Sample records for relativistic laser-plasma intensity

  1. Leveraging Microscience to Manipulate Laser-Plasma Interactions at Relativistic Intensities (United States)

    Snyder, Joseph

    This thesis presents experimental and computational studies of a high intensity, ultra-short pulse laser incident on a hollow, micron-scale, cylindrical structure we have termed the Micro-tube Plasma (MTP) lens. The computational studies, performed using three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, show that Fresnel diffraction and plasma guiding from the cylindrical structure lead to a redistribution of the incident laser intensity, resulting in a smaller focal spot, and as such, an increase in the laser intensity. The intensity enhancement inside the MTP lens occurs in three distinct regimes which are dictated by the pulse intensity. Crucially, as the pulse intensity becomes highly relativistic, there is a monatomic increase in the intensification factor with increasing intensity. The in-tube intensity distribution is studied to characterize the peak intensification and a method for averaging the in-tube intensity gives insight into the intensification lifetime. These complementary characterizations lead to a deeper understanding of intensification within the MTP lens. The effects of varying the dimensions of the cylindrical structure are described and this study provides optimized structure parameters for increasing the in-tube pulse intensity based on currently available laser technology. By coupling the MTP lens to a traditional flat interface, simulations indicate we can increase the peak and averaged intensity at the interface. This leads to enhancement of other phenomena, such as hole-boring ion acceleration. Additionally, the inclusion of a MTP lens enhances target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) of rear surface ions. By tailoring the MTP lens, we achieve a simulated maximum proton energy that is 3.5 times higher than the energy from a traditional flat interface. An experiment to demonstrate the feasibility of these structures was performed at the Scarlet Laser Facility at The Ohio State University. Using a 300 microm long, 5 microm inner

  2. Investigation of relativistic laser-plasmas using nuclear diagnostics; Untersuchung relativistischer Laserplasmen mittels nukleardiagnostischer Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Marc M.


    The present work explores with the development of a novel nuclear diagnostic method for the investigation of the electron dynamics in relativistic laser-plasma interactions. An additional aim of this work was the determination of the real laser peak intensity via the interaction of an intense laser short-pulse with a solid target. The nuclear diagnostics is based on a photo-neutron disintegration nuclear activation method. The main constituent of the nuclear diagnostic are novel pseudoalloic activation targets as a kind of calorimeter to measure the high-energy bremsstrahlung produced by relativistic electrons. The targets are composed of several stable isotopes with different ({gamma},xn)-reaction thresholds. The activated nuclides were identified via the characteristic gamma-ray decay spectrum by using high-resolution gamma spectroscopy after the laser irradiation. Via the gamma spectroscopy the ({gamma},xn)-reaction yields were determined. The high-energy bremsstrahlung spectrum has been deconvolved using a novel analysis method based on a modified Penfold-Leiss method. This facilitates the reconstruction of the spectrum of bremsstrahlung photons without any anticipated fit procedures. Furthermore, the characterization of the corresponding bremsstrahlung electrons in the interaction zone is accessible immediately. The consolidated findings about the properties of the relativistic electrons were used to determine the real peak intensity at the laser-plasma interaction zone. In the context of this work, experiments were performed at three different laser facilities. First Experiments were carried out at the 100 TW laser facility at Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intense (LULI) in France and supplementary at the Vulcan laser facility at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in United Kingdom. The main part of the activation experiments were performed at the PHELIX laser facility (Petawatt High Energy Laser for heavy Ion EXperiments) at GSI

  3. Effects of front-surface target structures on properties of relativistic laser-plasma electrons. (United States)

    Jiang, S; Krygier, A G; Schumacher, D W; Akli, K U; Freeman, R R


    We report the results of a study of the role of prescribed geometrical structures on the front of a target in determining the energy and spatial distribution of relativistic laser-plasma electrons. Our three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation studies apply to short-pulse, high-intensity laser pulses, and indicate that a judicious choice of target front-surface geometry provides the realistic possibility of greatly enhancing the yield of high-energy electrons while simultaneously confining the emission to narrow (<5°) angular cones.

  4. Specular Reflectivity and Hot-Electron Generation in High-Contrast Relativistic Laser-Plasma Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Gregory Elijah [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)


    Ultra-intense laser (> 1018 W/cm2) interactions with matter are capable of producing relativistic electrons which have a variety of applications in state-of-the-art scientific and medical research conducted at universities and national laboratories across the world. Control of various aspects of these hot-electron distributions is highly desired to optimize a particular outcome. Hot-electron generation in low-contrast interactions, where significant amounts of under-dense pre-plasma are present, can be plagued by highly non-linear relativistic laser-plasma instabilities and quasi-static magnetic field generation, often resulting in less than desirable and predictable electron source characteristics. High-contrast interactions offer more controlled interactions but often at the cost of overall lower coupling and increased sensitivity to initial target conditions. An experiment studying the differences in hot-electron generation between high and low-contrast pulse interactions with solid density targets was performed on the Titan laser platform at the Jupiter Laser Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. To date, these hot-electrons generated in the laboratory are not directly observable at the source of the interaction. Instead, indirect studies are performed using state-of-the-art simulations, constrained by the various experimental measurements. These measurements, more-often-than-not, rely on secondary processes generated by the transport of these electrons through the solid density materials which can susceptible to a variety instabilities and target material/geometry effects. Although often neglected in these types of studies, the specularly reflected light can provide invaluable insight as it is directly influenced by the interaction. In this thesis, I address the use of (personally obtained) experimental specular reflectivity measurements to indirectly study hot-electron generation in the context of high-contrast, relativistic

  5. Laser-plasmas in the relativistic-transparency regime: Science and applications (United States)

    Fernández, Juan C.; Cort Gautier, D.; Huang, Chengkung; Palaniyappan, Sasikumar; Albright, Brian J.; Bang, Woosuk; Dyer, Gilliss; Favalli, Andrea; Hunter, James F.; Mendez, Jacob; Roth, Markus; Swinhoe, Martyn; Bradley, Paul A.; Deppert, Oliver; Espy, Michelle; Falk, Katerina; Guler, Nevzat; Hamilton, Christopher; Hegelich, Bjorn Manuel; Henzlova, Daniela; Ianakiev, Kiril D.; Iliev, Metodi; Johnson, Randall P.; Kleinschmidt, Annika; Losko, Adrian S.; McCary, Edward; Mocko, Michal; Nelson, Ronald O.; Roycroft, Rebecca; Santiago Cordoba, Miguel A.; Schanz, Victor A.; Schaumann, Gabriel; Schmidt, Derek W.; Sefkow, Adam; Shimada, Tsutomu; Taddeucci, Terry N.; Tebartz, Alexandra; Vogel, Sven C.; Vold, Erik; Wurden, Glen A.; Yin, Lin


    Laser-plasma interactions in the novel regime of relativistically induced transparency (RIT) have been harnessed to generate intense ion beams efficiently with average energies exceeding 10 MeV/nucleon (>100 MeV for protons) at "table-top" scales in experiments at the LANL Trident Laser. By further optimization of the laser and target, the RIT regime has been extended into a self-organized plasma mode. This mode yields an ion beam with much narrower energy spread while maintaining high ion energy and conversion efficiency. This mode involves self-generation of persistent high magnetic fields (˜104 T, according to particle-in-cell simulations of the experiments) at the rear-side of the plasma. These magnetic fields trap the laser-heated multi-MeV electrons, which generate a high localized electrostatic field (˜0.1 T V/m). After the laser exits the plasma, this electric field acts on a highly structured ion-beam distribution in phase space to reduce the energy spread, thus separating acceleration and energy-spread reduction. Thus, ion beams with narrow energy peaks at up to 18 MeV/nucleon are generated reproducibly with high efficiency (≈5%). The experimental demonstration has been done with 0.12 PW, high-contrast, 0.6 ps Gaussian 1.053 μm laser pulses irradiating planar foils up to 250 nm thick at 2-8 × 1020 W/cm2. These ion beams with co-propagating electrons have been used on Trident for uniform volumetric isochoric heating to generate and study warm-dense matter at high densities. These beam plasmas have been directed also at a thick Ta disk to generate a directed, intense point-like Bremsstrahlung source of photons peaked at ˜2 MeV and used it for point projection radiography of thick high density objects. In addition, prior work on the intense neutron beam driven by an intense deuterium beam generated in the RIT regime has been extended. Neutron spectral control by means of a flexible converter-disk design has been demonstrated, and the neutron beam has

  6. Simulation of intense short-pulse laser-plasma interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagiwa, Mitsuru [Advanced Photon Research Center, Kansai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kizu, Kyoto (Japan)


    We have completed the massive parallelization of a 2-dimensional giga-particle code and have achieved a 530-fold acceleration rate with 512 processing elements (PE's). Using this we have implemented a simulation of the interaction of a solid thin film and a high intensity laser and have discovered a phenomenon in which high quality short pulses from the far ultraviolet to soft X-rays are generated at the back surface of the thin layer. We have also introduced the atomic process database code (Hullac) and have the possibility for high precision simulations of X-ray laser radiation. With respect to laser acceleration we have the possibility to quantitatively evaluate relativistic self-focusing assumed to occur in higher intensity fields. Ion acceleration from a solid target and an underdense plasma irradiated by an intense and an ultra intense laser, respectively, has also been studied by particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. (author)

  7. A pinhole camera for ultrahigh-intensity laser plasma experiments (United States)

    Wang, C.; An, H. H.; Xiong, J.; Fang, Z. H.; Wang, Y. W.; Zhang, Z.; Hua, N.; Sun, J. R.; Wang, W.


    A pinhole camera is an important instrument for the detection of radiation in laser plasmas. It can monitor the laser focus directly and assist in the analysis of the experimental data. However, conventional pinhole cameras are difficult to use when the target is irradiated by an ultrahigh-power laser because of the high background of hard X-ray emission generated in the laser/target region. Therefore, an improved pinhole camera has been developed that uses a grazing-incidence mirror that enables soft X-ray imaging while avoiding the effect of hard X-ray from hot dense plasmas.

  8. Transverse Dynamics and Energy Tuning of Fast Electrons Generated in Sub-Relativistic Intensity Laser Pulse Interaction with Plasmas


    Mori, M.; Kando, M.; Daito, I.; Kotaki, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Yamazaki, A.; Ogura, K.; Sagisaka, A.; Koga, J.; Nakajima, K.; Daido, H.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kimura, T.


    The regimes of quasi-mono-energetic electron beam generation were experimentally studied in the sub-relativistic intensity laser plasma interaction. The observed electron acceleration regime is unfolded with two-dimensional-particle-in-cell simulations of laser-wakefield generation in the self-modulation regime.

  9. Transverse dynamics and energy tuning of fast electrons generated in sub-relativistic intensity laser pulse interaction with plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, M. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Umemidai 8-1, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Kando, M. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Umemidai 8-1, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Daito, I. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Umemidai 8-1, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Kotaki, H. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Umemidai 8-1, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Hayashi, Y. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Umemidai 8-1, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Yamazaki, A. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Umemidai 8-1, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Ogura, K. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Umemidai 8-1, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Sagisaka, A. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Umemidai 8-1, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Koga, J. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Umemidai 8-1, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Nakajima, K. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Umemidai 8-1, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Daido, H. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Umemidai 8-1, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Bulanov, S.V.; Kimura, T. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Umemidai 8-1, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)


    The regimes of quasi-monoenergetic electron beam generation were experimentally studied in the sub-relativistic intensity laser plasma interaction. The observed electron acceleration regime is unfolded with two-dimensional-particle-in-cell simulations of laser-wakefield generation in the self-modulation regime.

  10. Parametric waves excitation in relativistic laser-plasma interactions for electron acceleration (United States)

    Shulyapov, S. A.; Ivanov, K. A.; Tsymbalov, I. N.; Krestovskih, D. A.; Savel'ev, A. B.; Ksenofontov, P. A.; Brantov, A. V.; Bychenkov, V. Yu


    Plasma created by femtosecond laser pulse of high intensity can be used as the brilliant source of high energy electrons, ions and x- or γ-rays. In most cases, laser pulses with high contrast are used for particle acceleration. But, it has been shown, that changing parameters of pre-plasma layer on the surface of the target can significantly increase electron energies. In this work we present the results of the experimental and numerical studies of the abnormally hot electron generation mechanisms in the case of long scale pre-plasma layer subcritical density.

  11. Exotic dense matter states pumped by relativistic laser plasma in the radiation dominant regime

    CERN Document Server

    Colgan, J; Jr.,; Faenov, A Ya; Pikuz, S A; Wagenaars, E; Booth, N; Brown, C R D; Culfa, O; Dance, R J; Evans, R G; Gray, R J; Hoarty, D J; Kaempfer, T; Lancaster, K L; McKenna, P; Rossall, A L; Skobelev, I Yu; Schulze, K S; Uschmann, I; Zhidkov, A G; Woolsey, N C


    The properties of high energy density plasma are under increasing scrutiny in recent years due to their importance to our understanding of stellar interiors, the cores of giant planets$^{1}$, and the properties of hot plasma in inertial confinement fusion devices$^2$. When matter is heated by X-rays, electrons in the inner shells are ionized before the valence electrons. Ionization from the inside out creates atoms or ions with empty internal electron shells, which are known as hollow atoms (or ions)$^{3,4,5}$. Recent advances in free-electron laser (FEL) technology$^{6,7,8,9}$ have made possible the creation of condensed matter consisting predominantly of hollow atoms. In this Letter, we demonstrate that such exotic states of matter, which are very far from equilibrium, can also be formed by more conventional optical laser technology when the laser intensity approaches the radiation dominant regime$^{10}$. Such photon-dominated systems are relevant to studies of photoionized plasmas found in active galactic ...

  12. Using X-ray spectroscopy of relativistic laser plasma interaction to reveal parametric decay instabilities : A modeling tool for astrophysics


    Oks, E; Dalimier, E.; Faenov, A. Ya; Angelo, P.; Pikuz, S. A.; Tubman, E.; Butler, N. M H; Dance, R. J.; Pikuz, T. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Alkhimova, M. A.; Booth, N.; Green, J.; Gregory, C; Andreev, A.


    By analyzing profiles of experimental x-ray spectral lines of Si XIV and Al XIII, we found that both Langmuir and ion acoustic waves developed in plasmas produced via irradiation of thin Si foils by relativistic laser pulses (intensities ∼1021 W/cm2). We prove that these waves are due to the parametric decay instability (PDI). This is the first time that the PDI-induced ion acoustic turbulence was discovered by the x-ray spectroscopy in laser-produced plasmas. These conclusions are also suppo...

  13. Intense Relativistic Electron Beam Investigations (United States)


    dif- fusion pump furnished with the electron beam machine was sized to hold vacuum rathcr thani to ,achieve rapid pump down, we were limited to 2 and lasers as well as providing an advance synchronized trigger pulse to the oscilloscopes. Since this water filled spark gap switch initiates...Equipment Source NRL 0.5 XeV 7 ohm relativistic "electron beam machine Government furnished Capacitor bank and magnetic field solenoid 4’ long with

  14. Overview of inertial fusion and high-intensity laser plasma research in Europe (United States)

    Tassart, J.


    Inertial fusion science is driven by 'the quest for ignition'. For many years, a 'conventional' route towards inertial fusion has been investigated using two different approaches: ignition by an inertial central hot spot could be obtained either through the direct or the indirect drive scheme. Both imply the use of a very large facility to operate the driver, which is a powerful laser in the current projects (LMJ in France as well as NIF in the US). The LMJ construction being on the way, a large amount of experimental and computational work is currently being done to deepen the understanding of ignition requirements. On the other hand, the so-called 'fast ignition' approach has led to an increasingly important amount of scientific work since it was proposed at the beginning of the 1990s. During the last several years (from the previous IFSA held in Kyoto in 2001), several PW-class high-intensity laser facilities have been built in Europe. In the meantime, a large number of interesting results related to fast electron and proton production have been obtained with the existing facilities. Observation of laser-irradiated solid targets has provided the first evidence of electron bunches separated by half the period of light. Nevertheless, target heating remains modest. On the other hand, multi-megaelectronvolt highly collimated electron beams have been produced by table-top lasers interacting with the low-density plasmas. They open the feasibility of a lot of applications: x-ray probe beams in plasma physics, biology, chemistry, injector for conventional accelerators, etc). Laser-produced proton beams is also a growing field, with a lot of promising applications: proton therapy, radio-isotope production, diagnostic for transient phenomena in laser-plasma interaction, etc. Inertial fusion research is fostered by a sustained effort of organization and coordination at the national level (the creation of an Institute for Lasers and Plasmas in France) as well as at the

  15. Anti-Stokes scattering and Stokes scattering of stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade in high-intensity laser-plasmas interaction (United States)

    Feng, Qingsong; Zheng, Chunyang; Liu, Zhanjun; Xiao, Chengzhuo; Wang, Qing; Cao, Lihua; He, Xiantu


    The anti-Stokes scattering and Stokes scattering in stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) cascade have been researched by the Vlasov-Maxwell simulation. In the high-intensity laser-plasmas interaction, the stimulated anti-Stokes Brillouin scattering (SABS) will occur after the second stage SBS rescattering. The mechanism of SABS has been put forward to explain this phenomenon. In the early time of SBS evolution, only the first stage SBS appears, and the total SBS reflectivity comes from the first stage SBS. However, when the high-stage SBS and SABS occur, the SBS reflectivity will appear a burst behavior, and the total reflectivity comes from the SBS cascade and SABS superimposition. The SABS will compete with the SBS rescattering to determine the total SBS reflectivity. Thus, the SBS rescattering including the SABS is an important saturation mechanism of SBS, and should be taken into account in the high-intensity laser-plasmas interaction. This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11375032, 11575035, 11475030 and 11435011), National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB834101) and Science Challenge Project, No. TZ2016005.

  16. A novel nuclear pyrometry for the characterization of high-energy bremsstrahlung and electrons produced in relativistic laser-plasma interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, M. M.; Sonnabend, K.; Harres, K.; Roth, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Schlossgartenstr. 9, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Brambrink, E. [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, UMR 7605 CNRS-CEA-Ecole Polytechnique-Universite Paris VI, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Vogt, K.; Bagnoud, V. [GSI - Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)


    We present a novel nuclear activation-based method for the investigation of high-energy bremsstrahlung produced by electrons above 7 MeV generated by a high-power laser. The main component is a novel high-density activation target that is a pseudo alloy of several selected isotopes with different photo-disintegration reaction thresholds. The gamma spectrum emitted by the activated targets is used for the reconstruction of the bremsstrahlung spectrum using an analysis method based on Penfold and Leiss. This nuclear activation-based technique allows for the determination of the number of bremsstrahlung photons per energy bin in a wide range energy without any anticipated fit procedures. Furthermore, the analysis method also allows for the determination of the absolute yield, the energy distribution, and the temperature of high-energy electrons at the relativistic laser-plasma interaction region. The pyrometry is sensitive to energies above 7 MeV only, i.e., this diagnostic is insensitive to any low-energy processes.

  17. Ultraintense laser-plasma interactions (United States)

    Dyson, A.

    Lasers currently under construction or completed carry laser-plasma interactions well into the relativistic regime, with intensities of high 1019 or 1020 Wcm-2. In such cases relativistic effects play a major role and may dominate the physics involved in the interaction. There are many plasma physics related applications which aim to make use of these new ultra intense short pulse lasers. Examples include hard and soft incoherent X-ray generation, coherent short wavelength light sources, particle acceleration via the laser wakefield and fusion via the fast ignitor concept. This thesis is concerned with some of the issues of the fast ignitor; megagauss magnetic field generation, relativistic filamentation and self-focusing and ponderomotive channel boring. In addition some more general comparisons are made on the propagation of both linear and circularly polarised light in plasma targets. The first half of the work is concerned with the propagation of circularly polarised laser light in underdense and near critical density plasmas. A wide range of laser parameters are covered in order to examine aspects of the axial Faraday field generated in such cases. Relativistic filamentation occurs for some parameter combinations, with both temporal and spatial merging of filaments found. The effects of an imposed azimuthal magnetic field are considered in the case of a linearly polarised laser undergoing relativistic filamentation in an underdense plasma. Again filament merging is observed. The final part of the thesis examines the ponderomotive channelling of an ultra-intense picosecond laser pulse into an overdense plasma. Both linear and circularly polarised light are studied. Strong azimuthal magnetic field generation is observed with both polarisations, for the circularly polarised driver this is in addition to the axial field already discussed. The two polarisations show a stark difference in hole boring characteristics; with differences in hole size, hole boring speed

  18. Exotic dense-matter states pumped by a relativistic laser plasma in the radiation-dominated regime. (United States)

    Colgan, J; Abdallah, J; Faenov, A Ya; Pikuz, S A; Wagenaars, E; Booth, N; Culfa, O; Dance, R J; Evans, R G; Gray, R J; Kaempfer, T; Lancaster, K L; McKenna, P; Rossall, A L; Skobelev, I Yu; Schulze, K S; Uschmann, I; Zhidkov, A G; Woolsey, N C


    In high-spectral resolution experiments with the petawatt Vulcan laser, strong x-ray radiation of KK hollow atoms (atoms without n = 1 electrons) from thin Al foils was observed at pulse intensities of 3 × 10(20) W/cm(2). The observations of spectra from these exotic states of matter are supported by detailed kinetics calculations, and are consistent with a picture in which an intense polychromatic x-ray field, formed from Thomson scattering and bremsstrahlung in the electrostatic fields at the target surface, drives the KK hollow atom production. We estimate that this x-ray field has an intensity of >5 × 10(18) W/cm(2) and is in the 3 keV range.

  19. Propagation of an ultra-short, intense laser in a relativistic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, A.B.; Decker, C.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    A Maxwell-relativistic fluid model is developed to describe the propagation of an ultrashort, intense laser pulse through an underdense plasma. The model makes use of numerically stabilizing fast Fourier transform (FFT) computational methods for both the Maxwell and fluid equations, and it is benchmarked against particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Strong fields generated in the wake of the laser are calculated, and the authors observe coherent wake-field radiation generated at harmonics of the plasma frequency due to nonlinearities in the laser-plasma interaction. For a plasma whose density is 10% of critical, the highest members of the plasma harmonic series begin to overlap with the first laser harmonic, suggesting that widely used multiple-scales-theory, by which the laser and plasma frequencies are assumed to be separable, ceases to be a useful approximation.

  20. Electron Generation and Transport in Intense Relativistic Laser-Plasma Interactions Relevant to Fast Ignition ICF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Tammy Yee Wing [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)


    The reentrant cone approach to Fast Ignition, an advanced Inertial Confinement Fusion scheme, remains one of the most attractive because of the potential to efficiently collect and guide the laser light into the cone tip and direct energetic electrons into the high density core of the fuel. However, in the presence of a preformed plasma, the laser energy is largely absorbed before it can reach the cone tip. Full scale fast ignition laser systems are envisioned to have prepulses ranging between 100 mJ to 1 J. A few of the imperative issues facing fast ignition, then, are the conversion efficiency with which the laser light is converted to hot electrons, the subsequent transport characteristics of those electrons, and requirements for maximum allowable prepulse this may put on the laser system. This dissertation examines the laser-to-fast electron conversion efficiency scaling with prepulse for cone-guided fast ignition. Work in developing an extreme ultraviolet imager diagnostic for the temperature measurements of electron-heated targets, as well as the validation of the use of a thin wire for simultaneous determination of electron number density and electron temperature will be discussed.

  1. Efficient quasi-monoenergetic ion beams up to 18 MeV/nucleon via self-generated plasma fields in relativistic laser plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Palaniyappan, Sasi; Gautier, Donald C; Hamilton, Christopher E; Santiago, Miguel A; Kreuzer, Christian; Shah, Rahul C; Fernandez, Juan C


    Table-top laser-plasma ion accelerators seldom achieve narrow energy spreads, and never without serious compromises in efficiency, particle yield, etc. Using massive computer simulations, we identify a self-organizing scheme that exploits persisting self-generated plasma electric (~TV/m) and magnetic (~10${}^{4}$ Tesla) fields to reduce the ion energy spread after the laser exits the plasma - separating the ion acceleration from the energy spread reduction. Consistent with the scheme, we experimentally demonstrate aluminum and carbon ion beams with narrow spectral peaks at energies up to 310 MeV (11.5 MeV/nucleon) and 220 MeV (18.3 MeV/nucleon), respectively, with high conversion efficiency (~5%, i.e., 4J out of 80J laser). This is achieved with 0.12 PW high-contrast Gaussian laser pulses irradiating planar foils with optimal thicknesses of up to 250 nm that scale with laser intensity. When increasing the focused laser intensity fourfold (by reducing the focusing optic f/number twofold), the spectral-peak ene...

  2. Temporal characterization of harmonic radiation generated by intense laser-plasma interaction


    Nomura, Yutaka


    Attosecond physics has become one of the most thriving field of science over the last decade. Although high-order harmonic generation from gaseous media is widely used as the source of attosecond pulses, a demand for more intense coherent extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and soft x-ray (SXR) radiation sources is growing. The process of high-order harmonic generation from plasma surfaces has attracted a strong interest as a promising candidate to meet this demand. Despite many theoretical predictions...

  3. Stochastic behavior of electrons in high intensity laser-plasma interaction (United States)

    Khalilzadeh, Elnaz; Chakhmachi, Amir; Yazdanpanah, Jamalaldin


    The stochastic behavior of electrons during the interaction of an intense short laser pulse with under-dense plasma is investigated by employing a fully kinetic 1D-3V particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The development of chaos in the involved nonlinear regime and in the presence of plasma space charge is examined. Though the electron Lagrangian is extremely complicated in this case, our analyses suggest some potential ways for chaos development. In this regard, our simulation results show that chaotic motion can develop in three different ways. When the space charge field is weak, the scattered fields can provide the necessary condition for chaos to occur. When a strong space charge field is presented, the creation of chaos is initiated by wave breaking. The third procedure for creating chaos originates from the inhomogeneity of the density on the vacuum-plasma surface. In this case, a new electrostatic mode without any phase relation with the space charge electrostatic mode is generated.

  4. Laser Plasma Interactions at Intensities from 10^12 W/cm^2 to 10^21 W/cm^2 (United States)

    Kruer, William L.


    Laser plasma interactions provide a rich test bed for a wide range of linear and nonlinear plasma phenomena, ranging from collisional and anomalous absorption to very nonlinear, relativistic effects. The interaction physics is proving to be a key enabling science for a number of frontier applications, including ignition with NIF, fast ignition, laser plasma accelerators, compact x-ray sources, and extreme field science. A tutorial discussion of the key interaction physics and its modeling is given, with particular emphasis on the many pioneering fundamental contributions of John M. Dawson. Special attention is given to the new frontiers accessible with NIF and with petawatt lasers and to advances in the modeling enabled by terascale computing. This presentation is dedicated to the memory of John M. Dawson, who was a visionary pioneer in the physics and simulation of plasmas and in many plasma applications. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  5. On the Acceleration and Transport of Electrons Generated by Intense Laser-Plasma Interactions at Sharp Interfaces (United States)

    May, Joshua Joseph

    The continued development of the chirped pulse amplification technique has allowed for the development of lasers with powers of in excess of 10 15W, for pulse lengths with durations of between .01 and 10 picoseconds, and which can be focused to energy densities greater than 100 giga-atmospheres. When such lasers are focused onto material targets, the possibility of creating particle beams with energy fluxes of comparable parameters arises. Such interactions have a number of theorized applications. For instance, in the Fast Ignition concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion [1], a high-intensity laser efficiently transfers its energy into an electron beam with an appropriate spectra which is then transported into a compressed target and initiate a fusion reaction. Another possible use is the so called Radiation Pressure Acceleration mechanism, in which a high-intensity, circularly polarized laser is used to create a mono-energetic ion beam which could then be used for medical imaging and treatment, among other applications. For this latter application, it is important that the laser energy is transferred to the ions and not to the electrons. However the physics of such high energy-density laser-matter interactions is highly kinetic and non-linear, and presently not fully understood. In this dissertation, we use the Particle-in-Cell code OSIRIS [2, 3] to explore the generation and transport of relativistic particle beams created by high intensity lasers focused onto solid density matter at normal incidence. To explore the generation of relativistic electrons by such interactions, we use primarily one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D), and a few three-dimensional simulations (3D). We initially examine the idealized case of normal incidence of relatively short, plane-wave lasers on flat, sharp interfaces. We find that in 1D the results are highly dependent on the initial temperature of the plasma, with significant absorption into relativistic electrons only

  6. A Superintense Laser-Plasma Interaction Theory Primer

    CERN Document Server

    Macchi, Andrea


    The continuous trend towards higher and higher laser intensities has opened the way to new physical regimes and advanced applications of laser-plasma interactions, thus stimulating novel connections with ultrafast optics, astrophysics, particle physics, and biomedical applications. This book is primarily oriented towards students and young researchers who need to acquire rapidly a basic knowledge of this active and rapidly changing research field. To this aim, the presentation is focused on a selection of basic models and inspiring examples, and includes topics which emerged recently such as ion acceleration, "relativistic engineering" and radiation friction. The contents are presented in a self-contained way assuming only a basic knowledge of classical electrodynamics, mechanics and relativistic dynamics at the undergraduate (Bachelor) level, without requiring any previous knowledge of plasma physics. Hence, the book may serve in several ways: as a compact textbook for lecture courses, as a short and accessi...

  7. Next Generation Driver for Attosecond and Laser-plasma Physics. (United States)

    Rivas, D E; Borot, A; Cardenas, D E; Marcus, G; Gu, X; Herrmann, D; Xu, J; Tan, J; Kormin, D; Ma, G; Dallari, W; Tsakiris, G D; Földes, I B; Chou, S-W; Weidman, M; Bergues, B; Wittmann, T; Schröder, H; Tzallas, P; Charalambidis, D; Razskazovskaya, O; Pervak, V; Krausz, F; Veisz, L


    The observation and manipulation of electron dynamics in matter call for attosecond light pulses, routinely available from high-order harmonic generation driven by few-femtosecond lasers. However, the energy limitation of these lasers supports only weak sources and correspondingly linear attosecond studies. Here we report on an optical parametric synthesizer designed for nonlinear attosecond optics and relativistic laser-plasma physics. This synthesizer uniquely combines ultra-relativistic focused intensities of about 1020 W/cm2 with a pulse duration of sub-two carrier-wave cycles. The coherent combination of two sequentially amplified and complementary spectral ranges yields sub-5-fs pulses with multi-TW peak power. The application of this source allows the generation of a broad spectral continuum at 100-eV photon energy in gases as well as high-order harmonics in relativistic plasmas. Unprecedented spatio-temporal confinement of light now permits the investigation of electric-field-driven electron phenomena in the relativistic regime and ultimately the rise of next-generation intense isolated attosecond sources.

  8. Theory of relativistic radiation reflection from plasmas (United States)

    Gonoskov, Arkady


    We consider the reflection of relativistically strong radiation from plasma and identify the physical origin of the electrons' tendency to form a thin sheet, which maintains its localisation throughout its motion. Thereby, we justify the principle of relativistic electronic spring (RES) proposed in [Gonoskov et al., Phys. Rev. E 84, 046403 (2011)]. Using the RES principle, we derive a closed set of differential equations that describe the reflection of radiation with arbitrary variation of polarization and intensity from plasma with an arbitrary density profile for an arbitrary angle of incidence. We confirm with ab initio PIC simulations that the developed theory accurately describes laser-plasma interactions in the regime where the reflection of relativistically strong radiation is accompanied by significant, repeated relocation of plasma electrons. In particular, the theory can be applied for the studies of plasma heating and coherent and incoherent emissions in the RES regime of high-intensity laser-plasma interaction.

  9. Laser plasma instabilities and hot electron generation from multi-kilojoule shock ignition relevant high-intensity IR and UV lasers (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Li, J.; Beg, F. N.; Krauland, C. M.; Muller, S.; Alexander, N.; Ren, C.; Theobald, W.; Turnbull, D.; Haberberger, D.; Betti, R.; Campbell, E. M.; Batani, D.; Santos, J.; Nicolai, P.; Wei, M. S.


    As an alternative ignition scheme, shock ignition uses a strong convergent shock driven by a high-intensity laser ( 1016 W/cm2) on a pre-compressed fuel to achieve ignition. Moderately energetic hot electrons (laser plasma instabilities (LPI) can strengthen the ignition shock by depositing energy at the compressed outer shell increasing ablation pressure. In our previous experiments on OMEGA-EP, 90 keV collimated hot electrons were observed from a 100 ps, 2.5 kJ IR laser interacting with SI long scale length hot plasmas (Ln 200 -500 µm, Te >1 keV, produced by low-intensity UV beams). To further characterize hot electron generation and investigate the related LPIs, we have extended the experiments with high-intensity, multi-kJ IR and UV lasers (both at normal incidence, up to 2×1016 W/cm2) . Two IR beams in co-propagation extend the pulse duration to 200 ps, closer to required ignition pulse duration. The scattered light is spectrally resolved to identify the LPI. Angular filter refractometer images from 4 ω probe show the details of the laser propagation and interaction. The divergence, energy, and temperature of the hot electrons are diagnosed by measuring the bremsstrahlung and Cu K α emission. Details of the experimental results will be presented. This work is supported by the U. S. DOE under contracts DE-NA0003600 (NLUF) and DE-SC0014666 (HEDLP).

  10. Laser-Plasma Interactions in Magnetized Environment (United States)

    Shi, Yuan


    Propagation and scattering of lasers present new phenomena and applications when the plasma medium becomes magnetized. Starting from mega-Gauss magnetic fields, laser scattering becomes manifestly anisotropic [arXiv 1705.09758]. By arranging beams at special angles, one may be able to optimize laser-plasma coupling in magnetized environment. In stronger giga-Gauss magnetic field, laser propagation becomes modified by relativistic quantum effects [PRA 94.012124]. The modified wave dispersion relation enables correct interpretation of Faraday rotation measurements of strong magnetic fields, as well as correct extraction of plasma parameters from the X-ray spectra of pulsars. In addition, magnetized plasmas can be utilized to mediate laser pulse compression [PRE 95.023211]. Using magnetic resonances, it is not only possible to produce optic pulses of higher intensity, but also possible to amplify UV and soft X-ray pulses that cannot be compressed using existing technology. This research is supported by NNSA Grant No. DE-NA0002948 and DOE Research Grant No. DEAC02- 09CH11466.

  11. Relativistic electron mirrors from high intensity laser nanofoil interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, Daniel


    The reflection of a laser pulse from a mirror moving close to the speed of light could in principle create an X-ray pulse with unprecedented high brightness owing to the increase in photon energy and accompanying temporal compression by a factor of 4γ{sup 2}, where γ is the Lorentz factor of the mirror. While this scheme is theoretically intriguingly simple and was first discussed by A. Einstein more than a century ago, the generation of a relativistic structure which acts as a mirror is demanding in many different aspects. Recently, the interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with a nanometer thin foil has raised great interest as it promises the creation of a dense, attosecond short, relativistic electron bunch capable of forming a mirror structure that scatters counter-propagating light coherently and shifts its frequency to higher photon energies. However, so far, this novel concept has been discussed only in theoretical studies using highly idealized interaction parameters. This thesis investigates the generation of a relativistic electron mirror from a nanometer foil with current state-of-the-art high intensity laser pulses and demonstrates for the first time the reflection from those structures in an experiment. To achieve this result, the electron acceleration from high intensity laser nanometer foil interactions was studied in a series of experiments using three inherently different high power laser systems and free-standing foils as thin as 3nm. A drastic increase in the electron energies was observed when reducing the target thickness from the micrometer to the nanometer scale. Quasi-monoenergetic electron beams were measured for the first time from ultrathin (≤5nm) foils, reaching energies up to ∝35MeV. The acceleration process was studied in simulations well-adapted to the experiments, indicating the transition from plasma to free electron dynamics as the target thickness is reduced to the few nanometer range. The experience gained from those

  12. Analysis of induced stress on materials exposed to laser-plasma radiation during high-intensity laser experiments (United States)

    Scisciò, M.; Barberio, M.; Liberatore, C.; Veltri, S.; Laramée, A.; Palumbo, L.; Legaré, F.; Antici, P.


    In this work, we investigate the damage produced in materials when exposed to a laser-generated plasma. The plasma was generated by interaction of a high-intensity laser with Oxygen. We demonstrate that the stress induced on the target surface of a Tantalum target (typical materials used as Plasma Facing Material) after 10 h of plasma exposure is equivalent to the stress induced during 1 h of conventional laser ablation using a pulsed 0.5 J laser. In both cases we obtain a surface erosion in the tens of μm, and a change in the surface roughness in the tens of nm for the stressed materials. The erosion rate of 1 nm/s, explained in terms of surface fragmentation at thermodynamic equilibrium, generates a slow damage to the materials exposed to the plasma. Our method allows indicating safety parameters for the maintenance of materials used in high-intensity laser experiments.

  13. Laser-driven proton sources and their applications: femtosecond intense laser plasma driven simultaneous proton and x-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiuchi, M; Daido, H; Yogo, A; Sagisaka, A; Ogura, K; Orimo, S; Mori, M; Ma, J; Pirozhkov, A S; Kiriyama, H; Kanazawa, S; Kondo, S; Yamamoto, Y; Shimoura, T; Tanoue, M; Nakai, Y; Akutsu, A; Nagashima, A; Bulanov, S V; Esirkepov, T Z [Advanced Photon Research Center, JAEA, Kizugawa-shi, Kyoto (Japan)], E-mail: (and others)


    We have performed simultaneous proton and X-ray imaging with an ultra-short and high-intensity Ti: Sap laser system. More than 10{sup 10} protons, whose maximum energy reaches 2.5 MeV, were delivered within a {approx}ps bunch. At the same time, keV X-ray is generated at almost the same place where protons are emitted. We have performed the simultaneous imaging of the copper mesh by using proton and x-ray beams, in practical use of the characteristics of the laser produced plasma that it can provide those beams simultaneously without any serious problems on synchronization.

  14. Comparative study of amplified spontaneous emission and short pre-pulse impacts onto fast electron generation at sub-relativistic femtosecond laser-plasma interaction (United States)

    Ivanov, K. A.; Shulyapov, S. A.; Ksenofontov, P. A.; Tsymbalov, I. N.; Volkov, R. V.; Savel'ev, A. B.; Brantov, A. V.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Turinge, A. A.; Lapik, A. M.; Rusakov, A. V.; Djilkibaev, R. M.; Nedorezov, V. G.


    This paper describes the study of hot electron generation under the action of intense (˜1018 W/cm2) femtosecond pulses onto the surface of a solid target, in the presence of a long pre-plasma, which varied with different spatial extents and densities. The corona was formed by pre-pulses with varied intensities and temporal profiles (amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and short pre-pulses). The most efficient fast electron acceleration, to energies well beyond the ponderomotive potential, was observed if the ASE was able to form to the extent of ˜100 μm a slightly undercritical plasma. Energy of accelerated electrons underwent further growth if the laser pulse duration increased from ˜45 to ˜350 fs at constant energy fluence. The experimental results were supported by numerical simulations using 3D3V Mandor PIC code.

  15. Laser-plasma-based Space Radiation Reproduction in the Laboratory. (United States)

    Hidding, B; Karger, O; Königstein, T; Pretzler, G; Manahan, G G; McKenna, P; Gray, R; Wilson, R; Wiggins, S M; Welsh, G H; Beaton, A; Delinikolas, P; Jaroszynski, D A; Rosenzweig, J B; Karmakar, A; Ferlet-Cavrois, V; Costantino, A; Muschitiello, M; Daly, E


    Space radiation is a great danger to electronics and astronauts onboard space vessels. The spectral flux of space electrons, protons and ions for example in the radiation belts is inherently broadband, but this is a feature hard to mimic with conventional radiation sources. Using laser-plasma-accelerators, we reproduced relativistic, broadband radiation belt flux in the laboratory, and used this man-made space radiation to test the radiation hardness of space electronics. Such close mimicking of space radiation in the lab builds on the inherent ability of laser-plasma-accelerators to directly produce broadband Maxwellian-type particle flux, akin to conditions in space. In combination with the established sources, utilisation of the growing number of ever more potent laser-plasma-accelerator facilities worldwide as complementary space radiation sources can help alleviate the shortage of available beamtime and may allow for development of advanced test procedures, paving the way towards higher reliability of space missions.

  16. Non-invasive measurments of intense relativistic electron beam size (United States)

    Ekdahl, Carl; McCuistian, Trent; Moir, David; Rodriguez, Patrick; Broste, William; Johnson, Jeff


    To understand relativistic electron beam transport dynamics the size of the beam is often measured using invasive techniques such as imaging the Cerenkov or OTR light emitted from a screen inserted into the beam. These techniques would completely disrupt the DARHT 2 beam, so we are developing a non-invasive method using diamagnetic loops. We show that through conservation of canonical angular momentum the RMS radius of the beam can be found by measuring the magnetic flux excluded by the diamagnetic beam. Furthermore, this measurement is shown to be independent of the details of the beam radial current profile for DARHT 2 parameters. We present results from our test and calibration experiments, as well as results of beam radius measurements on the 20-MeV DARHT 1 accelerator.

  17. Observation of Relativistic Electron Microbursts in Conjunction with Intense Radiation Belt Whistler-Mode Waves (United States)

    Kersten, K.; Cattell, C. A.; Breneman, A.; Goetz, K.; Kellogg, P. J.; Wygant, J. R.; Wilson, L. B., III; Blake, J. B.; Looper, M. D.; Roth, I.


    We present multi-satellite observations of large amplitude radiation belt whistler-mode waves and relativistic electron precipitation. On separate occasions during the Wind petal orbits and STEREO phasing orbits, Wind and STEREO recorded intense whistler-mode waves in the outer nightside equatorial radiation belt with peak-to-peak amplitudes exceeding 300 mV/m. During these intervals of intense wave activity, SAMPEX recorded relativistic electron microbursts in near magnetic conjunction with Wind and STEREO. This evidence of microburst precipitation occurring at the same time and at nearly the same magnetic local time and L-shell with a bursty temporal structure similar to that of the observed large amplitude wave packets suggests a causal connection between the two phenomena. Simulation studies corroborate this idea, showing that nonlinear wave.particle interactions may result in rapid energization and scattering on timescales comparable to those of the impulsive relativistic electron precipitation.

  18. Laser-plasma interactions for fast ignition

    CERN Document Server

    Kemp, A J; Debayle, A; Johzaki, T; Mori, W B; Patel, P K; Sentoku, Y; Silva, L O


    In the electron-driven fast-ignition approach to inertial confinement fusion, petawatt laser pulses are required to generate MeV electrons that deposit several tens of kilojoules in the compressed core of an imploded DT shell. We review recent progress in the understanding of intense laser plasma interactions (LPI) relevant to fast ignition. Increases in computational and modeling capabilities, as well as algorithmic developments have led to enhancement in our ability to perform multi-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of LPI at relevant scales. We discuss the physics of the interaction in terms of laser absorption fraction, the laser-generated electron spectra, divergence, and their temporal evolution. Scaling with irradiation conditions such as laser intensity are considered, as well as the dependence on plasma parameters. Different numerical modeling approaches and configurations are addressed, providing an overview of the modeling capabilities and limitations. In addition, we discuss the compa...

  19. Making Relativistic Positrons Using Ultra-Intense Short Pulse Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H; Wilks, S; Bonlie, J; Chen, C; Chen, S; Cone, K; Elberson, L; Gregori, G; Liang, E; Price, D; Van Maren, R; Meyerhofer, D D; Mithen, J; Murphy, C V; Myatt, J; Schneider, M; Shepherd, R; Stafford, D; Tommasini, R; Beiersdorfer, P


    This paper describes a new positron source produced using ultra-intense short pulse lasers. Although it has been studied in theory since as early as the 1970s, the use of lasers as a valuable new positron source was not demonstrated experimentally until recent years, when the petawatt-class short pulse lasers were developed. In 2008 and 2009, in a series of experiments performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a large number of positrons were observed after shooting a millimeter thick solid gold target. Up to 2 x 10{sup 10} positrons per steradian ejected out the back of {approx}mm thick gold targets were detected. The targets were illuminated with short ({approx}1 ps) ultra-intense ({approx}1 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}) laser pulses. These positrons are produced predominantly by the Bethe-Heitler process, and have an effective temperature of 2-4 MeV, with the distribution peaking at 4-7 MeV. The angular distribution of the positrons is anisotropic. For a wide range of applications, this new laser based positron source with its unique characteristics may complements the existing sources using radioactive isotopes and accelerators.

  20. Fast-electron-relaxation measurement for laser-solid interaction at relativistic laser intensities. (United States)

    Chen, H; Shepherd, R; Chung, H K; Kemp, A; Hansen, S B; Wilks, S C; Ping, Y; Widmann, K; Fournier, K B; Dyer, G; Faenov, A; Pikuz, T; Beiersdorfer, P


    We present measurements of the fast-electron-relaxation time in short-pulse (0.5 ps) laser-solid interactions for laser intensities of 10(17), 10(18), and 10(19) Wcm2, using a picosecond time-resolved x-ray spectrometer and a time-integrated electron spectrometer. We find that the laser coupling to hot electrons increases as the laser intensity becomes relativistic, and that the thermalization of fast electrons occurs over time scales on the order of 10 ps at all laser intensities. The experimental data are analyzed using a combination of models that include Kalpha generation, collisional coupling, and plasma expansion.

  1. 60th Scottish Universities Summer School in Physics: 6th Laser-plasma interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cairns, R A; Jaroszinski, D A


    Presents diagnostic methods, experimental techniques, and simulation tools used to study and model laser-plasma interactions. This book discusses the basic theory of the interaction of intense electromagnetic radiation fields with matter.

  2. Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators (United States)

    Nakamura, K.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Lin, C.; Sokollik, T.; Smith, A.; Rodgers, D.; Donahue, R.; Bryne, W.; Leemans, W. P.


    The electron energy dependence of a scintillating screen (Lanex Fast) was studied with sub-nanosecond electron beams ranging from 106 MeV to 1522 MeV at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron booster accelerator. The sensitivity of the Lanex Fast decreased by 1% per 100 MeV increase of the energy. The linear response of the screen against the charge was verified with charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm2 and 0.4 pC/ps/mm2, respectively. For electron beams from the laser plasma accelerator, a comprehensive study of charge diagnostics has been performed using a Lanex screen, an integrating current transformer, and an activation based measurement. The charge measured by each diagnostic was found to be within ±10%.

  3. Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Lin, C.; Sokollik, T.; Smith, A.; Rodgers, D.; Donahue, R.; Bryne, W.; Leemans, W. P.


    The electron energy dependence of a scintillating screen (Lanex Fast) was studied with sub-nanosecond electron beams ranging from 106 MeV to 1522 MeV at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron booster accelerator. The sensitivity of the Lanex Fast decreased by 1percent per 100 MeV increase of the energy. The linear response of the screen against the charge was verified with charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm2 and 0.4 pC/ps/mm2, respectively. For electron beams from the laser plasma accelerator, a comprehensive study of charge diagnostics has been performed using a Lanex screen, an integrating current transformer, and an activation based measurement. The charge measured by each diagnostic was found to be within +/-10 percent.

  4. Numerical studies of acceleration of thorium ions by a laser pulse of ultra-relativistic intensity (United States)

    Domanski, Jaroslaw; Badziak, Jan


    One of the key scientific projects of ELI-Nuclear Physics is to study the production of extremely neutron-rich nuclides by a new reaction mechanism called fission-fusion using laser-accelerated thorium (232Th) ions. This research is of crucial importance for understanding the nature of the creation of heavy elements in the Universe; however, they require Th ion beams of very high beam fluencies and intensities which are inaccessible in conventional accelerators. This contribution is a first attempt to investigate the possibility of the generation of intense Th ion beams by a fs laser pulse of ultra-relativistic intensity. The investigation was performed with the use of fully electromagnetic relativistic particle-in-cell code. A sub-μm thorium target was irradiated by a circularly polarized 20-fs laser pulse of intensity up to 1023 W/cm2, predicted to be attainable at ELI-NP. At the laser intensity 1023 W/cm2 and an optimum target thickness, the maximum energies of Th ions approach 9.3 GeV, the ion beam intensity is > 1020 W/cm2 and the total ion fluence reaches values 1019 ions/cm2. The last two values are much higher than attainable in conventional accelerators and are fairly promising for the planned ELI-NP experiment.

  5. Relativistic classical and quantum dynamics in intense crossed laser beams of various polarizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Verschl


    Full Text Available The dynamics of an electron in crossed laser fields is investigated analytically. Two different standing wave configurations are compared. The counterpropagating laser waves are either linearly or circularly polarized. Both configurations have in common that there are one-dimensional trajectories on which the electron can oscillate with vanishing Lorentz force. The dynamics is analyzed for the situations when the electron moves in the vicinity of these ideal axes. If the laser intensities imply nonrelativistic electron dynamics, the system is described quantum mechanically. A semiclassical treatment renders the strongly relativistic regime accessible as well. To describe relativistic wave packets, the results of the classical analysis are employed for a Monte Carlo ensemble. This allows for a comparison of the wave packet dynamics for both configurations in the strongly relativistic regime. It is found for certain cases that relativity slows down the dynamics, i.e., for higher laser intensities, wave packet spreading and the drift away from the ideal axis of vanishing Lorentz force are shown to be increasingly suppressed.

  6. Propagation of an ultrashort, intense laser pulse in a relativistic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, B.; Decker, C.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    A Maxwell-relativistic fluid model is developed for the propagation of an ultrashort, intense laser pulse through an underdense plasma. The separability of plasma and optical frequencies ({omega}{sub p} and {omega} respectively) for small {omega}{sub p}/{omega} is not assumed; thus the validity of multiple-scales theory (MST) can be tested. The theory is valid when {omega}{sub p}/{omega} is of order unity or for cases in which {omega}{sub p}/{omega} {much_lt} 1 but strongly relativistic motion causes higher-order plasma harmonics to be generated which overlap the region of the first-order laser harmonic, such that MST would not expected to be valid although its principal validity criterion {omega}{sub p}/{omega} {much_lt} 1 holds.

  7. Relativistic Electron Acceleration by Surface Plasma Waves in the High Intensity Regime (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoming; Cerchez, Mirela; Swantusch, Marco; Aurand, Bastian; Prasad, Rajendra; Andreev, Alexander; Willi, Oswald


    High field plasmonics is one of the new research fields which has synergetically benefited from the advances in laser technology. The availability of radiation fields of intensities exceeding 1018 W/cm2 brought plasmonics into a new regime where relativistic and nonlinear effects start to dominate the dynamics of the surface plasma waves (SPWs). Moreover, surface plasma waves are a very efficient route to transfer the laser energy to the secondary sources including laser driven particle and radiation beams and to control and optimize the physical properties of these sources. We present here experimental evidence of a novel regime of the SPWs excitation by ultra-high intensity laser field (I>1020 W/cm2) on grating targets and its effect on high energy surface electron acceleration. The peak of the electron emission was detected at a laser incidence angle of 45°. The results indicate new conditions for resonant excitation of SPWs since in the limit of the linear regime (moderate intensities of 1019 W/cm2 and step preplasma profile), the resonance angle is predicted at 30°. 2D PIC simulations and a novel analytical model confirm the experimental data and reveal that, at laser intensities above 1020W/cm2, nonlinearities induced by the preplasma condition and relativistic effects change the SPWs resonance.

  8. Laser-plasma interactions and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Neely, David; Bingham, Robert; Jaroszynski, Dino


    Laser-Plasma Interactions and Applications covers the fundamental and applied aspects of high power laser-plasma physics. With an internationally renowned team of authors, the book broadens the knowledge of young researchers working in high power laser-plasma science by providing them with a thorough pedagogical grounding in the interaction of laser radiation with matter, laser-plasma accelerators, and inertial confinement fusion. The text is organised such that the theoretical foundations of the subject are discussed first, in Part I. In Part II, topics in the area of high energy density physics are covered. Parts III and IV deal with the applications to inertial confinement fusion and as a driver of particle and radiation sources, respectively. Finally, Part V describes the principle diagnostic, targetry, and computational approaches used in the field. This book is designed to give students a thorough foundation in the fundamental physics of laser-plasma interactions. It will also provide readers with knowl...

  9. En Route: next-generation laser-plasma-based electron accelerators; En Route: Elektronenbeschleuniger der naechsten Generation auf Laser-Plasma-Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidding, Bernhard


    Accelerating electrons to relativistic energies is of fundamental interest, especially in particle physics. Today's accelerator technology, however, is limited by the maximum electric fields which can be created. This thesis presents results on various mechanisms aiming at exploiting the fields in focussed laser pulses and plasma waves for electron acceleration, which can be orders of magnitude higher than with conventional accelerators. With relativistic, underdense laser-plasma-interaction, quasimonoenergetic electron bunches with energies up to {approx}50 MeV and normalized emittances of the order of 5mmmrad have been generated. This was achieved by focussing the {approx}80 fs, 1 J pulses of the JETI-laser at the FSU Jena to intensities of several 10{sup 19}W=cm{sup 2} into gas jets. The experimental observations could be explained via 'bubble acceleration', which is based on self-injection and acceleration of electrons in a highly nonlinear breaking plasma wave. For the rst time, this bubble acceleration was achieved explicitly in the self-modulated laser wakefield regime (SMLWFA). This quasimonoenergetic SMLWFA-regime stands out by relaxing dramatically the requirements on the driving laser pulse necessary to trigger bubble acceleration. This is due to self-modulation of the laser pulse in high-density gas jets, leading to ultrashort laser pulse fragments capable of initiating bubble acceleration. Electron bunches with durations

  10. Laser-plasma weapons-effects-simulation progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusinow, M.A.; Woodall, D.; Anthes, J.P.; Palmer, M.A.; McGuire, E.J.; Matzen, M.K.; Glibert, K.M.


    The present goal of the Laser-Plasma Weapons-Effects-Simulation Program is the study of the conversion of laser radiation to x-radiation. The purpose is ultimately to make an intense pulsed source of x-rays to be useful in simulation programs. The requirement of a large conversion efficiency (from Laser to x-radiation) is important in order to minimize the energy requirements, size, and expense of the laser system.

  11. Coulomb implosion mechanism of negative ion acceleration in laser plasmas


    Nakamura, T.; Fukuda, Y.; Yogo, A.; Tampo, M.; Kando, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Kameshima, T.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Pikuz, T. A.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Daido, H.; Bulanov, S. V.


    Coulomb implosion mechanism of the negatively charged ion acceleration in laser plasmas is proposed. When a cluster target is irradiated by an intense laser pulse and the Coulomb explosion of positively charged ions occurs, the negative ions are accelerated inward. The maximum energy of negative ions is several times lower than that of positive ions. The theoretical description and Particle-in-Cell simulation of the Coulomb implosion mechanism and the evidence of the negative ion acceleration...

