Acceleration and collimation of relativistic MHD disk winds
Porth, O
2009-01-01
We perform axisymmetric relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to investigate the acceleration and collimation of jets and outflows from disks around compact objects. The fiducial disk surface (respectively a slow disk wind) is prescribed as boundary condition for the outflow. We apply this technique for the first time in the context of relativistic jets. The strength of this approach is that it allows us to run a parameter study in order to investigate how the accretion disk conditions govern the outflow formation. Our simulations using the PLUTO code run for 500 inner disk rotations and on a physical grid size of 100x200 inner disk radii. In general, we obtain collimated beams of mildly relativistic speed and mass-weighted half-opening angles of 3-7 degrees. When we increase the outflow Poynting flux by injecting an additional disk toroidal field into the inlet, Lorentz factors up to 6 are reached. These flows gain super-magnetosonic speed and remain Poynting flux dominated. The light surface of...
3D Relativistic MHD Simulation of a Tilted Accretion Disk Around a Rapidly Rotating Black Hole
Fragile, P Chris; Blaes, Omer M; Salmonson, Jay D
2016-01-01
We posit that accreting compact objects, including stellar mass black holes and neutron stars as well as supermassive black holes, may undergo extended periods of accretion during which the angular momentum of the disk at large scales is misaligned with that of the compact object. In such a scenario, Lense-Thirring precession caused by the rotating compact object can dramatically affect the disk. In this presentation we describe results from a three-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulation of an MRI turbulent disk accreting onto a tilted rapidly rotating black hole. For this case, the disk does not achieve the commonly described Bardeen-Petterson configuration; rather, it remains nearly planar, undergoing a slow global precession. Accretion from the disk onto the hole occurs predominantly through two opposing plunging streams that start from high latitudes with respect to both the black-hole and disk midplanes. This is a consequence of the non-sphericity of the gravitational spacetime of the bl...
Synchrotron radiation of self-collimating relativistic MHD jets
Porth, Oliver; Meliani, Zakaria; Vaidya, Bhargav
2011-01-01
The goal of this paper is to derive signatures of synchrotron radiation from state-of-the-art simulation models of collimating relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) jets featuring a large-scale helical magnetic field. We perform axisymmetric special relativistic MHD simulations of the jet acceleration region using the PLUTO code. The computational domain extends from the slow magnetosonic launching surface of the disk up to 6000^2 Schwarzschild radii allowing to reach highly relativistic Lorentz factors. The Poynting dominated disk wind develops into a jet with Lorentz factors of 8 and is collimated to 1 degree. In addition to the disk jet, we evolve a thermally driven spine jet, emanating from a hypothetical black hole corona. Solving the linearly polarized synchrotron radiation transport within the jet, we derive VLBI radio and (sub-) mm diagnostics such as core shift, polarization structure, intensity maps, spectra and Faraday rotation measure (RM), directly from the Stokes parameters. We also investigate...
Relativistic MHD with Adaptive Mesh Refinement
Anderson, M; Liebling, S L; Neilsen, D; Anderson, Matthew; Hirschmann, Eric; Liebling, Steven L.; Neilsen, David
2006-01-01
We solve the relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations using a finite difference Convex ENO method (CENO) in 3+1 dimensions within a distributed parallel adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) infrastructure. In flat space we examine a Balsara blast wave problem along with a spherical blast wave and a relativistic rotor test both with unigrid and AMR simulations. The AMR simulations substantially improve performance while reproducing the resolution equivalent unigrid simulation results. We also investigate the impact of hyperbolic divergence cleaning for the spherical blast wave and relativistic rotor. We include unigrid and mesh refinement parallel performance measurements for the spherical blast wave.
MHD Driving of Relativistic Jets
Arieh Königl
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Paulatinamente se ha ido reconociendo que los campos magnéticos juegan un papel dominante en la producción y colimación de chorros astrofísicos. Demostramos aquí, usando soluciones semianalíticas exactas para las ecuaciones de MHD ideal en relatividad especial, que un disco de acreción altamente magnetizado (con un campo magnético principalmente poloidal o azimutal alrededor de un agujero negro es capaz de acelerar un flujo de protones y electrones a los factores de Lorentz y energías cinéticas asociadas a fuentes de destellos de rayos gama y nucleos activos de galaxias. También se discuten las contribuciones a la aceleración provenientes de efectos térmicos (por presión de radiación y pares electrón-positrón y de MHD no ideal. Notamos que la aceleración por MHD se caracteriza por ser extendida espacialmente, y esta propiedad se manifesta más claramente en flujos relativistas. Las indicaciones observacionales de que la aceleración de movimientos superlumínicos en chorros de radio ocurre sobre escalas mucho más grandes que las del agujero negro propiamente, apoyan la idea de que la producción de chorros es principalmente un fenómeno magnético. Presentamos resultados preliminares de un modelo global que puede utilizarse para probar esta interpretación.
Formation and collimation of relativistic MHD jets - simulations and radio maps
Fendt, Christian; Sheikhnezami, Somayeh
2013-01-01
We present results of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of jet formation and propagation, discussing a variety of astrophysical setups. In the first approach we consider simulations of relativistic MHD jet formation, considering jets launched from the surface of a Keplerian disk, demonstrating numerically - for the first time - the self-collimating ability of relativistic MHD jets. We obtain Lorentz factors up to about 10 while acquiring a high degree of collimation of about 1 degree. We then present synchrotron maps calculated from the intrinsic jet structure derived from the MHD jet formation simulation. We finally present (non-relativistic) MHD simulations of jet lauching, treating the transition between accretion and ejection. These setups include a physical magnetic diffusivity which is essential for loading the accretion material onto the outflow. We find relatively high mass fluxes in the outflow, of the order of 20-40 % of the accretion rate.
MHD Turbulence in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers
Chan, Chi-kwan
2012-01-01
The physical modeling of the accretion disk boundary layer, the region where the disk meets the surface of the accreting star, usually relies on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. The standard model for turbulent shear viscosity, widely adopted in astrophysics, satisfies this assumption by construction. However, this behavior is not supported by numerical simulations of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion disks, which show that angular momentum transport driven by the magnetorotational instability is inefficient in this inner disk region. I will discuss the results of a recent study on the generation of hydromagnetic stresses and energy density in the boundary layer around a weakly magnetized star. Our findings suggest that although magnetic energy density can be significantly amplified in this region, angular momentum transport is rather inefficient. This seems consistent with the results obtained in numerical simulations...
Hot self-similar relativistic MHD flows
Zakamska, Nadia L; Blandford, Roger D
2008-01-01
We consider axisymmetric relativistic jets with a toroidal magnetic field and an ultrarelativistic equation of state, with the goal of studying the lateral structure of jets whose pressure is matched to the pressure of the medium through which they propagate. We find all self-similar steady-state solutions of the relativistic MHD equations for this setup. One of the solutions is the case of a parabolic jet being accelerated by the pressure gradient as it propagates through a medium with pressure declining as p(z)\\propto z^{-2}. As the jet material expands due to internal pressure gradients, it runs into the ambient medium resulting in a pile-up of material along the jet boundary, while the magnetic field acts to produce a magnetic pinch along the axis of the jet. Such jets can be in a lateral pressure equilibrium only if their opening angle \\theta_j at distance z is smaller than about 1/\\gamma, where \\gamma is the characteristic bulk Lorentz-factor at this distance; otherwise, different parts of the jet canno...
Superconducting magnet system for an experimental disk MHD facility
Knoopers, H.G.; Kate, ten H.H.J.; Klundert, van de L.J.M.
1991-01-01
A predesign of a split-pair magnet for a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) facility for testing a 10-MW open-cycle disk or a 5-MW closed-cycle disk generator is presented. The magnet system consists of a NbTi and a Nb 3Sn section, which provide a magnetic field of 9 T in the active area of the MHD channel.
Stochastic oscillations of general relativistic disks
Harko, Tiberiu
2012-01-01
We analyze the general relativistic oscillations of thin accretion disks around compact astrophysical objects interacting with the surrounding medium through non-gravitational forces. The interaction with the external medium (a thermal bath) is modeled via a friction force, and a random force, respectively. The general equations describing the stochastically perturbed disks are derived by considering the perturbations of trajectories of the test particles in equatorial orbits, assumed to move along the geodesic lines. By taking into account the presence of a viscous dissipation and of a stochastic force we show that the dynamics of the stochastically perturbed disks can be formulated in terms of a general relativistic Langevin equation. The stochastic energy transport equation is also obtained. The vertical oscillations of the disks in the Schwarzschild and Kerr geometries are considered in detail, and they are analyzed by numerically integrating the corresponding Langevin equations. The vertical displacement...
Exact Relativistic Magnetized Haloes around Rotating Disks
Antonio C. Gutiérrez-Piñeres
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The study of the dynamics of magnetic fields in galaxies is one of important problems in formation and evolution of galaxies. In this paper, we present the exact relativistic treatment of a rotating disk surrounded by a magnetized material halo. The features of the halo and disk are described by the distributional energy-momentum tensor of a general fluid in canonical form. All the relevant quantities and the metric and electromagnetic potentials are exactly determined by an arbitrary harmonic function only. For instance, the generalized Kuzmin-disk potential is used. The particular class of solutions obtained is asymptotically flat and satisfies all the energy conditions. Moreover, the motion of a charged particle on the halo is described. As far as we know, this is the first relativistic model describing analytically the magnetized halo of a rotating disk.
Variational thermodynamics of relativistic thin disks
Gutiérrez-Piñeres, Antonio C.; Lopez-Monsalvo, Cesar S.; Quevedo, Hernando
2015-12-01
We present a relativistic model describing a thin disk system composed of two fluids. The system is surrounded by a halo in the presence of a non-trivial electromagnetic field. We show that the model is compatible with the variational multifluid thermodynamics formalism, allowing us to determine all the thermodynamic variables associated with the matter content of the disk. The asymptotic behavior of these quantities indicates that the single fluid interpretation should be abandoned in favor of a two-fluid model.
Relativistic MHD and excision: formulation and initial tests
Neilsen, David; Hirschmann, Eric W; Millward, R Steven [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)
2006-08-21
A new algorithm for solving the general relativistic MHD equations is described in this paper. We design our scheme to incorporate black hole excision with smooth boundaries, and to simplify solving the combined Einstein and MHD equations with AMR. The fluid equations are solved using a finite difference convex ENO method. Excision is implemented using overlapping grids. Elliptic and hyperbolic divergence cleaning techniques allow for maximum flexibility in choosing coordinate systems, and we compare both methods for a standard problem. Numerical results of standard test problems are presented in two-dimensional flat space using excision, overlapping grids and elliptic and hyperbolic divergence cleaning.
Relativistic MHD and black hole excision: Formulation and initial tests
Neilsen, D; Millward, R S; Hirschmann, Eric W; Neilsen, David
2006-01-01
A new algorithm for solving the general relativistic MHD equations is described in this paper. We design our scheme to incorporate black hole excision with smooth boundaries, and to simplify solving the combined Einstein and MHD equations with AMR. The fluid equations are solved using a finite difference Convex ENO method. Excision is implemented using overlapping grids. Elliptic and hyperbolic divergence cleaning techniques allow for maximum flexibility in choosing coordinate systems, and we compare both methods for a standard problem. Numerical results of standard test problems are presented in two-dimensional flat space using excision, overlapping grids, and elliptic and hyperbolic divergence cleaning.
Variational thermodynamics of relativistic thin disks
Gutiérrez-Piñeres, A C; Quevedo, H
2013-01-01
We present a relativistic model describing a thin disk system composed of two fluids. The system is surrounded by a halo in the presence of a non-trivial electromagnetic field. We show that the model is compatible with the variational multi-fluid thermodynamics formalism, allowing us to determine all the thermodynamic variables associated with the matter content of the disk. The asymptotic behaviour of these quantities indicates that the single fluid interpretation should be abandoned in favour of a two-fluid model.
Superconducting magnet system for an experimental disk MHD facility
Knoopers, H.G.; Kate, ten, H.H.J.; Klundert, van de, L.J.M.
1991-01-01
A predesign of a split-pair magnet for a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) facility for testing a 10-MW open-cycle disk or a 5-MW closed-cycle disk generator is presented. The magnet system consists of a NbTi and a Nb 3Sn section, which provide a magnetic field of 9 T in the active area of the MHD channel. The optimization process, which is based on minimum conductor costs is discussed, and the proposed conductor design is described. Basic solutions for the construction of the magnet, the cryostat an...
Relativistic MHD with adaptive mesh refinement
Anderson, Matthew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Hirschmann, Eric W [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Liebling, Steven L [Department of Physics, Long Island University-C W Post Campus, Brookville, NY 11548 (United States); Neilsen, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)
2006-11-22
This paper presents a new computer code to solve the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) equations using distributed parallel adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The fluid equations are solved using a finite difference convex ENO method (CENO) in 3 + 1 dimensions, and the AMR is Berger-Oliger. Hyperbolic divergence cleaning is used to control the {nabla} . B = 0 constraint. We present results from three flat space tests, and examine the accretion of a fluid onto a Schwarzschild black hole, reproducing the Michel solution. The AMR simulations substantially improve performance while reproducing the resolution equivalent unigrid simulation results. Finally, we discuss strong scaling results for parallel unigrid and AMR runs.
Viscous Stability of Relativistic Keplerian Accretion Disks
Ghosh, P
1998-01-01
We investigate the viscous stability of thin, Keplerian accretion disks in regions where general relativistic (GR) effects are essential. For gas pressure dominated (GPD) disks, we show that the Newtonian conclusion that such disks are viscously stable is reversed by GR modifications in the behaviors of viscous stress and surface density over a significantly large annular region not far from the innermost stable orbit at $r=\\rms$. For slowly-rotating central objects, this region spans a range of radii $14\\lo r\\lo 19$ in units of the central object's mass $M$. For radiation pressure dominated (RPD) disks, the Newtonian conclusion that they are viscously unstable remains valid after including the above GR modifications, except in a very small annulus around $r\\approx 14M$, which has a negligible influence. Inclusion of the stabilizing effect of the mass-inflow through the disk's inner edge via a GR analogue of Roche-lobe overflow adds a small, stable region around \\rms~for RPD disks, but leaves GPD disks unchan...
CAFE: A NEW RELATIVISTIC MHD CODE
Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; Cruz-Osorio, A. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, AP 70-264, Distrito Federal 04510, México (Mexico); Guzmán, F. S., E-mail: fdlora@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: aosorio@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: guzman@ifm.umich.mx [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo. Edificio C-3, Cd. Universitaria, 58040 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico)
2015-06-22
We introduce CAFE, a new independent code designed to solve the equations of relativistic ideal magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) in three dimensions. We present the standard tests for an RMHD code and for the relativistic hydrodynamics regime because we have not reported them before. The tests include the one-dimensional Riemann problems related to blast waves, head-on collisions of streams, and states with transverse velocities, with and without magnetic field, which is aligned or transverse, constant or discontinuous across the initial discontinuity. Among the two-dimensional (2D) and 3D tests without magnetic field, we include the 2D Riemann problem, a one-dimensional shock tube along a diagonal, the high-speed Emery wind tunnel, the Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) instability, a set of jets, and a 3D spherical blast wave, whereas in the presence of a magnetic field we show the magnetic rotor, the cylindrical explosion, a case of Kelvin–Helmholtz instability, and a 3D magnetic field advection loop. The code uses high-resolution shock-capturing methods, and we present the error analysis for a combination that uses the Harten, Lax, van Leer, and Einfeldt (HLLE) flux formula combined with a linear, piecewise parabolic method and fifth-order weighted essentially nonoscillatory reconstructors. We use the flux-constrained transport and the divergence cleaning methods to control the divergence-free magnetic field constraint.
CAFE: A New Relativistic MHD Code
Lora-Clavijo, F D; Guzman, F S
2014-01-01
We present CAFE, a new independent code designed to solve the equations of Relativistic ideal Magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) in 3D. We present the standard tests for a RMHD code and for the Relativistic Hydrodynamics (RMD) regime since we have not reported them before. The tests include the 1D Riemann problems related to blast waves, head-on collision of streams and states with transverse velocities, with and without magnetic field, which is aligned or transverse, constant or discontinuous across the initial discontinuity. Among the 2D tests, without magnetic field we include the 2D Riemann problem, the high speed Emery wind tunnel, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability test and a set of jets, whereas in the presence of a magnetic field we show the magnetic rotor, the cylindrical explosion and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The code uses High Resolution Shock Capturing methods and as a standard set up we present the error analysis with a simple combination that uses the HLLE flux formula combined with linear, PPM ...
CAFE: A New Relativistic MHD Code
Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; Cruz-Osorio, A.; Guzmán, F. S.
2015-06-01
We introduce CAFE, a new independent code designed to solve the equations of relativistic ideal magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) in three dimensions. We present the standard tests for an RMHD code and for the relativistic hydrodynamics regime because we have not reported them before. The tests include the one-dimensional Riemann problems related to blast waves, head-on collisions of streams, and states with transverse velocities, with and without magnetic field, which is aligned or transverse, constant or discontinuous across the initial discontinuity. Among the two-dimensional (2D) and 3D tests without magnetic field, we include the 2D Riemann problem, a one-dimensional shock tube along a diagonal, the high-speed Emery wind tunnel, the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability, a set of jets, and a 3D spherical blast wave, whereas in the presence of a magnetic field we show the magnetic rotor, the cylindrical explosion, a case of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and a 3D magnetic field advection loop. The code uses high-resolution shock-capturing methods, and we present the error analysis for a combination that uses the Harten, Lax, van Leer, and Einfeldt (HLLE) flux formula combined with a linear, piecewise parabolic method and fifth-order weighted essentially nonoscillatory reconstructors. We use the flux-constrained transport and the divergence cleaning methods to control the divergence-free magnetic field constraint.
Electrovacuum Static Counterrotating Relativistic Dust Disks
García-Reyes, Gonzalo
2004-01-01
A detailed study is presented of the counterrotating model (CRM) for generic electrovacuum static axially symmetric relativistic thin disks without radial pressure. We find a general constraint over the counterrotating tangential velocities needed to cast the surface energy-momentum tensor of the disk as the superposition of two counterrotating charged dust fluids. We also find explicit expressions for the energy densities, charge densities and velocities of the counterrotating fluids. We then show that this constraint can be satisfied if we take the two counterrotating streams as circulating along electro-geodesics. However, we show that, in general, it is not possible to take the two counterrotating fluids as circulating along electro-geodesics nor take the two counterrotating tangential velocities as equal and opposite. Four simple families of models of counterrotating charged disks based on Chazy-Curzon-like, Zipoy-Voorhees-like, Bonnor-Sackfield-like and Kerr-like electrovacuum solutions are considered w...
Relativistic HD and MHD modelling for AGN jets
Keppens, R.; Porth, O.; Monceau-Baroux, R.; Walg, S.
2013-12-01
Relativistic hydro and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) provide a continuum fluid description for plasma dynamics characterized by shock-dominated flows approaching the speed of light. Significant progress in its numerical modelling emerged in the last two decades; we highlight selected examples of modern grid-adaptive, massively parallel simulations realized by our open-source software MPI-AMRVAC (Keppens et al 2012 J. Comput. Phys. 231 718). Hydrodynamical models quantify how energy transfer from active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets to their surrounding interstellar/intergalactic medium (ISM/IGM) gets mediated through shocks and various fluid instability mechanisms (Monceau-Baroux et al 2012 Astron. Astrophys. 545 A62). With jet parameters representative for Fanaroff-Riley type-II jets with finite opening angles, we can quantify the ISM volumes affected by jet injection and distinguish the roles of mixing versus shock-heating in cocoon regions. This provides insight in energy feedback by AGN jets, usually incorporated parametrically in cosmological evolution scenarios. We discuss recent axisymmetric studies up to full 3D simulations for precessing relativistic jets, where synthetic radio maps can confront observations. While relativistic hydrodynamic models allow one to better constrain dynamical parameters like the Lorentz factor and density contrast between jets and their surroundings, the role of magnetic fields in AGN jet dynamics and propagation characteristics needs full relativistic MHD treatments. Then, we can demonstrate the collimating properties of an overal helical magnetic field backbone and study differences between poloidal versus toroidal field dominated scenarios (Keppens et al 2008 Astron. Astrophys. 486 663). Full 3D simulations allow one to consider the fate of non-axisymmetric perturbations on relativistic jet propagation from rotating magnetospheres (Porth 2013 Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 429 2482). Self-stabilization mechanisms related to the detailed
Yankova, Krasimira
2015-01-01
Accretion is one of the most important problems of astrophysics concerning the transfer of matter and the transformation of energy into space. Process represents a falling of the substance on a cosmic object from the surrounding area and is a powerful gravitational mechanism for the production of radiation. Accretion disc effectively converts the mass of the substance by viscous friction and released potential energy transformed into radiation by particle collisions. Accretion onto compact object shows high energy efficiency and temporal variability in a broad class of observational data in all ranges. In the disks of these objects are developed a series instabilities and structures that govern the distribution of the energy. They are expressed in many variety non-stationary phenomena that we observe. That is why we propose generalized model of magnetized accretion disk with advection, which preserves the nonlinearity of the problem. We study interaction of the plasmas flow with the magnetic field, and how this affects the self-organizing disk. The aim of the work is to describe the accretion flow in detail, in his quality of the open astrophysical system, to investigate the evolution and to reveal the mechanisms of the structuring the disk-corona system for to interpret correctly the high energy behavior of such sources.
Relativistic MHD Simulations of Poynting Flux-Driven Jets
Guan, Xiaoyue; Li, Shengtai
2013-01-01
Relativistic, magnetized jets are observed to propagate to very large distances in many Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We use 3D relativistic MHD (RMHD) simulations to study the propagation of Poynting flux-driven jets in AGN. These jets are assumed already being launched from the vicinity ($\\sim 10^3$ gravitational radii) of supermassive black holes. Jet injections are characterized by a model described in Li et al. (2006) and we follow the propagation of these jets to ~ parsec scales. We find that these current-carrying jets are always collimated and mildly relativistic. When $\\alpha$, the ratio of toroidal-to-poloidal magnetic flux injection, is large the jet is subject to non-axisymmetric current-driven instabilities (CDI) which lead to substantial dissipation and reduced jet speed. However, even with the presence of instabilities, the jet is not disrupted and will continue to propagate to large distances. We suggest that the relatively weak impact by the instability is due to the nature of the instability...
MHD Disk Winds and Planetary Nebulae I. Existence and Applicability
Frank, A; Blackman, E G
2002-01-01
Winds from accretion disks have been proposed as the driving source for precessing jets and extreme bipolar morphologies in Planetary Nebulae (PNe) and proto-PNe (pPNe). In this paper we address the applicability of self-consistent MHD disk wind models to PNe and pPNe. We first review the basic features of magneto-centrifugal launching disk wind models adapting results from previously published non-self similar calculations of Peltier & Pudritz (1992). We then estimate the relevant conditions whichshould occur in PNe and pPNe accretion disks that form via binary interactions. Finally, examining conditions on dimensionless parameters needed for magneto-centrifugal disk wind models we show that such winds can recover the observed momentum and energy input rates for PNe and pPNe. High accretion rates are required in thelatter case (M_a approx 10^{-4} \\mdot) and we find that the observed total energy and momentum in pPNe can be recovered with disk wind models using existing disk formation scenarios
Extragalactic jets with helical magnetic fields: relativistic MHD simulations
Keppens, R; van der Holst, B; Casse, F
2008-01-01
Extragalactic jets are inferred to harbor dynamically important, organized magnetic fields which presumably aid in the collimation of the relativistic jet flows. We here explore by means of grid-adaptive, high resolution numerical simulations the morphology of AGN jets pervaded by helical field and flow topologies. We concentrate on morphological features of the bow shock and the jet beam behind the Mach disk, for various jet Lorentz factors and magnetic field helicities. We investigate the influence of helical magnetic fields on jet beam propagation in overdense external medium. We use the AMRVAC code, employing a novel hybrid block-based AMR strategy, to compute ideal plasma dynamics in special relativity. The helicity of the beam magnetic field is effectively transported down the beam, with compression zones in between diagonal internal cross-shocks showing stronger toroidal field regions. In comparison with equivalent low-relativistic jets which get surrounded by cocoons with vortical backflows filled by ...
Understanding Accretion Disks through Three Dimensional Radiation MHD Simulations
Jiang, Yan-Fei
I study the structures and thermal properties of black hole accretion disks in the radiation pressure dominated regime. Angular momentum transfer in the disk is provided by the turbulence generated by the magneto-rotational instability (MRI), which is calculated self-consistently with a recently developed 3D radiation magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) code based on Athena. This code, developed by my collaborators and myself, couples both the radiation momentum and energy source terms with the ideal MHD equations by modifying the standard Godunov method to handle the stiff radiation source terms. We solve the two momentum equations of the radiation transfer equations with a variable Eddington tensor (VET), which is calculated with a time independent short characteristic module. This code is well tested and accurate in both optically thin and optically thick regimes. It is also accurate for both radiation pressure and gas pressure dominated flows. With this code, I find that when photon viscosity becomes significant, the ratio between Maxwell stress and Reynolds stress from the MRI turbulence can increase significantly with radiation pressure. The thermal instability of the radiation pressure dominated disk is then studied with vertically stratified shearing box simulations. Unlike the previous results claiming that the radiation pressure dominated disk with MRI turbulence can reach a steady state without showing any unstable behavior, I find that the radiation pressure dominated disks always either collapse or expand until we have to stop the simulations. During the thermal runaway, the heating and cooling rates from the simulations are consistent with the general criterion of thermal instability. However, details of the thermal runaway are different from the predictions of the standard alpha disk model, as many assumptions in that model are not satisfied in the simulations. We also identify the key reasons why previous simulations do not find the instability. The thermal
Observations of nonequilibrium electrical discharge in an MHD disk generator
Harada, N.; Yamasaki, H.; Shioda, S.
1986-04-01
Discharge phenomena (nonequilibrium) in an MHD disk generator with potassium-seeded argon as a working gas have been investigated experimentally using a shock tube facility. A detailed study of high-speed photographs shows that an unsteady motion of a strongly constricted discharge occurs, particularly in the disk entrance region, characterized by a negative Hall potential. Responding to a suitable external load resistance, the negative Hall potential is reduced due to the development of a stable region against the ionization instability under full seed ionization; thus, a substantial increase of power output can be achieved. Under this condition, a uniform discharge is observed downstream and the strongly inhomogeneous and unsteady discharge is confined to a narrow region at the entrance. For smaller load resistances, intense spiral arcs with enhanced fluctuations are observed. 18 references.
Relativistic Accretion Disk Models of High State Black Hole X-ray Binary Spectra
Davis, S W; Hubeny, I; Turner, N J; Davis, Shane W.; Blaes, Omer M.; Hubeny, Ivan; Turner, Neal J.
2004-01-01
We present calculations of non-LTE, relativistic accretion disk models applicable to the high/soft state of black hole X-ray binaries. We include the effects of thermal Comptonization and bound-free and free-free opacities of all abundant ion species. We present spectra calculated for a variety of accretion rates, black hole spin parameters, disk inclinations, and stress prescriptions. We also consider nonzero inner torques on the disk, and explore different vertical dissipation profiles, including some which are motivated by recent radiation MHD simulations of magnetorotational turbulence. Bound-free metal opacity generally produces significantly less spectral hardening than previous models which only considered Compton scattering and free-free opacity. It also tends to keep the effective photosphere near the surface, resulting in spectra which are remarkably independent of the stress prescription and vertical dissipation profile, provided little dissipation occurs above the effective photosphere. We provide...
Resonant Excitation of Disk Oscillations in Deformed Disks VII: Stability Criterion in MHD Systems
Kato, Shoji
2013-01-01
In a disk with an oscillatory deformation from an axisymmetric state with frequency $\\omega_{\\rm D}$ and azimuthal wavenumber $m_{\\rm D}$, a set of two normal mode oscillations with frequency and azimuthal wavenumber being ($\\omega_1$, $m_1$) and ($\\omega_2$, $m_2$) resonantly couple through the disk deformation, when the resonant conditions ($\\omega_1+\\omega_2+\\omega_{\\rm D}=0$ and $m_1+m_2+m_{\\rm D}=0$) are satisfied. In the case of hydrodynamical disks, the resonance amplifies the set of the oscillations if $(E_1/\\omega_1)(E_2/\\omega_2)>0$ (Kato 2013b), where $E_1$ and $E_2$ are wave energies of the two oscillations with $\\omega_1$ and $\\omega_2$, respectively. In this paper we show that this instability criterion is still valid even when the oscillations are ideal MHD ones in magnetized disks, if the displacements associated with the oscillations vanish on the boundary of the system.
General relativistic spectra of accretion disks around rotating neutron stars
Bhattacharya, S; Thampan, A V
2000-01-01
General relativistic spectra from accretion disks around rotating neutron stars in the appropriate space-time geometry for several different equation of state, spin rates and mass of the compact object have been computed. The analysis involves the computation of the relativistically corrected radial temperature profiles and the effect of Doppler and gravitational red-shifts on the spectra. Light bending effects have been omitted for simplicity. The relativistic spectrum is compared with the Newtonian one and it is shown that the difference between the two is primarily due to the different radial temperature profile for the relativistic and Newtonian disk solutions. To facilitate direct comparison with observations, a simple empirical function has been presented which describes the numerically computed relativistic spectra well. This empirical function (which has three parameters including normalization) also describes the Newtonian spectrum adequately. Thus the function can in principle be used to distinguish...
Relativistic modeling capabilities in PERSEUS extended MHD simulation code for HED plasmas
Hamlin, Nathaniel D., E-mail: nh322@cornell.edu [438 Rhodes Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853 (United States); Seyler, Charles E., E-mail: ces7@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853 (United States)
2014-12-15
We discuss the incorporation of relativistic modeling capabilities into the PERSEUS extended MHD simulation code for high-energy-density (HED) plasmas, and present the latest hybrid X-pinch simulation results. The use of fully relativistic equations enables the model to remain self-consistent in simulations of such relativistic phenomena as X-pinches and laser-plasma interactions. By suitable formulation of the relativistic generalized Ohm’s law as an evolution equation, we have reduced the recovery of primitive variables, a major technical challenge in relativistic codes, to a straightforward algebraic computation. Our code recovers expected results in the non-relativistic limit, and reveals new physics in the modeling of electron beam acceleration following an X-pinch. Through the use of a relaxation scheme, relativistic PERSEUS is able to handle nine orders of magnitude in density variation, making it the first fluid code, to our knowledge, that can simulate relativistic HED plasmas.
Acceleration and Collimation of Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Disk Winds
Porth, Oliver; Fendt, Christian
2010-02-01
We perform axisymmetric relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations to investigate the acceleration and collimation of jets and outflows from disks around compact objects. Newtonian gravity is added to the relativistic treatment in order to establish the physical boundary condition of an underlying accretion disk in centrifugal and pressure equilibrium. The fiducial disk surface (respectively a slow disk wind) is prescribed as boundary condition for the outflow. We apply this technique for the first time in the context of relativistic jets. The strength of this approach is that it allows us to run a parameter study in order to investigate how the accretion disk conditions govern the outflow formation. Substantial effort has been made to implement a current-free, numerical outflow boundary condition in order to avoid artificial collimation present in the standard outflow conditions. Our simulations using the PLUTO code run for 500 inner disk rotations and on a physical grid size of 100 × 200 inner disk radii. The simulations evolve from an initial state in hydrostatic equilibrium and an initially force-free magnetic field configuration. Two options for the initial field geometries are applied—an hourglass-shaped potential magnetic field and a split monopole field. Most of our parameter runs evolve into a steady state solution which can be further analyzed concerning the physical mechanism at work. In general, we obtain collimated beams of mildly relativistic speed with Lorentz factors up to 6 and mass-weighted half-opening angles of 3-7 deg. The split-monopole initial setup usually results in less collimated outflows. The light surface of the outflow magnetosphere tends to align vertically—implying three relativistically distinct regimes in the flow—an inner subrelativistic domain close to the jet axis, a (rather narrow) relativistic jet and a surrounding subrelativistic outflow launched from the outer disk surface—similar to the spine-sheath structure
Turbulent Comptonization in Relativistic Accretion Disks
Socrates, A; Blaes, Omer M; Socrates, Aristotle; Davis, Shane W.; Blaes, Omer
2006-01-01
Turbulent Comptonization, a potentially important damping and radiation mechanism in relativistic accretion flows, is discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the physical basis, relative importance, and thermodynamics of turbulent Comptonization. The effects of metal-absorption opacity on the spectral component resulting from turbulent Comptonization is considered as well.
Effects of water molecules of Ar-Cs MHD disk generator operated with strong MHD interaction
Ishikawa, M.; Kosugi, A.; Inui, Y.; Kabashima, S.
1998-07-01
Effects of water molecule impurity are studied on performance of a disk type MHD generator operated with Ar-Cs weakly ionized plasma. To reveal phenomena for a wide range of operation conditions, time-dependent one-dimensional analyses are carried out, where an up-wind, second order Chakravarthy TVD scheme is applied for the gasdynamics, while a Galerkin FEM is used for the electrodynamics. A simplified model is used for the water molecule impurity, where total effects of nonelastic collision between electrons and water molecules are estimated by the collision loss factor of electrons and also the electron momentum-transfer collision frequency is taken into account. The collision loss factor of electrons and the electron momentum-transfer collision frequency are taken from references, and the loss factor is assumed to be 700 independently of the electron temperature. On the Fuji-1 facilities at Tokyo Institute Technology, Japan, series of experiment A4105 were carried out with the Disk F-4 generator. Ar was heated with the heat-exchanger heated by the natural gas-air combustion and the metal cesium was used as the seeding material, while SCM maintained the magnetic field of 4.7 T at the center of disk and the very strong MHD interaction was realized. The thermal input was about 3 MW, the electrical output was about 500 kW with the enthalpy extraction ratio of about 17%. The numerical analyses have shown that the water molecule enhances the ionization instability at the low voltage loading because of insufficient Joule heating for electrons. The generator performance is degraded and the strong MHD interaction between the unstable plasma and the flow field induces slow and fast moving shock waves, leading to the very complicated flow field. The fast and slow moving shocks collide with each other, merge into a sharp shock moving downward, and then the shock front moves back slightly to maintain the pressure balance, collides again with another weak moving shock, and
Relativistic Static Thin Disks of Polarized Matter
Navarro, Anamaria; Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; González, Guillermo A.
2017-03-01
An infinite family of exact solutions of the electrovacuum Einstein-Maxwell equations is presented. The family is static, axially symmetric and describe thin disks composed by electrically polarized material in a conformastatic spacetime. The form of the conformastatic metric allows us to write down the metric functions and the electromagnetic potentials in terms of a solution of the Laplace equation. We find a general expression for the surface energy density of the disk, the pressure, the polarization vector, the electromagnetic fields and the velocity rotation for circular orbits. As an example, we present the first model of the family and show the behavior of the different physical variables.
You’re Cut Off: HD and MHD Simulations of Truncated Accretion Disks
Hogg, J. Drew; Reynolds, Christopher S.
2017-01-01
Truncated accretion disks are commonly invoked to explain the spectro-temporal variability from accreting black holes in both small systems, i.e. state transitions in galactic black hole binaries (GBHBs), and large systems, i.e. low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). In the canonical truncated disk model of moderately low accretion rate systems, gas in the inner region of the accretion disk occupies a hot, radiatively inefficient phase, which leads to a geometrically thick disk, while the gas in the outer region occupies a cooler, radiatively efficient phase that resides in the standard geometrically thin disk. Observationally, there is strong empirical evidence to support this phenomenological model, but a detailed understanding of the disk behavior is lacking. We present well-resolved hydrodynamic (HD) and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical models that use a toy cooling prescription to produce the first sustained truncated accretion disks. Using these simulations, we study the dynamics, angular momentum transport, and energetics of a truncated disk in the two different regimes. We compare the behaviors of the HD and MHD disks and emphasize the need to incorporate a full MHD treatment in any discussion of truncated accretion disk evolution.
Numerical Simulations of Driven Supersonic Relativistic MHD Turbulence
Zrake, Jonathan; 10.1063/1.3621748
2011-01-01
Models for GRB outflows invoke turbulence in relativistically hot magnetized fluids. In order to investigate these conditions we have performed high-resolution three-dimensional numerical simulations of relativistic magneto-hydrodynamical (RMHD) turbulence. We find that magnetic energy is amplified to several percent of the total energy density by turbulent twisting and folding of magnetic field lines. Values of epsilon_B near 1% are thus naturally expected. We study the dependence of saturated magnetic field energy fraction as a function of Mach number and relativistic temperature. We then present power spectra of the turbulent kinetic and magnetic energies. We also present solenoidal (curl-like) and dilatational (divergence-like) power spectra of kinetic energy. We propose that relativistic effects introduce novel couplings between these spectral components. The case we explore in most detail is for equal amounts of thermal and rest mass energy, corresponding to conditions after collisions of shells with re...
Sub-atmospheric disk generators for coal-fired MHD/steam combined cycle power plant
Messerle, H.K.; Fang, Y.; Simpson, S.W.; Marty, S.M. (Sydney Univ. (Australia). School of Electrical Engineering)
1989-01-01
A coal fired MHD disk generator in a combined cycle MHD/steam power generation system with a diffuser operating at sub-atmospheric pressure is proposed. The effects of pressure on the performance of a radial outflow MHD disk generator and other system components are analysed. Using a previous study as a reference case, preliminary calculations show that, in such a sub-atmospheric system, improved power station efficiency can be achieved. In addition, operation at reduced values of magnetic field strength would be feasible. Calculations have also been carried out for a 30 MW{sub th} experimental disk generator operating at reduced pressure with a magnetic field strength of 2 T. Flow conditions at sub-atmospheric pressure would provide an improved simulation of a full-scale generator operating at normal pressures. (author).
Numerical simulation study of disk MHD generator for nonequilibrium plasma (NPG) system
Tsunoda, Kazumi [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Harada, Nob [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology (Japan)
1995-12-31
Design and performance prediction of a disk-shaped magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator, which is applied to the nonequilibrium plasma generator (NPG) system, have been carried out by means of a quasi-one-dimensional numerical simulation. The calculations have been performed for generator with constant height which is planned to be used for NPG-MHD disk generator pulse power demonstration. A maximum enthalpy extraction ratio obtained from the present calculation reached up to 20%, and, in this case, the electron temperature of working plasma fluctuated in the unstable regime against ionization instability. Taking into account this phenomenon, in order to obtain much higher generator performance, the MHD channel, in which electron temperature was kept at 5000 K, was designed. With this channel, enthalpy extraction ratio of 40% and output power of 7.2 MW were achieved without major modification of the supersonic nozzle, the inlet swirl vanes and the configuration of magnet system.
Waves and Instabilities in Accretion Disks MHD Spectroscopic Analysis
Keppens, R; Goedbloed, J P
2002-01-01
A complete analytical and numerical treatment of all magnetohydrodynamic waves and instabilities for radially stratified, magnetized accretion disks is presented. The instabilities are a possible source of anomalous transport. While recovering results on known hydrodynamicand both weak- and strong-field magnetohydrodynamic perturbations, the full magnetohydrodynamic spectra for a realistic accretion disk model demonstrates a much richer variety of instabilities accessible to the plasma than previously realized. We show that both weakly and strongly magnetized accretion disks are prone to strong non-axisymmetric instabilities.The ability to characterize all waves arising in accretion disks holds great promise for magnetohydrodynamic spectroscopic analysis.
Magnetic collimation of the relativistic jet in M 87
Gracia, JG; Tsinganos, KT; Bogovalov, SV
2005-01-01
We apply a two-zone MHD model to the jet of M87. The model consists of an inner relativistic outflow, which is surrounded by a non-nonrelativistic outer disk-wind. The relativistic outer disk-wind collimates very well through magnetic self-collimation and confines the inner relativistic jet into a n
WhiskyMHD: Numerical Code for General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics
Baiotti, Luca; Giacomazzo, Bruno; Hawke, Ian; et al.
2010-10-01
Whisky is a code to evolve the equations of general relativistic hydrodynamics (GRHD) and magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) in 3D Cartesian coordinates on a curved dynamical background. It was originally developed by and for members of the EU Network on Sources of Gravitational Radiation and is based on the Cactus Computational Toolkit. Whisky can also implement adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) if compiled together with Carpet. Whisky has grown from earlier codes such as GR3D and GRAstro_Hydro, but has been rewritten to take advantage of some of the latest research performed here in the EU. The motivation behind Whisky is to compute gravitational radiation waveforms for systems that involve matter. Examples would include the merger of a binary system containing a neutron star, which are expected to be reasonably common in the universe and expected to produce substantial amounts of radiation. Other possible sources are given in the projects list.
Fuerst, Steven V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Mizuno, Yosuke; /USRA, Huntsville; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; /USRA, Huntsville /Alabama U., Huntsville; Wu, Kinwah; /Mullard Space Sci.
2007-01-05
We calculate the emission from relativistic flows in black hole systems using a fully general relativistic radiative transfer formulation, with flow structures obtained by general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamic simulations. We consider thermal free-free emission and thermal synchrotron emission. Bright filament-like features protrude (visually) from the accretion disk surface, which are enhancements of synchrotron emission where the magnetic field roughly aligns with the line-of-sight in the co-moving frame. The features move back and forth as the accretion flow evolves, but their visibility and morphology are robust. We propose that variations and drifts of the features produce certain X-ray quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) observed in black-hole X-ray binaries.
Magnetic fields in protoplanetary disks: from MHD simulations to ALMA observations
Bertrang, Gesa H -M; Wolf, Sebastian
2016-01-01
Magnetic fields significantly influence the evolution of protoplanetary disks and the formation of planets, following the predictions of numerous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. However, these predictions are yet observationally unconstrained. To validate the predictions on the influence of magnetic fields on protoplanetary disks, we apply 3D radiative transfer simulations of the polarized emission of aligned aspherical dust grains that directly link 3D global non-ideal MHD simulations to ALMA observations. Our simulations show that it is feasible to observe the predicted toroidal large-scale magnetic field structures, not only in the ideal observations but also with high-angular resolution ALMA observations. Our results show further that high angular resolution observations by ALMA are able to identify vortices embedded in outer magnetized disk regions.
Kang, L.; Matsuo, T. [Kyoto University (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Inui, Y. [Toyohashi University of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering; Ishikawa, M. [University of Tsukuba (Japan). Inst. of Engineering Mechanics and Systems; Umoto, J. [Fukuyama University (Japan)
2000-09-01
Performance analyses of a commercial scale closed-cycle MHD disk generator are performed. A large scale MHD generator, superconducting magnet, inversion system and synchronous generator are designed. The MHD generator is operated with Ar-Cs plasma and connected to the ac power infinite bus through line-commutated inverters, while the synchronous generator is operated in parallel. The thermal input is 1000 MW, and the power output is 400 and 200 MW, from the MHD and synchronous generators. Fault analyses have found that rather large fluctuations within the MHD generator are induced by faults of the inverter and power transmission line, but control of the inverters can recover the MHD generation system to normal operation within 0.15 s. The feature of behavior of the MHD generator is the same with or without the parallel operation of the synchronous generator. The interaction between the MHD and the synchronous generators is small, and this feature is much different from the open-cycle MHD generation system, since the variation of output current of the closed-cycle disk MHD generator is much smaller compared with open-cycle MHD generators. (author)
Magnetic collimation of meridional-self-similar general relativistic MHD flows
Globus, Noemie; Cayatte, Véronique; Celnikier, Ludwik M
2014-01-01
We present a model for the spine of relativistic MHD outflows in the Kerr geometry. Meridional self-similarity is invoked to derive semi-analytical solutions close to the polar axis. The study of the energy conservation along a particular field line gives a simple criterion for the collimation of jets. Such parameter have already been derived in the classical case by Sauty et al. 1999 and also extended to the Schwarzschild metric by Meliani et al. 2006. We generalize the same study to the Kerr metric. We show that the rotation of the black hole increases the magnetic self-confinement.
Global simulations of protoplanetary disks with net magnetic flux. I. Non-ideal MHD case
Béthune, William; Lesur, Geoffroy; Ferreira, Jonathan
2017-04-01
Context. The planet-forming region of protoplanetary disks is cold, dense, and therefore weakly ionized. For this reason, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is thought to be mostly absent, and another mechanism has to be found to explain gas accretion. It has been proposed that magnetized winds, launched from the ionized disk surface, could drive accretion in the presence of a large-scale magnetic field. Aims: The efficiency and the impact of these surface winds on the disk structure is still highly uncertain. We present the first global simulations of a weakly ionized disk that exhibits large-scale magnetized winds. We also study the impact of self-organization, which was previously demonstrated only in non-stratified models. Methods: We perform numerical simulations of stratified disks with the PLUTO code. We compute the ionization fraction dynamically, and account for all three non-ideal MHD effects: ohmic and ambipolar diffusions, and the Hall drift. Simplified heating and cooling due to non-thermal radiation is also taken into account in the disk atmosphere. Results: We find that disks can be accreting or not, depending on the configuration of the large-scale magnetic field. Magnetothermal winds, driven both by magnetic acceleration and heating of the atmosphere, are obtained in the accreting case. In some cases, these winds are asymmetric, ejecting predominantly on one side of the disk. The wind mass loss rate depends primarily on the average ratio of magnetic to thermal pressure in the disk midplane. The non-accreting case is characterized by a meridional circulation, with accretion layers at the disk surface and decretion in the midplane. Finally, we observe self-organization, resulting in axisymmetric rings of density and associated pressure "bumps". The underlying mechanism and its impact on observable structures are discussed.
Kobayashi, H.; Okuno, Y.; Kabashima, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)
1995-08-20
The performance of non-equilibrium MHD disk generator with segmented loads is examined with {gamma}-{theta} two dimensional numerical simulations. The use of segmented loads is found to improve the generator performance when a low electron temperature plasma is introduced to the channel. The simulation results reveal the desired values of load resistances connected in upstream and downstream regions, respectively. The concept of the segmented loads is considered to be superior to rearranging seed fractions and load resistances. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.
Non-thermal emission from relativistic MHD simulations of PWNe: from synchrotron to inverse Compton
Volpi, D; Amato, E; Bucciantini, N
2008-01-01
In this paper we complete the set of diagnostic tools for synchrotron emitting sources presented by Del Zanna et al. (Astron. Astrophys. 453, 621, 2006) with the computation of inverse Compton radiation from the same relativistic particles. Moreover we investigate, for the first time, the gamma-ray emission properties of Pulsar Wind Nebulae in the light of the axisymmetric jet-torus scenario. The method consists in evolving the relativistic MHD equations and the maximum energy of the emitting particles. The particle energy distribution function is split in two components: the radio one connected to a relic population born at the outburst of the supernova and the other associated to the wind population continuously accelerated at the termination shock and emitting up to the gamma-ray band. We consider the general Klein-Nishina cross section and three different photon targets: the nebular synchrotron photons, far-infrared thermal ones and the cosmic microwave background. The overall synchrotron spectrum is fitt...
Experimental studies on joule dissipation in a nonequilibrium MHD disk generator
Nakamura, H.; Okamura, T.; Shioda, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)
1996-12-20
Joule dissipation in a nonequilibrium MHD disk generator was successfully estimated from power generation experiments. Faraday current in the disk generator was measured. The reduction of the total pressure caused by the Joule dissipation was also estimated. Experimental results suggest that the isentropic efficiency of the generator is strongly affected by the value of the Joule dissipation. When the applied magnetic flux density increased, the extraction of electrical power increased remarkably, however the total pressure loss caused by the entropy production was suppressed. The high MHD interaction caused by the high magnetic flux density did not deteriorate the performance of the generator. It is considered from this fact that the application of higher magnetic flux density is essential to get higher isentropic efficiency. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.
The Acceleration Mechanism of Resistive MHD Jets Launched from Accretion Disks
Kuwabara, T; Kudoh, T; Matsumoto, R
2004-01-01
We analyzed the results of non-linear resistive magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations of jet formation to study the acceleration mechanism of axisymmetric, resistive MHD jets. The initial state is a constant angular momentum, polytropic torus threaded by weak uniform vertical magnetic fields. The time evolution of the torus is simulated by applying the CIP-MOCCT scheme extended for resistive MHD equations. We carried out simulations up to 50 rotation period at the innermost radius of the disk created by accretion from the torus. The acceleration forces and the characteristics of resistive jets were studied by computing forces acting on Lagrangian test particles. Since the angle between the rotation axis of the disk and magnetic field lines is smaller in resistive models than in ideal MHD models, magnetocentrifugal acceleration is smaller. The effective potential along a magnetic field line has maximum around $z \\sim 0.5r_0$ in resistive models, where $r_0$ is the radius where the density of the initial toru...
On Fermi acceleration and MHD-instabilities at ultra-relativistic magnetized shock waves
Pelletier, Guy; Marcowith, Alexandre
2008-01-01
Fermi acceleration can take place at ultra-relativistic shock waves if the upstream or downstream magnetic field has been remodeled so that most of the magnetic power lies on short spatial scales. The relevant conditions under which Fermi acceleration become efficient in the presence of both a coherent and a short scale turbulent magnetic field are addressed. Within the MHD approximation, this paper then studies the amplification of a pre-existing magnetic field through the streaming of cosmic rays upstream of a relativistic shock wave. The magnetic field is assumed to be perpendicular in the shock front frame, as generally expected in the limit of large shock Lorentz factor. In the MHD regime, compressive instabilities seeded by the net cosmic-ray charge in the shock precursor (as seen in the shock front frame) develop on the shortest spatial scales but saturate at a moderate level $\\delta B/B \\sim 1$, which is not sufficient for Fermi acceleration. As we argue, it is possible that other instabilities outsid...
CosmosDG: An hp-adaptive Discontinuous Galerkin Code for Hyper-resolved Relativistic MHD
Anninos, Peter; Bryant, Colton; Fragile, P. Chris; Holgado, A. Miguel; Lau, Cheuk; Nemergut, Daniel
2017-08-01
We have extended Cosmos++, a multidimensional unstructured adaptive mesh code for solving the covariant Newtonian and general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, to accommodate both discrete finite volume and arbitrarily high-order finite element structures. The new finite element implementation, called CosmosDG, is based on a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) formulation, using both entropy-based artificial viscosity and slope limiting procedures for the regularization of shocks. High-order multistage forward Euler and strong-stability preserving Runge-Kutta time integration options complement high-order spatial discretization. We have also added flexibility in the code infrastructure allowing for both adaptive mesh and adaptive basis order refinement to be performed separately or simultaneously in a local (cell-by-cell) manner. We discuss in this report the DG formulation and present tests demonstrating the robustness, accuracy, and convergence of our numerical methods applied to special and general relativistic MHD, although we note that an equivalent capability currently also exists in CosmosDG for Newtonian systems.
Superconducting magnet system for a space-based 100 MW MHD disk generator
Marston, P.G.
1988-03-01
The conceptual design of a 6 T superconducting magnet system for a space-based 100 MW single-coil MHD disk generator is described. Overall cold-mass dimensions are 2.325 m diameter by 0.15 m thickness. Average current density in the winding is 1.8 x 10/sup 8/ A/m/sup 2/. Stored energy is 45 MJ. Total system weight is 5000 kg.
Measurements of properties concerning isentropic efficiency in a nonequilibrium MHD disk generator
Nakamura, H.; Okamura, T.; Shioda, S. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech., Yokohama (Japan)
1996-06-01
The isentropic efficiency and the effective Hall parameter in a nonequilibrium disk MHD generator have been successfully evaluated on the basis of the experiments under high enthalpy extraction conditions. Special attention is devoted to measuring the exit total pressure and the Faraday current. The maximum isentropic efficiency achieved in the present experiments was 46% with the enthalpy extraction ratio of 31.6%. The experimentally obtained values of the effective Hall parameter covered a range of 2--3.
Three Dimensional MHD Simulation of Circumbinary Accretion Disks -2. Net Accretion Rate
Shi, Ji-Ming
2015-01-01
When an accretion disk surrounds a binary rotating in the same sense, the binary exerts strong torques on the gas. Analytic work in the 1D approximation indicated that these torques sharply diminish or even eliminate accretion from the disk onto the binary. However, recent 2D and 3D simulational work has shown at most modest diminution. We present new MHD simulations demonstrating that for binaries with mass ratios of 1 and 0.1 there is essentially no difference between the accretion rate at large radius in the disk and the accretion rate onto the binary. To resolve the discrepancy with earlier analytic estimates, we identify the small subset of gas trajectories traveling from the inner edge of the disk to the binary and show how the full accretion rate is concentrated onto them.
Relativistic Effects on Neutrino Pair Annihilation above a Kerr Black Hole with the Accretion Disk
Asano, K; Asano, Katsuaki; Fukuyama, Takeshi
2001-01-01
Using idealized models of the accretion disk we investigate the relativistic effects on the energy deposition rate via neutrino pair annihilation near the rotation axis of a Kerr black hole. Neutrinos are emitted from the accretion disk. The bending of neutrino trajectories and the redshift due to the disk rotation and gravitation are taken into consideration. The Kerr parameter, $a$, affects not only neutrinos' behavior but also the inner radius of the accretion disk. When the deposition energy is mainly contributed by the neutrinos coming from the central part, the redshift effect becomes dominant as $a$ becomes large and the energy deposition rate is reduced compared with that neglecting the relativistic effects. On the other hand, for small $a$ the bending effect gets dominant and makes energy increase by factor 2 compared with that neglecting the relativistic effects. For the disk with temperature gradient, the energy deposition rate for a small inner radius of the accretion disk is smaller than that est...
Constraining MHD Disk-Winds with X-ray Absorbers
Fukumura, Keigo; Tombesi, F.; Shrader, C. R.; Kazanas, D.; Contopoulos, J.; Behar, E.
2014-01-01
From the state-of-the-art spectroscopic observations of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) the robust features of absorption lines (e.g. most notably by H/He-like ions), called warm absorbers (WAs), have been often detected in soft X-rays (UFOs) whose physical condition is much more extreme compared with the WAs. Motivated by these recent X-ray data we show that the magnetically- driven accretion-disk wind model is a plausible scenario to explain the characteristic property of these X-ray absorbers. As a preliminary case study we demonstrate that the wind model parameters (e.g. viewing angle and wind density) can be constrained by data from PG 1211+143 at a statistically significant level with chi-squared spectral analysis. Our wind models can thus be implemented into the standard analysis package, XSPEC, as a table spectrum model for general analysis of X-ray absorbers.
