-01

    Relativistic equations for two and three body scattering are discussed. Particular attention is paid to relativistic three body kinetics because of recent form factor measurements of the Helium 3 - Hydrogen 3 system recently completed at Saclay and Bates and the accompanying speculation that relativistic effects are important for understanding the three nucleon system. 16 refs., 4 figs

  20. Simulations of relativistic quantum plasmas using real-time lattice scalar QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuan; Xiao, Jianyuan; Qin, Hong; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2018-05-01

    Real-time lattice quantum electrodynamics (QED) provides a unique tool for simulating plasmas in the strong-field regime, where collective plasma scales are not well separated from relativistic-quantum scales. As a toy model, we study scalar QED, which describes self-consistent interactions between charged bosons and electromagnetic fields. To solve this model on a computer, we first discretize the scalar-QED action on a lattice, in a way that respects geometric structures of exterior calculus and U(1)-gauge symmetry. The lattice scalar QED can then be solved, in the classical-statistics regime, by advancing an ensemble of statistically equivalent initial conditions in time, using classical field equations obtained by extremizing the discrete action. To demonstrate the capability of our numerical scheme, we apply it to two example problems. The first example is the propagation of linear waves, where we recover analytic wave dispersion relations using numerical spectrum. The second example is an intense laser interacting with a one-dimensional plasma slab, where we demonstrate natural transition from wakefield acceleration to pair production when the wave amplitude exceeds the Schwinger threshold. Our real-time lattice scheme is fully explicit and respects local conservation laws, making it reliable for long-time dynamics. The algorithm is readily parallelized using domain decomposition, and the ensemble may be computed using quantum parallelism in the future.

  1. Unifying quanta and relativity. Schroedinger`s attitude to relativistic quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kragh, H. [Roskilde Universitetscenter (Denmark)

    1992-12-31

    A considerable part of Schroedinger`s scientific work focused on the relationship between quantum theory and the theory of relativity. This paper provides a historical analysis of his occupation on this subject in the period 1925-1934. The first section surveys the role played by relativity in Schroedinger`s formation of wave mechanics in 1925-1926; the second section analyzes his attempt to make sense of Dirac`s theory of the electron by proposing a relativistic wave equation with positive energies only. In this work, which took place in 1930-1931, Schroedinger discovered the Zitterbewegung that Dirac electrons will exhibit even in a field-free case. Schroedinger`s failed attempt to introduce an alternative to the Dirac theory was part of his general dissatisfaction with the current state of quantum mechanics. It is argued that, to a large extent, his work on the Dirac theory was philosophically motivated and that it contributed to his alienation from mainstream quantum physics in the 1930s. (author). 54 refs.

  2. Scheme of thinking quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V I; Sornette, D

    2009-01-01

    A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field

  3. Families of vector-like deformations of relativistic quantum phase spaces, twists and symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meljanac, Daniel [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Division of Materials Physics, Zagreb (Croatia); Meljanac, Stjepan; Pikutic, Danijel [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Division of Theoretical Physics, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2017-12-15

    Families of vector-like deformed relativistic quantum phase spaces and corresponding realizations are analyzed. A method for a general construction of the star product is presented. The corresponding twist, expressed in terms of phase space coordinates, in the Hopf algebroid sense is presented. General linear realizations are considered and corresponding twists, in terms of momenta and Poincare-Weyl generators or gl(n) generators are constructed and R-matrix is discussed. A classification of linear realizations leading to vector-like deformed phase spaces is given. There are three types of spaces: (i) commutative spaces, (ii) κ-Minkowski spaces and (iii) κ-Snyder spaces. The corresponding star products are (i) associative and commutative (but non-local), (ii) associative and non-commutative and (iii) non-associative and non-commutative, respectively. Twisted symmetry algebras are considered. Transposed twists and left-right dual algebras are presented. Finally, some physical applications are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Particle production and Boltzmann integral form of relativistic quantum transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.; Davis, E.D.; Bialynicki-Birula, I.

    1993-01-01

    The 3+3+1 dimensional relativistic quantum transport equation for the fermion matter field, combines the particle pair production with flow phenomena, which occur at very different time scale. A direct numerical treatment of dynamical situations is therefore practically impossible. The authors attempt a seperation of these two sectors by the method of prediagonalization of the integral equations. They exploit the structure of the resolvent of the transport equations: it contains two poles corresponding to the flow sector and two to the pair production sector. Their hope for practical applications is to treat matter flow as a classical phenomenon and to be able to obtain an integral term describing the pair production accurately

  5. Families of vector-like deformations of relativistic quantum phase spaces, twists and symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meljanac, Daniel; Meljanac, Stjepan; Pikutic, Danijel

    2017-01-01

    Families of vector-like deformed relativistic quantum phase spaces and corresponding realizations are analyzed. A method for a general construction of the star product is presented. The corresponding twist, expressed in terms of phase space coordinates, in the Hopf algebroid sense is presented. General linear realizations are considered and corresponding twists, in terms of momenta and Poincare-Weyl generators or gl(n) generators are constructed and R-matrix is discussed. A classification of linear realizations leading to vector-like deformed phase spaces is given. There are three types of spaces: (i) commutative spaces, (ii) κ-Minkowski spaces and (iii) κ-Snyder spaces. The corresponding star products are (i) associative and commutative (but non-local), (ii) associative and non-commutative and (iii) non-associative and non-commutative, respectively. Twisted symmetry algebras are considered. Transposed twists and left-right dual algebras are presented. Finally, some physical applications are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Families of vector-like deformations of relativistic quantum phase spaces, twists and symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meljanac, Daniel; Meljanac, Stjepan; Pikutić, Danijel

    2017-12-01

    Families of vector-like deformed relativistic quantum phase spaces and corresponding realizations are analyzed. A method for a general construction of the star product is presented. The corresponding twist, expressed in terms of phase space coordinates, in the Hopf algebroid sense is presented. General linear realizations are considered and corresponding twists, in terms of momenta and Poincaré-Weyl generators or gl(n) generators are constructed and R-matrix is discussed. A classification of linear realizations leading to vector-like deformed phase spaces is given. There are three types of spaces: (i) commutative spaces, (ii) κ -Minkowski spaces and (iii) κ -Snyder spaces. The corresponding star products are (i) associative and commutative (but non-local), (ii) associative and non-commutative and (iii) non-associative and non-commutative, respectively. Twisted symmetry algebras are considered. Transposed twists and left-right dual algebras are presented. Finally, some physical applications are discussed.

  7. Polarizabilities of Ba and Ba2: Comparison of molecular beam experiments with relativistic quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Sascha; Mehring, Max; Schaefer, Rolf; Schwerdtfeger, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The dielectric response to an inhomogeneous electric field has been investigated for Ba and Ba 2 within a molecular beam experiment. The ratio of the polarizabilities per atom of Ba 2 and Ba is determined to be 1.30±0.13. The experimental result is compared to a high level ab initio quantum chemical coupled cluster calculation with an energy-consistent scalar relativistic small-core pseudopotential for Ba. For the barium atom a polarizability of 40.82 A 3 is obtained and the isotropic value of the polarizability calculated for Ba 2 is 97.88 A 3 , which is in good agreement with the experimental results, demonstrating that a quantitative understanding of the interaction between two closed-shell heavy element metal atoms has been achieved

  8. Influence of light absorption on relativistic self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in cold quantum plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S. D.; Valkunde, A. T.; Vhanmore, B. D.; Urunkar, T. U.; Gavade, K. M.; Takale, M. V.

    2018-05-01

    When inter particle distance is comparable to the de Broglies wavelength of charged particles, quantum effects in plasmas are unavoidable. We have exploited an influence of light absorption on self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in cold quantum plasma by considering relativistic nonlinearity. Nonlinear differential equation governing beam-width parameter has been established by using parabolic equation approach under paraxial and WKB approximations. The effect of light absorption on variation of beam-width parameter with dimensionless distance of propagation is presented graphically and discussed. It is found that light absorption plays vital role in weakening the relativistic self-focusing of laser beam during propagation in cold quantum plasma and gives reasonably interesting results.

  9. Relativistic many-body theory of atomic transitions: the relativistic equation-of-motion approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, K.N.

    1981-01-01

    An equation-of-motion approach is used to develop the relativistic many-body theory of atomic transitions. The relativistic equations of motion for transition matrices are formulated using techniques of quantum field theory. To reduce the equation of motion to a tractable form which is appropriate for numerical calculations, a graphical method is employed to resolve the complication arising from the antisymmetrization and angular momentum coupling. The relativistic equation-of-motion method allows an ab initio treatment of correlation and relativistic effects in both closed- and open-shell many-body systems. A special case of the present formulation reduces to the relativistic random-phase approximation

  10. The relativistic virial theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucha, W.; Schoeberl, F.F.

    1989-11-01

    The relativistic generalization of the quantum-mechanical virial theorem is derived and used to clarify the connection between the nonrelativistic and (semi-)relativistic treatment of bound states. 12 refs. (Authors)

  11. On quantum effects in spontaneous emission by a relativistic electron beam in an undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Robb and Bonifacio (2011) claimed that a previously neglected quantum effect results in noticeable changes in the evolution of the energy distribution associated with spontaneous emission in long undulators. They revisited theoretical models used to describe the emission of radiation by relativistic electrons as a continuous diffusive process, and claimed that in the asymptotic limit for a large number of undulator periods the evolution of the electron energy distribution occurs as discrete energy groups according to Poisson distribution. We show that these novel results have no physical sense, because they are based on a one-dimensional model of spontaneous emission and assume that electrons are sheets of charge. However, electrons are point-like particles and, as is well-known, the bandwidth of the angular-integrated spectrum of undulator radiation is independent of the number of undulator periods. If we determine the evolution of the energy distribution using a three-dimensional theory we find the well-known results consistent with a continuous diffusive process. The additional pedagogical purpose of this paper is to review how quantum diffusion of electron energy in an undulator with small undulator parameter can be simply analyzed using the Thomson cross-section expression, unlike the conventional treatment based on the expression for the Lienard-Wiechert fields. (orig.)

  12. Contraint's theory and relativistic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhi, G.; Lusanna, L.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this Workshop was to examine the current situation of relativistic dynamics. In particular, Dirac-Bergmann's theory of constraints, which lies at the heart of gauge theories, general relativity, relativistic mechanics and string theories, was chosen as the unifying theoretical framework best suited to investigate such a field. The papers discussed were on general relativity; relativistic mechanics; particle physics and mathematical physics. Also discussed were the problems of classical and quantum level, namely the identification of the classical observables of constrained systems, the equivalence of the nonequivalence of the various ways to quantize such systems; the problem of the anomalies; the best geometrical approach to the theory of constraints; the possibility of unifying all the treatments of relativistic mechanics. This book compiles the papers presented at proceedings of relativistic dynamics and constraints theory

  13. Nanosecond radar system based on repetitive pulsed relativistic BWO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunkin, B.V.; Gaponov-Grekhov, A.V.; Eltchaninov, A.S.; Zagulov, F.Ya.; Korovin, S.D.; Mesyats, G.A.; Osipov, M.L.; Otlivantchik, E.A.; Petelin, M.I.; Prokhorov, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of a nanosecond radar system based on repetitive pulsed relativistic BWO. A pulsed power repetitive accelerator producing electron beams of electron energy 500-700 keV and current 5 kA in pulses of duraction 10 ns with a repetition rate of 100 pps is described. The results of experiments with a high-voltage gas-filled spark gap and a cold-cathode vacuum diode under the conditions of high repetition rates are given. Also presented are the results of studies of a relativistic BWO operating with a wavelength of 3 cm. It is shown that for a high-current beam electron energy of 500-700 keV, the BWO efficiency can reach 35%, the microwave power being 10 9 W. A superconducting solenoid creating a magnetic field of 30 kOe was used for the formation and transportation of the high-current electron beam. In conclusion, the outcome of tests of a nanosecond radar station based on a pulsed power repetitive accelerator and a relativistic BWO is reported

  14. Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Information and Computation and Its Applications to Nano- and Bio-systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ohya, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    This monograph provides a mathematical foundation  to  the theory of quantum information and computation, with applications to various open systems including nano and bio systems. It includes introductory material on algorithm, functional analysis, probability theory, information theory, quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Apart from standard material on quantum information like quantum algorithm and teleportation, the authors discuss findings on the theory of entropy in C*-dynamical systems, space-time dependence of quantum entangled states, entangling operators, adaptive dynamics, relativistic quantum information, and a new paradigm for quantum computation beyond the usual quantum Turing machine. Also, some important applications of information theory to genetics and life sciences, as well as recent experimental and theoretical discoveries in quantum photosynthesis are described.

  15. Quantum relativity theory and quantum space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banai, M.

    1984-01-01

    A quantum relativity theory formulated in terms of Davis' quantum relativity principle is outlined. The first task in this theory as in classical relativity theory is to model space-time, the arena of natural processes. It is shown that the quantum space-time models of Banai introduced in another paper is formulated in terms of Davis's quantum relativity. The recently proposed classical relativistic quantum theory of Prugovecki and his corresponding classical relativistic quantum model of space-time open the way to introduce, in a consistent way, the quantum space-time model (the quantum substitute of Minkowski space) of Banai proposed in the paper mentioned. The goal of quantum mechanics of quantum relativistic particles living in this model of space-time is to predict the rest mass system properties of classically relativistic (massive) quantum particles (''elementary particles''). The main new aspect of this quantum mechanics is that it provides a true mass eigenvalue problem, and that the excited mass states of quantum relativistic particles can be interpreted as elementary particles. The question of field theory over quantum relativistic model of space-time is also discussed. Finally it is suggested that ''quarks'' should be considered as quantum relativistic particles. (author)

  16. Five-dimensional Hamiltonian-Jacobi approach to relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Harald

    2003-01-01

    A novel theory is outlined for describing the dynamics of relativistic electrons and positrons. By introducing the Lorentz-invariant universal time as a fifth independent variable, the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism of classical mechanics is extended from three to four spatial dimensions. This approach allows one to incorporate gravitation and spin interactions in the extended five-dimensional Lagrangian in a covariant form. The universal time has the function of a hidden Bell parameter. By employing the method of variation with respect to the four coordinates of the particle and the components of the electromagnetic field, the path equation and the electromagnetic field produced by the charge and the spin of the moving particle are derived. In addition the covariant equations for the dynamics of the components of the spin tensor are obtained. These equations can be transformed to the familiar BMT equation in the case of homogeneous electromagnetic fields. The quantization of the five-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equation yields a five-dimensional spinor wave equation, which degenerates to the Dirac equation in the stationary case if we neglect gravitation. The quantity which corresponds to the probability density of standard quantum mechanics is the four-dimensional mass density which has a real physical meaning. By means of the Green method the wave equation is transformed into an integral equation enabling a covariant relativistic path integral formulation. Using this approach a very accurate approximation for the four-dimensional propagator is derived. The proposed formalism makes Dirac's hole theory obsolete and can readily be extended to many particles

  17. On Mathematical Modeling Of Quantum Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achuthan, P.; Narayanankutty, Karuppath

    2009-01-01

    The world of physical systems at the most fundamental levels is replete with efficient, interesting models possessing sufficient ability to represent the reality to a considerable extent. So far, quantum mechanics (QM) forming the basis of almost all natural phenomena, has found beyond doubt its intrinsic ingenuity, capacity and robustness to stand the rigorous tests of validity from and through appropriate calculations and experiments. No serious failures of quantum mechanical predictions have been reported, yet. However, Albert Einstein, the greatest theoretical physicist of the twentieth century and some other eminent men of science have stated firmly and categorically that QM, though successful by and large, is incomplete. There are classical and quantum reality models including those based on consciousness. Relativistic quantum theoretical approaches to clearly understand the ultimate nature of matter as well as radiation have still much to accomplish in order to qualify for a final theory of everything (TOE). Mathematical models of better, suitable character as also strength are needed to achieve satisfactory explanation of natural processes and phenomena. We, in this paper, discuss some of these matters with certain apt illustrations as well.

  18. Astronomical relativistic reference systems with multipolar expansion: the global one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yi

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of techniques for astronomical observations, the precision of measurements has been significantly increasing. Theories describing astronomical relativistic reference systems, which are the foundation for processing and interpreting these data now and in the future, may require extensions to satisfy the needs of these trends. Besides building a framework compatible with alternative theories of gravity and the pursuit of higher order post-Newtonian approximation, it will also be necessary to make the first order post-Newtonian multipole moments of celestial bodies be explicitly expressed in the astronomical relativistic reference systems. This will bring some convenience into modeling the observations and experiments and make it easier to distinguish different contributions in measurements. As a first step, the global solar system reference system is expressed as a multipolar expansion and the post-Newtonian mass and spin moments are shown explicitly in the metric which describes the coordinates of the system. The full expression of the global metric is given. (research papers)

  19. Relativistic Anandan quantum phase and the Aharonov–Casher effect under Lorentz symmetry breaking effects in the cosmic string spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakke, K., E-mail: kbakke@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-900, João Pessoa-PB (Brazil); Furtado, C., E-mail: furtado@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-900, João Pessoa-PB (Brazil); Belich, H., E-mail: belichjr@gmail.com [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Av. Fernando Ferrari, 514, Goiabeiras, 29060-900, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    From the modified Maxwell theory coupled to gravity, we establish a possible scenario of the violation of the Lorentz symmetry and write an effective metric for the cosmic string spacetime. Then, we investigate the arising of an analogue of the Anandan quantum phase for a relativistic Dirac neutral particle with a permanent magnetic dipole moment in the cosmic string spacetime under Lorentz symmetry breaking effects. Besides, we analyse the influence of the effects of the Lorentz symmetry violation and the topology of the defect on the Aharonov–Casher geometric quantum phase in the nonrelativistic limit.

  20. Evolution system study of a generalized scheme of relativistic magnetohydrodynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahjoub, Bechir.

    1977-01-01

    A generalized scheme of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics is studied with a thermodynamical differential relation proposed by Fokker; this scheme takes account of interaction between the fluid and the magnetic field. Taking account of an integrability condition of this relation, the evolution system corresponding to this scheme is identical to the one corresponding to the usual scheme; it has the same characteristics; it is non-strictly hyperbolic with the same hypothesis of compressibility and it has, with respect to the Cauchy problem, an unique solution in a Gevrey class of index α=3/2 [fr

  1. Relativistic quantum dynamics of scalar bosons under a full vector Coulomb interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Luis B. [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Departamento de Fisica, Sao Luis, MA (Brazil); Oliveira, Luiz P. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Instituto de Fisica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Garcia, Marcelo G. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Departamento de Fisica, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), IMECC, Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Castro, Antonio S. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    The relativistic quantum dynamics of scalar bosons in the background of a full vector coupling (minimal plus nonminimal vector couplings) is explored in the context of the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau formalism. The Coulomb phase shift is determined for a general mixing of couplings and it is shown that the space component of the nonminimal coupling is a sine qua non condition for the exact closed-form scattering amplitude. It follows that the Rutherford cross section vanishes in the absence of the time component of the minimal coupling. Bound-state solutions obtained from the poles of the partial scattering amplitude show that the time component of the minimal coupling plays an essential role. The bound-state solutions depend on the nonminimal coupling and the spectrum consists of particles or antiparticles depending on the sign of the time component of the minimal coupling without chance for pair production even in the presence of strong couplings. It is also shown that an accidental degeneracy appears for a particular mixing of couplings. (orig.)

  2. Decoherence in open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isar, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of the Lindblad theory for open quantum systems we determine the degree of quantum decoherence of a harmonic oscillator interacting with a thermal bath. In the present paper we have studied QD with the Markovian equation of Lindblad in order to understand the quantum to classical transition for a system consisting of an one-dimensional harmonic oscillator in interaction with a thermal bath in the framework of the theory of open quantum systems based on quantum dynamical semigroups. The role of QD became relevant in many interesting physical problems from field theory, atomic physics, quantum optics and quantum information processing, to which we can add material science, heavy ion collisions, quantum gravity and cosmology, condensed matter physics. Just to mention only a few of them: to understand the way in which QD enhances the quantum to classical transition of density fluctuations; to study systems of trapped and cold atoms (or ions) which may offer the possibility of engineering the environment, like trapped atoms inside cavities, relation between decoherence and other cavity QED effects (such as Casimir effect); on mesoscopic scale, decoherence in the context of Bose-Einstein condensation. In many cases physicists are interested in understanding the specific causes of QD just because they want to prevent decoherence from damaging quantum states and to protect the information stored in quantum states from the degrading effect of the interaction with the environment. Thus, decoherence is responsible for washing out the quantum interference effects which are desirable to be seen as signals in some experiments. QD has a negative influence on many areas relying upon quantum coherence effects, such as quantum computation and quantum control of atomic and molecular processes. The physics of information and computation is such a case, where decoherence is an obvious major obstacle in the implementation of information-processing hardware that takes

  3. Proper time axis of a closed relativistic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernikov, N.A.; Fadeev, N.G.; Shavokhina, N.S.

    1997-01-01

    The definition of a proper time axis of a closed relativistic system of colliding particles is given. The solution of the proper time axis problem is presented. If the light velocity c equals the imaginary unit i, then in the case of a plane motion of the system the problem about the proper time axis turns out to be equivalent to the known in engineering mechanics problem about the reduction of any system of forces, applied to a rigid body, to the dynamic screw. In the general case, when c=i, the problem about the proper time axis turns out to be equivalent to the problem about the reduction to the dynamic screw of a system of forces, applied to a rigid body in a four-dimensional Euclidean space

  4. Quantum Effects in Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Since the last decade the study of quantum mechanical phenomena in biological systems has become a vibrant field of research. Initially sparked by evidence of quantum effects in energy transport that is instrumental for photosynthesis, quantum biology asks the question of how methods and models from quantum theory can help us to understand fundamental mechanisms in living organisms. This approach entails a paradigm change challenging the related disciplines: The successful framework of quantum theory is taken out of its low-temperature, microscopic regimes and applied to hot and dense macroscopic environments, thereby extending the toolbox of biology and biochemistry at the same time. The Quantum Effects in Biological Systems conference is a platform for researchers from biology, chemistry and physics to present and discuss the latest developments in the field of quantum biology. After meetings in Lisbon (2009), Harvard (2010), Ulm (2011), Berkeley (2012), Vienna (2013), Singapore (2014) and Florence (2015),...

  5. Asymptotically open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westrich, M.

    2008-04-01

    In the present thesis we investigate the structure of time-dependent equations of motion in quantum mechanics.We start from two coupled systems with an autonomous equation of motion. A limit, in which the dynamics of one of the two systems has a decoupled evolution and imposes a non-autonomous evolution for the second system is identified. A result due to K. Hepp that provides a classical limit for dynamics turns out to be part and parcel for this limit and is generalized in our work. The method introduced by J.S. Howland for the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation is interpreted as such a limit. Moreover, we associate our limit with the modern theory of quantization. (orig.)

  6. Darwinism in quantum systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, A.; Toor, A. H.

    2002-03-01

    We investigate the role of quantum mechanical effects in the central stability concept of evolutionary game theory, i.e., an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS). Using two and three-player symmetric quantum games we show how the presence of quantum phenomenon of entanglement can be crucial to decide the course of evolutionary dynamics in a population of interacting individuals.

  7. Quantum chaos in a fermion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Santanu

    1992-01-01

    With the growing realisation that the dynamics of a system with a few degrees of freedom is chaotic more as a rule than an exception, the relevance of quantum chaos in nuclear single-particle motion is now receiving closer scrutinisation. This on one hand is helping to gain a deeper understanding of dissipative processes in nuclear dynamics as well as revealing certain interesting features of a fermion system on the other. In the present talk, we would discuss the chaotic features of the single-particle motion in a di nucleus with a view to study the signatures of an effective underlying classical dynamics in the system. As the present day understanding of quantum chaos relies quite heavily on the existence of classical trajectories, it is rather interesting to study how far such considerations can be pushed for systems which do not have a obvious classical analogue such as the spin-orbit interaction in our system. This question has been further investigated for a relativistic fermion system, similar to the Bogoliubov bag. This model is particularly suited as spin, without a classical analogue, has its natural place in the Dirac equation. The results of this study have been presented in the talk. (author). 25 refs., 14 figs

  8. Anions, quantum particles in planar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monerat, Germano Amaral

    2000-03-01

    Our purpose here is to present a general review of the non-relativistic quantum-mechanical description of excitations that do not obey neither the Fermi-Dirac nor the Bose-Einstein statistics; they rather fulfill an intermediate statistics, the we called 'any-statistics'. As we shall see, this is a peculiarity of (1+1) and (1+2) dimensions, due to the fact that, in two space dimensions, the spin is not quantised, once the rotation group is Abelian. The relevance of studying theories in (1+2) dimensions is justified by the evidence that, in condensed matter physics, there are examples of planar systems, for which everything goes as if the third spatial dimension is frozen. (author)

  9. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-03-01

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field.

  10. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field. PMID:25737558

  11. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-03-31

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field.

  12. Some consequences of the Fourier analysis on the Lorentz group for relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrodiev, S.Ch.

    1974-01-01

    On the basis of the analogy between the nonrelativistic and relativistic Fourier analysis the uncertainty relation for rapidity and relativistic relative coordinate is formaly derived. A geometricla interpretation of the behaviour of the elastic scattering differential cross section is given too

  13. Diagonalization of propagators in thermo field dynamics for relativistic quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, P.A.; Umezawa, H.