  12. Energy Density in Aligned Nanowire Arrays Irradiated with Relativistic Intensities: Path to Terabar Pressure Plasmas (United States)

    Rocca, J.; Bargsten, C.; Hollinger, R.; Shylaptsev, V.; Wang, S.; Rockwood, A.; Wang, Y.; Keiss, D.; Capeluto, M.; Kaymak, V.; Pukhov, A.; Tommasini, R.; London, R.; Park, J.


    Ultra-high-energy-density (UHED) plasmas, characterized by energy densities >1 x 108 J cm-3 and pressures greater than a gigabar are encountered in the center of stars and in inertial confinement fusion capsules driven by the world's largest lasers. Similar conditions can be obtained with compact, ultra-high contrast, femtosecond lasers focused to relativistic intensities onto aligned nanowire array targets. Here we report the measurement of the key physical process in determining the energy density deposited in high aspect ratio nanowire array plasmas: the energy penetration. By monitoring the x-ray emission from buried Co tracer segments in Ni nanowire arrays irradiated at an intensity of 4 x 1019 W cm-2, we demonstrate energy penetration depths of several μm, leading to UHED plasmas of that size. Relativistic 3D particle-in-cell-simulations validated by these measurements predict that irradiation of nanostructures at increased intensity will lead to a virtually unexplored extreme UHED plasma regime characterized by energy densities in excess of 8 x 1010 J cm-3, equivalent to a pressure of 0.35 Tbar. This work was supported by the Fusion Energy Program, Office of Science of the U.S Department of Energy, and by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

  13. Energy Penetration into Arrays of Aligned Nanowires Irradiated with Relativistic Intensities: Scaling to Terabar Pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargsten, Clayton [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Hollinger, Reed [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Capeluto, Maria Gabriela [Univ. of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kaymak, Vural [Heinrich Heine Univ., Dusseldorf (Germany); Pukhov, Alexander [Heinrich Heine Univ., Dusseldorf (Germany); Wang, Shoujun [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Rockwood, Alex [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Wang, Yong [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Keiss, David [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Tommasini, Riccardo [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); London, Richard [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Park, Jaebum [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Busquet, Michel [ARTEP Inc., Ellicott City, MD (United States); Klapisch, M [ARTEP Inc., Ellicott City, MD (United States); Shlyaptsev, Vyacheslav N. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Rocca, Jorge J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)


    Ultra-high-energy-density (UHED) matter, characterized by energy densities > 1 x 108 J cm-3 and pressures greater than a gigabar, is encountered in the center of stars and in inertial confinement fusion capsules driven by the world’s largest lasers. Similar conditions can be obtained with compact, ultra-high contrast, femtosecond lasers focused to relativistic intensities onto targets composed of aligned nanowire arrays. Here we report the measurement of the key physical process in determining the energy density deposited in high aspect ratio nanowire array plasmas: the energy penetration. By monitoring the x-ray emission from buried Co tracer segments in Ni nanowire arrays irradiated at an intensity of 4 x 1019 W cm-2, we demonstrate energy penetration depths of several μm, leading to UHED plasmas of that size. Relativistic 3D particle-in-cell-simulations, validated by these measurements, predict that irradiation of nanostructures at intensities of > 1 x 1022 W cm-2 will lead to a virtually unexplored extreme UHED plasma regime characterized by energy densities in excess of 8 x 1010 J cm-3, equivalent to a pressure of 0.35 Tbar.

  14. Rocket propulsion by thermonuclear micro-bombs ignited with intense relativistic electron beams. (United States)

    Winterberg, F.


    Discussion of a method for the ignition of a thermonuclear microbomb by means of an intense relativistic electron beam with regard to its potential application to rocket propulsion. With such a system, exhaust velocities up to 1000 km/sec, corresponding to a specific impulse of 100,000 sec, seem to be within the realm of possibility. The rocket is propelled by a chain of thermonuclear microbombs exploded in a concave magnetic mirror produced by superconducting field coils. The magnetic pressure of the field reflects the fireball generated by the explosion. For the large capacitor bank required to generate the intense relativistic electron beam, a desirable lightweight design may be possible through use of ferroelectric materials. Because of the high cost of the T-D and He 3-D thermonuclear material, the system has to be optimized by minimizing the T-D and He 3-D consumption by a proper TD and He 3-D fuel to hydrogen propellant mass ratio, leading to a larger total system mass than would be absolutely necessary.

  15. Ion beam control in laser plasma interaction (United States)

    Kawata, S.; Izumiyama, T.; Sato, D.; Nagashima, T.; Takano, M.; Barada, D.; Gu, Y. J.; Ma, Y. Y.; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Wang, W. M.


    By a two-stage successive acceleration in laser ion acceleration, our 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations demonstrate a remarkable increase in ion energy by a few hundreds of MeV; the maximum proton energy reaches about 250MeV. The ions are accelerated by the inductive continuous post-acceleration in a laser plasma interaction together with the target normal sheath acceleration and the breakout afterburner mechanism. An intense short-pulse laser generates a strong current by high-energy electrons accelerated, when an intense short- pulse laser illuminates a plasma target. The strong electric current creates a strong magnetic field along the high-energy electron current in the plasma. During the increase phase in the magnetic field strength, the moving longitudinal inductive electric field is induced by the Faraday law, and accelerates the forward-moving ions continously. The multi-stage acceleration provides a unique controllability in the ion energy and its quality.

  16. Emission of energetic protons from relativistic intensity laser interaction with a cone-wire target. (United States)

    Paradkar, B S; Yabuuchi, T; Sawada, H; Higginson, D P; Link, A; Wei, M S; Stephens, R B; Krasheninnikov, S I; Beg, F N


    Emission of energetic protons (maximum energy ∼18 MeV) from the interaction of relativistic intensity laser with a cone-wire target is experimentally measured and numerically simulated with hybrid particle-in-cell code, lsp [D. R. Welch et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 063105 (2006)]. The protons originate from the wire attached to the cone after the OMEGA EP laser (670 J, 10 ps, 5 × 10^{18} W/cm^{2}) deposits its energy inside the cone. These protons are accelerated from the contaminant layer on the wire surface, and are measured in the radial direction, i.e., in a direction transverse to the wire length. Simulations show that the radial electric field, responsible for the proton acceleration, is excited by three factors, viz., (i) transverse momentum of the relativistic fast electrons beam entering into the wire, (ii) scattering of electrons inside the wire, and (iii) refluxing of escaped electrons by "fountain effect" at the end of the wire. The underlying physics of radial electric field and acceleration of protons is discussed.

  17. Coulomb implosion mechanism of negative ion acceleration in laser plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T., E-mail: nakamura.tatsufumi@jaea.go.j [Kansai Photon Science Institute (JAEA), 8-1 Umemidai, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Fukuda, Y.; Yogo, A.; Tampo, M.; Kando, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Kameshima, T.; Pirozhkov, A.S.; Esirkepov, T.Zh.; Pikuz, T.A.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Daido, H.; Bulanov, S.V. [Kansai Photon Science Institute (JAEA), 8-1 Umemidai, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)


    Coulomb implosion mechanism of the negatively charged ion acceleration in laser plasmas is proposed. When a cluster target is irradiated by an intense laser pulse and the Coulomb explosion of positively charged ions occurs, the negative ions are accelerated inward. The maximum energy of negative ions is several times lower than that of positive ions. We present the theoretical description and Particle-in-Cell simulation results of the Coulomb implosion mechanism, and show the evidence of the negative ion acceleration in the experiments on the high intensity laser pulse interaction with the cluster targets.

  18. Laser-plasma booster for ion post acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoh D.


    Full Text Available A remarkable ion energy increase is demonstrated for post acceleration by a laser-plasma booster. An intense short-pulse laser generates a strong current by high-energy electrons accelerated, when this intense short-pulse laser illuminates a plasma target. The strong electric current creates a strong magnetic field along the high-energy electron current in plasma. During the increase phase in the magnetic field, a longitudinal inductive electric field is induced for the forward ion acceleration by the Faraday law. Our 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations demonstrate a remarkable increase in ion energy by several tens of MeV.

  19. Nonlinear laser-plasma interactions (United States)

    Kaw, P. K.


    laser plasma experiments and have become the backbone of our present understanding of how lasers nonlinearly interact with fully ionized fusion plasmas. A review of this early work will be presented. We shall also present a review of our involvement in the recent work on nonlinear penetration of light into overdense plasmas with gradual and sharp interfaces.

  20. Transmutation prospect of long-lived nuclear waste induced by high-charge electron beam from laser plasma accelerator (United States)

    Wang, X. L.; Xu, Z. Y.; Luo, W.; Lu, H. Y.; Zhu, Z. C.; Yan, X. Q.


    Photo-transmutation of long-lived nuclear waste induced by a high-charge relativistic electron beam (e-beam) from a laser plasma accelerator is demonstrated. A collimated relativistic e-beam with a high charge of approximately 100 nC is produced from high-intensity laser interaction with near-critical-density (NCD) plasma. Such e-beam impinges on a high-Z convertor and then radiates energetic bremsstrahlung photons with flux approaching 1011 per laser shot. Taking a long-lived radionuclide 126Sn as an example, the resulting transmutation reaction yield is the order of 109 per laser shot, which is two orders of magnitude higher than obtained from previous studies. It is found that at lower densities, a tightly focused laser irradiating relatively longer NCD plasmas can effectively enhance the transmutation efficiency. Furthermore, the photo-transmutation is generalized by considering mixed-nuclide waste samples, which suggests that the laser-accelerated high-charge e-beam could be an efficient tool to transmute long-lived nuclear waste.

  1. Neutron generation in deuterated nanowire arrays irradiated by femtosecond pulses of relativistic intensity (United States)

    Curtis, Alden; Calvi, Chase; Tinsley, Jim; Hollinger, Reed; Wang, Shoujun; Rockwood, Alex; Buss, Conrad; Shlyaptsev, Vyacheslav; Kaymak, Vural; Pukhov, Alexander; Wang, Yong; Rocca, Jorge; Colorado State University Collaboration; National Security Technologies Collaboration


    Nuclear fusion is regularly created in spherical plasma compressions driven with multi-kilojoule lasers. Driving fusion reactions with compact lasers that can be fired at much higher repetition rates is also of interest. We have demonstrated a new dense fusion environment created by irradiating arrays of deuterated nanostructures with Joule-level pulses from a compact Ti:Sa laser. The irradiation of ordered deuterated polyethylene nanowires arrays with femtosecond pulses of relativistic intensity is shown to create ultra-high energy density plasmas in which deuterons are accelerated to MeV energies, efficiently driving D-D fusion reactions and ultrafast neutron pulses. We have measured up to 2 x 106 fusion neutrons/Joule, a 500 times increase respect to flat solid targets, a record yield for Joule-level lasers, and have also observed a rapid increase in neutron yield with laser pulse energy. We present results of a first experiments conducted at intensities >1 x 1021 W cm-2 that generated >1 x 107 fusion neutrons per shot. Work supported by Air Force Office of Scientific Research Award Number FA9560-14-10232 and by National Security Technologies.

  2. Hot deuteron generation and neutron production in deuterated nanowire array irradiated at relativistic intensity (United States)

    Curtis, Alden; Calvi, Chase; Tinsley, Jim; Hollinger, Reed; Wang, Shoujun; Rockwood, Alex; Wang, Yong; Buss, Conrad; Shlyaptsev, Vyacheslav; Kaymak, V.; Pukhov, Alexander; Rocca, Jorge


    Irradiation of arrays of aligned high aspect ratio nanowires with high contrast femtosecond laser pulses of relativistic intensity was recently shown to volumetrically heat near solid density plasmas to multi-KeV energy. Using aligned arrays of deuterated polyethylene nanowires (CD2) irradiated at laser intensities of up to 1 ×1020 W/cm2 we are able to generate near solid density plasmas in which the tail of the deuteron distribution was measured to reach energies of up to 3 MeV, in agreement with particle-in-cell simulations. Comparative measurements conducted using flat CD2 targets irradiated by the same laser pulses show the maximum deuteron energies are sub-MeV. We also observed a 100x increase in the number of neutrons produced as compared to flat CD2 targets irradiated at the same conditions, with the highest yield shots producing above 106 neutrons per Joule of laser energy. Work supported by AFOSR Award FA9560-14-10232 and NSTec SDRD program.

  3. Zero vector potential mechanism of attosecond absorption in strongly relativistic plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Baeva, T; Robinson, A P L; Norreys, P A


    The understanding of the physics of lasermatter interactions in the strongly relativistic regime is of fundamental importance. In this article, a new mechanism of fast electron generation at the vacuum-solid boundary of intense laser pulse interaction with overdense plasma is described. It is one that has no analogue in classical, non-relativistic laser-plasma interactions. Here, conclusive proof is provided that the key contribution to the fast electron generation is given by the zero points of the vector potential. We demonstrate that the new mechanism leads to scalings for the fast electron energy, which explicitly depend on the plasma density, thus providing a new insight into relativistic laser-matter interaction. Furthermore, it is shown that this new mechanism provides the dominant contribution to the interaction by the injection of energy into the overdense plasma delivered by attosecondduration electron bunches. This new understanding will allow the future generation of a single ultra-bright attoseco...

  4. Mapping X-ray emission in a laser-plasma accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Corde, S; Phuoc, K Ta; Lifschitz, A; Lambert, G; Faure, J; Lundh, O; Benveniste, E; Ben-Ismail, A; Arantchuk, L; Marciniak, A; Stordeur, A; Brijesh, P; Rousse, A; Specka, A; Malka, V


    The X-ray emission in laser-plasma accelerators can be a powerful tool to understand the physics of relativistic laser-plasma interaction. It is shown here that the mapping of betatron X-ray radiation can be obtained from the X-ray beam profile when an object is placed off-axis and close to the source. The influence of the plasma density on the position and the longitudinal profile of the X-ray emission is investigated and compared to Particle-In-Cell simulations. The results provide insight on the dynamics of the interaction, including the laser pulse self-focusing, electron self-injection and the role of the electron beam wakefield.

  5. Tailoring the pulse shape to efficiently populate atomic electron metastable states in a relativistically intense high-frequency laser field (United States)

    Emelin, M. Yu.; Smirnov, L. A.; Ryabikin, M. Yu.


    The results of both quantum-mechanical numerical calculations beyond the electric dipole approximation and relativistic classical Monte Carlo simulations are presented for a ground-state hydrogen atom exposed to a high-frequency circularly polarized laser field in a wide intensity range. The persistence of the light-induced metastable bound states well into the relativistic regime of laser-atom interaction is demonstrated. The feasibility of high-efficiency electron trapping into these metastable states is examined in the frame of a simple two-stage scenario for a laser field turning on. The optimal parameters of the laser pulse front are found, which provide an optimal balance between the needs to achieve as quickly as possible the higher intensities, for which the decay rate of the metastable states is lower, and to ensure sufficient adiabaticity of the field turning on to avoid the unwanted "shake-off" processes. As a result, more than 60% probability of electron trapping into the metastable states in a relativistically intense high-frequency laser field is demonstrated.

  6. Time-resolved measurements with streaked diffraction patterns from electrons generated in laser plasma wakefield (United States)

    He, Zhaohan; Nees, John; Hou, Bixue; Krushelnick, Karl; Thomas, Alec; Beaurepaire, Benoît; Malka, Victor; Faure, Jérôme


    Femtosecond bunches of electrons with relativistic to ultra-relativistic energies can be robustly produced in laser plasma wakefield accelerators (LWFA). Scaling the electron energy down to sub-relativistic and MeV level using a millijoule laser system will make such electron source a promising candidate for ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) applications due to the intrinsic short bunch duration and perfect synchronization with the optical pump. Recent results of electron diffraction from a single crystal gold foil, using LWFA electrons driven by 8-mJ, 35-fs laser pulses at 500 Hz, will be presented. The accelerated electrons were collimated with a solenoid magnetic lens. By applying a small-angle tilt to the magnetic lens, the diffraction pattern can be streaked such that the temporal evolution is separated spatially on the detector screen after propagation. The observable time window and achievable temporal resolution are studied in pump-probe measurements of photo-induced heating on the gold foil.

  7. Measurement of the relaxation time of hot electrons in laser-solid interaction at relativistic laser intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H; Shepherd, R; Chung, H K; Dyer, G; Faenov, A; Fournier, K B; Hansen, S B; Hunter, J; Kemp, A; Pikuz, T; Ping, Y; Widmann, K; Wilks, S C; Beiersdorfer, P


    The authors have measured the relaxation time of hot electrons in short pulse laser-solid interactions using a picosecond time-resolved x-ray spectrometer and a time-integrated electron spectrometer. Employing laser intensities of 10{sup 17}, 10{sup 18}, and 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, they find increased laser coupling to hot electrons as the laser intensity becomes relativistic and thermalization of hot electrons at timescales on the order of 10 ps at all laser intensities. They propose a simple model based on collisional coupling and plasma expansion to describe the rapid relaxation of hot electrons. The agreement between the resulting K{sub {alpha}} time-history from this model with the experiments is best at highest laser intensity and less satisfactory at the two lower laser intensities.

  8. Direct imaging of the dynamics of a laser-plasma accelerator operating in the bubble-regime

    CERN Document Server

    Sävert, A; Schnell, M; Cole, J M; Nicolai, M; Reuter, M; Schwab, M B; Möller, M; Poder, K; Jäckel, O; Paulus, G G; Spielmann, C; Najmudin, Z; Kaluza, M C


    Laser-plasma accelerators operating in the bubble-regime generate quasi-monoenergetic multi-gigaelectronvolt electron beams with femtosecond duration and micrometre size. These beams are produced by accelerating in laser-driven plasma waves in only centimetre distances. Hence they have the potential to be compact alternatives to conventional accelerators. However, since the plasma wave moves at ultra-relativistic speed making detailed observation extremely difficult, most of our current understanding has been gained from high-performance computer simulations. Here, we present experimental results from an ultra-fast optical imaging technique visualising for the first time the non-linear dynamics in a laser-plasma accelerator. By freezing the relativistic motion of the plasma wave, our measurements reveal insight of unprecedented detail. In particular, we observe the plasma wave's non-linear formation, breaking, and transformation into a single bubble for the first time. Understanding the acceleration dynamics ...

  9. Relativistic magnetic reconnection driven by a moderately intense laser interacting with a micro-plasma-slab (United States)

    Yi, Longqing; Shen, Baifei; Pukhov, Alexander; Fülöp, Tünde


    Magnetic reconnection (MR) in the relativistic regime is generally thought to be responsible for powering rapid bursts of non-thermal radiation in astrophysical events. It is therefore of significant importance to study how the field energy is transferred to the plasma to power the observed emission. However, due to the difficulty in making direct measurements in astrophysical systems or achieving relativistic MR in laboratory environments, the particle acceleration is usually studied using fully kinetic PIC simulations. Here we present a numerical study of a readily available (TW-mJ-class) laser interacting with a micro-scale plasma slab. The simulations show when the electron beams excited on both sides of the slab approach the end of the plasma structure, ultrafast relativistic MR occurs. As the field topology changes, the explosive release of magnetic energy results in emission of relativistic electron jets with cut-off energy 12 MeV. The proposed novel scenario can be straightforwardly implemented in experiments, and might significantly improve the understanding of fundamental questions such as field dissipation and particle acceleration in relativistic MR. This work is supported by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation and the European Research Council (ERC-2014-CoG Grant 64712).

  10. Laser-plasma-based linear collider using hollow plasma channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, C.B., E-mail:; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.


    A linear electron–positron collider based on laser-plasma accelerators using hollow plasma channels is considered. Laser propagation and energy depletion in the hollow channel is discussed, as well as the overall efficiency of the laser-plasma accelerator. Example parameters are presented for a 1-TeV and 3-TeV center-of-mass collider based on laser-plasma accelerators.

  11. Laser-Plasma experiments at ELI-NP (United States)

    Ghenuche, Petru; Negoita, Florin; Diaconescu, Bogdan; Stutman, Dan


    Recent advances in ultra-high power lasers architecture brings unprecedented intensity and pressure regimes within our reach. Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) is a new large laser facility, part of the ELI European research infrastructure that will benefit from these upgrades in the next years. It has the ambitious goal to use extreme electromagnetic fields generated by two 10 PW laser beams for a broad range of research topics in fundamental physics at the frontier of plasma physics, nuclear physics and astrophysics, together with applied research in materials and life sciences. Here we describe the facility implementation status and challenges and the commissioning experiments related with laser-plasma interaction.

  12. Mono Energetic Beams from Laser Plasma Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Cameron G; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim; Nieter, Chet; Schröder, Carl B; Toth, Csaba; Van Tilborg, Jeroen


    A laser driven wakefield accelerator has been tuned to produce high energy electron bunches with low emittance and energy spread by extending the interaction length using a plasma channel. Wakefield accelerators support gradients thousands of times those achievable in RF accelerators, but short acceleration distance, limited by diffraction, has resulted in low energy beams with 100% electron energy spread. In the present experiments on the L’OASIS laser,* the relativistically intense drive pulse was guided over 10 diffraction ranges by a plasma channel. At a drive pulse power of 9 TW, electrons were trapped from the plasma and beams of percent energy spread containing >200pC charge above 80 MeV and with normalized emittance estimated at < 2 pi -mm-mrad were produced.** Data and simulations (VORPAL***) show the high quality bunch was formed when beam loading turned off injection after initial trapping, and when the particles were extracted as they dephased from the wake. Up to 4TW was g...

  13. Progress in long scale length laser plasma interactions (United States)

    Glenzer, S. H.; Arnold, P.; Bardsley, G.; Berger, R. L.; Bonanno, G.; Borger, T.; Bower, D. E.; Bowers, M.; Bryant, R.; Buckman, S.; Burkhart, S. C.; Campbell, K.; Chrisp, M. P.; Cohen, B. I.; Constantin, C.; Cooper, F.; Cox, J.; Dewald, E.; Divol, L.; Dixit, S.; Duncan, J.; Eder, D.; Edwards, J.; Erbert, G.; Felker, B.; Fornes, J.; Frieders, G.; Froula, D. H.; Gardner, S. D.; Gates, C.; Gonzalez, M.; Grace, S.; Gregori, G.; Greenwood, A.; Griffith, R.; Hall, T.; Hammel, B. A.; Haynam, C.; Heestand, G.; Henesian, M.; Hermes, G.; Hinkel, D.; Holder, J.; Holdner, F.; Holtmeier, G.; Hsing, W.; Huber, S.; James, T.; Johnson, S.; Jones, O. S.; Kalantar, D.; Kamperschroer, J. H.; Kauffman, R.; Kelleher, T.; Knight, J.; Kirkwood, R. K.; Kruer, W. L.; Labiak, W.; Landen, O. L.; Langdon, A. B.; Langer, S.; Latray, D.; Lee, A.; Lee, F. D.; Lund, D.; MacGowan, B.; Marshall, S.; McBride, J.; McCarville, T.; McGrew, L.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Mahavandi, S.; Manes, K.; Marshall, C.; Menapace, J.; Mertens, E.; Meezan, N.; Miller, G.; Montelongo, S.; Moody, J. D.; Moses, E.; Munro, D.; Murray, J.; Neumann, J.; Newton, M.; Ng, E.; Niemann, C.; Nikitin, A.; Opsahl, P.; Padilla, E.; Parham, T.; Parrish, G.; Petty, C.; Polk, M.; Powell, C.; Reinbachs, I.; Rekow, V.; Rinnert, R.; Riordan, B.; Rhodes, M.; Roberts, V.; Robey, H.; Ross, G.; Sailors, S.; Saunders, R.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, M. B.; Shiromizu, S.; Spaeth, M.; Stephens, A.; Still, B.; Suter, L. J.; Tietbohl, G.; Tobin, M.; Tuck, J.; Van Wonterghem, B. M.; Vidal, R.; Voloshin, D.; Wallace, R.; Wegner, P.; Whitman, P.; Williams, E. A.; Williams, K.; Winward, K.; Work, K.; Young, B.; Young, P. E.; Zapata, P.; Bahr, R. E.; Seka, W.; Fernandez, J.; Montgomery, D.; Rose, H.


    The first experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have employed the first four beams to measure propagation and laser backscattering losses in large ignition-size plasmas. Gas-filled targets between 2 and 7 mm length have been heated from one side by overlapping the focal spots of the four beams from one quad operated at 351 nm (3ω) with a total intensity of 2 × 1015 W cm-2. The targets were filled with 1 atm of CO2 producing up to 7 mm long homogeneously heated plasmas with densities of ne = 6 × 1020 cm-3 and temperatures of Te = 2 keV. The high energy in an NIF quad of beams of 16 kJ, illuminating the target from one direction, creates unique conditions for the study of laser-plasma interactions at scale lengths not previously accessible. The propagation through the large-scale plasma was measured with a gated x-ray imager that was filtered for 3.5 keV x-rays. These data indicate that the beams interact with the full length of this ignition-scale plasma during the last ~1 ns of the experiment. During that time, the full aperture measurements of the stimulated Brillouin scattering and stimulated Raman scattering show scattering into the four focusing lenses of 3% for the smallest length (~2 mm), increasing to 10-12% for ~7 mm. These results demonstrate the NIF experimental capabilities and further provide a benchmark for three-dimensional modelling of the laser-plasma interactions at ignition-size scale lengths.

  14. The role of the gas/plasma plume and self-focusing in a gas-filled capillary discharge waveguide for high-power laser-plasma applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ciocarlan, C.; Islam, M. R.; Ersfeld, B.; Abuazoum, S.; Wilson, R.; Aniculaesei, C.; Welsh, G. H.; Vieux, G.; Jaroszynski, D. A.; 10.1063/1.4822333


    The role of the gas/plasma plume at the entrance of a gas-filled capillary discharge plasma waveguide in increasing the laser intensity has been investigated. Distinction is made between neutral gas and hot plasma plumes that, respectively, develop before and after discharge breakdown. Time-averaged measurements show that the on-axis plasma density of a fully expanded plasma plume over this region is similar to that inside the waveguide. Above the critical power, relativistic and ponderomotive selffocusing lead to an increase in the intensity, which can be nearly a factor of 2 compared with the case without a plume. When used as a laser plasma wakefield accelerator, the enhancement of intensity can lead to prompt electron injection very close to the entrance of the waveguide. Self-focusing occurs within two Rayleigh lengths of the waveguide entrance plane in the region, where the laser beam is converging. Analytical theory and numerical simulations show that, for a density of 3.01018 cm3, the peak normalized...

  15. Collective Spectra of the Resonant Inverse Compton Scattering of the Assembly of Relativistic Electrons in an Intense Magnetic Field (United States)

    Liu, D. B.; Huang, Y. F.; Danzeng, L. B.; Chen, T. L.


    The resonant inverse Compton scattering (RICS) of relativistic electrons in an intense magnetic field of a neutron star is an efficient mechanism for producing the high-energy γ-rays due to its high efficiency, high frequency, highly beaming behaviour and comparatively good monochromaticity, concentrating most radiation in the high-frequency band (hard X-ray and γ-ray). In our previous work, it is argued that the dominant radiation mechanism responsible for the prompt γ-ray emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the early stage could be the RICS of relativistic electrons. By using this mechanism, some puzzles in the study of GRBs could be clarified, e.g., the origin of the Amati relation, the formation of the observed broken power-law spectra, the related deadline problem, the polarization property, etc. The simplified analytical formulae of collective RICS spectra of the assembly of relativistic electrons in an intense magnetic field are derived in this paper, based on the simple RICS power spectra of a single fast electron given in our previous work. By using these formulae, a series of collective RICS spectra for various typical ambient low-frequency radiation fields around the central neutron star, e.g., the black body radiation, the nonthermal field with a power-law spectrum and the thermal bremsstrahlung field, are calculated. The collective RICS spectra are all in quite simple analytical expressions, which are convenient for comparison with the observed spectra. Our calculations show that the RICS process is really a very efficient radiation mechanism in the hard X-ray and γ-ray bands if the "accommodation condition" (or the "matching condition") is satisfied. Our calculations show that despite what kind of ambient soft-photon field is related, various collective RICS spectra have common broken power-law forms with different indexes in the low- and high-frequency bands respectively. Finally, we discuss the potential applications of RICS mechanism in high

  16. A statistical model for relativistic quantum fluids interacting with an intense electromagnetic wave (United States)

    Mahajan, Swadesh M.; Asenjo, Felipe A.


    A statistical model for relativistic quantum fluids interacting with an arbitrary amplitude circularly polarized electromagnetic wave is developed in two steps. First, the energy spectrum and the wave function for a quantum particle (Klein Gordon and Dirac) embedded in the electromagnetic wave are calculated by solving the appropriate eigenvalue problem. The energy spectrum is anisotropic in the momentum K and reflects the electromagnetic field through the renormalization of the rest mass m to M =√{m2+q2A2 } . Based on this energy spectrum of this quantum particle plus field combination (QPF), a statistical mechanics model of the quantum fluid made up of these weakly interacting QPF is developed. Preliminary investigations of the formalism yield highly interesting results—a new scale for temperature, and fundamental modification of the dispersion relation of the electromagnetic wave. It is expected that this formulation could, inter alia, uniquely advance our understanding of laboratory as well as astrophysical systems where one encounters arbitrarily large electromagnetic fields.

  17. Material measurement method based on femtosecond laser plasma shock wave

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhong, Dong; Li, Zhongming


    The acoustic emission signal of laser plasma shock wave, which comes into being when femtosecond laser ablates pure Cu, Fe, and Al target material, has been detected by using the fiber Fabry-Perot (F-P...

  18. Modeling Relativistic Electron Precipitation Bremsstrahlung X-Ray Intensities at 10-100 km Manned Vehicle Altitudes (United States)

    Habash Krause, L.; Gilchrist, B. E.; Nishikawa, K.; Williams, A.


    Relativistic electron precipitation (REP) events occur when beams or bunches of relativistic electrons of magnetospheric origin enter the Earth's atmosphere, typically at auroral latitudes. REP events are associated with a variety of space weather effects, including production of transitional and bremsstrahlung radiation, catalytic depletion of stratospheric ozone, and scintillation of transionospheric radio waves. This study examines the intensities of x-rays produced at airliner, manned balloon, and suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicle (sRLV) altitudes. The monoenergetic beam is modeled in cylindrical symmetry using the paraxial ray equation. Bremsstrahlung photon production is calculated using the traditional Sauter-Elwert cross-section, providing x-ray emission spectra differential in energy and angle. Attenuation is computed for a plane-stratified standard atmosphere, and the loss processes include photoionization, Rayleigh and Compton scattering, electron-positron pair production, and photonuclear interaction. Peak altitudes of electron energy deposition and bremsstrahlung x-ray production were calculated for beams of energies from 1 MeV through 100 MeV. The altitude peak of bremsstrahlung deposition was consistently and significantly lower that that of the electron deposition due to the longer mean free paths of x-rays compared to electrons within the atmosphere. For example, for a nadir-directed monoenergetic 5 MeV beam, the peak deposition altitude was calculated to be 42 km, but the resulting bremmstrahlung deposition peaked at 25 km. This has implications for crew and passenger safety, especially with the growth of the space tourism industry that relies on sRLVs with a nominal apogee of 100 km. A survey of results covering the 1-100 MeV spectrum for the three altitude ranges of interest will be presented.

  19. Combined impact features for laser plasma generation (United States)

    Loktionov, E.; Protasov, Yu; Telekh, V.


    Laser-induced plasma has been considered for multiple applications by the moment, and its characteristics strongly depend on laser radiation parameters. Reaching demanded values for the latter might be rather costly, but, in certain cases, similar or even better results could be reached in case of additional impact (optical, electric, magnetic, corpuscular, mechanical etc.). Combined impact effects are mainly based on target properties or interaction mechanism change, and found to decrease plasma generation thresholds by orders of magnitude, improve energy efficiency significantly, and also broaden the range of plasma parameters. Application area, efficiency and optimal regimes for laser plasma generation at such combined impact have been considered. Analysis based on published data and own experiments was performed for both target material and induced plasma flows. Criterial parameters have been suggested to characterize both combined impact and response to it. The data on plasma generation thresholds, controlled parameters, working media supply systems and recovery rate of droplets are very important for technology setups, including those for material modification.

  20. Pulse Front Tilt and Laser Plasma Acceleration (United States)

    Mittelberger, Daniel; Thévenet, Maxence; Nakamura, Kei; Lehe, Remi; Gonsalves, Anthony; Benedetti, Carlo; Leemans, Wim


    Pulse front tilt (PFT) is potentially present in any CPA laser system, but its effects may be overlooked because spatiotemporal pulse characterization is considerably more involved than measuring only spatial or temporal profile. PFT is particularly important for laser plasma accelerators (LPA) because it influences electron beam injection and steering. In this work, experimental results from the BELLA Center will be presented that demonstrate the effect of optical grating misalignment and optical compression, resulting in PFT, on accelerator performance. Theoretical models of laser and electron beam steering will be introduced based on particle-in-cell simulations showing distortion of the plasma wake. Theoretical predictions will be compared with experiments and complimentary simulations, and tolerances on PFT and optical compressor alignment will be developed as a function of LPA performance requirements. This work was supported by the Office of High Energy Physics, Office of Science, US Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231 and the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-1415596.

  1. Laser Plasma Coupling for High Temperature Hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruer, W.


    Simple scaling models indicate that quite high radiation temperatures can be achieved in hohlraums driven with the National Ignition Facility. A scaling estimate for the radiation temperature versus pulse duration for different size NIF hohlraums is shown in Figure 1. Note that a radiation temperature of about 650 ev is projected for a so-called scale 1 hohlraum (length 2.6mm, diameter 1.6mm). With such high temperature hohlraums, for example, opacity experiments could be carried out using more relevant high Z materials rather than low Z surrogates. These projections of high temperature hohlraums are uncertain, since the scaling model does not allow for the very strongly-driven laser plasma coupling physics. Lasnex calculations have been carried out to estimate the plasma and irradiation conditions in a scale 1 hohlraum driven by NIF. Linear instability gains as high as exp(100) have been found for stimulated Brillouin scattering, and other laser-driven instabilities are also far above their thresholds. More understanding of the very strongly-driven coupling physics is clearly needed in order to more realistically assess and improve the prospects for high temperature hohlraums. Not surprisingly, this regime has been avoided for inertial fusion applications and so is relatively unexplored.

  2. Betatron emission as a diagnostic for injection and acceleration mechanisms in laser-plasma accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Corde, S; Phuoc, K Ta; Lifschitz, A; Lambert, G; Lundh, O; Brijesh, P; Arantchuk, L; Sebban, S; Rousse, A; Faure, J; Malka, V; 10.1088/0741-3335/54/12/124023


    Betatron x-ray emission in laser-plasma accelerators is a promising compact source that may be an alternative to conventional x-ray sources, based on large scale machines. In addition to its potential as a source, precise measurements of betatron emission can reveal crucial information about relativistic laser-plasma interaction. We show that the emission length and the position of the x-ray emission can be obtained by placing an aperture mask close to the source, and by measuring the beam profile of the betatron x-ray radiation far from the aperture mask. The position of the x-ray emission gives information on plasma wave breaking and hence on the laser non-linear propagation. Moreover, the measurement of the longitudinal extension helps one to determine whether the acceleration is limited by pump depletion or dephasing effects. In the case of multiple injections, it is used to retrieve unambiguously the position in the plasma of each injection. This technique is also used to study how, in a capillary discha...

  3. Hollow laser plasma self-confined microjet generation (United States)

    Sizyuk, Valeryi; Hassanein, Ahmed; Center for Materials under Extreme Environment Team


    Hollow laser beam produced plasma (LPP) devices are being used for the generation of the self-confined cumulative microjet. Most important place by this LPP device construction is achieving of an annular distribution of the laser beam intensity by spot. An integrated model is being developed to detailed simulation of the plasma generation and evolution inside the laser beam channel. The model describes in two temperature approximation hydrodynamic processes in plasma, laser absorption processes, heat conduction, and radiation energy transport. The total variation diminishing scheme in the Lax-Friedrich formulation for the description of plasma hydrodynamic is used. Laser absorption and radiation transport models on the base of Monte Carlo method are being developed. Heat conduction part on the implicit scheme with sparse matrixes using is realized. The developed models are being integrated into HEIGHTS-LPP computer simulation package. The integrated modeling of the hollow beam laser plasma generation showed the self-confinement and acceleration of the plasma microjet inside the laser channel. It was found dependence of the microjet parameters including radiation emission on the hole and beam radiuses ratio. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation, PIRE project.

  4. Laser-plasma interaction physics for shock ignition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyon C.


    Full Text Available In the shock ignition scheme, the ICF target is first compressed with a long (nanosecond pulse before creating a convergent shock with a short (∼100 ps pulse to ignite thermonuclear reactions. This short pulse is typically (∼2.1015–1016 W/cm2 above LPI (Laser Plasma Instabilities thresholds. The plasma is in a regime where the electron temperature is expected to be very high (2–4 keV and the laser coupling to the plasma is not well understood. Emulating LPI in the corona requires large and hot plasmas produced by high-energy lasers. We conducted experiments on the LIL (Ligne d'Integration Laser, 10 kJ at 3ω and the LULI2000 (0.4 kJ at 2ω facilities, to approach these conditions and study absorption and LPI produced by a high intensity beam in preformed plasmas. After introducing the main risks associated with the short pulse propagation, we present the latest experiment we conducted on LPI in relevant conditions for shock ignition.

  5. Electron Beam Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Kei; Gonsalves, Anthony; Lin, Chen; Smith, Alan; Rodgers, David; Donahue, Rich; Byrne, Warren; Leemans, Wim


    A comprehensive study of charge diagnostics is conducted to verify their validity for measuring electron beams produced by laser plasma accelerators (LPAs). First, a scintillating screen (Lanex) was extensively studied using subnanosecond electron beams from the Advanced Light Source booster synchrotron, at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Lanex was cross calibrated with an integrating current transformer (ICT) for up to the electron energy of 1.5 GeV, and the linear response of the screen was confirmed for charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm{sup 2} and 0.4 pC/(ps mm{sup 2}), respectively. After the radio-frequency accelerator based cross calibration, a series of measurements was conducted using electron beams from an LPA. Cross calibrations were carried out using an activation-based measurement that is immune to electromagnetic pulse noise, ICT, and Lanex. The diagnostics agreed within {+-}8%, showing that they all can provide accurate charge measurements for LPAs.

  6. Femtosecond x rays from laser-plasma accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Corde, S; Beck, A; Lambert, G; Fitour, R; Lefebvre, E; Malka, V; Rousse, A; 10.1103/RevModPhys.85.1


    Relativistic interaction of short-pulse lasers with underdense plasmas has recently led to the emergence of a novel generation of femtosecond x-ray sources. Based on radiation from electrons accelerated in plasma, these sources have the common properties to be compact and to deliver collimated, incoherent and femtosecond radiation. In this article we review, within a unified formalism, the betatron radiation of trapped and accelerated electrons in the so-called bubble regime, the synchrotron radiation of laser-accelerated electrons in usual meter-scale undulators, the nonlinear Thomson scattering from relativistic electrons oscillating in an intense laser field, and the Thomson backscattered radiation of a laser beam by laser-accelerated electrons. The underlying physics is presented using ideal models, the relevant parameters are defined, and analytical expressions providing the features of the sources are given. Numerical simulations and a summary of recent experimental results on the different mechanisms a...

  7. Supercontinuum in ionization by relativistically intense and short laser pulses: Ionization without interference and its time analysis (United States)

    Krajewska, K.; Kamiński, J. Z.


    Ionization by relativistically intense laser pulses of finite duration is considered in the framework of strong-field quantum electrodynamics. We show that the resulting ionization spectra change their behavior from the interference-dominated oscillatory pattern to the interference-free smooth supercontinuum, the latter being the main focus of this paper. More specifically, when studying the energy distributions of photoelectrons ionized by circularly polarized and short pulses, we observe the appearance of broad structures lacking the interference patterns. These supercontinua extend over hundreds of driving photon energies, thus corresponding to high-order nonlinear processes. Their positions on the electron energy scale can be controlled by changing the pulse duration. The corresponding polar-angle distributions show asymmetries which are attributed to the radiation pressure experienced by photoelectrons. Moreover, our time analysis shows that the electrons comprising the supercontinuum can form pulses of short duration. While we present the fully numerical results, their interpretation is based on the saddle-point approximation for the ionization probability amplitude.

  8. Proton radiography of relativistic magnetic reconnection driven by ultra-high intensity lasers (United States)

    Campbell, Paul T.; Raymond, A.; Palmer, C. A. J.; Ma, Y.; Chen, H.; Katzir, Y.; Mileham, C.; Nilson, P. M.; Ridgers, C. P.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Tubman, E. R.; Wei, M. S.; Williams, G. J.; Woolsey, N.; Willingale, L.; Krushelnick, K.


    In recent experiments conducted with the OMEGA-EP laser facility at LLE and the Vulcan laser at RAL, proton radiography was used to observe in detail the magnetic field dynamics associated with magnetic reconnection driven by ultra-high intensity, short pulse lasers. Two configurations were investigated: one with two short pulses focused on target in close proximity and another with a short pulse fired near a relatively slowly evolving long pulse produced plasma. The proton radiography results, along with x-ray imaging and angularly resolved electron spectra will be presented. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-0002727.

  9. Physics considerations for laser-plasma linear colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Schroeder


    Full Text Available Physics considerations for a next-generation linear collider based on laser-plasma accelerators are discussed. The ultrahigh accelerating gradient of a laser-plasma accelerator and short laser coupling distance between accelerator stages allows for a compact linac. Two regimes of laser-plasma acceleration are discussed. The highly nonlinear regime has the advantages of higher accelerating fields and uniform focusing forces, whereas the quasilinear regime has the advantage of symmetric accelerating properties for electrons and positrons. Scaling of various accelerator and collider parameters with respect to plasma density and laser wavelength are derived. Reduction of beamstrahlung effects implies the use of ultrashort bunches of moderate charge. The total linac length scales inversely with the square root of the plasma density, whereas the total power scales proportional to the square root of the density. A 1 TeV center-of-mass collider based on stages using a plasma density of 10^{17}  cm^{-3} requires tens of J of laser energy per stage (using 1  μm wavelength lasers with tens of kHz repetition rate. Coulomb scattering and synchrotron radiation are examined and found not to significantly degrade beam quality. A photon collider based on laser-plasma accelerated beams is also considered. The requirements for the scattering laser energy are comparable to those of a single laser-plasma accelerator stage.

  10. Angular momentum evolution in laser-plasma accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Thaury, C; Corde, S; Lehe, R; Bouteiller, M Le; Phuoc, K Ta; Davoine, X; Rax, J -M; Rousse, A; Malka, V


    The transverse properties of an electron beam are characterized by two quantities, the emittance which indicates the electron beam extend in the phase space and the angular momentum which allows for non-planar electron trajectories. Whereas the emittance of electron beams produced in laser- plasma accelerator has been measured in several experiments, their angular momentum has been scarcely studied. It was demonstrated that electrons in laser-plasma accelerator carry some angular momentum, but its origin was not established. Here we identify one source of angular momentum growth and we present experimental results showing that the angular momentum content evolves during the acceleration.

  11. Modeling Relativistic Electron Precipitation Bremsstrahlung X-Ray Intensities at 10-100 km Manned Vehicle Altitudes (United States)

    Krause, L. Habsh; Gilchrist, B. E.; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi


    Relativisitic electron precipitation (REP) events occur when beams or bunches of relativistic electrons of magnetospheric origin enter the Earth's atmosphere, typically at auroral latitudes. REP events are associated with a variety of space weather effects, including production of transitional and bremsstrahlung radiation, catalytic depletion of stratospheric ozone, and scintillation of transionospheric radio waves. This study examines the intensities of x-rays produced at airliner, manned balloon, and space reuseable launch vehicles (sRLVs). The monoenergetic beam is modeled in cylindrical symetry using the paraxial ray equation. Bremsstrahlung photon production is calculated using the traditional Sauter-Elwert cross-section, providing x-ray emission spectra differential in energy and angle. Attenuation is computed for a plane-stratified standard atmosphere, and the loss processes include photoionization, Rayleigh and Compton scattering, electron-positron pair production, and photonuclear interaction. Peak altitudes of electron energy deposition and bremsstrahlung x-ray production were calculated for beams of energies from 1 MeV through 100 MeV. The altitude peak of bremsstrahlung deposition was consistently and significantly lower that that of the electron deposition due to the longer mean free paths of x-rays compared to electrons within the atmosphere. For example, for a nadir-directed monoenergetic 5 MeV beam, the peak deposition altitude was calculated to be 42 km, but the resulting bremsstrahlung deposition peaked at 25 km. This has implications for crew and passenger safety, especially with the growth of the space tourism industry. A survey of results covering the 1-100 MeV spectrum for the three altitude ranges of interest will be presented.

  12. Principles and applications of compact laser-plasma accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malka, V.; Faure, J.; Gauduel, Y.A.; Rousse, A.; Faure, J. [Ecole Polytech, CNRS, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees, Lab Optique Appliquee, UMR 7639, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Lefebvre, E. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee, 91 (France)


    Rapid progress in the development of high-intensity laser systems has extended our ability to study light-matter interactions far into the relativistic domain, in which electrons are driven to velocities close to the speed of light. As well as being of fundamental interest in their own right, these interactions enable the generation of high-energy particle beams that are short, bright and have good spatial quality. Along with steady improvements in the size, cost and repetition rate of high-intensity lasers, the unique characteristics of laser-driven particle beams are expected to be useful for a wide range of contexts, including proton therapy for the treatment of cancers, materials characterization, radiation-driven chemistry, border security through the detection of explosives, narcotics and other dangerous substances, and of course high-energy particle physics. Here, we review progress that has been made towards realizing such possibilities and the principles that underlie them. (authors)

  13. Laser Plasmas: Plasma dynamics from laser ablated solid lithium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These measurements were also used to validate the assumptions underlying the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) model, invoked for the high density laser plasma under study. Some interesting results pertaining to the analysis of plume structure and spatio-temporal behaviour of e and e along the plume length ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Burmakov


    Full Text Available Various modifications of complex pulsed laser and magnetron deposition thin-film structures unit are presented. They include joint and separate variants of layer deposition. Unit realizes the plasma parameters control and enhances the possibility of laser-plasma and magnetron methods of coatings deposition.

  15. Stability of liquid-nitrogen-jet laser-plasma targets (United States)

    Fogelqvist, E.; Kördel, M.; Selin, M.; Hertz, H. M.


    Microscopic jets of cryogenic substances such as liquid nitrogen are important regenerative high-density targets for high-repetition rate, high-brightness laser-plasma soft x-ray sources. When operated in vacuum such liquid jets exhibit several non-classical instabilities that negatively influence the x-ray source's spatial and temporal stability, yield, and brightness, parameters that all are important for applications such as water-window microscopy. In the present paper, we investigate liquid-nitrogen jets with a flash-illumination imaging system that allows for a quantitative stability analysis with high spatial and temporal resolution. Direct and indirect consequences of evaporation are identified as the key reasons for the observed instabilities. Operating the jets in an approximately 100 mbar ambient atmosphere counteracts the effects of evaporation and produces highly stable liquid nitrogen jets. For operation in vacuum, which is necessary for the laser plasmas, we improve the stability by introducing an external radiative heating element. The method significantly extends the distance from the nozzle that can be used for liquid-jet laser plasmas, which is of importance for high-average-power applications. Finally, we show that laser-plasma operation with the heating-element-stabilized jet shows improved short-term and long-term temporal stability in its water-window x-ray emission.

  16. Ultrashort x-ray pulse generation by nonlinear Thomson scattering of a relativistic electron with an intense circularly polarized laser pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Liu


    Full Text Available The nonlinear Thomson scattering of a relativistic electron with an intense laser pulse is calculated numerically. The results show that an ultrashort x-ray pulse can be generated by an electron with an initial energy of 5 MeV propagating across a circularly polarized laser pulse with a duration of 8 femtosecond and an intensity of about 1.1×10^{21}  W/cm^{2}, when the detection direction is perpendicular to the propagation directions of both the electron and the laser beam. The optimal values of the carrier-envelop phase and the intensity of the laser pulse for the generation of a single ultrashort x-ray pulse are obtained and verified by our calculations of the radiation characteristics.

  17. Validation of non-local electron heat conduction model for radiation MHD simulation in magnetized laser plasma (United States)

    Nagatomo, Hideo; Matsuo, Kazuki; Nicolai, Pilippe; Asahina, Takashi; Fujioka, Shinsuke


    In laser plasma physics, application of an external magnetic field is an attractive method for various research of high energy density physics including fast ignition. Meanwhile, in the high intense laser plasma the behavior of hot electron cannot be ignored. In the radiation hydrodynamic simulation, a classical electron conduction model, Spitzer-Harm model has been used in general. However the model has its limit, and modification of the model is necessary if it is used beyond the application limit. Modified SNB model, which considering the influence of magnetic field is applied to 2-D radiation magnetohydrodynamic code PINOCO. Some experiments related the non-local model are carried out at GXII, Osaka University. In this presentation, these experimental results are shown briefly. And comparison between simulation results considering the non-local electron heat conduction mode are discussed. This study was supported JSPS KAKENHI Grant No. 17K05728.

  18. Influence of target structure on laser plasma generation efficiency (United States)

    Loktionov, E.; Telekh, V.


    Spatial restrictions on heat transfer imposed in foil and sintered powder titanium targets have resulted in sufficient increase of efficiency of laser plasma generation as compared to bulk Ti targets. Especially at low laser fluences, where target material input in plasma is higher than ambient air’s. Also, the pattern of momentum coupling coefficient C m dependency on laser fluence F has changed from convex to concave. Minimum difference in C m values for bulk and foil targets was 1.68 times, maximum – 1.5 orders of magnitude (always higher for foil). At the impact on sintered porous targets momentum coupling coefficient was lower than for foil, but normalised by mass density, the results were about equal. To our mind, obtained results show that suppression of heat dissipation in porous targets can be same efficient as in foils, but with more benefits for feeding systems and energy efficiency of laser plasma generators.

  19. Laser-Plasma Acceleration with FLAME and ILIL Ultraintense Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Pathak


    Full Text Available We report on the development of radiation and electron sources based on laser-plasma acceleration for biomedical and nuclear applications, using both the table top TW laser at ILIL and the 220 TW FLAME laser system at LNF. We use the ILIL laser to produce wakefield electrons in a self-focusing dominated regime in a mm scale gas-jet to generate large, uniform beams of MeV electrons for electron radiography and radiobiology applications. This acceleration regime is described in detail and key parameters are given to establish reproducible and reliable operation of this source. We use the FLAME laser to drive laser-plasma acceleration in a cm-scale gas target to obtain stable production of >100 MeV range electrons to drive a Thomson scattering ɣ-ray source for nuclear applications.

  20. [Research on cells ablation characters by laser plasma]. (United States)

    Han, Jing-hua; Zhang, Xin-gang; Cai, Xiao-tang; Duan, Tao; Feng, Guo-ying; Yang, Li-ming; Zhang, Ya-jun; Wang, Shao-peng; Li, Shi-wen


    The study on the mechanism of laser ablated cells is of importance to laser surgery and killing harmful cells. Three radiation modes were researched on the ablation characteristics of onion epidermal cells under: laser direct irradiation, focused irradiation and the laser plasma radiation. Based on the thermodynamic properties of the laser irradiation, the cell temperature rise and phase change have been analyzed. The experiments show that the cells damage under direct irradiation is not obvious at all, but the focused irradiation can cause cells to split and moisture removal. The removal shape is circular with larger area and rough fracture edges. The theoretical analysis found out that the laser plasma effects play a key role in the laser ablation. The thermal effects, radiation ionization and shock waves can increase the deposition of laser pulses energy and impact peeling of the cells, which will greatly increase the scope and efficiency of cell killing and is suitable for the cell destruction.

  1. Application of imaging plates to x-ray imaging and spectroscopy in laser plasma experiments (invited) (United States)

    Izumi, N.; Snavely, R.; Gregori, G.; Koch, J. A.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B. A.


    We report recent progress in x-ray diagnosis of laser-plasma experiments using imaging plates. Imaging plates are photostimulable phosphor screens [BaF(Br0.85,I0.15):Eu2+] deposited on flexible metal or plastic substrates. We applied imaging plates to x-ray microscopy of inertial confinement fusion experiments. Self-emission x-ray images of imploded cores were obtained successfully with high-magnification, target-mounted pinholes using imaging plates as detectors. Imaging plates were also used in ultraintense laser experiments at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, where small samarium foils were irradiated by high intensity laser pulses from the Vulcan laser system. K-shell x rays from the foil (˜40keV) were used as a line x-ray source for one-dimensional microscopic radiography, and the performance of imaging plates on high-energy x-ray backlit radiography experiments was demonstrated by imaging sinusoidal grooves of 6μm amplitude on a Au foil. Detailed K-shell spectra from Cu targets were also obtained by coupling an imaging plate with a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite crystal spectrometer. The performance of the imaging plates as evaluated in actual laser plasma experiments is presented.

  2. An accurate and efficient laser-envelope solver for the modeling of laser-plasma accelerators (United States)

    Benedetti, C.; Schroeder, C. B.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.


    Detailed and reliable numerical modeling of laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs), where a short and intense laser pulse interacts with an underdense plasma over distances of up to a meter, is a formidably challenging task. This is due to the great disparity among the length scales involved in the modeling, ranging from the micron scale of the laser wavelength to the meter scale of the total laser-plasma interaction length. The use of the time-averaged ponderomotive force approximation, where the laser pulse is described by means of its envelope, enables efficient modeling of LPAs by removing the need to model the details of electron motion at the laser wavelength scale. Furthermore, it allows simulations in cylindrical geometry which captures relevant 3D physics at 2D computational cost. A key element of any code based on the time-averaged ponderomotive force approximation is the laser envelope solver. In this paper we present the accurate and efficient envelope solver used in the code INF&RNO (INtegrated Fluid & paRticle simulatioN cOde). The features of the INF&RNO laser solver enable an accurate description of the laser pulse evolution deep into depletion even at a reasonably low resolution, resulting in significant computational speed-ups.

  3. Plasma Injection Schemes for Laser-Plasma Accelerators


    J. Faure


    Plasma injection schemes are crucial for producing high-quality electron beams in laser-plasma accelerators. This article introduces the general concepts of plasma injection. First, a Hamiltonian model for particle trapping and acceleration in plasma waves is introduced; ionization injection and colliding-pulse injection are described in the framework of this Hamiltonian model. We then proceed to consider injection in plasma density gradients.