Self-organisation in protoplanetary disks: global, non-stratified Hall-MHD simulations
Béthune, William; Ferreira, Jonathan
2016-01-01
Recent observations revealed organised structures in protoplanetary disks, such as axisymmetric rings or horseshoe concen- trations evocative of large-scale vortices. These structures are often interpreted as the result of planet-disc interactions. However, these disks are also known to be unstable to the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) which is believed to be one of the dominant angular momentum transport mechanism in these objects. It is therefore natural to ask if the MRI itself could produce these structures without invoking planets. The nonlinear evolution of the MRI is strongly affected by the low ionisation fraction in protoplanetary disks. The Hall effect in particular, which is dominant in dense and weakly ionised parts of these objects, has been shown to spontaneously drive self- organising flows in shearing box simulations. Here, we investigate the behaviour of global MRI-unstable disc models dominated by the Hall effect and characterise their dynamics. We perform 3D unstratified Hall-MHD simu...
Broderick, Avery E
2010-01-01
For the first time it has become possible to compare global 3D general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) jet formation simulations directly to very-long baseline interferometric multi-frequency polarization observations of the pc-scale structure of active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets. Unlike the jet emission, which requires post hoc modeling of the non-thermal electrons, the Faraday rotation measures (RMs) depend primarily upon simulated quantities and thus provide a robust way in which to confront simulations with observations. We compute RM distributions of 3D global GRMHD jet formation simulations, with which we explore the dependence upon model and observational parameters, emphasizing the signatures of structures generic to the theory of MHD jets. With typical parameters, we find that it is possible to reproduce the observed magnitudes and many of the structures found in AGN jet RMs, including the presence of transverse RM gradients. In our simulations the RMs are generated within a smooth extensio...
Linear Two-Dimensional MHD of Accretion Disks: Crystalline structure and Nernst coefficient
Montani, Giovanni
2009-01-01
We analyse the two-dimensional MHD configurations characterising the steady state of the accretion disk on a highly magnetised neutron star. The model we describe has a local character and represents the extension of the crystalline structure outlined in Coppi (2005), dealing with a local model too, when a specific accretion rate is taken into account. We limit our attention to the linearised MHD formulation of the electromagnetic back-reaction characterising the equilibrium, by fixing the structure of the radial, vertical and azimuthal profiles. Since we deal with toroidal currents only, the consistency of the model is ensured by the presence of a small collisional effect, phenomenologically described by a non-zero constant Nernst coefficient (thermal power of the plasma). Such an effect provides a proper balance of the electron force equation via non zero temperature gradients, related directly to the radial and vertical velocity components. We show that the obtained profile has the typical oscillating feat...
Ring-shaped discharge structures in a closed cycle MHD disk generator
Fukuda, H.; Kabashima, S.
1987-06-01
Numerical simulations are carried out to study plasma properties in a nonequilibrium disk-type MHD generator. The analysis is based on a two-dimensional time-dependent MHD equation, and is performed in the r-z plane. From the r-z analysis, the current distributions in the boundary layer, electrode regions are obtained, as well as the channel main flow region. The two-state nature of plasma, i.e., the formation of streamers and their dynamical behavior in the channel is confirmed. The dependence of the streamer properties on the magnetic field strength and load resistance is examined. The calculations suggest the existence of an eddy current in the boundary layer for the high-loading parameter. Some enhanced eddy currents in the nozzle region and the intensive eddy current at the upper-stream edge of the cathode are obtained for some plasma parameters. 19 references.
Relativistic X-ray Lines from the Inner Accretion Disks Around Black Holes
Miller, J M
2007-01-01
Relativistic X-ray emission lines from the inner accretion disk around black holes are reviewed. Recent observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission-Newton, and Suzaku are revealing these lines to be good probes of strong gravitational effects. A number of important observational and theoretical developments are highlighted, including evidence of black hole spin and effects such as gravitational light bending, the detection of relativistic lines in stellar-mass black holes, and evidence of orbital-timescale line flux variability. In addition, the robustness of the relativistic disk lines against absorption, scattering, and continuum effects is discussed. Finally, prospects for improved measures of black hole spin and understanding the spin history of supermassive black holes in the context of black hole-galaxy co-evolution are presented. The best data and most rigorous results strongly suggest that relativistic X-ray disk lines can drive future explorations of General Relativiti...
Light Curves from an MHD Simulation of a Black Hole Accretion Disk
Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Krolik, Julian H.; Hawley, John F.
2006-11-01
We use a relativistic ray-tracing code to calculate the light curves observed from a global, general relativistic, magnetohydrodynamic simulation of an accretion flow onto a Schwarzschild black hole. We apply three basic emission models to sample different properties of the time-dependent accretion disk. With one of these models, which assumes thermal blackbody emission and free-free absorption, we can predict qualitative features of the high-frequency power spectrum from stellar-mass black holes in the ``thermal dominant'' state. The simulated power spectrum is characterized by a power law of index Γ~3 and total rms fractional variance of ~1% near the orbital frequency at the innermost stable orbit. Initial results indicate the existence of transient QPO peaks with frequency ratios of nearly 2:3 at a 99.9% confidence limit, but they are not generic features, because at any given time they are seen only from certain observer directions. In addition, we present detailed analysis of the azimuthal structure of the accretion disk and the evolution of density perturbations in the inner disk. These ``hot-spot'' structures appear to be roughly self-similar over a range of disk radii, with a single characteristic size δφ=25deg and δr/r=0.3, and typical lifetimes Tl~0.3Torb.
Ju, Wenhua; Zhu, Zhaohuan
2016-01-01
We present results from the first global 3D MHD simulations of accretion disks in Cataclysmic Variable (CV) systems in order to investigate the relative importance of angular momentum transport via turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) compared to that driven by spiral shock waves. Remarkably, we find that even with vigorous MRI turbulence, spiral shocks are an important component to the overall angular momentum budget, at least when temperatures in the disk are high (so that Mach numbers are low). In order to understand the excitation, propagation, and damping of spiral density waves in our simulations more carefully, we perform a series of 2D global hydrodynamical simulations with various equation of states and both with and without mass inflow via the Lagrangian point (L1). Compared with previous similar studies, we find the following new results. 1) Linear wave dispersion relation fits the pitch angles of spiral density waves very well. 2) We demonstrate explicitly that mass accreti...
Tasawar Hayat
Full Text Available This paper investigates the unsteady MHD flow of viscous fluid between two parallel rotating disks. Fluid fills the porous space. Energy equation has been constructed by taking Joule heating, thermal stratification and radiation effects into consideration. We convert system of partial differential equations into system of highly nonlinear ordinary differential equations after employing the suitable transformations. Convergent series solutions are obtained. Behavior of different involved parameters on velocity and temperature profiles is examined graphically. Numerical values of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are computed and inspected. It is found that tangential velocity profile is increasing function of rotational parameter. Fluid temperature reduces for increasing values of thermal stratification parameter. At upper disk heat transfer rate enhances for larger values of Eckert and Prandtl numbers.
Hayat, Tasawar; Qayyum, Sumaira; Imtiaz, Maria; Alsaedi, Ahmed
2016-01-01
This paper investigates the unsteady MHD flow of viscous fluid between two parallel rotating disks. Fluid fills the porous space. Energy equation has been constructed by taking Joule heating, thermal stratification and radiation effects into consideration. We convert system of partial differential equations into system of highly nonlinear ordinary differential equations after employing the suitable transformations. Convergent series solutions are obtained. Behavior of different involved parameters on velocity and temperature profiles is examined graphically. Numerical values of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are computed and inspected. It is found that tangential velocity profile is increasing function of rotational parameter. Fluid temperature reduces for increasing values of thermal stratification parameter. At upper disk heat transfer rate enhances for larger values of Eckert and Prandtl numbers.
Fromang, S; Terquem, C; De Villiers, J P; Fromang, Sebastien; Balbus, Steven A.; Terquem, Caroline; Villiers, Jean-Pierre De
2004-01-01
We present 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations of the evolution of self--gravitating and weakly magnetized disks with an adiabatic equation of state. Such disks are subject to the development of both the magnetorotational and gravitational instabilities, which transport angular momentum outward. As in previous studies, our hydrodynamical simulations show the growth of strong m=2 spiral structure. This spiral disturbance drives matter toward the central object and disappears when the Toomre parameter Q has increased well above unity. When a weak magnetic field is present as well, the magnetorotational instability grows and leads to turbulence. In that case, the strength of the gravitational stress tensor is lowered by a factor of about~2 compared to the hydrodynamical run and oscillates periodically, reaching very small values at its minimum. We attribute this behavior to the presence of a second spiral mode with higher pattern speed than the one which dominates in the hydrodynamical simulations...
Alignment of magnetized accretion disks and relativistic jets with spinning black holes.
McKinney, Jonathan C; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Blandford, Roger D
2013-01-04
Accreting black holes (BHs) produce intense radiation and powerful relativistic jets, which are affected by the BH's spin magnitude and direction. Although thin disks might align with the BH spin axis via the Bardeen-Petterson effect, this does not apply to jet systems with thick disks. We used fully three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamical simulations to study accreting BHs with various spin vectors and disk thicknesses and with magnetic flux reaching saturation. Our simulations reveal a "magneto-spin alignment" mechanism that causes magnetized disks and jets to align with the BH spin near BHs and to reorient with the outer disk farther away. This mechanism has implications for the evolution of BH mass and spin, BH feedback on host galaxies, and resolved BH images for the accreting BHs in SgrA* and M87.
Self-Trapping of G-Mode Oscillations in Relativistic Thin Disks, Revisited
kato, Shoji
2017-01-01
We examine by a perturbation method how the self-trapping of g-mode oscillations in geometrically thin relativistic disks is affected by uniform vertical magnetic fields. Disks which we consider are isothermal in the vertical direction, but are truncated at a certain height by presence of hot coronae. We find that the characteristics of self-trapping of axisymmetric g-mode oscillations in non-magnetized disks is kept unchanged in magnetized disks at least till a strength of the fields, depending on vertical thickness of disks. These magnetic fields become stronger as the disk becomes thinner. This result suggests that trapped g-mode oscillations still remain as one of possible candidates of quasi-periodic oscillations observed in black-hole and neutron-star X-ray binaries in the cases where vertical magnetic fields in disks are weak.
Wang Zhi-Yun; Chen Pei-Jie
2016-06-01
A generalized Langevin equation driven by fractional Brownian motion is used to describe the vertical oscillations of general relativistic disks. By means of numerical calculation method, the displacements, velocities and luminosities of oscillating disks are explicitly obtained for different Hurst exponent $H$. The results show that as $H$ increases, the energies and luminosities of oscillating disk are enhanced, and the spectral slope at high frequencies of the power spectrum density of disk luminosity is also increased. This could explain the observational features related to the Intra Day Variability of the BL Lac objects.
Keppens, R
2002-01-01
We present numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of a magnetized accretion disk launching trans-Alfvenic jets. These simulations, performed in a 2.5 dimensional time-dependent polytropic resistive MHD framework, model a resistive accretion disk threaded by an initial vertical magnetic field. The resistivity is only important inside the disk, and is prescribed as eta = alpha_m V_AH exp(-2Z^2/H^2), where V_A stands for Alfven speed, H is the disk scale height and the coefficient alpha_m is smaller than unity. By performing the simulations over several tens of dynamical disk timescales, we show that the launching of a collimated outflow occurs self-consistently and the ejection of matter is continuous and quasi-stationary. These are the first ever simulations of resistive accretion disks launching non-transient ideal MHD jets. Roughly 15% of accreted mass is persistently ejected. This outflow is safely characterized as a jet since the flow becomes super-fastmagnetosonic, well-collimated and reaches a q...
Constraints on particle acceleration sites in the Crab Nebula from relativistic MHD simulations
Olmi, Barbara; Amato, Elena; Bucciantini, Niccolò
2015-01-01
The Crab Nebula is one of the most efficient accelerators in the Galaxy and the only galactic source showing direct evidence of PeV particles. In spite of this, the physical process behind such effective acceleration is still a deep mystery. While particle acceleration, at least at the highest energies, is commonly thought to occur at the pulsar wind termination shock, the properties of the upstream flow are thought to be non-uniform along the shock surface, and important constraints on the mechanism at work come from exact knowledge of where along this surface particles are being accelerated. Here we use axisymmetric relativistic MHD simulations to obtain constraints on the acceleration site(s) of particles of different energies in the Crab Nebula. Various scenarios are considered for the injection of particles responsible for synchrotron radiation in the different frequency bands, radio, optical and X-rays. The resulting emission properties are compared with available data on the multi wavelength time varia...
Performance experiments with a shock-tunnel-driven argon-cesium MHD disk generator
Veefkind, A.; Karavasilev, P.; Wang, D.
1988-08-01
An extensive amount of data has been collected concerning MHD disk generator performance under different operation conditions. The results are obtained from a large number of runs with the Eindhoven shock tunnel facility. The runs are carried out at different stagnation temperatures, stagnation pressures, external loads, and seed fractions. Two channels have been used, one with and one without inlet swirl. Voltage, pressure, and radiation measurements have been employed. Current to voltage characteristics have been measured for different seed ratios. The enthalpy extractions of the disk with inlet swirl are found to be comparable with similar experiments with linear channels. The enthalpy extractions of the radial disk are found to be lower. A high enthalpy extraction (18 percent at a stagnation temperature of 2100 K) is reported at a comparatively low stagnation pressure (4.2 bar). A one-dimensional-gasdynamical analysis using measured voltages as an input is discussed. The measured fluctuations of electron temperature and density indicate that the results are obtained in a nonuniform plasma. 10 references.
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of Cu-water nanofluid due to a rotating disk with partial slip
Hayat, Tasawar [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Rashid, Madiha; Imtiaz, Maria, E-mail: mi-qau@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, Ahmed [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)
2015-06-15
This paper investigates MHD steady flow of viscous nanofluid due to a rotating disk. Water is treated as a base fluid and copper as nanoparticle. Nanofluid fills the porous medium. Effects of partial slip, viscous dissipation and thermal radiation are also considered. Similarity transformations reduce the nonlinear partial differential equations to ordinary differential equations. Flow and heat transfer characteristics are computed by HAM solutions. Also computations for skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are presented and examined for pertinent parameters. It is noted that higher velocity slip parameter decreases the radial and azimuthal velocities while temperature decreases for larger values of the thermal slip parameter. Also the rate of heat transfer enhances when the nanoparticle volume fraction increases.
Unstable Disk Accretion to Magnetized Stars: First Global 3D MHD Simulations
Romanova, Marina M; Lovelace, Richard V E
2007-01-01
We report the first global three-dimensional (3D) MHD simulations of disk accretion onto a rotating magnetized star through the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. In this regime, the accreting matter typically forms 2 to 7 vertically elongated "tongues" which penetrate deep into the magnetosphere, until they are stopped by the strong field. Subsequently, the matter is channeled along the field lines to the surface of the star, forming hot spots. The number, position and shape of the hot spots vary with time, so that the light-curves associated with the hot spots are stochastic. A magnetized star may be in the stable (with funnel streams) or unstable (with random tongues) regime of accretion, and consequently have significantly different observational properties. A star may switch between these two regimes depending on the accretion rate.
Design of helium-driven MHD disk generators with high performance
Matsubara, H.; Kabashima, S.; Yamasaki, H.; Shioda, S. (Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (JP). Dept. of Energy Sciences)
1990-01-01
A design method for helium-driven MHD disk generator channels including boundary-layer behavior is proposed. In this method, the main flow in the channels is one-dimensionally treated, taking account of the concept of effective cross-sectional area of the channels. This effective area is determined by solving two-dimensional boundary-layer equations. Using this method, the generator channels on various scales are numerically designed under the condition of fully ionized seed. Furthermore, the scale effects of the boundary layer on the area ratio, heat loss and adiabatic efficiency of the generators are examined. It is found from this study that a generator having a thermal input of more than 100 MW is required to achieve high enthalpy extraction with high adiabatic efficiency (more than 65%). (author).
Experimental studies on isentropic efficiency of a nonequilibrium MHD disk generator
Nakamura, Hajime [National Defense Academy, Yokosuka (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Okamura, Tetsuji [Tokyo Inst. of Tech., Yokohama (Japan). Dept. of Energy Sciences; Shioda, Susumu [Keio Univ., Fujisawa (Japan). Faculty of Environmental Information
1998-02-01
Isentropic efficiency of the nonequilibrium MHD power generator was studied by a shock tube driven disk generator. Cesium seeded helium was used as a working gas. From the measurements of Faraday current density distribution, it was possible to estimate the general tendency of Joule dissipation in the generator. The Joule dissipation did not decrease due to the occurrence of nonuniformity of the plasma when external load resistance was low, although it decreased with the decrease in the load resistance when the load resistance was high. The electrical efficiency increased with the increase in applied magnetic flux density. This fact is thought to be caused by high Hall parameter and the stabilization of the plasma due to high degree of seed ionization.
Time Evolution of Relativistic Force-Free Fields Connecting a Neutron Star and its Disk
Asano, E; Matsumoto, R; Asano, Eiji; Uchida, Toshio; Matsumoto, Ryoji
2005-01-01
We study the magnetic interaction between a neutron star and its disk by solving the time-dependent relativistic force-free equations. At the initial state, we assume that the dipole magnetic field of the neutron star connects the neutron star and its equatorial disk, which deeply enters into the magnetosphere of the neutron star. Magnetic fields are assumed to be frozen to the star and the disk. The rotation of the neutron star and the disk is imposed as boundary conditions. We apply Harten-Lax-van Leer (HLL) method to simulate the evolution of the star-disk system. We carry out simulations for (1) a disk inside the corotation radius, in which the disk rotates faster than the star, and (2) a disk outside the corotation radius, in which the neutron star rotates faster than the disk. Numerical results indicate that for both models, the magnetic field lines connecting the disk and the star inflate as they are twisted by the differential rotation between the disk and the star. When the twist angle exceeds pi rad...
Donmez, Orhan
We present a general procedure to solve the General Relativistic Hydrodynamical (GRH) equations with Adaptive-Mesh Refinement (AMR) and model of an accretion disk around a black hole. To do this, the GRH equations are written in a conservative form to exploit their hyperbolic character. The numerical solutions of the general relativistic hydrodynamic equations is done by High Resolution Shock Capturing schemes (HRSC), specifically designed to solve non-linear hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. These schemes depend on the characteristic information of the system. We use Marquina fluxes with MUSCL left and right states to solve GRH equations. First, we carry out different test problems with uniform and AMR grids on the special relativistic hydrodynamics equations to verify the second order convergence of the code in 1D, 2 D and 3D. Second, we solve the GRH equations and use the general relativistic test problems to compare the numerical solutions with analytic ones. In order to this, we couple the flux part of general relativistic hydrodynamic equation with a source part using Strang splitting. The coupling of the GRH equations is carried out in a treatment which gives second order accurate solutions in space and time. The test problems examined include shock tubes, geodesic flows, and circular motion of particle around the black hole. Finally, we apply this code to the accretion disk problems around the black hole using the Schwarzschild metric at the background of the computational domain. We find spiral shocks on the accretion disk. They are observationally expected results. We also examine the star-disk interaction near a massive black hole. We find that when stars are grounded down or a hole is punched on the accretion disk, they create shock waves which destroy the accretion disk.
Modeling X-ray Absorbers in AGNs with MHD-Driven Accretion-Disk Winds
Fukumura, Keigo; Kazanas, D.; Shrader, C. R.; Tombesi, F.; Contopoulos, J.; Behar, E.
2013-04-01
We have proposed a systematic view of the observed X-ray absorbers, namely warm absorbers (WAs) in soft X-ray and highly-ionized ultra-fast outflows (UFOs), in the context of magnetically-driven accretion-disk wind models. While potentially complicated by variability and thermal instability in these energetic outflows, in this simplistic model we have calculated 2D kinematic field as well as density and ionization structure of the wind with density profile of 1/r corresponding to a constant column distribution per decade of ionization parameter. In particular we show semi-analytically that the inner layer of the disk-wind manifests itself as the strongly-ionized fast outflows while the outer layer is identified as the moderately-ionized absorbers. The computed characteristics of these two apparently distinct absorbers are consistent with X-ray data (i.e. a factor of ~100 difference in column and ionization parameters as well as low wind velocity vs. near-relativistic flow). With the predicted contour curves for these wind parameters one can constrain allowed regions for the presence of WAs and UFOs.The model further implies that the UFO's gas pressure is comparable to that of the observed radio jet in 3C111 suggesting that the magnetized disk-wind with density profile of 1/r is a viable agent to help sustain such a self-collimated jet at small radii.
Modeling MHD accretion-ejection: episodic ejections of jets triggered by a mean-field disk dynamo
Stepanovs, Deniss; Fendt, Christian; Sheikhnezami, Somayeh, E-mail: deniss@stepanovs.org, E-mail: fendt@mpia.de [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)
2014-11-20
We present MHD simulations exploring the launching, acceleration, and collimation of jets and disk winds. The evolution of the disk structure is consistently taken into account. Extending our earlier studies, we now consider the self-generation of the magnetic field by an α{sup 2}Ω mean-field dynamo. The disk magnetization remains on a rather low level, which helps to evolve the simulations for T > 10, 000 dynamical time steps on a domain extending 1500 inner disk radii. We find the magnetic field of the inner disk to be similar to the commonly found open field structure, favoring magneto-centrifugal launching. The outer disk field is highly inclined and predominantly radial. Here, differential rotation induces a strong toroidal component, which plays a key role in outflow launching. These outflows from the outer disk are slower, denser, and less collimated. If the dynamo action is not quenched, magnetic flux is continuously generated, diffuses outward through the disk, and fills the entire disk. We have invented a toy model triggering a time-dependent mean-field dynamo. The duty cycles of this dynamo lead to episodic ejections on similar timescales. When the dynamo is suppressed as the magnetization falls below a critical value, the generation of the outflows and also accretion is inhibited. The general result is that we can steer episodic ejection and large-scale jet knots by a disk-intrinsic dynamo that is time-dependent and regenerates the jet-launching magnetic field.
MHD Modeling of a Disk-Wind from a High-Mass Protobinary: the case of Orion Source I
Vaidya, B
2012-01-01
Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of SiO masers in Orion Source I has enabled for the first time to resolve the outflow from a high-mass protostar in the launch and collimation region. Therefore, Source I provides a unique laboratory to study mass-loss and mass-accretion in a high-mass protostar. We numerically simulate the dynamics of the disk-wind inside 100 AU from Source I. This enables us to investigate the balance of different forces (gravitational, magnetic, thermal) regulating gas dynamics in massive star formation. In this work, we adopt magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) disk-wind models to explain the observed properties of the disk-wind from Orion Source I. The central source is assumed to be a binary composed of two 10\\,$\\msun$ stars in a circular orbit with an orbital separation of 7 AU. High resolution ideal MHD wind launching simulations (which prescribe disk as a boundary) are performed using the PLUTO code. The simulations are allowed to run until a steady state is obtained. MHD d...
Deng, Wei; Zhang, Bing; Li, Shengtai
2015-01-01
We perform 3D relativistic ideal MHD simulations to study the collisions between high-$\\sigma$ (Poynting-flux-dominated) blobs which contain both poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components. This is meant to mimic the interactions inside a highly variable Poynting-flux-dominated jet. We discover a significant electromagnetic field (EMF) energy dissipation with an Alfv\\'enic rate with the efficiency around 35\\%. Detailed analyses show that this dissipation is mostly facilitated by the collision-induced magnetic reconnection. Additional resolution and parameter studies show a robust result that the relative EMF energy dissipation efficiency is nearly independent of the numerical resolution or most physical parameters in the relevant parameter range. The reconnection outflows in our simulation can potentially form the multi-orientation relativistic mini-jets as needed for several analytical models. We also find a linear relationship between the $\\sigma$ values before and after the major EMF energy dissipatio...
Zhang, Weiqun; Wang, Peng
2008-01-01
Magnetic field strengths inferred for relativistic outflows including gamma-ray bursts (GRB) and active galactic nuclei (AGN) are larger than naively expected by orders of magnitude. We present three-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations demonstrating amplification and saturation of magnetic field by a macroscopic turbulent dynamo triggered by the Kelvin-Helmholtz shear instability. We find rapid growth of electromagnetic energy due to the stretching and folding of field lines in the turbulent velocity field resulting from non-linear development of the instability. Using conditions relevant for GRB internal shocks and late phases of GRB afterglow, we obtain amplification of the electromagnetic energy fraction to $\\epsilon_B \\sim 5 \\times 10^{-3}$. This value decays slowly after the shear is dissipated and appears to be largely independent of the initial field strength. The conditions required for operation of the dynamo are the presence of velocity shear and some seed magnetization b...
Light Curves from an MHD Simulation of a Black Hole Accretion Disk
Schnittman, J D; Hawley, J F; Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Krolik, Julian H.; Hawley, John F.
2006-01-01
We use a relativistic ray-tracing code to calculate the light curves observed from a global general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamic simulation of an accretion flow onto a Schwarzschild black hole. We apply three basic emission models to sample different properties of the time-dependent accretion disk. With one of these models, which assumes thermal blackbody emission and free-free absorption, we can predict qualitative features of the high-frequency power spectrum from stellar-mass black holes in the "Thermal Dominant" state. The simulated power spectrum is characterized by a power law of index Gamma ~ 3 and total rms fractional variance of ~ 1 % near the orbital frequency at the inner-most stable orbit. Initial results indicate the existence of transient QPO peaks with frequency ratios of nearly 2:3 at a 99.9% confidence limit, but they are not generic features because at any given time they are seen only from certain observer directions. Additionally, we present detailed analysis of the azimuthal structur...
Electrovacuum Static Counter-Rotating Relativistic Dust Disks
González, G A
2002-01-01
A detailed study of the Counter-Rotating Model (CRM) for generic electrostatic (magnetostatic) axially symmetric thin disks without radial pressure is presented. We find a general constraint over the counter-rotating tangential velocities needed to cast the surface energy-momentum tensor of the disk as the superposition of two counter-rotating charged dust fluids. We then show that this constraint is satisfied if we take the two counter-rotating streams as circulating along electrogeodesics with equal and opposite tangential velocities. We also find explicit expressions for the energy densities, electrostatic (magnetostatic) charge densities and velocities of the counter-rotating fluids. Three specific examples are considered where we obtain some CRM well behaved based in simple solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell equations. The considered solutions are Reissner-Nordstrom in the electrostatic case, its magnetostatic counterpart and two solutions obtained from Taub-NUT and Kerr solutions.
García-Reyes, Gonzalo
2008-01-01
A detailed study is presented of the counterrotating model (CRM) for electrovacuum stationary axially symmetric relativistic thin disks of infinite extension without radial stress, in the case when the eigenvalues of the energy-momentum tensor of the disk are real quantities, so that there is not heat flow. We find a general constraint over the counterrotating tangential velocities needed to cast the surface energy-momentum tensor of the disk as the superposition of two counterrotating charged dust fluids. We then show that, in some cases, this constraint can be satisfied if we take the two counterrotating tangential velocities as equal and opposite or by taking the two counterrotating streams as circulating along electro-geodesics. However, we show that, in general, it is not possible to take the two counterrotating fluids as circulating along electro-geodesics nor take the two counterrotating tangential velocities as equal and opposite. A simple family of models of counterrotating charged disks based on the...
AGN Unification, X-Ray Absorbers and Accretion Disk MHD Winds
Kazanas, Demos
2011-01-01
We present the 2D photoionization structure of the MHD winds of AGN accretion disks. We focus our attention on a specific subset of winds, those with poloidal currents that lead to density profiles n(r) \\propto 1/r. We employ the code XSTAR to compute the local ionization balance, emissivities and opacity which are then used in the self-consistent transfer of radiation and ionization of a host of ionic species of a large number of elements over then entire poloidal plane. Particular attention is paid to the Absorption Measure Distribution (AMD), namely their hydrogen-equivalent column of these ions per logarithmic 7 interval, dN_H/dlog ? (? = L/n(r)r(sup 2) is the ionization parameter), which provides a measure of the winds' radial density profiles. For the given density profile, AMD is found to be independent of ?, in good agreement with analyses of Chandra and XMM data, suggesting the specific profile as a fundamental AGN property. Furthermore, the ratio of equatorial to polar column densities of these winds is \\simeq 10(exp 4); as such, it is shown they serve as the "torus" necessary for AGN unification with phenomenology consistent with the observations. The same winds are also shown to reproduce the observed columns and velocities of C IV and Fe XXV of SAL QSOs once the proper ionizing spectra and inclination angles are employed.
Leung, Chun Sing; Harko, Tiberiu
2013-01-01
We consider a description of the stochastic oscillations of the general relativistic accretion disks around compact astrophysical objects based on the generalized Langevin equation, which accounts for the general retarded effects of the frictional force, and on the fluctuation-dissipation theorems. The vertical displacements, velocities and luminosities of the stochastically perturbed disks are explicitly obtained for both the Schwarzschild and the Kerr cases. The Power Spectral Distribution of the luminosity it is also obtained, and it is shown that it has non-standard values. The theoretical predictions of the model are compared with the observational data for the luminosity time variation of the BL Lac S5 0716+714 object.
Generalized Langevin Equation Description of Stochastic Oscillations of General Relativistic Disks
Chun Sing Leung; Gabriela Mocanu; Tiberiu Harko
2014-09-01
We consider a description of the stochastic oscillations of the general relativistic accretion disks around compact astrophysical objects based on the generalized Langevin equation, which accounts for the general retarded effects of the frictional force, and on the fluctuation–dissipation theorems. The vertical displacements, velocities and luminosities of the stochastically perturbed disks are explicitly obtained for both the Schwarzschild and Kerr cases. The power spectral distribution of the luminosity is also obtained, and it is shown that it has non-standard values. The theoretical predictions of the model are compared with the observational data for the luminosity time variation of the BL Lac S5 0716+714 object.
On Relativistic Disk Spectroscopy in Compact Objects with X-ray CCD Cameras
Miller, J. M.; D'Aì, A.; Bautz, M. W.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Burrows, D. N.; Cackett, E. M.; Fabian, A. C.; Freyberg, M. J.; Haberl, F.; Kennea, J.; Nowak, M. A.; Reis, R. C.; Strohmayer, T. E.; Tsujimoto, M.
2010-12-01
X-ray charge-coupled devices (CCDs) are the workhorse detectors of modern X-ray astronomy. Typically covering the 0.3-10.0 keV energy range, CCDs are able to detect photoelectric absorption edges and K shell lines from most abundant metals. New CCDs also offer resolutions of 30-50 (E/ΔE), which is sufficient to detect lines in hot plasmas and to resolve many lines shaped by dynamical processes in accretion flows. The spectral capabilities of X-ray CCDs have been particularly important in detecting relativistic emission lines from the inner disks around accreting neutron stars and black holes. One drawback of X-ray CCDs is that spectra can be distorted by photon "pile-up," wherein two or more photons may be registered as a single event during one frame time. We have conducted a large number of simulations using a statistical model of photon pile-up to assess its impacts on relativistic disk line and continuum spectra from stellar-mass black holes and neutron stars. The simulations cover the range of current X-ray CCD spectrometers and operational modes typically used to observe neutron stars and black holes in X-ray binaries. Our results suggest that severe photon pile-up acts to falsely narrow emission lines, leading to falsely large disk radii and falsely low spin values. In contrast, our simulations suggest that disk continua affected by severe pile-up are measured to have falsely low flux values, leading to falsely small radii and falsely high spin values. The results of these simulations and existing data appear to suggest that relativistic disk spectroscopy is generally robust against pile-up when this effect is modest.
Binary Black Holes, Accretion Disks and Relativistic Jets: Photocenters of Nearby AGN and Quasars
Wehrle, Ann E.; Jones, Dayton L.; Meier, David L.; Piner, B. Glenn; Unwin, Stephen C.
2004-01-01
One of the most challenging questions in astronomy today is to understand the origin, structure, and evolution of the central engines in the nuclei of quasars and active galaxies (AGNs). The favoured theory involves the activation of relativistic jets from the fueling of a supermassive black hole through an accretion disk. In some AGN an outer optically thick, dusty torus is seen orbiting the black hole system. This torus is probably related to an inner accretion disk - black hole system that forms the actual powerhouse of the AGN. In radio-loud AGN two oppositely-directed radio jets are ejected perpendicular to the torus/disk system. Although there is a wealth of observational data on AGN, some very basic questions have not been definitively answered. The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) will address the following three key questions about AGN. 1) Does the most compact optical emission from an AGN come from an accretion disk or from a relativistic jet? 2) Does the separation of the radio core and optical photocenter of the quasars used for the reference frame tie, change on the timescales of their photometric variability, or is the separation stable at the level of a few microarcseconds? 3) Do the cores of galaxies harbor binary supermassive black holes remaining from galaxy mergers? It is not known whether such mergers are common, and whether binaries would persist for a significant time.
Relativistic particle transport in extragalactic jets: I. Coupling MHD and kinetic theory
Casse, F
2003-01-01
Multidimensional magneto-hydrodynamical (MHD) simulations coupled with stochastic differential equations (SDEs) adapted to test particle acceleration and transport in complex astrophysical flows are presented. The numerical scheme allows the investigation of shock acceleration, adiabatic and radiative losses as well as diffusive spatial transport in various diffusion regimes. The applicability of SDEs to astrophysics is first discussed in regards to the different regimes and the MHD code spatial resolution. The procedure is then applied to 2.5D MHD-SDE simulations of kilo-parsec scale extragalactic jets. The ability of SDE to reproduce analytical solutions of the diffusion-convection equation for electrons is tested through the incorporation of an increasing number of effects: shock acceleration, spatially dependent diffusion coefficients and synchrotron losses. The SDEs prove to be efficient in various shock configuration occurring in the inner jet during the development of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. ...
Ju, Wenhua; Stone, James M.; Zhu, Zhaohuan
2017-05-01
We perform global three-dimensional MHD simulations of unstratified accretion disks in cataclysmic variables (CVs). By including mass inflow via an accretion stream, we are able to evolve the disk to a steady state. We investigate the relative importance of spiral shocks and the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in driving angular momentum transport and how each depend on the geometry and strength of the seed magnetic field and the Mach number of the disk (where Mach number is the ratio of the azimuthal velocity and the sound speed of gas). We use a locally isothermal equation of state and adopt temperature profiles that are consistent with CV disk observations. Our results indicate that the relative importance of spiral shocks and MRI in driving angular momentum transport is controlled by the gas Mach number and the seed magnetic field strength. MRI and spiral shocks provide comparable efficiency of angular momentum transport when the disk Mach number is around 10 and the seed magnetic field has plasma β =400 (where β is the ratio of gas pressure and magnetic pressure). The MRI dominates whenever the seed field strength, or the disk Mach number, is increased. Among all of our simulations, the effective viscosity parameter {α }{eff}˜ 0.016{--}0.1 after MRI saturates and the disk reaches steady state. Larger values of {α }{eff} are favored when the seed magnetic field has vertical components or the flow has stronger magnetization (1/β ). Our models all indicate that the role of MRI in driving angular momentum transport thus mass accretion in CV disks is indispensable, especially in cool disks with weak spiral shocks.
Reynolds, C S
1997-01-01
The broad iron K$\\alpha$ emission line, commonly seen in the X-ray spectrum of Seyfert nuclei, is thought to originate when the inner accretion disk is illuminated by an active disk-corona. We show that relative motion between the disk and the X-ray emitting material can have an important influence on the observed equivalent width (EW) of this line via special relativistic aberration and Doppler effects. We suggest this may be relevant to understanding why the observed EW often exceeds the prediction of the standard X-ray reflection model. Several observational tests are suggested that could disentangle these special relativistic effects from iron abundance effects.
Tchekhovskoy, Alexander
2015-01-01
Active galactic nuclei jets are thought to form in the immediate vicinity of the event horizons of supermassive black holes. Therefore, jets could be excellent probes of general relativity. However, in practice, using jets to infer near-black hole physics is not straightforward since the cause of their most basic morphological features is not understood. For instance, there is no agreement on the cause of the well-known Fanaroff-Riley (FR) morphological dichotomy of jets, with FRI jets being shorter and wiggly and FRII jets being longer and more stable. Here, we carry out 3D relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of relativistic jets propagating through the ambient medium. Because in flat density cores of galaxies ($n \\propto r^{-\\alpha}$ with $\\alpha < 2$) the mass per unit distance ahead of the jets increases with distance, the jets slow down and collimate into smaller opening angles. This makes the jets more vulnerable to the 3D magnetic kink ("corkscrew") instability, which develops faster ...
Deng, Wei; Li, Hui; Zhang, Bing; Li, Shengtai
2015-06-01
We perform 3D relativistic ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations to study the collisions between high-σ (Poynting-flux-dominated (PFD)) blobs which contain both poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components. This is meant to mimic the interactions inside a highly variable PFD jet. We discover a significant electromagnetic field (EMF) energy dissipation with an Alfvénic rate with the efficiency around 35%. Detailed analyses show that this dissipation is mostly facilitated by the collision-induced magnetic reconnection. Additional resolution and parameter studies show a robust result that the relative EMF energy dissipation efficiency is nearly independent of the numerical resolution or most physical parameters in the relevant parameter range. The reconnection outflows in our simulation can potentially form the multi-orientation relativistic mini jets as needed for several analytical models. We also find a linear relationship between the σ values before and after the major EMF energy dissipation process. Our results give support to the proposed astrophysical models that invoke significant magnetic energy dissipation in PFD jets, such as the internal collision-induced magnetic reconnection and turbulence model for gamma-ray bursts, and reconnection triggered mini jets model for active galactic nuclei. The simulation movies are shown in http://www.physics.unlv.edu/∼deng/simulation1.html.
Timelike and null equatorial geodesics in the Bonnor-Sackfield relativistic disk
Guillermo A. González
2011-06-01
Full Text Available A study of timelike and null equatorial geodesics in the BonnorSackfield relativistic thin disk is presented. The motion of test particles in the equatorial plane is analyzed, both for the newtonian thin disk model as for the corresponding relativistic disk. The nature of the possible orbits is studied by means of a qualitative analysis of the effective potential and by numerically solving the motion equation for radial and non-radial equatorial trajectories. The existence of stable, unstable and marginally stable circular orbits is analyzed, both for the newtonian and relativistic case. Examples of the numerical results, obtained with some simple values of the parameters, are presented. Resumen. En este trabajo se presenta un estudio de las geodésicas temporales y nulas en el disco delgado relativista y newtoniano de Bonnor-Sackfield. Se analiza el movimiento de las partículas de prueba en el plano ecuatorial, tanto para el modelo newtoniano del disco delgado como para el disco relativista correspondiente. La naturaleza de las órbitas posibles se estudia por medio de un análisis cualitativo del potencial efectivo, y numéricamente mediante la solución de la ecuación de movimiento de las trayectorias ecuatorial radial y no radial: Se analiza la existencia de órbitas estables, circulares inestables y estables marginalmente, tanto para el caso newtoniano, como el relativista. Se presentan ejemplos de los resultados numéricos obtenidos con algunos valores de los parámetros simples.
Relativistic MHD simulations of core-collapse GRB jets: 3D instabilities and magnetic dissipation
Bromberg, Omer
2015-01-01
Relativistic jets naturally occur in astrophysical systems that involve accretion onto compact objects, such as core collapse of massive stars in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and accretion onto supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN). It is generally accepted that these jets are powered electromagnetically, by the magnetised rotation of a central compact object. However, how they produce the observed emission and survive the propagation for many orders of magnitude in distance without being disrupted by current-driven non-axisymmetric instabilities is the subject of active debate. We carry out time-dependent 3D relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of relativistic, Poynting flux dominated jets. The jets are launched self-consistently by the rotation of a strongly magnetised central compact object. This determines the natural degree of azimuthal magnetic field winding, a crucial factor that controls jet stability. We find that the jets are susceptible to two types of instability: (i) a globa...
The exact solution of the Riemann problem in relativistic MHD with tangential magnetic fields
Romero, R; Pons, J A; Ibáñez, J M; Miralles, J A; Romero, Roberto; Marti, Jose M.; Pons, Jose A.; Ibanez, Jose M.; Miralles, Juan A.
2005-01-01
We have extended the procedure to find the exact solution of the Riemann problem in relativistic hydrodynamics to a particular case of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in which the magnetic field of the initial states is tangential to the discontinuity and orthogonal to the flow velocity. The wave pattern produced after the break up of the initial discontinuity is analogous to the non--magnetic case and we show that the problem can be understood as a purely relativistic hydrodynamical problem with a modified equation of state. The new degree of freedom introduced by the non-zero component of the magnetic field results in interesting effects consisting in the change of the wave patterns for given initial thermodynamical states, in a similar way to the effects arising from the introduction of tangential velocities. Secondly, when the magnetic field dominates the thermodynamical pressure and energy, the wave speeds approach the speed of light leading to fast shocks and fast and arbitrarily thin rarefaction wave...
On Relativistic Disk Spectroscopy in Compact Objects with X-ray CCD Cameras
Miller, J M; Bautz, M W; Bhattacharyya, S; Burrows, D N; Cackett, E M; Fabian, A C; Freyberg, M J; Haberl, F; Kennea, J; Nowak, M A; Reis, R C; Strohmayer, T E; Tsujimoto, M
2010-01-01
X-ray charge-coupled devices (CCDs) are the workhorse detectors of modern X-ray astronomy. Typically covering the 0.3-10.0 keV energy range, CCDs are able to detect photoelectric absorption edges and K shell lines from most abundant metals. New CCDs also offer resolutions of 30-50 (E/dE), which is sufficient to detect lines in hot plasmas and to resolve many lines shaped by dynamical processes in accretion flows. The spectral capabilities of X-ray CCDs have been particularly important in detecting relativistic emission lines from the inner disks around accreting neutron stars and black holes. One drawback of X-ray CCDs is that spectra can be distorted by photon "pile-up", wherein two or more photons may be registered as a single event during one frame time. We have conducted a large number of simulations using a statistical model of photon pile-up to assess its impacts on relativistic disk line and continuum spectra from stellar-mass black holes and neutron stars. The simulations cover the range of current X-...
Measuring the Spin of GRS 1915+105 with Relativistic Disk Reflection
Blum, J. L.; Miller, J. M.; Fabian, A. C.; Miller, M. C.; Homan, J.; van der Klis, M.; Cackett, E. M.; Reis, R. C.
2009-11-01
GRS 1915+105 harbors one of the most massive known stellar black holes in the Galaxy. In 2007 May, we observed GRS 1915+105 for ~117 ks in the low/hard state using Suzaku. We collected and analyzed the data with the Hard X-ray Detector/Positive Intrinsic Negative and X-ray Spectrometer cameras spanning the energy range from 2.3 to 55 keV. Fits to the spectra with simple models reveal strong disk reflection through an Fe K emission line and a Compton backscattering hump. We report constraints on the spin parameter of the black hole in GRS 1915 + 105 using relativistic disk reflection models. The model for the soft X-ray spectrum (i.e., hat{a} = 0.56^{+0.02}_{-0.02} and excludes zero spin at the 4σ level of confidence. The model for the full broadband spectrum suggests that the spin may be higher, \\hat{a} = 0.98^{+0.01}_{-0.01} (1σ confidence), and again excludes zero spin at the 2σ level of confidence. We discuss these results in the context of other spin constraints and inner disk studies in GRS 1915 + 105.
Magnetic collimation of meridional-self-similar general relativistic MHD flows
Globus, Noemie; Sauty, Christophe; Cayatte, Véronique; Celnikier, Ludwik M.
2014-06-01
We present a model for the spine of relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics outflows in the Kerr geometry. Meridional self-similarity is invoked to derive semianalytical solutions close to the polar axis. The study of the energy conservation along a particular field line gives a simple criterion for the collimation of jets. Such parameter have already been derived in the classical case by Sauty et al. 1999 and also extended to the Schwarzschild metric by Meliani et al. 2006. We generalize the same study to the Kerr metric. We show that the rotation of the black hole increases the magnetic self-confinement.
Deng, Wei [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2015-07-21
The question of the energy composition of the jets/outflows in high-energy astrophysical systems, e.g. GRBs, AGNs, is taken up first: Matter-flux-dominated (MFD), σ < 1, and/or Poynting-flux-dominated (PFD), σ >1? The standard fireball IS model and dissipative photosphere model are MFD, while the ICMART (Internal-Collision-induced MAgnetic Reconnection and Turbulence) model is PFD. Motivated by ICMART model and other relevant problems, such as “jets in a jet” model of AGNs, the author investigates the models from the EMF energy dissipation efficiency, relativistic outflow generation, and σ evolution points of view, and simulates collisions between high-σ blobs to mimic the situation of the interactions inside the PFD jets/outflows by using a 3D SRMHD code which solves the conservative form of the ideal MHD equations. σ_{b,f} is calculated from the simulation results (threshold = 1). The efficiency obtained from this hybrid method is similar to the efficiency got from the energy evolution of the simulations (35.2%). Efficiency is nearly σ independent, which is also confirmed by the hybrid method. σ_{b,i} - σ_{b,f} provides an interesting linear relationship. Results of several parameter studies of EMF energy dissipation efficiency are shown.
Khan, Najeeb Alam
2016-01-01
This study deals with the investigation of MHD flow of Williamson fluid over an infinite rotating disk with the effects of Soret, Dufour, and anisotropic slip. The anisotropic slip and the Soret and Dufour effects are the primary features of this study, which greatly influence the flow, heat and mass transport properties. In simultaneous appearance of heat and mass transfer in a moving fluid, the mass flux generated by temperature gradients is known as the thermal-diffusion or Soret effect and the energy flux created by a composition gradient is called the diffusion-thermo or Dufour effect, however, difference in slip lengths in streamwise and spanwise directions is named as anisotropic slip. The system of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs), which governs the flow, heat and mass transfer characteristics, is transformed into ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with the help of von K\\'arm\\'an similarity transformation. A numerical solution of the complicated ODEs is carried out by a MATLAB routi...
The response of relativistic outflowing gas to the inner accretion disk of a black hole.
Parker, Michael L; Pinto, Ciro; Fabian, Andrew C; Lohfink, Anne; Buisson, Douglas J K; Alston, William N; Kara, Erin; Cackett, Edward M; Chiang, Chia-Ying; Dauser, Thomas; De Marco, Barbara; Gallo, Luigi C; Garcia, Javier; Harrison, Fiona A; King, Ashley L; Middleton, Matthew J; Miller, Jon M; Miniutti, Giovanni; Reynolds, Christopher S; Uttley, Phil; Vasudevan, Ranjan; Walton, Dominic J; Wilkins, Daniel R; Zoghbi, Abderahmen
2017-03-01
The brightness of an active galactic nucleus is set by the gas falling onto it from the galaxy, and the gas infall rate is regulated by the brightness of the active galactic nucleus; this feedback loop is the process by which supermassive black holes in the centres of galaxies may moderate the growth of their hosts. Gas outflows (in the form of disk winds) release huge quantities of energy into the interstellar medium, potentially clearing the surrounding gas. The most extreme (in terms of speed and energy) of these-the ultrafast outflows-are the subset of X-ray-detected outflows with velocities higher than 10,000 kilometres per second, believed to originate in relativistic (that is, near the speed of light) disk winds a few hundred gravitational radii from the black hole. The absorption features produced by these outflows are variable, but no clear link has been found between the behaviour of the X-ray continuum and the velocity or optical depth of the outflows, owing to the long timescales of quasar variability. Here we report the observation of multiple absorption lines from an extreme ultrafast gas flow in the X-ray spectrum of the active galactic nucleus IRAS 13224-3809, at 0.236 ± 0.006 times the speed of light (71,000 kilometres per second), where the absorption is strongly anti-correlated with the emission of X-rays from the inner regions of the accretion disk. If the gas flow is identified as a genuine outflow then it is in the fastest five per cent of such winds, and its variability is hundreds of times faster than in other variable winds, allowing us to observe in hours what would take months in a quasar. We find X-ray spectral signatures of the wind simultaneously in both low- and high-energy detectors, suggesting a single ionized outflow, linking the low- and high-energy absorption lines. That this disk wind is responding to the emission from the inner accretion disk demonstrates a connection between accretion processes occurring on very different
The response of relativistic outflowing gas to the inner accretion disk of a black hole
Parker, Michael L.; Pinto, Ciro; Fabian, Andrew C.; Lohfink, Anne; Buisson, Douglas J. K.; Alston, William N.; Kara, Erin; Cackett, Edward M.; Chiang, Chia-Ying; Dauser, Thomas; De Marco, Barbara; Gallo, Luigi C.; Garcia, Javier; Harrison, Fiona A.; King, Ashley L.; Middleton, Matthew J.; Miller, Jon M.; Miniutti, Giovanni; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Uttley, Phil; Vasudevan, Ranjan; Walton, Dominic J.; Wilkins, Daniel R.; Zoghbi, Abderahmen
2017-03-01
The brightness of an active galactic nucleus is set by the gas falling onto it from the galaxy, and the gas infall rate is regulated by the brightness of the active galactic nucleus; this feedback loop is the process by which supermassive black holes in the centres of galaxies may moderate the growth of their hosts. Gas outflows (in the form of disk winds) release huge quantities of energy into the interstellar medium, potentially clearing the surrounding gas. The most extreme (in terms of speed and energy) of these—the ultrafast outflows—are the subset of X-ray-detected outflows with velocities higher than 10,000 kilometres per second, believed to originate in relativistic (that is, near the speed of light) disk winds a few hundred gravitational radii from the black hole. The absorption features produced by these outflows are variable, but no clear link has been found between the behaviour of the X-ray continuum and the velocity or optical depth of the outflows, owing to the long timescales of quasar variability. Here we report the observation of multiple absorption lines from an extreme ultrafast gas flow in the X-ray spectrum of the active galactic nucleus IRAS 13224‑3809, at 0.236 ± 0.006 times the speed of light (71,000 kilometres per second), where the absorption is strongly anti-correlated with the emission of X-rays from the inner regions of the accretion disk. If the gas flow is identified as a genuine outflow then it is in the fastest five per cent of such winds, and its variability is hundreds of times faster than in other variable winds, allowing us to observe in hours what would take months in a quasar. We find X-ray spectral signatures of the wind simultaneously in both low- and high-energy detectors, suggesting a single ionized outflow, linking the low- and high-energy absorption lines. That this disk wind is responding to the emission from the inner accretion disk demonstrates a connection between accretion processes occurring on very
Very High Order $\\PNM$ Schemes on Unstructured Meshes for the Resistive Relativistic MHD Equations
Dumbser, Michael
2009-01-01
In this paper we propose the first better than second order accurate method in space and time for the numerical solution of the resistive relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (RRMHD) equations on unstructured meshes in multiple space dimensions. The nonlinear system under consideration is purely hyperbolic and contains a source term, the one for the evolution of the electric field, that becomes stiff for low values of the resistivity. For the spatial discretization we propose to use high order $\\PNM$ schemes as introduced in \\cite{Dumbser2008} for hyperbolic conservation laws and a high order accurate unsplit time discretization is achieved using the element-local space-time discontinuous Galerkin approach proposed in \\cite{DumbserEnauxToro} for one-dimensional balance laws with stiff source terms. The divergence free character of the magnetic field is accounted for through the divergence cleaning procedure of Dedner et al. \\cite{Dedneretal}. To validate our high order method we first solve some numerical test c...
Relativistic MHD in dynamical spacetimes: Improved EM gauge condition for AMR grids
Etienne, Zachariah B; Liu, Yuk Tung; Shapiro, Stuart L
2011-01-01
We recently developed a new general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code with adaptive mesh refinement that evolves the electromagnetic (EM) vector potential (A) instead of the magnetic fields directly. Evolving A enables one to use any interpolation scheme on refinement level boundaries and still guarantee that the magnetic field remains divergenceless. As in classical EM, a gauge choice must be made when evolving A, and we chose a straightforward "algebraic" gauge condition to simplify the A evolution equation. However, magnetized black hole-neutron star (BHNS) simulations in this gauge exhibit unphysical behavior, including the spurious appearance of strong magnetic fields on refinement level boundaries. This spurious behavior is exacerbated when matter crosses refinement boundaries during tidal disruption of the NS. Applying Kreiss-Oliger dissipation to the evolution of the magnetic vector potential A slightly weakens this spurious magnetic effect, but with undesired consequences. We demonstrate via an e...
Müller, A; Mueller, Andreas; Camenzind, Max
2004-01-01
Relativistic emission lines generated by thin accretion disks around rotating black holes are an important diagnostic tool for testing gravity near the horizon. The iron K-line is of special importance for the interpretation of the X-ray emission of Seyfert galaxies, quasars and galactic X-ray binary systems. A generalized kinematic model is presented which includes radial drifts and non-Keplerian rotations for the line emitters. The resulting line profiles are obtained with an object-oriented ray tracer operating in the curved Kerr background metric. The general form of the Doppler factor is presented which includes all kinds of poloidal and toroidal motions near the horizon. The parameters of the model include the spin parameter, the inclination, the truncation and outer radius of the disk, velocity profiles for rotation and radial drift, the emissivity profile and a multi-species line-system. The red wing flux is generally reduced when radial drift is included as compared to the pure Keplerian velocity fie...
D'Avillez, M A; Breitschwerdt, Dieter
2005-01-01
State of the art models of the ISM use adaptive mesh refinement to capture small scale structures, by refining on the fly those regions of the grid where density and pressure gradients occur, keeping at the same time the existing resolution in the other regions. With this technique it became possible to study the ISM in star-forming galaxies in a global way by following matter circulation between stars and the interstellar gas, and, in particular the energy input by random and clustered supernova explosions, which determine the dynamical and chemical evolution of the ISM, and hence of the galaxy as a whole. In this paper we review the conditions for a self-consistent modelling of the ISM and present the results from the latest developments in the 3D HD/MHD global models of the ISM. Special emphasis is put on the effects of the magnetic field with respect to the volume and mass fractions of the different ISM ``phases'', the relative importance of ram, thermal and magnetic pressures, and whether the field can p...