    1992-09-01

    Two-point functions for interacting quantum fields in statistical systems can be diagnolized by matrix transformations. It is shown, that within the framework of time-dependent Thermo Field Dynamics this diagonalization can be understood as a thermal Bogoliubov transformation to non-interacting statistical quasi-particles. The condition for their unperturbed propagation relates these states to the thermodynamic properties of the system: It requires global equilibrium for stationary situations, or specifies the time evolution according to a kinetic equation. (orig.)

  14. Entanglement in open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isar, A.

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the theory of open systems based on quantum dynamical semigroups, we solve the master equation for two independent bosonic oscillators interacting with an environment in the asymptotic long-time regime. We give a description of the continuous-variable entanglement in terms of the covariance matrix of the quantum states of the considered system for an arbitrary Gaussian input state. Using the Peres-Simon necessary and sufficient condition for separability of two-mode Gaussian states, we show that the two non-interacting systems immersed in a common environment and evolving under a Markovian, completely positive dynamics become asymptotically entangled for certain environments, so that their non-local quantum correlations exist in the long-time regime. (author) Key words: quantum information theory, open systems, quantum entanglement, inseparable states

  15. Relativistic formulations with Blankenbecler-Sugar reduction technique for the three-particle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, S.; Afnan, I.R.

    1980-05-01

    A critical comparison for two-types of three-dimensional covariant equations for the three-particle system obtained by the Blankenbecler-Sugar reduction technique with the Whitghtman-Garding momenta and the usual Jacobi variables is presented. The relations between the relativistic and non-relativistic equations in the low energy limit are discussed

  16. Quantum models of classical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hájíček, P

    2015-01-01

    Quantum statistical methods that are commonly used for the derivation of classical thermodynamic properties are extended to classical mechanical properties. The usual assumption that every real motion of a classical mechanical system is represented by a sharp trajectory is not testable and is replaced by a class of fuzzy models, the so-called maximum entropy (ME) packets. The fuzzier are the compared classical and quantum ME packets, the better seems to be the match between their dynamical trajectories. Classical and quantum models of a stiff rod will be constructed to illustrate the resulting unified quantum theory of thermodynamic and mechanical properties. (paper)

  17. Noncommutative mathematics for quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Noncommutative mathematics is a significant new trend of mathematics. Initially motivated by the development of quantum physics, the idea of 'making theory noncommutative' has been extended to many areas of pure and applied mathematics. This book is divided into two parts. The first part provides an introduction to quantum probability, focusing on the notion of independence in quantum probability and on the theory of quantum stochastic processes with independent and stationary increments. The second part provides an introduction to quantum dynamical systems, discussing analogies with fundamental problems studied in classical dynamics. The desire to build an extension of the classical theory provides new, original ways to understand well-known 'commutative' results. On the other hand the richness of the quantum mathematical world presents completely novel phenomena, never encountered in the classical setting. This book will be useful to students and researchers in noncommutative probability, mathematical physi...

  18. Chaotic quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirikov, B.V.

    1991-01-01

    The overview of recent developments in the theory of quantum chaos is presented with the special emphasis on a number of unsolved problems and current apparent contradictions. The relation between dynamical quantum chaos and statistical random matrix theory is discussed. 97 refs

  19. Quantum transport in complex system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusnezov, D.; Bulgac, A.; DoDang, G.

    1998-01-01

    We derive the influence function and the effective dynamics of a quantum systems coupled to a chaotic environment, using very general parametric and banded random matrices to describe the quantum properties of a chaotic bath. We find that only in certain limits the thermalization can result from the environment. We study the general transport problems including escape, fusion and tunneling (fission). (author)

  20. Intense relativistic electron beam injector system for tokamak current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, V.L.; Creedon, J.M.; Ecker, B.M.; Helava, H.I.

    1983-01-01

    We report experimental and theoretical studies of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) injection system designed for tokamak current drive experiments. The injection system uses a standard high-voltage pulsed REB generator and a magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) to drive an REB-accelerating diode in plasma. A series of preliminary experiments has been carried out to test the system by injecting REBs into a test chamber with preformed plasma and applied magnetic field. REBs were accelerated from two types of diodes: a conventional vacuum diode with foil anode, and a plasma diode, i.e., an REB cathode immersed in the plasma. REB current was in the range of 50 to 100 kA and REB particle energy ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 MeV. MITL power density exceeded 10 GW/cm 2 . Performance of the injection system and REB transport properties is documented for plasma densities from 5 x 10 12 to 2 x 10 14 cm -3 . Injection system data are compared with numerical calculations of the performance of the coupled system consisting of the generator, MITL, and diode

  1. Relativistic local quantum field theory for m=0 particles; Campos cuanticos locales relativos a particulas de masa no nula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Villasevil, A

    1965-07-01

    A method is introduced ta deal with relativistic quantum field theory for particles with m=0. Two mappings I and J, giving rise respectively to particle and anti particle states, are defined between a test space and the physical Hilbert space. The intrinsic field operator is then defined as the minimal causal linear combinations of operators belonging to the annihilation-creation algebra associated to the germ and antigerm parts of the element. Local elements are introduced as improper test elements and local field operators are constructed in the same way as the intrinsic ones. Commutation rules are given. (Author) 17 refs.

  2. Relativistic transformation law of quantum fields: A slight generalization consistent with the equivalence of all Lorentz frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingraham, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The well-known relativistic transformation law of quantum fields satisfies the relativity principle, which asserts the complete equivalence of all Lorentz (inertial) frames as far as physical measurements go. We point out a slight generalization which is allowed by the relativity principle, but violates a further, tacit assumption usually made in connection with it but which is actually logically independent of it and subject to a feasible experimental test. The interest of the generalization is that it permits the incorporation of an ultraviolet cutoff in a simple, direct way which avoids the usual difficulties

  3. A prototype quantum cryptography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surasak, Chiangga

    1998-07-01

    In this work we have constructed a new secure quantum key distribution system based on the BB84 protocol. Many current state-of-the-art quantum cryptography systems encounter major problems concerning low bit rate, synchronization, and stabilization. Our quantum cryptography system utilizes only laser diodes and standard passive optical components, to enhance the stability and also to decrease the space requirements. The development of this demonstration for a practical quantum key distribution system is a consequence of our previous work on the quantum cryptographic system using optical fiber components for the transmitter and receiver. There we found that the optical fiber couplers should not be used due to the problems with space, stability and alignment. The goal of the synchronization is to use as little transmission capacities as possible. The experimental results of our quantum key distribution system show the feasibility of getting more than 90 % transmission capacities with the approaches developed in this work. Therefore it becomes feasible to securely establish a random key sequence at a rate of 1 to {approx} 5K bit/s by using our stable, compact, cheap, and user-friendly modules for quantum cryptography. (author)

  4. A prototype quantum cryptography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiangga Surasak

    1998-07-01

    In this work we have constructed a new secure quantum key distribution system based on the BB84 protocol. Many current state-of-the-art quantum cryptography systems encounter major problems concerning low bit rate, synchronization, and stabilization. Our quantum cryptography system utilizes only laser diodes and standard passive optical components, to enhance the stability and also to decrease the space requirements. The development of this demonstration for a practical quantum key distribution system is a consequence of our previous work on the quantum cryptographic system using optical fiber components for the transmitter and receiver. There we found that the optical fiber couplers should not be used due to the problems with space, stability and alignment. The goal of the synchronization is to use as little transmission capacities as possible. The experimental results of our quantum key distribution system show the feasibility of getting more than 90 % transmission capacities with the approaches developed in this work. Therefore it becomes feasible to securely establish a random key sequence at a rate of 1 to ∼ 5K bit/s by using our stable, compact, cheap, and user-friendly modules for quantum cryptography. (author)

  5. Quantum Transport in Mesoscopic Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    voltage bias, the tunneling of the electron from the lead to the dot and vice versa will happen very rarely. Then two successive ..... A typical mesoscopic quantum dot system (a small drop- .... dynamical behavior of the distribution function of the.

  6. Universal blind quantum computation for hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He-Liang; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Tan; Li, Feng-Guang; Fu, Xiang-Qun; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Hai-Long; Wang, Xiang

    2017-08-01

    As progress on the development of building quantum computer continues to advance, first-generation practical quantum computers will be available for ordinary users in the cloud style similar to IBM's Quantum Experience nowadays. Clients can remotely access the quantum servers using some simple devices. In such a situation, it is of prime importance to keep the security of the client's information. Blind quantum computation protocols enable a client with limited quantum technology to delegate her quantum computation to a quantum server without leaking any privacy. To date, blind quantum computation has been considered only for an individual quantum system. However, practical universal quantum computer is likely to be a hybrid system. Here, we take the first step to construct a framework of blind quantum computation for the hybrid system, which provides a more feasible way for scalable blind quantum computation.

  7. Electron acoustic waves and parametric instabilities in a 4-component relativistic quantum plasma with Thomas-Fermi distributed electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikramullah, Ahmad, Rashid; Sharif, Saqib; Khattak, Fida Younus

    2018-01-01

    The interaction of Circularly Polarized Electro-Magnetic (CPEM) waves with a 4-component relativistic quantum plasma is studied. The plasma constituents are: relativistic-degenerate electrons and positrons, dynamic degenerate ions, and Thomas-Fermi distributed electrons in the background. We have employed the Klein-Gordon equations for the electrons as well as for the positrons, while the ions are represented by the Schrödinger equation. The Maxwell and Poisson equations are used for electromagnetic waves. Three modes are observed: one of the modes is associated with the electron acoustic wave, a second mode at frequencies greater than the electron acoustic wave mode could be associated with the positrons, and the third one at the lowest frequencies could be associated with the ions. Furthermore, Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS), Modulational, and Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) instabilities are studied. It is observed that the growth rates of both the SRS and SBS instabilities decrease with increase in the quantum parameter of the plasma. It is also observed that the scattering spectra in both the SRS and SBS get restricted to very small wavenumber regions. It is shown that for low amplitude CPEM wave interaction with the quantum plasma, the positron concentration has no effect on the SRS and SBS spectra. In the case of large amplitude CPEM wave interaction, however, one observes spectral changes with varying positron concentrations. An increase in the positron concentration also enhances the scattering instability growth rates. Moreover, the growth rate first increases and then decreases with increasing intensity of the CPEM wave, indicating an optimum value of the CPEM wave intensity for the growth of these scattering instabilities. The modulational instability also shows dependence on the quantum parameter as well as on the positron concentration.

  8. Quantum Dot Systems : A versatile platform for quantum simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthelemy, P.J.C.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Quantum mechanics often results in extremely complex phenomena, especially when the quantum system under consideration is composed of many interacting particles. The states of these many-body systems live in a space so large that classical numerical calculations cannot compute them. Quantum

  9. Quantum Dot Systems: a versatile platform for quantum simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelemy, Pierre; Vandersypen, Lieven M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Quantum mechanics often results in extremely complex phenomena, especially when the quantum system under consideration is composed of many interacting particles. The states of these many-body systems live in a space so large that classical numerical calculations cannot compute them. Quantum simulations can be used to overcome this problem: complex quantum problems can be solved by studying experimentally an artificial quantum system operated to simulate the desired hamiltonian. Quantum dot systems have shown to be widely tunable quantum systems, that can be efficiently controlled electrically. This tunability and the versatility of their design makes them very promising quantum simulators. This paper reviews the progress towards digital quantum simulations with individually controlled quantum dots, as well as the analog quantum simulations that have been performed with these systems. The possibility to use large arrays of quantum dots to simulate the low-temperature Hubbard model is also discussed. The main issues along that path are presented and new ideas to overcome them are proposed. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Quantum speed limits in open system dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    del Campo, A.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Plenio, M. B.; Huelga, S. F.

    2012-01-01

    Bounds to the speed of evolution of a quantum system are of fundamental interest in quantum metrology, quantum chemical dynamics and quantum computation. We derive a time-energy uncertainty relation for open quantum systems undergoing a general, completely positive and trace preserving (CPT) evolution which provides a bound to the quantum speed limit. When the evolution is of the Lindblad form, the bound is analogous to the Mandelstam-Tamm relation which applies in the unitary case, with the ...

  11. Design of coherent quantum observers for linear quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuglar, Shanon L; Amini, Hadis

    2014-01-01

    Quantum versions of control problems are often more difficult than their classical counterparts because of the additional constraints imposed by quantum dynamics. For example, the quantum LQG and quantum H ∞ optimal control problems remain open. To make further progress, new, systematic and tractable methods need to be developed. This paper gives three algorithms for designing coherent quantum observers, i.e., quantum systems that are connected to a quantum plant and their outputs provide information about the internal state of the plant. Importantly, coherent quantum observers avoid measurements of the plant outputs. We compare our coherent quantum observers with a classical (measurement-based) observer by way of an example involving an optical cavity with thermal and vacuum noises as inputs. (paper)

  12. Contextual logic for quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenech, Graciela; Freytes, Hector

    2005-01-01

    In this work we build a quantum logic that allows us to refer to physical magnitudes pertaining to different contexts from a fixed one without the contradictions with quantum mechanics expressed in no-go theorems. This logic arises from considering a sheaf over a topological space associated with the Boolean sublattices of the ortholattice of closed subspaces of the Hilbert space of the physical system. Different from standard quantum logics, the contextual logic maintains a distributive lattice structure and a good definition of implication as a residue of the conjunction

  13. From Quantum Deformations of Relativistic Symmetries to Modified Kinematics and Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukierski, J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a short review describing the use of noncommutative spacetime in quantum-deformed dynamical theories: classical and quantum mechanics as well as classical and quantum field theory. We expose the role of Hopf algebras and their realizations (noncommutative modules) as important mathematical tool describing quantum-deformed symmetries: quantum Lie groups and quantum Lie algebras. We consider in some detail the most studied examples of noncommutative space-time geometry: the canonical and κ-deformed cases. Finally, we briefly describe the modifications of Einstein gravity obtained by introduction of noncommutative space-time coordinates. (author)

  14. Duality quantum algorithm efficiently simulates open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shi-Jie; Ruan, Dong; Long, Gui-Lu

    2016-01-01

    Because of inevitable coupling with the environment, nearly all practical quantum systems are open system, where the evolution is not necessarily unitary. In this paper, we propose a duality quantum algorithm for simulating Hamiltonian evolution of an open quantum system. In contrast to unitary evolution in a usual quantum computer, the evolution operator in a duality quantum computer is a linear combination of unitary operators. In this duality quantum algorithm, the time evolution of the open quantum system is realized by using Kraus operators which is naturally implemented in duality quantum computer. This duality quantum algorithm has two distinct advantages compared to existing quantum simulation algorithms with unitary evolution operations. Firstly, the query complexity of the algorithm is O(d3) in contrast to O(d4) in existing unitary simulation algorithm, where d is the dimension of the open quantum system. Secondly, By using a truncated Taylor series of the evolution operators, this duality quantum algorithm provides an exponential improvement in precision compared with previous unitary simulation algorithm. PMID:27464855

  15. Quantum dynamics in open quantum-classical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapral, Raymond

    2015-02-25

    Often quantum systems are not isolated and interactions with their environments must be taken into account. In such open quantum systems these environmental interactions can lead to decoherence and dissipation, which have a marked influence on the properties of the quantum system. In many instances the environment is well-approximated by classical mechanics, so that one is led to consider the dynamics of open quantum-classical systems. Since a full quantum dynamical description of large many-body systems is not currently feasible, mixed quantum-classical methods can provide accurate and computationally tractable ways to follow the dynamics of both the system and its environment. This review focuses on quantum-classical Liouville dynamics, one of several quantum-classical descriptions, and discusses the problems that arise when one attempts to combine quantum and classical mechanics, coherence and decoherence in quantum-classical systems, nonadiabatic dynamics, surface-hopping and mean-field theories and their relation to quantum-classical Liouville dynamics, as well as methods for simulating the dynamics.

  16. Relativistic quantum nonlocality for the three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, Shahpoor

    2008-01-01

    Lorentz transformation of the three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state is studied. Also we obtain the relativistic spin joint measurement for the transformed state. Using these results it is shown that Bell's inequality is maximally violated for the three-qubit GHZ state in the relativistic regime. For ultrarelativistic particles we obtain the critical value for boost speed, which Bell's inequality is not violated for velocities smaller than this value. We also show that in the ultrarelativistic limit Bell's inequality is maximally violated for the GHZ state

  17. Quantum decoherence of phonons in Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howl, Richard; Sabín, Carlos; Hackermüller, Lucia; Fuentes, Ivette

    2018-01-01

    We apply modern techniques from quantum optics and quantum information science to Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in order to study, for the first time, the quantum decoherence of phonons of isolated BECs. In the last few years, major advances in the manipulation and control of phonons have highlighted their potential as carriers of quantum information in quantum technologies, particularly in quantum processing and quantum communication. Although most of these studies have focused on trapped ion and crystalline systems, another promising system that has remained relatively unexplored is BECs. The potential benefits in using this system have been emphasized recently with proposals of relativistic quantum devices that exploit quantum states of phonons in BECs to achieve, in principle, superior performance over standard non-relativistic devices. Quantum decoherence is often the limiting factor in the practical realization of quantum technologies, but here we show that quantum decoherence of phonons is not expected to heavily constrain the performance of these proposed relativistic quantum devices.

  18. Quantum energy teleportation in a quantum Hall system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusa, Go; Izumida, Wataru; Hotta, Masahiro [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    We propose an experimental method for a quantum protocol termed quantum energy teleportation (QET), which allows energy transportation to a remote location without physical carriers. Using a quantum Hall system as a realistic model, we discuss the physical significance of QET and estimate the order of energy gain using reasonable experimental parameters.

  19. Quantum systems and symmetric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olshanetsky, M.A.; Perelomov, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    Certain class of quantum systems with Hamiltonians related to invariant operators on symmetric spaces has been investigated. A number of physical facts have been derived as a consequence. In the classical limit completely integrable systems related to root systems are obtained

  20. Relationism of quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chylinski, Z.

    1995-01-01

    This paper develops the hypothesis of quantum relationism. Quantum relationism is compared and contrasted with the Cartesian eventism, which is the ontology behind the conventional local quantum field theory. In more technical terms the paper deals with a relativistic description of bound quantal systems which, in Author's opinion, provide an ideal testing ground for his hypothesis. (author)

  1. The quantum Hall effect in quantum dot systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltukov, Y M; Greshnov, A A

    2014-01-01

    It is proposed to use quantum dots in order to increase the temperatures suitable for observation of the integer quantum Hall effect. A simple estimation using Fock-Darwin spectrum of a quantum dot shows that good part of carriers localized in quantum dots generate the intervals of plateaus robust against elevated temperatures. Numerical calculations employing local trigonometric basis and highly efficient kernel polynomial method adopted for computing the Hall conductivity reveal that quantum dots may enhance peak temperature for the effect by an order of magnitude, possibly above 77 K. Requirements to potentials, quality and arrangement of the quantum dots essential for practical realization of such enhancement are indicated. Comparison of our theoretical results with the quantum Hall measurements in InAs quantum dot systems from two experimental groups is also given

  2. Relativistic band gaps in one-dimensional disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerk, G.J.; McKellar, B.H.J.

    1992-01-01

    Conditions for the existence of band gaps in a one-dimensional disordered array of δ-function potentials possessing short range order are developed in a relativistic framework. Both Lorentz vector and scalar type potentials are treated. The relationship between the energy gaps and the transmission properties of the array are also discussed. 20 refs., 2 figs

  3. Quantum Dynamics in Biological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sangwoo

    In the first part of this dissertation, recent efforts to understand quantum mechanical effects in biological systems are discussed. Especially, long-lived quantum coherences observed during the electronic energy transfer process in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex at physiological condition are studied extensively using theories of open quantum systems. In addition to the usual master equation based approaches, the effect of the protein structure is investigated in atomistic detail through the combined application of quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics simulations. To evaluate the thermalized reduced density matrix, a path-integral Monte Carlo method with a novel importance sampling approach is developed for excitons coupled to an arbitrary phonon bath at a finite temperature. In the second part of the thesis, simulations of molecular systems and applications to vibrational spectra are discussed. First, the quantum dynamics of a molecule is simulated by combining semiclassical initial value representation and density funcitonal theory with analytic derivatives. A computationally-tractable approximation to the sum-of-states formalism of Raman spectra is subsequently discussed.

  4. Relativistic self-focusing of ultra-high intensity X-ray laser beams in warm quantum plasma with upward density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibi, M.; Ghamari, F.

    2014-01-01

    The results of a numerical study of high-intensity X-ray laser beam interaction with warm quantum plasma (WQP) are presented. By means of an upward ramp density profile combined with quantum factors specially the Fermi velocity, we have demonstrated significant relativistic self-focusing (RSF) of a Gaussian electromagnetic beam in the WQP where the Fermi temperature term in the dielectric function is important. For this purpose, we have considered the quantum hydrodynamics model that modifies refractive index of inhomogeneous WQPs with the inclusion of quantum correction through the quantum statistical and diffraction effects in the relativistic regime. Also, to better illustration of the physical difference between warm and cold quantum plasmas and their effect on the RSF, we have derived the envelope equation governing the spot size of X-ray laser beam in Q-plasmas. In addition to the upward ramp density profile, we have found that the quantum effects would be caused much higher oscillation and better focusing of X-ray laser beam in the WQP compared to that of cold quantum case. Our computational results reveal the importance of the use of electrons density profile and Fermi speed in enhancing self-focusing of laser beam

  5. Analytic and numerical calculations of quantum synchrotron spectra from relativistic electron distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brainerd, J.J.; Petrosian, V.

    1987-01-01

    Calculations are performed numerically and analytically of synchrotron spectra for thermal and power-law electron distributions using the single-particle synchrotron power spectrum derived from quantum electrodynamics. It is found that the photon energy at which quantum effects appear is proportional to temperature and independent of field strength for thermal spectra; quantum effects introduce an exponential roll-off away from the classical spectra. For power law spectra, the photon energy at which quantum effects appear is inversely proportional to the magnetic field strength; quantum effects produce a steeper power law than is found classically. The results are compared with spectra derived from the classical power spectrum with an energy cutoff ensuring conservation of energy. It is found that an energy cutoff is generally an inadequate approximation of quantum effects for low photon energies and for thermal spectra, but gives reasonable results for high-energy emission from power-law electron distributions. 17 references

  6. Motion of the relativistic charged particle in an axisymmetric toroidal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiyoda, K; Sugimoto, H [Electrotechnical Labs., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1980-01-01

    The relativistic theory of motion of one particle by Morozov and Solov'ev is summarized for convenience of the present study. Then, a drift equation is given and four constants of motion, E/sub 0/, J perpendicular, J and J parallel, are obtained. These constants of motion are used in analyzing the particle motion in an axisymmetric toroidal system. The displacement of the particle from the magnetic surface, ..delta..r, and the period of the banana motion, tau, are obtained. The relativistic expressions of the displacement, ..delta..r, and the period, tau, are obtained by multiplying the corresponding nonrelativistic expressions by (1 - v parallel/sup 2//c/sup 2/) - 1/2, where the relativistic expression of ..delta..r includes the relativistic mass in terms of Larmor radius r/sub L/.

  7. Relativistic quantum mechanic calculation of photoionization cross-section of hydrogenic and non-hydrogenic states using analytical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, R.; Gil, J.M.; Rubiano, J.G.; Florido, R.; Martel, P.; Minguez, E.

    2005-01-01

    Photoionization process is a subject of special importance in many areas of physics. Numerical methods must be used in order to obtain photoionization cross-sections for non-hydrogenic levels. The atomic data required to calculate them is huge so self-consistent calculations increase computing time considerably. Analytical potentials are a useful alternative because they avoid the iterative procedures typical in self-consistent models. In this work, we present a relativistic quantum calculation of photoionization cross-sections for isolated ions based on an analytical potential to obtain the required atomic data, which is valid both for hydrogenic and non-hydrogenic ions. Comparisons between our results and others obtained using either widely used analytical expressions for the cross-sections or more sophisticated calculations are done

  8. Dynamics of complex quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Akulin, Vladimir M

    2014-01-01

    This book gathers together a range of similar problems that can be encountered in different fields of modern quantum physics and that have common features with regard to multilevel quantum systems. The main motivation was to examine from a uniform standpoint various models and approaches that have been developed in atomic, molecular, condensed matter, chemical, laser and nuclear physics in various contexts. The book should help senior-level undergraduate, graduate students and researchers putting particular problems in these fields into a broader scientific context and thereby taking advantage of well-established techniques used in adjacent fields. This second edition has been expanded to include substantial new material (e.g. new sections on Dynamic Localization and on Euclidean Random Matrices and new chapters on Entanglement, Open Quantum Systems, and Coherence Protection). It is based on the author’s lectures at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, at the CNRS Aimé Cotton Laboratory, and on ...