  4. Acceleration and loss of relativistic and ultra-relativistic electrons in the outer Van Allen belt during intense storms: a statistical study. (United States)

    Katsavrias, Christos; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Li, Wen; Dimitrakoudis, Stavros; Georgiou, Marina; Papadimitriou, Constantinos


    We present electron phase space density (PSD) calculations as well as concurrent Pc5 and chorus wave activity observations in the outer radiation belt during 18 intense geospace magnetic storms by employing multi-point particle and field observations (both in-situ and through ground-based remote sensing), including the THEMIS, Van Allen Probes, NOAA POES and GOES constellations, the XMM and INTEGRAL spacecraft, and the CARISMA and IMAGE ground magnetometer arrays. The data provide a broad range of particle energies and a wide radial and azimuthal spatial coverage. Observations show that different acceleration and loss mechanisms act simultaneously on different electron populations, depending on the values of the electrons' 1st and 2nd adiabatic invariants. This work has been supported by the NOA/IAASARS SOLPLA project.

  5. An imaging proton spectrometer for short-pulse laser plasma experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H; Hazi, A; van Maren, R; Chen, S; Fuchs, J; Gauthier, M; Pape, S L; Rygg, J R; Shepherd, R


    Ultra intense short pulse laser pulses incident on solid targets can generate energetic protons. In additions to their potentially important applications such as in cancer treatments and proton fast ignition, these protons are essential to understand the complex physics of intense laser plasma interaction. To better characterize these laser-produced protons, we designed and constructed a novel, spatially imaging proton spectrometer that will not only measure proton energy distribution with high resolution, but also provide its angular characteristics. The information obtained from this spectrometer compliments those from commonly used diagnostics including radiochromic film packs, CR39 nuclear track detectors, and non-imaging magnetic spectrometers. The basic characterizations and sample data from this instrument are presented.

  6. Terahertz Acoustics in Hot Dense Laser Plasmas (United States)

    Adak, Amitava; Robinson, A. P. L.; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Chatterjee, Gourab; Lad, Amit D.; Pasley, John; Kumar, G. Ravindra


    We present a hitherto unobserved facet of hydrodynamics, namely the generation of an ultrahigh frequency acoustic disturbance in the terahertz frequency range, whose origins are purely hydrodynamic in nature. The disturbance is caused by differential flow velocities down a density gradient in a plasma created by a 30 fs, 800 nm high-intensity laser (˜5 ×1016 W /cm2 ). The picosecond scale observations enable us to capture these high frequency oscillations (1.9 ±0.6 THz ) which are generated as a consequence of the rapid heating of the medium by the laser. Adoption of two complementary techniques, namely pump-probe reflectometry and pump-probe Doppler spectrometry provides unambiguous identification of this terahertz acoustic disturbance. Hydrodynamic simulations well reproduce the observations, offering insight into this process.

  7. Interpenetration and stagnation in colliding laser plasmas (United States)

    Al-Shboul, K. F.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassan, S. M.; Hassanein, A.; Costello, J. T.; Yabuuchi, T.; Tanaka, K. A.; Hirooka, Y.


    We have investigated plasma stagnation and interaction effects in colliding laser-produced plasmas. For generating colliding plasmas, two split laser beams were line-focused onto a hemi-circular target and the seed plasmas so produced were allowed to expand in mutually orthogonal directions. This experimental setup forced the expanding seed plasmas to come to a focus at the center of the chamber. The interpenetration and stagnation of plasmas of candidate fusion wall materials, viz., carbon and tungsten, and other materials, viz., aluminum, and molybdenum were investigated in this study. Fast-gated imaging, Faraday cup ion analysis, and optical emission spectroscopy were used for diagnosing seed and colliding plasma plumes. Our results show that high-Z target (W, Mo) plasma ions interpenetrate each other, while low-Z (C, Al) plasmas stagnate at the collision plane. For carbon seed plasmas, an intense stagnation was observed resulting in longer plasma lifetime; in addition, the stagnation layer was found to be rich with C2 dimers.

  8. Interpenetration and stagnation in colliding laser plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Shboul, K. F. [Center for Materials Under eXtreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110 (Jordan); Harilal, S. S., E-mail:; Hassan, S. M.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials Under eXtreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Costello, J. T. [School of Physical Sciences and NCPST, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Yabuuchi, T.; Tanaka, K. A. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada-oka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 5650871 (Japan); Hirooka, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu (Japan)


    We have investigated plasma stagnation and interaction effects in colliding laser-produced plasmas. For generating colliding plasmas, two split laser beams were line-focused onto a hemi-circular target and the seed plasmas so produced were allowed to expand in mutually orthogonal directions. This experimental setup forced the expanding seed plasmas to come to a focus at the center of the chamber. The interpenetration and stagnation of plasmas of candidate fusion wall materials, viz., carbon and tungsten, and other materials, viz., aluminum, and molybdenum were investigated in this study. Fast-gated imaging, Faraday cup ion analysis, and optical emission spectroscopy were used for diagnosing seed and colliding plasma plumes. Our results show that high-Z target (W, Mo) plasma ions interpenetrate each other, while low-Z (C, Al) plasmas stagnate at the collision plane. For carbon seed plasmas, an intense stagnation was observed resulting in longer plasma lifetime; in addition, the stagnation layer was found to be rich with C{sub 2} dimers.

  9. Ion beam enhancement in magnetically insulated ion diodes for high-intensity pulsed ion beam generation in non-relativistic mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X. P. [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, Z. C.; Lei, M. K., E-mail: [Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Pushkarev, A. I. [Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Laboratory of Beam and Plasma Technology, High Technologies Physics Institute, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Ave, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)


    High-intensity pulsed ion beam (HIPIB) with ion current density above Child-Langmuir limit is achieved by extracting ion beam from anode plasma of ion diodes with suppressing electron flow under magnetic field insulation. It was theoretically estimated that with increasing the magnetic field, a maximal value of ion current density may reach nearly 3 times that of Child-Langmuir limit in a non-relativistic mode and close to 6 times in a highly relativistic mode. In this study, the behavior of ion beam enhancement by magnetic insulation is systematically investigated in three types of magnetically insulated ion diodes (MIDs) with passive anode, taking into account the anode plasma generation process on the anode surface. A maximal enhancement factor higher than 6 over the Child-Langmuir limit can be obtained in the non-relativistic mode with accelerating voltage of 200–300 kV. The MIDs differ in two anode plasma formation mechanisms, i.e., surface flashover of a dielectric coating on the anode and explosive emission of electrons from the anode, as well as in two insulation modes of external-magnetic field and self-magnetic field with either non-closed or closed drift of electrons in the anode-cathode (A-K) gap, respectively. Combined with ion current density measurement, energy density characterization is employed to resolve the spatial distribution of energy density before focusing for exploring the ion beam generation process. Consistent results are obtained on three types of MIDs concerning control of neutralizing electron flows for the space charge of ions where the high ion beam enhancement is determined by effective electron neutralization in the A-K gap, while the HIPIB composition of different ion species downstream from the diode may be considerably affected by the ion beam neutralization during propagation.

  10. Development of Laser Plasma X-ray Microbeam Irradiation System and Radiation Biological Application (United States)

    Sato, Katsutoshi; Nishikino, Masaharu; Numasaki, Hodaka; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Teshima, Teruki; Nishimura, Hiroaki

    Laser plasma x-ray source has the features such as ultra short pulse, high brilliance, monochromaticity, and focusing ability. These features are excellent compared with conventional x-ray source. In order to apply the laser plasma x-ray source to the biomedical study and to more closely research the radiobilogical responce of the cancer cell such as radiation induced bystander effect, we have developed x-ray microbeam system using laser plasma x-ray source. The absorbed dose of laser plasma x-ray was estimated with Gafchromic EBT film and DNA double strand breaks on the cells were detected by immunofluorescence staining. When the cells were irradiated with laser plasma x-ray, the circular regions existing γ-H2AX positive cells were clearly identified. The usefulness of the laser plasma x-ray on the radiobiological study was proved in this research.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, A.; Schroeder, C.; Fawley, W.


    A free electron laser (FEL) uses an undulator, a set of alternating magnets producing a periodic magnetic fi eld, to stimulate emission of coherent radiation from a relativistic electron beam. The Lasers, Optical Accelerator Systems Integrated Studies (LOASIS) group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) will use an innovative laserplasma wakefi eld accelerator to produce an electron beam to drive a proposed FEL. In order to optimize the FEL performance, the dependence on electron beam and undulator parameters must be understood. Numerical modeling of the FEL using the simulation code GINGER predicts the experimental results for given input parameters. Among the parameters studied were electron beam energy spread, emittance, and mismatch with the undulator focusing. Vacuum-chamber wakefi elds were also simulated to study their effect on FEL performance. Energy spread was found to be the most infl uential factor, with output FEL radiation power sharply decreasing for relative energy spreads greater than 0.33%. Vacuum chamber wakefi elds and beam mismatch had little effect on the simulated LOASIS FEL at the currents considered. This study concludes that continued improvement of the laser-plasma wakefi eld accelerator electron beam will allow the LOASIS FEL to operate in an optimal regime, producing high-quality XUV and x-ray pulses.

  12. Relativistic astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Demianski, Marek


    Relativistic Astrophysics brings together important astronomical discoveries and the significant achievements, as well as the difficulties in the field of relativistic astrophysics. This book is divided into 10 chapters that tackle some aspects of the field, including the gravitational field, stellar equilibrium, black holes, and cosmology. The opening chapters introduce the theories to delineate gravitational field and the elements of relativistic thermodynamics and hydrodynamics. The succeeding chapters deal with the gravitational fields in matter; stellar equilibrium and general relativity

  13. Enhanced electron yield from a laser-plasma accelerator using high-Z gas jet targets

    CERN Document Server

    Mirzaie, Mohammad; Li, Song; Sokollik, Thomas; He, Fei; Cheng, Ya; Sheng, Zhengming; Zhang, Jie


    An investigation of the multi-hundred MeV electron beam yield (charge) form helium, nitrogen, neon and argon gas jet plasmas in a laser-plasma wakefield acceleration experiment was carried out. The charge measurement has been made via imaging the electron beam intensity profile on a fluorescent screen into a 14-bit charge coupled device (CCD) which was cross-calibrated with nondestructive electronics-based method. Within given laser and plasma parameters, we found that laser-driven low Z- gas jet targets generate high-quality and well-collimated electron beams with reasonable yields at the level of 10-100 pC. On the other hand, filamentary electron beams which were observed from high-Z gas jets at higher densities reached much higher yield. Evidences for cluster formation were clearly observed in high-Z gases, especially in the argon gas jet target where we received the highest yield of ~ 3 nC

  14. Probing electron acceleration and X-ray emission in laser-plasma accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Thaury, C; Corde, S; Brijesh, P; Lambert, G; Mangles, S P D; Bloom, M S; Kneip, S; Malka, V


    While laser-plasma accelerators have demonstrated a strong potential in the acceleration of electrons up to giga-electronvolt energies, few experimental tools for studying the acceleration physics have been developed. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for probing the acceleration process. A second laser beam, propagating perpendicular to the main beam is focused in the gas jet few nanosecond before the main beam creates the accelerating plasma wave. This second beam is intense enough to ionize the gas and form a density depletion which will locally inhibit the acceleration. The position of the density depletion is scanned along the interaction length to probe the electron injection and acceleration, and the betatron X-ray emission. To illustrate the potential of the method, the variation of the injection position with the plasma density is studied.

  15. Observation of longitudinal and transverse self-injections in laser-plasma accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Corde, S; Lifschitz, A; Lambert, G; Phuoc, K Ta; Davoine, X; Lehe, R; Douillet, D; Rousse, A; Malka, V


    Laser-plasma accelerators can produce high quality electron beams, up to giga-electronvolts in energy, from a centimeter scale device. The properties of the electron beams and the accelerator stability are largely determined by the injection stage of electrons into the accelerator. The simplest mechanism of injection is self-injection, in which the wakefield is strong enough to trap cold plasma electrons into the laser wake. The main drawback of this method is its lack of shot-to-shot stability. Here we present experimental and numerical results that demonstrate the existence of two different self-injection mechanisms. Transverse self-injection is shown to lead to low stability and poor quality electron beams, because of a strong dependence on the intensity profile of the laser pulse. In contrast, longitudinal injection, which is unambiguously observed for the first time, is shown to lead to much more stable acceleration and higher quality electron beams.

  16. Particle physicist's dreams about PetaelectronVolt laser plasma accelerators (United States)

    Vesztergombi, G.


    Present day accelerators are working well in the multi TeV energy scale and one is expecting exciting results in the coming years. Conventional technologies, however, can offer only incremental (factor 2 or 3) increase in beam energies which does not follow the usual speed of progress in the frontiers of high energy physics. Laser plasma accelerators theoretically provide unique possibilities to achieve orders of magnitude increases entering the PetaelectronVolt (PeV) energy range. It will be discussed what kind of new perspectives could be opened for the physics at this new energy scale. What type of accelerators would be required?.

  17. Ultrafast Diagnostics for Electron Beams from Laser Plasma Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlis, N. H.; Bakeman, M.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Gonsalves, T.; Lin, C.; Nakamura, K.; Osterhoff, J.; Plateau, G. R.; Schroeder, C. B.; Shiraishi, S.; Sokollik, T.; van Tilborg, J.; Toth, Cs.; Leemans, W. P.


    We present an overview of diagnostic techniques for measuring key parameters of electron bunches from Laser Plasma Accelerators (LPAs). The diagnostics presented here were chosen because they highlight the unique advantages (e.g., diverse forms of electromagnetic emission) and difficulties (e.g., shot-to-shot variability) associated with LPAs. Non destructiveness and high resolution (in space and time and energy) are key attributes that enable the formation of a comprehensive suite of simultaneous diagnostics which are necessary for the full characterization of the ultrashort, but highly-variable electron bunches from LPAs.

  18. Summary Report of Working Group 1: Laser-Plasma Acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geddes, C.G.R.; Clayton, C.; Lu, W.; Thomas, A.G.R.


    Advances in and physics of the acceleration of particles using underdense plasma structures driven by lasers were the topics of presentations and discussions in Working Group 1 of the 2010 Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop. Such accelerators have demonstrated gradients several orders beyond conventional machines, with quasi-monoenergetic beams at MeV-GeV energies, making them attractive candidates for next generation accelerators. Workshop discussions included advances in control over injection and laser propagation to further improve beam quality and stability, detailed diagnostics and physics models of the acceleration process, radiation generation as a source and diagnostic, and technological tools and upcoming facilities to extend the reach of laser-plasma accelerators.

  19. Angular-Momentum Evolution in Laser-Plasma Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Thaury, Cédric; Corde, Sébastien; Lehe, Rémi; Le Bouteiller, Madeleine; Ta Phuoc, Kim; Davoine, Xavier; Rax, J. M.; Rousse, Antoine; Malka, Victor


    The transverse properties of an electron beam are characterized by two quantities, the emittance which indicates the electron beam extent in the phase space and the angular momentum which allows for non-planar electron trajectories. Whereas the emittance of electron beams produced in laserplasma accelerator has been measured in several experiments, their angular momentum has been scarcely studied. It was demonstrated that electrons in laser-plasma accelerator carry some angular momentum, but its origin was not established. Here we identify one source of angular momentum growth and we present experimental results showing that the angular momentum content evolves during the acceleration.

  20. The interaction of intense subpicosecond laser pulses with underdense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coverdale, Christine Ann [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)


    Laser-plasma interactions have been of interest for many years not only from a basic physics standpoint, but also for their relevance to numerous applications. Advances in laser technology in recent years have resulted in compact laser systems capable of generating (psec), 1016 W/cm2 laser pulses. These lasers have provided a new regime in which to study laser-plasma interactions, a regime characterized by Lplasma ≥ 2LRayleigh > cτ. The goal of this dissertation is to experimentally characterize the interaction of a short pulse, high intensity laser with an underdense plasma (no ≤ 0.05ncr). Specifically, the parametric instability known as stimulated Raman scatter (SRS) is investigated to determine its behavior when driven by a short, intense laser pulse. Both the forward Raman scatter instability and backscattered Raman instability are studied. The coupled partial differential equations which describe the growth of SRS are reviewed and solved for typical experimental laser and plasma parameters. This solution shows the growth of the waves (electron plasma and scattered light) generated via stimulated Raman scatter. The dispersion relation is also derived and solved for experimentally accessible parameters. The solution of the dispersion relation is used to predict where (in k-space) and at what frequency (in ω-space) the instability will grow. Both the nonrelativistic and relativistic regimes of the instability are considered.

  1. Laser-plasma interaction and future accelerators; Interaction laser-plasma et futurs accelerateurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobin, J.L. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Lab. de Physique Atomique et Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France)


    In particle accelerators, the resistance to magnetic fields of the inner wall of accelerating cavities imposes an upper limit to the acceleration gradient (about a few tens of 10{sup 6} V/m). So to get higher energies implies to get a bigger machine. This evolution towards giantism has a limit: the exponential costs. The interaction between laser and plasma can be used to accelerate electrons in different ways, one of the most promising is the channeling acceleration. Electrons riding on a wave at the proper phase can have their energy boosted to relativistic values as a result of the longitudinal electrical field in the wave. A project at the SLAC (Stanford) aims at producing an acceleration gradient of 1 GeV/m in a plasma whose length is 1,4 m. The authors reviews also different experimental results, in one experiment electrons have been accelerated to 200 MeV over a 1 millimeter long distance, that is to say that the average acceleration gradient was 200 GeV/m. (A.C.)

  2. Interaction of relativistic electrons with an intense laser pulse: High-order harmonic generation based on Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hack, Szabolcs [ELI-ALPS, ELI-HU Non-Profit Ltd., Dugonics tér 13, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Szeged, Tisza L. krt. 84-86, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Varró, Sándor [ELI-ALPS, ELI-HU Non-Profit Ltd., Dugonics tér 13, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Wigner Research Center for Physics, SZFI, PO Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Czirják, Attila [ELI-ALPS, ELI-HU Non-Profit Ltd., Dugonics tér 13, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Szeged, Tisza L. krt. 84-86, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary)


    We investigate nonlinear Thomson scattering as a source of high-order harmonic radiation with the potential to enable attosecond light pulse generation. We present a new analytic solution of the electron’s relativistic equations of motion in the case of a short laser pulse with a sine-squared envelope. Based on the single electron emission, we compute and analyze the radiated amplitude and phase spectrum for a realistic electron bunch, with special attention to the correct initial values. These results show that the radiation spectrum of an electron bunch in head-on collision with a sufficiently strong laser pulse of sine-squared envelope has a smooth frequency dependence to allow for the synthesis of attosecond light pulses.

  3. Laser plasma interaction in rugby-shaped hohlraums (United States)

    Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Philippe, F.; Tassin, V.; Monteil, M.-C.; Gauthier, P.; Casner, A.; Depierreux, S.; Seytor, P.; Teychenne, D.; Loiseau, P.; Freymerie, P.


    Rugby shaped-hohlraum has proven to give high performance compared to a classical similar-diameter cylinder hohlraum. Due to this performance, this hohlraum has been chosen as baseline ignition target for the Laser MegaJoule (LMJ). Many experiments have therefore been performed during the last years on the Omega laser facility in order to study in details the rugby hohlraum. In this talk, we will discuss the interpretation of these experiments from the point of view of the laser plasma instability problem. Experimental comparisons have been done between rugby, cylinder and elliptical shape rugby hohlraums and we will discuss how the geometry differences will affect the evolution of laser plasma instabilities (LPI). The efficiency of laser smoothing techniques on these instabilities will also be discussed as well as gas filling effect. The experimental results will be compared with FCI2 hydroradiative calculations and linear postprocessing with Piranah. Experimental Raman and Brillouin spectrum, from which we can infer the location of the parametric instabilities, will be compared to simulated ones, and will give the possibility to compare LPI between the different hohlraum geometries.

  4. Relativistic stellar models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 77; Issue 3. Relativistic stellar models ... Upon specifying particular forms for one of the gravitational potentials and the electric field intensity, the condition for pressure isotropy is transformed into a hypergeometric equation with two free parameters. For particular ...

  5. Extreme UV lithography: A new laser plasma target concept and fabrication of multilayer reflection masks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Bijkerk,; Shmaenok, L. A.; E. Louis,; Voorma, H. J.; Koster, N. B.; Bruineman, C.; Bastiaensen, Rkfj; van der Drift, E. W. J. M.; Romijn, J.; de Groot, L. E. M.; Rousseeuw, B. A. C.; Zijlstra, T.; Platonov, Y. Y.; Salashchenko, N. N.


    Results are reported on the development of a laser plasma source and the fabrication of multilayer reflection masks for extreme ultra-violet lithography (EUVL). A new concept of a target for a laser plasma source is presented including experimental evidence of elimination of macro debris particles

  6. Laser plasma physics in shock ignition – transition from collisional to collisionless absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimo O.


    Full Text Available Shock Ignition is considered as a relatively robust and efficient approach to inertial confinement fusion. A strong converging shock, which is used to ignite the fuel, is launched by a high power laser pulse with intensity in the range of 1015 − 1016 W/cm2 (at the wavelength of 351 nm. In the lower end of this intensity range the interaction is dominated by collisions while the parametric instabilities are playing a secondary role. This is manifested in a relatively weak reflectivity and efficient electron heating. The interaction is dominated by collective effects at the upper edge of the intensity range. The stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering (SBS and SRS respectively take place in a less dense plasma and cavitation provides an efficient collisionless absorption mechanism. The transition from collisional to collisionless absorption in laser plasma interactions at higher intensities is studied here with the help of large scale one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell (PIC simulations. The relation between the collisional and collisionless processes is manifested in the energy spectrum of electrons transporting the absorbed laser energy and in the spectrum of the reflected laser light.

  7. Tunable Laser Plasma Accelerator based on Longitudinal Density Tailoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shiraishi, Satomi; Sokollik, Thomas; Benedetti, Carlo; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Tilborg, Jeroen van; Osterhoff, Jens; Esarey, Eric; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim


    Laser plasma accelerators have produced high-quality electron beams with GeV energies from cm-scale devices and are being investigated as hyperspectral fs light sources producing THz to {gamma}-ray radiation and as drivers for future high-energy colliders. These applications require a high degree of stability, beam quality and tunability. Here we report on a technique to inject electrons into the accelerating field of a laser-driven plasma wave and coupling of this injector to a lower-density, separately tunable plasma for further acceleration. The technique relies on a single laser pulse powering a plasma structure with a tailored longitudinal density profile, to produce beams that can be tuned in the range of 100-400 MeV with percent-level stability, using laser pulses of less than 40 TW. The resulting device is a simple stand-alone accelerator or the front end for a multistage higher-energy accelerator.

  8. High-order harmonic generation in laser plasma plumes

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A


    This book represents the first comprehensive treatment of high-order harmonic generation in laser-produced plumes, covering the principles, past and present experimental status and important applications. It shows how this method of frequency conversion of laser radiation towards the extreme ultraviolet range matured over the course of multiple studies and demonstrated new approaches in the generation of strong coherent short-wavelength radiation for various applications. Significant discoveries and pioneering contributions of researchers in this field carried out in various laser scientific centers worldwide are included in this first attempt to describe the important findings in this area of nonlinear spectroscopy. "High-Order Harmonic Generation in Laser Plasma Plumes" is a self-contained and unified review of the most recent achievements in the field, such as the application of clusters (fullerenes, nanoparticles, nanotubes) for efficient harmonic generation of ultrashort laser pulses in cluster-containin...

  9. Investigation of electron heating in laser-plasma interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Parvazian


    Full Text Available  In this paper, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS and electron heating in laser plasma propagating along the plasma fusion is investigated by particle-in cell simulation. Applying an external magnetic field to plasma, production of whistler waves and electron heating associated with whistler waves in the direction perpendicular to external magnetic field was observed in this simulation. The plasma waves with low phase velocities, generated in backward-SRS and dominateing initially in time and space, accelerated the backward electrons by trapping them. Then these electrons promoted to higher energies by the forward-SRS plasma waves with high phase velocities. This tow-stage electron acceleration is more efficient due to the coexistence of these two instabilities.

  10. Interplay of Laser-Plasma Interactions and Inertial Fusion Hydrodynamics. (United States)

    Strozzi, D J; Bailey, D S; Michel, P; Divol, L; Sepke, S M; Kerbel, G D; Thomas, C A; Ralph, J E; Moody, J D; Schneider, M B


    The effects of laser-plasma interactions (LPI) on the dynamics of inertial confinement fusion hohlraums are investigated via a new approach that self-consistently couples reduced LPI models into radiation-hydrodynamics numerical codes. The interplay between hydrodynamics and LPI-specifically stimulated Raman scatter and crossed-beam energy transfer (CBET)-mostly occurs via momentum and energy deposition into Langmuir and ion acoustic waves. This spatially redistributes energy coupling to the target, which affects the background plasma conditions and thus, modifies laser propagation. This model shows reduced CBET and significant laser energy depletion by Langmuir waves, which reduce the discrepancy between modeling and data from hohlraum experiments on wall x-ray emission and capsule implosion shape.

  11. Ion pinhole imaging diagnostics on fast ion source in femtosecond laser plasma of cluster targets. (United States)

    Makarov, Sergey; Pikuz, Sergey; Faenov, Anatoly; Pikuz, Tatiana; Fukuda, Yuji; Skobelev, Igor; Zhvaniya, Irina; Varzar, Sergey; Kando, Masaki; Kodama, Ryousuke


    The spatial configuration of the ion source generated under femtosecond laser interaction with clusters is investigated. While intense laser pulses (36 fs, 60 mJ, intensity of 4 × 1017 W/cm2) propagated in CO2 cluster (~0.22 μm in diameter) media, the shape of the obtained plasma ion source was registered for the first time by means of pinhole imaging method. The remarkable decrease in fast ion yield in the vicinity of the assumed best laser focus near the gas cluster jet axis is observed. Such observed anisotropy of the ion source is suggested to originate from the influence of the laser prepulse destroying clusters in advance to the arrival of the main pulse. The assumption is confirmed by optical shadowgraphy images of the plasma channel and is important for further development of an efficient laser-plasma-based fast ion source. Following the observed geometry of the ion source, the laser intensity limit allowing to accelerate ions to ~100 keV energy range was estimated.

  12. Study of the laser-plasma acceleration of ion beams with enhanced quality: The effects of nanostructured targets (United States)

    Fazeli, Reza


    Production of high-quality ion beams by intense laser-plasma interactions represents a rapidly evolving field of interest. In this paper, a nanostructured target is proposed to generate laser-driven quasi-monoenergetic ion beams with considerably reduced energy spread and enhanced peak energy. Linearly polarized, 40-fs laser pulses of intensity 8.5 × 1020 W cm-2 were considered to irradiate simple carbon foil and nanostructured targets. The proposed target consists of a thin layer of relatively high-Z atom (Ti) with a depression on its back surface which is filled by a nanosize disc of a low-Z atom (C). Reliable and reproducible results of multi-parametric Particle-in-Cell simulations show that by using a composed nanostructured target with optimum physical properties, a quasi-monoenergetic ion beam can be generated with a narrow band energy spectrum peaking at energies higher than 20 MeV. In addition, the forward-accelerated beam of low-Z carbon ions exhibits a considerably reduced transverse emittance in comparison with the ion beam obtained in the condition of a simple foil. The proposed nanostructured target can efficiently contribute to the generation of high-quality ion beams which are critical in newly growing applications and physics of laser-plasma accelerators.

  13. Hollow screw like drill in plasma using an intense Laguerre Gaussian laser

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wenpeng; Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Lingang; Shi, Yin; Xu, Zhizhan


    With the development of ultra intense laser technology, MeV ions from the laser foil interaction have been obtained by different mechanisms, such as target normal sheath acceleration, radiation pressure acceleration, collisionless shock acceleration, breakout afterburner, and a combination of different mechanisms. These energetic ion beams can be applied in fast ignition for inertial confinement fusion, medical therapy, and proton imaging. However, these ions are mainly accelerated in the laser propagation direction, and the ion acceleration in an azimuthal orientation is scarcely mentioned. Here, a doughnut Laguerre Gaussian LG laser is used for the first time to study the laser plasma interaction in the relativistic intensity regime in three dimensional particle in cell simulations. Studies have shown that a novel rotation of the plasma is produced from the hollow screw like drill of a LG mode laser. The angular momentum of the protons in the longitudinal direction produced by the LG laser is remarkably enh...

  14. Laser-plasma accelerator and femtosecond photon sources-based ultrafast radiation chemistry and biophysics (United States)

    Gauduel, Y. A.


    The initial distribution of energy deposition triggered by the interaction of ionizing radiations (far UV and X rays, electron, proton and accelerated ions) with molecular targets or integrated biological systems is often decisive for the spatio-temporal behavior of radiation effects that take place on several orders of magnitude. This contribution deals with an interdisciplinary approach that concerns cutting-edge advances on primary radiation events, considering the potentialities of innovating strategies based on ultrafast laser science, from femtosecond photon sources to laser-driven relativistic particles acceleration. Recent advances of powerful TW laser sources (~ 1019 Wcm-2) and laser-plasma interactions providing ultrashort relativistic particle beams in the energy domain 2.5-150 MeV open exciting opportunities for the development of high-energy radiation femtochemistry (HERF). Early radiation damages being dependent on the survival probability of secondary electrons and radial distribution of short-lived radicals inside ionization clusters, a thorough knowledge of these processes involves the real-time probing of primary events in the temporal range 10-14-10-11 s. In the framework of a closed synergy between low-energy radiation femtochemistry (LERF) and the emerging domain of HERF, the paper focuses on early phenomena that occur in the prethermal regime of low-energy secondary electrons, considering very short-lived quantum effects in aqueous environments. A high dose-rate delivered by femtosecond electron beam (~ 1011-1013 Gy s-1) can be used to investigate early radiation processes in native ionization tracks, down to 10-12 s and 10-9 m. We explain how this breakthrough favours the innovating development of real-time nanodosimetry in biologically relevant environments and open new perspectives for spatio-temporal radiation biophysics. The emerging domain of HERF would provide guidance for understanding the specific bioeffects of ultrashort particle

  15. Development of a Multi-GeV spectrometer for laser-plasma experiment at FLAME (United States)

    Valente, P.; Anelli, F.; Bacci, A.; Batani, D.; Bellaveglia, M.; Benocci, R.; Benedetti, C.; Cacciotti, L.; Cecchetti, C. A.; Clozza, A.; Cultrera, L.; Di Pirro, G.; Drenska, N.; Faccini, R.; Ferrario, M.; Filippetto, D.; Fioravanti, S.; Gallo, A.; Gamucci, A.; Gatti, G.; Ghigo, A.; Giulietti, A.; Giulietti, D.; Gizzi, L. A.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Levato, T.; Lollo, V.; Londrillo, P.; Martellotti, S.; Pace, E.; Pathak, N.; Rossi, A.; Tani, F.; Serafini, L.; Turchetti, G.; Vaccarezza, C.


    The advance in laser-plasma acceleration techniques pushes the regime of the resulting accelerated particles to higher energies and intensities. In particular, the upcoming experiments with the 250 TW laser at the FLAME facility of the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, will enter the GeV regime with more than 100 pC of electrons. At the current status of understanding of the acceleration mechanism, relatively large angular and energy spreads are expected. There is therefore the need for developing a device capable to measure the energy of electrons over three orders of magnitude (few MeV to few GeV), with still unknown angular divergences. Within the PlasmonX experiment at FLAME, a spectrometer is being constructed to perform these measurements. It is made of an electro-magnet and a screen made of scintillating fibers for the measurement of the trajectories of the particles. The large range of operation, the huge number of particles and the need to focus the divergence, present challenges in the design and construction of such a device. We present the design considerations for this spectrometer that lead to the use of scintillating fibers, multichannel photo-multipliers and a multiplexing electronics, a combination which is innovative in the field. We also present the experimental results obtained with a high intensity electron beam performed on a prototype at the LNF beam test facility.

  16. Frequency-Domain Tomography for Single-shot, Ultrafast Imaging of Evolving Laser-Plasma Accelerators (United States)

    Li, Zhengyan; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Wang, Xiaoming; Downer, Michael


    Intense laser pulses propagating through plasma create plasma wakefields that often evolve significantly, e.g. by expanding and contracting. However, such dynamics are known in detail only through intensive simulations. Laboratory visualization of evolving plasma wakes in the ``bubble'' regime is important for optimizing and scaling laser-plasma accelerators. Recently snap-shots of quasi-static wakes were recorded using frequency-domain holography (FDH). To visualize the wake's evolution, we have generalized FDH to frequency-domain tomography (FDT), which uses multiple probes propagating at different angles with respect to the pump pulse. Each probe records a phase streak, imprinting a partial record of the evolution of pump-created structures. We then topographically reconstruct the full evolution from all phase streaks. To prove the concept, a prototype experiment visualizing nonlinear index evolution in glass is demonstrated. Four probes propagating at 0, 0.6, 2, 14 degrees to the index ``bubble'' are angularly and temporally multiplexed to a single spectrometer to achieve cost-effective FDT. From these four phase streaks, an FDT algorithm analogous to conventional CT yields a single-shot movie of the pump's self-focusing dynamics.

  17. Generation of C6+ in a spark-discharge coupled laser plasma (United States)

    Balki, Oguzhan; Rahman, Md. Mahmudur; Xiao, Shu; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.


    By coupling a spark discharge into a laser-generated carbon plasma, fully-stripped carbon ions with a relatively low laser pulse energy are observed. When spark-discharge energy of ∼ 750 mJ is coupled to the carbon plasma generated by ∼ 50 mJ laser pulse (wavelength 1064 nm, pulse width 8 ns, intensity 5 × 109 W /cm2), enhancement in the total ion charge by a factor of ∼ 6 is observed, along with the increase of maximum charge state from C4+ to C6+. Spark coupling to the laser plasma significantly reduces the laser pulse energy required to generate highly-charged ions. Compared to the laser carbon plasma alone, the spark discharge increases the intensity of the spectral emission of carbon lines, the electron density ne, and the electron temperature Te. The effective ion plasma temperature associated with translational motion along the plume axis Tieff is calculated from the ion time-of-flight signal.

  18. Optical Probing of CO2 Laser-Plasma Interactions at Near Critical Density (United States)

    Gong, Chao

    The interaction of a high-power laser beam with plasma has been explored extensively in the context of laser-driven fusion, plasma-based acceleration of ions and electrons and high energy-density physics. One of the fundamental processes common to all these studies is the penetration of intense light into a dense matter through the hole boring effect and self-induced transparency. Light with a given wavelength lambda will be reflected once the electron density equals the critical electron plasma density nc = 1.1x 1021cm -3 /[lambda(mum)]2. The radiation pressure exerted on the critical density layer is characterized by the ponderomotive force of a focused laser pulse which scales with a laser intensity, I as Ilambda2 Wmum2/cm 2. At Ilambda2 ˜1017 Wmum2/cm2 and above, it becomes possible for the laser pulse not only to steepen the plasma profile but to push the overcritical plasma with ne > nc creating a cavity or a hole in the target. The phenomenon of hole boring, whereby a laser pulse propagates through a reduced density cavity to reach and push the critical density layer, is of importance in fast-ignition fusion because it may allow the laser pulse to deliver its energy closer to the compressed fuel where it can be converted into fast electrons that are needed to ignite a small portion of the fuel. The layer of plasma pushed by the radiation pressure can reflect and accelerate ions via the so called Hole Boring Radiation Pressure Acceleration mechanism. Also the density pile- up in combination with the strong electron heating at the critical density layer can facilitate the formation of a collisionless shock. This shock wave acceleration can produce high energy ion beams with a narrow energy spread. Numerous experiments have been carried out to study dynamics of laser plasma interaction indirectly using solid state targets that are opaque for 1?m laser. However, by using a longer wavelength CO2 laser, lambda = 10.6mum, the critical plasma density is decreased

  19. Relativistic diffusion. (United States)

    Haba, Z


    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.

  20. Relativistic astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Price, R H


    Work reported in the workshop on relativistic astrophysics spanned a wide varicy of topics. Two specific areas seemed of particular interest. Much attention was focussed on gravitational wave sources, especially on the waveforms they produce, and progress was reported in theoretical and observational aspects of accretion disks.

  1. Relativistic Kinematics


    Sahoo, Raghunath


    This lecture note covers Relativistic Kinematics, which is very useful for the beginners in the field of high-energy physics. A very practical approach has been taken, which answers "why and how" of the kinematics useful for students working in the related areas.

  2. Space-charge effects in ultrahigh current electron bunches generated by laser-plasma accelerators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grüner, F. J; Schroeder, C. B; Maier, A. R; Becker, S; Mikhailova, J. M


    ...) generated in laser-plasma accelerators. At low electron energies such peak currents are expected to cause space-charge effects such as bunch expansion and induced energy variations along the bunch, potentially hindering the FEL process...

  3. Guiding of relativistic electron beams in dense matter by longitudinally imposed strong magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bailly-Grandvaux, M; Bellei, C; Forestier-Colleoni, P; Fujioka, S; Giuffrida, L; Honrubia, J J; Batani, D; Bouillaud, R; Chevrot, M; Cross, J E; Crowston, R; Dorard, S; Dubois, J -L; Ehret, M; Gregori, G; Hulin, S; Kojima, S; Loyez, E; Marques, J -R; Morace, A; Nicolai, Ph; Roth, M; Sakata, S; Schaumann, G; Serres, F; Servel, J; Tikhonchuk, V T; Woolsey, N; Zhang, Z


    High-energy-density flows through dense matter are needed for effective progress in the production of laser-driven intense sources of energetic particles and radiation, in driving matter to extreme temperatures creating state regimes relevant for planetary or stellar science as yet inaccessible at the laboratory scale, or in achieving high-gain laser-driven thermonuclear fusion. When interacting at the surface of dense (opaque) targets, intense lasers accelerate relativistic electron beams which transport a significant fraction of the laser energy into the target depth. However, the overall laser-to-target coupling efficiency is impaired by the large divergence of the electron beam, intrinsic to the laser-plasma interaction. By imposing a longitudinal 600T laser-driven magnetic-field, our experimental results show guided >10MA-current of MeV-electrons in solid matter. Due to the applied magnetic field, the transported energy-density and the peak background electron temperature at the 60micron-thick targets re...

  4. Discrete Variational Approach for Modeling Laser-Plasma Interactions (United States)

    Reyes, J. Paxon; Shadwick, B. A.


    The traditional approach for fluid models of laser-plasma interactions begins by approximating fields and derivatives on a grid in space and time, leading to difference equations that are manipulated to create a time-advance algorithm. In contrast, by introducing the spatial discretization at the level of the action, the resulting Euler-Lagrange equations have particular differencing approximations that will exactly satisfy discrete versions of the relevant conservation laws. For example, applying a spatial discretization in the Lagrangian density leads to continuous-time, discrete-space equations and exact energy conservation regardless of the spatial grid resolution. We compare the results of two discrete variational methods using the variational principles from Chen and Sudan and Brizard. Since the fluid system conserves energy and momentum, the relative errors in these conserved quantities are well-motivated physically as figures of merit for a particular method. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-SC0008382 and by the National Science Foundation under Contract No. PHY-1104683.

  5. Measured emittance dependence on injection method in laser plasma accelerators (United States)

    Barber, Samuel; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Schroeder, Carl; Lehe, Remi; Tsai, Hai-En; Swanson, Kelly; Steinke, Sven; Nakamura, Kei; Geddes, Cameron; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim


    The success of many laser plasma accelerator (LPA) based applications relies on the ability to produce electron beams with excellent 6D brightness, where brightness is defined as the ratio of charge to the product of the three normalized emittances. As such, parametric studies of the emittance of LPA generated electron beams are essential. Profiting from a stable and tunable LPA setup, combined with a carefully designed single-shot transverse emittance diagnostic, we present a direct comparison of charge dependent emittance measurements of electron beams generated by two different injection mechanisms: ionization injection and shock induced density down-ramp injection. Notably, the measurements reveal that ionization injection results in significantly higher emittance. With the down-ramp injection configuration, emittances less than 1 micron at spectral charge densities up to 2 pC/MeV were measured. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, by the NSF under Grant No. PHY-1415596, by the U.S. DOE NNSA, DNN R&D (NA22), and by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation under Grant ID GBMF4898.

  6. Motion of the plasma critical layer during relativistic-electron laser interaction with immobile and comoving ion plasma for ion accelerationa)


    Sahai, AA


    We analyze the motion of the plasma critical layer by two different processes in the relativistic-electron laser-plasma interaction regime ($a_0>1$). The differences are highlighted when the critical layer ions are stationary in contrast to when they move with it. Controlling the speed of the plasma critical layer in this regime is essential for creating low-$\\beta$ traveling acceleration structures of sufficient laser-excited potential for laser ion accelerators (LIA). In Relativistically In...

  7. X-ray spectroscopy of super-intense laser-produced plasmas for the study of nonlinear processes. Comparison with PIC simulations (United States)

    Dalimier, E.; Faenov, A. Ya; Oks, E.; Angelo, P.; Pikuz, T. A.; Fukuda, Y.; Andreev, A.; Koga, J.; Sakaki, H.; Kotaki, H.; Pirozhkov, A.; Hayashi, Y.; Skobelev, I. Yu; Pikuz, S. A.; Kawachi, T.; Kando, M.; Kondo, K.; Zhidkov, A.; Tubman, E.; Butler, N. M. H.; Dance, R. J.; Alkhimova, M. A.; Booth, N.; Green, J.; Gregory, C.; McKenna, P.; Woolsey, N.; Kodama, R.


    We present X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics in femto-second laser-driven experiments revealing nonlinear phenomena caused by the strong coupling of the laser radiation with the created plasma. Among those nonlinear phenomena, we found the signatures of the Two Plasmon Decay (TPD) instability in a laser-driven CO2 cluster-based plasma by analyzing the Langmuir dips in the profile of the O VIII Lyε line, caused by the Langmuir waves created at the high laser intensity 3 1018Wcm-2. With similar laser intensities, we reveal also the nonlinear phenomenon of the Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) of the laser frequency by analyzing the nonlinear phenomenon of satellites of Lyman δ and ε lines of Ar XVII. In the case of relativistic laser-plasma interaction we discovered the Parametric Decay Instability (PDI)-induced ion acoustic turbulence produced simultaneously with Langmuir waves via irradiation of thin Si foils by laser intensities of 1021Wcm-2.

  8. Applying Boundary Conditions Using a Time-Dependent Lagrangian for Modeling Laser-Plasma Interactions (United States)

    Reyes, Jonathan; Shadwick, B. A.


    Modeling the evolution of a short, intense laser pulse propagating through an underdense plasma is of particular interest in the physics of laser-plasma interactions. Numerical models are typically created by first discretizing the equations of motion and then imposing boundary conditions. Using the variational principle of Chen and Sudan, we spatially discretize the Lagrangian density to obtain discrete equations of motion and a discrete energy conservation law which is exactly satisfied regardless of the spatial grid resolution. Modifying the derived equations of motion (e.g., enforcing boundary conditions) generally ruins energy conservation. However, time-dependent terms can be added to the Lagrangian which force the equations of motion to have the desired boundary conditions. Although some foresight is needed to choose these time-dependent terms, this approach provides a mechanism for energy to exit the closed system while allowing the conservation law to account for the loss. An appropriate time discretization scheme is selected based on stability analysis and resolution requirements. We present results using this variational approach in a co-moving coordinate system and compare such results to those using traditional second-order methods. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-SC0008382 and by the National Science Foundation under Contract No. PHY- 1104683.

  9. Laser-plasma EUV source dedicated for surface processing of polymers (United States)

    Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Szczurek, M.; Wachulak, P. W.


    In this work, a 10 Hz laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source built for surface processing of polymers is presented. The source is based on a double-stream gas puff target created in a vacuum chamber synchronously with the pumping laser pulse. The target is formed by pulsed injection of Kr, Xe or a KrXe gas mixture into a hollow stream of helium. The EUV radiation is focused using a grazing incidence gold-plated ellipsoidal collector. Spectrum of the reflected radiation consists of a narrow feature with intensity maximum at 10-11 nm wavelength and a long-wavelength spectral tail up to 70 nm. The exact spectral distribution depends on a gas applied for plasma creation. To avoid strong absorption of the EUV radiation in a residual gas present in the chamber during the source operation a two step differential pumping system was employed. The system allows for polymer processing under relatively high vacuum conditions (10 -5 mbar) or in a reactive gas atmosphere. Polymer samples can be irradiated in a focal plane of the EUV collector or at some distance downstream the focal plane. This way fluence of the EUV beam at the polymer surface can be regulated.

  10. Laser-Plasma Interaction Experiments in Gas-Filled Hohlraums at the LIL Facility (United States)

    Masson-Laborde, Paul-Edouard; Loiseau, Pascal; Casanova, Michel; Rousseaux, Christophe; Teychenne, Denis; Laffite, Stephane; Huser, Gael


    The first laser-plasma interaction campaign conducted at the LIL facility, using gas-filled hohlraums, ended in spring 09. Two different gas-filled hohlraums have been designed in order to mimic plasma conditions expected along two particular beam paths in ignition hohlraums. The targets consist of 3- or 4-millimeters long, 1 atm neo-pentane gas-filled gold hohlraums. The LIL quadruplet is aligned with the hohlraum's axis and delivers a 6-ns long pulse with 15 kJ at 3φ. Optical smoothing is achieved by longitudinal dispersion and a phase plate giving a near 10^15 W/cm^2 mean intensity on the focal spot at maximum power. Plasma conditions from hydrodynamic calculations allow to calcule SBS and SRS linear gain with the PIRANAH code. The calculated spectra are compared to experimental results. We use the paraxial code HERA to investigate the propagation of the LIL quad. Finally, 1D and 2D PIC simulations based on the plasma conditions of the cavity will be discussed in order to understand experimental SRS spectrum.

  11. Physical and chemical modifications of PET surface using a laser-plasma EUV source (United States)

    Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Szczurek, M.; Biliński, A.; Chernyayeva, O.; Sobczak, J. W.


    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is the electromagnetic radiation ranging from vacuum ultraviolet to soft X-rays. A single EUV photon carries enough energy to ionize any atom or molecule. The penetration depth of the radiation in any material is very short, ranging from tens to hundreds nanometers. Intense EUV pulses can remove material from the surface or modify its morphology or/and chemical structure. In this work, the radiation from a laser-plasma EUV source based on a double-stream gas-puff target was used for surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The PET samples were irradiated with the EUV pulses emitted from krypton plasma and focused with a gold-plated ellipsoidal collector. The spectrum of the focused radiation covered the wavelength range from 9 to 70 nm. The PET samples were irradiated for 1 s-2 min at a 10-Hz repetition rate. Surface morphology of polymer samples after irradiation was investigated using a scanning electron microscope. Changes in chemical surface structure of the irradiated samples were investigated using an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Different kinds of surface microstructures were obtained depending on the EUV fluence in a single pulse and the total EUV fluence. XPS measurements also revealed a modification of the chemical structure.

  12. Silicon carbide detectors for diagnostics of ion emission from laser plasmas (United States)

    Musumeci, Paolo; Cutroneo, Maria; Torrisi, Lorenzo; Velyhan, Andry; Zimbone, Massimo; Calcagno, Lucia


    Silicon carbide (SiC) detectors have been employed to analyze the multi-MeV ions generated from laser plasma. The irradiation was performed with the iodine laser of Prague Asterix Laser System Laboratory operating at 1016 W cm-2 pulse intensity. Thin metallic and polymeric targets were irradiated and the produced plasmas were monitored in the forward direction. The use of SiC detectors ensures the cutting of the visible and soft UV radiation emitted from plasma, enhancing the sensitivity to protons and very fast heavy ions. The time-of-flight spectra obtained by irradiating polymeric films with high laser pulse energy produce protons with energy in the range 1.0-2.5 MeV and all the charge states of carbon ions. The metallic Al target allows achieving energy up to 3.0 MeV for protons and 40 MeV for Al ions. All the results reveal the high performances of these detectors in terms of resolution and response time.

  13. Gravitation relativiste

    CERN Document Server

    Hakim, Rémi


    Il existe à l'heure actuelle un certain nombre de théories relativistes de la gravitation compatibles avec l'expérience et l'observation. Toutefois, la relativité générale d'Einstein fut historiquement la première à fournir des résultats théoriques corrects en accord précis avec les faits.

  14. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Plasma heating near a metal target by nanosecond pulses of the first, second, and fourth Nd-laser harmonics (United States)

    Bufetov, Igor'A.; Bufetova, G. A.; Kravtsov, S. B.; Fyodorov, V. B.; Fomin, V. K.


    Measurements were made of the electron temperature Te of a laser plasma formed on the surface of a metal target by the action of nanosecond pulses of wavelengths λ = 1060, 530, and 265 nm. The laser radiation intensity was I approx 109—1013 W cm-2. The electron temperature was determined from the emf of a double charge layer at the plasma boundary. Within the limits of the scatter of the experimental results, the plasma temperature was independent of the laser radiation wavelength (in the range 1060-265 nm). The dependence of this temperature on the radiation intensity obeyed approximately Te propto I1/3 throughout the investigated range.

  15. Relativistically strong electromagnetic radiation in a plasma (United States)

    Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Kondo, K.


    Physical processes in a plasma under the action of relativistically strong electromagnetic waves generated by high-power lasers have been briefly reviewed. These processes are of interest in view of the development of new methods for acceleration of charged particles, creation of sources of bright hard electromagnetic radiation, and investigation of macroscopic quantum-electrodynamical processes. Attention is focused on nonlinear waves in a laser plasma for the creation of compact electron accelerators. The acceleration of plasma bunches by the radiation pressure of light is the most efficient regime of ion acceleration. Coherent hard electromagnetic radiation in the relativistic plasma is generated in the form of higher harmonics and/or electromagnetic pulses, which are compressed and intensified after reflection from relativistic mirrors created by nonlinear waves. In the limit of extremely strong electromagnetic waves, radiation friction, which accompanies the conversion of radiation from the optical range to the gamma range, fundamentally changes the behavior of the plasma. This process is accompanied by the production of electron-positron pairs, which is described within quantum electrodynamics theory.

  16. Modeling classical and quantum radiation from laser-plasma accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chen


    Full Text Available The development of models and the “Virtual Detector for Synchrotron Radiation” (vdsr code that accurately describe the production of synchrotron radiation are described. These models and code are valid in the classical and linear (single-scattering quantum regimes and are capable of describing radiation produced from laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs through a variety of mechanisms including betatron radiation, undulator radiation, and Thomson/Compton scattering. Previous models of classical synchrotron radiation, such as those typically used for undulator radiation, are inadequate in describing the radiation spectra from electrons undergoing small numbers of oscillations. This is due to an improper treatment of a mathematical evaluation at the end points of an integration that leads to an unphysical plateau in the radiation spectrum at high frequencies, the magnitude of which increases as the number of oscillation periods decreases. This is important for betatron radiation from LPAs, in which the betatron strength parameter is large but the number of betatron periods is small. The code vdsr allows the radiation to be calculated in this regime by full integration over each electron trajectory, including end-point effects, and this code is used to calculate betatron radiation for cases of experimental interest. Radiation from Thomson scattering and Compton scattering is also studied with vdsr. For Thomson scattering, radiation reaction is included by using the Sokolov method for the calculation of the electron dynamics. For Compton scattering, quantum recoil effects are considered in vdsr by using Monte Carlo methods. The quantum calculation has been benchmarked with the classical calculation in a classical regime.

  17. Photon dose produced by a high-intensity laser on a solid target (United States)

    Compant La Fontaine, A.


    When a high-intensity laser pulse hits a solid target, its pedestal creates a preplasma. The interaction of the main laser pulse, linearly polarized, with this preplasma produces relativistic electrons. These electrons subsequently penetrate inside the target, with high atomic number, and produce bremsstrahlung emission, which constitutes an x-ray source that may be used in various applications such as radiography of high area density objects, photonuclear studies or positron production. This x-ray source is mainly defined by its photon dose, which depends upon the laser, preplasma and target characteristics. In new facilities the radioprotection layout design can be obtained by numerical simulations, which are somewhat tedious. A simple model giving the photon dose per laser energy unit is obtained by using the mean bremsstrahlung cross section of electrons interacting with the atoms of the conversion target. It is expressed versus the fraction ηel of the laser energy absorbed into the forward hot electrons, their mean kinetic energy E, the photon lobe emission mean angular aperture \\bar{{\\theta}} and the target characteristics, i.e. thickness, element, atomic mass and atomic number. The parameters ηel, E and \\bar{{\\theta}} are analysed by applying the energy and momentum flux conservation laws during the laser-plasma interaction in the relativistic regime in an underdense and overdense plasma, including the hole-boring effect. In addition, these quantities are parametrized versus the normalized laser vector potential a0 and the preplasma scale length Lp by using a full set of numerical simulations, in the laser intensity domain 1018-1021 W cm-2 and preplasma scale length range 0.03-400µm. These simulations are done in two- and three-dimensional geometry with the CALDER particle-in-cell code, which computes the laser-plasma interaction, and with the MCNP Monte Carlo code, which calculates the bremsstrahlung emission. The present model is compared with the

  18. Improved theory for relativistic transmittance of circularly polarized laser pulses in non-ideal, realistic plasmas (United States)

    Kang, Teyoun; Kim, Young-Kuk; Hur, Min Sup


    Owing to the rapid development of laser technologies, relativistically-induced transmittance (RT) of ultra-intense laser pulses in overdense plasmas is now a practically important matter. RT could give either deleterious or positive effects depending on the kinds of laser-plasma interactions. In radiation-pressure-acceleration (RPA), enhanced transmittance lowers the momentum transfer from the pulse to the ions. Meanwhile, in collisionless-electrostatic-shock, the acceleration efficiency can be increased owing to the effective heating of upstream electrons by transmitted laser fields. Previous theories mostly have handled RT in ideal plasmas, such as an infinitely long uniform plasma or a delta-function-like slab. In the actual applications, however, RT is generally combined with other dynamics, such as plasma density compression, leading to RT under a plasma in other cases. We developed one-dimensional RT theories for circularly polarized laser pulses, which would be used for such realistic plasma profiles. According to our theory, optimal thickness condition should be modified in RPA. Furthermore we developed our theory so that RT in the common two-step density plasma can be modeled. In this poster, we present the derivation and the comparison of the improved theory with PIC simulation results. This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program (Grant Number NRF-2013R1A1A2006353).

  19. Effect of magnetic quantization on ion acoustic waves ultra-relativistic dense plasma (United States)

    Javed, Asif; Rasheed, A.; Jamil, M.; Siddique, M.; Tsintsadze, N. L.


    In this paper, we have studied the influence of magnetic quantization of orbital motion of the electrons on the profile of linear and nonlinear ion-acoustic waves, which are propagating in the ultra-relativistic dense magneto quantum plasmas. We have employed both Thomas Fermi and Quantum Magneto Hydrodynamic models (along with the Poisson equation) of quantum plasmas. To investigate the large amplitude nonlinear structure of the acoustic wave, Sagdeev-Pseudo-Potential approach has been adopted. The numerical analysis of the linear dispersion relation and the nonlinear acoustic waves has been presented by drawing their graphs that highlight the effects of plasma parameters on these waves in both the linear and the nonlinear regimes. It has been noticed that only supersonic ion acoustic solitary waves can be excited in the above mentioned quantum plasma even when the value of the critical Mach number is less than unity. Both width and depth of Sagdeev potential reduces on increasing the magnetic quantization parameter η. Whereas the amplitude of the ion acoustic soliton reduces on increasing η, its width appears to be directly proportional to η. The present work would be helpful to understand the excitation of nonlinear ion-acoustic waves in the dense astrophysical environments such as magnetars and in intense-laser plasma interactions.