G. Domairry
2009-01-01
Full Text Available An analysis has been performed to study magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD squeeze flow between two parallel infinite disks where one disk is impermeable and the other is porous with either suction or injection of the fluid. We investigate the combined effect of inertia, electromagnetic forces, and suction or injection. With the introduction of a similarity transformation, the continuity and momentum equations governing the squeeze flow are reduced to a single, nonlinear, ordinary differential equation. An approximate solution of the equation subject to the appropriate boundary conditions is derived using the homotopy perturbation method (HPM and compared with the direct numerical solution (NS. Results showing the effect of squeeze Reynolds number, Hartmann number and the suction/injection parameter on the axial and radial velocity distributions are presented and discussed. The approximate solution is found to be highly accurate for the ranges of parameters investigated. Because of its simplicity, versatility and high accuracy, the method can be applied to study linear and nonlinear boundary value problems arising in other engineering applications.
Sano, T; Turner, N J; Stone, J M; Sano, Takayoshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Turner, Neal J.; Stone, James M.
2004-01-01
The saturation level of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is investigated using three-dimensional MHD simulations. The shearing box approximation is adopted and the vertical component of gravity is ignored, so that the evolution of the MRI is followed in a small local part of the disk. We focus on the dependence of the saturation level of the stress on the gas pressure, which is a key assumption in the standard alpha disk model. From our numerical experiments it is found that there is a weak power-law relation between the saturation level of the Maxwell stress and the gas pressure in the nonlinear regime; the higher the gas pressure, the larger the stress. Although the power-law index depends slightly on the initial field geometry, the relationship between stress and gas pressure is independent of the initial field strength, and is unaffected by Ohmic dissipation if the magnetic Reynolds number is at least 10. The relationship is the same in adiabatic calculations, where pressure increases over time, an...
Asymptotic domination of cold relativistic MHD winds by kinetic energy flux
Begelman, Mitchell C.; Li, Zhi-Yun
1994-01-01
We study the conditions which lead to the conversion of most Poynting flux into kinetic energy flux in cold, relativistic hydromagnetic winds. It is shown that plasma acceleration along a precisely radial flow is extremely inefficient due to the near cancellation of the toroidal magnetic pressure and tension forces. However, if the flux tubes in a flow diverge even slightly faster than radially, the fast magnetosonic point moves inward from infinity to a few times the light cylinder radius. Once the flow becomes supermagnetosonic, further divergence of the flux tubes beyond the fast point can accelerate the flow via the 'magnetic nozzle' effect, thereby further converting Poynting flux to kinetic energy flux. We show that the Grad-Shafranov equation admits a generic family of kinetic energy-dominated asymptotic wind solutions with finite total magnetic flux. The Poynting flux in these solutions vanishes logarithmically with distance. The way in which the flux surfaces are nested within the flow depends only on the ratio of angular velocity to poliodal 4-velocity as a function of magnetic flux. Radial variations in flow structure can be expressed in terms of a pressure boundary condition on the outermost flux surface, provided that no external toriodal field surrounds the flow. For a special case, we show explicitly how the flux surfaces merge gradually to their asymptotes. For flows confined by an external medium of pressure decreasing to zero at infinity we show that, depending on how fast the ambient pressure declines, the final flow state could be either a collimated jet or a wind that fills the entire space. We discuss the astrophysical implications of our results for jets from active galactic nuclei and for free pulsar winds such as that believed to power the Crab Nebula.
MHD Flow with Hall Current and Ion-Slip Effects due to a Stretching Porous Disk
Faiza M. N. El-Fayez
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A partially ionized fluid is driven by a stretching disk, in the presence of a magnetic field that is strong enough to produce significant hall current and ion-slip effects. The limiting behavior of the flow is studied, as the magnetic field strength grows indefinitely. The flow variables are properly scaled, and uniformly valid asymptotic expansions of the velocity components are obtained. The leading order approximations show sinusoidal behavior that is decaying exponentially, as we move away from the disk surface. The two-term expansions of the radial and azimuthal surface shear stress components, as well as the far field inflow speed, compare well with the corresponding finite difference solutions, even at moderate magnetic fields. The effect of mass transfer (suction or injection through the disk is also considered.
MHD flow of Burger's fluid over an off-centered rotating disk in a porous medium
Khan, Najeeb Alam; Khan, Sidra; Ullah, Saif
2015-08-01
In this study, off-centered stagnation flow of three dimensional Burger's fluid over an infinite rotating disk in a porous medium with a uniform magnetic field, which is applying normal to the disk, is investigated. A uniform suction/injection is applied through the surface of the porous disk. The structure has been modeled in the form of ordinary differential equations, which are reduced from partial differential equations by using the similarity transformation. Analytical solution is obtained by non-perturbation technique of homotopy analysis method (HAM). The influence of non-dimensional parameters on velocity profile is presented in graphical form and the numerical comparison is made with the viscous fluid as a special case.
SYNTHETIC SYNCHROTRON EMISSION MAPS FROM MHD MODELS FOR THE JET OF M87
Gracia, J.; Vlahakis, N.; Agudo, I.; Tsinganos, K.; Bogovalov, S. V.
2009-01-01
We present self-consistent global steady state MHD models and synthetic optically thin synchrotron emission maps for the jet of M87. The model consists of two distinct zones: an inner relativistic outflow, which we identify with the observed jet, and an outer cold disk wind. While the former does no
SYNTHETIC SYNCHROTRON EMISSION MAPS FROM MHD MODELS FOR THE JET OF M87
Gracia, J.; Vlahakis, N.; Agudo, I.; Tsinganos, K.; Bogovalov, S. V.
2009-01-01
We present self-consistent global steady state MHD models and synthetic optically thin synchrotron emission maps for the jet of M87. The model consists of two distinct zones: an inner relativistic outflow, which we identify with the observed jet, and an outer cold disk wind. While the former does no
3-D MHD disk wind simulations of jets and outflows from high-mass protostars
Staff, Jan E.; Tanaka, Kei; Tan, Jonathan C.; Zhang, Yichen; Liu, Mengyao
2017-01-01
We present the results of a series of nested, large scale, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations of disk winds with a Blandford-Payne like magnetic field configuration, resolving scales from the stellar surface to beyond the core. The goal is to understand the structure of massive protostellar cores at various stages of their formation as the protostellar mass grows from a massive core. At each stage of a given protostellar mass, first, we study how jets and winds develop from the inner accretion disk to ~100 AU scales. We use the results from these simulations to dictate the inner boundary condition of a set of simulation extending to the core boundary at ~10,000 AU of an initially 60 solar mass core. We run separate simulations where the protostellar mass is 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 24 Msun, and we are working on making a small grid of models in the context of the Turbulent Core Model with three different core masses and three different core surface densities. The wind is blown into the simulation box with properties derived from the previous jet simulations. We examine the opening angle of the outflow cavity and thus the star formation efficiency from the core due to outflow feedback. We find that the opening angle increases as the protostellar mass grows, but it is always less than 10 degrees, which is surprisingly small compared with previous analytic models. This is caused by the core which confines the outflow. Finally, we use our simulation results as input to a radiative transfer calculation, to compare with observations made by the SOMA survey.
Millimeter emission from protoplanetary disks : dust, cold gas, and relativistic electrons
Salter, Demerese Marie
2010-01-01
Star formation occurs when a dense cloud of interstellar gas and dust gravitationally collapses. Rotation during this collapse leads naturally to the formation of a flattened circumstellar disk around the forming star. These disks are additionally known as protoplanetary disks because the orbiting c
S. Srinivas
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The present work investigates the effects of thermal-diffusion and diffusion-thermo on MHD flow of viscous fluid between expanding or contracting rotating porous disks with viscous dissipation. The partial differential equations governing the flow problem under consideration have been transformed by a similarity transformation into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. An analytical approach, namely the homotopy analysis method is employed in order to obtain the solutions of the ordinary differential equations. The effects of various emerging parameters on flow variables have been discussed numerically and explained graphically. Comparison of the HAM solutions with the numerical solutions is performed.
Takahashi, Hiroyuki R; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro
2016-01-01
Using three-dimensional general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamics simulations of accretion flows around stellar mass black holes, we report that the relatively cold disk ($\\gtrsim 10^{7}$K) is truncated near the black hole. Hot and less-dense regions, of which the gas temperature is $ \\gtrsim 10^9$K and more than ten times higher than the radiation temperature (overheated regions), appear within the truncation radius. The overheated regions also appear above as well as below the disk, and sandwich the cold disk, leading to the effective Compton upscattering. The truncation radius is $\\sim 30 r_{\\rm g}$ for $\\dot{M} \\sim L_{\\rm Edd}/c^2$, where $r_{\\rm g}, \\dot M, L_\\mathrm{Edd}, c$ are the gravitational radius, mass accretion rate, Eddington luminosity, and light speed. Our results are consistent with observations of very high state, whereby the truncated disk is thought to be embedded in the hot rarefied regions. The truncation radius shifts inward to $\\sim 10 r_{\\rm g}$ with increasing mass accret...
Abdel-Wahed, Mohamed; Akl, Mohamed
2016-09-01
Analysis of the MHD Nanofluid boundary layer flow over a rotating disk with a constant velocity in the presence of hall current and non-linear thermal radiation has been covered in this work. The variation of viscosity and thermal conductivity of the fluid due to temperature and nanoparticles concentration and size is considered. The problem described by a system of P.D.E that converted to a system of ordinary differential equations by the similarity transformation technique, the obtained system solved analytically using Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM) with association of mathematica program. The velocity profiles and temperature profiles of the boundary layer over the disk are plotted and investigated in details. Moreover, the surface shear stress, rate of heat transfer explained in details.
Vertical stability of circular orbits in relativistic razor-thin disks
Vieira, Ronaldo S S; Saa, Alberto
2016-01-01
During the last few decades, there has been a growing interest in exact solutions of Einstein equations describing razor-thin disks. Despite the progress in the area, the analytical study of geodesic motion crossing the disk plane in these systems is not yet so developed. In the present work, we propose a definite vertical stability criterion for circular equatorial timelike geodesics in static, axially symmetric thin disks, possibly surrounded by other structures preserving axial symmetry. It turns out that the strong energy condition for the disk stress-energy content is sufficient for vertical stability of these orbits. Moreover, adiabatic invariance of the vertical action variable gives us an approximate third integral of motion for oblique orbits which deviate slightly from the equatorial plane. Such new approximate third integral certainly points to a better understanding of the analytical properties of these orbits. The results presented here, derived for static spacetimes, may be a starting point to s...
Vertical stability of circular orbits in relativistic razor-thin disks
Vieira, Ronaldo S. S.; Ramos-Caro, Javier; Saa, Alberto
2016-11-01
During the last few decades, there has been a growing interest in exact solutions of Einstein equations describing razor-thin disks. Despite the progress in this area, the analytical study of geodesic motion crossing the disk plane in these systems has not yet been well developed. In the present work, we propose a definite vertical stability criterion for circular equatorial timelike geodesics in static, axially symmetric thin disks, possibly surrounded by other structures preserving axial symmetry. It turns out that the strong energy condition for the disk stress-energy content is sufficient for the vertical stability of these orbits. Moreover, adiabatic invariance of the vertical action variable gives us an approximate third integral of motion for oblique orbits that deviate slightly from the equatorial plane. This new approximate third integral certainly points to a better understanding of the analytical properties of these orbits. The results presented here, derived for static spacetimes, may be a starting point to study the motion around rotating, stationary razor-thin disks. Our results also allow us to conjecture that the strong energy condition should be sufficient to assure transversal stability of periodic orbits for any singular timelike hypersurface, provided it is invariant under the geodesic flow.
A family of relativistic charged thin disks with an inner edge
Gutiérrez-Piñeres, Antonio C; Viña-Cervantes, Viviana M
2009-01-01
A new family of exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations for static axially symmetric spacetimes is presented. The metric functions of the solutions are explicitely computed and are simply written in terms of the oblate spheroidal coordinates. The solutions, obtained by applying the Ernst method of complex potentials, describe an infinite family of static charged dust disks with an inner edge. The energy density, pressure and charge density of all the disks of the family are everywhere well behaved, in such a way that the energy-momentum tensor fully agrees with all the energy conditions.
Relativistic lines and reflection from the inner accretion disks around neutron stars
Cackett, E.M.; Miller, J.M.; Ballantyne, D.R.; Barret, D.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Boutelier, M.; Miller, M.C.; Strohmayer, T.E.; Wijnands, R.
2010-01-01
A number of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) have recently been discovered to show broad, asymmetric Fe K emission lines in their X-ray spectra. These lines are generally thought to be the most prominent part of a reflection spectrum, originating in the inner part of the accretion disk w
The power of relativistic jets is larger than the luminosity of their accretion disks
Ghisellini, G; Maraschi, L; Celotti, A; Sbarrato, T
2014-01-01
Theoretical models for the production of relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei predict that jet power arises from the spin and mass of the central black hole, as well as the magnetic field near the event horizon. The physical mechanism mechanism underlying the contribution from the magnetic field is the torque exerted on the rotating black hole by the field amplified by the accreting material. If the squared magnetic field is proportional to the accretion rate, then there will be a correlation between jet power and accretion luminosity. There is evidence for such a correlation, but inadequate knowledge of the accretion luminosity of the limited and inhomogeneous used samples prevented a firm conclusion. Here we report an analysis of archival observations of a sample of blazars (quasars whose jets point towards Earth) that overcomes previous limitations. We find a clear correlation between jet power as measured through the gamma-ray luminosity, and accretion luminosity as measured by the broad emission...
MHD flow of Burger’s fluid over an off-centered rotating disk in a porous medium
Najeeb Alam Khan
2015-08-01
Full Text Available In this study, off-centered stagnation flow of three dimensional Burger’s fluid over an infinite rotating disk in a porous medium with a uniform magnetic field, which is applying normal to the disk, is investigated. A uniform suction/injection is applied through the surface of the porous disk. The structure has been modeled in the form of ordinary differential equations, which are reduced from partial differential equations by using the similarity transformation. Analytical solution is obtained by non-perturbation technique of homotopy analysis method (HAM. The influence of non-dimensional parameters on velocity profile is presented in graphical form and the numerical comparison is made with the viscous fluid as a special case.
Rauf, A., E-mail: raufamar@ciitsahiwal.edu.pk; Meraj, M. A. [Department of Mathematics, CIIT Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Ashraf, M.; Batool, K. [Department of CASPAM, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Hussain, M. [Department of Sciences & Humanities, National University of computer & Emerging Sciences, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)
2015-07-15
This article studies the simultaneous impacts of heat and mass transfer of an incompressible electrically conducting micropolar fluid generated by the stretchable disk in presence of porous medium. The thermal radiation effect is accounted via Rosseland’s approximation. The governing boundary layer equations are reduced into dimensionless form by employing the suitable similarity transformations. A finite difference base algorithm is utilized to obtain the solution expressions. The impacts of physical parameters on dimensionless axial velocity, radial velocity, micro-rotation, temperature and concentrations profiles are presented and examined carefully. Numerical computation is performed to compute shear stress, couple stress, heat and mass rate at the disk.
MHD UNSTEADY FLOWS DUE TO NON-COAXIAL ROTATIONS OF A DISK AND A FLUID AT INFINITY
T.HAYAT; S.MUMTAZ; R.ELLAHI
2003-01-01
Exact analytical solution for flows of an electrically conducting fluid over an infinite oscillatory disk in the presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field is constructed.Both the disk and the fluid are in a state of non-coaxial rotation.Such a flow model has a great significance not only due to its own theoretical interest,but also due to applications to geophysics and engineering.The resulting initial value problem has been solved analytically by applying the Laplace transform technique and the explicit expressions for the velocity for steady and unsteady cases have been established.The analysis of the obtained results shows that the flow field is appreciably influenced by the applied magnetic field,the frequency and rotation parameters.
MHD UNSTEADY FLOWS DUE TO NON—COAXIAL ROTATIONS OF A DISK AND A FLUID AT INFINITY
T.HAYAT
2003-01-01
Exact analytical solution for flows of an electrically conducting fluid over an infiniteoscillatory disk in the presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field is constructed. Both the disk andthe fluid are in a state of non-coaxial rotation. Such a flow model has a great significance not only clueto its own theoretical interest, but also clue to applications to geophysics and engineering. The resultinginitial value problem has been solved analytically by applying the Laplace transform technique and theexplicit expressions for the velocity for steady and unsteady cases have been established. The analysisof the obtained results shows that the flow field is appreciably influenced by the applied magnetic field,the frequency and rotation parameters.
Kato, Shoji
2016-01-01
This book presents the current state of research on disk oscillation theory, focusing on relativistic disks and tidally deformed disks. Since the launch of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in 1996, many high-frequency quasiperiodic oscillations (HFQPOs) have been observed in X-ray binaries. Subsequently, similar quasi-periodic oscillations have been found in such relativistic objects as microquasars, ultra-luminous X-ray sources, and galactic nuclei. One of the most promising explanations of their origin is based on oscillations in relativistic disks, and a new field called discoseismology is currently developing. After reviewing observational aspects, the book presents the basic characteristics of disk oscillations, especially focusing on those in relativistic disks. Relativistic disks are essentially different from Newtonian disks in terms of several basic characteristics of their disk oscillations, including the radial distributions of epicyclic frequencies. In order to understand the basic processes...
Mahanthesh, B.; Gireesha, B. J.; Shashikumar, N. S.; Shehzad, S. A.
2017-10-01
Present study addresses the Marangoni transport of dissipating SWCNT and MWCNT nanofluids under the influence of magnetic force and radiation. A novel exponential space dependent heat source is considered. The flow is generated due to a disk with surface tension created by thermal gradient. The partial differential equations system governing the flow of carbon-water nanoliquids and heat transfer through Marangoni convection is established. Subsequent system is reduced to nonlinear ordinary boundary value problem via generalized Karman transformations. Numerical solutions are developed of the arising nonlinear problem via Runge-Kutta based shooting approach. Impacts of embedded parameters are focused on Nusselt number, velocity and heat transport distributions through graphical illustrations. Our simulations figured out that the heat transfer rate increased via Marangoni convection; however it is decayed by applied magnetic force. The temperature of SWCNT-H2O nanoliquid dominates MWCNT-H2O nanoliquid.
Gonzalo García Reyes
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Using the well known “displace, cut and reflect” method used to generate disks from given solutions of Einstein field equations, we construct some relativistic models of time dependent thin disks of infinite extension made of a perfect fluid based on the Robertson-Walker metric. Two simple families of models of disks based on Robertson-Walker solutions admitting Matter and Ricci collineations are presented. We obtain disks that are in agreement with all the energy conditions.Usando el método de “desplazamiento, corte y reflexión” se construyen algunos modelos relativistas exactas de soluciones que representan discos delgados de extensión infinita, dependientes del tiempo y hechos de un fluido perfecto, basados en la métrica de Robertson-Walker. Se presentan dos familias simples de modelos de discos basados sobre el espacio tiempo de Robertson-Walker que admiten colineaciones de Ricci y de materia. Se obtienen modelos de discos que satisfacen todas las condiciones de energía.
Simulation of MHD collimation from differential rotation
Carey, Christopher
2005-10-01
Recent observations indicate that astrophysical outflows from active galactic nuclei are permeated with helical magnetic fields[1]. The most promising theory for the formation of the magnetic configurations in these magnetically driven jets is the coiling of an initial seed field by the differential rotation of the accretion disk surrounding the central object. We have begun simulations that are relevant to these Poynting jets using the NIMROD code[2]. To simulate dynamics on length scales that are significantly larger than the accretion disk, the non-relativistic MHD equations are evolved on a hemispherical logarithmic mesh. The accretion disk is treated as a condition on the lower boundary by applying a Keplerian velocity to the azimuthal component of the fluid velocity and a prescribed flux of mass through the boundary. The magnetic field configuration is initialized to a dipole like field. Formation of a jet outflow is observed later in time. The initial field is coiled up and collimated, driving a large current density on the axis of symmetry. Slipping of magnetic field lines due to non-ideal effects has been investigated. 1. Asada K. et. al., Pub. of the Astr. Soc. of Japan, 54, L39-L43, 2002 2. Sovinec C. et. al., J. Comp. Phys., 195, 355-386, 2004
Relativistic Disk Reflection in the Neutron Star X-Ray BinaryXTE J1709-267 with NuSTAR
Ludlam, R. M.; Miller, J. M.; Cackett, E. M.; Degenaar, N.; Bostrom, A. C.
2017-04-01
We perform the first reflection study of the soft X-ray transient and Type 1 burst source XTE J1709-267 using NuSTAR observations during its 2016 June outburst. There was an increase in flux near the end of the observations, which corresponds to an increase from ˜0.04 L Edd to ˜0.06 L Edd assuming a distance of 8.5 kpc. We have separately examined spectra from the low- and high-flux intervals, which are soft and show evidence of a broad Fe K line. Fits to these intervals with relativistic disk reflection models have revealed an inner-disk radius of {13.8}-1.8+3.0 {R}g (where {R}g={GM}/{c}2) for the low-flux spectrum and {23.4}-5.4+15.6 {R}g for the high-flux spectrum at the 90% confidence level. The disk is likely truncated by a boundary layer surrounding the neutron star (NS) or the magnetosphere. Based on the measured luminosity and the accretion efficiency for a disk around an NS, we estimate that the theoretically expected size for the boundary layer would be ˜ 0.9{--}1.1 {R}g from the NS’s surface, which can be increased by spin or viscosity effects. Another plausible scenario is that the disk could be truncated by the magnetosphere. We place a conservative upper limit on the strength of the magnetic field at the poles (assuming {a}* =0 and {M}{NS}=1.4{M}⊙ ) of B≤slant 0.75-3.70× {10}9 G, though X-ray pulsations have not been detected from this source.
Enhanced MHD transport in astrophysical accretion flows: turbulence, winds and jets
Dobbie, Peter B; Bicknell, Geoffrey V; Salmeron, Raquel
2009-01-01
Astrophysical accretion is arguably the most prevalent physical process in the Universe; it occurs during the birth and death of individual stars and plays a pivotal role in the evolution of entire galaxies. Accretion onto a black hole, in particular, is also the most efficient mechanism known in nature, converting up to 40% of accreting rest mass energy into spectacular forms such as high-energy (X-ray and gamma-ray) emission and relativistic jets. Whilst magnetic fields are thought to be ultimately responsible for these phenomena, our understanding of the microphysics of MHD turbulence in accretion flows as well as large-scale MHD outflows remains far from complete. We present a new theoretical model for astrophysical disk accretion which considers enhanced vertical transport of momentum and energy by MHD winds and jets, as well as transport resulting from MHD turbulence. We also describe new global, 3D simulations that we are currently developing to investigate the extent to which non-ideal MHD effects may...
Pessah, Martin Elias
2010-01-01
The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is considered a key process for driving efficient angular momentum transport in astrophysical disks. Understanding its nonlinear saturation constitutes a fundamental problem in modern accretion disk theory. The large dynamical range in physical conditions i...
Pessah, Martin Elias
2010-01-01
The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is considered a key process for driving efficient angular momentum transport in astrophysical disks. Understanding its nonlinear saturation constitutes a fundamental problem in modern accretion disk theory. The large dynamical range in physical conditions i...
rHARM: Accretion and Ejection in Resistive GR-MHD
Qian, Qian; Noble, Scott; Bugli, Matteo
2016-01-01
Turbulent magnetic diffusivity plays an important role for accretion disks and the launching of disk winds. We have implemented magnetic diffusivity, respective resistivity in the general relativistic MHD code HARM. This paper describes the theoretical background of our implementation, its numerical realization, our numerical tests and preliminary applications. The test simulations of the new code rHARM are compared with an analytic solution of the diffusion equation and a classical shock tube problem. We have further investigated the evolution of the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) in tori around black holes for a range of magnetic diffusivities. We find indication for a critical magnetic diffusivity (for our setup) beyond which no MRI develops in the linear regime and for which accretion of torus material to the black hole is delayed. Preliminary simulations of magnetically diffusive thin accretion disks around Schwarzschild black holes that are threaded by a large-scale poloidal magnetic field show th...
rHARM: Accretion and Ejection in Resistive GR-MHD
Qian, Qian; Fendt, Christian; Noble, Scott; Bugli, Matteo
2017-01-01
Turbulent magnetic diffusivity plays an important role for accretion disks and the launching of disk winds. We have implemented magnetic diffusivity and respective resistivity in the general relativistic MHD code HARM. This paper describes the theoretical background of our implementation, its numerical realization, our numerical tests, and preliminary applications. The test simulations of the new code rHARM are compared to an analytic solution of the diffusion equation and a classical shock tube problem. We have further investigated the evolution of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in tori around black holes (BHs) for a range of magnetic diffusivities. We find an indication for a critical magnetic diffusivity (for our setup) beyond which no MRI develops in the linear regime and for which accretion of torus material to the BH is delayed. Preliminary simulations of magnetically diffusive thin accretion disks around Schwarzschild BHs that are threaded by a large-scale poloidal magnetic field show the launching of disk winds with mass fluxes of about 50% of the accretion rate. The disk magnetic diffusivity allows for efficient disk accretion that replenishes the mass reservoir of the inner disk area and thus allows for long-term simulations of wind launching for more than 5000 time units.
Resistive MHD jet simulations with large resistivity
Cemeljic, Miljenko; Vlahakis, Nektarios; Tsinganos, Kanaris
2009-01-01
Axisymmetric resistive MHD simulations for radially self-similar initial conditions are performed, using the NIRVANA code. The magnetic diffusivity could occur in outflows above an accretion disk, being transferred from the underlying disk into the disk corona by MHD turbulence (anomalous turbulent diffusivity), or as a result of ambipolar diffusion in partially ionized flows. We introduce, in addition to the classical magnetic Reynolds number Rm, which measures the importance of resistive effects in the induction equation, a new number Rb, which measures the importance of the resistive effects in the energy equation. We find two distinct regimes of solutions in our simulations. One is the low-resistivity regime, in which results do not differ much from ideal-MHD solutions. In the high-resistivity regime, results seem to show some periodicity in time-evolution, and depart significantly from the ideal-MHD case. Whether this departure is caused by numerical or physical reasons is of considerable interest for nu...
Beltrami state in black-hole accretion disk: A magnetofluid approach.
Bhattacharjee, Chinmoy; Das, Rupam; Stark, David J; Mahajan, S M
2015-12-01
Using the magnetofluid unification framework, we show that the accretion disk plasma (embedded in the background geometry of a black hole) can relax to a class of states known as the Beltrami-Bernoulli (BB) equilibria. Modeling the disk plasma as a Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) system, we find that the space-time curvature can significantly alter the magnetic (velocity) decay rates as we move away from the compact object; the velocity profiles in BB states, for example, deviate substantially from the predicted corresponding geodesic velocity profiles. These departures imply a rich interplay of plasma dynamics and general relativity revealed by examining the corresponding Bernoulli condition representing "homogeneity" of total energy. The relaxed states have their origin in the constraints provided by the two helicity invariants of Hall MHD. These helicities conspire to introduce an oscillatory length scale into the system that is strongly influenced by relativistic and thermal effects.
Beltrami state in black-hole accretion disk: A magnetofluid approach
Bhattacharjee, Chinmoy; Stark, David J; Mahajan, S M
2015-01-01
Using the magnetofluid unification framework, we show that the accretion disk plasma (embedded in the background geometry of a blackhole) can relax to a class of states known as the Beltrami-Bernoulli (BB) equilibria. Modeling the disk plasma as a Hall MHD system, we find that the space-time curvature can significantly alter the magnetic/velocity decay rate as we move away from the compact object; the velocity profiles in BB states, for example, deviate substantially from the predicted corresponding geodesic velocity profiles. These departures imply a rich interplay of plasma dynamics and general relativity revealed by examining the corresponding Bernoulli condition representing "homogeneity" of total energy. The relaxed states have their origin in the constraints provided by the two helicity invariants of Hall MHD. These helicities conspire to introduce a new oscillatory length scale into the system that is strongly influenced by relativistic and thermal effects.
Efficient Acceleration of Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Jets
Toma, Kenji
2013-01-01
Relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei, galactic microquasars, and gamma-ray bursts are widely considered to be magnetohydrodynamically driven by black hole accretion systems, although conversion mechanism from Poynting into particle kinetic energy flux is still open. Recent detailed numerical and analytical studies of global structures of steady, axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows with specific boundary conditions have not reproduced as rapid an energy conversion as required by observations. In order to find more suitable boundary conditions, we focus on the flow along a poloidal magnetic field line just inside the external boundary, without treating transfield force balance in detail. We find some examples of the poloidal field structure and corresponding external pressure profile for an efficient and rapid energy conversion as required by observations, and that the rapid acceleration requires a rapid decrease of the external pressure above the accretion disk. We also clarify the differences ...
MHD Shock Conditions for Accreting Plasma onto Kerr Black Holes - I
Takahashi, Masaaki; Rilett, Darrell; Fukumura, Keigo; Tsuruta, Sachiko
2002-01-01
We extend the work by Appl and Camenzind (1988) for special relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) jets, to fully general relativistic studies of the standing shock formation for accreting MHD plasma in a rotating, stationary and axisymmetric black hole magnetosphere. All the postshock physical quantities are expressed in terms of the relativistic compression ratio, which can be obtained in terms of preshock quantities. Then, the downstream state of a shocked plasma is determined by the upstr...
Jones, Bernard J. T.; Markovic, Dragoljub
1997-06-01
Preface; Prologue: Conference overview Bernard Carr; Part I. The Universe At Large and Very Large Redshifts: 2. The size and age of the Universe Gustav A. Tammann; 3. Active galaxies at large redshifts Malcolm S. Longair; 4. Observational cosmology with the cosmic microwave background George F. Smoot; 5. Future prospects in measuring the CMB power spectrum Philip M. Lubin; 6. Inflationary cosmology Michael S. Turner; 7. The signature of the Universe Bernard J. T. Jones; 8. Theory of large-scale structure Sergei F. Shandarin; 9. The origin of matter in the universe Lev A. Kofman; 10. New guises for cold-dark matter suspects Edward W. Kolb; Part II. Physics and Astrophysics Of Relativistic Compact Objects: 11. On the unification of gravitational and inertial forces Donald Lynden-Bell; 12. Internal structure of astrophysical black holes Werner Israel; 13. Black hole entropy: external facade and internal reality Valery Frolov; 14. Accretion disks around black holes Marek A. Abramowicz; 15. Black hole X-ray transients J. Craig Wheeler; 16. X-rays and gamma rays from active galactic nuclei Roland Svensson; 17. Gamma-ray bursts: a challenge to relativistic astrophysics Martin Rees; 18. Probing black holes and other exotic objects with gravitational waves Kip Thorne; Epilogue: the past and future of relativistic astrophysics Igor D. Novikov; I. D. Novikov's scientific papers and books.
Propagation of linear waves in relativistic anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics.
Gebretsadkan, W B; Kalra, G L
2002-11-01
Gedalin [Phys. Rev. E 47, 4354 (1993)] derived a dispersion relation for linear waves in relativistic anisotropic Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). This dispersion relation is used to point out the regions where the relativistic anisotropic MHD leads to new results that cannot be obtained using usual collisional relativistic MHD. This is highlighted by plotting a Fresnal ray surface. Conditions for the onset of firehose and mirror instabilities are also indicated. Such a study can be applied to astrophysical features such as pulsar winds, propagation of cosmic rays, etc.
Magnetic Dissipation in Relativistic Jets
Yosuke Mizuno
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The most promising mechanisms for producing and accelerating relativistic jets, and maintaining collimated structure of relativistic jets involve magnetohydrodynamical (MHD processes. We have investigated the magnetic dissipation mechanism in relativistic jets via relativistic MHD simulations. We found that the relativistic jets involving a helical magnetic field are unstable for the current-driven kink instability, which leads to helically distorted structure in relativistic jets. We identified the regions of high current density in filamentary current sheets, indicative of magnetic reconnection, which are associated to the kink unstable regions and correlated to the converted regions of magnetic to kinetic energies of the jets. We also found that an over-pressured relativistic jet leads to the generation of a series of stationary recollimation shocks and rarefaction structures by the nonlinear interaction of shocks and rarefaction waves. The differences in the recollimation shock structure due to the difference of the magnetic field topologies and strengths may be observable through mm-VLBI observations and space-VLBI mission.
Khan Najeeb Alam
2017-03-01
Full Text Available An investigation is performed for an alyzing the effect of entropy generation on the steady, laminar, axisymmetric flow of an incompressible Powell-Eyring fluid. The flow is considered in the presence of vertically applied magnetic field between radially stretching rotating disks. The Energy and concentration equation is taking into account to investigate the heat dissipation, Soret, Dufour and Joule heating effects. To describe the considered flow non-dimensionalized equations, an exact similarity function is used to reduce a set of the partial differential equation into a system of non-linear coupled ordinary differential equation with the associated boundary conditions. Using homotopy analysis method (HAM, an analytic solution for velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are obtained over the entire range of the imperative parameters. The velocity components, concentration and temperature field are used to determine the entropy generation. Plots illustrate important results on the effect of physical flow parameters. Results obtained by means of HAM are then compared with the results obtained by using optimized homotopy analysis method (OHAM. They are in very good agreement.
Magnetohydrodynamic Density Waves in a Galactic Disk System of Stars and Gas
YuqingLOU; ZuhuiFAN
1997-01-01
We study galactic magnetohydrodynamic(MHD) density waves in a composite system consisting of a stellar disk and a magnetized thermal gaseous disk.Perturbations in the two disks are conpled through gravitational interaction.In the tight-winding regime,Dispersion relations for MHD density wvaes are derived under two different approximations for the stellar disk.This investigation clarifies the interrelation between spiral structures in the stellar disk and spiral synchrotron radio structures in the magnetized thermal gaseous disk.
Synthetic synchrotron emission maps from MHD models for the jet of M87
Gracia, J; Agudo, I; Tsinganos, K; Bogovalov, S V
2009-01-01
We present self-consistent global, steady-state MHD models and synthetic optically thin synchrotron emission maps for the jet of M87. The model consist of two distinct zones: an inner relativistic outflow, which we identify with the observed jet, and an outer cold disk-wind. While the former does not self-collimate efficiently due to its high effective inertia, the latter fulfills all the conditions for efficient collimation by the magneto-centrifugal mechanism. Given the right balance between the effective inertia of the inner flow and the collimation efficiency of the outer disk wind, the relativistic flow is magnetically confined into a well collimated beam and matches the measurements of the opening angle of M87 over several orders of magnitude in spatial extent. The synthetic synchrotron maps reproduce the morphological structure of the jet of M87, i.e. center-bright profiles near the core and limb-bright profiles away from the core. At the same time, they also show a local increase of brightness at some...
Type I Planetary Migration with MHD Turbulence
Laughlin, G; Adams, F; Laughlin, Gregory; Steinacker, Adriane; Adams, Fred
2004-01-01
This paper examines how type I planet migration is affected by the presence of turbulent density fluctuations in the circumstellar disk. For type I migration, the planet does not clear a gap in the disk and its secular motion is driven by torques generated by the wakes it creates in the surrounding disk fluid. MHD turbulence creates additional density perturbations that gravitationally interact with the planet and can dominate the torques produced by the migration mechanism itself. This paper shows that conventional type I migration can be readily overwhelmed by turbulent perturbations and hence the usual description of type I migration should be modified in locations where the magnetorotational instability is active. In general, the migrating planet does not follow a smooth inward trned, but rather exhibits a random walk through phase space. Our main conclusion is that MHD turbulence will alter the time scales for type I planet migration and -- because of chaos -- requires the time scales to be described by ...
Accretion disk winds in active galactic nuclei: X-ray observations, models, and feedback
Tombesi, Francesco
2016-01-01
Powerful winds driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are often invoked to play a fundamental role in the evolution of both supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies, quenching star formation and explaining the tight SMBH-galaxy relations. A strong support of this "quasar mode" feedback came from the recent X-ray observation of a mildly relativistic accretion disk wind in a ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) and its connection with a large-scale molecular outflow, providing a direct link between the SMBH and the gas out of which stars form. Spectroscopic observations, especially in the X-ray band, show that such accretion disk winds may be common in local AGN and quasars. However, their origin and characteristics are still not fully understood. Detailed theoretical models and simulations focused on radiation, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) or a combination of these two processes to investigate the possible acceleration mechanisms and the dynamics of these winds. Some of these models have been dir...
Disk MHD Conversion System for Nerva Reactor
2007-11-02
connection thyristor and diode operation in high voltage ( HVDC ) transmission systems and no difficulty is foreseen in applying this to the specific...conditions of the space environment. Further, experience is now being gained with the series operation of GTOs, both for HVDC and other large scale
McKinney, Jonathan C; Sadowski, Aleksander; Narayan, Ramesh
2013-01-01
Black hole (BH) accretion flows and jets are dynamic hot relativistic magnetized plasma flows whose radiative opacity can significantly affect flow structure and behavior. We describe a numerical scheme, tests, and an astrophysically relevant application using the M1 radiation closure within a new three-dimensional (3D) general relativistic (GR) radiation (R) magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) massively parallel code called HARMRAD. Our 3D GRRMHD simulation of super-Eddington accretion (about $20$ times Eddington) onto a rapidly rotating BH (dimensionless spin $j=0.9375$) shows sustained non-axisymmemtric disk turbulence, a persistent electromagnetic jet driven by the Blandford-Znajek effect, and a total radiative output consistently near the Eddington rate. The total accretion efficiency is of order $20\\%$, the large-scale electromagnetic jet efficiency is of order $10\\%$, and the total radiative efficiency that reaches large distances remains low at only order $1\\%$. However, the radiation jet and the electromagnet...
2006-09-01
Aerospace Applications, AIAA-Paper 96-2355, New Orleans, 1996 2. V.A.Bityurin, A.N.Bocharov, J.Lineberry, MHD Aerospace Applications, Invited Lecture ...Paper 2003- 4303, Orlando, FL 8. V.A.Bityurin, Prospective of MHD Interaction in Hypersonic and Propulsion Technologies, In: von Karman Series : Lectures ...Efforts in MHD AeoSpace Applications, In: von Karman Series : Lectures , Introduction of Magneto-Fluid Dynamics for AeroSpace Applications, von Karman
MHD Simulations of Magnetospheric Accretion, Ejection and Plasma-field Interaction
Romanova M. M.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We review recent axisymmetric and three-dimensional (3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD numerical simulations of magnetospheric accretion, plasma-field interaction and outflows from the disk-magnetosphere boundary.
Evidence for the Magnetic Origin of Black Hole Accretion Disk Winds
Shrader, Chris R.; Fukumura, Keigo; Kazanas, Demos; Tombesi, Francesco; Behar, Ehud
2017-06-01
Black hole accretion disks seem to produce plasma outflows that result in blue-shifted absorption features in their spectra1. The literature of the past decade or so has demonstrated that the X-ray absorption-line properties of these outflows are often diverse. They can range in velocity from non-relativistic (~300 km s^-1) to sub-relativistic (~0.1c) over broad range in ionization of the wind plasma. We report here that semi-analytical, self-similar magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) wind models that have successfully accounted for the X-ray absorber properties of supermassive black can also be applied to the high-resolution X-ray spectrum of the accreting stellar-mass black holes, in particular to the 2005 outburst of GRO J1655-40. This supports the argument of their MHD origin and is consistent with aligned with earlier observational claims. It further hints at the notion of a universal magnetic structure of the observed winds across the known black hole mass range.
Lattice Boltzmann model for resistive relativistic magnetohydrodynamics
Mohseni, F; Succi, S; Herrmann, H J
2015-01-01
In this paper, we develop a lattice Boltzmann model for relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Even though the model is derived for resistive MHD, it is shown that it is numerically robust even in the high conductivity (ideal MHD) limit. In order to validate the numerical method, test simulations are carried out for both ideal and resistive limits, namely the propagation of Alfv\\'en waves in the ideal MHD and the evolution of current sheets in the resistive regime, where very good agreement is observed comparing to the analytical results. Additionally, two-dimensional magnetic reconnection driven by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is studied and the effects of different parameters on the reconnection rate are investigated. It is shown that the density ratio has negligible effect on the magnetic reconnection rate, while an increase in shear velocity decreases the reconnection rate. Additionally, it is found that the reconnection rate is proportional to $\\sigma^{-\\frac{1}{2}}$, $\\sigma$ being the conductivity, w...
Okuzumi, Satoshi [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro, E-mail: okuzumi@geo.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)
2015-02-10
The ionization state of the gas plays a key role in the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of protoplanetary disks. However, the ionization state can depend on the gas dynamics, because electric fields induced by MHD turbulence can heat up plasmas and thereby affect the ionization balance. To study this nonlinear feedback, we construct an ionization model that includes plasma heating by electric fields and impact ionization by heated electrons, as well as charging of dust grains. We show that when plasma sticking onto grains is the dominant recombination process, the electron abundance in the gas decreases with increasing electric field strength. This is a natural consequence of electron-grain collisions whose frequency increases with the electron's random velocity. The decreasing electron abundance may lead to a self-regulation of MHD turbulence. In some cases, not only the electron abundance but also the electric current decreases with increasing field strength in a certain field range. The resulting N-shaped current-field relation violates the fundamental assumption of the non-relativistic MHD that the electric field is uniquely determined by the current density. At even higher field strengths, impact ionization causes an abrupt increase of the electric current as expected by previous studies. We find that this discharge current is multi-valued (i.e., the current-field relation is S-shaped) under some circumstances, and that the intermediate branch is unstable. The N/S-shaped current-field relations may yield hysteresis in the evolution of MHD turbulence in some parts of protoplanetary disks.
Demianski, Marek
2013-01-01
Relativistic Astrophysics brings together important astronomical discoveries and the significant achievements, as well as the difficulties in the field of relativistic astrophysics. This book is divided into 10 chapters that tackle some aspects of the field, including the gravitational field, stellar equilibrium, black holes, and cosmology. The opening chapters introduce the theories to delineate gravitational field and the elements of relativistic thermodynamics and hydrodynamics. The succeeding chapters deal with the gravitational fields in matter; stellar equilibrium and general relativity
Kawazura, Yohei; Morrison, Philip J
2016-01-01
Two types of Eulerian action principles for relativistic extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are formulated. With the first, the action is extremized under the constraints of density, entropy, and Lagrangian label conservation, which leads to a Clebsch representation for a generalized momentum and a generalized vector potential. The second action arises upon transformation to physical field variables, giving rise to a covariant bracket action principle, i.e., a variational principle in which constrained variations are generated by a degenerate Poisson bracket. Upon taking appropriate limits, the action principles lead to relativistic Hall MHD and well-known relativistic ideal MHD. For the first time, the Hamiltonian formulation of relativistic Hall MHD with electron thermal inertia (akin to [Comisso \\textit{et al.}, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 113}, 045001 (2014)] for the electron--positron plasma) is introduced. This thermal inertia effect allows for violation of the frozen-in magnetic flux condition in marked con...
Louis, J.F.
1978-03-01
Research and development in open-cycle coal-fired MHD power generation is described. The scope and objectives of the MIT program are: (1) establish chemical, thermal, and electrical data to guide materials selection, develop improved detail designs, and support performance analyses of MHD electrode modules and insulator materials; (2) parametrically investigate selected electrode properties of critical design importance in chemical, thermal, and electrical environments simulating a coal-fired MHD generator; (3) develop combustion data pertinent to the design of MHD combustors; (4) establish techniques for the analysis and understanding of critical MHD phenomena which have an important bearing on MHD generator performance; such phenomena include inter-electrode breakdown, time-dependent behavior, effective plasma properties and plasma inhomogeneities; (5) establish the operating characteristics of an MHD disk generator; (6) continue work on computer techniques for modeling and for design and cost analysis of MHD components and the overall system; (7) integrate the engineering data and design criteria, as applicable, which are developed in the listed tasks into a model of the MHD channel; (8) participate in the US/USSR Cooperative Program in MHD Power Generation; and (9) participate in technical support of the DOE MHD Project Office. Progress in each of these areas is reported. (WHK)
Magnetohydrodynamics of Chiral Relativistic Fluids
Boyarsky, Alexey; Ruchayskiy, Oleg
2015-01-01
We study the dynamics of a plasma of charged relativistic fermions at very high temperature $T\\gg m$, where $m$ is the fermion mass, coupled to the electromagnetic field. In particular, we derive a magneto-hydrodynamical description of the evolution of such a plasma. We show that, as compared to conventional MHD for a plasma of non-relativistic particles, the hydrodynamical description of the relativistic plasma involves new degrees of freedom described by a pseudo-scalar field originating in a local asymmetry in the densities of left-handed and right-handed fermions. This field can be interpreted as an effective axion field. Taking into account the chiral anomaly we present dynamical equations for the evolution of this field, as well as of other fields appearing in the MHD description of the plasma. Due to its non-linear coupling to helical magnetic fields, the axion field significantly affects the dynamics of a magnetized plasma and can give rise to a novel type of inverse cascade.
Disk Winds Driven by Magnetorotational Instability and Dispersal of Proto-Planetary Disks
Suzuki, T K
2008-01-01
By performing local three-dimensional MHD simulations of stratified accretion disks, we investigate disk winds driven by MHD turbulence. Initially given weak vertical magnetic fields are effectively amplified by magnetorotational instability and winding due to differential rotation. Large scale channel flows develop most effectively at 1.5 - 2 times the scale heights where the magnetic pressure is comparable to but slightly smaller than the gas pressure. The breakup of these channel flows drives structured disk winds by transporting the Poynting flux to the gas. These features are universally observed in the simulations of various initial fields. This disk wind process should play an essential role in the dynamical evaporation of proto-planetary disks. The breakup of channel flows also excites the momentum fluxes associated with Alfvenic and (magneto-)sonic waves toward the mid-plane, which possibly contribute to the sedimentation of small dust grains in protoplanetary disks.
Schnack, Dalton D.
In this lecture we will examine some simple examples of MHD equilibrium configurations. These will all be in cylindrical geometry. They form the basis for more complicated equilibrium states in toroidal geometry.
MHD Flows in Compact Astrophysical Objects Accretion, Winds and Jets
Beskin, Vasily S
2010-01-01
Accretion flows, winds and jets of compact astrophysical objects and stars are generally described within the framework of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) flows. Analytical analysis of the problem provides profound physical insights, which are essential for interpreting and understanding the results of numerical simulations. Providing such a physical understanding of MHD Flows in Compact Astrophysical Objects is the main goal of this book, which is an updated translation of a successful Russian graduate textbook. The book provides the first detailed introduction into the method of the Grad-Shafranov equation, describing analytically the very broad class of hydrodynamical and MHD flows. It starts with the classical examples of hydrodynamical accretion onto relativistic and nonrelativistic objects. The force-free limit of the Grad-Shafranov equation allows us to analyze in detail the physics of the magnetospheres of radio pulsars and black holes, including the Blandford-Znajek process of energy e...
Course 1: Accretion and Ejection-Related MHD
Heyvaerts, Jean
This lecture is an introduction to MHD. Relevant equations, both in the classical and special-relativistic regimes are derived. The magnetic field evolution is considered both in the perfect-MHD limit and when weak resistivity is present, giving rise to reconnection flows. A short section gives a flavour of dynamo theory. Examples of simple stationnary flows and equilibria are then presented. Stationnary, axisymmetric, rotating perfect-MHD winds and jets are discussed in some more detail. Their asymptotic structure is described. The last sections deal with small motions about an equilibrium and stability. These issues are illustrated by a few classical examples. The last section discusses linear aspects of the magneto-rotationnal instability.
Louis, J.F.
1977-12-01
Research and development in open-cycle coal-fired MHD power generation at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is summarized. Progress is reported on the following tasks: (1) Establish chemical, thermal, and electrical data to guide materials selection, develop improved detail designs, and support performance analyses of MHD electrode modules and insulator materials; (2) parametrically investigate selected electrode properties of critical design importance in chemical, thermal, and electrical environments simulating a coal-fired MHD generator; (3) develop combustion data pertinent to the design of MHD combustors; this work is intended to determine the combustion characteristics of selected coal feedstock in terms of devolatilization kinetics, char characteristics, and combustion gas chemistry; (4) establish techniques for the analysis and understanding of critical MHD phenomena which have an important bearing on MHD generator performance; such phenomena include inter-electrode breakdown, time-dependent behavior, effective plasma properties and plasma inhomogeneities; (5) establish the operating characteristics of an MHD disk generator; (6) continue work on computer techniques for modeling and for design and cost analysis of MHD components and the overall system; (7) integrate the engineering data and design criteria, as applicable, which are developed in the above-listed tasks into a model of the MHD channel; (8) participate in technical support of the DOE MHD Project Office.
Louis, J.F.
1980-09-01
A separate entry was made in the data base for reports on each of the four tasks: (1) arcing phenomena in MHD generators; (2) open cycle MHD disk generator program; (3) electrode module development and testing; and (4) coal combustion studies. (WHK)
Alexakis, A.
2009-04-01
Most astrophysical and planetary systems e.g., solar convection and stellar winds, are in a turbulent state and coupled to magnetic fields. Understanding and quantifying the statistical properties of magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) turbulence is crucial to explain the involved physical processes. Although the phenomenological theory of hydro-dynamic (HD) turbulence has been verified up to small corrections, a similar statement cannot be made for MHD turbulence. Since the phenomenological description of Hydrodynamic turbulence by Kolmogorov in 1941 there have been many attempts to derive a similar description for turbulence in conducting fluids (i.e Magneto-Hydrodynamic turbulence). However such a description is going to be based inevitably on strong assumptions (typically borrowed from hydrodynamics) that do not however necessarily apply to the MHD case. In this talk I will discuss some of the properties and differences of the energy and helicity cascades in turbulent MHD and HD flows. The investigation is going to be based on the analysis of direct numerical simulations. The cascades in MHD turbulence appear to be a more non-local process (in scale space) than in Hydrodynamics. Some implications of these results to turbulent modeling will be discussed
Nonlinear Terms of MHD Equations for Homogeneous Magnetized Shear Flow
Dimitrov, Z D; Hristov, T S; Mishonov, T M
2011-01-01
We have derived the full set of MHD equations for incompressible shear flow of a magnetized fluid and considered their solution in the wave-vector space. The linearized equations give the famous amplification of slow magnetosonic waves and describe the magnetorotational instability. The nonlinear terms in our analysis are responsible for the creation of turbulence and self-sustained spectral density of the MHD (Alfven and pseudo-Alfven) waves. Perspectives for numerical simulations of weak turbulence and calculation of the effective viscosity of accretion disks are shortly discussed in k-space.
Magnetohydrodynamic Origin of Jets from Accretion Disks
Lovelace, R V E; Koldoba, A V
1999-01-01
A review is made of recent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory and simulations of origin of jets from accretion disks. Many compact astrophysical objects emit powerful, highly-collimated, oppositely directed jets. Included are the extra galactic radio jets of active galaxies and quasars, and old compact stars in binaries, and emission line jets in young stellar objects. It is widely thought that these different jets arise from rotating, conducting accretion disks threaded by an ordered magnetic field. The twisting of the magnetic field by the rotation of the disk drives the jets by magnetically extracting matter, angular momentum, and energy from the accretion disk. Two main regimes have been discussed theoretically, hydromagnetic winds which have a significant mass flux, and Poynting flux jets where the mass flux is negligible. Over the past several years, exciting new developments on models of jets have come from progress in MHD simulations which now allow the study of the origin - the acceleration and collima...
General relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of collapsars: Rotating black hole cases
Mizuno, Y. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Department of Astronomy; Yamada, S. [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Science and Engineering; Koide, S. [Toyama Univ., Toyama (Japan). Department of Engineering; Shibata, K. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Kwasan and Hida Observatory
2005-06-01
We have performed 2.5-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of coIIapsars including a rotating black hole. InitiaIIy, we assume that the care collapse has failed in this star. A rotating black hole of a few solar masses is inserted by hand into the calculation. The simulation results show the formation of a diskIike structure and the generation of a jetIike outflow near the central black hole. The jetIike outflow propagates and accelerated mainly by the magnetic field. The total jet velocity is {approx} 0.3c. When the rotation of the black hole is faster, the magnetic field is twisted strongly owing to the frame-dragging effect. The magnetic energy stored by the twisting magnetic field is directly converted to kinetic energy of the jet rather than propagating as an Alfven wave. Thus, as the rotation of the black hole becomes faster, the poloidal velocity of the jet becomes faster.
MHD power generation with fully ionized seed
Yamasaki, H.; Shioda, S.
1977-01-01
Recovery of power density in the regime of fully ionized seed has been demonstrated experimentally using an MHD disk generator with the effective Hall parameter up to 5.0 when the seed was fully ionized. The experiments were conducted with a shock-heated and potassium-seeded argon plasma under the following conditions: stagnation gas pressure = 0.92 atm, stagnation gas temperature = 2750 K, flow Mach number = 2.5, and seed fraction = 1.4 x 10/sup -5/. Measurements of electron-number density and spectroscopic observations of both potassium and argon lines confirmed that the recovery of power output was due to the reduction of ionization instability. This fact indicates that the successful operation of a disk generator utilizing nonequilibrium ionization seems to be possible and that the suppression of ionization instability can also provide higher adiabatic efficiency. Furthermore, the lower seed fraction offers technological advantages related to seed problems.
Magnetically Driven Accretion Flows in the Kerr Metric IV: Dynamical Properties of the Inner Disk
Krolik, J H; Hirose, S; Krolik, Julian H.; Hawley, John F.; Hirose, Shigenobu
2004-01-01
This paper continues the analysis of a set of general relativistic 3D MHD simulations of accreting tori in the Kerr metric with different black hole spins. We focus on bound matter inside the initial pressure maximum, where the time-averaged motion of gas is inward and an accretion disk forms. We use the flows of mass, angular momentum, and energy in order to understand dynamics in this region. The sharp reduction in accretion rate with increasing black hole spin reported in Paper I of this series is explained by a strongly spin-dependent outward flux of angular momentum conveyed electromagnetically; when a/M > 0.9, this flux can be comparable to the inward angular momentum flux carried by the matter. In all cases, there is outward electromagnetic angular momentum flux throughout the flow; in other words, contrary to the assertions of traditional accretion disk theory, there is in general no "stress edge", no surface within which the stress is zero. The retardation of accretion in the inner disk by electromag...