  9. Ionization and bound-state relativistic quantum dynamics in laser-driven multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetzheim, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The interaction of ultra-strong laser fields with multiply charged hydrogen-like ions can be distinguished in an ionization and a bound dynamics regime. Both are investigated by means of numerically solving the Dirac equation in two dimensions and by a classical relativistic Monte-Carlo simulation. For a better understanding of highly nonlinear physical processes the development of a well characterized ultra-intense relativistic laser field strength has been driven forward, capable of studying e.g. the magnetic field effects of the laser resulting in an additional electron motion in the laser propagation direction. A novel method to sensitively measure these ultra-strong laser intensities is developed and employed from the optical via the UV towards the XUV frequency regime. In the bound dynamics field, the determination of multiphoton transition matrixelements has been investigated between different bound states via Rabi oscillations. (orig.)

  10. Ionization and bound-state relativistic quantum dynamics in laser-driven multiply charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetzheim, Henrik

    2009-01-14

    The interaction of ultra-strong laser fields with multiply charged hydrogen-like ions can be distinguished in an ionization and a bound dynamics regime. Both are investigated by means of numerically solving the Dirac equation in two dimensions and by a classical relativistic Monte-Carlo simulation. For a better understanding of highly nonlinear physical processes the development of a well characterized ultra-intense relativistic laser field strength has been driven forward, capable of studying e.g. the magnetic field effects of the laser resulting in an additional electron motion in the laser propagation direction. A novel method to sensitively measure these ultra-strong laser intensities is developed and employed from the optical via the UV towards the XUV frequency regime. In the bound dynamics field, the determination of multiphoton transition matrixelements has been investigated between different bound states via Rabi oscillations. (orig.)

  11. Comment on “Stationary self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in relativistic thermal quantum plasma” [Phys. Plasmas 20, 072703 (2013)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibi, M.; Ghamari, F.

    2014-01-01

    Patil and Takale in their recent article [Phys. Plasmas 20, 072703 (2013)], by evaluating the quantum dielectric response in thermal quantum plasma, have modeled the relativistic self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in a plasma. We have found that there are some important shortcomings and fundamental mistakes in Patil and Takale [Phys. Plasmas 20, 072703 (2013)] that we give a brief description about them and refer readers to important misconception about the use of the Fermi temperature in quantum plasmas, appearing in Patil and Takale [Phys. Plasmas 20, 072703 (2013)

  12. On quantum mechanics for macroscopic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primas, H.

    1992-01-01

    The parable of Schroedinger's cat may lead to several up-to date questions: how to treat open systems in quantum theory, how to treat thermodynamically irreversible processes in the quantum mechanics framework, how to explain, following the quantum theory, the existence, phenomenologically evident, of classical observables, what implies the predicted existence by the quantum theory of non localized macroscopic material object ?

  13. Quantum tomography and classical propagator for quadratic quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man'ko, O.V.

    1999-03-01

    The classical propagator for tomographic probability (which describes the quantum state instead of wave function or density matrix) is presented for quadratic quantum systems and its relation to the quantum propagator is considered. The new formalism of quantum mechanics, based on the probability representation of the state, is applied to particular quadratic systems - the harmonic oscillator, particle's free motion, problems of an ion in a Paul trap and in asymmetric Penning trap, and to the process of stimulated Raman scattering. The classical propagator for these systems is written in an explicit form. (author)

  14. Contribution of relativistic quantum chemistry to electron’s electric dipole moment for CP violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, M., E-mail: minoria@tmu.ac.jp; Gopakumar, G., E-mail: gopakumargeetha@gmail.com; Hada, M., E-mail: hada@tmu.ac.jp [Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji-city, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); JST, CREST, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Das, B. P., E-mail: das@iiap.ernet.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Tatewaki, H., E-mail: htatewak@nsc.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8501 (Japan); Mukherjee, D., E-mail: pcdm@iacs.res.in [Raman Center of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Sciences, IACS, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2015-12-31

    The search for the electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM) is important because it is a probe of Charge Conjugation-Parity (CP) violation. It can also shed light on new physics beyond the standard model. It is not possible to measure the eEDM directly. However, the interaction energy involving the effective electric field (E{sub eff}) acting on an electron in a molecule and the eEDM can be measured. This quantity can be combined with E{sub eff}, which is calculated by relativistic molecular orbital theory to determine eEDM. Previous calculations of E{sub eff} were not sufficiently accurate in the treatment of relativistic or electron correlation effects. We therefore developed a new method to calculate E{sub eff} based on a four-component relativistic coupled-cluster theory. We demonstrated our method for YbF molecule, one of the promising candidates for the eEDM search. Using very large basis set and without freezing any core orbitals, we obtain a value of 23.1 GV/cm for E{sub eff} in YbF with an estimated error of less than 10%. The error is assessed by comparison of our calculations and experiments for two properties relevant for E{sub eff}, permanent dipole moment and hyperfine coupling constant. Our method paves the way to calculate properties of various kinds of molecules which can be described by a single-reference wave function.

  15. Large quantum systems: a mathematical and numerical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, M.

    2009-06-01

    This thesis is devoted to the mathematical study of variational models for large quantum systems. The mathematical methods are that of nonlinear analysis, calculus of variations, partial differential equations, spectral theory, and numerical analysis. The first part contains some results on finite systems. We study several approximations of the N-body Schroedinger equation for electrons in an atom or a molecule, and then the so-called Hartree-Fock- Bogoliubov model for a system of fermions interacting via the gravitational force. In a second part, we propose a new method allowing to prove the existence of the thermodynamic limit of Coulomb quantum systems. Then, we construct two Hartree-Fock-type models for infinite systems. The first is a relativistic theory deduced from Quantum Electrodynamics, allowing to describe the behavior of electrons, coupled to that of Dirac's vacuum which can become polarized. The second model describes a nonrelativistic quantum crystal in the presence of a charged defect. A new numerical method is also proposed. The last part of the thesis is devoted to spectral pollution, a phenomenon which is observed when trying to approximate eigenvalues in a gap of the essential spectrum of a self-adjoint operator, for instance for periodic Schroedinger operators or Dirac operators. (author)

  16. Quantum many-particle systems

    CERN Document Server

    Negele, John W

    1988-01-01

    This book explains the fundamental concepts and theoretical techniques used to understand the properties of quantum systems having large numbers of degrees of freedom. A number of complimentary approaches are developed, including perturbation theory; nonperturbative approximations based on functional integrals; general arguments based on order parameters, symmetry, and Fermi liquid theory; and stochastic methods.

  17. From First Principles: The Application of Quantum Mechanics to Complex Molecules and Solvated Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, Mark A. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-12-31

    The major title of this dissertation, 'From first principles,' is a phase often heard in the study of thermodynamics and quantum mechanics. These words embody a powerful idea in the physical sciences; namely, that it is possible to distill the complexities of nature into a set of simple, well defined mathematical laws from which specific relations can then be derived . In thermodynamics, these fundamental laws are immediately familiar to the physical scientist by their numerical order: the First, Second and Third Laws. However, the subject of the present volume is quantum mechanics-specifically, non-relativistic quantum mechanics, which is appropriate for most systems of chemical interest.

  18. Relativistic many-body theory of atomic transitions. The relativistic equation-of-motion approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, K.

    1982-01-01

    An equation-of-motion approach is used to develop the relativistic many-body theory of atomic transitions. The relativistic equations of motion for transition matrices are formulated with the use of techniques of quantum-field theory. To reduce the equations of motion to a tractable form which is appropriate for numerical calculations, a graphical method to resolve the complication arising from the antisymmetrization and angular-momentum coupling is employed. The relativistic equation-of-motion method allows an ab initio treatment of correlation and relativistic effects in both closed- and open-shell many-body systems. A special case of the present formulation reduces to the relativistic random-phase approximation

  19. Relativistic particle in a box

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto, P.; Fiolhais, Carlos; Gil, Victor

    1996-01-01

    The problem of a relativistic spin 1/2 particle confined to a one-dimensional box is solved in a way that resembles closely the solution of the well known quantum-mechanical textbook problem of a non-relativistic particle in a box. The energy levels and probability density are computed and compared with the non-relativistic case

  20. QUANTUM AND CLASSICAL CORRELATIONS IN GAUSSIAN OPEN QUANTUM SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian ISAR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the continuous-variable quantum correlations (quantum entanglement and quantum discord for a system consisting of two noninteracting bosonic modes embedded in a thermal environment. We solve the Kossakowski-Lindblad master equation for the time evolution of the considered system and describe the entanglement and discord in terms of the covariance matrix for Gaussian input states. For all values of the temperature of the thermal reservoir, an initial separable Gaussian state remains separable for all times. We study the time evolution of logarithmic negativity, which characterizes the degree of entanglement, and show that in the case of an entangled initial squeezed thermal state, entanglement suppression takes place for all temperatures of the environment, including zero temperature. We analyze the time evolution of the Gaussian quantum discord, which is a measure of all quantum correlations in the bipartite state, including entanglement, and show that it decays asymptotically in time under the effect of the thermal bath. This is in contrast with the sudden death of entanglement. Before the suppression of the entanglement, the qualitative evolution of quantum discord is very similar to that of the entanglement. We describe also the time evolution of the degree of classical correlations and of quantum mutual information, which measures the total correlations of the quantum system.

  1. Quantum coherence behaviors of fermionic system in non-inertial frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiming; Situ, Haozhen

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we analyze the quantum coherence behaviors of a single qubit in the relativistic regime beyond the single-mode approximation. Firstly, we investigate the freezing condition of quantum coherence in fermionic system. We also study the quantum coherence tradeoff between particle and antiparticle sector. It is found that there exists quantum coherence transfer between particle and antiparticle sector, but the coherence lost in particle sector is not entirely compensated by the coherence generation of antiparticle sector. Besides, we emphatically discuss the cohering power and decohering power of Unruh channel with respect to the computational basis. It is shown that cohering power is vanishing and decohering power is dependent of the choice of Unruh mode and acceleration. Finally, we compare the behaviors of quantum coherence with geometric quantum discord and entanglement in relativistic setup. Our results show that this quantifiers in two region converge at infinite acceleration limit, which implies that this measures become independent of Unruh modes beyond the single-mode approximations. It is also demonstrated that the robustness of quantum coherence and geometric quantum discord are better than entanglement under the influence of acceleration, since entanglement undergoes sudden death.

  2. Quantum electrodynamics and the relativistic theory of many-electron atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucher, J.

    1981-01-01

    The development of relativistic theories of many-electron atoms is reviewed, with emphasis on the fact that the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian H/sub DC/ has no bound states. This fact implies that neither the Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) equations nor the DHF wavefunction chi have a simple theoretical interpretation. A no-pair hamiltonian H/sub +/ is defined which does not have the fatal flaw of H/sub DC/ and hence can serve as a starting point for a systematic study of relativistic effects in many-electron atoms which can go beyond central-field approximations. H/sub +/ differs from H/sub DC/ by the presence of external-field positive-energy projection operators in the electron-electron interaction terms. Unlike H/sub DC/, H/sub +/ and its eigenfunctions psi have a clear-cut field-theoretic meaning, which is described. Similar remarks hold for a simpler no-pair Hamiltonian h/sub +/, which involves free positive-energy projection operators and for related Hamiltonians H/sub +/' and h/sup +/' which include the Breit operator. Relativistic Hartree-Fock equations are obtained from H/sub +/ and the relation between their solutions psi and the DHF solutions chi is discussed. The DHF equations may be reinterpreted as approximations to the new HF-type equations; this provides a rationale for their success in applications. It is argued that the Breit operator ought to be included even in the original DHF equations

  3. Theoretical investigations in nonlinear quantum optics, theory of measurement, and pulsations of general relativistic models of neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumaker, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis is a collection of six papers. The first four constitute the heart of the thesis; they are concerned with quantum-mechanical properties of certain harmonic-oscillator states. The first paper is a discourse on single-mode and two-mode Gaussian pure states (GPS), states produced when harmonic oscillators in their ground states are exposed to potentials that are linear or quadratic in oscillator position and momentum variables (creation and annihilation operators). The second and third papers develop a formalism for analyzing two photon devices (e.g., parametric amplifiers and phase-conjugate mirrors), in which photons in the output modes arise from two-proton transitions, i.e., are created or destroyed two at a time. The fourth paper is an analysis of the noise in homodyne detection, a phase-sensitive detection scheme in which the special properties of (single-mode) squeezed states are revealed. The fifth paper considers the validity of the standard quantum limit (SQL) for measurements that monitor the position of a free mass. The sixth paper develops the mathematical theory of torsional (toroidal) oscillations in fully general relativistic, nonrotating, spherical stellar models and of the gravitational waves they emit

  4. Relativistic extension of the Kay-Moses method for constructing transparent potentials in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, F.M.; Nogami, Y.; Zhao, Z.

    1993-01-01

    For the Dirac equation in one space dimension with a potential of the Lorentz scalar type, we present a complete solution for the problem of constructing a transparent potential. This is a relativistic extension of the Kay-Moses method which was developed for the nonrelativistic Schroedinger equation. There is an infinite family of transparent potentials. The potentials are all related to solutions of a class of coupled, nonlinear Dirac equations. In addition, it is argued that an admixture of a Lorentz vector component in the potential impairs perfect transparency

  5. Hartree Fock-type equations in relativistic quantum electrodynamics with non-linear gauge fixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, K.; Hess, B.A.

    1990-08-01

    Relativistic mean-field equations are obtained by minimizing the effective energy obtained from the gauge-invariant energy density by eliminating electro-magnetic degrees of freedom in certain characteristic non-linear gauges. It is shown that by an appropriate choice of gauge many-body correlations, e.g. screening, three-body 'forces' etc. can be included already at the mean-field level. The many-body perturbation theory built on the latter is then expected to show improved 'convergence'. (orig.)

  6. Non-perturbative treatment of relativistic quantum corrections in large Z atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, K.; Weymans, G.

    1983-09-01

    Renormalised g-Hartree-Dirac equations incorporating Dirac sea contributions are derived. Their implications for the non-perturbative, selfconsistent calculation of quantum corrections in large Z atoms are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Relativistic quarkonium dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazdjian, H.

    1985-06-01

    We present, in the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics of two interacting particles, a general model for quarkonium systems satisfying the following four requirements: confinement, spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry, soft explicit chiral symmetry breaking, short distance interactions of the vector type. The model is characterized by two arbitrary scalar functions entering in the large and short distance interaction potentials, respectively. Using relationships with corresponding quantities of the Bethe-Salpeter equation, we also present the normalization condition of the wave functions, as well as the expressions of the meson decay coupling constants. The quark masses appear in this model as free parameters

  8. Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, B; Granata, C

    2006-01-01

    The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.

  9. Perturbative approach to Markovian open quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Andy C Y; Petruccione, F; Koch, Jens

    2014-05-08

    The exact treatment of Markovian open quantum systems, when based on numerical diagonalization of the Liouville super-operator or averaging over quantum trajectories, is severely limited by Hilbert space size. Perturbation theory, standard in the investigation of closed quantum systems, has remained much less developed for open quantum systems where a direct application to the Lindblad master equation is desirable. We present such a perturbative treatment which will be useful for an analytical understanding of open quantum systems and for numerical calculation of system observables which would otherwise be impractical.

  10. Quantum systems, channels, information. A mathematical introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holevo, Alexander S.

    2012-07-01

    The subject of this book is theory of quantum system presented from information science perspective. The central role is played by the concept of quantum channel and its entropic and information characteristics. Quantum information theory gives a key to understanding elusive phenomena of quantum world and provides a background for development of experimental techniques that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems. This is important for the new efficient applications such as quantum computing, communication and cryptography. Research in the field of quantum informatics, including quantum information theory, is in progress in leading scientific centers throughout the world. This book gives an accessible, albeit mathematically rigorous and self-contained introduction to quantum information theory, starting from primary structures and leading to fundamental results and to exiting open problems.

  11. Quantum-information processing in disordered and complex quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Ahufinger, Veronica; Briegel, Hans J.; Sanpera, Anna; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2006-01-01

    We study quantum information processing in complex disordered many body systems that can be implemented by using lattices of ultracold atomic gases and trapped ions. We demonstrate, first in the short range case, the generation of entanglement and the local realization of quantum gates in a disordered magnetic model describing a quantum spin glass. We show that in this case it is possible to achieve fidelities of quantum gates higher than in the classical case. Complex systems with long range interactions, such as ions chains or dipolar atomic gases, can be used to model neural network Hamiltonians. For such systems, where both long range interactions and disorder appear, it is possible to generate long range bipartite entanglement. We provide an efficient analytical method to calculate the time evolution of a given initial state, which in turn allows us to calculate its quantum correlations

  12. Eigenfunctions in chaotic quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baecker, Arnd

    2007-07-01

    The structure of wavefunctions of quantum systems strongly depends on the underlying classical dynamics. In this text a selection of articles on eigenfunctions in systems with fully chaotic dynamics and systems with a mixed phase space is summarized. Of particular interest are statistical properties like amplitude distribution and spatial autocorrelation function and the implication of eigenfunction structures on transport properties. For systems with a mixed phase space the separation into regular and chaotic states does not always hold away from the semiclassical limit, such that chaotic states may completely penetrate into the region of the regular island. The consequences of this flooding are discussed and universal aspects highlighted. (orig.)

  13. Eigenfunctions in chaotic quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baecker, Arnd

    2007-01-01

    The structure of wavefunctions of quantum systems strongly depends on the underlying classical dynamics. In this text a selection of articles on eigenfunctions in systems with fully chaotic dynamics and systems with a mixed phase space is summarized. Of particular interest are statistical properties like amplitude distribution and spatial autocorrelation function and the implication of eigenfunction structures on transport properties. For systems with a mixed phase space the separation into regular and chaotic states does not always hold away from the semiclassical limit, such that chaotic states may completely penetrate into the region of the regular island. The consequences of this flooding are discussed and universal aspects highlighted. (orig.)

  14. Logical entropy of quantum dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimzadeh Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the concepts of logical entropy and conditional logical entropy of hnite partitions on a quantum logic. Some of their ergodic properties are presented. Also logical entropy of a quantum dynamical system is dehned and ergodic properties of dynamical systems on a quantum logic are investigated. Finally, the version of Kolmogorov-Sinai theorem is proved.

  15. Quantum control of optomechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, S.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores the prospects of entanglement-enhanced quantum control of optomechanical systems. We first discuss several pulsed schemes in which the radiation-pressure interaction is used to generate EPR entanglement between the mechanical mode of a cavity-optomechanical system and a travelling-wave light pulse. The entanglement created in this way can be used as a resource for mechanical state preparation. On the basis of this protocol, we introduce an optomechanical teleportation scheme to transfer an arbitrary light state onto the mechanical system. Furthermore, we describe how one can create a mechanical non-classical state (i.e., a state with a negative Wigner function) by single-photon detection, and, in a similar protocol, how optomechanical systems can be used to demonstrate the violation of a Bell inequality. The second part of the thesis is dedicated to time-continuous quantum control protocols. Making use of optimal-control techniques, we analyse measurement-based feedback cooling of a mechanical oscillator and demonstrate that ground-state cooling is achievable in the sideband-resolved, blue-detuned regime. We then extend this homodyne-detection based setup and introduce the notion of a time-continuous Bell measurement---a generalisation of the standard continuous variable Bell measurement to a continuous measurement setting. Combining this concept with continuous feedback we analyse the generation of a squeezed mechanical steady state via time-continuous teleportation, and the creation of bipartite mechanical entanglement by entanglement swapping. Finally we discuss an experiment demonstrating the evaluation of the conditional optomechanical quantum state by Kalman filtering, constituting a important step towards time-continuous quantum control of optomechanical systems and the possible realisation of the protocols presented in this thesis. (author) [de

  16. Loss energy states of nonstationary quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonov, V.V.; Man'ko, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    The concept of loss energy states is introduced. The loss energy states of the quantum harmonic damping oscillator are considered in detail. The method of constructing the loss energy states for general multidimensional quadratic nonstationary quantum systems is briefly discussed

  17. Relativistic instant-form approach to the structure of two-body composite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutov, A.F.; Troitsky, V.E.

    2002-01-01

    An approach to the electroweak properties of two-particle composite systems is developed. The approach is based on the use of the instant form of relativistic Hamiltonian dynamics. The main feature of this approach is the method of construction of the matrix element of the electroweak current operator. The electroweak current matrix element satisfies the relativistic covariance conditions and in the case of the electromagnetic current also the conservation law automatically. The properties of the system as well as the approximations are formulated in terms of form factors. The approach makes it possible to formulate relativistic impulse approximation in such a way that the Lorentz covariance of the current is ensured. In the electromagnetic case the current conservation law is also ensured. Our approach gives good results for the pion electromagnetic form factor in the whole range of momentum transfers available for experiments at present time, as well as for the lepton decay constant of pions

  18. Application of Homotopy Analysis Method to Solve Relativistic Toda Lattice System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qi

    2010-01-01

    In this letter, the homotopy analysis method is successfully applied to solve the Relativistic Toda lattice system. Comparisons are made between the results of the proposed method and exact solutions. Analysis results show that homotopy analysis method is a powerful and easy-to-use analytic tool to solve systems of differential-difference equations. (general)

  19. Relativistic (3+1) dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of compact interacting binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, G.J.; Evans, C.R.; Wilson, J.R.

    1986-09-01

    We discuss the development of a relativistic hydrodynamic code for describing the evolution of astrophysical systems in three spatial dimensions. The application of this code to several test problems is presented. Preliminary results from the simulation of the dynamics of accreting binary white dwarf and neutron star systems are discussed. 14 refs., 4 figs

  20. The DSR-deformed relativistic symmetries and the relative locality of 3D quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Arzano, Michele; Bianco, Stefano; Buonocore, Riccardo J

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade there were significant advances in the understanding of quantum gravity coupled to point particles in 3D ((2+1)-dimensional) spacetime. Most notably it is emerging that the theory can be effectively described as a theory of free particles on a momentum space with anti-deSitter geometry and with noncommutative spacetime coordinates of the type [x μ , x ν ] = iℏℓε μν ρ x ρ . We here show that the recently proposed relative-locality curved-momentum-space framework is ideally suited for accommodating these structures' characteristics of 3D quantum gravity. Through this we obtain an intuitive characterization of the DSR-deformed Poincaré symmetries of 3D quantum gravity, and find that the associated relative spacetime locality is of the type producing dual-gravity lensing. (paper)

  1. Quantum state engineering in hybrid open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Chaitanya; Larson, Jonas; Spiller, Timothy P.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a possibility to generate nonclassical states in light-matter coupled noisy quantum systems, namely, the anisotropic Rabi and Dicke models. In these hybrid quantum systems, a competing influence of coherent internal dynamics and environment-induced dissipation drives the system into nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Explicitly, for the anisotropic Rabi model, the steady state is given by an incoherent mixture of two states of opposite parities, but as each parity state displays light-matter entanglement, we also find that the full state is entangled. Furthermore, as a natural extension of the anisotropic Rabi model to an infinite spin subsystem, we next explored the NESS of the anisotropic Dicke model. The NESS of this linearized Dicke model is also an inseparable state of light and matter. With an aim to enrich the dynamics beyond the sustainable entanglement found for the NESS of these hybrid quantum systems, we also propose to combine an all-optical feedback strategy for quantum state protection and for establishing quantum control in these systems. Our present work further elucidates the relevance of such hybrid open quantum systems for potential applications in quantum architectures.

  2. What is the uncertainty principle of non-relativistic quantum mechanics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Peter J.

    2018-05-01

    After more than ninety years of discussions over the uncertainty principle, there is still no universal agreement on what the principle states. The Robertson uncertainty relation (incorporating standard deviations) is given as the mathematical expression of the principle in most quantum mechanics textbooks. However, the uncertainty principle is not merely a statement of what any of the several uncertainty relations affirm. It is suggested that a better approach would be to present the uncertainty principle as a statement about the probability distributions of incompatible variables and the resulting restrictions on quantum states.

  3. Microscopic nonlinear relativistic quantum theory of absorption of powerful x-ray radiation in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetissian, H K; Ghazaryan, A G; Matevosyan, H H; Mkrtchian, G F

    2015-10-01

    The microscopic quantum theory of plasma nonlinear interaction with the coherent shortwave electromagnetic radiation of arbitrary intensity is developed. The Liouville-von Neumann equation for the density matrix is solved analytically considering a wave field exactly and a scattering potential of plasma ions as a perturbation. With the help of this solution we calculate the nonlinear inverse-bremsstrahlung absorption rate for a grand canonical ensemble of electrons. The latter is studied in Maxwellian, as well as in degenerate quantum plasma for x-ray lasers at superhigh intensities and it is shown that one can achieve the efficient absorption coefficient in these cases.