  20. Ion Acceleration by Laser Plasma Interaction from Cryogenic Microjets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Propp, Adrienne [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)


    Processes that occur in extreme conditions, such as in the center of stars and large planets, can be simulated in the laboratory using facilities such as SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Jupiter Laser Facility (JLF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). These facilities allow scientists to investigate the properties of matter by observing their interactions with high-power lasers. Ion acceleration from laser plasma interaction is gaining greater attention today due to its widespread potential applications, including proton beam cancer therapy and fast ignition for energy production. Typically, ion acceleration is achieved by focusing a high power laser on thin foil targets through a mechanism called Target Normal Sheath Acceleration. However, this mechanism is not ideal for creating the high-energy proton beams needed for future applications. Based on research and recent experiments, we hypothesized that a pure liquid cryogenic jet would be an ideal target for exploring new regimes of ion acceleration. Furthermore, it would provide a continuous, pure target, unlike metal foils which are consumed in the interaction and easily contaminated. In an effort to test this hypothesis, we used the 527 nm split beam, frequency-doubled TITAN laser at JLF. Data from the cryogenic jets was limited due to the flow of current up the jet into the nozzle during the interaction, heating the jet and damaging the orifice. However, we achieved a pure proton beam with evidence of a monoenergetic feature. Furthermore, data from gold and carbon wires showed surprising and interesting results. Preliminary analysis of data from two ion emission diagnostics, Thomson parabola spectrometers (TPs) and radio chromic films (RCFs), suggests that shockwave acceleration occurred rather than target normal sheath acceleration, the standard mechanism of ion acceleration. Upon completion of the experiment at TITAN, I researched the possibility of transforming our liquid cryogenic

  1. Temporal structure of X-ray radiation pulses of picosecond laser plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaev, V S; Kovkov, D V; Matafonov, A P; Karabadzhak, G F; Raikunov, G G [Central Research Institute of Machine Building, Korolev, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Faenov, A Ya; Pikuz, S A; Skobelev, I Yu; Pikuz, T A; Fokin, D A; Fortov, V E [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ignat' ev, G N; Kapitanov, S V; Krapiva, P S; Korotkov, K E [All-Russian Institute of Automatics, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The shape of the X-ray pulse generated by picosecond laser plasma is experimentally studied. The unusual phenomenon was experimentally observed for the first time for targets made of moderate-heavy chemical elements, namely, the pulse of hard X-ray radiation generated by laser plasma at the laser radiation flux of ∼10{sup 18} W cm{sup -2} had a longer duration than the pulse of softer X-ray radiation. A simple kinetic model is suggested for explaining this fact. We have suggested a method for controlling the temporal shape of X-ray pulse emitted by laser plasma by varying the contrast of laser pulse. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  2. Use of extended laser plasma for generation of high-order harmonics of picosecond duration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganeev, R A; Boltaev, G S; Reyimbaev, Sh; Sherniyozov, Kh; Usmanov, T [Institute of Ion-Plasma and Laser Technologies, Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok, Tashkent 100125 (Uzbekistan)


    We report the results of experimental investigations on the generation of picosecond radiation harmonics in extended laser plasma produced on the surface of different metal targets. The effect of plasma length, heating pulse duration and delay between the heating and transformable pulses on the efficiency of conversion to higher harmonics is studied. The λ = 1064 nm radiation conversion to a short-wavelength (down to 50 nm, 21st harmonic) range in extended plasma of several metals is demonstrated. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  3. Picosecond X-ray radiography of superdense high-temperature laser plasma (United States)

    Andreev, A. A.; Bel'kov, S. A.; Platonov, K. Yu.; Romanov, V. V.; Rogozhnikov, G. S.


    The layout of an X-ray source for diagnostics of the compressed state of laser plasma is proposed, and its optimal parameters are calculated under the conditions required for nuclear fusion. Such a source operating in a pulsed regime is intended to be used for determining the spatial distribution of laser-plasma density with high temporal resolution by means of multiframe (pulses follow with a specified time interval) backlight imaging of the main target by X-ray pulses obtained by irradiation of a secondary target by picosecond laser pulses.

  4. EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Thresholds of surface plasma formation by the interaction of laser pulses with a metal (United States)

    Borets-Pervak, I. Yu; Vorob'ev, V. S.


    An analysis is made of a model of the formation of a surface laser plasma which takes account of the heating and vaporisation of thermally insulated surface microdefects. This model is used in an interpretation of experiments in which such a plasma has been formed by irradiation of a titanium target with microsecond CO2 laser pulses. A comparison with the experimental breakdown intensities is used to calculate the average sizes of microdefects and their concentration: the results are in agreement with the published data. The dependence of the delay time of plasma formation on the total energy in a laser pulse is calculated.

  5. Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (United States)

    Hernandez, Juan; Kovtun, Pavel


    We present the equations of relativistic hydrodynamics coupled to dynamical electromagnetic fields, including the effects of polarization, electric fields, and the derivative expansion. We enumerate the transport coefficients at leading order in derivatives, including electrical conductivities, viscosities, and thermodynamic coefficients. We find the constraints on transport coefficients due to the positivity of entropy production, and derive the corresponding Kubo formulas. For the neutral state in a magnetic field, small fluctuations include Alfvén waves, magnetosonic waves, and the dissipative modes. For the state with a non-zero dynamical charge density in a magnetic field, plasma oscillations gap out all propagating modes, except for Alfvén-like waves with a quadratic dispersion relation. We relate the transport coefficients in the "conventional" magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using Maxwell's equations in matter) to those in the "dual" version of magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using the conserved magnetic flux).

  6. Relativistic Achilles

    CERN Document Server

    Leardini, Fabrice


    This manuscript presents a problem on special relativity theory (SRT) which embodies an apparent paradox relying on the concept of simultaneity. The problem is represented in the framework of Greek epic poetry and structured in a didactic way. Owing to the characteristic properties of Lorenz transformations, three events which are simultaneous in a given inertial reference system, occur at different times in the other two reference frames. In contrast to the famous twin paradox, in the present case there are three, not two, different inertial observers. This feature provides a better framework to expose some of the main characteristics of SRT, in particular, the concept of velocity and the relativistic rule of addition of velocities.

  7. Laser Plasmas: Density oscillations in laser produced plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... laser intensity in the absence and presence of magnetic field shows appearance of different threshold intensity of laser corresponding to each magnetic field at which this instability or density fluctuation sets on. This instability has been identified as a large Larmor radius instability instead of classical Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) ...

  8. Space-charge effects in ultrahigh current electron bunches generated by laser-plasma accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Grüner


    Full Text Available Recent advances in laser-plasma accelerators, including the generation of GeV-scale electron bunches, enable applications such as driving a compact free-electron laser (FEL. Significant reduction in size of the FEL is facilitated by the expected ultrahigh peak beam currents (10–100 kA generated in laser-plasma accelerators. At low electron energies such peak currents are expected to cause space-charge effects such as bunch expansion and induced energy variations along the bunch, potentially hindering the FEL process. In this paper we discuss a self-consistent approach to modeling space-charge effects for the regime of laser-plasma-accelerated ultracompact electron bunches at low or moderate energies. Analytical treatments are considered as well as point-to-point particle simulations, including the beam transport from the laser-plasma accelerator through focusing devices and the undulator. In contradiction to non-self-consistent analyses (i.e., neglecting bunch evolution, which predict a linearly growing energy chirp, we have found the energy chirp reaches a maximum and decreases thereafter. The impact of the space-charge induced chirp on FEL performance is discussed and possible solutions are presented.

  9. Observation of 1-D time dependent non-propagating laser plasma structures using fluid and PIC codes (United States)

    Verma, Deepa; Bera, Ratan Kumar; Kumar, Atul; Patel, Bhavesh; Das, Amita


    The manuscript reports the observation of time dependent localized and non-propagating structures in the coupled laser plasma system through 1-D fluid and Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations. It is reported that such structures form spontaneously as a result of collision amongst certain exact solitonic solutions. They are seen to survive as coherent entities for a long time up to several hundreds of plasma periods. Furthermore, it is shown that such time dependence can also be artificially recreated by significantly disturbing the delicate balance between the radiation and the density fields required for the exact non-propagating solution obtained by Esirkepov et al., JETP 68(1), 36-41 (1998). The ensuing time evolution is an interesting interplay between kinetic and field energies of the system. The electrostatic plasma oscillations are coupled with oscillations in the electromagnetic field. The inhomogeneity of the background and the relativistic nature, however, invariably produces large amplitude density perturbations leading to its wave breaking. In the fluid simulations, the signature of wave breaking can be discerned by a drop in the total energy which evidently gets lost to the grid. The PIC simulations are observed to closely follow the fluid simulations till the point of wave breaking. However, the total energy in the case of PIC simulations is seen to remain conserved throughout the simulations. At the wave breaking, the particles are observed to acquire thermal kinetic energy in the case of PIC. Interestingly, even after wave breaking, compact coherent structures with trapped radiation inside high-density peaks continue to exist both in PIC and fluid simulations. Although the time evolution does not exactly match in the two simulations as it does prior to the process of wave breaking, the time-dependent features exhibited by the remnant structures are characteristically similar.

  10. Nonlinear laser energy depletion in laser-plasma accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadwick, B.A.; Schroeder, C.B.; Esarey, E.


    Energy depletion of intense, short-pulse lasers via excitation of plasma waves is investigated numerically and analytically. The evolution of a resonant laser pulse proceeds in two phases. In the first phase, the pulse steepens, compresses, and frequency red-shifts as energy is deposited in the plasma. The second phase of evolution occurs after the pulse reaches a minimum length at which point the pulse rapidly lengthens, losing resonance with the plasma. Expressions for the rate of laser energy loss and rate of laser red-shifting are derived and are found to be in excellent agreement with the direct numerical solution of the laser field evolution coupled to the plasma response. Both processes are shown to have the same characteristic length-scale. In the high intensity limit, for nearly-resonant Gaussian laser pulses, this scale length is shown to be independent of laser intensity.

  11. Detailed analysis of hollow ions spectra from dense matter pumped by X-ray emission of relativistic laser plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S. B., E-mail:, E-mail: [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Colgan, J.; Abdallah, J. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Faenov, A. Ya., E-mail:, E-mail: [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Pikuz, S. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Wagenaars, E.; Culfa, O.; Dance, R. J.; Tallents, G. J.; Rossall, A. K.; Woolsey, N. C. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Booth, N.; Lancaster, K. L. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Evans, R. G. [Department of Physics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Gray, R. J.; McKenna, P. [SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 ONG (United Kingdom); Kaempfer, T.; Schulze, K. S. [Helmholtzinstitut Jena, Jena D-07743 (Germany); Uschmann, I. [Helmholtzinstitut Jena, Jena D-07743 (Germany); Institut für Optik und Quantenelektronic, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien Platz 1, Jena, D-07743 (Germany); and others


    X-ray emission from hollow ions offers new diagnostic opportunities for dense, strongly coupled plasma. We present extended modeling of the x-ray emission spectrum reported by Colgan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 125001 (2013)] based on two collisional-radiative codes: the hybrid-structure Spectroscopic Collisional-Radiative Atomic Model (SCRAM) and the mixed-unresolved transition arrays (MUTA) ATOMIC model. We show that both accuracy and completeness in the modeled energy level structure are critical for reliable diagnostics, investigate how emission changes with different treatments of ionization potential depression, and discuss two approaches to handling the extensive structure required for hollow-ion models with many multiply excited configurations.

  12. Relativistic Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cattaneo, Carlo


    This title includes: Pham Mau Quam: Problemes mathematiques en hydrodynamique relativiste; A. Lichnerowicz: Ondes de choc, ondes infinitesimales et rayons en hydrodynamique et magnetohydrodynamique relativistes; A.H. Taub: Variational principles in general relativity; J. Ehlers: General relativistic kinetic theory of gases; K. Marathe: Abstract Minkowski spaces as fibre bundles; and, G. Boillat: Sur la propagation de la chaleur en relativite.

  13. Dense monoenergetic proton beams from chirped laser-plasma interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Galow, Benjamin J; Liseykina, Tatyana V; Harman, Zoltan; Keitel, Christoph H


    Interaction of a frequency-chirped laser pulse with single protons and a hydrogen plasma cell is studied analytically and by means of particle-in-cell simulations, respectively. Feasibility of generating ultra-intense (10^7 particles per bunch) and phase-space collimated beams of protons (energy spread of about 1 %) is demonstrated. Phase synchronization of the protons and the laser field, guaranteed by the appropriate chirping of the laser pulse, allows the particles to gain sufficient kinetic energy (around 250 MeV) required for such applications as hadron cancer therapy, from state-of-the-art laser systems of intensities of the order of 10^21 W/cm^2.

  14. Dense monoenergetic proton beams from chirped laser-plasma interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jianxing; Galow, Benjamin J.; Keitel, Christoph H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg (Germany); Salamin, Yousef I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Physics, American University of Sharjah, POB 26666, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Harman, Zoltan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)


    Interactions of linearly and radially polarized frequency-chirped laser pulses with single protons and hydrogen gas targets are studied analytically and by means of particle-in-cell simulations, respectively. The feasibility of generating ultra-intense (10{sup 7} particles per bunch) and phase-space collimated beams of protons is demonstrated. Phase synchronization of the protons and the laser field, guaranteed by the appropriate chirping of the laser pulse, allows the particles to gain sufficient kinetic energy (around 250 MeV) required for such applications as hadron cancer therapy, from state-of-the-art laser systems of intensities of the order of 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2}.

  15. Temporal characterization of the wave-breaking flash in a laser plasma accelerator (United States)

    Miao, Bo; Feder, Linus; Goers, Andrew; Hine, George; Salehi, Fatholah; Wahlstrand, Jared; Woodbury, Daniel; Milchberg, Howard


    Wave-breaking injection of electrons into a relativistic plasma wake generated in near-critical density plasma by sub-terawatt laser pulses generates an intense ( 1 μJ) and ultra-broadband (Δλ 300 nm) radiation flash. In this work we demonstrate the spectral coherence of this radiation and measure its temporal width using single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry (SSSI). The measured temporal width is limited by measurement resolution to 50 fs. Spectral coherence is corroborated by PIC simulations which show that the spatial extent of the acceleration trajectory at the trapping region is small compared to the radiation center wavelength. To our knowledge, this is the first temporal and coherence characterization of wave-breaking radiation. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  16. Nanostructured surfaces for nuclear astrophysics studies in laser-plasmas (United States)

    Altana, Carmen; Amarù, Vincenzo; Castro, Giuseppe; Frassetto, Marco; Lanzalone, Gaetano; Malferrari, Luciana; Mascali, David; Muoio, Annamaria; Odorici, Fabrizio; Tudisco, Salvo


    The future availability of high-intensity laser facilities capable of delivering tens of petawatts of power (e.g. ELI-NP) into small volumes of matter at high repetition rates will give the unique opportunity to investigate nuclear reactions and fundamental interactions process under extreme plasma conditions [1]. In this context, use of targets with nanostructured surfaces is giving promising indications to reproduce plasma conditions suitable for measurements of thermonuclear reactions rates, in the domain of nanosecond laser pulses.

  17. Demonstration of electron beam focusing by a laser-plasma lens

    CERN Document Server

    Thaury, Cédric; Döpp, Andreas; Lehe, Remi; Lifschitz, Agustin; Phuoc, Kim Ta; Gautier, Julien; Goddet, Jean-Philippe; Tafzi, Amar; Flacco, Alessandro; Tissandier, Fabien; Sebban, Stéphane; Rousse, Antoine; Malka, Victor


    Laser-plasma technology promises a drastic reduction of the size of high energy electron accelerators. It could make free electron lasers available to a broad scientific community, and push further the limits of electron accelerators for high energy physics. Furthermore the unique femtosecond nature of the source makes it a promising tool for the study of ultra-fast phenomena. However, applications are hindered by the lack of suitable lens to transport this kind of high-current electron beams, mainly due to their divergence. Here we show that this issue can be solved by using a laser-plasma lens, in which the field gradients are five order of magnitude larger than in conventional optics. We demonstrate a reduction of the divergence by nearly a factor of three, which should allow for an efficient coupling of the beam with a conventional beam transport line.

  18. Refractive Index Seen by a Probe Beam Interacting with a Laser-Plasma System (United States)

    Turnbull, D.; Goyon, C.; Kemp, G. E.; Pollock, B. B.; Mariscal, D.; Divol, L.; Ross, J. S.; Patankar, S.; Moody, J. D.; Michel, P.


    We report the first complete set of measurements of a laser-plasma optical system's refractive index, as seen by a second probe laser beam, as a function of the relative wavelength shift between the two laser beams. Both the imaginary and real refractive index components are found to be in good agreement with linear theory using plasma parameters measured by optical Thomson scattering and interferometry; the former is in contrast to previous work and has implications for crossed-beam energy transfer in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion, and the latter is measured for the first time. The data include the first demonstration of a laser-plasma polarizer with 85 %- 87 % extinction for the particular laser and plasma parameters used in this experiment, complementing the existing suite of high-power, tunable, and ultrafast plasma-based photonic devices.

  19. On a theory of stimulated scattering in laser plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoric, M.M.


    A linear parametric theory of laser light instabilities including decay, stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering, etc. is currently well developed. However, attention is drawn to a novel laser light instability against parametric excitation of magneto-static fluctuations. In a collisionless plasma regime, magnetostatic fields are driven by the ponderomotive electron magnetization current. Generally, two types of magneto-static instabilities exist: magneto-modulational instability and stimulated magneto-static scattering instability. Growth rates are calculated which indicate the possible importance for high laser intensity driven hot plasma regimes.

  20. Generation of laser plasma bunches with a high efficiency of energy concentration for laboratory simulation of collisionless shock waves in magnetised cosmic plasma (United States)

    Zakharov, Yu P.; Ponomarenko, A. G.; Tishchenko, V. N.; Antonov, V. M.; Melekhov, A. V.; Posukh, V. G.; Prokopov, P. A.; Terekhin, V. A.


    We present the results of first experiments on the formation of collisionless shock waves (CSWs) in background plasma by injecting laser plasma bunches transverse to the magnetic field (as a piston) with a maximum energy up to 100 J per unit of solid angle and with a high enough degree of ion magnetisation. With this aim in view, on a unique KI-1 facility at the Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ILP), a plastic (polyethylene) target irradiated by a CO2 laser in the most energy-efficient regime (near the plasma formation threshold) and a highly ionised hydrogen plasma with a high concentration in a large volume (not less than 1 m3) have been employed. As a result of model experiments performed on the basis of a model of collisionless interaction of plasma flows, developed at the VNIIEF and being adequate to the problem under consideration, not only an intensive, background-induced, deceleration of a super-Alfven laser plasma flow, but also the formation in that flow of a strong perturbation having the properties of a subcritical CSW and propagating transverse to the magnetic field, have been first registered in the laboratory conditions.

  1. A Hybrid Model for Multiscale Laser Plasma Simulations with Detailed Collisional Physics (United States)


    important physical process as possible with as little computational cost as possible. • To that end, we are in the early processes of characterizing...Detailed Collisional Physics David Bilyeu, Carl Lederman, Richard Abrantes Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL/RQRS 1 Ara Drive Edwards AFB, CA...for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited. PA# 17383 A Hybrid Model for Multiscale Laser Plasma Simulations with Detailed Collisional Physics

  2. A Hybrid Model for Multiscale Laser Plasma Simulations with Detailed Collisional Physics (United States)


    other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a ...Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 02 November 2016 – 30 November 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Hybrid Model for Multiscale Laser Plasma...Briefing Charts 15. SUBJECT TERMS N/ A 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE

  3. Target Surface Area Effects on Hot Electron Dynamics from High Intensity Laser-Plasma Interactions (United States)


    sheath field confinement on electron dynamics. X-ray emission due to energetic electrons was imaged using a aK imaging crystal. Electronswere observed to...laser conversion efficiency into particle andfield energy. Previous efforts tominimize this effect have primarily focused on small, isolated targets...leading to enhanced fields [12] improved conversion efficiency [13] and enhanced proton energies [14]with laser pulse durations of hundreds of fs

  4. Extraction of high-intensity ion beams from a laser plasma by a pulsed spherical diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Oguri


    Full Text Available High-current Cu^{+} ion beams were extracted from a laser-produced plasma using a pulsed high-voltage multiaperture diode driven by an induction cavity. The amplitude and the duration of the extraction voltage were 130 kV and 450 ns, respectively. During the extraction, explosive beam divergence due to the strong space-charge force was suppressed by the focusing action of the gap between concentric hemispheres. Modulation of the extracted beam flux due to the plasma prefill in the gap has been eliminated by using a biased control grid put on the anode holes. By means of this extraction scheme we obtained a rectangular beam pulse with a rise time as short as ≈100  ns. The beam current behind the cathode was limited to ≈0.1   A, owing to space-charge effects, as well as to poor geometrical transmission through the cathode sphere. From the measurement of the extracted beam current density distribution along the beam axis and the beam profile measurement, we found a beam waist slightly downstream of the spherical center of the diode structure. The measured beam behavior was consistent with numerical results obtained via a 3D particle code. No serious degradation of the beam emittance was observed for the grid-controlled extraction scheme.

  5. Relativistic methods for chemists

    CERN Document Server

    Barysz, Maria


    "Relativistic Methods for Chemists", written by a highly qualified team of authors, is targeted at both experimentalists and theoreticians interested in the area of relativistic effects in atomic and molecular systems and processes and in their consequences for the interpretation of the heavy element's chemistry. The theoretical part of the book focuses on the relativistic methods for molecular calculations discussing relativistic two-component theory, density functional theory, pseudopotentials and correlations. The experimentally oriented chapters describe the use of relativistic methods in different applications focusing on the design of new materials based on heavy element compounds, the role of the spin-orbit coupling in photochemistry and photobiology, and chirality and its relations to relativistic description of matter and radiation. This book is written at an intermediate level in order to appeal to a broader audience than just experts working in the field of relativistic theory.

  6. Laser-plasma interactions in large gas-filled hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R.E.; Powers, L.V.; Berger, R.L. [and others


    Indirect-drive targets planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser consist of spherical fuel capsules enclosed in cylindrical Au hohlraums. Laser beams, arranged in cylindrical rings, heat the inside of the Au wall to produce x rays that in turn heat and implode the capsule to produce fusion conditions in the fuel. Detailed calculations show that adequate implosion symmetry can be maintained by filling the hohlraum interior with low-density, low-Z gases. The plasma produced from the heated gas provides sufficient pressure to keep the radiating Au surface from expanding excessively. As the laser heats this gas, the gas becomes a relatively uniform plasma with small gradients in velocity and density. Such long-scale-length plasmas can be ideal mediums for stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS). SBS can reflect a large fraction of the incident laser light before it is absorbed by the hohlraum; therefore, it is undesirable in an inertial confinement fusion target. To examine the importance of SBS in NIF targets, the authors used Nova to measure SBS from hohlraums with plasma conditions similar to those predicted for high-gain NIF targets. The plasmas differ from the more familiar exploding foil or solid targets as follows: they are hot (3 keV); they have high electron densities (n{sub e}=10{sup 21}cm{sup {minus}3}); and they are nearly stationary, confined within an Au cylinder, and uniform over large distances (>2 mm). These hohlraums have <3% peak SBS backscatter for an interaction beam with intensities of 1-4 x 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}, a laser wavelength of 0.351{micro}m, f/4 or f/8 focusing optics, and a variety of beam smoothing implementations. Based on these conditions the authors conclude that SBS does not appear to be a problem for NIF targets.

  7. Counter-crossing injection for stable high-quality electron beam generation via laser-plasma interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotaki, H; Daito, I; Hayashi, Y; Ma, J; Chen, L-M; Kando, M; Esirkepov, T Z; Fukuda, Y; Homma, T; Pirozhkov, A; Koga, J K; Nakajima, K; Daido, H; Bulanov, S V [Advanced Photon Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto (Japan)], E-mail:


    Counter-crossing injection, which is a realistic setup for applications, by two sub-relativistic laser pulses colliding at an angle of 45 degrees is demonstrated. The collision of the two laser pulses generates a high-quality electron beam with high reproducibility. The generated monoenergetic electron beam has a peak energy of 14.4 MeV, an energy spread of 10.6%, a charge of 21.8 pC, a normalized emittance of 1.6 {pi} mm mrad, and a reproducibility of 50%. The electron beam generation is unfolded with two-dimensional-particle-in-cell simulations. The laser pulses in plasma are self-focused to higher intensity when the laser power is above the threshold for relativistic self-focusing. The collision of the self-focused laser pulses generates a high-quality electron beam with high reproducibility.

  8. Relativistic Electron Acceleration with Ultrashort Mid-IR Laser Pulses (United States)

    Feder, Linus; Woodbury, Daniel; Shumakova, Valentina; Gollner, Claudia; Miao, Bo; Schwartz, Robert; Pugžlys, Audrius; Baltuška, Andrius; Milchberg, Howard


    We report the first results of laser plasma wakefield acceleration driven by ultrashort mid-infrared laser pulses (λ = 3.9 μm , pulsewidth 100 fs, energy width, as well as trends in the accelerated beam profiles, charge and energy spectra which are supported by 3D particle-in-cell simulations. These results extend earlier work with sub-TW self-modulated laser wakefield acceleration using near IR drivers to the Mid-IR, and enable us to capture time-resolved images of relativistic self-focusing of the laser pulse. This work supported by DOE (DESC0010706TDD, DESC0015516); AFOSR(FA95501310044, FA95501610121); NSF(PHY1535519); DHS.

  9. Diffraction radiation from relativistic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich; Strikhanov, Mikhail Nikolaevich; Tishchenko, Alexey Alexandrovich


    This book deals with diffraction radiation, which implies the boundary problems of electromagnetic radiation theory. Diffraction radiation is generated when a charged particle moves in a vacuum near a target edge. Diffraction radiation of non-relativistic particles is widely used to design intense emitters in the cm wavelength range. Diffraction radiation from relativistic charged particles is important for noninvasive beam diagnostics and design of free electron lasers based on Smith-Purcell radiation which is diffraction radiation from periodic structures. Different analytical models of diffraction radiation and results of recent experimental studies are presented in this book. The book may also serve as guide to classical electrodynamics applications in beam physics and electrodynamics. It can be of great use for young researchers to develop skills and for experienced scientists to obtain new results.

  10. Kinetic approach to relativistic dissipation (United States)

    Gabbana, A.; Mendoza, M.; Succi, S.; Tripiccione, R.


    Despite a long record of intense effort, the basic mechanisms by which dissipation emerges from the microscopic dynamics of a relativistic fluid still elude complete understanding. In particular, several details must still be finalized in the pathway from kinetic theory to hydrodynamics mainly in the derivation of the values of the transport coefficients. In this paper, we approach the problem by matching data from lattice-kinetic simulations with analytical predictions. Our numerical results provide neat evidence in favor of the Chapman-Enskog [The Mathematical Theory of Non-Uniform Gases, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1970)] procedure as suggested by recent theoretical analyses along with qualitative hints at the basic reasons why the Chapman-Enskog expansion might be better suited than Grad's method [Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 2, 331 (1949), 10.1002/cpa.3160020403] to capture the emergence of dissipative effects in relativistic fluids.

  11. Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Füellekrug, M.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E. M. D.


    Non-luminous relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds have been detected by the radio signals of low frequency similar to 40-400 kHz which they radiate. The electron beams occur similar to 2-9 ms after positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges at heights between similar to 22-72 km above...... thunderclouds. Intense positive lightning discharges can also cause sprites which occur either above or prior to the electron beam. One electron beam was detected without any luminous sprite which suggests that electron beams may also occur independently of sprites. Numerical simulations show that beams...... of electrons partially discharge the lightning electric field above thunderclouds and thereby gain a mean energy of similar to 7MeV to transport a total charge of similar to-10mC upwards. The impulsive current similar to 3 x 10(-3) Am-2 associated with relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds...

  12. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.


    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  13. Relativistic Guiding Center Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R. B. [PPPL; Gobbin, M. [Euratom-ENEA Association


    In toroidal fusion devices it is relatively easy that electrons achieve relativistic velocities, so to simulate runaway electrons and other high energy phenomena a nonrelativistic guiding center formalism is not sufficient. Relativistic guiding center equations including flute mode time dependent field perturbations are derived. The same variables as used in a previous nonrelativistic guiding center code are adopted, so that a straightforward modifications of those equations can produce a relativistic version.

  14. Holographic Imaging of Evolving Laser-Plasma Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downer, Michael [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Shvets, G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)


    In the 1870s, English photographer Eadweard Muybridge captured motion pictures within one cycle of a horse’s gallop, which settled a hotly debated question of his time by showing that the horse became temporarily airborne. In the 1940s, Manhattan project photographer Berlin Brixner captured a nuclear blast at a million frames per second, and resolved a dispute about the explosion’s shape and speed. In this project, we developed methods to capture detailed motion pictures of evolving, light-velocity objects created by a laser pulse propagating through matter. These objects include electron density waves used to accelerate charged particles, laser-induced refractive index changes used for micromachining, and ionization tracks used for atmospheric chemical analysis, guide star creation and ranging. Our “movies”, like Muybridge’s and Brixner’s, are obtained in one shot, since the laser-created objects of interest are insufficiently repeatable for accurate stroboscopic imaging. Our high-speed photographs have begun to resolve controversies about how laser-created objects form and evolve, questions that previously could be addressed only by intensive computer simulations based on estimated initial conditions. Resolving such questions helps develop better tabletop particle accelerators, atmospheric ranging devices and many other applications of laser-matter interactions. Our photographic methods all begin by splitting one or more “probe” pulses from the laser pulse that creates the light-speed object. A probe illuminates the object and obtains information about its structure without altering it. We developed three single-shot visualization methods that differ in how the probes interact with the object of interest or are recorded. (1) Frequency-Domain Holography (FDH). In FDH, there are 2 probes, like “object” and “reference” beams in conventional holography. Our “object” probe surrounds the light-speed object, like a fleas swarming around a

  15. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Generation of magnetic fields as a result of interaction of pairs of radiation pulses with solid barriers (United States)

    Zakharov, N. S.; Shaĭnoga, I. S.; Shentsev, N. I.


    An analysis is made of the problem of generation of magnetic fields in a laser plasma jet formed as a result of the interaction of two consecutive radiation pulses of moderate intensity with a dielectric barrier. It is assumed that the source of an emf is the thermo-emf of the inhomogeneous plasma. The structure of gasdynamic streams and the parameters of magnetic fields in the plasma jet are found by numerical solution of a known system of equations considered in a two-dimensional cylindrical configuration. The profiles of the plasma parameters and the temporal and spatial distributions of the magnetic fields are presented. It is shown that the results of numerical calculations can be useful, for example, in the diagnostics of laser jets.

  16. Short-time X-ray diffraction with an efficient-optimized, high repetition-rate laser-plasma X-ray-source; Kurzzeit-Roentgenbeugung mit Hilfe einer Effizienz-optimierten, hochrepetierenden Laser-Plasma-Roentgenquelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaehle, Stephan


    This thesis deals with the production and application of ultrashort X-ray pulses. In the beginning different possibilities for the production of X-ray pulses with pulse durations of below one picosecond are presented, whereby the main topic lies on the so called laser-plasma X-ray sources with high repetition rate. In this case ultrashort laser pulses are focused on a metal, so that in the focus intensities of above 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} dominate. In the ideal case in such way ultrafast electrons are produced, which are responsible for line radiation. In these experiments titanium K{sub {alpha}} radiation is produced, thes photons possess an energy of 4.51 keV. For the efficient production of line radiation here the Ti:Sa laser is optimized in view of the laser energy and the pulse shape and the influence of the different parameters on the K{sub {alpha}} production systematically studied. The influences of laser intensity, system-conditioned pre-pulses and of phase modulation are checked. It turns out that beside the increasement of the K{sub {alpha}} radiation by a suited laser intensity a reduction of the X-ray background radiation is of deciding importance for the obtaining of clear diffraction images. This background radiation is mainly composed of bremsstrahlung. It can be suppressed by the avoidance of intrinsic pre-pulses and by means of 2nd-order phase modulation. By means of optical excitation and X-ray exploration experiments the production of acoustic waves after ultrashort optical excitation in a 150 nm thick Ge(111) film on Si(111) is studied. These acoustic waves are driven by thermal (in this time scale time-independent) and electronic (time dependent) pressure amounts. As essential results it turns out that the relative amount of the electronic pressure increases with decreasing excitation density. [German] Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit der Erzeugung und Anwendung ultrakurzer Roentgenimpulse. Zu Beginn werden verschiedene Moeglichkeiten zur

  17. Scintillator-based transverse proton beam profiler for laser-plasma ion sources. (United States)

    Dover, N P; Nishiuchi, M; Sakaki, H; Alkhimova, M A; Faenov, A Ya; Fukuda, Y; Kiriyama, H; Kon, A; Kondo, K; Nishitani, K; Ogura, K; Pikuz, T A; Pirozhkov, A S; Sagisaka, A; Kando, M; Kondo, K


    A high repetition rate scintillator-based transverse beam profile diagnostic for laser-plasma accelerated proton beams has been designed and commissioned. The proton beam profiler uses differential filtering to provide coarse energy resolution and a flexible design to allow optimisation for expected beam energy range and trade-off between spatial and energy resolution depending on the application. A plastic scintillator detector, imaged with a standard 12-bit scientific camera, allows data to be taken at a high repetition rate. An algorithm encompassing the scintillator non-linearity is described to estimate the proton spectrum at different spatial locations.

  18. Tuning the electron energy by controlling the density perturbation position in laser plasma accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Brijesh, P; Phuoc, K T; Corde, S; Lambert, G; Malka, V; Mangles, S P D; Bloom, M; Kneip, S


    A density perturbation produced in an underdense plasma was used to improve the quality of electron bunches produced in the laser-plasma wakefield acceleration scheme. Quasi-monoenergetic electrons were generated by controlled injection in the longitudinal density gradients of the density perturbation. By tuning the position of the density perturbation along the laser propagation axis, a fine control of the electron energy from a mean value of 60 MeV to 120 MeV has been demonstrated with a relative energy-spread of 15 +/- 3.6%, divergence of 4 +/- 0.8 mrad and charge of 6 +/- 1.8 pC.

  19. Staged concept of laser-plasma acceleration toward multi-GeV electron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Malka


    Full Text Available The concepts of the laser-plasma based accelerator and injector are discussed here. The recent tests done at LOA as well as design studies of high-quality GeV electron beam production with low energy spread (1% are presented. These laser-produced particle beams have a number of interesting properties and could lend themselves to applications in many fields, including medicine (radiotherapy, chemistry (radiolysis, and accelerator physics. They could be used as a source for the production of γ ray beams for nondestructive material inspection by radiography, or for future compact X-free electron laser machines.

  20. Measured Emittance Dependence on the Injection Method in Laser Plasma Accelerators (United States)

    Barber, S. K.; van Tilborg, J.; Schroeder, C. B.; Lehe, R.; Tsai, H.-E.; Swanson, K. K.; Steinke, S.; Nakamura, K.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.


    Single-shot, charge-dependent emittance measurements of electron beams generated by a laser plasma accelerator (LPA) reveal that shock-induced density down-ramp injection produces beams with normalized emittances a factor of 2 smaller than beams produced via ionization injection. Such a comparison is made possible by the tunable LPA setup, which allows electron beams with nearly identical central energy and peak spectral charge density to be produced using the two distinct injection mechanisms. Parametric measurements of this type are essential for the development of LPA-based applications which ultimately require high charge density and low emittance.

  1. Compton Scattering in Plasma: Multiple Scattering Effects and Application to Laser-Plasma Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Ravindra


    We explore the physics of electron acceleration in a plasma medium in an effective field theory framework. Employing a multiple Compton scattering mechanism, it is found that the acceleration can be sustained in such a medium so as to attain the energies up to the order of $O(100 \\rm{MeV})$ within a centimeter. Also, the collimation and mono-energetic electron spectrum can be obtained by proper tuning of the plasma parameters with the photon frequency. The present work is potentially useful in understanding the physics of laser-plasma accelerators.

  2. A review of laser-plasma interaction physics of indirect-drive fusion (United States)

    Kirkwood, R. K.; Moody, J. D.; Kline, J.; Dewald, E.; Glenzer, S.; Divol, L.; Michel, P.; Hinkel, D.; Berger, R.; Williams, E.; Milovich, J.; Yin, L.; Rose, H.; MacGowan, B.; Landen, O.; Rosen, M.; Lindl, J.


    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) has been designed, constructed and has recently begun operation to investigate the ignition of nuclear fusion with a laser with up to 1.8 MJ of energy per pulse. The concept for fusion ignition on the NIF, as first proposed in 1990, was based on an indirectly driven spherical capsule of fuel in a high-Z hohlraum cavity filled with low-Z gas (Lindl et al 2004 Phys. Plasmas 11 339). The incident laser energy is converted to x-rays with keV energy on the hohlraums interior wall. The x-rays then impinge on the surface of the capsule, imploding it and producing the fuel conditions needed for ignition. It was recognized at the inception that this approach would potentially be susceptible to scattering of the incident light by the plasma created in the gas and the ablated material in the hohlraum interior. Prior to initial NIF operations, expectations for laser-plasma interaction (LPI) in ignition-scale experiments were based on experimentally benchmarked simulations and models of the plasma effects that had been carried out as part of the original proposal for NIF and expanded during the 13-year design and construction period. The studies developed the understanding of the stimulated Brillouin scatter, stimulated Raman scatter and filamentation that can be driven by the intense beams. These processes produce scatter primarily in both the forward and backward direction, and by both individual beams and collective interaction of multiple beams. Processes such as hot electron production and plasma formation and transport were also studied. The understanding of the processes so developed was the basis for the design and planning of the recent experiments in the ignition campaign at NIF, and not only indicated that the plasma instabilities could be controlled to maximize coupling, but predicted that, for the first time, they would be beneficial in controlling drive symmetry. The understanding is also now a critical component in the

  3. Relativistic quantum mechanics; Mecanique quantique relativiste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollitrault, J.Y. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique]|[Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France)


    These notes form an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics. The mathematical formalism has been reduced to the minimum in order to enable the reader to calculate elementary physical processes. The second quantification and the field theory are the logical followings of this course. The reader is expected to know analytical mechanics (Lagrangian and Hamiltonian), non-relativistic quantum mechanics and some basis of restricted relativity. The purpose of the first 3 chapters is to define the quantum mechanics framework for already known notions about rotation transformations, wave propagation and restricted theory of relativity. The next 3 chapters are devoted to the application of relativistic quantum mechanics to a particle with 0,1/5 and 1 spin value. The last chapter deals with the processes involving several particles, these processes require field theory framework to be thoroughly described. (A.C.) 2 refs.

  4. Towards relativistic quantum geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Santiago Ridao


    Full Text Available We obtain a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum geometry by using a Weylian-like manifold with a geometric scalar field which provides a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum theory in which the algebra of the Weylian-like field depends on observers. An example for a Reissner–Nordström black-hole is studied.

  5. Relativistic Coulomb fission (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    Nuclear fission reactions induced by the electromagnetic field of relativistic nuclei are studied for energies relevant to present and future relativistic heavy ion accelerators. Cross sections are calculated for U-238 and Pu-239 fission induced by C-12, Si-28, Au-197, and U-238 projectiles. It is found that some of the cross sections can exceed 10 b.

  6. Collective acceleration of laser plasma in a nonstationary and nonuniform magnetic field (United States)

    Isaev, A.; Kozlovskiy, K.; Shikanov, A.; Vovchenko, E.


    This paper presents the new experimental results concerning acceleration of deuterium ions extracted from laser plasma in the rapid-growing nonuniform magnetic field in order to initiate the nuclear reactions D(d, n)3He and T(d, n)4He. For obtaining of laser plasma a Nd: YAG laser (λ = 1,06 μm) that generates in Q-switched mode the radiation pulses with the energy W ≤ 0,85 J and duration of τ ≈ 10 ns was used. Rapid-growing magnetic field was created with the discharge of Arkadyev-Marx pulsed-voltage generator to conical coil with the inductance of 0,65 μΗ. At characteristic discharge time of 30 ns, the rate of magnetic field growth achieved 2·107 T/s. Ion velocity was determined with the time-of-flight technique. During the experiment on deuterium plasma an ion flux velocity of ∼3 · 108 cm/s was obtained, which corresponds to the deuteron energy of ∼100 keV. Herewith, for target power density of ∼5·1011 W/cm2 obtaining of up to 1015 of accelerated deuterons and up to 108 of neutrons per a pulse is expected.

  7. Effects of CSR Generated from Upstream Bends in a Laser Plasma Storage Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, C.; Qiang, J.; Venturini, M.


    The recent proposal [1] of a Laser Plasma Storage Ring (LPSR) envisions the use of a laser-plasma (LP) acceleration module to inject an electron beam into a compact 500 MeV storage ring. Electron bunches generated by LP methods are naturally very short (tens of femtoseconds), presenting peak currents on the order of 10 kA or higher. Of obvious concern is the impact of collective effects and in particular Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) on the beam dynamics in the storage ring. Available simulation codes (e.g. Elegant [2]) usually include transient CSR effects but neglect the contribution of radiation emitted from trailing magnets. In a compact storage ring, with dipole magnets close to each other, cross talking between different magnets could in principle be important.In this note we investigate this effect for the proposed LPSR and show that, in fact, this effect is relatively small. However our analysis also indicates that CSR effects in general would be quite strong and deserve a a careful study.

  8. Relativistic versus non-relativistic mean field (United States)

    Reinhard, Paul-Gerhard

    Three variants of the relativistic mean-field model (RMF) and the nonrelativistic Skyrme-Hartree-Fock model (SHF) are compared. Overall quality, predictive power, and correlations between observables are addressed using statistical analysis on the basis of least squares fits. Appropriate density dependence is a crucial ingredient for good performance of RMF. However, SHF shows still more flexibility particularly in the isovector channel.

  9. Relativistic Length Agony Continued (United States)

    Redzic, D. V.


    We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redzic 2008b), we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the 'pole in a barn' paradox.

  10. Relativistic Hall effect. (United States)

    Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Nori, Franco


    We consider the relativistic deformation of quantum waves and mechanical bodies carrying intrinsic angular momentum (AM). When observed in a moving reference frame, the centroid of the object undergoes an AM-dependent transverse shift. This is the relativistic analogue of the spin-Hall effect, which occurs in free space without any external fields. Remarkably, the shifts of the geometric and energy centroids differ by a factor of 2, and both centroids are crucial for the Lorentz transformations of the AM tensor. We examine manifestations of the relativistic Hall effect in quantum vortices and mechanical flywheels and also discuss various fundamental aspects of this phenomenon. The perfect agreement of quantum and relativistic approaches allows applications at strikingly different scales, from elementary spinning particles, through classical light, to rotating black holes.

  11. Relativistic GLONASS and geodesy (United States)

    Mazurova, E. M.; Kopeikin, S. M.; Karpik, A. P.


    GNSS technology is playing a major role in applications to civil, industrial and scientific areas. Nowadays, there are two fully functional GNSS: American GPS and Russian GLONASS. Their data processing algorithms have been historically based on the Newtonian theory of space and time with only a few relativistic effects taken into account as small corrections preventing the system from degradation on a fairly long time. Continuously growing accuracy of geodetic measurements and atomic clocks suggests reconsidering the overall approach to the GNSS theoretical model based on the Einstein theory of general relativity. This is essentially more challenging but fundamentally consistent theoretical approach to relativistic space geodesy. In this paper, we overview the basic principles of the relativistic GNSS model and explain the advantages of such a system for GLONASS and other positioning systems. Keywords: relativistic GLONASS, Einstein theory of general relativity.

  12. The relativistic rocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antippa, Adel F [Departement de Physique, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec G9A 5H7 (Canada)


    We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful method that can be applied to a wide range of special relativistic problems of linear acceleration.

  13. Exact Relativistic `Antigravity' Propulsion (United States)

    Felber, Franklin S.


    The Schwarzschild solution is used to find the exact relativistic motion of a payload in the gravitational field of a mass moving with constant velocity. At radial approach or recession speeds faster than 3-1/2 times the speed of light, even a small mass gravitationally repels a payload. At relativistic speeds, a suitable mass can quickly propel a heavy payload from rest nearly to the speed of light with negligible stresses on the payload.

  14. Electron Acceleration by Beating of Two Intense Cross-Focused Hollow Gaussian Laser Beams in Plasma (United States)

    Mahmoud, Saleh T.; Gauniyal, Rakhi; Ahmad, Nafis; Rawat, Priyanka; Purohit, Gunjan


    This paper presents propagation of two cross-focused intense hollow Gaussian laser beams (HGBs) in collisionless plasma and its effect on the generation of electron plasma wave (EPW) and electron acceleration process, when relativistic and ponderomotive nonlinearities are simultaneously operative. Nonlinear differential equations have been set up for beamwidth of laser beams, power of generated EPW, and energy gain by electrons using WKB and paraxial approximations. Numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the effect of typical laser-plasma parameters on the focusing of laser beams in plasmas and further its effect on power of excited EPW and acceleration of electrons. It is observed that focusing of two laser beams in plasma increases for higher order of hollow Gaussian beams, which significantly enhanced the power of generated EPW and energy gain. The amplitude of EPW and energy gain by electrons is found to enhance with an increase in the intensity of laser beams and plasma density. This study will be useful to plasma beat wave accelerator and in other applications requiring multiple laser beams. Supported by United Arab Emirates University for Financial under Grant No. UPAR (2014)-31S164

  15. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics. (United States)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho


    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  16. Control of Laser Plasma Based Accelerators up to 1 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Kei [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This dissertation documents the development of a broadband electron spectrometer (ESM) for GeV class Laser Wakefield Accelerators (LWFA), the production of high quality GeV electron beams (e-beams) for the first time in a LWFA by using a capillary discharge guide (CDG), and a statistical analysis of CDG-LWFAs. An ESM specialized for CDG-LWFAs with an unprecedented wide momentum acceptance, from 0.01 to 1.1 GeV in a single shot, has been developed. Simultaneous measurement of e-beam spectra and output laser properties as well as a large angular acceptance (> ± 10 mrad) were realized by employing a slitless scheme. A scintillating screen (LANEX Fast back, LANEX-FB)--camera system allowed faster than 1 Hz operation and evaluation of the spatial properties of e-beams. The design provided sufficient resolution for the whole range of the ESM (below 5% for beams with 2 mrad divergence). The calibration between light yield from LANEX-FB and total charge, and a study on the electron energy dependence (0.071 to 1.23 GeV) of LANEX-FB were performed at the Advanced light source (ALS), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Using this calibration data, the developed ESM provided a charge measurement as well. The production of high quality electron beams up to 1 GeV from a centimeter-scale accelerator was demonstrated. The experiment used a 310 μm diameter gas-filled capillary discharge waveguide that channeled relativistically-intense laser pulses (42 TW, 4.5 x 1018 W/cm2) over 3.3 centimeters of sufficiently low density (≃ 4.3 x 1018/cm3) plasma. Also demonstrated was stable self-injection and acceleration at a beam energy of ≃ 0.5 GeV by using a 225 μm diameter capillary. Relativistically-intense laser pulses (12 TW, 1.3 x 1018W/cm2) were guided over 3.3 centimeters of low density (≃ 3.5 x 1018/cm3) plasma in this experiment. A statistical analysis of the CDG

  17. Automated detection and analysis of particle beams in laser-plasma accelerator simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushizima, Daniela Mayumi; Geddes, C.G.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Bethel, E. Wes; Jacobsen, J.; Prabhat, ,; R.ubel, O.; Weber, G,; Hamann, B.


    Numerical simulations of laser-plasma wakefield (particle) accelerators model the acceleration of electrons trapped in plasma oscillations (wakes) left behind when an intense laser pulse propagates through the plasma. The goal of these simulations is to better understand the process involved in plasma wake generation and how electrons are trapped and accelerated by the wake. Understanding of such accelerators, and their development, offer high accelerating gradients, potentially reducing size and cost of new accelerators. One operating regime of interest is where a trapped subset of electrons loads the wake and forms an isolated group of accelerated particles with low spread in momentum and position, desirable characteristics for many applications. The electrons trapped in the wake may be accelerated to high energies, the plasma gradient in the wake reaching up to a gigaelectronvolt per centimeter. High-energy electron accelerators power intense X-ray radiation to terahertz sources, and are used in many applications including medical radiotherapy and imaging. To extract information from the simulation about the quality of the beam, a typical approach is to examine plots of the entire dataset, visually determining the adequate parameters necessary to select a subset of particles, which is then further analyzed. This procedure requires laborious examination of massive data sets over many time steps using several plots, a routine that is unfeasible for large data collections. Demand for automated analysis is growing along with the volume and size of simulations. Current 2D LWFA simulation datasets are typically between 1GB and 100GB in size, but simulations in 3D are of the order of TBs. The increase in the number of datasets and dataset sizes leads to a need for automatic routines to recognize particle patterns as particle bunches (beam of electrons) for subsequent analysis. Because of the growth in dataset size, the application of machine learning techniques for

  18. GeV Electron Beams from a Capillary Discharge Guided Laser Plasma Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Kei; Gonsalves, Anthony; Panasenko, Dmitriy; Lin, Chen; Toth, Csaba; Geddes, Cameron; Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim


    Laser plasma acceleration (LPA) up to 1 GeV has been realized at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory by using a capillary discharge waveguide. In this paper, the capillary discharge guided LPA system including a broadband single-shot electron spectrometer is described. The spectrometer was designed specifically for LPA experiments and has amomentumacceptance of 0.01 - 1.1 GeV/c with a percent level resolution. Experiments using a 33 mm long, 300 mu m diameter capillary demonstrated the generation of high energy electron beams up to 1 GeV. By de-tuning discharge delay from optimum guiding performance, selftrapping and acceleration were found to be stabilized producing 460 MeV electron beams.

  19. Effect of Laser-Plasma Interactions on Inertial Confinement Fusion Hohlraum Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Strozzi, D J; Michel, P; Divol, L; Sepke, S M; Kerbel, G D; Thomas, C A; Ralph, J E; Moody, J D; Schneider, M B


    The effects of laser-plasma interactions (LPI) on the dynamics of inertial confinement fusion hohlraums is investigated via a new approach that self-consistently couples reduced LPI models into radiation-hydrodynamics numerical codes. The interplay between hydrodynamics and LPI - specifically stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and crossed-beam energy transfer (CBET) - mostly occurs via momentum and energy deposition into Langmuir and ion acoustic waves. This spatially redistributes energy coupling to the target, which affects the background plasma conditions and thus modifies the laser propagation. This model shows a reduction of CBET, and significant laser energy depletion by Langmuir waves, which reduce the discrepancy between modeling and data from hohlraum experiments on wall x-ray emission and capsule implosion shape.

  20. Electron injection and emittance control by transverse colliding pulses in a laser-plasma accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chen


    Full Text Available A method to inject electron beams with controllable transverse emittances in a laser-plasma accelerators is proposed and analyzed. It uses two colliding laser pulses that propagate transversely to the plasma wave. For colliding pulses with equal frequencies, a beam with very low emittance is generated when the collision is close to the density peak of the plasma wave. Electrons near the axis are accelerated longitudinally by the ponderomotive force of the colliding pulses, accelerated transversely by the beat wave, and subsequently injected into the second bucket of the wake. Ionization is used to increase the transverse injection area and the final trapped charge. Simulations show that the transverse emittance can be less than the 0.1 mm mrad level, which is important for many applications. For colliding laser pulses with different frequencies, the beat wave can produce asymmetric injection, which can enhance betatron radiation generated by the electron beam.

  1. Analysis on laser plasma emission for characterization of colloids by video-based computer program (United States)

    Putri, Kirana Yuniati; Lumbantoruan, Hendra Damos; Isnaeni


    Laser-induced breakdown detection (LIBD) is a sensitive technique for characterization of colloids with small size and low concentration. There are two types of detection, optical and acoustic. Optical LIBD employs CCD camera to capture the plasma emission and uses the information to quantify the colloids. This technique requires sophisticated technology which is often pricey. In order to build a simple, home-made LIBD system, a dedicated computer program based on MATLAB™ for analyzing laser plasma emission was developed. The analysis was conducted by counting the number of plasma emissions (breakdowns) during a certain period of time. Breakdown probability provided information on colloid size and concentration. Validation experiment showed that the computer program performed well on analyzing the plasma emissions. Optical LIBD has A graphical user interface (GUI) was also developed to make the program more user-friendly.

  2. Relativistic quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Horwitz, Lawrence P


    This book describes a relativistic quantum theory developed by the author starting from the E.C.G. Stueckelberg approach proposed in the early 40s. In this framework a universal invariant evolution parameter (corresponding to the time originally postulated by Newton) is introduced to describe dynamical evolution. This theory is able to provide solutions for some of the fundamental problems encountered in early attempts to construct a relativistic quantum theory. A relativistically covariant construction is given for which particle spins and angular momenta can be combined through the usual rotation group Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. Solutions are defined for both the classical and quantum two body bound state and scattering problems. The recently developed quantum Lax-Phillips theory of semigroup evolution of resonant states is described. The experiment of Lindner and coworkers on interference in time is discussed showing how the property of coherence in time provides a simple understanding of the results. Th...

  3. Relativistic theories of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bressan, Aldo


    The theory of relativity was created in 1905 to solve a problem concerning electromagnetic fields. That solution was reached by means of profound changes in fundamental concepts and ideas that considerably affected the whole of physics. Moreover, when Einstein took gravitation into account, he was forced to develop radical changes also in our space-time concepts (1916). Relativistic works on heat, thermodynamics, and elasticity appeared as early as 1911. However, general theories having a thermodynamic basis, including heat conduction and constitutive equations, did not appear in general relativity until about 1955 for fluids and appeared only after 1960 for elastic or more general finitely deformed materials. These theories dealt with materials with memory, and in this connection some relativistic versions of the principle of material indifference were considered. Even more recently, relativistic theories incorporating finite deformations for polarizable and magnetizable materials and those in which couple s...

  4. Handbook of relativistic quantum chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenjian (ed.) [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Center for Computational Science and Engineering


    This handbook focuses on the foundations of relativistic quantum mechanics and addresses a number of fundamental issues never covered before in a book. For instance: How can many-body theory be combined with quantum electrodynamics? How can quantum electrodynamics be interfaced with relativistic quantum chemistry? What is the most appropriate relativistic many-electron Hamiltonian? How can we achieve relativistic explicit correlation? How can we formulate relativistic properties? - just to name a few. Since relativistic quantum chemistry is an integral component of computational chemistry, this handbook also supplements the ''Handbook of Computational Chemistry''. Generally speaking, it aims to establish the 'big picture' of relativistic molecular quantum mechanics as the union of quantum electrodynamics and relativistic quantum chemistry. Accordingly, it provides an accessible introduction for readers new to the field, presents advanced methodologies for experts, and discusses possible future perspectives, helping readers understand when/how to apply/develop the methodologies.

  5. Thermal dynamics-based mechanism for intense laser-induced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser material processing involving welding, ablation and cutting involves interaction of intense laser pulses of nanosecond duration with a condensed phase. ... the vaporization process and consequent non-linear multiple thermal phase transitions under the action of laser plasma is the subject matter of the present work.

  6. A General Quadrature Solution for Relativistic, Non-relativistic, and Weakly-Relativistic Rocket Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Adam L


    We show the traditional rocket problem, where the ejecta velocity is assumed constant, can be reduced to an integral quadrature of which the completely non-relativistic equation of Tsiolkovsky, as well as the fully relativistic equation derived by Ackeret, are limiting cases. By expanding this quadrature in series, it is shown explicitly how relativistic corrections to the mass ratio equation as the rocket transitions from the Newtonian to the relativistic regime can be represented as products of exponential functions of the rocket velocity, ejecta velocity, and the speed of light. We find that even low order correction products approximate the traditional relativistic equation to a high accuracy in flight regimes up to $0.5c$ while retaining a clear distinction between the non-relativistic base-case and relativistic corrections. We furthermore use the results developed to consider the case where the rocket is not moving relativistically but the ejecta stream is, and where the ejecta stream is massless.

  7. Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser. (United States)

    Faenov, A Ya; Colgan, J; Hansen, S B; Zhidkov, A; Pikuz, T A; Nishiuchi, M; Pikuz, S A; Skobelev, I Yu; Abdallah, J; Sakaki, H; Sagisaka, A; Pirozhkov, A S; Ogura, K; Fukuda, Y; Kanasaki, M; Hasegawa, N; Nishikino, M; Kando, M; Watanabe, Y; Kawachi, T; Masuda, S; Hosokai, T; Kodama, R; Kondo, K


    We report, for the first time, that the energy of femtosecond optical laser pulses, E, with relativistic intensities I > 10(21)  W/cm(2) is efficiently converted to X-ray radiation, which is emitted by "hot" electron component in collision-less processes and heats the solid density plasma periphery. As shown by direct high-resolution spectroscopic measurements X-ray radiation from plasma periphery exhibits unusual non-linear growth ~E(4-5) of its power. The non-linear power growth occurs far earlier than the known regime when the radiation reaction dominates particle motion (RDR). Nevertheless, the radiation is shown to dominate the kinetics of the plasma periphery, changing in this regime (now labeled RDKR) the physical picture of the laser plasma interaction. Although in the experiments reported here we demonstrated by observation of KK hollow ions that X-ray intensities in the keV range exceeds ~10(17)  W/cm(2), there is no theoretical limit of the radiation power. Therefore, such powerful X-ray sources can produce and probe exotic material states with high densities and multiple inner-shell electron excitations even for higher Z elements. Femtosecond laser-produced plasmas may thus provide unique ultra-bright X-ray sources, for future studies of matter in extreme conditions, material science studies, and radiography of biological systems.

  8. Relativistic-microwave theory of ball lightning


    H.-C. Wu


    Ball lightning, a fireball sometimes observed during lightnings, has remained unexplained. Here we present a comprehensive theory for the phenomenon: At the tip of a lightning stroke reaching the ground, a relativistic electron bunch can be produced, which in turn excites intense microwave radiation. The latter ionizes the local air and the radiation pressure evacuates the resulting plasma, forming a spherical plasma bubble that stably traps the radiation. This mechanism is verified by partic...

  9. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.


    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  10. Relativistic configuration interaction approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    level of reliability and accuracy in accounting for both relativistic and correlation effects associated with these properties has gained importance. In this paper, we will compute one of the P, ... this procedure provides reasonable accuracy with small computational cost. Titov and co-workers have also reported the result of Wd.

  11. The Relativistic Rocket (United States)

    Antippa, Adel F.


    We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful…

  12. A relativistic Zeno effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, David

    A Zenonian supertask involving an infinite number of identical colliding balls is generalized to include balls with different masses. Under the restriction that the total mass of all the balls is finite, classical mechanics leads to velocities that have no upper limit. Relativistic mechanics results

  13. Relativistic Quantum Information Theory (United States)


    Relativistic Quantum Information Theory Army Research Office Grant # DAAD -0301-0207 Christoph Adami November 16, 2007 1 Foreword The stated goal of the...the future will allow us to finish the work we started. A List of manuscripts produced under ARO grant # DAAD - 0301-0207 All these manuscripts

  14. Elemental sensitivity in soft x-ray imaging with a laser-plasma source and a color center detector. (United States)

    Calegari, F; Valentini, G; Vozzi, C; Benedetti, E; Cabanillas-Gonzalez, J; Faenov, A; Gasilov, S; Pikuz, T; Poletto, L; Sansone, G; Villoresi, P; Nisoli, M; De Silvestri, S; Stagira, S


    Elemental sensitivity in soft x-ray imaging of thin foils with known thickness is observed using an ultrafast laser-plasma source and a LiF crystal as detector. Measurements are well reproduced by a simple theoretical model. This technique can be exploited for high spatial resolution, wide field of view imaging in the soft x-ray region, and it is suitable for the characterization of thin objects with thicknesses ranging from hundreds down to tens of nanometers.

  15. APPLICATIONS OF LASERS AND OTHER TOPICS IN LASER PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY: Switching of a pulsed ionic diode through the bulk of an ion source with laser plasma initiation (United States)

    Pleshakova, R. P.; Shikanov, A. E.


    An analysis was made of the results of an investigation of switching of a pulsed ionic diode through the bulk of an ion source with a laser plasma and a vacuum arc. The dependences of the neutron yield on the electrical energy of the diode were recorded and analyzed. The results indicated a possible way of simple construction of an acceleration tube with switching via a laser-plasma source.

  16. The development of laser-plasma interaction program LAP3D on thousands of processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Hu


    Full Text Available Modeling laser-plasma interaction (LPI processes in real-size experiments scale is recognized as a challenging task. For explorering the influence of various instabilities in LPI processes, a three-dimensional laser and plasma code (LAP3D has been developed, which includes filamentation, stimulated Brillouin backscattering (SBS, stimulated Raman backscattering (SRS, non-local heat transport and plasmas flow computation modules. In this program, a second-order upwind scheme is applied to solve the plasma equations which are represented by an Euler fluid model. Operator splitting method is used for solving the equations of the light wave propagation, where the Fast Fourier translation (FFT is applied to compute the diffraction operator and the coordinate translations is used to solve the acoustic wave equation. The coupled terms of the different physics processes are computed by the second-order interpolations algorithm. In order to simulate the LPI processes in massively parallel computers well, several parallel techniques are used, such as the coupled parallel algorithm of FFT and fluid numerical computation, the load balance algorithm, and the data transfer algorithm. Now the phenomena of filamentation, SBS and SRS have been studied in low-density plasma successfully with LAP3D. Scalability of the program is demonstrated with a parallel efficiency above 50% on about ten thousand of processors.

  17. Laser-Plasma Modeling Using PERSEUS Extended-MHD Simulation Code for HED Plasmas (United States)

    Hamlin, Nathaniel; Seyler, Charles


    We discuss the use of the PERSEUS extended-MHD simulation code for high-energy-density (HED) plasmas in modeling the influence of Hall and electron inertial physics on laser-plasma interactions. By formulating the extended-MHD equations as a relaxation system in which the current is semi-implicitly time-advanced using the Generalized Ohm's Law, PERSEUS enables modeling of extended-MHD phenomena (Hall and electron inertial physics) without the need to resolve the smallest electron time scales, which would otherwise be computationally prohibitive in HED plasma simulations. We first consider a laser-produced plasma plume pinched by an applied magnetic field parallel to the laser axis in axisymmetric cylindrical geometry, forming a conical shock structure and a jet above the flow convergence. The Hall term produces low-density outer plasma, a helical field structure, flow rotation, and field-aligned current, rendering the shock structure dispersive. We then model a laser-foil interaction by explicitly driving the oscillating laser fields, and examine the essential physics governing the interaction. This work is supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration stewardship sciences academic program under Department of Energy cooperative agreements DE-FOA-0001153 and DE-NA0001836.

  18. Modeling Laser-Plasma Interaction over a Suite of NIF Experiments (United States)

    Strozzi, D. J.; Berger, R. L.; Jones, O. S.; Chapman, T.; Woods, D. T.; MacLaren, S. A.; Michel, P.; Divol, L.


    We systematically study laser-plasma interaction (LPI) on NIF indirect-drive experiments, namely backscatter and cross-beam energy transfer. LLNL's best practice radiation-hydrodynamic simulation methodology in the Lasnex simulation code is employed without ad-hoc tuning to match experimental data. This entails converged numerical resolution, an improved DCA model for coronal (ne 1 keV) gold opacity, electron heat flux strongly limited to 0.03neTe3 / 2 me- 1 / 2 , and the inline CBET model. The rad-hydro plasma conditions are used for LPI analysis, namely linear instability gains, and the paraxial-envelope code pF3D. Simulated scattered-light spectra are also compared to measurements. We initially focus on shots with low backscatter, so its self-consistent treatment should not be important. These shots have low hohlraum fill density and short laser pulses, and the only significant backscatter is outer-beams Brillouin. Our long-term goals are to understand reflectivity trends to guide target design and develop LPI mitigation strategies. Work performed under auspices of US DoE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. Laser-plasma interactions in NIF-scale plasmas (HLP5 and HLP6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGowan, B.; Berger, R.; Fernandez, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    The understanding of laser-plasma interactions in ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion (ICF) hohlraum targets is important for the success of the proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF). The success of an indirect-drive ICF ignition experiment depends on the ability to predict and control the history and spatial distribution of the x-radiation produced by the laser beams that are absorbed by the inside of the hohlraum wall. Only by controlling the symmetry of this x-ray drive is it possible to obtain the implosion symmetry in the fusion pellet necessary for ignition. The larger hohlraums and longer time scales required for ignition-scale targets result in the presence of several millimeters of plasma (electron density n{sub e} {approximately} 0.1 n{sub c} {approximately} 10{sup 21} cm{sup {minus}3}), through which the 3{omega} (351-nm) laser beams must propagate before they are absorbed at the hohlraum wall. Hydrodynamic simulations show this plasma to be very uniform [density-gradient scalelength L{sub n} = n{sub e}(dn{sub e}/dx){sup {minus}1}{approximately} 2mm] and to exhibit low velocity gradients [velocity-gradient scale-length L{sub v} = c{sub s}(dv/dx){sup {minus}1} > 6 mm].

  20. submitter Parametric study of transport beam lines for electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Scisciò, M; Migliorati, M; Mostacci, A; Palumbo, L; Papaphilippou, Y; Antici, P


    In the last decade, laser-plasma acceleration of high-energy electrons has attracted strong attention in different fields. Electrons with maximum energies in the GeV range can be laser-accelerated within a few cm using multi-hundreds terawatt (TW) lasers, yielding to very high beam currents at the source (electron bunches with up to tens-hundreds of pC in a few fs). While initially the challenge was to increase the maximum achievable electron energy, today strong effort is put in the control and usability of these laser-generated beams that still lack of some features in order to be used for applications where currently conventional, radio-frequency (RF) based, electron beam lines represent the most common and efficient solution. Several improvements have been suggested for this purpose, some of them acting directly on the plasma source, some using beam shaping tools located downstream. Concerning the latter, several studies have suggested the use of conventional accelerator magnetic devices (such as quadrupo...

  1. Design principles for high quality electron beams via colliding pulses in laser plasma accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cormier-Michel


    Full Text Available Laser plasma based accelerators have the potential to reduce dramatically the size and cost of future particle colliders and light sources. Production of high quality beams along with reproducibility, tunability, and efficiency are required for many applications. We present design principles for two-pulse colliding laser pulse injection mechanisms, which can meet these requirements. Simulations are used to determine the best conditions for the production of high quality beams: high charge, low energy spread, and low emittance. Simulations also allow access to the internal dynamics of the interaction, providing insight regarding further improvement of the beam quality. We find that a 20 pC beam can be accelerated to 300 MeV in 4 mm with only a few percent energy spread and transverse normalized emittance close to 1 mm mrad, using a 10 TW laser. We demonstrate that this design scales according to linear theory. Control of the laser pulse mode content and subsequent evolution in the plasma channel are shown to be critical for achieving the highest beam quality.

  2. Brilliant GeV electron beam with narrow energy spread generated by a laser plasma accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronghao Hu


    Full Text Available The production of GeV electron beam with narrow energy spread and high brightness is investigated using particle-in-cell simulations. A controlled electron injection scheme and a method for phase-space manipulation in a laser plasma accelerator are found to be essential. The injection is triggered by the evolution of two copropagating laser pulses near a sharp vacuum-plasma transition. The collection volume is well confined and the injected bunch is isolated in phase space. By tuning the parameters of the laser pulses, the parameters of the injected electron bunch, such as the bunch length, energy spread, emittance and charge, can be adjusted. Manipulating the phase-space rotation with the rephasing technique, the injected electron bunch can be accelerated to GeV level while keeping relative energy spread below 0.5% and transverse emittance below 1.0  μm. The results present a very promising way to drive coherent x-ray sources.

  3. Group Velocity Measurements in Laser-Heated Capillary Discharge Waveguides for Laser-Plasma Accelerators (United States)

    Pieronek, C. V.; Daniels, J.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Benedetti, C.; Leemans, W. P.


    To date, the most energetic electron beams from laser-plasma accelerators have been produced using gas-filled capillary discharge waveguides, which increase the acceleration length by mitigating diffraction of the driving laser pulse. To reach higher electron beam energies, lower plasma density is required to reduce bunch dephasing. However, confinement of the driver is reduced for lower plasma density, reducing the acceleration length. A laser-heated capillary discharge waveguide, where the discharge is heated by a coaxial laser pulse, was proposed to create a steeper density gradient at lower density. Here the first measurements of group velocity in laser-heated capillary discharges, obtained via spectral interferometry, are presented. Increase of the driver group velocity and reduction in on-axis plasma density by laser-heating are shown. Work supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics, under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Additional support by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-1415596.

  4. Bunch decompression for laser-plasma driven free-electron laser demonstration schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Seggebrock


    Full Text Available X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs require a very high electron beam quality in terms of emittance and energy spread. Since 2004 high quality electrons produced by laser-wakefield accelerators have been demonstrated, but the electron quality up to now did not allow the operation of a compact x-ray FEL using these electrons. Maier et al. [Phys. Rev. X 2, 031019 (2012PRXHAE2160-330810.1103/PhysRevX.2.031019] suggested a concept for a proof-of-principle experiment allowing FEL operation in the vacuum ultraviolet range based on an optimized undulator and bunch decompression using electron bunches from a laser-plasma accelerator as currently available. In this paper we discuss in more detail how a chicane can be used as a bunch stretcher instead of a bunch compressor to allow the operation of a laser-wakefield accelerator driven FEL using currently available electrons. A scaling characterizing the impact of bunch decompression on the gain length is derived and the feasibility of the concept is tested numerically in a demanding scenario.

  5. The BErkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA): A 10 GeV Laser Plasma Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leemans, W.P.; Duarte, R.; Esarey, E.; Fournier, S.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Lockhart, D.; Schroeder, C.B.; Toth, C.; Vay, J.-L.; Zimmermann, S.


    An overview is presented of the design of a 10 GeV laser plasma accelerator (LPA) that will be driven by a PW-class laser system and of the BELLA Project, which has as its primary goal to build and install the required Ti:sapphire laser system for the acceleration experiments. The basic design of the 10 GeV stage aims at operation in the quasi-linear regime, where the laser excited wakes are largely sinusoidal and offer the possibility of accelerating both electrons and positrons. Simulations show that a 10 GeV electron beam can be generated in a meter scale plasma channel guided LPA operating at a density of about 1017 cm-3 and powered by laser pulses containing 30-40 J of energy in a 50- 200 fs duration pulse, focused to a spotsize of 50-100 micron. The lay-out of the facility and laser system will be presented as well as the progress on building the facility.

  6. Laser plasma interaction on rugby hohlraum on the Omega Laser Facility: Comparisons between cylinder, rugby, and elliptical hohlraums (United States)

    Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Monteil, M. C.; Tassin, V.; Philippe, F.; Gauthier, P.; Casner, A.; Depierreux, S.; Neuville, C.; Villette, B.; Laffite, S.; Seytor, P.; Fremerye, P.; Seka, W.; Teychenné, D.; Debayle, A.; Marion, D.; Loiseau, P.; Casanova, M.


    Gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums have demonstrated high performances compared to a classical similar diameter cylinder hohlraum with a nearly 40% increase of x-ray drive, 10% higher measured peak drive temperature, and an increase in neutron production. Experimental comparisons have been done between rugby, cylinder, and elliptical hohlraums. The impact of these geometry differences on the laser plasma instabilities is examined. Using comparisons with hydrodynamic simulations carried out with the code FCI2 and postprocessed by Piranah, we have been able to reproduce the stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering spectrum of the different beams. Using a methodology based on a statistical analysis for the gain calculations, we show that the behavior of the laser plasma instabilities in rugby hohlraums can be reproduced. The efficiency of laser smoothing techniques to mitigate these instabilities are discussed, and we show that while rugby hohlraums exhibit more laser plasma instabilities than cylinder hohlraum, the latter can be mitigated in the case of an elliptical hohlraum.

  7. A relativistic trolley paradox


    Matvejev, Vadim N.; Matvejev, Oleg V.; Grøn, Ø.


    We present an apparent paradox within the special theory of relativity, involving a trolley with relativistic velocity and its rolling wheels. Two solutions are given, both making clear the physical reality of the Lorentz contraction, and that the distance on the rails between each time a specific point on the rim touches the rail is not equal to 2 p R ,where R is the radius of the wheel, but 2 p R = ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi...

  8. Numerical Relativistic Quantum Optics (United States)


    m is a signed cyclotron frequency, nr is the radial quantum number and ` is the orbital quantum number. The principle quantum number is n ≡ nr...Gordon equation is accomplished via domain decomposition, where each GPGPU advances the solution in a given domain, and MPI is used for commu...other points to the corresponding location in the transfer buffer. Once the ghost cells have been updated, the GPGPU can advance the relativistic wave

  9. The relativistic glider revisited


    Bergamin, L.; Delva, P.; Hees, A.


    In this paper we analyze some aspects of the "relativistic glider" proposed by Gu\\'eron and Mosna more in detail. In particular an explicit weak gravity and low velocity expansion is presented, the influence of different initial conditions are studied and the behavior of the glider over a longer integration time is presented. Our results confirm that the system can be used as a glider, but is not able to stop or even revert the fall of an object.

  10. Relativistic tidal disruption events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levan A.


    Full Text Available In March 2011 Swift detected an extremely luminous and long-lived outburst from the nucleus of an otherwise quiescent, low luminosity (LMC-like galaxy. Named Swift J1644+57, its combination of high-energy luminosity (1048 ergs s−1 at peak, rapid X-ray variability (factors of >100 on timescales of 100 seconds and luminous, rising radio emission suggested that we were witnessing the birth of a moderately relativistic jet (Γ ∼ 2 − 5, created when a star is tidally disrupted by the supermassive black hole in the centre of the galaxy. A second event, Swift J2058+0516, detected two months later, with broadly similar properties lends further weight to this interpretation. Taken together this suggests that a fraction of tidal disruption events do indeed create relativistic outflows, demonstrates their detectability, and also implies that low mass galaxies can host massive black holes. Here, I briefly outline the observational properties of these relativistic tidal flares observed last year, and their evolution over the first year since their discovery.

  11. A relativistic gravity train (United States)

    Parker, Edward


    A nonrelativistic particle released from rest at the edge of a ball of uniform charge density or mass density oscillates with simple harmonic motion. We consider the relativistic generalizations of these situations where the particle can attain speeds arbitrarily close to the speed of light; generalizing the electrostatic and gravitational cases requires special and general relativity, respectively. We find exact closed-form relations between the position, proper time, and coordinate time in both cases, and find that they are no longer harmonic, with oscillation periods that depend on the amplitude. In the highly relativistic limit of both cases, the particle spends almost all of its proper time near the turning points, but almost all of the coordinate time moving through the bulk of the ball. Buchdahl's theorem imposes nontrivial constraints on the general-relativistic case, as a ball of given density can only attain a finite maximum radius before collapsing into a black hole. This article is intended to be pedagogical, and should be accessible to those who have taken an undergraduate course in general relativity.

  12. Gravitationally confined relativistic neutrinos (United States)

    Vayenas, C. G.; Fokas, A. S.; Grigoriou, D.


    Combining special relativity, the equivalence principle, and Newton’s universal gravitational law with gravitational rather than rest masses, one finds that gravitational interactions between relativistic neutrinos with kinetic energies above 50 MeV are very strong and can lead to the formation of gravitationally confined composite structures with the mass and other properties of hadrons. One may model such structures by considering three neutrinos moving symmetrically on a circular orbit under the influence of their gravitational attraction, and by assuming quantization of their angular momentum, as in the Bohr model of the H atom. The model contains no adjustable parameters and its solution, using a neutrino rest mass of 0.05 eV/c2, leads to composite state radii close to 1 fm and composite state masses close to 1 GeV/c2. Similar models of relativistic rotating electron - neutrino pairs give a mass of 81 GeV/c2, close to that of W bosons. This novel mechanism of generating mass suggests that the Higgs mass generation mechanism can be modeled as a latent gravitational field which gets activated by relativistic neutrinos.

  13. Three-dimensional relativistic particle-in-cell hybrid code based on an exponential integrator

    CERN Document Server

    Tueckmantel, T; Pukhov, A; Hochbruck, M


    In this paper we present a new three dimensional (3D) full electromagnetic relativistic hybrid plasma code H-VLPL (hybrid virtual laser plasma laboratory). The full kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) method is used to simulate low density hot plasmas while the hydrodynamic model applies to the high density cold background plasma. To simulate the linear electromagnetic response of the high density plasma, we use a newly developed form of an exponential integrator method. It allows us to simulate plasmas of arbitrary densities using large time steps. The model reproduces the plasma dispersion and gives correct spatial scales like the plasma skin depth even for large grid cell sizes. We test the hybrid model validity by applying it to some physical examples.

  14. Relativistic-microwave theory of ball lightning (United States)

    Wu, H.-C.


    Ball lightning, a fireball sometimes observed during lightnings, has remained unexplained. Here we present a comprehensive theory for the phenomenon: At the tip of a lightning stroke reaching the ground, a relativistic electron bunch can be produced, which in turn excites intense microwave radiation. The latter ionizes the local air and the radiation pressure evacuates the resulting plasma, forming a spherical plasma bubble that stably traps the radiation. This mechanism is verified by particle simulations. The many known properties of ball lightning, such as the occurrence site, relation to the lightning channels, appearance in aircraft, its shape, size, sound, spark, spectrum, motion, as well as the resulting injuries and damages, are also explained. Our theory suggests that ball lighting can be created in the laboratory or triggered during thunderstorms. Our results should be useful for lightning protection and aviation safety, as well as stimulate research interest in the relativistic regime of microwave physics.

  15. Advanced beam dynamics and diagnostics concepts for laser-plasma accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornmair, Irene


    Laser-Plasma Accelerators (LPAs) combine a multitude of unique features, which makes them very attractive as drivers for next generation brilliant light sources including compact X-ray free-electron lasers. They provide high accelerating gradients, thereby drastically shrinking the accelerator size, while at the same time the produced electron bunches are intrinsically as short as a few femtoseconds and carry high peak currents. LPA are subject of very active research, yet, the field currently faces the challenge of improving the beam quality, and achieving stable and well-controlled injection and acceleration. This thesis tackles this issue from three different sides. A novellongitudinal phase space diagnostics is proposed that employs the strong fields present in plasma wakefields to streak ultrashort electron bunches. This allows for a temporal resolution down to the attosecond range, enabling direct determination to the current profile and the slice energy spread, both crucial quantities for the performance of free-electron lasers. Furthermore, adiabatic matching sections at the plasma-vacuum boundary are investigated. These can drastically reduce the beam divergence and thereby relax the constraints on the subsequent beam optics. For externally injected beams, the matching sections could even provide the key technology that permits emittance conservation by increasing the matched beam size to a level achievable with currently available magnetic optics. Finally, a new method is studied that allows to modify the wakefield shape. To this end, the plasma density is periodically modulated. One possible application can be to remove the linearly correlated energy spread, or chirp, from the accelerated bunch, which is suspected of being responsible for the main part of the often large energy spread of plasma accelerated beams.

  16. Laser-Plasma Interaction in Presence of an Obliquely External Magnetic Field: Application to Laser Fusion without Radioactivity (United States)

    Mobaraki, M.; Jafari, S.


    In this paper, the nonlinear interaction of ultra-high power laser beam with fusion plasma at relativistic regime in the presence of obliquely external magnetic Geld has been studied. Imposing an external magnetic Geld on plasma can modify the density profile of the plasma so that the thermal conductivity of electrons reduces which is considered to be the decrease of the threshold energy for ignition. To achieve the fusion of Hydrogen-Boron (HB) fuel, the block acceleration model of plasma is employed. Energy production by HB isotopes can be of interest, since its reaction does not generate radioactive tritium. By using the inhibit factor in the block model acceleration of plasma and Maxwell's as well as the momentum transfer equations, the electron density distribution and dielectric permittivity of the plasma medium are obtained. Numerical results indicate that with increasing the intensity of the external magnetic field, the oscillation of the laser magnetic field decreases, while the dielectric permittivity increases. Moreover, the amplitude of the electron density becomes highly peaked and the plasma electrons are strongly bunched with increasing the intensity of external magnetic field. Therefore, the magnetized plasma can act as a positive focusing lens to enhance the fusion process. Besides, we find that with increasing θ-angle (from oblique external magnetic field) between 0 and 90°, the dielectric permittivity increases, while for θ between 90° and 180°, the dielectric permittivity decreases with increasing θ.

  17. Transport models for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at Relativistic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Apr 29, 2015 ... Transport models for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and Large Hadron Collider. Subrata Pal. Volume 84 Issue 5 May 2015 pp ... Subrata Pal1. Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India ...

  18. Weibel instability in relativistic electron positron plasma (United States)

    Ehsan, Zahida; Tsintsadze, Nodar; Yoon, Peter


    We consider a situation in when the interaction of relativistically intense EM waves with an isotropic electron positron? plasma takes place, i.e., we consider short pulse lasers with intensity up to 1021 W/cm2, in which the photon density is of the order of 1030cm-3 and the strength of electric field E = 109 statvolt/cm. Such a situation is possible in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas which are subject to intense laser radiation, thus leading to nonthermal equilibrium field radiations. Such interaction of the superstrong laser radiation with an isotropic pair plasma leads to the generation of low frequency electromagnetic EM waves and in particular a quasistationary magnetic field. When the relativistic circularly polarized transverse EM wave propagates along z-axis, it creates a ponderomotive force, which affects the motion of particles along the direction of its propagation. On the other hand, motion of the particles across the direction of propagation is defined by the ponderomotive potential. Moreover dispersion relation for the transverse EM wave using a special distribution function, which has an anisotropic form, is derived and is subsequently investigated for a number of special cases. In general, it is shown that the growth rate of the EM wave strongly depends upon its intensity.

  19. Relativistic motion of charged particles in the interaction of short pulses of intense laser light with plasma; Movimiento relativista de particulas cargadas en la interaccion de pulsos cortos de luz laser intensa con plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez R, F


    In the chapter 1 we show the foundations of the special relativity in the frame of the classical mechanics and we develop the necessary theory for the theoretical description of the relativistic dynamics of charged particles in the interaction with electromagnetic fields. It will see that starting from the energy conservation principle is derived the Einstein's law that establishes the relationship among this and the mass. Later on, it will take the action of a charged particle in a given radiation field and in the one which only we will take two parts, the action of the free particle and the one that defines the interaction of this with the field. The equations of motion of a charge in an electromagnetic field come given by the Lagrange equations, being obtained an expression for the force, well-known as Lorentz force, which consists of two terms, the first of them is the force that the electric field E exercises on the particle; which doesn't depend on the charge speed and is oriented in the direction of the field, the second term represents the force that exercises the magnetic field B and that it is proportional to the charge speed, being perpendicular to the direction of it. In the chapter 2 an integration method of the Hamilton-Jacobi for the case of a pulse is that allows to found analytical forms for the moment, the energy and the charge position is developed with detail. We will present, also, a discussion of the classical theory of the relativistic dynamic of free electrons. They are also obtained, invariant quantities like the phase, before the frame of the reference inertial changes, well-known as Lorentz invariants of the system. In this part it is considered to the electron in the laboratory frame (frame in which the particle is initially in repose regarding the observer), of which the speed and the acceleration quadrivectors can be calculated. We demonstrate that the {eta} phase is a Lorentz invariant. It is shown, also that the proper time

  20. Relativistic Dynamics of Graphene (United States)

    Semenoff, Gordon


    Graphene is a one-atom thick layer of carbon atoms where electrons obey an emergent Dirac equation. Only seven years after it first became available in the laboratory, graphene has captured the attention of a wide spectrum of scientists: from particle physicists interested in using graphene's emergent relativistic dynamics to study quantum field theory phenomena to condensed matter physicists fascinated by its unusual electronic propertied and technologists searching for materials for the nest generation of electronic devices. This presentation will review the basics of graphene and some questions, such as the possibility of chiral symmetry breaking, which have overlap with similar ones in strong interaction particle physics.

  1. Relativistic twins or sextuplets?

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, E S


    A recent study of the relativistic twin 'paradox' by Soni in this journal affirmed that 'A simple solution of the twin paradox also shows anomalous behaviour of rigidly connected distant clocks' but entailed a pedagogic hurdle which the present treatment aims to surmount. Two scenarios are presented: the first 'flight-plan' is akin to that depicted by Soni, with constant-velocity segments, while the second portrays an alternative mission undertaken with sustained acceleration and deceleration, illustrated quantitatively for a two-way spacecraft flight from Earth to Polaris (465.9 light years distant) and back.

  2. Relativistic wave mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Corinaldesi, Ernesto


    Geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students of physics, this text provides readers with a background in relativistic wave mechanics and prepares them for the study of field theory. The treatment originated as a series of lectures from a course on advanced quantum mechanics that has been further amplified by student contributions.An introductory section related to particles and wave functions precedes the three-part treatment. An examination of particles of spin zero follows, addressing wave equation, Lagrangian formalism, physical quantities as mean values, translation and rotat

  3. Relativistic dissipative fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Geroch, R


    We observe in Nature fluids that manifest dissipation, e.g., the effects of heat conductivity and viscosity. We believe that all physical phenomena are to be described within the framework of General Relativity. What, then, is the appropriate description of a relativistic dissipative fluid? This is not only a question of principle, but also one of practical interest. There exist systems, such as certain neutron stars, in which relativity and dissipation are at the same time significant.

  4. Measurements of Relativistic Effects in Collective Thomson Scattering at Electron Temperatures less than 1 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, James Steven [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)


    Simultaneous scattering from electron-plasma waves and ion-acoustic waves is used to measure local laser-produced plasma parameters with high spatiotemporal resolution including electron temperature and density, average charge state, plasma flow velocity, and ion temperature. In addition, the first measurements of relativistic modifications in the collective Thomson scattering spectrum from thermal electron-plasma fluctuations are presented [1]. Due to the high phase velocity of electron-plasma fluctuations, relativistic effects are important even at low electron temperatures (Te < 1 keV). These effects have been observed experimentally and agree well with a relativistic treatment of the Thomson scattering form factor [2]. The results are important for the interpretation of scattering measurements from laser produced plasmas. Thomson scattering measurements are used to characterize the hydrodynamics of a gas jet plasma which is the foundation for a broad series of laser-plasma interaction studies [3, 4, 5, 6]. The temporal evolution of the electron temperature, density and ion temperature are measured. The measured electron density evolution shows excellent agreement with a simple adiabatic expansion model. The effects of high temperatures on coupling to hohlraum targets is discussed [7]. A peak electron temperature of 12 keV at a density of 4.7 × 1020cm-3 are measured 200 μm outside the laser entrance hole using a two-color Thomson scattering method we developed in gas jet plasmas [8]. These measurements are used to assess laser-plasma interactions that reduce laser hohlraum coupling and can significantly reduce the hohlraum radiation temperature.

  5. Control of quasi-monoenergetic electron beams from laser-plasma accelerators by adjusting shock density profile (United States)

    Tsai, Hai-En; Swanson, Kelly K.; Lehe, Remi; Barber, Sam K.; Isono, Fumika; Otero, Jorge G.; Liu, Xinyao; Mao, Hann-Shin; Steinke, Sven; Tilborg, Jeroen Van; Geddes, Cameron G. R.; Leemans, Wim


    High-level control of a laser-plasma accelerator (LPA) using a shock injector was demonstrated by systematically varying the shock injector profile, including the shock angle, up-ramp width and shock position. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation explored how variations in the shock profile impacted the injection process and confirmed results obtained through acceleration experiments. These results establish that, by adjusting shock position, up-ramp, and angle, beam energy, energy spread, and pointing can be controlled. As a result, e-beam were highly tunable from 25 to 300 MeV with Security Administration, Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation R&D (NA22).

  6. Exotic Non-relativistic String

    CERN Document Server

    Casalbuoni, Roberto; Longhi, Giorgio


    We construct a classical non-relativistic string model in 3+1 dimensions. The model contains a spurion tensor field that is responsible for the non-commutative structure of the model. Under double dimensional reduction the model reduces to the exotic non-relativistic particle in 2+1 dimensions.

  7. relline: Relativistic line profiles calculation (United States)

    Dauser, Thomas


    relline calculates relativistic line profiles; it is compatible with the common X-ray data analysis software XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) and ISIS (ascl:1302.002). The two basic forms are an additive line model (RELLINE) and a convolution model to calculate relativistic smearing (RELCONV).

  8. Ion Acceleration by Laser Plasma Interaction from Cryogenic Micro Jets - Oral Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Propp, Adrienne [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    Processes that occur in extreme conditions, such as in the center of stars and large planets, can be simulated in the laboratory using facilities such as SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Jupiter Laser Facility (JLF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). These facilities allow scientists to investigate the properties of matter by observing their interactions with high power lasers. Ion acceleration from laser plasma interaction is gaining greater attention today due to its widespread potential applications, including proton beam cancer therapy and fast ignition for energy production. Typically, ion acceleration is achieved by focusing a high power laser on thin foil targets through a mechanism called Target Normal Sheath Acceleration. Based on research and recent experiments, we hypothesized that a pure liquid cryogenic jet would be an ideal target for this type of interaction, capable of producing the highest proton energies possible with today’s laser technologies. Furthermore, it would provide a continuous, pure target, unlike metal foils which are consumed in the interaction and easily contaminated. In an effort to test this hypothesis and investigate new, potentially more efficient mechanisms of ion acceleration, we used the 527 nm split beam, frequency-doubled TITAN laser at JLF. Data from the cryogenic jets was limited due to the flow of current up the jet into the nozzle during the interaction, heating the jet and damaging the orifice. However, we acheived a pure proton beam with an indiciation of a monoenergetic feature. Furthermore, data from gold and carbon wires showed surprising and interesting results. Preliminary analysis of data from two ion emission diagnostics, Thomson parabola spectrometers (TPs) and radio chromic films (RCFs), suggests that shockwave acceleration occurred rather than target normal sheath acceleration, the standard mechanism of ion acceleration. Upon completion of the experiment at TITAN, I researched the

  9. A relativistic trolley paradox (United States)

    Matvejev, Vadim N.; Matvejev, Oleg V.; Grøn, Ø.


    We present an apparent paradox within the special theory of relativity, involving a trolley with relativistic velocity and its rolling wheels. Two solutions are given, both making clear the physical reality of the Lorentz contraction, and that the distance on the rails between each time a specific point on the rim touches the rail is not equal to 2 π R , where R is the radius of the wheel, but 2 π R / √{ 1 - R 2 Ω 2 / c 2 } , where Ω is the angular velocity of the wheels. In one solution, the wheel radius is constant as the velocity of the trolley increases, and in the other the wheels contract in the radial direction. We also explain two surprising facts. First that the shape of a rolling wheel is elliptical in spite of the fact that the upper part of the wheel moves faster than the lower part, and thus is more Lorentz contracted, and second that a Lorentz contracted wheel with relativistic velocity rolls out a larger distance between two successive touches of a point of the wheel on the rails than the length of a circle with the same radius as the wheels.

  10. Relativistic ring models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujevic, Maximiliano [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas; Letelier, Patricio S.; Vogt, Daniel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica, Estatistica e Computacao Cientifica. Dept. de Matematica Aplicada


    Full text: Relativistic thick ring models are constructed using previously found analytical Newtonian potential-density pairs for flat rings and toroidal structures obtained from Kuzmin-Toomre family of discs. This was achieved by inflating previously constructed Newtonian ring potentials using the transformation |z|{yields}{radical}z{sup 2} + b{sup 2}, and then finding their relativistic analog. The models presented have infinite extension but the physical quantities decays very fast with the distance, and in principle, one could make a cut-off radius to consider it finite. In particular, we present systems with one ring, two rings and a disc with a ring. Also, the circular velocity of a test particle and its stability when performing circular orbits are presented in all these models. Using the Rayleigh criterion of stability of a fluid at rest in a gravitational field, we find that the different systems studied present a region of non-stability that appears in the intersection of the disc and the ring, and between the rings when they become thinner. (author)

  11. Relativistic Planck-scale polymer (United States)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Arzano, Michele; Da Silva, Malú Maira; Orozco-Borunda, Daniel H.


    Polymer quantum mechanics has been studied as a simplified picture that reflects some of the key properties of Loop Quantum Gravity; however, while the fate of relativistic symmetries in Loop Quantum Gravity is still not established, it is usually assumed that the discrete polymer structure should lead to a breakdown of relativistic symmetries. We here focus for simplicity on a one-spatial-dimension polymer model and show that relativistic symmetries are deformed, rather than being broken. The specific type of deformed relativistic symmetries which we uncover appears to be closely related to analogous descriptions of relativistic symmetries in some noncommutative spacetimes. This also contributes to an ongoing effort attempting to establish whether the ;quantum-Minkowski limit; of Loop Quantum Gravity is a noncommutative spacetime.

  12. Laser plasma acceleration with a negatively chirped pulse: all-optical control over dark current in the blowout regime (United States)

    Kalmykov, S. Y.; Beck, A.; Davoine, X.; Lefebvre, E.; Shadwick, B. A.


    Recent experiments with 100 terawatt-class, sub-50 femtosecond laser pulses show that electrons self-injected into a laser-driven electron density bubble can be accelerated above 0.5 gigaelectronvolt energy in a sub-centimetre-length rarefied plasma. To reach this energy range, electrons must ultimately outrun the bubble and exit the accelerating phase; this, however, does not ensure high beam quality. Wake excitation increases the laser pulse bandwidth by red-shifting its head, keeping the tail unshifted. Anomalous group velocity dispersion of radiation in plasma slows down the red-shifted head, compressing the pulse into a few-cycle-long piston of relativistic intensity. Pulse transformation into a piston causes continuous expansion of the bubble, trapping copious numbers of unwanted electrons (dark current) and producing a poorly collimated, polychromatic energy tail, completely dominating the electron spectrum at the dephasing limit. The process of piston formation can be mitigated by using a broad-bandwidth (corresponding to a few-cycle transform-limited duration), negatively chirped pulse. Initial blue-shift of the pulse leading edge compensates for the nonlinear frequency red-shift and delays the piston formation, thus significantly suppressing the dark current, making the leading quasi-monoenergetic bunch the dominant feature of the electron spectrum near dephasing. This method of dark current control may be feasible for future experiments with ultrahigh-bandwidth, multi-joule laser pulses.

  13. Relativistic nonlinear electrodynamics the QED vacuum and matter in super-strong radiation fields

    CERN Document Server

    Avetissian, Hamlet K


    This revised edition of the author’s classic 2006 text offers a comprehensively updated review of the field of relativistic nonlinear electrodynamics. It explores the interaction of strong and super-strong electromagnetic/laser radiation with the electromagnetic quantum vacuum and diverse types of matter – including free charged particles and antiparticles, acceleration beams, plasma and plasmous media.  The appearance of laser sources of relativistic and ultra-relativistic intensities over the last decade has stimulated investigation of a large class of processes under such super-strong radiation fields. Revisions for this second edition reflect these developments and the book includes new chapters on Bremsstrahlung and nonlinear absorption of superintense radiation in plasmas, the nonlinear interaction of relativistic atoms with intense laser radiation, nonlinear interaction of strong laser radiation with Graphene, and relativistic nonlinear phenomena in solid-plasma targets under supershort laser pul...

  14. Foil focusing of relativistic electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Jr., Carl August [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    When an intense relativistic electron beams (IREB) passes through a grounded metal foil, the transverse electric field due to the beam space charge is locally shorted out, and the beam is focused by the magnetic field of its current. The effect can be treated as focusing by a thin lens with first order aberration. Expressions for the focal length and aberration coefficient of the equivalent thin lens are developed in this note. These are then applied to practical examples representative of IREB research at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  15. Generation of intense soft X-rays from capillary discharge plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    At Laser Plasma Division, RRCAT, a program on high voltage capillary discharge had been started. The system consists of a 400 kV Marx bank, water line capacitor, spark gap and capillary chamber. The initial results of the emission of intense short soft X-ray pulses (5–10 ns) from the capillary discharge are reported.

  16. Galilean relativistic fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Ván, Péter


    Single component Galilean-relativistic (nonrelativistic) fluids are treated independently of reference frames. The basic fields are given, their balances, thermodynamic relations and the entropy production is calculated. The usual relative basic fields, the mass, momentum and energy densities, the diffusion current density, the pressure tensor and the heat flux are the time- and spacelike components of the third order mass-momentum-energy density tensor according to a velocity field. The transformation rules of the basic fields are derived and prove that the non-equilibrium thermodynamic background theory, that is the Gibbs relation, extensivity condition and the entropy production is absolute, that is independent of the reference frame and also of the fluid velocity. --- Az egykomponensu Galilei-relativisztikus (azaz nemrelativisztikus) disszipativ folyadekokat vonatkoztatasi rendszertol fuggetlenul targyaljuk. Megadjuk az alapmennyisegeket, ezek merlegeit, a termodinamikai osszefuggeseket es kiszamoljuk az ...

  17. Relativistic gauge invariant potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J.J. (Valladolid Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica); Negro, J. (Valladolid Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica); Olmo, M.A. del (Valladolid Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica)


    A global method characterizing the invariant connections on an abelian principal bundle under a group of transformations is applied in order to get gauge invariant electromagnetic (elm.) potentials in a systematic way. So, we have classified all the elm. gauge invariant potentials under the Poincare subgroups of dimensions 4, 5, and 6, up to conjugation. It is paid attention in particular to the situation where these subgroups do not act transitively on the space-time manifold. We have used the same procedure for some galilean subgroups to get nonrelativistic potentials and study the way they are related to their relativistic partners by means of contractions. Some conformal gauge invariant potentials have also been derived and considered when they are seen as consequence of an enlargement of the Poincare symmetries. (orig.)

  18. Relativistic Light Sails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipping, David, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 W. 120th St., New York, NY 10027 (United States)


    One proposed method for spacecraft to reach nearby stars is by accelerating sails using either solar radiation pressure or directed energy. This idea constitutes the thesis behind the Breakthrough Starshot project, which aims to accelerate a gram-mass spacecraft up to one-fifth the speed of light toward Proxima Centauri. For such a case, the combination of the sail’s low mass and relativistic velocity renders previous treatments incorrect at the 10% level, including that of Einstein himself in his seminal 1905 paper introducing special relativity. To address this, we present formulae for a sail’s acceleration, first in response to a single photon and then extended to an ensemble. We show how the sail’s motion in response to an ensemble of incident photons is equivalent to that of a single photon of energy equal to that of the ensemble. We use this principle of ensemble equivalence for both perfect and imperfect mirrors, enabling a simple analytic prediction of the sail’s velocity curve. Using our results and adopting putative parameters for Starshot , we estimate that previous relativistic treatments underestimate the spacecraft’s terminal velocity by ∼10% for the same incident energy. Additionally, we use a simple model to predict the sail’s temperature and diffraction beam losses during the laser firing period; this allows us to estimate that, for firing times of a few minutes and operating temperatures below 300°C (573 K), Starshot will require a sail that absorbs less than one in 260,000 photons.

  19. Relativistic Light Sails (United States)

    Kipping, David


    One proposed method for spacecraft to reach nearby stars is by accelerating sails using either solar radiation pressure or directed energy. This idea constitutes the thesis behind the Breakthrough Starshot project, which aims to accelerate a gram-mass spacecraft up to one-fifth the speed of light toward Proxima Centauri. For such a case, the combination of the sail’s low mass and relativistic velocity renders previous treatments incorrect at the 10% level, including that of Einstein himself in his seminal 1905 paper introducing special relativity. To address this, we present formulae for a sail’s acceleration, first in response to a single photon and then extended to an ensemble. We show how the sail’s motion in response to an ensemble of incident photons is equivalent to that of a single photon of energy equal to that of the ensemble. We use this principle of ensemble equivalence for both perfect and imperfect mirrors, enabling a simple analytic prediction of the sail’s velocity curve. Using our results and adopting putative parameters for Starshot, we estimate that previous relativistic treatments underestimate the spacecraft’s terminal velocity by ˜10% for the same incident energy. Additionally, we use a simple model to predict the sail’s temperature and diffraction beam losses during the laser firing period; this allows us to estimate that, for firing times of a few minutes and operating temperatures below 300°C (573 K), Starshot will require a sail that absorbs less than one in 260,000 photons.

  20. Towards manipulating relativistic laser pulses with 3D printed materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, L L; Pukhov, A; Freeman, R R; Akli, K U


    Efficient coupling of intense laser pulses to solid-density matter is critical to many applications including ion acceleration for cancer therapy. At relativistic intensities, the focus has been mainly on investigating various laser beams irradiating initially flat interfaces with little or no control over the interaction. Here, we propose a novel approach that leverages recent advancements in 3D direct laser writing (DLW) of materials and high contrast lasers to manipulate the laser-matter interactions on the micro-scales. We demonstrate, via simulations, that usable intensities >10^23Wcm^(-2) could be achieved with current tabletop lasers coupled to 3D printed plasma lenses. We show that these plasma optical elements act not only as a lens to focus laser light, but also as an electromagnetic guide for secondary particle beams. These results open new paths to engineering light-matter interactions at ultra-relativistic intensities.

  1. Application of the multicriterion optimization techniques and hierarchy of computational models to the research of ion acceleration due to laser-plasma interaction (United States)

    Inovenkov, I. N.; Echkina, E. Yu.; Nefedov, V. V.; Ponomarenko, L. S.


    In this paper we discuss how a particles-in-cell computation code can be combined with methods of multicriterion optimization (in particular the Pareto optimal solutions of the multicriterion optimization problem) and a hierarchy of computational models approach to create an efficient tool for solving a wide array of problems related to the laser-plasma interaction. In case of the computational experiment the multicriterion optimization can be applied as follows: the researcher defines the objectives of the experiment - some computable scalar values (i.e. high kinetic energy of the ions leaving the domain, least possible number of electrons leaving domain in the given direction, etc). After that the parameters of the experiment which can be varied to achieve these objectives and the constrains on these parameters are chosen (e.g. amplitude and wave-length of the laser radiation, dimensions of the plasma slab(s)). The Pareto optimality of the vector of the parameters can be seen as this: x 0 is Pareto optimal if there exists no vector which would improve some criterion without causing a simultaneous degradation in at least one other criterion. These efficient set of parameter and constrains can be selected based on the preliminary calculations in the simplified models (one or two-dimensional) either analytical or numerical. The multistage computation of the Pareto set radically reduces the number of variants which are to be evaluated to achieve the given accuracy. During the final stage we further improve the results by recomputing some of the optimal variants on the finer grids, with more particles and/or in the frame of a more detailed model. As an example we have considered the ion acceleration caused by interaction of very intense and ultra-short laser pulses with plasmas and have calculated the optimal set of experiment parameters for optimizing number and average energy of high energy ions leaving the domain in the given direction and minimizing the expulsion

  2. Conductivity of a relativistic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braams, B.J.; Karney, C.F.F.


    The collision operator for a relativistic plasma is reformulated in terms of an expansion in spherical harmonics. This formulation is used to calculate the electrical conductivity. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Superposition as a Relativistic Filter (United States)

    Ord, G. N.


    By associating a binary signal with the relativistic worldline of a particle, a binary form of the phase of non-relativistic wavefunctions is naturally produced by time dilation. An analog of superposition also appears as a Lorentz filtering process, removing paths that are relativistically inequivalent. In a model that includes a stochastic component, the free-particle Schrödinger equation emerges from a completely relativistic context in which its origin and function is known. The result establishes the fact that the phase of wavefunctions in Schrödinger's equation and the attendant superposition principle may both be considered remnants of time dilation. This strongly argues that quantum mechanics has its origins in special relativity.

  4. Rapid Loss of Radiation Belt Relativistic Electrons by EMIC Waves (United States)

    Su, Zhenpeng; Gao, Zhonglei; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Wygant, J. R.


    How relativistic electrons are lost is an important question surrounding the complex dynamics of the Earth's outer radiation belt. Radial loss to the magnetopause and local loss to the atmosphere are two main competing paradigms. Here on the basis of the analysis of a radiation belt storm event on 27 February 2014, we present new evidence for the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave-driven local precipitation loss of relativistic electrons in the heart of the outer radiation belt. During the main phase of this storm, the radial profile of relativistic electron phase space density was quasi-monotonic, qualitatively inconsistent with the prediction of radial loss theory. The local loss at low L shells was required to prevent the development of phase space density peak resulting from the radial loss process at high L shells. The rapid loss of relativistic electrons in the heart of outer radiation belt was observed as a dip structure of the electron flux temporal profile closely related to intense EMIC waves. Our simulations further confirm that the observed EMIC waves within a quite limited longitudinal region were able to reduce the off-equatorially mirroring relativistic electron fluxes by up to 2 orders of magnitude within about 1.5 h.

  5. Particle sources with high-intensity lasers: a tool for plasma diagnostics and an innovative source for applications; Sources de particules avec des lasers de haute intensite: un outil pour les diagnostics plasma et une source innovante pour les applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzler, S


    This work is an experimental study on particle generation with high-intensity lasers. This document is divided into 4 parts, whereas the first is dedicated to theoretical basics of particle generation and acceleration mechanisms during relativistic laser plasma interactions, the 3 other parts cover experimental studies on neutron, electron as well as proton generation. In the first part basic laser and plasma characteristics will be introduced as well as physical processes of interest during the interaction of a relativistic high-intensity laser with an underdense / overdense plasma. In the second part we introduce methodological basics of neutron generation by D(d,n)He{sup 3} reactions since this can reveal information about ion kinetics and possible ion heating mechanisms in plasmas. Subsequently the set-up for this experiment, pursued in the underdense regime, will be described in detail. The experimental results will be discussed for the gas jet interaction as well as for the beam target model since it was deduced that plasma ions are heated during the interaction to fusion temperatures of about 1 keV. The third part describes the generation of an electron beam with an energy up to 200 MeV in a new regime termed 'forced laser Wakefield'. Here, the presented experimental results were for the first time fully explained and even extended by the numerical modelling of this interaction in terms of energy, yield, angular divergence, emittance as well as bunch length of this electron beam. In the last part we present a 10 MeV proton beam generation using foil targets and a 10 Hz laser. Again the kinematic simulation of this experiment is in agreement with the experimental results by means of yield and angular divergence.

  6. Stable and polarized Betatron x-ray radiation from a laser plasma accelerator in ionization injection regime

    CERN Document Server

    Doepp, Andreas; Doche, Antoine; Thaury, Cedric; Guillaume, Emilien; Lifschitz, Agustin; Grittani, Gabriele; Lund, Olle; Hansson, Martin; Gautier, Julien; Kozlova, Michaela; Goddet, Jean Philippe; Rousseau, Pascal; Tafzi, Amar; Malka, Victor; Rousse, Antoine; Corde, Sebastien; Phuoc, Kim Ta


    Betatron x-ray source from laser plasma interaction combines high brightness, few femtosecond duration and broad band energy spectrum. However, despite these unique features the Betatron source has a crippling drawback preventing its use for applications. Its properties significantly vary shot-to-shot and none of the developments performed so far resolved this problem. In this letter we present a simple method that allows to produce stable and bright Betatron x-ray beams. In addition, we demonstrate that this scheme provides polarized and easily tunable radiation. Experimental results show that the pointing stability is better than 10% of the beam divergence, with flux fluctuation of the order of 20% and a polarization degree reaching up to 80%

  7. Impact of a plasma channel on the emission of directed high-energy photons in laser-plasma interaction (United States)

    Jansen, Oliver; Wang, Tao; Toncian, Toma; Stark, David; D'Humieres, Emmanuel; Arefiev, Alexey


    Compact sources of directed high-energy photons are of great interest in current research. Common sources of high-energy photons include synchrotrons and other large and expensive accelerators. Laser-plasma interactions promise sources that are significantly smaller and cheaper than conventional ones. However, they come at the cost of producing either only small number of photons or very undirected ones. A recent study shows, that the use of a plasma channel is able to significantly mitigate these problems while producing a large number of high energy, well collimated photons. We provide an analysis on the physical processes, that lead to the formation of strong magnetic fields responsible for this improvement of emission. Furthermore, we investigate the channel properties in relation to a given laser pulse. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1632777. Simulations were performed with the EPOCH code using HPC resources provided by the TACC at the University of Texas.

  8. Relativistic multiwave Cerenkov generator (United States)

    Bugaev, S. P.; Kanavets, V. I.; Klimov, A. I.; Koshelev, V. I.; Cherepenin, V. A.


    The design and operation of a multiwave Cerenkov generator using a relativistic electron beam are reported. The device comprises a 3-cm-radius tubular graphite cathode fed with a 1-microsec 1-2.5-MW pulse from a Marx generator; a 5.6-cm-radius anode; an increasing 14-32-kG magnetic field; a 3.4-cm-aperture-radius graphite collimating iris; a stainless-steel semitoroidal-iris-loaded slow-wave structure of maximum length 48.6 cm, inside radius 4.2 cm, iris aperture radius 3.0 cm, iris minor radius 3 mm, and period 1.5 cm; a stainless-steel cone collector; and a vacuum-tight 60-cm-radius window. At 2.5 MV and 21 kG, output power at wavelength 3.15 + or - 0.1 cm is measured as about 5 GW, with baseline pulse length 30-50 nsec and efficiency up to about 10 percent.

  9. Relativistic Electron Vortices. (United States)

    Barnett, Stephen M


    The desire to push recent experiments on electron vortices to higher energies leads to some theoretical difficulties. In particular the simple and very successful picture of phase vortices of vortex charge ℓ associated with ℓℏ units of orbital angular momentum per electron is challenged by the facts that (i) the spin and orbital angular momentum are not separately conserved for a Dirac electron, which suggests that the existence of a spin-orbit coupling will complicate matters, and (ii) that the velocity of a Dirac electron is not simply the gradient of a phase as it is in the Schrödinger theory suggesting that, perhaps, electron vortices might not exist at a fundamental level. We resolve these difficulties by showing that electron vortices do indeed exist in the relativistic theory and show that the charge of such a vortex is simply related to a conserved orbital part of the total angular momentum, closely related to the familiar situation for the orbital angular momentum of a photon.

  10. Sarma phase in relativistic and non-relativistic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Boettcher


    Full Text Available We investigate the stability of the Sarma phase in two-component fermion systems in three spatial dimensions. For this purpose we compare strongly-correlated systems with either relativistic or non-relativistic dispersion relation: relativistic quarks and mesons at finite isospin density and spin-imbalanced ultracold Fermi gases. Using a Functional Renormalization Group approach, we resolve fluctuation effects onto the corresponding phase diagrams beyond the mean-field approximation. We find that fluctuations induce a second-order phase transition at zero temperature, and thus a Sarma phase, in the relativistic setup for large isospin chemical potential. This motivates the investigation of the cold atoms setup with comparable mean-field phase structure, where the Sarma phase could then be realized in experiment. However, for the non-relativistic system we find the stability region of the Sarma phase to be smaller than the one predicted from mean-field theory. It is limited to the BEC side of the phase diagram, and the unitary Fermi gas does not support a Sarma phase at zero temperature. Finally, we propose an ultracold quantum gas with four fermion species that has a good chance to realize a zero-temperature Sarma phase.

  11. Focusing of Intense Laser via Parabolic Plasma Concave Surface (United States)

    Zhou, Weimin; Gu, Yuqiu; Wu, Fengjuan; Zhang, Zhimeng; Shan, Lianqiang; Cao, Leifeng; Zhang, Baohan


    Since laser intensity plays an important role in laser plasma interactions, a method of increasing laser intensity - focusing of an intense laser via a parabolic plasma concave surface - is proposed and investigated by three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The geometric focusing via a parabolic concave surface and the temporal compression of high harmonics increased the peak intensity of the laser pulse by about two orders of magnitude. Compared with the improvement via laser optics approaches, this scheme is much more economic and appropriate for most femtosecond laser facilities. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11174259, 11175165), and the Dual Hundred Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics

  12. Relativistic hydrodynamic jets in the intracluster medium (United States)

    Choi, Eunwoo


    We have performed the first three-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of extragalactic jets of pure leptonic and baryonic plasma compositions propagating into a hydrostatic intracluster medium (ICM) environment. The numerical simulations use a general equation of state for a multicomponent relativistic gas, which closely reproduces the Synge equation of state for a relativistic perfect gas. We find that morphological and dynamical differences between leptonic and baryonic jets are much less evident than those between hot and cold jets. In all these models, the jets first propagate with essentially constant velocities within the core radius of the ICM and then accelerate progressively so as to increase the jet advance velocity by a factor of between 1.2 and 1.6 at the end of simulations, depending upon the models. The temporal evolution of the average cavity pressure is not consistent with that expected by the extended theoretical model even if the average cavity pressure decreases as a function of time with a power law. Our simulations produce synthetic radio images that are dominated by bright hot spots and appear similar to observations of the extended radio galaxies with collimated radio jets. These bright radio lobes would be visible as dark regions in X-ray images and are morphologically similar to observed X-ray cavities in the ICM. This supports the expectation that the bow shock surrounding the head of the jet is important mechanism for producing X-ray cavities in the ICM. Although there are quantitative differences among the models, the total radio and X-ray intensity curves show qualitatively similar trends in all of them.

  13. Brilliant radiation sources by laser-plasma accelerators and optical undulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debus, Alexander


    This thesis investigates the use of high-power lasers for synchrotron radiation sources with high brilliance, from the EUV to the hard X-ray spectral range. Hereby lasers accelerate electrons by laser-wakefield acceleration (LWFA), act as optical undulators, or both. Experimental evidence shows for the first time that LWFA electron bunches are shorter than the driving laser and have a length scale comparable to the plasma wavelength. Furthermore, a first proof of principle experiment demonstrates that LWFA electrons can be exploited to generate undulator radiation. Building upon these experimental findings, as well as extensive numerical simulations of Thomson scattering, the theoretical foundations of a novel interaction geometry for laser-matter interaction are developed. This new method is very general and when tailored towards relativistically moving targets not being limited by the focusability (Rayleigh length) of the laser, while it does not require a waveguide. In a theoretical investigation of Thomson scattering, the optical analogue of undulator radiation, the limits of Thomson sources in scaling towards higher peak brilliances are highlighted. This leads to a novel method for generating brilliant, highly tunable X-ray sources, which is highly energy efficient by circumventing the laser Rayleigh limit through a novel traveling-wave Thomson scattering (TWTS) geometry. This new method suggests increases in X-ray photon yields of 2-3 orders of magnitudes using existing lasers and a way towards efficient, optical undulators to drive a free-electron laser. The results presented here extend far beyond the scope of this work. The possibility to use lasers as particle accelerators, as well as optical undulators, leads to very compact and energy efficient synchrotron sources. The resulting monoenergetic radiation of high brilliance in a range from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) to hard X-ray radiation is of fundamental importance for basic research, medical

  14. Efficient multi-keV X-ray generation from high-contrast laser plasma interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Z.


    Full Text Available Kα line emission from Mo was experimentally and theoretically studied using clean, ultrahigh-intensity femtosecond laser pulses. The absolute yields of Kα x-rays at 17 keV from Mo were measured as a function of the laser pulse contrast ratio and irradiation intensity. Significantly enhanced Kα yields were obtained by employing high contrast ratio at optimum irradiance. Conversion efficiencies of 4.28 × 10−5/sr, the highest values obtained to date, was demonstrated with contrast ratios in the range of 10−10 to 10−11.

  15. Experiments with stored relativistic exotic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geissel, H.; Radon, T.; Attallah, F. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)] [and others


    Beams of relativistic exotic nuclei were produced, separated and investigated with the combination of the fragment separator FRS and the storage ring ESR. The following experiments are presented: (1) Direct mass measurements of relativistic nickel and bismuth projectile fragments were performed using Schottky spectrometry. Applying electron cooling, the relative velocity spread of the circulating secondary nuclear beams of low intensity was reduced to below 10{sup -6}. The achieved mass resolving power of m/{Delta}m = 6.5 . 10{sup 5} (FWHM) in recent measurements represents an improvement by a factor of two compared to our previous experiments. The previously unknown masses of more than 100 proton-rich isotopes have been measured in the range of 54 {<=} Z {<=} 84. The results are compared with mass models and estimated values based on extrapolations of experimental values. (2) Exotic nuclei with half-lives shorter than the time required for electron cooling can be investigated by time-of-flight measurements with the ESR being operated in the isochronous mode. This novel experimental technique has been successfully applied in a first measurement with nickel fragments. A mass resolving power of m/{Delta}m = 1.5 . 10{sup 5} (FWHM) was achieved in this mode of operation. (3) Nuclear half-lives of stored and cooled bare projectile fragments have been measured to study the influence of the ionic charge state on the beta-decay probability. (orig.)

  16. Magnetic Field Structure in Relativistic Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jermak Helen


    Full Text Available Relativistic jets are ubiquitous when considering an accreting black hole. Two of the most extreme examples of these systems are blazars and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs, the jets of which are thought to be threaded with a magnetic field of unknown structure. The systems are made up of a black hole accreting matter and producing, as a result, relativistic jets of plasma from the poles of the black hole. Both systems are viewed as point sources from Earth, making it impossible to spatially resolve the jet. In order to explore the structure of the magnetic field within the jet we take polarisation measurements with the RINGO polarimeters on the world’s largest fully autonomous, robotic optical telescope: The Liverpool Telescope. Using the polarisation degree and angle measured by the RINGO polarimeters it is possible to distinguish between global magnetic fields created in the central engine and random tangled magnetic fields produced locally in shocks. We also monitor blazar sources regularly during quiescence with periods of flaring monitored more intensively. Reported here are the early polarisation results for GRBs 060418 and 090102, along with future prospects for the Liverpool Telescope and the RINGO polarimeters.

  17. Resonant enhancement of relativistic electron fluxes during geomagnetically active periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Roth

    Full Text Available The strong increase in the flux of relativistic electrons during the recovery phase of magnetic storms and during other active periods is investigated with the help of Hamiltonian formalism and simulations of test electrons which interact with whistler waves. The intensity of the whistler waves is enhanced significantly due to injection of 10-100 keV electrons during the substorm. Electrons which drift in the gradient and curvature of the magnetic field generate the rising tones of VLF whistler chorus. The seed population of relativistic electrons which bounce along the inhomogeneous magnetic field, interacts resonantly with the whistler waves. Whistler wave propagating obliquely to the magnetic field can interact with energetic electrons through Landau, cyclotron, and higher harmonic resonant interactions when the Doppler-shifted wave frequency equals any (positive or negative integer multiple of the local relativistic gyrofrequency. Because the gyroradius of a relativistic electron may be the order of or greater than the perpendicular wavelength, numerous cyclotron, harmonics can contribute to the resonant interaction which breaks down the adiabatic invariant. A similar process diffuses the pitch angle leading to electron precipitation. The irreversible changes in the adiabatic invariant depend on the relative phase between the wave and the electron, and successive resonant interactions result in electrons undergoing a random walk in energy and pitch angle. This resonant process may contribute to the 10-100 fold increase of the relativistic electron flux in the outer radiation belt, and constitute an interesting relation between substorm-generated waves and enhancements in fluxes of relativistic electrons during geomagnetic storms and other active periods.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles · trapped; plasma waves and instabilities; storms and substorms

  18. The relativistic feedback discharge model of terrestrial gamma ray flashes (United States)

    Dwyer, Joseph R.


    As thunderclouds charge, the large-scale fields may approach the relativistic feedback threshold, above which the production of relativistic runaway electron avalanches becomes self-sustaining through the generation of backward propagating runaway positrons and backscattered X-rays. Positive intracloud (IC) lightning may force the large-scale electric fields inside thunderclouds above the relativistic feedback threshold, causing the number of runaway electrons, and the resulting X-ray and gamma ray emission, to grow exponentially, producing very large fluxes of energetic radiation. As the flux of runaway electrons increases, ionization eventually causes the electric field to discharge, bringing the field below the relativistic feedback threshold again and reducing the flux of runaway electrons. These processes are investigated with a new model that includes the production, propagation, diffusion, and avalanche multiplication of runaway electrons; the production and propagation of X-rays and gamma rays; and the production, propagation, and annihilation of runaway positrons. In this model, referred to as the relativistic feedback discharge model, the large-scale electric fields are calculated self-consistently from the charge motion of the drifting low-energy electrons and ions, produced from the ionization of air by the runaway electrons, including two- and three-body attachment and recombination. Simulation results show that when relativistic feedback is considered, bright gamma ray flashes are a natural consequence of upward +IC lightning propagating in large-scale thundercloud fields. Furthermore, these flashes have the same time structures, including both single and multiple pulses, intensities, angular distributions, current moments, and energy spectra as terrestrial gamma ray flashes, and produce large current moments that should be observable in radio waves.

  19. Relativistic quantum mechanics wave equations

    CERN Document Server

    Greiner, Walter


    Relativistic Quantum Mechanics - Wave Equations concentrates mainly on the wave equations for spin-0 and spin-12 particles Chapter 1 deals with the Klein-Gordon equation and its properties and applications The chapters that follow introduce the Dirac equation, investigate its covariance properties and present various approaches to obtaining solutions Numerous applications are discussed in detail, including the two-center Dirac equation, hole theory, CPT symmetry, Klein's paradox, and relativistic symmetry principles Chapter 15 presents the relativistic wave equations for higher spin (Proca, Rarita-Schwinger, and Bargmann-Wigner) The extensive presentation of the mathematical tools and the 62 worked examples and problems make this a unique text for an advanced quantum mechanics course

  20. Non-Relativistic Superstring Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bom Soo


    We construct a supersymmetric version of the 'critical' non-relativistic bosonic string theory [1] with its manifest global symmetry. We introduce the anticommuting bc CFT which is the super partner of the {beta}{gamma} CFT. The conformal weights of the b and c fields are both 1/2. The action of the fermionic sector can be transformed into that of the relativistic superstring theory. We explicitly quantize the theory with manifest SO(8) symmetry and find that the spectrum is similar to that of Type IIB superstring theory. There is one notable difference: the fermions are non-chiral. We further consider 'noncritical' generalizations of the supersymmetric theory using the superspace formulation. There is an infinite range of possible string theories similar to the supercritical string theories. We comment on the connection between the critical non-relativistic string theory and the lightlike Linear Dilaton theory.

  1. Relativistic EOS for supernova simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen H.


    Full Text Available We study the relativistic equation of state (EOS of dense matter covering a wide range of temperature, proton fraction, and baryon density for the use of supernova simulations. This work is based on the relativistic mean-field theory (RMF and the Thomas-Fermi approximation. The Thomas-Fermi approximation in combination with assumed nucleon distribution functions and a free energy minimization is adopted to describe the non-uniform matter, which is composed of a lattice of heavy nuclei. We treat the uniform matter and non-uniform matter consistently using the same RMF theory. We compare the EOS tables in detail.

  2. Frontiers in relativistic celestial mechanics

    CERN Document Server


    Relativistic celestial mechanics – investigating the motion celestial bodies under the influence of general relativity – is a major tool of modern experimental gravitational physics. With a wide range of prominent authors from the field, this two-volume series consists of reviews on a multitude of advanced topics in the area of relativistic celestial mechanics – starting from more classical topics such as the regime of asymptotically-flat spacetime, light propagation and celestial ephemerides, but also including its role in cosmology and alternative theories of gravity as well as modern experiments in this area.

  3. Relativistic stellar models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We obtain a class of solutions to the Einstein–Maxwell equations describing charged static spheres. Upon specifying particular forms for one of the gravitational potentials and the electric field intensity, the condition for pressure isotropy is transformed into a hypergeometric equation with two free parameters.

  4. Transport models for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at Relativistic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review the transport models that are widely used to study the properties of the quark-gluon plasma formed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. We show that transport model analysis of two important and complementary observables, the anisotropic flow of bulk hadrons and suppression of ...

  5. Quantum Geometry: Relativistic energy approach to cooperative electron-nucleary-transition spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Юрьевна Хецелиус


    Full Text Available An advanced relativistic energy approach is presented and applied to calculating parameters of electron-nuclear 7-transition spectra of nucleus in the atom. The intensities of the spectral satellites are defined in the relativistic version of the energy approach (S-matrix formalism, and gauge-invariant quantum-electrodynamical perturbation theory with the Dirac-Kohn-Sham density-functional zeroth approximation.

  6. Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Relativistic heavy-ion collisions; fluctuation phenomena; relativistic diffusion model; net-proton rapidly ... cients on the available relativistic energy, results at 40 A•GeV/c are obtained. Extrapolat- ing to higher ... proached for times t ^τs larger than the time τs that is characteristic for strong coupling. – when all secondary ...

  7. Radiation of relativistic electrons in a periodic wire structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soboleva, V.V., E-mail:; Naumenko, G.A.; Bleko, V.V.


    We present in this work the experimental investigation of the interaction of relativistic electron field with periodic wire structures. We used two types of the targets in experiments: flat wire target and sandwich wire target that represent the right triangular prism. The measurements were done in millimeter wavelength region (10–40 mm) on the relativistic electron beam with energy of 6.2 MeV in far-field zone. We showed that bunched electron beam passing near wire metamaterial prism generates coherent Cherenkov radiation. The experiments with flat wire target were carried out in two geometries. In the first geometry the electron beam passed close to the flat wire target surface. In the second case the electron beam passed through the flat wire structure with generation of a coherent backward transition radiation (CBTR). The comparison of the Cherenkov radiation intensity and BTR intensity from the flat wire target and from the flat conductive target (conventional BTR) was made.

  8. Particle-in-Cell Simulation of Laser Plasma Interactions in Multiple Speckles with Temporal Bandwidth (United States)

    Wen, Han; Winjum, Benjamin; Tsung, Frank; Miller, Kyle; Tableman, Adam; Mori, Warren


    The widely used laser-smoothing techniques introduce small-scale structures (speckles) with higher-than-average intensities. The stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) instability is more likely to growth in the intense speckles. On the other hand, if the temporal bandwidth of the laser is comparable to the growth rate of SRS, the SRS may be reduced. To study the interaction of SRS and time-varying laser speckles in kinetic regimes, a general laser antenna has been implemented in particle-in-cell (PIC) code OSIRIS. This antenna is capable of modeling smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD), induced spatial incoherence (ISI), and spike train of uneven duration and delay (STUD) pulse. Preliminary results of SRS affected by different laser-smoothing techniques are discussed. This Work is supported by NSF and DOE.

  9. High quality electron bunch generation with CO2-laser-plasma interaction (United States)

    Zhang, Lingang; Shen, Baifei; Xu, Jiancai; Ji, Liangliang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Wang, Wenpeng; Zhao, Xueyan; Yi, Longqing; Yu, Yahong; Shi, Yin; Xu, Tongjun; Xu, Zhizhan


    CO2 laser-driven electron acceleration in low-density plasma is demonstrated using particle-in-cell simulation. An intense CO2 laser pulse of long wavelength excites a wake bubble that has a large elongated volume for accelerating a large number of electrons before reaching the charge saturation limit. A transversely injected laser pulse is used to induce and control the electron injection. It is found that an electron bunch with total charge up to 10 nC and absolute energy spread less than 16 MeV can be obtained. As a result, the charge per energy interval of the bunch reaches up to 0.6 nC/MeV. Intense CO2-laser based electron acceleration can provide a new direction for generating highly charged electron bunches with low energy spread, which is of much current interest, especially for table-top X-ray generation.

  10. High quality electron bunch generation with CO2-laser plasma accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, L G; Xu, J C; Ji, L L; Zhang, X M; Wang, W P; Zhao, X Y; Yi, L Q; Yu, Y H; Shi, Y; Xu, T J; Xu, Z Z


    CO2 laser-driven electron acceleration is demonstrated with particle-in-cell simulation in low-density plasma. An intense CO2 laser pulse with long wavelength excites wakefield. The bubble behind it has a broad space to sustain a large amount of electrons before reaching its charge saturation limit. A transversely propagating inject pulse is used to induce and control the ambient electron injection. The accelerated electron bunch with total charge up to 10 nC and the average charge per energy interval of more than 0.6 nC/MeV are obtained. Plasma-based electron acceleration driven by intense CO2 laser provides a new potential way to generate high-charge electron bunch with low energy spread, which has broad applications, especially for X-ray generation by table-top FEL and bremsstrahlung.

  11. Novel Single-Shot Diagnostics for Electrons from Laser-Plasma Interaction at SPARC_LAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Bisesto


    Full Text Available Nowadays, plasma wakefield acceleration is the most promising acceleration technique for compact and cheap accelerators, needed in several fields, e.g., novel compact light sources for industrial and medical applications. Indeed, the high electric field available in plasma structures (>100 GV/m allows for accelerating electrons at the GeV energy scale in a few centimeters. Nevertheless, this approach still suffers from shot-to-shot instabilities, mostly related to experimental parameter fluctuations, e.g., laser intensity and plasma density. Therefore, single shot diagnostics are crucial in order to properly understand the acceleration mechanism. In this regard, at the SPARC_LAB Test Facility, we have developed two diagnostic tools to investigate properties of electrons coming from high intensity laser–matter interaction: one relying on Electro Optical Sampling (EOS for the measurement of the temporal profile of the electric field carried by fast electrons generated by a high intensity laser hitting a solid target, the other one based on Optical Transition Radiation (OTR for single shot measurements of the transverse emittance. In this work, the basic principles of both diagnostics will be presented as well as the experimental results achieved by means of the SPARC high brightness photo-injector and the high power laser FLAME.

  12. Relativistic harmonics for turbulent wakefield diagnostics (United States)

    Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Chen, Shih-Hung


    The propagation properties of relativistic harmonics excited in a plasma with an intense laser pulse is investigated theoretically and numerically. Focusing on the frequency separation, a cold electron fluid model in two spatial dimension is discussed to obtain the harmonic amplitude. The theoretical predictions are verified by performing particle-in-cell simulations in two spatial dimensions. When the laser amplitude is large, the strong ponderomotive force expels the electrons, creating a large amplitude density structures associated with the wakefield. The harmonics propagate obliquely with respect to the laser propagation direction, which is well represented by the structure of the high density layer resulting from the transverse poderomotive force. We also discuss a possible experimental setup to observe the density structures relevant to wakefield.

  13. Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science II

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Agostini, Pierre; Ferrante, Gaetano


    This book series addresses a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field, Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science. Its progress is being stimulated by the recent development of ultrafast laser technologies. Highlights of this second volume include Coulomb explosion and fragmentation of molecules, control of chemical dynamics, high-order harmonic generation, propagation and filamentation, and laser-plasma interaction. All chapters are authored by foremost experts in their fields and the texts are written at a level accessible to newcomers and graduate students, each chapter beginning with an introductory overview.

  14. Modeling terrestrial gamma ray flashes produced by relativistic feedback discharges (United States)

    Liu, Ningyu; Dwyer, Joseph R.


    This paper reports a modeling study of terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) produced by relativistic feedback discharges. Terrestrial gamma ray flashes are intense energetic radiation originating from the Earth's atmosphere that has been observed by spacecraft. They are produced by bremsstrahlung interactions of energetic electrons, known as runaway electrons, with air atoms. An efficient physical mechanism for producing large fluxes of the runaway electrons to make the TGFs is the relativistic feedback discharge, where seed runaway electrons are generated by positrons and X-rays, products of the discharge itself. Once the relativistic feedback discharge becomes self-sustaining, an exponentially increasing number of relativistic electron avalanches propagate through the same high-field region inside the thundercloud until the electric field is partially discharged by the ionization created by the discharge. The modeling results indicate that the durations of the TGF pulses produced by the relativistic feedback discharge vary from tens of microseconds to several milliseconds, encompassing all durations of the TGFs observed so far. In addition, when a sufficiently large potential difference is available in thunderclouds, a self-propagating discharge known as the relativistic feedback streamer can be formed, which propagates like a conventional positive streamer. For the relativistic feedback streamer, the positive feedback mechanism of runaway electron production by the positrons and X-rays plays a similar role as the photoionization for the conventional positive streamer. The simulation results of the relativistic feedback streamer show that a sequence of TGF pulses with varying durations can be produced by the streamer. The relativistic streamer may initially propagate with a pulsed manner and turn into a continuous propagation mode at a later stage. Milliseconds long TGF pulses can be produced by the feedback streamer during its continuous propagation. However

  15. Katherine E. Weimer Award: X-ray light sources from laser-plasma and laser-electron interaction: development and applications (United States)

    Albert, Felicie


    Bright sources of x-rays, such as synchrotrons and x-ray free electron lasers (XFEL) are transformational tools for many fields of science. They are used for biology, material science, medicine, or industry. Such sources rely on conventional particle accelerators, where electrons are accelerated to gigaelectronvolts (GeV) energies. The accelerated particles are wiggled in magnetic structures to emit x-ray radiation that is commonly used for molecular crystallography, fluorescence studies, chemical analysis, medical imaging, and many other applications. One of the drawbacks of these machines is their size and cost, because electric field gradients are limited to about 100 V/M in conventional accelerators. Particle acceleration in laser-driven plasmas is an alternative to generate x-rays via betatron emission, Compton scattering, or bremsstrahlung. A plasma can sustain electrical fields many orders of magnitude higher than that in conventional radiofrequency accelerator structures. When short, intense laser pulses are focused into a gas, it produces electron plasma waves in which electrons can be trapped and accelerated to GeV energies. X-ray sources, driven by electrons from laser-wakefield acceleration, have unique properties that are analogous to synchrotron radiation, with a 1000-fold shorter pulse. An important use of x-rays from laser plasma accelerators is in High Energy Density (HED) science, which requires laser and XFEL facilities to create in the laboratory extreme conditions of temperatures and pressures that are usually found in the interiors of stars and planets. To diagnose such extreme states of matter, the development of efficient, versatile and fast (sub-picosecond scale) x-ray probes has become essential. In these experiments, x-ray photons can pass through dense material, and absorption of the x-rays can be directly measured, via spectroscopy or imaging, to inform scientists about the temperature and density of the targets being studied. Performed

  16. Future relativistic heavy ion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, H.G.


    Equations of state for nuclear matter and ongoing experimental studies are discussed. Relativistic heavy ion physics is the only opportunity to study in the laboratory the properties of extended multiquark systems under conditions such that quarks might run together into new arrangements previously unobserved. Several lines of further study are mentioned. (GHT)

  17. Revisiting non-relativistic limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Kristan [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, SUNY Stony Brook,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840 (United States); Karch, Andreas [Department of Physics, University of Washington,Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)


    We show that the full spurionic symmetry of Galilean-invariant field theories can be deduced when those theories are the limits of relativistic parents. Under the limit, the non-relativistic daughter couples to Newton-Cartan geometry together with all of the symmetries advocated in previous work, including the recently revived Milne boosts. Our limit is a covariant version of the usual one, where we start with a gapped relativistic theory with a conserved charge, turn on a chemical potential equal to the rest mass of the lightest charged state, and then zoom in to the low energy sector. This procedure gives a simple physical interpretation for the Milne boosts. Our methods even apply when there is a magnetic moment, which is known to modify the non-relativistic symmetry transformations. We focus on two examples. Free scalars are used to demonstrate the basic procedure, whereas hydrodynamics is used in order to exhibit the power of this approach in a fully dynamical setting, correcting several inaccuracies in the existing literature.

  18. Low-temperature atmospheric pressure argon plasma treatment and hybrid laser-plasma ablation of barite crown and heavy flint glass. (United States)

    Gerhard, Christoph; Roux, Sophie; Brückner, Stephan; Wieneke, Stephan; Viöl, Wolfgang


    We report on atmospheric pressure argon plasma-based surface treatment and hybrid laser-plasma ablation of barite crown glass N-BaK4 and heavy flint glass SF5. By pure plasma treatment, a significant surface smoothing, as well as an increase in both the surface energy and the strength of the investigated glass surfaces, was achieved. It was shown that for both glasses, hybrid laser plasma ablation allows an increase in the ablation depth by a factor of 2.1 with respect to pure laser ablation. The ablated volume was increased by an averaged factor of 1.5 for N-BaK4 and 3.7 for SF5.

  19. The Controlling Parameters for EMIC Wave Scattering of Relativistic Electrons (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R. M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bortnik, J.


    Although there is growing support for relativistic electron losses due to precipitation from electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave scattering, this mechanism is yet to be quantified. Such a quantification has been difficult in the past, because equatorial electron measurements simultaneous with EMIC waves have been limited, due to the highly localized presence of EMIC waves in the magnetosphere. In this study, we examine parameters controlling characteristics of EMIC wave induced relativistic (0.3-6 MeV) electron scattering, directly based on simultaneous wave and particle measurements from Van Allen Probes. We first present a case study when relativistic electrons respond differently during two intervals of intense ( 1 nT) EMIC wave observations: one with no scattering signature and one with efficient electron losses at >1.8 MeV. Based on the observed EMIC wave spectra and background plasma conditions, we calculate the wave diffusion rates and model the evolution of electron pitch angle distributions. By comparing the modeled results with local observations of pitch angle distributions, we demonstrate that fpe/fce is critical in controlling the effectiveness of EMIC waves in scattering multi-MeV electrons. We then expand our analysis to explore the conditions (such as fpe/fce, wave frequency spectra, and ring current ion temperature and anisotropy levels) favorable for EMIC wave scattering multi-MeV electrons through multi-event analyses. Our study is important for accurately modeling relativistic electron loss processes in radiation belt electron forecasts.

  20. Optical Probing of CO2 Laser-Plasma Interactions at Near Critical Density


    Gong, Chao


    The interaction of a high-power laser beam with plasma has been explored extensively in the context of laser-driven fusion, plasma-based acceleration of ions and electrons and high energy-density physics. One of the fundamental processes common to all these studies is the penetration of intense light into a dense matter through the hole boring effect and self-induced transparency. Light with a given wavelength will be reflected once the electron density equals the critical electron plasma d...

  1. Proceedings of the first JAERI-Kansai international workshop on ultrashort-pulse ultrahigh-power lasers and simulation for laser-plasma interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Records of the First JAERI-Kansai International Workshop, which focused on the subject of `Ultrashort-Pulse Ultrahigh-Power Lasers and Simulation for Laser-Plasma Interactions`, are contained in this issue. The First JAERI-Kansai International Workshop was held as Joint ICFA/JAERI-Kansai International Workshop `97 with International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA). This report consists of 24 contributed papers. (J.P.N.)

  2. Operating plasma density issues on large-scale laser-plasma accelerators toward high-energy frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhisa Nakajima


    Full Text Available Consideration of laser-driven plasma-based electron/positron accelerators with a 2 TeV center-of-mass energy is presented, employing a multistaging scheme consisting of successive multi-GeV laser wakefield accelerators operated at the plasma density range of 10^{15}–10^{18}  cm^{-3} in the quasilinear regime. A total accelerator length is determined by an operating plasma density and a coupling distance allowed for both laser and beam focusing systems. We investigate beam dynamics and synchrotron radiation due to the betatron oscillation of the beam in laser-plasma acceleration, characterizing the beam qualities such as energy spread and transverse emittance. According to the criteria on the beam qualities for applications and available laser sources, the operating plasma density will be optimized. We note that in the low density operation the required wall-plug power for the laser driver will be much reduced in comparison with the high-density options.

  3. Three-fluid model for critical surface structure in laser-plasma systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stellingwerf, R.; Longmire, C.; Alme, M.


    A simple three-fluid model has been developed to describe the critical surface structure for cases in which an abrupt density jump causes resonant absorption to be the dominant absorption mechanism. In this model, ions, thermal electrons, and superthermal electrons interact in a rarefaction wave induced by the three-temperature equation of state and the ponderomotive force of the laser beam. Scaling laws from particle-in-cell calculations are used to simulate the effects of resonant absorption. The three temperatures characterizing the problem result in four distinct laser intensity regimes. Simple expressions are derived for the induced static potential, ion velocity, density, and temperature in three of these regimes. It is shown that these results agree with recent two-dimensional simulation studies. The model provides a critical surface momentum flux condition well-suited for implementation in a one-dimensional implosion code.

  4. Anomalous broadening and shift of emission lines in a femtosecond laser plasma filament in air (United States)

    Ilyin, A. A.; Golik, S. S.; Shmirko, K. A.; Mayor, A. Yu.; Proschenko, D. Yu.


    The temporal evolution of the width and shift of N I 746.8 and O I 777.4 nm lines is investigated in a filament plasma produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse (0.9 mJ, 48 fs). The nitrogen line shift and width are determined by the joint action of electron impact shift and the far-off resonance AC Stark effect. The intensive (I = 1.2·1010 W/cm2) electric field of ASE (amplified spontaneous emission) and post-pulses result in a possible LS coupling break for the O I 3p 5P level and the generation of Rabi sidebands. The blueshifted main femtosecond pulse and Rabi sideband cause the stimulated emission of the N2 1+ system. The maximal widths of emission lines are approximately 6.7 times larger than the calculated Stark widths.

  5. Magnetic turbulence in a table-top laser-plasma relevant to astrophysical scenarios (United States)

    Chatterjee, Gourab; Schoeffler, Kevin M.; Kumar Singh, Prashant; Adak, Amitava; Lad, Amit D.; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, Predhiman; Silva, Luis O.; Das, Amita; Kumar, G. Ravindra


    Turbulent magnetic fields abound in nature, pervading astrophysical, solar, terrestrial and laboratory plasmas. Understanding the ubiquity of magnetic turbulence and its role in the universe is an outstanding scientific challenge. Here, we report on the transition of magnetic turbulence from an initially electron-driven regime to one dominated by ion-magnetization in a laboratory plasma produced by an intense, table-top laser. Our observations at the magnetized ion scale of the saturated turbulent spectrum bear a striking resemblance with spacecraft measurements of the solar wind magnetic-field spectrum, including the emergence of a spectral kink. Despite originating from diverse energy injection sources (namely, electrons in the laboratory experiment and ion free-energy sources in the solar wind), the turbulent spectra exhibit remarkable parallels. This demonstrates the independence of turbulent spectral properties from the driving source of the turbulence and highlights the potential of small-scale, table-top laboratory experiments for investigating turbulence in astrophysical environments.

  6. Coulomb-driven energy boost of heavy ions for laser-plasma acceleration. (United States)

    Braenzel, J; Andreev, A A; Platonov, K; Klingsporn, M; Ehrentraut, L; Sandner, W; Schnürer, M


    An unprecedented increase of kinetic energy of laser accelerated heavy ions is demonstrated. Ultrathin gold foils have been irradiated by an ultrashort laser pulse at a peak intensity of 8×10^{19}  W/  cm^{2}. Highly charged gold ions with kinetic energies up to >200  MeV and a bandwidth limited energy distribution have been reached by using 1.3 J laser energy on target. 1D and 2D particle in cell simulations show how a spatial dependence on the ion's ionization leads to an enhancement of the accelerating electrical field. Our theoretical model considers a spatial distribution of the ionization inside the thin target, leading to a field enhancement for the heavy ions by Coulomb explosion. It is capable of explaining the energy boost of highly charged ions, enabling a higher efficiency for the laser-driven heavy ion acceleration.

  7. Density measurement in a laser-plasma-accelerator capillary using Raman scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Weineisen


    Full Text Available Laser wakefield accelerators have shown 1 GeV electron beams with some 10 pC charge from centimeter-length gas capillaries. The electrons are accelerated by the field of a plasma wave trailing an intense laser pulse. For improving the stability, electron injection and acceleration should be separated. One possible scheme is self-injection with a plasma density gradient and subsequent acceleration at constant density. This can be realized by embedding a high-density gas jet into a capillary. A critical parameter for this scheme to work is the realization of a specific density gradient, therefore a robust measurement is desirable. A new method utilizing the density dependence of Raman scattering has been used to characterize the high-density region of a neutral gas within a capillary with a few ten micrometer longitudinal resolution. This allowed us to measure a density drop of a factor of 4 within 200 micrometers.

  8. Dynamics of ultrafast laser plasma expansion in the presence of an ambient (United States)

    Farid, N.; Harilal, S. S.; Ding, H.; Hassanein, A.


    We investigated the role of ambient gas pressure on the expansion and the emission features during ultrafast laser ablation of metal target. Plasma plumes were generated using 800 nm, 40 fs laser pulses on a copper target and the ambient air pressure was varied more than seven orders (1 × 10-5 - 760 Torr) of magnitude. Fast-gated images showed a complex interaction between the plume and ambient leading to changes in the plume geometry with pressure as well as time. The ambient pressure levels are found to affect both the line intensities and broadening along with signal to noise (S/N) and signal to background (S/B) ratios. The optimum pressure condition for analytical applications is found to be ˜100 Torr.

  9. Laser-plasma SXR/EUV sources: adjustment of radiation parameters for specific applications (United States)

    Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Fok, T.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Szczurek, A.; Szczurek, M.; Wachulak, P.; Wegrzyński, Ł.


    In this work soft X-ray (SXR) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) laser-produced plasma (LPP) sources employing Nd:YAG laser systems of different parameters are presented. First of them is a 10-Hz EUV source, based on a double-stream gaspuff target, irradiated with the 3-ns/0.8J laser pulse. In the second one a 10 ns/10 J/10 Hz laser system is employed and the third one utilizes the laser system with the pulse shorten to approximately 1 ns. Using various gases in the gas puff targets it is possible to obtain intense radiation in different wavelength ranges. This way intense continuous radiation in a wide spectral range as well as quasi-monochromatic radiation was produced. To obtain high EUV or SXR fluence the radiation was focused using three types of grazing incidence collectors and a multilayer Mo/Si collector. First of them is a multfoil gold plated collector consisted of two orthogonal stacks of ellipsoidal mirrors forming a double-focusing device. The second one is the ellipsoidal collector being part of the axisymmetrical ellipsoidal surface. Third of the collectors is composed of two aligned axisymmetrical paraboloidal mirrors optimized for focusing of SXR radiation. The last collector is an off-axis ellipsoidal multilayer Mo/Si mirror allowing for efficient focusing of the radiation in the spectral region centered at λ = 13.5 ± 0.5 nm. In this paper spectra of unaltered EUV or SXR radiation produced in different LPP source configurations together with spectra and fluence values of focused radiation are presented. Specific configurations of the sources were assigned to various applications.

  10. Relativistic quantum mechanics an introduction to relativistic quantum fields

    CERN Document Server

    Maiani, Luciano


    Written by two of the world's leading experts on particle physics and the standard model - including an award-winning former Director General of CERN - this textbook provides a completely up-to-date account of relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. It describes the formal and phenomenological aspects of the standard model of particle physics, and is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students studying both theoretical and experimental physics.

  11. Three electron beams from a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator and the energy apportioning question. (United States)

    Yang, X; Brunetti, E; Gil, D Reboredo; Welsh, G H; Li, F Y; Cipiccia, S; Ersfeld, B; Grant, D W; Grant, P A; Islam, M R; Tooley, M P; Vieux, G; Wiggins, S M; Sheng, Z M; Jaroszynski, D A


    Laser-wakefield accelerators are compact devices capable of delivering ultra-short electron bunches with pC-level charge and MeV-GeV energy by exploiting the ultra-high electric fields arising from the interaction of intense laser pulses with plasma. We show experimentally and through numerical simulations that a high-energy electron beam is produced simultaneously with two stable lower-energy beams that are ejected in oblique and counter-propagating directions, typically carrying off 5-10% of the initial laser energy. A MeV, 10s nC oblique beam is ejected in a 30°-60° hollow cone, which is filled with more energetic electrons determined by the injection dynamics. A nC-level, 100s keV backward-directed beam is mainly produced at the leading edge of the plasma column. We discuss the apportioning of absorbed laser energy amongst the three beams. Knowledge of the distribution of laser energy and electron beam charge, which determine the overall efficiency, is important for various applications of laser-wakefield accelerators, including the development of staged high-energy accelerators.

  12. Three electron beams from a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator and the energy apportioning question (United States)

    Yang, X.; Brunetti, E.; Gil, D. Reboredo; Welsh, G. H.; Li, F. Y.; Cipiccia, S.; Ersfeld, B.; Grant, D. W.; Grant, P. A.; Islam, M. R.; Tooley, M. P.; Vieux, G.; Wiggins, S. M.; Sheng, Z. M.; Jaroszynski, D. A.


    Laser-wakefield accelerators are compact devices capable of delivering ultra-short electron bunches with pC-level charge and MeV-GeV energy by exploiting the ultra-high electric fields arising from the interaction of intense laser pulses with plasma. We show experimentally and through numerical simulations that a high-energy electron beam is produced simultaneously with two stable lower-energy beams that are ejected in oblique and counter-propagating directions, typically carrying off 5–10% of the initial laser energy. A MeV, 10s nC oblique beam is ejected in a 30°–60° hollow cone, which is filled with more energetic electrons determined by the injection dynamics. A nC-level, 100s keV backward-directed beam is mainly produced at the leading edge of the plasma column. We discuss the apportioning of absorbed laser energy amongst the three beams. Knowledge of the distribution of laser energy and electron beam charge, which determine the overall efficiency, is important for various applications of laser-wakefield accelerators, including the development of staged high-energy accelerators. PMID:28281679

  13. Generation of attosecond electron bunches in a laser-plasma accelerator using a plasma density upramp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weikum, M.K., E-mail: [Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Bdg. 30b, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, G4 0NG Glasgow (United Kingdom); Li, F.Y. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, G4 0NG Glasgow (United Kingdom); Assmann, R.W. [Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Bdg. 30b, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Sheng, Z.M. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, G4 0NG Glasgow (United Kingdom); Laboratory for Laser Plasmas and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Jaroszynski, D. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, G4 0NG Glasgow (United Kingdom)


    Attosecond electron bunches and attosecond radiation pulses enable the study of ultrafast dynamics of matter in an unprecedented regime. In this paper, the suitability for the experimental realization of a novel scheme producing sub-femtosecond duration electron bunches from laser-wakefield acceleration in plasma with self-injection in a plasma upramp profile has been investigated. While it has previously been predicted that this requires laser power above a few hundred terawatts typically, here we show that the scheme can be extended with reduced driving laser powers down to tens of terawatts, generating accelerated electron pulses with minimum length of around 166 attoseconds and picocoulombs charge. Using particle-in-cell simulations and theoretical models, the evolution of the accelerated electron bunch within the plasma as well as simple scalings of the bunch properties with initial laser and plasma parameters are presented. - Highlights: • LWFA with an upramp density profile can trap and accelerate sub-fs electron beams. • A reduction of the necessary threshold laser intensity by a factor 4 is presented. • Electron properties are tuned by varying initial laser and plasma parameters. • Simulations predict electron bunch lengths below 200 attoseconds with pC charge. • Strong bunch evolution effects and a large energy spread still need to be improved.

  14. Three electron beams from a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator and the energy apportioning question

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, X; Reboredo Gil, David; Welsh, Gregor H; Li, Y.F; Cipiccia, Silvia; Ersfeld, Bernhard; Grant, D. W; Grant, P. A; Islam, Muhammad; Tooley, M.B; Vieux, Gregory; Wiggins, Sally; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Jaroszynski, Dino


    Laser-wakefield accelerators are compact devices capable of delivering ultra-short electron bunches with pC-level charge and MeV-GeV energy by exploiting the ultra-high electric fields arising from the interaction of intense laser pulses with plasma. We show experimentally and through numerical simulations that a high-energy electron beam is produced simultaneously with two stable lowerenergy beams that are ejected in oblique and counter-propagating directions, typically carrying off 5–10% of the initial laser energy. A MeV, 10s nC oblique beam is ejected in a 30°–60° hollow cone, which is filled with more energetic electrons determined by the injection dynamics. A nC-level, 100s keV backward-directed beam is mainly produced at the leading edge of the plasma column. We discuss the apportioning of absorbed laser energy amongst the three beams. Knowledge of the distribution of laser energy and electron beam charge, which determine the overall efficiency, is important for various applications of laser-wake...

  15. Role of spectroscopic diagnostics in studying nanosecond laser-plasma interaction (United States)

    Burger, Miloš; Pantić, Dragan; Nikolić, Zoran; Djeniže, Stevan


    We studied the impact of varying the intensity of Nd:YAG nanosecond 1.06 μm laser radiation on the morphology and internal structure of copper plasma plumes were examined. Standard diagnostic techniques used to deduce axial distributions of electron density and temperature revealed effects of a pronounced plasma screening regime. Methods of fast imaging spectroscopy are used to examine the transition from weak- to high-screening plasma, applying irradiance on the order of 109 W cm-2 in helium atmosphere. Behavior of both ionized and neutral species was observed up to 1 μs after the laser pulse. Showing significant differences with an increase of laser irradiance, the change in plasma propagation mechanisms is attributed to internal shockwave dynamics within the plasma plume. Implications of observed behavior to plasma uniformity can affect diagnostics, and are relevant to both modeling and applications. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Physics of Ionized Gases (SPIG 2016)", edited by Goran Poparic, Bratislav Obradovic, Dragana Maric and Aleksandar Milosavljevic.

  16. Relativistic stars in bigravity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Katsuki; Tanabe, Makoto


    Assuming static and spherically symmetric spacetimes in the ghost-free bigravity theory, we find a relativistic star solution, which is very close to that in general relativity. The coupling constants are classified into two classes: Class [I] and Class [II]. Although the Vainshtein screening mechanism is found in the weak gravitational field for both classes, we find that there is no regular solution beyond the critical value of the compactness in Class [I]. This implies that the maximum mass of a neutron star in Class [I] becomes much smaller than that in GR. On the other hand, for the solution in Class [II], the Vainshtein screening mechanism works well even in a relativistic star and the result in GR is recovered.

  17. Special vortex in relativistic hydrodynamics (United States)

    Chupakhin, A. P.; Yanchenko, A. A.


    An exact solution of the Euler equations governing the flow of a compressible fluid in relativistic hydrodynamics is found and studied. It is a relativistic analogue of the Ovsyannikov vortex (special vortex) investigated earlier for classical gas dynamics. Solutions are partially invariant of Defect 1 and Rank 2 with respect to the rotation group. A theorem on the representation of the factor-system in the form of a union of a non-invariant subsystem for the function determining the deviation of the velocity vector from the meridian, and invariant subsystem for determination of thermodynamic parameters, the Lorentz factor and the radial velocity component is proved. Compatibility conditions for the overdetermined non-invariant subsystem are obtained. A stationary solution of this type is studied in detail. It is proved that its invariant subsystem reduces to an implicit differential equation. For this equation, the manifold of branching of solutions is investigated, and a set of singular points is found.

  18. Towards a relativistic statistical theory (United States)

    Kaniadakis, G.


    In special relativity the mathematical expressions, defining physical observables as the momentum, the energy etc. emerge as one parameter (light speed) continuous deformations of the corresponding ones of the classical physics. Here, we show that the special relativity imposes a proper one parameter continuous deformation also to the expression of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy. The obtained relativistic entropy permits to construct a coherent and selfconsistent relativistic statistical theory [G. Kaniadakis, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 056125; G. Kaniadakis, Phys. Rev. E 72 (2005) 036108], preserving the main features (maximum entropy principle, thermodynamic stability, Lesche stability, continuity, symmetry, expansivity, decisivity, etc.) of the classical statistical theory, which is recovered in the classical limit. The predicted distribution function is a one-parameter continuous deformation of the classical Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution and has a simple analytic form, showing power-law tails in accordance with the experimental evidence.

  19. Relativistic gravitational deflection of photons

    CERN Document Server

    Saca, J M


    A relativistic analysis of the deflection of a light ray due to a massive attractive centre is here developed by solving a differential equation of the orbit of photons. Results are compared with a widely known approximate formula for the deflection obtained by Einstein in 1916. Finally, it is concluded that the results here obtained, although very close to Einstein's values, could stand out as a conclusive reference for comparison with future direct measurements of the deflection.

  20. Relativistic approach to electromagnetic imaging


    Budko, Neil


    A novel imaging principle based on the interaction of electromagnetic waves with a beam of relativistic electrons is proposed. Wave-particle interaction is assumed to take place in a small spatial domain, so that each electron is only briefly accelerated by the incident field. In the one-dimensional case the spatial distribution of the source density can be directly observed in the temporal spectrum of the scattered field. Whereas, in the two-dimensional case the relation between the source a...

  1. Pythagoras Theorem and Relativistic Kinematics (United States)

    Mulaj, Zenun; Dhoqina, Polikron


    In two inertial frames that move in a particular direction, may be registered a light signal that propagates in an angle with this direction. Applying Pythagoras theorem and principles of STR in both systems, we can derive all relativistic kinematics relations like the relativity of simultaneity of events, of the time interval, of the length of objects, of the velocity of the material point, Lorentz transformations, Doppler effect and stellar aberration.

  2. A special relativistic heat engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S. Cariens


    main concepts taken from themodynamics and special relativity are those of a heat engine and E=mc2 respectively. Central to understanding the operation of this relativistic heat engine is the fact that upon heating a mass, its rest mass increases! This concept is nonexistent in classical thermodynamics. An increase in rest mass means that both the internal energy of a mass and its macroscopic kinetic energy increase!!!

  3. Radiation reaction and relativistic hydrodynamics. (United States)

    Berezhiani, V I; Hazeltine, R D; Mahajan, S M


    By invoking the radiation reaction force, first perturbatively derived by Landau and Lifschitz, and later shown by Rohrlich to be exact for a single particle, we construct a set of fluid equations obeyed by a relativistic plasma interacting with the radiation field. After showing that this approach reproduces the known results for a locally Maxwellian plasma, we derive and display the basic dynamical equations for a general magnetized plasma in which the radiation reaction force augments the direct Lorentz force.

  4. Towards laboratory produced relativistic electron–positron pair plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hui; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Wilks, S. C.; Cauble, R.; Dollar, F.; Falk, K.; Gregori, G.; Hazi, A.; Moses, E. I.; Murphy, C. D.; Myatt, J.; Park, J.; Seely, J.; Shepherd, R.; Spitkovsky, A.; Stoeckl, C.; Szabo, C. I.; Tommasini, R.; Zulick, C.; Beiersdorfer, P.


    We review recent experimental results on the path to producing electron–positron pair plasmas using lasers. Relativistic pair-plasmas and jets are believed to exist in many astrophysical objects and are often invoked to explain energetic phenomena related to Gamma Ray Bursts and Black Holes. On earth, positrons from radioactive isotopes or accelerators are used extensively at low energies (sub-MeV) in areas related to surface science positron emission tomography and basic antimatter science. Experimental platforms capable of producing the high-temperature pair-plasma and high-flux jets required to simulate astrophysical positron conditions have so far been absent. In the past few years, we performed extensive experiments generating positrons with intense lasers where we found that relativistic electron and positron jets are produced by irradiating a solid gold target with an intense picosecond laser pulse. The positron temperatures in directions parallel and transverse to the beam both exceeded 0.5 MeV, and the density of electrons and positrons in these jets are of order 1016 cm-3 and 1013 cm-3, respectively. With the increasing performance of high-energy ultra-short laser pulses, we expect that a high-density, up to 1018 cm-3, relativistic pair-plasma is achievable, a novel regime of laboratory-produced hot dense matter.

  5. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benacquista Matthew J.


    Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing 10^4 - 10^7 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker-Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  6. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benacquista Matthew


    Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing $10^4 - 10^6$ stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct $N$-body integrations and Fokker--Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  7. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Benacquista


    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  8. Cherenkov wakefield excitation by relativistic electron beams in plasma channels (United States)

    Wang, Tianhong; Khudik, Vladimir; Shvets, Gennday


    We report on our theoretical investigations of Cherenkov radiation excited by relativistic electron bunches propagating in plasma channels and in polaritonic channels. Two surface plasmons (SPs) modes of the radiation are analyzed: the longitudinal (accelerating) and the transverse (deflecting) ones. Both form Cherenkov cones that are different in the magnitude of the cone angle and the central frequency. We show that the Cherenkov field profile change dramatically depending on the driver velocity and the channel size, and the longitudinal mode forms a reversed Cherenkov radiation cone due to the negative group velocity for sufficiently small air gaps. In addition, we find that when the channel surface is corrugated, a strong deflecting wake is excited by a relativistic electron bunch. A trailing electron bunch experiencing this wake is forced to undergo betatron oscillations and thus to emit radiation. Numerical simulation showed that intense x-ray radiation can be generated.

  9. First experimental comparisons of laser-plasma interactions between spherical and cylindrical hohlraums at SGIII laser facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaohua Chen


    Full Text Available We present our recent laser-plasmas instability (LPI comparison experiment at the SGIII laser facility between the spherical and cylindrical hohlraums. Three kinds of filling are considered: vacuum, gas-filling with or without a capsule inside. A spherical hohlraum of 3.6 mm in diameter, and a cylindrical hohlraum of 2.4 mm × 4.3 mm are used. The capsule diameter is 0.96 mm. A flat-top laser pulse with 3 ns duration and up to 92.73 kJ energy is used. The experiment has shown that the LPI level in the spherical hohlraum is close to that of the outer beam in the cylindrical hohlraum, while much lower than that of the inner beam. The experiment is further simulated by using our 2-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic code LARED-Integration, and the laser back-scattering fraction and the stimulated Raman scatter (SRS spectrum are post-processed by the high efficiency code of laser interaction with plasmas HLIP. According to the simulation, the plasma waves are strongly damped and the SRS is mainly developed at the plasma conditions of electron density from 0.08 nc to 0.1 nc and electron temperature from 1.5 keV to 2.0 keV inside the hohlraums. However, obvious differences between the simulation and experiment are found, such as that the SRS back-scattering is underestimated, and the numerical SRS spectrum peaks at a larger wavelength and at a later time than the data. These differences indicate that the development of a 3D radiation hydrodynamic code, with more accurate physics models, is mandatory for spherical hohlraum study.

  10. Single-shot measurements of low emittance beams from laser-plasma accelerators comparing two triggered injection methods (United States)

    van Tilborg, Jeroen


    The success of laser plasma accelerator (LPA) based applications, such as a compact x-ray free electron laser (FEL), relies on the ability to produce electron beams with excellent 6D brightness, where brightness is defined as the ratio of charge to the product of the three normalized emittances. As such, parametric studies of the emittance of LPA generated electron beams are essential. Profiting from a stable and tunable LPA setup, combined with a carefully designed single-shot energy-dispersed emittance diagnostic, we present a direct comparison of charge dependent emittance measurements of electron beams generated by two different injection mechanisms: ionization injection and shock-induced density down-ramp injection. Both injection mechanisms have gained in popularity in recent years due to their demonstrated stable LPA performance. For the down-ramp injection configuration, normalized emittances a factor of two lower were recorded: less than 1 micron at spectral charge densities up to 2 pC/MeV. For both injection mechanisms, a contributing correlation of space charge to the emittance was identified. This measurement technique in general, and these results specifically, are critical to the evaluation of LPA injection methods and development of high-quality LPA beam lines worldwide. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, by the U.S. DOE NNSA, DNN R&D (NA22), by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1415596, and by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation under Grant ID GBMF4898.

  11. Radiation Hazard of Relativistic Interstellar Flight


    Semyonov, Oleg G.


    From the point of view of radiation safety, interstellar space is not an empty void. Interstellar gas and cosmic rays, which consist of hydrogen and helium nucleons, present a severe radiation hazard to crew and electronics aboard a relativistic interstellar ship. Of the two, the oncoming relativistic flow of interstellar gas produces the most intence radiation. A protection shield will be needed to block relativistic interstellar gas that can also absorb most of the cosmic rays which, as a r...

  12. Relativistic quasi-solitons and embedded solitons with circular polarization in cold plasmas (United States)

    Sánchez-Arriaga, G.; Siminos, E.


    The existence of localized electromagnetic structures is discussed in the framework of the 1-dimensional relativistic Maxwell-fluid model for a cold plasma with immobile ions. New partially localized solutions are found with a finite-difference algorithm designed to locate numerically exact solutions of the Maxwell-fluid system. These solutions are called quasi-solitons and consist of a localized electromagnetic wave trapped in a self-generated plasma density cavity with oscillations at its tails. They are organized in families characterized by the number of nodes p of the vector potential and exist in a continuous range of parameters in the ω-V plane, where V is the velocity of propagation and ω is the vector potential angular frequency. A parametric study shows that the familiar fully localized relativistic solitons are special members of the families of partially localized quasi-solitons. Soliton solution branches with p  >  0 are therefore parametrically embedded in the continuum of quasi-solitons. On the other hand, geometric arguments and numerical simulations indicate that p  =  0 solitons exist only in the limit of either small amplitude or vanishing velocity. Direct numerical simulations of the Maxwell-fluid model indicate that the p  >  0 quasi-solitons (and embedded solitons) are unstable and lead to wake excitation, while p  =  0 quasi-solitons appear stable. This helps explain the ubiquitous observation of structures that resemble p  =  0 solitons in numerical simulations of laser-plasma interaction.

  13. The effects of magnetospheric processes on relativistic electron dynamics in the Earth's outer radiation belt (United States)

    Tang, C. L.; Wang, Y. X.; Ni, B.; Su, Z. P.; Reeves, G. D.; Zhang, J.-C.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Funsten, H. O.; Blake, J. B.


    Using the electron phase space density (PSD) data measured by Van Allen Probe A from January 2013 to April 2015, we investigate the effects of magnetospheric processes on relativistic electron dynamics in the Earth's outer radiation belt during 50 geomagnetic storms. A statistical study shows that the maximum electron PSDs for various μ (μ = 630, 1096, 2290, and 3311 MeV/G) at L* 4.0 after the storm peak have good correlations with storm intensity (cc 0.70). This suggests that the occurrence and magnitude of geomagnetic storms are necessary for relativistic electron enhancements at the inner edge of the outer radiation belt (L* = 4.0). For moderate or weak storm events (SYM-Hmin > -100 nT) with weak substorm activity (AEmax 0.77). For storm events with intense substorms after the storm peak, relativistic electron enhancements at L* = 4.5 and 5.0 are observed. This shows that intense substorms during the storm recovery phase are crucial to relativistic electron enhancements in the heart of the outer radiation belt. Our statistics study suggests that magnetospheric processes during geomagnetic storms have a significant effect on relativistic electron dynamics.

  14. Magnetogenesis through Relativistic Velocity Shear (United States)

    Miller, Evan

    Magnetic fields at all scales are prevalent in our universe. However, current cosmological models predict that initially the universe was bereft of large-scale fields. Standard magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) does not permit magnetogenesis; in the MHD Faraday's law, the change in magnetic field B depends on B itself. Thus if B is initially zero, it will remain zero for all time. A more accurate physical model is needed to explain the origins of the galactic-scale magnetic fields observed today. In this thesis, I explore two velocity-driven mechanisms for magnetogenesis in 2-fluid plasma. The first is a novel kinematic 'battery' arising from convection of vorticity. A coupling between thermal and plasma oscillations, this non-relativistic mechanism can operate in flows that are incompressible, quasi-neutral and barotropic. The second mechanism results from inclusion of thermal effects in relativistic shear flow instabilities. In such flows, parallel perturbations are ubiquitously unstable at small scales, with growth rates of order with the plasma frequency over a defined range of parameter-space. Of these two processes, instabilities seem far more likely to account for galactic magnetic fields. Stable kinematic effects will, at best, be comparable to an ideal Biermann battery, which is suspected to be orders of magnitude too weak to produce the observed galactic fields. On the other hand, instabilities grow until saturation is reached, a topic that has yet to be explored in detail on cosmological scales. In addition to investigating these magnetogenesis sources, I derive a general dispersion relation for three dimensional, warm, two species plasma with discontinuous shear flow. The mathematics of relativistic plasma, sheared-flow instability and the Biermann battery are also discussed.

  15. Symmetries of relativistic world lines (United States)

    Koch, Benjamin; Muñoz, Enrique; Reyes, Ignacio A.


    Symmetries are essential for a consistent formulation of many quantum systems. In this paper we discuss a fundamental symmetry, which is present for any Lagrangian term that involves x˙2. As a basic model that incorporates the fundamental symmetries of quantum gravity and string theory, we consider the Lagrangian action of the relativistic point particle. A path integral quantization for this seemingly simple system has long presented notorious problems. Here we show that those problems are overcome by taking into account the additional symmetry, leading directly to the exact Klein-Gordon propagator.

  16. Quasiparticle Dynamics in Relativistic Plasmas (United States)

    Yaffe, Laurence G.


    Quasiparticle dynamics in relativistic plasmas associated with hot, weakly-coupled gauge theories (such as QCD at asymptotically high temperature T) can be described by an effective kinetic theory, valid on sufficiently large time and distance scales. This effective kinetic theory may be used to evaluate observables which are dominantly sensitive to the dynamics of typical ultrarelativistic excitations, to leading order in the running coupling g(T) and all orders in 1/log g(T)-1. Suitable observables include transport coefficients (viscosities and diffusion constants) and energy loss rates. This summary sketches the form of the effective theory and outlines its domain of applicability.

  17. Relativistic atomic beam spectroscopy II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The negative ion of H is one of the simplest 3-body atomic systems. The techniques we have developed for experimental study of atoms moving near speed of light have been productive. This proposal request continuing support for experimental studies of the H{sup -} system, principally at the 800 MeV linear accelerator (LAMPF) at Los Alamos. Four experiments are currently planned: photodetachment of H{sup -} near threshold in electric field, interaction of relativistic H{sup -} ions with matter, high excitations and double charge escape in H{sup -}, and multiphoton detachment of electrons from H{sup -}.

  18. On the Relativistic anisotropic configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Shojai, F; Stepanian, A


    In this paper we study anisotropic spherical polytropes within the framework of general relativity. Using the anisotropic Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov (TOV) equations, we explore the relativistic anisotropic Lane-Emden equations. We find how the anisotropic pressure affects the boundary conditions of these equations. Also we argue that the behaviour of physical quantities near the center of star changes in the presence of anisotropy. For constant density, a class of exact solution is derived with the aid of a new ansatz and its physical properties are discussed.

  19. Relativistic solitons and superluminal signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maccari, Attilio [Technical Institute ' G. Cardano' , Piazza della Resistenza 1, Monterotondo, Rome 00015 (Italy)]. E-mail:


    Envelope solitons in the weakly nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation in 1 + 1 dimensions are investigated by the asymptotic perturbation (AP) method. Two different types of solitons are possible according to the properties of the dispersion relation. In the first case, solitons propagate with the group velocity (less than the light speed) of the carrier wave, on the contrary in the second case solitons always move with the group velocity of the carrier wave, but now this velocity is greater than the light speed. Superluminal signals are then possible in classical relativistic nonlinear field equations.

  20. Einstein Never Approved of Relativistic Mass (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene


    During much of the 20th century it was widely believed that one of the significant insights of special relativity was "relativistic mass." Today there are two schools on that issue: the traditional view that embraces speed-dependent "relativistic mass," and the more modern position that rejects it, maintaining that there is only one mass and it's…

  1. Radiatively-driven general relativistic jets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mukesh K. Vyas


    Feb 10, 2018 ... of radial jets and solve them using polytropic equation of state of the relativistic gas. We consider curved space- time around black holes and obtain jets with moderately relativistic terminal speeds. In addition, the radiation field from the accretion disc, is able to induce internal shocks in the jet close to the ...

  2. Relativistic heavy-ion physics: Experimental overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The field of relativistic heavy-ion physics is reviewed with emphasis on new results and highlights from the first run of the relativistic heavy-ion collider at BNL and the 15 year research programme at the super proton synchrotron (SPS) at CERN and the AGS at BNL.

  3. Relativistic corrections to molecular dynamic dipole polarizabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirpekar, Sheela; Oddershede, Jens; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard


    Using response function methods we report calculations of the dynamic isotropic polarizability of SnH4 and PbH4 and of the relativistic corrections to it in the random phase approximation and at the correlated multiconfigurational linear response level of approximation. All relativistic correctio...

  4. Compton Effect with Non-Relativistic Kinematics (United States)

    Shivalingaswamy, T.; Kagali, B. A.


    In deducing the change of wavelength of x-rays scattered by atomic electrons, one normally makes use of relativistic kinematics for electrons. However, recoiling energies of the electrons are of the order of a few keV which is less than 0.2% of their rest energies. Hence the authors may ask whether relativistic formulae are really necessary. In…

  5. Relativistic calculations of coalescing binary neutron stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have designed and tested a new relativistic Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, which treats gravity in the conformally flat approximation to general relativity. We have tested the resulting code extensively, finding that it performs well for calculations of equilibrium single-star models, collapsing relativistic dust clouds, and ...

  6. Relativistic calculations of coalescing binary neutron stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Relativistic calculations of coalescing binary neutron stars. JOSHUA FABER, PHILIPPE GRANDCLÉMENT and FREDERIC RASIO. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston,. IL 60208-0834, USA. E-mail: Abstract. We have designed and tested a new relativistic Lagrangian ...

  7. Workshop on gravitational waves and relativistic astrophysics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This workshop saw five presentations in the field of gravitational radiation and two on compact, relativistic self-gravitating systems. Gravitational waves (GWs) and black holes (BHs) are two of the most significant predictions of Einstein's relativistic theory of gravity and, as far as their experimental status is concerned, both of ...

  8. Time-resolved X-ray diffraction with accelerator- and laser-plasma-based X-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoul, Matthieu


    Femtosecond X-ray pulses are a powerful tool to investigate atomic motions triggered by femtosecond pump pulses. This thesis is dedicated to the production of such pulses and their use in optical pump - X-ray probe measurement. This thesis describes the laser-plasma-based sources available at the University of Duisburg-Essen. Part of it consists of the description of the design, built-up and characterization of a new ''modular'' X-ray source dedicated to optimize the X-ray flux onto the sample under investigation. The acoustic wave generation in femtosecond optically excited semiconductor (gallium arsenide) and metal (gold) was performed using the sources of the University of Duisburg-Essen. The physical answer of the material was modeled by a simple strain model for the semiconductor, pressure model for the metal, in order to gain information on the interplay of the electronic and thermal pressures rising after excitation. Whereas no reliable information could be obtain in gallium arsenide (principally due to the use of a bulk), the model for gold achieved very good agreement, providing useful information. The relaxation time of the electron to lattice energy was found to be (5.0{+-}0.3) ps, and the ratio of the Grueneisen parameters was found to be {gamma}{sub e} / {gamma}{sub i} = (0.5{+-}0.1). This thesis also describes the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) which existed at the (formally) Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, an accelerator-based X-ray source, and two measurements performed with it. The first one is the detailed investigation of the phonon softening of the A{sub 1g} mode launch in bismuth upon fluence excitation. Detailed information concerning the new equilibrium position and phonon frequency were obtained over extended laser pump fluences. The second measurement concerned the study of the liquid phase dynamics in a newly formed liquid phase following ultrafast melting in indium antimonide. The formation of the liquid phase

  9. Demonstration of light reflection from the relativistic mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirozhkov, A S; Esirkepov, T Z; Kando, M; Fukuda, Y; Ma, J; Chen, L-M; Daito, I; Ogura, K; Homma, T; Hayashi, Y; Kotaki, H; Sagisaka, A; Mori, M; Koga, J K; Kawachi, T; Daido, H; Bulanov, S V; Kimura, T; Kato, Y; Tajima, T [Advanced Photon Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1 Umemidai, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)], E-mail:


    Electromagnetic wave frequency upshifting upon reflection from a relativistic mirror (the double Doppler effect) can be used for the generation of coherent high-frequency radiation. The reflected high-frequency pulse inherits the coherence, polarization, and temporal shape from the original laser pulse. A partly reflecting relativistic mirror (flying mirror) can be formed by a breaking wake wave created by a strong laser pulse propagating in underdense plasma [Bulanov S V et al. 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 085001]. We present the results of the proof-of-principle experiment for frequency upshifting of the laser pulse reflected from the flying mirror. In the experiment, the breaking wake wave is created by a Ti:S laser pulse (2 TW, 76 fs) in helium plasma with the electron density of {approx}5x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. The incidence angle of the second laser pulse on the flying mirror is 45 deg. The reflected signal is observed in 24 shots, with the wavelength from 7 to 14 nm, which corresponds to the frequency upshifting factors from 55 to 114 and the relativistic gamma-factors from 4 to 6. The reflected signal contains at least 3x10{sup 7} photons/sr. The new source promises the generation of coherent ultrashort XUV and x-ray pulses with tunable wavelength and duration, with the possibility of focusing to record intensities.

  10. On the Relativistic Micro-Canonical Ensemble and Relativistic Kinetic Theory for N Relativistic Particles in Inertial and Non-Inertial Rest Frames


    Alba, David; Crater, Horace W.; Lusanna, Luca


    A new formulation of relativistic classical mechanics allows a revisiting of old unsolved problems in relativistic kinetic theory and in relativistic statistical mechanics. In particular a definition of the relativistic micro-canonical partition function is given strictly in terms of the Poincar\\'e generators of an interacting N-particle system both in the inertial and non-inertial rest frames. The non-relativistic limit allows a definition of both the inertial and non-inertial micro-canonica...

  11. Non-relativistic scale anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arav, Igal [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University,55 Haim Levanon street, Tel-Aviv, 69978 (Israel); Chapman, Shira [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Oz, Yaron [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University,55 Haim Levanon street, Tel-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)


    We extend the cohomological analysis in arXiv:1410.5831 of anisotropic Lifshitz scale anomalies. We consider non-relativistic theories with a dynamical critical exponent z=2 with or without non-relativistic boosts and a particle number symmetry. We distinguish between cases depending on whether the time direction does or does not induce a foliation structure. We analyse both 1+1 and 2+1 spacetime dimensions. In 1+1 dimensions we find no scale anomalies with Galilean boost symmetries. The anomalies in 2+1 dimensions with Galilean boosts and a foliation structure are all B-type and are identical to the Lifshitz case in the purely spatial sector. With Galilean boosts and without a foliation structure we find also an A-type scale anomaly. There is an infinite ladder of B-type anomalies in the absence of a foliation structure with or without Galilean boosts. We discuss the relation between the existence of a foliation structure and the causality of the field theory.

  12. Lecture Series on Relativistic Quantum Information (United States)

    Fuentes, Ivette


    The insight that the world is fundamentally quantum mechanical inspired the development of quantum information theory. However, the world is not only quantum but also relativistic, and indeed many implementations of quantum information tasks involve truly relativistic systems. In this lecture series I consider relativistic effects on entanglement in flat and curved spacetimes. I will emphasize the qualitative differences to a non-relativistic treatment, and demonstrate that a thorough understanding of quantum information theory requires taking relativity into account. The exploitation of such relativistic effects will likely play an increasing role in the future development of quantum information theory. The relevance of these results extends beyond pure quantum information theory, and applications to foundational questions in cosmology and black hole physics will be presented.

  13. Two cavity autoacceleration of an intense relativistic electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, P.D.; Lockner, T.R.


    Two autoacceleration cavities have been used to accelerate an 11-kA electron beam from 2 MeV to approx. =2.8 MeV. The two 40-..cap omega.. cavities each accelerated the beam by approx. =400 kV with no observable interaction between the two cavities over several cavity transmit times. 6 figs.

  14. Enhancement of photon number reflected by the relativistic flying mirror. (United States)

    Kando, M; Pirozhkov, A S; Kawase, K; Esirkepov, T Zh; Fukuda, Y; Kiriyama, H; Okada, H; Daito, I; Kameshima, T; Hayashi, Y; Kotaki, H; Mori, M; Koga, J K; Daido, H; Faenov, A Ya; Pikuz, T; Ma, J; Chen, L-M; Ragozin, E N; Kawachi, T; Kato, Y; Tajima, T; Bulanov, S V


    Laser light reflection by a relativistically moving electron density modulation (flying mirror) in a wake wave generated in a plasma by a high intensity laser pulse is investigated experimentally. A counterpropagating laser pulse is reflected and upshifted in frequency with a multiplication factor of 37-66, corresponding to the extreme ultraviolet wavelength. The demonstrated flying mirror reflectivity (from 3 x 10(-6) to 2 x 10(-5), and from 1.3 x 10(-4) to 0.6 x 10(-3), for the photon number and pulse energy, respectively) is close to the theoretical estimate for the parameters of the experiment.

  15. Generation of ultra-short relativistic-electron-bunch by a laser wakefield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; Boller, Klaus J.; van Goor, F.A.


    The possibility of the generation of an ultra-short (about one micron long) relativistic (up to a few GeVs) electron-bunch in a moderately nonlinear laser wakefield excited in an underdense plasma by an intense laser pulse is investigated. The ultra-short bunch is formed by trapping, effective

  16. Non-relativistic Bremsstrahlung in QED: Hamiltonian vs. Path Integral Approach


    Jahan, A.


    An alternative derivation of the radiation intensity in non-relativistic bremsstrahlung is provided utilizing the path integral formalism. By integrating out the gauge field, one obtains the effective action which it's imaginary part is interpreted as the rate of photon production during the collision.

  17. Alpha-spectrometry and fractal analysis of surface micro-images for characterisation of porous materials used in manufacture of targets for laser plasma experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aushev, A A; Barinov, S P; Vasin, M G; Drozdov, Yu M; Ignat' ev, Yu V; Izgorodin, V M; Kovshov, D K; Lakhtikov, A E; Lukovkina, D D; Markelov, V V; Morovov, A P; Shishlov, V V [Russian Federal Nuclear Center ' All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics' , Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod region (Russian Federation)


    We present the results of employing the alpha-spectrometry method to determine the characteristics of porous materials used in targets for laser plasma experiments. It is shown that the energy spectrum of alpha-particles, after their passage through porous samples, allows one to determine the distribution of their path length in the foam skeleton. We describe the procedure of deriving such a distribution, excluding both the distribution broadening due to statistical nature of the alpha-particle interaction with an atomic structure (straggling) and hardware effects. The fractal analysis of micro-images is applied to the same porous surface samples that have been studied by alpha-spectrometry. The fractal dimension and size distribution of the number of the foam skeleton grains are obtained. Using the data obtained, a distribution of the total foam skeleton thickness along a chosen direction is constructed. It roughly coincides with the path length distribution of alpha-particles within a range of larger path lengths. It is concluded that the combined use of the alpha-spectrometry method and fractal analysis of images will make it possible to determine the size distribution of foam skeleton grains (or pores). The results can be used as initial data in theoretical studies on propagation of the laser and X-ray radiation in specific porous samples. (laser plasma)

  18. Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science III

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Agostini, Pierre; Ferrante, Gaetano


    The PUILS series presents Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science. PUILS has been stimulated by the recent development of ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume contains approximately 15 chapters, authored by researchers at the forefront. Each chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers, who are not experts in the specific topics, as well as graduate students can grasp the importance and attractions of this sub-field of research, and these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. This third volume covers a diverse range of disciplines, focusing on such topics as strong field ionization of atoms, ionization and fragmentation of molecules and clusters, generation of high-order harmonics and attosecond pulses, filamentation and laser plasma interaction, and the development of ultrashort and ultrahigh-intensity light sources.

  19. Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science VIII

    CERN Document Server

    Nisoli, Mauro; Hill, Wendell; III, III


    The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science and optical science which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield as well as graduate students can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand. These are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. This eighth volume covers a broad range of topics from this interdisciplinary research field, focusing on molecules interacting with ultrashort and intense laser fields, advanced technologies for the characterization of ultrashort laser pulses and their applications, laser plasma formation and laser acceleration.

  20. Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science VI

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Bandrauk, André D


    The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science, which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield, as well as graduate students, can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand; these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. This sixth volume covers a broad range of topics from this interdisciplinary research field, focusing on responses of molecules to ultrashort intense laser pulses, generation and characterization of attosecond pulses and high-order harmonics, and filamentation and laser-plasma interaction.

  1. Progress in ultrafast intense laser science XII

    CERN Document Server

    Roso, Luis; Li, Ruxin; Mathur, Deepak; Normand, Didier


    This  volume covers a broad range of topics focusing on atoms, molecules, and clusters interacting in intense laser field, laser induced filamentation, and laser plasma interaction and application. The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science, which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield, as well as graduate students, can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand; these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. .

  2. Relativistic analysis of stochastic kinematics (United States)

    Giona, Massimiliano


    The relativistic analysis of stochastic kinematics is developed in order to determine the transformation of the effective diffusivity tensor in inertial frames. Poisson-Kac stochastic processes are initially considered. For one-dimensional spatial models, the effective diffusion coefficient measured in a frame Σ moving with velocity w with respect to the rest frame of the stochastic process is inversely proportional to the third power of the Lorentz factor γ (w ) =(1-w2/c2) -1 /2 . Subsequently, higher-dimensional processes are analyzed and it is shown that the diffusivity tensor in a moving frame becomes nonisotropic: The diffusivities parallel and orthogonal to the velocity of the moving frame scale differently with respect to γ (w ) . The analysis of discrete space-time diffusion processes permits one to obtain a general transformation theory of the tensor diffusivity, confirmed by several different simulation experiments. Several implications of the theory are also addressed and discussed.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic production of relativistic jets. (United States)

    Meier, D L; Koide, S; Uchida, Y


    A number of astronomical systems have been discovered that generate collimated flows of plasma with velocities close to the speed of light. In all cases, the central object is probably a neutron star or black hole and is either accreting material from other stars or is in the initial violent stages of formation. Supercomputer simulations of the production of relativistic jets have been based on a magnetohydrodynamic model, in which differential rotation in the system creates a magnetic coil that simultaneously expels and pinches some of the infalling material. The model may explain the basic features of observed jets, including their speed and amount of collimation, and some of the details in the behavior and statistics of different jet-producing sources.

  4. Some lessons from relativistic reduction models

    CERN Document Server

    Ghirardi, Gian Carlo


    We reconsider some recently proposed relativistic dynamical reduction models and we point out the new conceptual picture about reduction processes that they impose on our considerations. Ignoring the specific technical difficulties of such generalizations we show that the just mentioned picture fits perfectly the natural ontology of the dynamical reduction program and yields a consistent description of macro-objectification in a relativistic and nonlocal context. We consider recent criticisms of the relativistic dynamical reduction program and we show that they are inappropriate, the reason being that they derive from serious misunderstandings of some technical and conceptual points of the theory. (53 refs).

  5. The relativistic Black-Scholes model (United States)

    Trzetrzelewski, Maciej


    The Black-Scholes equation, after a certain coordinate transformation, is equivalent to the heat equation. On the other hand the relativistic extension of the latter, the telegraphers equation, can be derived from the Euclidean version of the Dirac equation. Therefore, the relativistic extension of the Black-Scholes model follows from relativistic quantum mechanics quite naturally. We investigate this particular model for the case of European vanilla options. Due to the notion of locality incorporated in this way, one finds that the volatility frown-like effect appears when comparing to the original Black-Scholes model.

  6. Relativistic Electron Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Marvel, Robert E


    We have developed an undergraduate laboratory experiment to make independent measurements of the momentum and kinetic energy of relativistic electrons from a \\beta -source. The momentum measurements are made with a magnetic spectrometer and a silicon surface-barrier detector is used to measure the kinetic energy. A plot of the kinetic energy as a function of momentum compared to the classical and relativistic predictions clearly shows the relativistic nature of the electrons. Accurate values for the rest mass of the electron and the speed of light are also extracted from the data.

  7. Holographic Aspects of a Relativistic Nonconformal Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyong Park


    Full Text Available We study a general D-dimensional Schwarzschild-type black brane solution of the Einstein-dilaton theory and derive, by using the holographic renormalization, its thermodynamics consistent with the geometric results. Using the membrane paradigm, we calculate the several hydrodynamic transport coefficients and compare them with the results obtained by the Kubo formula, which shows the self-consistency of the gauge/gravity duality in the relativistic nonconformal theory. In order to understand more about the relativistic non-conformal theory, we further investigate the binding energy, drag force, and holographic entanglement entropy of the relativistic non-conformal theory.

  8. First Benchmark of Relativistic Photoionization Theories against 3D ab initio Simulation. (United States)

    Hafizi, B; Gordon, D F; Palastro, J P


    Photoelectron spectra and ionization rates encompassing relativistic intensities and hydrogenlike ions with relativistic binding energies are obtained using a quasiclassical S-matrix approach. These results, along with those based on the imaginary time method, are compared with three-dimensional, ½-period ab initio simulations for a wide range of ionization potentials and electric field amplitudes. Significant differences between the three results are demonstrated. Time-dependent simulations indicate that the peak ionization current can occur before the peak of the electric field.

  9. Relativistic Thermodynamics: A Modern 4-Vector Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Güémez


    Full Text Available Using the Minkowski relativistic 4-vector formalism, based on Einstein's equation, and the relativistic thermodynamics asynchronous formulation (Grøn (1973, the isothermal compression of an ideal gas is analyzed, considering an electromagnetic origin for forces applied to it. This treatment is similar to the description previously developed by Van Kampen (van Kampen (1969 and Hamity (Hamity (1969. In this relativistic framework Mechanics and Thermodynamics merge in the first law of relativistic thermodynamics expressed, using 4-vector notation, such as ΔUμ  =  Wμ  +  Qμ, in Lorentz covariant formulation, which, with the covariant formalism for electromagnetic forces, constitutes a complete Lorentz covariant formulation for classical physics.

  10. Relativistic transformation of phase-space distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Treumann


    Full Text Available We investigate the transformation of the distribution function in the relativistic case, a problem of interest in plasma when particles with high (relativistic velocities come into play as for instance in radiation belt physics, in the electron-cyclotron maser radiation theory, in the vicinity of high-Mach number shocks where particles are accelerated to high speeds, and generally in solar and astrophysical plasmas. We show that the phase-space volume element is a Lorentz constant and construct the general particle distribution function from first principles. Application to thermal equilibrium lets us derive a modified version of the isotropic relativistic thermal distribution, the modified Jüttner distribution corrected for the Lorentz-invariant phase-space volume element. Finally, we discuss the relativistic modification of a number of plasma parameters.

  11. Coherent states for the relativistic harmonic oscillator (United States)

    Aldaya, Victor; Guerrero, J.


    Recently we have obtained, on the basis of a group approach to quantization, a Bargmann-Fock-like realization of the Relativistic Harmonic Oscillator as well as a generalized Bargmann transform relating fock wave functions and a set of relativistic Hermite polynomials. Nevertheless, the relativistic creation and annihilation operators satisfy typical relativistic commutation relations of the Lie product (vector-z, vector-z(sup dagger)) approximately equals Energy (an SL(2,R) algebra). Here we find higher-order polarization operators on the SL(2,R) group, providing canonical creation and annihilation operators satisfying the Lie product (vector-a, vector-a(sup dagger)) = identity vector 1, the eigenstates of which are 'true' coherent states.

  12. Relativistic x-ray free-electron lasers in the quantum regime. (United States)

    Eliasson, Bengt; Shukla, P K


    We present a nonlinear theory for relativistic x-ray free-electron lasers in the quantum regime, using a collective Klein-Gordon (KG) equation (for relativistic electrons), which is coupled with the Maxwell-Poisson equations for the electromagnetic and electrostatic fields. In our model, an intense electromagnetic wave is used as a wiggler which interacts with a relativistic electron beam to produce coherent tunable radiation. The KG-Maxwell-Poisson model is used to derive a general nonlinear dispersion relation for parametric instabilities in three space dimensions, including an arbitrarily large amplitude electromagnetic wiggler field. The nonlinear dispersion relation reveals the importance of quantum recoil effects and oblique scattering of the radiation that can be tuned by varying the beam energy.

  13. Ion acceleration and plasma jet formation in ultra-thin foils undergoing expansion and relativistic transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M.; Gray, R.J.; Powell, H.W.; MacLellan, D.A.; Gonzalez-Izquierdo, B. [SUPA Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Stockhausen, L.C. [Centro de Laseres Pulsados (CLPU), Parque Cientifico, Calle del Adaja, s/n. 37185 Villamayor, Salamanca (Spain); Hicks, G.S.; Dover, N.P. [The John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Rusby, D.R. [SUPA Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Carroll, D.C. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Padda, H. [SUPA Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Torres, R. [Centro de Laseres Pulsados (CLPU), Parque Cientifico, Calle del Adaja, s/n. 37185 Villamayor, Salamanca (Spain); Kar, S. [Centre for Plasma Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Clarke, R.J.; Musgrave, I.O. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Najmudin, Z. [The John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Borghesi, M. [Centre for Plasma Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Neely, D. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); McKenna, P., E-mail: [SUPA Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)


    At sufficiently high laser intensities, the rapid heating to relativistic velocities and resulting decompression of plasma electrons in an ultra-thin target foil can result in the target becoming relativistically transparent to the laser light during the interaction. Ion acceleration in this regime is strongly affected by the transition from an opaque to a relativistically transparent plasma. By spatially resolving the laser-accelerated proton beam at near-normal laser incidence and at an incidence angle of 30°, we identify characteristic features both experimentally and in particle-in-cell simulations which are consistent with the onset of three distinct ion acceleration mechanisms: sheath acceleration; radiation pressure acceleration; and transparency-enhanced acceleration. The latter mechanism occurs late in the interaction and is mediated by the formation of a plasma jet extending into the expanding ion population. The effect of laser incident angle on the plasma jet is explored.

  14. Relativistic plasma optics enabled by near-critical density nanostructured material

    CERN Document Server

    Bin, J H; Wang, H Y; Streeter, M J V; Kreuzer, C; Kiefer, D; Yeung, M; Cousens, S; Foster, P S; Dromey, B; Yan, X Q; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J; Zepf, M; Schreiber, J


    The nonlinear optical properties of a plasma due to the relativistic electron motion in an intense laser field are of fundamental importance for current research and the generation of brilliant laser-driven sources of particles and photons1-15. Yet, one of the most interesting regimes, where the frequency of the laser becomes resonant with the plasma, has remained experimentally hard to access. We overcome this limitation by utilizing ultrathin carbon nanotube foam16 (CNF) targets allowing the strong relativistic nonlinearities at near- critical density (NCD) to be exploited for the first time. We report on the experimental realization of relativistic plasma optics to spatio-temporally compress the laser pulse within a few micrometers of propagation, while maintaining about half its energy. We also apply the enhanced laser pulses to substantially improve the properties of an ion bunch accelerated from a secondary target. Our results provide first insights into the rich physics of NCD plasmas and the opportuni...

  15. Ultra-low-frequency wave-driven diffusion of radiation belt relativistic electrons. (United States)

    Su, Zhenpeng; Zhu, Hui; Xiao, Fuliang; Zong, Q-G; Zhou, X-Z; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Hao, Y-X; Gao, Zhonglei; He, Zhaoguo; Baker, D N; Spence, H E; Reeves, G D; Blake, J B; Wygant, J R


    Van Allen radiation belts are typically two zones of energetic particles encircling the Earth separated by the slot region. How the outer radiation belt electrons are accelerated to relativistic energies remains an unanswered question. Recent studies have presented compelling evidence for the local acceleration by very-low-frequency (VLF) chorus waves. However, there has been a competing theory to the local acceleration, radial diffusion by ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves, whose importance has not yet been determined definitively. Here we report a unique radiation belt event with intense ULF waves but no detectable VLF chorus waves. Our results demonstrate that the ULF waves moved the inner edge of the outer radiation belt earthward 0.3 Earth radii and enhanced the relativistic electron fluxes by up to one order of magnitude near the slot region within about 10 h, providing strong evidence for the radial diffusion of radiation belt relativistic electrons.

  16. Limits and signatures of relativistic spaceflight (United States)

    Yurtsever, Ulvi; Wilkinson, Steven


    While special relativity imposes an absolute speed limit at the speed of light, our Universe is not empty Minkowski spacetime. The constituents that fill the interstellar/intergalactic vacuum, including the cosmic microwave background photons, impose a lower speed limit on any object travelling at relativistic velocities. Scattering of cosmic microwave photons from an ultra-relativistic object may create radiation with a characteristic signature allowing the detection of such objects at large distances.

  17. Nuclear curvature energy in relativistic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centelles, M.; Vinas, X. [Departament dEstructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Schuck, P. [Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS--IN2P3), Universite Joseph Fourier, Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble Cedex (France)


    The difficulties arising in the calculation of the nuclear curvature energy are analyzed in detail, especially with reference to relativistic models. It is underlined that the implicit dependence on curvature of the quantal wave functions is directly accessible only in a semiclassical framework. It is shown that also in the relativistic models quantal and semiclassical calculations of the curvature energy are in good agreement. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  18. Relativistic DNLS and Kaup-Newell Hierarchy (United States)

    Pashaev, Oktay K.; Lee, Jyh-Hao


    By the recursion operator of the Kaup-Newell hierarchy we construct the relativistic derivative NLS (RDNLS) equation and the corresponding Lax pair. In the nonrelativistic limit c → ∞ it reduces to DNLS equation and preserves integrability at any order of relativistic corrections. The compact explicit representation of the linear problem for this equation becomes possible due to notions of the q-calculus with two bases, one of which is the recursion operator, and another one is the spectral parameter.

  19. Q-oscillators and relativistic position operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arik, M. (Dept. of Mathematics, Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey)); Mungan, M. (Dept. of Physics, Bogazici Univ., Istanbul (Turkey))


    We investigate the multi-dimensional q-oscillator whose commutation relations are invariant under the quantum group. The no-interaction limit corresponds to a contraction of the q-oscillator algebra and yields relativistic position operators which can be expressed in terms of the generators of the Poincare group. This leads to the interpretation of the interacting q-oscillator as an relativistic quantum system and results in a hamiltonian whose spectrum is exactly exponential. (orig.).

  20. Relativistic entropy and related Boltzmann kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaniadakis, G. [Politecnico di Torino (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisica


    It is well known that the particular form of the two-particle correlation function, in the collisional integral of the classical Boltzmann equation, fixes univocally the entropy of the system, which turns out to be the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy. In the ordinary relativistic Boltzmann equation, some standard generalizations, with respect to its classical version, imposed by the special relativity, are customarily performed. The only ingredient of the equation, which tacitly remains in its original classical form, is the two-particle correlation function, and this fact imposes that also the relativistic kinetics is governed by the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy. Indeed the ordinary relativistic Boltzmann equation admits as stationary stable distribution, the exponential Juttner distribution. Here, we show that the special relativity laws and the maximum entropy principle suggest a relativistic generalization also of the two-particle correlation function and then of the entropy. The so obtained, fully relativistic Boltzmann equation, obeys the H-theorem and predicts a stationary stable distribution, presenting power law tails in the high-energy region. The ensued relativistic kinetic theory preserves the main features of the classical kinetics, which recovers in the c{yields}{infinity} limit. (orig.)

  1. The relativistic geoid: redshift and acceleration potential (United States)

    Philipp, Dennis; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Puetzfeld, Dirk; Hackmann, Eva; Perlick, Volker


    We construct a relativistic geoid based on a time-independent redshift potential, which foliates the spacetime into isochronometric surfaces. This relativistic potential coincides with the acceleration potential for isometric congruences. We show that the a- and u- geoid, defined in a post-Newtonian framework, coincide also in a more general setup. Known Newtonian and post-Newtonian results are recovered in the respective limits. Our approach offers a relativistic definition of the Earth's geoid as well as a description of the Earth itself (or observers on its surface) in terms of an isometric congruence. Being fully relativistic, this notion of a geoid can also be applied to other compact objects such as neutron stars. By definition, this relativistic geoid can be determined by a congruence of Killing observers equipped with standard clocks by comparing their frequencies as well as by measuring accelerations of objects that follow the congruence. The redshift potential gives the correct result also for frequency comparison through optical fiber links as long as the fiber is at rest w.r.t. the congruence. We give explicit expressions for the relativistic geoid in the Kerr spacetime and the Weyl class of spacetimes. To investigate the influence of higher order mass multipole moments we compare the results for the Schwarzschild case to those obtained for the Erez-Rosen and q-metric spacetimes.

  2. Advanced study of ICF-energy direct conversion for laser fusion rocket with quasi-dipole field in the laser-plasma experiments and pic-simulations*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharov, Y P; Vchivkov, K V; Boyarintsev, E L; Melekhov, A V; Posukh, V G; Shaikhislamov, I F [Institute of Laser Physics (ILP), Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Nakashima, H; Kajimura, Y [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University (KU), 816-8580 (Japan)], E-mail:


    We had studied by the methods of numerical and laboratory simulations an important problem of direct inductive conversion of the ICF-plasma' energy into electric one, under conditions of promising space propulsions with magnetic nozzle. For such kind of Laser Fusion Rocket, like a VISTA, with the strong and dipole-like magnetic field, a minimal 5%-level of conversion efficiency is required to supply a need power for laser system etc. As a result of calculations by 3D/PIC-code of KU a real opportunity to achieve this value was confirmed for the first time with taking into account a data of simulative experiments at KI-1 facility of ILP. A schemes and results of 'VISTA-KI' experiments with Laser-Plasma clouds is discussed to verify this opportunity under real conditions of flute-like plasma instability and the geometry of plasma expansion (versus the main and pick-up coils) close to VISTA.

  3. Effect of the laser wavelength: A long story of laser-plasma interaction physics for Inertial Confinement Fusion Teller Medal Lecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labaune Christine


    Full Text Available Laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF relies on the use of high-energy laser beams to compress and ignite a thermonuclear fuel with the ultimate goal of producing energy. Fusion is the holy grail of energy sources–combining abundant fuel with no greenhouse gas emissions, minimal waste products and a scale that can meet mankind's long-term energy demands. The quality and the efficiency of the coupling of the laser beams with the target are an essential step towards the success of laser fusion. A long-term program on laser-plasma interaction physics has been pursued to understand the propagation and the coupling of laser pulses in plasmas for a wide range of parameters.

  4. Observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanford, Glenn DelFosse


    An observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms is reported in this dissertation. Experiment 862 at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory observed antihydrogen atoms produced by the interaction of a circulating beam of high momentum (3 < p < 9 GeV/c) antiprotons and a jet of molecular hydrogen gas. Since the neutral antihydrogen does not bend in the antiproton source magnets, the detectors could be located far from the interaction point on a beamline tangent to the storage ring. The detection of the antihydrogen is accomplished by ionizing the atoms far from the interaction point. The positron is deflected by a magnetic spectrometer and detected, as are the back to back photons resulting from its annihilation. The antiproton travels a distance long enough for its momentum and time of flight to be measured accurately. A statistically significant sample of 101 antihydrogen atoms has been observed. A measurement of the cross section for {bar H}{sup 0} production is outlined within. The cross section corresponds to the process where a high momentum antiproton causes e{sup +} e{sup -} pair creation near a nucleus with the e{sup +} being captured by the antiproton. Antihydrogen is the first atom made exclusively of antimatter to be detected. The observation experiment's results are the first step towards an antihydrogen spectroscopy experiment which would measure the n = 2 Lamb shift and fine structure.

  5. Relativistic entanglement from relativistic quantum mechanics in the rest-frame instant form of dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusanna, Luca, E-mail: [Sezione INFN di Firenze, Polo Scientifico, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)


    After a review of the problems induced by the Lorentz signature of Minkowski space-time, like the need of a clock synchronization convention for the definition of 3-space and the complexity of the notion of relativistic center of mass, there is the introduction of a new formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics compatible with the theory of relativistic bound states. In it the zeroth postulate of non-relativistic quantum mechanics is not valid and the physics is described in the rest frame by a Hilbert space containing only relative variables. The non-locality of the Poincare' generators imply a kinematical non-locality and non-separability influencing the theory of relativistic entanglement and not connected with the standard quantum non-locality.

  6. Nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves with 3-component relativistic quantum plasma (United States)

    Ikramullah, Ahmad, Rashid; Sharif, Saqib; Khattak, Fida Younus


    The interaction of intense circularly polarized electro-magnetic (CPEM) wave with 3-component relativistic-quantum plasma consisting of relativistic-degenerate electrons and positrons, and dynamic degenerate ions is theoretically studied. A mathematical model is structured by coupling Klein-Gordon equations for the electrons and positrons, and Schrödinger equation for the ions with Maxwell equations through Poisson equations. The solutions of the dispersion relation are plotted for relativistic quantum plasma in the density-range of ˜ 10 30 → 10 36 m - 3 for several positron concentrations. Three wave modes are observed: electrons, ions, and positrons. The pair branch mode having a possible association with the positron states stays unaltered by variation in the positron concentration but varies significantly with a change in the quantum parameter defined in terms of the particles number density. The addition of positron to the plasma and increasing the positron concentration suggest enhancement of the opacity of the relativistic quantum plasma. The nonlinear interaction of large amplitude CPEM waves with the plasma leads to self-induced transparency. The transparency decreases with increasing positron concentration. The model so developed is then applied to study stimulated Raman scattering, modulational instability, and stimulated Brillouin scattering of intense CPEM waves in such plasmas. The results show that the growth rates are affected by the positron concentration, the quantum parameter of the plasma, as well as by the amplitude of the incident electromagnetic wave.

  7. On the relativistic micro-canonical ensemble and relativistic kinetic theory for N relativistic particles in inertial and non-inertial rest frames (United States)

    Alba, David; Crater, Horace W.; Lusanna, Luca


    A new formulation of relativistic classical mechanics allows a reconsideration of old unsolved problems in relativistic kinetic theory and in relativistic statistical mechanics. In particular a definition of the relativistic micro-canonical partition function is given strictly in terms of the Poincaré generators of an interacting N-particle system both in the inertial and non-inertial rest frames. The non-relativistic limit allows a definition of both the inertial and non-inertial micro-canonical ensemble in terms of the Galilei generators.

  8. Chaos and maps in relativistic rynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Horwitz


    Full Text Available The basic work of Zaslavskii et al showed that the classical non-relativistic electromagnetically kicked oscillator can be cast into the form of an iterative map on the phase space; the resulting evolution contains a stochastic flow to unbounded energy. Subsequent studies have formulated the problem in terms of a relativistic charged particle in interaction with the electromagnetic field. We review the structure of the covariant Lorentz force used to study this problem. We show that the Lorentz force equation can be derived as well from the manifestly covariant mechanics of Stueckelberg in the presence of a standard Maxwell field, establishing a connection between these equations and mass shell constraints. We argue that these relativistic generalizations of the problem are intrinsically inaccurate due to an inconsistency in the structure of the relativistic Lorentz force, and show that a reformulation of the relativistic problem, permitting variations (classically in both the particle mass and the effective “mass” of the interacting electromagnetic field, provides a consistent system of classical equations for describing such processes.

  9. Relativistic mixtures of charged and uncharged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, Gilberto M. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba (Brazil)


    Mixtures of relativistic gases within the framework of Boltzmann equation are analyzed. Three systems are considered. The first one refers to a mixture of uncharged particles by using Grad’s moment method, where the relativistic mixture is characterized by the moments of the distribution functions: particle four-flows, energy-momentum tensors, and third-order moment tensors. In the second Fick’s law for a mixture of relativistic gases of non-disparate rest masses in a Schwarzschild metric are derived from an extension of Marle and McCormack model equations applied to a relativistic truncated Grad’s distribution function, where it is shown the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the gravitational potential. The third one consists in the derivation of the relativistic laws of Ohm and Fourier for a binary mixtures of electrons with protons and electrons with photons subjected to external electromagnetic fields and in presence of gravitational fields by using the Anderson and Witting model of the Boltzmann equation.

  10. Intensity dependent waiting time for strong electron trapping events in speckle stimulated raman scatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Harvey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daughton, W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yin, L [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The onset of Stimulated Raman scatter from an intense laser speckle is the simplest experimentally realizable laser-plasma-interaction environment. Despite this data and recent 3D particle simulations, the controlling mechanism at the onset of backscatter in the kinetic regime when strong electron trapping in the daughter Langmuir wave is a dominant nonlinearity is not understood. This paper explores the consequences of assuming that onset is controlled by large thermal fluctuations. A super exponential dependence of mean reflectivity on speckle intensity in the onset regime is predicted.

  11. EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Microwave generation in an optical breakdown plasma created by modulated laser radiation (United States)

    Antipov, A. A.; Grasyuk, Arkadii Z.; Losev, Leonid L.; Soskov, V. I.


    It was established that when laser radiation, intensity modulated at a frequency of 2.2 GHz, interacted with an optical breakdown plasma which it had created, a microwave component appeared in the thermal emf of the plasma. The amplitude of the microwave thermal emf reached 0.7 V for a laser radiation intensity of 6 GW/cm2. Laser radiation with λL = 1.06 μm was converted to the microwave range with λmω = 13 cm in the optical breakdown plasma. A microwave signal power of ~ 0.5 W was obtained from a laser power of ~ 5 MW.

  12. How relativistic motion affects Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Yang; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu


    In this letter, the dynamic behavior of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering and the redistribution of EPR steering under a relativistic framework are investigated. Specifically, we explore the scenario that particle A held by Alice is in a flat space-time and another particle B held by Bob entangled with A is in a non-inertial framework. The results show that EPR steering from Alice to Bob is dramatically destroyed by the Unruh effect caused by the acceleration of Bob. Besides, EPR steering possess asymmetry, and EPR steering asymmetry increases with growing intensity of the Unruh effect, implying that the Unruh effect can bring about EPR steering asymmetry. Furthermore, the reduced physically accessible EPR steering from Alice to Bob is distributed to the physically inaccessible EPR steering (from Alice to anti-Bob or from Bob to anti-Bob). Notably, unlike entanglement and quantum discord, only one of the EPR steering from Alice to anti-Bob and Bob to anti-Bob experiences a sudden birth with increase in the acceleration parameter, which means that they cannot simultaneously survive. That is, the monogamous relationship of EPR steering is still tenable in such a scenario. Consequently, we believe that EPR steering could also serve as an important information resource within long-distance quantum secure communication under the relativistic framework.

  13. Relativistic Scott correction for atoms and molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solovej, Jan Philip; Sørensen, Thomas Østergaard; Spitzer, Wolfgang Ludwig


    We prove the first correction to the leading Thomas-Fermi energy for the ground state energy of atoms and molecules in a model where the kinetic energy of the electrons is treated relativistically. The leading Thomas-Fermi energy, established in [25], as well as the correction given here, are of ......We prove the first correction to the leading Thomas-Fermi energy for the ground state energy of atoms and molecules in a model where the kinetic energy of the electrons is treated relativistically. The leading Thomas-Fermi energy, established in [25], as well as the correction given here......, are of semiclassical nature. Our result on atoms and molecules is proved from a general semiclassical estimate for relativistic operators with potentials with Coulomb-like singularities. This semiclassical estimate is obtained using the coherent state calculus introduced in [36]. The paper contains a unified treatment...

  14. Anisotropic Particle Acceleration in Relativistic Shear Layers (United States)

    Boettcher, Markus; Liang, Edison P.; Fu, Wen


    We present results of Particle in Cell (PIC) simulations of relativistic shear layers as relevant to the relativistic jets of acive galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. We study the self-generation of electro-magnetic fields and particle acceleration for various different plasma compositions (electron-ion vs. electron-positron pair vs. hybrid). Special emphasis is placed on the angular distribution of accelerated particles. We find that electron-ion shear layers lead to highly anisotropic particle distributions in the frame of the fast-moving inner spine. The beaming pattern of the highest-energy particles is much narrower than the characteristic beaming angle of 1/Gamma resulting from relativistic aberration of a co-moving isotropic distribution. This may pose a possible solution to the Lorentz-Factor crisis in blazars and explain very hard X-ray / soft gamma-ray spectra of some gamma-ray bursts.

  15. Exact quantisation of the relativistic Hopfield model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belgiorno, F., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo 32, IT-20133 Milano (Italy); INdAM-GNFM (Italy); Cacciatori, S.L., E-mail: [Department of Science and High Technology, Università dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, IT-22100 Como (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, IT-20133 Milano (Italy); Dalla Piazza, F., E-mail: [Università “La Sapienza”, Dipartimento di Matematica, Piazzale A. Moro 2, I-00185, Roma (Italy); Doronzo, M., E-mail: [Department of Science and High Technology, Università dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, IT-22100 Como (Italy)


    We investigate the quantisation in the Heisenberg representation of a relativistically covariant version of the Hopfield model for dielectric media, which entails the interaction of the quantum electromagnetic field with the matter dipole fields, represented by a mesoscopic polarisation field. A full quantisation of the model is provided in a covariant gauge, with the aim of maintaining explicit relativistic covariance. Breaking of the Lorentz invariance due to the intrinsic presence in the model of a preferred reference frame is also taken into account. Relativistic covariance forces us to deal with the unphysical (scalar and longitudinal) components of the fields, furthermore it introduces, in a more tricky form, the well-known dipole ghost of standard QED in a covariant gauge. In order to correctly dispose of this contribution, we implement a generalised Lautrup trick. Furthermore, causality and the relation of the model with the Wightman axioms are also discussed.

  16. Nonlinear relativistic plasma resonance: Renormalization group approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metelskii, I. I., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Kovalev, V. F., E-mail: [Dukhov All-Russian Research Institute of Automatics (Russian Federation); Bychenkov, V. Yu., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)


    An analytical solution to the nonlinear set of equations describing the electron dynamics and electric field structure in the vicinity of the critical density in a nonuniform plasma is constructed using the renormalization group approach with allowance for relativistic effects of electron motion. It is demonstrated that the obtained solution describes two regimes of plasma oscillations in the vicinity of the plasma resonance— stationary and nonstationary. For the stationary regime, the spatiotemporal and spectral characteristics of the resonantly enhanced electric field are investigated in detail and the effect of the relativistic nonlinearity on the spatial localization of the energy of the plasma relativistic field is considered. The applicability limits of the obtained solution, which are determined by the conditions of plasma wave breaking in the vicinity of the resonance, are established and analyzed in detail for typical laser and plasma parameters. The applicability limits of the earlier developed nonrelativistic theories are refined.

  17. Feasibility study on temporal-resolved diffraction of high-energy electrons produced in femtosecond laser-plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Jun; Cang Yu; Chen Qing; Peng Lian Mao; Wang Huai Bin; Zhong Jia Yong


    The high-energy electrons can be produced in the interaction between intense ultra-short laser pulses and Al targets. The diffraction may take place when high-energy electrons pass through an Al single crystal. Feasibility is studied using such diffraction as a method to analyze the structures of crystals

  18. Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science Volume V

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Ledingham, Kenneth


    The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science, which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield, as well as graduate students, can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand; these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. This fifth volume covers a broad range of topics from this interdisciplinary research field, focusing on coherent responses of gaseous and condensed matter to ultrashort intense laser pulses, propagation of intense laser pulses, and laser-plasma interaction and its applications.

  19. General relativistic tidal heating for Moller pseudotensor

    CERN Document Server

    So, Lau Loi


    Thorne elucidated that the relativistic tidal heating is the same as the Newtonian theory. Moreover, Thorne also claimed that the tidal heating is independent of how one localizes gravitational energy and is unambiguously given by a certain formula. Purdue and Favata calculated the tidal heating for different classical pseudotensors including Moller and obtained the results all matched with the Newtonian perspective. After re-examined this Moller pseudotensor, we find that there does not exist any tidal heating value. Thus we claim that the relativistic tidal heating is pseudotensor independent under the condition that if the peusdotensor is a Freud typed superpotential.

  20. Relativistic quantum mechanics of a Dirac oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Martines y Romero, R P; Salas-Brito, A L


    The Dirac oscillator is an exactly soluble model recently introduced in the context of many particle models in relativistic quantum mechanics. The model has been also considered as an interaction term for modelling quark confinement in quantum chromodynamics. These considerations should be enough for demonstrating that the Dirac oscillator can be an excellent example in relativistic quantum mechanics. In this paper we offer a solution to the problem and discuss some of its properties. We also discuss a physical picture for the Dirac oscillator's non-standard interaction, showing how it arises on describing the behaviour of a neutral particle carrying an anomalous magnetic moment and moving inside a uniformly charged sphere. (author)

  1. Fermi Acceleration in driven relativistic billiards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Rafael S., E-mail: [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Letelier, Patricio S. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Instituto de Matematica, Estatistica e Computacao Cientifica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil)


    We show numerical experiments of driven billiards using special relativity. We have the remarkable fact that for the relativistic driven circular and annular concentric billiards, depending on initial conditions and parameters, we observe Fermi Acceleration, absent in the Newtonian case. The velocity for these cases tends to the speed of light very quickly. We find that for the annular eccentric billiard the initial velocity grows for a much longer time than the concentric annular billiard until it asymptotically reach c. -- Highlights: → Fermi Acceleration is studied for relativistic driven billiards. → We studied regular and chaotic billiards with different parameters. → Fermi Acceleration is present even for static regular billiards.

  2. Level density parameter in relativistic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centelles, M. (Dept. d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Univ. de Barcelona (Spain)); Vinas, X. (Dept. d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Univ. de Barcelona (Spain)); Schuck, P. (Inst. des Sciences Nucleaires, 38 Grenoble (France))


    The level density parameter for finite nuclei is studied in the framework of the relativistic mean field theory. Systematic self-consistent calculations are performed in the Thomas-Fermi approximation using [sigma]-[omega] models that include scalar meson self-couplings. For realistic nuclear matter properties, the level density parameter turns out to be in the range of values obtained in non-relativistic calculations with Skyrme interactions, and thus it is smaller than the global trend of the experimental data. The implications for the level density parameter of including vacuum fluctuations and exchange corrections in the mean field theory are also investigated. (orig.)

  3. Relativistic Celestial Mechanics of the Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeikin, Sergei; Kaplan, George


    This authoritative book presents the theoretical development of gravitational physics as it applies to the dynamics of celestial bodies and the analysis of precise astronomical observations. In so doing, it fills the need for a textbook that teaches modern dynamical astronomy with a strong emphasis on the relativistic aspects of the subject produced by the curved geometry of four-dimensional spacetime. The first three chapters review the fundamental principles of celestial mechanics and of special and general relativity. This background material forms the basis for understanding relativistic r

  4. Normalizing a Relativistic Model of X-Ray Reflection Definition of the Reflection Fraction and Its Implementation in relxill (United States)

    Dauser, T.; Garcia, J.; Walton, D. J.; Eikmann, W.; Kallman, T.; McClintock, J.; Wilms, J.


    Aims. The only relativistic reflection model that implements a parameter relating the intensity incident on an accretion disk to the observed intensity is relxill. The parameter used in earlier versions of this model, referred to as the reflection strength, is unsatisfactory; it has been superseded by a parameter that provides insight into the accretion geometry, namely the reflection fraction. The reflection fraction is defined as the ratio of the coronal intensity illuminating the disk to the coronal intensity that reaches the observer. Methods. The relxill model combines a general relativistic ray-tracing code and a photoionization code to compute the component of radiation reflected from an accretion that is illuminated by an external source. The reflection fraction is a particularly important parameter for relativistic models with well-defined geometry, such as the lamp post model, which is a focus of this paper. Results. Relativistic spectra are compared for three inclinations and for four values of the key parameter of the lamp post model,namely the height above the black hole of the illuminating, on-axis point source. In all cases, the strongest reflection is produced for low source heights and high spin. A low-spin black hole is shown to be incapable of producing enhanced relativistic reflection. Results for the relxill model are compared to those obtained with other models and a Monte Carlo simulation. Conclusions. Fitting data by using the relxill model and the recently implemented reflection fraction, the geometry of a system can be constrained. The reflection-fraction is independent of system parameters such as inclination and black hole spin. The reflection-fraction parameter was implemented with the name reflec_frac all flavours of the relxill model, and the non-relativistic reflection model xillver, in v0.4a (18 January 2016).

  5. Is a Relativistic Thermodynamics possible?; Es posible una Termodinamica Relativista?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guemez, J.


    A brief historical review the literature on developing the concept of Thermodynamics Relativistic. We analyze two examples of application of the Galilean and Relativistic Thermodynamics discussed under what circumstances could build a relativistic Thermodynamics Lorentz covariant with physical sense. (Author) 19 refs.

  6. Quantum ion-acoustic solitary waves in weak relativistic plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A linear dispersion relation is also obtained taking into account the relativistic effect. The properties of quantum ion-acoustic solitary waves, obtained from the deformed KdV equation, are studied taking into account the quantum mechanical effects in the weak relativistic limit. It is found that relativistic effects significantly ...

  7. On the Raman instability in degenerate relativistic plasmas (United States)

    Chanturia, G. T.; Berezhiani, V. I.; Mahajan, S. M.


    The stimulated Raman scattering instability in a fully degenerate electron plasma is studied applying relativistic hydrodynamic and Maxwell equations. We demonstrated that the instability develops for weakly and strongly relativistic degenerate plasmas. It is shown that in the field of strong radiation, a degenerate relativistic plasma effectively responses as in the case of weak degeneracy.

  8. Ionization and bound-state relativistic quantum dynamics in laser-driven multiply charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetzheim, Henrik


    The interaction of ultra-strong laser fields with multiply charged hydrogen-like ions can be distinguished in an ionization and a bound dynamics regime. Both are investigated by means of numerically solving the Dirac equation in two dimensions and by a classical relativistic Monte-Carlo simulation. For a better understanding of highly nonlinear physical processes the development of a well characterized ultra-intense relativistic laser field strength has been driven forward, capable of studying e.g. the magnetic field effects of the laser resulting in an additional electron motion in the laser propagation direction. A novel method to sensitively measure these ultra-strong laser intensities is developed and employed from the optical via the UV towards the XUV frequency regime. In the bound dynamics field, the determination of multiphoton transition matrixelements has been investigated between different bound states via Rabi oscillations. (orig.)

  9. Simulation of relativistically colliding laser-generated electron flows

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xiaohu; Sarri, Gianluca; Borghesi, Marco


    The plasma dynamics resulting from the simultaneous impact, of two equal, ultra-intense laser pulses, in two spatially separated spots, onto a dense target is studied via particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The simulations show that electrons accelerated to relativistic speeds, cross the target and exit at its rear surface. Most energetic electrons are bound to the rear surface by the ambipolar electric field and expand along it. Their current is closed by a return current in the target, and this current configuration generates strong surface magnetic fields. The two electron sheaths collide at the midplane between the laser impact points. The magnetic repulsion between the counter-streaming electron beams separates them along the surface normal direction, before they can thermalize through other beam instabilities. This magnetic repulsion is also the driving mechanism for the beam-Weibel (filamentation) instability, which is thought to be responsible for magnetic field growth close to the internal shocks of ...

  10. Beam-beam observations in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); White, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been operating since 2000. Over the past decade, thanks to the continuously increased bunch intensity and reduced β*s at the interaction points, the maximum peak luminosity in the polarized proton operation has been increased by more than two orders of magnitude. In this article, we first present the beam-beam observations in the previous RHIC polarized proton runs. Then we analyze the mechanisms for the beam loss and emittance growth in the presence of beam-beam interaction. The operational challenges and limitations imposed by beam-beam interaction and their remedies are also presented. In the end, we briefly introduce head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in RHIC.

  11. Lienard-Wiechert potential and synchrotron radiation of a relativistic spinning particle in the pseudoclassical theory


    Arakelyan, S. A.; Grigoryan, G. V.; Grigoryan, R. P.


    Lienard-Wiechert potentials of the relativistic spinning particle with anomalous magnetic moment in pseudoclassical theory are constructed. General expressions for the Lienard-Wiechert potentials are used for investigation of some specific cases of the motion of the spinning particle. In particular the spin dependence of the intensity of the synchrotron radiation of the transversely polarized particle performing uniform circular motion is considered. When the movement of the particle in exter...

  12. The N body problem. Relativistic approach; Le probleme a N corps. Approches relativistes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathiot, Jean-Francois [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, IN2P3/CNRS, Universite Blaise Pascal, F-63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Collaboration: La Direction des Sciences de la Matiere du CEA (FR); Le Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (BE)


    We shall detail in a first part the physical motivation of relativistic approaches by investigating the underlying elementary mechanisms. The second part will be devoted to the understanding of nuclear matter and finite nuclei in these approaches. We shall see, in particular, how one can easily derive an effective interaction of Skyrme type from these relativistic approaches. We shall discuss, in the third part, some recent results obtained in nuclear structure. (author) 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Workshop on gravitational waves and relativistic astrophysics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Discussions related to gravitational wave experiments viz. LIGO and LISA as well as to observations of supermassive black holes dominated the workshop sessions on gravitational waves and relativistic astrophysics in the ICGC-2004. A summary of seven papers that were presented in these workshop sessions has been ...

  14. Deriving relativistic Bohmian quantum potential using variational ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deriving relativistic Bohmian quantum potential using variational method and conformal transformations ... We obtain this potential by using variational method. Then ... Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Azadi Sq., Mashhad, Iran; School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Science (IPM), ...

  15. Photon and gluon emission in relativistic plasmas (United States)

    Arnold, Peter; Moore, Guy D.; Yaffe, Laurence G.


    We recently derived, using diagrammatic methods, the leading-order hard photon emission rate in ultra-relativistic plasmas. This requires a correct treatment of multiple scattering effects which limit the coherence length of emitted radiation (the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect). In this paper, we provide a more physical derivation of this result, and extend the treatment to the case of gluon radiation.

  16. Relativistic atomic physics at the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report discusses the following proposed work for relativistic atomic physics at the Superconducting Super Collider: Beam diagnostics; atomic physics research; staffing; education; budget information; statement concerning matching funds; description and justification of major items of equipment; statement of current and pending support; and assurance of compliance.

  17. Deriving relativistic Bohmian quantum potential using variational ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ever, this postulate (locality) breaks down and opens new windows for understanding our. Universe. 2.2 Relativistic quantum potential for a spinless particle. Following Bohm, we substitute the polar form of the wave function into the Klein–Gordon equation to derive the quantum mechanical Hamilton–Jacobi equation for a ...

  18. Instabilities in a Relativistic Viscous Fluid (United States)

    Corona-Galindo, M. G.; Klapp, J.; Vazquez, A.


    RESUMEN. Las ecuaciones hidrodinamicas de un fluido imperfecto relativista son resueltas, y los modos hidrodinamicos son analizados con el prop6sito de estabiecer correlaciones con las estructuras cosmol6gicas. ABSTRACT The hydrodynamical equations of a relativistic imperfect fluid are solved, and the hydrodynamical modes are analysed with the aim to establish correlations with cosmological structures. Ke, words: COSMOLOGY - HYDRODYNAMICS - RELATIVITY

  19. Solutions to the relativistic precession model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, A.; Motta, S.


    The relativistic precession model (RPM) can be used to obtain a precise measurement of the mass and spin of a black hole when the appropriate set of quasi-periodic oscillations is detected in the power-density spectrum of an accreting black hole. However, in previous studies, the solution of the RPM

  20. Kinematical Diagrams for Conical Relativistic Jets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... a variety of radio observations of blazar jets. In addition to uniform jet flows (i.e., those having a uniform bulk Lorentz factor, ), computational results are also presented for stratified jets where an ultra-relativistic central spine along the jet axis is surrounded by a slower moving sheath, possibly arising from a velocity shear.

  1. Relativistic energy loss in a dispersive medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlrik, Jens Madsen


    The electron energy loss in a dispersive medium is obtained using macroscopic electrodynamics taking advantage of a static frame of reference. Relativistic corrections are described in terms of a dispersive Lorentz factor obtained by replacing the vacuum velocity c by the characteristic phase...

  2. Astrophysical Applications of Relativistic Shear Flows (United States)

    Liang, Edison


    We review recent PIC simulation results of relativistic collisionless shear flows in both 2D and 3D. We apply these results to spine-sheath jet models of blazars and gamma-ray-bursters, and to shear flows near the horizon of rapidly spinning black holes. We will discuss magnetic field generation, particle energization and radiation processes, and their observational consequences.

  3. Relativistic heavy-ion physics: Experimental overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    highlights from the first run of the relativistic heavy-ion collider at BNL and the 15 year research programme at the super ... The energy dependence of the charged particle density dNch/dη, normalized to the num- ..... meson both in the dropping mass and the collision broadening scenarios, is almost as high at RHIC as at ...

  4. Structure and thermodynamic properties of relativistic electron gases. (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Wu, Jianzhong


    Relativistic effect is important in many quantum systems but theoretically complicated from both fundamental and practical perspectives. Herein we introduce an efficient computational procedure to predict the structure and energetic properties of relativistic quantum systems by mapping the Pauli principle into an effective pairwise-additive potential such that the properties of relativistic nonquantum systems can be readily predicted from conventional liquid-state methods. We applied our theoretical procedure to relativistic uniform electron gases and compared the pair correlation functions with those for systems of nonrelativistic electrons. A simple analytical expression has been developed to correlate the exchange-correlation free energy of relativistic uniform electron systems.

  5. Advanced relativistic VLBI model for geodesy (United States)

    Soffel, Michael; Kopeikin, Sergei; Han, Wen-Biao


    Our present relativistic part of the geodetic VLBI model for Earthbound antennas is a consensus model which is considered as a standard for processing high-precision VLBI observations. It was created as a compromise between a variety of relativistic VLBI models proposed by different authors as documented in the IERS Conventions 2010. The accuracy of the consensus model is in the picosecond range for the group delay but this is not sufficient for current geodetic purposes. This paper provides a fully documented derivation of a new relativistic model having an accuracy substantially higher than one picosecond and based upon a well accepted formalism of relativistic celestial mechanics, astrometry and geodesy. Our new model fully confirms the consensus model at the picosecond level and in several respects goes to a great extent beyond it. More specifically, terms related to the acceleration of the geocenter are considered and kept in the model, the gravitational time-delay due to a massive body (planet, Sun, etc.) with arbitrary mass and spin-multipole moments is derived taking into account the motion of the body, and a new formalism for the time-delay problem of radio sources located at finite distance from VLBI stations is presented. Thus, the paper presents a substantially elaborated theoretical justification of the consensus model and its significant extension that allows researchers to make concrete estimates of the magnitude of residual terms of this model for any conceivable configuration of the source of light, massive bodies, and VLBI stations. The largest terms in the relativistic time delay which can affect the current VLBI observations are from the quadrupole and the angular momentum of the gravitating bodies that are known from the literature. These terms should be included in the new geodetic VLBI model for improving its consistency.

  6. Leading order relativistic chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction (United States)

    Ren, Xiu-Lei; Li, Kai-Wen; Geng, Li-Sheng; Long, Bingwei; Ring, Peter; Meng, Jie


    Motivated by the successes of relativistic theories in studies of atomic/molecular and nuclear systems and the need for a relativistic chiral force in relativistic nuclear structure studies, we explore a new relativistic scheme to construct the nucleon-nucleon interaction in the framework of covariant chiral effective field theory. The chiral interaction is formulated up to leading order with covariant power counting and a Lorentz invariant chiral Lagrangian. We find that the relativistic scheme induces all six spin operators needed to describe the nuclear force. A detailed investigation of the partial wave potentials shows a better description of the {}1S0 and {}3P0 phase shifts than the leading order Weinberg approach, and similar to that of the next-to-leading order Weinberg approach. For the other partial waves with angular momenta J≥slant 1, the relativistic results are almost the same as their leading order non-relativistic counterparts. )

  7. Experimental demonstration of low laser-plasma instabilities in gas-filled spherical hohlraums at laser injection angle designed for ignition target (United States)

    Lan, Ke; Li, Zhichao; Xie, Xufei; Chen, Yao-Hua; Zheng, Chunyang; Zhai, Chuanlei; Hao, Liang; Yang, Dong; Huo, Wen Yi; Ren, Guoli; Peng, Xiaoshi; Xu, Tao; Li, Yulong; Li, Sanwei; Yang, Zhiwen; Guo, Liang; Hou, Lifei; Liu, Yonggang; Wei, Huiyue; Liu, Xiangming; Cha, Weiyi; Jiang, Xiaohua; Mei, Yu; Li, Yukun; Deng, Keli; Yuan, Zheng; Zhan, Xiayu; Zhang, Haijun; Jiang, Baibin; Zhang, Wei; Deng, Xuewei; Liu, Jie; Du, Kai; Ding, Yongkun; Wei, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Wanguo; Chen, Xiaodong; Campbell, E. M.; He, Xian-Tu


    Octahedral spherical hohlraums with a single laser ring at an injection angle of 55∘ are attractive concepts for laser indirect drive due to the potential for achieving the x-ray drive symmetry required for high convergence implosions. Laser-plasma instabilities, however, are a concern given the long laser propagation path in such hohlraums. Significant stimulated Raman scattering has been observed in cylindrical hohlraums with similar laser propagation paths during the ignition campaign on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In this Rapid Communication, experiments demonstrating low levels of laser-driven plasma instability (LPI) in spherical hohlraums with a laser injection angle of 55∘ are reported and compared to that observed with cylindrical hohlraums with injection angles of 28 .5∘ and 55∘, similar to that of the NIF. Significant LPI is observed with the laser injection of 28 .5∘ in the cylindrical hohlraum where the propagation path is similar to the 55∘ injection angle for the spherical hohlraum. The experiments are performed on the SGIII laser facility with a total 0.35 -μ m incident energy of 93 kJ in a 3 nsec pulse. These experiments demonstrate the role of hohlraum geometry in LPI and demonstrate the need for systematic experiments for choosing the optimal configuration for ignition studies with indirect drive inertial confinement fusion.

  8. DOE-HEP Final Report for 2013-2016: Studies of plasma wakefields for high repetition-rate plasma collider, and Theoretical study of laser-plasma proton and ion acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouleas, Thomas C. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Sahai, Aakash A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics


    There were two goals for this funded project: 1. Studies of plasma wakefields for high repetition-rate plasma collider, and 2. Theoretical study of laser-plasma proton and ion acceleration. For goal 1, an analytical model was developed to determine the ion-motion resulting from the interaction of non-linear “blow-out” wakefields excited by beam-plasma and laser-plasma interactions. This is key to understanding the state of the plasma at timescales of 1 picosecond to a few 10s of picoseconds behind the driver-energy pulse. More information can be found in the document. For goal 2, we analytically and computationally analyzed the longitudinal instabilities of the laser-plasma interactions at the critical layer. Specifically, the process of “Doppler-shifted Ponderomotive bunching” is significant to eliminate the very high-energy spread and understand the importance of chirping the laser pulse frequency. We intend to publish the results of the mixing process in 2-D. We intend to publish Chirp-induced transparency. More information can be found in the document.

  9. Silicon nanowire based high brightness, pulsed relativistic electron source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Sarkar


    Full Text Available We demonstrate that silicon nanowire arrays efficiently emit relativistic electron pulses under irradiation by a high-intensity, femtosecond, and near-infrared laser (∼1018 W/cm2, 25 fs, 800 nm. The nanowire array yields fluxes and charge per bunch that are 40 times higher than those emitted by an optically flat surface, in the energy range of 0.2–0.5 MeV. The flux and charge yields for the nanowires are observed to be directional in nature unlike that for planar silicon. Particle-in-cell simulations establish that such large emission is caused by the enhancement of the local electric fields around a nanowire, which consequently leads to an enhanced absorption of laser energy. We show that the high-intensity contrast (ratio of picosecond pedestal to femtosecond peak of the laser pulse (10−9 is crucial to this large yield. We extend the notion of surface local-field enhancement, normally invoked in low-order nonlinear optical processes like second harmonic generation, optical limiting, etc., to ultrahigh laser intensities. These electron pulses, expectedly femtosecond in duration, have potential application in imaging, material modification, ultrafast dynamics, terahertz generation, and fast ion sources.

  10. Resonantly excited betatron hard X-Rays from Ionization Injected Electron Beam in a Laser Plasma Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, K; Li, Y F; Li, D Z; Tao, M Z; Mirzaie, M; Ma, Y; Zhao, J R; Li, M H; Chen, M; Hafz, N; Sokollik, T; Sheng, Z M; Zhang, J


    A new scheme for bright hard x-ray emission from laser wakefield electron accelerator is reported, where pure nitrogen gas is adopted. Intense Betatron x-ray beams are generated from ionization injected K-shell electrons of nitrogen into the accelerating wave bucket. The x-ray radiation shows synchrotron-like spectrum with total photon yield 8$\\times$10$^8$/shot and $10^8$ over 110keV. In particular, the betatron hard x-ray photon yield is 10 times higher compared to the case of helium gas under the same laser parameters. Particle-in-cell simulation suggests that the enhancement of the x-ray yield results from ionization injection, which enables the electrons to be quickly accelerated to the driving laser region for subsequent betatron resonance. Employing the present scheme,the single stage nitrogen gas target could be used to generate stable high brightness betatron hard x-ray beams.

  11. Optimal control of laser plasma instabilities using Spike Trains of Uneven Duration and Delay (STUD pulses for ICF and IFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afeyan Bedros


    Full Text Available An adaptive method of controlling parametric instabilities in laser produced plasmas is proposed. It involves fast temporal modulation of a laser pulse on the fastest instability's amplification time scale, adapting to changing and unknown plasma conditions. These pulses are comprised of on and off sequences having at least one or two orders of magnitude contrast between them. Such laser illumination profiles are called STUD pulses for Spike Trains of Uneven Duration and Delay. The STUD pulse program includes scrambling the speckle patterns spatially in between the laser spikes. The off times allow damping of driven waves. The scrambling of the hot spots allows tens of damping times to elapse before hot spot locations experience recurring high intensity spikes. Damping in the meantime will have healed the scars of past growth. Another unique feature of STUD pulses on crossing beams is that their temporal profiles can be interlaced or staggered, and their interactions thus controlled with an on-off switch and a dimmer.

  12. Relativistic quantum chemistry on quantum computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veis, L.; Visnak, J.; Fleig, T.


    The past few years have witnessed a remarkable interest in the application of quantum computing for solving problems in quantum chemistry more efficiently than classical computers allow. Very recently, proof-of-principle experimental realizations have been reported. However, so far only...... the nonrelativistic regime (i.e., the Schrodinger equation) has been explored, while it is well known that relativistic effects can be very important in chemistry. We present a quantum algorithm for relativistic computations of molecular energies. We show how to efficiently solve the eigenproblem of the Dirac......-Coulomb Hamiltonian on a quantum computer and demonstrate the functionality of the proposed procedure by numerical simulations of computations of the spin-orbit splitting in the SbH molecule. Finally, we propose quantum circuits with three qubits and nine or ten controlled-NOT (CNOT) gates, which implement a proof...

  13. Formation of Hypernuclei in Relativistic Ion Collisions (United States)

    Botvina, Alexander; Bleicher, Marcus; Pochodzalla, Josef; Steinheimer, Jan

    We develop a versatile model of hypernuclei production in relativistic hadron and ion collisions. Within a hybrid approach we use transport, coalescence and statistical models to describe the whole process. We demonstrate that heavy hypernuclei are coming mostly from projectile and target residues, whereas light hypernuclei can be produced at all rapidities. The yields of hypernuclei increase considerably above the energy threshold for the hyperon production, and there is a tendency to saturation of yields of hypernuclei with increasing the beam energy. There are unique opportunities in relativistic ion collisions which are difficult to realize in traditional hypernuclear experiments: The produced hypernuclei have a broad distribution in masses and isospin, and the production of multi-strange nuclei including new excited states is quite abundant. In addition, we can directly get an information on the hypermatter both at high and low temperatures.

  14. Hyperbolic Triangle Centers The Special Relativistic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ungar, A.A


    After A. Ungar had introduced vector algebra and Cartesian coordinates into hyperbolic geometry in his earlier books, along with novel applications in Einstein’s special theory of relativity, the purpose of his new book is to introduce hyperbolic barycentric coordinates, another important concept to embed Euclidean geometry into hyperbolic geometry. It will be demonstrated that, in full analogy to classical mechanics where barycentric coordinates are related to the Newtonian mass, barycentric coordinates are related to the Einsteinian relativistic mass in hyperbolic geometry. Contrary to general belief, Einstein’s relativistic mass hence meshes up extraordinarily well with Minkowski’s four-vector formalism of special relativity. In Euclidean geometry, barycentric coordinates can be used to determine various triangle centers. While there are many known Euclidean triangle centers, only few hyperbolic triangle centers are known, and none of the known hyperbolic triangle centers has been determined analytic...

  15. Newtonian view of general relativistic stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, A.M. [Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo (IFES), Grupo de Ciencias Ambientais e Recursos Naturais, Guarapari (Brazil); Velten, H.E.S.; Fabris, J.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Departamento de Fisica, Vitoria (Brazil); Salako, I.G. [Institut de Mathematiques et de Sciences Physiques (IMSP), Porto-Novo (Benin)


    Although general relativistic cosmological solutions, even in the presence of pressure, can be mimicked by using neo-Newtonian hydrodynamics, it is not clear whether there exists the same Newtonian correspondence for spherical static configurations. General relativity solutions for stars are known as the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equations. On the other hand, the Newtonian description does not take into account the total pressure effects and therefore cannot be used in strong field regimes. We discuss how to incorporate pressure in the stellar equilibrium equations within the neo-Newtonian framework. We compare the Newtonian, neo-Newtonian, and the full relativistic theory by solving the equilibrium equations for both three approaches and calculating the mass-radius diagrams for some simple neutron stars' equations of state. (orig.)

  16. Exact Relativistic Magnetized Haloes around Rotating Disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Gutiérrez-Piñeres


    Full Text Available The study of the dynamics of magnetic fields in galaxies is one of important problems in formation and evolution of galaxies. In this paper, we present the exact relativistic treatment of a rotating disk surrounded by a magnetized material halo. The features of the halo and disk are described by the distributional energy-momentum tensor of a general fluid in canonical form. All the relevant quantities and the metric and electromagnetic potentials are exactly determined by an arbitrary harmonic function only. For instance, the generalized Kuzmin-disk potential is used. The particular class of solutions obtained is asymptotically flat and satisfies all the energy conditions. Moreover, the motion of a charged particle on the halo is described. As far as we know, this is the first relativistic model describing analytically the magnetized halo of a rotating disk.

  17. Anomalous magnetohydrodynamics in the extreme relativistic domain

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo


    The evolution equations of anomalous magnetohydrodynamics are derived in the extreme relativistic regime and contrasted with the treatment of hydromagnetic nonlinearities pioneered by Lichnerowicz in the absence of anomalous currents. In particular we explore the situation where the conventional vector currents are complemented by the axial-vector currents arising either from the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons of a spontaneously broken symmetry or because of finite fermionic density effects. After expanding the generally covariant equations in inverse powers of the conductivity, the relativistic analog of the magnetic diffusivity equation is derived in the presence of vortical and magnetic currents. While the anomalous contributions are generally suppressed by the diffusivity, they are shown to disappear in the perfectly conducting limit. When the flow is irrotational, boost-invariant and with vanishing four-acceleration the corresponding evolution equations are explicitly integrated so that the various physic...

  18. Hydrodynamics of ultra-relativistic bubble walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Leitao


    Full Text Available In cosmological first-order phase transitions, gravitational waves are generated by the collisions of bubble walls and by the bulk motions caused in the fluid. A sizeable signal may result from fast-moving walls. In this work we study the hydrodynamics associated to the fastest propagation modes, namely, ultra-relativistic detonations and runaway solutions. We compute the energy injected by the phase transition into the fluid and the energy which accumulates in the bubble walls. We provide analytic approximations and fits as functions of the net force acting on the wall, which can be readily evaluated for specific models. We also study the back-reaction of hydrodynamics on the wall motion, and we discuss the extrapolation of the friction force away from the ultra-relativistic limit. We use these results to estimate the gravitational wave signal from detonations and runaway walls.

  19. Tunable Intense High-Order Vortex Generation. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Shen, Baifei


    In 2015, we found the scheme to generate intense high-order optical vortices that carry OAM in the extreme ultraviolet region based on relativistic harmonics from the surface of a solid target. The topological charge of the harmonics scales with its order. These results have been confirmed in recent experiments. In the two incident beams case, we produced relativistic intense harmonics with expected frequency and optical vortex. When two counter-propagating LG laser pulses impinge on a solid thin foil and interact with each other, the contribution of each input pulse in producing harmonics can be distinguished with the help of angular momentum conservation of photons, which is almost impossible for harmonic generation without optical vortex. The generation of tunable, intense vortex harmonics with different photon topological charge is predicted based on the theoretical analysis and 3D PIC simulations. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374319, 11674339).

  20. Transient effects in a relativistic quantum system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadurni, E.; Moshinsky, M. [IFUNAM, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, A.P. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail:


    The spectral decomposition of propagators is useful in the study of dynamical problems in the Schroedinger picture. However, relativistic problems exhibit complicated spectra containing positive and negative energies. In this work we write an appropriate spectral decomposition for the propagator of the Dirac oscillator. With such propagator we study the dynamical problem of sudden frequency change related to processes in which the isospin projection of the particle is modified. (Author)

  1. Collective dynamics in relativistic nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemi, Harri [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)


    I will review the current status of describing spacetime evolution of the relativistic nuclear collisions with fluid dynamics, and of determining the transport coefficients of strongly interacting matter. The fluid dynamical models suggest that shear viscosity to entropy density ratio of the matter is small. However, there are still considerable challenges in determining the transport coefficients, and especially their temperature dependence is still poorly constrained.

  2. q-Deformed Relativistic Fermion Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sobhani


    Full Text Available In this article, after introducing a kind of q-deformation in quantum mechanics, first, q-deformed form of Dirac equation in relativistic quantum mechanics is derived. Then, three important scattering problems in physics are studied. All results have satisfied what we had expected before. Furthermore, effects of all parameters in the problems on the reflection and transmission coefficients are calculated and shown graphically.

  3. Supersymmetric solutions for non-relativistic holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, Aristomenis [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gauntlett, Jerome P. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)]|[Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)


    We construct families of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB and D=11 supergravity that are invariant under the non-relativistic conformal algebra for various values of dynamical exponent z{>=}4 and z{>=}3, respectively. The solutions are based on five- and seven-dimensional Sasaki-Einstein manifolds and generalise the known solutions with dynamical exponent z=4 for the type IIB case and z=3 for the D=11 case, respectively. (orig.)

  4. On relativistic models of strange stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The superdense stars with mass-to-size ratio exceeding 0.3 are expected to be made of strange matter. Assuming that the 3-space of the interior space-time of a strange star is that of a three-paraboloid immersed in a four-dimensional Euclidean space, we obtain a two-parameter family of their physically viable relativistic ...

  5. Relativistic quantum teleportation with superconducting circuits. (United States)

    Friis, N; Lee, A R; Truong, K; Sabín, C; Solano, E; Johansson, G; Fuentes, I


    We study the effects of relativistic motion on quantum teleportation and propose a realizable experiment where our results can be tested. We compute bounds on the optimal fidelity of teleportation when one of the observers undergoes nonuniform motion for a finite time. The upper bound to the optimal fidelity is degraded due to the observer's motion. However, we discuss how this degradation can be corrected. These effects are observable for experimental parameters that are within reach of cutting-edge superconducting technology.

  6. Relativistic Quantum Transport in Graphene Systems (United States)


    way similar to that for conventional two-dimensional semiconductor quantum dot systems. However, the magnetic properties of graphene are quite... semiconductor 2DEG and graphene systems, as shown in Fig. 8. Details of this work can be found in • R. Yang, L. Huang, Y.-C. Lai, C. Grebogi, and L. M...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0158 Relativistic Quantum Transport in Graphene Systems Ying Cheng Lai ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY Final Report 07/09/2015

  7. Relativistic timescale analysis suggests lunar theory revision (United States)

    Deines, Steven D.; Williams, Carol A.


    The SI second of the atomic clock was calibrated to match the Ephemeris Time (ET) second in a mutual four year effort between the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the United States Naval Observatory (USNO). The ephemeris time is 'clocked' by observing the elapsed time it takes the Moon to cross two positions (usually occultation of stars relative to a position on Earth) and dividing that time span into the predicted seconds according to the lunar equations of motion. The last revision of the equations of motion was the Improved Lunar Ephemeris (ILE), which was based on E. W. Brown's lunar theory. Brown classically derived the lunar equations from a purely Newtonian gravity with no relativistic compensations. However, ET is very theory dependent and is affected by relativity, which was not included in the ILE. To investigate the relativistic effects, a new, noninertial metric for a gravitated, translationally accelerated and rotating reference frame has three sets of contributions, namely (1) Earth's velocity, (2) the static solar gravity field and (3) the centripetal acceleration from Earth's orbit. This last term can be characterized as a pseudogravitational acceleration. This metric predicts a time dilation calculated to be -0.787481 seconds in one year. The effect of this dilation would make the ET timescale run slower than had been originally determined. Interestingly, this value is within 2 percent of the average leap second insertion rate, which is the result of the divergence between International Atomic Time (TAI) and Earth's rotational time called Universal Time (UT or UTI). Because the predictions themselves are significant, regardless of the comparison to TAI and UT, the authors will be rederiving the lunar ephemeris model in the manner of Brown with the relativistic time dilation effects from the new metric to determine a revised, relativistic ephemeris timescale that could be used to determine UT free of leap second adjustments.

  8. Experimental tests of relativistic gravitation theories (United States)

    Anderson, J. D.


    Experimental tests were studied for determining the potential uses of future deep space missions in studies of relativistic gravity. The extensions to the parametrized post-Newtonian framework to take explicit account of the solar system's center of mass relative to the mean rest frame of the Universe is reported. Discoveries reported include the Machian effects of motion relative to the universal rest frame. Summaries of the JPL research are included.

  9. Relativistic Magnetron Priming Experiments and Theory (United States)


    Radiological Scinces dept. University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109 University of Nevada Reno, Reno NV 10-1 Air Force Office of Scientific Research...versus 30% in the simulation). Due to the idealizations used in the magnetic priming simulations of the UM/L-3 Titan relativistic magnetron, direct ...Laboratory, High Power Microwave Division, Directed Energy Directorate, Kirtland AFB, Albuquerque, NM 87117 USA Abstract Using a hybrid approach, three

  10. On the Relativistic Formulation of Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Vishwakarma, Ram Gopal


    A critical analysis of the relativistic formulation of matter reveals some surprising inconsistencies and paradoxes. Corrections are discovered which lead to the long-sought-after equality of the gravitational and inertial masses, which are otherwise different in general relativity. Realizing the potentially great impact of the discovered corrections, an overview of the situation is provided resulting from the newly discovered crisis, amid the evidences defending the theory.

  11. Laser Created Relativistic Positron Jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H; Wilks, S C; Meyerhofer, D D; Bonlie, J; Chen, C D; Chen, S N; Courtois, C; Elberson, L; Gregori, G; Kruer, W; Landoas, O; Mithen, J; Murphy, C; Nilson, P; Price, D; Scheider, M; Shepherd, R; Stoeckl, C; Tabak, M; Tommasini, R; Beiersdorder, P


    Electron-positron jets with MeV temperature are thought to be present in a wide variety of astrophysical phenomena such as active galaxies, quasars, gamma ray bursts and black holes. They have now been created in the laboratory in a controlled fashion by irradiating a gold target with an intense picosecond duration laser pulse. About 10{sup 11} MeV positrons are emitted from the rear surface of the target in a 15 to 22-degree cone for a duration comparable to the laser pulse. These positron jets are quasi-monoenergetic (E/{delta}E {approx} 5) with peak energies controllable from 3-19 MeV. They have temperatures from 1-4 MeV in the beam frame in both the longitudinal and transverse directions. Positron production has been studied extensively in recent decades at low energies (sub-MeV) in areas related to surface science, positron emission tomography, basic antimatter science such as antihydrogen experiments, Bose-Einstein condensed positronium, and basic plasma physics. However, the experimental tools to produce very high temperature positrons and high-flux positron jets needed to simulate astrophysical positron conditions have so far been absent. The MeV temperature jets of positrons and electrons produced in our experiments offer a first step to evaluate the physics models used to explain some of the most energetic phenomena in the universe.

  12. Interplay between relativistic energy corrections and resonant excitations in x-ray multiphoton ionization dynamics of Xe atoms (United States)

    Toyota, Koudai; Son, Sang-Kil; Santra, Robin


    In this paper, we theoretically study x-ray multiphoton ionization dynamics of heavy atoms taking into account relativistic and resonance effects. When an atom is exposed to an intense x-ray pulse generated by an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL), it is ionized to a highly charged ion via a sequence of single-photon ionization and accompanying relaxation processes, and its final charge state is limited by the last ionic state that can be ionized by a single-photon ionization. If x-ray multiphoton ionization involves deep inner-shell electrons in heavy atoms, energy shifts by relativistic effects play an important role in ionization dynamics, as pointed out in Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 173005 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.173005. On the other hand, if the x-ray beam has a broad energy bandwidth, the high-intensity x-ray pulse can drive resonant photoexcitations for a broad range of ionic states and ionize even beyond the direct one-photon ionization limit, as first proposed in Nat. Photon. 6, 858 (2012), 10.1038/nphoton.2012.261. To investigate both relativistic and resonance effects, we extend the xatom toolkit to incorporate relativistic energy corrections and resonant excitations in x-ray multiphoton ionization dynamics calculations. Charge-state distributions are calculated for Xe atoms interacting with intense XFEL pulses at a photon energy of 1.5 keV and 5.5 keV, respectively. For both photon energies, we demonstrate that the role of resonant excitations in ionization dynamics is altered due to significant shifts of orbital energy levels by relativistic effects. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account both effects to accurately simulate multiphoton multiple ionization dynamics at high x-ray intensity.

  13. Considerations of acceleration effects in relativistic kinematics (United States)

    Caviness, Kenneth Edwin

    An extended special-relativistic formalism incorporating non-inertial frames undergoing constant proper acceleration is developed as a natural outgrowth of Einstein's 1905 and 1907 treatises. Based on the so-called clock hypothesis, tacitly used by Einstein, and enunciated by von Laue in 1913, which states that the rate of a ideal clock is independent of its momentary acceleration, extended special relativity (ESR) makes use of the Moeller transformation and generalizes the work of Brehme to form a consistent mathematical framework, revealing a number of hitherto hidden features. From this basis, a number of highly interesting kinematic phenomena are considered, among which are: the nonconstancy of the speed of light and the variation of time rates within an accelerated system; the Doppler shift and aberration of light in a noninertial system, viewed by an inertial observer; the curved path of a light signal, preparatory to a treatment of the spatial and temporal Terrell effects in the ESR formalism. The ensuing equations are compared with special relativistic results, and in each case the role of acceleration in the formulae is defined. Quantitative calculations were made, and the results shown in graph form. The ESR formalism is then shown to be a particular case of the general-relativistic formalism. The limits of the accelerated observer's universe and the limits of the theory are discussed.

  14. Relativistic dynamics, Green function and pseudodifferential operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirilo-Lombardo, Diego Julio [National Institute of Plasma Physics (INFIP), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)


    The central role played by pseudodifferential operators in relativistic dynamics is known very well. In this work, operators like the Schrodinger one (e.g., square root) are treated from the point of view of the non-local pseudodifferential Green functions. Starting from the explicit construction of the Green (semigroup) theoretical kernel, a theorem linking the integrability conditions and their dependence on the spacetime dimensions is given. Relativistic wave equations with arbitrary spin and the causality problem are discussed with the algebraic interpretation of the radical operator and their relation with coherent and squeezed states. Also we perform by means of pure theoretical procedures (based in physical concepts and symmetry) the relativistic position operator which satisfies the conditions of integrability: it is a non-local, Lorentz invariant and does not have the same problems as the “local”position operator proposed by Newton and Wigner. Physical examples, as zitterbewegung and rogue waves, are presented and deeply analyzed in this theoretical framework.

  15. General Relativistic Effects in Atom Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimopoulos, Savas; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Graham, Peter W.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Hogan, Jason M.; Kasevich, Mark A.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.


    Atom interferometry is now reaching sufficient precision to motivate laboratory tests of general relativity. We begin by explaining the non-relativistic calculation of the phase shift in an atom interferometer and deriving its range of validity. From this we develop a method for calculating the phase shift in general relativity. This formalism is then used to find the relativistic effects in an atom interferometer in a weak gravitational field for application to laboratory tests of general relativity. The potentially testable relativistic effects include the non-linear three-graviton coupling, the gravity of kinetic energy, and the falling of light. We propose experiments, one currently under construction, that could provide a test of the principle of equivalence to 1 part in 10{sup 15} (300 times better than the present limit), and general relativity at the 10% level, with many potential future improvements. We also consider applications to other metrics including the Lense-Thirring effect, the expansion of the universe, and preferred frame and location effects.

  16. Substructures in Simulations of Relativistic Jet Formation (United States)

    Garcia, Raphael de Oliveira; Oliveira, Samuel Rocha de


    We present a set of simulations of relativistic jets from accretion disk initial setup with numerical solutions of a system of general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) partial differential equations in a fixed black hole (BH) spacetime which is able to show substructures formations inside the jet as well as lobe formation on the jet head. For this, we used a central scheme of finite volume method without dimensional split and with no Riemann solvers namely the Nessyahu-Tadmor method. Thus, we were able to obtain stable numerical solutions with spurious oscillations under control and with no excessive numerical dissipation. Therefore, we developed some setups for initial conditions capable of simulating the formation of relativistic jets from the accretion disk falling onto central black hole until its ejection, both immersed in a magnetosphere. In our simulations, we were able to observe some substructure of a jet created from an accretion initial disk, namely, jet head, knots, cocoon, and lobe. Also, we present an explanation for cocoon formation and lobe formation. Each initial scenario was determined by ratio between disk density and magnetosphere density, showing that this relation is very important for the shape of the jet and its substructures.

  17. Ejection of stars with relativistic velocities (United States)

    Dryomova, G.; Dryomov, V.; Tutukov, A.

    We present the results of numerical simulations performed in terms of modified Hills' scenario involving two supermassive black holes (SMBHs). In contrast to the classic Hills scenario (Hills 1988), here one component of the ordinary stellar binary system is replaced with a SMBH that provides a kinetic resource for ejecting a star (the secondary component of the binary) with relativistic velocity (RVS). We examine the conditions that favor relativistic ejections of stars, depending on the pericentric approach, the mass ratio of two SMBHs, and the orbital configuration of the binary system. Applying the simple criteria helped us to sort out the results of numerical simulations by the outcome: conservation of the orbital configuration of the binary system, dynamic recapture of the star by the central SMBH, emission of hypervelocity stars (HVSs), and RVS ejection. In the framework of N-body simulations we estimate the probability for a star to survive in the cross-field of two SMBHs during the ejection with relativistic velocity, and discuss the probability of the detection of RVSs in our Galaxy in the cases where such stars are generated in distant interacting galaxies undergoing a merger of their central parts occupied by SMBHs.

  18. General Relativistic Radiative Transfer and General Relativistic MHD Simulations of Accretion and Outflows of Black Holes (United States)

    Fuerst, Steven V.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Wu, Kinwah


    We have calculated the emission from relativistic flows in black hole systems using a fully general relativistic radiative transfer, with flow structures obtained by general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We consider thermal free-free emission and thermal synchrotron emission. Bright filament-like features are found protruding (visually) from the accretion disk surface, which are enhancements of synchrotron emission when the magnetic field is roughly aligned with the line-of-sight in the co-moving frame. The features move back and forth as the accretion flow evolves, but their visibility and morphology are robust. We propose that variations and location drifts of the features are responsible for certain X-ray quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) observed in black-hole X-ray binaries.

  19. Relativistic laser hosing instability suppression and electron acceleration in a preformed plasma channel (United States)

    Huang, T. W.; Zhou, C. T.; Zhang, H.; Wu, S. Z.; Qiao, B.; He, X. T.; Ruan, S. C.


    The hosing processes of a relativistic laser pulse, electron acceleration, and betatron radiation in a parabolic plasma channel are investigated in the direct laser acceleration regime. It is shown that the laser hosing instability would result in the generation of a randomly directed off-axis electron beam and radiation source with a large divergence angle. While employing a preformed parabolic plasma channel, the restoring force provided by the plasma channel would correct the perturbed laser wave front and thus suppress the hosing instability. As a result, the accelerated electron beam and the emitted photons are well guided and concentrated along the channel axis. The employment of a proper plasma density channel can stably guide the relativistically intense laser pulse and greatly improve the properties of the electron beam and radiation source. This scheme is of great interest for the generation of high quality electron beams and radiation sources.

  20. Relativistic Hydrodynamics in Heavy-Ion Collisions: General Aspects and Recent Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaresh Jaiswal


    Full Text Available Relativistic hydrodynamics has been quite successful in explaining the collective behaviour of the QCD matter produced in high energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. We briefly review the latest developments in the hydrodynamical modeling of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Essential ingredients of the model such as the hydrodynamic evolution equations, dissipation, initial conditions, equation of state, and freeze-out process are reviewed. We discuss observable quantities such as particle spectra and anisotropic flow and effect of viscosity on these observables. Recent developments such as event-by-event fluctuations, flow in small systems (proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions, flow in ultracentral collisions, longitudinal fluctuations, and correlations and flow in intense magnetic field are also discussed.

  1. Non relativistic Broad Band wake fields and potential-well distortion

    CERN Document Server

    Quatraro, D; Findlay, A; Mikulec, B


    The study of the interaction between a particle beam and wake fields is usually based on the assumption of ultra relativistic beams. This is not the case, for example, for the Proton Synchrotron Booster(PSB), in which protons cover the energy range. There are some examples in literature which derive nonultra relativistic formulae for the resistive wall impedance. In this paper we have extended the Broad-Band resonator model, allowing the impedance to have poles even in the upper half complex plane, in order to obtain a wake function different from zero for. The Haissinski equation has been numerically solved showing longitudinal bunch shape changes with. In addition some longitudinal bunch profile measurements, taken for two different bunch intensities at the PSB, are shown.

  2. Formulation of the relativistic quantum Hall effect and parity anomaly (United States)

    Yonaga, Kouki; Hasebe, Kazuki; Shibata, Naokazu


    We present a relativistic formulation of the quantum Hall effect on Haldane sphere. An explicit form of the pseudopotential is derived for the relativistic quantum Hall effect with/without mass term. We clarify particular features of the relativistic quantum Hall states with the use of the exact diagonalization study of the pseudopotential Hamiltonian. Physical effects of the mass term to the relativistic quantum Hall states are investigated in detail. The mass term acts as an interpolating parameter between the relativistic and nonrelativistic quantum Hall effects. It is pointed out that the mass term unevenly affects the many-body physics of the positive and negative Landau levels as a manifestation of the "parity anomaly." In particular, we explicitly demonstrate the instability of the Laughlin state of the positive first relativistic Landau level with the reduction of the charge gap.

  3. X-ray emission from relativistically moving electron density cusps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kando, M.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Nakamura, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Kotaki, H.; Kawase, K.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Fukuda, Y.; Kiriyama, H.; Okada, H.; Daito, I.; Kameshima, T.; Mori, M.; Koga, J. K.; Daido, H.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T.; Ma, J.; Chen, L.-M.; Ragozin, E. N. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Osaka University (Japan); Joint Institute for High Temperature of the Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prospekt 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Japan Atomic Energy Agency and Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries (Japan); Ludwig-Maximilians-University (Germany); and others


    We report on novel methods to generate ultra-short, coherent, X-rays using a laserplasma interaction. Nonlinear interaction of intense laser pulses with plasma creates stable, specific structures such as electron cusps. For example, wake waves excited in an underdense plasma by an intense, short-pulse laser become dense and propagate along with the laser pulse. This is called a relativistic flying mirror. The flying mirror can reflect a counter-propagating laser pulse and directly convert it into high-frequency radiation, with a frequency multiplication factor of {approx} 4{gamma}{sup 2} and pulse shortening with the same factor. After the proof-of-principle experiments, we observed that the photon number generated in the flying mirror is close to the theoretical estimate. We present the details of the experiment in which a 9 TW laser pulse focused into a He gas jet generated the Flying Mirror, which partly reflected a 1 TW pulse, giving up to {approx} 10{sup 10} photons, 60 nJ (1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} photons/sr) in the XUV spectral region (12.8-22 nm).

  4. A fast numerical integrator for relativistic charged particle tracking (United States)

    Qiang, Ji


    In this paper, we report on a fast second-order numerical integrator to solve the Lorentz force equations of a relativistic charged particle in electromagnetic fields. This numerical integrator shows less numerical error than the popular Boris algorithm in tracking the relativistic particle subject to electric and magnetic space-charge fields and requires less number of operations than another recently proposed relativistic integrator.

  5. Relativistic quantum mechanics and introduction to field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yndurain, F.J. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica


    The following topics were dealt with: relativistic transformations, the Lorentz group, Klein-Gordon equation, spinless particles, spin 1/2 particles, Dirac particle in a potential, massive spin 1 particles, massless spin 1 particles, relativistic collisions, S matrix, cross sections, decay rates, partial wave analysis, electromagnetic field quantization, interaction of radiation with matter, interactions in quantum field theory and relativistic interactions with classical sources.

  6. Simulations of Relativistic Effects, Relativistic Time, and the Constancy of Light Velocity (United States)

    Matveev, Vadim N.; Matvejev, Oleg V.


    Based on pre-Einstein classical mechanics, a theoretical model is constructed that describes the behavior of objects in a liquid environment that conduct themselves in accordance with the formal laws of the special theory of relativity. This model reproduces Lorentz contraction, time dilation, the relativity of simultaneity, the Doppler effect in its symmetrical relativistic form, the twin paradox effects, Bell effect, the relativistic addition of velocities. The model makes it possible to obtain Lorentz transforms and to simulate Minkowski four-dimensional space-time.

  7. Mass spectrum bound state systems with relativistic corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dineykhan, M; Zhaugasheva, S A [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Toinbaeva, N Sh; Jakhanshir, A [al-Farabi Kazak National University, 480012 Almaty (Kazakhstan)


    Based on the investigation of the asymptotic behaviour of the polarization loop function for charged n scalar particles in an external gauge field, we determine the interaction Hamiltonian including relativistic corrections. The mass spectrum of the bound state is analytically derived. The mechanism for arising of the constituent mass of the relativistic bound-state forming particles is explained. The mass and the constituent mass of the two-, three- and n-body relativistic bound states are calculated taking into account relativistic corrections. The corrections arising due to the one- and two-loop electron polarization to the energy spectrum of muonic hydrogen with orbital and radial excitations are calculated.

  8. Theoretical study of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aucar, I. Agustín, E-mail:; Gomez, Sergio S., E-mail: [Institute for Modeling and Technological Innovation, IMIT (CONICET-UNNE) and Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Northeastern University of Argentina, Avenida Libertad 5400, W3404AAS Corrientes (Argentina); Giribet, Claudia G.; Ruiz de Azúa, Martín C. [Physics Department, Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires and IFIBA CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    An original formulation of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor valid for heavy atom containing compounds is presented. In such formulation, the relevant terms of a molecular Hamiltonian for non-relativistic nuclei and relativistic electrons in the laboratory system are considered. Terms linear and bilinear in the nuclear rotation angular momentum and an external uniform magnetic field are considered within first and second order (relativistic) perturbation theory to obtain the rotational g-tensor. Relativistic effects are further analyzed by carrying out the linear response within the elimination of the small component expansion. Quantitative results for model systems HX (X=F, Cl, Br, I), XF (X=Cl, Br, I), and YH{sup +} (Y=Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) are obtained both at the RPA and density functional theory levels of approximation. Relativistic effects are shown to be small for this molecular property. The relation between the rotational g-tensor and susceptibility tensor which is valid in the non-relativistic theory does not hold within the relativistic framework, and differences between both molecular parameters are analyzed for the model systems under study. It is found that the non-relativistic relation remains valid within 2% even for the heavy HI, IF, and XeH{sup +} systems. Only for the sixth-row Rn atom a significant deviation of this relation is found.

  9. Entropy of Relativistic Mono-Atomic Gas and Temperature Relativistic Transformation in Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Bormashenko


    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that the entropy of the ideal mono-atomic gas comprisingidentical spherical atoms is not conserved under the Planck-Einstein like relativistictemperature transformation, as a result of the change in the number of atomic degrees offreedom. This fact supports the idea that there is no universal relativistic temperaturetransformation.

  10. Introduction to the relativistic string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Barbashov, B M


    This book presents a systematic and detailed account of the classical and quantum theory of the relativistic string and some of its modifications. Main attention is paid to the first-quantized string theory with possible applications to the string models of hadrons as well as to the superstring approach to unifications of all the fundamental interactions in the elementary particle physics and to the "cosmic" strings. Some new aspects are provided such as the consideration of the string in an external electromagnetic field and in the space-time of constant curvature (the de Sitter universe), th

  11. Relativistic field theory and chaotic dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Yosuke


    We have studied the relativistic equations and chaotic motions of gravitational field on the basis of the theory of relativity and chaos. Friedmann equation (the space component) shows the chaotic behaviours in case of the inflation universe (G/G>0) and shows the non-chaotic behaviours in case of the flat and contraction universe (G/G {<=} 0). With the use of Kerr metric, we have discussed the non-diagonal tensor effect on gravitational field and chaotic dynamics. We have also discussed the dimension of the universe on the basis of E infinity theory.

  12. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability for relativistic fluids (United States)

    Bodo, G.; Mignone, A.; Rosner, R.


    We reexamine the stability of an interface separating two nonmagnetized relativistic fluids in relative motion, showing that, in an appropriate reference frame, it is possible to find analytic solutions to the dispersion relation. Moreover, we show that the critical value of the Mach number, introduced by compressibility, is unchanged from the nonrelativistic case if we redefine the Mach number as M=[β/(1-β2)1/2][βs/(1-βs2)1/2]-1 , where β and βs are, respectively, the speed of the fluid and the speed of sound (in units of the speed of light).

  13. A Relativistic Symmetrical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (United States)

    Heaney, Michael B.

    This poster describes a relativistic symmetrical interpretation (RSI) which postulates: quantum mechanics is intrinsically time-symmetric, with no arrow of time; the fundamental objects of quantum mechanics are transitions; a transition is fully described by a complex transition amplitude density with specified initial and final boundary conditions, and; transition amplitude densities never collapse. This RSI is compared to the Copenhagen Interpretation (CI) for the analysis of Einstein's bubble experiment using both the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations. The RSI has no zitterbewegung in the particle's rest frame, resolves some inconsistencies of the CI, and gives intuitive explanations of some previously mysterious quantum effects.

  14. Proton relativistic model; Modelo relativistico do proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Wilson Roberto Barbosa de


    In this dissertation, we present a model for the nucleon, which is composed by three relativistic quarks interacting through a contract force. The nucleon wave-function was obtained from the Faddeev equation in the null-plane. The covariance of the model under kinematical null-plane boots is discussed. The electric proton form-factor, calculated from the Faddeev wave-function, was in agreement with the data for low-momentum transfers and described qualitatively the asymptotic region for momentum transfers around 2 GeV. (author) 42 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Bremsstrahlung from relativistic heavy ions in matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan Hvidkjær


    The emission of electromagnetic radiation by relativistic bare heavy ions penetrating ordinary matter is investigated. Our main aim is to determine the bremsstrahlung which we define as the radiation emitted when the projectile does not break up. It pertains to collisions without nuclear contact....... As a result of its relative softness, bremsstrahlung never dominates the energy-loss process for heavy ions. As to the emission of electromagnetic radiation in collisions with nuclear break-up, it appears modest when pertaining to incoherent action of the projectile nucleons in noncontact collisions...

  16. Relativistic dynamical spin excitations of magnetic adatoms (United States)

    dos Santos Dias, M.; Schweflinghaus, B.; Blügel, S.; Lounis, S.


    We present a first-principles theory of dynamical spin excitations in the presence of spin-orbit coupling. The broken global spin rotational invariance leads to a new sum rule. We explore the competition between the magnetic anisotropy energy and the external magnetic field, as well as the role of electron-hole excitations, through calculations for 3 d -metal adatoms on the Cu(111) surface. The spin excitation resonance energy and lifetime display nontrivial behavior, establishing the strong impact of relativistic effects. We legitimate the use of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation down to the atomic limit, but with parameters that differ from a stationary theory.

  17. Relativistic effects in the pionium lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jallouli, H.; Sazdjian, H.


    Pionium decay width is evaluated in the framework of chiral perturbation theory and the relativistic bound state formalism of constraint theory. Corrections of order O({alpha}) are calculated with respect to the conventional lowest-order formula, in which the strong interaction amplitude has been calculated to two-loop order with charged pion masses. Strong interaction corrections, electromagnetic radiative corrections due to pion-photon interactions, electromagnetic mass shift insertions in internal propagators and correction due to the passage from the strong interaction scattering amplitude are calculated. (author). 53 refs.

  18. The 'twin paradox' in relativistic rigid motion


    Ben-Ya'acov, Uri


    Relativistic rigid motion suggests a new version for the so-called `twin paradox', comparing the ages of two astronauts on a very long spaceship. Although there is always an instantaneous inertial frame in which the whole spaceship, being rigid, is simultaneously at rest, the twins' ages, measured as the proper-times along their individual world lines, are different when they are located at remote parts of the spaceship. The age, or proper-time, difference depends on the distance at rest betw...

  19. Dynamical friction in a relativistic plasma. (United States)

    Pike, O J; Rose, S J


    The work of Spitzer on dynamical friction in a plasma [L. Spitzer, Jr., Physics of Fully Ionized Gases, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1962), Chap. 5] is extended to relativistic systems. We derive the force of dynamical friction, diffusion tensor, and test particle relaxation rates for a Maxwellian background in the same form as Trubnikov [B. A. Trubnikov, in Reviews of Plasma Physics, edited by M. A. Leontovich (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1965), Vol. 1, p. 105], enabling high-temperature laboratory and astrophysical plasmas to be modeled in a consistent manner.

  20. Modeling the Emission from Turbulent Relativistic Jets in Active ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... We present a numerical model developed to calculate observed fluxes of relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei. The observed flux of each turbulent eddy is dependent upon its variable Doppler boosting factor, computed as a function of the relativistic sum of the individual eddy and bulk jet velocities, and ...