Louis, J.F.
1977-08-01
Research progress in open-cycle coal-fired MHD power generation at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is reported. The scope and objectives of the MIT program are to: (1) Establish chemical, thermal, and electrical data to guide materials selection, develop improved detail designs, and support performance analyses of MHD electrode modules and insulator materials; (2) establish basic mechanical properties to guide detail design and fabrication of high field strength superconducting magnets for MHD applications; (3) parametrically investigate selected electrode properties of critical design importance in chemical, thermal, and electrical environments simulating a coal-fired MHD generator; (4) develop combustion data pertinent to the design of MHD combustors; (5) establish techniques for the analysis and understanding of critical MHD phenomena which have an important bearing on MHD generator performance; such phenomena include inter-electrode breakdown, time-dependent behavior, effective plasma properties and plasma inhomogeneities; (6) establish the operating characteristics of an MHD disk generator; (7) continue work on computer techniques for modeling and for design and cost analysis of MHD components and the overall system; (8) integrate the engineering data and design criteria, as applicable, which are developed in the above-listed tasks into a model of the MHD channel; (9) Participate in technical support of the ERDA MHD Project Office; (10) participate in the US/USSR Cooperative Program in MHD Power Generation. (11) During the summer of 1976, a short-term task in U-25 electrode screening was temporarily added to the scope of the contract. This effort involved screening tests, in the MIT MHD simulation facility of electrode modules and configurations intended for tests in the Soviet U-25 generator.
The CHEASE code for toroidal MHD equilibria
Luetjens, H. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Centre de Physique Theorique; Bondeson, A. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Inst. for Electromagnetic Field Theory and Plasma Physics; Sauter, O. [ITER-San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)
1996-03-01
CHEASE solves the Grad-Shafranov equation for the MHD equilibrium of a Tokamak-like plasma with pressure and current profiles specified by analytic forms or sets of data points. Equilibria marginally stable to ballooning modes or with a prescribed fraction of bootstrap current can be computed. The code provides a mapping to magnetic flux coordinates, suitable for MHD stability calculations or global wave propagation studies. The code computes equilibrium quantities for the stability codes ERATO, MARS, PEST, NOVA-W and XTOR and for the global wave propagation codes LION and PENN. The two-dimensional MHD equilibrium (Grad-Shafranov) equation is solved in variational form. The discretization uses bicubic Hermite finite elements with continuous first order derivates for the poloidal flux function {Psi}. The nonlinearity of the problem is handled by Picard iteration. The mapping to flux coordinates is carried out with a method which conserves the accuracy of the cubic finite elements. The code uses routines from the CRAY libsci.a program library. However, all these routines are included in the CHEASE package itself. If CHEASE computes equilibrium quantities for MARS with fast Fourier transforms, the NAG library is required. CHEASE is written in standard FORTRAN-77, except for the use of the input facility NAMELIST. CHEASE uses variable names with up to 8 characters, and therefore violates the ANSI standard. CHEASE transfers plot quantities through an external disk file to a plot program named PCHEASE using the UNIRAS or the NCAR plot package. (author) figs., tabs., 34 refs.
McKinney, Jonathan C.; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Blandford, Roger D.
2012-04-26
Black hole (BH) accretion flows and jets are qualitatively affected by the presence of ordered magnetic fields. We study fully three-dimensional global general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of radially extended and thick (height H to cylindrical radius R ratio of |H/R| {approx} 0.2-1) accretion flows around BHs with various dimensionless spins (a/M, with BH mass M) and with initially toroidally-dominated ({phi}-directed) and poloidally-dominated (R-z directed) magnetic fields. Firstly, for toroidal field models and BHs with high enough |a/M|, coherent large-scale (i.e. >> H) dipolar poloidal magnetic flux patches emerge, thread the BH, and generate transient relativistic jets. Secondly, for poloidal field models, poloidal magnetic flux readily accretes through the disk from large radii and builds-up to a natural saturation point near the BH. While models with |H/R| {approx} 1 and |a/M| {le} 0.5 do not launch jets due to quenching by mass infall, for sufficiently high |a/M| or low |H/R| the polar magnetic field compresses the inflow into a geometrically thin highly non-axisymmetric 'magnetically choked accretion flow' (MCAF) within which the standard linear magneto-rotational instability is suppressed. The condition of a highly-magnetized state over most of the horizon is optimal for the Blandford-Znajek mechanism that generates persistent relativistic jets with and 100% efficiency for |a/M| {approx}> 0.9. A magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable magnetospheric interface forms between the compressed inflow and bulging jet magnetosphere, which drives a new jet-disk oscillation (JDO) type of quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) mechanism. The high-frequency QPO has spherical harmonic |m| = 1 mode period of {tau} {approx} 70GM/c{sup 3} for a/M {approx} 0.9 with coherence quality factors Q {approx}> 10. Overall, our models are qualitatively distinct from most prior MHD simulations (typically, |H/R| << 1 and poloidal flux is
Luciano, Rezzolla
2013-01-01
Relativistic hydrodynamics is a very successful theoretical framework to describe the dynamics of matter from scales as small as those of colliding elementary particles, up to the largest scales in the universe. This book provides an up-to-date, lively, and approachable introduction to the mathematical formalism, numerical techniques, and applications of relativistic hydrodynamics. The topic is typically covered either by very formal or by very phenomenological books, but is instead presented here in a form that will be appreciated both by students and researchers in the field. The topics covered in the book are the results of work carried out over the last 40 years, which can be found in rather technical research articles with dissimilar notations and styles. The book is not just a collection of scattered information, but a well-organized description of relativistic hydrodynamics, from the basic principles of statistical kinetic theory, down to the technical aspects of numerical methods devised for the solut...
Theory and Applications of Non-Relativistic and Relativistic Turbulent Reconnection
Lazarian, A; Takamoto, M; Pino, E M de Gouveia Dal; Cho, J
2015-01-01
Realistic astrophysical environments are turbulent due to the extremely high Reynolds numbers. Therefore, the theories of reconnection intended for describing astrophysical reconnection should not ignore the effects of turbulence on magnetic reconnection. Turbulence is known to change the nature of many physical processes dramatically and in this review we claim that magnetic reconnection is not an exception. We stress that not only astrophysical turbulence is ubiquitous, but also magnetic reconnection itself induces turbulence. Thus turbulence must be accounted for in any realistic astrophysical reconnection setup. We argue that due to the similarities of MHD turbulence in relativistic and non-relativistic cases the theory of magnetic reconnection developed for the non-relativistic case can be extended to the relativistic case and we provide numerical simulations that support this conjecture. We also provide quantitative comparisons of the theoretical predictions and results of numerical experiments, includi...
Louis, J.F.
1977-10-01
Current research and development in open-cycle coal-fired MHD power generation at Massachusetts Institute of Technology is presented. Progress is reported on the following tasks: (1) Establish chemical, thermal, and electrical data to guide materials selection, develop improved detail designs, and support performance analyses of MHD electrode modules and insulator materials; (2) Parametrically investigate selected electrode properties of critical design importance in chemical, thermal, and electrical environments simulating a coal-fired MHD generator; (3) Develop combustion data pertinent to the design of MHD combustors; this work is intended to determine the combustion characteristics of selected coal feed stock in terms of devolatilization kinetics, char characteristics, and combustion gas chemistry; (4) Establish techniques for the analysis and understanding of critical MHD phenomena which have an important bearing on MHD generator performance; such phenomena include inter-electrode breakdown, time-dependent behavior, effective plasma properties and plasma inhomogeneities; (5) Establish the operating characteristics of an MHD disk generator; (6) Continue work on computer techniques for modeling and for design and cost analysis of MHD components and the overall system; (7) Integrate the engineering data and design criteria, as applicable, which are developed in the above-listed tasks into a model of the MHD channel.
Louis, J.F.
1976-10-01
Research progress on open-cycle coal-fired MHD power generation at Massachusetts Institute of Technology is detailed. Work is reported in the following areas: (1) Establish chemical, thermal, and electrical data to guide materials selection, develop improved detail designs, and support performance analyses of MHD electrode modules and insulator materials; (2) parametrically investigate selected electrode properties of critical design importance in chemical, thermal, and electrical environments simulating a coal-fired MHD generator; (3) develop combustion data pertinent to the design of MHD combustors; (4) establish techniques for the analysis and understanding of critical MHD phenomena which have an important bearing on MHD generator performance; (5) establish the operating characteristics of an MHD disk generator; (6) continue work on computer techniques for modeling and for design and cost analysis of MHD components and the overall system; (7) integrate the engineering data and design criteria, as applicable, which are developed in the above-listed tasks into a model of the MHD channel; (8) U-25 electrode screening tests.
Haba, Z
2009-02-01
We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.
Sahoo, Raghunath
2016-01-01
This lecture note covers Relativistic Kinematics, which is very useful for the beginners in the field of high-energy physics. A very practical approach has been taken, which answers "why and how" of the kinematics useful for students working in the related areas.
Magnetogenesis through Relativistic Velocity Shear
Miller, Evan
Magnetic fields at all scales are prevalent in our universe. However, current cosmological models predict that initially the universe was bereft of large-scale fields. Standard magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) does not permit magnetogenesis; in the MHD Faraday's law, the change in magnetic field B depends on B itself. Thus if B is initially zero, it will remain zero for all time. A more accurate physical model is needed to explain the origins of the galactic-scale magnetic fields observed today. In this thesis, I explore two velocity-driven mechanisms for magnetogenesis in 2-fluid plasma. The first is a novel kinematic 'battery' arising from convection of vorticity. A coupling between thermal and plasma oscillations, this non-relativistic mechanism can operate in flows that are incompressible, quasi-neutral and barotropic. The second mechanism results from inclusion of thermal effects in relativistic shear flow instabilities. In such flows, parallel perturbations are ubiquitously unstable at small scales, with growth rates of order with the plasma frequency over a defined range of parameter-space. Of these two processes, instabilities seem far more likely to account for galactic magnetic fields. Stable kinematic effects will, at best, be comparable to an ideal Biermann battery, which is suspected to be orders of magnitude too weak to produce the observed galactic fields. On the other hand, instabilities grow until saturation is reached, a topic that has yet to be explored in detail on cosmological scales. In addition to investigating these magnetogenesis sources, I derive a general dispersion relation for three dimensional, warm, two species plasma with discontinuous shear flow. The mathematics of relativistic plasma, sheared-flow instability and the Biermann battery are also discussed.
Proceedings of the workshop on nonlinear MHD and extended MHD
NONE
1998-12-01
Nonlinear MHD simulations have proven their value in interpreting experimental results over the years. As magnetic fusion experiments reach higher performance regimes, more sophisticated experimental diagnostics coupled with ever expanding computer capabilities have increased both the need for and the feasibility of nonlinear global simulations using models more realistic than regular ideal and resistive MHD. Such extended-MHD nonlinear simulations have already begun to produce useful results. These studies are expected to lead to ever more comprehensive simulation models in the future and to play a vital role in fully understanding fusion plasmas. Topics include the following: (1) current state of nonlinear MHD and extended-MHD simulations; (2) comparisons to experimental data; (3) discussions between experimentalists and theorists; (4) /equations for extended-MHD models, kinetic-based closures; and (5) paths toward more comprehensive simulation models, etc. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.
Kawazura, Yohei; Miloshevich, George; Morrison, Philip J.
2017-02-01
Two types of Eulerian action principles for relativistic extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are formulated. With the first, the action is extremized under the constraints of density, entropy, and Lagrangian label conservation, which leads to a Clebsch representation for a generalized momentum and a generalized vector potential. The second action arises upon transformation to physical field variables, giving rise to a covariant bracket action principle, i.e., a variational principle in which constrained variations are generated by a degenerate Poisson bracket. Upon taking appropriate limits, the action principles lead to relativistic Hall MHD and well-known relativistic ideal MHD. For the first time, the Hamiltonian formulation of relativistic Hall MHD with electron thermal inertia (akin to Comisso et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 045001 (2014) for the electron-positron plasma) is introduced. This thermal inertia effect allows for violation of the frozen-in magnetic flux condition in marked contrast to nonrelativistic Hall MHD that does satisfy the frozen-in condition. We also find the violation of the frozen-in condition is accompanied by freezing-in of an alternative flux determined by a generalized vector potential. Finally, we derive a more general 3 + 1 Poisson bracket for nonrelativistic extended MHD, one that does not assume smallness of the electron ion mass ratio.
Disk magnetohydrodynamic power conversion system for NERVA reactor
Jackson, W.D. (HMJ Corporation. 10400 Connecticut Ave., Kensington, Maryland 20895 (United States)); Bernard, F.E. (Westinghouse Corp., P.O. Box 355, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15230 (United States)); Holman, R.R. (HMJ Corporation, 10400 Connecticut Ave., Kensington, Maryland 20895 (United States)); Maxwell, C.D. (STD Research Corp., P.O. Box C, Arcadia, California 91006 (United States)); Seikel, G.R. (SeiTec, Inc., P.O. Box 81264, Cleveland, Ohio 44181 (United States))
1993-01-15
The combination of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator of the disk type with a NERVA reactor yields an advanced power system particularly suited to space applications with the capability of producing up to gigawatt pulses and multi-megawatt continuous operation. Several unique features result from the combination of this type of reactor and a disk MHD generator in which hydrogen serves as the plasma working fluid. Cesium seedings is utilized under conditions which enable the generator to operate stably in the non-equilibrium electrical conduction mode. In common with all practical MHD generators, the disk output is DC and voltages in the range 20--100 kV are attainable. This leads to a simplification of the power conditioning system and a major reduction in specific mass. Taken together with the high performance capabilities of the NERVA reactor, the result is an attractively low overall system specific mass. Further, the use of non-equilibrium ionization enables system specific enthalpy extractions in excess of 40% to be attained. This paper reports the results of a study to establish the basis for the design of a cesium seeded hydrogen MHD disk generator. Generator performance results are presented in terms of a stability factor which is related to cesium seeded hydrogen plasma behavior. It is shown that application of the results already obtained with cesium seeded noble gases (argon and helium) to the case of hydrogen as the working fluid in a disk MHD generator enables a high performance power system to be defined.
Frutos-Alfaro, Francisco
2015-01-01
A program to generate codes in Fortran and C of the full Magnetohydrodynamic equations is shown. The program used the free computer algebra system software REDUCE. This software has a package called EXCALC, which is an exterior calculus program. The advantage of this program is that it can be modified to include another complex metric or spacetime. The output of this program is modified by means of a LINUX script which creates a new REDUCE program to manipulate the MHD equations to obtain a code that can be used as a seed for a MHD code for numerical applications. As an example, we present part of output of our programs for Cartesian coordinates and how to do the discretization.
Nonlinear helical MHD instability
Zueva, N.M.; Solov' ev, L.S.
1977-07-01
An examination is made of the boundary problem on the development of MHD instability in a toroidal plasma. Two types of local helical instability are noted - Alfven and thermal, and the corresponding criteria of instability are cited. An evaluation is made of the maximum attainable kinetic energy, limited by the degree to which the law of conservation is fulfilled. An examination is made of a precise solution to a kinematic problem on the helical evolution of a cylindrical magnetic configuration at a given velocity distribution in a plasma. A numerical computation of the development of MHD instability in a plasma cylinder by a computerized solution of MHD equations is made where the process's helical symmetry is conserved. The development of instability is of a resonance nature. The instability involves the entire cross section of the plasma and leads to an inside-out reversal of the magnetic surfaces when there is a maximum unstable equilibrium configuration in the nonlinear stage. The examined instability in the tore is apparently stabilized by a magnetic hole when certain limitations are placed on the distribution of flows in the plasma. 29 references, 8 figures.
Hakim, Rémi
1994-01-01
Il existe à l'heure actuelle un certain nombre de théories relativistes de la gravitation compatibles avec l'expérience et l'observation. Toutefois, la relativité générale d'Einstein fut historiquement la première à fournir des résultats théoriques corrects en accord précis avec les faits.
Trans-Relativistic Particle Acceleration in Astrophysical Plasmas
Becker, Peter A.; Subramanian, P.
2014-01-01
Trans-relativistic particle acceleration due to Fermi interactions between charged particles and MHD waves helps to power the observed high-energy emission in AGN transients and solar flares. The trans-relativistic acceleration process is challenging to treat analytically due to the complicated momentum dependence of the momentum diffusion coefficient. For this reason, most existing analytical treatments of particle acceleration assume that the injected seed particles are already relativistic, and therefore they are not suited to study trans-relativistic acceleration. The lack of an analytical model has forced workers to rely on numerical simulations to obtain particle spectra describing the trans-relativistic case. In this work we present the first analytical solution to the global, trans-relativistic problem describing the acceleration of seed particles due to hard-sphere collisions with MHD waves. The new results include the exact solution for the steady-state Green's function resulting from the continual injection of monoenergetic seed particles with an arbitrary energy. We also introduce an approximate treatment of the trans-relativistic acceleration process based on a hybrid form for the momentum diffusion coefficient, given by the sum of the two asymptotic forms. We refer to this process as "quasi hard-sphere scattering." The main advantage of the hybrid approximation is that it allows the extension of the physical model to include (i) the effects of synchrotron and inverse-Compton losses and (ii) time dependence. The new analytical results can be used to model the trans-relativistic acceleration of particles in AGN and solar environments, and can also be used to compute the spectra of the associated synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission. Applications of both types are discussed. We highlight (i) relativistic ion acceleration in black hole accretion coronae, and (ii) the production of gyrosynchrotron microwave emission due to relativistic electron
Transonic properties of the accretion disk around compact objects
Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata
2008-01-01
An accretion flow is necessarily transonic around a black hole. However, around a neutron star it may or may not be transonic, depending on the inner disk boundary conditions influenced by the neutron star. I will discuss various transonic behavior of the disk fluid in general relativistic (or pseudo general relativistic) framework. I will address that there are four types of sonic/critical point possible to form in an accretion disk. It will be shown that how the fluid properties including location of sonic points vary with angular momentum of the compact object which controls the overall disk dynamics and outflows.
van der Kruit, P. C.; Freeman, K. C.
The disks of disk galaxies contain a substantial fraction of their baryonic matter and angular momentum, and much of the evolutionary activity in these galaxies, such as the formation of stars, spiral arms, bars and rings, and the various forms of secular evolution, takes place in their disks. The
Linear wave propagation in relativistic magnetohydrodynamics
Keppens, R
2008-01-01
The properties of linear Alfv\\'en, slow, and fast magnetoacoustic waves for uniform plasmas in relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are discussed, augmenting the well-known expressions for their phase speeds with knowledge on the group speed. A 3+1 formalism is purposely adopted to make direct comparison with the Newtonian MHD limits easier and to stress the graphical representation of their anisotropic linear wave properties using the phase and group speed diagrams. By drawing these for both the fluid rest frame and for a laboratory Lorentzian frame which sees the plasma move with a three-velocity having an arbitrary orientation with respect to the magnetic field, a graphical view of the relativistic aberration effects is obtained for all three MHD wave families. Moreover, it is confirmed that the classical Huygens construction relates the phase and group speed diagram in the usual way, even for the lab frame viewpoint. Since the group speed diagrams correspond to exact solutions for initial conditions co...
Imbalanced Relativistic Force-Free Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Cho, Jungyeon
2013-01-01
When magnetic energy density is much larger than that of matter, as in pulsar/black hole magnetospheres, the medium becomes force-free and we need relativity to describe it. As in non-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), Alfv\\'enic MHD turbulence in the relativistic limit can be described by interactions of counter-traveling wave packets. In this paper we numerically study strong imbalanced MHD turbulence in such environments. Here, imbalanced turbulence means the waves traveling in one direction (dominant waves) have higher amplitudes than the opposite-traveling waves (sub-dominant waves). We find that (1) spectrum of the dominant waves is steeper than that of sub-dominant waves, (2) the anisotropy of the dominant waves is weaker than that of sub-dominant waves, and (3) the dependence of the ratio of magnetic energy densities of dominant and sub-dominant waves on the ratio of energy injection rates is steeper than quadratic (i.e., \\$b_+^2/b_-^2 \\propto (\\epsilon_+/\\epsilon_-)^n \\$ with n>2). These result...
MHD Shock Conditions for Accreting Plasma onto Kerr Black Holes - I
Takahashi, M; Fukumura, K; Tsuruta, S; Takahashi, Masaaki; Rilett, Darrell; Fukumura, Keigo; Tsuruta, Sachiko
2002-01-01
We extend the work by Appl and Camenzind (1988) for special relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) jets, to fully general relativistic studies of the standing shock formation for accreting MHD plasma in a rotating, stationary and axisymmetric black hole magnetosphere. All the postshock physical quantities are expressed in terms of the relativistic compression ratio, which can be obtained in terms of preshock quantities. Then, the downstream state of a shocked plasma is determined by the upstream state of the accreting plasma. In this paper sample solutions are presented for slow magnetosonic shocks for accreting flows in the equatorial plane. We find that some properties of the slow magnetosonic shock for the rotating magnetosphere can behave like a fast magnetosonic shock. In fact, it is confirmed that in the limit of weak gravity for the upstream non-rotating accretion plasma where the magnetic field lines are leading and rotating, our results are very similar to the fast magnetosonic shock solution by Appl...
Stratified Magnetically Driven Accretion-disk Winds and Their Relations to Jets
Fukumura, Keigo; Tombesi, Francesco; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Shrader, Chris; Behar, Ehud; Contopoulos, Ioannis
2014-01-01
We explore the poloidal structure of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) winds in relation to their potential association with the X-ray warm absorbers (WAs) and the highly ionized ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs), in a single unifying approach. We present the density n(r, θ), ionization parameter ξ(r, θ), and velocity structure v(r, θ) of such ionized winds for typical values of their fluid-to-magnetic flux ratio, F, and specific angular momentum, H, for which wind solutions become super-Alfvénic. We explore the geometrical shape of winds for different values of these parameters and delineate the values that produce the widest and narrowest opening angles of these winds, quantities necessary in the determination of the statistics of AGN obscuration. We find that winds with smaller H show a poloidal geometry of narrower opening angles with their Alfvén surface at lower inclination angles and therefore they produce the highest line of sight (LoS) velocities for observers at higher latitudes with the respect to the disk plane. We further note a physical and spatial correlation between the X-ray WAs and UFOs that form along the same LoS to the observer but at different radii, r, and distinct values of n, ξ, and v consistent with the latest spectroscopic data of radio-quiet Seyfert galaxies. We also show that, at least in the case of 3C 111, the winds' pressure is sufficient to contain the relativistic plasma responsible for its radio emission. Stratified MHD disk winds could therefore serve as a unique means to understand and unify the diverse AGN outflows.
Stratified magnetically driven accretion-disk winds and their relations to jets
Fukumura, Keigo [University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC/CRESST), Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Tombesi, Francesco; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Shrader, Chris [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Behar, Ehud [Department of Physics, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Contopoulos, Ioannis, E-mail: fukumukx@jmu.edu [Research Center for Astronomy, Academy of Athens, Athens 11527 (Greece)
2014-01-10
We explore the poloidal structure of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) winds in relation to their potential association with the X-ray warm absorbers (WAs) and the highly ionized ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs), in a single unifying approach. We present the density n(r, θ), ionization parameter ξ(r, θ), and velocity structure v(r, θ) of such ionized winds for typical values of their fluid-to-magnetic flux ratio, F, and specific angular momentum, H, for which wind solutions become super-Alfvénic. We explore the geometrical shape of winds for different values of these parameters and delineate the values that produce the widest and narrowest opening angles of these winds, quantities necessary in the determination of the statistics of AGN obscuration. We find that winds with smaller H show a poloidal geometry of narrower opening angles with their Alfvén surface at lower inclination angles and therefore they produce the highest line of sight (LoS) velocities for observers at higher latitudes with the respect to the disk plane. We further note a physical and spatial correlation between the X-ray WAs and UFOs that form along the same LoS to the observer but at different radii, r, and distinct values of n, ξ, and v consistent with the latest spectroscopic data of radio-quiet Seyfert galaxies. We also show that, at least in the case of 3C 111, the winds' pressure is sufficient to contain the relativistic plasma responsible for its radio emission. Stratified MHD disk winds could therefore serve as a unique means to understand and unify the diverse AGN outflows.
Stratified Magnetically Driven Accretion-Disk Winds and Their Relations To Jets
Fukumura, Keigo; Tombesi, Francesco; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Shrader, Chris; Behar, Ehud; Contopoulos, Ioannis
2013-01-01
We explore the poloidal structure of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) winds in relation to their potential association with the X-ray warm absorbers (WAs) and the highly ionized ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs), in a single unifying approach. We present the density n(r, theta), ionization parameter xi(r, theta), and velocity structure v(r, theta) of such ionized winds for typical values of their fluid-to-magnetic flux ratio, F, and specific angular momentum, H, for which wind solutions become super-Alfvenic. We explore the geometrical shape of winds for different values of these parameters and delineate the values that produce the widest and narrowest opening angles of these winds, quantities necessary in the determination of the statistics of AGN obscuration. We find that winds with smaller H show a poloidal geometry of narrower opening angles with their Alfv´en surface at lower inclination angles and therefore they produce the highest line of sight (LoS) velocities for observers at higher latitudes with the respect to the disk plane. We further note a physical and spatial correlation between the X-ray WAs and UFOs that form along the same LoS to the observer but at different radii, r, and distinct values of n, xi, and v consistent with the latest spectroscopic data of radio-quiet Seyfert galaxies. We also show that, at least in the case of 3C 111, the winds' pressure is sufficient to contain the relativistic plasma responsible for its radio emission. Stratified MHD disk winds could therefore serve as a unique means to understand and unify the diverse AGN outflows.
On Magnetic Dynamos in Thin Accretion Disks around Compact and Young Stars
Stepinski, T. F.
1993-01-01
A variety of geometrically thin accretion disks commonly associated with such astronomical objects as X-ray binaries, cataclysmic variables, and protostars are likely to be seats of MHD dynamo actions. Thin disk geometry and the particular physical environment make accretion disk dynamos different from stellar, planetary, or even galactic dynamos. We discuss those particular features of disk dynamos with emphasis on the difference between protoplanetary disk dynamos and those associated with compact stars. We then describe normal mode solutions for thin disk dynamos and discuss implications for the dynamical behavior of dynamo-magnetized accretion disks.
Magnetic fields in early protostellar disk formation
González-Casanova, Diego F; Lazarian, Alexander
2016-01-01
We consider formation of accretion disks from a realistically turbulent molecular gas using 3D MHD simulations. In particular, we analyze the effect of the fast turbulent reconnection described by the Lazarian & Vishniac (1999) model for the removal of magnetic flux from a disk. With our numerical simulations we demonstrate how the fast reconnection enables protostellar disk formation resolving the so-called "magnetic braking catastrophe". In particular, we provide a detailed study of the dynamics of a 0.5 M$_\\odot$ protostar and the formation of its disk for up to several thousands years. We measure the evolution of the mass, angular momentum, magnetic field, and turbulence around the star. We consider effects of two processes that strongly affect the magnetic transfer of angular momentum, both of which are based on turbulent reconnection: the first, "reconnection diffusion", removes the magnetic flux from the disk, the other involves the change of the magnetic field's topology, but does not change the a...
Structures of magnetized thin accretion disks
LI; xiaoqing(李晓卿); JI; Haisheng(季海生)
2002-01-01
We investigate the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) process in thin accretion disks. Therelevant momentum as well as magnetic reduction equations in the thin disk approximation areincluded. On the basis of these equations, we examine numerically the stationary structures, includingdistributions of the surface mass density, temperature and flow velocities of a disk around a youngstellar object (YSO). The numerical results are as follows: (i) There should be an upper limit to themagnitude of magnetic field, such an upper limit corresponds to the equipartition field. For relevantmagnitude of magnetic field of the disk's interior the disk remains approximately Keplerian. (ii) Thedistribution of effective temperature T(r) is a smoothly decreasing function of radius with power 1 corresponding to the observed radiation flux density, provided that the magnetic fieldindex γ= -1/2,is suitably chosen.
Lattice Boltzmann model for resistive relativistic magnetohydrodynamics.
Mohseni, F; Mendoza, M; Succi, S; Herrmann, H J
2015-08-01
In this paper, we develop a lattice Boltzmann model for relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Even though the model is derived for resistive MHD, it is shown that it is numerically robust even in the high conductivity (ideal MHD) limit. In order to validate the numerical method, test simulations are carried out for both ideal and resistive limits, namely the propagation of Alfvén waves in the ideal MHD and the evolution of current sheets in the resistive regime, where very good agreement is observed comparing to the analytical results. Additionally, two-dimensional magnetic reconnection driven by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is studied and the effects of different parameters on the reconnection rate are investigated. It is shown that the density ratio has a negligible effect on the magnetic reconnection rate, while an increase in shear velocity decreases the reconnection rate. Additionally, it is found that the reconnection rate is proportional to σ-1/2, σ being the conductivity, which is in agreement with the scaling law of the Sweet-Parker model. Finally, the numerical model is used to study the magnetic reconnection in a stellar flare. Three-dimensional simulation suggests that the reconnection between the background and flux rope magnetic lines in a stellar flare can take place as a result of a shear velocity in the photosphere.
Frutos-Alfaro, Francisco; Carboni-Mendez, Rodrigo
2015-01-01
A program to generate codes in Fortran and C of the full Magnetohydrodynamic equations is shown. The program used the free computer algebra system software REDUCE. This software has a package called EXCALC, which is an exterior calculus program. The advantage of this program is that it can be modified to include another complex metric or spacetime. The output of this program is modified by means of a LINUX script which creates a new REDUCE program to manipulate the MHD equations to obtain a c...
G. García Segura
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Se presenta un escenario auto consistente para explicar la morfolog a de las nebulosas planetarias. El escenario es consistente con la distribuci on Gal actica de los diferentes tipos morfol ogicos. Este trabajo resuelve, por medio de efectos MHD, algunas de las caracter sticas controversiales que aparecen en las nebulosas planetarias. Estas caracter sticas incluyen la presencia de ujos axisim etricos y colimados, con una cinem atica que aumenta linealmente con la distancia y la existencia de morfolog as asim etricas tales como las de las nebulosas con simetr a de punto.
Drift approximation and ideal MHD of cold relativistic winds
Bogovalov, Sergey V.
2016-06-01
> and the curvature radius of the flow line is comparable with the light cylinder. It is shown that the electric currents in the cold plasma are the result of the inertial drift motion of the charged particles in the crossed electric and magnetic fields.
Retallick, F.D.
1978-04-01
This document establishes criteria to be utilized for the design of a pilot-scale (150 to 300 MW thermal) open cycle, coal-fired MHD/steam plant. Criteria for this Engineering Test Facility (ETF) are presented relative to plant siting, plant engineering and operations, MHD-ETF testing, costing and scheduling.
MHD turbulence and distributed chaos
Bershadskii, A
2016-01-01
It is shown, using results of recent direct numerical simulations, that spectral properties of distributed chaos in MHD turbulence with zero mean magnetic field are similar to those of hydrodynamic turbulence. An exception is MHD spontaneous breaking of space translational symmetry, when the stretched exponential spectrum $\\exp(-k/k_{\\beta})^{\\beta}$ has $\\beta=4/7$.
Relativistic and non-relativistic geodesic equations
Giambo' , R.; Mangiarotti, L.; Sardanashvily, G. [Camerino Univ., Camerino, MC (Italy). Dipt. di Matematica e Fisica
1999-07-01
It is shown that any dynamic equation on a configuration space of non-relativistic time-dependent mechanics is associated with connections on its tangent bundle. As a consequence, every non-relativistic dynamic equation can be seen as a geodesic equation with respect to a (non-linear) connection on this tangent bundle. Using this fact, the relationships between relativistic and non-relativistic equations of motion is studied.
M. Schüssler
Full Text Available Two aspects of solar MHD are discussed in relation to the work of the MHD simulation group at KIS. Photospheric magneto-convection, the nonlinear interaction of magnetic field and convection in a strongly stratified, radiating fluid, is a key process of general astrophysical relevance. Comprehensive numerical simulations including radiative transfer have significantly improved our understanding of the processes and have become an important tool for the interpretation of observational data. Examples of field intensification in the solar photosphere ('convective collapse' are shown. The second line of research is concerned with the dynamics of flux tubes in the convection zone, which has far-reaching implications for our understanding of the solar dynamo. Simulations indicate that the field strength in the region where the flux is stored before erupting to form sunspot groups is of the order of 10^{5} G, an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates based on equipartition with the kinetic energy of convective flows.
Key words. Solar physics · astrophysics and astronomy (photosphere and chromosphere; stellar interiors and dynamo theory; numerical simulation studies.
Angular momentum transport in accretion disk boundary layers around weakly magnetized stars
Pessah, M.E.; Chan, C.-K.
2013-01-01
The standard model for turbulent shear viscosity in accretion disks is based on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. This implies that the turbulent stress must be negative and thus transport angular momentum inwards......, in the boundary layer where the accretion disk meets the surface of a weakly magnetized star. However, this behavior is not supported by numerical simulations of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion disks, which show that angular momentum transport driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI......) is inefficient in disk regions where, as expected in boundary layers, the angular frequency increases with radius. Motivated by the need of a deeper understanding of the behavior of an MHD fluid in a differentially rotating background that deviates from a Keplerian profile, we study the dynamics of MHD waves...
Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics
Hernandez, Juan; Kovtun, Pavel
2017-05-01
We present the equations of relativistic hydrodynamics coupled to dynamical electromagnetic fields, including the effects of polarization, electric fields, and the derivative expansion. We enumerate the transport coefficients at leading order in derivatives, including electrical conductivities, viscosities, and thermodynamic coefficients. We find the constraints on transport coefficients due to the positivity of entropy production, and derive the corresponding Kubo formulas. For the neutral state in a magnetic field, small fluctuations include Alfvén waves, magnetosonic waves, and the dissipative modes. For the state with a non-zero dynamical charge density in a magnetic field, plasma oscillations gap out all propagating modes, except for Alfvén-like waves with a quadratic dispersion relation. We relate the transport coefficients in the "conventional" magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using Maxwell's equations in matter) to those in the "dual" version of magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using the conserved magnetic flux).
Leardini, Fabrice
2013-01-01
This manuscript presents a problem on special relativity theory (SRT) which embodies an apparent paradox relying on the concept of simultaneity. The problem is represented in the framework of Greek epic poetry and structured in a didactic way. Owing to the characteristic properties of Lorenz transformations, three events which are simultaneous in a given inertial reference system, occur at different times in the other two reference frames. In contrast to the famous twin paradox, in the present case there are three, not two, different inertial observers. This feature provides a better framework to expose some of the main characteristics of SRT, in particular, the concept of velocity and the relativistic rule of addition of velocities.
MHD Energy Bypass Scramjet Engine
Mehta, Unmeel B.; Bogdanoff, David W.; Park, Chul; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Revolutionary rather than evolutionary changes in propulsion systems are most likely to decrease cost of space transportation and to provide a global range capability. Hypersonic air-breathing propulsion is a revolutionary propulsion system. The performance of scramjet engines can be improved by the AJAX energy management concept. A magneto-hydro-dynamics (MHD) generator controls the flow and extracts flow energy in the engine inlet and a MHD accelerator downstream of the combustor accelerates the nozzle flow. A progress report toward developing the MHD technology is presented herein. Recent theoretical efforts are reviewed and ongoing experimental efforts are discussed. The latter efforts also include an ongoing collaboration between NASA, the US Air Force Research Laboratory, US industry, and Russian scientific organizations. Two of the critical technologies, the ionization of the air and the MHD accelerator, are briefly discussed. Examples of limiting the combustor entrance Mach number to a low supersonic value with a MHD energy bypass scheme are presented, demonstrating an improvement in scramjet performance. The results for a simplified design of an aerospace plane show that the specific impulse of the MHD-bypass system is better than the non-MHD system and typical rocket over a narrow region of flight speeds and design parameters. Equilibrium ionization and non-equilibrium ionization are discussed. The thermodynamic condition of air at the entrance of the engine inlet determines the method of ionization. The required external power for non-equilibrium ionization is computed. There have been many experiments in which electrical power generation has successfully been achieved by magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) means. However, relatively few experiments have been made to date for the reverse case of achieving gas acceleration by the MHD means. An experiment in a shock tunnel is described in which MHD acceleration is investigated experimentally. MHD has several
Corrugation of relativistic magnetized shock waves
Lemoine, M; Gremillet, L
2016-01-01
As a shock front interacts with turbulence, it develops corrugation which induces outgoing wave modes in the downstream plasma. For a fast shock wave, the incoming wave modes can either be fast magnetosonic waves originating from downstream, outrunning the shock, or eigenmodes of the upstream plasma drifting through the shock. Using linear perturbation theory in relativistic MHD, this paper provides a general analysis of the corrugation of relativistic magnetized fast shock waves resulting from their interaction with small amplitude disturbances. Transfer functions characterizing the linear response for each of the outgoing modes are calculated as a function of the magnetization of the upstream medium and as a function of the nature of the incoming wave. Interestingly, if the latter is an eigenmode of the upstream plasma, we find that there exists a resonance at which the (linear) response of the shock becomes large or even diverges. This result may have profound consequences on the phenomenology of astrophys...
On Hydromagnetic Stresses in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers
Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan
2012-01-01
Detailed calculations of the physical structure of accretion disk boundary layers, and thus their inferred observational properties, rely on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. The standard model for turbulent shear...... viscosity satisfies this assumption by construction. However, this behavior is not supported by numerical simulations of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion disks, which show that angular momentum transport driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is inefficient in disk regions where...... with angular frequencies that increase outward in the shearing-sheet framework. We isolate the modes that are unrelated to the standard MRI and provide analytic solutions for the long-term evolution of the resulting shearing MHD waves. We show that, although the energy density of these waves can be amplified...
Probing Acceleration and Turbulence at Relativistic Shocks in Blazar Jets
Baring, Matthew G; Summerlin, Errol J
2016-01-01
Diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at relativistic shocks is widely thought to be an important acceleration mechanism in various astrophysical jet sources, including radio-loud active galactic nuclei such as blazars. Such acceleration can produce the non-thermal particles that emit the broadband continuum radiation that is detected from extragalactic jets. An important recent development for blazar science is the ability of Fermi-LAT spectroscopy to pin down the shape of the distribution of the underlying non-thermal particle population. This paper highlights how multi-wavelength spectra spanning optical to X-ray to gamma-ray bands can be used to probe diffusive acceleration in relativistic, oblique, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks in blazar jets. Diagnostics on the MHD turbulence near such shocks are obtained using thermal and non-thermal particle distributions resulting from detailed Monte Carlo simulations of DSA. These probes are afforded by the characteristic property that the synchrotron $\
Anton, L; Marti, J M; Ibanez, J M; Aloy, M A; Mimica, P
2009-01-01
We obtain renormalized sets of right and left eigenvectors of the flux vector Jacobians of the relativistic MHD equations, which are regular and span a complete basis in any physical state including degenerate ones. The renormalization procedure relies on the characterization of the degeneracy types in terms of the normal and tangential components of the magnetic field to the wavefront in the fluid rest frame. Proper expressions of the renormalized eigenvectors in conserved variables are obtained through the corresponding matrix transformations. Our work completes previous analysis that present different sets of right eigenvectors for non-degenerate and degenerate states, and can be seen as a relativistic generalization of earlier work performed in classical MHD. Based on the full wave decomposition (FWD) provided by the the renormalized set of eigenvectors in conserved variables, we have also developed a linearized (Roe-type) Riemann solver. Extensive testing against one- and two-dimensional standard numeric...
van der Kruit, P C
2011-01-01
The formation and evolution of galactic disks is particularly important for understanding how galaxies form and evolve, and the cause of the variety in which they appear to us. Ongoing large surveys, made possible by new instrumentation at wavelengths from the ultraviolet (GALEX), via optical (HST and large groundbased telescopes) and infrared (Spitzer) to the radio are providing much new information about disk galaxies over a wide range of redshift. Although progress has been made, the dynamics and structure of stellar disks, including their truncations, are still not well understood. We do now have plausible estimates of disk mass-to-light ratios, and estimates of Toomre's $Q$ parameter show that they are just locally stable. Disks are mostly very flat and sometimes very thin, and have a range in surface brightness from canonical disks with a central surface brightness of about 21.5 $B$-mag arcsec$^{-2}$ down to very low surface brightnesses. It appears that galaxy disks are not maximal, except possibly in ...
Dynamo magnetic field modes in thin astrophysical disks - An adiabatic computational approximation
Stepinski, T. F.; Levy, E. H.
1991-01-01
An adiabatic approximation is applied to the calculation of turbulent MHD dynamo magnetic fields in thin disks. The adiabatic method is employed to investigate conditions under which magnetic fields generated by disk dynamos permeate the entire disk or are localized to restricted regions of a disk. Two specific cases of Keplerian disks are considered. In the first, magnetic field diffusion is assumed to be dominated by turbulent mixing leading to a dynamo number independent of distance from the center of the disk. In the second, the dynamo number is allowed to vary with distance from the disk's center. Localization of dynamo magnetic field structures is found to be a general feature of disk dynamos, except in the special case of stationary modes in dynamos with constant dynamo number. The implications for the dynamical behavior of dynamo magnetized accretion disks are discussed and the results of these exploratory calculations are examined in the context of the protosolar nebula and accretion disks around compact objects.
Mhd waves in stellar winds and accretion disks
M. J. Vasconcelos
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Las ondas de Alfv en han sido usadas para explicar el calentamiento de las coronas estelares y de la producci on de vientos estelares en varias zonas del diagrama Hertzsprung-Russell (HR. Las ondas fueron usadas como un mecanismo importante en la aceleraci on del viento de protoestrellas, de estrellas de tipos tempranos y tard os y del viento solar. Tambi en son importantes en la creaci on de inhomogeneidades, v a las inestabilidades t ermicas, en vientos de estrellas de tipo temprano. Por otro lado, el calentamiento generado por la disipaci on no lineal y turbulenta de las ondas puede ser una fuente importante de energ a para ionizar discos protoestelares, permitiendo el transporte de momento angular mediante la inestabilidad de Balbus-Hawly (BHI. Analizamos el papel de la disipaci on de ondas de Alfv en en las regiones medias e internas de los discos protoestelares (0:1 < R(AU < 1:4. Demostramos que cuando la disipaci on viscosa es insu ciente para mantener la ionizaci on requerida por la BHI, el amortiguamiento de las ondas de Alfv en puede ser una fuente alternativa de energ a para la ionizaci on.
Magnetorotational Instability of Dissipative MHD Flows
HERRON, ISOM H
2010-07-10
Executive summary Two important general problems of interest in plasma physics that may be addressed successfully by Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are: (1) Find magnetic field configurations capable of confining a plasma in equilibrium. (2) Study the stability properties of each such an equilibrium. It is often found that the length scale of many instabilities and waves that are able to grow or propagate in a system, are comparable with plasma size, such as in magnetically confined thermonuclear plasmas or in astrophysical accretion disks. Thus MHD is able to provide a good description of such large-scale disturbances. The Magnetorotational instability (MRI) is one particular instance of a potential instability. The project involved theoretical work on fundamental aspects of plasma physics. Researchers at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) began to perform a series of liquid metal Couette flow experiments between rotating cylinders. Their purpose was to produce MRI, which they had predicted theoretically 2002, but was only observed in the laboratory since this project began. The personnel on the project consisted of three persons: (1) The PI, who was partially supported on the budget during each of four summers 2005-2008. (2) Two graduate research assistants, who worked consecutively on the project throughout the years 2005-2009. As a result, the first student, Fritzner Soliman, obtained an M.S. degree in 2006; the second student, Pablo Suarez obtained the Ph.D. degree in 2009. The work was in collaboration with scientists in Princeton, periodic trips were made by the PI as part of the project. There were 4 peer-reviewed publications and one book produced.
Global 3D MHD Simulations of Waves in Accretion Discs
Romanova M.M.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available We discuss results of the first global 3D MHD simulations of warp and density waves in accretion disks excited by a rotating star with a misaligned dipole magnetic field. A wide range of cases are considered. We find for example that if the star’s magnetosphere corotates approximately with the inner disk, then a strong one-arm bending wave or warp forms. The warp corotates with the star and has a maximum amplitude (|zw|/r ~ 0.3 between the corotation radius and the radius of the vertical resonance. If the magnetosphere rotates more slowly than the inner disk, then a bending wave is excited at the disk-magnetosphere boundary, but it does not form a large-scale warp. In this case the angular rotation of the disk [Ω(r] has a maximum as a function of r so that there is an inner region where dΩ/dr > 0. In this region we observe radially trapped density waves in approximate agreement with the theoretical prediction of a Rossby wave instability in this region.
Viscous Instability Triggered by Layered Accretion in Protoplanetary Disks
Hasegawa, Yasuhiro
2015-01-01
Layered accretion is one of the inevitable ingredients in protoplanetary disks when disk turbulence is excited by magnetorotational instabilities (MRIs). In the accretion, disk surfaces where MRIs fully operate have a high value of disk accretion rate ($\\dot{M}$), while the disk midplane where MRIs are generally quenched ends up with a low value of $\\dot{M}$. Significant progress on understanding MRIs has recently been made by a number of dedicated MHD simulations, which requires improvement of the classical treatment of $\\alpha$ in 1D disk models. To this end, we obtain a new expression of $\\alpha$ by utilizing an empirical formula that is derived from recent MHD simulations of stratified disks with Ohmic diffusion. It is interesting that this new formulation can be regarded as a general extension of the classical $\\alpha$. Armed with the new $\\alpha$, we perform a linear stability analysis of protoplanetary disks that undergo layered accretion, and find that a viscous instability can occur around the outer ...
An introduction to relativistic magnetohydrodynamics I. The force-free approximation
Karas, Vladimír
2005-12-01
This lecture summarizes basic equations of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The aim of the lecture is to present important relations and approximations that have been often employed and found useful in the astrophysical context, namely, in situations when plasma motion is governed by magnetohydrodynamic and gravitational effects competing with each other near a black hole.
MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project
1992-03-01
The Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) Project represents the culmination of the proof-of-concept (POC) development stage in the US Department of Energy (DOE) program to advance MHD technology to early commercial development stage utility power applications. The project is a joint effort, combining the skills of three topping cycle component developers: TRW, Avco/TDS, and Westinghouse. TRW, the prime contractor and system integrator, is responsible for the 50 thermal megawatt (50 MW{sub t}) slagging coal combustion subsystem. Avco/TDS is responsible for the MHD channel subsystem (nozzle, channel, diffuser, and power conditioning circuits), and Westinghouse is responsible for the current consolidation subsystem. The ITC Project will advance the state-of-the-art in MHD power systems with the design, construction, and integrated testing of 50 MW{sub t} power train components which are prototypical of the equipment that will be used in an early commercial scale MHD utility retrofit. Long duration testing of the integrated power train at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana will be performed, so that by the early 1990's, an engineering data base on the reliability, availability, maintainability and performance of the system will be available to allow scaleup of the prototypical designs to the next development level. This Sixteenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers the period May 1, 1991 to July 31, 1991.
MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project
1992-03-01
The Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) Project represents the culmination of the proof-of-concept (POC) development stage in the US Department of Energy (DOE) program to advance MHD technology to early commercial development stage utility power applications. The project is a joint effort, combining the skills of three topping cycle component developers: TRW, Avco/TDS, and Westinghouse. TRW, the prime contractor and system integrator, is responsible for the 50 thermal megawatt (50 MW{sub t}) slagging coal combustion subsystem. Avco/TDS is responsible for the MHD channel subsystem (nozzle, channel, diffuser, and power conditioning circuits), and Westinghouse is responsible for the current consolidation subsystem. The ITC Project will advance the state-of-the-art in MHD power systems with the design, construction, and integrated testing of 50 MW{sub t} power train components which are prototypical of the equipment that will be used in an early commercial scale MHD utility retrofit. Long duration testing of the integrated power train at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana will be performed, so that by the early 1990's, an engineering data base on the reliability, availability, maintainability and performance of the system will be available to allow scaleup of the prototypical designs to the next development level. This Sixteenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers the period May 1, 1991 to July 31, 1991.
How bright are the gaps in circumbinary disk systems?
Shi, Ji-Ming
2016-01-01
When a circumbinary disk surrounds a binary whose secondary's mass is at least $\\sim 10^{-2}\\times$ the primary's mass, a nearly empty cavity with radius a few times the binary separation is carved out of the disk. Narrow streams of material pass from the inner edge of the circumbinary disk into the domain of the binary itself, where they eventually join onto the small disks orbiting the members of the binary. Using data from 3-d MHD simulations of this process, we determine the luminosity of these streams; it is mostly due to weak laminar shocks, and is in general only a few percent of the luminosity of adjacent regions of either the circumbinary disk or the "mini-disks". This luminosity therefore hardly affects the deficit in the thermal continuum predicted on the basis of a perfectly dark gap region.
Dynamo magnetic-field generation in turbulent accretion disks
Stepinski, T. F.
1991-01-01
Magnetic fields can play important roles in the dynamics and evolution of accretion disks. The presence of strong differential rotation and vertical density gradients in turbulent disks allows the alpha-omega dynamo mechanism to offset the turbulent dissipation and maintain strong magnetic fields. It is found that MHD dynamo magnetic-field normal modes in an accretion disk are highly localized to restricted regions of a disk. Implications for the character of real, dynamically constrained magnetic fields in accretion disks are discussed. The magnetic stress due to the mean magnetic field is found to be of the order of a viscous stress. The dominant stress, however, is likely to come from small-scale fluctuating magnetic fields. These fields may also give rise to energetic flares above the disk surface, providing a possible explanation for the highly variable hard X-ray emission from objects like Cyg X-l.
Cattaneo, Carlo
2011-01-01
This title includes: Pham Mau Quam: Problemes mathematiques en hydrodynamique relativiste; A. Lichnerowicz: Ondes de choc, ondes infinitesimales et rayons en hydrodynamique et magnetohydrodynamique relativistes; A.H. Taub: Variational principles in general relativity; J. Ehlers: General relativistic kinetic theory of gases; K. Marathe: Abstract Minkowski spaces as fibre bundles; and, G. Boillat: Sur la propagation de la chaleur en relativite.
Solution of MHD problems with mixed-type boundary conditions
Antimirov, M.IA.
1985-06-01
The introduction of artificial anisotropy of the dynamic viscosity in one of the subregions in which the solution is sought is utilized to derive an approximation method for MHD problems with mixed-type boundary conditions. The method is demonstrated through two problems: slow rotation of a disk and motion of a finite-width infinitely long plate in an infinite volume of a conducting fluid. The velocity and magnetic field solutions are obtained in the form of integrals of Bessel functions, and the torque is found. It is shown that when the Hartmann number approaches infinity the torque of a convex body of revolution in a longitudinal magnetic field is equal to that of a disk lying at the centerline section of the body.
Problems in nonlinear resistive MHD
Turnbull, A.D.; Strait, E.J.; La Haye, R.J.; Chu, M.S.; Miller, R.L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
1998-12-31
Two experimentally relevant problems can relatively easily be tackled by nonlinear MHD codes. Both problems require plasma rotation in addition to the nonlinear mode coupling and full geometry already incorporated into the codes, but no additional physics seems to be crucial. These problems discussed here are: (1) nonlinear coupling and interaction of multiple MHD modes near the B limit and (2) nonlinear coupling of the m/n = 1/1 sawtooth mode with higher n gongs and development of seed islands outside q = 1.
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) channel corner seal
Spurrier, Francis R.
1980-01-01
A corner seal for an MHD duct includes a compressible portion which contacts the duct walls and an insulating portion which contacts the electrodes, sidewall bars and insulators. The compressible portion may be a pneumatic or hydraulic gasket or an open-cell foam rubber. The insulating portion is segmented into a plurality of pieces of the same thickness as the electrodes, insulators and sidewall bars and aligned therewith, the pieces aligned with the insulator being of a different size from the pieces aligned with the electrodes and sidewall bars to create a stepped configuration along the corners of the MHD channel.
Destruction of Be star disk by large scale magnetic fields
Ud-Doula, Asif; Owocki, Stanley P.; Kee, Nathaniel; Vanyo, Michael
2017-01-01
Classical Be stars are rapidly rotating stars with circumstellar disks that come and go on time scale of years. Recent observational data strongly suggests that these stars lack the ~10% incidence of global magnetic fields observed in other main-sequence B stars. Such an apparent lack of magnetic fields may indicate that Be disks are fundamentally incompatible with a significant large scale magnetic field. In this work, using numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations, we show that a dipole field of only 100G can lead to the quick disruption of a Be disk. Such a limit is in line with the observational upper limits for these objects.
Relativistic radiative transfer in relativistic spherical flows
Fukue, Jun
2017-02-01
Relativistic radiative transfer in relativistic spherical flows is numerically examined under the fully special relativistic treatment. We first derive relativistic formal solutions for the relativistic radiative transfer equation in relativistic spherical flows. We then iteratively solve the relativistic radiative transfer equation, using an impact parameter method/tangent ray method, and obtain specific intensities in the inertial and comoving frames, as well as moment quantities, and the Eddington factor. We consider several cases; a scattering wind with a luminous central core, an isothermal wind without a core, a scattering accretion on to a luminous core, and an adiabatic accretion on to a dark core. In the typical wind case with a luminous core, the emergent intensity is enhanced at the center due to the Doppler boost, while it reduces at the outskirts due to the transverse Doppler effect. In contrast to the plane-parallel case, the behavior of the Eddington factor is rather complicated in each case, since the Eddington factor depends on the optical depth, the flow velocity, and other parameters.
GRHydro: A new open source general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics code for the Einstein Toolkit
Moesta, Philipp; Faber, Joshua A; Haas, Roland; Noble, Scott C; Bode, Tanja; Loeffler, Frank; Ott, Christian D; Reisswig, Christian; Schnetter, Erik
2013-01-01
We present the new general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) capabilities of the Einstein Toolkit, an open-source community-driven numerical relativity and computational relativistic astrophysics code. The GRMHD extension of the Toolkit builds upon previous releases and implements the evolution of relativistic magnetised fluids in the ideal MHD limit in fully dynamical spacetimes using the same shock-capturing techniques previously applied to hydrodynamical evolution. In order to maintain the divergence-free character of the magnetic field, the code implements both hyperbolic divergence cleaning and constrained transport schemes. We present test results for a number of MHD tests in Minkowski and curved spacetimes. Minkowski tests include aligned and oblique planar shocks, cylindrical explosions, magnetic rotors, Alfv\\'en waves and advected loops, as well as a set of tests designed to study the response of the divergence cleaning scheme to numerically generated monopoles. We study the code's performanc...