  4. Simulation of n-qubit quantum systems. III. Quantum operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.

    2007-05-01

    During the last decade, several quantum information protocols, such as quantum key distribution, teleportation or quantum computation, have attracted a lot of interest. Despite the recent success and research efforts in quantum information processing, however, we are just at the beginning of understanding the role of entanglement and the behavior of quantum systems in noisy environments, i.e. for nonideal implementations. Therefore, in order to facilitate the investigation of entanglement and decoherence in n-qubit quantum registers, here we present a revised version of the FEYNMAN program for working with quantum operations and their associated (Jamiołkowski) dual states. Based on the implementation of several popular decoherence models, we provide tools especially for the quantitative analysis of quantum operations. Apart from the implementation of different noise models, the current program extension may help investigate the fragility of many quantum states, one of the main obstacles in realizing quantum information protocols today. Program summaryTitle of program: Feynman Catalogue identifier: ADWE_v3_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWE_v3_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: None Operating systems: Any system that supports MAPLE; tested under Microsoft Windows XP, SuSe Linux 10 Program language used:MAPLE 10 Typical time and memory requirements: Most commands that act upon quantum registers with five or less qubits take ⩽10 seconds of processor time (on a Pentium 4 processor with ⩾2 GHz or equivalent) and 5-20 MB of memory. Especially when working with symbolic expressions, however, the memory and time requirements critically depend on the number of qubits in the quantum registers, owing to the exponential dimension growth of the associated Hilbert space. For example, complex (symbolic) noise models (with several Kraus operators) for multi-qubit systems

  5. Quantum state engineering in hybrid open quantum systems

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Chaitanya; Larson, Jonas; Spiller, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a possibility to generate nonclassical states in light-matter coupled noisy quantum systems, namely, the anisotropic Rabi and Dicke models. In these hybrid quantum systems, a competing influence of coherent internal dynamics and environment-induced dissipation drives the system into nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Explicitly, for the anisotropic Rabi model, the steady state is given by an incoherent mixture of two states of opposite parities, but as each parity state disp...

  6. Repeated interactions in open quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneau, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.bruneau@u-cergy.fr [Laboratoire AGM, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, Site Saint-Martin, BP 222, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Joye, Alain, E-mail: Alain.Joye@ujf-grenoble.fr [Institut Fourier, UMR 5582, CNRS-Université Grenoble I, BP 74, 38402 Saint-Martin d’Hères (France); Merkli, Marco, E-mail: merkli@mun.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL Canada A1C 5S7 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Analyzing the dynamics of open quantum systems has a long history in mathematics and physics. Depending on the system at hand, basic physical phenomena that one would like to explain are, for example, convergence to equilibrium, the dynamics of quantum coherences (decoherence) and quantum correlations (entanglement), or the emergence of heat and particle fluxes in non-equilibrium situations. From the mathematical physics perspective, one of the main challenges is to derive the irreversible dynamics of the open system, starting from a unitary dynamics of the system and its environment. The repeated interactions systems considered in these notes are models of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. They are relevant in quantum optics, and more generally, serve as a relatively well treatable approximation of a more difficult quantum dynamics. In particular, the repeated interaction models allow to determine the large time (stationary) asymptotics of quantum systems out of equilibrium.

  7. Global quantum discord in multipartite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rulli, C. C.; Sarandy, M. S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    We propose a global measure for quantum correlations in multipartite systems, which is obtained by suitably recasting the quantum discord in terms of relative entropy and local von Neumann measurements. The measure is symmetric with respect to subsystem exchange and is shown to be nonnegative for an arbitrary state. As an illustration, we consider tripartite correlations in the Werner-GHZ (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger) state and multipartite correlations at quantum criticality. In particular, in contrast with the pairwise quantum discord, we show that the global quantum discord is able to characterize the infinite-order quantum phase transition in the Ashkin-Teller spin chain.

  8. Comments on lightlike translations and applications in relativistic quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driessler, W.

    1975-01-01

    In the algebraic framework of quantum field theory we consider one parameter subgroups of lightlike translations. After establishing a few preliminary properties we prove a certain cluster property and then exhibit the close connection between such subgroups and a class of type III factors. A few applications of this connection are also discussed. (orig.) [de

  9. Decoherence and discrete symmetries in deformed relativistic kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzano, Michele

    2018-01-01

    Models of deformed Poincaré symmetries based on group valued momenta have long been studied as effective modifications of relativistic kinematics possibly capturing quantum gravity effects. In this contribution we show how they naturally lead to a generalized quantum time evolution of the type proposed to model fundamental decoherence for quantum systems in the presence of an evaporating black hole. The same structures which determine such generalized evolution also lead to a modification of the action of discrete symmetries and of the CPT operator. These features can in principle be used to put phenomenological constraints on models of deformed relativistic symmetries using precision measurements of neutral kaons.

  10. In-medium relativistic kinetic theory and nucleon-meson systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawetz, K.; Kremp, D.

    1995-01-01

    Within the σ-ω model of coupled nucleonmeson systems, a generalized relativistic Lennard-Balescu-equation is presented resulting from a relativistic random phase approximation (RRPA). This provides a systematic derivation of relativistic transport equations in the frame of nonequilibrium Green's function technique including medium effects as well as fluctuation effects. It contains all possible processes due to one-meson exchange and special attention is kept to the off-shell character of the particles. As a new feature of many-particle effects, processes are possible, which can be interpreted as particle creation and annihilation due to in-medium one-meson exchange. In-medium cross sections are obtained from the generalized derivation of collision integrals, which possess complete crossing symmetries. (orig.)

  11. A relativistic extended Fermi-Thomas-like equation for a self-gravitating system of fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merloni, A.; Ruffini, R.; Torroni, V.

    1998-01-01

    The authors extend previous results of a Fermi-Thomas model, describing self-gravitating fermions in their ground state, to a relativistic gravitational theory in Minkowski space. In such a theory the source term of the gravitational potential depends both on the pressure and the density of the fluid. It is shown that, in correspondence of this relativistic treatment, still a Fermi-Thomas-like equation can be derived for the self-gravitating system, though the non-linearities are much more complex. No Fermi-Thomas-like equation can be obtained in the General Relativistic treatment. The canonical results for neutron stars and white dwarfs are recovered and also some erroneous statements in the scientific literature are corrected

  12. Relativistic two-body forces in many-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namyslowski, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    For the fully off-shell extension in the relativistic dynamics, based on a covariant light-front field theory, we define the relative momenta and their proper angular variables such that -1 < cos theta/sub α/ < 1. In terms of these variables and the timelike total momenta we write explicitly the Weinberg interaction, corresponding to the exchange of a spinless particle of mass μ. The total momentum dependence and the cluster decomposition property of the Weinberg interaction are presented in detail, together with its energy dependence and other nonlocal features. In the nonrelativistic limit we recover the Yukawa interaction, while for the finite masses the Weinberg interaction is a product of the Yukawa interaction and a form factor. The Weinberg two-body force goes to zero at large energies and is truly nonlocal, in spite of the fact that the underlying field theory has a local Lagrangian

  13. The magnet system of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, A.; Anerella, M.; Cozzolino, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a colliding ring accelerator to be completed in 1999. Through collisions of heavy ions it is hoped to observe the creation of matter at extremely high temperatures and densities, similar to what may have occurred in the original ''Big Bang.'' The collider rings will consist of 1740 superconducting magnet elements. Some of elements are being manufactured by industrial partners (Northrop Grumman and Everson Electric). Others are being constructed or assembled at BNL. A description is given of the magnet designs, the plan for manufacturing and test results. In the manufacturing of the magnets, emphasis has been placed on uniformity of their performance and on quality. Results so far indicate that this emphasis has been very successful

  14. From a particle in a box to the uncertainty relation in a quantum dot and to reflecting walls for relativistic fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hashimi, M.H.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a 1-parameter family of self-adjoint extensions of the Hamiltonian for a particle confined to a finite interval with perfectly reflecting boundary conditions. In some cases, one obtains negative energy states which seem to violate the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. We use this as a motivation to derive a generalized uncertainty relation valid for an arbitrarily shaped quantum dot with general perfectly reflecting walls in d dimensions. In addition, a general uncertainty relation for non-Hermitian operators is derived and applied to the non-Hermitian momentum operator in a quantum dot. We also consider minimal uncertainty wave packets in this situation, and we prove that the spectrum depends monotonically on the self-adjoint extension parameter. In addition, we construct the most general boundary conditions for semiconductor heterostructures such as quantum dots, quantum wires, and quantum wells, which are characterized by a 4-parameter family of self-adjoint extensions. Finally, we consider perfectly reflecting boundary conditions for relativistic fermions confined to a finite volume or localized on a domain wall, which are characterized by a 1-parameter family of self-adjoint extensions in the (1+1)-d and (2+1)-d cases, and by a 4-parameter family in the (3+1)-d and (4+1)-d cases. - Highlights: ► Finite volume Heisenberg uncertainty relation. ► General self-adjoint extensions for relativistic fermions. ► New prospective for the problem of particle in a box.

  15. Integrable relativistic Toda type lattice hierarchies, associated coupling systems and the Darboux transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hongxiang; Xu Xixiang; Sun Yepeng; Ding Haiyong

    2006-01-01

    Starting from a discrete isospectral problem, integrable positive and negative relativistic Toda type lattice hierarchies are derived. The two lattice hierarchies are proven to have discrete zero-curvature representations associated with a discrete spectral problem, and the positive and negative lattice hierarchies correspond to positive and negative power expansions of Lax operators with respect to the spectral parameter, respectively. The integrable positive and negative coupling systems of the resulting hierarchies are constructed through enlarging Lax pairs. In addition, with the help of gauge transformations of spectral problems, a Darboux transformation is established for the relativistic Toda type lattice. As an application, an exact solution is explicitly presented

  16. Anisotropic generalization of well-known solutions describing relativistic self-gravitating fluid systems. An algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirukkanesh, S. [Eastern University, Department of Mathematics, Chenkalady (Sri Lanka); Ragel, F.C. [Eastern University, Department of Physics, Chenkalady (Sri Lanka); Sharma, Ranjan; Das, Shyam [P.D. Women' s College, Department of Physics, Jalpaiguri (India)

    2018-01-15

    We present an algorithm to generalize a plethora of well-known solutions to Einstein field equations describing spherically symmetric relativistic fluid spheres by relaxing the pressure isotropy condition on the system. By suitably fixing the model parameters in our formulation, we generate closed-form solutions which may be treated as an anisotropic generalization of a large class of solutions describing isotropic fluid spheres. From the resultant solutions, a particular solution is taken up to show its physical acceptability. Making use of the current estimate of mass and radius of a known pulsar, the effects of anisotropic stress on the gross physical behaviour of a relativistic compact star is also highlighted. (orig.)

  17. Past Quantum States of a Monitored System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren; Julsgaard, Brian; Mølmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    A density matrix ρ(t) yields probabilistic information about the outcome of measurements on a quantum system. We introduce here the past quantum state, which, at time T, accounts for the state of a quantum system at earlier times t...(t) and E(t), conditioned on the dynamics and the probing of the system until t and in the time interval [t, T], respectively. The past quantum state is characterized by its ability to make better predictions for the unknown outcome of any measurement at t than the conventional quantum state at that time....... On the one hand, our formalism shows how smoothing procedures for estimation of past classical signals by a quantum probe [M. Tsang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 250403 (2009)] apply also to describe the past state of the quantum system itself. On the other hand, it generalizes theories of pre- and postselected...

  18. Plasma waves in hot relativistic beam-plasma systems: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magneville, A.

    1990-01-01

    Dispersion relations of plasma waves in a beam-plasma system are computed in the general case where the plasma and beam temperatures, and the velocity of the beam, may be relativistic. The two asymptotic temperature cases, and different contributions of plasma or beam particles to wave dispersion are considered. (author)

  19. The dispersion relation of charge and current compensated relativistic electron beam-plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrba, P.; Schroetter, J.; Jarosova, P.; Koerbel, S.

    1978-01-01

    The unstable regions of relativistic electron beam-plasma system were determined by analysing the general dispersion relation numerically. The external parameters were varied to ensure more effective instability excitations. The full charge- and current compensation presumptions lead to the new synchronism predictions. The slow space charge wave and slow cyclotron wave of the return current are synchronous with the plasma ion wave. (author)

  20. Entangling transformations in composite finite quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vourdas, A

    2003-01-01

    Phase space methods are applied in the context of finite quantum systems. 'Galois quantum systems' (with a dimension which is a power of a prime number) are considered, and symplectic Sp(2,Z(d)) transformations are studied. Composite systems comprising two finite quantum systems are also considered. Symplectic Sp(4,Z(d)) transformations are classified into local and entangling ones and the necessary matrices which perform such transformations are calculated numerically

  1. Thermodynamics of Weakly Measured Quantum Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jose Joaquin; Lutz, Eric; Romito, Alessandro

    2016-02-26

    We consider continuously monitored quantum systems and introduce definitions of work and heat along individual quantum trajectories that are valid for coherent superposition of energy eigenstates. We use these quantities to extend the first and second laws of stochastic thermodynamics to the quantum domain. We illustrate our results with the case of a weakly measured driven two-level system and show how to distinguish between quantum work and heat contributions. We finally employ quantum feedback control to suppress detector backaction and determine the work statistics.

  2. On the Stability of Spherically Symmetric Self-Gravitating Classical and Quantum Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makedonski, Mathias

    on to the description of the corresponding systems in the setting of general relativity, it is shown, that the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volko equation can be obtained from a suitable variation of the total energy. We prove a previously unnoticed energetic instability of the model. Staying in the general relativistic setting....... As for the perfect fluid, we prove energetic instability and conclude our investigations by constructing a naive quantum version of the free massive scalar eld, that also suers energetic instability. ´...

  3. The Dynamical Invariant of Open Quantum System

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, S. L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Yi, X. X.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamical invariant, whose expectation value is constant, is generalized to open quantum system. The evolution equation of dynamical invariant (the dynamical invariant condition) is presented for Markovian dynamics. Different with the dynamical invariant for the closed quantum system, the evolution of the dynamical invariant for the open quantum system is no longer unitary, and the eigenvalues of it are time-dependent. Since any hermitian operator fulfilling dynamical invariant condition ...

  4. Pion Production from Proton Synchrotron Radiation under Strong Magnetic Field in a Relativistic Quantum Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruyama Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study pion production from proton synchrotron radiation in the presence of strong magnetic fields by using the exact proton propagator in a strong magnetic field and explicitly including the anomalous magnetic moment. Results in this exact quantum approach do not agree with those obtained in the semi-classical approach. Then, we find that the anomalous magnetic moment of the proton greatly enhances the production rate by about two orders magnitude, and that the decay width satisfies a robust scaling law.

  5. Pion Production from Proton Synchrotron Radiation under Strong Magnetic Field in Relativistic Quantum Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruyama Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study pion production from proton synchrotron radiation in the presence of strong magnetic fields by using the exact proton propagator in a strong magnetic field and explicitly including the anomalous magnetic moment. Results in this exact quantum-field approach do not agree with those obtained in the semi-classical approach. Furthermore, we also find that the anomalous magnetic moment of the proton greatly enhances the production rate about by two orders of magnitude, and that the polar angle of an emitted pion is the same as that of an initial proton.

  6. Blue functions: probability and current density propagators in non-relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withers, L P Jr

    2011-01-01

    Like a Green function to propagate a particle's wavefunction in time, a Blue function is introduced to propagate the particle's probability and current density. Accordingly, the complete Blue function has four components. They are constructed from path integrals involving a quantity like the action that we call the motion. The Blue function acts on the displaced probability density as the kernel of an integral operator. As a result, we find that the Wigner density occurs as an expression for physical propagation. We also show that, in quantum mechanics, the displaced current density is conserved bilocally (in two places at one time), as expressed by a generalized continuity equation. (paper)

  7. Quantum entanglement and quantum information in biological systems (DNA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubač, Ivan; Švec, Miloslav; Wilson, Stephen

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies of DNA show that the hydrogen bonds between given base pairs can be treated as diabatic systems with spin-orbit coupling. For solid state systems strong diabaticity and spin-orbit coupling the possibility of forming Majorana fermions has been discussed. We analyze the hydrogen bonds in the base pairs in DNA from this perspective. Our analysis is based on a quasiparticle supersymmetric transformation which couples electronic and vibrational motion and includes normal coordinates and the corresponding momenta. We define qubits formed by Majorana fermions in the hydrogen bonds and also discuss the entangled states in base pairs. Quantum information and quantum entropy are introduced. In addition to the well-known classical information connected with the DNA base pairs, we also consider quantum information and show that the classical and quantum information are closely connected.

  8. Interacting systems far from equilibrium quantum kinetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Morawetz, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date formalism of non-equilibrium Green's functions covering different applications ranging from solid state physics, plasma physics, cold atoms in optical lattices up to relativistic transport and heavy ion collisions. Within the Green's function formalism, the basic sets of equations for these diverse systems are similar, and approximations developed in one field can be adapted to another field. The central object is the self-energy which includes all non-trivial aspects of the system dynamics. The focus is therefore on microscopic processes starting from elementary principles for classical gases and the complementary picture of a single quantum particle in a random potential. This provides an intuitive picture of the interaction of a particle with the medium formed by other particles, on which the Green's function is built on.

  9. Kadomtsev-Petviashvili solitons propagation in a plasma system with superthermal and weakly relativistic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez-Ur-Rehman; Mahmood, S.; Shah, Asif; Haque, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Two dimensional (2D) solitons are studied in a plasma system comprising of relativistically streaming ions, kappa distributed electrons, and positrons. Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation is derived through the reductive perturbation technique. Analytical solution of the KP equation has been studied numerically and graphically. It is noticed that kappa parameters of electrons and positrons as well as the ions relativistic streaming factor have an emphatic influence on the structural as well as propagation characteristics of two dimensional solitons in the considered plasma system. Our results may be helpful in the understanding of soliton propagation in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, specifically the interaction of pulsar relativistic wind with supernova ejecta and the transfer of energy to plasma by intense electric field of laser beams producing highly energetic superthermal and relativistic particles [L. Arons, Astrophys. Space Sci. Lib. 357, 373 (2009); P. Blasi and E. Amato, Astrophys. Space Sci. Proc. 2011, 623; and A. Shah and R. Saeed, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 53, 095006 (2011)].

  10. Dissipation and decoherence in quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menskii, Mikhail B

    2003-01-01

    The theory of dissipative quantum systems and its relation to the quantum theory of continuous measurements are reviewed. Constructing a correct theory of a dissipative quantum system requires that the system's interaction with its environment (reservoir) be taken into account. Since information about the system is 'recorded' in the state of the reservoir, the quantum theory of continuous measurements can be used to account for the influence of the reservoir. If based on the use of restricted path integrals, this theory does not require an explicit reservoir model and is therefore much simpler technically. (reviews of topical problems)

  11. Quantum speed limits in open system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, A; Egusquiza, I L; Plenio, M B; Huelga, S F

    2013-02-01

    Bounds to the speed of evolution of a quantum system are of fundamental interest in quantum metrology, quantum chemical dynamics, and quantum computation. We derive a time-energy uncertainty relation for open quantum systems undergoing a general, completely positive, and trace preserving evolution which provides a bound to the quantum speed limit. When the evolution is of the Lindblad form, the bound is analogous to the Mandelstam-Tamm relation which applies in the unitary case, with the role of the Hamiltonian being played by the adjoint of the generator of the dynamical semigroup. The utility of the new bound is exemplified in different scenarios, ranging from the estimation of the passage time to the determination of precision limits for quantum metrology in the presence of dephasing noise.

  12. Perturbation to Unified Symmetry and Adiabatic Invariants for Relativistic Hamilton Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingjiang; Fang Jianhui; Lu Kai; Pang Ting; Lin Peng

    2009-01-01

    Based on the concept of adiabatic invariant, the perturbation to unified symmetry and adiabatic invariants for relativistic Hamilton systems are studied. The definition of the perturbation to unified symmetry for the system is presented, and the criterion of the perturbation to unified symmetry is given. Meanwhile, the Noether adiabatic invariants, the generalized Hojman adiabatic invariants, and the Mei adiabatic invariants for the perturbed system are obtained. (general)

  13. Effects of adiabatic, relativistic, and quantum electrodynamics interactions on the pair potential and thermophysical properties of helium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cencek, Wojciech; Przybytek, Michał; Komasa, Jacek; Mehl, James B; Jeziorski, Bogumił; Szalewicz, Krzysztof

    2012-06-14

    The adiabatic, relativistic, and quantum electrodynamics (QED) contributions to the pair potential of helium were computed, fitted separately, and applied, together with the nonrelativistic Born-Oppenheimer (BO) potential, in calculations of thermophysical properties of helium and of the properties of the helium dimer. An analysis of the convergence patterns of the calculations with increasing basis set sizes allowed us to estimate the uncertainties of the total interaction energy to be below 50 ppm for interatomic separations R smaller than 4 bohrs and for the distance R = 5.6 bohrs. For other separations, the relative uncertainties are up to an order of magnitude larger (and obviously still larger near R = 4.8 bohrs where the potential crosses zero) and are dominated by the uncertainties of the nonrelativistic BO component. These estimates also include the contributions from the neglected relativistic and QED terms proportional to the fourth and higher powers of the fine-structure constant α. To obtain such high accuracy, it was necessary to employ explicitly correlated Gaussian expansions containing up to 2400 terms for smaller R (all R in the case of a QED component) and optimized orbital bases up to the cardinal number X = 7 for larger R. Near-exact asymptotic constants were used to describe the large-R behavior of all components. The fitted potential, exhibiting the minimum of -10.996 ± 0.004 K at R = 5.608 0 ± 0.000 1 bohr, was used to determine properties of the very weakly bound (4)He(2) dimer and thermophysical properties of gaseous helium. It is shown that the Casimir-Polder retardation effect, increasing the dimer size by about 2 Å relative to the nonrelativistic BO value, is almost completely accounted for by the inclusion of the Breit-interaction and the Araki-Sucher contributions to the potential, of the order α(2) and α(3), respectively. The remaining retardation effect, of the order of α(4) and higher, is practically negligible for the bound

  14. Quantum open system theory: bipartite aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, T; Eberly, J H

    2006-10-06

    We demonstrate in straightforward calculations that even under ideally weak noise the relaxation of bipartite open quantum systems contains elements not previously encountered in quantum noise physics. While additivity of decay rates is known to be generic for decoherence of a single system, we demonstrate that it breaks down for bipartite coherence of even the simplest composite systems.

  15. Hybrid quantum systems: Outsourcing superconducting qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Andrew

    Superconducting qubits offer excellent prospects for manipulating quantum information, with good qubit lifetimes, high fidelity single- and two-qubit gates, and straightforward scalability (admittedly with multi-dimensional interconnect challenges). One interesting route for experimental development is the exploration of hybrid systems, i.e. coupling superconducting qubits to other systems. I will report on our group's efforts to develop approaches that will allow interfacing superconducting qubits in a quantum-coherent fashion to spin defects in solids, to optomechanical devices, and to resonant nanomechanical structures. The longer term goals of these efforts include transferring quantum states between different qubit systems; generating and receiving ``flying'' acoustic phonon-based as well as optical photon-based qubits; and ultimately developing systems that can be used for quantum memory, quantum computation and quantum communication, the last in both the microwave and fiber telecommunications bands. Work is supported by Grants from AFOSR, ARO, DOE and NSF.

  16. Macroscopic quantum systems and gravitational phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikovski, I.

    2014-01-01

    Low-energy quantum systems are studied theoretically in light of possible experiments to test the interplay between quantum theory and general relativity. The research focus in this thesis is on quantum systems which can be controlled with very high precision and which allow for tests of quantum theory at novel scales in terms of mass and size. The pulsed regime of opto-mechanics is explored and it is shown how short optical pulses can be used to prepare and characterize quantum states of a massive mechanical resonator, and how some phenomenological models of quantum gravity can be probed. In addition, quantum interferometry with photons and matter-waves in the presence of gravitational time dilation is considered. It is shown that time dilation causes entanglement between internal states and the center-of-mass position and that it leads to decoherence of all composite quantum systems. The results of the thesis show that the interplay between quantum theory and general relativity affects even low-energy quantum systems and that it offers novel phenomena which can be probed in experiments. (author) [de

  17. Foundations for relativistic quantum theory. I. Feynman's operator calculus and the Dyson conjectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, Tepper L.; Zachary, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a representation theory for the Feynman operator calculus. This allows us to solve the general initial-value problem and construct the Dyson series. We show that the series is asymptotic, thus proving Dyson's second conjecture for quantum electrodynamics. In addition, we show that the expansion may be considered exact to any finite order by producing the remainder term. This implies that every nonperturbative solution has a perturbative expansion. Using a physical analysis of information from experiment versus that implied by our models, we reformulate our theory as a sum over paths. This allows us to relate our theory to Feynman's path integral, and to prove Dyson's first conjecture that the divergences are in part due to a violation of Heisenberg's uncertainly relations

  18. Spin 0 and spin 1/2 quantum relativistic particles in a constant gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorrami, M.; Alimohammadi, M.; Shariati, A.

    2003-01-01

    The Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations in a semi-infinite lab (x>0), in the background metric ds 2 =u 2 (x)(-dt 2 +dx 2 )+dy 2 +dz 2 , are investigated. The resulting equations are studied for the special case u(x)=1+gx. It is shown that in the case of zero transverse-momentum, the square of the energy eigenvalues of the spin-1/2 particles are less than the squares of the corresponding eigenvalues of spin-0 particles with same masses, by an amount of mgℎc. Finally, for non-zero transverse-momentum, the energy eigenvalues corresponding to large quantum numbers are obtained and the results for spin-0 and spin-1/2 particles are compared to each other

  19. Noether Symmetries and Covariant Conservation Laws in Classical, Relativistic and Quantum Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Fatibene

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We review the Lagrangian formulation of (generalised Noether symmetries in the framework of Calculus of Variations in Jet Bundles, with a special attention to so-called “Natural Theories” and “Gauge-Natural Theories” that include all relevant Field Theories and physical applications (from Mechanics to General Relativity, to Gauge Theories, Supersymmetric Theories, Spinors, etc.. It is discussed how the use of Poincar´e–Cartan forms and decompositions of natural (or gauge-natural variational operators give rise to notions such as “generators of Noether symmetries”, energy and reduced energy flow, Bianchi identities, weak and strong conservation laws, covariant conservation laws, Hamiltonian-like conservation laws (such as, e.g., so-calledADMlaws in General Relativity with emphasis on the physical interpretation of the quantities calculated in specific cases (energy, angular momentum, entropy, etc.. A few substantially new and very recent applications/examples are presented to better show the power of the methods introduced: one in Classical Mechanics (definition of strong conservation laws in a frame-independent setting and a discussion on the way in which conserved quantities depend on the choice of an observer; one in Classical Field Theories (energy and entropy in General Relativity, in its standard formulation, in its spin-frame formulation, in its first order formulation “à la Palatini” and in its extensions to Non-Linear Gravity Theories; one in Quantum Field Theories (applications to conservation laws in Loop Quantum Gravity via spin connections and Barbero–Immirzi connections.

  20. Controllable Subspaces of Open Quantum Dynamical Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ming; Gong Erling; Xie Hongwei; Hu Dewen; Dai Hongyi

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of controllable subspace for open quantum dynamical systems. It is constructively demonstrated that combining structural features of decoherence-free subspaces with the ability to perform open-loop coherent control on open quantum systems will allow decoherence-free subspaces to be controllable. This is in contrast to the observation that open quantum dynamical systems are not open-loop controllable. To a certain extent, this paper gives an alternative control theoretical interpretation on why decoherence-free subspaces can be useful for quantum computation.

  1. Capacity on wireless quantum cellular communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang-Zhen; Yu, Xu-Tao; Zhang, Zai-Chen

    2018-03-01

    Quantum technology is making excellent prospects in future communication networks. Entanglement generation and purification are two major components in quantum networks. Combining these two techniques with classical cellular mobile communication, we proposed a novel wireless quantum cellular(WQC) communication system which is possible to realize commercial mobile quantum communication. In this paper, the architecture and network topology of WQC communication system are discussed, the mathematical model of WQC system is extracted and the serving capacity, indicating the ability to serve customers, is defined and calculated under certain circumstances.

  2. On classical solutions of the relativistic Vlasov-Klein-Gordon system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kunzinger

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a collisionless ensemble of classical particles coupled with a Klein-Gordon field. For the resulting nonlinear system of partial differential equations, the relativistic Vlasov-Klein-Gordon system, we prove local-in-time existence of classical solutions and a continuation criterion which says that a solution can blow up only if the particle momenta become large. We also show that classical solutions are global in time in the one-dimensional case.

  3. On the influence of drag effect on acoustic modes in two-condensate relativistic superfluid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vil'chinskij, S.I.

    1999-01-01

    Equations of velocities of acoustic excitations in a relativistic two-condensate superfluid system are derived with due account of reciprocal drag of superfluid motion (drag effect). The influence of the drag effect on acoustic modes in the system is considered. It is shown that the effect does not influence the nature of acoustic excitation oscillations but produces changes in the velocities of the second, third and fourth sounds

  4. Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Flatté, Michael E; The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems"

    2007-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems", in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, August 29-September 9, 2005, presented a fundamental introduction to solid-state approaches to achieving quantum computation. This proceedings volume describes the properties of quantum coherence in semiconductor spin-based systems and the behavior of quantum coherence in superconducting systems. Semiconductor spin-based approaches to quantum computation have made tremendous advances in the past several years. Coherent populations of spins can be oriented, manipulated and detected experimentally. Rapid progress has been made towards performing the same tasks on individual spins (nuclear, ionic, or electronic) with all-electrical means. Superconducting approaches to quantum computation have demonstrated single qubits based on charge eigenstates as well as flux eigenstates. These topics have been presented in a pedagogical fashion by leading researchers in the fields of semiconductor-spin-based qu...

  5. Energy balance for a dissipative quantum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Jishad

    2014-01-01

    The role of random force in maintaining equilibrium in a dissipative quantum system is studied here. We compute the instantaneous power supplied by the fluctuating (random) force, which provides information about the work done by the random force on the quantum subsystem of interest. The quantum Langevin equation formalism is used here to verify that, at equilibrium, the work done by the fluctuating force balances the energy lost by the quantum subsystem to the heat bath. The quantum subsystem we choose to couple to the heat bath is the charged oscillator in a magnetic field. We perform the calculations using the Drude regularized spectral density of bath oscillators instead of using a strict ohmic spectral density that gives memoryless damping. We also discuss the energy balance for our dissipative quantum system and in this regard it is to be understood that the physical system is the charged magneto-oscillator coupled to the heat bath, not the uncoupled charged magneto-oscillator. (paper)

  6. Insight into the Extraction Mechanism of Americium(III) over Europium(III) with Pyridylpyrazole: A Relativistic Quantum Chemistry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiang-He; Wu, Qun-Yan; Wang, Cong-Zhi; Lan, Jian-Hui; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Nie, Chang-Ming; Shi, Wei-Qun

    2018-05-10

    Separation of trivalent actinides (An(III)) and lanthanides (Ln(III)) is one of the most important steps in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. However, it is very difficult and challenging to separate them due to their similar chemical properties. Recently the pyridylpyrazole ligand (PypzH) has been identified to show good separation ability toward Am(III) over Eu(III). In this work, to explore the Am(III)/Eu(III) separation mechanism of PypzH at the molecular level, the geometrical structures, bonding nature, and thermodynamic behaviors of the Am(III) and Eu(III) complexes with PypzH ligands modified by alkyl chains (Cn-PypzH, n = 2, 4, 8) have been systematically investigated using scalar relativistic density functional theory (DFT). According to the NBO (natural bonding orbital) and QTAIM (quantum theory of atoms in molecules) analyses, the M-N bonds exhibit a certain degree of covalent character, and more covalency appears in Am-N bonds compared to Eu-N bonds. Thermodynamic analyses suggest that the 1:1 extraction reaction, [M(NO 3 )(H 2 O) 6 ] 2+ + PypzH + 2NO 3 - → M(PypzH)(NO 3 ) 3 (H 2 O) + 5H 2 O, is the most suitable for Am(III)/Eu(III) separation. Furthermore, the extraction ability and the Am(III)/Eu(III) selectivity of the ligand PypzH is indeed enhanced by adding alkyl-substituted chains in agreement with experimental observations. Besides this, the nitrogen atom of pyrazole ring plays a more significant role in the extraction reactions related to Am(III)/Eu(III) separation compared to that of pyridine ring. This work could identify the mechanism of the Am(III)/Eu(III) selectivity of the ligand PypzH and provide valuable theoretical information for achieving an efficient Am(III)/Eu(III) separation process for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing.

  7. Dynamical entropy for infinite quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudetz, T.

    1990-01-01

    We review the recent physical application of the so-called Connes-Narnhofer-Thirring entropy, which is the successful quantum mechanical generalization of the classical Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and, by its very conception, is a dynamical entropy for infinite quantum systems. We thus comparingly review also the physical applications of the classical dynamical entropy for infinite classical systems. 41 refs. (Author)

  8. Linear response theory for quantum open systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, J. H.; Yan, YiJing

    2011-01-01

    Basing on the theory of Feynman's influence functional and its hierarchical equations of motion, we develop a linear response theory for quantum open systems. Our theory provides an effective way to calculate dynamical observables of a quantum open system at its steady-state, which can be applied to various fields of non-equilibrium condensed matter physics.

  9. Existence of charges and mass-spliting in relativistic quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal-Ezer, E.; Horwitz, L.P.

    1976-01-01

    The existence of charge operators associated with integrals of local densities in the (Wightman) framework of quantum field theory, in the presence of explicit symmetry breaking, can be demonstrated in certain cases. Their construction, in terms of null-plane integrals, is rather delicate. The possibility that a finite number of null-plane charges, which includes the Poincare generators, close on an algebra whose irreducible representations contain particles with different masses is considered; domain problems are shown to invalidate the basic hypotheses of the O'Raifeartaigh theorem. Null-plane Fourier transforms, which enter into the discussion of current algebra at infinite momentum, are also studied. It is shown that slns behavior is the maximal growth of high energy off mass shell amplitudes consistent with the existence of null-plane charges and null-plane Fourier transforms. Under the assumption that asymptotic states exist, these results also hold in the case of spontaneously broken chiral symmetry, with massless pseudoscalar Goldstone bosons

  10. Controlling the Shannon Entropy of Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yifan; Wu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new quantum control method which controls the Shannon entropy of quantum systems. For both discrete and continuous entropies, controller design methods are proposed based on probability density function control, which can drive the quantum state to any target state. To drive the entropy to any target at any prespecified time, another discretization method is proposed for the discrete entropy case, and the conditions under which the entropy can be increased or decreased are discussed. Simulations are done on both two- and three-dimensional quantum systems, where division and prediction are used to achieve more accurate tracking. PMID:23818819

  11. Controlling the Shannon Entropy of Quantum Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Xing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new quantum control method which controls the Shannon entropy of quantum systems. For both discrete and continuous entropies, controller design methods are proposed based on probability density function control, which can drive the quantum state to any target state. To drive the entropy to any target at any prespecified time, another discretization method is proposed for the discrete entropy case, and the conditions under which the entropy can be increased or decreased are discussed. Simulations are done on both two- and three-dimensional quantum systems, where division and prediction are used to achieve more accurate tracking.

  12. Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, O.

    2006-04-06

    This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)

  13. Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, O.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)

  14. Quantum equilibria for macroscopic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grib, A; Khrennikov, A; Parfionov, G; Starkov, K

    2006-01-01

    Nash equilibria are found for some quantum games with particles with spin-1/2 for which two spin projections on different directions in space are measured. Examples of macroscopic games with the same equilibria are given. Mixed strategies for participants of these games are calculated using probability amplitudes according to the rules of quantum mechanics in spite of the macroscopic nature of the game and absence of Planck's constant. A possible role of quantum logical lattices for the existence of macroscopic quantum equilibria is discussed. Some examples for spin-1 cases are also considered

  15. Quantum equilibria for macroscopic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grib, A [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Russian State Pedagogical University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Khrennikov, A [Centre for Mathematical Modelling in Physics and Cognitive Sciences Vaexjoe University (Sweden); Parfionov, G [Department of Mathematics, St. Petersburg State University of Economics and Finances (Russian Federation); Starkov, K [Department of Mathematics, St. Petersburg State University of Economics and Finances (Russian Federation)

    2006-06-30

    Nash equilibria are found for some quantum games with particles with spin-1/2 for which two spin projections on different directions in space are measured. Examples of macroscopic games with the same equilibria are given. Mixed strategies for participants of these games are calculated using probability amplitudes according to the rules of quantum mechanics in spite of the macroscopic nature of the game and absence of Planck's constant. A possible role of quantum logical lattices for the existence of macroscopic quantum equilibria is discussed. Some examples for spin-1 cases are also considered.

  16. Interaction between classical and quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherry, T.N.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.

    1977-10-01

    An unconventional approach to the measurement problem in quantum mechanics is considered--the apparatus is treated as a classical system, belonging to the macro-world. In order to have a measurement the apparatus must interact with the quantum system. As a first step, the classical apparatus is embedded into a large quantum mechanical structure, making use of a superselection principle. The apparatus and system are coupled such that the apparatus remains classical (principle of integrity), and unambiguous information of the values of a quantum observable are transferred to the variables of the apparatus. Further measurement of the classical apparatus can be done, causing no problems of principle. Thus interactions causing pointers to move (which are not treated) can be added. The restrictions placed by the principle of integrity on the form of the interaction between classical and quantum systems are examined and illustration is given by means of a simple example in which one sees the principle of integrity at work

  17. Non-perturbative description of quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Feranchuk, Ilya; Le, Van-Hoang; Ulyanenkov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces systematically the operator method for the solution of the Schrödinger equation. This method permits to describe the states of quantum systems in the entire range of parameters of Hamiltonian with a predefined accuracy. The operator method is unique compared with other non-perturbative methods due to its ability to deliver in zeroth approximation the uniformly suitable estimate for both ground and excited states of quantum system. The method has been generalized for the application to quantum statistics and quantum field theory.  In this book, the numerous applications of operator method for various physical systems are demonstrated. Simple models are used to illustrate the basic principles of the method which are further used for the solution of complex problems of quantum theory for many-particle systems. The results obtained are supplemented by numerical calculations, presented as tables and figures.

  18. On the definition of the time evolution operator for time-independent Hamiltonians in non-relativistic quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaku, Marcos; Coutinho, Francisco A. B.; Masafumi Toyama, F.

    2017-09-01

    The usual definition of the time evolution operator e-i H t /ℏ=∑n=0∞1/n ! (-i/ℏHt ) n , where H is the Hamiltonian of the system, as given in almost every book on quantum mechanics, causes problems in some situations. The operators that appear in quantum mechanics are either bounded or unbounded. Unbounded operators are not defined for all the vectors (wave functions) of the Hilbert space of the system; when applied to some states, they give a non-normalizable state. Therefore, if H is an unbounded operator, the definition in terms of the power series expansion does not make sense because it may diverge or result in a non-normalizable wave function. In this article, we explain why this is so and suggest, as an alternative, another definition used by mathematicians.

  19. Synchronization in Quantum Key Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Pljonkin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the description of quantum key distribution systems, much attention is paid to the operation of quantum cryptography protocols. The main problem is the insufficient study of the synchronization process of quantum key distribution systems. This paper contains a general description of quantum cryptography principles. A two-line fiber-optic quantum key distribution system with phase coding of photon states in transceiver and coding station synchronization mode was examined. A quantum key distribution system was built on the basis of the scheme with automatic compensation of polarization mode distortions. Single-photon avalanche diodes were used as optical radiation detecting devices. It was estimated how the parameters used in quantum key distribution systems of optical detectors affect the detection of the time frame with attenuated optical pulse in synchronization mode with respect to its probabilistic and time-domain characteristics. A design method was given for the process that detects the time frame that includes an optical pulse during synchronization. This paper describes the main quantum communication channel attack methods by removing a portion of optical emission. This paper describes the developed synchronization algorithm that takes into account the time required to restore the photodetector’s operation state after the photon has been registered during synchronization. The computer simulation results of the developed synchronization algorithm were analyzed. The efficiency of the developed algorithm with respect to synchronization process protection from unauthorized gathering of optical emission is demonstrated herein.

  20. Mixing and entropy increase in quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.; Pflug, A.; Thirring, W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain the key feature of deterministic chaotic classical systems and how they can be translated to quantum systems. To do so we develop the appropriate algebraic language for the non-specialist. 22 refs. (Author)

  1. Quantum work relations and response theory in parity-time-symmetric quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bo-Bo

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we show that a universal quantum work relation for a quantum system driven arbitrarily far from equilibrium extends to a parity-time- (PT -) symmetric quantum system with unbroken PT symmetry, which is a consequence of microscopic reversibility. The quantum Jarzynski equality, linear response theory, and Onsager reciprocal relations for the PT -symmetric quantum system are recovered as special cases of the universal quantum work relation in a PT -symmetric quantum system. In the regime of broken PT symmetry, the universal quantum work relation does not hold because the norm is not preserved during the dynamics.

  2. Exchange effects in Relativistic Schroedinger Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigg, T.; Sorg, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Relativistic Schroedinger Theory predicts the occurrence of exchange and overlap effects in many-particle systems. For a 2-particle system, the interaction energy of the two particles consists of two contributions: Coulomb energy and exchange energy, where the first one is revealed to be the same as in standard quantum theory. However the exchange energy is mediated by an exchange potential, contrary to the kinematical origin of the exchange term in the standard theory

  3. Relativistic bound state wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micu, L.

    2005-01-01

    A particular method of writing the bound state wave functions in relativistic form is applied to the solutions of the Dirac equation with confining potentials in order to obtain a relativistic description of a quark antiquark bound system representing a given meson. Concerning the role of the effective constituent in the present approach we first observe that without this additional constituent we couldn't expand the bound state wave function in terms of products of free states. Indeed, we notice that if the wave function depends on the relative coordinates only, all the expansion coefficients would be infinite. Secondly we remark that the effective constituent enabled us to give a Lorentz covariant meaning to the potential energy of the bound system which is now seen as the 4th component of a 4-momentum. On the other side, by relating the effective constituent to the quantum fluctuations of the background field which generate the binding, we provided a justification for the existence of some spatial degrees of freedom accompanying the interaction potential. These ones, which are quite unusual in quantum mechanics, in our model are the natural consequence of the the independence of the quarks and can be seen as the effect of the imperfect cancellation of the vector momenta during the quantum fluctuations. Related with all these we remark that the adequate representation for the relativistic description of a bound system is the momentum representation, because of the transparent and easy way of writing the conservation laws and the transformation properties of the wave functions. The only condition to be fulfilled is to find a suitable way to take into account the potential energy of the bound system. A particular feature of the present approach is that the confining forces are due to a kind of glue where both quarks are embedded. This recalls other bound state models where the wave function is factorized in terms of constituent wave functions and the confinement is

  4. A Mathematica package for calculation of planar channeling radiation spectra of relativistic electrons channeled in a diamond-structure single crystal (quantum approach)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadegan, B.

    2013-03-01

    The presented Mathematica code is an efficient tool for simulation of planar channeling radiation spectra of relativistic electrons channeled along major crystallographic planes of a diamond-structure single crystal. The program is based on the quantum theory of channeling radiation which has been successfully applied to study planar channeling at electron energies between 10 and 100 MeV. Continuum potentials for different planes of diamond, silicon and germanium single crystals are calculated using the Doyle-Turner approximation to the atomic scattering factor and taking thermal vibrations of the crystal atoms into account. Numerical methods are applied to solve the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation. The code is designed to calculate the electron wave functions, transverse electron states in the planar continuum potential, transition energies, line widths of channeling radiation and depth dependencies of the population of quantum states. Finally the spectral distribution of spontaneously emitted channeling radiation is obtained. The simulation of radiation spectra considerably facilitates the interpretation of experimental data. Catalog identifier: AEOH_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOH_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 446 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 209805 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica. Computer: Platforms on which Mathematica is available. Operating system: Operating systems on which Mathematica is available. RAM: 1 MB Classification: 7.10. Nature of problem: Planar channeling radiation is emitted by relativistic charged particles during traversing a single crystal in direction parallel to a crystallographic plane. Channeling is modeled as the motion

  5. Control Theoretical Expression of Quantum Systems And Lower Bound of Finite Horizon Quantum Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagisawa, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    We provide a control theoretical method for a computational lower bound of quantum algorithms based on quantum walks of a finite time horizon. It is shown that given a quantum network, there exists a control theoretical expression of the quantum system and the transition probability of the quantum walk is related to a norm of the associated transfer function.

  6. Classical system underlying a diffracting quantum billiard

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manan Jain

    2018-01-05

    Jan 5, 2018 ... Wave equation; rays; quantum chaos. PACS Nos 03.65.Ge; 05.45.Mt; 42.25.Fx. 1. Introduction. Diffraction [1] is a complex wave phenomenon which manifests classically and quantum mechanically. Among a wide range of systems where diffraction becomes important, there is an interesting situation of.

  7. Quantum contextuality in N-boson systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benatti, Fabio; Floreanini, Roberto; Genovese, Marco; Olivares, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Quantum contextuality in systems of identical bosonic particles is explicitly exhibited via the maximum violation of a suitable inequality of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt type. Unlike the approaches considered so far, which make use of single-particle observables, our analysis involves collective observables constructed using multiboson operators. An exemplifying scheme to test this violation with a quantum optical setup is also discussed.

  8. Planar and non-planar nucleus-acoustic shock structures in self-gravitating degenerate quantum plasma systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, D. M. S.; Amina, M.; Dip, P. R.; Mamun, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    The basic properties of planar and non-planar (spherical and cylindrical) nucleus-acoustic (NA) shock structures (SSs) in a strongly coupled self-gravitating degenerate quantum plasma system (containing strongly coupled non-relativistically degenerate heavy nuclear species, weakly coupled non-relativistically degenerate light nuclear species, and inertialess non-/ultra-relativistically degenerate electrons) have been investigated. The generalized quantum hydrodynamic model and the reductive perturbation method have been used to derive the modified Burgers equation. It is shown that the strong correlation among heavy nuclear species acts as the source of dissipation and is responsible for the formation of the NA SSs with positive (negative) electrostatic (self-gravitational) potential. It is also observed that the effects of non-/ultra-relativistically degenerate electron pressure, dynamics of non-relativistically degenerate light nuclear species, spherical geometry, etc., significantly modify the basic features of the NA SSs. The applications of our results in astrophysical compact objects like white dwarfs and neutron stars are briefly discussed.

  9. Relativistic quantum Hall conductivity for 3D and 2D electron plasma in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Felipe, R.; Perez Martinez, A.; Perez-Rojas, H.

    1990-05-01

    The complete antisymmetric form of the conductivity tensor in the static limit, as well as the expression for the Hall conductivity, is obtained for the relativistic 3D and 2D electron gas in a magnetic field. The non-relativistic 2D limit is also discussed. The typical step form of the 2D Hall conductivity at zero temperature is obtained under the simple hypothesis of constancy of the chemical potential. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig

  10. Standard Relativistic Reference Systems and the IAU Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffel, Michael H.

    2009-05-01

    The classical post-Newtonian (PN) framework is formulated in one single reference system. In a series of papers Damour, Soffel and Xu laid the foundations for a new improved PN framework dealing with the celestial mechanical problem of N gravitationally interacting rotating bodies of arbitrary shape and the problem of astronomical reference systems. In the DSX-framework a total of N+1 reference systems with corresponding coordinates is introduced in the N-body problem: a global one covering the entire model manifold where the translational equations of motion are formulated and one local system attached to each of the N bodies that is co-moving with the body under consideration. In each of these systems the metric tensor is assumed to be of a special form determined by two potentials: a scalar and a vector potential. Theorems are given for the transformations between local and global coordinates and metric potentials. In each of the local systems outside the local body the metric potentials are expressed in terms of Blanchet-Damour mass- and spin-multipole moments. The talk first introduces the original DSX formalism and then concentrates on IAU resolutions related with it. Finally, the formalism is extended to include also effects from the cosmic expansion. The influence of the Hubble expansion on the dynamics of the solar system is explicitly discussed in some detail.

  11. Equilibration and thermalization in finite quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V I

    2011-01-01

    Experiments with trapped atomic gases have opened novel possibilities for studying the evolution of nonequilibrium finite quantum systems, which revived the necessity of reconsidering and developing the theory of such processes. This review analyzes the basic approaches to describing the phenomena of equilibration, thermalization, and decoherence in finite quantum systems. Isolated, nonisolated, and quasi-isolated quantum systems are considered. The relations between equilibration, decoherence, and the existence of time arrow are emphasized. The possibility for the occurrence of rare events, preventing complete equilibration, are mentioned

  12. Limit cycles in quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Patrick

    2015-04-27

    In this thesis we investigate Limit Cycles in Quantum Systems. Limit cycles are a renormalization group (RG) topology. When degrees of freedom are integrated out, the coupling constants flow periodically in a closed curve. The presence of limit cycles is restricted by the necessary condition of discrete scale invariance. A signature of discrete scale invariance and limit cycles is log-periodic behavior. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the study of limit cycles with the similarity renormalization group (SRG). Limit cycles are mainly investigated within conventional renormalization group frameworks, where degrees of freedom, which are larger than a given cutoff, are integrated out. In contrast, in the SRG potentials are unitarily transformed and thereby obtain a band-diagonal structure. The width of the band structure can be regarded as an effective cutoff. We investigate the appearance of limit cycles in the SRG evolution. Our aim is to extract signatures as well as the scaling factor of the limit cycle. We consider the 1/R{sup 2}-potential in a two-body system and a three-body system with large scattering lengths. Both systems display a limit cycle. Besides the frequently used kinetic energy generator we apply the exponential and the inverse generator. In the second part of this thesis, Limit Cycles at Finite Density, we examine the pole structure of the scattering amplitude for distinguishable fermions at zero temperature in the medium. Unequal masses and a filled Fermi sphere for each fermion species are considered. We focus on negative scattering lengths and the unitary limit. The properties of the three-body spectrum in the medium and implications for the phase structure of ultracold Fermi gases are discussed.

  13. Relativistic gravitation from massless systems of scalar and vector fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Teixeira, A.F. da.

    1979-01-01

    Under the laws of Einstein's gravitational theory, a massless system consisting of the diffuse sources of two fields is discussed. One fields is scalar, of long range, the other is a vector field of short range. A proportionality between the sources is assumed. Both fields are minimally coupled to gravitation, and contribute positive definitely to the time component of the energy momentum tensor. A class of static, spherically symmetric solutions of the equations is obtained, in the weak field limit. The solutions are regular everywhere, stable, and can represent large or small physical systems. The gravitational field presents a Schwarzschild-type asymptotic behavior. The dependence of the energy on the various parameters characterizing the system is discussed in some detail. (Author) [pt

  14. Non-Noether Conserved Quantity for Relativistic Nonholonomic System with Variable Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Yongfen; Li Renjie; Ma Yongsheng

    2005-01-01

    Using form invariance under special infinitesimal transformations in which time is not variable, the non-Noether conserved quantity of the relativistic nonholonomic system with variable mass is studied. The differential equations of motion of the system are established. The definition and criterion of the form invariance of the system under infinitesimal transformations are studied. The necessary and sufficient condition under which the form invariance is a Lie symmetry is given. The condition under which the form invariance can be led to a non-Noether conserved quantity and the form of the conserved quantity are obtained. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  15. Relativistic Green function for atomic and molecular systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, P.F.; Sherstyuk, A.I.