General-Relativistic Resistive Magnetohydrodynamics in three dimensions: formulation and tests
Dionysopoulou, Kyriaki; Palenzuela, Carlos; Rezzolla, Luciano; Giacomazzo, Bruno
2013-01-01
We present a new numerical implementation of the general-relativistic resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations within the Whisky code. The numerical method adopted exploits the properties of Implicit-Explicit Runge-Kutta numerical schemes to treat the stiff terms that appear in the equations for small electrical conductivities. Using tests in one, two, and three dimensions, we show that our implementation is robust and recovers the ideal-MHD limit in regimes of very high conductivity. Moreover, the results illustrate that the code is capable of describing physical setups in all ranges of conductivities. In addition to tests in flat spacetime, we report simulations of magnetized nonrotating relativistic stars, both in the Cowling approximation and in dynamical spacetimes. Finally, because of its astrophysical relevance and because it provides a severe testbed for general-relativistic codes with dynamical electromagnetic fields, we study the collapse of a nonrotating star to a black hole. We show that als...
WHAM: A WENO-based general relativistic numerical scheme I: Hydrodynamics
Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Narayan, Ramesh
2007-01-01
Active galactic nuclei, x-ray binaries, pulsars, and gamma-ray bursts are all believed to be powered by compact objects surrounded by relativistic plasma flows driving phenomena such as accretion, winds, and jets. These flows are often accurately modelled by the relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) approximation. Time-dependent numerical MHD simulations have proven to be especially insightful, but one regime that remains difficult to simulate is when the energy scales (kinetic, thermal, magnetic) within the plasma become disparate. We develop a numerical scheme that significantly improves the accuracy and robustness of the solution in this regime. We use a modified form of the WENO method to construct a finite-volume general relativistic hydrodynamics code called WHAM that converges at fifth order. We avoid (1) field-by-field decomposition by adaptively reducing down to 2-point stencils near discontinuities for a more accurate treatment of shocks, and (2) excessive reduction to low order stencils, as in th...
Conservative GRMHD simulations of moderately thin, tilted accretion disks
Teixeira, Danilo Morales [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); Fragile, P. Chris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Zhuravlev, Viacheslav V. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow M. V. Lomonosov State University, Universitetskij pr. 13, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Pavel B., E-mail: danilo.morales@iag.usp.br [Astro Space Centre, P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, 84/32 Profsoyuznaya Street, 117810 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2014-12-01
This paper presents our latest numerical simulations of accretion disks that are misaligned with respect to the rotation axis of a Kerr black hole. In this work, we use a new, fully conservative version of the Cosmos++ general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) code, coupled with an ad hoc cooling function designed to control the thickness of the disk. Together these allow us to simulate the thinnest tilted accretion disks ever using a GRMHD code. In this way, we are able to probe the regime where the dimensionless stress and scale height of the disk become comparable. We present results for both prograde and retrograde cases. The simulated prograde tilted disk shows no sign of Bardeen-Petterson alignment even in the innermost parts of the disk. The simulated retrograde tilted disk, however, does show modest alignment. The implication of these results is that the parameter space associated with Bardeen-Petterson alignment for prograde disks may be rather small, only including very thin disks. Unlike our previous work, we find no evidence for standing shocks in our simulated tilted disks. We ascribe this to the black hole spin, tilt angle, and disk scale height all being small in these simulations. We also add to the growing body of literature pointing out that the turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability in global simulations of accretion disks is not isotropic. Finally, we provide a comparison between our moderately thin, untilted reference simulation and other numerical simulations of thin disks in the literature.
Heating and Cooling Protostellar Disks
Hirose, S
2011-01-01
We examine heating and cooling in protostellar disks using 3-D radiation-MHD calculations of a patch of the Solar nebula at 1 AU, employing the shearing-box and flux-limited radiation diffusion approximations. The disk atmosphere is ionized by stellar X-rays, well-coupled to magnetic fields, and sustains a turbulent accretion flow driven by magneto-rotational instability, while the interior is resistive and magnetically dead. The turbulent layers heat by absorbing the light from the central star and by dissipating the magnetic fields. They are optically-thin to their own radiation and cool inefficiently. The optically-thick interior in contrast is heated only weakly, by re-emission from the atmosphere. The interior is colder than a classical viscous model, and isothermal. The magnetic fields support an extended atmosphere that absorbs the starlight 1.5 times higher than the hydrostatic viscous model. The disk thickness thus measures not the internal temperature, but the magnetic field strength. Fluctuations i...
Ambipolar diffusion in low-mass star formation. I. General comparison with the ideal MHD case
Masson, Jacques; Hennebelle, Patrick; Vaytet, Neil; Commerçon, Benoit
2015-01-01
In this paper, we provide a more accurate description of the evolution of the magnetic flux redistribution during prestellar core collapse by including resistive terms in the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations. We focus more particularly on the impact of ambipolar diffusion. We use the adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES to carry out such calculations. The resistivities required to calculate the ambipolar diffusion terms were computed using a reduced chemical network of charged, neutral and grain species. The inclusion of ambipolar diffusion leads to the formation of a magnetic diffusion barrier in the vicinity of the core, preventing accumulation of magnetic flux in and around the core and amplification of the field above 0.1G. The mass and radius of the first Larson core remain similar between ideal and non-ideal MHD models. This diffusion plateau has crucial consequences on magnetic braking processes, allowing the formation of disk structures. Magnetically supported outflows launched in ideal MHD models...
Relativistic Remnants of Non-Relativistic Electrons
Kashiwa, Taro
2015-01-01
Electrons obeying the Dirac equation are investigated under the non-relativistic $c \\mapsto \\infty$ limit. General solutions are given by derivatives of the relativistic invariant functions whose forms are different in the time- and the space-like region, yielding the delta function of $(ct)^2 - x^2$. This light-cone singularity does survive to show that the charge and the current density of electrons travel with the speed of light in spite of their massiveness.
Nakamura, Masanori
2014-01-01
We describe a new paradigm for understanding both relativistic motions and particle acceleration in the M87 jet: a magnetically dominated relativistic flow that naturally produces four relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks (forward/reverse fast and slow modes). We apply this model to a set of optical super- and subluminal motions discovered by Biretta and coworkers with the {\\em Hubble Space Telescope} during 1994 -- 1998. The model concept consists of ejection of a {\\em single} relativistic Poynting jet, which possesses a coherent helical (poloidal + toroidal) magnetic component, at the remarkably flaring point HST-1. We are able to reproduce quantitatively proper motions of components seen in the {\\em optical} observations of HST-1 with the same model we used previously to describe similar features in radio VLBI observations in 2005 -- 2006. This indicates that the quad relativistic MHD shock model can be applied generally to recurring pairs of super/subluminal knots ejected from the upstream edge o...
Disk generator, its status and its potential
Louis, J.F.
1984-01-01
The MHD disk generator has been used as an experimental tool to study plasma properties and to explore new diagnostic techniques, since it provides a near-ideal geometry for plasma studies due to its electrodeless configuration combined with near-perfect insulating walls. Both experimental and theoretical studies have also determined the conditions for favorable performance of the disk, often with inlet swirl, as a configuration for electrical power generation in both open- and closed-cycle applications. This paper describes the state-of-the-art of the disk geometry for power generation, and it also reviews recent system studies which have integrated the disk generator in electrical power plants using coal as a fuel. These studies indicate that the disk system can achieve overall efficiencies comparable to linear generator systems, but they also show that the disk configuration might provide significant reliability and require lower capital investments. These cost advantages are derived from the simplicity of the superconducting magnet and power management systems.
Relativistic Effects on Reflection X-ray Spectra of AGN
Lee, Khee-Gan; /University Coll. London; Fuerst, Steven V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Brandwardi-Raymond, Graziella; Wu, Kinwah; Crowley, Oliver; /University Coll. London
2007-01-05
We have calculated the reflection component of the X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and shown that they can be significantly modified by the relativistic motion of the accretion flow and various gravitational effects of the central black hole. The absorption edges in the reflection spectra suffer severe energy shifts and smearing. The degree of distortion depends on the system parameters, and the dependence is stronger for some parameters such as the inner radius of the accretion disk and the disk viewing inclination angles. The relativistic effects are significant and are observable. Improper treatment of the reflection component of the X-ray continuum in spectral fittings will give rise to spurious line-like features, which will mimic the fluorescent emission lines and mask the relativistic signatures of the lines.
MAGNETIC FIELDS IN EARLY PROTOSTELLAR DISK FORMATION
González-Casanova, Diego F.; Lazarian, Alexander [Astronomy Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706-1582 (United States); Santos-Lima, Reinaldo, E-mail: casanova@astro.wisc.edu [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, R. do Matão, 1226, São Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil)
2016-03-10
We consider formation of accretion disks from a realistically turbulent molecular gas using 3D MHD simulations. In particular, we analyze the effect of the fast turbulent reconnection described by the Lazarian and Vishniac model for the removal of magnetic flux from a disk. With our numerical simulations we demonstrate how the fast reconnection enables protostellar disk formation resolving the so-called “magnetic braking catastrophe.” In particular, we provide a detailed study of the dynamics of a 0.5 M{sub ⊙} protostar and the formation of its disk for up to several thousands years. We measure the evolution of the mass, angular momentum, magnetic field, and turbulence around the star. We consider effects of two processes that strongly affect the magnetic transfer of angular momentum, both of which are based on turbulent reconnection: the first, “reconnection diffusion,” removes the magnetic flux from the disk; the other involves the change of the magnetic field's topology, but does not change the absolute value of the magnetic flux through the disk. We demonstrate that for the first mechanism, turbulence causes a magnetic flux transport outward from the inner disk to the ambient medium, thus decreasing the coupling of the disk to the ambient material. A similar effect is achieved through the change of the magnetic field's topology from a split monopole configuration to a dipole configuration. We explore how both mechanisms prevent the catastrophic loss of disk angular momentum and compare both above turbulent reconnection mechanisms with alternative mechanisms from the literature.
Relativistic quantum mechanics
Wachter, Armin
2010-01-01
Which problems do arise within relativistic enhancements of the Schrödinger theory, especially if one adheres to the usual one-particle interpretation, and to what extent can these problems be overcome? And what is the physical necessity of quantum field theories? In many books, answers to these fundamental questions are given highly insufficiently by treating the relativistic quantum mechanical one-particle concept very superficially and instead introducing field quantization as soon as possible. By contrast, this monograph emphasizes relativistic quantum mechanics in the narrow sense: it extensively discusses relativistic one-particle concepts and reveals their problems and limitations, therefore motivating the necessity of quantized fields in a physically comprehensible way. The first chapters contain a detailed presentation and comparison of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac theory, always in view of the non-relativistic theory. In the third chapter, we consider relativistic scattering processes and develop the...
MHD Turbulence and Magnetic Dynamos
Shebalin, John V
2014-01-01
Incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and magnetic dynamos, which occur in magnetofluids with large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers, will be discussed. When Reynolds numbers are large and energy decays slowly, the distribution of energy with respect to length scale becomes quasi-stationary and MHD turbulence can be described statistically. In the limit of infinite Reynolds numbers, viscosity and resistivity become zero and if these values are used in the MHD equations ab initio, a model system called ideal MHD turbulence results. This model system is typically confined in simple geometries with some form of homogeneous boundary conditions, allowing for velocity and magnetic field to be represented by orthogonal function expansions. One advantage to this is that the coefficients of the expansions form a set of nonlinearly interacting variables whose behavior can be described by equilibrium statistical mechanics, i.e., by a canonical ensemble theory based on the global invariants (energy, cross helicity and magnetic helicity) of ideal MHD turbulence. Another advantage is that truncated expansions provide a finite dynamical system whose time evolution can be numerically simulated to test the predictions of the associated statistical mechanics. If ensemble predictions are the same as time averages, then the system is said to be ergodic; if not, the system is nonergodic. Although it had been implicitly assumed in the early days of ideal MHD statistical theory development that these finite dynamical systems were ergodic, numerical simulations provided sufficient evidence that they were, in fact, nonergodic. Specifically, while canonical ensemble theory predicted that expansion coefficients would be (i) zero-mean random variables with (ii) energy that decreased with length scale, it was found that although (ii) was correct, (i) was not and the expected ergodicity was broken. The exact cause of this broken ergodicity was explained, after much
ZHANG Peng-Fei; RUAN Tu-Nan
2001-01-01
A systematic theory on the appropriate spin operators for the relativistic states is developed. For a massive relativistic particle with arbitrary nonzero spin, the spin operator should be replaced with the relativistic one, which is called in this paper as moving spin. Further the concept of moving spin is discussed in the quantum field theory. A new is constructed. It is shown that, in virtue of the two operators, problems in quantum field concerned spin can be neatly settled.
Relativistic Guiding Center Equations
White, R. B. [PPPL; Gobbin, M. [Euratom-ENEA Association
2014-10-01
In toroidal fusion devices it is relatively easy that electrons achieve relativistic velocities, so to simulate runaway electrons and other high energy phenomena a nonrelativistic guiding center formalism is not sufficient. Relativistic guiding center equations including flute mode time dependent field perturbations are derived. The same variables as used in a previous nonrelativistic guiding center code are adopted, so that a straightforward modifications of those equations can produce a relativistic version.
Relativistic Linear Restoring Force
Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.
2012-01-01
We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…
Advanced fusion MHD power conversion using the CFAR (compact fusion advanced Rankine) cycle concept
Hoffman, M.A.; Campbell, R.; Logan, B.G. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA); Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))
1988-10-01
The CFAR (compact fusion advanced Rankine) cycle concept for a tokamak reactor involves the use of a high-temperature Rankine cycle in combination with microwave superheaters and nonequilibrium MHD disk generators to obtain a compact, low-capital-cost power conversion system which fits almost entirely within the reactor vault. The significant savings in the balance-of-plant costs are expected to result in much lower costs of electricity than previous concepts. This paper describes the unique features of the CFAR cycle and a high- temperature blanket designed to take advantage of it as well as the predicted performance of the MHD disk generators using mercury seeded with cesium. 40 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.
MHD control in burning plasmas MHD control in burning plasmas
Donné, Tony; Liang, Yunfeng
2012-07-01
Fusion physics focuses on the complex behaviour of hot plasmas confined by magnetic fields with the ultimate aim to develop a fusion power plant. In the future generation of tokamaks like ITER, the power generated by the fusion reactions substantially exceeds the external input power (Pfusion}/Pin >= 10). When this occurs one speaks of a burning plasma. Twenty per cent of the generated fusion power in a burning plasma is carried by the charged alpha particles, which transfer their energy to the ambient plasma in collisions, a process called thermalization. A new phenomenon in burning plasmas is that the alpha particles, which form a minority but carry a large fraction of the plasma kinetic energy, can collectively drive certain types of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) modes, while they can suppress other MHD modes. Both types of MHD modes can have desirable effects on the plasma, as well as be detrimental to the plasma. For example, the so-called sawtooth instability, on the one hand, is largely responsible for the transport of the thermalized alpha particles out of the core, but, on the other hand, may result in the loss of the energetic alphas before they have fully thermalized. A further undesirable effect of the sawtooth instability is that it may trigger other MHD modes such as neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). These NTMs, in turn, are detrimental to the plasma confinement and in some cases may even lead to disruptive termination of the plasma. At the edge of the plasma, finally, so-called edge localized modes or ELMs occur, which result in extremely high transient heat and particle loads on the plasma-facing components of a reactor. In order to balance the desired and detrimental effects of these modes, active feedback control is required. An additional complication occurs in a burning plasma as the external heating power, which is nowadays generally used for plasma control, is small compared to the heating power of the alpha particles. The scientific challenge
MALFLIET, R
1993-01-01
We discuss the present status of relativistic transport theory. Special emphasis is put on problems of topical interest: hadronic features, thermodynamical consistent approximations and spectral properties.
Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion
Tixador, P.
1994-04-01
Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion are now attracting attention in several countries. Different superconducting MagLev and MHD systems will be described concentrating on, above all, the electromagnetic aspect. Some programmes occurring throughout the world will be described. Magnetic levitated trains could be the new high speed transportation system for the 21st century. Intensive studies involving MagLev trains using superconductivity have been carried out in Japan since 1970. The construction of a 43 km long track is to be the next step. In 1991 a six year programme was launched in the United States to evaluate the performances of MagLev systems for transportation. The MHD (MagnetoHydroDynamic) offers some interesting advantages (efficiency, stealth characteristics, ...) for naval propulsion and increasing attention is being paid towards it nowadays. Japan is also up at the top with the tests of Yamato I, a 260 ton MHD propulsed ship. Depuis quelques années nous assistons à un redémarrage de programmes concernant la lévitation et la propulsion supraconductrices. Différents systèmes supraconducteurs de lévitation et de propulsion seront décrits en examinant plus particulièrement l'aspect électromagnétique. Quelques programmes à travers le monde seront abordés. Les trains à sustentation magnétique pourraient constituer un nouveau mode de transport terrestre à vitesse élevée (500 km/h) pour le 21^e siècle. Les japonais n'ont cessé de s'intéresser à ce système avec bobine supraconductrice. Ils envisagent un stade préindustriel avec la construction d'une ligne de 43 km. En 1991 un programme américain pour une durée de six ans a été lancé pour évaluer les performances des systèmes à lévitation pour le transport aux Etats Unis. La MHD (Magnéto- Hydro-Dynamique) présente des avantages intéressants pour la propulsion navale et un regain d'intérêt apparaît à l'heure actuelle. Le japon se situe là encore à la pointe des d
Newest insights from MHD numerical modeling of Pulsar Wind Nebulae
Olmi, B.; Del Zanna, L.; Amato, E.; Bucciantini, N.; Bandiera, R.
2016-06-01
Numerical MHD models are considered very successful in accounting for many of the observed properties of Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe), especially those concerning the high energy emission morphology and the inner nebula dynamics. Although PWNe are known to be among the most powerful accelerators in nature, producing particles up to PeV energies, the mechanisms responsible of such an efficient acceleration are still a deep mystery. Indeed, these processes take place in one of the most hostile environment for particle acceleration: the relativistic and highly magnetized termination shock of the pulsar wind. The newest results from numerical simulations of the Crab Nebula, the PWN prototype, will be presented, with special attention to the problem of particle acceleration. In particular it will be shown how a multi-wavelengths analysis of the wisps properties can be used to constrain the particle acceleration mechanisms working at the Crab's termination shock, by identifying the particle acceleration site at the shock front.
Integral Constraints and MHD Stability
Jensen, T. H.
2003-10-01
Determining stability of a plasma in MHD equilibrium, energetically isolated by a conducting wall, requires an assumption on what governs the dynamics of the plasma. One example is the assumption that the plasma obeys ideal MHD, leading to the well known ``δ W" criteria [I. Bernstein, et al., Proc. Roy. Soc. London A244, 17 (1958)]. A radically different approach was used by Taylor [J.B. Taylor, Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 741 (1986)] in assuming that the dynamics of the plasma is restricted only by the requirement that helicity, an integral constant associated with the plasma, is conserved. The relevancy of Taylor's assumption is supported by the agreement between resulting theoretical results and experimental observations. Another integral constraint involves the canonical angular momentum of the plasma particles. One consequence of using this constraint is that tokamak plasmas have no poloidal current in agreement with some current hole tokamak observations [T.H. Jensen, Phys. Lett. A 305, 183 (2002)].
Birzvalk, Yu.
1978-01-01
The shunting ratio and the local shunting ratio, pertaining to currents induced by a magnetic field in a flow channel, are properly defined and systematically reviewed on the basis of the Lagrange criterion. Their definition is based on the energy balance and related to dimensionless parameters characterizing an MHD flow, these parameters evolving from the Hartmann number and the hydrodynamic Reynolds number as well as the magnetic Reynolds number, and the Lundquist number. These shunting ratios, of current density in the core of a stream (uniform) or equivalent mean current density to the short-circuit (maximum) current density, are given here for a slot channel with nonconducting or conducting walls, for a conduction channel with heavy side rails, and for an MHD-flow around bodies. 5 references, 1 figure.
Relativistic quantum mechanics; Mecanique quantique relativiste
Ollitrault, J.Y. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique]|[Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France)
1998-12-01
These notes form an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics. The mathematical formalism has been reduced to the minimum in order to enable the reader to calculate elementary physical processes. The second quantification and the field theory are the logical followings of this course. The reader is expected to know analytical mechanics (Lagrangian and Hamiltonian), non-relativistic quantum mechanics and some basis of restricted relativity. The purpose of the first 3 chapters is to define the quantum mechanics framework for already known notions about rotation transformations, wave propagation and restricted theory of relativity. The next 3 chapters are devoted to the application of relativistic quantum mechanics to a particle with 0,1/5 and 1 spin value. The last chapter deals with the processes involving several particles, these processes require field theory framework to be thoroughly described. (A.C.) 2 refs.
Towards relativistic quantum geometry
Ridao, Luis Santiago [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina); Bellini, Mauricio, E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, C.P. 7600, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina)
2015-12-17
We obtain a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum geometry by using a Weylian-like manifold with a geometric scalar field which provides a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum theory in which the algebra of the Weylian-like field depends on observers. An example for a Reissner–Nordström black-hole is studied.
Laser-Plasma Modeling Using PERSEUS Extended-MHD Simulation Code for HED Plasmas
Hamlin, Nathaniel; Seyler, Charles
2016-10-01
We discuss the use of the PERSEUS extended-MHD simulation code for high-energy-density (HED) plasmas in modeling laser-plasma interactions in relativistic and nonrelativistic regimes. By formulating the fluid equations as a relaxation system in which the current is semi-implicitly time-advanced using the Generalized Ohm's Law, PERSEUS enables modeling of two-fluid phenomena in dense plasmas without the need to resolve the smallest electron length and time scales. For relativistic and nonrelativistic laser-target interactions, we have validated a cycle-averaged absorption (CAA) laser driver model against the direct approach of driving the electromagnetic fields. The CAA model refers to driving the radiation energy and flux rather than the fields, and using hyperbolic radiative transport, coupled to the plasma equations via energy source terms, to model absorption and propagation of the radiation. CAA has the advantage of not requiring adequate grid resolution of each laser wavelength, so that the system can span many wavelengths without requiring prohibitive CPU time. For several laser-target problems, we compare existing MHD results to extended-MHD results generated using PERSEUS with the CAA model, and examine effects arising from Hall physics. This work is supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration stewardship sciences academic program under Department of Energy cooperative agreements DE-FOA-0001153 and DE-NA0001836.
Myongchol Ri
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a disk encryption method, called Secure Disk Mixed System (SDMS in this paper, for data protection of disk storages such as USB flash memory, USB hard disk and CD/DVD. It is aimed to solve temporal and spatial limitations of existing disk encryption methods and to control security performance flexibly according to the security requirement of system.
Magnetic Reconnection on Jet-Accretion disk Systems
Pino, Elisabete M de Gouveia Dal; Kadowaki, Luis H S; Khiali, Behoruz; Kowal, Grzergorz; Mizuno, Yosuke; Singh, Chandra B
2016-01-01
Fast Magnetic Reconnection is currently regarded as an important process also beyond the solar system, specially in magnetically dominated regions of galactic and extragalactic sources like the surrounds of black holes and relativistic jets. In this lecture we discuss briefly the theory of fast magnetic reconnection, specially when driven by turbulence which is very frequent in Astrophysical flows, and its implications for relativistic particle acceleration. Then we discuss these processes in the context of the sources above, showing recent analytical and multidimensional numerical MHD studies that indicate that fast reconnection can be a powerful process to accelerate particles to relativistic velocities, produce the associated high energy non-thermal emission, and account for efficient conversion of magnetic into kinetic energy in these flows.
Relativistic and Non-relativistic Equations of Motion
Mangiarotti, L
1998-01-01
It is shown that any second order dynamic equation on a configuration space $X$ of non-relativistic time-dependent mechanics can be seen as a geodesic equation with respect to some (non-linear) connection on the tangent bundle $TX\\to X$ of relativistic velocities. Using this fact, the relationship between relativistic and non-relativistic equations of motion is studied.
X-ray Polarization in Relativistic Jets
McNamara, Aimee L; Wu, Kinwah
2009-01-01
We investigate the polarization properties of Comptonized X-rays from relativistic jets in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) using Monte Carlo simulations. We consider three scenarios commonly proposed for the observed X-ray emission in AGN: Compton scattering of blackbody photons emitted from an accretion disk; scattering of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons; and self-Comptonization of intrinsically polarized synchrotron photons emitted by jet electrons. Our simulations show that for Comptonization of disk and CMB photons, the degree of polarization of the scattered photons increases with the viewing inclination angle with respect to the jet axis. In both cases the maximum linear polarization is approximately 20%. In the case of synchrotron self-Comptonization (SSC), we find that the resulting X-ray polarization depends strongly on the seed synchrotron photon injection site, with typical fractional polarizations of approximately P = 10 - 20% when synchrotron emission is localized near the jet base, while ...
Simulations of magnetic fields in isolated disk galaxies
Pakmor, R
2012-01-01
Magnetic fields are known to be dynamically important in the interstellar medium of our own Galaxy, and they are ubiquitously observed in diffuse gas in the halos of galaxies and galaxy clusters. Yet, magnetic fields have typically been neglected in studies of the formation of galaxies, leaving their global influence on galaxy formation largely unclear. We extend our MHD implementation in the moving-mesh code Arepo to cosmological problems which include radiative cooling and the formation of stars. In particular, we replace our previously employed divergence cleaning approach with a Powell 8-wave scheme, which turns out to be significantly more stable, even in very dynamic environments. We verify the improved accuracy through simulations of the MRI in accretion disks, that reproduce its correct linear growth rate. Using this new MHD code, we simulate the formation of isolated disk galaxies similar to the Milky Way using idealized initial conditions with and without magnetic fields. We find that the magnetic f...
Global simulations of protoplanetary disks with ohmic resistivity and ambipolar diffusion
Gressel, Oliver; Nelson, Richard P; McNally, Colin P
2015-01-01
Protoplanetary disks are believed to accrete onto their central T Tauri star because of magnetic stresses. Recently published shearing box simulations indicate that Ohmic resistivity, ambipolar diffusion and the Hall effect all play important roles in disk evolution. In the presence of a vertical magnetic field, the disk remains laminar between 1-5au, and a magnetocentrifugal disk wind forms that provides an important mechanism for removing angular momentum. Questions remain, however, about the establishment of a true physical wind solution in the shearing box simulations because of the symmetries inherent in the local approximation. We present global MHD simulations of protoplanetary disks that include Ohmic resistivity and ambipolar diffusion, where the time-dependent gas-phase electron and ion fractions are computed under FUV and X-ray ionization with a simplified recombination chemistry. Our results show that the disk remains laminar, and that a physical wind solution arises naturally in global disk model...
Extension of the MURaM radiative MHD code for coronal simulations
Rempel, Matthias
2016-01-01
We present a new version of the MURaM radiative MHD code that allows for simulations spanning from the upper convection zone into the solar corona. We implemented the relevant coronal physics in terms of optically thin radiative loss, field aligned heat conduction and an equilibrium ionization equation of state. We artificially limit the coronal Alfv{\\'e}n and heat conduction speeds to computationally manageable values using an approximation to semi-relativistic MHD with an artificially reduced speed of light (Boris correction). We present example solutions ranging from quiet to active Sun in order to verify the validity of our approach. We quantify the role of numerical diffusivity for the effective coronal heating. We find that the (numerical) magnetic Prandtl number determines the ratio of resistive to viscous heating and that owing to the very large magnetic Prandtl number of the solar corona, heating is expected to happen predominantly through viscous dissipation. We find that reasonable solutions can be...
Measuring a truncated disk in Aquila X-1
King, Ashley L.; Tomsick, John A.; Miller, Jon M.
2016-01-01
We present NuSTAR and Swift observations of the neutron star Aquila X-1 during the peak of its 2014 July outburst. The spectrum is soft with strong evidence for a broad Fe Kα line. Modeled with a relativistically broadened reflection model, we find that the inner disk is truncated with an inner r...
Global MHD model of the earth's magnetosphere
Wu, C. C.
1983-01-01
A global MHD model of the earth's magnetosphere is defined. An introduction to numerical methods for solving the MHD equations is given with emphasis on the shock-capturing technique. Finally, results concerning the shape of the magnetosphere and the plasma flows inside the magnetosphere are presented.
MHD Turbulence, Turbulent Dynamo and Applications
Beresnyak, Andrey
2014-01-01
MHD Turbulence is common in many space physics and astrophysics environments. We first discuss the properties of incompressible MHD turbulence. A well-conductive fluid amplifies initial magnetic fields in a process called small-scale dynamo. Below equipartition scale for kinetic and magnetic energies the spectrum is steep (Kolmogorov -5/3) and is represented by critically balanced strong MHD turbulence. In this paper we report the basic reasoning behind universal nonlinear small-scale dynamo and the inertial range of MHD turbulence. We measured the efficiency of the small-scale dynamo $C_E=0.05$, Kolmogorov constant $C_K=4.2$ and anisotropy constant $C_A=0.63$ for MHD turbulence in high-resolution direct numerical simulations. We also discuss so-called imbalanced or cross-helical MHD turbulence which is relevant for in many objects, most prominently in the solar wind. We show that properties of incompressible MHD turbulence are similar to the properties of Alfv\\'enic part of MHD cascade in compressible turbul...
Modeling parameter influences on MHD swirl combustion nozzle design
Lilley, D. G.; Gupta, A. K.; Busnaina, A. A.
1982-01-01
Attention is given to a research project which has the goal to develop a two-stage slagging gasifier-combustor in the form of a high-intensity combustor, taking into account a suitable aerodynamic design of the second stage nozzle which will prevent the separation of the boundary layer as the flow turns from axial to radial direction. The specific objectives of the present investigation are to test the effect of various second-stage nozzle geometries, flow rates, swirl number, and distribution in the first and second stages upon the corresponding flowfield in the second stage. Special emphasis is given to the avoidance of boundary layer separation as the flow turns from axial to radial direction into the MHD disk generator.
Thermal Stability and Vertical Structure of Radiation Dominated Accretion Disks
Jiang, Yanfei; Stone, J. M.; Davis, S.
2013-01-01
Standard thin disk model predicts that radiation dominated accretion disk is thermally unstable. However, using a radiation MHD code based on flux-limited diffusion (FLD) approximation, Hirose et al. (2009) finds that when the accretion stress provided by Magneto-rotational instability (MRI) is calculated self-consistently, the disk is actually stable. We check this surprising result with our recently developed radiation transfer module in Athena. We modify the Godunov method to include the radiation source terms and close the radiation momentum equations with variable Eddington tensor. In this way, it works in both optically thin and thick regimes, and works for both radiation or gas pressure dominated flows. As a general purpose radiation MHD code, it can also be used to study other systems, where radiation field plays an important role, such as feedback effects of stars on the interstellar medium. I will show a set of tests to demonstrate that the code is working accurately as expected for different regimes. I will describe in detail our results on the thermal stability of accretion disks in both the gas pressure dominated regime and radiation pressure dominated regime. Detailed studies of the vertical structures of the accretion disk will also be presented. I will also comment on the differences between our results and the results from FLD calculations.
INVERSE CASCADE OF NONHELICAL MAGNETIC TURBULENCE IN A RELATIVISTIC FLUID
Zrake, Jonathan [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)
2014-10-20
The free decay of nonhelical relativistic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is studied numerically, and found to exhibit cascading of magnetic energy toward large scales. Evolution of the magnetic energy spectrum P{sub M} (k, t) is self-similar in time and well modeled by a broken power law with subinertial and inertial range indices very close to 7/2 and –2, respectively. The magnetic coherence scale is found to grow in time as t {sup 2/5}, much too slow to account for optical polarization of gamma-ray burst afterglow emission if magnetic energy is to be supplied only at microphysical length scales. No bursty or explosive energy loss is observed in relativistic MHD turbulence having modest magnetization, which constrains magnetic reconnection models for rapid time variability of GRB prompt emission, blazars, and the Crab nebula.
Relativistic magnetic reconnection at X-type neutral points
Kojima, Yasufumi; Kato, Yugo E
2011-01-01
Relativistic effects in the oscillatory damping of magnetic disturbances near two-dimensional X-points are investigated. By taking into account displacement current, we study new features of extremely magnetized systems, in which the Alfv\\'en velocity is almost the speed of light. The frequencies of the least-damped mode are calculated using linearized relativistic MHD equations for wide ranges of the Lundquist number S and the magnetization parameter $\\sigma$. These timescales approach constant values in the large resistive limit: the oscillation time becomes a few times the light crossing time, irrespective of $\\sigma$, and the decay time is proportional to $\\sigma$ and therefore is longer for a highly magnetized system.
An MHD model of the earth's magnetosphere
Wu, C. C.
1985-01-01
It is pointed out that the earth's magnetosphere arises from the interaction of the solar wind with the earth's geomagnetic field. A global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model of the earth's magnetosphere has drawn much attention in recent years. In this model, MHD equations are used to describe the solar wind interaction with the magnetosphere. In the present paper, some numerical aspects of the model are considered. Attention is given to the ideal MHD equations, an equation of state for the plasma, the model as an initial- and boundary-value problem, the shock capturing technique, computational requirements and techniques for global MHD modeling, a three-dimensional mesh system employed in the global MHD model, and some computational results.
Relativistic spherical plasma waves
Bulanov, S. S.; Maksimchuk, A.; Schroeder, C. B.; Zhidkov, A. G.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.
2012-02-01
Tightly focused laser pulses that diverge or converge in underdense plasma can generate wake waves, having local structures that are spherical waves. Here we study theoretically and numerically relativistic spherical wake waves and their properties, including wave breaking.
Relativistic GLONASS and geodesy
Mazurova, E. M.; Kopeikin, S. M.; Karpik, A. P.
2016-12-01
GNSS technology is playing a major role in applications to civil, industrial and scientific areas. Nowadays, there are two fully functional GNSS: American GPS and Russian GLONASS. Their data processing algorithms have been historically based on the Newtonian theory of space and time with only a few relativistic effects taken into account as small corrections preventing the system from degradation on a fairly long time. Continuously growing accuracy of geodetic measurements and atomic clocks suggests reconsidering the overall approach to the GNSS theoretical model based on the Einstein theory of general relativity. This is essentially more challenging but fundamentally consistent theoretical approach to relativistic space geodesy. In this paper, we overview the basic principles of the relativistic GNSS model and explain the advantages of such a system for GLONASS and other positioning systems. Keywords: relativistic GLONASS, Einstein theory of general relativity.
Bliokh, Konstantin Y
2011-01-01
We consider the relativistic deformation of quantum waves and mechanical bodies carrying intrinsic angular momentum (AM). When observed in a moving reference frame, the centroid of the object undergoes an AM-dependent transverse shift. This is the relativistic analogue of the spin Hall effect, which occurs in free space without any external fields. Remarkably, the shifts of the geometric and energy centroids differ by a factor of 2, and both centroids are crucial for the correct Lorentz transformations of the AM tensor. We examine manifestations of the relativistic Hall effect in quantum vortices, mechanical flywheel, and discuss various fundamental aspects of the phenomenon. The perfect agreement of quantum and relativistic approaches allows applications at strikingly different scales: from elementary spinning particles, through classical light, to rotating black-holes.
Exact Relativistic 'Antigravity' Propulsion
Felber, F S
2006-01-01
The Schwarzschild solution is used to find the exact relativistic motion of a payload in the gravitational field of a mass moving with constant velocity. At radial approach or recession speeds faster than 3^-1/2 times the speed of light, even a small mass gravitationally repels a payload. At relativistic speeds, a suitable mass can quickly propel a heavy payload from rest nearly to the speed of light with negligible stresses on the payload.
Exact Relativistic `Antigravity' Propulsion
Felber, Franklin S.
2006-01-01
The Schwarzschild solution is used to find the exact relativistic motion of a payload in the gravitational field of a mass moving with constant velocity. At radial approach or recession speeds faster than 3-1/2 times the speed of light, even a small mass gravitationally repels a payload. At relativistic speeds, a suitable mass can quickly propel a heavy payload from rest nearly to the speed of light with negligible stresses on the payload.
Relativistic quantum revivals.
Strange, P
2010-03-26
Quantum revivals are now a well-known phenomena within nonrelativistic quantum theory. In this Letter we display the effects of relativity on revivals and quantum carpets. It is generally believed that revivals do not occur within a relativistic regime. Here we show that while this is generally true, it is possible, in principle, to set up wave packets with specific mathematical properties that do exhibit exact revivals within a fully relativistic theory.
Bai, Xue-Ning
2014-01-01
We perform 3D stratified shearing-box MHD simulations on the gas dynamics of protoplanetary disks threaded by net vertical magnetic field Bz. All three non-ideal MHD effects, Ohmic resistivity, the Hall effect and ambipolar diffusion are included in a self-consistent manner based on equilibrium chemistry. We focus on regions toward outer disk radii, from 5-60AU, where Ohmic resistivity tends to become negligible, ambipolar diffusion dominates over an extended region across disk height, and the Hall effect largely controls the dynamics near the disk midplane. We find that around R=5AU, the system launches a laminar/weakly turbulent magnetocentrifugal wind when the net vertical field Bz is not too weak, as expected. Moreover, the wind is able to achieve and maintain a configuration with reflection symmetry at disk midplane. The case with anti-aligned field polarity (Omega. Bz<0) is more susceptible to the MRI when Bz drops, leading to an outflow oscillating in radial directions and very inefficient angular m...
Feasibility of MHD submarine propulsion
Doss, E.D. (ed.) (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Sikes, W.C. (ed.) (Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., VA (United States))
1992-09-01
This report describes the work performed during Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the collaborative research program established between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company (NNS). Phase I of the program focused on the development of computer models for Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) propulsion. Phase 2 focused on the experimental validation of the thruster performance models and the identification, through testing, of any phenomena which may impact the attractiveness of this propulsion system for shipboard applications. The report discusses in detail the work performed in Phase 2 of the program. In Phase 2, a two Tesla test facility was designed, built, and operated. The facility test loop, its components, and their design are presented. The test matrix and its rationale are discussed. Representative experimental results of the test program are presented, and are compared to computer model predictions. In general, the results of the tests and their comparison with the predictions indicate that thephenomena affecting the performance of MHD seawater thrusters are well understood and can be accurately predicted with the developed thruster computer models.
Electron MHD: dynamics and turbulence
Lyutikov, Maxim
2013-01-01
(Abridged) We consider dynamics and turbulent interaction of whistler modes within the framework of inertialess electron MHD (EMHD). We argue there is no energy principle in EMHD: any stationary closed configuration is neutrally stable. We consider the turbulent cascade of whistler modes. We show that (i) harmonic whistlers are exact non-linear solutions; (ii) co-linear whistlers do not interact (including counter-propagating); (iii) waves with the same value of the wave vector, $k_1=k_2$, do not interact; (iv) whistler modes have a dispersion that allows a three-wave decay, including into a zero frequency mode; (v) the three-wave interaction effectively couples modes with highly different wave numbers and propagation angles. In addition, linear interaction of a whistler with a single zero-mode can lead to spatially divergent structures via parametric instability. All these properties are drastically different from MHD, so that the qualitative properties of the Alfven turbulence cannot be transferred to the E...
Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.
Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho
2011-08-01
A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.
Takamoto, Makoto
2016-01-01
In this Letter, we report compressible mode effects on relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) turbulence in Poynting-dominated plasmas using 3-dimensional numerical simulations. We decomposed fluctuations in the turbulence into 3 MHD modes (fast, slow, and Alfv\\'en) following the procedure mode decomposition in (Cho & Lazarian 2002), and analyzed their energy spectra and structure functions separately. We also analyzed the ratio of compressible mode to Alfv\\'en mode energy with respect to its Mach number. We found the ratio of compressible mode increases not only with the Alfv\\'en Mach number but with the background magnetization, which indicates a strong coupling between the fast and Alfv\\'en modes and appearance of a new regime of RMHD turbulence in Poynting-dominated plasmas where the fast and Alfv\\'en modes strongly couples and cannot be distinguished, different from the non-relativistic MHD case. This finding will affect particle acceleration efficiency obtained by assuming Alfv\\'enic critical balan...
Lou, Yu-Qing; Xia, Yu-Kai
2017-05-01
We study magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) self-similar collapses and void evolution, with or without shocks, of a general polytropic quasi-spherical magnetofluid permeated by random transverse magnetic fields under the Paczynski-Wiita gravity that captures essential general relativistic effects of a Schwarzschild black hole (BH) with a growing mass. Based on the derived set of non-linear MHD ordinary differential equations, we obtain various asymptotic MHD solutions, the geometric and analytical properties of the magnetosonic critical curve (MSCC) and MHD shock jump conditions. Novel asymptotic MHD solution behaviours near the rim of central expanding voids are derived analytically. By exploring numerical global MHD solutions, we identify allowable boundary conditions at large radii that accommodate a smooth solution and show that a reasonable amount of magnetization significantly increases the mass accretion rate in the expansion-wave-collapse solution scenario. We also construct the counterparts of envelope-expansion-core-collapse solutions that cross the MSCC twice, which are found to be closely paired with a sequence of global smooth solutions satisfying a novel type of central MHD behaviours. MHD shocks with static outer and various inner flow profiles are also examined. Astrophysical applications include dynamic core collapses of magnetized massive stars and compact objects as well as formation of supermassive, hypermassive, dark matter and mixed matter BHs in the Universe, including the early Universe. Such gigantic BHs can be detected in X-ray/gamma-ray sources, quasars, ultraluminous infrared galaxies or extremely luminous infrared galaxies and dark matter overwhelmingly dominated elliptical galaxies as well as massive dark matter halos, etc. Gravitational waves and electromagnetic wave emissions in broad band (including e.g., gamma-ray bursts and fast radio bursts) can result from this type of dynamic collapses of forming BHs involving magnetized media.
Bai, Xue-Ning, E-mail: xbai@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2015-01-10
We perform three-dimensional stratified shearing-box magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations on the gas dynamics of protoplanetary disks with a net vertical magnetic flux of B {sub z0}. All three nonideal MHD effects, Ohmic resistivity, the Hall effect, and ambipolar diffusion, are included in a self-consistent manner based on equilibrium chemistry. We focus on regions toward outer disk radii, from 5 to 60 AU, where Ohmic resistivity tends to become negligible, ambipolar diffusion dominates over an extended region across the disk height, and the Hall effect largely controls the dynamics near the disk midplane. We find that at around R = 5 AU the system launches a laminar or weakly turbulent magnetocentrifugal wind when the net vertical field B {sub z0} is not too weak. Moreover, the wind is able to achieve and maintain a configuration with reflection symmetry at the disk midplane. The case with anti-aligned field polarity (Ω⋅B{sub z0}<0) is more susceptible to the magnetorotational instability (MRI) when B {sub z0} decreases, leading to an outflow oscillating in radial directions and very inefficient angular momentum transport. At the outer disk around and beyond R = 30 AU, the system shows vigorous MRI turbulence in the surface layer due to far-UV ionization, which efficiently drives disk accretion. The Hall effect affects the stability of the midplane region to the MRI, leading to strong/weak Maxwell stress for aligned/anti-aligned field polarities. Nevertheless, the midplane region is only very weakly turbulent in both cases. Overall, the basic picture is analogous to the conventional layered accretion scenario applied to the outer disk. In addition, we find that the vertical magnetic flux is strongly concentrated into thin, azimuthally extended shells in most of our simulations beyond 15 AU, leading to enhanced radial density variations know as zonal flows. Theoretical implications and observational consequences are briefly discussed.
The impact of kinetic effects on the properties of relativistic electron-positron shocks
Stockem, A; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O
2012-01-01
We assess the impact of non-thermally shock-accelerated particles on the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) jump conditions of relativistic shocks. The adiabatic constant is calculated directly from first principle particle-in-cell simulation data, enabling a semi-kinetic approach to improve the standard fluid model and allowing for an identification of the key parameters that define the shock structure. We find that the evolving upstream parameters have a stronger impact than the corrections due to non-thermal particles. We find that the decrease of the upstream bulk speed yields deviations from the standard MHD model up to 10%. Furthermore, we obtain a quantitative definition of the shock transition region from our analysis. For Weibel-mediated shocks the inclusion of a magnetic field in the MHD conservation equations is addressed for the first time.
Inertial Current Generators of Poynting Flux in MHD Simulations of Black Hole Ergospheres
Punsly, B
2005-01-01
This Letter investigates the physics that is responsible for creating the current system that supports the outgoing Poynting flux emanating from the ergosphere of a rotating black hole in the limit that the magnetic energy density greatly exceeds the plasma rest mass density (magnetically dominated limit). The underlying physics is derived from published three-dimensional simulations that obey the general relativistic equations of perfect magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). It is found that the majority of the Poynting flux emitted from the magnetically dominated regions of the ergosphere has a source associated with inertial effects outside of the event horizon.
Power Spectrum Density of Stochastic Oscillating Accretion Disk
G. B. Long; J. W. Ou; Y. G. Zheng
2016-06-01
In this paper, we employ a stochastic oscillating accretion disk model for the power spectral index and variability of BL Lac object S5 0716+714. In the model, we assume that there is a relativistic oscillation of thin accretion disks and it interacts with an external thermal bath through a friction force and a random force. We simulate the light curve and the power spectrum density (PSD) at (i) over-damped, (ii) critically damped and (iii) under-damped cases, respectively. Our results show that the simulated PSD curves depend on the intrinsic property of the accretion disk, and it could be produced in a wide interval ranging from 0.94 to 2.05 by changing the friction coefficient in a stochastic oscillating accretion disk model. We argue that accretion disk stochastic oscillating could be a possible interpretation for observed PSD variability.
Line Emission from Optically Thick RelativisticAccretion Tori
Fuerst, Steven V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Mullard Space Sci. Lab.; Wu, Kinwah; /Mullard Space Sci. Lab.
2007-09-14
We calculate line emission from relativistic accretion tori around Kerr black holes and investigate how the line profiles depend on the viewing inclination, spin of the central black hole, parameters describing the shape of the tori, and spatial distribution of line emissivity on the torus surface. We also compare the lines with those from thin accretion disks. Our calculations show that lines from tori and lines from thin disks share several common features. In particular, at low and moderate viewing inclination angles they both have asymmetric double-peaked profiles with a tall, sharp blue peak and a shorter red peak which has an extensive red wing. At high viewing inclination angles they both have very broad, asymmetric lines which can be roughly considered as single-peaked. Torus and disk lines may show very different red and blue line wings, but the differences are due to the models for relativistic tori and disks having differing inner boundary radii. Self-eclipse and lensing play some role in shaping the torus lines, but they are effective only at high inclination angles. If inner and outer radii of an accretion torus are the same as those of an accretion disk, their line profiles show substantial differences only when inclination angles are close to 90{sup o}, and those differences are manifested mostly at the central regions of the lines instead of the wings.
Angular Momentum Transport by Acoustic Modes Generated in the Boundary Layer II: MHD Simulations
Belyaev, Mikhail A; Stone, James M
2013-01-01
We perform global unstratified 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of an astrophysical boundary layer (BL) -- an interface region between an accretion disk and a weakly magnetized accreting object such as a white dwarf -- with the goal of understanding the effects of magnetic field on the BL. We use cylindrical coordinates with an isothermal equation of state and investigate a number of initial field geometries including toroidal, vertical, and vertical with zero net flux. Our initial setup consists of a Keplerian disk attached to a non-rotating star. In a previous work, we found that in hydrodynamical simulations, sound waves excited by shear in the BL were able to efficiently transport angular momentum and drive mass accretion onto the star. Here we confirm that in MHD simulations, waves serve as an efficient means of angular momentum transport in the vicinity of the BL, despite the magnetorotational instability (MRI) operating in the disk. In particular, the angular momentum current due to waves is at times...
Bershady, Matthew A.; Martinsson, Thomas P. K.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Andersen, David R.; Swaters, Rob A.
2011-01-01
We measure the contribution of galaxy disks to the overall gravitational potential of 30 nearly face-on intermediate-to-late-type spirals from the DiskMass Survey. The central vertical velocity dispersion of the disk stars (sigma(disk)(z,R=0)) is related to the maximum rotation speed (V-max) as sigm
The Inner Rim in Protoplanetary Disks
Flock, Mario; Turner, Neal J.
2016-10-01
Many stars host planets orbiting within one astronomical unit (AU). These close planets origins are a mystery that motivates investigating protoplanetary disks central regions.A key factor governing the conditions near the star is the silicate sublimation front, which largely determines where the starlight is absorbed, and which is often called the inner rim. We present the first radiation hydrodynamical modeling of the sublimation front in the disks around the young intermediate-mass stars called Herbig Ae stars. The models are axisymmetric, and include starlight heating, silicate grains sublimating and condensing to equilibrium at the local, timedependent temperature and density, and accretion stresses parametrizing the results of MHD magneto-rotational turbulence models.The results show for the first time the dynamical stability of the rim. Passing the model disks into Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations allows us to directly compare with observational constraints. The inner rim has a substantial radial extent, corresponding to several disk scale heights. A pressure maximum develops at the position of thermal ionization at temperatures about 1000 K. The pressure maximum is capable of halting solid pebbles radial drift and concentrating them in a zone where temperatures are sufficiently high for annealing to form crystalline silicates.
Formation of relativistic jets. Magnetohydrodynamics and synchrotron radiation
Porth, Oliver Joachim Georg
2011-11-09
In this thesis, the formation of relativistic jets is investigated by means of special relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations and synchrotron radiative transfer. Our results show that the magnetohydrodynamic jet self-collimation paradigm can also be applied to the relativistic case. In the first part, jets launched from rotating hot accretion disk coronae are explored, leading to well collimated, but only mildly relativistic flows. Beyond the light-cylinder, the electric charge separation force balances the classical trans-field Lorentz force almost entirely, resulting in a decreased efficiency of acceleration and collimation in comparison to non-relativistic disk winds. In the second part, we examine Poynting dominated flows of various electric current distributions. By following the outflow for over 3000 Schwarzschild radii, highly relativistic jets of Lorentz factor Γ>or similar 8 and half-opening angles below 1 are obtained, providing dynamical models for the parsec scale jets of active galactic nuclei. Applying the magnetohydrodynamic structure of the quasi-stationary simulation models, we solve the relativistically beamed synchrotron radiation transport. This yields synthetic radiation maps and polarization patterns that can be used to confront high resolution radio and (sub-) mm observations of nearby active galactic nuclei. Relativistic motion together with the helical magnetic fields of the jet formation site imprint a clear signature on the observed polarization and Faraday rotation. In particular, asymmetries in the polarization direction across the jet can disclose the handedness of the magnetic helix and thus the spin direction of the central engine. Finally, we show first results from fully three-dimensional, high resolution adaptive mesh refinement simulations of jet formation from a rotating magnetosphere and examine the jet stability. Relativistic field-line rotation leads to an electric charge separation force that opposes the magnetic
Maroof, R. [Department of Physics, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan 23200 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan); National Center for Physics (NCP) at QAU Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ali, S. [National Center for Physics (NCP) at QAU Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mushtaq, A. [Department of Physics, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan 23200 (Pakistan); National Center for Physics (NCP) at QAU Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Qamar, A. [Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan)
2015-11-15
Linear properties of high and low frequency waves are studied in an electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) dense plasma with spin and relativity effects. In a low frequency regime, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves, namely, the magnetoacoustic and Alfven waves are presented in a magnetized plasma, in which the inertial ions are taken as spinless and non-degenerate, whereas the electrons and positrons are treated quantum mechanically due to their smaller mass. Quantum corrections associated with the spin magnetization and density correlations for electrons and positrons are re-considered and a generalized dispersion relation for the low frequency MHD waves is derived to account for relativistic degeneracy effects. On the basis of angles of propagation, the dispersion relations of different modes are discussed analytically in a degenerate relativistic plasma. Numerical results reveal that electron and positron relativistic degeneracy effects significantly modify the dispersive properties of MHD waves. Our present analysis should be useful for understanding the collective interactions in dense astrophysical compact objects, like, the white dwarfs and in atmosphere of neutron stars.
Alfven Wave Tomography for Cold MHD Plasmas
I.Y. Dodin; N.J. Fisch
2001-09-07
Alfven waves propagation in slightly nonuniform cold plasmas is studied by means of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) nonlinear equations. The evolution of the MHD spectrum is shown to be governed by a matrix linear differential equation with constant coefficients determined by the spectrum of quasi-static plasma density perturbations. The Alfven waves are shown not to affect the plasma density inhomogeneities, as they scatter off of them. The application of the MHD spectrum evolution equation to the inverse scattering problem allows tomographic measurements of the plasma density profile by scanning the plasma volume with Alfven radiation.
MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project
1992-07-01
This seventeenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period August 1, 1991 to October 31, 1991. Manufacturing of the prototypical combustor pressure shell has been completed including leak, proof, and assembly fit checking. Manufacturing of forty-five cooling panels was also completed including leak, proof, and flow testing. All precombustor internal components (combustion can baffle and swirl box) were received and checked, and integration of the components was initiated. A decision was made regarding the primary and backup designs for the 1A4 channel. The assembly of the channel related prototypical hardware continued. The cathode wall electrical wiring is now complete. The mechanical design of the diffuser has been completed.
Cosmological AMR MHD with Enzo
Xu, Hao [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
In this work, we present EnzoMHD, the extension of the cosmological code Enzoto include magnetic fields. We use the hyperbolic solver of Li et al. (2008) for the computation of interface fluxes. We use constrained transport methods of Balsara & Spicer (1999) and Gardiner & Stone (2005) to advance the induction equation, the reconstruction technique of Balsara (2001) to extend the Adaptive Mesh Refinement of Berger & Colella (1989) already used in Enzo, though formulated in a slightly different way for ease of implementation. This combination of methods preserves the divergence of the magnetic field to machine precision. We use operator splitting to include gravity and cosmological expansion. We then present a series of cosmological and non cosmologjcal tests problems to demonstrate the quality of solution resulting from this combination of solvers.