    1981-12-01

    The problem on Green function construction of Dirac equation is solved for a wide class of single electron potentials in the atom and molecule theory. The solution is obtained in the form of a spectrum analysis according to the total system of eigenfuctions of the generalized Dirac problem for eigenvalues. The problem possesses a purely discrete spectrum.

  16. Relativistic decay widths of autoionization processes: The relativistic FanoADC-Stieltjes method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasshauer, Elke, E-mail: Elke.Fasshauer@uit.no [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Tromsø–The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Theoretische Chemie, Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kolorenč, Přemysl [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Pernpointner, Markus [Theoretische Chemie, Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-04-14

    Electronic decay processes of ionized systems are, for example, the Auger decay or the Interatomic/ Intermolecular Coulombic Decay. In both processes, an energetically low lying vacancy is filled by an electron of an energetically higher lying orbital and a secondary electron is instantaneously emitted to the continuum. Whether or not such a process occurs depends both on the energetic accessibility and the corresponding lifetime compared to the lifetime of competing decay mechanisms. We present a realization of the non-relativistically established FanoADC-Stieltjes method for the description of autoionization decay widths including relativistic effects. This procedure, being based on the Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction (ADC), was adapted to the relativistic framework and implemented into the relativistic quantum chemistry program package Dirac. It is, in contrast to other existing relativistic atomic codes, not limited to the description of autoionization lifetimes in spherically symmetric systems, but is instead also applicable to molecules and clusters. We employ this method to the Auger processes following the Kr3d{sup −1}, Xe4d{sup −1}, and Rn5d{sup −1} ionization. Based on the results, we show a pronounced influence of mainly scalar-relativistic effects on the decay widths of autoionization processes.

  17. Lorentz-force equations as Heisenberg equations for a quantum system in the euclidean space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez D, R.

    2007-01-01

    In an earlier work, the dynamic equations for a relativistic charged particle under the action of electromagnetic fields were formulated by R. Yamaleev in terms of external, as well as internal momenta. Evolution equations for external momenta, the Lorentz-force equations, were derived from the evolution equations for internal momenta. The mapping between the observables of external and internal momenta are related by Viete formulae for a quadratic polynomial, the characteristic polynomial of the relativistic dynamics. In this paper we show that the system of dynamic equations, can be cast into the Heisenberg scheme for a four-dimensional quantum system. Within this scheme the equations in terms of internal momenta play the role of evolution equations for a state vector, whereas the external momenta obey the Heisenberg equation for an operator evolution. The solutions of the Lorentz-force equation for the motion inside constant electromagnetic fields are presented via pentagonometric functions. (Author)

  18. Open quantum systems and error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani Barzegar, Alireza

    Quantum effects can be harnessed to manipulate information in a desired way. Quantum systems which are designed for this purpose are suffering from harming interaction with their surrounding environment or inaccuracy in control forces. Engineering different methods to combat errors in quantum devices are highly demanding. In this thesis, I focus on realistic formulations of quantum error correction methods. A realistic formulation is the one that incorporates experimental challenges. This thesis is presented in two sections of open quantum system and quantum error correction. Chapters 2 and 3 cover the material on open quantum system theory. It is essential to first study a noise process then to contemplate methods to cancel its effect. In the second chapter, I present the non-completely positive formulation of quantum maps. Most of these results are published in [Shabani and Lidar, 2009b,a], except a subsection on geometric characterization of positivity domain of a quantum map. The real-time formulation of the dynamics is the topic of the third chapter. After introducing the concept of Markovian regime, A new post-Markovian quantum master equation is derived, published in [Shabani and Lidar, 2005a]. The section of quantum error correction is presented in three chapters of 4, 5, 6 and 7. In chapter 4, we introduce a generalized theory of decoherence-free subspaces and subsystems (DFSs), which do not require accurate initialization (published in [Shabani and Lidar, 2005b]). In Chapter 5, we present a semidefinite program optimization approach to quantum error correction that yields codes and recovery procedures that are robust against significant variations in the noise channel. Our approach allows us to optimize the encoding, recovery, or both, and is amenable to approximations that significantly improve computational cost while retaining fidelity (see [Kosut et al., 2008] for a published version). Chapter 6 is devoted to a theory of quantum error correction (QEC

  19. Coherence protection in coupled quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammack, H. M.; Kirton, P.; Stace, T. M.; Eastham, P. R.; Keeling, J.; Lovett, B. W.

    2018-02-01

    The interaction of a quantum system with its environment causes decoherence, setting a fundamental limit on its suitability for quantum information processing. However, we show that if the system consists of coupled parts with different internal energy scales then the interaction of one part with a thermal bath need not lead to loss of coherence from the other. Remarkably, we find that the protected part can remain coherent for longer when the coupling to the bath becomes stronger or the temperature is raised. Our theory will enable the design of decoherence-resistant hybrid quantum computers.

  20. System and method for making quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman; Pan, Jun; El-Ballouli, Ala'a O.; Knudsen, Kristian Rahbek; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of making quantum dots (QDs) (passivated or unpassivated) using a continuous flow process, systems for making QDs using a continuous flow process, and the like. In one or more embodiments

  1. Stabilization of classic and quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buts, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the mechanism of quantum whirligig can be successfully used for stabilization of classical systems. In particular, the conditions for stabilization of charged particles and radiation fluxes in plasma are found.

  2. Ground states of quantum spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratteli, Ola; Kishimoto, Akitaka; Robinson, D.W.

    1978-07-01

    The authors prove that ground states of quantum spin systems are characterized by a principle of minimum local energy and that translationally invariant ground states are characterized by the principle of minimum energy per unit volume

  3. Quantum Phenomena in Low-Dimensional Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Geller, Michael R.

    2001-01-01

    A brief summary of the physics of low-dimensional quantum systems is given. The material should be accessible to advanced physics undergraduate students. References to recent review articles and books are provided when possible.

  4. Quantum fluctuations in mesoscopic and macroscopic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerdeira, H.A.; Guinea Lopez, F.; Weiss, U.

    1991-01-01

    The conference presentations have been grouped in three chapters; Quantum Transport (4 papers), Dissipation in Discrete Systems (7 papers) and Mesoscopic Junction, Rings and Arrays (6 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs and figs

  5. Approach to equilibrium in infinite quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, R.

    1975-01-01

    Ergodic theory of infinite quantum systems is discussed. The framework of this theory is based in an algebra of quasi-local observables. Nonrelativistic situation, i.e., Galilei invariance and Clifford algebra, is used [pt

  6. Effect of quantum lattice fluctuations on quantum coherent oscillations in a coherently driven quantum dot-cavity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Ka-Di; Li, Wai-Sang

    2003-01-01

    The quantum coherent oscillations in a coherently driven quantum dot-cavity system with the presence of strong exciton-phonon interactions are investigated theoretically in a fully quantum treatment. It is shown that even at zero temperature, the strong exciton-phonon interactions still affect the quantum coherent oscillations significantly

  7. Quantum key distribution without sending a quantum signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralph, T C; Walk, N

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Key Distribution is a quantum communication technique in which random numbers are encoded on quantum systems, usually photons, and sent from one party, Alice, to another, Bob. Using the data sent via the quantum signals, supplemented by classical communication, it is possible for Alice and Bob to share an unconditionally secure secret key. This is not possible if only classical signals are sent. While this last statement is a long standing result from quantum information theory it turns out only to be true in a non-relativistic setting. If relativistic quantum field theory is considered we show it is possible to distribute an unconditionally secure secret key without sending a quantum signal, instead harnessing the intrinsic entanglement between different regions of space–time. The protocol is practical in free space given horizon technology and might be testable in principle in the near term using microwave technology. (paper)

  8. Relativistic Wigner functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bialynicki-Birula Iwo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Original definition of the Wigner function can be extended in a natural manner to relativistic domain in the framework of quantum field theory. Three such generalizations are described. They cover the cases of the Dirac particles, the photon, and the full electromagnetic field.

  9. Relativistic Polarizable Embedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegård, Erik Donovan; Bast, Radovan; Kongsted, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Most chemistry, including chemistry where relativistic effects are important, occurs in an environment, and in many cases, this environment has a significant effect on the chemistry. In nonrelativistic quantum chemistry, a lot of progress has been achieved with respect to including environments s...

  10. The fractional dynamics of quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Longzhao; Yu, Xiangyang

    2018-05-01

    The fractional dynamic process of a quantum system is a novel and complicated problem. The establishment of a fractional dynamic model is a significant attempt that is expected to reveal the mechanism of fractional quantum system. In this paper, a generalized time fractional Schrödinger equation is proposed. To study the fractional dynamics of quantum systems, we take the two-level system as an example and derive the time fractional equations of motion. The basic properties of the system are investigated by solving this set of equations in the absence of light field analytically. Then, when the system is subject to the light field, the equations are solved numerically. It shows that the two-level system described by the time fractional Schrödinger equation we proposed is a confirmable system.

  11. Exotic quantum order in low-dimensional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvin, S. M.

    1998-08-01

    Strongly correlated quantum systems in low dimensions often exhibit novel quantum ordering. This ordering is sometimes hidden and can be revealed only by examining new "dual" types of correlations. Such ordering leads to novel collection modes and fractional quantum numbers. Examples will be presented from quantum spin chains and the quantum Hall effect.

  12. CIME School on Quantum Many Body Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Solovej, Jan Philip; Spencer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The book is based on the lectures given at the CIME school "Quantum many body systems" held in the summer of 2010. It provides a tutorial introduction to recent advances in the mathematics of interacting systems, written by four leading experts in the field: V. Rivasseau illustrates the applications of constructive Quantum Field Theory to 2D interacting electrons and their relation to quantum gravity; R. Seiringer describes a proof of Bose-Einstein condensation in the Gross-Pitaevski limit and explains the effects of rotating traps and the emergence of lattices of quantized vortices; J.-P. Solovej gives an introduction to the theory of quantum Coulomb systems and to the functional analytic methods used to prove their thermodynamic stability; finally, T. Spencer explains the supersymmetric approach to Anderson localization and its relation to the theory of random matrices. All the lectures are characterized by their mathematical rigor combined with physical insights.

  13. Numerical Relativistic Quantum Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    Camilo, V.M. Kaspi, A.G. Lyne, R.N. Manchester, J.F. Bell, N. D’Amico, N.P.F. McKay, 24 and F. Crawford. Discovery of two high magnetic field radio... pulsars . The Astrophysical Journal, 541:367–373, Sep 2000. [15] M. Tatarakis, I. Watts, F.N. Beg, E.L. Clark, A.E. Dangor, A. Gopal, M.G. Haines, P.A

  14. Quantum Bit Commitment and the Reality of the Quantum State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, R.

    2018-01-01

    Quantum bit commitment is insecure in the standard non-relativistic quantum cryptographic framework, essentially because Alice can exploit quantum steering to defer making her commitment. Two assumptions in this framework are that: (a) Alice knows the ensembles of evidence E corresponding to either commitment; and (b) system E is quantum rather than classical. Here, we show how relaxing assumption (a) or (b) can render her malicious steering operation indeterminable or inexistent, respectively. Finally, we present a secure protocol that relaxes both assumptions in a quantum teleportation setting. Without appeal to an ontological framework, we argue that the protocol's security entails the reality of the quantum state, provided retrocausality is excluded.

  15. Isoperiodic classical systems and their quantum counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asorey, M.; Carinena, J.F.; Marmo, G.; Perelomov, A.

    2007-01-01

    One-dimensional isoperiodic classical systems have been first analyzed by Abel. Abel's characterization can be extended for singular potentials and potentials which are not defined on the whole real line. The standard shear equivalence of isoperiodic potentials can also be extended by using reflection and inversion transformations. We provide a full characterization of isoperiodic rational potentials showing that they are connected by translations, reflections or Joukowski transformations. Upon quantization many of these isoperiodic systems fail to exhibit identical quantum energy spectra. This anomaly occurs at order O(h 2 ) because semiclassical corrections of energy levels of order O(h) are identical for all isoperiodic systems. We analyze families of systems where this quantum anomaly occurs and some special systems where the spectral identity is preserved by quantization. Conversely, we point out the existence of isospectral quantum systems which do not correspond to isoperiodic classical systems

  16. Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations. For classical, relativistic and nano systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, D.

    2006-01-01

    An up-to-date survey on numerical solutions with theory, intuition and applications. Ordinary differential equations (ODE) play a significant role in mathematics, physics and engineering sciences, and thus are part of relevant college and university courses. Many problems, however, both traditional and modern, do not possess exact solutions, and must be treated numerically. Usually this is done with software packages, but for this to be efficient requires a sound understanding of the mathematics involved. This work meets the need for an affordable textbook that helps in understanding numerical solutions of ODE. Carefully structured by an experienced textbook author, it provides a survey of ODE for various applications, both classical and modern, including such special applications as relativistic and nano systems. The examples are carefully explained and compiled into an algorithm, each of which is presented generically, independent of a specific programming language, while each chapter is rounded off with exercises. The text meets the demands of MA200 courses and of the newly created Numerical Solution of Differential Equations courses, making it ideal for both students and lecturers in physics, mathematics, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, as well as for physicists, mathematicians, engineers, and electrical engineers. From the Contents - Euler's Method - Runge-Kutta Methods - The Method of Taylor Expansions - Large Second Order Systems with Application to Nano Systems - Completely Conservative, Covariant Numerical Methodology - Instability - Numerical Solution of Tridiagonal Linear Algebraic Systems and Related Nonlinear Systems - Approximate Solution of Boundary Value Problems - Special Relativistic Motion - Special Topics - Appendix: Basic Matrix Operations - Bibliography. (orig.) (orig.)

  17. Quantum system lifetimes and measurement perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najakov, E.

    1977-05-01

    The recently proposed description of quantum system decay in terms of repeated measurement perturbations is modified. The possibility of retarded reductions to a unique quantum state, due to ineffective localization of the decay products at initial time measurements, is simply taken into account. The exponential decay law is verified again. A modified equation giving the observed lifetime in terms of unperturbed quantum decay law, measurement frequency and reduction law is derived. It predicts deviations of the observed lifetime from the umperturbed one, together with a dependence on experimental procedures. The influence of different model unperturbed decay laws and reduction laws on this effect is studied

  18. Relativistic particle in a box: Klein-Gordon versus Dirac equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, Pedro; Das, Saurya; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2018-03-01

    The problem of a particle in a box is probably the simplest problem in quantum mechanics which allows for significant insight into the nature of quantum systems and thus is a cornerstone in the teaching of quantum mechanics. In relativistic quantum mechanics this problem allows also to highlight the implications of special relativity for quantum physics, namely the effect that spin has on the quantised energy spectra. To illustrate this point, we solve the problem of a spin zero relativistic particle in a one- and three-dimensional box using the Klein-Gordon equation in the Feshbach-Villars formalism. We compare the solutions and the energy spectra obtained with the corresponding ones from the Dirac equation for a spin one-half relativistic particle. We note the similarities and differences, in particular the spin effects in the relativistic energy spectrum. As expected, the non-relativistic limit is the same for both kinds of particles, since, for a particle in a box, the spin contribution to the energy is a relativistic effect.

  19. Noise management to achieve superiority in quantum information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Kae; Devitt, Simon; Munro, William J.

    2017-06-01

    Quantum information systems are expected to exhibit superiority compared with their classical counterparts. This superiority arises from the quantum coherences present in these quantum systems, which are obviously absent in classical ones. To exploit such quantum coherences, it is essential to control the phase information in the quantum state. The phase is analogue in nature, rather than binary. This makes quantum information technology fundamentally different from our classical digital information technology. In this paper, we analyse error sources and illustrate how these errors must be managed for the system to achieve the required fidelity and a quantum superiority. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'.

  20. Conductance in double quantum well systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasbun, J E

    2003-01-01

    The object of this paper is to review the electronic conductance in double quantum well systems. These are quantum well structures in which electrons are confined in the z direction by large band gap material barrier layers, yet form a free two-dimensional Fermi gas within the sandwiched low band gap material layers in the x-y plane. Aspects related to the conductance in addition to the research progress made since the inception of such systems are included. While the review focuses on the tunnelling conductance properties of double quantum well devices, the longitudinal conductance is also discussed. Double quantum well systems are a more recent generation of structures whose precursors are the well known double-barrier resonant tunnelling systems. Thus, they have electronic signatures such as negative differential resistance, in addition to resonant tunnelling, whose behaviours depend on the wavefunction coupling between the quantum wells. As such, the barrier which separates the quantum wells can be tailored in order to provide better control of the device's electronic properties over their single well ancestors. (topical review)

  1. Quantum optical properties in plasmonic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Plasmonic metallic particle (MP) can affect the optical properties of a quantum system (QS) in a remarkable way. We develop a general quantum nonlinear formalism with exact vectorial description for the scattered photons by the QS. The formalism enables us to study the variations of the dielectric function and photon spectrum of the QS with the particle distance between QS and MP, exciting laser direction, polarization and phase in the presence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in the MP. The quantum formalism also serves as a powerful tool for studying the effects of these parameters on the nonclassical properties of the scattered photons. The plasmonic effect of nanoparticles has promising possibilities as it provides a new way for manipulating quantum optical properties of light in nanophotonic systems.

  2. Liouville equation of relativistic charged fermion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Renchuan; Zhu Dongpei; Huang Zhuoran; Ko Che-ming

    1991-01-01

    As a form of density martrix, the Wigner function is the distribution in quantum phase space. It is a 2 X 2 matrix function when one uses it to describe the non-relativistic fermion. While describing the relativistic fermion, it is usually represented by 4 x 4 matrix function. In this paper authors obtain a Wigner function for the relativistic fermion in the form of 2 x 2 matrix, and the Liouville equation satisfied by the Wigner function. this equivalent to the Dirac equation of changed fermion in QED. The equation is also equivalent to the Dirac equation in the Walecka model applied to the intermediate energy nuclear collision while the nucleon is coupled to the vector meson only (or taking mean field approximation for the scalar meson). Authors prove that the 2 x 2 Wigner function completely describes the quantum system just the same as the relativistic fermion wave function. All the information about the observables can be obtained with above Wigner function

  3. Quantum statistics of many-particle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraeft, W.D.; Ebeling, W.; Kremp, D.; Ropke, G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the elements of quantum statistics and discusses the quantum mechanics of many-particle systems. The method of second quantization is discussed and the Bogolyubov hierarchy is examined. The general properties of the correlation function and one-particle Green's function are examined. The paper presents dynamical and thermodynamical information contained in the spectral function. An equation of motion is given for the one-particle Green's function. T-matrix and thermodynamic properties in binary collision approximation are discussed

  4. Wigner Functions for Arbitrary Quantum Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilma, Todd; Everitt, Mark J; Samson, John H; Munro, William J; Nemoto, Kae

    2016-10-28

    The possibility of constructing a complete, continuous Wigner function for any quantum system has been a subject of investigation for over 50 years. A key system that has served to illustrate the difficulties of this problem has been an ensemble of spins. Here we present a general and consistent framework for constructing Wigner functions exploiting the underlying symmetries in the physical system at hand. The Wigner function can be used to fully describe any quantum system of arbitrary dimension or ensemble size.

  5. Transitivity and ergodicity of quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.; Thirring, W.; Wiklicky, H.

    1987-01-01

    First we try to generalize the notion of a topological transitive or a topologically mixing system for quantum mechanical systems in a consistent way. Furthermore we compare these ergodic properties with the classical results. Finaly we deal with some aspects of nearly abelian systems and investigate some relations between these notions. 11 refs. (Author)

  6. Classical Boolean logic gates with quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, N; Joachim, C

    2011-01-01

    An analytical method is proposed to implement any classical Boolean function in a small quantum system by taking the advantage of its electronic transport properties. The logical input, α = {α 1 , ..., α N }, is used to control well-identified parameters of the Hamiltonian of the system noted H 0 (α). The logical output is encoded in the tunneling current intensity passing through the quantum system when connected to conducting electrodes. It is demonstrated how to implement the six symmetric two-input/one-output Boolean functions in a quantum system. This system can be switched from one logic function to another by changing its structural parameters. The stability of the logic gates is discussed, perturbing the Hamiltonian with noise sources and studying the effect of decoherence.

  7. Probabilistic solutions of generalized birth and death equations and application to non-relativistic electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serva, M.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper we give probabilistic solutions to the equations describing non-relativistic quantum electrodynamical systems. These solutions involve, besides the usual diffusion processes, also birth and death processes corresponding to the 'photons number' variables. We state some inequalities and in particular we establish bounds to the ground state energy of systems composed by a non relativistic particle interacting with a field. The result is general and it is applied as an example to the polaron problem. (orig.)

  8. The Grover energy transfer algorithm for relativistic speeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro, E-mail: juagar@yllera.tel.uva.e [Dpto. de TeorIa de la Senal y Comunicaciones e Ingenieria Telematica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI de Telecomunicacion, Campus Miguel Delibes, Paseo Belen 15, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2010-11-12

    Grover's algorithm for quantum search can also be applied to classical energy transfer. The procedure takes a system in which the total energy is equally distributed among N subsystems and transfers most of it to one marked subsystem. We show that in a relativistic setting the efficiency of this procedure can be improved. We will consider the transfer of relativistic kinetic energy in a series of elastic collisions. In this case, the number of steps of the energy transfer procedure approaches 1 as the initial velocities of the objects become closer to the speed of light. This is a consequence of introducing nonlinearities in the procedure. However, the maximum attainable transfer will depend on the particular combination of speed and number of objects. In the procedure, we will use N elements, as in the classical non-relativistic case, instead of the log{sub 2}(N) states of the quantum algorithm.

  9. The Grover energy transfer algorithm for relativistic speeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Grover's algorithm for quantum search can also be applied to classical energy transfer. The procedure takes a system in which the total energy is equally distributed among N subsystems and transfers most of it to one marked subsystem. We show that in a relativistic setting the efficiency of this procedure can be improved. We will consider the transfer of relativistic kinetic energy in a series of elastic collisions. In this case, the number of steps of the energy transfer procedure approaches 1 as the initial velocities of the objects become closer to the speed of light. This is a consequence of introducing nonlinearities in the procedure. However, the maximum attainable transfer will depend on the particular combination of speed and number of objects. In the procedure, we will use N elements, as in the classical non-relativistic case, instead of the log 2 (N) states of the quantum algorithm.

  10. Incoherent control of locally controllable quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Daoyi; Zhang Chenbin; Rabitz, Herschel; Pechen, Alexander; Tarn, T.-J.

    2008-01-01

    An incoherent control scheme for state control of locally controllable quantum systems is proposed. This scheme includes three steps: (1) amplitude amplification of the initial state by a suitable unitary transformation, (2) projective measurement of the amplified state, and (3) final optimization by a unitary controlled transformation. The first step increases the amplitudes of some desired eigenstates and the corresponding probability of observing these eigenstates, the second step projects, with high probability, the amplified state into a desired eigenstate, and the last step steers this eigenstate into the target state. Within this scheme, two control algorithms are presented for two classes of quantum systems. As an example, the incoherent control scheme is applied to the control of a hydrogen atom by an external field. The results support the suggestion that projective measurements can serve as an effective control and local controllability information can be used to design control laws for quantum systems. Thus, this scheme establishes a subtle connection between control design and controllability analysis of quantum systems and provides an effective engineering approach in controlling quantum systems with partial controllability information.

  11. Localization in a quantum spin Hall system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoda, Masaru; Avishai, Yshai; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2007-02-16

    The localization problem of electronic states in a two-dimensional quantum spin Hall system (that is, a symplectic ensemble with topological term) is studied by the transfer matrix method. The phase diagram in the plane of energy and disorder strength is exposed, and demonstrates "levitation" and "pair annihilation" of the domains of extended states analogous to that of the integer quantum Hall system. The critical exponent nu for the divergence of the localization length is estimated as nu congruent with 1.6, which is distinct from both exponents pertaining to the conventional symplectic and the unitary quantum Hall systems. Our analysis strongly suggests a different universality class related to the topology of the pertinent system.

  12. Quantum games in open systems using biophysical Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, Jean; Portugal, Renato; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the necessary physical conditions to model an open quantum system as a quantum game. By applying the formalism of quantum operations on a particular system, we use Kraus operators as quantum strategies. The physical interpretation is a conflict among different configurations of the environment. The resolution of the conflict displays regimes of minimum loss of information

  13. Quantum games in open systems using biophysical Hamiltonians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, Jean [National Laboratory of Scientific Computing (LNCC), Av. Getulio Vargas 333, Quitandinha 25651-075, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: faber@lncc.br; Portugal, Renato [National Laboratory of Scientific Computing (LNCC), Av. Getulio Vargas 333, Quitandinha 25651-075, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: portugal@lncc.br; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, COPPE-UFRJ, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: lpr@adc.coppe.ufrj.br

    2006-09-25

    We analyze the necessary physical conditions to model an open quantum system as a quantum game. By applying the formalism of quantum operations on a particular system, we use Kraus operators as quantum strategies. The physical interpretation is a conflict among different configurations of the environment. The resolution of the conflict displays regimes of minimum loss of information.

  14. Emergence, evolution, and control of multistability in a hybrid topological quantum/classical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanglei; Xu, Hongya; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2018-03-01

    We present a novel class of nonlinear dynamical systems-a hybrid of relativistic quantum and classical systems and demonstrate that multistability is ubiquitous. A representative setting is coupled systems of a topological insulator and an insulating ferromagnet, where the former possesses an insulating bulk with topologically protected, dissipationless, and conducting surface electronic states governed by the relativistic quantum Dirac Hamiltonian and the latter is described by the nonlinear classical evolution of its magnetization vector. The interactions between the two are essentially the spin transfer torque from the topological insulator to the ferromagnet and the local proximity induced exchange coupling in the opposite direction. The hybrid system exhibits a rich variety of nonlinear dynamical phenomena besides multistability such as bifurcations, chaos, and phase synchronization. The degree of multistability can be controlled by an external voltage. In the case of two coexisting states, the system is effectively binary, opening a door to exploitation for developing spintronic memory devices. Because of the dissipationless and spin-momentum locking nature of the surface currents of the topological insulator, little power is needed for generating a significant current, making the system appealing for potential applications in next generation of low power memory devices.

  15. Scattering theory for open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrndt, Jussi

    2006-01-01

    Quantum systems which interact with their environment are often modeled by maximal dissipative operators or so-called Pseudo-Hamiltonians. In this paper the scattering theory for such open systems is considered. First it is assumed that a single maximal dissipative operator A D in a Hilbert space H is used to describe an open quantum system. In this case the minimal self-adjoint dilation K of A D can be regarded as the Hamiltonian of a closed system which contains the open system {A D ,h}, but since K is necessarily not semibounded from below, this model is difficult to interpret from a physical point of view. In the second part of the paper an open quantum system is modeled with a family {A(μ)} of maximal dissipative operators depending on energy μ, and it is shown that the open system can be embedded into a closed system where the Hamiltonian is semibounded. Surprisingly it turns out that the corresponding scattering matrix can be completely recovered from scattering matrices of single Pseudo-Hamiltonians as in the first part of the paper. The general results are applied to a class of Sturm-Liouville operators arising in dissipative and quantum transmitting Schroedinger-Poisson systems. (orig.)

  16. Scattering theory for open quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrndt, Jussi [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Mathematik; Malamud, Mark M. [Donetsk National University (Ukraine). Dept. of Mathematics; Neidhardt, Hagen [Weierstrass-Institut fuer Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik (WIAS) im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Quantum systems which interact with their environment are often modeled by maximal dissipative operators or so-called Pseudo-Hamiltonians. In this paper the scattering theory for such open systems is considered. First it is assumed that a single maximal dissipative operator A{sub D} in a Hilbert space H is used to describe an open quantum system. In this case the minimal self-adjoint dilation K of A{sub D} can be regarded as the Hamiltonian of a closed system which contains the open system {l_brace}A{sub D},h{r_brace}, but since K is necessarily not semibounded from below, this model is difficult to interpret from a physical point of view. In the second part of the paper an open quantum system is modeled with a family {l_brace}A({mu}){r_brace} of maximal dissipative operators depending on energy {mu}, and it is shown that the open system can be embedded into a closed system where the Hamiltonian is semibounded. Surprisingly it turns out that the corresponding scattering matrix can be completely recovered from scattering matrices of single Pseudo-Hamiltonians as in the first part of the paper. The general results are applied to a class of Sturm-Liouville operators arising in dissipative and quantum transmitting Schroedinger-Poisson systems. (orig.)

  17. Numerical perturbative methods in the quantum theory of physical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, G.

    1980-01-01

    During the last two decades, development of digital electronic computers has led to the deployment of new, distinct methods in theoretical physics. These methods, based on the advances of modern numerical analysis as well as on specific equations describing physical processes, enabled to perform precise calculations of high complexity which have completed and sometimes changed our image of many physical phenomena. Our efforts have concentrated on the development of numerical methods with such intrinsic performances as to allow a successful approach of some Key issues in present theoretical physics on smaller computation systems. The basic principle of such methods is to translate, in numerical analysis language, the theory of perturbations which is suited to numerical rather than to analytical computation. This idea has been illustrated by working out two problems which arise from the time independent Schroedinger equation in the non-relativistic approximation, within both quantum systems with a small number of particles and systems with a large number of particles, respectively. In the first case, we are led to the numerical solution of some quadratic ordinary differential equations (first section of the thesis) and in the second case, to the solution of some secular equations in the Brillouin area (second section). (author)

  18. Communication: Quantum mechanics without wavefunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiff, Jeremy [Department of Mathematics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel); Poirier, Bill [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Box 41061, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1061 (United States) and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Box 41051, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1051 (United States)

    2012-01-21

    We present a self-contained formulation of spin-free non-relativistic quantum mechanics that makes no use of wavefunctions or complex amplitudes of any kind. Quantum states are represented as ensembles of real-valued quantum trajectories, obtained by extremizing an action and satisfying energy conservation. The theory applies for arbitrary configuration spaces and system dimensionalities. Various beneficial ramifications--theoretical, computational, and interpretational--are discussed.

  19. Communication: Quantum mechanics without wavefunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiff, Jeremy; Poirier, Bill

    2012-01-01

    We present a self-contained formulation of spin-free non-relativistic quantum mechanics that makes no use of wavefunctions or complex amplitudes of any kind. Quantum states are represented as ensembles of real-valued quantum trajectories, obtained by extremizing an action and satisfying energy conservation. The theory applies for arbitrary configuration spaces and system dimensionalities. Various beneficial ramifications--theoretical, computational, and interpretational--are discussed.

  20. Recent advances in quantum integrable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amico, L.; Belavin, A.; Buffenoir, E.; Castro Alvaredo, A.; Caudrelier, V.; Chakrabarti, A.; Corrig, E.; Crampe, N.; Deguchi, T.; Dobrev, V.K.; Doikou, A.; Doyon, B.; Feher, L.; Fioravanti, D.; Gohmann, F.; Hallnas, M.; Jimbo, M.; Konno, N.C.H.; Korchemsky, G.; Kulish, P.; Lassalle, M.; Maillet, J.M.; McCoy, B.; Mintchev, M.; Pakuliak, S.; Quano, F.Y.Z.; Ragnisco, R.; Ravanini, F.; Rittenberg, V.; Rivasseau, V.; Rossi, M.; Satta, G.; Sedrakyan, T.; Shiraishi, J.; Suzuki, N.C.J.; Yamada, Y.; Zamolodchikov, A.; Ishimoto, Y.; Nagy, Z.; Posta, S.; Sedra, M.B.; Zuevskiy, A.; Gohmann, F

    2005-07-01

    This meeting was dedicated to different aspects of the theory of quantum integrable systems. The organizers have intended to concentrate on topics related to the study of correlation functions, to systems with boundaries and to models at roots of unity. This document gathers the abstracts of 32 contributions, most of the contributions are accompanied by the set of transparencies.

  1. Recent advances in quantum integrable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amico, L.; Belavin, A.; Buffenoir, E.; Castro Alvaredo, A.; Caudrelier, V.; Chakrabarti, A.; Corrig, E.; Crampe, N.; Deguchi, T.; Dobrev, V.K.; Doikou, A.; Doyon, B.; Feher, L.; Fioravanti, D.; Gohmann, F.; Hallnas, M.; Jimbo, M.; Konno, N.C.H.; Korchemsky, G.; Kulish, P.; Lassalle, M.; Maillet, J.M.; McCoy, B.; Mintchev, M.; Pakuliak, S.; Quano, F.Y.Z.; Ragnisco, R.; Ravanini, F.; Rittenberg, V.; Rivasseau, V.; Rossi, M.; Satta, G.; Sedrakyan, T.; Shiraishi, J.; Suzuki, N.C.J.; Yamada, Y.; Zamolodchikov, A.; Ishimoto, Y.; Nagy, Z.; Posta, S.; Sedra, M.B.; Zuevskiy, A.; Gohmann, F.

    2005-01-01

    This meeting was dedicated to different aspects of the theory of quantum integrable systems. The organizers have intended to concentrate on topics related to the study of correlation functions, to systems with boundaries and to models at roots of unity. This document gathers the abstracts of 32 contributions, most of the contributions are accompanied by the set of transparencies

  2. Epidemic Dynamics in Open Quantum Spin Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Espigares, Carlos; Marcuzzi, Matteo; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Lesanovsky, Igor

    2017-10-01

    We explore the nonequilibrium evolution and stationary states of an open many-body system that displays epidemic spreading dynamics in a classical and a quantum regime. Our study is motivated by recent experiments conducted in strongly interacting gases of highly excited Rydberg atoms where the facilitated excitation of Rydberg states competes with radiative decay. These systems approximately implement open quantum versions of models for population dynamics or disease spreading where species can be in a healthy, infected or immune state. We show that in a two-dimensional lattice, depending on the dominance of either classical or quantum effects, the system may display a different kind of nonequilibrium phase transition. We moreover discuss the observability of our findings in laser driven Rydberg gases with particular focus on the role of long-range interactions.

  3. Criticality and entanglement in random quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refael, G; Moore, J E

    2009-01-01

    We review studies of entanglement entropy in systems with quenched randomness, concentrating on universal behavior at strongly random quantum critical points. The disorder-averaged entanglement entropy provides insight into the quantum criticality of these systems and an understanding of their relationship to non-random ('pure') quantum criticality. The entanglement near many such critical points in one dimension shows a logarithmic divergence in subsystem size, similar to that in the pure case but with a different universal coefficient. Such universal coefficients are examples of universal critical amplitudes in a random system. Possible measurements are reviewed along with the one-particle entanglement scaling at certain Anderson localization transitions. We also comment briefly on higher dimensions and challenges for the future.

  4. Adiabatic Theorem for Quantum Spin Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, S.; De Roeck, W.; Fraas, M.

    2017-08-01

    The first proof of the quantum adiabatic theorem was given as early as 1928. Today, this theorem is increasingly applied in a many-body context, e.g., in quantum annealing and in studies of topological properties of matter. In this setup, the rate of variation ɛ of local terms is indeed small compared to the gap, but the rate of variation of the total, extensive Hamiltonian, is not. Therefore, applications to many-body systems are not covered by the proofs and arguments in the literature. In this Letter, we prove a version of the adiabatic theorem for gapped ground states of interacting quantum spin systems, under assumptions that remain valid in the thermodynamic limit. As an application, we give a mathematical proof of Kubo's linear response formula for a broad class of gapped interacting systems. We predict that the density of nonadiabatic excitations is exponentially small in the driving rate and the scaling of the exponent depends on the dimension.

  5. Develop of a quantum electromechanical hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yu; Rouxinol, Francisco; Brito, Frederico; Caldeira, Amir; Irish, Elinor; Lahaye, Matthew

    In this poster, we will show our results from measurements of a hybrid quantum system composed of a superconducting transmon qubit-coupled and ultra-high frequency nano-mechanical resonator, embedded in a superconducting cavity. The transmon is capacitively coupled to a 3.4GHz nanoresonator and a T-filter-biased high-Q transmission line cavity. Single-tone and two-tone transmission spectroscopy measurements are used to probe the interactions between the cavity, qubit and mechanical resonator. These measurements are in good agreement with numerical simulations based upon a master equation for the tripartite system including dissipation. The results indicate that this system may be developed to serve as a platform for more advanced measurements with nanoresonators, including quantum state measurement, the exploration of nanoresonator quantum noise, and reservoir engineering.

  6. Josephson tunneling in bilayer quantum Hall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezawa, Z.F.; Tsitsishvili, G.; Sawada, A.

    2012-01-01

    A Bose–Einstein condensation is formed by composite bosons in the quantum Hall state. A composite boson carries the fundamental charge (−e). We investigate Josephson tunneling of such charges in the bilayer quantum Hall system at the total filling ν=1. We show the existence of the critical current for the tunneling current to be coherent and dissipationless. Our results explain recent experiments due to [L. Tiemann, Y. Yoon, W. Dietsche, K. von Klitzing, W. Wegscheider, Phys. Rev. B 80 (2009) 165120] and due to [Y. Yoon, L. Tiemann, S. Schmult, W. Dietsche, K. von Klitzing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 (2010) 116802]. We predict also how the critical current changes as the sample is tilted in the magnetic field. -- Highlights: ► Composite bosons undergo Bose–Einstein condensation to form the bilayer quantum Hall state. ► A composite boson is a single electron bound to a flux quantum and carries one unit charge. ► Quantum coherence develops due to the condensation. ► Quantum coherence drives the supercurrent in each layer and the tunneling current. ► There exists the critical input current so that the tunneling current is coherent and dissipationless.

  7. Coherent quantum states of a relativistic particle in an electromagnetic plane wave and a parallel magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colavita, E.; Hacyan, S.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the solutions of the Klein–Gordon and Dirac equations describing a charged particle in an electromagnetic plane wave combined with a magnetic field parallel to the direction of propagation of the wave. It is shown that the Klein–Gordon equation admits coherent states as solutions, while the corresponding solutions of the Dirac equation are superpositions of coherent and displaced-number states. Particular attention is paid to the resonant case in which the motion of the particle is unbounded. -- Highlights: •We study a relativistic electron in a particular electromagnetic field configuration. •New exact solutions of the Klein–Gordon and Dirac equations are obtained. •Coherent and displaced number states can describe a relativistic particle

  8. Duality of two-point functions for confined non-relativistic quark-antiquark systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishbane, P.M.; Gasiorowicz, S.G.; Kaus, P.

    1985-01-01

    An analog to the scattering matrix describes the spectrum and high-energy behavior of confined systems. We show that for non-relativistic systems this S-matrix is identical to a two-point function which transparently describes the bound states for all angular momenta. Confined systems can thus be described in a dual fashion. This result makes it possible to study the modification of linear trajectories (originating in a long-range confining potential) due to short range forces which are unknown except for the way in which they modify the asymptotic behavior of the two point function. A type of effective range expansion is one way to calculate the energy shifts. 9 refs

  9. Pion correlations in relativistic heavy ion collisions at Heavy Ion Spectrometer Systems (HISS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, W.B. Jr.

    1990-05-01

    This thesis contains the setup, analysis and results of experiment E684H ''Multi-Pion Correlations in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions''. The goals of the original proposal were: (1) To initiate the use of the HISS facility in the study of central Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions (RHIC). (2) To perform a second generation experiment for the detailed study of the pion source in RHIC. The first generation experiments, implied by the second goal above, refer to pion correlation studies which the Riverside group had performed at the LBL streamer chamber. The major advantage offered by moving the pion correlation studies to HISS is that, being an electronic detector system, as opposed to the Streamer Chamber which is a visual detector, one can greatly increase the statistics for a study of this sort. An additional advantage is that once one has written the necessary detector and physics analysis code to do a particular type of study, the study may be extended to investigate the systematics, with much less effort and in a relatively short time. This paper discusses the Physics motivation for this experiment, the experimental setup and detectors used, the pion correlation analysis, the results, and the conclusions possible future directions for pion studies at HISS. If one is not interested in all the details of the experiment, I believe that by reading the sections on intensity interferometry, the section the fitting of the correlation function and the systematic corrections applied, and the results section, one will get a fairly complete synopsis of the experiment

  10. Emergence, evolution, and control of multistability in a hybrid topological quantum/classical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanglei; Xu, Hongya; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2018-03-01

    We present a novel class of nonlinear dynamical systems—a hybrid of relativistic quantum and classical systems and demonstrate that multistability is ubiquitous. A representative setting is coupled systems of a topological insulator and an insulating ferromagnet, where the former possesses an insulating bulk with topologically protected, dissipationless, and conducting surface electronic states governed by the relativistic quantum Dirac Hamiltonian and the latter is described by the nonlinear classical evolution of its magnetization vector. The interactions between the two are essentially the spin transfer torque from the topological insulator to the ferromagnet and the local proximity induced exchange coupling in the opposite direction. The hybrid system exhibits a rich variety of nonlinear dynamical phenomena besides multistability such as bifurcations, chaos, and phase synchronization. The degree of multistability can be controlled by an external voltage. In the case of two coexisting states, the system is effectively binary, opening a door to exploitation for developing spintronic memory devices. Because of the dissipationless and spin-momentum locking nature of the surface currents of the topological insulator, little power is needed for generating a significant current, making the system appealing for potential applications in next generation of low power memory devices.

  11. Quantum theory of tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    Razavy, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    In this revised and expanded edition, in addition to a comprehensible introduction to the theoretical foundations of quantum tunneling based on different methods of formulating and solving tunneling problems, different semiclassical approximations for multidimensional systems are presented. Particular attention is given to the tunneling of composite systems, with examples taken from molecular tunneling and also from nuclear reactions. The interesting and puzzling features of tunneling times are given extensive coverage, and the possibility of measurement of these times with quantum clocks are critically examined. In addition by considering the analogy between evanescent waves in waveguides and in quantum tunneling, the times related to electromagnetic wave propagation have been used to explain certain aspects of quantum tunneling times. These topics are treated in both non-relativistic as well as relativistic regimes. Finally, a large number of examples of tunneling in atomic, molecular, condensed matter and ...

  12. Teleportation in an indivisible quantum system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiktenko E.O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Teleportation protocol is conventionally treated as a method for quantum state transfer between two spatially separated physical carriers. Recent experimental progress in manipulation with high-dimensional quantum systems opens a new framework for implementation of teleportation protocols. We show that the one-qubit teleportation can be considered as a state transfer between subspaces of the whole Hilbert space of an indivisible eight-dimensional system. We explicitly show all corresponding operations and discuss an alternative way of implementation of similar tasks.

  13. Tunneling with dissipation in open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamyan, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V.; Scheid, W.

    1997-01-01

    Based on the general form of the master equation for open quantum systems the tunneling is considered. Using the path integral technique a simple closed form expression for the tunneling rate through a parabolic barrier is obtained. The tunneling in the open quantum systems strongly depends on the coupling with environment. We found the cases when the dissipation prohibits tunneling through the barrier but decreases the crossing of the barrier for the energies above the barrier. As a particular application, the case of decay from the metastable state is considered

  14. Theoretical modelling of quantum circuit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiffell, Peter Barry

    2002-01-01

    The work in this thesis concentrates on the interactions between circuit systems operating in the quantum regime. The main thrust of this work involves the use of a new model for investigating the way in which different components in such systems behave when coupled together. This is achieved by utilising the matrix representation of quantum mechanics, in conjunction with a number of other theoretical techniques (such as Wigner functions and entanglement entropies). With these tools in place it then becomes possible to investigate and review different quantum circuit systems. These investigations cover systems ranging from simple electromagnetic (cm) field oscillators in isolation to coupled SQUID rings in more sophisticated multi-component arrangements. Primarily, we look at the way SQUID rings couple to em fields, and how the ring-field interaction can be mediated by the choice of external flux, Φ x , applied to the SQUID ring. A lot of interest is focused on the transfer of energy between the system modes. However, we also investigate the statistical properties of the system, including squeezing, entropy and entanglement. Among the phenomena uncovered in this research we note the ability to control coupling in SQUID rings via the external flux, the capacity for entanglement between quantum circuit modes, frequency conversions of photons, flux squeezing and the existence of Schroedinger Cat states. (author)

  15. Towards practical characterization of quantum systems with quantum Hamiltonian learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santagati, R.; Wang, J.; Paesani, S.; Knauer, S.; Gentile, A. A.; Wiebe, N.; Petruzzella, M.; O'Brien, J. L.; Rarity, J. G.; Laing, A.; Thompson, M. G.

    2017-01-01

    Here we show the first experimental implementation of quantum Hamiltonian Learning, where a silicon-on-insulator quantum photonic simulator is used to learn the dynamics of an electron-spin in an NV center in diamond.

  16. Quantum dynamics of classical stochastic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casati, G

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that one hand Quantum Mechanics introduces limitations to the manifestations of chaotic motion resulting, for the case of the periodically kicked rotator, in the limitation of energy growth; also, as it is confirmed by numerical experiments, phenomena like the exponential instability of orbits, inherent to strongly chaotic systems, are absent here and therefore Quantum Mechanics appear to be more stable and predictable than Classical Mechanics. On the other hand, we have seen that nonrecurrent behavior may arise in Quantum Systems and it is connected to the presence of singular continuous spectrum. We conjecture that the classical chaotic behavior is reflected, at least partially, in the nature of the spectrum and the singular-continuity of the latter may possess a self-similar structure typical of classical chaos.

  17. Quantum information and continuous variable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giedke, G.K.

    2001-08-01

    This thesis treats several questions concerning quantum information theory of infinite dimensional continuous variable (CV) systems. We investigate the separability properties of Gaussian states of such systems. Both the separability and the distillability problem for bipartite Gaussian states are solved by deriving operational criteria for these properties. We consider multipartite Gaussian states and obtain a necessary and sufficient condition that allows the complete classification of three-mode tripartite states according to their separability properties. Moreover we study entanglement distillation protocols. We show that the standard protocols for qubits are robust against imperfect implementation of the required quantum operations. For bipartite Gaussian states we find a universal scheme to distill all distillable states and propose a concrete quantum optical realization. (author)

  18. Correlation Functions in Open Quantum-Classical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Kapral, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Quantum time correlation functions are often the principal objects of interest in experimental investigations of the dynamics of quantum systems. For instance, transport properties, such as diffusion and reaction rate coefficients, can be obtained by integrating these functions. The evaluation of such correlation functions entails sampling from quantum equilibrium density operators and quantum time evolution of operators. For condensed phase and complex systems, where quantum dynamics is diff...

  19. Quantum Computing in Condensed Matter Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Privman, V

    1997-01-01

    Specific theoretical calculations of Hamiltonians corresponding to several quantum logic gates, including the NOT gate, quantum signal splitting, and quantum copying, were obtained and prepared for publication...

  20. On the dynamics of relativistic multi-layer spherical shell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar, Merse E; Racz, Istvan, E-mail: merse@rmki.kfki.hu, E-mail: iracz@rmki.kfki.hu [RMKI, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-04-21

    The relativistic time evolution of multi-layer spherically symmetric shell systems-consisting of infinitely thin shells separated by vacuum regions-is examined. Whenever two shells collide the evolution is continued with the assumption that the collision is totally transparent. The time evolution of various multi-layer shell systems-comprising large number of shells thereby mimicking the behavior of a thick shell making it possible to study the formation of acoustic singularities-is analyzed numerically and compared in certain cases to the corresponding Newtonian time evolution. The analytic setup is chosen such that the developed code is capable of following the evolution even inside the black hole region. This, in particular, allowed us to investigate the mass inflation phenomenon in the chosen framework.

  1. Quantum frustrated and correlated electron systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Thalmeier

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available  Quantum phases and fluctuations in correlated electron systems with frustration and competing interactions are reviewed. In the localized moment case the S=1/2 J1 - J2 - model on a square lattice exhibits a rich phase diagram with magnetic as well as exotic hidden order phases due to the interplay of frustration and quantum fluctuations. Their signature in magnetocaloric quantities and the high field magnetization are surveyed. The possible quantum phase transitions are discussed and applied to layered vanadium oxides. In itinerant electron systems frustration is an emergent property caused by electron correlations. It leads to enhanced spin fluctuations in a very large region of momentum space and therefore may cause heavy fermion type low temperature anomalies as in the 3d spinel compound LiV2O4 . Competing on-site and inter-site electronic interactions in Kondo compounds are responsible for the quantum phase transition between nonmagnetic Kondo singlet phase and magnetic phase such as observed in many 4f compounds. They may be described by Kondo lattice and simplified Kondo necklace type models. Their quantum phase transitions are investigated by numerical exact diagonalization and analytical bond operator methods respectively.

  2. Relativistic two-fermion equations with form factors and anomalous magnetic moment interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.

    1977-04-01

    Relativistic equations for two-fermion systems are derived from quantum field theory taking into account the form factors of the particles. When the q 2 dependence of the form factors is disregarded, in the static approximation, the two-fermion equations with Coulomb and anomalous magnetic moment interactions are obtained. Separating the angular variables, a sixteen-component relativistic radial equation are finally given

  3. Genuine quantum correlations in quantum many-body systems: a review of recent progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Chiara, Gabriele; Sanpera, Anna

    2018-04-19

    Quantum information theory has considerably helped in the understanding of quantum many-body systems. The role of quantum correlations and in particular, bipartite entanglement, has become crucial to characterise, classify and simulate quantum many body systems. Furthermore, the scaling of entanglement has inspired modifications to numerical techniques for the simulation of many-body systems leading to the, now established, area of tensor networks. However, the notions and methods brought by quantum information do not end with bipartite entanglement. There are other forms of correlations embedded in the ground, excited and thermal states of quantum many-body systems that also need to be explored and might be utilised as potential resources for quantum technologies. The aim of this work is to review the most recent developments regarding correlations in quantum many-body systems focussing on multipartite entanglement, quantum nonlocality, quantum discord, mutual information but also other non classical measures of correlations based on quantum coherence. Moreover, we also discuss applications of quantum metrology in quantum many-body systems. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Classical system boundaries cannot be determined within quantum Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Chris

    Multiple observers who interact with environmental encodings of the states of a macroscopic quantum system S as required by quantum Darwinism cannot demonstrate that they are jointly observing S without a joint a priori assumption of a classical boundary separating S from its environment E. Quantum Darwinism cannot, therefore, be regarded as providing a purely quantum-mechanical explanation of the "emergence" of classicality.