Relativistic Radiation Magnetohydrodynamics in Dynamical Spacetimes: Numerical Methods and Tests
2008-01-01
Many systems of current interest in relativistic astrophysics require a knowledge of radiative transfer in a magnetized gas flowing in a strongly-curved, dynamical spacetime. Such systems include coalescing compact binaries containing neutron stars or white dwarfs, disks around merging black holes, core collapse supernovae, collapsars, and gamma-ray burst sources. To model these phenomena, all of which involve general relativity, radiation (photon and/or neutrino), and magnetohydrodynamics, w...
Energy Extraction from Spinning Black Holes via Relativistic Jets
Narayan, Ramesh; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander
2013-01-01
It has for long been an article of faith among astrophysicists that black hole spin energy is responsible for powering the relativistic jets seen in accreting black holes. Two recent advances have strengthened the case. First, numerical general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of accreting spinning black holes show that relativistic jets form spontaneously. In at least some cases, there is unambiguous evidence that much of the jet energy comes from the black hole, not the disk. Second, spin parameters of a number of accreting stellar-mass black holes have been measured. For ballistic jets from these systems, it is found that the radio luminosity of the jet correlates with the spin of the black hole. This suggests a causal relationship between black hole spin and jet power, presumably due to a generalized Penrose process.
Cherenkov loss factor of short relativistic bunches:general approach
Baturin, S S
2013-01-01
The interaction of short relativistic charged particle bunches with waveguides and other accelerator system components is a critical issue for the development of X-ray FELs (free electron lasers) and linear collider projects. Wakefield Cherenkov losses of short bunches have been studied previously for resistive wall, disk-loaded, corrugated and dielectric loaded waveguides. It was noted in various publications [1] that if the slowdown layer is thin, the Cherenkov loss factor of a short bunch does not depend on the guiding system material and is a constant for any given transverse cross section dimensions of the waveguides. In this paper, we consider a new approach to the analysis of loss factors for relativistic short bunches and formulate a general integral relation that allows calculation of the loss factor for a short relativistic bunch passing an arbitrary waveguide system. The loss factors calculated by this new method for various types of waveguides with arbitrary thickness slowdown layers, including in...
Migration of Extrasolar Planets: Effects from X-Wind Accretion Disks
Adams, Fred C; Lizano, Susana
2009-01-01
Magnetic fields are dragged in from the interstellar medium during the gravitational collapse that forms star/disk systems. Consideration of mean field magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in these disks shows that magnetic effects produce subkeplerian rotation curves and truncate the inner disk. This letter explores the ramifications of these predicted disk properties for the migration of extrasolar planets. Subkeplerian flow in gaseous disks drives a new migration mechanism for embedded planets and modifies the gap opening processes for larger planets. This subkeplerian migration mechanism dominates over Type I migration for sufficiently small planets (m_P < 1 M_\\earth) and/or close orbits (r < 1 AU). Although the inclusion of subkeplerian torques shortens the total migration time by only a moderate amount, the mass accreted by migrating planetary cores is significantly reduced. Truncation of the inner disk edge (for typical system parameters) naturally explains final planetary orbits with periods P=4 days. Pla...
Magnetically Self-regulated Formation of Early Protoplanetary Disks
Hennebelle, Patrick; Commerçon, Benoît; Chabrier, Gilles; Marchand, Pierre
2016-10-01
The formation of protoplanetary disks during the collapse of molecular dense cores is significantly influenced by angular momentum transport, notably by the magnetic torque. In turn, the evolution of the magnetic field is determined by dynamical processes and non-ideal MHD effects such as ambipolar diffusion. Considering simple relations between various timescales characteristic of the magnetized collapse, we derive an expression for the early disk radius, r≃ 18 {au} {({η }{AD}/0.1{{s}})}2/9{({B}z/0.1{{G}})}-4/9{(M/0.1{M}⊙ )}1/3, where M is the total disk plus protostar mass, {η }{AD} is the ambipolar diffusion coefficient, and B z is the magnetic field in the inner part of the core. This is significantly smaller than the disks that would form if angular momentum was conserved. The analytical predictions are confronted against a large sample of 3D, non-ideal MHD collapse calculations covering variations of a factor 100 in core mass, a factor 10 in the level of turbulence, a factor 5 in rotation, and magnetic mass-to-flux over critical mass-to-flux ratios 2 and 5. The disk radius estimates are found to agree with the numerical simulations within less than a factor 2. A striking prediction of our analysis is the weak dependence of circumstellar disk radii upon the various relevant quantities, suggesting weak variations among class-0 disk sizes. In some cases, we note the onset of large spiral arms beyond this radius.
Characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer in pipe
Huang, Z.Y.; Liu, Y.J., E-mail: yajun@scut.edu.cn
2016-01-01
As gradually wide applications of MHD fluid, transportation as well as control with pumps and valves is unavoidable, which induces MHD fluid hammer. The paper attempts to combine MHD effect and fluid hammer effect and to investigate the characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer. A non-dimensional fluid hammer model, based on Navier–Stocks equations, coupling with Lorentz force is numerically solved in a reservoir–pipe–valve system with uniform external magnetic field. The MHD effect is represented by the interaction number which associates with the conductivity of the MHD fluid as well as the external magnetic field and can be interpreted as the ratio of Lorentz force to Joukowsky force. The transient numerical results of pressure head, average velocity, wall shear stress, velocity profiles and shear stress profiles are provided. The additional MHD effect hinders fluid motion, weakens wave front and homogenizes velocity profiles, contributing to obvious attenuation of oscillation, strengthened line packing and weakened Richardson annular effect. Studying the characteristics of MHD laminar fluid hammer theoretically supplements the gap of knowledge of rapid-transient MHD flow and technically provides beneficial information for MHD pipeline system designers to better devise MHD systems. - Highlights: • Characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer are discussed by simulation. • MHD effect has significant influence on attenuation of wave. • MHD effect strengthens line packing. • MHD effect inhibits Richardson annular effect.
Realistic radiative MHD simulation of a solar flare
Rempel, Matthias D.; Cheung, Mark; Chintzoglou, Georgios; Chen, Feng; Testa, Paola; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Sainz Dalda, Alberto; DeRosa, Marc L.; Viktorovna Malanushenko, Anna; Hansteen, Viggo H.; De Pontieu, Bart; Carlsson, Mats; Gudiksen, Boris; McIntosh, Scott W.
2017-08-01
We present a recently developed version of the MURaM radiative MHD code that includes coronal physics in terms of optically thin radiative loss and field aligned heat conduction. The code employs the "Boris correction" (semi-relativistic MHD with a reduced speed of light) and a hyperbolic treatment of heat conduction, which allow for efficient simulations of the photosphere/corona system by avoiding the severe time-step constraints arising from Alfven wave propagation and heat conduction. We demonstrate that this approach can be used even in dynamic phases such as a flare. We consider a setup in which a flare is triggered by flux emergence into a pre-existing bipolar active region. After the coronal energy release, efficient transport of energy along field lines leads to the formation of flare ribbons within seconds. In the flare ribbons we find downflows for temperatures lower than ~5 MK and upflows at higher temperatures. The resulting soft X-ray emission shows a fast rise and slow decay, reaching a peak corresponding to a mid C-class flare. The post reconnection energy release in the corona leads to average particle energies reaching 50 keV (500 MK under the assumption of a thermal plasma). We show that hard X-ray emission from the corona computed under the assumption of thermal bremsstrahlung can produce a power-law spectrum due to the multi-thermal nature of the plasma. The electron energy flux into the flare ribbons (classic heat conduction with free streaming limit) is highly inhomogeneous and reaches peak values of about 3x1011 erg/cm2/s in a small fraction of the ribbons, indicating regions that could potentially produce hard X-ray footpoint sources. We demonstrate that these findings are robust by comparing simulations computed with different values of the saturation heat flux as well as the "reduced speed of light".
Parkin, E R
2012-01-01
Global three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of turbulent accretion disks are presented which start from fully equilibrium initial conditions in which the magnetic forces are accounted for and the induction equation is satisfied. The local linear theory of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is used as a predictor of the growth of magnetic field perturbations in the global simulations. The linear growth estimates and global simulations diverge when non-linear motions - perhaps triggered by the onset of turbulence - upset the velocity perturbations used to excite the MRI. The saturated state is found to be independent of the initially excited MRI mode, showing that once the disk has expelled the initially net flux field and settled into quasi-periodic oscillations in the toroidal magnetic flux, the dynamo cycle regulates the global saturation stress level. Furthermore, time-averaged measures of converged turbulence, such as the ratio of magnetic energies, are found to be in agreement with...
Black Hole Variability in MHD: A Numerical Test of the Propagating Fluctuations Model
Hogg, J. Drew; Reynolds, Christopher S.
2017-08-01
The variability properties of accreting black hole systems offer a crucial probe of the accretion physics providing the angular momentum transport and enabling the mass accretion. A few of the most telling signatures are the characteristic log-normal flux distributions, linear RMS-flux relations, and frequency-dependent time lags between energy bands. These commonly observed properties are often interpreted as evidence of inward propagating mass accretion rate fluctuations where fluctuations in the accretion flow combine multiplicatively. We present recent results from a long, semi-global MHD simulation of a thin (h/r=0.1) accretion disk that naturally reproduces this phenomenology. This bolsters the theoretical underpinnings of the “propagating fluctuations” model and demonstrates the viability of this process manifesting in MHD turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability. We find that a key ingredient to this model is the modulation of the effective α parameter by the magnetic dynamo.
Jets from Young Stars: The Need for MHD Collimation and Acceleration Processes
Cabrit, Sylvie
This lecture revisits in the light of recent data the main lines of evidence indicating that MHD processes play a crucial role in jets from young stars. Measurements of jet collimation and jet ejection-accretion efficiencies are reviewed and compared at various evolutionary stages (from protostars to optically revealed objects). It is then shown that they cannot satisfactorily be accounted for by purely hydrodynamical processes. MHD magneto-centrifugal ejection (combining magnetic self-collimation and magnetic acceleration) appears as the most effective mechanism able to reproduce the observed jet properties at all evolutionary phases. The jets would then be intimately linked to angular momentum extraction from the accreting disk and/or star.
Are cosmic rays effective for ionization of protoplanetary disks?
Dolginov, Arkady Z.; Stepinski, Tomasz F.
1994-01-01
The principal uncertainty in studying the magnetic properties of protoplanetary disks concerns the ionization levels of the disk's gas. The low gas temperature precludes thermal ionization, leaving cosmic rays as the dominant source of ionization. It has been shown that the resulting electrical conductivity is just high enough for a MHD dynamo to produce contemporaneously a magnetic field in most of the extended parts of a turbulent protoplanetary disk. Here we argue that the effectiveness of cosmic rays to ionize the bulk of the gas is impaired by the influence of the generated magnetic field on the propagation of cosmic rays within a disk. Cosmic rays scatter on magnetic inhomogeneities, and, as a result, their penetration depth decreases to only a fraction of the disk half-thickness, resulting in a severe depletion of free charge from the midplane regions of a disk. That, in turn, undercuts the dynamo mechanism, so extended parts of the disk are free from a dynamically significant magnetic field. We also point out that any additional, even small, in situ source of ionization, such as radioactive Al-26, may again make a dynamo a viable regeneration process capable of producing a dynamically important magnetic field.
Relativistic theories of materials
Bressan, Aldo
1978-01-01
The theory of relativity was created in 1905 to solve a problem concerning electromagnetic fields. That solution was reached by means of profound changes in fundamental concepts and ideas that considerably affected the whole of physics. Moreover, when Einstein took gravitation into account, he was forced to develop radical changes also in our space-time concepts (1916). Relativistic works on heat, thermodynamics, and elasticity appeared as early as 1911. However, general theories having a thermodynamic basis, including heat conduction and constitutive equations, did not appear in general relativity until about 1955 for fluids and appeared only after 1960 for elastic or more general finitely deformed materials. These theories dealt with materials with memory, and in this connection some relativistic versions of the principle of material indifference were considered. Even more recently, relativistic theories incorporating finite deformations for polarizable and magnetizable materials and those in which couple s...
Relativistic Quantum Communication
Hosler, Dominic
2013-01-01
In this Ph.D. thesis, I investigate the communication abilities of non-inertial observers and the precision to which they can measure parametrized states. I introduce relativistic quantum field theory with field quantisation, and the definition and transformations of mode functions in Minkowski, Schwarzschild and Rindler spaces. I introduce information theory by discussing the nature of information, defining the entropic information measures, and highlighting the differences between classical and quantum information. I review the field of relativistic quantum information. We investigate the communication abilities of an inertial observer to a relativistic observer hovering above a Schwarzschild black hole, using the Rindler approximation. We compare both classical communication and quantum entanglement generation of the state merging protocol, for both the single and dual rail encodings. We find that while classical communication remains finite right up to the horizon, the quantum entanglement generation tend...
Relativistic quantum mechanics
Horwitz, Lawrence P
2015-01-01
This book describes a relativistic quantum theory developed by the author starting from the E.C.G. Stueckelberg approach proposed in the early 40s. In this framework a universal invariant evolution parameter (corresponding to the time originally postulated by Newton) is introduced to describe dynamical evolution. This theory is able to provide solutions for some of the fundamental problems encountered in early attempts to construct a relativistic quantum theory. A relativistically covariant construction is given for which particle spins and angular momenta can be combined through the usual rotation group Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. Solutions are defined for both the classical and quantum two body bound state and scattering problems. The recently developed quantum Lax-Phillips theory of semigroup evolution of resonant states is described. The experiment of Lindner and coworkers on interference in time is discussed showing how the property of coherence in time provides a simple understanding of the results. Th...
Santos-Lima, R.; De Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, R. do Matao, 1226, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); Lazarian, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)
2012-03-01
The formation of protostellar disks out of molecular cloud cores is still not fully understood. Under ideal MHD conditions, the removal of angular momentum from the disk progenitor by the typically embedded magnetic field may prevent the formation of a rotationally supported disk during the main protostellar accretion phase of low-mass stars. This has been known as the magnetic braking problem and the most investigated mechanism to alleviate this problem and help remove the excess of magnetic flux during the star formation process, the so-called ambipolar diffusion (AD), has been shown to be not sufficient to weaken the magnetic braking at least at this stage of the disk formation. In this work, motivated by recent progress in the understanding of magnetic reconnection in turbulent environments, we appeal to the diffusion of magnetic field mediated by magnetic reconnection as an alternative mechanism for removing magnetic flux. We investigate numerically this mechanism during the later phases of the protostellar disk formation and show its high efficiency. By means of fully three-dimensional MHD simulations, we show that the diffusivity arising from turbulent magnetic reconnection is able to transport magnetic flux to the outskirts of the disk progenitor at timescales compatible with the collapse, allowing the formation of a rotationally supported disk around the protostar of dimensions {approx}100 AU, with a nearly Keplerian profile in the early accretion phase. Since MHD turbulence is expected to be present in protostellar disks, this is a natural mechanism for removing magnetic flux excess and allowing the formation of these disks. This mechanism dismisses the necessity of postulating a hypothetical increase of the ohmic resistivity as discussed in the literature. Together with our earlier work which showed that magnetic flux removal from molecular cloud cores is very efficient, this work calls for reconsidering the relative role of AD in the processes of star
On the Role of the Accretion Disk in Black Hole Disk-Jet Connections
Miller, J M; Fabian, A C; Nowak, M A; Reis, R C; Cackett, E M; Pottschmidt, K; Wilms, J
2012-01-01
Models of jet production in black hole systems suggest that the properties of the accretion disk - such as its mass accretion rate, inner radius, and emergent magnetic field - should drive and modulate the production of relativistic jets. Stellar-mass black holes in the "low/hard" state are an excellent laboratory in which to study disk-jet connections, but few coordinated observations are made using spectrometers that can incisively probe the inner disk. We report on a series of 20 Suzaku observations of Cygnus X-1 made in the jet-producing low/hard state. Contemporaneous radio monitoring was done using the Arcminute MicroKelvin Array radio telescope. Two important and simple results are obtained: (1) the jet (as traced by radio flux) does not appear to be modulated by changes in the inner radius of the accretion disk; and (2) the jet is sensitive to disk properties, including its flux, temperature, and ionization. Some more complex results may reveal aspects of a coupled disk-corona-jet system. A positive c...
Handbook of relativistic quantum chemistry
Liu, Wenjian (ed.) [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Center for Computational Science and Engineering
2017-03-01
This handbook focuses on the foundations of relativistic quantum mechanics and addresses a number of fundamental issues never covered before in a book. For instance: How can many-body theory be combined with quantum electrodynamics? How can quantum electrodynamics be interfaced with relativistic quantum chemistry? What is the most appropriate relativistic many-electron Hamiltonian? How can we achieve relativistic explicit correlation? How can we formulate relativistic properties? - just to name a few. Since relativistic quantum chemistry is an integral component of computational chemistry, this handbook also supplements the ''Handbook of Computational Chemistry''. Generally speaking, it aims to establish the 'big picture' of relativistic molecular quantum mechanics as the union of quantum electrodynamics and relativistic quantum chemistry. Accordingly, it provides an accessible introduction for readers new to the field, presents advanced methodologies for experts, and discusses possible future perspectives, helping readers understand when/how to apply/develop the methodologies.
Open Boundary Conditions for Dissipative MHD
Meier, E T
2011-11-10
In modeling magnetic confinement, astrophysics, and plasma propulsion, representing the entire physical domain is often difficult or impossible, and artificial, or 'open' boundaries are appropriate. A novel open boundary condition (BC) for dissipative MHD, called Lacuna-based open BC (LOBC), is presented. LOBC, based on the idea of lacuna-based truncation originally presented by V.S. Ryaben'kii and S.V. Tsynkov, provide truncation with low numerical noise and minimal reflections. For hyperbolic systems, characteristic-based BC (CBC) exist for separating the solution into outgoing and incoming parts. In the hyperbolic-parabolic dissipative MHD system, such separation is not possible, and CBC are numerically unstable. LOBC are applied in dissipative MHD test problems including a translating FRC, and coaxial-electrode plasma acceleration. Solution quality is compared to solutions using CBC and zero-normal derivative BC. LOBC are a promising new open BC option for dissipative MHD.
Relativistic electronic dressing
Attaourti, Y
2002-01-01
We study the effects of the relativistic electronic dressing in laser-assisted electron-hydrogen atom elastic collisions. We begin by considering the case when no radiation is present. This is necessary in order to check the consistency of our calculations and we then carry out the calculations using the relativistic Dirac-Volkov states. It turns out that a simple formal analogy links the analytical expressions of the differential cross section without laser and the differential cross section in presence of a laser field.
Fabian, A C; Parker, M L
2014-01-01
Broad emission lines, particularly broad iron-K lines, are now commonly seen in the X-ray spectra of luminous AGN and Galactic black hole binaries. Sensitive NuSTAR spectra over the energy range of 3-78 keV and high frequency reverberation spectra now confirm that these are relativistic disc lines produced by coronal irradiation of the innermost accretion flow around rapidly spinning black holes. General relativistic effects are essential in explaining the observations. Recent results are briefly reviewed here.
Relativistic Rotating Vector Model
Lyutikov, Maxim
2016-01-01
The direction of polarization produced by a moving source rotates with the respect to the rest frame. We show that this effect, induced by pulsar rotation, leads to an important correction to polarization swings within the framework of rotating vector model (RVM); this effect has been missed by previous works. We construct relativistic RVM taking into account finite heights of the emission region that lead to aberration, time-of-travel effects and relativistic rotation of polarization. Polarizations swings at different frequencies can be used, within the assumption of the radius-to-frequency mapping, to infer emission radii and geometry of pulsars.
Polko, Peter; Markoff, Sera
2012-01-01
We present a new, approximate method for modelling the acceleration and collimation of relativistic jets in the presence of gravity. This method is self-similar throughout the computational domain where gravitational effects are negligible and, where significant, self-similar within a flux tube. These solutions are applicable to jets launched from a small region (e.g., near the inner edge of an accretion disk). As implied by earlier work, the flow can converge onto the rotation axis, potentially creating a collimation shock. In this first version of the method, we derive the gravitational contribution to the relativistic equations by analogy with non-relativistic flow. This approach captures the relativistic kinetic gravitational mass of the flowing plasma, but not that due to internal thermal and magnetic energies. A more sophisticated treatment, derived from the basic general relativistic magnetohydrodynamical equations, is currently being developed. Here we present an initial exploration of parameter space...
The special relativistic shock tube
Thompson, Kevin W.
1986-01-01
The shock-tube problem has served as a popular test for numerical hydrodynamics codes. The development of relativistic hydrodynamics codes has created a need for a similar test problem in relativistic hydrodynamics. The analytical solution to the special relativistic shock-tube problem is presented here. The relativistic shock-jump conditions and rarefaction solution which make up the shock tube are derived. The Newtonian limit of the calculations is given throughout.
Bruce, Adam L
2015-01-01
We show the traditional rocket problem, where the ejecta velocity is assumed constant, can be reduced to an integral quadrature of which the completely non-relativistic equation of Tsiolkovsky, as well as the fully relativistic equation derived by Ackeret, are limiting cases. By expanding this quadrature in series, it is shown explicitly how relativistic corrections to the mass ratio equation as the rocket transitions from the Newtonian to the relativistic regime can be represented as products of exponential functions of the rocket velocity, ejecta velocity, and the speed of light. We find that even low order correction products approximate the traditional relativistic equation to a high accuracy in flight regimes up to $0.5c$ while retaining a clear distinction between the non-relativistic base-case and relativistic corrections. We furthermore use the results developed to consider the case where the rocket is not moving relativistically but the ejecta stream is, and where the ejecta stream is massless.
Relativistic cosmology; Cosmologia Relativista
Bastero-Gil, M.
2015-07-01
Relativistic cosmology is nothing but the study of the evolution of our universe expanding from the General Theory of Relativity, which describes the gravitational interaction at any scale and given its character far-reaching is the force that dominate the evolution of the universe. (Author)
Relativistic impulse dynamics.
Swanson, Stanley M
2011-08-01
Classical electrodynamics has some annoying rough edges. The self-energy of charges is infinite without a cutoff. The calculation of relativistic trajectories is difficult because of retardation and an average radiation reaction term. By reconceptuallizing electrodynamics in terms of exchanges of impulses rather than describing it by forces and potentials, we eliminate these problems. A fully relativistic theory using photonlike null impulses is developed. Numerical calculations for a two-body, one-impulse-in-transit model are discussed. A simple relationship between center-of-mass scattering angle and angular momentum was found. It reproduces the Rutherford cross section at low velocities and agrees with the leading term of relativistic distinguishable-particle quantum cross sections (Møller, Mott) when the distance of closest approach is larger than the Compton wavelength of the particle. Magnetism emerges as a consequence of viewing retarded and advanced interactions from the vantage point of an instantaneous radius vector. Radiation reaction becomes the local conservation of energy-momentum between the radiating particle and the emitted impulse. A net action is defined that could be used in developing quantum dynamics without potentials. A reinterpretation of Newton's laws extends them to relativistic motion.
Antippa, Adel F.
2009-01-01
We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful…
Relativistic length agony continued
Redžić D.V.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028
Radiation hydrodynamical models of the inner rim in protoplanetary disks
Flock, M; Turner, N J; Benisty, M
2016-01-01
Many stars host planets orbiting within a few astronomical units (AU). The occurrence rate and distributions of masses and orbits vary greatly with the host stars mass. These close planets origins are a mystery that motivates investigating protoplanetary disks central regions. A key factor governing the conditions near the star is the silicate sublimation front, which largely determines where the starlight is absorbed, and which is often called the inner rim. We present the first radiation hydrodynamical modeling of the sublimation front in the disks around the young intermediate-mass stars called Herbig Ae stars. The models are axisymmetric, and include starlight heating, silicate grains sublimating and condensing to equilibrium at the local, time-dependent temperature and density, and accretion stresses parametrizing the results of MHD magneto-rotational turbulence models. The results compare well with radiation hydrostatic solutions, and prove to be dynamically stable. Passing the model disks into Monte Ca...
Testing protostellar disk formation models with ALMA observations
Harsono, Daniel; Bruderer, Simon; Li, Zhi-Yun; Jorgensen, Jes
2015-01-01
Abridged: Recent simulations have explored different ways to form accretion disks around low-mass stars. We aim to present observables to differentiate a rotationally supported disk from an infalling rotating envelope toward deeply embedded young stellar objects and infer their masses and sizes. Two 3D magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) formation simulations and 2D semi-analytical model are studied. The dust temperature structure is determined through continuum radiative transfer RADMC3D modelling. A simple temperature dependent CO abundance structure is adopted and synthetic spectrally resolved submm rotational molecular lines up to $J_{\\rm u} = 10$ are simulated. All models predict similar compact components in continuum if observed at the spatial resolutions of 0.5-1$"$ (70-140 AU) typical of the observations to date. A spatial resolution of $\\sim$14 AU and high dynamic range ($> 1000$) are required to differentiate between RSD and pseudo-disk in the continuum. The peak-position velocity diagrams indicate that the...
Outflows from neutron star merger remnant disks: nucleosynthesis and kilonovae
Fernandez, Rodrigo; Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Foucart, Francois; Metzger, Brian; Kasen, Daniel; Quataert, Eliot
2016-03-01
The accretion disk formed in a neutron star merger can drive powerful winds on timescales of 100ms to seconds after coalescence. The wind material is more strongly irradiated by neutrinos than the dynamical ejecta, and hence has a less neutron-rich composition, with implications for r-process element synthesis and the radioactively-powered kilonova transient. This talk will present preliminary results from projects aimed at quantifying (1) the nucleosynthesis yield from disks around hypermassive neutron stars, (2) the effect of MHD turbulence on mass ejection when a black hole sits at the center, and (3) the interaction between disk wind and dynamical ejecta when the relative masses of these components vary.
Gas Ejection from Spiral Galaxy Disks
Durelle, Jeremy
We present the results of three proposed mechanisms for ejection of gas from a spiral arm into the halo. The mechanisms were modelled using magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) as a theoretical template. Each mechanism was run through simulations using a Fortran code: ZEUS-3D, an MHD equation solver. The first mechanism modelled the gas dynamics with a modified Hartmann flow which describes the fluid flow between two parallel plates. We initialized the problem based on observation of lagging halos; that is, that the rotational velocity falls to a zero at some height above the plane of the disk. When adopting a density profile which takes into account the various warm and cold H I and HII molecular clouds, the system evolves very strangely and does not reproduce the steady velocity gradient observed in edge-on galaxies. This density profile, adopted from Martos and Cox (1998), was used in the remaining models. However, when treating a system with a uniform density profile, a stable simulation can result. Next we considered supernova (SN) blasts as a possible mechanism for gas ejection. While a single SN was shown to be insufficient to promote vertical gas structures from the disk, multiple SN explosions proved to be enough to promote gas ejection from the disk. In these simulations, gas ejected to a height of 0.5 kpc at a velocity of 130 km s--1 from 500 supernovae, extending to an approximate maximum height of 1 kpc at a velocity of 6.7 x 103 km s--1 from 1500 supernovae after 0.15 Myr, the approximate time of propagation of a supernova shock wave. Finally, we simulated gas flowing into the spiral arm at such a speed to promote a jump in the disk gas, termed a hydraulic jump. The height of the jump was found to be slightly less than a kiloparsec with a flow velocity of 41 km s--1 into the halo after 167 Myr. The latter models proved to be effective mechanisms through which gas is ejected from the disk whereas the Hartmann flow (or toy model) mechanism remains unclear as the
This model was a disk storage server used in the Data Centre up until 2012. Each tray contains a hard disk drive (see the 5TB hard disk drive on the main disk display section - this actually fits into one of the trays). There are 16 trays in all per server. There are hundreds of these servers mounted on racks in the Data Centre, as can be seen.
Relativistic Diskoseismology. III. Low-Frequency Fundamental p-Modes
Ortega-Rodriguez, M; Wagoner, R V; Ortega-Rodriguez, Manuel; Silbergleit, Alexander S.; Wagoner, Robert V.
2002-01-01
We extend our investigation of the normal modes of small adiabatic oscillations of relativistic barotropic thin accretion disks to the inertial-pressure (p) modes. We focus here on the lowest frequency fundamental p-modes, those with no axial or vertical nodes in their distribution. Through a variety of analyses, we obtain closed-form expressions for the eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions. These depend on the luminosity and viscosity parameter of the disk as well as the mass and angular momentum of the black hole via detailed formulae for the speed of sound. The effect of a torque on the inner edge of the disk is also included. We compare the p-mode properties to those of the g- and c-modes.
Narayan, Ramesh; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Sadowski, Aleksander
2015-01-01
We describe HEROIC, an upgraded version of the relativistic radiative post-processor code HERO described in a previous paper, but which now Includes Comptonization. HEROIC models Comptonization via the Kompaneets equation, using a quadratic approximation for the source function in the short characteristics radiation solver. It employs a simple form of accelerated lambda iteration to handle regions of high scattering opacity. In addition to solving for the radiation field, HEROIC also solves for the gas temperature by applying the condition of radiative equilibrium. We present benchmarks and tests of the Comptonization module in HEROIC with simple 1D and 3D scattering problems. We also test the ability of the code to handle various relativistic effects using model atmospheres and accretion flows in a black hole space-time. We present two applications of HEROIC to general relativistic MHD simulations of accretion discs. One application is to a thin accretion disc around a black hole. We find that the gas below ...
MHD equilibria with diamagnetic effects
Tessarotto, M.; Zorat, R.; Johnson, J. L.; White, R. B.
1997-11-01
An outstanding issue in magnetic confinement is the establishment of MHD equilibria with enhanced flow shear profiles for which turbulence (and transport) may be locally effectively suppressed or at least substantially reduced with respect to standard weak turbulence models. Strong flows develop in the presence of equilibrium E× B-drifts produced by a strong radial electric field, as well as due to diamagnetic contributions produced by steep equilibrium radial profiles of number density, temperature and the flow velocity itself. In the framework of a kinetic description, this generally requires the construction of guiding-center variables correct to second order in the relevant expansion parameter. For this purpose, the Lagrangian approach developed recently by Tessarotto et al. [1] is adopted. In this paper the conditions of existence of such equilibria are analyzed and their basic physical properties are investigated in detail. 1 - M. Pozzo, M. Tessarotto and R. Zorat, in Theory of fusion Plasmas, E.Sindoni et al. eds. (Societá Italiana di Fisica, Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 1996), p.295.
MHD Jets in inhomogeneous media
S. O´Sullivan
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Presentamos simulaciones de la propagaci on de jets moleculares no-adiab aticos en un medio ambiente inhomog eneo. Los jets tienen condiciones descritos por un modelo de jet MHD en el cual la forma de las l neas magn eticas se prescribe cerca de la fuente. Per les de densidad ambiental fueron elegidos para representar la zona de transici on entre las regiones exteriores de una nube molecular y el medio interestelar. Escalamos las tasas de enfriamiento at omico y molecular a niveles apropriados para resolver todas las escalas espaciales apropriadas. Con la inclusi on de variabilidad de la fuente, las simulaciones reproducen varias caracter sticas observacionales de jets moleculares, entre ellas las cavidades moleculares. Adicionalmente, encontramos similitudes entre teor a y observaci on para la fracci on de ionizaci on a lo largo del jet. Encontramos que la extensi on lateral de las super cies de trabajo internas son sensibles al medio ambiente. Tambi en presentamos resultados preliminares para un m etodo de calcular mapas de emisi on en l neas usando solamente variables fundamentales de estado que parecen reproducir la emisi on lamentosa de Balmer en frentes de choque.
MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project
1992-02-01
This fourteenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period November 1, 1990 to January 31, 1991. Testing of the High Pressure Cooling Subsystem electrical isolator was completed. The PEEK material successfully passed the high temperature, high pressure duration tests (50 hours). The Combustion Subsystem drawings were CADAM released. The procurement process is in progress. An equipment specification and RFP were prepared for the new Low Pressure Cooling System (LPCS) and released for quotation. Work has been conducted on confirmation tests leading to final gas-side designs and studies to assist in channel fabrication.The final cathode gas-side design and the proposed gas-side designs of the anode and sidewall are presented. Anode confirmation tests and related analyses of anode wear mechanisms used in the selection of the proposed anode design are presented. Sidewall confirmation tests, which were used to select the proposed gas-side design, were conducted. The design for the full scale CDIF system was completed. A test program was initiated to investigate the practicality of using Avco current controls for current consolidation in the power takeoff (PTO) regions and to determine the cause of past current consolidation failures. Another important activity was the installation of 1A4-style coupons in the 1A1 channel. A description of the coupons and their location with 1A1 channel is presented herein.
Kuijken, K.; García, I.
2000-01-01
Abstract: This review addresses recent developments in the field of disk galaxy warps. Both results from a new HI survey of edgeon disk galaxies, and of simulations of the interaction between a disk+halo and an orbiting satelite, will be discussed.
Kuijken, K; Kuijken, Konrad; Garcia, Inigo
2000-01-01
This review addresses recent developments in the field of disk galaxy warps. Both results from a new HI survey of edgeon disk galaxies, and of simulations of the interaction between a disk+halo and an orbiting satelite, will be discussed.
Chemistry in Protoplanetary Disks
Henning, Thomas
2013-01-01
This comprehensive review summarizes our current understanding of the evolution of gas, solids and molecular ices in protoplanetary disks. Key findings related to disk physics and chemistry, both observationally and theoretically, are highlighted. We discuss which molecular probes are used to derive gas temperature, density, ionization state, kinematics, deuterium fractionation, and study organic matter in protoplanetary disks.
Abbott, George L.; And Others
1987-01-01
This special feature focuses on recent developments in optical disk technology. Nine articles discuss current trends, large scale image processing, data structures for optical disks, the use of computer simulators to create optical disks, videodisk use in training, interactive audio video systems, impacts on federal information policy, and…
Key contributions in MHD power generation. Quarterly report, 1 June 1979-31 August 1979
Louis, J F
1979-11-01
Activities during the third quarter of the contract period are reported in detail. The tasks reported on include: (1) investigation of electrical behavior in the vicinity of electrode and insulating walls; (2) studies of critical performance issues in the development of combustion disk generators; (3) development and testing of electrode modules, including studies of insulator properties; and (4) determination of coal combustion kinetics and ash behavior relevant to two-stage MHD combustors, and investigation of the mixing and flow aerodynamics of a high swirl geometry second stage.
Louis, J F
1980-03-01
Separate entries were made in the data base for the four tasks which include: (1) investigation of electrical behavior in the vicinity of electrode and insulating walls; (2) studies of critical performance issues in the development of combustion disk generators; (3) development and testing of electrode modules, including studies of insulator properties; and (4) determination of coal combustion kinetics and ash behavior relevant to two-stage MHD combustors, and investigation of the mixing and flow aerodynamics of a high swirl geometry second stage. (WHK)
Local Stability and Global Instability in Iron-opaque Disks
Grzȩdzielski, Mikołaj; Janiuk, Agnieszka; Czerny, Bożena
2017-08-01
The thermal stability of accretion disks and the possibility of seeing a limit-cycle behavior strongly depends on the ability of the disk plasma to cool down. Various processes connected with radiation-matter interaction appearing in hot accretion disk plasma contribute to opacity. For the case of geometrically thin and optically thick accretion disks, we can estimate the influence of several different components of function κ, given by the Roseland mean. In the case of high temperatures of ˜107 K, the electron Thomson scattering is dominant. At lower temperatures, atomic processes become important. The slope d{log}κ /d{log}T can have a locally stabilizing or destabilizing effect on the disk. Although the local MHD simulation postulates the stabilizing influence of the atomic processes, only the global time-dependent model can reveal the global disk stability range estimation. This is due to the global diffusive nature of those processes. In this paper, using the previously tested GLADIS code with a modified prescription of the viscous dissipation, we examine the stabilizing effect of the iron opacity bump.
Three-Dimensional Multiscale MHD Model of Cometary Plasma Environments
Gombosi, Tamas I.; DeZeeuw, Darren L.; Haberli, Roman M.; Powell, Kenneth G.
1996-01-01
First results of a three-dimensional multiscale MHD model of the interaction of an expanding cometary atmosphere with the magnetized solar wind are presented. The model starts with a supersonic and super-Alfvenic solar wind far upstream of the comet (25 Gm upstream of the nucleus) with arbitrary interplanetary magnetic field orientation. The solar wind is continuously mass loaded with cometary ions originating from a 10-km size nucleus. The effects of photoionization, electron impact ionization, recombination, and ion-neutral frictional drag are taken into account in the model. The governing equations are solved on an adaptively refined unstructured Cartesian grid using our new multiscale upwind scalar conservation laws-type numerical technique (MUSCL). We have named this the multiscale adaptive upwind scheme for MHD (MAUS-MHD). The combination of the adaptive refinement with the MUSCL-scheme allows the entire cometary atmosphere to be modeled, while still resolving both the shock and the diamagnetic cavity of the comet. The main findings are the following: (1) Mass loading decelerates the solar wind flow upstream of the weak cometary shock wave (M approximately equals 2, M(sub A) approximately equals 2), which forms at a subsolar standoff distance of about 0.35 Gm. (2) A cometary plasma cavity is formed at around 3 x 10(exp 3) km from the nucleus. Inside this cavity the plasma expands outward due to the frictional interaction between ions and neutrals. On the nightside this plasma cavity considerably narrows and a relatively fast and dense cometary plasma beam is ejected into the tail. (3) Inside the plasma cavity a teardrop-shaped inner shock is formed, which is terminated by a Mach disk on the nightside. Only the region inside the inner shock is the 'true' diamagnetic cavity. (4) The model predicts four distinct current systems in the inner coma: the density peak current, the cavity boundary current, the inner shock current, and finally the cross-tail current
Dipole Alignment in Rotating MHD Turbulence
Shebalin, John V.; Fu, Terry; Morin, Lee
2012-01-01
We present numerical results from long-term CPU and GPU simulations of rotating, homogeneous, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, and discuss their connection to the spherically bounded case. We compare our numerical results with a statistical theory of geodynamo action that has evolved from the absolute equilibrium ensemble theory of ideal MHD turbulence, which is based on the ideal MHD invariants are energy, cross helicity and magnetic helicity. However, for rotating MHD turbulence, the cross helicity is no longer an exact invariant, although rms cross helicity becomes quasistationary during an ideal MHD simulation. This and the anisotropy imposed by rotation suggests an ansatz in which an effective, nonzero value of cross helicity is assigned to axisymmetric modes and zero cross helicity to non-axisymmetric modes. This hybrid statistics predicts a large-scale quasistationary magnetic field due to broken ergodicity , as well as dipole vector alignment with the rotation axis, both of which are observed numerically. We find that only a relatively small value of effective cross helicity leads to the prediction of a dipole moment vector that is closely aligned (less than 10 degrees) with the rotation axis. We also discuss the effect of initial conditions, dissipation and grid size on the numerical simulations and statistical theory.
Three Dimensional Structure of Relativistic Jet Formation
Porth, Oliver
2012-01-01
Using high resolution adaptive mesh refinement simulations in 3D, we investigate the formation of relativistic jets from rotating magnetospheres. Here, we focus on the development of non-axisymmetric modes due to internal and external perturbations to the jet. These originate either from injection of perturbations with the flow or from a clumpy external medium. In the helical field geometry of the accelerating jet, the m=1 to m=5 modes are analyzed and found to saturate at a height of \\sim 20 inner disk radii. We also discuss a means to control artificial amplification of m = 4 noise in the cartesian simulation geometry. Strong perturbations due to an in-homogeneous ambient medium lead to flow configurations with increased magnetic pitch and thus indicate a self-stabilization of the jet formation mechanism.
Yvart, W; Forets, G Pineau des; Ferreira, J
2016-01-01
We investigate whether the broad wings of H2O emission identified with Herschel towards low-mass Class 0 and Class 1 protostars may be consistent with an origin in a dusty MHD disk wind, and the constraints it would set on the underlying disk properties. We present synthetic H2O line profiles predictions for a typical MHD disk wind solution with various values of disk accretion rate, stellar mass, extension of the launching area, and view angle. We compare them in terms of line shapes and intensities with the HIFI profiles observed by the WISH Key Program. We find that a dusty MHD disk wind launched from 0.2--0.6 AU AU to 3--25 AU can reproduce to a remarkable degree the observed shapes and intensities of the broad H2O component, both in the fundamental 557 GHz line and in more excited lines. Such a model also readily reproduces the observed correlation of 557 GHz line luminosity with envelope density, if the infall rate at 1000 AU is 1--3 times the disk accretion rate in the wind ejection region. It is also ...
CAN BLACK HOLE NEUTRINO-COOLED DISKS POWER SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS?
Liu, Tong; Gu, Wei-Min [Department of Astronomy and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Lin, Yi-Qing [School of Opto-electronic and Communication Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen, Fujian 361024 (China); Hou, Shu-Jin, E-mail: tongliu@xmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650011 (China)
2015-06-10
Stellar-mass black holes (BHs) surrounded by neutrino-dominated accretion flows (NDAFs) are plausible sources of power for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) via neutrino emission and their annihilation. The progenitors of short-duration GRBs (SGRBs) are generally considered to be compact binary mergers. According to the simulation results, the disk mass of the NDAF is limited after merger events. We can estimate such disk masses using the current SGRB observational data and fireball model. The results show that the disk mass of a certain SGRB mainly depends on its output energy, jet opening angle, and central BH characteristics. Even for the extreme BH parameters, some SGRBs require massive disks, which approach or exceed the limits in simulations. We suggest that there may exist alternative MHD processes or mechanisms that increase the neutrino emission to produce SGRBs with reasonable BH parameters and disk masses.
Relativistic smearing of the reflection spectrum in Galactic Black Hole Candidates
Done, C; Smith, D A
1997-01-01
We identify the reflected component in the GINGA spectra of Nova Muscae, a Black Hole transient system which has been used as the prototype for the recent advection dominated disk models. We see that the reflected spectrum is generally significantly relativistically smeared, and use this and the amount of reflection to track the innermost extent of the accretion disk. We see that the optically thick disk does retreat during the decline, but more slowly than predicted by the advective models, posing problems for this description of the accretion flow.
Relativistic Hydrodynamics with Wavelets
DeBuhr, Jackson; Anderson, Matthew; Neilsen, David; Hirschmann, Eric W
2015-01-01
Methods to solve the relativistic hydrodynamic equations are a key computational kernel in a large number of astrophysics simulations and are crucial to understanding the electromagnetic signals that originate from the merger of astrophysical compact objects. Because of the many physical length scales present when simulating such mergers, these methods must be highly adaptive and capable of automatically resolving numerous localized features and instabilities that emerge throughout the computational domain across many temporal scales. While this has been historically accomplished with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) based methods, alternatives based on wavelet bases and the wavelet transformation have recently achieved significant success in adaptive representation for advanced engineering applications. This work presents a new method for the integration of the relativistic hydrodynamic equations using iterated interpolating wavelets and introduces a highly adaptive implementation for multidimensional simulati...
Relativistic heavy ion reactions
Brink, D.M.
1989-08-01
The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.
Relativistic spherical plasma waves
Bulanov, S S; Schroeder, C B; Zhidkov, A G; Esarey, E; Leemans, W P
2011-01-01
Tightly focused laser pulses as they diverge or converge in underdense plasma can generate wake waves, having local structures that are spherical waves. Here we report on theoretical study of relativistic spherical wake waves and their properties, including wave breaking. These waves may be suitable as particle injectors or as flying mirrors that both reflect and focus radiation, enabling unique X-ray sources and nonlinear QED phenomena.
Relativistic Quantum Noninvasive Measurements
Bednorz, Adam
2014-01-01
Quantum weak, noninvasive measurements are defined in the framework of relativity. Invariance with respect to reference frame transformations of the results in different models is discussed. Surprisingly, the bare results of noninvasive measurements are invariant for certain class of models, but not the detection error. Consequently, any stationary quantum realism based on noninvasive measurements will break, at least spontaneously, relativistic invariance and correspondence principle at zero temperature.
Relativistic cosmological hydrodynamics
Hwang, J
1997-01-01
We investigate the relativistic cosmological hydrodynamic perturbations. We present the general large scale solutions of the perturbation variables valid for the general sign of three space curvature, the cosmological constant, and generally evolving background equation of state. The large scale evolution is characterized by a conserved gauge invariant quantity which is the same as a perturbed potential (or three-space curvature) in the comoving gauge.
Relativistic gravity gradiometry
Bini, Donato; Mashhoon, Bahram
2016-12-01
In general relativity, relativistic gravity gradiometry involves the measurement of the relativistic tidal matrix, which is theoretically obtained from the projection of the Riemann curvature tensor onto the orthonormal tetrad frame of an observer. The observer's 4-velocity vector defines its local temporal axis and its local spatial frame is defined by a set of three orthonormal nonrotating gyro directions. The general tidal matrix for the timelike geodesics of Kerr spacetime has been calculated by Marck [Proc. R. Soc. A 385, 431 (1983)]. We are interested in the measured components of the curvature tensor along the inclined "circular" geodesic orbit of a test mass about a slowly rotating astronomical object of mass M and angular momentum J . Therefore, we specialize Marck's results to such a "circular" orbit that is tilted with respect to the equatorial plane of the Kerr source. To linear order in J , we recover the gravitomagnetic beating phenomenon [B. Mashhoon and D. S. Theiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1542 (1982)], where the beat frequency is the frequency of geodetic precession. The beat effect shows up as a special long-period gravitomagnetic part of the relativistic tidal matrix; moreover, the effect's short-term manifestations are contained in certain post-Newtonian secular terms. The physical interpretation of this effect is briefly discussed.
Gravitationally confined relativistic neutrinos
Vayenas, C. G.; Fokas, A. S.; Grigoriou, D.
2017-09-01
Combining special relativity, the equivalence principle, and Newton’s universal gravitational law with gravitational rather than rest masses, one finds that gravitational interactions between relativistic neutrinos with kinetic energies above 50 MeV are very strong and can lead to the formation of gravitationally confined composite structures with the mass and other properties of hadrons. One may model such structures by considering three neutrinos moving symmetrically on a circular orbit under the influence of their gravitational attraction, and by assuming quantization of their angular momentum, as in the Bohr model of the H atom. The model contains no adjustable parameters and its solution, using a neutrino rest mass of 0.05 eV/c2, leads to composite state radii close to 1 fm and composite state masses close to 1 GeV/c2. Similar models of relativistic rotating electron - neutrino pairs give a mass of 81 GeV/c2, close to that of W bosons. This novel mechanism of generating mass suggests that the Higgs mass generation mechanism can be modeled as a latent gravitational field which gets activated by relativistic neutrinos.
Relativistic Radiation Mediated Shocks
Budnik, Ran; Sagiv, Amir; Waxman, Eli
2010-01-01
The structure of relativistic radiation mediated shocks (RRMS) propagating into a cold electron-proton plasma is calculated and analyzed. A qualitative discussion of the physics of relativistic and non relativistic shocks, including order of magnitude estimates for the relevant temperature and length scales, is presented. Detailed numerical solutions are derived for shock Lorentz factors $\\Gamma_u$ in the range $6\\le\\Gamma_u\\le30$, using a novel iteration technique solving the hydrodynamics and radiation transport equations (the protons, electrons and positrons are argued to be coupled by collective plasma processes and are treated as a fluid). The shock transition (deceleration) region, where the Lorentz factor $ \\Gamma $ drops from $ \\Gamma_u $ to $ \\sim 1 $, is characterized by high plasma temperatures $ T\\sim \\Gamma m_ec^2 $ and highly anisotropic radiation, with characteristic shock-frame energy of upstream and downstream going photons of a few~$\\times\\, m_ec^2$ and $\\sim \\Gamma^2 m_ec^2$, respectively.P...
Parker, Edward
2017-08-01
A nonrelativistic particle released from rest at the edge of a ball of uniform charge density or mass density oscillates with simple harmonic motion. We consider the relativistic generalizations of these situations where the particle can attain speeds arbitrarily close to the speed of light; generalizing the electrostatic and gravitational cases requires special and general relativity, respectively. We find exact closed-form relations between the position, proper time, and coordinate time in both cases, and find that they are no longer harmonic, with oscillation periods that depend on the amplitude. In the highly relativistic limit of both cases, the particle spends almost all of its proper time near the turning points, but almost all of the coordinate time moving through the bulk of the ball. Buchdahl's theorem imposes nontrivial constraints on the general-relativistic case, as a ball of given density can only attain a finite maximum radius before collapsing into a black hole. This article is intended to be pedagogical, and should be accessible to those who have taken an undergraduate course in general relativity.
Radiation-driven MHD systems for space applications
Lee, J. H.; Jalufka, N. W.
High-power radiation such as concentrated solar or high-power laser radiation is considered as a driver for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems which could be developed for efficient power generation and propulsion in space. Eight different systems are conceivable since the MHD systems can be classified in two: plasma and liquid-metal MHD's. Each of these systems is reviewed and solar- (or laser-) driven MHD thrusters are proposed.
The mathematical theory of reduced MHD models for fusion plasmas
Guillard, Hervé
2015-01-01
The derivation of reduced MHD models for fusion plasma is here formulated as a special instance of the general theory of singular limit of hyperbolic system of PDEs with large operator. This formulation allows to use the general results of this theory and to prove rigorously that reduced MHD models are valid approximations of the full MHD equations. In particular, it is proven that the solutions of the full MHD system converge to the solutions of an appropriate reduced model.
Simulation of wave interactions with MHD
Batchelor, D; Bernholdt, D; Berry, L; Elwasif, W; Jaeger, E; Keyes, D; Klasky, S [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37331 (United States); Alba, C; Choi, M [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186 (United States); Bateman, G [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Bonoli, P [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MTT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bramley, R [Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Breslau, J; Chance, M; Chen, J; Fu, G; Jardin, S [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Harvey, R [CompX, Del Mar, CA 92014 (United States); Jenkins, T [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Kruger, S [Tech-X, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)], E-mail: batchelordb@ornl.gov (and others)
2008-07-15
The broad scientific objectives of the SWIM (Simulation 01 Wave Interaction with MHD) project are twofold: (1) improve our understanding of interactions that both radio frequency (RF) wave and particle sources have on extended-MHD phenomena, and to substantially improve our capability for predicting and optimizing the performance of burning plasmas in devices such as ITER: and (2) develop an integrated computational system for treating multiphysics phenomena with the required flexibility and extensibility to serve as a prototype for the Fusion Simulation Project. The Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) has been implemented. Presented here are initial physics results on RP effects on MHD instabilities in tokamaks as well as simulation results for tokamak discharge evolution using the IPS.
Simulation of wave interactions with MHD
Batchelor, Donald B [ORNL; Abla, G [General Atomics, San Diego; Bateman, Glenn [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; Bernholdt, David E [ORNL; Berry, Lee A [ORNL; Bonoli, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Bramley, R [Indiana University; Breslau, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Chance, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Chen, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Choi, M. [General Atomics; Elwasif, Wael R [ORNL; Fu, GuoYong [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Harvey, R. W. [CompX, Del Mar, CA; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick [ORNL; Jardin, S. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Jenkins, T [University of Wisconsin; Keyes, David E [Columbia University; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Kruger, Scott [Tech-X Corporation; Ku, Long-Poe [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Lynch, Vickie E [ORNL; McCune, Douglas [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Ramos, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Schissel, D. [General Atomics; Schnack, [University of Wisconsin; Wright, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
2008-07-01
The broad scientific objectives of the SWIM (Simulation of Wave Interaction with MHD) project are twofold: (1) improve our understanding of interactions that both radio frequency (RF) wave and particle sources have on extended-MHD phenomena, and to substantially improve our capability for predicting and optimizing the performance of burning plasmas in devices such as ITER: and (2) develop an integrated computational system for treating multiphysics phenomena with the required flexibility and extensibility to serve as a prototype for the Fusion Simulation Project. The Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) has been implemented. Presented here are initial physics results on RF effects on MHD instabilities in tokamaks as well as simulation results for tokamak discharge evolution using the IPS.
Observational Signatures of Tilted Black Hole Accretion Disks from Simulations
Dexter, Jason
2011-01-01
Geometrically thick accretion flows may be present in black hole X-ray binaries observed in the low/hard state and in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei. Unlike in geometrically thin disks, the angular momentum axis in these sources is not expected to align with the black hole spin axis. We compute images from three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of misaligned (tilted) accretion flows using relativistic radiative transfer, and compare the estimated locations of the radiation edge with expectations from their aligned (untilted) counterparts. The radiation edge in the tilted simulations is independent of black hole spin for a tilt of 15 degrees, in stark contrast to the results for untilted simulations, which agree with the monotonic dependence on spin expected from thin accretion disk theory. Synthetic emission line profiles from the tilted simulations depend strongly on the observer's azimuth, and exhibit unique features such as broad "blue wings." Coupled with precession,...
Trainsient Accretion Disk and Energy Mechanism of Gamma Ray Bursts
LU Ye; ZHENG Guang-Sheng; ZHAO Gang; YANG Lan-Tian
2000-01-01
We suggest that a rotating massive black hole (106M ) located at an inactive galaxy may convert its host into a transient active phase by capturing and disrupting a star. During this period, a transient accretion disk is formed and a strong transient magnetic field can be produced in the inner boundary of the accretion disk. A large amount of rotational energy of the black hole is extracted and released in the ultra relativistic jet with a bulk Lorentz factor larger than 103 via Blandford-Znajek process. The relativistic jet energy can be converted into γ-ray radiation in the shock region located at a distance of about 1.4 × 1016 cm via the external shock mechanism.The observed properties of GRB971214 is used to illustrate our model
COUNTER-ROTATION IN RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC JETS
Cayatte, V.; Sauty, C. [Laboratoire Univers et Théories, Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8102 du CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, F-92190 Meudon (France); Vlahakis, N.; Tsinganos, K. [Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, 15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Matsakos, T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Lima, J. J. G., E-mail: veronique.cayatte@obspm.fr [Centro de Astrofísica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)
2014-06-10
Young stellar object observations suggest that some jets rotate in the opposite direction with respect to their disk. In a recent study, Sauty et al. showed that this does not contradict the magnetocentrifugal mechanism that is believed to launch such outflows. Motion signatures that are transverse to the jet axis, in two opposite directions, have recently been measured in M87. One possible interpretation of this motion is that of counter-rotating knots. Here, we extend our previous analytical derivation of counter-rotation to relativistic jets, demonstrating that counter-rotation can indeed take place under rather general conditions. We show that both the magnetic field and a non-negligible enthalpy are necessary at the origin of counter-rotating outflows, and that the effect is associated with a transfer of energy flux from the matter to the electromagnetic field. This can be realized in three cases: if a decreasing enthalpy causes an increase of the Poynting flux, if the flow decelerates, or if strong gradients of the magnetic field are present. An illustration of the involved mechanism is given by an example of a relativistic magnetohydrodynamic jet simulation.
Point form relativistic quantum mechanics and relativistic SU(6)
Klink, W. H.
1993-01-01
The point form is used as a framework for formulating a relativistic quantum mechanics, with the mass operator carrying the interactions of underlying constituents. A symplectic Lie algebra of mass operators is introduced from which a relativistic harmonic oscillator mass operator is formed. Mass splittings within the degenerate harmonic oscillator levels arise from relativistically invariant spin-spin, spin-orbit, and tensor mass operators. Internal flavor (and color) symmetries are introduced which make it possible to formulate a relativistic SU(6) model of baryons (and mesons). Careful attention is paid to the permutation symmetry properties of the hadronic wave functions, which are written as polynomials in Bargmann spaces.
Can dead zones create transition disk like structures?
Pinilla, Paola; Ovelar, Maria de Juan; Birnstiel, Til
2016-01-01
[Abridged] Regions of low ionisation where the activity of the magneto-rotational instability is suppressed, the so called dead zones, have been suggested to explain gaps and asymmetries of transition disks. We investigate the gas and dust evolution simultaneously assuming simplified prescriptions for a dead zone and a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wind acting on the disk. We explore whether or not the resulting gas and dust distribution can create signatures similar to the ones observed in transition disks. For the dust evolution, we include the transport, growth, and fragmentation of dust particles. To compare with observations, we produce synthetic images in scattered optical light and in thermal emission at mm wavelengths. In all models with a dead zone, a bump in the gas surface density is produced, which is able to efficiently trap large particles ($\\gtrsim1$ mm) at the outer edge of the dead zone. The gas bump reaches an amplitude of a factor of $\\sim5$, which can be enhanced by the presence of a MHD wind ...
Dust Transport in Protostellar Disks Through Turbulence and Settling
Turner, N J; Sano, T
2009-01-01
We apply ionization balance and MHD calculations to investigate whether magnetic activity moderated by recombination on dust can account for the mass accretion rates and the mid-infrared spectra and variability of protostellar disks. The MHD calculations use the stratified shearing-box approach and include grain settling and the feedback from the changing dust abundance on the resistivity of the gas. The two-decade spread in accretion rates among T Tauri stars is too large to result solely from variety in the grain size and stellar X-ray luminosity, but can be produced by varying these together with the disk magnetic flux. The diversity in the silicate bands can come from the coupling of grain settling to the distribution of the magneto-rotational turbulence, through three effects: (1) Recombination on grains yields a magnetically inactive dead zone extending above two scale heights, while turbulence in the magnetically active disk atmosphere overshoots the dead zone boundary by only about one scale height. (...
Euler potentials for the MHD Kamchatnov-Hopf soliton solution
Semenov, VS; Korovinski, DB; Biernat, HK
2002-01-01
In the MHD description of plasma phenomena the concept of magnetic helicity turns out to be very useful. We present here an example of introducing Euler potentials into a topological MHD soliton which has non-trivial helicity. The MHD soliton solution (Kamchatnov, 1982) is based on the Hopf invarian
Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in one dimension.
Lyutikov, Maxim; Hadden, Samuel
2012-02-01
We derive a number of solutions for one-dimensional dynamics of relativistic magnetized plasma that can be used as benchmark estimates in relativistic hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic numerical codes. First, we analyze the properties of simple waves of fast modes propagating orthogonally to the magnetic field in relativistically hot plasma. The magnetic and kinetic pressures obey different equations of state, so that the system behaves as a mixture of gases with different polytropic indices. We find the self-similar solutions for the expansion of hot strongly magnetized plasma into vacuum. Second, we derive linear hodograph and Darboux equations for the relativistic Khalatnikov potential, which describe arbitrary one-dimensional isentropic relativistic motion of cold magnetized plasma and find their general and particular solutions. The obtained hodograph and Darboux equations are very powerful: A system of highly nonlinear, relativistic, time-dependent equations describing arbitrary (not necessarily self-similar) dynamics of highly magnetized plasma reduces to a single linear differential equation.
Safety and reliability in superconducting MHD magnets
Laverick, C.; Powell, J.; Hsieh, S.; Reich, M.; Botts, T.; Prodell, A.
1979-07-01
This compilation adapts studies on safety and reliability in fusion magnets to similar problems in superconducting MHD magnets. MHD base load magnet requirements have been identified from recent Francis Bitter National Laboratory reports and that of other contracts. Information relevant to this subject in recent base load magnet design reports for AVCO - Everett Research Laboratories and Magnetic Corporation of America is included together with some viewpoints from a BNL workshop on structural analysis needed for superconducting coils in magnetic fusion energy. A summary of design codes used in large bubble chamber magnet design is also included.
Explosively-driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator studies
Agee, F.J.; Lehr, F.M. [Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Vigil, M.; Kaye, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gaudet, J.; Shiffler, D. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1995-08-01
Plasma jet generators have been designed and tested which used an explosive driver and shocktube with a rectangular cross section that optimize the flow velocity and electrical conductivity. The latest in a series of designs has been tested using a reactive load to diagnose the electrical properties of the MHD generator/electromagnet combination. The results of these tests indicate that the plasma jet/MHD generator design does generate a flow velocity greater than 25 km/s and produces several gigawatts of pulsed power in a very small package size. A larger, new generator design is also presented.
Zhang, Dong
2010-01-01
Hyperaccreting disks around neutron stars or magnetars cooled via neutrino emission can be the potential central engine of GRBs. The neutron-star disk can cool more efficiently, produce much higher neutrino luminosity and neutrino annihilation luminosity than its black hole counterpart with the same accretion rate. The neutron star surface boundary layer could increase the annihilation luminosity as well. An ultra relativistic jet via neutrino annihilation can be produced along the stellar poles. Moreover, we investigate the effects of strong fields on the disks around magnetars. In general, stronger fields give higher disk densities, pressures, temperatures and neutrino luminosity; the neutrino annihilation mechanism and the magnetically-driven pulsar wind which extracts the stellar rotational energy can work together to generate and feed an even stronger ultra-relativistic jet along the stellar magnetic poles.
Efficiency of Thin Magnetically-Arrested Disks Around Black Holes
Avara, Mark J; Reynolds, Chris S
2015-01-01
The radiative and jet efficiencies of thin magnetized accretion disks around black holes (BHs) are affected by BH spin and the presence of a magnetic field that, when strong, could lead to large deviations from Novikov-Thorne (NT) thin disk theory. To seek the maximum deviations, we perform general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of radiatively efficient thin (half-height $H$ to radius $R$ of $H/R\\approx 0.10$) disks around moderately rotating BHs with $a/M=0.5$. First, our simulations, evolved for $108,000r_g/c$ (gravitational radius $r_g$ and speed of light $c$), show that large-scale magnetic field readily accretes inward even through our thin disk and builds-up to the magnetically-arrested disk (MAD) state. Second, our simulations of thin MADs show the disk achieves a radiative efficiency of $\\eta_{\\rm r}\\approx 15\\%$ (after estimating photon capture), which is about twice the NT value of $\\eta_{\\rm r}\\sim 8\\%$ for $a/M=0.5$ and gives the same luminosity as a NT disk with $a/M\\approx ...
Tilted Thick-Disk Accretion onto a Kerr Black Hole
Fragile, P C; Anninos, P
2003-12-12
We present the first results from fully general relativistic numerical studies of thick-disk accretion onto a rapidly-rotating (Kerr) black hole with a spin axis that is tilted (not aligned) with the angular momentum vector of the disk. We initialize the problem with the solution for an aligned, constant angular momentum, accreting thick disk around a black hole with spin a/M = J/M{sup 2} = +0.9 (prograde disk). The black hole is then instantaneously tilted, through a change in the metric, by an angle {beta}{sub 0}. In this Letter we report results with {beta}{sub 0} = 0, 15, and 30{sup o}. The disk is allowed to respond to the Lense-Thirring precession of the tilted black hole. We find that the disk settles into a quasi-static, twisted, warped configuration with Lense-Thirring precession dominating out to a radius analogous to the Bardeen-Petterson transition in tilted Keplerian disks.
Wang, Peng; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Santa Barbara, KITP
2007-12-18
Using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) adaptive mesh refinement simulations, we study the formation and early evolution of disk galaxies with a magnetized interstellar medium. For a 10{sup 10} M{sub {circle_dot}} halo with initial NFW dark matter and gas profiles, we impose a uniform 10{sup -9} G magnetic field and follow its collapse, disk formation and evolution up to 1 Gyr. Comparing to a purely hydrodynamic simulation with the same initial condition, we find that a protogalactic field of this strength does not significantly influence the global disk properties. At the same time, the initial magnetic fields are quickly amplified by the differentially rotating turbulent disk. After the initial rapid amplification lasting {approx} 500 Myr, subsequent field amplification appears self-regulated. As a result, highly magnetized material begin to form above and below the disk. Interestingly, the field strengths in the self-regulated regime agrees well with the observed fields in the Milky Way galaxy both in the warm and the cold HI phase and do not change appreciably with time. Most of the cold phase shows a dispersion of order ten in the magnetic field strength. The global azimuthal magnetic fields reverse at different radii and the amplitude declines as a function of radius of the disk. By comparing the estimated star formation rate (SFR) in hydrodynamic and MHD simulations, we find that after the magnetic field strength saturates, magnetic forces provide further support in the cold gas and lead to a decline of the SFR.
Wang, Peng; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Santa Barbara, KITP
2007-12-18
Using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) adaptive mesh refinement simulations, we study the formation and early evolution of disk galaxies with a magnetized interstellar medium. For a 10{sup 10} M{sub {circle_dot}} halo with initial NFW dark matter and gas profiles, we impose a uniform 10{sup -9} G magnetic field and follow its collapse, disk formation and evolution up to 1 Gyr. Comparing to a purely hydrodynamic simulation with the same initial condition, we find that a protogalactic field of this strength does not significantly influence the global disk properties. At the same time, the initial magnetic fields are quickly amplified by the differentially rotating turbulent disk. After the initial rapid amplification lasting {approx} 500 Myr, subsequent field amplification appears self-regulated. As a result, highly magnetized material begin to form above and below the disk. Interestingly, the field strengths in the self-regulated regime agrees well with the observed fields in the Milky Way galaxy both in the warm and the cold HI phase and do not change appreciably with time. Most of the cold phase shows a dispersion of order ten in the magnetic field strength. The global azimuthal magnetic fields reverse at different radii and the amplitude declines as a function of radius of the disk. By comparing the estimated star formation rate (SFR) in hydrodynamic and MHD simulations, we find that after the magnetic field strength saturates, magnetic forces provide further support in the cold gas and lead to a decline of the SFR.
The Collisions Of High-Velocity Clouds With A Magnetized Gaseous Galactic Disk
Santillan, A; Martos, M A; Kim, J; Santillan, Alfredo; Franco, Jose; Martos, Marco; Kim, Jongsoo
1999-01-01
We present two-dimensional MHD numerical simulations for the interaction of high-velocity clouds with both magnetic and non-magnetic Galactic thick gaseous disks. For the magnetic models, the initial magnetic field is oriented parallel to the disk, and we consider two different field topologies (with and without tension effects): parallel and perpendicular to the plane of motion of the clouds. The impinging clouds move in oblique trajectories and fall toward the central disk with different initial velocities. The $B$-field lines are distorted and compressed during the collision, increasing the field pressure and tension. This prevents the cloud material from penetrating into the disk, and can even transform a high-velocity inflow into an outflow, moving away from the disk. The perturbation creates a complex, turbulent, pattern of MHD waves that are able to traverse the disk of the Galaxy, and induce oscillations on both sides of the plane. Thus, the magnetic field efficiently transmits the perturbation over a...
Chu Yuming; Cheng Jinfa; Wang Gendi
2009-01-01
Let D R2 be a Jordan domain, D* = -R2 \\ -D, the exterior of D. In this article, the authors obtained the following results: (1) If D is a John disk, then D is an outer linearly locally connected domain; (2) If D* is a John disk, then D is an inner linearly locally connected domain; (3) A homeomorphism f: R2→R2 is a quasiconformal mapping if and only if f(D) is a John disk for any John disk D(∈)R2; and (4) If D is a bounded quasidisk, then D is a John disk, and there exists an unbounded quasidisk which is not a John disk.
Exploring Disks Around Planets
Kohler, Susanna
2017-07-01
Giant planets are thought to form in circumstellar disks surrounding young stars, but material may also accrete into a smaller disk around the planet. Weve never detected one of these circumplanetary disks before but thanks to new simulations, we now have a better idea of what to look for.Image from previous work simulating a Jupiter-mass planet forming inside a circumstellar disk. The planet has its own circumplanetary disk of accreted material. [Frdric Masset]Elusive DisksIn the formation of giant planets, we think the final phase consists of accretion onto the planet from a disk that surrounds it. This circumplanetary disk is important to understand, since it both regulates the late gas accretion and forms the birthplace of future satellites of the planet.Weve yet to detect a circumplanetary disk thus far, because the resolution needed to spot one has been out of reach. Now, however, were entering an era where the disk and its kinematics may be observable with high-powered telescopes (like the Atacama Large Millimeter Array).To prepare for such observations, we need models that predict the basic characteristics of these disks like the mass, temperature, and kinematic properties. Now a researcher at the ETH Zrich Institute for Astronomy in Switzerland, Judit Szulgyi, has worked toward this goal.Simulating CoolingSzulgyi performs a series of 3D global radiative hydrodynamic simulations of 1, 3, 5, and 10 Jupiter-mass (MJ) giant planets and their surrounding circumplanetary disks, embedded within the larger circumstellar disk around the central star.Density (left column), temperature (center), and normalized angular momentum (right) for a 1 MJ planet over temperatures cooling from 10,000 K (top) to 1,000 K (bottom). At high temperatures, a spherical circumplanetary envelope surrounds the planet, but as the planet cools, the envelope transitions around 64,000 K to a flattened disk. [Szulgyi 2017]This work explores the effects of different planet temperatures and
GRMHD Simulations of Disk/Jet Systems: Application to Collapsars
De Villiers, J P; Ouyed, R; Villiers, Jean-Pierre De; Staff, Jan; Ouyed, Rachid
2005-01-01
We have carried out 2D and 3D general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of jets launched self-consistently from accretion disks orbiting Kerr black holes. The accretion flow generates energetic jets in the axial funnel region of the disk/jet system, as well as a substantial coronal wind. The jets feature knot-like structures of extremely hot, ultra-relativistic gas; the gas in these knots begins at moderate velocities near the central engine, and is accelerated to ultra-relativistic velocities (Lorentz factors of 50, and higher) by the action of the magnetic field in the axial funnel. The increase in jet velocity takes place in an acceleration zone extending to at least a few hundred gravitational radii from the central engine. The overall energetics of the jets are strongly spin-dependent, with high-spin black holes producing the highest energy and mass fluxes. In addition, with high-spin black holes, the ultra-relativistic outflow is cylindrically collimated within a few hundred gravitational rad...
Isolated unilateral disk edema
Varner P
2011-01-01
Paul VarnerJohn J Pershing VAMC, Poplar Bluff, MO, USAAbstract: Isolated unilateral disk edema is a familiar clinical presentation with myriad associations. Related, non-consensus terminology is a barrier to understanding a common pathogenesis. Mechanisms for the development of disk edema are reviewed, and a new framework for clinical differentiation of medical associations is presented.Keywords: disk edema, axoplasmic flow, clinical multiplier, optic neuritis, ischemic optic neuropathy, papi...
Isolated unilateral disk edema
Varner P
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Paul VarnerJohn J Pershing VAMC, Poplar Bluff, MO, USAAbstract: Isolated unilateral disk edema is a familiar clinical presentation with myriad associations. Related, non-consensus terminology is a barrier to understanding a common pathogenesis. Mechanisms for the development of disk edema are reviewed, and a new framework for clinical differentiation of medical associations is presented.Keywords: disk edema, axoplasmic flow, clinical multiplier, optic neuritis, ischemic optic neuropathy, papilledema
Harko, Tiberiu; Mocanu, Gabriela
2014-01-01
We consider a description of the stochastic oscillations of the general relativistic accretion disks around compact astrophysical objects interacting with their external medium based on a generalized Langevin equation with colored noise, which accounts for the general memory and retarded effects of the frictional force, and on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The presence of the memory effects influences the response of the disk to external random interactions, and modifies the dynamical behavior of the disk, as well as the energy dissipation processes. The generalized Langevin equation of the motion of the disk in the vertical direction is studied numerically, and the vertical displacements, velocities and luminosities of the stochastically perturbed disks are explicitly obtained for both the Schwarzschild and the Kerr cases. The Power Spectral Distribution (PSD) of the disk luminosity is also obtained. As a possible astrophysical application of the formalism we investigate the possibility that the Intra...
Khayrullin, N.A.; Isayev, B.N.; Kruglov, S.A.; Molokanov, Yu.K.; Shchelkunov, V.A.; Shegay, V.R.; Vizhgorodskiy, B.N.
1982-01-01
A valve disk is proposed which includes a horizontal bed, on which there are laminar valves arranged in staggered order. To ensure the stable and effective operation of the disk in a broad range of loads by compensating for the direct flow and the partial sectioning of the disk bed, it is equipped with compensating elements installed in openings in the bed and hinged with it. They are made in the form of straight, triangular prisms with ports in the bases. The prisms are installed with the capability of movement relative to the disk bed. The valves are positioned on the upper lateral facets of the compensating elements.
Fully Parallel MHD Stability Analysis Tool
Svidzinski, Vladimir; Galkin, Sergei; Kim, Jin-Soo; Liu, Yueqiang
2015-11-01
Progress on full parallelization of the plasma stability code MARS will be reported. MARS calculates eigenmodes in 2D axisymmetric toroidal equilibria in MHD-kinetic plasma models. It is a powerful tool for studying MHD and MHD-kinetic instabilities and it is widely used by fusion community. Parallel version of MARS is intended for simulations on local parallel clusters. It will be an efficient tool for simulation of MHD instabilities with low, intermediate and high toroidal mode numbers within both fluid and kinetic plasma models, already implemented in MARS. Parallelization of the code includes parallelization of the construction of the matrix for the eigenvalue problem and parallelization of the inverse iterations algorithm, implemented in MARS for the solution of the formulated eigenvalue problem. Construction of the matrix is parallelized by distributing the load among processors assigned to different magnetic surfaces. Parallelization of the solution of the eigenvalue problem is made by repeating steps of the present MARS algorithm using parallel libraries and procedures. Results of MARS parallelization and of the development of a new fix boundary equilibrium code adapted for MARS input will be reported. Work is supported by the U.S. DOE SBIR program.
Application of ADER Scheme in MHD Simulation
ZHANG Yanyan; FENG Xueshang; JIANG Chaowei; ZHOU Yufen
2012-01-01
The Arbitrary accuracy Derivatives Riemann problem method（ADER） scheme is a new high order numerical scheme based on the concept of finite volume integration,and it is very easy to be extended up to any order of space and time accuracy by using a Taylor time expansion at the cell interface position.So far the approach has been applied successfully to flow mechanics problems.Our objective here is to carry out the extension of multidimensional ADER schemes to multidimensional MHD systems of conservation laws by calculating several MHD problems in one and two dimensions： （ⅰ） Brio-Wu shock tube problem,（ⅱ） Dai-Woodward shock tube problem,（ⅲ） Orszag-Tang MHD vortex problem.The numerical results prove that the ADER scheme possesses the ability to solve MHD problem,remains high order accuracy both in space and time,keeps precise in capturing the shock.Meanwhile,the compared tests show that the ADER scheme can restrain the oscillation and obtain the high order non-oscillatory result.
Hodograph method in MHD orthogonal fluid flows
P. V. Nguyen
1992-01-01
Full Text Available Equations for steady plane MHD orthogonal flows of a viscous incompressible fluid of finite electrical conductivity are recast in the hodograph plane by using the Legendre transform function of the streamfunction. Three examples are studied to illustrate the developed theory. Solutions and geometries for these examples are determined.
Principal characteristics of SFC type MHD generator
Kayukawa, Naoyuki; Oikawa, Shun-ichi; Aoki, Yoshiaki; Seidou, Tadashi; Okinaka, Noriyuki
1988-02-01
This paper describes the experimental and analytical results obtained for an MHD channel with a two dimensionally shaped magnetic field configuration called 'the SFC-type'. The power generating performance was examined under various load conditions and B-field intensities with a 2 MWt shock tunnel MHD facility. It is demonstrated that the power output performance and the enthalpy extraction scaling law of the conventional uniform B-field MHD generator (UFC-type) were significantly improved by the SFC-design of the spatial distribution of the magnetic field. The arcing processes were also examined by a high speed camera and the post-test observation of arc spot traces on electrodes. Further, the characteristic frequencies of each of the so-called micro and constricted arcs were clarified by spectral analyses. The critical current densities, which define the transient conditions of each from the diffuse-to micro arc, and from the micro-to constricted arc modes could be clearly obtained by the present spectral analysis method. We also investigated the three-dimensional behavior under strong magnetic field based on the coupled electrical and hydrodynamical equations for both of the middle scale SFC-and UFC-type generators. Finally, it is concluded from the above mentioned various aspects that the shaped 2-D magnetic field design will offer a most useful means for the realization of a compact, high efficiency and a long duration open-cycle MHD generator.
Pseudo-reconnection in MHD numerical simulation
无
2000-01-01
A class of pseudo-reconnections caused by a shifted mesh in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations is reported. In terms of this mesh system, some non-physical results may be obtained in certain circumstances, e.g. magnetic reconnection occurs without resistivity. After comparison, another kind of mesh is strongly recommended.
MHD equilibrium and stability in heliotron plasmas
Ichiguchi, Katsuji [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)
1999-09-01
Recent topics in the theoretical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) analysis in the heliotron configuration are overviewed. Particularly, properties of three-dimensional equilibria, stability boundary of the interchange mode, effects of the net toroidal current including the bootstrap current and the ballooning mode stability are focused. (author)
Bagchi, Joydeep; Vivek, M.; Srianand, Raghunathan; Gopal-Krishna [The Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), Pune University Campus, Post Bag 4, Pune 411007 (India); Vikram, Vinu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, PA 19104 (United States); Hota, Ananda [UM-DAE Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences, Vidyanagari, Mumbai 400098 (India); Biju, K. G. [Department of Physics, W.M.O. Arts and Science College, Post Office Muttil, North Kalpetta, Wayanad (India); Sirothia, S. K. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA), TIFR, Pune University Campus, Post Bag 3, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Jacob, Joe, E-mail: joydeep@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Newman College, Thodupuzha 685 585 (India)
2014-06-20
The radio galaxy phenomenon is directly connected to mass-accreting, spinning supermassive black holes found in the active galactic nuclei. It is still unclear how the collimated jets of relativistic plasma on hundreds to thousands of kiloparsec scales form and why they are nearly always launched from the nuclei of bulge-dominated elliptical galaxies and not flat spirals. Here we present the discovery of the giant radio source J2345–0449 (z = 0.0755), a clear and extremely rare counterexample where relativistic jets are ejected from a luminous and massive spiral galaxy on a scale of ∼1.6 Mpc, the largest known so far. Extreme physical properties observed for this bulgeless spiral host, such as its high optical and infrared luminosity, large dynamical mass, rapid disk rotation, and episodic jet activity, are possibly the results of its unusual formation history, which has also assembled, via gas accretion from a disk, its central black hole of mass >2 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}. The very high mid-IR luminosity of the galaxy suggests that it is actively forming stars and still building a massive disk. We argue that the launch of these powerful jets is facilitated by an advection-dominated, magnetized accretion flow at a low Eddington rate onto this unusually massive (for a bulgeless disk galaxy) and possibly fast spinning central black hole. Therefore, J2345–0449 is an extremely rare, unusual galactic system whose properties challenge the standard paradigms for black hole growth and the formation of relativistic jets in disk galaxies. Thus, it provides fundamental insight into accretion disk-relativistic jet coupling processes.
Recurrence relation for relativistic atomic matrix elements
Martínez y Romero, R P; Salas-Brito, A L
2000-01-01
Recurrence formulae for arbitrary hydrogenic radial matrix elements are obtained in the Dirac form of relativistic quantum mechanics. Our approach is inspired on the relativistic extension of the second hypervirial method that has been succesfully employed to deduce an analogous relationship in non relativistic quantum mechanics. We obtain first the relativistic extension of the second hypervirial and then the relativistic recurrence relation. Furthermore, we use such relation to deduce relativistic versions of the Pasternack-Sternheimer rule and of the virial theorem.
Relativistic twins or sextuplets?
Sheldon, E S
2003-01-01
A recent study of the relativistic twin 'paradox' by Soni in this journal affirmed that 'A simple solution of the twin paradox also shows anomalous behaviour of rigidly connected distant clocks' but entailed a pedagogic hurdle which the present treatment aims to surmount. Two scenarios are presented: the first 'flight-plan' is akin to that depicted by Soni, with constant-velocity segments, while the second portrays an alternative mission undertaken with sustained acceleration and deceleration, illustrated quantitatively for a two-way spacecraft flight from Earth to Polaris (465.9 light years distant) and back.
Numerical Relativistic Quantum Optics
2013-11-08
µm and a = 1. The condition for an atomic spectrum to be non-relativistic is Z α−1 ≈ 137, as follows from elementary Dirac theory. One concludes that...peculiar result that B0 = 1 TG is a weak field. At present, such fields are observed only in connection with astrophysical phenomena [14]. The highest...pulsars. The Astrophysical Journal, 541:367–373, Sep 2000. [15] M. Tatarakis, I. Watts, F.N. Beg, E.L. Clark, A.E. Dangor, A. Gopal, M.G. Haines, P.A
Relativistic quantum information
Mann, R. B.; Ralph, T. C.
2012-11-01
Over the past few years, a new field of high research intensity has emerged that blends together concepts from gravitational physics and quantum computing. Known as relativistic quantum information, or RQI, the field aims to understand the relationship between special and general relativity and quantum information. Since the original discoveries of Hawking radiation and the Unruh effect, it has been known that incorporating the concepts of quantum theory into relativistic settings can produce new and surprising effects. However it is only in recent years that it has become appreciated that the basic concepts involved in quantum information science undergo significant revision in relativistic settings, and that new phenomena arise when quantum entanglement is combined with relativity. A number of examples illustrate that point. Quantum teleportation fidelity is affected between observers in uniform relative acceleration. Entanglement is an observer-dependent property that is degraded from the perspective of accelerated observers moving in flat spacetime. Entanglement can also be extracted from the vacuum of relativistic quantum field theories, and used to distinguish peculiar motion from cosmological expansion. The new quantum information-theoretic framework of quantum channels in terms of completely positive maps and operator algebras now provides powerful tools for studying matters of causality and information flow in quantum field theory in curved spacetimes. This focus issue provides a sample of the state of the art in research in RQI. Some of the articles in this issue review the subject while others provide interesting new results that will stimulate further research. What makes the subject all the more exciting is that it is beginning to enter the stage at which actual experiments can be contemplated, and some of the articles appearing in this issue discuss some of these exciting new developments. The subject of RQI pulls together concepts and ideas from
Corinaldesi, Ernesto
1963-01-01
Geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students of physics, this text provides readers with a background in relativistic wave mechanics and prepares them for the study of field theory. The treatment originated as a series of lectures from a course on advanced quantum mechanics that has been further amplified by student contributions.An introductory section related to particles and wave functions precedes the three-part treatment. An examination of particles of spin zero follows, addressing wave equation, Lagrangian formalism, physical quantities as mean values, translation and rotat
Rössler, O E; Matsuno, K
1998-04-01
The two mindsets of absolutism and relativism are juxtaposed, and the relational or relativist stance is vindicated. The only 'absolute' entity which undeniably exists, consciousness has the reality of a dream. The escape hatch from this prison is relational, as Descartes and Levinas found out: Unfalsified relational consistency implies exteriority. Exteriority implies infinite power which in turn makes compassion inevitable. Aside from ethics as a royal way to enlightenment, a new technology called 'deep technology' may be accessible. It changes the whole world in a demonstrable fashion by manipulation of the micro frame--that is, the observer-world interface.
Transverse electron-scale instability in relativistic shear flows
Alves, E P; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O
2015-01-01
Electron-scale surface waves are shown to be unstable in the transverse plane of a shear flow in an initially unmagnetized plasma, unlike in the (magneto)hydrodynamics case. It is found that these unstable modes have a higher growth rate than the closely related electron-scale Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in relativistic shears. Multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations verify the analytic results and further reveal the emergence of mushroom-like electron density structures in the nonlinear phase of the instability, similar to those observed in the Rayleigh Taylor instability despite the great disparity in scales and different underlying physics. Macroscopic ($\\gg c/\\omega_{pe}$) fields are shown to be generated by these microscopic shear instabilities, which are relevant for particle acceleration, radiation emission and to seed MHD processes at long time-scales.
WOBBLING AND PRECESSING JETS FROM WARPED DISKS IN BINARY SYSTEMS
Sheikhnezami, Somayeh [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fendt, Christian, E-mail: nezami@mpia.de, E-mail: fendt@mpia.de [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg (Germany)
2015-12-01
We present results of the first ever three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the accretion–ejection structure. We investigate the 3D evolution of jets launched symmetrically from single stars but also jets from warped disks in binary systems. We have applied various model setups and tested them by simulating a stable and bipolar symmetric 3D structure from a single star–disk–jet system. Our reference simulation maintains a good axial symmetry and also a bipolar symmetry for more than 500 rotations of the inner disk, confirming the quality of our model setup. We have then implemented a 3D gravitational potential (Roche potential) due by a companion star and run a variety of simulations with different binary separations and mass ratios. These simulations show typical 3D deviations from axial symmetry, such as jet bending outside the Roche lobe or spiral arms forming in the accretion disk. In order to find indications of precession effects, we have also run an exemplary parameter setup, essentially governed by a small binary separation of only ≃200 inner disk radii. This simulation shows a strong indication that we observe the onset of a jet precession caused by the wobbling of the jet-launching disk. We estimate the opening angle of the precession cone defined by the lateral motion of the jet axis to be about 4° after about 5000 dynamical time steps.
General-relativistic resistive magnetohydrodynamics in three dimensions: Formulation and tests
Dionysopoulou, Kyriaki; Alic, Daniela; Palenzuela, Carlos; Rezzolla, Luciano; Giacomazzo, Bruno
2013-08-01
We present a new numerical implementation of the general-relativistic resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations within the Whisky code. The numerical method adopted exploits the properties of implicit-explicit Runge-Kutta numerical schemes to treat the stiff terms that appear in the equations for large electrical conductivities. Using tests in one, two, and three dimensions, we show that our implementation is robust and recovers the ideal-MHD limit in regimes of very high conductivity. Moreover, the results illustrate that the code is capable of describing scenarios in a very wide range of conductivities. In addition to tests in flat spacetime, we report simulations of magnetized nonrotating relativistic stars, both in the Cowling approximation and in dynamical spacetimes. Finally, because of its astrophysical relevance and because it provides a severe tested for general-relativistic codes with dynamical electromagnetic fields, we study the collapse of a nonrotating star to a black hole. We show that also in this case our results on the quasinormal mode frequencies of the excited electromagnetic fields in the Schwarzschild background agree with the perturbative studies within 0.7% and 5.6% for the real and the imaginary part of the ℓ=1 mode eigenfrequency, respectively. Finally we provide an estimate of the electromagnetic efficiency of this process.
Collisionless magnetic reconnection under anisotropic MHD approximation
Hirabayashi, Kota; Hoshino, Masahiro
We study the formation of slow-mode shocks in collisionless magnetic reconnection by using one- and two-dimensional collisionless magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) simulations based on the double adiabatic approximation, which is an important step to bridge the gap between the Petschek-type MHD reconnection model accompanied by a pair of slow shocks and the observational evidence of the rare occasion of in-situ slow shock observation. According to our results, a pair of slow shocks does form in the reconnection layer. The resultant shock waves, however, are quite weak compared with those in an isotropic MHD from the point of view of the plasma compression and the amount of the magnetic energy released across the shock. Once the slow shock forms, the downstream plasma are heated in highly anisotropic manner and a firehose-sense (P_{||}>P_{⊥}) pressure anisotropy arises. The maximum anisotropy is limited by the marginal firehose criterion, 1-(P_{||}-P_{⊥})/B(2) =0. In spite of the weakness of the shocks, the resultant reconnection rate is kept at the same level compared with that in the corresponding ordinary MHD simulations. It is also revealed that the sequential order of propagation of the slow shock and the rotational discontinuity, which appears when the guide field component exists, changes depending on the magnitude of the guide field. Especially, when no guide field exists, the rotational discontinuity degenerates with the contact discontinuity remaining at the position of the initial current sheet, while with the slow shock in the isotropic MHD. Our result implies that the slow shock does not necessarily play an important role in the energy conversion in the reconnection system and is consistent with the satellite observation in the Earth's magnetosphere.
General Relativistic Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code developments: A progress report
Faber, Joshua; Silberman, Zachary; Rizzo, Monica
2017-01-01
We report on our progress in developing a new general relativistic Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code, which will be appropriate for studying the properties of accretion disks around black holes as well as compact object binary mergers and their ejecta. We will discuss in turn the relativistic formalisms being used to handle the evolution, our techniques for dealing with conservative and primitive variables, as well as those used to ensure proper conservation of various physical quantities. Code tests and performance metrics will be discussed, as will the prospects for including smoothed particle hydrodynamics codes within other numerical relativity codebases, particularly the publicly available Einstein Toolkit. We acknowledge support from NSF award ACI-1550436 and an internal RIT D-RIG grant.
Exotic Non-relativistic String
Casalbuoni, Roberto; Longhi, Giorgio
2007-01-01
We construct a classical non-relativistic string model in 3+1 dimensions. The model contains a spurion tensor field that is responsible for the non-commutative structure of the model. Under double dimensional reduction the model reduces to the exotic non-relativistic particle in 2+1 dimensions.
'Antigravity' Propulsion and Relativistic Hyperdrive
Felber, F S
2006-01-01
Exact payload trajectories in the strong gravitational fields of compact masses moving with constant relativistic velocities are calculated. The strong field of a suitable driver mass at relativistic speeds can quickly propel a heavy payload from rest to a speed significantly faster than the driver, a condition called hyperdrive. Hyperdrive thresholds and maxima are calculated as functions of driver mass and velocity.
A Simple Relativistic Bohr Atom
Terzis, Andreas F.
2008-01-01
A simple concise relativistic modification of the standard Bohr model for hydrogen-like atoms with circular orbits is presented. As the derivation requires basic knowledge of classical and relativistic mechanics, it can be taught in standard courses in modern physics and introductory quantum mechanics. In addition, it can be shown in a class that…
A Simple Relativistic Bohr Atom
Terzis, Andreas F.
2008-01-01
A simple concise relativistic modification of the standard Bohr model for hydrogen-like atoms with circular orbits is presented. As the derivation requires basic knowledge of classical and relativistic mechanics, it can be taught in standard courses in modern physics and introductory quantum mechanics. In addition, it can be shown in a class that…
Probing acceleration and turbulence at relativistic shocks in blazar jets
Baring, Matthew G.; Böttcher, Markus; Summerlin, Errol J.
2017-02-01
Diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at relativistic shocks is widely thought to be an important acceleration mechanism in various astrophysical jet sources, including radio-loud active galactic nuclei such as blazars. Such acceleration can produce the non-thermal particles that emit the broad-band continuum radiation that is detected from extragalactic jets. An important recent development for blazar science is the ability of Fermi-Large Area Telescope spectroscopy to pin down the shape of the distribution of the underlying non-thermal particle population. This paper highlights how multiwavelength spectra spanning optical to X-ray to gamma-ray bands can be used to probe diffusive acceleration in relativistic, oblique, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks in blazar jets. Diagnostics on the MHD turbulence near such shocks are obtained using thermal and non-thermal particle distributions resulting from detailed Monte Carlo simulations of DSA. These probes are afforded by the characteristic property that the synchrotron νFν peak energy does not appear in the gamma-ray band above 100 MeV. We investigate self-consistently the radiative synchrotron and inverse Compton signatures of the simulated particle distributions. Important constraints on the diffusive mean free paths of electrons, and the level of electromagnetic field turbulence are identified for three different case study blazars, Mrk 501, BL Lacertae and AO 0235+164. The X-ray excess of AO 0235+164 in a flare state can be modelled as the signature of bulk Compton scattering of external radiation fields, thereby tightly constraining the energy-dependence of the diffusion coefficient for electrons. The concomitant interpretations that turbulence levels decline with remoteness from jet shocks, and the probable significant role for non-gyroresonant diffusion, are posited.
Komissarov, S S; Lyutikov, M
2015-01-01
In this paper we describe a simple numerical approach which allows to study the structure of steady-state axisymmetric relativistic jets using one-dimensional time-dependent simulations. It is based on the fact that for narrow jets with v~c the steady-state equations of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics can be accurately approximated by the one-dimensional time-dependent equations after the substitution z=ct. Since only the time-dependent codes are now publicly available this is a valuable and efficient alternative to the development of a high-specialized code for the time-independent equations. The approach is also much cheaper and more robust compared to the relaxation method. We tested this technique against numerical and analytical solutions found in literature as well as solutions we obtained using the relaxation method and found it sufficiently accurate. In the process, we discovered the reason for the failure of the self-similar analytical model of the jet reconfinement in relatively flat atmospheres a...
Robust relativistic bit commitment
Chakraborty, Kaushik; Chailloux, André; Leverrier, Anthony
2016-12-01
Relativistic cryptography exploits the fact that no information can travel faster than the speed of light in order to obtain security guarantees that cannot be achieved from the laws of quantum mechanics alone. Recently, Lunghi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 030502 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.030502] presented a bit-commitment scheme where each party uses two agents that exchange classical information in a synchronized fashion, and that is both hiding and binding. A caveat is that the commitment time is intrinsically limited by the spatial configuration of the players, and increasing this time requires the agents to exchange messages during the whole duration of the protocol. While such a solution remains computationally attractive, its practicality is severely limited in realistic settings since all communication must remain perfectly synchronized at all times. In this work, we introduce a robust protocol for relativistic bit commitment that tolerates failures of the classical communication network. This is done by adding a third agent to both parties. Our scheme provides a quadratic improvement in terms of expected sustain time compared with the original protocol, while retaining the same level of security.
A relativistic trolley paradox
Matvejev, Vadim N.; Matvejev, Oleg V.; Grøn, Ø.
2016-06-01
We present an apparent paradox within the special theory of relativity, involving a trolley with relativistic velocity and its rolling wheels. Two solutions are given, both making clear the physical reality of the Lorentz contraction, and that the distance on the rails between each time a specific point on the rim touches the rail is not equal to 2 π R , where R is the radius of the wheel, but 2 π R / √{ 1 - R 2 Ω 2 / c 2 } , where Ω is the angular velocity of the wheels. In one solution, the wheel radius is constant as the velocity of the trolley increases, and in the other the wheels contract in the radial direction. We also explain two surprising facts. First that the shape of a rolling wheel is elliptical in spite of the fact that the upper part of the wheel moves faster than the lower part, and thus is more Lorentz contracted, and second that a Lorentz contracted wheel with relativistic velocity rolls out a larger distance between two successive touches of a point of the wheel on the rails than the length of a circle with the same radius as the wheels.
Fractional Dynamics of Relativistic Particle
Tarasov, Vasily E
2011-01-01
Fractional dynamics of relativistic particle is discussed. Derivatives of fractional orders with respect to proper time describe long-term memory effects that correspond to intrinsic dissipative processes. Relativistic particle subjected to a non-potential four-force is considered as a nonholonomic system. The nonholonomic constraint in four-dimensional space-time represents the relativistic invariance by the equation for four-velocity u_{\\mu} u^{\\mu}+c^2=0, where c is a speed of light in vacuum. In the general case, the fractional dynamics of relativistic particle is described as non-Hamiltonian and dissipative. Conditions for fractional relativistic particle to be a Hamiltonian system are considered.
Youdin, Andrew N
2015-01-01
Planetesimals form in gas-rich protoplanetary disks around young stars. However, protoplanetary disks fade in about 10 Myr. The planetesimals (and also many of the planets) left behind are too dim to study directly. Fortunately, collisions between planetesimals produce dusty debris disks. These debris disks trace the processes of terrestrial planet formation for 100 Myr and of exoplanetary system evolution out to 10 Gyr. This chapter begins with a summary of planetesimal formation as a prelude to the epoch of planetesimal destruction. Our review of debris disks covers the key issues, including dust production and dynamics, needed to understand the observations. Our discussion of extrasolar debris keeps an eye on similarities to and differences from Solar System dust.
Measuring A Truncated Disk in Aquila X-1
King, Ashley L; Miller, Jon M; Chenevez, Jerome; Barret, Didier; Boggs, Steven E; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Furst, Felix; Hailey, Charles J; Harrison, Fiona A; Parker, Michael L; Stern, Daniel; Romano, Patrizia; Walton, Dominic J; Zhang, William W
2016-01-01
We present NuSTAR and Swift observations of the neutron star Aquila X-1 during the peak of its July 2014 outburst. The spectrum is soft with strong evidence for a broad Fe K\\alpha line. Modeled with a relativistically broadened reflection model, we find that the inner disk is truncated with an inner radius of 15+/-3 R_G. The disk is likely truncated by either the boundary layer and/or a magnetic field. Associating the truncated inner disk with pressure from a magnetic field gives an upper limit of B<5+/-2x10^8G. Although the radius is truncated far from the stellar surface, material is still reaching the neutron star surface as evidenced by the X-ray burst present in the t NuSTAR observation.
Ring sequence decomposition of an accretion disk: the viscoresistive approach
Benini, Riccardo; Petitta, Jacopo
2011-01-01
We analyze a two dimensional viscoresistive magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) model for a thin accretion disk which reconciles the crystalline structure outlined in [Coppi(2005), Coppi and Rousseau(2006)] with real microscopic and macroscopic features of astrophysical accreting systems. In particular, we consider small dissipative effects (viscosity and resistivity, characterized by a magnetic Prandtl number of order unity), poloidal matter fluxes and a toroidal component of the magnetic field. These new ingredients allow us to set up the full equilibrium profile including the azimuthal component of the momentum conservation equation and the electron force balance relation. These two additional equations, which were identically satisfied in the original model, permit us to deal with non-zero radial and vertical matter fluxes, and the solution we construct for the global equilibrium system provides a full description of the radial and vertical dependence within the plasma disk. The main issue of our analysis is outl...
Hydromagnetic Stability of a Slim Disk in a Stationary Geometry
Araya-Gochez, R A
2002-01-01
The magnetorotational instability originates from the elastic coupling of fluid elements in orbit around a gravitational well. Since inertial accelerations play a fundamental dynamical role in the process, one may expect substantial modifications by strong gravity in the case of accretion onto a black hole. In this paper, we develop a fully covariant, Lagrangian displacement vector field formalism with the aim of addressing these issues for a disk embedded in a stationary geometry with negligible radial flow. This construction avails a transparent connection between particle dynamics and the ensuing dispersion relation for MHD wave modes. The MRI--in its incompressible variant--is found to operate virtually unabated down to the marginally stable orbit; the putative inner boundary of standard accretion disk theory. To get a qualitative feel for the dynamical evolution of the flow below $r_{\\rm ms}$, we assume a mildly advective accretion flow such that the angular velocity profile departs slowly from circular ...
Turbulence in weakly-ionized proto-planetary disks
Flock, M; Klahr, H
2012-01-01
We investigate the characteristic properties of self-sustained MRI turbulence in low-ionized proto-planetary disks. We study the transition regime between active and dead-zone, performing 3D global non-ideal MHD simulations of stratified disk covering range of magnetic Reynolds number between 2700 5000 with a strength of alpha ~ 0.01. Below Rm < 5000 the MRI starts to decay at the midplane, having Elsasser numbers below one. We find a transition regime between 3300 < Rm < 5000 where the MRI turbulence is still sustained but damped. At around Rm < 3000 the MRI turbulence decays but could reestablished due to the accumulation of toroidal magnetic field or the radial transport of magnetic field from the active region. Below Rm < 3000 the MRI cannot be sustained and is decaying. Here hydro-dynamical motions, like density waves dominate. We observe anti-cyclonic vortices in the transition between dead-zone and active zone.
Turbulent Mixing and the Dead Zone in Protostellar Disks
Turner, N J; Dziourkevitch, N
2006-01-01
We investigate the conditions for the presence of a magnetically inactive dead zone in protostellar disks, using 3-D shearing-box MHD calculations including vertical stratification, Ohmic resistivity and time-dependent ionization chemistry. Activity driven by the magnetorotational instability fills the whole thickness of the disk at 5 AU, provided cosmic ray ionization is present, small grains are absent and the gas-phase metal abundance is sufficiently high. At 1 AU the larger column density of 1700 g/cm^2 means the midplane is shielded from ionizing particles and remains magnetorotationally stable even under the most favorable conditions considered. Nevertheless the dead zone is effectively eliminated. Turbulence mixes free charges into the interior as they recombine, leading to a slight coupling of the midplane gas to the magnetic fields. Weak, large-scale radial fields diffuse to the midplane where they are sheared out to produce stronger azimuthal fields. The resulting midplane accretion stresses are jus...
Radiatively inefficient MHD accretion-ejection structures
Casse, F; Casse, Fabien; Keppens, Rony
2004-01-01
We present magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a resistive accretion disk continuously launching transmagnetosonic, collimated jets. We time-evolve the full set of magnetohydrodynamic equations, but neglect radiative losses in the energetics (radiatively inefficient). Our calculations demonstrate that a jet is self-consistently produced by the interaction of an accretion disk with an open, initially bent large-scale magnetic field. A constant fraction of heated disk material is launched in the inner equipartition disk regions, leading to the formation of a hot corona and a bright collimated, super-fastmagnetosonic jet. We illustrate the complete dynamics of the ``hot'' near steady-state outflow (where thermal pressure $\\simeq$ magnetic pressure) by showing force balance, energy budget and current circuits. The evolution to this near stationary state is analyzed in terms of the temporal variation of energy fluxes controlling the energetics of the accretion disk. We find that unlike advection-dominated accretion...
Toward realistic simulations of magneto-thermal winds from weakly-ionized protoplanetary disks
Gressel, Oliver
2016-01-01
Protoplanetary disks (PPDs) accrete onto their central T Tauri star via magnetic stresses. When the effect of ambipolar diffusion (AD) is included, and in the presence of a vertical magnetic field, the disk remains laminar between 1-5 au, and a magnetocentrifugal disk wind forms that provides an important mechanism for removing angular momentum. We present global MHD simulations of PPDs that include Ohmic resistivity and AD, where the time-dependent gas-phase electron and ion fractions are computed under FUV and X-ray ionization with a simplified recombination chemistry. To investigate whether the mass loading of the wind is potentially affected by the limited vertical extent of our existing simulations, we attempt to develop a model of a realistic disk atmosphere. To this end, by accounting for stellar irradiation and diffuse reprocessing of radiation, we aim at improving our models towards more realistic thermodynamic properties.
Murphy, G C; Pelletier, Guy
2008-01-01
Magnetic reconnection plays a critical role in many astrophysical processes where high energy emission is observed, e.g. particle acceleration, relativistic accretion powered outflows, pulsar winds and probably in dissipation of Poynting flux in GRBs. The magnetic field acts as a reservoir of energy and can dissipate its energy to thermal and kinetic energy via the tearing mode instability. We have performed 3d nonlinear MHD simulations of the tearing mode instability in a current sheet. Results from a temporal stability analysis in both the linear regime and weakly nonlinear (Rutherford) regime are compared to the numerical simulations. We observe magnetic island formation, island merging and oscillation once the instability has saturated. The growth in the linear regime is exponential in agreement with linear theory. In the second, Rutherford regime the island width grows linearly with time. We find that thermal energy produced in the current sheet strongly dominates the kinetic energy. Finally preliminary ...
Relativistic Fractal Cosmologies
Ribeiro, Marcelo B
2009-01-01
This article reviews an approach for constructing a simple relativistic fractal cosmology whose main aim is to model the observed inhomogeneities of the distribution of galaxies by means of the Lemaitre-Tolman solution of Einstein's field equations for spherically symmetric dust in comoving coordinates. This model is based on earlier works developed by L. Pietronero and J.R. Wertz on Newtonian cosmology, whose main points are discussed. Observational relations in this spacetime are presented, together with a strategy for finding numerical solutions which approximate an averaged and smoothed out single fractal structure in the past light cone. Such fractal solutions are shown, with one of them being in agreement with some basic observational constraints, including the decay of the average density with the distance as a power law (the de Vaucouleurs' density power law) and the fractal dimension in the range 1 <= D <= 2. The spatially homogeneous Friedmann model is discussed as a special case of the Lemait...
Relativistic Gravothermal Instabilities
Roupas, Zacharias
2014-01-01
The thermodynamic instabilities of the self-gravitating, classical ideal gas are studied in the case of static, spherically symmetric configurations in General Relativity taking into account the Tolman-Ehrenfest effect. One type of instabilities is found at low energies, where thermal energy becomes too weak to halt gravity and another at high energies, where gravitational attraction of thermal pressure overcomes its stabilizing effect. These turning points of stability are found to depend on the total rest mass $\\mathcal{M}$ over the radius $R$. The low energy instability is the relativistic generalization of Antonov instability, which is recovered in the limit $G\\mathcal{M} \\ll R c^2$ and low temperatures, while in the same limit and high temperatures, the high energy instability recovers the instability of the radiation equation of state. In the temperature versus energy diagram of series of equilibria, the two types of gravothermal instabilities make themselves evident as a double spiral! The two energy l...
Lock, Maximilian P E
2016-01-01
The conflict between quantum theory and the theory of relativity is exemplified in their treatment of time. We examine the ways in which their conceptions differ, and describe a semiclassical clock model combining elements of both theories. The results obtained with this clock model in flat spacetime are reviewed, and the problem of generalizing the model to curved spacetime is discussed, before briefly describing an experimental setup which could be used to test of the model. Taking an operationalist view, where time is that which is measured by a clock, we discuss the conclusions that can be drawn from these results, and what clues they contain for a full quantum relativistic theory of time.
Galilean relativistic fluid mechanics
Ván, Péter
2015-01-01
Single component Galilean-relativistic (nonrelativistic) fluids are treated independently of reference frames. The basic fields are given, their balances, thermodynamic relations and the entropy production is calculated. The usual relative basic fields, the mass, momentum and energy densities, the diffusion current density, the pressure tensor and the heat flux are the time- and spacelike components of the third order mass-momentum-energy density tensor according to a velocity field. The transformation rules of the basic fields are derived and prove that the non-equilibrium thermodynamic background theory, that is the Gibbs relation, extensivity condition and the entropy production is absolute, that is independent of the reference frame and also of the fluid velocity. --- Az egykomponensu Galilei-relativisztikus (azaz nemrelativisztikus) disszipativ folyadekokat vonatkoztatasi rendszertol fuggetlenul targyaljuk. Megadjuk az alapmennyisegeket, ezek merlegeit, a termodinamikai osszefuggeseket es kiszamoljuk az ...
Relativistic Runaway Electrons
Breizman, Boris
2014-10-01
This talk covers recent developments in the theory of runaway electrons in a tokamak with an emphasis on highly relativistic electrons produced via the avalanche mechanism. The rapidly growing population of runaway electrons can quickly replace a large part of the initial current carried by the bulk plasma electrons. The magnetic energy associated with this current is typically much greater than the particle kinetic energy. The current of a highly relativistic runaway beam is insensitive to the particle energy, which separates the description of the runaway current evolution from the description of the runaway energy spectrum. A strongly anisotropic distribution of fast electrons is generally prone to high-frequency kinetic instabilities that may cause beneficial enhancement of runaway energy losses. The relevant instabilities are in the frequency range of whistler waves and electron plasma waves. The instability thresholds reported in earlier work have been revised considerably to reflect strong dependence of collisional damping on the wave frequency and the role of plasma non-uniformity, including radial trapping of the excited waves in the plasma. The talk also includes a discussion of enhanced scattering of the runaways as well as the combined effect of enhanced scattering and synchrotron radiation. A noteworthy feature of the avalanche-produced runaway current is a self-sustained regime of marginal criticality: the inductive electric field has to be close to its critical value (representing avalanche threshold) at every location where the runaway current density is finite, and the current density should vanish at any point where the electric field drops below its critical value. This nonlinear Ohm's law enables complete description of the evolving current profile. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DEFG02-04ER54742 and by ITER contract ITER-CT-12-4300000273. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of
VisAn MHD: a toolbox in Matlab for MHD computer model data visualisation and analysis
P. Daum
2007-03-01
Full Text Available Among the many challenges facing modern space physics today is the need for a visualisation and analysis package which can examine the results from the diversity of numerical and empirical computer models as well as observational data. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD models represent the latest numerical models of the complex Earth's space environment and have the unique ability to span the enormous distances present in the magnetosphere from several hundred kilometres to several thousand kilometres above the Earth surface. This feature enables scientist to study complex structures of processes where otherwise only point measurements from satellites or ground-based instruments are available. Only by combining these observational data and the MHD simulations it is possible to enlarge the scope of the point-to-point observations and to fill the gaps left by measurements in order to get a full 3-D representation of the processes in our geospace environment. In this paper we introduce the VisAn MHD toolbox for Matlab as a tool for the visualisation and analysis of observational data and MHD simulations. We have created an easy to use tool which is capable of highly sophisticated visualisations and data analysis of the results from a diverse set of MHD models in combination with in situ measurements from satellites and ground-based instruments. The toolbox is being released under an open-source licensing agreement to facilitate and encourage community use and contribution.
MHD Shallow Water Waves: Linear Analysis
Heng, Kevin
2009-01-01
We present a linear analysis of inviscid, incompressible, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shallow water systems. In spherical geometry, a generic property of such systems is the existence of five wave modes. Three of them (two magneto-Poincare modes and one magneto-Rossby mode) are previously known. The other two wave modes are strongly influenced by the magnetic field and rotation, and have substantially lower angular frequencies; as such, we term them "magnetostrophic modes". We obtain analytical functions for the velocity, height and magnetic field perturbations in the limit that the magnitude of the MHD analogue of Lamb's parameter is large. On a sphere, the magnetostrophic modes reside near the poles, while the other modes are equatorially confined. Magnetostrophic modes may be an ingredient in explaining the frequency drifts observed in Type I X-ray bursts from neutron stars.
MHD Equilibria and Triggers for Prominence Eruption
Fan, Yuhong
2015-01-01
Magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the emergence of twisted magnetic flux tubes from the solar interior into the corona are discussed to illustrate how twisted and sheared coronal magnetic structures (with free magnetic energy), capable of driving filament eruptions, can form in the corona in emerging active regions. Several basic mechanisms that can disrupt the quasi-equilibrium coronal structures and trigger the release of the stored free magnetic energy are discussed. These include both ideal processes such as the onset of the helical kink instability and the torus instability of a twisted coronal flux rope structure and the non-ideal process of the onset of fast magnetic reconnections in current sheets. Representative MHD simulations of the non-linear evolution involving these mechanisms are presented.
Cosmic ray transport in MHD turbulence
Yan, Huirong
2007-01-01
Numerical simulations shed light onto earlier not trackable problem of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. They allowed to test the predictions of different models and choose the correct ones. Inevitably, this progress calls for revisions in the picture of cosmic ray (CR) transport. It also shed light on the problems with the present day numerical modeling of CR. In this paper we focus on the analytical way of describing CR propagation and scattering, which should be used in synergy with the numerical studies. In particular, we use recently established scaling laws for MHD modes to obtain the transport properties for CRs. We include nonlinear effects arising from large scale trapping, to remove the 90 degree divergence. We determine how the efficiency of the scattering and CR mean free path depend on the characteristics of ionized media, e.g. plasma $\\beta$, Coulomb collisional mean free path. Implications for particle transport in interstellar medium and solar corona are discussed. We also examine the perp...
What is "Relativistic Canonical Quantization"?
Arbatsky, D. A.
2005-01-01
The purpose of this review is to give the most popular description of the scheme of quantization of relativistic fields that was named relativistic canonical quantization (RCQ). I do not give here the full exact account of this scheme. But with the help of this review any physicist, even not a specialist in the relativistic quantum theory, will be able to get a general view of the content of RCQ, of its connection with other known approaches, of its novelty and of its fruitfulness.
Hyperaccreting Disks around Magnetars for Gamma-Ray Bursts: Effects of Strong Magnetic Fields
Zhang, Dong
2009-01-01
(Abridged) The hyperaccreting neutron star or magnetar disks cooled via neutrino emission can be a candidate of gamma-ray burst (GRB) central engines. The strong field $\\geq10^{15}-10^{16}$ G of the magnetar can play a significant role in affecting the disk properties and even lead to the funnel accretion process. We investigate the effects of strong fields on the disks around magnetars, and discuss implications of such accreting magnetar systems for GRB and GRB-like events. We discuss quantum effects of the strong fields on the disk, and use the MHD conservation equations to describe the behavior of the disk flow coupled with a large scale field, which is generated by the star-disk interaction. In general, stronger fields give higher disk densities, pressures, temperatures and neutrino luminosity, and change the electron fraction and degeneracy state significantly. A magnetized disk is always viscously stable outside the Alfv\\'{e}n radius, but will be thermally unstable near the Alfv\\'{e}n radius where the m...
Magnetic Reconnection in a Compressible MHD Plasma
Hesse, Michael; Birn, Joachim; Zenitani, Seiji
2011-01-01
Using steady-state resistive MHD, magnetic reconnection is reinvestigated for conditions of high resistivity/low magnetic Reynolds number, when the thickness of the diffusion region is no longer small compared to its length. Implicit expressions for the reconnection rate and other reconnection parameters are derived based on the requirements of mass, momentum, and energy conservation. These expressions are solved via simple iterative procedures. Implications specifically for low Reynolds number/high resistivity are being discussed
MHD simulations on an unstructured mesh
Strauss, H.R. [New York Univ., NY (United States); Park, W.; Belova, E.; Fu, G.Y. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Longcope, D.W. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States); Sugiyama, L.E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)
1998-12-31
Two reasons for using an unstructured computational mesh are adaptivity, and alignment with arbitrarily shaped boundaries. Two codes which use finite element discretization on an unstructured mesh are described. FEM3D solves 2D and 3D RMHD using an adaptive grid. MH3D++, which incorporates methods of FEM3D into the MH3D generalized MHD code, can be used with shaped boundaries, which might be 3D.
Statistical Theory of the Ideal MHD Geodynamo
Shebalin, J. V.
2012-01-01
A statistical theory of geodynamo action is developed, using a mathematical model of the geodynamo as a rotating outer core containing an ideal (i.e., no dissipation), incompressible, turbulent, convecting magnetofluid. On the concentric inner and outer spherical bounding surfaces the normal components of the velocity, magnetic field, vorticity and electric current are zero, as is the temperature fluctuation. This allows the use of a set of Galerkin expansion functions that are common to both velocity and magnetic field, as well as vorticity, current and the temperature fluctuation. The resulting dynamical system, based on the Boussinesq form of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, represents MHD turbulence in a spherical domain. These basic equations (minus the temperature equation) and boundary conditions have been used previously in numerical simulations of forced, decaying MHD turbulence inside a sphere [1,2]. Here, the ideal case is studied through statistical analysis and leads to a prediction that an ideal coherent structure will be found in the form of a large-scale quasistationary magnetic field that results from broken ergodicity, an effect that has been previously studied both analytically and numerically for homogeneous MHD turbulence [3,4]. The axial dipole component becomes prominent when there is a relatively large magnetic helicity (proportional to the global correlation of magnetic vector potential and magnetic field) and a stationary, nonzero cross helicity (proportional to the global correlation of velocity and magnetic field). The expected angle of the dipole moment vector with respect to the rotation axis is found to decrease to a minimum as the average cross helicity increases for a fixed value of magnetic helicity and then to increase again when average cross helicity approaches its maximum possible value. Only a relatively small value of cross helicity is needed to produce a dipole moment vector that is aligned at approx.10deg with the
MHD Technology Transfer, Integration and Review Committee
1992-01-01
This fifth semi-annual status report of the MHD Technology Transfer, Integration, and Review Committee (TTIRC) summarizes activities of the TTIRC during the period April 1990 through September 1990. It includes summaries and minutes of committee meetings, progress summaries of ongoing Proof-of-Concept (POC) contracts, discussions pertaining to technical integration issues in the POC program, and planned activities for the next six months.
Design Study: Rocket Based MHD Generator
1997-01-01
This report addresses the technical feasibility and design of a rocket based MHD generator using a sub-scale LOx/RP rocket motor. The design study was constrained by assuming the generator must function within the performance and structural limits of an existing magnet and by assuming realistic limits on (1) the axial electric field, (2) the Hall parameter, (3) current density, and (4) heat flux (given the criteria of heat sink operation). The major results of the work are summarized as follows: (1) A Faraday type of generator with rectangular cross section is designed to operate with a combustor pressure of 300 psi. Based on a magnetic field strength of 1.5 Tesla, the electrical power output from this generator is estimated to be 54.2 KW with potassium seed (weight fraction 3.74%) and 92 KW with cesium seed (weight fraction 9.66%). The former corresponds to a enthalpy extraction ratio of 2.36% while that for the latter is 4.16%; (2) A conceptual design of the Faraday MHD channel is proposed, based on a maximum operating time of 10 to 15 seconds. This concept utilizes a phenolic back wall for inserting the electrodes and inter-electrode insulators. Copper electrode and aluminum oxide insulator are suggested for this channel; and (3) A testing configuration for the sub-scale rocket based MHD system is proposed. An estimate of performance of an ideal rocket based MHD accelerator is performed. With a current density constraint of 5 Amps/cm(exp 2) and a conductivity of 30 Siemens/m, the push power density can be 250, 431, and 750 MW/m(sup 3) when the induced voltage uB have values of 5, 10, and 15 KV/m, respectively.
Extension of the MURaM Radiative MHD Code for Coronal Simulations
Rempel, M.
2017-01-01
We present a new version of the MURaM radiative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code that allows for simulations spanning from the upper convection zone into the solar corona. We implement the relevant coronal physics in terms of optically thin radiative loss, field aligned heat conduction, and an equilibrium ionization equation of state. We artificially limit the coronal Alfvén and heat conduction speeds to computationally manageable values using an approximation to semi-relativistic MHD with an artificially reduced speed of light (Boris correction). We present example solutions ranging from quiet to active Sun in order to verify the validity of our approach. We quantify the role of numerical diffusivity for the effective coronal heating. We find that the (numerical) magnetic Prandtl number determines the ratio of resistive to viscous heating and that owing to the very large magnetic Prandtl number of the solar corona, heating is expected to happen predominantly through viscous dissipation. We find that reasonable solutions can be obtained with values of the reduced speed of light just marginally larger than the maximum sound speed. Overall this leads to a fully explicit code that can compute the time evolution of the solar corona in response to photospheric driving using numerical time steps not much smaller than 0.1 s. Numerical simulations of the coronal response to flux emergence covering a time span of a few days are well within reach using this approach.
The Efficiency of Second-Order Fermi Acceleration by Weakly Compressible MHD Turbulence
Lynn, Jacob W; Chandran, Benjamin D G; Parrish, Ian J
2013-01-01
We investigate the effects of pitch-angle scattering on the efficiency of particle heating and acceleration by MHD turbulence using phenomenological estimates and simulations of non-relativistic test particles interacting with strong, subsonic MHD turbulence. We include an imposed pitch-angle scattering rate, which is meant to approximate the effects of high frequency plasma waves and/or velocity space instabilities. We focus on plasma parameters similar to those found in the near-Earth solar wind, though most of our results are more broadly applicable. An important control parameter is the size of the particle mean free path lambda_{mfp} relative to the scale of the turbulent fluctuations L. For small scattering rates, particles interact quasi-resonantly with turbulent fluctuations in magnetic field strength. Scattering increases the long-term efficiency of this resonant heating by factors of a few-10, but the distribution function does not develop a significant non-thermal power-law tail. For higher scatter...
Zhang, Haocheng; Li, Hui; Taylor, Gregory B.
2017-08-01
In addition to multiwavelength variability, blazar polarization signatures are highly variable. Optical polarimetry has shown two distinct features: first, in both quiescent and flaring states, blazar polarization degree generally stays around 10% to 30%; second, after major polarization variations, such as polarization angle swings, the polarization degree quickly restores to its initial state. We have performed integrated relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) + radiation and polarization simulations of the blazar emission region. Our approach evolves the magnetic fields and flows using the first principles, so we can calculate the spatial and temporal dependent polarization signatures and compare them with observations.Our results show that the above two observational trends indicate the blazar flaring region should be strongly magnetized with the magnetic energy density higher than the plasma rest mass energy density. In such an environment, the 3D kink instability may trigger magnetic reconnection to accelerate particles and give rise to flares. In view of future high-energy polarimetry, this integrated MHD+polarization simulation technique will deliver new constraints on jet’s physical conditions and particle acceleration mechanisms.
Pondermotive acceleration of charged particles along the relativistic jets of an accreting blackhole
Ebisuzaki, T.; Tajima, T.
2014-05-01
Accreting blackholes such as miniquasars and active galactic nuclei can contribute to the highest energy components of intra- (˜1015 eV) galactic and extra-galactic components (˜1020 eV) of cosmic rays. Alfven wave pulses which are excited in the accretion disk around blackholes propagate in relativistic jets. Because of their highly non-linear nature of the waves, charged particles (protons, ions, and electrons) can be accelerated to high energies in relativistic jets in accreting blackhole systems, the central engine of miniquasars and active galactic nuclei.
Inductive ionospheric solver for magnetospheric MHD simulations
H. Vanhamäki
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We present a new scheme for solving the ionospheric boundary conditions required in magnetospheric MHD simulations. In contrast to the electrostatic ionospheric solvers currently in use, the new solver takes ionospheric induction into account by solving Faraday's law simultaneously with Ohm's law and current continuity. From the viewpoint of an MHD simulation, the new inductive solver is similar to the electrostatic solvers, as the same input data is used (field-aligned current [FAC] and ionospheric conductances and similar output is produced (ionospheric electric field. The inductive solver is tested using realistic, databased models of an omega-band and westward traveling surge. Although the tests were performed with local models and MHD simulations require a global ionospheric solution, we may nevertheless conclude that the new solution scheme is feasible also in practice. In the test cases the difference between static and electrodynamic solutions is up to ~10 V km^{−1} in certain locations, or up to 20-40% of the total electric field. This is in agreement with previous estimates. It should also be noted that if FAC is replaced by the ground magnetic field (or ionospheric equivalent current in the input data set, exactly the same formalism can be used to construct an inductive version of the KRM method originally developed by Kamide et al. (1981.
The Statistical Mechanics of Ideal MHD Turbulence
Shebalin, John V.
2003-01-01
Turbulence is a universal, nonlinear phenomenon found in all energetic fluid and plasma motion. In particular. understanding magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and incorporating its effects in the computation and prediction of the flow of ionized gases in space, for example, are great challenges that must be met if such computations and predictions are to be meaningful. Although a general solution to the "problem of turbulence" does not exist in closed form, numerical integrations allow us to explore the phase space of solutions for both ideal and dissipative flows. For homogeneous, incompressible turbulence, Fourier methods are appropriate, and phase space is defined by the Fourier coefficients of the physical fields. In the case of ideal MHD flows, a fairly robust statistical mechanics has been developed, in which the symmetry and ergodic properties of phase space is understood. A discussion of these properties will illuminate our principal discovery: Coherent structure and randomness co-exist in ideal MHD turbulence. For dissipative flows, as opposed to ideal flows, progress beyond the dimensional analysis of Kolmogorov has been difficult. Here, some possible future directions that draw on the ideal results will also be discussed. Our conclusion will be that while ideal turbulence is now well understood, real turbulence still presents great challenges.
MHD thrust vectoring of a rocket engine
Labaune, Julien; Packan, Denis; Tholin, Fabien; Chemartin, Laurent; Stillace, Thierry; Masson, Frederic
2016-09-01
In this work, the possibility to use MagnetoHydroDynamics (MHD) to vectorize the thrust of a solid propellant rocket engine exhaust is investigated. Using a magnetic field for vectoring offers a mass gain and a reusability advantage compared to standard gimbaled, elastomer-joint systems. Analytical and numerical models were used to evaluate the flow deviation with a 1 Tesla magnetic field inside the nozzle. The fluid flow in the resistive MHD approximation is calculated using the KRONOS code from ONERA, coupling the hypersonic CFD platform CEDRE and the electrical code SATURNE from EDF. A critical parameter of these simulations is the electrical conductivity, which was evaluated using a set of equilibrium calculations with 25 species. Two models were used: local thermodynamic equilibrium and frozen flow. In both cases, chlorine captures a large fraction of free electrons, limiting the electrical conductivity to a value inadequate for thrust vectoring applications. However, when using chlorine-free propergols with 1% in mass of alkali, an MHD thrust vectoring of several degrees was obtained.
Inductive ionospheric solver for magnetospheric MHD simulations
Vanhamäki, H.
2011-01-01
We present a new scheme for solving the ionospheric boundary conditions required in magnetospheric MHD simulations. In contrast to the electrostatic ionospheric solvers currently in use, the new solver takes ionospheric induction into account by solving Faraday's law simultaneously with Ohm's law and current continuity. From the viewpoint of an MHD simulation, the new inductive solver is similar to the electrostatic solvers, as the same input data is used (field-aligned current [FAC] and ionospheric conductances) and similar output is produced (ionospheric electric field). The inductive solver is tested using realistic, databased models of an omega-band and westward traveling surge. Although the tests were performed with local models and MHD simulations require a global ionospheric solution, we may nevertheless conclude that the new solution scheme is feasible also in practice. In the test cases the difference between static and electrodynamic solutions is up to ~10 V km-1 in certain locations, or up to 20-40% of the total electric field. This is in agreement with previous estimates. It should also be noted that if FAC is replaced by the ground magnetic field (or ionospheric equivalent current) in the input data set, exactly the same formalism can be used to construct an inductive version of the KRM method originally developed by Kamide et al. (1981).
Nonlinear MHD dynamo operating at equipartition
Archontis, V.; Dorch, Bertil; Nordlund, Åke
2007-01-01
Context.We present results from non linear MHD dynamo experiments with a three-dimensional steady and smooth flow that drives fast dynamo action in the kinematic regime. In the saturation regime, the system yields strong magnetic fields, which undergo transitions between an energy-equipartition a......Context.We present results from non linear MHD dynamo experiments with a three-dimensional steady and smooth flow that drives fast dynamo action in the kinematic regime. In the saturation regime, the system yields strong magnetic fields, which undergo transitions between an energy......-equipartition and a turbulent state. The generation and evolution of such strong magnetic fields is relevant for the understanding of dynamo action that occurs in stars and other astrophysical objects. Aims.We study the mode of operation of this dynamo, in the linear and non-linear saturation regimes. We also consider...... the effect of varying the magnetic and fluid Reymolds number on the non-linear behaviour of the system. Methods.We perform three-dimensional non-linear MHD simulations and visualization using a high resolution numerical scheme. Results.We find that this dynamo has a high growth rate in the linear regime...
Protostellar Disk Formation Enabled by Removal of Small Dust Grains
Zhao, Bo; Li, Zhi-Yun; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang, Hsien; Nakamura, Fumitaka
2016-01-01
It has been shown that a realistic level of magnetization of dense molecular cloud cores can suppress the formation of a rotationally supported disk (RSD) through catastrophic magnetic braking in the axisymmetric ideal MHD limit. In this study, we present conditions for the formation of RSDs through non-ideal MHD effects computed self-consistently from an equilibrium chemical network. We find that removing from the standard MRN distribution the large population of very small grains (VSGs) of ~10 $\\AA$ to few 100 $\\AA$ that dominate the coupling of the bulk neutral matter to the magnetic field increases the ambipolar diffusivity by ~1--2 orders of magnitude at densities below 10$^{10}$ cm$^{-3}$. The enhanced ambipolar diffusion (AD) in the envelope reduces the amount of magnetic flux dragged by the collapse into the circumstellar disk-forming region. Therefore, magnetic braking is weakened and more angular momentum can be retained. With continuous high angular momentum inflow, RSDs of tens of AU are able to f...
Brunetti, G
2016-01-01
In this paper we investigate a situation where relativistic particles are reaccelerated diffusing across regions of reconnection and magnetic dynamo in super-Alfvenic, incompressible large-scale turbulence. We present an exploratory study of this mechanism in the intra-cluster-medium (ICM). In view of large-scale turbulence in the ICM we adopt a reconnection scheme that is based on turbulent reconnection and MHD turbulence. In this case particles are accelerated and decelerated in a systematic way in reconnecting and magnetic-dynamo regions, respectively, and on longer time-scales undergo a stochastic process diffusing across these sites (similar to second-order Fermi). Our study extends on larger scales numerical studies that focused on the acceleration in and around turbulent reconnecting regions. We suggest that this mechanism may play a role in the reacceleration of relativistic electrons in galaxy clusters providing a new physical scenario to explain the origin of cluster-scale diffuse radio emission. In...
Numerical Construction of Magnetosphere with Relativistic Two-fluid Plasma Flows
Kojima, Yasufumi
2009-01-01
We present a numerical model in which a cold pair plasma is ejected with relativistic speed through a polar cap region and flows almost radially outside the light cylinder. Stationary axisymmetric structures of electromagnetic fields and plasma flows are self-consistently calculated. In our model, motions of positively and negatively charged particles are assumed to be determined by electromagnetic forces and inertial terms, without pair creation and annihilation or radiation loss. The global electromagnetic fields are calculated by the Maxwell's equations for the plasma density and velocity, without using ideal MHD condition. Numerical result demonstrates the acceleration and deceleration of plasma due to parallel component of the electric fields. Numerical model is successfully constructed for weak magnetic fields or highly relativistic fluid velocity, i.e, kinetic energy dominated outflow. It is found that appropriate choices of boundary conditions and plasma injection model at the polar cap should be expl...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — How Data Was Acquired: The data presented is from a physical simulator that simulated engine disks. Sample Rates and Parameter Description: All parameters are...
Li, Yan-Rong; Cheng, Cheng; Qiu, Jie
2015-01-01
Warped accretion disks have attracted intensive attention because of their critical role on shaping the spin of supermassive massive black holes (SMBHs) through the Bardeen-Petterson effect, a general relativistic effect that leads to final alignments or anti-alignments between black holes and warped accretion disks. We study such alignment processes by explicitly taking into account the finite sizes of accretion disks and the episodic lifetimes of AGNs that delineate the duration of gas fueling onto accretion disks. We employ an approximate global model to simulate the evolution of accretion disks, allowing to determine the gravitomagnetic torque that drives the alignments in a quite simple way. We then track down the evolutionary paths for mass and spin of black holes both in a single activity episode and over a series of episodes. Given with randomly and isotropically oriented gas fueling over episodes, we calculate the spin evolution with different episodic lifetimes and find that it is quite sensitive to...
Becker, Peter A.; Das, Santabrata; Le, Truong
2011-12-01
The acceleration of relativistic particles in a viscous accretion disk containing a standing shock is investigated as a possible explanation for the energetic outflows observed around radio-loud black holes. The energy/space distribution of the accelerated particles is computed by solving a transport equation that includes the effects of first-order Fermi acceleration, bulk advection, spatial diffusion, and particle escape. The velocity profile of the accreting gas is described using a model for shocked viscous disks recently developed by the authors, and the corresponding Green's function distribution for the accelerated particles in the disk and the outflow is obtained using a classical method based on eigenfunction analysis. The accretion-driven, diffusive shock acceleration scenario explored here is conceptually similar to the standard model for the acceleration of cosmic rays at supernova-driven shocks. However, in the disk application, the distribution of the accelerated particles is much harder than would be expected for a plane-parallel shock with the same compression ratio. Hence the disk environment plays a key role in enhancing the efficiency of the shock acceleration process. The presence of the shock helps to stabilize the disk by reducing the Bernoulli parameter, while channeling the excess binding energy into the escaping relativistic particles. In applications to M87 and Sgr A*, we find that the kinetic power in the jet is {\\sim}0.01\\,\\dot{M} c^2, and the outflowing relativistic particles have a mean energy ~300 times larger than that of the thermal gas in the disk at the shock radius. Our results suggest that a standing shock may be an essential ingredient in accretion onto underfed black holes, helping to resolve the long-standing problem of the stability of advection-dominated accretion disks.
Simulating relativistic binaries with Whisky
Baiotti, L.
We report about our first tests and results in simulating the last phase of the coalescence and the merger of binary relativistic stars. The simulations were performed using our code Whisky and mesh refinement through the Carpet driver.
Relativistic effects in atom gravimeters
Tan, Yu-Jie; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Hu, Zhong-Kun
2017-01-01
Atom interferometry is currently developing rapidly, which is now reaching sufficient precision to motivate laboratory tests of general relativity. Thus, it is extremely significant to develop a general relativistic model for atom interferometers. In this paper, we mainly present an analytical derivation process and first give a complete vectorial expression for the relativistic interferometric phase shift in an atom interferometer. The dynamics of the interferometer are studied, where both the atoms and the light are treated relativistically. Then, an appropriate coordinate transformation for the light is performed crucially to simplify the calculation. In addition, the Bordé A B C D matrix combined with quantum mechanics and the "perturbation" approach are applied to make a methodical calculation for the total phase shift. Finally, we derive the relativistic phase shift kept up to a sensitivity of the acceleration ˜1 0-14 m/s 2 for a 10 -m -long atom interferometer.
Featured Image: Mini-Disks in a Black-Hole Binary
Kohler, Susanna
2017-04-01
This image shows a snapshot from a simulation of a relativistic binary black hole system. A recent study led by Dennis Bowen (Rochester Institute of Technology) presents the first exploration of gas dynamics in relativistic binary black hole systems in which each black hole is surrounded by its own small accretion disk. Bowen and collaborators use their 2D hydrodynamical simulations to explore how gas is passed back and forth between the two mini-disks as the black holes orbit each other. They also examine what kind of distinctive observable signals might be caused by this sloshing and by tidally driven spiral waves in the disks. To read more about their outcomes, check out the article below!CitationDennis B. Bowen et al 2017 ApJ 838 42. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa63f3
1976-01-01
Introduced under the name "Verbatim", Latin for "literally", these disks that sized more than 5¼ inches have become almost universal on dedicated word processing systems and personal computers. This format was replaced more slowly by the 3½-inch format, introduced for the first time in 1982. Compared to today, these large format disks stored very little data. In reality, they could only contain a few pages of text.
Scattering in Relativistic Particle Mechanics.
de Bievre, Stephan
The problem of direct interaction in relativistic particle mechanics has been extensively studied and a variety of models has been proposed avoiding the conclusions of the so-called no-interaction theorems. In this thesis we study scattering in the relativistic two-body problem. We use our results to analyse gauge invariance in Hamiltonian constraint models and the uniqueness of the symplectic structure in manifestly covariant relativistic particle mechanics. We first present a general geometric framework that underlies approaches to relativistic particle mechanics. This permits a model-independent and geometric definition of the notions of asymptotic completeness and of Moller and scattering operators. Subsequent analysis of these concepts divides into two parts. First, we study the kinematic properties of the scattering transformation, i.e. those properties that arise solely from the invariance of the theory under the Poincare group. We classify all canonical (symplectic) scattering transformations on the relativistic phase space for two free particles in terms of a single function of the two invariants of the theory. We show how this function is determined by the center of mass time delay and scattering angle and vice versa. The second part of our analysis of the relativistic two-body scattering problem is devoted to the dynamical properties of the scattering process. Hence, we turn to two approaches to relativistic particle mechanics: the Hamiltonian constraint models and the manifestly covariant formalism. Using general geometric arguments, we prove "gauge invariance" of the scattering transformation in the Todorov -Komar Hamiltonian constraint model. We conclude that the scattering cross sections of the Todorov-Komar models have the same angular dependence as their non-relativistic counterpart, irrespective of a choice of gauge. This limits the physical relevance of those models. We present a physically non -trivial Hamiltonian constraint model, starting from
Evolutionary Conditions in the Dissipative MHD System Revisited
Inoue, Tsuyoshi
2007-01-01
The evolutionary conditions for the dissipative continuous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks are studied. We modify Hada's approach in the stability analysis of the MHD shock waves. The matching conditions between perturbed shock structure and asymptotic wave modes shows that all types of the MHD shocks, including the intermediate shocks, are evolutionary and perturbed solutions are uniquely defined. We also adopt our formalism to the MHD shocks in the system with resistivity without viscosity, which is often used in numerical simulation, and show that all types of shocks that are found in the system satisfy the evolutionary condition and perturbed solutions are uniquely defined. These results suggest that the intermediate shocks may appear in reality.
On the Grain-Modified Magnetic Diffusivities in Protoplanetary Disks
Xu, Rui
2015-01-01
Weakly ionized protoplanetary disks (PPDs) are subject to non-ideal-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects including Ohmic resistivity, the Hall effect and ambipolar diffusion (AD), and the resulting magnetic diffusivities ($\\eta_O, \\eta_H$ and $\\eta_A$) largely control the disk gas dynamics. The presence of grains not only strongly reduces disk ionization fraction, but also modify the scalings of $\\eta_H$ and $\\eta_A$ with magnetic field strength. We derive analytically asymptotic expressions of $\\eta_H$ and $\\eta_A$ in both strong and weak field limits and show that towards strong field, $\\eta_H$ can change sign (at a threshold field strength $B_{\\rm th}$), mimicking a flip of field polarity, and AD is substantially reduced. Applying to PPDs, we find that when small $\\sim0.1$ ($0.01$)$\\mu$m grains are sufficiently abundant [mass ratio $\\sim0.01$ ($10^{-4}$)], $\\eta_H$ can change sign up to $\\sim2-3$ scale heights above midplane at modest field strength (plasma $\\beta\\sim100$) over a wide range of disk radii. Red...
Soliton propagation in relativistic hydrodynamics
Fogaça, D A; 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2007.03.104
2013-01-01
We study the conditions for the formation and propagation of Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) solitons in nuclear matter. In a previous work we have derived a KdV equation from Euler and continuity equations in non-relativistic hydrodynamics. In the present contribution we extend our formalism to relativistic fluids. We present results for a given equation of state, which is based on quantum hadrodynamics (QHD).
Relativistic formulation and reference frame
Klioner, Sergei A.
2004-01-01
After a short review of experimental foundations of metric theories of gravity, the choice of general relativity as a theory to be used for the routine modeling of Gaia observations is justified. General principles of relativistic modeling of astronomical observations are then sketched and compared to the corresponding Newtonian principles. The fundamental reference system -- Barycentric Celestial Reference System, which has been chosen to be the relativistic reference system underlying the f...
This particular object was used up until 2012 in the Data Centre. It slots into one of the Disk Server trays. Hard disks were invented in the 1950s. They started as large disks up to 20 inches in diameter holding just a few megabytes (link is external). They were originally called "fixed disks" or "Winchesters" (a code name used for a popular IBM product). They later became known as "hard disks" to distinguish them from "floppy disks (link is external)." Hard disks have a hard platter that holds the magnetic medium, as opposed to the flexible plastic film found in tapes and floppies.
Lyra, W; Klahr, H; Piskunov, N
2007-01-01
We present global 3D MHD simulations of disks of gas and solids, aiming at developing models that can be used to study various scenarios of planet formation and planet-disk interaction in turbulent accretion disks. A second goal is to show that Cartesian codes are comparable to cylindrical and spherical ones in handling the magnetohydrodynamics of the disk simulations, as the disk-in-a-box models presented here develop and sustain MHD turbulence. We investigate the dependence of the magnetorotational instability on disk scale height, finding evidence that the turbulence generated by the magnetorotational instability grows with thermal pressure. The turbulent stresses depend on the thermal pressure obeying a power law of 0.24+/-0.03, compatible with the value of 0.25 found in shearing box calculations. The ratio of stresses decreased with increasing temperature. We also study the dynamics of boulders in the hydromagnetic turbulence. The vertical turbulent diffusion of the embedded boulders is comparable to the...
Probing relativistic effects in the central engine of AGN
Sanfrutos, M.; Miniutti, G.
2017-03-01
Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are perfect laboratories to check General Relativity (GR) effects by using Broad Line Region (BLR) clouds eclipses to probe the innermost regions of the accretion disk. A new relativistic X–ray spectral model for X–ray eclipses is introduced. First we present the different observables that are involved in X–ray eclipses, including the X–ray emitting regions size, the emissivity index, the cloud's column density, ionization, size and velocity, the black hole spin, and the system's inclination. Then we highlight some theoretical predictions on the observables by using XMM–Newton simulations, finding that absorption varies depending on the photons' energy range, being maximum when the approaching side of the X–ray–emitting region is covered. Finally, we fit our relativistic model to actual XMM–Newton data from a long observation of the NLS1 galaxy SWIFT J2127.4+5654, and compare our results with a previous work, in which we addressed the BLR cloud eclipse from a non–relativistic prespective.
Application of the Cubed-Sphere Grid to Tilted Black-Hole Accretion Disks
Fragile, P C; Lindner, C C; Anninos, P; Salmonson, J D
2008-09-24
In recent work we presented the first results of global general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of tilted (or misaligned) accretion disks around rotating black holes. The simulated tilted disks showed dramatic differences from comparable untilted disks, such as asymmetrical accretion onto the hole through opposing 'plunging streams' and global precession of the disk powered by a torque provided by the black hole. However, those simulations used a traditional spherical-polar grid that was purposefully underresolved along the pole, which prevented us from assessing the behavior of any jets that may have been associated with the tilted disks. To address this shortcoming we have added a block-structured 'cubed-sphere' grid option to the Cosmos++ GRMHD code, which will allow us to simultaneously resolve the disk and polar regions. Here we present our implementation of this grid and the results of a small suite of validation tests intended to demonstrate that the new grid performs as expected. The most important test in this work is a comparison of identical tilted disks, one evolved using our spherical-polar grid and the other with the cubed-sphere grid. We also demonstrate an interesting dependence of the early-time evolution of our disks on their orientation with respect to the grid alignment. This dependence arises from the differing treatment of current sheets within the disks, especially whether they are aligned with symmetry planes of the grid or not.
Application of the Cubed-Sphere Grid to Tilted Black-Hole Accretion Disks
Fragile, P C; Lindner, C C; Anninos, P; Salmonson, J D
2008-09-24
In recent work we presented the first results of global general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of tilted (or misaligned) accretion disks around rotating black holes. The simulated tilted disks showed dramatic differences from comparable untilted disks, such as asymmetrical accretion onto the hole through opposing 'plunging streams' and global precession of the disk powered by a torque provided by the black hole. However, those simulations used a traditional spherical-polar grid that was purposefully underresolved along the pole, which prevented us from assessing the behavior of any jets that may have been associated with the tilted disks. To address this shortcoming we have added a block-structured 'cubed-sphere' grid option to the Cosmos++ GRMHD code, which will allow us to simultaneously resolve the disk and polar regions. Here we present our implementation of this grid and the results of a small suite of validation tests intended to demonstrate that the new grid performs as expected. The most important test in this work is a comparison of identical tilted disks, one evolved using our spherical-polar grid and the other with the cubed-sphere grid. We also demonstrate an interesting dependence of the early-time evolution of our disks on their orientation with respect to the grid alignment. This dependence arises from the differing treatment of current sheets within the disks, especially whether they are aligned with symmetry planes of the grid or not.
Jets and Accretion Disks in X-ray Binaries
Tomsick, John
The outflow of material in the form of jets is a common phenomenon in astronomical sources with accretion disks. Even though jets are seen coming from the cores of galaxies, Galactic compact objects in X-ray binaries, and stars as they are forming, we do not understand in detail what accretion disk conditions are necessary to support a relativistic jet. This proposal focuses on multi-wavelength studies of X-ray binaries in order to improve our understanding of the connection between the disk and the jet. Specifically, this proposal includes work on two approved cycle 14 Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) programs, an approved XMM-Newton program, as well as a synthesis study of transient black hole X-ray binaries using archival RXTE and radio data. We plan to use X-ray spectral and timing properties to determine the disk properties during the re-activation of the compact jet (as seen in the radio and infrared) during the decays of black hole transient outbursts, to determine how the inner disk properties change at low mass accretion rates, and to use RXTE along with multi-wavelength observations to constrain the jet properties required for the microquasar Cygnus~X-3 to produce high- energy emission. Due to the ubiquity of jets in astrophysical settings, these science topics are relevant to NASA programs dealing with the origin, structure, evolution, and destiny of the Universe, and especially to understanding phenomena near black holes.
Refining a relativistic, hydrodynamic solver: Admitting ultra-relativistic flows
Bernstein, J. P.; Hughes, P. A.
2009-09-01
We have undertaken the simulation of hydrodynamic flows with bulk Lorentz factors in the range 102-106. We discuss the application of an existing relativistic, hydrodynamic primitive variable recovery algorithm to a study of pulsar winds, and, in particular, the refinement made to admit such ultra-relativistic flows. We show that an iterative quartic root finder breaks down for Lorentz factors above 102 and employ an analytic root finder as a solution. We find that the former, which is known to be robust for Lorentz factors up to at least 50, offers a 24% speed advantage. We demonstrate the existence of a simple diagnostic allowing for a hybrid primitives recovery algorithm that includes an automatic, real-time toggle between the iterative and analytical methods. We further determine the accuracy of the iterative and hybrid algorithms for a comprehensive selection of input parameters and demonstrate the latter’s capability to elucidate the internal structure of ultra-relativistic plasmas. In particular, we discuss simulations showing that the interaction of a light, ultra-relativistic pulsar wind with a slow, dense ambient medium can give rise to asymmetry reminiscent of the Guitar nebula leading to the formation of a relativistic backflow harboring a series of internal shockwaves. The shockwaves provide thermalized energy that is available for the continued inflation of the PWN bubble. In turn, the bubble enhances the asymmetry, thereby providing positive feedback to the backflow.
Design of a C-band relativistic extended interaction klystron with coaxial output cavity
WU Yang; ZHAO De-Kui; CHEN Yong-Dong
2015-01-01
In order to overcome the disadvantages of conventional high frequency relativistic klystron amplifiers in power capability and RF conversion efficiency,a C-band relativistic extended interaction klystron amplifier with coaxial output cavity is designed with the aid of PIC code MAGIC.In the device,disk-loaded cavities are introduced in the input and intermediate cavity to increase the beam modulation depth,and a coaxial disk-loaded cavity is employed in the output cavity to enhance the RF conversion efficiency.In PIC simulation,when the beam voltage is 680 kV and current is 4 kA,the device can generate 1.11 GW output power at 5.64 GHz with an efficiency of 40.8％.
MHD stability limits in the TCV Tokamak
Reimerdes, H. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2001-07-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities can limit the performance and degrade the confinement of tokamak plasmas. The Tokamak a Configuration Variable (TCV), unique for its capability to produce a variety of poloidal plasma shapes, has been used to analyse various instabilities and compare their behaviour with theoretical predictions. These instabilities are perturbations of the magnetic field, which usually extend to the plasma edge where they can be detected with magnetic pick-up coils as magnetic fluctuations. A spatially dense set of magnetic probes, installed inside the TCV vacuum vessel, allows for a fast observation of these fluctuations. The structure and temporal evolution of coherent modes is extracted using several numerical methods. In addition to the setup of the magnetic diagnostic and the implementation of analysis methods, the subject matter of this thesis focuses on four instabilities, which impose local and global stability limits. All of these instabilities are relevant for the operation of a fusion reactor and a profound understanding of their behaviour is required in order to optimise the performance of such a reactor. Sawteeth, which are central relaxation oscillations common to most standard tokamak scenarios, have a significant effect on central plasma parameters. In TCV, systematic scans of the plasma shape have revealed a strong dependence of their behaviour on elongation {kappa} and triangularity {delta}, with high {kappa}, and low {delta} leading to shorter sawteeth with smaller crashes. This shape dependence is increased by applying central electron cyclotron heating. The response to additional heating power is determined by the role of ideal or resistive MHD in triggering the sawtooth crash. For plasma shapes where additional heating and consequently, a faster increase of the central pressure shortens the sawteeth, the low experimental limit of the pressure gradient within the q = 1 surface is consistent with ideal MHD predictions. The
Dumitrescu, Adrian
2009-01-01
We present two new approximation algorithms with (improved) constant ratios for selecting $n$ points in $n$ unit disks such that the minimum pairwise distance among the points is maximized. (I) A very simple $O(n \\log{n})$-time algorithm with ratio 0.5110 for disjoint unit disks. In combination with an algorithm of Cabello \\cite{Ca07}, it yields a $O(n^2)$-time algorithm with ratio of 0.4487 for dispersion in $n$ not necessarily disjoint unit disks. (II) A more sophisticated LP-based algorithm with ratio 0.6495 for disjoint unit disks that uses a linear number of variables and constraints, and runs in polynomial time. The algorithm introduces a novel technique which combines linear programming and projections for approximating distances. The previous best approximation ratio for disjoint unit disks was 1/2. Our results give a partial answer to an open question raised by Cabello \\cite{Ca07}, who asked whether 1/2 could be improved.
NONLINEAR MHD WAVES IN A PROMINENCE FOOT
Ofman, L. [Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Schmieder, B. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)
2015-11-10
We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ∼ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5–11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5–14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ∼20 km s{sup −1}, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.
An advanced implicit solver for MHD
Udrea, Bogdan
A new implicit algorithm has been developed for the solution of the time-dependent, viscous and resistive single fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. The algorithm is based on an approximate Riemann solver for the hyperbolic fluxes and central differencing applied on a staggered grid for the parabolic fluxes. The algorithm employs a locally aligned coordinate system that allows the solution to the Riemann problems to be solved in a natural direction, normal to cell interfaces. The result is an original scheme that is robust and reduces the complexity of the flux formulas. The evaluation of the parabolic fluxes is also implemented using a locally aligned coordinate system, this time on the staggered grid. The implicit formulation employed by WARP3 is a two level scheme that was applied for the first time to the single fluid MHD model. The flux Jacobians that appear in the implicit scheme are evaluated numerically. The linear system that results from the implicit discretization is solved using a robust symmetric Gauss-Seidel method. The code has an explicit mode capability so that implementation and test of new algorithms or new physics can be performed in this simpler mode. Last but not least the code was designed and written to run on parallel computers so that complex, high resolution runs can be per formed in hours rather than days. The code has been benchmarked against analytical and experimental gas dynamics and MHD results. The benchmarks consisted of one-dimensional Riemann problems and diffusion dominated problems, two-dimensional supersonic flow over a wedge, axisymmetric magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster simulation and three-dimensional supersonic flow over intersecting wedges and spheromak stability simulation. The code has been proven to be robust and the results of the simulations showed excellent agreement with analytical and experimental results. Parallel performance studies showed that the code performs as expected when run on parallel
Annular MHD Physics for Turbojet Energy Bypass
Schneider, Steven J.
2011-01-01
The use of annular Hall type MHD generator/accelerator ducts for turbojet energy bypass is evaluated assuming weakly ionized flows obtained from pulsed nanosecond discharges. The equations for a 1-D, axisymmetric MHD generator/accelerator are derived and numerically integrated to determine the generator/accelerator performance characteristics. The concept offers a shockless means of interacting with high speed inlet flows and potentially offers variable inlet geometry performance without the complexity of moving parts simply by varying the generator loading parameter. The cycle analysis conducted iteratively with a spike inlet and turbojet flying at M = 7 at 30 km altitude is estimated to have a positive thrust per unit mass flow of 185 N-s/kg. The turbojet allowable combustor temperature is set at an aggressive 2200 deg K. The annular MHD Hall generator/accelerator is L = 3 m in length with a B(sub r) = 5 Tesla magnetic field and a conductivity of sigma = 5 mho/m for the generator and sigma= 1.0 mho/m for the accelerator. The calculated isentropic efficiency for the generator is eta(sub sg) = 84 percent at an enthalpy extraction ratio, eta(sub Ng) = 0.63. The calculated isentropic efficiency for the accelerator is eta(sub sa) = 81 percent at an enthalpy addition ratio, eta(sub Na) = 0.62. An assessment of the ionization fraction necessary to achieve a conductivity of sigma = 1.0 mho/m is n(sub e)/n = 1.90 X 10(exp -6), and for sigma = 5.0 mho/m is n(sub e)/n = 9.52 X 10(exp -6).
Disk-Magnetosphere Interaction and Outflows: Conical Winds and Axial Jets
Romanova, M M; Koldoba, A V; Lovelace, R V E
2009-01-01
We investigate outflows from the disk-magnetosphere boundary of rotating magnetized stars in cases where the magnetic field of a star is bunched into an X-type configuration using axisymmetric and full 3D MHD simulations. Such configuration appears if viscosity in the disk is larger than diffusivity, or if the accretion rate in the disk is enhanced. Conical outflows flow from the inner edge of the disk to a narrow shell with an opening angle 30-45 degrees. Outflows carry 0.1-0.3 of the disk mass and part of the disk's angular momentum outward. Conical outflows appear around stars of different periods, however in case of stars in the "propeller" regime, an additional - much faster component appears: an axial jet, where matter is accelerated up to very high velocities at small distances from the star by magnetic pressure force above the surface of the star. Exploratory 3D simulations show that conical outflows are symmetric about rotational axis of the disk even if magnetic dipole is significantly misaligned. C...
Stepanovs, Deniss
2016-01-01
We investigate the accretion-ejection process of jets from magnetized accretion disks. We apply a novel approach to the jet-launching problem in order to obtain correlations between the physical properties of the jet and the underlying disk. We extend and confirm the previous works of \\citet{2009MNRAS.400..820T} and \\citet{2010A&A...512A..82M} by scanning a large parameter range for the disk magnetization, $\\mu_{\\rm D} = 10^{-3.5} ... 10^{-0.7}$. We disentangle the disk magnetization at the foot point of the outflow as the main parameter that governs the properties of the outflow. We show how the four jet integrals known from steady-state MHD are correlated to the disk magnetization at the jet foot point. This agrees with the usual findings of the steady-state theory, however, here we obtain these correlations from time-dependent simulations that include the dynamical evolution of the disk in the treatment. In particular, we obtain robust correlations between the local disk magnetization and (i)the outflo...
Sheikhnezami, Somayeh; Porth, Oliver; Vaidya, Bhargav; Ghanbari, Jamshid
2012-01-01
We investigate the launching of jets and outflows from magnetically diffusive accretion disks. Using the PLUTO code we solve the time-dependent resistive MHD equations taking into account the disk and jet evolution simultaneously. The main question we address is which kind of disks do launch jets and which kind of disks do not? In particular, we study how the magnitude and distribution of the (turbulent) magnetic diffusivity affect mass loading and jet acceleration. We have applied a turbulent magnetic diffusivity based on \\alpha-prescription, but have also investigate examples where the scale height of diffusivity is larger than that of the disk gas pressure. We further investigate how the ejection efficiency is governed by the magnetic field strength. Our simulations last for up to 5000 dynamical time scales corresponding to 900 orbital periods of the inner disk. As a general result we observe a continuous and robust outflow launched from the inner part of the disk, expanding into a collimated jet of super ...
Magnetic stresses in ideal MHD plasmas
Jensen, V.O.
1995-01-01
and it is shown that the resulting magnetic forces on a finite volume element can be obtained by integrating the magnetic stresses over the surface of the element. The concept is used to rederive and discuss the equilibrium conditions for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas, including the virial theorem......The concept of magnetic stresses in ideal MHD plasma theory is reviewed and revisited with the aim of demonstrating its advantages as a basis for calculating and understanding plasma equilibria. Expressions are derived for the various stresses that transmit forces in a magnetized plasma...
Modeling magnetized neutron stars using resistive MHD
Palenzuela, Carlos
2013-01-01
This work presents an implementation of the resistive MHD equations for a generic algebraic Ohm's law which includes the effects of finite resistivity within full General Relativity. The implementation naturally accounts for magnetic-field-induced anisotropies and, by adopting a phenomenological current, is able to accurately describe electromagnetic fields in the star and in its magnetosphere. We illustrate the application of this approach in interesting systems with astrophysical implications; the aligned rotator solution and the collapse of a magnetized rotating neutron star to a black hole.
Local potential analysis of MHD instability
Sen, K. K.; Wilson, S. J.
1985-02-01
The use of the local potential method for studying instabilities of MHD fluids is examined. The mathematical method is similar to that developed by the authors for studying the time-dependent radiative transfer problem and the radiative stability of interstellar masers. The scheme is based on the universal evolution criterion proposed by Glansdorff and Prigogine (1964) as demonstrated by Hays (1965) for the heat equation and Schechter and Himmelblau (1965) for the Benard problem in hydrodynamics. The scheme for securing stability criteria is demonstrated for two particular cases.
MHD Equations with Regularity in One Direction
Zujin Zhang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the 3D MHD equations and prove that if one directional derivative of the fluid velocity, say, ∂3u∈Lp0, T;LqR3, with 2/p + 3/q = γ ∈ [1,3/2, 3/γ ≤ q ≤ 1/(γ - 1, then the solution is in fact smooth. This improves previous results greatly.
MHD squeezing flow between two infinite plates
Umar Khan
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Magneto hydrodynamic (MHD squeezing flow of a viscous fluid has been discussed. Conservation laws combined with similarity transformations have been used to formulate the flow mathematically that leads to a highly nonlinear ordinary differential equation. Analytical solution to the resulting differential equation is determined by employing Variation of Parameters Method (VPM. Runge–Kutta order-4 method is also used to solve the same problem for the sake of comparison. It is found that solution using VPM reduces the computational work yet maintains a very high level of accuracy. The influence of different parameters is also discussed and demonstrated graphically.
3D MHD Simulations of Tokamak Disruptions
Woodruff, Simon; Stuber, James
2014-10-01
Two disruption scenarios are modeled numerically by use of the CORSICA 2D equilibrium and NIMROD 3D MHD codes. The work follows the simulations of pressure-driven modes in DIII-D and VDEs in ITER. The aim of the work is to provide starting points for simulation of tokamak disruption mitigation techniques currently in the CDR phase for ITER. Pressure-driven instability growth rates previously observed in simulations of DIIID are verified; Halo and Hiro currents produced during vertical displacements are observed in simulations of ITER with implementation of resistive walls in NIMROD. We discuss plans to exercise new code capabilities and validation.
Evaluation of feedback in conductive MHD devices
Grinberg, G.K.
1977-01-01
A method is recommended for computing feedback and the self-energizing threshold of conducting MHD devices. Circuits of equivalent magnetizing currents are used for this purpose in addition to equivalent electrical circuits. This kind of an approach makes it possible to reflect the influence of R/sub m/ on the operation of the device. Dimensionless functions were found which determine the critical value of the Reynolds magnetic number. The computations demonstrated that the redistribution of the magnetic field in the machine's operating zone under the influence of an induced field must be considered.
Stationary MHD equilibria describing azimuthal rotations in symmetric plasmas
da Silva, Sidney T.; Viana, Ricardo L.
2016-12-01
We consider the stationary magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) equilibrium equation for an axisymmetric plasma undergoing azimuthal rotations. The case of cylindrical symmetry is treated, and we present two semi-analytical solutions for the stationary MHD equilibrium equations, from which a number of physical properties of the magnetically confined plasma are derived.
The Calculus of Variations and the Ideal MHD Energy Principle
Schnack, Dalton D.
In Lecture 22, we showed that the ideal MHD force operator is self-adjoint and suggested that this allowed a formulation in which the stability of a system could be determined without solving a differential equation. Going further requires a little background in the calculus of variations. In the lecture we begin this discussion,1 and formulate the ideal MHD energy principle.
Bednarek, W
2016-01-01
We investigate the consequences of acceleration of nuclei in jets of active galaxies not far from the surface of an accretion disk. The nuclei can be accelerated in the re-connection regions in the jet and/or at the jet boundary, between the relativistic jet and its cocoon. It is shown that the relativistic nuclei can efficiently fragment onto specific nucleons in collisions with the disk radiation. Neutrons, directed towards the accretion disk, take a significant part of energy from the relativistic nuclei. These neutrons develop a cascade in the dense accretion disk. We calculate the neutrino spectra produced in such hadronic cascade within the accretion disk. We propose that the neutrinos produced in such scenario from the whole population of super-massive black holes in active galaxies can explain the extragalactic neutrino background recently measured by the IceCube neutrino detector, provided that $5\\%$ fraction of galaxies is AGN and a few percent of neutrons reach the accretion disk. It is predicted t...
Donmez, Orhan
The shocked wave created on the accretion disk after different physical phenomena (accretion flows with pressure gradients, star-disk interaction etc.) may be responsible observed Quasi Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in X-ray binaries. We present the set of characteristics frequencies associated with accretion disk around the rotating and non-rotating black holes for one particle case. These persistent frequencies are results of the rotating pattern in an accretion disk. We compare the frequency's from two different numerical results for fluid flow around the non-rotating black hole with one particle case. The numerical results are taken from Refs. 1 and 2 using fully general relativistic hydrodynamical code with non-selfgravitating disk. While the first numerical result has a relativistic tori around the black hole, the second one includes one-armed spiral shock wave produced from star-disk interaction. Some physical modes presented in the QPOs can be excited in numerical simulation of relativistic tori and spiral waves on the accretion disk. The results of these different dynamical structures on the accretion disk responsible for QPOs are discussed in detail.
Molecule survival in magnetized protostellar disk winds. I. Chemical model and first results
Panoglou, D; Forets, G Pineau des; Garcia, P J V; Ferreira, J; Casse, F
2011-01-01
Molecular counterparts to atomic jets have been detected within 1000 AU of young stars. Reproducing them is a challenge for proposed ejection models. We explore whether molecules may survive in an MHD disk wind invoked to reproduce the kinematics and tentative rotation signatures of atomic jets in T Tauri stars. The coupled ionization, chemical and thermal evolution along dusty flow streamlines is computed for a prescribed MHD disk wind solution, using a method developed for magnetized shocks in the interstellar medium. Irradiation by wind-attenuated coronal X-rays and FUV photons from accretion hot spots is included, with self-shielding of H2 and CO. Disk accretion rates of 5e-6, 1e-6 and 1e-7 solar masses per year are considered, representative of low-mass young protostars (Class 0), evolved protostars (Class I) and very active T Tauri stars (Class II). The disk wind has an onion-like thermo-chemical structure, with streamlines launched from larger radii having lower temperature and ionisation, and higher H...
Numerical simulations of turbulent ionized gas flows in the circumsolar protoplanetary disk
Marov, M. Ya.; Kuksa, M. M.
2015-09-01
An axisymmetric protoplanetary disk model that takes into account the interaction of turbulent gas flows with the magnetic field is considered. A closed system of equations of homogeneous compressible magnetohydrodynamics in the regime of developed turbulence in the gravitational and magnetic fields of a star has been constructed. Apart from the traditional probability-theoretical averaging of the MHD equations, the weighted Favre averaging is used. The approach by A.V. Kolesnichenko and M.Ya. Marov to modeling the turbulent transport coefficients in a weakly ionized disk has been implemented. It allows the inverse effects of the generated magnetic field on a turbulent gas flow and the dissipation of turbulence through kinematic and magnetic viscosities to be taken into account. A parallel code for numerically solving the system of averaged MHD equations has been developed. The averaged gas density and velocity distributions as well as the configuration of the disk's intrinsic magnetic field at a distance of 1 AU from the star have been obtained through numerical simulations. The assumption that the vertical (parallel to the disk's rotation axis) magnetic induction component changes much more profoundly in height than in radius and, hence, gives grounds to take into account its gradient in the model of the turbulent kinematic viscosity coefficient has been confirmed.