  5. Quantum dissipation theory and applications to quantum transport and quantum measurement in mesoscopic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ping

    The thesis comprises two major themes of quantum statistical dynamics. One is the development of quantum dissipation theory (QDT). It covers the establishment of some basic relations of quantum statistical dynamics, the construction of several nonequivalent complete second-order formulations, and the development of exact QDT. Another is related to the applications of quantum statistical dynamics to a variety of research fields. In particular, unconventional but novel theories of the electron transfer in Debye solvents, quantum transport, and quantum measurement are developed on the basis of QDT formulations. The thesis is organized as follows. In Chapter 1, we present some background knowledge in relation to the aforementioned two themes of this thesis. The key quantity in QDT is the reduced density operator rho(t) ≡ trBrho T(t); i.e., the partial trace of the total system and bath composite rhoT(t) over the bath degrees of freedom. QDT governs the evolution of reduced density operator, where the effects of bath are treated in a quantum statistical manner. In principle, the reduced density operator contains all dynamics information of interest. However, the conventional quantum transport theory is formulated in terms of nonequilibrium Green's function. The newly emerging field of quantum measurement in relation to quantum information and quantum computing does exploit a sort of QDT formalism. Besides the background of the relevant theoretical development, some representative experiments on molecular nanojunctions are also briefly discussed. In chapter 2, we outline some basic (including new) relations that highlight several important issues on QDT. The content includes the background of nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics, the general description of the total composite Hamiltonian with stochastic system-bath interaction, a novel parameterization scheme for bath correlation functions, a newly developed exact theory of driven Brownian oscillator (DBO

  6. EDITORIAL: CAMOP: Quantum Non-Stationary Systems CAMOP: Quantum Non-Stationary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodonov, Victor V.; Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2010-09-01

    Although time-dependent quantum systems have been studied since the very beginning of quantum mechanics, they continue to attract the attention of many researchers, and almost every decade new important discoveries or new fields of application are made. Among the impressive results or by-products of these studies, one should note the discovery of the path integral method in the 1940s, coherent and squeezed states in the 1960-70s, quantum tunneling in Josephson contacts and SQUIDs in the 1960s, the theory of time-dependent quantum invariants in the 1960-70s, different forms of quantum master equations in the 1960-70s, the Zeno effect in the 1970s, the concept of geometric phase in the 1980s, decoherence of macroscopic superpositions in the 1980s, quantum non-demolition measurements in the 1980s, dynamics of particles in quantum traps and cavity QED in the 1980-90s, and time-dependent processes in mesoscopic quantum devices in the 1990s. All these topics continue to be the subject of many publications. Now we are witnessing a new wave of interest in quantum non-stationary systems in different areas, from cosmology (the very first moments of the Universe) and quantum field theory (particle pair creation in ultra-strong fields) to elementary particle physics (neutrino oscillations). A rapid increase in the number of theoretical and experimental works on time-dependent phenomena is also observed in quantum optics, quantum information theory and condensed matter physics. Time-dependent tunneling and time-dependent transport in nano-structures are examples of such phenomena. Another emerging direction of study, stimulated by impressive progress in experimental techniques, is related to attempts to observe the quantum behavior of macroscopic objects, such as mirrors interacting with quantum fields in nano-resonators. Quantum effects manifest themselves in the dynamics of nano-electromechanical systems; they are dominant in the quite new and very promising field of circuit

  7. New relativistic generalization of the Heisenberg commutation relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, A.; Loewe, M.; Magnollay, P.; Tarlini, M.; Aldinger, R.R.; Kielanowski, P.

    1984-01-01

    A relativistic generalization of the Heisenberg commutation relations is suggested which is different from the conventional ones used for the intrinsic coordinates and momenta in the relativistic oscillator model and the relativistic string. This new quantum relativistic oscillator model is determined by the requirement that it gives a unified description of relativistic vibrations and rotations and contracts in the nonrelativistic limit c -1 →0 into the usual nonrelativistic harmonic oscillator

  8. Relativistic astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Demianski, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Relativistic Astrophysics brings together important astronomical discoveries and the significant achievements, as well as the difficulties in the field of relativistic astrophysics. This book is divided into 10 chapters that tackle some aspects of the field, including the gravitational field, stellar equilibrium, black holes, and cosmology. The opening chapters introduce the theories to delineate gravitational field and the elements of relativistic thermodynamics and hydrodynamics. The succeeding chapters deal with the gravitational fields in matter; stellar equilibrium and general relativity

  9. Delocalization of Relativistic Dirac Particles in Disordered One-Dimensional Systems and Its Implementation with Cold Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shiliang; Zhang Danwei; Wang, Z. D.

    2009-01-01

    We study theoretically the localization of relativistic particles in disordered one-dimensional chains. It is found that the relativistic particles tend to delocalization in comparison with the nonrelativistic particles with the same disorder strength. More intriguingly, we reveal that the massless Dirac particles are entirely delocalized for any energy due to the inherent chiral symmetry, leading to a well-known result that particles are always localized in one-dimensional systems for arbitrary weak disorders to break down. Furthermore, we propose a feasible scheme to detect the delocalization feature of the Dirac particles with cold atoms in a light-induced gauge field.

  10. Birkhoffian Symplectic Scheme for a Quantum System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Hongling

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a classical system of ordinary differential equations is built to describe a kind of n-dimensional quantum systems. The absorption spectrum and the density of the states for the system are defined from the points of quantum view and classical view. From the Birkhoffian form of the equations, a Birkhoffian symplectic scheme is derived for solving n-dimensional equations by using the generating function method. Besides the Birkhoffian structure-preserving, the new scheme is proven to preserve the discrete local energy conservation law of the system with zero vector f. Some numerical experiments for a 3-dimensional example show that the new scheme can simulate the general Birkhoffian system better than the implicit midpoint scheme, which is well known to be symplectic scheme for Hamiltonian system. (general)

  11. An impurity-induced gap system as a quantum data bus for quantum state transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Bing; Li, Yong; Song, Z.; Sun, C.-P.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a tight-binding chain with a single impurity to act as a quantum data bus for perfect quantum state transfer. Our proposal is based on the weak coupling limit of the two outermost quantum dots to the data bus, which is a gapped system induced by the impurity. By connecting two quantum dots to two sites of the data bus, the system can accomplish a high-fidelity and long-distance quantum state transfer. Numerical simulations for finite system show that the numerical and analytical results of the effective coupling strength agree well with each other. Moreover, we study the robustness of this quantum communication protocol in the presence of disorder in the couplings between the nearest-neighbor quantum dots. We find that the gap of the system plays an important role in robust quantum state transfer

  12. SUSY anomaly in quantum-mechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilga, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Explicit examples of supersymmetric systems involving finite numbers of degrees of freedom where quantum supersymmetry algebra cannot be preserved on the classical level, are constructed. Resolving the ordering ambiguities in different ways leads either to a modified algebra or to a reduced algebra, or totally destroys supersymmetry

  13. System and method for making quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2015-05-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of making quantum dots (QDs) (passivated or unpassivated) using a continuous flow process, systems for making QDs using a continuous flow process, and the like. In one or more embodiments, the QDs produced using embodiments of the present disclosure can be used in solar photovoltaic cells, bio-imaging, IR emitters, or LEDs.

  14. Quantum distribution function of nonequilibrium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogo, Kiyoshi; Fujimoto, Yasushi.

    1990-03-01

    A path integral representation is derived for the Wigner distribution function of a nonequilibrium system coupled with heat bath. Under appropriate conditions, the Wigner distribution function approaches an equilibrium distribution, which manifests shifting and broadening of spectral lines due to the interaction with heat bath. It is shown that the equilibrium distribution becomes the quantum canonical distribution in the vanishing coupling constant limit. (author)

  15. Quantum dissipation of a simple conservative system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibeh, G. J.; Mshelia, E. D.

    2014-01-01

    A model of quantum dissipative system is presented. Here dissipation of energy is demonstrated as based on the coupling of a free translational motion of a centre of mass to a harmonic oscillator. The two-dimensional arrangement of two coupled particles of different masses is considered.

  16. Quantum field theory and multiparticle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trlifaj, M.

    1981-01-01

    The use of quantum field theory methods for the investigation of the physical characteristics of the MANY-BODY SYSTEMS is discussed. Mainly discussed is the method of second quantization and the method of the Green functions. Briefly discussed is the method of calculating the Green functions at finite temperatures. (Z.J.)

  17. Exceptional points in open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Markus; Rotter, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    Open quantum systems are embedded in the continuum of scattering wavefunctions and are naturally described by non-Hermitian Hamilton operators. In the complex energy plane, exceptional points appear at which two (or more) eigenvalues of the Hamilton operator coalesce. Although they are a countable set of single points in the complex energy plane and therefore of measure zero, they determine decisively the dynamics of open quantum systems. A powerful method for the description of open quantum systems is the Feshbach projection operator formalism. It is used in the present paper as a basic tool for the study of exceptional points and of the role they play for the dynamics of open quantum systems. Among others, the topological structure of the exceptional points, the rigidity of the phases of the eigenfunctions in their vicinity, the enhancement of observable values due to the reduced phase rigidity and the appearance of phase transitions are considered. The results are compared with existing experimental data on microwave cavities. In the last section, some questions being still unsolved, are considered

  18. Coherent control in simple quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prants, Sergey V.

    1995-01-01

    Coherent dynamics of two, three, and four-level quantum systems, simultaneously driven by concurrent laser pulses of arbitrary and different forms, is treated by using a nonperturbative, group-theoretical approach. The respective evolution matrices are calculated in an explicit form. General aspects of controllability of few-level atoms by using laser fields are treated analytically.

  19. Optimal control of complex atomic quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Frank, S; Bonneau, M; Schmiedmayer, J; Hild, S; Gross, C; Cheneau, M; Bloch, I; Pichler, T; Negretti, A; Calarco, T; Montangero, S

    2016-10-11

    Quantum technologies will ultimately require manipulating many-body quantum systems with high precision. Cold atom experiments represent a stepping stone in that direction: a high degree of control has been achieved on systems of increasing complexity. However, this control is still sub-optimal. In many scenarios, achieving a fast transformation is crucial to fight against decoherence and imperfection effects. Optimal control theory is believed to be the ideal candidate to bridge the gap between early stage proof-of-principle demonstrations and experimental protocols suitable for practical applications. Indeed, it can engineer protocols at the quantum speed limit - the fastest achievable timescale of the transformation. Here, we demonstrate such potential by computing theoretically and verifying experimentally the optimal transformations in two very different interacting systems: the coherent manipulation of motional states of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate and the crossing of a quantum phase transition in small systems of cold atoms in optical lattices. We also show that such processes are robust with respect to perturbations, including temperature and atom number fluctuations.

  20. Correlation effects in superconducting quantum dot systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, Vladislav; Žonda, Martin

    2018-05-01

    We study the effect of electron correlations on a system consisting of a single-level quantum dot with local Coulomb interaction attached to two superconducting leads. We use the single-impurity Anderson model with BCS superconducting baths to study the interplay between the proximity induced electron pairing and the local Coulomb interaction. We show how to solve the model using the continuous-time hybridization-expansion quantum Monte Carlo method. The results obtained for experimentally relevant parameters are compared with results of self-consistent second order perturbation theory as well as with the numerical renormalization group method.

  1. Group Theoretical Approach for Controlled Quantum Mechanical Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tarn, Tzyh-Jong

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research is the study of controllability of quantum mechanical systems and feedback control of de-coherence in order to gain an insight on the structure of control of quantum systems...

  2. Symmetry and stability of open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scutaru, H.

    1979-01-01

    The presentation of the thesis involves an introduction and six chapters. Chapter 1 presents notions and results used in the other chpaters. Chapters 2-6 present our results which are focused on two notions: generalized observable and dynamic semigroup. These notions characterize a specific research domain (set up during the last 10 years) which is currently called quantum mechanics of open systems. The two notions (generalized observable and dynamic semigroup) are mathematically correlated. They belong to the set of completely positive linear applications among observable algebras. This fact, associated with that formulation of quantum mechanics according to which it is a special case of quantum mechanics namely, that for which the observable algebra is commutative, help to understand the similar essence of the results presented in chapter 2-6. Thus, the natural mathematical background has been achieved for our results; it is represented by that category whose objects are the observable algebras and whose morphisms are completely positive linear contractions generating unity within unity. These ideas are extensively presented in the introduction. The fact that the relations between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics can be rigorously treated as positive linear applications between classical observable algebras commutative and quantum observable algebras non-commutative, which are automatically fully positive, has been initially shown in our paper. (author)

  3. The brachistochrone problem in open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotter, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the quantum brachistochrone problem has been discussed in the literature by using non-Hermitian Hamilton operators of different types. Here, it is demonstrated that the passage time is tunable in realistic open quantum systems due to the biorthogonality of the eigenfunctions of the non-Hermitian Hamilton operator. As an example, the numerical results obtained by Bulgakov et al for the transmission through microwave cavities of different shapes are analyzed from the point of view of the brachistochrone problem. The passage time is shortened in the crossover from the weak-coupling to the strong-coupling regime where the resonance states overlap and many branch points (exceptional points) in the complex plane exist. The effect can not be described in the framework of the standard quantum mechanics with the Hermitian Hamilton operator and consideration of S matrix poles

  4. Relativistic impulse dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Stanley M

    2011-08-01

    Classical electrodynamics has some annoying rough edges. The self-energy of charges is infinite without a cutoff. The calculation of relativistic trajectories is difficult because of retardation and an average radiation reaction term. By reconceptuallizing electrodynamics in terms of exchanges of impulses rather than describing it by forces and potentials, we eliminate these problems. A fully relativistic theory using photonlike null impulses is developed. Numerical calculations for a two-body, one-impulse-in-transit model are discussed. A simple relationship between center-of-mass scattering angle and angular momentum was found. It reproduces the Rutherford cross section at low velocities and agrees with the leading term of relativistic distinguishable-particle quantum cross sections (Møller, Mott) when the distance of closest approach is larger than the Compton wavelength of the particle. Magnetism emerges as a consequence of viewing retarded and advanced interactions from the vantage point of an instantaneous radius vector. Radiation reaction becomes the local conservation of energy-momentum between the radiating particle and the emitted impulse. A net action is defined that could be used in developing quantum dynamics without potentials. A reinterpretation of Newton's laws extends them to relativistic motion.

  5. RF Beam control system for the Brookhaven relativistic heavy ion collider, RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, J.M.; Campbell, A.; Delong, J.; Hayes, T.; Onillon, E.; Rose, J.; Vetter, K.

    1998-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC, is two counter-rotating rings with six interaction points. The RF Beam Control system for each ring will control two 28 MHz cavities for acceleration, and five 197 MHz cavities for preserving the 5 ns bunch length during 10 hour beam stores. Digital technology is used extensively in: Direct Digital Synthesis of rf signals and Digital Signal Processing for, the realization of state-variable feedback loops, real-time calculation of rf frequency, and bunch-by-bunch phase measurement of the 120 bunches. DSP technology enables programming the parameters of the feedback loops in order to obtain closed-loop dynamics that are independent of synchrotron frequency

  6. A Universal Scaling for the Energetics of Relativistic Jets From Black Hole Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemmen, R. S.; Georganopoulos, M.; Guiriec, S.; Meyer, E. T.; Gehrels, N.; Sambruna, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Black holes generate collimated, relativistic jets which have been observed in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), microquasars, and at the center of some galaxies (active galactic nuclei; AGN). How jet physics scales from stellar black holes in GRBs to the supermassive ones in AGNs is still unknown. Here we show that jets produced by AGNs and GRBs exhibit the same correlation between the kinetic power carried by accelerated particles and the gamma-ray luminosity, with AGNs and GRBs lying at the low and high-luminosity ends, respectively, of the correlation. This result implies that the efficiency of energy dissipation in jets produced in black hole systems is similar over 10 orders of magnitude in jet power, establishing a physical analogy between AGN and GRBs.

  7. RF beam control system for the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, J.M.; Campbell, A.; DeLong, J.; Hayes, T.; Onillon, E.; Rose, J.; Vetter, K.

    1998-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC, is two counter-rotating rings with six interaction points. The RF Beam Control system for each ring will control two 28 MHz cavities for acceleration, and five 197 MHz cavities for preserving the 5 ns bunch length during 10 hour beam stores. Digital technology is used extensively in: Direct Digital Synthesis of rf signals and Digital Signal Processing for, the realization of state-variable feedback loops, real-time calculation of rf frequency, and bunch-by-bunch phase measurement of the 120 bunches. DSP technology enables programming the parameters of the feedback loops in order to obtain closed-loop dynamics that are independent of synchrotron frequency

  8. Three-body forces, relativistic effects, isobars, and pions in nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiringa, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    Conventional microscopic calculations in nuclear physics start from a nonrelativistic Hamiltonian. The many-body Schroedinger equation is then solved to obtain the ground state energy, wave function, and expectation values of other quantities of interest. Such a procedure gives a qualitative description of nuclear saturation properties, but it is now well established that the simple H is quantitatively inadequate. For example, the light nuclei are underbound with too large a charge radius, while nuclear matter is overbound at far too high a density. This note reviews recent studies that go beyond the simple H. These include 1) the introduction of three-nucleon potentials, 2) estimates of relativistic effects, 3) the introduction of isobar degrees of freedom in the two-body potential, and 4) probing the influence of pion degrees of freedom on nuclear systems

  9. System for detecting neutrons in the harsh radiation environment of a relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, L.W.

    1978-06-01

    Newly developed detectors and procedures allow measurement of neutron yield and energy in the harsh radiation environment of a relativistic electron beam source. A new photomultiplier tube design and special gating methods provide the basis for novel time-of-flight and total-yield detectors. The technique of activation analysis is expanded to provide a neutron energy spectrometer. There is a demonstrated potential in the use of the integrated system as a valuable diagnostic tool to study particle-beam fusion, intense ion-beam interactions, and pulsed neutron sources for simulating weapons effects. A physical lower limit of 10 8 neutrons into 4π is established for accurate and meaningful measurements in the REB environment

  10. Relativistic self-focusing of intense laser beam in thermal collisionless quantum plasma with ramped density profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zare

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of a Gaussian x-ray laser beam has been analyzed in collisionless thermal quantum plasma with considering a ramped density profile. In this density profile due to the increase in the plasma density, an earlier and stronger self-focusing effect is noticed where the beam width oscillates with higher frequency and less amplitude. Moreover, the effect of the density profile slope and the initial plasma density on the laser propagation has been studied. It is found that, by increasing the initial density and the ramp slope, the laser beam focuses faster with less oscillation amplitude, smaller laser spot size and more oscillations. Furthermore, a comparison is made among the laser self-focusing in thermal quantum plasma, cold quantum plasma and classical plasma. It is realized that the laser self-focusing in the quantum plasma becomes stronger in comparison with the classical regime.

  11. Integrable couplings of relativistic Toda lattice systems in polynomial form and rational form, their hierarchies and bi-Hamiltonian structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Xixiang [College of Science, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266510 (China)], E-mail: xixiang_xu@yahoo.com.cn

    2009-10-02

    Integrable couplings of relativistic Toda lattice systems in polynomial form and rational form, and their hierarchies, are derived from a four-by-four discrete matrix eigenvalue problem. The bi-Hamiltonian structure for every integrable coupling in the two hierarchies obtained is established by means of the discrete variational identity. Ultimately, Liouvolle integrability of the obtained integrable couplings is demonstrated.

  12. Relativistic Kinetic Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereshchagin, Gregory V.; Aksenov, Alexey G.

    2017-02-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Acronyms and definitions; Introduction; Part I. Theoretical Foundations: 1. Basic concepts; 2. Kinetic equation; 3. Averaging; 4. Conservation laws and equilibrium; 5. Relativistic BBGKY hierarchy; 6. Basic parameters in gases and plasmas; Part II. Numerical Methods: 7. The basics of computational physics; 8. Direct integration of Boltzmann equations; 9. Multidimensional hydrodynamics; Part III. Applications: 10. Wave dispersion in relativistic plasma; 11. Thermalization in relativistic plasma; 12. Kinetics of particles in strong fields; 13. Compton scattering in astrophysics and cosmology; 14. Self-gravitating systems; 15. Neutrinos, gravitational collapse and supernovae; Appendices; Bibliography; Index.

  13. The relativistic rotation of spin and asymptotic behaviour of the form factor of the composite system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trubnikov, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    The relativistic rotation of nucleon spin in addition to deuteron spin leads to the appearance of the new term in the deuteron charge form factor (DCFF). This term is absent in the traditional approaches and essentially influences the asymptotic behaviour of DCFF. General formulae are obtained for the DCFF asymptotics in the relativistic and nonrelativistic impulse approximation

  14. Relativistic Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Li, Kunyang

    2018-02-01

    The “Breakthrough Starshot” aims at sending near-speed-of-light cameras to nearby stellar systems in the future. Due to the relativistic effects, a transrelativistic camera naturally serves as a spectrograph, a lens, and a wide-field camera. We demonstrate this through a simulation of the optical-band image of the nearby galaxy M51 in the rest frame of the transrelativistic camera. We suggest that observing celestial objects using a transrelativistic camera may allow one to study the astronomical objects in a special way, and to perform unique tests on the principles of special relativity. We outline several examples that suggest transrelativistic cameras may make important contributions to astrophysics and suggest that the Breakthrough Starshot cameras may be launched in any direction to serve as a unique astronomical observatory.

  15. Large quantum systems: a mathematical and numerical perspective; Systemes quantiques a grand nombre de particules: une perspective mathematique et numerique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewin, M.

    2009-06-15

    This thesis is devoted to the mathematical study of variational models for large quantum systems. The mathematical methods are that of nonlinear analysis, calculus of variations, partial differential equations, spectral theory, and numerical analysis. The first part contains some results on finite systems. We study several approximations of the N-body Schroedinger equation for electrons in an atom or a molecule, and then the so-called Hartree-Fock- Bogoliubov model for a system of fermions interacting via the gravitational force. In a second part, we propose a new method allowing to prove the existence of the thermodynamic limit of Coulomb quantum systems. Then, we construct two Hartree-Fock-type models for infinite systems. The first is a relativistic theory deduced from Quantum Electrodynamics, allowing to describe the behavior of electrons, coupled to that of Dirac's vacuum which can become polarized. The second model describes a nonrelativistic quantum crystal in the presence of a charged defect. A new numerical method is also proposed. The last part of the thesis is devoted to spectral pollution, a phenomenon which is observed when trying to approximate eigenvalues in a gap of the essential spectrum of a self-adjoint operator, for instance for periodic Schroedinger operators or Dirac operators. (author)

  16. Dissipation Assisted Quantum Memory with Coupled Spin Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liang; Verstraete, Frank; Cirac, Ignacio; Lukin, Mikhail

    2009-05-01

    Dissipative dynamics often destroys quantum coherences. However, one can use dissipation to suppress decoherence. A well-known example is the so-called quantum Zeno effect, in which one can freeze the evolution using dissipative processes (e.g., frequently projecting the system to its initial state). Similarly, the undesired decoherence of quantum bits can also be suppressed using controlled dissipation. We propose and analyze the use of this generalization of quantum Zeno effect for protecting the quantum information encoded in the coupled spin systems. This new approach may potentially enhance the performance of quantum memories, in systems such as nitrogen-vacancy color-centers in diamond.

  17. Relativistic three-particle dynamical equations: II. Application to the trinucleon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S.K.; Tomio, L.

    1993-11-01

    The contribution of relativistic dynamics on the neutron-deuteron scattering length and triton binding energy is calculated employing five sets tri nucleon potential models and four types of three-dimensional relativistic three-body equations suggested in the preceding paper. The relativistic correction to binding energy may vary a lot and even change sign depending on the relativistic formulation employed. The deviations of these observables from those obtained in nonrelativistic models follow the general universal trend of deviations introduced by off- and on-shell variations of two- and three-nucleon potentials in a nonrelativistic model calculation. Consequently, it will be difficult to separate unambiguously the effect of off-and on-shell variations of two and three-nucleon potentials on low-energy three-nucleon observables from the effect of relativistic dynamics. (author)

  18. Security of practical quantum key distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Nitin

    2015-02-24

    This thesis deals with practical security aspects of quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. At the heart of the theoretical model of any QKD system lies a quantum-mechanical security proof that guarantees perfect secrecy of messages - based on certain assumptions. However, in practice, deviations between the theoretical model and the physical implementation could be exploited by an attacker to break the security of the system. These deviations may arise from technical limitations and operational imperfections in the physical implementation and/or unrealistic assumptions and insufficient constraints in the theoretical model. In this thesis, we experimentally investigate in depth several such deviations. We demonstrate the resultant vulnerabilities via proof-of-principle attacks on a commercial QKD system from ID Quantique. We also propose countermeasures against the investigated loopholes to secure both existing and future QKD implementations.

  19. Relativistic heavy ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, D M

    1989-08-01

    The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.

  20. Relativistic heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs