Missing baryonic resonances in the Hagedorn spectrum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Man Lo, Pok [University of Wroclaw, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); GSI, Extreme Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Marczenko, Michal; Sasaki, Chihiro [University of Wroclaw, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); Redlich, Krzysztof [University of Wroclaw, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); GSI, Extreme Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, NC (United States)
2016-08-15
The hadronic medium of QCD is modeled as a gas of point-like hadrons, with its composition determined by the Hagedorn mass spectrum. The spectrum consists of a discrete and a continuous part. The former is determined by the experimentally confirmed resonances tabulated by the Particle Data Group (PDG), while the latter can be extracted from the existing lattice data. This formulation of the hadron resonance gas (HRG) provides a transparent framework to relate the fluctuation of conserved charges as calculated in the lattice QCD approach to the particle content of the medium. A comparison of the two approaches shows that the equation of state is well described by the standard HRG model, which includes only a discrete spectrum of known hadrons. The corresponding description in the strange sector, however, shows clear discrepancies, thus a continuous spectrum is added to incorporate the effect of missing resonances. We propose a method to extract the strange-baryon spectrum from the lattice data. The result is consistent with the trend set by the unconfirmed strange baryons resonances listed by the PDG, suggesting that most of the missing interaction strength for the strange baryons reside in the S = 1 sector. This scenario is also supported by recent lattice calculations, and might be important in the energy region covered by the NICA accelerator in Dubna, where in the heavy-ion collisions, baryons are the dominating degrees of freedom in the final state. (orig.)
J/$\\psi$ suppression in the Mott-Hagedorn resonance gas
Blaschke, David B
2004-01-01
We describe matter formed in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions within a generalized Hagedorn resonance gas model where hadrons have a vanishing width below the Hagedorn temperature T//H and a Hagedorn spectrum-like width above T//H. Such an approach not only eliminates the divergence of the thermodynamic functions above T//H, but it is able to successfully describe the lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) data on the energy density. It also allows to explain the absence of heavy resonance contributions in the fit of the experimentally measured particle ratios at SPS and RHIC energies. We present an application of the approach to the description of the NA50 experiment which suggests that the anomalous suppression of J/psi production may be explained by the increase of the effective number of degrees of freedom at the Hagedorn temperature.
The Hagedorn Spectrum and the Dual Resonance Model: An Old Love Affair
Veneziano, Gabriele
2016-01-01
In this contribution I recall how people working in the late 1960s on the dual resonance model came to the surprising discovery of a Hagedorn-like spectrum, and why they should not have been surprised. I will then turn to discussing the Hagedorn spectrum from a string theory viewpoint (which adds a huge degeneracy to the exponential spectrum). Finally, I will discuss how all this can be reinterpreted in the new incarnation of string theory through the properties of quantum black holes.
2015-01-01
This book shows how the study of multi-hadron production phenomena in the years after the founding of CERN culminated in Hagedorn's pioneering idea of limiting temperature, leading on to the discovery of the quark-gluon plasma - announced, in February 2000 at CERN. Following the foreword by Herwig Schopper -- the Director General (1981-1988) of CERN at the key historical juncture -- the first part is a tribute to Rolf Hagedorn (1919-2003) and includes contributions by contemporary friends and colleagues, and those who were most touched by Hagedorn: Tamás Biró, Igor Dremin, Torleif Ericson, Marek Gázdzicki, Mark Gorenstein, Hans Gutbrod, Maurice Jacob, István Montvay, Berndt Müller, Grazyna Odyniec, Emanuele Quercigh, Krzysztof Redlich, Helmut Satz, Luigi Sertorio, Ludwik Turko, and Gabriele Veneziano. The second and third parts retrace 20 years of developments that after discovery of the Hagedorn temperature in 1964 led to its recognition as the melting point of hadrons into boiling quarks, and t...
Chemical equilibration due to heavy Hagedorn states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greiner, C; Koch-Steinheimer, P; Liu, F M; Shovkovy, I A; Stoecker, H
2005-01-01
A scenario of heavy resonances, called massive Hagedorn states, is proposed which exhibits a fast (t ∼ 1 fm/c) chemical equilibration of (strange) baryons and anti-baryons at the QCD critical temperature T c . For relativistic heavy ion collisions this scenario predicts that hadronization is followed by a brief expansion phase during which the equilibration rate is higher than the expansion rate, so that baryons and antibaryons reach chemical equilibrium before chemical freeze-out occurs
Relativistic effects in resonance absorption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drake, J.F.; Lee, Y.C.
1976-01-01
The role of the relativistic-electron-mass variation in the generation of plasma waves by the linear mode conversion of intense electromagnetic waves is investigated. The increase in the electron mass in high intensity regions of the mode-converted wave reduces the local plasma frequency and thereby strongly modifies the plasma-driver resonance. A spatial discontinuity in the structure of the mode-converted wave results and causes the wave to break. Under rather modest restrictions, the wave breaking resulting from these effects occurs before the wave amplitude is limited either by thermal convection or by breaking caused by previously investigated nonrelativistic effects. Consequently, the amplitude of the mode-converted plasma wave should saturate at a much lower level than previously predicted. For simplicity, the analysis is limited to the initial stages of mode conversion where the ion dynamics can be neglected. The validity of this approximation is discussed
2003-01-01
Rolf Hagedorn, who introduced the concept that hadronic matter has a melting point, died on March 9 2003. After studies in Göttingen he came to CERN in Geneva in 1954 as an accelerator theorist. He joined the CERN Theory Group after its transfer in 1957 from Copenhagen to Geneva and he was a senior physicist in the Division when he retired in 1984. He continued his research after retirement, and up to very recently he made pertinent contributions in developments in the field of relativistic heavy ion collisions. As an accelerator physicist he developed the theoretical predictions for the particle spectra initially observed when the CERN PS first began operation, which was important for the optimisation of secondary beams. He then developed the statistical theory of meson production in considerable detail up to very high energies. It was a consequence of these studies that he found that one should expect a limiting temperature in hadronic collisions, the Hagedorn temperature. This picture has had a major im...
Nonlinear relativistic plasma resonance: Renormalization group approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Metelskii, I. I., E-mail: metelski@lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Kovalev, V. F., E-mail: vfkvvfkv@gmail.com [Dukhov All-Russian Research Institute of Automatics (Russian Federation); Bychenkov, V. Yu., E-mail: bychenk@lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)
2017-02-15
An analytical solution to the nonlinear set of equations describing the electron dynamics and electric field structure in the vicinity of the critical density in a nonuniform plasma is constructed using the renormalization group approach with allowance for relativistic effects of electron motion. It is demonstrated that the obtained solution describes two regimes of plasma oscillations in the vicinity of the plasma resonance— stationary and nonstationary. For the stationary regime, the spatiotemporal and spectral characteristics of the resonantly enhanced electric field are investigated in detail and the effect of the relativistic nonlinearity on the spatial localization of the energy of the plasma relativistic field is considered. The applicability limits of the obtained solution, which are determined by the conditions of plasma wave breaking in the vicinity of the resonance, are established and analyzed in detail for typical laser and plasma parameters. The applicability limits of the earlier developed nonrelativistic theories are refined.
Isoscalar giant resonances in a relativistic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
L'Huillier, M.; Nguyen Van Giai.
1988-07-01
Isoscalar giant resonances in finite nuclei are studied in a relativistic Random Phase Approximation (RRPA) approach. The model is self-consistent in the sense that one set of coupling constants generates the Dirac-Hartree single-particle spectrum and the residual particle-hole interaction. The RRPA is used to calculate response functions of multipolarity L = 0,2,3, and 4 in light and medium nuclei. It is found that monopole and quadrupole modes exhibit a collective character. The peak energies are overestimated, but not as much as one might think if the bulk properties (compression modulus, effective mass) were the only relevant quantities
On the kinetic theory of parametric resonance in relativistic plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Ashry, M.Y.
1982-08-01
The instability of relativistic hot plasma located in high-frequency external electric field is studied. The dispersion relation, in the case when the plasma electrons have relativistic oscillatory motion, is obtained. It is shown that if the electron Deby's radius is less than the wave length of plasma oscillation and far from the resonance on the overtones of the external field frequency, the oscillation build-up is possible. It is also shown that taking into account the relativistic motion of electrons leads to a considerable decrease in the frequency at which the parametric resonance takes place. (author)
Deconstructing the little Hagedorn holography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbon, Jose L.F.; Fuertes, Carlos A.; Rabinovici, Eliezer
2007-01-01
We study aspects of the thermodynamics of Little String Theory, using its geometrical definition in critical ten-dimensional string theory. We find that bulk radiation effects tend to screen the Hagedorn behaviour of the theory, in contrast to the behaviour in the AdS system background. The resulting density of states of the system, when stable, is described by a seven-dimensional nonrelativistic gas. This requires modifications of the holographic Little Hagedorn picture. Using deconstructions we suggest such modifications. The model is embedded into a system which has an ultraviolet fixed point with an AdS description. We investigate the thermodynamical properties of these UV completed models. It is found that the Hagedorn regime survives in a finite band of superheated states that eventually decay into the plasma phase of the conformal field theory that serves as UV regulator. This is manifested in a first-order phase transition that is driven by radiative corrections
On the resonant coherent excitation of relativistic heavy ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pivovarov, Y.L.; Geissel, H.; Filimonov, Yu.M.; Krivosheev, O.E.; Scheidenberger, C.
1995-07-01
New accelerator facilities open up an interesting new field of experiments on basic channeling as well as on atomic and nuclear resonant coherent exitation (RCE) of heavy ions penetrating through aligned crystals at relativistic energies. Results of computer simulations are presented to characterize the resonant coherent excitation of atomic levels of relativistic hydrogen-like heavy ions. Nuclear resonant coherent excitation reveals interesting different characteristics compared to the corresponding atomic excitation inside crystals. An important result of our model calculations is that poorly-channeled ions have a higher nuclear excitation probability than well-channeled ions. (orig.)
Magnetic resonance phenomena in dynamics of relativistic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ternov, I.M.; Bordovitsyn, V.A.
1987-01-01
A relativistic generalization of Rabi's formula for magnetic resonance is given. On this basis, we consider fast and slow passage through resonance. We define a magnetic resonance exterior field as usual, using unit vectors of a Cartesian coordinate system, a homogeneous magnetic field, and the amplitude of a rotating magnetic field. For the description of spin dynamics we use the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equation
Music and Science: Tribute to Rolf Hagedorn
Jacob, Maurice
2016-01-01
I present here Rolf Hagedorn as a man, and present his achievements as a physicist. He has made several very important contributions: to particle and nuclear fields of research: The Hagedorn Temperature and the Statistical Bootstrap Model are concepts that are here to stay, and which have stimulated much further research. But Rolf Hagedorn is also a wonderful person and, saying that, does not require a specialist.
Relativistic Coulomb excitation of giant resonances in the hydrodynamic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasconcellos Gomes, Ana Cristina de.
1990-05-01
We investigate the Coulomb excitation of giant dipole resonances in relativistic heavy ion collisions using a macroscopic hydrodynamical model for the harmonic vibrations of the nuclear fluid. The motion is treated as a combination of the Goldhaber-Teller displacement mode and the Steinwedel-Jensen acoustic mode, and the restoring forces are calculated using the droplet model. This model is used as input to study the characteristics of multiple excitation of giant dipole resonances in nuclei. Possible signatures for the existence of such states are also discussed quantitatively. (author). 52 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs
Relativistic resonances as non-orthogonal states in Hilbert space
Blum, W
2003-01-01
We analyze the energy-momentum properties of relativistic short-lived particles with the result that they are characterized by two 4-vectors: in addition to the familiar energy-momentum vector (timelike) there is an energy-momentum 'spread vector' (spacelike). The wave functions in space and time for unstable particles are constructed. For the relativistic properties of unstable states we refer to Wigner's method of Poincare group representations that are induced by representations of the space-time translation and rotation groups. If stable particles, unstable particles and resonances are treated as elementary objects that are not fundamentally different one has to take into account that they will not generally be orthogonal to each other in their state space. The scalar product between a stable and an unstable state with otherwise identical properties is calculated in a particular Lorentz frame. The spin of an unstable particle is not infinitely sharp but has a 'spin spread' giving rise to 'spin neighbors'....
Hagedorn temperature and physics of black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zakharov, V.I.; Mertens, Thomas G.; Verschelde, Henri
2016-01-01
A mini-review devoted to some implications of the Hagedorn temperature for black hole physics. The existence of a limiting temperature is a generic feature of string models. The Hagedorn temperature was introduced first in the context of hadronic physics. Nowadays, the emphasis is shifted to fundamental strings which might be a necessary ingredient to obtain a consistent theory of black holes. The point is that, in field theory, the local temperature close to the horizon could be arbitrarily high, and this observation is difficult to reconcile with the finiteness of the entropy of black holes. After preliminary remarks, we review our recent attempt to evaluate the entropy of large black holes in terms of fundamental strings. We also speculate on implications for dynamics of large-N_c gauge theories arising within holographic models
Second Hagedorn temperature and glueball formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dias de Deus, J.; Pimenta, M.
1984-09-01
We argue that confinement involving higher representations of SU(N) in singlet Ranti R bound states may occur at higher Hagedorn temperatures. The simplest possibility corresponds to the case when the binding potential is proportional to the quadratic Casimir Csub(R). The lowest Hagedorn temperature Tsub(H1) is the temperature for qanti q meson formation. The next, Tsub(H2), is the temperature for glueball hadronization. Higher representation Ranti R bound states are not likely to occur. The second Hagedorn temperature, separating the physics of hadrons from the physics of QCD plasma, plays the role of the deconfining temperature. Simple effective potential estimates give Tsub(H2)/Tsub(H1)approx.=(Csub(A)/Csub(F))sup(1/2)=3/2, in SU(3), with Tsub(H2)=395 MeV and Tsub(H1)=210 MeV, and for the glueball spin-averaged mass, μsub(G)=1370 MeV. Glueballs, in comparison with normal hadrons, are produced with larger psub(T) and larger multiplicities. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roger Beaver
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Taxonomic confusion among the afrotropical scolytine genera Hapalogenius Hagedorn, Hylesinopsis Eggers and Rhopalopselion Hagedorn, and their synonyms is discussed with especial reference to the catalogues of Wood and Bright (1992, and Alonso-Zarazaga and Lyal (2009. A key is given to separate the three genera recognised, and the species considered to be included in each genus are listed. Hylesinopsis is resurrected from synonymy with Hapalogenius, and shown not to be closely related to it. Chilodendron Schedl is considered to be a synonym of Hylesinopsis and not of Xylechinus Chapuis. The following new synonymy is proposed at specific level: Hapalogenius africanus (Eggers (= Hapalogenius lesnei Eggers, = Metahylesinus brincki Schedl; Hapalogenius fuscipennis (Chapuis (= Hapalogenius bimaculatus Eggers; Hapalogenius oblongus (Eggers (= Metahylesinus striatus Schedl; Hylesinopsis fasciata (Hagedorn (= Kissophagus punctatus Eggers; Phrixosoma niger Eggers (= Hapalogenius niger Schedl. The following species are returned to Hylesinopsis from Hapalogenius to which they were transferred by Alonso-Zarazaga and Lyal (2009: Hylesinopsis alluaudi (Lepesme, H. angolensis (Schedl, H. arabiae (Schedl, H. atra (Nunberg, H. confusa (Eggers, H. decellei (Nunberg, H. dubia Eggers, H. emarginata (Nunberg, H. fasciata (Hagedorn, H. ficus (Schedl, H. granulata (Lepesme, H. hirsuta (Schedl, H. joveri (Schedl, H. pauliani (Lepesme, H. punctata (Eggers, H. saudiarabiae (Schedl. The following new combination is given: Hylesinopsis leprosula (Browne from Cryphalus Erichson. New distributional records are given for some species.
Effect of a background electric field on the Hagedorn temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrer, E.J.; Incera, V. de la; Fradkin, E.S.
1990-07-01
We compute the one-loop free energy of the open neutral string gas in a constant electromagnetic background. Starting from this result we show that the Hagedorn temperature of this hot string gas depends on the background electric field. The larger the electric field, the lower the Hagedorn temperature is. (author). 13 refs
Wakefield excitation in plasma resonator by a sequence of relativistic electron bunches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Mirny, V.I.; Onishchenko, I.N.; Uskov, V.V.
2008-01-01
Wakefield excitation in a plasma resonator by a sequence of relativistic electron bunches with the purpose to increase excited field amplitude in comparison to waveguide case is experimentally investigated. A sequence of short electron bunches is produced by the linear resonant accelerator. Plasma resonator is formed at the beam-plasma discharge in rectangular metal waveguide filled with gas and closed by metal foil at entrance and movable short-circuited plunger at exit. Measurements of wakefield amplitude are performed showing considerably higher wakefield amplitude for resonator case
Double giant resonances in time-dependent relativistic mean-field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ring, P.; Podobnik, B.
1996-01-01
Collective vibrations in spherical nuclei are described in the framework of time-dependent relativistic mean-field theory (RMFT). Isoscalar quadrupole and isovector dipole oscillations that correspond to giant resonances are studied, and possible excitations of higher modes are investigated. We find evidence for modes which can be interpreted as double resonances. In a quantized RMFT they correspond to two-phonon states. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhen-Peng, Su; Hui-Nan, Zheng
2009-01-01
The bounce-averaged Fokker–Planck equation is solved to study the relativistic electron phase space density (PSD) evolution in the outer radiation belt due to resonant interactions with plasmaspheric plume electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. It is found that the PSDs of relativistic electrons can be depleted by 1–3 orders of magnitude in 5h, supporting the previous finding that resonant interactions with EMIC waves may account for the frequently observed relativistic electron flux dropouts in the outer radiation belt during the main phase of a storm. The significant precipitation loss of ∼MeV electrons is primarily induced by the EMIC waves in H + and He + bands. The rapid remove of highly relativistic electrons (> 5 MeV) is mainly driven by the EMIC waves in O + band at lower pitch-angles, as well as the EMIC waves in H + and He + bands at larger pitch-angles. Moreover, a stronger depletion of relativistic electrons is found to occur over a wider pitch angle range when EMIC waves are centering relatively higher in the band
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hanni, Matti; Lantto, Perttu; Ilias, Miroslav
2007-01-01
Relativistic effects on the 129Xe nuclear magnetic resonance shielding and 131Xe nuclear quadrupole coupling (NQC) tensors are examined in the weakly bound Xe2 system at different levels of theory including the relativistic four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) method. The intermolecular...... interaction-induced binary chemical shift d, the anisotropy of the shielding tensor ?s, and the NQC constant along the internuclear axis ?ll are calculated as a function of the internuclear distance. DHF shielding calculations are carried out using gauge-including atomic orbitals. For comparison, the full...... is obtained for d and ?s in Xe2. For these properties, the currently most complete theoretical description is obtained by a piecewise approximation where the uncorrelated relativistic DHF results obtained close to the basis-set limit are corrected, on the one hand, for NR correlation effects and, on the other...
Planar channeled relativistic electrons and positrons in the field of resonant hypersonic wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grigoryan, L.Sh.; Mkrtchyan, A.H.; Khachatryan, H.F.; Tonoyan, V.U.; Wagner, W.
2003-01-01
The wave function of a planar channeled relativistic particle (electron, positron) in a single crystal excited by longitudinal hypersonic vibrations (HVs) is determined. The obtained expression is valid for periodic (not necessarily harmonic) HV of desired profile and single crystals with an arbitrary periodic continuous potential. A revised formula for the wave number of HV that exert resonance influence on the state of a channeled particle was deduced to allow for non-linear effects due to the influence of HV
Matching the Hagedorn temperature in AdS/CFT correspondence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harmark, Troels; Orselli, Marta
2006-01-01
We match the Hagedorn/deconfinement temperature of planar N=4 super Yang-Mills (SYM) on RxS 3 to the Hagedorn temperature of string theory on AdS 5 xS 5 . The match is done in a near-critical region where both gauge theory and string theory are weakly coupled. The near-critical region is near a point with zero temperature and critical chemical potential. On the gauge-theory side we are taking a decoupling limit found in Ref. 7 in which the physics of planar N=4 SYM is given exactly by the ferromagnetic XXX 1/2 Heisenberg spin chain. We find moreover a general relation between the Hagedorn/deconfinement temperature and the thermodynamics of the Heisenberg spin chain and we use this to compute it in two distinct regimes. On the string-theory side, we identify the dual limit for which the string tension and string coupling go to zero. This limit is taken of string theory on a maximally supersymmetric pp-wave background with a flat direction, obtained from a Penrose limit of AdS 5 xS 5 . We compute the Hagedorn temperature of the string theory and find agreement with the Hagedorn/deconfinement temperature computed on the gauge-theory side
Laser heating of large noble gas clusters: from the resonant to the relativistic interaction regimes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gumbrell, E T; Moore, A S; Clark, E L; Garbett, W J; Comley, A J; Edwards, R D; Eagleton, R E [Plasma Physics Division, AWE Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Lazarus, J A; Nilson, P M; Robinson, J S; Hohenberger, M; Symes, D R; Smith, R A [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Clarke, R J [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: edward.gumbrell@awe.co.uk, E-mail: r.a.smith@imperial.ac.uk
2008-12-15
Wide-ranging measurements of sub-picosecond laser interactions with large noble gas cluster targets have been conducted in order to help clarify the nature and extent of the underlying laser-plasma heating. Within the sub-relativistic vacuum irradiance range of 10{sup 16}-10{sup 17} W cm{sup -2}, we find that electron temperatures measured with continuum x-ray spectroscopy exhibit a pronounced multi-keV enhancement. Analysis indicates this behaviour to be consistent with collisional or collisionless resonant heating mechanisms. We also present the first measurements of laser-to-cluster energy deposition at relativistic vacuum irradiances, our data demonstrating absorption fractions of 90% or more. Optical probing was used to resolve the onset of a supersonic ionization front resulting from this very high absorption, and shows that despite significant pre-focus heating, the greatest plasma energy densities can be generated about the vacuum focus position. Electron energy spectra measurements confirm that laser-plasma super-heating occurs, and together with ion data establish that relativistic laser-plasma coupling in atomic clusters can take place without significant MeV particle beam production. In conjunction with optical self-emission data, the optical probing also indicates laser pre-pulse effects at peak vacuum irradiance of 5 x 10{sup 19} W cm{sup -2}. Laser absorption, plasma heating and energy transport data are supported throughout with analytical and numerical modelling.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shi, Min [Anhui University, School of Physics and Materials Science, Hefei (China); RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako (Japan); Shi, Xin-Xing; Guo, Jian-You [Anhui University, School of Physics and Materials Science, Hefei (China); Niu, Zhong-Ming [Anhui University, School of Physics and Materials Science, Hefei (China); Interdisciplinary Theoretical Science Research Group, RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Sun, Ting-Ting [Zhengzhou University, School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou (China)
2017-03-15
We have extended the complex scaled Green's function method to the relativistic framework describing deformed nuclei with the theoretical formalism presented in detail. We have checked the applicability and validity of the present formalism for exploration of the resonances in deformed nuclei. Furthermore, we have studied the dependences of resonances on nuclear deformations and the shape of potential, which are helpful to recognize the evolution of resonant levels from stable nuclei to exotic nuclei with axially quadruple deformations. (orig.)
Hanni, Matti; Lantto, Perttu; Ilias, Miroslav; Jensen, Hans Jorgen Aagaard; Vaara, Juha
2007-10-28
Relativistic effects on the (129)Xe nuclear magnetic resonance shielding and (131)Xe nuclear quadrupole coupling (NQC) tensors are examined in the weakly bound Xe(2) system at different levels of theory including the relativistic four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) method. The intermolecular interaction-induced binary chemical shift delta, the anisotropy of the shielding tensor Deltasigma, and the NQC constant along the internuclear axis chi( parallel) are calculated as a function of the internuclear distance. DHF shielding calculations are carried out using gauge-including atomic orbitals. For comparison, the full leading-order one-electron Breit-Pauli perturbation theory (BPPT) is applied using a common gauge origin. Electron correlation effects are studied at the nonrelativistic (NR) coupled-cluster singles and doubles with perturbational triples [CCSD(T)] level of theory. The fully relativistic second-order Moller-Plesset many-body perturbation (DMP2) theory is used to examine the cross coupling between correlation and relativity on NQC. The same is investigated for delta and Deltasigma by BPPT with a density functional theory model. A semiquantitative agreement between the BPPT and DHF binary property curves is obtained for delta and Deltasigma in Xe(2). For these properties, the currently most complete theoretical description is obtained by a piecewise approximation where the uncorrelated relativistic DHF results obtained close to the basis-set limit are corrected, on the one hand, for NR correlation effects and, on the other hand, for the BPPT-based cross coupling of relativity and correlation. For chi( parallel), the fully relativistic DMP2 results obtain a correction for NR correlation effects beyond MP2. The computed temperature dependence of the second virial coefficient of the (129)Xe nuclear shielding is compared to experiment in Xe gas. Our best results, obtained with the piecewise approximation for the binary chemical shift combined with the
Resonance effects in projectile-electron loss in relativistic collisions with excited atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voitkiv, A B
2005-01-01
The theory of electron loss from projectile-ions in relativistic ion-atom collisions is extended to the case of collisions with excited atoms. The main feature of such collisions is a resonance which can emerge between electron transitions in the ion and atom. The resonance becomes possible due to the Doppler effect and has a well-defined impact energy threshold. In the resonance case, the ion-atom interaction is transmitted by the radiation field and the range of this interaction becomes extremely long. Because of this the presence of other atoms in the target medium and the size of the space occupied by the medium have to be taken into account and it turns out that microscopic loss cross sections may be strongly dependent on such macroscopic parameters as the target density, temperature and size. We consider both the total and differential loss cross sections and show that the resonance can have a strong impact on the angular and energy distributions of electrons emitted from the projectiles and the total number of electron loss events
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paar, N.; Niksic, T.; Marketin, T.; Vretenar, D.; Ring, P.
2005-01-01
The excitation phenomena in unstable nuclei are investigated in the framework of the relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation (RQRPA) in the relativistic Hartree-Bogolyubov model (RHB) which is extended to include effective interactions with explicit density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings. The properties of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) are examined in 132 Sn and within isotopic chains, showing that already at moderate proton-neutron asymmetry the PDR peak energy is located above the neutron emission threshold. A method is suggested for determining the size of the neutron skin within an isotopic chain, based on the measurement of the excitation energies of the Gamow-Teller resonance relative to the isobaric analog state. In addition, for the first time the relativistic RHB+RQRPA model, with tensor ω meson-nucleon couplings, is employed in calculations of β-decay half-lives of nuclei of the relevance for the r-process. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paar, N. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); University of Zagreb, Physics Department, Faculty of Science (Croatia); University of Washington, Institute for Nuclear Theory, Seattle (United States); Niksic, T. [University of Zagreb, Physics Department, Faculty of Science (Croatia); University of Washington, Institute for Nuclear Theory, Seattle (United States); Marketin, T.; Vretenar, D. [University of Zagreb, Physics Department, Faculty of Science (Croatia); Ring, P. [Physik-Department der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)
2005-09-01
The excitation phenomena in unstable nuclei are investigated in the framework of the relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation (RQRPA) in the relativistic Hartree-Bogolyubov model (RHB) which is extended to include effective interactions with explicit density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings. The properties of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) are examined in {sup 132}Sn and within isotopic chains, showing that already at moderate proton-neutron asymmetry the PDR peak energy is located above the neutron emission threshold. A method is suggested for determining the size of the neutron skin within an isotopic chain, based on the measurement of the excitation energies of the Gamow-Teller resonance relative to the isobaric analog state. In addition, for the first time the relativistic RHB+RQRPA model, with tensor {omega} meson-nucleon couplings, is employed in calculations of {beta}-decay half-lives of nuclei of the relevance for the r-process. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Mirnyj, V.I.; Onishchenko, I.N.; Uskov, V.V.
2009-01-01
Method is proposed to divide a regular sequence of electron bunches into parts of bunches driving wakefield and witness bunches, which should be accelerated. It allows to avoid the necessity of additional electron accelerator for witness bunches producing and the necessity of precision short time techniques of injection phase adjusting. The idea concludes to the frequency detuning between bunches repetition frequency and the frequency of the fundamental mode of excited wakefield. Experiments were carried out on the linear resonant accelerator 'Almaz-2', which injected in the dielectric resonator a sequence of 6000 short bunches of relativistic electrons with energy 4.5 MeV, charge 0.16 nC and duration 60 psec each, the repetition interval 360 ps. Frequency detuning was entered by change of frequency of the master generator of the klystron within the limits of one percent so that the phase taper on the length of bunches sequence achieved 2π. Energy spectra of electrons of bunches sequence, which have been propagated through the dielectric resonator are measured and analyzed
Regge trajectories and Hagedorn behavior: Hadronic realizations of dynamical dark matter
Dienes, Keith R.; Huang, Fei; Su, Shufang; Thomas, Brooks
2017-11-01
Dynamical Dark Matter (DDM) is an alternative framework for dark-matter physics in which the dark sector comprises a vast ensemble of particle species whose Standard-Model decay widths are balanced against their cosmological abundances. In this talk, we study the properties of a hitherto-unexplored class of DDM ensembles in which the ensemble constituents are the "hadronic" resonances associated with the confining phase of a strongly-coupled dark sector. Such ensembles exhibit masses lying along Regge trajectories and Hagedorn-like densities of states that grow exponentially with mass. We investigate the applicable constraints on such dark-"hadronic" DDM ensembles and find that these constraints permit a broad range of mass and confinement scales for these ensembles. We also find that the distribution of the total present-day abundance across the ensemble is highly correlated with the values of these scales. This talk reports on research originally presented in Ref. [1].
Omura, Y.; Hsieh, Y. K.; Foster, J. C.; Erickson, P. J.; Kletzing, C.; Baker, D. N.
2017-12-01
A recent test particle simulation of obliquely propagating whistler mode wave-particle interaction [Hsieh and Omura, 2017] shows that the perpendicular wave electric field can play a significant role in trapping and accelerating relativistic electrons through Landau resonance. A further theoretical and numerical investigation verifies that there occurs nonlinear wave trapping of relativistic electrons by the nonlinear Lorentz force of the perpendicular wave magnetic field. An electron moving with a parallel velocity equal to the parallel phase velocity of an obliquely propagating wave basically see a stationary wave phase. Since the electron position is displaced from its gyrocenter by a distance ρ*sin(φ), where ρ is the gyroradius and φ is the gyrophase, the wave phase is modulated with the gyromotion, and the stationary wave fields as seen by the electron are expanded as series of Bessel functions Jn with phase variations n*φ. The J1 components of the wave electric and magnetic fields rotate in the right-hand direction with the gyrofrequency, and they can be in resonance with the electron undergoing the gyromotion, resulting in effective electron acceleration and pitch angle scattering. We have performed a subpacket analysis of chorus waveforms observed by the Van Allen Probes [Foster et al., 2017], and calculated the energy gain by the cyclotron acceleration through Landau resonance. We compare the efficiencies of accelerations by cyclotron and Landau resonances in typical events of rapid electron acceleration observed by the Van Allen Probes.References:[1] Hsieh, Y.-K., and Y. Omura (2017), Nonlinear dynamics of electrons interacting with oblique whistler mode chorus in the magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 122, 675-694, doi:10.1002/2016JA023255.[2] Foster, J. C., P. J. Erickson, Y. Omura, D. N. Baker, C. A. Kletzing, and S. G. Claudepierre (2017), Van Allen Probes observations of prompt MeV radiation belt electron acceleration in nonlinear
Thermal duality and Hagedorn transition from p-adic strings.
Biswas, Tirthabir; Cembranos, Jose A R; Kapusta, Joseph I
2010-01-15
We develop the finite temperature theory of p-adic string models. We find that the thermal properties of these nonlocal field theories can be interpreted either as contributions of standard thermal modes with energies proportional to the temperature, or inverse thermal modes with energies proportional to the inverse of the temperature, leading to a thermal duality at leading order (genus one) analogous to the well-known T duality of string theory. The p-adic strings also recover the asymptotic limits (high and low temperature) for arbitrary genus that purely stringy calculations have yielded. We also discuss our findings surrounding the nature of the Hagedorn transition.
Hagedorn Behavior of Little String Theories from string corrections to NS5-branes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harmark, Troels; Obers, N. A.
2000-01-01
We examine the Hagedorn behavior of little string theory using its conjectured duality with near-horizon NS5-branes. In particular, by studying the string-corrected NS5-brane supergravity solution, it is shown that tree-level corrections to the temperature vanish, while the leading one-loop string...... correction generates the correct temperature dependence of the entropy near the Hagedorn temperature. Finally, the Hagedorn behavior of ODp-brane theories, which are deformed versions of little string theory, is considered via their supergravity duals....
Deconfinement and the Hagedorn transition in string theory.
Chaudhuri, S
2001-03-05
We introduce a new definition of the thermal partition function in string theory. With this new definition, the thermal partition functions of all of the string theories obey thermal duality relations with self-dual Hagedorn temperature beta(2)(H) = 4pi(2)alpha('). A beta-->beta(2)(H)/beta transformation maps the type I theory into a new string theory (type I) with thermal D p-branes, spatial hypersurfaces supporting a p-dimensional finite temperature non-Abelian Higgs-gauge theory for p< or =9. We demonstrate a continuous phase transition in the behavior of the static heavy quark-antiquark potential for small separations r(2)(*)
Producing a scale-invariant spectrum of perturbations in a Hagedorn phase of string cosmology.
Nayeri, Ali; Brandenberger, Robert H; Vafa, Cumrun
2006-07-14
We study the generation of cosmological perturbations during the Hagedorn phase of string gas cosmology. Using tools of string thermodynamics we provide indications that it may be possible to obtain a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological fluctuations on scales which are of cosmological interest today. In our cosmological scenario, the early Hagedorn phase of string gas cosmology goes over smoothly into the radiation-dominated phase of standard cosmology, without having a period of cosmological inflation.
Resonant generation of electromagnetic surface wave by inhomogeneous relativistic electron stream
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cadez, V.M.; Vukovic, S. (Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia). Inst. za Fiziku); Frolov, V.V.; Kyrie, A.Y. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.)
1981-12-01
Generation of electromagnetic surface waves by relativistic inhomogeneous particle flows is investigated for plane and cylindrical geometries. The basic excitation mechanisms are shown to be the induced anomalous Doppler effect and the hydrodynamic Cerenkov effect. The relevant maximal growth rates may differ significantly from those derived for monoenergetic beams.
Resonant generation of electromagnetic surface wave by inhomogeneous relativistic electron stream
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cadez, V.M.; Vukovic, S.; Frolov, V.V.; Kyrie, A.Y.
1981-01-01
Generation of electromagnetic surface waves by relativistic inhomogeneous particle flows is investigated for plane and cylindrical geometries. The basic excitation mechanisms are shown to be the induced anomalous Doppler effect and the hydrodynamic Cerenkov effect. The relevant maximal growth rates may differ significantly from those derived for monoenergetic beams. (author)
The Hagedorn temperature in a decoupled sector of AdS/CFT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harmark, T.; Kristjansson, K.; Orselli, M.
2007-01-01
We match the Hagedorn/deconfinement temperature of planar N=4 super Yang-Mills (SYM) on R x S 3 to the Hagedorn temperature of string theory on Ads 5 x S 5 . The match is done in a near-critical region where both gauge theory and string theory are weakly coupled. On the gauge theory side we are taking a decoupling limit in which the physics of planar N=4 SYM is given exactly by the ferromagnetic XXX 1/2 Heisenberg spin chain. We find moreover a general relation between the Hagedorn/deconfinement temperature and the thermodynamics of the Heisenberg spin chain. On the string theory side, we identify the dual limit which is taken of string theory on a maximally symmetric pp-wave background with a flat direction, obtained from a Penrose limit of Ads 5 x S 5 . We compute the Hagedorn temperature of the string theory and find agreement with the Hagedorn/deconfinement temperature computed on the gauge theory side. Finally, we discuss a modified decoupling limit in which planar N=4 SYM reduces to the XXX 1/2 Heisenberg spin chain with an external magnetic field. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, Timothy F. G.; Yates, Jonathan R.
2014-01-01
We present a method for the first-principles calculation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) J-coupling in extended systems using state-of-the-art ultrasoft pseudopotentials and including scalar-relativistic effects. The use of ultrasoft pseudopotentials is allowed by extending the projector augmented wave (PAW) method of Joyce et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 127, 204107 (2007)]. We benchmark it against existing local-orbital quantum chemical calculations and experiments for small molecules containing light elements, with good agreement. Scalar-relativistic effects are included at the zeroth-order regular approximation level of theory and benchmarked against existing local-orbital quantum chemical calculations and experiments for a number of small molecules containing the heavy row six elements W, Pt, Hg, Tl, and Pb, with good agreement. Finally, 1 J(P-Ag) and 2 J(P-Ag-P) couplings are calculated in some larger molecular crystals and compared against solid-state NMR experiments. Some remarks are also made as to improving the numerical stability of dipole perturbations using PAW
Ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions - a hot cocktail of hydrodynamics, resonances and jets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zabrodin E.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at energies of RHIC and LHC are considered. For comparison with data the HYDJET++ model, which contains the treatment of both soft and hard processes, is employed. The study focuses mainly on the interplay of ideal hydrodynamics, final state interactions and jets, and its influence on the development of harmonics of the anisotropic flow. It is shown that jets are responsible for violation of the number-of-constituent-quark (NCQ scaling at LHC energies. The interplay between elliptic and triangular flows and their contribution to higher flow harmonics and dihadron angular correlations, including ridge, is also discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Zaigao; Wang, Jianguo; Wang, Yue
2015-01-01
This letter optimizes synchronously 18 parameters of a relativistic backward wave oscillator with non-uniform slow wave structure (SWS) and a resonant reflector by using the parallel genetic algorithms and particle-in-cell simulation. The optimization results show that the generation efficiency of microwave from the electron beam has increased 32% compared to that of the original device. After optimization, the electromagnetic mode propagating in the resonant changes from the original TM 020 mode of reflector to higher-order TM 021 mode, which has a high reflection coefficient in a broader frequency range than that of the former. The modulation of current inside the optimized device is much deeper than that in the original one. The product of the electric field and current is defined. Observing this product, it is found that the interaction of the electron beam with the electromagnetic wave in the optimized device is much stronger than that in the original device, and at the rear part of SWS of the optimized device, the electron beam dominantly gives out the energy to the electromagnetic wave, leading to the higher generation efficiency of microwave than that of the original device
Brane-antibrane systems at finite temperature and phase transition near the Hagedorn temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hotta, Kenji
2002-01-01
In order to study the thermodynamic properties of brane-antibrane systems, we compute the finite temperature effective potential of tachyon T in this system on the basis of boundary string field theory. At low temperature, the minimum of the potential shifts towards T=0 as the temperature increases. In the D9-anti-D9 case, the sign of the coefficient of vertical bar T vertical bar 2 term of the potential changes slightly below the Hagedorn temperature. This means that a phase transition occurs near the Hagedorn temperature. On the other hand, the coefficient is kept negative in the Dp-anti-Dp case with p≤8, and thus a phase transition does not occur. This leads us to the conclusion that only a D9-anti-D9 pair and no other (lower dimensional) brane-antibrane pairs are created near the Hagedorn temperature. We also discuss a phase transition in NS9B-anti-NS9B case as a model of the Hagedorn transition of closed strings. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Mirny, V. I; Onishchenko, I.N.; Uskov, V.V.
2008-01-01
The experimental installation was elaborated to increase plasma wakefield amplitude by means of using plasma resonator that allows all bunches of the train to participate in wakefield build-up contrary to waveguide case, in which due to group velocity effect only a part of the bunches participates. Experiments on plasma producing with resonant density, at which a coincidence of the plasma frequency and bunch repetition frequency is provided, are carried out. The first results of the measurements of beam energy loss on plasma wakefield excitation and energy gain by accelerated electrons are presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, M.A.; Azuma, O.; Callin, R.S.
1989-03-01
Experimental work is underway by a SLAC-LLNL-LBL collaboration to investigate the feasibility of using relativistic klystrons as a power source for future high gradient accelerators. Two different relativistic klystron configurations have been built and tested to date: a high grain multicavity klystron at 11.4 GHz and a low gain two cavity subharmonic buncher driven at 5.7 GHz. In both configurations power is extracted at 11.4 GHz. In order to understand the basic physics issues involved in extracting RF from a high power beam, we have used both a single resonant cavity and a multi-cell traveling wave structure for energy extraction. We have learned how to overcome our previously reported problem of high power RF pulse shortening, and have achieved peak RF power levels of 170 MW with the RF pulse of the same duration as the beam current pulse. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs
Relativistic theory of nuclear magnetic resonance parameters in a Gaussian basis representation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kutzelnigg, Werner; Liu Wenjian
2009-01-01
The calculation of NMR parameters from relativistic quantum theory in a Gaussian basis expansion requires some care. While in the absence of a magnetic field the expansion in a kinetically balanced basis converges for the wave function in the mean and for the energy with any desired accuracy, this is not necessarily the case for magnetic properties. The results for the magnetizability or the nuclear magnetic shielding are not even correct in the nonrelativistic limit (nrl) if one expands the original Dirac equation in a kinetically balanced Gaussian basis. This defect disappears if one starts from the unitary transformed Dirac equation as suggested by Kutzelnigg [Phys. Rev. A 67, 032109 (2003)]. However, a new difficulty can arise instead if one applies the transformation in the presence of the magnetic field of a point nucleus. If one decomposes certain contributions, the individual terms may diverge, although their sum is regular. A controlled cancellation may become difficult and numerical instabilities can arise. Various ways exist to avoid these singularities and at the same time get the correct nrl. There are essentially three approaches intermediate between the transformed and the untransformed formulation, namely, the bispinor decomposition, the decomposition of the lower component, and the hybrid unitary transformation partially at operator and partially at matrix level. All three possibilities were first considered by Xiao et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 126, 214101 (2007)] in a different context and in a different nomenclature. Their analysis and classification in a more general context are given here for the first time. Use of an extended balanced basis has no advantages and has other drawbacks and is not competitive, while the use of a restricted magnetic balance basis can be justified.
Impact-parameter dependence of giant resonance excitations in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gruenschloss, A.; Boretzky, K.; Aumann, T.
1999-09-01
Angular distributions of Xe fragments produced in peripheral collisions of a 136 Xe beam (700 MeV/nucleon) with 208 Pb and nat Sn targets were measured. Equivalent sharp-cutoff minimum impact parameters were derived on the basis of a semi-classical description for the electromagnetic excitation of one- and two-phonon giant resonances. The results are compared with current standard parametrizations of minimum impact parameters and with the soft-spheres model using realistic mass density distributions for projectile and targets. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aleinik, A.N.; Chefonov, O.V.; Kalinin, B.N.; Naumenko, G.A.; Potylitsyn, A.P.; Saruev, G.A.; Sharafutdinov, A.F.
2003-01-01
The resonant optical polarization radiation (ROPR) in the Smith-Purcell geometry and the one from the inclined grating at the Tomsk synchrotron and 6-MeV microtron have been investigated. The polarization radiation was observed at 4.2 deg. from the 200 MeV electron beam and at 5 deg. from the 6.2 MeV electron beam. Two methods of measurement of ROPR maxima in these two cases have been used. In the first case (the experiment on synchrotron) we have fixed the wavelength of radiation using an optical filter; the orientation dependence of this radiation was measured. In this dependence we have observed two peaks of radiation from electrons in gold foil grating of 0.1 mm period. The first large peak is a zeroth order peak in direction of specular reflection, and the second one is the first-order peak of resonant polarization radiation. In the experiment on microtron the spectra of ROPR from aluminum foil strip grating of 0.2 mm period in the Smith-Purcell geometry were measured, and the peak of the first-order Smith-Purcell radiation in these spectra was observed. The comparison of data obtained with the simulation results has been performed
Electron Cloud Cyclotron Resonances in the Presence of a Short-bunch-length Relativistic Beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Celata, Christine; Celata, C.M.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, J.-L.; Wu, Jennifer W.
2008-01-01
Computer simulations using the 2D code 'POSINST' were used to study the formation of the electron cloud in the wiggler section of the positron damping ring of the International Linear Collider. In order to simulate an x-y slice of the wiggler (i.e., a slice perpendicular to the beam velocity), each simulation assumed a constant vertical magnetic field. At values of the magnetic field where the cyclotron frequency was an integral multiple of the bunch frequency, and where the field strength was less than approximately 0.6 T, equilibrium average electron densities were up to three times the density found at other neighboring field values. Effects of this resonance between the bunch and cyclotron frequency are expected to be non-negligible when the beam bunch length is much less than the product of the electron cyclotron period and the beam
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Fischer
2017-09-01
Full Text Available A head-on beam-beam compensation scheme was implemented for operation in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC at Brookhaven National Laboratory [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 264801 (2015PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.115.264801]. The compensation consists of electron lenses for the reduction of the beam-beam induced tune spread, and a lattice for the minimization of beam-beam generated resonance driving terms. We describe the implementations of the lattice and electron lenses, and report on measurements of lattice properties and the effect of the electron lenses on the hadron beam.
The Hagedorn spectrum, nuclear level densities and first order phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moretto, Luciano G.; Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Siem, S.
2015-01-01
An exponential mass spectrum, like the Hagedorn spectrum, with slope 1/T H was interpreted as fixing an upper limiting temperature T H that the system can achieve. However, thermodynamically, such spectrum indicates a 1 st order phase transition at a fixed temperature T H . A much lower energy example is the log linear level nuclear density below the neutron binding energy that prevails throughout the nuclear chart. We show that, for non-magic nuclei, such linearity implies a 1 st order phase transition from the pairing superfluid to an ideal gas of quasi particles
The Hagedorn spectrum, nuclear level densities and first order phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moretto, Luciano G., E-mail: lgmoretto@lbl.gov [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Siem, S. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)
2015-10-15
An exponential mass spectrum, like the Hagedorn spectrum, with slope 1/T{sub H} was interpreted as fixing an upper limiting temperature T{sub H} that the system can achieve. However, thermodynamically, such spectrum indicates a 1{sup st} order phase transition at a fixed temperature T{sub H}. A much lower energy example is the log linear level nuclear density below the neutron binding energy that prevails throughout the nuclear chart. We show that, for non-magic nuclei, such linearity implies a 1{sup st} order phase transition from the pairing superfluid to an ideal gas of quasi particles.
Closed-String Tachyons and the Hagedorn Transition in AdS Space
Barbón, José L F
2002-01-01
We discuss some aspects of the behaviour of a string gas at the Hagedorn temperature from a Euclidean point of view. Using AdS space as an infrared regulator, the Hagedorn tachyon can be effectively quasi-localized and its dynamics controled by a finite energetic balance. We propose that the off-shell RG flow matches to an Euclidean AdS black hole geometry in a generalization of the string/black-hole correspondence principle. The final stage of the RG flow can be interpreted semiclassically as the growth of a cool black hole in a hotter radiation bath. The end-point of the condensation is the large Euclidan AdS black hole, and the part of spacetime behind the horizon has been removed. In the flat-space limit, holography is manifest by the system creating its own transverse screen at infinity. This leads to an argument, based on the energetics of the system, explaining why the non-supersymmetric type 0A string theory decays into the supersymmetric type IIB vacuum. We also suggest a notion of `boundary entropy'...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, F.
1986-01-01
Relativistic equations for two and three body scattering are discussed. Particular attention is paid to relativistic three body kinetics because of recent form factor measurements of the Helium 3 - Hydrogen 3 system recently completed at Saclay and Bates and the accompanying speculation that relativistic effects are important for understanding the three nucleon system. 16 refs., 4 figs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hod, Moshe; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Jovanovič, Lois
2014-01-01
OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled trial aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of insulin detemir (IDet) with neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH), both with insulin aspart, in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. The perinatal and obstetric pregnancy outcomes are presented. METHODS: Subjects w...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rafelski Johann
2016-01-01
Full Text Available These remarks open the one-day session “50 years of Hagedorn’s Temperature and the Statistical Bootstrap Model”. These developments set the path at CERN towards the discovery of Quark-Gluon Plasma in the year 2000.
The hot Hagedorn Universe. Presented at the ICFNP2015 meeting, August 2015
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rafelski Johann
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the context of the half-centenary of Hagedorn temperature and the statistical bootstrap model (SBM we present a short account of how these insights coincided with the establishment of the hot big-bang model (BBM and helped resolve some of the early philosophical difficulties. We then turn attention to the present day context and show the dominance of strong interaction quark and gluon degrees of freedom in the early stage, helping to characterize the properties of the hot Universe. We focus attention on the current experimental insights about cosmic microwave background (CMB temperature fluctuation, and develop a much improved understanding of the neutrino freeze-out, in this way paving the path to the opening of a direct connection of quark-gluon plasma (QGP physics in the early Universe with the QCD-lattice, and the study of the properties of QGP formed in the laboratory.
Demianski, Marek
2013-01-01
Relativistic Astrophysics brings together important astronomical discoveries and the significant achievements, as well as the difficulties in the field of relativistic astrophysics. This book is divided into 10 chapters that tackle some aspects of the field, including the gravitational field, stellar equilibrium, black holes, and cosmology. The opening chapters introduce the theories to delineate gravitational field and the elements of relativistic thermodynamics and hydrodynamics. The succeeding chapters deal with the gravitational fields in matter; stellar equilibrium and general relativity
Relativistic quantum mechanics
Horwitz, Lawrence P
2015-01-01
This book describes a relativistic quantum theory developed by the author starting from the E.C.G. Stueckelberg approach proposed in the early 40s. In this framework a universal invariant evolution parameter (corresponding to the time originally postulated by Newton) is introduced to describe dynamical evolution. This theory is able to provide solutions for some of the fundamental problems encountered in early attempts to construct a relativistic quantum theory. A relativistically covariant construction is given for which particle spins and angular momenta can be combined through the usual rotation group Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. Solutions are defined for both the classical and quantum two body bound state and scattering problems. The recently developed quantum Lax-Phillips theory of semigroup evolution of resonant states is described. The experiment of Lindner and coworkers on interference in time is discussed showing how the property of coherence in time provides a simple understanding of the results. Th...
The Hagedorn temperature and open QCD-string tachyons in pure N=1 super-Yang-Mills
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armoni, Adi; Hollowood, Timothy J.
2008-01-01
We consider large-N confining gauge theories with a Hagedorn density of states. In such theories the potential between a pair of colour-singlet sources may diverge at a critical distance r c =1/T H . We consider, in particular, pure N=1 super-Yang-Mills theory and argue that when a domain wall and an anti-domain wall are brought to a distance near r c the interaction potential is better described by an 'open QCD-string channel'. We interpret the divergence of the potential in terms of a tachyonic mode and relate its mass to the Hagedorn temperature. Finally we relate our result to a theorem of Kutasov and Seiberg and argue that the presence of an open string tachyonic mode in the annulus amplitude implies an exponential density of states in the UV of the closed string channel
Schippers, Stefan
2008-01-01
Dielectronic recombination (DR) of few-electron ions has evolved into a sensitive spectroscopic tool for highly charged ions. This is due to technological advances in electron-beam preparation and ion-beam cooling techniques at heavy-ion storage rings. Recent experiments prove unambiguously that DR collision spectroscopy has become sensitive to 2nd order QED and to nuclear effects. This review discusses the most recent developments in high-resolution spectroscopy of low-energy DR resonances, ...
Resonances of the confined hydrogen atom and the Lamb-Dicke effect in non-relativistic qed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Faupin, Jeremy
2008-01-01
We study a model describing a system of one dynamical nucleus and one electron confined by their center of mass and interacting with the quantized electromagnetic field. We impose an ultraviolet cutoff and assume that the fine-structure constant is sufficiently small. Using a renormalization grou...... method (based on [3, 4]), we prove that the unperturbed eigenvalues turn into resonances when the nucleus and the electron are coupled to the radiation field. This analysis is related to the Lamb–Dicke effect....
Luciano, Rezzolla
2013-01-01
Relativistic hydrodynamics is a very successful theoretical framework to describe the dynamics of matter from scales as small as those of colliding elementary particles, up to the largest scales in the universe. This book provides an up-to-date, lively, and approachable introduction to the mathematical formalism, numerical techniques, and applications of relativistic hydrodynamics. The topic is typically covered either by very formal or by very phenomenological books, but is instead presented here in a form that will be appreciated both by students and researchers in the field. The topics covered in the book are the results of work carried out over the last 40 years, which can be found in rather technical research articles with dissimilar notations and styles. The book is not just a collection of scattered information, but a well-organized description of relativistic hydrodynamics, from the basic principles of statistical kinetic theory, down to the technical aspects of numerical methods devised for the solut...
On zero-point energy, stability and Hagedorn behavior of Type IIB strings on pp-waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bigazzi, F.; Cotrone, A.L.
2003-06-01
Type IIB strings on many pp-wave backgrounds, supported either by 5-form or 3-form fluxes, have negative light-cone zero-point energy. This raises the question of their stability and poses possible problems in the definition of their thermodynamic properties. After having pointed out the correct way of calculating the zero-point energy, an issue not fully discussed in literature, we show that these Type IIB strings are classically stable and have well defined thermal properties, exhibiting a Hagedorn behavior. (author)
Roussos, E.; Kollmann, P.; Krupp, N.; Paranicas, C.; Dialynas, K.; Sergis, N.; Mitchell, D. G.; Hamilton, D. C.; Krimigis, S. M.
2018-05-01
provide additional evidence showing that they may be constantly present all the way down to the outer edge of Saturn's main rings, further supporting our model. The implications of our findings are not limited to Saturn. Corotation resonance at Jupiter occurs for electrons with energies above about 10 MeV throughout the quasi-dipolar, energetic particle-trapping region of the magnetosphere. The proposed process could in principle then lead to rapid transport and adiabatic acceleration electrons into ultra-relativistic energies. The observation by Galileo's EPD/LEMMS instrument of an intense Jovian acceleration event at the orbital distance of Ganymede during the mission's C22 orbit, when > 11 MeV electron fluxes were preferentially enhanced, provides additional support to our transport model and insights on the origin of that orbit's extreme energetic electron environment. Finally, if the mode of radial transport that we describe here is a dominant one, radial diffusion coefficients (DLL) would be subject to strong energy, pitch angle and species dependencies.
Price, R H
1993-01-01
Work reported in the workshop on relativistic astrophysics spanned a wide varicy of topics. Two speciﬁc areas seemed of particular interest. Much attention was focussed on gravitational wave sources, especially on the waveforms they produce, and progress was reported in theoretical and observational aspects of accretion disks.
Sahoo, Raghunath
2016-01-01
This lecture note covers Relativistic Kinematics, which is very useful for the beginners in the field of high-energy physics. A very practical approach has been taken, which answers "why and how" of the kinematics useful for students working in the related areas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Font, J. A.
2015-01-01
The relativistic astrophysics is the field of astrophysics employing the theory of relativity Einstein as physical-mathematical model is to study the universe. This discipline analyzes astronomical contexts in which the laws of classical mechanics of Newton's law of gravitation are not valid. (Author)
Hakim, Rémi
1994-01-01
Il existe à l'heure actuelle un certain nombre de théories relativistes de la gravitation compatibles avec l'expérience et l'observation. Toutefois, la relativité générale d'Einstein fut historiquement la première à fournir des résultats théoriques corrects en accord précis avec les faits.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marks, R.
1985-09-01
Theoretical analysis is presented of a relativisic klystron; i.e. a high-relativistic bunched electron beam which is sent through a succession of tuned cavities and has its energy replenished by periodic induction accelerator units. Parameters are given for a full-size device and for an experimental device using the FEL at the ETA; namely the ELF Facility. 6 refs., 2 figs
Zhang, Bing; Li, Kunyang
2018-02-01
The “Breakthrough Starshot” aims at sending near-speed-of-light cameras to nearby stellar systems in the future. Due to the relativistic effects, a transrelativistic camera naturally serves as a spectrograph, a lens, and a wide-field camera. We demonstrate this through a simulation of the optical-band image of the nearby galaxy M51 in the rest frame of the transrelativistic camera. We suggest that observing celestial objects using a transrelativistic camera may allow one to study the astronomical objects in a special way, and to perform unique tests on the principles of special relativity. We outline several examples that suggest transrelativistic cameras may make important contributions to astrophysics and suggest that the Breakthrough Starshot cameras may be launched in any direction to serve as a unique astronomical observatory.
Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hernandez, Juan; Kovtun, Pavel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2 (Canada)
2017-05-02
We present the equations of relativistic hydrodynamics coupled to dynamical electromagnetic fields, including the effects of polarization, electric fields, and the derivative expansion. We enumerate the transport coefficients at leading order in derivatives, including electrical conductivities, viscosities, and thermodynamic coefficients. We find the constraints on transport coefficients due to the positivity of entropy production, and derive the corresponding Kubo formulas. For the neutral state in a magnetic field, small fluctuations include Alfvén waves, magnetosonic waves, and the dissipative modes. For the state with a non-zero dynamical charge density in a magnetic field, plasma oscillations gap out all propagating modes, except for Alfvén-like waves with a quadratic dispersion relation. We relate the transport coefficients in the “conventional” magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using Maxwell’s equations in matter) to those in the “dual” version of magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using the conserved magnetic flux).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Nils Holger
2014-01-01
A chapter in a book about terminology within the field of medievalism: the chapter discusses the resonance of medieval music and ritual in modern (classical) music culture and liturgical practice.......A chapter in a book about terminology within the field of medievalism: the chapter discusses the resonance of medieval music and ritual in modern (classical) music culture and liturgical practice....
Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis
2016-11-01
The development of the statistical bootstrap model for hadrons, quarks and nuclear matter occurred during the 1960s and the 1970s in a period of exceptional theoretical creativity. And if the transition from hadrons to quarks and gluons as fundamental particles was then operated, a transition from standard particles to preons and from the standard space-time to a spinorial one may now be necessary, including related pre-Big Bang scenarios. We present here a brief historical analysis of the scientific problematic of the 1960s in Particle Physics and of its evolution until the end of the 1970s, including cosmological issues. Particular attention is devoted to the exceptional role of Rolf Hagedorn and to the progress of the statistical boostrap model until the experimental search for the quark-gluon plasma started being considered. In parallel, we simultaneously expose recent results and ideas concerning Particle Physics and in Cosmology, an discuss current open questions. Assuming preons to be constituents of the physical vacuum and the standard particles excitations of this vacuum (the superbradyon hypothesis we introduced in 1995), together with a spinorial space-time (SST), a new kind of Regge trajectories is expected to arise where the angular momentum spacing will be of 1/2 instead of 1. Standard particles can lie on such Regge trajectories inside associated internal symmetry multiplets, and the preonic vacuum structure can generate a new approach to Quantum Field Theory. As superbradyons are superluminal preons, some of the vacuum excitations can have critical speeds larger than the speed of light c, but the cosmological evolution selects by itself the particles with the smallest critical speed (the speed of light). In the new Particle Physics and Cosmology emerging from the pattern thus developed, Hagedornlike temperatures will naturally be present. As new space, time, momentum and energy scales are expected to be generated by the preonic vacuum dynamics, the
Relativistic field theory of neutron stars and their hyperon populations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glendenning, N.K.
1986-01-01
The nuclear many-body problem is examined by means of the formulation of an effective relativistic field theory of interacting hadrons. A relativistic field theory of hadronic matter is especially appropriate for the description of hot or dense matter, because of the appearance of antiparticles and higher baryon resonances and because it automatically respects causality. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab
On the relativistic Vlasov equation in guiding-center coordinates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salimullah, M.; Chaudhry, M.B.; Hassan, M.H.A.
1989-11-01
The relativistic Vlasov equation has been expressed in terms of the guiding-center coordinates in a hot magnetized plasma. It is noted that the relativistic effect reduces the cyclotron resonance frequency for electrostatic and electromagnetic waves propagating transverse to the direction of the static magnetic field in the plasma. (author). 4 refs
The relativistic virial theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lucha, W.; Schoeberl, F.F.
1989-11-01
The relativistic generalization of the quantum-mechanical virial theorem is derived and used to clarify the connection between the nonrelativistic and (semi-)relativistic treatment of bound states. 12 refs. (Authors)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
an impetus or drive to that account: change, innovation, rupture, or discontinuity. Resonances: Historical Essays on Continuity and Change explores the historiographical question of the modes of interrelation between these motifs in historical narratives. The essays in the collection attempt to realize...
Excitation of giant resonances in heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuehn, W.
1991-01-01
Introduction: What are Giant Resonances? General Features of Giant Resonances, Macroscopic Description and Classification, Basic Excitation Mechanisms, Decay Modes, Giant Resonances Built on Excited States, Relativistic Coulomb Excitation of Giant Resonances, Experimental Situation. (orig.)
Relativistic Linear Restoring Force
Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.
2012-01-01
We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mittelstaedt, P.
1983-01-01
on the basis of the well-known quantum logic and quantum probability a formal language of relativistic quantum physics is developed. This language incorporates quantum logical as well as relativistic restrictions. It is shown that relativity imposes serious restrictions on the validity regions of propositions in space-time. By an additional postulate this relativistic quantum logic can be made consistent. The results of this paper are derived exclusively within the formal quantum language; they are, however, in accordance with well-known facts of relativistic quantum physics in Hilbert space. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lefevre, Thibaut
2000-01-01
The next generation of electron-positron linear colliders must reach the TeV energy range. For this, one requires an adequate RF power source to feed the accelerating cavities of the collider. One way to generate this source is to use the Two Beam Accelerator concept in which the RF power is produced in resonant cavities driven by an intense bunched beam. In this thesis, I present the experimental results obtained at the CEA/CESTA using an electron beam generated by an induction linac. First, some studies were performed with the LELIA induction linac (2.2 MeV, 1 kA, 80 ns) using a Free Electron Laser (FEL) as a buncher at 35 GHz. A second part relates the experiment made with the PIVAIR induction linac (7 MeV, 1 kA, 80 ns) in order to measure the RF power extracted from a resonant cavity at 35 GHz, which is driven by the bunches produced in the FEL. One can also find a simple theoretical modeling of the beam-cavity interaction, and the numerical results dealing with the design of the cavity we tested. (author) [fr
Relativistic quantum mechanics; Mecanique quantique relativiste
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ollitrault, J.Y. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique]|[Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France)
1998-12-01
These notes form an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics. The mathematical formalism has been reduced to the minimum in order to enable the reader to calculate elementary physical processes. The second quantification and the field theory are the logical followings of this course. The reader is expected to know analytical mechanics (Lagrangian and Hamiltonian), non-relativistic quantum mechanics and some basis of restricted relativity. The purpose of the first 3 chapters is to define the quantum mechanics framework for already known notions about rotation transformations, wave propagation and restricted theory of relativity. The next 3 chapters are devoted to the application of relativistic quantum mechanics to a particle with 0,1/5 and 1 spin value. The last chapter deals with the processes involving several particles, these processes require field theory framework to be thoroughly described. (A.C.) 2 refs.
Towards relativistic quantum geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ridao, Luis Santiago [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina); Bellini, Mauricio, E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, C.P. 7600, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina)
2015-12-17
We obtain a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum geometry by using a Weylian-like manifold with a geometric scalar field which provides a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum theory in which the algebra of the Weylian-like field depends on observers. An example for a Reissner–Nordström black-hole is studied.
Norbury, John W.
1992-01-01
Nuclear fission reactions induced by the electromagnetic field of relativistic nuclei are studied for energies relevant to present and future relativistic heavy ion accelerators. Cross sections are calculated for U-238 and Pu-239 fission induced by C-12, Si-28, Au-197, and U-238 projectiles. It is found that some of the cross sections can exceed 10 b.
Relativistic Shock Acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duffy, P.; Downes, T.P.; Gallant, Y.A.; Kirk, J.G.
1999-01-01
In this paper we briefly review the basic theory of shock waves in relativistic hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics, emphasising some astrophysically interesting cases. We then present an overview of the theory of particle acceleration at such shocks describing the methods used to calculate the spectral indices of energetic particles. Recent results on acceleration at ultra-relativistic shocks are discussed. (author)
Permsuwan, Unchalee; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Dilokthornsakul, Piyameth; Thavorn, Kednapa; Saokaew, Surasak
2016-06-01
Even though Insulin glargine (IGlar) has been available and used in other countries for more than a decade, it has not been adopted into Thai national formulary. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term cost effectiveness of IGlar versus neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin in type 2 diabetes from the perspective of Thai Health Care System. A validated computer simulation model (the IMS CORE Diabetes Model) was used to estimate the long-term projection of costs and clinical outcomes. The model was populated with published characteristics of Thai patients with type 2 diabetes. Baseline risk factors were obtained from Thai cohort studies, while relative risk reduction was derived from a meta-analysis study conducted by the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technology in Health. Only direct costs were taken into account. Costs of diabetes management and complications were obtained from hospital databases in Thailand. Both costs and outcomes were discounted at 3 % per annum and presented in US dollars in terms of 2014 dollar value. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were also performed. IGlar is associated with a slight gain in quality-adjusted life years (0.488 QALYs), an additional life expectancy (0.677 life years), and an incremental cost of THB119,543 (US$3522.19) compared with NPH insulin. The ICERs were THB244,915/QALY (US$7216.12/QALY) and THB176,525/life-year gained (LYG) (US$5201.09/LYG). The ICER was sensitive to discount rates and IGlar cost. At the acceptable willingness to pay of THB160,000/QALY (US$4714.20/QALY), the probability that IGlar was cost effective was less than 20 %. Compared to treatment with NPH insulin, treatment with IGlar in type 2 diabetes patients who had uncontrolled blood glucose with oral anti-diabetic drugs did not represent good value for money at the acceptable threshold in Thailand.
Vereshchagin, Gregory V.; Aksenov, Alexey G.
2017-02-01
Preface; Acknowledgements; Acronyms and definitions; Introduction; Part I. Theoretical Foundations: 1. Basic concepts; 2. Kinetic equation; 3. Averaging; 4. Conservation laws and equilibrium; 5. Relativistic BBGKY hierarchy; 6. Basic parameters in gases and plasmas; Part II. Numerical Methods: 7. The basics of computational physics; 8. Direct integration of Boltzmann equations; 9. Multidimensional hydrodynamics; Part III. Applications: 10. Wave dispersion in relativistic plasma; 11. Thermalization in relativistic plasma; 12. Kinetics of particles in strong fields; 13. Compton scattering in astrophysics and cosmology; 14. Self-gravitating systems; 15. Neutrinos, gravitational collapse and supernovae; Appendices; Bibliography; Index.
Plasma relativistic microwave electronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuzelev, M.V.; Loza, O.T.; Rukhadze, A.A.; Strelkov, P.S.; Shkvarunets, A.G.
2001-01-01
One formulated the principles of plasma relativistic microwave electronics based on the induced Cherenkov radiation of electromagnetic waves at interaction of a relativistic electron beam with plasma. One developed the theory of plasma relativistic generators and accelerators of microwave radiation, designed and studied the prototypes of such devices. One studied theoretically the mechanisms of radiation, calculated the efficiencies and the frequency spectra of plasma relativistic microwave generators and accelerators. The theory findings are proved by the experiment: intensity of the designed sources of microwave radiation is equal to 500 μW, the frequency of microwave radiation is increased by 7 times (from 4 up to 28 GHz), the width of radiation frequency band may vary from several up to 100%. The designed sources of microwave radiation are no else compared in the electronics [ru
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antippa, Adel F [Departement de Physique, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec G9A 5H7 (Canada)
2009-05-15
We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful method that can be applied to a wide range of special relativistic problems of linear acceleration.
Exact Relativistic `Antigravity' Propulsion
Felber, Franklin S.
2006-01-01
The Schwarzschild solution is used to find the exact relativistic motion of a payload in the gravitational field of a mass moving with constant velocity. At radial approach or recession speeds faster than 3-1/2 times the speed of light, even a small mass gravitationally repels a payload. At relativistic speeds, a suitable mass can quickly propel a heavy payload from rest nearly to the speed of light with negligible stresses on the payload.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strange, P.
2010-01-01
Quantum revivals are now a well-known phenomena within nonrelativistic quantum theory. In this Letter we display the effects of relativity on revivals and quantum carpets. It is generally believed that revivals do not occur within a relativistic regime. Here we show that while this is generally true, it is possible, in principle, to set up wave packets with specific mathematical properties that do exhibit exact revivals within a fully relativistic theory.
Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho
2011-01-01
A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.
Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.
Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho
2011-08-01
A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.
Dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imshennik, V.S.; Morozov, Yu.I.
1989-01-01
Using the comoving reference frame in the general non-inertial case, the relativistic hydrodynamics equations are derived with an account for dissipative effects in the matter. From the entropy production equation, the exact from for the dissipative tensor components is obtained. As a result, the closed system of equations of dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics is obtained in the comoving reference frame as a relativistic generalization of the known Navier-Stokes equations for Lagrange coordinates. Equations of relativistic hydrodynamics with account for dissipative effects in the matter are derived using the assocoated reference system in general non-inertial case. True form of the dissipative tensor components is obtained from entropy production equation. Closed system of equations for dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics is obtained as a result in the assocoated reference system (ARS) - relativistic generalization of well-known Navier-Stokes equations for Lagrange coordinates. Equation system, obtained in this paper for ARS, may be effectively used in numerical models of explosive processes with 10 51 erg energy releases which are characteristic for flashes of supernovae, if white dwarf type compact target suggested as presupernova
Study of the O-mode in a relativistic degenerate electron plasma
Azra, Kalsoom; Ali, Muddasir; Hussain, Azhar
2017-03-01
Using the linearized relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell equations, a generalized expression for the plasma conductivity tensor is derived. The dispersion relation for the O-mode in a relativistic degenerate electron plasma is investigated by employing the Fermi-Dirac distribution function. The propagation characteristics of the O-mode (cut offs, resonances, propagation regimes, harmonic structure) are examined by using specific values of the density and the magnetic field that correspond to different relativistic dense environments. Further, it is observed that due to the relativistic effects the cut off and the resonance points are shifted to low frequency values, as a result the propagation regime is reduced. The dispersion relations for the non-relativistic and the ultra-relativistic limits are also presented.
Influence of a relativistic kinematics on s-wave KN phase shifts in a quark model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemaire, S.; Labarsouque, J.; Silvestre-Brac, B.
2001-01-01
The I = 1 and I = 0 kaon-nucleon s-wave phase shifts have been calculated in a quark potential model using the resonating group method (RGM) and a relativistic kinematics. The spinless Salpeter equation has been solved numerically using the Fourier grid Hamiltonian method. The results have been compared to the non-relativistic ones. For each isospin channel the phase shifts obtained are not so far from the non-relativistic results. (author)
Relativistic calculation of dielectronic recombination for He-like krypton
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shi Xi-Heng; Wang Yan-Sen; Chen Chong-Yang; Gu Ming-Feng
2005-01-01
Dielectronic recombination (DR) cross sections and rate coefficients of He-like Kr are calculated employing the relativistic flexible atomic code, in which autoionization rates are calculated based on the relativistic distorted-wave approximation and the configuration interaction is considered. The Auger and total radiative rates of some strong resonances are listed and compared with the results from multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock and Hebrew University Lawrence Livermore Atomic Code methods. The n-3 scaling law is checked and used to extrapolate rate coefficients. We also show the variation of DR branching ratio with different DR resonances or atomic number Z. The effect of radiative cascades on DR cross sections are studied.
Relativistic and non-relativistic studies of nuclear matter
Banerjee, MK; Tjon, JA
2002-01-01
We point out that the differences between the results of the non-relativistic lowest order Brueckner theory (LOBT) and the relativistic Dirac-Brueckner analysis predominantly arise from two sources. Besides effects from a nucleon mass modification M* in nuclear medium we have in a relativistic
Relativistic quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ollitrault, J.Y.
1998-12-01
These notes form an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics. The mathematical formalism has been reduced to the minimum in order to enable the reader to calculate elementary physical processes. The second quantification and the field theory are the logical followings of this course. The reader is expected to know analytical mechanics (Lagrangian and Hamiltonian), non-relativistic quantum mechanics and some basis of restricted relativity. The purpose of the first 3 chapters is to define the quantum mechanics framework for already known notions about rotation transformations, wave propagation and restricted theory of relativity. The next 3 chapters are devoted to the application of relativistic quantum mechanics to a particle with 0,1/5 and 1 spin value. The last chapter deals with the processes involving several particles, these processes require field theory framework to be thoroughly described. (A.C.)
Relativistic solitons and pulsars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karpman, V I [Inst. of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio-Wave Propagation, Moscow; Norman, C A; ter Haar, D; Tsytovich, V N
1975-05-01
A production mechanism for stable electron bunches or sheets of localized electric fields is investigated which may account for pulsar radio emission. Possible soliton phenomena in a one-dimensional relativistic plasma are analyzed, and it is suggested that the motion of a relativistic soliton, or ''relaton'', along a curved magnetic-field line may produce radio emission with the correct polarization properties. A general MHD solution is obtained for relatons, the radiation produced by a relativistic particle colliding with a soliton is evaluated, and the emission by a soliton moving along a curved field line is estimated. It is noted that due to a number of severe physical restrictions, curvature radiation is not a very likely solution to the problem of pulsar radio emission. (IAA)
Relativistic theories of materials
Bressan, Aldo
1978-01-01
The theory of relativity was created in 1905 to solve a problem concerning electromagnetic fields. That solution was reached by means of profound changes in fundamental concepts and ideas that considerably affected the whole of physics. Moreover, when Einstein took gravitation into account, he was forced to develop radical changes also in our space-time concepts (1916). Relativistic works on heat, thermodynamics, and elasticity appeared as early as 1911. However, general theories having a thermodynamic basis, including heat conduction and constitutive equations, did not appear in general relativity until about 1955 for fluids and appeared only after 1960 for elastic or more general finitely deformed materials. These theories dealt with materials with memory, and in this connection some relativistic versions of the principle of material indifference were considered. Even more recently, relativistic theories incorporating finite deformations for polarizable and magnetizable materials and those in which couple s...
Handbook of relativistic quantum chemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Wenjian
2017-01-01
This handbook focuses on the foundations of relativistic quantum mechanics and addresses a number of fundamental issues never covered before in a book. For instance: How can many-body theory be combined with quantum electrodynamics? How can quantum electrodynamics be interfaced with relativistic quantum chemistry? What is the most appropriate relativistic many-electron Hamiltonian? How can we achieve relativistic explicit correlation? How can we formulate relativistic properties? - just to name a few. Since relativistic quantum chemistry is an integral component of computational chemistry, this handbook also supplements the ''Handbook of Computational Chemistry''. Generally speaking, it aims to establish the 'big picture' of relativistic molecular quantum mechanics as the union of quantum electrodynamics and relativistic quantum chemistry. Accordingly, it provides an accessible introduction for readers new to the field, presents advanced methodologies for experts, and discusses possible future perspectives, helping readers understand when/how to apply/develop the methodologies.
Handbook of relativistic quantum chemistry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Wenjian (ed.) [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Center for Computational Science and Engineering
2017-03-01
This handbook focuses on the foundations of relativistic quantum mechanics and addresses a number of fundamental issues never covered before in a book. For instance: How can many-body theory be combined with quantum electrodynamics? How can quantum electrodynamics be interfaced with relativistic quantum chemistry? What is the most appropriate relativistic many-electron Hamiltonian? How can we achieve relativistic explicit correlation? How can we formulate relativistic properties? - just to name a few. Since relativistic quantum chemistry is an integral component of computational chemistry, this handbook also supplements the ''Handbook of Computational Chemistry''. Generally speaking, it aims to establish the 'big picture' of relativistic molecular quantum mechanics as the union of quantum electrodynamics and relativistic quantum chemistry. Accordingly, it provides an accessible introduction for readers new to the field, presents advanced methodologies for experts, and discusses possible future perspectives, helping readers understand when/how to apply/develop the methodologies.
Relativistic quantum chaos-An emergent interdisciplinary field.
Lai, Ying-Cheng; Xu, Hong-Ya; Huang, Liang; Grebogi, Celso
2018-05-01
Quantum chaos is referred to as the study of quantum manifestations or fingerprints of classical chaos. A vast majority of the studies were for nonrelativistic quantum systems described by the Schrödinger equation. Recent years have witnessed a rapid development of Dirac materials such as graphene and topological insulators, which are described by the Dirac equation in relativistic quantum mechanics. A new field has thus emerged: relativistic quantum chaos. This Tutorial aims to introduce this field to the scientific community. Topics covered include scarring, chaotic scattering and transport, chaos regularized resonant tunneling, superpersistent currents, and energy level statistics-all in the relativistic quantum regime. As Dirac materials have the potential to revolutionize solid-state electronic and spintronic devices, a good understanding of the interplay between chaos and relativistic quantum mechanics may lead to novel design principles and methodologies to enhance device performance.
Relativistic quantum chaos—An emergent interdisciplinary field
Lai, Ying-Cheng; Xu, Hong-Ya; Huang, Liang; Grebogi, Celso
2018-05-01
Quantum chaos is referred to as the study of quantum manifestations or fingerprints of classical chaos. A vast majority of the studies were for nonrelativistic quantum systems described by the Schrödinger equation. Recent years have witnessed a rapid development of Dirac materials such as graphene and topological insulators, which are described by the Dirac equation in relativistic quantum mechanics. A new field has thus emerged: relativistic quantum chaos. This Tutorial aims to introduce this field to the scientific community. Topics covered include scarring, chaotic scattering and transport, chaos regularized resonant tunneling, superpersistent currents, and energy level statistics—all in the relativistic quantum regime. As Dirac materials have the potential to revolutionize solid-state electronic and spintronic devices, a good understanding of the interplay between chaos and relativistic quantum mechanics may lead to novel design principles and methodologies to enhance device performance.
Biquaternions and relativistic kinematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogush, A.A.; Kurochkin, Yu.A.; Fedorov, F.I.
1979-01-01
The problems concerning the use of quaternion interpretation of the Lorentz group vector parametrization are considered for solving relativistic kinematics problems. A vector theory convenient for describing the characteristic features of the Lobachevsky space is suggested. The kinematics of elementary particle scattering is investigated on the basis of this theory. A synthesis of vector parametrization and of quaternion calculation has been shown to lead to natural formulation of the theory of vectors in the three-dimensional Lobachevsky space, realized on mass hyperboloids of relativistic particles
Relativistic heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barz, H.W.; Kaempfer, B.; Schulz, H.
1984-12-01
An elementary introduction is given into the scenario of relativistic heavy ion collisions. It deals with relativistic kinematics and estimates of energy densities, extrapolations of the present knowledge of hadron-hadron and hadron-nuleus to nucleus-nucleus collisions, the properties of the quark-gluon plasma and the formation of the plasma and possible experimental signatures. Comments are made on a cosmic ray experiment which could be interpreted as a first indication of the quark-gluon phase of the matter. (author)
Relativistic particle in a box
Alberto, P.; Fiolhais, Carlos; Gil, Victor
1996-01-01
The problem of a relativistic spin 1/2 particle confined to a one-dimensional box is solved in a way that resembles closely the solution of the well known quantum-mechanical textbook problem of a non-relativistic particle in a box. The energy levels and probability density are computed and compared with the non-relativistic case
Transport properties of the fluid produced at Relativistic Heavy-Ion ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
relativistic fluid dynamics, the kinematic viscosity (ν) is defined as ν = ... because the momentum transport mechanisms are different in the two cases (see, ..... of the widths of giant resonances within the hydrodynamic model (ii) the process.
Present status of the theoretical relativistic plasma SHF electronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuzelev, M.V.; Rukhadze, A.A.
2000-01-01
Paper presents a review of theoretical investigations into powerful sources of SHF waves grounded on the forced emission of relativistic electron beams in plasma wave guides and resonator. Emission sources operating under amplification of a certain inlet signal and under generation mode were studied. Two mechanisms of forced emission: resonance Cherenkov radiation of relativistic electron beams in plasma and nonresonance Pierce emission resulting from evolution of high-frequency Pierce instability, were studied. Paper discusses theoretical problems only, all evaluations and calculations are made for the parameters of the exact experiments, the theoretical results are compared with the available experimental data. Factors affecting formation of spectrum of waves excited by relativistic electron beam in plasma systems are discussed [ru
Relativistic impulse dynamics.
Swanson, Stanley M
2011-08-01
Classical electrodynamics has some annoying rough edges. The self-energy of charges is infinite without a cutoff. The calculation of relativistic trajectories is difficult because of retardation and an average radiation reaction term. By reconceptuallizing electrodynamics in terms of exchanges of impulses rather than describing it by forces and potentials, we eliminate these problems. A fully relativistic theory using photonlike null impulses is developed. Numerical calculations for a two-body, one-impulse-in-transit model are discussed. A simple relationship between center-of-mass scattering angle and angular momentum was found. It reproduces the Rutherford cross section at low velocities and agrees with the leading term of relativistic distinguishable-particle quantum cross sections (Møller, Mott) when the distance of closest approach is larger than the Compton wavelength of the particle. Magnetism emerges as a consequence of viewing retarded and advanced interactions from the vantage point of an instantaneous radius vector. Radiation reaction becomes the local conservation of energy-momentum between the radiating particle and the emitted impulse. A net action is defined that could be used in developing quantum dynamics without potentials. A reinterpretation of Newton's laws extends them to relativistic motion.
Non-relativistic supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clark, T.E.; Love, S.T.
1984-01-01
The most general one- and two-body hamiltonian invariant under galilean supersymmetry is constructed in superspace. The corresponding Feynman rules are given for the superfield Green functions. As demonstrated by a simple example, it is straightforward to construct models in which the supersymmetry is spontaneously broken by the non-relativistic vacuum. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Contopoulos, G.
1983-01-01
In this paper, three main areas of relativistic stellar dynamics are reviewed: (a) The dynamics of clusters, or nuclei of galaxies, of very high density; (b) The dynamics of systems containing a massive black hole; and (c) The dynamics of particles (and photons) in an expanding Universe. The emphasis is on the use of orbit perturbations. (Auth.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bialynicki-Birula Iwo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Original definition of the Wigner function can be extended in a natural manner to relativistic domain in the framework of quantum field theory. Three such generalizations are described. They cover the cases of the Dirac particles, the photon, and the full electromagnetic field.
Antippa, Adel F.
2009-01-01
We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful…
Relativistic few body calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, F.
1988-01-01
A modern treatment of the nuclear few-body problem must take into account both the quark structure of baryons and mesons, which should be important at short range, and the relativistic exchange of mesons, which describes the long range, peripheral interactions. A way to model both of these aspects is described. The long range, peripheral interactions are calculated using the spectator model, a general approach in which the spectators to nucleon interactions are put on their mass-shell. Recent numerical results for a relativistic OBE model of the NN interaction, obtained by solving a relativistic equation with one-particle on mass-shell, will be presented and discussed. Two meson exchange models, one with only four mesons (π,σ,/rho/,ω) but with a 25% admixture of γ 5 coupling for the pion, and a second with six mesons (π,σ,/rho/,ω,δ,/eta/) but pure γ 5 γ/sup μ/ pion coupling, are shown to give very good quantitative fits to the NN scattering phase shifts below 400 MeV, and also a good description of the /rvec p/ 40 Ca elastic scattering observables. Applications of this model to electromagnetic interactions of the two body system, with emphasis on the determination of relativistic current operators consistent with the dynamics and the exact treatment of current conservation in the presence of phenomenological form factors, will be described. 18 refs., 8 figs
Relativistic Polarizable Embedding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hedegård, Erik Donovan; Bast, Radovan; Kongsted, Jacob
2017-01-01
Most chemistry, including chemistry where relativistic effects are important, occurs in an environment, and in many cases, this environment has a significant effect on the chemistry. In nonrelativistic quantum chemistry, a lot of progress has been achieved with respect to including environments s...
Relativistic length agony continued
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Redžić D.V.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028
Relativistic Coulomb excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winther, A.; Alder, K.
1979-01-01
Coulomb excitation of both target and projectile in relativistic heavy ion collisions is evaluated including the lowest order correction for the deviation from a straight line trajectory. Explicit results for differential and total cross sections are given in the form of tables and figures. (Auth.)
Fundamental Relativistic Rotator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staruszkiewicz, A.
2008-01-01
Professor Jan Weyssenhoff was Myron Mathisson's sponsor and collaborator. He introduced a class of objects known in Cracow as '' kreciolki Weyssenhoffa '', '' Weyssenhoff's rotating little beasts ''. The Author describes a particularly simple object from this class. The relativistic rotator described in the paper is such that its both Casimir invariants are parameters rather than constants of motion. (author)
Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antoine, J-P
2004-01-01
The aim of relativistic quantum mechanics is to describe the finer details of the structure of atoms and molecules, where relativistic effects become nonnegligible. It is a sort of intermediate realm, between the familiar nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and fully relativistic quantum field theory, and thus it lacks the simplicity and elegance of both. Yet it is a necessary tool, mostly for quantum chemists. Pilkuhn's book offers to this audience an up-to-date survey of these methods, which is quite welcome since most previous textbooks are at least ten years old. The point of view of the author is to start immediately in the relativistic domain, following the lead of Maxwell's equations rather than classical mechanics, and thus to treat the nonrelativistic version as an approximation. Thus Chapter 1 takes off from Maxwell's equations (in the noncovariant Coulomb gauge) and gradually derives the basic aspects of Quantum Mechanics in a rather pedestrian way (states and observables, Hilbert space, operators, quantum measurement, scattering,. Chapter 2 starts with the Lorentz transformations, then continues with the Pauli spin equation and the Dirac equation and some of their applications (notably the hydrogen atom). Chapter 3 is entitled 'Quantum fields and particles', but falls short of treating quantum field theory properly: only creation/annihilation operators are considered, for a particle in a box. The emphasis is on two-electron states (the Pauli principle, the Foldy--Wouthuysen elimination of small components of Dirac spinors, Breit projection operators. Chapter 4 is devoted to scattering theory and the description of relativistic bound states. Chapter 5, finally, covers hyperfine interactions and radiative corrections. As we said above, relativistic quantum mechanics is by nature limited in scope and rather inelegant and Pilkuhn's book is no exception. The notation is often heavy (mostly noncovariant) and the mathematical level rather low. The central topic
Relativistic generalisation of the Kroll-Watson formula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaminski, J.Z.
1985-01-01
The relativistic analogue of the space-translation method is derived. Using this method the generalisation of the Kroll-Watson formula [1973, Phys. Rev. A. 8 804] is obtained for the scattering of an arbitrary charged particle (e.g. mesons, hyperons, quarks, etc). The separation of the background and resonant parts of the scattering amplitude is predicted. (author)
Polarization transfer in relativistic magnetized plasmas
Heyvaerts, Jean; Pichon, Christophe; Prunet, Simon; Thiébaut, Jérôme
2013-04-01
The polarization transfer coefficients of a relativistic magnetized plasma are derived. These results apply to any momentum distribution function of the particles, isotropic or anisotropic. Particles interact with the radiation either in a non-resonant mode when the frequency of the radiation exceeds their characteristic synchrotron emission frequency or quasi-resonantly otherwise. These two classes of particles contribute differently to the polarization transfer coefficients. For a given frequency, this dichotomy corresponds to a regime change in the dependence of the transfer coefficients on the parameters of the particle's population, since these parameters control the relative weight of the contribution of each class of particles. Our results apply to either regimes as well as the intermediate one. The derivation of the transfer coefficients involves an exact expression of the conductivity tensor of the relativistic magnetized plasma that has not been used hitherto in this context. Suitable expansions valid at frequencies much larger than the cyclotron frequency allow us to analytically perform the summation over all resonances at high harmonics of the relativistic gyrofrequency. The transfer coefficients are represented in the form of two-variable integrals that can be conveniently computed for any set of parameters by using Olver's expansion of high-order Bessel functions. We particularize our results to a number of distribution functions, isotropic, thermal or power law, with different multipolar anisotropies of low order, or strongly beamed. Specifically, earlier exact results for thermal distributions are recovered. For isotropic distributions, the Faraday coefficients are expressed in the form of a one-variable quadrature over energy, for which we provide the kernels in the high-frequency limit and in the asymptotic low-frequency limit. An interpolation formula extending over the full energy range is proposed for these kernels. A similar reduction to a
Strong-field relativistic processes in highly charged ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Postavaru, Octavian
2010-12-08
In this thesis we investigate strong-field relativistic processes in highly charged ions. In the first part, we study resonance fluorescence of laser-driven highly charged ions in the relativistic regime by solving the time-dependent master equation in a multi-level model. Our ab initio approach based on the Dirac equation allows for investigating highly relativistic ions, and, consequently, provides a sensitive means to test correlated relativistic dynamics, bound-state quantum electrodynamic phenomena and nuclear effects by applying coherent light with x-ray frequencies. Atomic dipole or multipole moments may be determined to unprecedented accuracy by measuring the interference-narrowed fluorescence spectrum. Furthermore, we investigate the level structure of heavy hydrogenlike ions in laser beams. Interaction with the light field leads to dynamic shifts of the electronic energy levels, which is relevant for spectroscopic experiments. We apply a fully relativistic description of the electronic states by means of the Dirac equation. Our formalism goes beyond the dipole approximation and takes into account non-dipole effects of retardation and interaction with the magnetic field components of the laser beam. We predicted cross sections for the inter-shell trielectronic recombination (TR) and quadruelectronic recombination processes which have been experimentally confirmed in electron beam ion trap measurements, mainly for C-like ions, of Ar, Fe and Kr. For Kr{sup 30}+, inter-shell TR contributions of nearly 6% to the total resonant photorecombination rate were found. (orig.)
The relativistic gravity train
Seel, Max
2018-05-01
The gravity train that takes 42.2 min from any point A to any other point B that is connected by a straight-line tunnel through Earth has captured the imagination more than most other applications in calculus or introductory physics courses. Brachystochron and, most recently, nonlinear density solutions have been discussed. Here relativistic corrections are presented. It is discussed how the corrections affect the time to fall through Earth, the Sun, a white dwarf, a neutron star, and—the ultimate limit—the difference in time measured by a moving, a stationary and the fiducial observer at infinity if the density of the sphere approaches the density of a black hole. The relativistic gravity train can serve as a problem with approximate and exact analytic solutions and as numerical exercise in any introductory course on relativity.
Relativistic gravitational instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schutz, B.F.
1987-01-01
The purpose of these lectures is to review and explain what is known about the stability of relativistic stars and black holes, with particular emphases on two instabilities which are due entirely to relativistic effects. The first of these is the post-Newtonian pulsational instability discovered independently by Chandrasekhar (1964) and Fowler (1964). This effectively ruled out the then-popular supermassive star model for quasars, and it sets a limit to the central density of white dwarfs. The second instability was also discovered by Chandrasekhar (1970): the gravitational wave induced instability. This sets an upper bound on the rotation rate of neutron stars, which is near that of the millisecond pulsar PSR 1937+214, and which is beginning to constrain the equation of state of neutron matter. 111 references, 5 figures
Relativistic studies in actinides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weinberger, P.; Gonis, A.
1987-01-01
In this review the theoretical background is given for a relativistic description for actinide systems. A short introduction is given of the density functional theory which forms the basis for a fully relativistic single-particle theory. A section on the Dirac Hamiltonian is followed by a brief summary on group theoretical concepts. Single site scattering is presented such that formal extensions to the case of the presence of an internal (external) magnetic field and/or anisotropic scattering are evident. Multiple scattering is discussed such that it can readily be applied also to the problem of dislocations. In connection with the problem of selfconsistency particular attention is drawn to the use of complex energies. Finally the various theoretical aspects discussed are illustrated through the results of numerical calculations. 101 refs.; 37 figs.; 5 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hines, D.F.; Frankel, N.E.
1979-01-01
The charged Bose has been previously studied as a many body problem of great intrinsic interest which can also serve as a model of some real physical systems, for example, superconductors, white dwarf stars and neutron stars. In this article the excitation spectrum of a relativistic spin-zero charged Bose gas is obtained in a dielectric response formulation. Relativity introduces a dip in the spectrum and consequences of this dip for the thermodynamic functions are discussed
Relativistic heavy ion reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brink, D M
1989-08-01
The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.
Bratek, Łukasz
2015-01-01
Two particularly simple ideal clocks exhibiting intrinsic circular motion with the speed of light and opposite spin alignment are described. The clocks are singled out by singularities of an inverse Legendre transformation for relativistic rotators of which mass and spin are fixed parameters. Such clocks work always the same way, no matter how they move. When subject to high accelerations or falling in strong gravitational fields of black holes, the clocks could be used to test the clock hypo...
Relativistic heavy ion reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brink, D.M.
1989-08-01
The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs
Relativistic mean field theory for unstable nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toki, Hiroshi
2000-01-01
We discuss the properties of unstable nuclei in the framework of the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory. We take the RMF theory as a phenomenological theory with several parameters, whose form is constrained by the successful microscopic theory (RBHF), and whose values are extracted from the experimental values of unstable nuclei. We find the outcome with the newly obtained parameter sets (TM1 and TMA) is promising in comparison with various experimental data. We calculate systematically the ground state properties of even-even nuclei up to the drip lines; about 2000 nuclei. We find that the neutron magic shells (N=82, 128) at the standard magic numbers stay at the same numbers even far from the stability line and hence provide the feature of the r-process nuclei. However, many proton magic numbers disappear at the neutron numbers far away from the magic numbers due to the deformations. We discuss how to describe giant resonances for the case of the non-linear coupling terms for the sigma and omega mesons in the relativistic RPA. We mention also the importance of the relativistic effect on the spin observables as the Gamow-Teller strength and the longitudinal and transverse spin responses. (author)
Gravitationally confined relativistic neutrinos
Vayenas, C. G.; Fokas, A. S.; Grigoriou, D.
2017-09-01
Combining special relativity, the equivalence principle, and Newton’s universal gravitational law with gravitational rather than rest masses, one finds that gravitational interactions between relativistic neutrinos with kinetic energies above 50 MeV are very strong and can lead to the formation of gravitationally confined composite structures with the mass and other properties of hadrons. One may model such structures by considering three neutrinos moving symmetrically on a circular orbit under the influence of their gravitational attraction, and by assuming quantization of their angular momentum, as in the Bohr model of the H atom. The model contains no adjustable parameters and its solution, using a neutrino rest mass of 0.05 eV/c2, leads to composite state radii close to 1 fm and composite state masses close to 1 GeV/c2. Similar models of relativistic rotating electron - neutrino pairs give a mass of 81 GeV/c2, close to that of W bosons. This novel mechanism of generating mass suggests that the Higgs mass generation mechanism can be modeled as a latent gravitational field which gets activated by relativistic neutrinos.
Point form relativistic quantum mechanics and relativistic SU(6)
Klink, W. H.
1993-01-01
The point form is used as a framework for formulating a relativistic quantum mechanics, with the mass operator carrying the interactions of underlying constituents. A symplectic Lie algebra of mass operators is introduced from which a relativistic harmonic oscillator mass operator is formed. Mass splittings within the degenerate harmonic oscillator levels arise from relativistically invariant spin-spin, spin-orbit, and tensor mass operators. Internal flavor (and color) symmetries are introduced which make it possible to formulate a relativistic SU(6) model of baryons (and mesons). Careful attention is paid to the permutation symmetry properties of the hadronic wave functions, which are written as polynomials in Bargmann spaces.
Relativistic mean field calculations in neutron-rich nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gangopadhyay, G.; Bhattacharya, Madhubrata [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Roy, Subinit [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Block AF, Sector 1, Kolkata- 700 064 (India)
2014-08-14
Relativistic mean field calculations have been employed to study neutron rich nuclei. The Lagrange's equations have been solved in the co-ordinate space. The effect of the continuum has been effectively taken into account through the method of resonant continuum. It is found that BCS approximation performs as well as a more involved Relativistic Continuum Hartree Bogoliubov approach. Calculations reveal the possibility of modification of magic numbers in neutron rich nuclei. Calculation for low energy proton scattering cross sections shows that the present approach reproduces the density in very light neutron rich nuclei.
Relativistic electron precipitation in the auroral zone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simons, D.J.
1975-01-01
The energy spectra and pitch angle distributions of electrons in the energy range 50 keV to 2 MeV have been determined by a solid state electron energy spectrometer during the Relativistic Electron Precipitation (REP) event of 31 May 1972. The experiment was carried aboard a Nike-Cajun sounding rocket as the University of Maryland component of a joint American-Norwegian (NASA-NDRE) ionospheric investigation. The difficulty of determining the expected electron flux prior to the experiment required an instrument with a large dynamic range. The design and theoretical modeling of this instrument is described in great detail. The electron pitch angle distributions are determined from a knowledge of the rocket aspect and the direction in space of the Earth's magnetic field. The electron fluxes during the REP event were highly variable demonstrating correlated energy, flux and pitch angle pulsations with time periods less than one second. Increases in flux were accompanied by marked filling of the loss cone at lower energies (near 50 keV). Drawing upon the quasilinear equations of plasma wave-electron interactions, a theoretical model for the production of relativistic electrons is proposed. A self consistent set of fully relativistic equations for the evolution of the electron distribution function due to the interaction of the electrons with parallel propagating whistler waves is derived in the Appendix. An examination of these equations leads to the conclusion that at comparatively low background electron densities, the anomalous Doppler resonance leads to the acceleration of near relativistic particles. The results of a computer solution of the five coupled integrodifferential quasilinear equations confirms this conclusion
Electromagnetic excitation of 136Xe in relativistic heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, R.D.
1991-11-01
In the framework of the experimental program at the accelerator facilities SIS/ESR at the Society for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt a detector system for relativistic neutrons was developed, constructed, and applied in first experiments. An essential research aim is the study of collective states after electromagnetic excitation in relativistic heavy ion collisions. In peripheral collisions high-energy virtual photons are exchanged. This leads to the excitation of giant resonances, especially of the giant dipole and quadrupole resonance. An essential decay channel of giant resonances in heavy nuclei is the emission of neutrons, followed by the emission of γ radiation below the particle threshold. These decay channels were studied with the detector system developed by the LAND collaboration. A first experiment on the electromagnetic excitation was performed with a 136 Xe beam at an energy of 700 MeV/u and Pb respectively C targets. (orig./HSI) [de
Pion production in relativistic heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Norbury, J.W.
1983-01-01
A Lorentz-invariant differential cross section for pion production in peripheral, relativistic, heavy ion collisions is calculated for the collisions of an 16 O projectile onto a 12 C target. The pions are produced via excitations of a Δ(3,3) resonant state in the projectile with simultaneous excitation of an M1 giant resonance in the target. A second order amplitude describing resonance formation and decay is derived within the context of second order, time-dependent perturbation theory and a corresponding transition rate is evaluated. This is then applied to the problem of pion production and a differential cross section is calculated using a simple product-of-states model. The whole theory is then re-formulated within a second quantized particle-hole model which describes the basic process of M1 giant resonance formation as well as the formation and decay of the intermediate Δ(3,3) resonance. Subsequently, a new Lorentz-invariant differential cross section is calculated from the particle-hole amplitude. The theoretical cross section is compared with some experimental data and the agreement is found to be satisfactory given the nature of the data and the assumptions of the theory
Relativistic Outflows from ADAFs
Becker, Peter; Subramanian, Prasad; Kazanas, Demosthenes
2001-04-01
Advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs) have a positive Bernoulli parameter, and are therefore gravitationally bound. The Newtonian ADAF model has been generalized recently to obtain the ADIOS model that includes outflows of energy and angular momentum, thereby allowing accretion to proceed self-consistently. However, the utilization of a Newtonian gravitational potential limits the ability of this model to describe the inner region of the disk, where any relativistic outflows are likely to originate. In this paper we modify the ADIOS scenario to incorporate a seudo - Newtonian potential, which approximates the effects of general relativity. The analysis yields a unique, self - similar solution for the structure of the coupled disk/wind system. Interesting features of the new solution include the relativistic character of the outflow in the vicinity of the radius of marginal stability, which represents the inner edge of the quasi-Keplerian disk in our model. Our self - similar model may therefore help to explain the origin of relativistic jets in active galaxies. At large distances the radial dependence of the accretion rate approachs the unique form dot M ∝ r^1/2, with an associated density variation given by ρ ∝ r-1. This density variation agrees with that implied by the dependence of the X-ray hard time lags on the Fourier frequency for a number of accreting galactic black hole candidates. While intriguing, the results of our self-similar model need to be confirmed in the future by incorporating a detailed physical description of the energization mechanism that drives the outflow, which is likely to be powered by the shear of the underlying accretion disk.
Relativistic twins or sextuplets?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheldon, Eric
2003-01-01
A recent study of the relativistic twin 'paradox' by Soni in this journal affirmed that 'A simple solution of the twin paradox also shows anomalous behaviour of rigidly connected distant clocks' but entailed a pedagogic hurdle which the present treatment aims to surmount. Two scenarios are presented: the first 'flight-plan' is akin to that depicted by Soni, with constant-velocity segments, while the second portrays an alternative mission undertaken with sustained acceleration and deceleration, illustrated quantitatively for a two-way spacecraft flight from Earth to Polaris (465.9 light years distant) and back
Relativistic twins or sextuplets?
Sheldon, E S
2003-01-01
A recent study of the relativistic twin 'paradox' by Soni in this journal affirmed that 'A simple solution of the twin paradox also shows anomalous behaviour of rigidly connected distant clocks' but entailed a pedagogic hurdle which the present treatment aims to surmount. Two scenarios are presented: the first 'flight-plan' is akin to that depicted by Soni, with constant-velocity segments, while the second portrays an alternative mission undertaken with sustained acceleration and deceleration, illustrated quantitatively for a two-way spacecraft flight from Earth to Polaris (465.9 light years distant) and back.
Relativistic quantum cryptography
Kaniewski, Jedrzej
Special relativity states that information cannot travel faster than the speed of light, which means that communication between agents occupying distinct locations incurs some minimal delay. Alternatively, we can see it as temporary communication constraints between distinct agents and such constraints turn out to be useful for cryptographic purposes. In relativistic cryptography we consider protocols in which interactions occur at distinct locations at well-defined times and we investigate why such a setting allows to implement primitives which would not be possible otherwise. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).
Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strel'tsov, V.N.
1992-01-01
Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs
Localization of relativistic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Omnes, R.
1997-01-01
In order to discuss localization experiments and also to extend the consistent history interpretation of quantum mechanics to relativistic properties, the techniques introduced in a previous paper [J. Math. Phys. 38, 697 (1997)] are applied to the localization of a photon in a given region of space. An essential requirement is to exclude arbitrarily large wavelengths. The method is valid for a particle with any mass and spin. Though there is no proper position operator for a photon, one never needs one in practice. Causality is valid up to exponentially small corrections. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Corinaldesi, Ernesto
1963-01-01
Geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students of physics, this text provides readers with a background in relativistic wave mechanics and prepares them for the study of field theory. The treatment originated as a series of lectures from a course on advanced quantum mechanics that has been further amplified by student contributions.An introductory section related to particles and wave functions precedes the three-part treatment. An examination of particles of spin zero follows, addressing wave equation, Lagrangian formalism, physical quantities as mean values, translation and rotat
Relativistic quarkonium dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sazdjian, H.
1985-06-01
We present, in the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics of two interacting particles, a general model for quarkonium systems satisfying the following four requirements: confinement, spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry, soft explicit chiral symmetry breaking, short distance interactions of the vector type. The model is characterized by two arbitrary scalar functions entering in the large and short distance interaction potentials, respectively. Using relationships with corresponding quantities of the Bethe-Salpeter equation, we also present the normalization condition of the wave functions, as well as the expressions of the meson decay coupling constants. The quark masses appear in this model as free parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Araujo, Wilson Roberto Barbosa de
1995-01-01
In this dissertation, we present a model for the nucleon, which is composed by three relativistic quarks interacting through a contract force. The nucleon wave-function was obtained from the Faddeev equation in the null-plane. The covariance of the model under kinematical null-plane boots is discussed. The electric proton form-factor, calculated from the Faddeev wave-function, was in agreement with the data for low-momentum transfers and described qualitatively the asymptotic region for momentum transfers around 2 GeV. (author)
Relativistic nuclear collisions: theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gyulassy, M.
1980-07-01
Some of the recent theoretical developments in relativistic (0.5 to 2.0-GeV/nucleon) nuclear collisions are reviewed. The statistical model, hydrodynamic model, classical equation of motion calculations, billiard ball dynamics, and intranuclear cascade models are discussed in detail. Inclusive proton and pion spectra are analyzed for a variety of reactions. Particular attention is focused on how the complex interplay of the basic reaction mechanism hinders attempts to deduce the nuclear matter equation of state from data. 102 references, 19 figures
[Relativistic heavy ion research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-01-01
The present document describes our second-year application for a continuation grant on relativistic heavy-ion research at Nevis Laboratories, Columbia University, over the two-year period starting from November 15, 1990. The progress during the current budget year is presented. This year, construction of RHIC officially began. As a result, the entire Nevis nuclear physics group has made a coherent effort to create new proposal for an Open Axially Symmetric Ion Spectrometer (OASIS) proposal. Future perspectives and our plans for this proposal are described
Haque, Ghousia Nasreen
The absorption of electromagnetic radiation by positive ions is one of the fundamental processes of nature which occurs in every intensely hot environment. Due to the difficulties in producing sufficient densities of ions in a laboratory, there are very few measurements of ionic photoabsorption parameters. On the theoretical side, some calculations have been made of a few major photoionization parameters, but generally speaking, most of the work done so far has employed rather simple single particle models and any theoretical work which has adequately taken into account intricate atomic many-body and relativistic effects is only scanty. In the present work, several complex aspects of atomic/ionic photoabsorption parameters have been studied. Non -resonant photoionization in neon and argon isonuclear as well as isoelectronic sequences has been studied using a very sophisticated technique, namely the relativistic random phase approximation (RRPA). This technique takes into account relativistic effects as well as an important class of major many-body effects on the same footing. The present calculations confirmed that gross features of photoionization parameters calculated using simpler models were not an artifact of the simple model. Also, the present RRPA calculations on K^+ ion and neutral Ar brought out the relative importance of various many-body effects such the inter-channel coupling. Inter-channel coupling between discrete bound state photoexcitation channels from an inner atomic/ionic level and photoionization continuum channels from an outer atomic/ionic level leads to the phenomena of autoionization resonances in the photoionization process. These resonances lead to very complex effects in the atomic/ionic photoabsorption spectra. These resonances have been calculated and studied in the present work in the neon and magnesium isoelectronic sequences using the relativistic multi-channel quantum defect theory (RMQDT) within the framework of the RRPA. The
Slowing down of relativistic heavy ions and new applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geissel, H.; Scheidenberger, C.
1997-10-01
New precision experiments using powerful accelerator facilities and high-resolution spectrometers have contributed to a better understanding of the atomic and nuclear interactions of relativistic heavy ions with matter. Experimental results on stopping power and energy-loss straggling of bare heavy projectiles demonstrate large systematic deviations from theories based on first order perturbation. The energy-loss straggling is more than a factor of two enhanced for the heaviest projectiles compared to the relativistic Bohr formula. The interaction of cooled relativistic heavy ions with crystals opens up new fields for basic research and applications, i. e., for the first time resonant coherent excitations of both atomic and nuclear levels can be measured at the first harmonic. The spatial monoisotopic separation of exotic nuclei with in-flight separators and the tumor therapy with heavy ions are new applications based on a precise knowledge of slowing down. (orig.)
Relativistic approach to nuclear structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Van Giai; Bouyssy, A.
1987-03-01
Some recent works related with relativistic models of nuclear structure are briefly reviewed. The Dirac-Hartree-Fock and Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock are recalled and illustrated by some examples. The problem of isoscalar current and magnetic moments of odd nuclei is discussed. The application of the relativistic model to the nuclear response function is examined
Relativistic dynamics without conservation laws
Rothenstein, Bernhard; Popescu, Stefan
2006-01-01
We show that relativistic dynamics can be approached without using conservation laws (conservation of momentum, of energy and of the centre of mass). Our approach avoids collisions that are not easy to teach without mnemonic aids. The derivations are based on the principle of relativity and on its direct consequence, the addition law of relativistic velocities.
Relativistic non-Hamiltonian mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2010-01-01
Relativistic particle subjected to a general four-force is considered as a nonholonomic system. The nonholonomic constraint in four-dimensional space-time represents the relativistic invariance by the equation for four-velocity u μ u μ + c 2 = 0, where c is the speed of light in vacuum. In the general case, four-forces are non-potential, and the relativistic particle is a non-Hamiltonian system in four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space-time. We consider non-Hamiltonian and dissipative systems in relativistic mechanics. Covariant forms of the principle of stationary action and the Hamilton's principle for relativistic mechanics of non-Hamiltonian systems are discussed. The equivalence of these principles is considered for relativistic particles subjected to potential and non-potential forces. We note that the equations of motion which follow from the Hamilton's principle are not equivalent to the equations which follow from the variational principle of stationary action. The Hamilton's principle and the principle of stationary action are not compatible in the case of systems with nonholonomic constraint and the potential forces. The principle of stationary action for relativistic particle subjected to non-potential forces can be used if the Helmholtz conditions are satisfied. The Hamilton's principle and the principle of stationary action are equivalent only for a special class of relativistic non-Hamiltonian systems.
Contraint's theory and relativistic dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Longhi, G.; Lusanna, L.
1987-01-01
The purpose of this Workshop was to examine the current situation of relativistic dynamics. In particular, Dirac-Bergmann's theory of constraints, which lies at the heart of gauge theories, general relativity, relativistic mechanics and string theories, was chosen as the unifying theoretical framework best suited to investigate such a field. The papers discussed were on general relativity; relativistic mechanics; particle physics and mathematical physics. Also discussed were the problems of classical and quantum level, namely the identification of the classical observables of constrained systems, the equivalence of the nonequivalence of the various ways to quantize such systems; the problem of the anomalies; the best geometrical approach to the theory of constraints; the possibility of unifying all the treatments of relativistic mechanics. This book compiles the papers presented at proceedings of relativistic dynamics and constraints theory
Relativistic centrifugal instability
Gourgouliatos, Konstantinos N.; Komissarov, Serguei S.
2018-03-01
Near the central engine, many astrophysical jets are expected to rotate about their axis. Further out they are expected to go through the processes of reconfinement and recollimation. In both these cases, the flow streams along a concave surface and hence, it is subject to the centrifugal force. It is well known that such flows may experience the centrifugal instability (CFI), to which there are many laboratory examples. The recent computer simulations of relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei undergoing the process of reconfinement show that in such jets CFI may dominate over the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability associated with velocity shear (Gourgouliatos & Komissarov). In this letter, we generalize the Rayleigh criterion for CFI in rotating fluids to relativistic flows using a heuristic analysis. We also present the results of computer simulations which support our analytic criterion for the case of an interface separating two uniformly rotating cylindrical flows. We discuss the difference between CFI and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in flows with curved streamlines.
Relativistic heavy ion physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hill, J.C.; Wohn, F.K.
1992-01-01
In 1992 a proposal by the Iowa State University experimental nuclear physics group entitled ''Relativistic Heavy Ion Physics'' was funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research, for a three-year period beginning November 15, 1991. This is a progress report for the first six months of that period but, in order to give a wider perspective, we report here on progress made since the beginning of calendar year 1991. In the first section, entitled ''Purpose and Trends,'' we give some background on the recent trends in our research program and its evolution from an emphasis on nuclear structure physics to its present emphasis on relativistic heavy ion and RHIC physics. The next section, entitled, ''Physics Research Programs,'' is divided into three parts. First, we discuss our participation in the program to develop a large detector named PHENIX for the RHIC accelerator. Second, we outline progress made in the study of electromagnetic dissociation (ED). A highlight of this endeavor is experiments carried out with the 197 Au beam from the AGS accelerator in April 1991. Third, we discuss progress in completion of our nuclear structure studies. In the final section a list of publications, invited talks and contributed talks starting in 1991 is given
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nemenov, L.
2001-01-01
The Coulomb interaction which occurs in the final state between two particles with opposite charges allows for creation of the bound state of these particles. In the case when particles are generated with large momentum in lab frame, the Lorentz factors of the bound state will also be much larger than one. The relativistic velocity of the atoms provides the opportunity to observe bound states of (π + μ - ), (π + π - ) and (π + K - ) with a lifetime as short as 10 -16 s, and to measure their parameters. The ultrarelativistic positronium atoms (A 2e ) allow us to observe the e.ect of superpenetration in matter, to study the effects caused by the formation time of A 2e from virtual e + e - pairs and to investigate the process of transformation of two virtual particles into the bound state
Photoionization at relativistic energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ionescu, D.C.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Soerensen, A.H.; Belkacem, A.
2000-11-01
At MeV energies and beyond the inner-shell vacancy production cross section associated with the photoelectric and Compton effect decrease with increasing photon energy. However, when the photon energy exceeds twice the rest energy of the electron, ionization of a bound electron may be catalyzed by the creation of an electron-positron pair. Distinctly different from all other known mechanisms for inner-shell vacancy production by photons, we show that the cross section for this ''vacuum-assisted photoionization'' increases with increasing photon energy and then saturates. As a main result, we predict that vacuum-assisted photoionization will dominate the other known photoionization mechanisms in the highly relativistic energy regime. (orig.)
Relativistic thermodynamics of fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souriau, J.-M.
1977-05-01
The relativistic covariant definition of a statistical equilibrium, applied to a perfect gas, involves a 'temperature four-vector', whose direction is the mean velocity of the fluid, and whose length is the reciprocal temperature. The hypothesis of this 'temperature four-vector' being a relevant variable for the description of the dissipative motions of a simple fluid is discussed. The kinematics is defined by using a vector field and measuring the number of molecules. Such a dissipative fluid is subject to motions involving null entropy generation; the 'temperature four-vector' is then a Killing vector; the equations of motion can be completely integrated. Perfect fluids can be studied by this way and the classical results of Lichnerowicz are obtained. In weakly dissipative motions two viscosity coefficient appear together with the heat conductibility coefficient. Two other coefficients perharps measurable on real fluids. Phase transitions and shock waves are described with using the model [fr
Relativistic heavy ion physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hill, J.C.; Wohn, F.K.
1993-01-01
This is a progress report for the period May 1992 through April 1993. The first section, entitled ''Purpose and Trends, gives background on the recent trends in the research program and its evolution from an emphasis on nuclear structure physics to its present emphasis on relativistic heavy ion and RHIC physics. The next section, entitled ''Physics Research Progress'', is divided into four parts: participation in the program to develop a large detector named PHENIX for the RHIC accelerator; joining E864 at the AGS accelerator and the role in that experiment; progress made in the study of electromagnetic dissociation highlight of this endeavor is an experiment carried out with the 197 Au beam from the AGS accelerator in April 1992; progress in completion of the nuclear structure studies. In the final section a list of publications, invited talks, and contributed talks is given
Relativistic plasma dispersion functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, P.A.
1986-01-01
The known properties of plasma dispersion functions (PDF's) for waves in weakly relativistic, magnetized, thermal plasmas are reviewed and a large number of new results are presented. The PDF's required for the description of waves with small wave number perpendicular to the magnetic field (Dnestrovskii and Shkarofsky functions) are considered in detail; these functions also arise in certain quantum electrodynamical calculations involving strongly magnetized plasmas. Series, asymptotic series, recursion relations, integral forms, derivatives, differential equations, and approximations for these functions are discussed as are their analytic properties and connections with standard transcendental functions. In addition a more general class of PDF's relevant to waves of arbitrary perpendicular wave number is introduced and a range of properties of these functions are derived
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kipping, David, E-mail: dkipping@astro.columbia.edu [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 W. 120th St., New York, NY 10027 (United States)
2017-06-01
One proposed method for spacecraft to reach nearby stars is by accelerating sails using either solar radiation pressure or directed energy. This idea constitutes the thesis behind the Breakthrough Starshot project, which aims to accelerate a gram-mass spacecraft up to one-fifth the speed of light toward Proxima Centauri. For such a case, the combination of the sail’s low mass and relativistic velocity renders previous treatments incorrect at the 10% level, including that of Einstein himself in his seminal 1905 paper introducing special relativity. To address this, we present formulae for a sail’s acceleration, first in response to a single photon and then extended to an ensemble. We show how the sail’s motion in response to an ensemble of incident photons is equivalent to that of a single photon of energy equal to that of the ensemble. We use this principle of ensemble equivalence for both perfect and imperfect mirrors, enabling a simple analytic prediction of the sail’s velocity curve. Using our results and adopting putative parameters for Starshot , we estimate that previous relativistic treatments underestimate the spacecraft’s terminal velocity by ∼10% for the same incident energy. Additionally, we use a simple model to predict the sail’s temperature and diffraction beam losses during the laser firing period; this allows us to estimate that, for firing times of a few minutes and operating temperatures below 300°C (573 K), Starshot will require a sail that absorbs less than one in 260,000 photons.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kipping, David
2017-01-01
One proposed method for spacecraft to reach nearby stars is by accelerating sails using either solar radiation pressure or directed energy. This idea constitutes the thesis behind the Breakthrough Starshot project, which aims to accelerate a gram-mass spacecraft up to one-fifth the speed of light toward Proxima Centauri. For such a case, the combination of the sail’s low mass and relativistic velocity renders previous treatments incorrect at the 10% level, including that of Einstein himself in his seminal 1905 paper introducing special relativity. To address this, we present formulae for a sail’s acceleration, first in response to a single photon and then extended to an ensemble. We show how the sail’s motion in response to an ensemble of incident photons is equivalent to that of a single photon of energy equal to that of the ensemble. We use this principle of ensemble equivalence for both perfect and imperfect mirrors, enabling a simple analytic prediction of the sail’s velocity curve. Using our results and adopting putative parameters for Starshot , we estimate that previous relativistic treatments underestimate the spacecraft’s terminal velocity by ∼10% for the same incident energy. Additionally, we use a simple model to predict the sail’s temperature and diffraction beam losses during the laser firing period; this allows us to estimate that, for firing times of a few minutes and operating temperatures below 300°C (573 K), Starshot will require a sail that absorbs less than one in 260,000 photons.
Rotating relativistic neutron stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weber, F.; Glendenning, N.K.
1991-07-21
Models of rotating neutron stars are constructed in the framework of Einstein's theory of general relativity. For this purpose a refined version of Hartle's method is applied. The properties of these objects, e.g. gravitational mass, equatorial and polar radius, eccentricity, red- and blueshift, quadrupole moment, are investigated for Kepler frequencies of 4000 s{sup {minus}1} {le} {Omega}{sub K} {le} 9000 s{sup {minus}1}. Therefore a self-consistency problem inherent in the determination of {Omega}{sub K} must be solved. The investigation is based on neutron star matter equations of state derived from the relativistic Martin-Schwinger hierarch of coupled Green's functions. By means of introducing the Hartree, Hartree-Fock, and ladder ({Lambda}) approximations, models of the equation of state derived. A special feature of the latter approximation scheme is the inclusion of dynamical two-particle correlations. These have been calculated from the relativistic T-matrix applying both the HEA and Bonn meson-exchange potentials of the nucleon-nucleon force. The nuclear forces of the former two treatments are those of the standard scalar-vector-isovector model of quantum hadron dynamics, with parameters adjusted to the nuclear matter data. An important aspect of this work consists in testing the compatibility of different competing models of the nuclear equation of state with data on pulsar periods. By this the fundamental problem of nuclear physics concerning the behavior of the equation of state at supernuclear densities can be treated.
Some problems in relativistic thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veitsman, E. V.
2007-01-01
The relativistic equations of state for ideal and real gases, as well as for various interface regions, have been derived. These dependences help to eliminate some controversies in the relativistic thermodynamics based on the special theory of relativity. It is shown, in particular, that the temperature of system whose velocity tends to the velocity of light in vacuum varies in accordance with the Ott law T = T 0 /√1 - v 2 /c 2 . Relativistic dependences for heat and mass transfer, for Ohm's law, and for a viscous flow of a liquid have also been derived
Electromagnetic processes in relativistic heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertulani, C.A.; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Baur, G.
1987-10-01
A study of the processes generated by the electromagnetic interaction in relativistic nuclear, and atomic collisions is presented. There is nowadays a vivid interest in this field due to the construction of relativistic heavy ion accelerators. Certainly, the most important purpose of these relativistic heavy ion machines is the study of nuclear matter under extreme conditions. In central nucleus-nucleus collisions one hopes to observe new forms of nuclear matter, like the quark-gluon plasma. On the other hand, very strong electromagnetic fields for a very short time are present in distant collisions with no nuclear contact. Such fields can also lead to interesting effects, which are discussed here. There has been many interesting theoretical and experimental developments on this subject, and new areas of research were opened. Of special interest is, e.g., the case of nuclear fragmentation. This is accomplished through the excitation of giant resonances or by direct breakt-up of the nuclei by means of their electromagnetic interaction. It is shown that this process can be used to study nuclear structure properties which are not accessible by means of the traditional electromagnetic excitation at nonrelativistic energies. The creation of particles is also of interest due the large cross sections, specially in the case of electron-positron pair creation. Although to explain the many processes originated in this way one can develop very elaborate and complicated calculations, the results can be understood in very simple terms because of our almost complete comprehension of the electromagntic interaction. For those processes where the electromagntic interaction plays the dominant role this is clearly a very useful tool for the investigation of the structures created by the strong interaction in the nuclei or hadrons. (orig.)
Relativistic Calculations and Measurements of Energies, Auger Rates, and Lifetimes.
1982-12-01
Research and Industry, Denton, Texas, 8-10 November 1982. 7. B. Crasemann: "Efectos Relativ’sticos y de QED Sobre las Transiciones Rayos - X y Auger Entre...INNER-SHELL IONIZATION BY PROTONS X -RAY EMISSION BREIT INTERACTION AUGER TRANSITIONS DIRAC-HARTREE-SLATER COMPUTATIONS SYNCHROTRON RADIATION RESONANT...computations, including relativistic and quantum- electrodynamic effects, of atomic energy levels and of x -ray and Auger transitions in atoms with one or
The effective matter potential for highly relativistic neutrinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konstandin, Thomas; Ohlsson, Tommy
2006-01-01
We investigate matter effects on highly relativistic neutrinos. The self-energy of neutrinos is determined in an electron or neutrino background taking into account resonance and finite width effects of the gauge bosons. We find minor changes compared to the formerly used formula for the propagator function and large deviations of the effective width from the decay width of the gauge bosons considering higher moments of the electron or neutrino distribution function
Conductivity of a relativistic plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braams, B.J.; Karney, C.F.F.
1989-03-01
The collision operator for a relativistic plasma is reformulated in terms of an expansion in spherical harmonics. This formulation is used to calculate the electrical conductivity. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Relativistic description of atomic nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krutov, V.A.
1985-01-01
Papers on the relativistic description of nuclei are reviewed. The Brown and Rho ''small'' bag'' model is accepted for hardrons. Meson exchange potentials of the nucleon-nucleon interaction have been considered. Then the transition from a system of two interacting nucleons has been performed to the relativistic nucleus description as a multinucleon system on the basis of OBEP (one-boson exchange potential). The proboem of OPEP (one-pion-exchange potential) inclusion to a relativistic scheme is discussed. Simplicity of calculations and attractiveness of the Walecka model for specific computations and calculations was noted. The relativistic model of nucleons interacting through ''effective'' scalar and vector boson fields was used in the Walacka model for describing neutronaand nuclear mater matters
Conductivity of a relativistic plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braams, B.J.; Karney, C.F.F.
1989-03-01
The collision operator for a relativistic plasma is reformulated in terms of an expansion in spherical harmonics. This formulation is used to calculate the electrical conductivity. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab
Relativistic heavy-ion physics
Herrera Corral, G
2010-01-01
The study of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is an important part of the LHC research programme at CERN. This emerging field of research focuses on the study of matter under extreme conditions of temperature, density, and pressure. Here we present an introduction to the general aspects of relativistic heavy-ion physics. Afterwards we give an overview of the accelerator facility at CERN and then a quick look at the ALICE project as a dedicated experiment for heavy-ion collisions.
An introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Font, Jose A [Departamento de AstronomIa y AstrofIsica, Universidad de Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)
2007-11-15
We review formulations of the equations of (inviscid) general relativistic hydrodynamics and (ideal) magnetohydrodynamics, along with methods for their numerical solution. Both systems can be cast as first-order, hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, following the explicit choice of an Eulerian observer and suitable fluid and magnetic field variables. During the last fifteen years, the so-called (upwind) high-resolution shock-capturing schemes based on Riemann solvers have been successfully extended from classical to relativistic fluid dynamics, both special and general. Nowadays, general relativistic hydrodynamical simulations in relativistic astrophysics are routinely performed, particularly within the test-fluid approximation but also for dynamical spacetimes. While such advances also hold true in the case of the MHD equations, the astrophysical applications investigated so far are still limited, yet the field is bound to witness major developments in the near future. The article also presents a brief overview of numerical techniques, providing state-of-the-art examples of their applicability to general relativistic fluids and magneto-fluids in characteristic scenarios of relativistic astrophysics.
Radiation dominated relativistic current sheets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaroschek, C.H.
2008-01-01
Relativistic Current Sheets (RCS) feature plasma instabilities considered as potential key to magnetic energy dissipation and non-thermal particle generation in Poynting flux dominated plasma flows. We show in a series of kinetic plasma simulations that the physical nature of non-linear RCS evolution changes in the presence of incoherent radiation losses: In the ultra-relativistic regime (i.e. magnetization parameter sigma = 104 defined as the ratio of magnetic to plasma rest frame energy density) the combination of non-linear RCS dynamics and synchrotron emission introduces a temperature anisotropy triggering the growth of the Relativistic Tearing Mode (RTM). As direct consequence the RTM prevails over the Relativistic Drift Kink (RDK) Mode as competitive RCS instability. This is in contrast to the previously studied situation of weakly relativistic RCS (sigma ∼ 1) where the RDK is dominant and most of the plasma is thermalized. The simulations witness the typical life cycle of ultra-relativistic RCS evolving from a violent radiation induced collapse towards a radiation quiescent state in rather classical Sweet-Parker topology. Such a transition towards Sweet-Parker configuration in the late non-linear evolution has immediate consequences for the efficiency of magnetic energy dissipation and non-thermal particle generation. Ceasing dissipation rates directly affect our present understanding of non-linear RCS evolution in conventional striped wind scenarios. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahmani, A.
1988-12-01
The study of the proton's production differential cross sections, in the collision of relativistic heavy ions, allows to obtain the nuclear-matter temperature and gives information about the nucleons large burst pulses in the nucleus. The chosen thermodynamic model is a generalized approach of the R. Hagedorn model, applied to heavy ions collisions: the nuclear matter is divided in volume elements δV assumed to be in thermal and chemical equilibrium and emitting particles and fragments isotropically, inside their own system. The applied nuclear-matter velocity distribution depended only on the impact parameter and on the relationship between the chemical potential and the temperature. The predictions of this thermodynamic model were compared to the Saturne experimental results, using Diogene detector. The obtained temperature values are similar to those given by D. Hahn and H. Stoker. The proton production cross sections were measured for backward emitting angles. A relationship between the cross sections and the burst pulse distribution in the nuclei was settled [fr
Relativistic transport theory for hadronic matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shun-Jin Wang; Bao-An Li; Bauer, W.; Randrup, J.
1991-01-01
We derive coupled equations of motion for the density matrices for nucleons, Δ resonances, and π mesons, as well as for the pion--baryon interaction vertex function for the description of nuclear reactions at intermediate energies. We start from an effective hadronic Lagrangian density with minimal coupling between baryons and mesons. By truncating at the level of three-body correlations and using the G-matrix method to solve the equations of motion for the two-body correlation functions, a closed equation of motion for the one-body density matrices is obtained. A subsequent Wigner transformation then leads to a tractable set of relativistic transport equations for interacting nucleons, deltas, and pions. copyright 1991 Academic Press, Inc
Relativistic theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.
1986-01-01
In the present paper a relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) is unambiguously constructed on the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle. In this a gravitational field is treated as the Faraday--Maxwell spin-2 and spin-0 physical field possessing energy and momentum. The source of a gravitational field is the total conserved energy-momentum tensor of matter and of a gravitational field in Minkowski space. In the RTG the conservation laws are strictly fulfilled for the energy-moment and for the angular momentum of matter and a gravitational field. The theory explains the whole available set of experiments on gravity. By virtue of the geometrization principle, the Riemannian space in our theory is of field origin, since it appears as an effective force space due to the action of a gravitational field on matter. The RTG leads to an exceptionally strong prediction: The universe is not closed but just ''flat.'' This suggests that in the universe a ''missing mass'' should exist in a form of matter
Relativistic theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvilli, M.A.
1985-01-01
In the present paper a relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) is constructed in a unique way on the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle. In this, a gravitational field is treated as the Faraday-Maxwell spin-2 and spin-0 physical field possessing energy and momentum. The source of a gravitational field is the total conserved energy-momentum tensor of matter and of a gravitational field in Minkowski space. In the RTG, the conservation laws are strictly fulfilled for the energy-momentum and for the angular momentum of matter and a gravitational field. The theory explains the whole available set of experiments on gravitation. In virtue of the geometrization principle, the Riemannian space in our theory is of field origin, since it appears as an effective force space due to the action of a gravitational field on matter. The RTg leads to an exceptionally strong prediction: The Universe is not closed but just ''flat''. This suggests that in the Universe a ''hidden mass'' should exist in some form of matter
Relativistic gravitation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.
1984-01-01
On the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle a relativistic gravitation theory (RGT) is unambiguously constructed with the help of a notion of a gravitational field as a physical field in Faraday-Maxwell spirit, which posesses energy momentum and spins 2 and 0. The source of gravitation field is a total conserved energy-momentum tensor for matter and for gravitation field in Minkowski space. In the RGT conservation laws for the energy momentum and angular momentum of matter and gravitational field hold rigorously. The theory explains the whole set of gravitation experiments. Here, due to the geometrization principle the Riemannian space is of a field origin since this space arises effectively as a result of the gravitation field origin since this space arises effectively as a result of the gravitation field action on the matter. The RGT astonishing prediction is that the Universe is not closed but ''flat''. It means that in the Universe there should exist a ''missing'' mass in some form of matter
Relativistic positioning systems: perspectives and prospects
Coll Bartolomé
2013-11-01
Relativistic positioning systems are interesting technical objects for applications around the Earth and in the Solar system. But above all else, they are basic scientific objects allowing developing relativity from its own concepts. Some past and future features of relativistic positioning sys- tems, with special attention to the developments that they suggest for an epistemic relativity (relativistic experimental approach to physics), are analyzed. This includes relativistic stereometry, which, together with relativistic positioning systems, allows to introduce the general relativistic notion of (finite) laboratory (space-time region able to perform experiments of finite size).
Two-body relativistic scattering with an O(1,1)-symmetric square-well potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arshansky, R.; Horwitz, L.P.
1984-01-01
Scattering theory in the framework of a relativistic manifestly covariant quantum mechanics is applied to the relativistic analog of the nonrelativistic one-dimensional square-well potential, a two-body O(1,1)-symmetric hyperbolic square well in one space and one time dimension. The unitary S matrix is explicitly obtained. For well sizes large compared to the de Broglie wavelength of the reduced motion system, simple formulas are obtained for the associated sequence of resonances. This sequence has equally spaced levels and constant widths for higher resonances, and linearly increasing widths for lower-lying levels
Prospects for development of powerful, highly efficient, relativistic gyrodevices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nusinovich, G.S.; Granatstein, V.L.
1992-01-01
For various applications the required parameters of sources of powerful microwave radiation lie far beyond the capabilities of existing tubes. This provokes an interest in reconsidering basic principles of relevant microwave sources in order to search for alternative concepts in their development. One of the most promising devices in the short-wavelength region of microwaves is the cyclotron resonance maser (CRM). During the last decade, two important varieties of CRMs have been distinguished, namely, gyrotrons, which operate at frequencies close to cut-off, and cyclotron autoresonance masers (CARMs), which operate at frequencies far from cut-off. When the axial phase velocity of the wave in properly adjusted to the beam voltage and electron pitch-ratio, the efficiency of relativistic CRMs may be high (≥50%). The method of optimizing efficiency based on a partial compensation of the shift in the relativistic electron cyclotron frequency by the change in the Doppler term can be, in principle, accompanied by a corresponding profiling of the external magnetic field and/or the wave phase velocity in a slightly irregular waveguide. These methods can be used in such relativistic CRMs as relativistic gyrotrons, gyroklystrons, gyro-traveling-wave-tubes and gyrotwistrons. The most important point is their sensitivity to a spread in electron parameters. As the beam voltage grows, the operation becomes more sensitive. However, at relatively low voltages such devices are quite tolerant to electron velocity spread
Relativistic theory of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.
1985-01-01
This work presents an unambiguous construction of the relativistic theory of gravity (RTG) in the framework of relativity and the geometrization principle. The gauge principle has been formulated, and the Lagrangian density of the gravitational field has thus been constructed. This theory explains the totality of the available experimental data on the solar system and predicts the existence of gravitational waves of the Faraday-Maxwell type. According to the RTG, the Universe is infinite and ''flat'', hence it follows that its matter density should be equal to its critical density. Therefore, an appreciable ''hidden mass'' exceeding the presently observed mass of the matter almost 40-fold should exist in the Universe in some form of the matter or other. In accordance with the RTG, a massive body having a finite density ceases to contract under gravitational forces within a finite interval of proper time. From the viewpoint of an external reference frame, the brightness of the body decreases exponentially (it is getting darker), but nothing extraordinary happens in this case because its density always remains finite and, for example, for a body with the mass of about 10 8 M 0 it is equal to 2 g/cm 3 . That is why it follows from the RTG that there could be no object whatsoever (black holes) in which gravitational collapse of matter develops to an infinite density. As has been shown, the presence of a cosmological term necessarily requires the introduction of a term with an explicit dependence on the Minkowski metrics. For the long-range gravitational forces the cosmological constant vanishes
Radiatively driven relativistic spherical winds under relativistic radiative transfer
Fukue, J.
2018-05-01
We numerically investigate radiatively driven relativistic spherical winds from the central luminous object with mass M and luminosity L* under Newtonian gravity, special relativity, and relativistic radiative transfer. We solve both the relativistic radiative transfer equation and the relativistic hydrodynamical equations for spherically symmetric flows under the double-iteration processes, to obtain the intensity and velocity fields simultaneously. We found that the momentum-driven winds with scattering are quickly accelerated near the central object to reach the terminal speed. The results of numerical solutions are roughly fitted by a relation of \\dot{m}=0.7(Γ _*-1)\\tau _* β _* β _out^{-2.6}, where \\dot{m} is the mass-loss rate normalized by the critical one, Γ* the central luminosity normalized by the critical one, τ* the typical optical depth, β* the initial flow speed at the central core of radius R*, and βout the terminal speed normalized by the speed of light. This relation is close to the non-relativistic analytical solution, \\dot{m} = 2(Γ _*-1)\\tau _* β _* β _out^{-2}, which can be re-expressed as β _out^2/2 = (Γ _*-1)GM/c^2 R_*. That is, the present solution with small optical depth is similar to that of the radiatively driven free outflow. Furthermore, we found that the normalized luminosity (Eddington parameter) must be larger than unity for the relativistic spherical wind to blow off with intermediate or small optical depth, i.e. Γ _* ≳ \\sqrt{(1+β _out)^3/(1-β _out)}. We briefly investigate and discuss an isothermal wind.
Scattering in relativistic particle mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Bievre, S.
1986-01-01
The problem of direct interaction in relativistic particle mechanics has been extensively studied and a variety of models has been proposed avoiding the conclusions of the so-called no-interaction theorems. In this thesis the authors studied scattering in the relativistic two-body problem. He uses the results to analyze gauge invariance in Hamiltonian constraint models and the uniqueness of the symplectic structure in manifestly covariant relativistic particle mechanics. A general geometric framework that underlies approaches to relativistic particle mechanics is presented and the kinematic properties of the scattering transformation, i.e., those properties that arise solely from the invariance of the theory under the Poincare group are studied. The second part of the analysis of the relativistic two-body scattering problem is devoted to the dynamical properties of the scattering process. Using general geometric arguments, gauge invariance of the scattering transformation in the Todorov-Komar Hamiltonian constraint model is proved. Finally, quantization of the models is discussed
Hadronic resonances at FAIR energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vogel, Sascha
2013-01-01
These proceedings cover the analysis of hadronic resonances in heavy ion collisions. The model used for these studies is the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model. The model will be briefly explained, resonance observables will be highlighted and various kinematical issues will be investigated. Special emphasis will be put on the FAIR energy regime, especially highlighting the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) program.
Precipitation of relativistic electrons of the Van Allen belts into the proton aurora
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jordanova, Vania K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Sakaguchi, K.; Shiokawa, K.; Evans, D.S.; Albert, Jay; Connors, M
2008-01-01
The Van Allen electron belts consist of two regions encircling the earth in which relativistic electrons are trapped in the earth's magnetic field. Populations of relativistic electrons in the Van Allen belts vary greatly with geomagnetic disturbance and they are a major source of damage to space vehicles. In order to know when and by how much these populations of relativistic electrons increase, it is important to elucidate not only the cause of acceleration of relativistic electrons but also the cause of their loss from the Van Allen belts. Here we show the first evidence that left-hand polarized electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) plasma waves can cause the loss of relativistic electrons into the atmosphere, on the basis of results of an excellent set of ground and satellite observations showing coincident precipitation of ions with energies of tens of keV and of relativistic electrons into an isolated proton aurora. The proton aurora was produced by precipitation of ions with energies of tens of keV due to EMIC waves near the plasma pause, which is a manifestation of wave-particle interactions. These observations clarify that ions with energies of tens of keV affect the evolution of relativistic electrons in the Van Allen belts via parasitic resonance with EMIC waves, an effect that was first theoretically predicted in the early 1970's
Relativistic continuum random phase approximation in spherical nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daoutidis, Ioannis
2009-01-01
Covariant density functional theory is used to analyze the nuclear response in the external multipole fields. The investigations are based on modern functionals with zero range and density dependent coupling constants. After a self-consistent solution of the Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) equations for the nuclear ground states multipole giant resonances are studied within the Relativistic Random Phase Approximation (RRPA), the small amplitude limit of the time-dependent RMF. The coupling to the continuum is treated precisely by calculating the single particle Greens-function of the corresponding Dirac equation. In conventional methods based on a discretization of the continuum this was not possible. The residual interaction is derived from the same RMF Lagrangian. This guarantees current conservation and a precise decoupling of the Goldstone modes. For nuclei with open shells pairing correlations are taken into account in the framework of BCS theory and relativistic quasiparticle RPA. Continuum RPA (CRPA) presents a robust method connected with an astonishing reduction of the numerical effort as compared to conventional methods. Modes of various multipolarities and isospin are investigated, in particular also the newly discovered Pygmy modes in the vicinity of the neutron evaporation threshold. The results are compared with conventional discrete RPA calculations as well as with experimental data. We find that the full treatment of the continuum is essential for light nuclei and the study of resonances in the neighborhood of the threshold. (orig.)
Relativistic continuum random phase approximation in spherical nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Daoutidis, Ioannis
2009-10-01
Covariant density functional theory is used to analyze the nuclear response in the external multipole fields. The investigations are based on modern functionals with zero range and density dependent coupling constants. After a self-consistent solution of the Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) equations for the nuclear ground states multipole giant resonances are studied within the Relativistic Random Phase Approximation (RRPA), the small amplitude limit of the time-dependent RMF. The coupling to the continuum is treated precisely by calculating the single particle Greens-function of the corresponding Dirac equation. In conventional methods based on a discretization of the continuum this was not possible. The residual interaction is derived from the same RMF Lagrangian. This guarantees current conservation and a precise decoupling of the Goldstone modes. For nuclei with open shells pairing correlations are taken into account in the framework of BCS theory and relativistic quasiparticle RPA. Continuum RPA (CRPA) presents a robust method connected with an astonishing reduction of the numerical effort as compared to conventional methods. Modes of various multipolarities and isospin are investigated, in particular also the newly discovered Pygmy modes in the vicinity of the neutron evaporation threshold. The results are compared with conventional discrete RPA calculations as well as with experimental data. We find that the full treatment of the continuum is essential for light nuclei and the study of resonances in the neighborhood of the threshold. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nottale, Laurent
2003-01-01
The principle of relativity, when it is applied to scale transformations, leads to the suggestion of a generalization of fundamental dilations laws. These new special scale-relativistic resolution transformations involve log-Lorentz factors and lead to the occurrence of a minimal and of a maximal length-scale in nature, which are invariant under dilations. The minimal length-scale, that replaces the zero from the viewpoint of its physical properties, is identified with the Planck length l P , and the maximal scale, that replaces infinity, is identified with the cosmic scale L=Λ -1/2 , where Λ is the cosmological constant.The new interpretation of the Planck scale has several implications for the structure and history of the early Universe: we consider the questions of the origin, of the status of physical laws at very early times, of the horizon/causality problem and of fluctuations at recombination epoch.The new interpretation of the cosmic scale has consequences for our knowledge of the present universe, concerning in particular Mach's principle, the large number coincidence, the problem of the vacuum energy density, the nature and the value of the cosmological constant. The value (theoretically predicted ten years ago) of the scaled cosmological constant Ω Λ =0.75+/-0.15 is now supported by several different experiments (Hubble diagram of Supernovae, Boomerang measurements, gravitational lensing by clusters of galaxies).The scale-relativity framework also allows one to suggest a solution to the missing mass problem, and to make theoretical predictions of fundamental energy scales, thanks to the interpretation of new structures in scale space: fractal/classical transitions as Compton lengths, mass-coupling relations and critical value 4π 2 of inverse couplings. Among them, we find a structure at 3.27+/-0.26x10 20 eV, which agrees closely with the observed highest energy cosmic rays at 3.2+/-0.9x10 20 eV, and another at 5.3x10 -3 eV, which corresponds to the
SPECIAL RELATIVISTIC HYDRODYNAMICS WITH GRAVITATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hwang, Jai-chan [Department of Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Hyerim [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-12-20
Special relativistic hydrodynamics with weak gravity has hitherto been unknown in the literature. Whether such an asymmetric combination is possible has been unclear. Here, the hydrodynamic equations with Poisson-type gravity, considering fully relativistic velocity and pressure under the weak gravity and the action-at-a-distance limit, are consistently derived from Einstein’s theory of general relativity. An analysis is made in the maximal slicing, where the Poisson’s equation becomes much simpler than our previous study in the zero-shear gauge. Also presented is the hydrodynamic equations in the first post-Newtonian approximation, now under the general hypersurface condition. Our formulation includes the anisotropic stress.
Methods in relativistic nuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Danos, M.; Gillet, V.; Cauvin, M.
1984-01-01
This book is intended to provide the methods and tools for performing actual calculations for finite many-body systems of bound relativistic constituent particles. The aim is to cover thoroughly the methodological aspects of the relativistic many-body problem for bound states while avoiding the presentation of specific models. The many examples contained in the later part of the work are meant to give concrete illustrations of how to actually apply the methods which are given in the first part. The basic framework of the approach is the lagrangian field theory solved in the time-independent Schroedinger picture. (Auth.)
Frontiers in relativistic celestial mechanics
2014-01-01
Relativistic celestial mechanics – investigating the motion celestial bodies under the influence of general relativity – is a major tool of modern experimental gravitational physics. With a wide range of prominent authors from the field, this two-volume series consists of reviews on a multitude of advanced topics in the area of relativistic celestial mechanics – starting from more classical topics such as the regime of asymptotically-flat spacetime, light propagation and celestial ephemerides, but also including its role in cosmology and alternative theories of gravity as well as modern experiments in this area.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard Anantua
2018-03-01
Full Text Available This work summarizes a program intended to unify three burgeoning branches of the high-energy astrophysics of relativistic jets: general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD simulations of ever-increasing dynamical range, the microphysical theory of particle acceleration under relativistic conditions, and multiwavelength observations resolving ever-decreasing spatiotemporal scales. The process, which involves converting simulation output into time series of images and polarization maps that can be directly compared to observations, is performed by (1 self-consistently prescribing models for emission, absorption, and particle acceleration and (2 performing time-dependent polarized radiative transfer. M87 serves as an exemplary prototype for this investigation due to its prominent and well-studied jet and the imminent prospect of learning much more from Event Horizon Telescope (EHT observations this year. Synthetic observations can be directly compared with real observations for observational signatures such as jet instabilities, collimation, relativistic beaming, and polarization. The simplest models described adopt the standard equipartition hypothesis; other models calculate emission by relating it to current density or shear. These models are intended for application to the radio jet instead of the higher frequency emission, the disk and the wind, which will be subjects of future investigations.
Apparent unambiguousness of relativistic time dilation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strel'tsov, V.N.
1992-01-01
It is indicated on the definite analogy between the dependence of visible sizes of relativistic objects and period of the wave, emitted by the moving source from the observation conditions ('retradition factor'). It is noted that the definition of time for moving extended objects, led to relativistic dilation, corresponds to the definition of the relativistic (radar) length led to the 'elongation formula'. 10 refs
Relativistic generalization of strong plasma turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chian, A.C.-L.
1982-01-01
Two fundamental electrostatic modes of an unmagnetized plasma, namely, ion acoustic mode and Langumir mode are studied. Previous theories are generalized to include the effect of relativistic mass variations. The existence of relativistic ion acoustic solitons is demonstrated. In addition, it is shown that simple, relativistic Langumir solitons do not exist in a infinite plasma. (L.C.) [pt
Quantum gates via relativistic remote control
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martín-Martínez, Eduardo, E-mail: emartinm@uwaterloo.ca [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Dept. Applied Math., University of Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Sutherland, Chris [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)
2014-12-12
We harness relativistic effects to gain quantum control on a stationary qubit in an optical cavity by controlling the non-inertial motion of a different probe atom. Furthermore, we show that by considering relativistic trajectories of the probe, we enhance the efficiency of the quantum control. We explore the possible use of these relativistic techniques to build 1-qubit quantum gates.
Relativistic string dynamics and its connection with hadron physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbashov, B.M.; Nesterenko, V.V.
1976-01-01
Physical reasons for using the relativistic string as a hadron model are briefly discussed. The classical and quantum dynamics of the string which is the first example of a relativistic elongated object are presented. The connection between the string and the dual-resonance models, together with the Born-Infeld field model is indicated. As it turned out from the study of the string behaviour in a constant electromagnetic field, even in the classical theory states with the negative square of the string mass - tachyons - appear. As an illustration, a series of examples of classical motion of a free string and a string in an external electromagnetic field from a given initial state is presented
Runaway relativistic electron scattering on the plazma oscillations in tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasovitskij, V.B.; Razdorski, V.G.
1980-01-01
The dynamics of fast electrons in a tolamak plasma with the presence of the constant external electric field have been inveatigated. It is shown that the occurrence of the relativistic electrons ''tail'' of the distribution function is followed by an intensive plasma oscillation swinging under conditions of the anomalous Doppler effect and their large angle scattering in the momentum space. A part of scattered electrons is captured by tokamak inhomogeneous magnetic field and causes the occurrence of a new low frequency alfven instability under conditions of magnetic drift resonance followed by quasilinear diffusion of relativistic electrons along the small radius of the torus. The flux of runaway electrons scattered on plasma oscillations has been found. A nonlinear diffusion equation has been derived for the flux of captured electrons. The equation defines the carrying out of fast particles from the plasma filament center to its periphery depending on the external magnetic field and plasma parameters
Relativistic quantum Darwinism in Dirac fermion and graphene systems
Ni, Xuan; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Pecora, Louis
2012-02-01
We solve the Dirac equation in two spatial dimensions in the setting of resonant tunneling, where the system consists of two symmetric cavities connected by a finite potential barrier. The shape of the cavities can be chosen to yield both regular and chaotic dynamics in the classical limit. We find that certain pointer states about classical periodic orbits can exist, which are signatures of relativistic quantum Darwinism (RQD). These localized states suppress quantum tunneling, and the effect becomes less severe as the underlying classical dynamics in the cavity is chaotic, leading to regularization of quantum tunneling. Qualitatively similar phenomena have been observed in graphene. A physical theory is developed to explain relativistic quantum Darwinism and its effects based on the spectrum of complex eigenenergies of the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian describing the open cavity system.
Isoscalar compression modes in relativistic random phase approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, Zhong-yu; Van Giai, Nguyen.; Wandelt, A.; Vretenar, D.; Ring, P.
2001-01-01
Monopole and dipole compression modes in nuclei are analyzed in the framework of a fully consistent relativistic random phase approximation (RRPA), based on effective mean-field Lagrangians with nonlinear meson self-interaction terms. The large effect of Dirac sea states on isoscalar strength distribution functions is illustrated for the monopole mode. The main contribution of Fermi and Dirac sea pair states arises through the exchange of the scalar meson. The effect of vector meson exchange is much smaller. For the monopole mode, RRPA results are compared with constrained relativistic mean-field calculations. A comparison between experimental and calculated energies of isoscalar giant monopole resonances points to a value of 250-270 MeV for the nuclear matter incompressibility. A large discrepancy remains between theoretical predictions and experimental data for the dipole compression mode
Instability in relativistic nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tezuka, Hirokazu.
1979-11-01
The stability of the Fermi gas state in the nuclear matter which satisfies the saturation property is considered relativistically. It is shown that the Fermi gas state is stable at very low density and at high density, but it is unstable for density fluctuation in the intermediate density region including the normal density. (author)
Cyberinfrastructure for Computational Relativistic Astrophysics
Ott, Christian
2012-01-01
Poster presented at the NSF Office of Cyberinfrastructure CyberBridges CAREER PI workshop. This poster discusses the computational challenges involved in the modeling of complex relativistic astrophysical systems. The Einstein Toolkit is introduced. It is an open-source community infrastructure for numerical relativity and computational astrophysics.
Future relativistic heavy ion experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pugh, H.G.
1980-12-01
Equations of state for nuclear matter and ongoing experimental studies are discussed. Relativistic heavy ion physics is the only opportunity to study in the laboratory the properties of extended multiquark systems under conditions such that quarks might run together into new arrangements previously unobserved. Several lines of further study are mentioned
A relativistic radiation transfer benchmark
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munier, A.
1988-01-01
We use the integral form of the radiation transfer equation in an one dimensional slab to determine the time-dependent propagation of the radiation energy, flux and pressure in a collisionless homogeneous medium. First order v/c relativistic terms are included and the solution is given in the fluid frame and the laboratory frame
Relativistic models of nuclear structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gillet, V.; Kim, E.J.; Cauvin, M.; Kohmura, T.; Ohnaka, S.
1991-01-01
The introduction of the relativistic field formalism for the description of nuclear structure has improved our understanding of fundamental nuclear mechanisms such as saturation or many body forces. We discuss some of these progresses, both in the semi-classical mean field approximation and in a quantized meson field approach. (author)
Fundamental length and relativistic length
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strel'tsov, V.N.
1988-01-01
It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem
Relativistic Descriptions of Few-Body Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karmanov, V. A.
2011-01-01
A brief review of relativistic effects in few-body systems, of theoretical approaches, recent developments and applications is given. Manifestations of relativistic effects in the binding energies, in the electromagnetic form factors and in three-body observables are demonstrated. The three-body forces of relativistic origin are also discussed. We conclude that relativistic effects in nuclei can be important in spite of small binding energy. At high momenta they clearly manifest themselves and are necessary to describe the deuteron e.m. form factors. At the same time, there is still a discrepancy in three-body observables which might be a result of less clarity in understanding the corresponding relativistic effects, the relativistic NN kernel and the three-body forces. Relativistic few-body physics remains to be a field of very intensive and fruitful researches. (author)
Infinite stochastic acceleration of charged particles from non-relativistic initial energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buts, V.A.; Manujlenko, O.V.; Turkin, Yu.A.
1997-01-01
Stochastic charged particle acceleration by electro-magnetic field due to overlapping of non-linear cyclotron resonances is considered. It was shown that non-relativistic charged particles are involved in infinitive stochastic acceleration regime. This effect can be used for stochastic acceleration or for plasma heating by regular electro-magnetic fields
Should the coupling constants be mass dependent in the relativistic mean field models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levai, P.; Lukacs, B.
1986-05-01
Mass dependent coupling constants are proposed for baryonic resonances in the relativistic mean field model, according to the mass splitting of the SU-6 multiplet. With this choice the negative effective masses are avoided and the system remains nucleon dominated with moderate antidelta abundance. (author)
Recent development of relativistic molecular theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahito, Nakajima; Kimihiko, Hirao
2005-01-01
Today it is common knowledge that relativistic effects are important in the heavy-element chemistry. The continuing development of the relativistic molecular theory is opening up rows of the periodic table that are impossible to treat with the non-relativistic approach. The most straightforward way to treat relativistic effects on heavy-element systems is to use the four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock approach and its electron-correlation methods based on the Dirac-Coulomb(-Breit) Hamiltonian. The Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) or Dirac-Kohn-Sham (DKS) equation with the four-component spinors composed of the large- and small-components demands severe computational efforts to solve, and its applications to molecules including heavy elements have been limited to small- to medium-size systems. Recently, we have developed a very efficient algorithm for the four-component DHF and DKS approaches. As an alternative approach, several quasi-relativistic approximations have also been proposed instead of explicitly solving the four-component relativistic equation. We have developed the relativistic elimination of small components (RESC) and higher-order Douglas-Kroll (DK) Hamiltonians within the framework of the two-component quasi-relativistic approach. The developing four-component relativistic and approximate quasi-relativistic methods have been implemented into a program suite named REL4D. In this article, we will introduce the efficient relativistic molecular theories to treat heavy-atomic molecular systems accurately via the four-component relativistic and the two-component quasi-relativistic approaches. We will also show several chemical applications including heavy-element systems with our relativistic molecular approaches. (author)
Fragmentation of relativistic nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cork, B.
1975-06-01
Nuclei with energies of several GeV/n interact with hadrons and produce fragments that encompass the fields of nuclear physics, meson physics, and particle physics. Experimental results are now available to explore problems in nuclear physics such as the validity of the shell model to explain the momentum distribution of fragments, the contribution of giant dipole resonances to fragment production cross sections, the effective Coulomb barrier, and nuclear temperatures. A new approach to meson physics is possible by exploring the nucleon charge-exchange process. Particle physics problems are explored by measuring the energy and target dependence of isotope production cross sections, thus determining if limiting fragmentation and target factorization are valid, and measuring total cross sections to determine if the factorization relation, sigma/sub AB/ 2 = sigma/sub AA/ . sigma/sub BB/, is violated. Also, new experiments have been done to measure the angular distribution of fragments that could be explained as nuclear shock waves, and to explore for ultradense matter produced by very heavy ions incident on heavy atoms. (12 figures, 2 tables)
Relativistic quantum mechanics an introduction to relativistic quantum fields
Maiani, Luciano
2016-01-01
Written by two of the world's leading experts on particle physics and the standard model - including an award-winning former Director General of CERN - this textbook provides a completely up-to-date account of relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. It describes the formal and phenomenological aspects of the standard model of particle physics, and is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students studying both theoretical and experimental physics.
Slowly rotating general relativistic superfluid neutron stars with relativistic entrainment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Comer, G.L.
2004-01-01
Neutron stars that are cold enough should have two or more superfluids or supercondutors in their inner crusts and cores. The implication of superfluidity or superconductivity for equilibrium and dynamical neutron star states is that each individual particle species that forms a condensate must have its own, independent number density current and equation of motion that determines that current. An important consequence of the quasiparticle nature of each condensate is the so-called entrainment effect; i.e., the momentum of a condensate is a linear combination of its own current and those of the other condensates. We present here the first fully relativistic modeling of slowly rotating superfluid neutron stars with entrainment that is accurate to the second-order in the rotation rates. The stars consist of superfluid neutrons, superconducting protons, and a highly degenerate, relativistic gas of electrons. We use a relativistic σ-ω mean field model for the equation of state of the matter and the entrainment. We determine the effect of a relative rotation between the neutrons and protons on a star's total mass, shape, and Kepler, mass-shedding limit
Search for dibaryonic de-excitations in relativistic nuclear reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Besliu, C.; Popa, V.; Popa, L.; Topor Pop, V.
1993-08-01
Some odd characteristics are observed in the single particle distributions obtained from He + Li interactions at 4.5AGeV/c momenta which are explained as the manifestation of a new mechanism of strangeness production via dibaryonic de-excitations. A signature of the formation of hadronic and baryonic clusters is also reported. The di- pionic signals of the dibaryonic orbital de- excitations are analyzed in the frame of the MIT -bag Model and a Monte Carlo simulation. The role played by the dibaryonic resonances in relativistic nuclear collisions could be a significant one. (author). 29 refs, 7 figs
Search for dibaryonic de-excitations in relativistic nuclear reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Besliu, C.; Popa, V.; Popa, L.; Topor Pop, V.
1992-08-01
Some old characteristics are observed in the single particle distributions obtained from He + Li interactions at 4.5 A GeV/c momenta, which are explained as the manifestation of a few mechanism of strangeness production via dibaryonic de-excitations. A signature of formation of hadronic and baryonic clusters is also reported. The di-pionic signals of the dibaryonic orbital de-excitations are analysed in the frame of the MIT-bag model and the Monte Carlo simulation. The role played by the dibaryonic resonances in the relativistic nuclear collisions could be a significant one. (author). 23 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab
Relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation in deformed nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pena Arteaga, D.
2007-06-25
Covariant density functional theory is used to study the influence of electromagnetic radiation on deformed superfluid nuclei. The relativistic Hartree-Bogolyubov equations and the resulting diagonalization problem of the quasiparticle random phase approximation are solved for axially symmetric systems in a fully self-consistent way by a newly developed parallel code. Three different kinds of high precision energy functionals are investigated and special care is taken for the decoupling of the Goldstone modes. This allows the microscopic investigation of Pygmy and scissor resonances in electric and magnetic dipole fields. Excellent agreement with recent experiments is found and new types of modes are predicted for deformed systems with large neutron excess. (orig.)
ρ - ω Mixing Effects in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broniowski, W.; Florkowski, W.
1999-01-01
Full text: We have shown that even moderate excess of neutrons over protons in nuclear matter, such as in 208 Pb, can lead to large ρ - ω mixing at densities of the order of twice the nuclear saturation density and higher. The typical mixing angle is of the order of 10 o . The mixing may result in noticeable shifts of the positions and widths of resonances. We also analyze temperature effects and find that temperatures up to 50 MeV have practically no effect on the mixing. The results have relevance for the explanation of dilepton production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. (author)
Collective scattering of electromagnetic waves from a relativistic magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Quankang
1998-01-01
Recently, laser and microwave scattering has become one of the important diagnostic means for plasma. Laser and microwave correlative scattering spectrum is determined by particle-density fluctuations in a weak turbulent plasma. In a relativistic plasma, on the basis of complete electromagnetic-interaction between particles, a general expression for particle density fluctuations and spectrums of laser and microwave scattering from a magnetized plasma are derived. The laser and microwave scattering spectrums provide informations on electron density and temperature, ion temperature, resonance and nonresonance effects. (author)
Relativistic quantum mechanics of bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghose, P.; Home, D.; Sinha Roy, M.N.
1993-01-01
We show that it is possible to use the Klein-Gordon, Proca and Maxwell formulations to construct multi-component relativistic configuration space wavefunctions of spin-0 and spin-1 bosons in an external field. These wavefunctions satisfy the first-order Kemmer-Duffin equation. The crucial ingredient is the use of the future-causal normal n μ (n μ n μ =1, n 0 >0) to the space-like hypersurfaces foliating space-time, inherent in the concept of a relativistic wavefunction, to construct a conserved future-causal probability current four-vector from the second-rank energy-momentum tensor, following Holland's prescription. The existence of a Hermitian position operator, localized solutions, compatibility with the second quantized theories and the question of interpretation are discussed. (orig.)
Kinetic approach to relativistic dissipation
Gabbana, A.; Mendoza, M.; Succi, S.; Tripiccione, R.
2017-08-01
Despite a long record of intense effort, the basic mechanisms by which dissipation emerges from the microscopic dynamics of a relativistic fluid still elude complete understanding. In particular, several details must still be finalized in the pathway from kinetic theory to hydrodynamics mainly in the derivation of the values of the transport coefficients. In this paper, we approach the problem by matching data from lattice-kinetic simulations with analytical predictions. Our numerical results provide neat evidence in favor of the Chapman-Enskog [The Mathematical Theory of Non-Uniform Gases, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1970)] procedure as suggested by recent theoretical analyses along with qualitative hints at the basic reasons why the Chapman-Enskog expansion might be better suited than Grad's method [Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 2, 331 (1949), 10.1002/cpa.3160020403] to capture the emergence of dissipative effects in relativistic fluids.
Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Füellekrug, M.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E. M. D.
2011-01-01
Non-luminous relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds have been detected by the radio signals of low frequency similar to 40-400 kHz which they radiate. The electron beams occur similar to 2-9 ms after positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges at heights between similar to 22-72 km above...... thunderclouds. Intense positive lightning discharges can also cause sprites which occur either above or prior to the electron beam. One electron beam was detected without any luminous sprite which suggests that electron beams may also occur independently of sprites. Numerical simulations show that beams...... of electrons partially discharge the lightning electric field above thunderclouds and thereby gain a mean energy of similar to 7MeV to transport a total charge of similar to-10mC upwards. The impulsive current similar to 3 x 10(-3) Am-2 associated with relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds...
The relativistic electron wave equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dirac, P.A.M.
1977-08-01
The paper was presented at the European Conference on Particle Physics held in Budapest between the 4th and 9th July of 1977. A short review is given on the birth of the relativistic electron wave equation. After Schroedinger has shown the equivalence of his wave mechanics and the matrix mechanics of Heisenberg, a general transformation theory was developed by the author. This theory required a relativistic wave equation linear in delta/delta t. As the Klein--Gordon equation available at this time did not satisfy this condition the development of a new equation became necessary. The equation which was found gave the value of the electron spin and magnetic moment automatically. (D.P.)
Diffraction radiation from relativistic particles
Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich; Strikhanov, Mikhail Nikolaevich; Tishchenko, Alexey Alexandrovich
2010-01-01
This book deals with diffraction radiation, which implies the boundary problems of electromagnetic radiation theory. Diffraction radiation is generated when a charged particle moves in a vacuum near a target edge. Diffraction radiation of non-relativistic particles is widely used to design intense emitters in the cm wavelength range. Diffraction radiation from relativistic charged particles is important for noninvasive beam diagnostics and design of free electron lasers based on Smith-Purcell radiation which is diffraction radiation from periodic structures. Different analytical models of diffraction radiation and results of recent experimental studies are presented in this book. The book may also serve as guide to classical electrodynamics applications in beam physics and electrodynamics. It can be of great use for young researchers to develop skills and for experienced scientists to obtain new results.
Volatility smile as relativistic effect
Kakushadze, Zura
2017-06-01
We give an explicit formula for the probability distribution based on a relativistic extension of Brownian motion. The distribution (1) is properly normalized and (2) obeys the tower law (semigroup property), so we can construct martingales and self-financing hedging strategies and price claims (options). This model is a 1-constant-parameter extension of the Black-Scholes-Merton model. The new parameter is the analog of the speed of light in Special Relativity. However, in the financial context there is no ;speed limit; and the new parameter has the meaning of a characteristic diffusion speed at which relativistic effects become important and lead to a much softer asymptotic behavior, i.e., fat tails, giving rise to volatility smiles. We argue that a nonlocal stochastic description of such (Lévy) processes is inadequate and discuss a local description from physics. The presentation is intended to be pedagogical.
Double Relativistic Electron Accelerating Mirror
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saltanat Sadykova
2013-02-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, the possibility of generation of thin dense relativistic electron layers is shown using the analytical and numerical modeling of laser pulse interaction with ultra-thin layers. It was shown that the maximum electron energy can be gained by optimal tuning between the target width, intensity and laser pulse duration. The optimal parameters were obtained from a self-consistent system of Maxwell equations and the equation of motion of electron layer. For thin relativistic electron layers, the gaining of maximum electron energies requires a second additional overdense plasma layer, thus cutting the laser radiation off the plasma screen at the instant of gaining the maximum energy (DREAM-schema.
Relativistic shocks and particle acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heavens, A.F.
1988-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the fluid dynamics of relativistic shock waves, and use the results to calculate the spectral index of particles accelerated by the Fermi process in such shocks. We have calculated the distributions of Fermi-accelerated particles at shocks propagating into cold proton-electron plasma and also cold electron-positron plasma. We have considered two different power spectra for the scattering waves, and find, in contrast to the non-relativistic case, that the spectral index of the accelerated particles depends on the wave power spectrum. On the assumption of thermal equilibrium both upstream and downstream, we present some useful fits for the compression ratio of shocks propagating at arbitrary speeds into gas of any temperature. (author)
Diffraction radiation from relativistic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich; Ryazanov, Mikhail Ivanovich; Strikhanov, Mikhail Nikolaevich; Tishchenko, Alexey Alexandrovich
2010-01-01
This book deals with diffraction radiation, which implies the boundary problems of electromagnetic radiation theory. Diffraction radiation is generated when a charged particle moves in a vacuum near a target edge. Diffraction radiation of non-relativistic particles is widely used to design intense emitters in the cm wavelength range. Diffraction radiation from relativistic charged particles is important for noninvasive beam diagnostics and design of free electron lasers based on Smith-Purcell radiation which is diffraction radiation from periodic structures. Different analytical models of diffraction radiation and results of recent experimental studies are presented in this book. The book may also serve as guide to classical electrodynamics applications in beam physics and electrodynamics. It can be of great use for young researchers to develop skills and for experienced scientists to obtain new results. (orig.)
Asymptotics of relativistic spin networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrett, John W; Steele, Christopher M
2003-01-01
The stationary phase technique is used to calculate asymptotic formulae for SO(4) relativistic spin networks. For the tetrahedral spin network this gives the square of the Ponzano-Regge asymptotic formula for the SU(2) 6j-symbol. For the 4-simplex (10j-symbol) the asymptotic formula is compared with numerical calculations of the spin network evaluation. Finally, we discuss the asymptotics of the SO(3, 1) 10j-symbol
Analytic approaches to relativistic hydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatta, Yoshitaka
2016-12-15
I summarize our recent work towards finding and utilizing analytic solutions of relativistic hydrodynamic. In the first part I discuss various exact solutions of the second-order conformal hydrodynamics. In the second part I compute flow harmonics v{sub n} analytically using the anisotropically deformed Gubser flow and discuss its dependence on n, p{sub T}, viscosity, the chemical potential and the charge.
Pythagoras Theorem and Relativistic Kinematics
Mulaj, Zenun; Dhoqina, Polikron
2010-01-01
In two inertial frames that move in a particular direction, may be registered a light signal that propagates in an angle with this direction. Applying Pythagoras theorem and principles of STR in both systems, we can derive all relativistic kinematics relations like the relativity of simultaneity of events, of the time interval, of the length of objects, of the velocity of the material point, Lorentz transformations, Doppler effect and stellar aberration.
Characteristic manifolds in relativistic hypoelasticity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giambo, S [Messina Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Matematica
1978-10-02
The relativistic hypoelasticity is considered and the characteristic manifolds are determined by using the Cauchy-Kovalevski theorem for the Cauchy problem with analytic initial conditions. Taking into account that the characteristic manifold represents the image of the front-wave in the space-time, it is possible to determine the velocities of propagation. Three wave-species are obtained: material waves, longitudinal waves and transverse waves.
A relativistic quarkonium potential model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klima, B.; Maor, U.
1984-04-01
We review a recently developed relativistic quark-antiquark bound state equation using the expansion in intermediate states. Using a QCD motivated potential we succeeded very well to fit both the heavy systems (banti b, canti c) and the light systems (santi s, uanti u and danti d). Here we emphasize our results on heavy-light sustems and on the possible (tanti t) family. (orig.)
Coordinates in relativistic Hamiltonian mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sokolov, S.N.
1984-01-01
The physical (covariant and measurable) coordinates of free particles and covariant coordinates of the center of inertia are found for three main forms of relativistic dynamics. In the point form of dynamics, the covariant coordinates of two directly interacting particles are found, and the equations of motion are brought to the explicitly covariant form. These equations are generalized to the case of interaction with an external electromagnetic field
Relativistic mechanics with reduced fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sokolov, S.N.
1996-01-01
A new relativistic classical mechanics of interacting particles using a concept of a reduced field (RF) os proposed. RF is a mediator of interactions, the state of which is described by a finite number of two-argument functions. Ten of these functions correspond to the generators of the Poincare group. Equations of motion contain the retardation of interactions required by the causality principle and have form of a finite system of ordinary hereditary differential equations [ru
Theory of a relativistic peniotron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhurakhovskii, V.A.
1986-01-01
A normalized mathematical model for describing the motion of electrons in a relativistic peniotron with smoothly varying magnetostatic field, which provides a state of exact gyroresonance along the entire length of the device, is constructed. The results of computer calculations of the energetics of this device are presented and an example of an effective choice of its parameterse corresponding to high electronic efficiency of a one-velocity flow are presented
Relativistic beaming and quasar statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orr, M.J.L.; Browne, I.W.A.
1982-01-01
The statistical predictions of a unified scheme for the radio emission from quasars are explored. This scheme attributes the observed differences between flat- and steep-spectrum quasars to projection and the effects of relativistic beaming of the emission from the nuclear components. We use a simple quasar model consisting of a compact relativistically beamed core with spectral index zero and unbeamed lobes, spectral index - 1, to predict the proportion of flat-spectrum sources in flux-limited samples selected at different frequencies. In our model this fraction depends on the core Lorentz factor, γ and we find that a value of approximately 5 gives satisfactory agreement with observation. In a similar way the model is used to construct the expected number/flux density counts for flat-spectrum quasars from the observed steep-spectrum counts. Again, good agreement with the observations is obtained if the average core Lorentz factor is about 5. Independent estimates of γ from observations of superluminal motion in quasars are of the same order of magnitude. We conclude that the statistical properties of quasars are entirely consistent with the predictions of simple relativistic-beam models. (author)
Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthew J. Benacquista
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.
Nonlinear dynamics of the relativistic standard map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nomura, Y.; Ichikawa, Y.H.; Horton, W.
1991-04-01
Heating and acceleration of charged particles by RF fields have been extensively investigated by the standard map. The question arises as to how the relativistic effects change the nonlinear dynamical behavior described by the classical standard map. The relativistic standard map is a two parameter (K, Β = ω/kc) family of dynamical systems reducing to the standard map when Β → 0. For Β ≠ 0 the relativistic mass increase suppresses the onset of stochasticity. It shown that the speed of light limits the rate of advance of the phase in the relativistic standard map and introduces KAM surfaces persisting in the high momentum region. An intricate structure of mixing in the higher order periodic orbits and chaotic orbits is analyzed using the symmetry properties of the relativistic standard map. The interchange of the stability of the periodic orbits in the relativistic standard map is also observed and is explained by the local linear stability of the orbits. 12 refs., 16 figs
Relativistic bound state wave functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Micu, L.
2005-01-01
A particular method of writing the bound state wave functions in relativistic form is applied to the solutions of the Dirac equation with confining potentials in order to obtain a relativistic description of a quark antiquark bound system representing a given meson. Concerning the role of the effective constituent in the present approach we first observe that without this additional constituent we couldn't expand the bound state wave function in terms of products of free states. Indeed, we notice that if the wave function depends on the relative coordinates only, all the expansion coefficients would be infinite. Secondly we remark that the effective constituent enabled us to give a Lorentz covariant meaning to the potential energy of the bound system which is now seen as the 4th component of a 4-momentum. On the other side, by relating the effective constituent to the quantum fluctuations of the background field which generate the binding, we provided a justification for the existence of some spatial degrees of freedom accompanying the interaction potential. These ones, which are quite unusual in quantum mechanics, in our model are the natural consequence of the the independence of the quarks and can be seen as the effect of the imperfect cancellation of the vector momenta during the quantum fluctuations. Related with all these we remark that the adequate representation for the relativistic description of a bound system is the momentum representation, because of the transparent and easy way of writing the conservation laws and the transformation properties of the wave functions. The only condition to be fulfilled is to find a suitable way to take into account the potential energy of the bound system. A particular feature of the present approach is that the confining forces are due to a kind of glue where both quarks are embedded. This recalls other bound state models where the wave function is factorized in terms of constituent wave functions and the confinement is
Relativistic neoclassical transport coefficients with momentum correction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marushchenko, I.; Azarenkov, N.A.
2016-01-01
The parallel momentum correction technique is generalized for relativistic approach. It is required for proper calculation of the parallel neoclassical flows and, in particular, for the bootstrap current at fusion temperatures. It is shown that the obtained system of linear algebraic equations for parallel fluxes can be solved directly without calculation of the distribution function if the relativistic mono-energetic transport coefficients are already known. The first relativistic correction terms for Braginskii matrix coefficients are calculated.
Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zenitani, Seiji
2015-01-01
Numerical algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are ≈50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms
Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zenitani, Seiji, E-mail: seiji.zenitani@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)
2015-04-15
Numerical algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are ≈50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.
Self-focusing of laser beams in magnetized relativistic electron beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whang, M.H.; Ho, A.Y.; Kuo, S.P.
1989-01-01
Recently, there is considerable interest in radiation focusing and optical guiding using the resonant interaction between the radiation field and electron beam. The result of radiation focusing has been shown to play a central role in the practical utilization of the FEL. This result allows the device to use longer interaction length for achieving higher output power. Likewise, the possibility of self-focusing of the laser beam in cyclotron resonance with a relativistic electron beam is also an important issue in the laser acceleration concepts for achieving high-gradient electron acceleration. The effectiveness of the acceleration process relies strongly on whether the laser intensity can be maintained at the desired level throughout the interaction. In this work, the authors study the problem concerning the self-focusing of laser beam in the relativistic electron beams under the cyclotron auto-resonance interaction. They assume that there is no electron density perturbation prohibited from the background magnetic field for the time scale of interest. The nonlinearity responsible for self-focusing process is introduced by the energy dependence of the relativistic mass of electrons. The plasma frequency varies with the electron energy which is proportional to the radiation amplitude. They then examine such a relativistic nonlinear effect on the propagation of a Gaussian beam in the electron beam. A parametric study of the dependence of the laser beam width on the axial position for various electron beam density has been performed
Relativistic fluids in spherically symmetric space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dipankar, R.
1977-12-01
Some of McVittie and Wiltshire's (1977) solutions of Walker's (1935) isotropy conditions for relativistic perfect fluid spheres are generalized. Solutions are spherically symmetric and conformally flat
Relativistic ion acceleration by ultraintense laser interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakajima, K.; Koga, J.K.; Nakagawa, K.
2001-01-01
There has been a great interest in relativistic particle generation by ultraintense laser interactions with matter. We propose the use of relativistically self-focused laser pulses for the acceleration of ions. Two dimensional PIC simulations are performed, which show the formation of a large positive electrostatic field near the front of a relativistically self-focused laser pulse. Several factors contribute to the acceleration including self-focusing distance, pulse depletion, and plasma density. Ultraintense laser-plasma interactions are capable of generating enormous electrostatic fields of ∼3 TV/m for acceleration of protons with relativistic energies exceeding 1 GeV
RELATIVISTIC CYCLOTRON INSTABILITY IN ANISOTROPIC PLASMAS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
López, Rodrigo A.; Moya, Pablo S.; Muñoz, Víctor; Valdivia, J. Alejandro [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Navarro, Roberto E.; Araneda, Jaime A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Viñas, Adolfo F., E-mail: rlopez186@gmail.com [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2016-11-20
A sufficiently large temperature anisotropy can sometimes drive various types of electromagnetic plasma micro-instabilities, which can play an important role in the dynamics of relativistic pair plasmas in space, astrophysics, and laboratory environments. Here, we provide a detailed description of the cyclotron instability of parallel propagating electromagnetic waves in relativistic pair plasmas on the basis of a relativistic anisotropic distribution function. Using plasma kinetic theory and particle-in-cell simulations, we study the influence of the relativistic temperature and the temperature anisotropy on the collective and noncollective modes of these plasmas. Growth rates and dispersion curves from the linear theory show a good agreement with simulations results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niu, Y.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.; Meng, J.
2009-01-01
The fully self-consistent relativistic random-phase approximation (RRPA) framework based on effective interactions with a phenomenological density dependence is extended to finite temperatures. The RRPA configuration space is built from the spectrum of single-nucleon states at finite temperature obtained by the temperature dependent relativistic mean field (RMF-T) theory based on effective Lagrangian with density dependent meson-nucleon vertex functions. As an illustration, the dependence of binding energy, radius, entropy and single particle levels on temperature for spherical nucleus 2 08P b is investigated in RMF-T theory. The finite temperature RRPA has been employed in studies of giant monopole and dipole resonances, and the evolution of resonance properties has been studied as a function of temperature. In addition, exotic modes of excitation have been systematically explored at finite temperatures, with an emphasis on the case of pygmy dipole resonances.(author)
Relativistic many-body theory of atomic transitions: the relativistic equation-of-motion approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, K.N.
1981-01-01
An equation-of-motion approach is used to develop the relativistic many-body theory of atomic transitions. The relativistic equations of motion for transition matrices are formulated using techniques of quantum field theory. To reduce the equation of motion to a tractable form which is appropriate for numerical calculations, a graphical method is employed to resolve the complication arising from the antisymmetrization and angular momentum coupling. The relativistic equation-of-motion method allows an ab initio treatment of correlation and relativistic effects in both closed- and open-shell many-body systems. A special case of the present formulation reduces to the relativistic random-phase approximation
Thermodynamics of polarized relativistic matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kovtun, Pavel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,PO Box 1700 STN CSC, Victoria BC, V8W 2Y2 (Canada)
2016-07-05
We give the free energy of equilibrium relativistic matter subject to external gravitational and electromagnetic fields, to one-derivative order in the gradients of the external fields. The free energy allows for a straightforward derivation of bound currents and bound momenta in equilibrium. At leading order, the energy-momentum tensor admits a simple expression in terms of the polarization tensor. Beyond the leading order, electric and magnetic polarization vectors are intrinsically ambiguous. The physical effects of polarization, such as the correlation between the magneto-vortically induced surface charge and the electro-vortically induced surface current, are not ambiguous.
Observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blanford, Glenn DelFosse
1998-01-01
An observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms is reported in this dissertation. Experiment 862 at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory observed antihydrogen atoms produced by the interaction of a circulating beam of high momentum (3 0 production is outlined within. The cross section corresponds to the process where a high momentum antiproton causes e + e - pair creation near a nucleus with the e + being captured by the antiproton. Antihydrogen is the first atom made exclusively of antimatter to be detected. The observation experiment's results are the first step towards an antihydrogen spectroscopy experiment which would measure the n = 2 Lamb shift and fine structure
Similarity flows in relativistic hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blaizot, J.P.; Ollitrault, J.Y.
1986-01-01
In ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, one expects in particular to observe a deconfinement transition leading to a formation of quark gluon plasma. In the framework of the hydrodynamic model, experimental signatures of such a plasma may be looked for as observable consequences of a first order transition on the evolution of the system. In most of the possible scenario, the phase transition is accompanied with discontinuities in the hydrodynamic flow, such as shock waves. The method presented in this paper has been developed to treat without too much numerical effort such discontinuous flow. It relies heavily on the use of similarity solutions of the hydrodynamic equations
Relativistic heavy ion facilities: worldwide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroeder, L.S.
1986-05-01
A review of relativistic heavy ion facilities which exist, are in a construction phase, or are on the drawing boards as proposals is presented. These facilities span the energy range from fixed target machines in the 1 to 2 GeV/nucleon regime, up to heavy ion colliders of 100 GeV/nucleon on 100 GeV/nucleon. In addition to specifying the general features of such machines, an outline of the central physics themes to be carried out at these facilities is given, along with a sampling of the detectors which will be used to extract the physics. 22 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs
Unlimited Relativistic Shock Surfing Acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ucer, D.; Shapiro, V. D.
2001-01-01
Nonrelativistic shock surfing acceleration at quasiperpendicular shocks is usually considered to be a preacceleration mechanism for slow pickup ions to initiate diffusive shock acceleration. In shock surfing, the particle accelerates along the shock front under the action of the convective electric field of the plasma flow. However, the particle also gains kinetic energy normal to the shock and eventually escapes downstream. We consider the case when ions are accelerated to relativistic velocities. In this case, the ions are likely to be trapped for infinitely long times, because the energy of bounce oscillations tends to decrease during acceleration. This suggests the possibility of unlimited acceleration by shock surfing
The magnetosphere in relativistic physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zapffe, C.A.
1982-01-01
The present paper takes off from the author's earlier epistemological analysis and criticism of the Special Theory of Relativity, identifies the problem as lying in Einstein's choice of the inertial frame of Newtonian mechanics rather than the electromagnetic frame of the locally embedding Maxwellian field when discussing electrodynamics, then proposes this Maxwellian field of the magnetosphere as the specific rest frame proper to all experimentation of optical or electromagnetic sort conducted within its bounds. The result is shown to remove all paradoxes from relativistic physics. (author)
Formation of stable, high-beta, relativistic-electron plasmas using electron cyclotron heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guest, G.E.; Miller, R.L.
1988-01-01
A one-dimensional, steady-state, relativistic Fokker-Planck model of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is used to analyse the heating kinetics underlying the formation of the two-component hot-electron plasmas characteristic of ECH in magnetic mirror configurations. The model is first applied to the well diagnosed plasmas obtained in SM-1 and is then used to simulate the effective generation of relativistic electrons by upper off-resonant heating (UORH), as demonstrated empirically in ELMO. The characteristics of unstable whistler modes and cyclotron maser modes are then determined for two-component hot-electron plasmas sustained by UORH. Cyclotron maser modes are shown to be strongly suppressed by the colder background electron species, while the growth rates of whistler modes are reduced by relativistic effects to levels that may render them unobservable, provided the hot-electron pressure anisotropy is below an energy dependent threshold. (author). 29 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab
Test of Relativistic Gravity for Propulsion at the Large Hadron Collider
Felber, Franklin
2010-01-01
A design is presented of a laboratory experiment that could test the suitability of relativistic gravity for propulsion of spacecraft to relativistic speeds. An exact time-dependent solution of Einstein's gravitational field equation confirms that even the weak field of a mass moving at relativistic speeds could serve as a driver to accelerate a much lighter payload from rest to a good fraction of the speed of light. The time-dependent field of ultrarelativistic particles in a collider ring is calculated. An experiment is proposed as the first test of the predictions of general relativity in the ultrarelativistic limit by measuring the repulsive gravitational field of bunches of protons in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The estimated `antigravity beam' signal strength at a resonant detector of each proton bunch is 3 nm/s2 for 2 ns during each revolution of the LHC. This experiment can be performed off-line, without interfering with the normal operations of the LHC.
Relativistic Quantum Transport in Graphene Systems
2015-07-09
dimensional Dirac material systems. 2 List of Publications 1. X. Ni, L. Huang, Y.-C. Lai, and L. M. Pecora, “Effect of chaos on relativistic quantum...development of relativistic quantum devices based on graphene or alternative two-dimensional Dirac material systems. In the project period, we studied
Relativistic calculations of coalescing binary neutron stars
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We have designed and tested a new relativistic Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, which treats gravity in the conformally flat approximation to general relativity. We have tested the resulting code extensively, finding that it performs well for calculations of equilibrium single-star models, collapsing relativistic dust clouds, and ...
Relativistic corrections to molecular dynamic dipole polarizabilities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirpekar, Sheela; Oddershede, Jens; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard
1995-01-01
obtained from the use of the Darwin and mass-velocity operators to first order are included at both levels of approximation. We find that correlation and relativistic contributions are not even approximately additive for the two molecules. The importance of the relativistic corrections is smallest...
A Primer to Relativistic MOND Theory
Bekenstein, J.D..; Sanders, R.H.
2005-01-01
Abstract: We first review the nonrelativistic lagrangian theory as a framework for the MOND equation. Obstructions to a relativistic version of it are discussed leading up to TeVeS, a relativistic tensor-vector-scalar field theory which displays both MOND and Newtonian limits. The whys for its
Relativistic astrophysics and theory of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zel'dovich, Ya.B.
1982-01-01
A brief historical review of the development of astrophysical science in the State Astrophysical Institute named after Shternberg (SAISh) has been given in a popular form. The main directions of the SAISh astrophysical investigations have been presented: relativistic theory of gravity, relativistic astrophysics of interplanetary medium and cosmology
Einstein Never Approved of Relativistic Mass
Hecht, Eugene
2009-01-01
During much of the 20th century it was widely believed that one of the significant insights of special relativity was "relativistic mass." Today there are two schools on that issue: the traditional view that embraces speed-dependent "relativistic mass," and the more modern position that rejects it, maintaining that there is only one mass and it's…
Random phase approximation in relativistic approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Zhongyu; Yang Ding; Tian Yuan; Cao Ligang
2009-01-01
Some special issues of the random phase approximation(RPA) in the relativistic approach are reviewed. A full consistency and proper treatment of coupling to the continuum are responsible for the successful application of the RPA in the description of dynamical properties of finite nuclei. The fully consistent relativistic RPA(RRPA) requires that the relativistic mean filed (RMF) wave function of the nucleus and the RRPA correlations are calculated in a same effective Lagrangian and the consistent treatment of the Dirac sea of negative energy states. The proper treatment of the single particle continuum with scattering asymptotic conditions in the RMF and RRPA is discussed. The full continuum spectrum can be described by the single particle Green's function and the relativistic continuum RPA is established. A separable form of the paring force is introduced in the relativistic quasi-particle RPA. (authors)
Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations
Zenitani, S.
2015-12-01
In order to study energetic plasma phenomena by using particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations, we need to deal with relativistic velocity distributions in these simulations. However, numerical algorithms to deal with relativistic distributions are not well known. In this contribution, we overview basic algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in PIC and Monte-Carlo simulations. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are newly proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are 50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.
Relativistic theory of spontaneous emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barut, A.O.; Salamin, Y.I.
1987-06-01
We derive a formula for the relativistic decay rates in atoms in a formulation of Quantum Electrodynamics based upon the electron's self energy. Relativistic Coulomb wavefunctions are used, the full spin calculation is carried out and the dipole approximation is not employed. The formula has the correct nonrelativistic limit and is used here for calculating the decay rates in Hydrogen and Muonium for the transitions 2P → 1S 1/2 and 2S 1/2 → 1S 1/2 . The results for Hydrogen are: Γ(2P → 1S 1/2 )=6.2649x10 8 s -1 and Γ(2S 1/2 → 1S 1/2 )=2.4946x10 -6 s -1 . Our result for the 2P → 1S 1/2 transition rate is in perfect agreement with the best nonrelativistic calculations as well as with the results obtained from the best known radiative decay lifetime measurements. As for the Hydrogen 2S 1/2 → 1S 1/2 decay rate, the result obtained here is also in good agreement with the best known magnetic dipole calculations. For Muonium we get: Γ(2P → 1S 1/2 )=6.2382x10 8 s -1 and Γ(2S 1/2 → 1S 1/2 )=2.3997x10 -6 s -1 . (author). 23 refs, 4 tabs
Physical processes in relativistic plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Svensson, R.
1984-01-01
The continuum emission in many active galactic nuclei (AGNs) extend to 100 keV and beyond (e.g. Rothschild et al. 1983). In thermal models of the continuum emission this implies temperatures above 10 9 K or kT of order mc 2 . In such a plasma the electrons are at least mildly relativistic and furthermore the particles and the photons are energetic enough to produce electron-positron pairs. The physics of such hot plasmas has only recently been studied in any detail and here we review the results of those studies. Significant electron-positron pair production may also occur in non-thermal models of the continuum emission if the optical depth to photon-photon pair production is greater than unity. We review the few results obtained regarding this interesting but not very well studied possibility. First, however, we briefly discuss the processes taking place in relativistic plasmas and the standard models for the continuum emission from AGNs. We then summarize the effects pair production have on these models and the observational implications of the presence of electron-positron pairs. (orig./WL)
24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment.
Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo
2016-09-30
Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.
Properties of hadronic matter near the phase transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn
2010-12-08
According to Hagedorn, hadrons should follow an exponential mass spectrum, which the known hadrons follow only up to masses of M{approx}2 GeV. Beyond this point the mass spectrum is flat, which indicates that there are ''missing'' hadrons, that could potentially contribute significantly to experimental observables. In this thesis I investigate the influence of these ''missing'' Hagedorn states on various experimental signatures of QGP. Strangeness enhancement is considered a signal for QGP because hadronic interactions (even including multi-mesonic reactions) underpredict the hadronic yields (especially for strange particles) at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC. We show here that the missing Hagedorn states provide extra degrees of freedom that can contribute to fast chemical equilibration times for a hadron gas. We develop a dynamical scheme in which possible Hagedorn states contribute to fast chemical equilibration times of X anti X pairs (where X=p, K, {lambda}, or {omega}) inside a hadron gas and just below the critical temperature. Within this scheme, we use master equations and derive various analytical estimates for the chemical equilibration times. Applying a Bjorken picture to the expanding fireball, the hadrons can, indeed, quickly chemically equilibrate for both an initial overpopulation or underpopulation of Hagedorn resonances. Our hadron resonance gas model, including the additional Hagedorn states, is used to obtain an upper bound on the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, {eta}/s, of hadronic matter near T{sub c} that is close to 1/(4/{pi}). We show how the measured particle ratios can be used to provide non-trivial information about T{sub c} of the QCD phase transition. This is obtained by including the effects of highly massive Hagedorn resonances on statistical models, which are generally used to describe hadronic yields. The inclusion of the ''missing'' Hagedorn states
Properties of hadronic matter near the phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn
2010-01-01
According to Hagedorn, hadrons should follow an exponential mass spectrum, which the known hadrons follow only up to masses of M∼2 GeV. Beyond this point the mass spectrum is flat, which indicates that there are ''missing'' hadrons, that could potentially contribute significantly to experimental observables. In this thesis I investigate the influence of these ''missing'' Hagedorn states on various experimental signatures of QGP. Strangeness enhancement is considered a signal for QGP because hadronic interactions (even including multi-mesonic reactions) underpredict the hadronic yields (especially for strange particles) at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC. We show here that the missing Hagedorn states provide extra degrees of freedom that can contribute to fast chemical equilibration times for a hadron gas. We develop a dynamical scheme in which possible Hagedorn states contribute to fast chemical equilibration times of X anti X pairs (where X=p, K, Λ, or Ω) inside a hadron gas and just below the critical temperature. Within this scheme, we use master equations and derive various analytical estimates for the chemical equilibration times. Applying a Bjorken picture to the expanding fireball, the hadrons can, indeed, quickly chemically equilibrate for both an initial overpopulation or underpopulation of Hagedorn resonances. Our hadron resonance gas model, including the additional Hagedorn states, is used to obtain an upper bound on the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, η/s, of hadronic matter near T c that is close to 1/(4/π). We show how the measured particle ratios can be used to provide non-trivial information about T c of the QCD phase transition. This is obtained by including the effects of highly massive Hagedorn resonances on statistical models, which are generally used to describe hadronic yields. The inclusion of the ''missing'' Hagedorn states creates a dependence of the thermal fits on the Hagedorn temperature, T H , and leads to a
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dumonteil, E
2004-09-01
Quantum Chromodynamics foresees, at high temperature and/or high energy density, a phase transition between hadronic matter and a phase where quarks and gluons are no more confined in the nucleons: the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). During the past fifteen years, a large experimental program has taken place at CERN and at BNL, to identify the QGP. ALICE is the LHC experiment dedicated to the study of the plasma via ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions at 2.75 TeV/nucleon per beam. The measure of Upsilon's resonances suppression, a powerful signature of a deconfined medium, with the ALICE dimuon spectrometer, is the main topic of this thesis. The first part of the work aims at studying the multi-wires pad chambers of the dimuon arm, used to track the muons from resonances decays. The second part presents an in-beam alignment algorithm able to calculate the positions of the different chambers with a very good accuracy. Finally, the last part proposes a study to lead with the ALICE muon spectrometer, involving the measure of Upsilon and Upsilon's production ratio as a function of the transverse momentum. It has been showed that this study should allow to evidence the QGP and to extract some of its properties. (author)
Thermodynamic laws and equipartition theorem in relativistic Brownian motion.
Koide, T; Kodama, T
2011-06-01
We extend the stochastic energetics to a relativistic system. The thermodynamic laws and equipartition theorem are discussed for a relativistic Brownian particle and the first and the second law of thermodynamics in this formalism are derived. The relation between the relativistic equipartition relation and the rate of heat transfer is discussed in the relativistic case together with the nature of the noise term.
Parton distribution in relativistic hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopeliovich, B.Z.; Lapidus, L.I.; Zamolodchikov, Al.B.
1979-01-01
The distribution in the slow-parton number in the relativistic hadron is considered as a function of its rapidity (y). Neglecting corrections due to the tarton chain recombination the equation is derived and its explicit solution is found. It describes this distribution depending on the initial distribution at y approximately 1. Comparison with the reggeon diagrams results in relations between the parton model and the regaeon field theory parameters. The interpretation of the cutting rules in the framework of the parton model is presented. The numerical estimation of the parton model parameters is performed. It is shown that the slow-parton density corresponding to accessible energies seems to be close to the saturated density. Therefore, the enhanced graphs contributions turn out to be of considerable importance
Relativistic three-particle theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hochauser, S.
1979-01-01
In keeping with recent developments in experimental nuclear physics, a formalism is developed to treat interactions between three relativistic nuclear particles. The concept of unitarity and a simple form of analyticity are used to construct coupled, integral, Faddeev-type equations and, with the help of analytic separable potentials, these are cast in simple, one-dimensional form. Energy-dependent potentials are introduced so as to take into account the sign-change of some phase shifts in the nucleon-nucleon interaction and parameters for these potentials are obtained. With regard to the success of such local potentials as the Yukawa potential, a recently developed method for expanding these in separable form is discussed. Finally, a new method for the numerical integration of the Faddeev equations along the real axis is introduced, thus avoiding the traditional need for contour rotations into the complex plane. (author)
Injection and laser acceleration of ions based on the resonant surface photoionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antsiferov, V.V.; Smirnov, G.I.; Telegin, G.G.
1993-01-01
The collective effects have been investigated of the injection and acceleration of the ion beams due to the resonant surface photoionization. The considered scheme of the laser accelerator allows to obtain positive ions with relativistic velocities. 11 refs., 2 figs
Relativistic thermodynamics of Fluids. l
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Havas, P.; Swenson, R.J.
1979-01-01
In 1953, Stueckelberg and Wanders derived the basic laws of relativistic linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics for chemically reacting fluids from the relativistic local conservation laws for energy-momentum and the local laws of production of substances and of nonnegative entropy production by the requirement that the corresponding currents (assumed to depend linearly on the derivatives of the state variables) should not be independent. Generalizing their method, we determine the most general allowed form of the energy-momentum tensor T/sup alphabeta/ and of the corresponding rate of entropy production under the same restriction on the currents. The problem of expressing this rate in terms of thermodynamic forces and fluxes is discussed in detail; it is shown that the number of independent forces is not uniquely determined by the theory, and seven possibilities are explored. A number of possible new cross effects are found, all of which persist in the Newtonian (low-velocity) limit. The treatment of chemical reactions is incorporated into the formalism in a consistent manner, resulting in a derivation of the law for rate of production, and in relating this law to transport processes differently than suggested previously. The Newtonian limit is discussed in detail to establish the physical interpretation of the various terms of T/sup alphabeta/. In this limit, the interpretation hinges on that of the velocity field characterizing the fluid. If it is identified with the average matter velocity following from a consideration of the number densities, the usual local conservation laws of Newtonian nonequilibrium thermodynamics are obtained, including that of mass. However, a slightly different identification allows conversion of mass into energy even in this limit, and thus a macroscopic treatment of nuclear or elementary particle reactions. The relation of our results to previous work is discussed in some detail
Relativistic klystron research for linear colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Hoag, H.A.; Koontz, R.F.; Lavine, T.L.; Lee, T.G.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.; Morton, P.L.; Palmer, R.B.; Paterson, J.M.; Ruth, R.D.; Schwarz, H.D.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wilson, P.B.
1989-01-01
Relativistic klystrons are being developed as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications which include large linear electron-positron colliders, compact accelerators, and FEL sources. The authors have attained 200 MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. In this paper the authors report on the design of our relativistic klystrons, the results of our experiments so far, and some of our plans for the near future
Relativistic klystron research for linear colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Herrmannesfeldt, W.B.; Higo, T.; Hoag, H.A.; Koontz, R.F.; Lavine, T.L.; Lee, T.G.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.; Morton, P.L.; Palmer, R.B.; Paterson, J.M.; Ruth, R.D.; Schwarz, H.D.; Takeuchi, Y.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, J.W.; Wilson, P.B.; Hopkins, D.B.; Sessler, A.M.; Ryne, R.D.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.
1989-01-01
Relativistic klystrons are being developed as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications which include large linear electron-positron colliders, compact accelerators, and FEL sources. The authors have attained 200MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. They report here on the design of our relativistic klystrons, the results of our experiments so far, and some of our plans for the near future. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab
New derivation of relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaiswal, Amaresh; Bhalerao, Rajeev S.; Pal, Subrata
2012-01-01
Relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics has been quite successful in explaining the spectra and azimuthal anisotropy of particles produced in heavy-ion collisions at the RHIC and recently at the LHC. The first-order dissipative fluid dynamics or the relativistic Navier-Stokes (NS) theory involves parabolic differential equations and suffers from a causality and instability. The second-order or Israel-Stewart (IS) theory with its hyperbolic equations restores causality but may not guarantee stability. The correct formulation of relativistic viscous fluid dynamics is far from settled and is under intense investigation
Relativistic Theory of Few Body Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Franz Gross
2002-11-01
Very significant advances have been made in the relativistic theory of few body systems since I visited Peter Sauer and his group in Hannover in 1983. This talk provides an opportunity to review the progress in this field since then. Different methods for the relativistic calculation of few nucleon systems are briefly described. As an example, seven relativistic calculations of the deuteron elastic structure functions, A, B, and T{sub 20}, are compared. The covariant SPECTATOR {copyright} theory, among the more successful and complete of these methods, is described in more detail.
Penetration of relativistic heavy ions through matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheidenberger, C.; Geissel, H.
1997-07-01
New heavy-ion accelerators covering the relativistic and ultra-relativistic energy regime allow to study atomic collisions with bare and few-electron projectiles. High-resolution magnetic spectrometers are used for precise stopping-power and energy-loss straggling measurements. Refined theories beyond the Born approximation have been developed and are confirmed by experiments. This paper summarizes the large progress in the understanding of relativistic heavy-ion penetration through matter, which has been achieved in the last few years. (orig.)
Relativistic klystron research for linear colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.
1988-09-01
Relativistic klystrons are being developed as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications which include large linear electron-positron colliders, compact accelerators, and FEL sources. We have attained 200 MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. We report here on the design of our relativistic klystrons, the results of our experiments so far, and some of our plans for the near future. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab
Whispering gallery effect in relativistic optics
Abe, Y.; Law, K. F. F.; Korneev, Ph.; Fujioka, S.; Kojima, S.; Lee, S.-H.; Sakata, S.; Matsuo, K.; Oshima, A.; Morace, A.; Arikawa, Y.; Yogo, A.; Nakai, M.; Norimatsu, T.; d'Humières, E.; Santos, J. J.; Kondo, K.; Sunahara, A.; Gus'kov, S.; Tikhonchuk, V.
2018-03-01
relativistic laser pulse, confined in a cylindrical-like target, under specific conditions may perform multiple scattering along the internal target surface. This results in the confinement of the laser light, leading to a very efficient interaction. The demonstrated propagation of the laser pulse along the curved surface is just yet another example of the "whispering gallery" effect, although nonideal due to laser-plasma coupling. In the relativistic domain its important feature is a gradual intensity decrease, leading to changes in the interaction conditions. The proccess may pronounce itself in plenty of physical phenomena, including very efficient electron acceleration and generation of relativistic magnetized plasma structures.
Holographic Aspects of a Relativistic Nonconformal Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chanyong Park
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We study a general D-dimensional Schwarzschild-type black brane solution of the Einstein-dilaton theory and derive, by using the holographic renormalization, its thermodynamics consistent with the geometric results. Using the membrane paradigm, we calculate the several hydrodynamic transport coefficients and compare them with the results obtained by the Kubo formula, which shows the self-consistency of the gauge/gravity duality in the relativistic nonconformal theory. In order to understand more about the relativistic non-conformal theory, we further investigate the binding energy, drag force, and holographic entanglement entropy of the relativistic non-conformal theory.
The de Sitter relativistic top theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armenta, J.; Nieto, J.A.
2005-01-01
We discuss the relativistic top theory from the point of view of the de Sitter (or anti-de Sitter) group. Our treatment rests on the Hanson-Regge spherical relativistic top Lagrangian formulation. We propose an alternative method for studying spinning objects via Kaluza-Klein theory. In particular, we derive the relativistic top equations of motion starting with the geodesic equation for a point particle in 4+N dimensions. We compare our approach with Fukuyama's formulation of spinning objects, which is also based on Kaluza-Klein theory. We also report a generalization of our approach to a 4+N+D dimensional theory
The ionisation equation in a relativistic gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kichenassamy, S.; Krikorian, R.A.
1983-01-01
By deriving the relativistic form of the ionisation equation for a perfect gas it is shown that the usual Saha equation is valid to 3% for temperatures below one hundred million Kelvin. Beyond 10 9 K, the regular Saha equation is seriously incorrect and a relativistic distribution function for electrons must be taken into account. Approximate forms are derived when only the electrons are relativistic (appropriate up to 10 12 K) and also for the ultrarelativistic case (temperatures greater than 10 15 K). (author)
On the physics of relativistic double layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlqvist, P.
1982-06-01
A model of a strong, time-independent, and relativistic double layer is studied. Besides double layers having the electric field parallel to the current the model also describes a certain type of oblique double layers. The 'Langmuir condition' (ratio of ion current density to electron current density) as well as an expression for the potential drop of the double layer are derived. Furthermore, the distribution of charged particles, electric field, and potential within the double layer are clarified and discussed. It is found that the properties of relativistic double layers differ substantially from the properties of corresponding non-relativistic double layers. (Author)
Local density approximations for relativistic exchange energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
MacDonald, A.H.
1986-01-01
The use of local density approximations to approximate exchange interactions in relativistic electron systems is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the physical content of these exchange energies by discussing results for the uniform relativistic electron gas from a new point of view. Work on applying these local density approximations in atoms and solids is reviewed and it is concluded that good accuracy is usually possible provided self-interaction corrections are applied. The local density approximations necessary for spin-polarized relativistic systems are discussed and some new results are presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milant'ev, V.P.
1996-01-01
It is shown that within the transverse or the longitudinal wave propagating at the angle to the magnetic field there is a specific mode of motion of relativistic particle called as a synchronous one where the condition of a particle resonance with the wave is realized with increasing accuracy with increase of particle energy. A trend to the unlimited acceleration is detected in a synchronous mode of the Cherenkov resonance. 21 refs
Electronic structure of FeTiSb using relativistic and scalar-relativistic approaches
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sahariya, Jagrati [Department of Physics, Manipal University Jaipur, Jaipur-303007, Rajasthan (India); Mund, H. S., E-mail: hmoond@gmail.com [Department of Physics, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur-313001, Rajasthan (India)
2016-05-06
Electronic and magnetic properties of FeTiSb have been reported. The calculations are performed using spin polarized relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker scheme based on Green’s function method. Within SPR-KKR a fully relativistic and scalar-relativistic approaches have been used to investigate electronic structure of FeTiSb. Energy bands, total and partial density of states, atom specific magnetic moment along with total moment of FeTiSb alloys are presented.
The Wigner function in the relativistic quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kowalski, K., E-mail: kowalski@uni.lodz.pl; Rembieliński, J.
2016-12-15
A detailed study is presented of the relativistic Wigner function for a quantum spinless particle evolving in time according to the Salpeter equation. - Highlights: • We study the Wigner function for a quantum spinless relativistic particle. • We discuss the relativistic Wigner function introduced by Zavialov and Malokostov. • We introduce relativistic Wigner function based on the standard definition. • We find analytic expressions for relativistic Wigner functions.
New relativistic generalization of the Heisenberg commutation relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bohm, A.; Loewe, M.; Magnollay, P.; Tarlini, M.; Aldinger, R.R.; Kielanowski, P.
1984-01-01
A relativistic generalization of the Heisenberg commutation relations is suggested which is different from the conventional ones used for the intrinsic coordinates and momenta in the relativistic oscillator model and the relativistic string. This new quantum relativistic oscillator model is determined by the requirement that it gives a unified description of relativistic vibrations and rotations and contracts in the nonrelativistic limit c -1 →0 into the usual nonrelativistic harmonic oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pivovarov, Yu.L.; Shirokov, A.A.; Vorobiev, S.A.
1990-01-01
The energy dependence of electromagnetic excitation and electromagnetic disintegration cross sections for relativistic nuclei passing through crystals is investigated both theoretically and by means of computer simulation. For electromagnetic excitation, resonant peaks are found at definite energy values. An increase of electromagnetic excitation and disintegration cross sections in crystals at very high energies is found to be due to coherent addition of amplitudes. Numerical results are presented for the electric dipole excitation of fluorine nuclei and electromagnetic deuteron disintegration. (orig.)
A unified treatment of the non-relativistic and relativistic hydrogen atom: Pt. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swainson, R.A.; Drake, G.W.F.
1991-01-01
This is the second in a series of three papers in which it is shown how the radial part of non-relativistic and relativistic hydrogenic bound-state calculations involving the Green functions can be presented in a unified manner. In this paper the non-relativistic Green function is examined in detail; new functional forms are presented and a clear mathematical progression is show to link these and most other known forms. A linear transformation of the four radial parts of the relativistic Green function is given which allows for the presentation of this function as a simple generalization of the non-relativistic Green function. Thus, many properties of the non-relativistic Green function are shown to have simple relativistic generalizations. In particular, new recursion relations of the radial parts of both the non-relativistic and relativistic Green functions are presented, along with new expressions for the double Laplace transforms and recursion relations between the radial matrix elements. (author)
Time Operator in Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
Khorasani, Sina
2017-07-01
It is first shown that the Dirac’s equation in a relativistic frame could be modified to allow discrete time, in agreement to a recently published upper bound. Next, an exact self-adjoint 4 × 4 relativistic time operator for spin-1/2 particles is found and the time eigenstates for the non-relativistic case are obtained and discussed. Results confirm the quantum mechanical speculation that particles can indeed occupy negative energy levels with vanishingly small but non-zero probablity, contrary to the general expectation from classical physics. Hence, Wolfgang Pauli’s objection regarding the existence of a self-adjoint time operator is fully resolved. It is shown that using the time operator, a bosonic field referred here to as energons may be created, whose number state representations in non-relativistic momentum space can be explicitly found.
On quantization of relativistic string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isaev, A.P.
1982-01-01
Quantization of the relativistic string theory based on methods of the constrained Hamiltonian systems quantization is considered. Connections of this approach and Polyakov's quantization are looked. New representation of a loop heat kernel is obtained
Fourth sound in relativistic superfluidity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vil'chinskij, S.I.; Fomin, P.I.
1995-01-01
The Lorentz-covariant equations describing propagation of the fourth sound in the relativistic theory of superfluidity are derived. The expressions for the velocity of the fourth sound are obtained. The character of oscillation in sound is determined
Relativistic Boltzmann theory for a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erkelens, H. van.
1984-01-01
This thesis gives a self-contained treatment of the relativistic Boltzmann theory for a plasma. Here plasma means any mixture containing electrically charged particles. The relativistic Boltzmann equation is linearized for the case of a plasma. The Chapman-Enskog method is elaborated further for transport phenomena. Linear laws for viscous phenomena are derived. Then the collision term in the Boltzmann theory is dealt with. Using the transport equation, a kinetic theory of wave phenomena is developed and the dissipation of hydromagnetic waves in a relativistic plasma is investigated. In the final chapter, it is demonstrated how the relativistic Boltzmann theory can be applied in cosmology. In doing so, expressions are derived for the electric conductivity of the cosmological plasma in the lepton era, the plasma era and the annihilation era. (Auth.)
Relativistic nuclear physics and quantum chromodynamics. Abstracts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1994-01-01
The data of investigations on problems of high energy physics are given. Special attention pays to quantum chromodynamics at large distances, cumulative processes, multiquark states and relativistic nuclear collisions
Hot relativistic winds and the Crab nebula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujimura, F.S.; Kennel, C.F.
1981-01-01
Efforts are reviewed to construct a self-consistent model of pulsar magnetospheres that links the particle source near the pulsar to the outflowing relativistic wind and couples the wind to the surrounding nebula. (Auth.)
ULTRA-RELATIVISTIC NUCLEI: A NEW FRONTIER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
MCLERRAN, L.
1999-01-01
The collisions of ultra-relativistic nuclei provide a window on the behavior of strong interactions at asymptotically high energies. They also will allow the authors to study the bulk properties of hadronic matter at very high densities
Spin resonance strength calculation through single particle tracking for RHIC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dutheil, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
2015-05-03
The strengths of spin resonances for the polarized-proton operation in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider are currently calculated with the code DEPOL, which numerically integrates through the ring based on an analytical approximate formula. In this article, we test a new way to calculate the spin resonance strengths by performing Fourier transformation to the actual transverse magnetic fields seen by a single particle traveling through the ring. Comparison of calculated spin resonance strengths is made between this method and DEPOL.
Simulation study of resonant reflector for S-band BWO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choyal, Y; Parmar, Nidhi; Saini, Ajay Kumar; Chhotray, S K; Bhat, K S; Kumar, Lalit
2012-01-01
This paper presents the result of simulation studies of resonant reflector used for reflection of backward wave in relativistic BWO. The resonant reflector is modelled and analyzed by CST MWS for TM 01 . A TM 01 mode is fed at the output end of the BWO and signal is observed at the cathode end. Results show that 90 percent of the backward TM 01 wave is get reflected back by the locked TM 02 mode in the resonant reflector.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robin, Caroline; Litvinova, Elena [Western Michigan University, Department of Physics, Kalamazoo, MI (United States)
2016-07-15
A new theoretical approach to spin-isospin excitations in open-shell nuclei is presented. The developed method is based on the relativistic meson-exchange nuclear Lagrangian of Quantum Hadrodynamics and extends the response theory for superfluid nuclear systems beyond relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation in the proton-neutron channel (pn-RQRPA). The coupling between quasiparticle degrees of freedom and collective vibrations (phonons) introduces a time-dependent effective interaction, in addition to the exchange of pion and ρ-meson taken into account without retardation. The time-dependent contributions are treated in the resonant time-blocking approximation, in analogy to the previously developed relativistic quasiparticle time-blocking approximation (RQTBA) in the neutral (non-isospin-flip) channel. The new method is called proton-neutron RQTBA (pn-RQTBA) and is applied to the Gamow-Teller resonance in a chain of neutron-rich nickel isotopes {sup 68-78}Ni. A strong fragmentation of the resonance along with quenching of the strength, as compared to pn-RQRPA, is obtained. Based on the calculated strength distribution, beta-decay half-lives of the considered isotopes are computed and compared to pn-RQRPA half-lives and to experimental data. It is shown that a considerable improvement of the half-life description is obtained in pn-RQTBA because of the spreading effects, which bring the lifetimes to a very good quantitative agreement with data. (orig.)
Non-geometrical optics investigation of mode conversion in weakly relativistic inhomogeneous plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imre, K.
1985-06-01
Electron cyclotron resonance heating of plasmas by waves incident to the fundamental and second harmonic layer is investigated. When the wave propagation is nearly perpendicular to the equilibrium field in a weakly inhomogeneous plasma the standard geometrical optics breaks down and the relativistic corrections become significant at the resonance layer. Unlike the previous studies of this problem, the governing equations are derived from the linearized relativistic Vlasov equation coupled with Maxwell's equations, rather than using the uniform field dispersion relation to construct equations by replacing the refractive index by some spatial differential operations. We employ a boundary layer analysis at the resonance region and match the inner and outer solutions in the usual manner. We obtain not only the full wave solution of the problem, but also the set of physical parameters and their ranges in which the analysis is valid. Although we obtain analytic results for the asymptotic solutions, our analysis usually requires a numerical procedure when the relativistic and/or nonzero parallel refractive index are included
Summary of the relativistic heavy ion sessions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harris, J.W.
1988-01-01
The topics covered in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Sessions span four orders of magnitude in energy in the laboratory and a few more in theory. In the two years since the last Intersections conference, experiments in the field of very high energy heavy ion research have begun at CERN and Brookhaven. The prime motivation for these experiments is the possibility of forming quark matter. This paper is a review of the topics covered in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Sessions
Relativistic charged fluids: hydrodynamic and kinetic approaches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Debbasch, F.; Bonnaud, G.
1991-10-01
This report gives a rigorous and consistent hydrodynamic and kinetic description of a charged fluid and the basis equations, in a relativistic context. This study should lead to a reliable model, as much analytical as numerical, of relativistic plasmas which will appear in the interaction of a strong laser field with a plasma. For simplicity, we limited our study to a perfect fluid or, in other words, we disregarded the energy dissipation processes inside the fluid [fr
On the convexity of relativistic hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibáñez, José M; Martí, José M; Cordero-Carrión, Isabel; Miralles, Juan A
2013-01-01
The relativistic hydrodynamic system of equations for a perfect fluid obeying a causal equation of state is hyperbolic (Anile 1989 Relativistic Fluids and Magneto-Fluids (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)). In this report, we derive the conditions for this system to be convex in terms of the fundamental derivative of the equation of state (Menikoff and Plohr1989 Rev. Mod. Phys. 61 75). The classical limit is recovered. Communicated by L Rezzolla (note)
Chiral quark model with relativistic kinematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcilazo, H.; Valcarce, A.
2003-01-01
The nonstrange baryon spectrum is studied within a three-body model that incorporates relativistic kinematics. We found that the combined effect of relativistic kinematics together with the pion exchange between quarks is able to reverse the order of the first positive- and negative-parity nucleon excited states as observed experimentally. Including the chiral partner of the pion (the σ meson) leads to an overall good description of the spectrum
Chiral quark model with relativistic kinematics
Garcilazo, H.; Valcarce, A.
2003-01-01
The non-strange baryon spectrum is studied within a three-body model that incorporates relativistic kinematics. We found that the combined effect of relativistic kinematics together with the pion exchange between quarks is able to reverse the order of the first positive- and negative-parity nucleon excited states as observed experimentally. Including the chiral partner of the pion (the $\\sigma$ meson) leads to an overall good description of the spectrum.
Limits and signatures of relativistic spaceflight
Yurtsever, Ulvi; Wilkinson, Steven
2018-01-01
While special relativity imposes an absolute speed limit at the speed of light, our Universe is not empty Minkowski spacetime. The constituents that fill the interstellar/intergalactic vacuum, including the cosmic microwave background photons, impose a lower speed limit on any object travelling at relativistic velocities. Scattering of cosmic microwave photons from an ultra-relativistic object may create radiation with a characteristic signature allowing the detection of such objects at large distances.
Relativistic klystron research at SLAC and LLNL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.
1988-06-01
We are developing relativistic klystrons as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications such as large linear electron-positron colliders and compact accelerators. We have attained 200 MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. We report here briefly on our experiments so far. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab
Fundamental laws of relativistic classical dynamics revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blaquiere, Augustin
1977-01-01
By stating that a linear differential form, whose coefficients are the components of the momentum and the energy of a particle, has an antiderivative, the basic equations of the dynamics of points are obtained, in the relativistic case. From the point of view of optimization theory, a connection between our condition and the Bellman-Isaacs equation of dynamic programming is discussed, with a view to extending the theory to relativistic wave mechanics [fr
Dechanneling function for relativistic axially channeled electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muralev, V.A.; Telegin, V.I.
1981-01-01
Behaviour of the x(t) dechanneling function depending on the depth is theoretically studied. Theoretical consideration of x(t) for axial channeled relativistic electrons in anisotropic medium results in two-dimensional kinetic equation with mixed derivatives of the parabolic type. The kinetic equation in the approximation of the continuous Lindchard model for relativistic axial channeled electrons is numerically solved. The depth dependence of the x(t) dechanneling function is obtained [ru
Relativistic positioning systems: Numerical simulations
Puchades Colmenero, Neus
The position of users located on the Earth's surface or near it may be found with the classic positioning systems (CPS). Certain information broadcast by satellites of global navigation systems, as GPS and GALILEO, may be used for positioning. The CPS are based on the Newtonian formalism, although relativistic post-Newtonian corrections are done when they are necessary. This thesis contributes to the development of a different positioning approach, which is fully relativistic from the beginning. In the relativistic positioning systems (RPS), the space-time position of any user (ship, spacecraft, and so on) can be calculated with the help of four satellites, which broadcast their proper times by means of codified electromagnetic signals. In this thesis, we have simulated satellite 4-tuples of the GPS and GALILEO constellations. If a user receives the signals from four satellites simultaneously, the emission proper times read -after decoding- are the user "emission coordinates". In order to find the user "positioning coordinates", in an appropriate almost inertial reference system, there are two possibilities: (a) the explicit relation between positioning and emission coordinates (broadcast by the satellites) is analytically found or (b) numerical codes are designed to calculate the positioning coordinates from the emission ones. Method (a) is only viable in simple ideal cases, whereas (b) allows us to consider realistic situations. In this thesis, we have designed numerical codes with the essential aim of studying two appropriate RPS, which may be generalized. Sometimes, there are two real users placed in different positions, which receive the same proper times from the same satellites; then, we say that there is bifurcation, and additional data are needed to choose the real user position. In this thesis, bifurcation is studied in detail. We have analyzed in depth two RPS models; in both, it is considered that the satellites move in the Schwarzschild's space
Relativistic gas in a Schwarzschild metric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kremer, Gilberto M
2013-01-01
A relativistic gas in a Schwarzschild metric is studied within the framework of a relativistic Boltzmann equation in the presence of gravitational fields, where Marle’s model for the collision operator of the Boltzmann equation is employed. The transport coefficients of the bulk and shear viscosities and thermal conductivity are determined from the Chapman–Enskog method. It is shown that the transport coefficients depend on the gravitational potential. Expressions for the transport coefficients in the presence of weak gravitational fields in the non-relativistic (low temperature) and ultra-relativistic (high temperature) limiting cases are given. Apart from the temperature gradient the heat flux has two relativistic terms. The first one, proposed by Eckart, is due to the inertia of energy and represents an isothermal heat flux when matter is accelerated. The other, suggested by Tolman, is proportional to the gravitational potential gradient and indicates that—in the absence of an acceleration field—a state of equilibrium of a relativistic gas in a gravitational field can be attained only if the temperature gradient is counterbalanced by a gravitational potential gradient. (paper)
A Comprehensive Comparison of Relativistic Particle Integrators
Ripperda, B.; Bacchini, F.; Teunissen, J.; Xia, C.; Porth, O.; Sironi, L.; Lapenta, G.; Keppens, R.
2018-03-01
We compare relativistic particle integrators commonly used in plasma physics, showing several test cases relevant for astrophysics. Three explicit particle pushers are considered, namely, the Boris, Vay, and Higuera–Cary schemes. We also present a new relativistic fully implicit particle integrator that is energy conserving. Furthermore, a method based on the relativistic guiding center approximation is included. The algorithms are described such that they can be readily implemented in magnetohydrodynamics codes or Particle-in-Cell codes. Our comparison focuses on the strengths and key features of the particle integrators. We test the conservation of invariants of motion and the accuracy of particle drift dynamics in highly relativistic, mildly relativistic, and non-relativistic settings. The methods are compared in idealized test cases, i.e., without considering feedback onto the electrodynamic fields, collisions, pair creation, or radiation. The test cases include uniform electric and magnetic fields, {\\boldsymbol{E}}× {\\boldsymbol{B}} fields, force-free fields, and setups relevant for high-energy astrophysics, e.g., a magnetic mirror, a magnetic dipole, and a magnetic null. These tests have direct relevance for particle acceleration in shocks and in magnetic reconnection.
Response of a relativistic quantum magnetized electron gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melrose, Donald B; Weise, Jeanette I
2009-01-01
The response 4-tensor is derived for a spin-independent, relativistic magnetized quantum electron gas. The sum over spins is carried out both directly and using a procedure due to Ritus. The 4-tensor components are written in terms of a sum over the two solutions of the resonance condition for the particle 4-momentum. It is shown that the dispersive properties may be described in terms of a single plasma dispersion function, for arbitrary occupation numbers for electrons and positrons in each Landau level. The plasma dispersion function is evaluated explicitly in the completely degenerate and nondegenerate thermal limits. The perpendicular wave number appears in the arguments of J-functions, which are proportional to generalized Laguerre polynomials, but not in the plasma dispersion function. The result generalizes a known form for the response tensor for parallel propagation (in the completely degenerate case), when the J-functions are either zero or unity, to arbitrary angles of propagation.
Self-consistent, relativistic, ferromagnetic band structure of gadolinium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harmon, B.N.; Schirber, J.; Koelling, D.D.
1977-01-01
An initial self-consistent calculation of the ground state magnetic band structure of gadolinium is described. A linearized APW method was used which included all single particle relativistic effects except spin-orbit coupling. The spin polarized potential was obtained in the muffin-tin form using the local spin density approximation for exchange and correlation. The most striking and unorthodox aspect of the results is the position of the 4f spin-down ''bands'' which are required to float just on top of the Fermi level in order to obtain convergence. If the 4f states (l = 3 resonance) are removed from the occupied region of the conduction bands the magnetic moment is approximately .75 μ/sub B//atom; however, as the 4f spin-down states are allowed to find their own position they hybridize with the conduction bands at the Fermi level and the moment becomes smaller. Means of improving the calculation are discussed
High-harmonic relativistic gyrotron as an alternative to FEL
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bratman, V L; Kalynov, Yu K; Kolganov, N G; Manuilov, V N; Ofitserov, M M; Samsonov, S V; Volkov, A B [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applid Physics
1997-12-31
A submillimeter wave gyrotron operating at moderately relativistic electron energies of 200-300 keV is proposed as a simple alternative to FEL. It is shown that high pulsed magnetic fields of 20-30 T and selective excitation of separate modes for resonances up to the 5-7 th harmonics will make it possible to obtain in a single device the coherent radiation with broadband frequency step tuning within the whole submillimeter wavelength range. At large pitch angles the coupling of the electron beam with cavity modes at higher harmonics should be as strong as at the fundamental one. In order to check the theoretical predictions, two gyrotrons were designed: LOG-1 (250 kV, 10 A, 10 ms) with a thermionic emission cathode and LOG-2 (350 kV, 35 A, 20 ns) with an explosive emission cathode. (J.U.). 7 refs.
Microwave oscillator with 'whispering gallery' resonator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirichenko, A.Ya.; Prokopenko, Yu.V.; Filippov, Yu.F.; Lonin, Yu.F.; Papkovich, V.G.; Ponomarev, A.G.; Prokopenko, Yu.V.; Uvarov, V.T.
2010-01-01
It was presented researches of a generation of microwave radiation into system with azimuthally periodical relativistic electron beam current that excites a high-Q quasi-optical dielectric resonator. The Eigen parameters of cylindrical Teflon resonator were determined by numerical computation. Registration of the microwave radiation realizes by a crystal set of 8-mm wavelength range. Research projects of microwave oscillators with high-Q resonators, in which 'whispering gallery' oscillations are excited by an electron flow, are presented. Multiresonator oscillators ideology is based on principles of microwave generation in klystrons with both subcritical and supercritical electron beams currents.
Relativistic mechanics, time and inertia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kilmister, C.W.; Tocaci, E.
1985-01-01
This book offers a thought-provoking approach to the fundamentals of relativity, and is structured to provide a clear-cut introduction to the essentials of relativistic mechanics. It seeks to emphasize the sensible content of concepts, to improve on their inherent or often forgotten fuzziness, and to explore prospects for their further exploitation. The work also provides an analysis conducive to a rigorous, normative definition of Time, which is seen as a synthesis of universal motion, instrumental in defining a general measure to transformations, and as a sufficient reason to suppose that the speed of light must be the same in all inertial reference frames - hence showing this cardinal postulate to be a demonstrable truth. Moreover it provides an augmented perception of what inertial vs. non-inertial systems are. In addition, the book offers a natural, time-like interpretation of Space that departs from the usual converse approach; it offers a self-consistent proposal to rationalize the axiomatic grounds of mechanics, based on a single postulate in conjunction with the overall approach developed. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs
Canonical formalism for relativistic dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penafiel-Nava, V.M.
1982-01-01
The possibility of a canonical formalism appropriate for a dynamical theory of isolated relativistic multiparticle systems involving scalar interactions is studied. It is shown that a single time-parameter structure satisfying the requirements of Poincare invariance and simultaneity of the constituents (global tranversality) can not be derived from a homogeneous Lagrangian. The dynamics is deduced initially from a non-homogeneous but singular Lagrangian designed to accommodate the global tranversality constraints with the equaltime plane associated to the total momentum of the system. An equivalent standard Lagrangian is used to generalize the parametrization procedure which is referred to an arbitrary geodesic in Minkowski space. The equations of motion and the definition of center of momentum are invariant with respect to the choice of geodesic and the entire formalism becomes separable. In the original 8N-dimensional phase-space, the symmetries of the Lagrangian give rise to a canonical realization of a fifteen-generator Lie algebra which is projected in the 6N dimensional hypersurface of dynamical motions. The time-component of the total momentum is thus reduced to a neutral element and the canonical Hamiltonian survives as the only generator for time-translations so that the no-interaction theorem becomes inapplicable
Relativistic many-body theory of atomic transitions. The relativistic equation-of-motion approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, K.
1982-01-01
An equation-of-motion approach is used to develop the relativistic many-body theory of atomic transitions. The relativistic equations of motion for transition matrices are formulated with the use of techniques of quantum-field theory. To reduce the equations of motion to a tractable form which is appropriate for numerical calculations, a graphical method to resolve the complication arising from the antisymmetrization and angular-momentum coupling is employed. The relativistic equation-of-motion method allows an ab initio treatment of correlation and relativistic effects in both closed- and open-shell many-body systems. A special case of the present formulation reduces to the relativistic random-phase approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lusanna, Luca
2011-01-01
After a review of the problems induced by the Lorentz signature of Minkowski space-time, like the need of a clock synchronization convention for the definition of 3-space and the complexity of the notion of relativistic center of mass, there is the introduction of a new formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics compatible with the theory of relativistic bound states. In it the zeroth postulate of non-relativistic quantum mechanics is not valid and the physics is described in the rest frame by a Hilbert space containing only relative variables. The non-locality of the Poincare' generators imply a kinematical non-locality and non-separability influencing the theory of relativistic entanglement and not connected with the standard quantum non-locality.
Compression-amplified EMIC waves and their effects on relativistic electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, L. Y.; Yu, J.; Cao, J. B.; Yuan, Z. G.
2016-01-01
During enhancement of solar wind dynamic pressure, we observe the periodic emissions of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves near the nightside geosynchronous orbit (6.6R E ). In the hydrogen and helium bands, the different polarized EMIC waves have different influences on relativistic electrons (>0.8 MeV). The flux of relativistic electrons is relatively stable if there are only the linearly polarized EMIC waves, but their flux decreases if the left-hand polarized (L-mode) EMIC waves are sufficiently amplified (power spectral density (PSD) ≥ 1 nT 2 /Hz). The larger-amplitude L-mode waves can cause more electron losses. In contrast, the R-mode EMIC waves are very weak (PSD < 1 nT 2 /Hz) during the electron flux dropouts; thus, their influence may be ignored here. During the electron flux dropouts, the relativistic electron precipitation is observed by POES satellite near the foot point (∼850 km) of the wave emission region. The quasi-linear simulation of wave-particle interactions indicates that the L-mode EMIC waves can cause the rapid precipitation loss of relativistic electrons, especially when the initial resonant electrons have a butterfly-like pitch angle distribution.
Compression-amplified EMIC waves and their effects on relativistic electrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, L. Y., E-mail: lyli-ssri@buaa.edu.cn; Yu, J.; Cao, J. B. [School of Space and Environment, Beihang University, Beijing (China); Yuan, Z. G. [School of Electronic Information, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)
2016-06-15
During enhancement of solar wind dynamic pressure, we observe the periodic emissions of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves near the nightside geosynchronous orbit (6.6R{sub E}). In the hydrogen and helium bands, the different polarized EMIC waves have different influences on relativistic electrons (>0.8 MeV). The flux of relativistic electrons is relatively stable if there are only the linearly polarized EMIC waves, but their flux decreases if the left-hand polarized (L-mode) EMIC waves are sufficiently amplified (power spectral density (PSD) ≥ 1 nT{sup 2}/Hz). The larger-amplitude L-mode waves can cause more electron losses. In contrast, the R-mode EMIC waves are very weak (PSD < 1 nT{sup 2}/Hz) during the electron flux dropouts; thus, their influence may be ignored here. During the electron flux dropouts, the relativistic electron precipitation is observed by POES satellite near the foot point (∼850 km) of the wave emission region. The quasi-linear simulation of wave-particle interactions indicates that the L-mode EMIC waves can cause the rapid precipitation loss of relativistic electrons, especially when the initial resonant electrons have a butterfly-like pitch angle distribution.
On relativistic transformation of temperature
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Mareš, Jiří J.; Hubík, Pavel; Špička, Václav
2017-01-01
Roč. 65, č. 6-8 (2017), 1-13, č. článku 1700018. ISSN 0015-8208 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Special theory of relativity * phenomenological temperature * Planck-Ott imbroglio * principle of equivalence of heat and work Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 2.434, year: 2016
Effect of EMIC Wave Normal Angle Distribution on Relativistic Electron Scattering
Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.
2006-01-01
The flux level of outer-zone relativistic electrons (above 1 MeV) is extremely variable during geomagnetic storms, and controlled by a competition between acceleration and loss. Precipitation of these electrons due to resonant pitch-angle scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is considered one of the major loss mechanisms. This mechanism was suggested in early theoretical studies more than three decades ago. However, direct experimental evidence of the wave role in relativistic electrons precipitation is difficult to obtain because of lack of concurrent measurements of precipitating electrons at low altitudes and the waves in a magnetically conjugate equatorial region. Recently, the data from balloon-borne X-ray instruments provided indirect but strong evidence on an efficiency of the EMIC wave induced loss for the outer-zone relativistic electrons. These observations stimulated theoretical studies that, particularly, demonstrated that EMIC wave induced pitch-angle diffusion of MeV electrons can operate in the strong diffusion limit and this mechanism can compete with relativistic electron depletion caused by the Dst effect during the initial and main phases of storm. Although an effectiveness of relativistic electron scattering by EMIC waves depends strongly on the wave spectral properties, the most favorable assumptions regarding wave characteristics has been made in all previous theoretical studies. Particularly, only quasi field-aligned EMIC waves have been considered as a driver for relativistic electron loss. At the same time, there is growing experimental and theoretical evidence that these waves can be highly oblique; EMIC wave energy can occupy not only the region of generation, i.e. the region of small wave normal angles, but also the entire wave normal angle region, and even only the region near 90 degrees. The latter can dramatically change he effectiveness of relativistic electron scattering by EMIC waves. In the present study, we
RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLISIONS: EXPERIMENT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Friedlander, Erwin M.; Heckman, Harry H.
1982-04-01
Relativistic heavy ion physics began as a 'no man's land' between particle and nuclear physics, with both sides frowning upon it as 'unclean', because on one hand, hadronic interactions and particle production cloud nuclear structure effects, while on the other, the baryonic environment complicates the interpretation of production experiments. They have attempted to review here the experimental evidence on RHI collisions from the point of view that it represents a new endeavor in the understanding of strong interaction physics. Such an approach appears increasingly justified; first, by the accumulation of data and observations of new features of hadronic interactions that could not have been detected outside a baryonic environment; second, by the maturation of the field owing to the advances made over the past several years in experimental inquiries on particle production by RHI, including pions, kaons, hyperons, and searches for antiprotons; and third, by the steady and progressive increase in the energy and mass ranges of light nuclear beams that have become available to the experiment; indeed the energy range has widened from the {approx} 0.2 to 2 AGeV at the Bevalac to {approx}4 AGeV at Dubna and recently, to the quantum jump in energies to {approx} 1000 equivalent AGeV at the CERN PS-ISR. Accompanying these expansions in the energy frontier are the immediate prospects for very heavy ion beams at the Bevalac up to, and including, 1 AGeV {sup 238}U, thereby extending the 'mass frontier' to its ultimate extent.
Relativistic model for statevector reduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pearle, P.
1991-04-01
A relativistic quantum field model describing statevector reduction for fermion states is presented. The time evolution of the states is governed by a Schroedinger equation with a Hamiltonian that has a Hermitian and a non-Hermitian part. In addition to the fermions, the Hermitian part describes positive and negative energy mesons of equal mass, analogous to the longitudinal and timelike photons of electromagnetism. The meson-field-sum is coupled to the fermion field. This ''dresses'' each fermion so that, in the extreme nonrelativistic limit (non-moving fermions), a fermion in a position eigenstate is also in an eigenstate of the meson-field-difference with the Yukawa-potential as eigenvalue. However, the fermions do not interact: this is a theory of free dressed fermions. It is possible to obtain a stationary normalized ''vacuum'' state which satisfies two conditions analogous to the gauge conditions of electromagnetism (i.e., that the meson-field-difference, as well as its time derivative, give zero when applied to the vacuum state), to any desired degree of accuracy. The non-Hermitian part of the Hamiltonian contains the coupling of the meson-field-difference to an externally imposed c-number fluctuating white noise field, of the CSL (Continuous Spontaneous Localization) form. This causes statevector reduction, as is shown in the extreme nonrelativistic limit. For example, a superposition of spatially separated wavepackets of a fermion will eventually be reduced to a single wavepacket: the meson-field-difference discriminates among the Yukawa-potential ''handles'' attached to each wavepacket, thereby selecting one wavepacket to survive by the CSL mechanism. Analysis beyond that given in this paper is required to see what happens when the fermions are allowed to move. (It is possible that the ''vacuum'' state becomes involved in the dynamics so that the ''gauge'' conditions can no longer be maintained.) It is shown how to incorporate these ideas into quantum
Chaos and maps in relativistic rynamical systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. P. Horwitz
2000-01-01
Full Text Available The basic work of Zaslavskii et al showed that the classical non-relativistic electromagnetically kicked oscillator can be cast into the form of an iterative map on the phase space; the resulting evolution contains a stochastic flow to unbounded energy. Subsequent studies have formulated the problem in terms of a relativistic charged particle in interaction with the electromagnetic field. We review the structure of the covariant Lorentz force used to study this problem. We show that the Lorentz force equation can be derived as well from the manifestly covariant mechanics of Stueckelberg in the presence of a standard Maxwell field, establishing a connection between these equations and mass shell constraints. We argue that these relativistic generalizations of the problem are intrinsically inaccurate due to an inconsistency in the structure of the relativistic Lorentz force, and show that a reformulation of the relativistic problem, permitting variations (classically in both the particle mass and the effective “mass” of the interacting electromagnetic field, provides a consistent system of classical equations for describing such processes.
Exact quantisation of the relativistic Hopfield model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belgiorno, F., E-mail: francesco.belgiorno@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo 32, IT-20133 Milano (Italy); INdAM-GNFM (Italy); Cacciatori, S.L., E-mail: sergio.cacciatori@uninsubria.it [Department of Science and High Technology, Università dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, IT-22100 Como (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, IT-20133 Milano (Italy); Dalla Piazza, F., E-mail: f.dallapiazza@gmail.com [Università “La Sapienza”, Dipartimento di Matematica, Piazzale A. Moro 2, I-00185, Roma (Italy); Doronzo, M., E-mail: m.doronzo@uninsubria.it [Department of Science and High Technology, Università dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, IT-22100 Como (Italy)
2016-11-15
We investigate the quantisation in the Heisenberg representation of a relativistically covariant version of the Hopfield model for dielectric media, which entails the interaction of the quantum electromagnetic field with the matter dipole fields, represented by a mesoscopic polarisation field. A full quantisation of the model is provided in a covariant gauge, with the aim of maintaining explicit relativistic covariance. Breaking of the Lorentz invariance due to the intrinsic presence in the model of a preferred reference frame is also taken into account. Relativistic covariance forces us to deal with the unphysical (scalar and longitudinal) components of the fields, furthermore it introduces, in a more tricky form, the well-known dipole ghost of standard QED in a covariant gauge. In order to correctly dispose of this contribution, we implement a generalised Lautrup trick. Furthermore, causality and the relation of the model with the Wightman axioms are also discussed.
Relativistic stars in vector-tensor theories
Kase, Ryotaro; Minamitsuji, Masato; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2018-04-01
We study relativistic star solutions in second-order generalized Proca theories characterized by a U (1 )-breaking vector field with derivative couplings. In the models with cubic and quartic derivative coupling, the mass and radius of stars become larger than those in general relativity for negative derivative coupling constants. This phenomenon is mostly attributed to the increase of star radius induced by a slower decrease of the matter pressure compared to general relativity. There is a tendency that the relativistic star with a smaller mass is not gravitationally bound for a low central density and hence is dynamically unstable, but that with a larger mass is gravitationally bound. On the other hand, we show that the intrinsic vector-mode couplings give rise to general relativistic solutions with a trivial field profile, so the mass and radius are not modified from those in general relativity.
Spinning relativistic particles in external fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pomeranskii, Andrei A; Sen'kov, Roman A; Khriplovich, Iosif B
2000-01-01
The motion of spinning relativistic particles in external electromagnetic and gravitational fields is considered. The self-consistent equations of motion are built with the noncovariant description of spin and with the usual, 'naive' definition of the coordinate of a relativistic particle. A simple derivation of the gravitational interaction of first order in spin is presented for a relativistic particle. The approach developed allows one to consider effects of higher order in spin. Concrete calculations are performed for the second order. The gravimagnetic moment is discussed, a special spin effect in general relativity. We also consider the contributions of the spin interactions of first and second order to the gravitational radiation of compact binary stars. (from the current literature)
Theory of relativistic radiation reflection from plasmas
Gonoskov, Arkady
2018-01-01
We consider the reflection of relativistically strong radiation from plasma and identify the physical origin of the electrons' tendency to form a thin sheet, which maintains its localisation throughout its motion. Thereby, we justify the principle of relativistic electronic spring (RES) proposed in [Gonoskov et al., Phys. Rev. E 84, 046403 (2011)]. Using the RES principle, we derive a closed set of differential equations that describe the reflection of radiation with arbitrary variation of polarization and intensity from plasma with an arbitrary density profile for an arbitrary angle of incidence. We confirm with ab initio PIC simulations that the developed theory accurately describes laser-plasma interactions in the regime where the reflection of relativistically strong radiation is accompanied by significant, repeated relocation of plasma electrons. In particular, the theory can be applied for the studies of plasma heating and coherent and incoherent emissions in the RES regime of high-intensity laser-plasma interaction.
Relativistic transport theory for cosmic-rays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Webb, G.M.
1985-01-01
Various aspects of the transport of cosmic-rays in a relativistically moving magnetized plasma supporting a spectrum of hydromagnetic waves that scatter the cosmic-rays are presented. A local Lorentz frame moving with the waves or turbulence scattering the cosmic-rays is used to specify the individual particle momentum. The comoving frame is in general a noninertial frame in which the observer's volume element is expanding and shearing, geometric energy change terms appear in the cosmic-ray transport equation which consist of the relativistic generalization of the adiabatic deceleration term and a further term involving the acceleration vector of the scatterers. A relativistic version of the pitch angle evolution equation, including the effects of adiabatic focussing, pitch angle scattering, and energy changes is presented
Relativistic Calculations for Be-like Iron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Jianhui; Zhang Jianping; Li Ping; Li Huili
2008-01-01
Relativistic configuration interaction calculations for the states of 1s 2 2s 2 , 1s 2 2s3l (l = s,p,d) and 1s 2 2p3l (l = s,p,d) configurations of iron are carried out using relativistic configuration interaction (RCI) and multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method in the active interaction approach. In the present calculation, a large-scale configuration expansion was used in describing the target states. These results are extensively compared with other available calculative and experimental and observed values, the corresponding present results are in good agreement with experimental and observed values, and some differences are found with other available calculative values. Because more relativistic effects are considered than before, the present results should be more accurate and reliable
Relativistic Spacecraft Propelled by Directed Energy
Kulkarni, Neeraj; Lubin, Philip; Zhang, Qicheng
2018-04-01
Achieving relativistic flight to enable extrasolar exploration is one of the dreams of humanity and the long-term goal of our NASA Starlight program. We derive a relativistic solution for the motion of a spacecraft propelled by radiation pressure from a directed energy (DE) system. Depending on the system parameters, low-mass spacecraft can achieve relativistic speeds, thus enabling interstellar exploration. The diffraction of the DE system plays an important role and limits the maximum speed of the spacecraft. We consider “photon recycling” as a possible method to achieving higher speeds. We also discuss recent claims that our previous work on this topic is incorrect and show that these claims arise from an improper treatment of causality.
Relativistic dynamical reduction models and nonlocality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghirardi, G.C.; Grassi, R.
1990-09-01
We discuss some features of continuous dynamical models yielding state vector reduction and we briefly sketch some recent attempts to get a relativistic generalization of them. Within the relativistic context we analyze in detail the local an nonlocal features of the reduction mechanism and we investigate critically the possibility of attributing objective properties to individual systems in the micro and macroscopic cases. At the nonrelativistic level, two physically equivalent versions of continuous reduction mechanisms have been presented. However, only one of them can be taken as a starting point for the above considered relativistic generalization. By resorting to counterfactual arguments we show that the reason for this lies in the fact that the stochasticity involved in the two approaches has different conceptual implications. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs
Viscous photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dion, Maxime; Paquet, Jean-Francois; Young, Clint; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles; Schenke, Bjoern
2011-01-01
Theoretical studies of the production of real thermal photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are performed. The space-time evolution of the colliding system is modelled using music, a 3+1D relativistic hydrodynamic simulation, using both its ideal and viscous versions. The inclusive spectrum and its azimuthal angular anisotropy are studied separately, and the relative contributions of the different photon sources are highlighted. It is shown that the photon v 2 coefficient is especially sensitive to the details of the microscopic dynamics like the equation of state, the ratio of shear viscosity over entropy density, η/s, and to the morphology of the initial state.
Relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar.
Breton, Rene P; Kaspi, Victoria M; Kramer, Michael; McLaughlin, Maura A; Lyutikov, Maxim; Ransom, Scott M; Stairs, Ingrid H; Ferdman, Robert D; Camilo, Fernando; Possenti, Andrea
2008-07-04
The double pulsar PSR J0737-3039A/B consists of two neutron stars in a highly relativistic orbit that displays a roughly 30-second eclipse when pulsar A passes behind pulsar B. Describing this eclipse of pulsar A as due to absorption occurring in the magnetosphere of pulsar B, we successfully used a simple geometric model to characterize the observed changing eclipse morphology and to measure the relativistic precession of pulsar B's spin axis around the total orbital angular momentum. This provides a test of general relativity and alternative theories of gravity in the strong-field regime. Our measured relativistic spin precession rate of 4.77 degrees (-0 degrees .65)(+0 degrees .66) per year (68% confidence level) is consistent with that predicted by general relativity within an uncertainty of 13%.
Neutron relativistic phenomenological and microscopic optical potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Qing-biao; Feng Da-chun; Zhuo Yi-zhong
1991-01-01
In this paper, both the phenomenological and microscopic neutron relativistic optical potentials are presented. The global neutron relativistic phenomenological optical potential (RPOP) based on the available experimental data for various nuclei ranging from C to U with incident energies E n =20--1000 MeV has been obtained through an automatic search of the best parameters by computer. Then the nucleon relativistic microscopic optical potential (RMOP) is studied by utilizing the effective Lagrangian based on the popular Walecka model. Through comparison between the theoretical results and experimental data we shed some insight into both the RMOP and RPOP. Further improvement concerning how to combine the phenomenological potential with the microscopic one in order to reduce the number of free parameters appearing in the RPOP is suggested
Relativistic thermodynamics and kinetic theory, with applications to cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stewart, J.M.
1973-01-01
The discussion of relativistic thermodynamics and kinetic theory with applications to cosmology also covers the fundamentals and nonequilibrium relativistic kinetic theory and applications to cosmology and astrophysics. (U.S.)
Relativistic supersymmetric quantum mechanics based on Klein-Gordon equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Znojil, Miloslav
2004-01-01
Witten's the non-relativistic formalism of supersymmetric quantum mechanics was based on a factorization and partnership between Schroedinger equations. We show how it accommodates a transition to the partnership between relativistic Klein-Gordon equations
Observational and theoretical aspects of relativistic astrophysics and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanz, J.L.; Goicoechea, L.J.
1985-01-01
The studies of relativistic astrophysics and cosmology in these proceedings include primordial nucleosynthesis, nonluminous matter, star and galaxy evolution, cosmic microwave background, and general relativistic models of the universe
The time-dependent relativistic mean-field theory and the random phase approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ring, P.; Ma, Zhong-yu; Van Giai, Nguyen; Vretenar, D.; Wandelt, A.; Cao, Li-gang
2001-01-01
The Relativistic Random Phase Approximation (RRPA) is derived from the Time-Dependent Relativistic Mean-Field (TD RMF) theory in the limit of small amplitude oscillations. In the no-sea approximation of the RMF theory, the RRPA configuration space includes not only the usual particle-hole ph-states, but also αh-configurations, i.e. pairs formed from occupied states in the Fermi sea and empty negative-energy states in the Dirac sea. The contribution of the negative-energy states to the RRPA matrices is examined in a schematic model, and the large effect of Dirac-sea states on isoscalar strength distributions is illustrated for the giant monopole resonance in 116 Sn. It is shown that, because the matrix elements of the time-like component of the vector-meson fields which couple the αh-configurations with the ph-configurations are strongly reduced with respect to the corresponding matrix elements of the isoscalar scalar meson field, the inclusion of states with unperturbed energies more than 1.2 GeV below the Fermi energy has a pronounced effect on giant resonances with excitation energies in the MeV region. The influence of nuclear magnetism, i.e. the effect of the spatial components of the vector fields is examined, and the difference between the nonrelativistic and relativistic RPA predictions for the nuclear matter compression modulus is explained
Pivotal issues on relativistic electrons in ITER
Boozer, Allen H.
2018-03-01
The transfer of the plasma current from thermal to relativistic electrons is a threat to ITER achieving its mission. This danger is significantly greater in the nuclear than in the non-nuclear phase of ITER operations. Two issues are pivotal. The first is the extent and duration of magnetic surface breaking in conjunction with the thermal quenches. The second is the exponential sensitivity of the current transfer to three quantities: (1) the poloidal flux change required to e-fold the number of relativistic electrons, (2) the time τa after the beginning of the thermal quench before the accelerating electric field exceeds the Connor-Hastie field for runaway, and (3) the duration of the period τ_op in which magnetic surfaces remain open. Adequate knowledge does not exist to devise a reliable strategy for the protection of ITER. Uncertainties are sufficiently large that a transfer of neither a negligible nor the full plasma current to relativistic electrons can be ruled out during the non-nuclear phase of ITER. Tritium decay can provide a sufficiently strong seed for a dangerous relativistic-electron current even if τa and τ_op are sufficiently long to avoid relativistic electrons during non-nuclear operations. The breakup of magnetic surfaces that is associated with thermal quenches occurs on a time scale associated with fast magnetic reconnection, which means reconnection at an Alfvénic rather than a resistive rate. Alfvénic reconnection is well beyond the capabilities of existing computational tools for tokamaks, but its effects can be studied using its property of conserving magnetic helicity. Although the dangers to ITER from relativistic electrons have been known for twenty years, the critical issues have not been defined with sufficient precision to formulate an effective research program. Studies are particularly needed on plasma behavior in existing tokamaks during thermal quenches, behavior which could be clarified using methods developed here.
An energy principle for two-dimensional collisionless relativistic plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Otto, A.; Schindler, K.
1984-01-01
Using relativistic Vlasov theory an energy principle for two-dimensional plasmas is derived, which provides a sufficient and necessary criterion for the stability of relativistic plasma equilibria. This energy principle includes charge separating effects since the exact Poisson equation was taken into consideration. Applying the variational principle to the case of the relativistic plane plasma sheet, the same marginal wave length is found as in the non-relativistic case. (author)
General Relativistic Calculations for White Dwarf Stars
Mathew, Arun; Nandy, Malay K.
2014-01-01
The mass-radius relations for white dwarf stars are investigated by solving the Newtonian as well as Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equations for hydrostatic equilibrium assuming the electron gas to be non-interacting. We find that the Newtonian limiting mass of $1.4562M_\\odot$ is modified to $1.4166M_\\odot$ in the general relativistic case for $^4_2$He (and $^{12}_{\\ 6}$C) white dwarf stars. Using the same general relativistic treatment, the critical mass for $^{56}_{26}$Fe white dwarf is ...
Relativistic quantum mechanics of leptons and fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grandy, W.T. Jr.
1991-01-01
This book serves as an advanced text on the Dirac theory, and provides a monograph summarizing the description of relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics as classical field theories. It presents a broad, detailed, and up-to-date exposition of relativistic quantum mechanics, including the two-body problem. It also demonstrates the extent to which the behavior of stable particles and their interactions can be understood without introducing operator (second-quantized) fields. The subsequent difficulties are studied in detail and possible resolutions are presented through quantum field theory
The relativistic Brownian motion: Interdisciplinary applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aragones-Munoz, A; Sandoval-Villalbazo, A
2010-01-01
Relativistic Brownian motion theory will be applied to the study of analogies between physical and economic systems, emphasizing limiting cases in which Gaussian distributions are no longer valid. The characteristic temperatures of the particles will be associated with the concept of variance, and this will allow us to choose whether the pertinent distribution is classical or relativistic, while working specific situations. The properties of particles can be interpreted as economic variables, in order to study the behavior of markets in terms of Levy financial processes, since markets behave as stochastic systems. As far as we know, the application of the Juettner distribution to the study of economic systems is a new idea.
Relativistic motion in gamma-ray bursts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krolik, J.H.; Pier, E.A.
1991-01-01
Three fundamental problems affect models of gamma-ray bursts, i.e., the energy source, the ability of high-energy photons to escape the radiation region, and the comparative weakness of X-ray emission. It is indicated that relativistic bulk motion of the gamma-ray-emitting plasma generically provides a solution to all three of these problems. Results show that, if the plasma that produces gamma-ray bursts has a bulk relativistic velocity with Lorentz factor gamma of about 10, several of the most troubling problems having to do with gamma-ray bursts are solved. 42 refs
Path integral for relativistic particle theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fradkin, E.S.; Gitman, D.M.; Shvartsman, Sh.M.
1990-06-01
An action for a relativistic spinning particle interacting with external electromagnetic field is considered in reparametrization and local supergauge invariant form. It is shown that various path integral representations derived for the causal Green function correspond to the different forms of the relativistic particle action. The analogy of the path integral derived with the Lagrangian path integral of the field theory is discussed. It is shown that to obtain the causal propagator, the integration over the null mode of the Lagrangian multiplier corresponding to the reparametrization invariance, has to be performed in the (0,+infinity) limits. (author). 23 refs
Relativistic effects in a rotating coordinate system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chugreev, Y.V.
1989-01-01
The general approach to calculating various physical effects in a rotating, noninertial reference frame based on the tetrad formalism for observables is discussed. It is shown that the method based on the search for the ''true'' coordinate transformation from an inertial to the rotating frame is ill-founded. Most special relativistic effects in a rotating frame have been calculated without any nonrelativistic restrictions. It is shown how simple physical experiments can be used to determine whether a circle is at rest in the equatorial plane of a Kerr--Newman gravitational source in the relativistic theory of gravity or is rotating about an axis through its center
Impossibility of an acyclic relativistic electric motor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spavieri, G [Universidad de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela); Cavalleri, G [Milan Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Spinelli, G [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica Applicata
1981-02-11
The relativistic torque acting on a circuit carrying a current and having a uniform translatory motion in a constant and uniform electric field would seem to suggest the possibility of an acyclic relativistic electric motor. However, the net effect on the side parallel to the rotation axis is exactly balanced by the variation of the angular momentum (in the case of an insulating circuit transporting electric charges) or by the external moment due to the magnetic field (in the case of a conducting circuit) acting on the two sides perpendicular to the rotation axis.
Relativistic multiple scattering X-alpha calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chermette, H.; Goursot, A.
1986-01-01
The necessity to include self-consistent relativistic corrections in molecular calculations has been pointed out for all compounds involving heavy atoms. Most of the changes in the electronic properties are due to the mass-velocity and the so-called Darwin terms so that the use of Wood and Boring's Hamiltonian is very convenient for this purpose as it can be easily included in MSXalpha programs. Although the spin orbit operator effects are only obtained by perturbation theory, the results compare fairly well with experiment and with other relativistic calculations, namely Hartree-Fock-Slater calculations
Relativistic tunneling through two successive barriers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lunardi, Jose T.; Manzoni, Luiz A.
2007-01-01
We study the relativistic quantum mechanical problem of a Dirac particle tunneling through two successive electrostatic barriers. Our aim is to study the emergence of the so-called generalized Hartman effect, an effect observed in the context of nonrelativistic tunneling as well as in its counterparts and which is often associated with the possibility of superluminal velocities in the tunneling process. We discuss the behavior of both the phase (or group) tunneling time and the dwell time, and show that in the limit of opaque barriers the relativistic theory also allows the emergence of the generalized Hartman effect. We compare our results with the nonrelativistic ones and discuss their interpretation
Relativistic klystron research for high gradient accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.
1988-06-01
Relativistic klystrons are being developed as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications which include large linear electron--positron colliders, compact accelerators, and FEL sources. We have attained 200MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. We report here on the design of our first klystrons, the results of our experiments so far, and some of our plans for the near future. 5 refs., 7 figs
Relativistic Celestial Mechanics of the Solar System
Kopeikin, Sergei; Kaplan, George
2011-01-01
This authoritative book presents the theoretical development of gravitational physics as it applies to the dynamics of celestial bodies and the analysis of precise astronomical observations. In so doing, it fills the need for a textbook that teaches modern dynamical astronomy with a strong emphasis on the relativistic aspects of the subject produced by the curved geometry of four-dimensional spacetime. The first three chapters review the fundamental principles of celestial mechanics and of special and general relativity. This background material forms the basis for understanding relativistic r
Constraints on the cosmological relativistic energy density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zentner, Andrew R.; Walker, Terry P.
2002-01-01
We discuss bounds on the cosmological relativistic energy density as a function of redshift, reviewing the big bang nucleosynthesis and cosmic microwave background bounds, updating bounds from large scale structure, and introducing a new bound from the magnitude-redshift relation for type Ia supernovae. We conclude that the standard and well-motivated assumption that relativistic energy is negligible during recent epochs is not necessitated by extant data. We then demonstrate the utility of these bounds by constraining the mass and lifetime of a hypothetical massive big bang relic particle
Cosmic anisotropy with reduced relativistic gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castardelli dos Reis, Simpliciano [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Fisica, ICE, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Shapiro, Ilya L. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Fisica, ICE, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)
2018-02-15
The dynamics of cosmological anisotropies is investigated for Bianchi type I universe filled by a relativistic matter represented by the reduced relativistic gas model (RRG), with equation of state interpolating between radiation and matter. Previously it was shown that the interpolation is observed in the background cosmological solutions for homogeneous and isotropic universe and also for the linear cosmological perturbations. We extend the application of RRG to the Bianchi type I anisotropic model and find that the solutions evolve to the isotropic universe with the pressureless matter contents. (orig.)
Relativistic deuteron wave function on light front
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karmanov, V.A.
1980-01-01
In the framework of the one boson exchange model the approximate analytical expression for the deuteron wave function (WF) at relativistic relative momenta is obtained. WF depends on extra variable having the form of a unit vector and is determined by six functions instead of two ones (S-and D-waves) in the nonrelativistic case. At moderate momenta the WF is matched with WF in the Reid model. It is emphasized the importance of indication of the qualitative observed phenomena associated with change of parametrization and spin structure of relativistic deuteron WF
Thermodynamic equilibrium in relativistic rotating systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suen, W.M.; Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO; Young, K.
1988-01-01
The thermodynamic equilibrium configurations of relativistic rotating stars are studied using the maximum entropy principle. It is shown that the heuristic arguments for the equilibrium conditions can be developed into a maximum entropy principle in which the variations are carried out in a fixed background spacetime. This maximum principle with the fixed background assumption is technically simpler than, but has to be justified by, a maximum entropy principle without the assumption. Such a maximum entropy principle is formulated in this paper, showing that the general relativistic system can be treated on the same footing as other long-range force systems. (author)
Relativistic classical limit of quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shin, G.R.; Rafelski, J.
1993-01-01
We study the classical limit of the equal-time relativistic quantum transport theory. We discuss in qualitative terms the need to fold first the Wigner function with a coarse-graining function. Only then does the singularity at ℎ→0 seem to be manageable. In the limit ℎ→0, we obtain the relativistic Vlasov equations for the particle and the antiparticle sector of the Fock space. Similarly, we address the evolution equations of the spin and the magnetic-moment density
Is a Relativistic Thermodynamics possible?; Es posible una Termodinamica Relativista?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guemez, J.
2010-07-01
A brief historical review the literature on developing the concept of Thermodynamics Relativistic. We analyze two examples of application of the Galilean and Relativistic Thermodynamics discussed under what circumstances could build a relativistic Thermodynamics Lorentz covariant with physical sense. (Author) 19 refs.
Relativistic effects in the Thomas--Fermi atom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waber, J.T.; Canfield, J.M.
1975-01-01
Two methods of applying relativistic corrections to the Thomas--Fermi atom are considered, and numerical calculations are discussed. Radial charge distributions calculated from a relativistic Thomas--Fermi equation agree in gross form with those from more complicated self-consistent calculations. Energy eigenvalues for mercury, as determined from the relativistic Thomas--Fermi solution, are compared with other calculated and experimental values
Coupling of (ultra- relativistic atomic nuclei with photons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Apostol
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The coupling of photons with (ultra- relativistic atomic nuclei is presented in two particular circumstances: very high electromagnetic fields and very short photon pulses. We consider a typical situation where the (bare nuclei (fully stripped of electrons are accelerated to energies ≃ 1 TeV per nucleon (according to the state of the art at LHC, for instance and photon sources like petawatt lasers ≃ 1 eV-radiation (envisaged by ELI-NP project, for instance, or free-electron laser ≃ 10 keV-radiation, or synchrotron sources, etc. In these circumstances the nuclear scale energy can be attained, with very high field intensities. In particular, we analyze the nuclear transitions induced by the radiation, including both one- and two-photon proceses, as well as the polarization-driven transitions which may lead to giant dipole resonances. The nuclear (electrical polarization concept is introduced. It is shown that the perturbation theory for photo-nuclear reactions is applicable, although the field intensity is high, since the corresponding interaction energy is low and the interaction time (pulse duration is short. It is also shown that the description of the giant nuclear dipole resonance requires the dynamics of the nuclear electrical polarization degrees of freedom.
Evidence for acceleration of outer zone electrons to relativistic energies by whistler mode chorus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. P. Meredith
2002-07-01
Full Text Available We use plasma wave and electron data from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES to investigate the viability of a local stochastic electron acceleration mechanism to relativistic energies driven by gyroresonant interactions with whistler mode chorus. In particular, we examine the temporal evolution of the spectral response of the electrons and the waves during the 9 October 1990 geomagnetic storm. The observed hardening of the electron energy spectra over about 3 days in the recovery phase is coincident with prolonged substorm activity, as monitored by the AE index and enhanced levels of whistler mode chorus waves. The observed spectral hardening is observed to take place over a range of energies appropriate to the resonant energies associated with Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance, as supported by the construction of realistic resonance curves and resonant diffusion surfaces. Furthermore, we show that the observed spectral hardening is not consistent with energy-independent radial diffusion models. These results provide strong circumstantial evidence for a local stochastic acceleration mechanism, involving the energisation of a seed population of electrons with energies of the order of a few hundred keV to relativistic energies, driven by wave-particle interactions involving whistler mode chorus. The results suggest that this mechanism contributes to the reformation of the relativistic outer zone population during geomagnetic storms, and is most effective when the recovery phase is characterised by prolonged substorm activity. An additional significant result of this paper is that we demonstrate that the lower energy part of the storm-time electron distribution is in steady-state balance, in accordance with the Kennel and Petschek (1966 theory of limited stably-trapped particle fluxes.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms, energetic particles, trapped – Space plasma physics (wave-particle interactions
Auroral kilometric radiation - An example of relativistic wave-particle interaction in geoplasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pritchett, P.L.
1990-01-01
The earth's auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) is believed to be produced by the electron-cyclotron maser instability. This instability is the result of a wave-particle interaction in which relativistic effects are crucial. An explanation is given as to how these relativistic effects alter the shape of the resonance curve in velocity space and modify the R - X mode wave dispersion near the electron cyclotron frequency compared to the results obtained in the nonrelativistic limit and from cold-plasma theory. The properties of the cyclotron maser instability in a driven system are illustrated using two-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulations which incorporate a continual flow of primary energetic electrons along the magnetic field. 31 refs
Susceptibilities of conserved quantities in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chatterjee, A.; Nayak, T.K.; Chatterjee, S.; Sahoo, N.R.
2016-01-01
The major motivations of heavy-ion collisions at ultra-relativistic energies is to study the formation of new form of matter, called quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and study its basic properties. Susceptibilities of conserved quantities, such as electric charge, baryon number and strangeness are sensitive to the onset of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) phase transition, and provide information on the mater produce in heavy ion collisions. In this work, we have used the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) and the hadron resonance gas (HRG) models to analyzes the 2"n"d order susceptibilities of conserved charges. In experiments, one needs to understand and correct for detector acceptance, efficiency and limited particle identification in order to interpret the results and compare with theoretical calculations. The transverse momentum cutoff dependence of suitably normalized susceptibilities are proposed as useful observables to probe the properties of the medium at freezout
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiao, Yunlong; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Wenjian, E-mail: liuwjbdf@gmail.com [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, and Center for Computational Science and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
2014-10-28
Both kinetically balanced (KB) and kinetically unbalanced (KU) rotational London orbitals (RLO) are proposed to resolve the slow basis set convergence in relativistic calculations of nuclear spin-rotation (NSR) coupling tensors of molecules containing heavy elements [Y. Xiao and W. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134104 (2013)]. While they perform rather similarly, the KB-RLO Ansatz is clearly preferred as it ensures the correct nonrelativistic limit even with a finite basis. Moreover, it gives rise to the same “direct relativistic mapping” between nuclear magnetic resonance shielding and NSR coupling tensors as that without using the London orbitals [Y. Xiao, Y. Zhang, and W. Liu, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 600 (2014)].
Relativistic convergent close-coupling method applied to electron scattering from mercury
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bostock, Christopher J.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor
2010-01-01
We report on the extension of the recently formulated relativistic convergent close-coupling (RCCC) method to accommodate two-electron and quasi-two-electron targets. We apply the theory to electron scattering from mercury and obtain differential and integrated cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering. We compared with previous nonrelativistic convergent close-coupling (CCC) calculations and for a number of transitions obtained significantly better agreement with the experiment. The RCCC method is able to resolve structure in the integrated cross sections for the energy regime in the vicinity of the excitation thresholds for the (6s6p) 3 P 0,1,2 states. These cross sections are associated with the formation of negative ion (Hg - ) resonances that could not be resolved with the nonrelativistic CCC method. The RCCC results are compared with the experiment and other relativistic theories.
Solution of the relativistic 2-D Fokker-Planck equation for LH current drive
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hizanidis, K.; Hewett, D.W.; Bers, A.
1984-03-01
We solve numerically the steady-state two-dimensional relativistic Fokker-Planck equation with strong rf diffusion using spectra relevant to recent experiments in ALCATOR-C. The results (current generated, power dissipated, and the distribution of energetic electrons) are sensitive to the location of the spectrum in momentum space. Relativistic effects play an important role, especially for wide spectra. The dependence on the ionic charge number Z/sub i/ is also investigated. Particular attention is paid to the perpendicular temperature inside the resonant region and beyond, as well as to the angular energetic particle-temperature distribution, T/sub μ/, a function of the pitch angle parameter μ. The dependence of the perpendicular temperature on the location of the spectrum is also investigated analytically with a model based on the method of moments and the results compared with those found numerically
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Baoqiu; Ma Zhongyu
1992-01-01
Relativistic microscopic optical potential of nucleon-nucleus is derived from the relativistic Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone (RBBG) equation. The complex effective mass of a nucleon is determined by a fit to 200 MeV p- 40 Ca scattering data. The relativistic microscopic optical potentials with this effective mass are obtained from RBBG for p- 16O , 40 Ca, 90 Zr and 208 Pb scattering in energy range from 160 to 800 MeV. The microscopic optical potential is used to study the proton- 40 Ca scattering problem at 200 MeV. The results, such as differential cross section, analyzing power and spin rotation function are compared with those calculated from phenomenological relativistic optical potential
Rubin , Jacques ,
2014-01-01
Version de travail de thèse d'habilitation à diriger des recherches; Preprint; Current positioning systems are not primary, relativistic systems. Nevertheless, genuine, relativistic and primary positioning systems have been proposed recently by Bahder, Coll et al. and Rovelli to remedy such prior defects. These new designs all have in common an equivariant conformal geometry featuring, as the most basic ingredient, the spacetime geometry. We show how this conformal aspect can be the four-dime...
Polarizational bremsstrahlung in non-relativistic collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korol, A.V.; Solov'yov, A.V.
2006-01-01
We review the developments made during the last decade in the theory of polarization bremsstrahlung in the non-relativistic domain. A literature survey covering the latest history of the phenomenon is given. The main features which distinguish the polarization bremsstrahlung from other mechanisms of radiation are discussed and illustrated by the results of numerical calculations
New interior solution describing relativistic fluid sphere
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Anewexact solution of embedding class I is presented for a relativistic anisotropicmassive fluid sphere. The new exact solution satisfies Karmarkar condition, is well-behaved in all respects, and therefore is suitable for the modelling of superdense stars. Consequently, using this solution, we have studied in detail two ...
Circular relativistic motion of two identical bodies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shavokhina, N.S.
1983-01-01
Circular relativistic motion of two bodies as a solution of the earlier obtained equations with a deflecting argument where the self-deflection of the argument is an unknown function of time is considered. In case of circular motion the argument deflection is independent from time and it is the root of the transcendental equation obtained in the paper
Properties of general relativistic kink solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kodama, T.; Oliveira, L.C.S. de; Santos, F.C.
1978-12-01
Properties of the general relativistic kink solution of a nonlinear scalar field recently obtained, are discussed. It has been shown that the kink solution is stable against radical perturbations. Possible applications to Hadron physics from the geometrodynamic point of view are suggested [pt
Some remarks concerning relativistic kinetic theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroeter, J.
1990-01-01
The starting point of our investigation is a classical kinetic theory which includes correlational effects as well as the complete electromagnetic interaction. Also classical gravitation can be incorporated. The relativistic version of this theory is written down using some heuristic arguments. Its essential feature is the difference between terms representing gravitational interaction and the metric tensor representing geometrical properties. (author)
Dirac's aether in relativistic quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petroni, N.C.; Bari Univ.; Vigier, J.P.
1984-01-01
The paper concerns Dirac's aether model, based on a stochastic covariant distribution of subquantum motions. Stochastic derivation of the relativistic quantum equations; deterministic nonlocal interpretation of the Aspect-Rapisarda experiments on the EPR paradox; and photon interference with itself; are all discussed. (U.K.)
Radio Ranging Techniques to test Relativistic Gravitation
Cowsik, R.
1999-01-01
It is suggested that modern techniques of radio ranging when applied to study the motion of the Moon, can improve the accuracy of tests of relativistic gravitation obtained with currently operating laser ranging techniques. Other auxillary information relevant to the Solar system would also emerge from such a study.
Detectors for relativistic heavy-ion experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braun-Munzinger, P.; Cleland, W.; Young, G.R.
1989-04-01
We present in some detail an overview of the detectors currently used in relativistic heavy-ion research at the BNL AGS and the CERN SPS. Following that, a detailed list of RandD projects is given, including specific areas of work which need to be addressed in preparation for further experiments at the AGS and SPS for the upcoming experiments at RHIC
Consistent resolution of some relativistic quantum paradoxes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griffiths, Robert B.
2002-01-01
A relativistic version of the (consistent or decoherent) histories approach to quantum theory is developed on the basis of earlier work by Hartle, and used to discuss relativistic forms of the paradoxes of spherical wave packet collapse, Bohm's formulation of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, and Hardy's paradox. It is argued that wave function collapse is not needed for introducing probabilities into relativistic quantum mechanics, and in any case should never be thought of as a physical process. Alternative approaches to stochastic time dependence can be used to construct a physical picture of the measurement process that is less misleading than collapse models. In particular, one can employ a coarse-grained but fully quantum-mechanical description in which particles move along trajectories, with behavior under Lorentz transformations the same as in classical relativistic physics, and detectors are triggered by particles reaching them along such trajectories. States entangled between spacelike separate regions are also legitimate quantum descriptions, and can be consistently handled by the formalism presented here. The paradoxes in question arise because of using modes of reasoning which, while correct for classical physics, are inconsistent with the mathematical structure of quantum theory, and are resolved (or tamed) by using a proper quantum analysis. In particular, there is no need to invoke, nor any evidence for, mysterious long-range superluminal influences, and thus no incompatibility, at least from this source, between relativity theory and quantum mechanics
Production of hypernuclei in relativistic ion beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bando, H.; Sano, M.; Wakai, M.; Zofka, J.
1988-05-01
The hypernuclear formation in collisions of relativistic beams of 4 He, 7 Li, 12 C and 19 F with target of 12 C is calculated at energies used in the recent Dubna experiment. The hyperfragments optimal for observation are pointed out and the secondary (π + K + ) formation is evaluated and found to be nonnegligible. (author)
Relativistic atomic physics at the SSC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1990-01-01
This report discusses the following proposed work for relativistic atomic physics at the Superconducting Super Collider: Beam diagnostics; atomic physics research; staffing; education; budget information; statement concerning matching funds; description and justification of major items of equipment; statement of current and pending support; and assurance of compliance
Liouville equation of relativistic charged fermion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Renchuan; Zhu Dongpei; Huang Zhuoran; Ko Che-ming
1991-01-01
As a form of density martrix, the Wigner function is the distribution in quantum phase space. It is a 2 X 2 matrix function when one uses it to describe the non-relativistic fermion. While describing the relativistic fermion, it is usually represented by 4 x 4 matrix function. In this paper authors obtain a Wigner function for the relativistic fermion in the form of 2 x 2 matrix, and the Liouville equation satisfied by the Wigner function. this equivalent to the Dirac equation of changed fermion in QED. The equation is also equivalent to the Dirac equation in the Walecka model applied to the intermediate energy nuclear collision while the nucleon is coupled to the vector meson only (or taking mean field approximation for the scalar meson). Authors prove that the 2 x 2 Wigner function completely describes the quantum system just the same as the relativistic fermion wave function. All the information about the observables can be obtained with above Wigner function
Electromagnetic processes in relativistic heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertulani, C.A.; Rio de Janeiro Univ.
1987-05-01
A study of the processes generated by the electromagnetic interaction in relativistic nuclear, and atomic collisions is presented. Very strong electromagnetic fields for a very short time are present in distant collisions with no nuclear contact. Such fields can also lead to interesting effects, which are discussed here. (orig.)
RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION PHYSICS: A THEORETICAL OVERVIEW.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
KHARZEEV,D.
2004-03-28
This is a mini-review of recent theoretical work in the field of relativistic heavy ion physics. The following topics are discussed initial conditions and the Color Glass Condensate; approach to thermalization and the hydrodynamic evolution; hard probes and the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma. Some of the unsolved problems and potentially promising directions for future research are listed as well.
Classroom computer animations of relativistic objects
Brewin, Leo
2003-01-01
This is a short note to announce the availability of some movies that may be useful in classroom discussions on the photographic appearance of objects moving at relativistic speeds. The images are based on special relativity with no account taken of (other than to ignore) the effects of doppler shifts, intensity shifts or gravitational effects.
Radiatively-driven general relativistic jets
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Mukesh K. Vyas
2018-02-10
Feb 10, 2018 ... relativistic jets and shocks induced by non radial nature of the cross section. Isothermal assumption does not contain the effect of the thermal gradient term which is a significant accelerating agent and is very effec- tive close to the BH. It is also the same region where one needs to consider the effects of ...
Introduction to impedance for short relativistic bunches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morton, P.L.
1993-02-01
The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of impedance to calculate the wake field forces left behind by a short bunch which travels at relativistic speed through a structure with discontinuities. We will try to be as intuitive as possible and leave the more rigorous derivations to the second paper on this subject by J. Wang
Summary of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Sessions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harris, J.W.
1988-07-01
This paper briefly discusses the topics covered in the relativistic heavy ion in sessions. The prime motivation for these investigations is the possibility of forming quark matter, therefore the formation of a quark-gluon plasma. Topics on suppression of J//psi/ production, th equation of state of nuclear matter, transverse energy distributions and two pion interferometry techniques are discussed. 38 refs
Detector issues for relativistic heavy ion experimentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gordon, H.
1986-04-01
Several aspects of experiments using relativistic heavy ion beams are discussed. The problems that the current generation of light ion experiments would face in using gold beams are noted. A brief review of colliding beam experiments for heavy ion beams is contrasted with requirements for SSC detectors. 11 refs., 13 figs
Global existence proof for relativistic Boltzmann equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dudynski, M.; Ekiel-Jezewska, M.L.
1992-01-01
The existence and causality of solutions to the relativistic Boltzmann equation in L 1 and in L loc 1 are proved. The solutions are shown to satisfy physically natural a priori bounds, time-independent in L 1 . The results rely upon new techniques developed for the nonrelativistic Boltzmann equation by DiPerna and Lions
Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
hanced values needed to interpret the data at higher energies point towards the importance of strong-coupling effects. ... when all secondary particles have been created. For short times in the initial phase ... It is decisive for a proper representation of the available data for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at and beyond SPS.
Solutions to the relativistic precession model
Ingram, A.; Motta, S.
2014-01-01
The relativistic precession model (RPM) can be used to obtain a precise measurement of the mass and spin of a black hole when the appropriate set of quasi-periodic oscillations is detected in the power-density spectrum of an accreting black hole. However, in previous studies, the solution of the RPM
Shock waves in relativistic nuclear matter, I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gleeson, A.M.; Raha, S.
1979-02-01
The relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot relations are developed for a 3-dimensional plane shock and a 3-dimensional oblique shock. Using these discontinuity relations together with various equations of state for nuclear matter, the temperatures and the compressibilities attainable by shock compression for a wide range of laboratory kinetic energy of the projectile are calculated. 12 references
Asymptotic waves in relativistic elastic media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lamoureux, Lise
1974-01-01
Since 1959 several authors have proposed constitutive laws for relativistic media, i.e. laws relating the stress tensor to the speed vector or the deformation tensor. There the law proposed by Synge will be used: The stress rate tensor is a linear function of the deformation rate tensor. This is the generalisation of Hooke's law, used in classical mechanics for hypoelastic media [fr
Workshop on gravitational waves and relativistic astrophysics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Discussions related to gravitational wave experiments viz. LIGO and LISA as well as to observations of supermassive black holes dominated the workshop sessions on gravitational waves and relativistic astrophysics in the ICGC-2004. A summary of seven papers that were presented in these workshop sessions has been ...
Relativistic corrections to the quarkonium decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rai, Ajay Kumar; Pandya, J.N.; Patel, Bhavin; Vinodkumar, P.C.
2007-01-01
We study the corrections of the relative order ν 4 to the decays of 1 S 0 heavy quarkonium (η c and η b ) into two photons and 3 S 1 heavy quarkonium (J/ψ and γ) into lepton pair in non-relativistic QCD formalism
Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics as a Hamiltonian system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holm, D.D.; Kupershmidt, A.
1985-01-01
The equations of ideal relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in the laboratory frame form a noncanonical Hamiltonian system with the same Poisson bracket as for the nonrelativistic system, but with dynamical variables and Hamiltonian obtained via a regular deformation of their nonrelativistic counterparts [fr
Heavy baryons in the relativistic quark model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebert, D.; Faustov, R.N.; Galkin, V.O.; Martynenko, A.P.; Saleev, V.A.
1996-07-01
In the framework of the relativistic quasipotential quark model the mass spectrum of baryons with two heavy quarks is calculated. The quasipotentials for interactions of two quarks and of a quark with a scalar and axial vector diquark are evaluated. The bound state masses of baryons with J P =1/2 + , 3/2 + are computed. (orig.)
Relativistic atomic structure: past, present and future
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grant, I P
2010-01-01
Developments in a relativistic atomic structure have been driven by a combination of advances in experimental methods, in the theory of quantum electrodynamics, in numerical algorithms, computer hardware and software. Today's programs are still in many respects 'legacy codes' containing many features going back nearly half a century. It is time for a rethink.
On free fall of a relativistic particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chernikov, N.A.; Paramonova, N.N.; Shavokhina, N.S.
2005-01-01
The free fall of a relativistic particle is considered: the well-known fact of the light velocity constancy is taken into account in the Galilean problem about the movement of a particle from nongravitational forces and its fall onto the ground. The velocity hodograph and the world line of the particle are found
Optimized non relativistic potential for quarkonium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rekab, S.; Zenine, N.
2006-01-01
For non relativistic quarkonia description, we consider a wide class of quark antiquark potentials in the form of power law. A systematic study is made by optimizing the potential parameters with a fit on quarkonia vector mesons that lie below the threshold for strong decays. Implications of the obtained results are discussed
Instabilities in a Relativistic Viscous Fluid
Corona-Galindo, M. G.; Klapp, J.; Vazquez, A.
1990-11-01
RESUMEN. Las ecuaciones hidrodinamicas de un fluido imperfecto relativista son resueltas, y los modos hidrodinamicos son analizados con el prop6sito de estabiecer correlaciones con las estructuras cosmol6gicas. ABSTRACT The hydrodynamical equations of a relativistic imperfect fluid are solved, and the hydrodynamical modes are analysed with the aim to establish correlations with cosmological structures. Ke, words: COSMOLOGY - HYDRODYNAMICS - RELATIVITY
Relativistic generalization of the Newtonian force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qadir, A.; Quamar, J.
1982-06-01
Whereas there is no denying the essential contribution of geometrodynamics, it must be admitted that our physical intuition is still firmly based in the Newtonian concept of force. Here we extend some earlier work re-introducing the Newtonian force concept into relativity theory. Some fundamentally new insights into the relativistic effects due to charge and rotation are presented. (author)
Relativistic Boltzmann theory for a plasma. II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erkelens, H. van; Leeuwen, W.A. van
1977-01-01
The linear or phenomenological laws such as Ohm's law, Fourier's law and Fick's law are derived for a relativistic plasma in an electromagnetic field. It is shown that the choice of a reference frame as proposed by Landau and Lifshitz entails - in contrast to, for instance, the choice of Eckart - the validity of Onsager's reciprocity relations. (Auth.)
Relativistic rapprochement of electromagnetic and strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strel'tsov, V.N.
1995-01-01
On the basis of the Lienard-Wiechert potential and the relativistic Yukawa potential it is shown that the corresponding interactions with velocity growth increase differently (the electromagnetic one increases faster). According to preliminary estimations they are equivalent, at distances of the 'action radius' of nuclear forces, at γ≅ 960, where γ is the Lorentz factor. 2 refs
Relativistic rotation and the anholonomic object
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corum, J.F.
1977-01-01
The purpose of this communication is to call attention to the conceptual economy provided by the object of anholonomity for the theory of relativity. This geometric object expresses certain consequences of relativity theory and provides a single, simple framework for discussing a variety of phenomena. It particularly clarifies the description of relativistic rotation. The relativistic rotational transformation of the four coordinate differentials of flat space--time generates a set of anholonomic, or inexact differentials, whose duals are an orthogonal set of basis vectors. How should a rotating observer interpret physical events referred to such orthogonal, but anholonomic frames The answer to this question rests upon the origin and physical significance of the object of anholonomity. It is demonstrated that not only is the rotational Lorentz transformation an anholonomic transformation, but that the intrinsic anholonomic effects are essential to interpreting rotational phenomena. In particular, the Sagnac effect may be interpreted as the physical manifestation of temporal anholonomity under rotation. The Thomas precession of a reference axis may be interpreted as a consequence of the spatial anholonomity of the rotating frame. Further, the full four-dimensional covariance of Maxwellian electrodynamics, under a relativistic Lorentz rotation, is possible only with the inclusion of anholonomic effects. The anholonomic approach clarifies the distinction between the physically different operations of source rotation and observer rotation in a flat space--time. It is finally concluded that a consistant theory of relativistic rotation, satisfying the principle of general covariance, inherently requires the presence of the object of anholonomity
Balance equations for a relativistic plasma. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hebenstreit, H.
1983-01-01
Relativistic power moments of the four-momentum are decomposed according to a macroscopic four-velocity. The thus obtained quantities are identified as relativistic generalization of the nonrelativistic orthogonal moments, e.g. diffusion flow, heat flow, pressure, etc. From the relativistic Boltzmann equation we then derive balance equations for these quantities. Explicit expressions for the relativistic mass conservation, energy balance, pressure balance, heat flow balance are presented. The weak relativistic limit is discussed. The derivation of higher order balance equations is sketched. (orig.)
Relativistic decay widths of autoionization processes: The relativistic FanoADC-Stieltjes method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fasshauer, Elke, E-mail: Elke.Fasshauer@uit.no [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Tromsø–The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Theoretische Chemie, Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kolorenč, Přemysl [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Pernpointner, Markus [Theoretische Chemie, Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
2015-04-14
Electronic decay processes of ionized systems are, for example, the Auger decay or the Interatomic/ Intermolecular Coulombic Decay. In both processes, an energetically low lying vacancy is filled by an electron of an energetically higher lying orbital and a secondary electron is instantaneously emitted to the continuum. Whether or not such a process occurs depends both on the energetic accessibility and the corresponding lifetime compared to the lifetime of competing decay mechanisms. We present a realization of the non-relativistically established FanoADC-Stieltjes method for the description of autoionization decay widths including relativistic effects. This procedure, being based on the Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction (ADC), was adapted to the relativistic framework and implemented into the relativistic quantum chemistry program package Dirac. It is, in contrast to other existing relativistic atomic codes, not limited to the description of autoionization lifetimes in spherically symmetric systems, but is instead also applicable to molecules and clusters. We employ this method to the Auger processes following the Kr3d{sup −1}, Xe4d{sup −1}, and Rn5d{sup −1} ionization. Based on the results, we show a pronounced influence of mainly scalar-relativistic effects on the decay widths of autoionization processes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bodek, K.; Rozpędzik, D.; Zejma, J.; Caban, P.; Rembieliński, J.; Włodarczyk, M.; Ciborowski, J.; Enders, J.; Köhler, A.; Kozela, A.
2013-01-01
The Polish-German project QUEST aims at studying relativistic quantum spin correlations of the Einstein-Rosen-Podolsky-Bohm type, through measurement of the correlation function and the corresponding probabilities for relativistic electron pairs. The results will be compared to theoretical predictions obtained by us within the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics, based on assumptions regarding the form of the relativistic spin operator. Agreement or divergence will be interpreted in the context of non-uniqueness of the relativistic spin operator in quantum mechanics as well as dependence of the correlation function on the choice of observables representing the spin. Pairs of correlated electrons will originate from the Mo/ller scattering of polarized 15 MeV electrons provided by the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC, TU Darmstadt, incident on a Be target. Spin projections will be determined using the Mott polarimetry technique. Measurements (starting 2013) are planned for longitudinal and transverse beam polarizations and different orientations of the beam polarization vector w.r.t. the Mo/ller scattering plane. This is the first project to study relativistic spin correlations for particles with mass
Wigner-Eisenbud-Smith photoionization time delay due to autoioinization resonances
Deshmukh, P. C.; Kumar, A.; Varma, H. R.; Banerjee, S.; Manson, Steven T.; Dolmatov, V. K.; Kheifets, A. S.
2018-03-01
An empirical ansatz for the complex photoionization amplitude and Wigner-Eisenbud-Smith time delay in the vicinity of a Fano autoionization resonance are proposed to evaluate and interpret the time delay in the resonant region. The utility of this expression is evaluated in comparison with accurate numerical calculations employing the ab initio relativistic random phase approximation and relativistic multichannel quantum defect theory. The indisputably good qualitative agreement (and semiquantitative agreement) between corresponding results of the proposed model and results produced by the ab initio theories proves the usability of the model. In addition, the phenomenology of the time delay in the vicinity of multichannel autoionizing resonances is detailed.
Statistics of resonances in one-dimensional continuous systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Vol. 73, No. 3. — journal of. September 2009 physics pp. 565–572. Statistics of resonances in one-dimensional continuous systems. JOSHUA FEINBERG. Physics Department, University of Haifa at Oranim, Tivon 36006, Israel ..... relativistic quantum mechanics (Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem,. 1969).
Relativistic quantum similarities in atoms in position and momentum spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maldonado, P.; Sarsa, A.; Buendia, E.; Galvez, F.J.
2011-01-01
A study of different quantum similarity measures and their corresponding quantum similarity indices is carried out for the atoms from H to Lr (Z=1-103). Relativistic effects in both position and momentum spaces have been studied by comparing the relativistic values to the non-relativistic ones. We have used the atomic electron density in both position and momentum spaces obtained within relativistic and non-relativistic numerical-parameterized optimized effective potential approximations. -- Highlights: → Quantum similarity measures and indices in electronic structure of atoms. → Position and momentum electronic densities. → Similarity of relativistic and non-relativistic densities. → Similarity of core and valence regions of different atoms. → Dependence with Z along the Periodic Table.
Leading order relativistic chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction
Ren, Xiu-Lei; Li, Kai-Wen; Geng, Li-Sheng; Long, Bingwei; Ring, Peter; Meng, Jie
2018-01-01
Motivated by the successes of relativistic theories in studies of atomic/molecular and nuclear systems and the need for a relativistic chiral force in relativistic nuclear structure studies, we explore a new relativistic scheme to construct the nucleon-nucleon interaction in the framework of covariant chiral effective field theory. The chiral interaction is formulated up to leading order with covariant power counting and a Lorentz invariant chiral Lagrangian. We find that the relativistic scheme induces all six spin operators needed to describe the nuclear force. A detailed investigation of the partial wave potentials shows a better description of the {}1S0 and {}3P0 phase shifts than the leading order Weinberg approach, and similar to that of the next-to-leading order Weinberg approach. For the other partial waves with angular momenta J≥slant 1, the relativistic results are almost the same as their leading order non-relativistic counterparts. )
RANKINE-HUGONIOT RELATIONS IN RELATIVISTIC COMBUSTION WAVES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Yang; Law, Chung K.
2012-01-01
As a foundational element describing relativistic reacting waves of relevance to astrophysical phenomena, the Rankine-Hugoniot relations classifying the various propagation modes of detonation and deflagration are analyzed in the relativistic regime, with the results properly degenerating to the non-relativistic and highly relativistic limits. The existence of negative-pressure downstream flows is noted for relativistic shocks, which could be of interest in the understanding of the nature of dark energy. Entropy analysis for relativistic shock waves is also performed for relativistic fluids with different equations of state (EoS), denoting the existence of rarefaction shocks in fluids with adiabatic index Γ < 1 in their EoS. The analysis further shows that weak detonations and strong deflagrations, which are rare phenomena in terrestrial environments, are expected to exist more commonly in astrophysical systems because of the various endothermic reactions present therein. Additional topics of relevance to astrophysical phenomena are also discussed.
Hagedorn inflation in string gas cosmology
José Nunes da Silva, Tiago
2010-01-01
Durante o século XX, avanços teóricos e experimentais jogaramuma nova luz sobre o estudo da história e evolução do universo, a Cosmologia. A partir dos trabalhos de Edwin Hubble, a cosmologia moderna pôde ser vista como ciência. Mas foi nas últimas décadas, sobretudo, com o desenvolvimento da cosmologia de precisão e devido a uma melhor compreensão da natureza em seu nível mais fundamental, que a Cosmologia despertou maior interesse científico. Uma das fronteiras da área diz re...
Multibaryon interactions at relativistic energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baldin, A.M.
1978-01-01
The studies of interactions of high energy particles and nuclei with nuclei are summarised. One-particle distributions are mainly considered. A special attention is paid to the cumulative effect - the particle production in the region of limiting fragmentation of nuclei which is forbidden for one-nucleon collisions. A large amount of experimental information on multi-nucleon interactions has been obtained during the last two years: the range of an approximate validity of the limiting fragmentation of nuclei has been clarified; the universal energy dependence of cross sections in the cumulative region have been elucidated; data on angular distributions and polarization of the cumulative particles have been obtained; strong A-dependences have been observed in the cumulative effect; production of particles with large perpendicular momentum has been established on nuclei along with some dependences of the cumulative particle production on the quantum numbers in the production of hadron jets. The study of different manifestations of quark plasmons (fluctuons) in nuclei and multibaryon resonances predicted by quark models is an important and extensively developed trend of high energy physics. The possibility of studying the space-time picture of development of the strong interaction process by means of hadron-nucleus interaction and the particle formation length concept needs further theoretical and experimental grounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shore, B.W.
1977-01-01
The long-time average of level populations in a coherently-excited anharmonic sequence of energy levels (e.g., an anharmonic oscillator) exhibits sharp resonances as a function of laser frequency. For simple linearly-increasing anharmonicity, each resonance is a superposition of various multiphoton resonances (e.g., a superposition of 3, 5, 7, . . . photon resonances), each having its own characteristic width predictable from perturbation theory
General relativistic dynamics of an extreme mass-ratio binary interacting with an external body
Yang, Huan; Casals, Marc
2017-10-01
We study the dynamics of a hierarchical three-body system in the general relativistic regime: an extreme mass-ratio inner binary under the tidal influence of an external body. The inner binary consists of a central Schwarzschild black hole and a test body moving around it. We discuss three types of tidal effects on the orbit of the test body. First, the angular momentum of the inner binary precesses around the angular momentum of the outer binary. Second, the tidal field drives a "transient resonance" when the radial and azimuthal frequencies are commensurable. In contrast with resonances driven by the gravitational self-force, this tidal-driven resonance may boost the orbital angular momentum and eccentricity (a relativistic version of the Kozai-Lidov effect). Finally, for an orbit-dynamical effect during the nonresonant phase, we calculate the correction to the innermost stable circular (mean) orbit due to the tidal interaction. Hierarchical three-body systems are potential sources for future space-based gravitational wave missions, and the tidal effects that we find could contribute significantly to their waveform.
Analysis of JET LCHD/ICRH synergy experiments in terms of relativistic current drive theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Start, D F.H.; Baranov, Y; Brusati, M; Ekedahl, A; Froissard, P; Gormezano, C; Jacquinot, J; Paquin, L; Rimini, F G [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Cox, M; Gardner, C; O` Brien, M R [UKAEA Culham Lab., Abingdon (United Kingdom); Di Vita, A [Ansaldo SpA, Genoa (Italy)
1994-07-01
The present analysis shows that the observed efficiency of current drive with synergy between LHCD and ICRH is in good agreement with the relativistic theory of Karney and Fisch for Landau damped waves. The predicted power absorption from the fast wave by the electron tail is within 30% of the measured value. In the presence of significant fast electron diffusion within a slowing down time it would be possible to produce central current drive using multiple ICRF resonances even when the LHCD deposition is at half radius, as in an ITER type device. (authors). 4 refs., 6 figs.
Analysis of JET LCHD/ICRH synergy experiments in terms of relativistic current drive theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Start, D.F.H.; Baranov, Y.; Brusati, M.; Ekedahl, A.; Froissard, P.; Gormezano, C.; Jacquinot, J.; Paquin, L.; Rimini, F.G.; Di Vita, A.
1994-01-01
The present analysis shows that the observed efficiency of current drive with synergy between LHCD and ICRH is in good agreement with the relativistic theory of Karney and Fisch for Landau damped waves. The predicted power absorption from the fast wave by the electron tail is within 30% of the measured value. In the presence of significant fast electron diffusion within a slowing down time it would be possible to produce central current drive using multiple ICRF resonances even when the LHCD deposition is at half radius, as in an ITER type device. (authors). 4 refs., 6 figs
On the H particle stability in the non relativistic quark model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silvestre-Brac, B.; Carbonell, J.; Gignoux, C.
1987-05-01
The H particle with quark content (uuddss) is presented as a good candidate to be stable with respect to strong interactions. In the framework of a non relativistic potential model, the binding energy is calculated by a full dynamical approach using a resonating group trial wave function. The center of mass motion and the Pauli principle are correctly treated. Sophisticated baryon wave functions are employed and the equation of motion is solved with six coupled channels including radial excited baryon states. The effect of breaking SU(3) flavour symmetry is discussed in detail
Multiple-collision model for pion production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vary, J.P.
1978-01-01
A simple model for pion production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is developed based on nucleon-nucleon data, nuclear density distribution, and the assumption of straight-line trajectories. Multiplicity distributions for total pion production and for negative-pion production are predicted for 40 Ar incident on a Pb 3 O 4 target at 1.8 GeV/nucleon. Production through intermediate baryon resonances reduces the high-multiplicity region but insufficiently to yield agreement with data. This implies the need for a coherent production mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandt, H.E.
1983-01-01
A new exact symmetry is proved for the complete second-order nonlinear conductivity tensor of an unmagnetized relativistic turbulent plasma. The symmetry is not limited to principal parts. If Cerenkov resonance is ignored, the new symmetry reduces to the well-known symmetry related to the Manley--Rowe relations, crossing symmetry, and nondissipation of the principal part of the nonlinear current. Also, a new utilitarian representation for the complete tensor is obtained in which all derivatives are removed and the pole structure is clearly exhibited
Non-Hermitian interaction representation and its use in relativistic quantum mechanics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Znojil, Miloslav
2017-01-01
Roč. 385, č. 10 (2017), s. 162-179 ISSN 0003-4916 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-22945S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : unitary quantum systems * non-Hermitian version of Dirac's interaction picture * complete set of time-evolution equations * application in relativistic quantum mechanics * Klein-Gordon example with space-time-dependent mass Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics ( physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 2.465, year: 2016
Linear theory of a cold relativistic beam in a strongly magnetized finite-geometry plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gagne, R.R.J.; Shoucri, M.M.
1976-01-01
The linear theory of a finite-geometry cold relativistic beam propagating in a cold homogeneous finite-geometry plasma, is investigated in the case of a strongly magnetized plasma. The beam is assumed to propagate parallel to the external magnetic field. It is shown that the instability which takes place at the Cherenkov resonance ωapprox. =k/subz/v/subb/ is of the convective type. The effect of the finite geometry on the instability growth rate is studied and is shown to decrease the growth rate, with respect to the infinite geometry, by a factor depending on the ratio of the beam-to-plasma radius
Kamiya, K.; Seki, K.; Saito, S.; Amano, T.; Yoshizumi, M.
2017-12-01
Radial transport of relativistic electrons in the inner magnetosphere has been considered as one of acceleration mechanisms of the outer radiation belt electrons and can be driven by the drift resonance with ULF waves in the Pc5 frequency range. The maximum changes of the electron in the radial distance (L) due to the drift resonance depend on the electron energy, pitch angle, and Pc5 wave structure. Those dependences are expected to form the characteristic pitch angle distributions (PADs) as a function of L and electron energy. In this study, we investigate PADs of relativistic electrons due to the drift resonance with a monochromatic Pc5 wave by using two simulation models of the inner magnetosphere: GEMSIS-Ring Current (RC) and GEMSIS-Radiation Belt (RB) models. The GEMSIS-RB simulations calculate guiding center trajectories of relativistic electrons in electric and magnetic fields obtained from the GEMSIS-RC model, which simulates a monochromatic Pc5 wave propagation in the inner magnetosphere. The results show the characteristic PADs depending on the energy and L, which is explicable with the pitch angle dependence of resonance conditions. At a fixed location, those PADs can change from pancake (90°peaked) to butterfly (two peaks in oblique PAs) distributions as the transport by the monochromatic Pc5 wave progresses. These butterfly distributions are seen in the L range where electrons with lower PAs satisfy the resonance condition. It is also found that the lower PA electron with a fixed magnetic moment can be transported deeper inside because of the PA changes to larger values through the adiabatic transport, which enables them to satisfy the efficient resonance condition in wider L range compared to the 90 degrees PA electrons.
Anomalous magnetohydrodynamics in the extreme relativistic domain
Giovannini, Massimo
2016-01-01
The evolution equations of anomalous magnetohydrodynamics are derived in the extreme relativistic regime and contrasted with the treatment of hydromagnetic nonlinearities pioneered by Lichnerowicz in the absence of anomalous currents. In particular we explore the situation where the conventional vector currents are complemented by the axial-vector currents arising either from the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons of a spontaneously broken symmetry or because of finite fermionic density effects. After expanding the generally covariant equations in inverse powers of the conductivity, the relativistic analog of the magnetic diffusivity equation is derived in the presence of vortical and magnetic currents. While the anomalous contributions are generally suppressed by the diffusivity, they are shown to disappear in the perfectly conducting limit. When the flow is irrotational, boost-invariant and with vanishing four-acceleration the corresponding evolution equations are explicitly integrated so that the various physic...
Relativistic nuclear physics with the spectator model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, F.
1988-01-01
The spectator model, a general approach to the relativistic treatment of nuclear physics problems in which spectators to nuclear interactions are put on their mass-shell, will be defined nd described. The approach grows out of the relativistic treatment of two and three body systems in which one particle is off-shell, and recent numerical results for the NN interaction will be presented. Two meson-exchange models, one with only 4 mesons (π, σ, /rho/, ω) but with a 25% admixture of γ 5 coupling for the pion, and a second with 6 mesons (π, σ, /rho/, ω, δ, and /eta/) but a pure γ 5 γ/sup mu/ pion coupling, are shown to give very good quantitative fits to NN scattering phase shifts below 400 MeV, and also a good description of the /rho/ 40 Cα elastic scattering observables. 19 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab
Relativistic klystrons for high-gradient accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Westenskow, G.A.; Aalberts, D.P.; Boyd, J.K.; Deis, G.A.; Houck, T.L.; Orzechowski, T.J.; Ryne, R.D.; Yu, S.S.; Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Hoag, H.A.; Koontz, R.F.; Lavine, T.L.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.; Ruth, R.D.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, J.W.; Hopkins, D.B.; Sessler, A.M.; Haimson, J.; Mecklenburg, B.
1991-01-01
Experimental work is being performed by collaborators at LLNL, SLAC, and LBL to investigate relativistic klystrons as a possible rf power source for future high-gradient accelerators. The authors have learned how to overcome their previously reported problem of high power rf pulse shortening and have achieved peak rf power levels of 330 MW using an 11.4-GHz high-gain tube with multiple output structures. In these experiments the rf pulse is of the same duration as the beam current pulse. In addition, experiments have been performed on two short sections of a high-gradient accelerator using the rf power from a relativistic klystron. An average accelerating gradient of 84 MV/m has been achieved with 80-MW of rf power
Transport theory for relativistic ionized gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Georgiou, A.
1985-01-01
The phenomenological non-equilibrium thermodynamics is adapted to the description of relativistic multicomponent plasmas. The general and special forms of matter energy-momentum tensor are given and the physical meaning of the different terms are discussed. A delicate problem of such theories, the contribution of ionized components of plasmas to the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor is analyzed and illustrated by special examples. The relativistic form of Gibbs equation leads to the balance equation of entropy density. The theory is compared to the nonrelativistic one. The linear transport equations are derived by assuming the linear dependence of currents on deviations. The thermodynamical fluxes and forces are identified and the interference of cross phenomena is discussed. (D.Gy.)
Electromagnetic wave propagation in relativistic magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiss, I.
1985-01-01
An improved mathematical technique and a new code for deriving the conductivity tensor for collisionless plasmas have been developed. The method is applicable to a very general case, including both hot (relativistic) and cold magnetized plasmas, with only isotropic equilibrium distributions being considered here. The usual derivation starts from the relativistic Vlasov equation and leads to an integration over an infinite sum of Bessel functions which has to be done numerically. In the new solution the integration is carried out over a product of two Bessel functions only. This reduces the computing time very significantly. An added advantage over existing codes is our capability to perform the computations for waves propagating obliquely to the magnetic field. Both improvements greatly facilitate investigations of properties of the plasma under conditions hitherto unexplored
Quadratic hamiltonians and relativistic quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Razumov, A.V.; Solov'ev, V.O.; Taranov, A.Yu.
1981-01-01
For the case of a charged scalar field described by a quadratic hamiltonian the equivalent relativistic quantum mechanics is constructed in one-particle sector. Complete investigation of a charged relativistic particle motion in the Coulomb field is carried out. Subcritical as well as supercritical cases are considered. In the course of investigation of the charged scalar particle in the Coulomb field the diagonalization of the quadratic hamiltonian describing the charged scalar quantized field interaction with the external Coulomb field has taken place. Mathematically this problem is bound to the construction of self-conjugated expansions of the symmetric operator. The construction of such expansion is necessary at any small external field magnitude [ru
Form of relativistic dynamics with world lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukunda, N.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.
1981-01-01
In any Hamiltonian relativistic theory there are ten generators of the Poincare group which are realized canonically. The dynamical evolution is described by a Hamiltonian which is one of the ten generators in Dirac's generator formalism. The requirement that the canonical transformations reproduce the geometrical transformation of world points generates the world-line conditions. The Dirac identification of the Hamiltonian and the world-line conditions together lead to the no-interaction theorem. Interacting relativistic theories with world-line conditions should go beyond the Dirac theory and have eleven generators. In this paper we present a constraint dynamics formalism which describes an eleven-generator theory of N interacting particles using 8(N+1) variables with suitable constraints. The (N+1)th pair of four-vectors is associated with the uniform motion of a center which coincides with the center of energy for free particles. In such theories dynamics and kinematics cannot be separated out in a simple fashion
Local supersymmetry in non-relativistic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Urrutia, L.F.; Zanelli, J.
1989-10-01
Classical and quantum non-relativistic interacting systems invariant under local supersymmetry are constructed by the method of taking square roots of the bosonic constraints which generate timelike reparametrization, leaving the action unchanged. In particular, the square root of the Schroedinger constraint is shown to be the non-relativistic limit of the Dirac constraint. Contact is made with the standard models of Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics through the reformulation of the locally invariant systems in terms of their true degrees of freedom. Contrary to the field theory case, it is shown that the locally invariant systems are completely equivalent to the corresponding globally invariant ones, the latter being the Heisenberg picture description of the former, with respect to some fermionic time. (author). 14 refs
Relativistic quantum chemistry on quantum computers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Veis, L.; Visnak, J.; Fleig, T.
2012-01-01
The past few years have witnessed a remarkable interest in the application of quantum computing for solving problems in quantum chemistry more efficiently than classical computers allow. Very recently, proof-of-principle experimental realizations have been reported. However, so far only...... the nonrelativistic regime (i.e., the Schrodinger equation) has been explored, while it is well known that relativistic effects can be very important in chemistry. We present a quantum algorithm for relativistic computations of molecular energies. We show how to efficiently solve the eigenproblem of the Dirac......-Coulomb Hamiltonian on a quantum computer and demonstrate the functionality of the proposed procedure by numerical simulations of computations of the spin-orbit splitting in the SbH molecule. Finally, we propose quantum circuits with three qubits and nine or ten controlled-NOT (CNOT) gates, which implement a proof...
Hydrodynamics of ultra-relativistic bubble walls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leonardo Leitao
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In cosmological first-order phase transitions, gravitational waves are generated by the collisions of bubble walls and by the bulk motions caused in the fluid. A sizeable signal may result from fast-moving walls. In this work we study the hydrodynamics associated to the fastest propagation modes, namely, ultra-relativistic detonations and runaway solutions. We compute the energy injected by the phase transition into the fluid and the energy which accumulates in the bubble walls. We provide analytic approximations and fits as functions of the net force acting on the wall, which can be readily evaluated for specific models. We also study the back-reaction of hydrodynamics on the wall motion, and we discuss the extrapolation of the friction force away from the ultra-relativistic limit. We use these results to estimate the gravitational wave signal from detonations and runaway walls.
Hydrodynamics of ultra-relativistic bubble walls
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leitao, Leonardo, E-mail: lleitao@mdp.edu.ar; Mégevand, Ariel, E-mail: megevand@mdp.edu.ar
2016-04-15
In cosmological first-order phase transitions, gravitational waves are generated by the collisions of bubble walls and by the bulk motions caused in the fluid. A sizeable signal may result from fast-moving walls. In this work we study the hydrodynamics associated to the fastest propagation modes, namely, ultra-relativistic detonations and runaway solutions. We compute the energy injected by the phase transition into the fluid and the energy which accumulates in the bubble walls. We provide analytic approximations and fits as functions of the net force acting on the wall, which can be readily evaluated for specific models. We also study the back-reaction of hydrodynamics on the wall motion, and we discuss the extrapolation of the friction force away from the ultra-relativistic limit. We use these results to estimate the gravitational wave signal from detonations and runaway walls.
Relativistic theory of tidal Love numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Binnington, Taylor; Poisson, Eric
2009-01-01
In Newtonian gravitational theory, a tidal Love number relates the mass multipole moment created by tidal forces on a spherical body to the applied tidal field. The Love number is dimensionless, and it encodes information about the body's internal structure. We present a relativistic theory of Love numbers, which applies to compact bodies with strong internal gravities; the theory extends and completes a recent work by Flanagan and Hinderer, which revealed that the tidal Love number of a neutron star can be measured by Earth-based gravitational-wave detectors. We consider a spherical body deformed by an external tidal field, and provide precise and meaningful definitions for electric-type and magnetic-type Love numbers; and these are computed for polytropic equations of state. The theory applies to black holes as well, and we find that the relativistic Love numbers of a nonrotating black hole are all zero.
Meson spectra using relativistic quark models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eggers, M.C.
1985-01-01
The complexity of QCD has led to the use of simpler, phenomenological models for hadrons, notably potential models. A short overview of the origin, rationale, merits and demerits of such models is given. Nonrelativistic models and scaling laws are discussed using the WKB technique for illustrative purposes. The failure of nonrelativistic models to describe the lighter mesons motivates the introduction of relativistic equations. Relativistic kinematics are incorporated into a Schroedinger formalism using equations derived by A. Barut, while two-body kinematics are brought into a one-body form via a substitution related to the Todorov equation. The potential used involves a semi-analytic solution to a harmonic oscillator modified by a spin-spin interaction term. The results seem to indicate that such a harmonic oscillator is unsuitable to describe diquark systems adequately
Electroweak interactions in a relativistic Fermi gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vantournhout, K.; Jachowicz, N.; Ryckebusch, J.
2006-01-01
We present a relativistic model for computing the neutrino mean free path in neutron matter. In this model, neutron matter is described as a noninteracting Fermi gas in β equilibrium. We present results for the neutrino mean free path for temperatures of 0 to 50 MeV and a broad range of neutrino energies. We show that relativistic effects cause a considerable enhancement of neutrino-scattering cross sections in neutron matter. The influence of the Q 2 dependence in the electroweak form factors and the inclusion of a weak-magnetic term in the hadron current is discussed. The weak-magnetic term in the hadron current is at the origin of some selective spin dependence for the nucleons that are subject to neutrino interactions
Fundamental relativistic solution for the rail gun
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liboff, R.L.; Schenter, G.K.
1986-01-01
A fully relativistic analysis is made of the dynamics of a rail gun based on three assumptions: (1) Ohm's law is valid in the rest frame of the plasma, (2) total electron momentum is transferred to the projectile, and (3) motion of the projectile is constrained to one direction. With these assumptions, a relativistic equation for the velocity of the projectile is obtained, whose solution monotonically increases to one of two values depending on field strengths. For B>E, the maximum velocity is cE/B, whereas for E>B it is c, where c is the speed of light, and E and B are applied electric and magnetic fields, respectively (in cgs)
Intense EM filamentation in relativistic hot plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Qiang-Lin [Department of Physics, Jinggangshan University, Ji' an, Jiangxi 343009 (China); Chen, Zhong-Ping [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Mahajan, Swadesh M., E-mail: mahajan@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Uttar Pradesh 201314 (India)
2017-03-03
Highlights: • Breaking up of an intense EM pulse into filaments is a spectacular demonstration of the nonlinear wave-plasma interaction. • Filaments are spectacularly sharper, highly extended and longer lived at relativistic temperatures. • EM energy concentration can trigger new nonlinear phenomena with absolute consequences for high energy density matter. - Abstract: Through 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we demonstrate that the nature of filamentation of a high intensity electromagnetic (EM) pulse propagating in an underdense plasma, is profoundly affected at relativistically high temperatures. The “relativistic” filaments are sharper, are dramatically extended (along the direction of propagation), and live much longer than their lower temperature counterparts. The thermally boosted electron inertia is invoked to understand this very interesting and powerful phenomenon.
Quantum theoretical physics is statistical and relativistic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harding, C.
1980-01-01
A new theoretical framework for the quantum mechanism is presented. It is based on a strict deterministic behavior of single systems. The conventional QM equation, however, is found to describe statistical results of many classical systems. It will be seen, moreover, that a rigorous synthesis of our theory requires relativistic kinematics. So, QM is not only a classical statistical theory, it is, of necessity, a relativistic theory. The equation of the theory does not just duplicate QM, it indicates an inherent nonlinearity in QM which is subject to experimental verification. It is shown, therefore, that conventional QM is a corollary of classical deterministic principles. It is suggested that this concept of nature conflicts with that prevalent in modern physics. (author)
Relativistic mean field model for entrainment in general relativistic superfluid neutron stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Comer, G.L.; Joynt, R.
2003-01-01
General relativistic superfluid neutron stars have a significantly more intricate dynamics than their ordinary fluid counterparts. Superfluidity allows different superfluid (and superconducting) species of particles to have independent fluid flows, a consequence of which is that the fluid equations of motion contain as many fluid element velocities as superfluid species. Whenever the particles of one superfluid interact with those of another, the momentum of each superfluid will be a linear combination of both superfluid velocities. This leads to the so-called entrainment effect whereby the motion of one superfluid will induce a momentum in the other superfluid. We have constructed a fully relativistic model for entrainment between superfluid neutrons and superconducting protons using a relativistic σ-ω mean field model for the nucleons and their interactions. In this context there are two notions of 'relativistic': relativistic motion of the individual nucleons with respect to a local region of the star (i.e. a fluid element containing, say, an Avogadro's number of particles), and the motion of fluid elements with respect to the rest of the star. While it is the case that the fluid elements will typically maintain average speeds at a fraction of that of light, the supranuclear densities in the core of a neutron star can make the nucleons themselves have quite high average speeds within each fluid element. The formalism is applied to the problem of slowly rotating superfluid neutron star configurations, a distinguishing characteristic being that the neutrons can rotate at a rate different from that of the protons
Relativistic duality, and relativistic and radiative corrections for heavy-quark systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Durand, B.; Durand, L.
1982-01-01
We give a JWKB proof of a relativistic duality relation which relates an appropriate energy average of the physical cross section for e + e - →qq-bar bound states→hadrons to the same energy average of the perturbative cross section for e + e - →qq-bar. We show that the duality relation can be used effectively to estimate relativistic and radiative corrections for bound-quark systems to order α/sub s//sup ts2/. We also present a formula which relates the square of the ''large'' 3 S 1 Salpeter-Bethe-Schwinger wave function for zero space-time separation of the quarks to the square of the nonrelativistic Schroedinger wave function at the origin for an effective potential which reproduces the relativistic spectrum. This formula allows one to use the nonrelativistic wave functions obtained in potential models fitted to the psi and UPSILON spectra to calculate relativistic leptonic widths for qq-bar states via a relativistic version of the van Royen--Weisskopf formula
Multiple electromagnetic excitations of relativistic projectiles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Llope, W.J.; Braun-Munzinger, P.
1992-01-01
Conditions optimum for the first experimental verification of the multiplication electromagnetic excitations of nuclei in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions are described. The relative magnitudes of three important physical processes that might interfere with such a measurement are compared to the predicted strengths for the single and multiple electromagnetic excitations for various choices of the projectile mass and beam energy. Strategies are presented for making inferences concerning the presence of multiple excitation strength in experimental data
Using MUSIC to study relativistic nuclear collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1983-01-01
A large Multiple Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) has been developed as a part of the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS). This facility is being used for the study of relativistic nuclear collisions at the Bevalac of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Preliminary data from MUSIC indicate that a charge resolution of one unit should be achieved from Z approximately equal to 7 to Z approximately equal to 100. (author)
Jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Xin-Nian; Gyulassy, M.
1990-09-01
Several aspects of hard and semihard QCD jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed, including multiproduction of minijets and the interaction of a jet with dense nuclear matter. The reduction of jet quenching effect in deconfined phase of nuclear matter is speculated to provide a signature of the formation of quark gluon plasma. HIJING Monte Carlo program which can simulate events of jets production and quenching in heavy ion collisions is briefly described. 35 refs., 13 figs
On non-relativistic electron theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Woolley, R G
1975-01-01
A discussion of non-relativistic electron theory, which makes use of the electromagnetic field potentials only as useful working variables in the intermediate stages, is presented. The separation of the (transverse) radiation field from the longitudinal electric field due to the sources is automatic, and as a result, this formalism is often more convenient than the usual Coulomb gauge theory used in molecular physics.
Relativistic impulse approximation and deuteron spin structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokarev, M.V.
1992-01-01
The fragmentation processes were considered of tensor- and vector-polarized deuterons to protons in the framework of the covariant approach in the light cone variables on the basis of the relativistic deuteron wave function with one nucleon on-mass shell. The experimental verification of predicted dependences of T 20 and K is of interest for the research of the momentum and spin distributions of high momentum deuteron constituents. 21 refs.; 6 figs
General relativistic chaos and nonlinear dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrow, J.D.
1982-01-01
How new ideas in dynamical systems theory find application in the description of general relativistic systems is described. The concept of dynamical entropy is explained and the associated invariant evaluated for the Mixmaster cosmological model. The description of cosmological models as measure preserving dynamical systems leads to a number of interconnections with new ideas in non-linear dynamics. This may provide a new avenue of approach to ascertaining the nature of the general solution to Einstein's equations. (author)
Spreading of a relativistic wave packet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Almeida, C.; Jabs, A.
1983-01-01
A simple general proof that the spreading velocity of a relativistic free wave packet of the Broglie waves is limited is presented. For a wide class of packets it is confirmed that the limit is the velocity of light, and it is shown how this limit is approached when the width Δp of the wave packet in momentum space tends to infinity and the minimum width σ(t=o) in ordinary space tends to zero. (Author) [pt
On the ambiguity in relativistic tidal deformability
Gralla, Samuel E.
2018-04-01
The LIGO collaboration recently reported the first gravitational-wave constraints on the tidal deformability of neutron stars. I discuss an inherent ambiguity in the notion of relativistic tidal deformability that, while too small to affect the present measurement, may become important in the future. I propose a new way to understand the ambiguity and discuss future prospects for reliably linking observed gravitational waveforms to compact object microphysics.
Exchange effects in Relativistic Schroedinger Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sigg, T.; Sorg, M.
1998-01-01
The Relativistic Schroedinger Theory predicts the occurrence of exchange and overlap effects in many-particle systems. For a 2-particle system, the interaction energy of the two particles consists of two contributions: Coulomb energy and exchange energy, where the first one is revealed to be the same as in standard quantum theory. However the exchange energy is mediated by an exchange potential, contrary to the kinematical origin of the exchange term in the standard theory
Relativistic nuclear photographic emulsion for multilayer piles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogomolov, K.S.; Romanovskaya, K.M.; Razorenova, I.F.
1975-01-01
Nuclear photoemulsion layers having a high sensitivity to relativistic singly charged particles, a high sensitivity stability, time stability of the latent image, as well as a high constancy of the emulsion thickness within the limits of the layer, were developed and fabricated for a large nuclear photoemulsion stack that was exposed in space during the experiments carried out on the artificial earth satellite ''Intercosmos-6''
Electromagnetic wave in a relativistic magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasovitskiy, V. B.
2009-01-01
Results are presented from a theoretical investigation of the dispersion properties of a relativistic plasma in which an electromagnetic wave propagates along an external magnetic field. The dielectric tensor in integral form is simplified by separating its imaginary and real parts. A dispersion relation for an electromagnetic wave is obtained that makes it possible to analyze the dispersion and collisionless damping of electromagnetic perturbations over a broad parameter range for both nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic plasmas.
Status of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, S.Y.
1990-01-01
Accelerator Physics issues, such as the dynamical aperture, the beam lifetime and the current--intensity limitation are carefully studied for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The single layer superconducting magnets, of 8 cm coil inner diameter, satisfying the beam stability requirements have also been successfully tested. The proposal has generated wide spread interest in the particle and nuclear physics. 1 ref., 4 figs., 3 tabs
High resolution spectrometry for relativistic heavy ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gabor, G; Schimmerling, W; Greiner, D; Bieser, F; Lindstrom, P [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.
1975-12-01
Several techniques are discussed for velocity and energy spectrometry of relativistic heavy ions with good resolution. A foil telescope with chevron channel plate detectors is described. A test of this telescope was performed using 2.1 GeV/A C/sup 6 +/ ions, and a time-of-flight resolution of 160 ps was measured. Qualitative information on the effect of foil thickness was also obtained.
General relativistic chaos and nonlinear dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barrow, J D [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Dept. of Physics
1982-06-01
How new ideas in dynamical systems theory find application in the description of general relativistic systems is described. The concept of dynamical entropy is explained and the associated invariant evaluated for the Mixmaster cosmological model. The description of cosmological models as measure preserving dynamical systems leads to a number of interconnections with new ideas in non-linear dynamics. This may provide a new avenue of approach to ascertaining the nature of the general solution to Einstein's equations.
Heavy baryon spectroscopy with relativistic kinematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valcarce, A.; Garcilazo, H.; Vijande, J.
2014-01-01
We present a comparative Faddeev study of heavy baryon spectroscopy with nonrelativistic and relativistic kinematics. We show results for different standard hyperfine interactions with both kinematics in an attempt to learn about the light quark dynamics. We highlight the properties of particular states accessible in nowadays laboratories that would help in discriminating between different dynamical models. The advance in the knowledge of light quark dynamics is a key tool for the understanding of the existence of exotic hadrons.
Interferometric Measurement of Acceleration at Relativistic Speeds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christian, Pierre; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: pchristian@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Astronomy Department, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2017-01-10
We show that an interferometer moving at a relativistic speed relative to a point source of light offers a sensitive probe of acceleration. Such an accelerometer contains no moving parts, and is thus more robust than conventional “mass-on-a-spring” accelerometers. In an interstellar mission to Alpha Centauri, such an accelerometer could be used to measure the masses of exoplanets and their host stars as well as test theories of modified gravity.
Supersymmetric solutions for non-relativistic holography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.
2009-01-01
We construct families of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB and D=11 supergravity that are invariant under the non-relativistic conformal algebra for various values of dynamical exponent z≥4 and z≥3, respectively. The solutions are based on five- and seven-dimensional Sasaki-Einstein manifolds and generalise the known solutions with dynamical exponent z=4 for the type IIB case and z=3 for the D=11 case, respectively. (orig.)
Magnetized pair Bose gas: relativistic superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daicic, J.; Frankel, N.E.; Kowalenko, V.
1993-01-01
The magnetized Bose gas at temperatures above pair threshold is investigated. New magnetization laws are obtained for a wide range of field strengths, and the gas is shown to exhibit the Meissner effect. Some related results for the Fermi gas, a relativistic paramagnet, are also discussed. It is concluded that the pair gases, through the interplay between pair creation, temperature, field strength, statistics and/in the case of fermions/spin, have remarkable magnetic properties. 14 refs
L-shell ionization by relativistic electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnston, P.N.; Spicer, B.M.; Helstroom, R.
1980-01-01
Measurements of the relative x-ray production cross-sections Lsub(α)/Lsub(l), Lsub(β)/Lsub(α) and Lsub (γ)/Lsub(α) by relativistic electrons for the heavy elements Gd, Tm, Ta, Au, Pb, Bi and Th have been carried out. The ratios Lsub(β)/Lsub(α) and Lsub(α)/Lsub (l), are compared with previous experimental and theoretical work
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bobylev, Yu. V. [L.N. Tolstoy Tula State Pedagogical University (Russian Federation); Kuzelev, M. V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Rukhadze, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov Institute of General Physics (Russian Federation)
2008-02-15
A general mathematical model is proposed that is based on the Vlasov kinetic equation with a self-consistent field and describes the nonlinear dynamics of the electromagnetic instabilities of a relativistic electron beam in a spatially bounded plasma. Two limiting cases are analyzed, namely, high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) instabilities of a relativistic electron beam, of which the LF instability is a qualitatively new phenomenon in comparison with the known Cherenkov resonance effects. For instabilities in the regime of the collective Cherenkov effect, the equations containing cubic nonlinearities and describing the nonlinear saturation of the instabilities of a relativistic beam in a plasma are derived by using the methods of expansion in small perturbations of the trajectories and momenta of the beam electrons. Analytic expressions for the amplitudes of the interacting beam and plasma waves are obtained. The analytical results are shown to agree well with the exact solutions obtained numerically from the basic general mathematical model of the instabilities in question. The general mathematical model is also used to discuss the effects associated with variation in the constant component of the electron current in a beam-plasma system.
Isospin-dependent properties of asymmetric nuclear matter in relativistic mean field models
Chen, Lie-Wen; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Bao-An
2007-11-01
Using various relativistic mean-field models, including nonlinear ones with meson field self-interactions, models with density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings, and point-coupling models without meson fields, we have studied the isospin-dependent bulk and single-particle properties of asymmetric nuclear matter. In particular, we have determined the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy from these different relativistic mean-field models and compared the results with the constraints recently extracted from analyses of experimental data on isospin diffusion and isotopic scaling in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions as well as from measured isotopic dependence of the giant monopole resonances in even-A Sn isotopes. Among the 23 parameter sets in the relativistic mean-field model that are commonly used for nuclear structure studies, only a few are found to give symmetry energies that are consistent with the empirical constraints. We have also studied the nuclear symmetry potential and the isospin splitting of the nucleon effective mass in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. We find that both the momentum dependence of the nuclear symmetry potential at fixed baryon density and the isospin splitting of the nucleon effective mass in neutron-rich nuclear matter depend not only on the nuclear interactions but also on the definition of the nucleon optical potential.
Relativistic theory of electron-impact ionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenberg, Leonard
2010-01-01
A relativistic version of an earlier, non-relativistic, formulation of the theory of ionization of an atomic system by electron impact is presented. With a time-independent resolvent operator taken as the basis for the dynamics, a wave equation is derived for a system with open channels consisting of two positive-energy electrons in an external field generated by the residual ion. Virtual intermediate states can be accounted for by the effective Hamiltonian that appears in the wave equation and which in principle may be constructed perturbatively. The asymptotic form of the wavefunction, modified by the effects of the long-range Coulomb interactions of the two electrons in the external field, is derived. These electrons are constrained, by projection operators which appear naturally in the theory, to propagate in positive-energy states only. The long-range Coulomb effects take the form of phase factors similar to those that are found in the non-relativistic version of the theory. With the boundary conditions established, an integral identity for the ionization amplitude is derived, and used to set up a distorted-wave Born expansion for the transition amplitude involving Coulomb-modified propagating waves.
Relativistic dynamics, Green function and pseudodifferential operators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cirilo-Lombardo, Diego Julio [National Institute of Plasma Physics (INFIP), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)
2016-06-15
The central role played by pseudodifferential operators in relativistic dynamics is known very well. In this work, operators like the Schrodinger one (e.g., square root) are treated from the point of view of the non-local pseudodifferential Green functions. Starting from the explicit construction of the Green (semigroup) theoretical kernel, a theorem linking the integrability conditions and their dependence on the spacetime dimensions is given. Relativistic wave equations with arbitrary spin and the causality problem are discussed with the algebraic interpretation of the radical operator and their relation with coherent and squeezed states. Also we perform by means of pure theoretical procedures (based in physical concepts and symmetry) the relativistic position operator which satisfies the conditions of integrability: it is a non-local, Lorentz invariant and does not have the same problems as the “local”position operator proposed by Newton and Wigner. Physical examples, as zitterbewegung and rogue waves, are presented and deeply analyzed in this theoretical framework.
Relativistic implications of the quantum phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Low, Stephen G
2012-01-01
The quantum phase leads to projective representations of symmetry groups in quantum mechanics. The projective representations are equivalent to the unitary representations of the central extension of the group. A celebrated example is Wigner's formulation of special relativistic quantum mechanics as the projective representations of the inhomogeneous Lorentz group. However, Wigner's formulation makes no mention of the Weyl-Heisenberg group and the hermitian representation of its algebra that are the Heisenberg commutation relations fundamental to quantum physics. We put aside the relativistic symmetry and show that the maximal quantum symmetry that leaves the Heisenberg commutation relations invariant is the projective representations of the conformally scaled inhomogeneous symplectic group. The Weyl-Heisenberg group and noncommutative structure arises directly because the quantum phase requires projective representations. We then consider the relativistic implications of the quantum phase that lead to the Born line element and the projective representations of an inhomogeneous unitary group that defines a noninertial quantum theory. (Understanding noninertial quantum mechanics is a prelude to understanding quantum gravity.) The remarkable properties of this symmetry and its limits are studied.
Localization and Entanglement in Relativistic Quantum Physics
Yngvason, Jakob
These notes are a slightly expanded version of a lecture presented in February 2012 at the workshop "The Message of Quantum Science—Attempts Towards a Synthesis" held at the ZIF in Bielefeld. The participants were physicists with a wide range of different expertise and interests. The lecture was intended as a survey of a small selection of the insights into the structure of relativistic quantum physics that have accumulated through the efforts of many people over more than 50 years. (Including, among many others, R. Haag, H. Araki, D. Kastler, H.-J. Borchers, A. Wightman, R. Streater, B. Schroer, H. Reeh, S. Schlieder, S. Doplicher, J. Roberts, R. Jost, K. Hepp, J. Fröhlich, J. Glimm, A. Jaffe, J. Bisognano, E. Wichmann, D. Buchholz, K. Fredenhagen, R. Longo, D. Guido, R. Brunetti, J. Mund, S. Summers, R. Werner, H. Narnhofer, R. Verch, G. Lechner, ….) This contribution discusses some facts about relativistic quantum physics, most of which are quite familiar to practitioners of Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT) [Also known as Local Quantum Physics (Haag, Local quantum physics. Springer, Berlin, 1992).] but less well known outside this community. No claim of originality is made; the goal of this contribution is merely to present these facts in a simple and concise manner, focusing on the following issues: Explaining how quantum mechanics (QM) combined with (special) relativity, in particular an upper bound on the propagation velocity of effects, leads naturally to systems with an infinite number of degrees of freedom (relativistic quantum fields).
On the relativistic calculation of spontaneous emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boudet, R.
1993-01-01
In a recent work, Barut and Salamin (1988) have derived a method for calculating the relativistic decay rates in atoms, in a formulation of quantum electrodynamics based upon the electron's self-energy. The decay rate appears as the imaginary part of a formula giving a complex energy shift, the real part of the formula being the Lamb shift. The presence of the the decay rate in the imaginary part of a formula, giving an energy in its real part, may appear a bit strange. A confirmation of the Barut and Alamin calculation, by means of a quite different point of view, would be useful. Therefore in this work the Einstein A coefficients are calculated, in all cases of degeneracies of the Dirac transition currents, by means of the energy balance method. This point of view is based on the balance between the energy released during the transitions of electrons from a higher state to a lower one, and the flux of the Poynting vector of the classical electromagnetic field, created by the electrons, through a sphere a large radius. The particularity of the present work lies in the direct calculation of the relativistic Dirac transition currents and the fact that the dipole and Pauli approximations are avoided. The quantum part of the relativistic calculation is based on the determination of the transition charge currents in the Darwin solutions of the Dirac equation. 13 refs
Cosmological measurements with general relativistic galaxy correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raccanelli, Alvise; Montanari, Francesco; Durrer, Ruth; Bertacca, Daniele; Doré, Olivier
2016-01-01
We investigate the cosmological dependence and the constraining power of large-scale galaxy correlations, including all redshift-distortions, wide-angle, lensing and gravitational potential effects on linear scales. We analyze the cosmological information present in the lensing convergence and in the gravitational potential terms describing the so-called ''relativistic effects'', and we find that, while smaller than the information contained in intrinsic galaxy clustering, it is not negligible. We investigate how neglecting them does bias cosmological measurements performed by future spectroscopic and photometric large-scale surveys such as SKA and Euclid. We perform a Fisher analysis using the CLASS code, modified to include scale-dependent galaxy bias and redshift-dependent magnification and evolution bias. Our results show that neglecting relativistic terms, especially lensing convergence, introduces an error in the forecasted precision in measuring cosmological parameters of the order of a few tens of percent, in particular when measuring the matter content of the Universe and primordial non-Gaussianity parameters. The analysis suggests a possible substantial systematic error in cosmological parameter constraints. Therefore, we argue that radial correlations and integrated relativistic terms need to be taken into account when forecasting the constraining power of future large-scale number counts of galaxy surveys.
First quantized noncritical relativistic Polyakov string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaskolski, Z.; Meissner, K.A.
1994-01-01
The first quantization of the relativistic Brink-DiVecchia-Howe-Polyakov (BDHP) string in the range 1 < d 25 is considered. It is shown that using the Polyakov sum over bordered surfaces in the Feynman path integral quantization scheme one gets a consistent quantum mechanics of relativistic 1-dim extended objects in the range 1 < d < 25. In particular, the BDHP string propagator is exactly calculated for arbitrary initial and final string configurations and the Hilbert space of physical states of noncritical BDHP string is explicitly constructed. The resulting theory is equivalent to the Fairlie-Chodos-Thorn massive string model. In contrast to the conventional conformal field theory approach to noncritical string and random surfaces in the Euclidean target space the path integral formulation of the Fairlie-Chodos-Thorn string obtained in this paper does not rely on the principle of conformal invariance. Some consequences of this feature for constructing a consistent relativistic string theory based on the ''splitting-joining'' interaction are discussed. (author). 42 refs, 1 fig
Relativistic heavy-atom effects on heavy-atom nuclear shieldings
Lantto, Perttu; Romero, Rodolfo H.; Gómez, Sergio S.; Aucar, Gustavo A.; Vaara, Juha
2006-11-01
The principal relativistic heavy-atom effects on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding tensor of the heavy atom itself (HAHA effects) are calculated using ab initio methods at the level of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. This is the first systematic study of the main HAHA effects on nuclear shielding and chemical shift by perturbational relativistic approach. The dependence of the HAHA effects on the chemical environment of the heavy atom is investigated for the closed-shell X2+, X4+, XH2, and XH3- (X =Si-Pb) as well as X3+, XH3, and XF3 (X =P-Bi) systems. Fully relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations are carried out for comparison. It is necessary in the Breit-Pauli approach to include the second-order magnetic-field-dependent spin-orbit (SO) shielding contribution as it is the larger SO term in XH3-, XH3, and XF3, and is equally large in XH2 as the conventional, third-order field-independent spin-orbit contribution. Considering the chemical shift, the third-order SO mechanism contributes two-thirds of the difference of ˜1500ppm between BiH3 and BiF3. The second-order SO mechanism and the numerically largest relativistic effect, which arises from the cross-term contribution of the Fermi contact hyperfine interaction and the relativistically modified spin-Zeeman interaction (FC/SZ-KE), are isotropic and practically independent of electron correlation effects as well as the chemical environment of the heavy atom. The third-order SO terms depend on these factors and contribute both to heavy-atom shielding anisotropy and NMR chemical shifts. While a qualitative picture of heavy-atom chemical shifts is already obtained at the nonrelativistic level of theory, reliable shifts may be expected after including the third-order SO contributions only, especially when calculations are carried out at correlated level. The FC/SZ-KE contribution to shielding is almost completely produced in the s orbitals of the heavy atom, with values diminishing with the principal
Extended Galilean symmetries of non-relativistic strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Batlle, Carles [Departament de Matemàtiques and IOC, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, EPSEVG,Av. V. Balaguer 1, E-08808 Vilanova i la Geltrú (Spain); Gomis, Joaquim; Not, Daniel [Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB),Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2017-02-09
We consider two non-relativistic strings and their Galilean symmetries. These strings are obtained as the two possible non-relativistic (NR) limits of a relativistic string. One of them is non-vibrating and represents a continuum of non-relativistic massless particles, and the other one is a non-relativistic vibrating string. For both cases we write the generator of the most general point transformation and impose the condition of Noether symmetry. As a result we obtain two sets of non-relativistic Killing equations for the vector fields that generate the symmetry transformations. Solving these equations shows that NR strings exhibit two extended, infinite dimensional space-time symmetries which contain, as a subset, the Galilean symmetries. For each case, we compute the associated conserved charges and discuss the existence of non-central extensions.
Relativistic quantum mechanics and introduction to field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yndurain, F.J. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica
1996-12-01
The following topics were dealt with: relativistic transformations, the Lorentz group, Klein-Gordon equation, spinless particles, spin 1/2 particles, Dirac particle in a potential, massive spin 1 particles, massless spin 1 particles, relativistic collisions, S matrix, cross sections, decay rates, partial wave analysis, electromagnetic field quantization, interaction of radiation with matter, interactions in quantum field theory and relativistic interactions with classical sources.
Relativistic quantum mechanics and introduction to field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yndurain, F.J.
1996-01-01
The following topics were dealt with: relativistic transformations, the Lorentz group, Klein-Gordon equation, spinless particles, spin 1/2 particles, Dirac particle in a potential, massive spin 1 particles, massless spin 1 particles, relativistic collisions, S matrix, cross sections, decay rates, partial wave analysis, electromagnetic field quantization, interaction of radiation with matter, interactions in quantum field theory and relativistic interactions with classical sources
A relativistic, meson exchange model of pion-nucleon scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pearces, B.C.; Jennings, B.K.
1990-06-01
A relativistic meson exchange approach to the pion-nucleon interaction is developed using a three-dimensional relativistic two-body propagator, and the results using different propagators are compared. The relativistic approach is able to describe low energy scattering up to 400 MeV above threshold, while preserving the soft pion theorems. The different propagators give similar results, as the form factors necessary to get a fit suppress much of the multiple scattering. (Author) (24 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.)
Relativistic description of directly interacting pions and nucleons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heller, L.
1976-01-01
The expected magnitudes of the leading relativistic effects on an off-energy-shell T matrix element are estimated using the Bakamjian--Thomas formulation of relativistic potential theory. For pion-nucleon scattering at medium energy, the two largest corrections are expected to result from the use of relativistic relative momenta rather than nonrelativistic values. The importance of additional terms depends upon the detailed behavior of the T matrix
Second quantization of classical nonlinear relativistic field theory. Pt. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balaban, T.
1976-01-01
The construction of a relativistic interacting local quantum field is given in two steps: first the classical nonlinear relativistic field theory is written down in terms of Poisson brackets, with initial conditions as canonical variables: next a representation of Poisson bracket Lie algebra by means of linear operators in the topological vector space is given and an explicit form of a local interacting relativistic quantum field PHI is obtained. (orig./BJ) [de
Electromagnetic excitation of the two-phonon giant dipole resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emling, H.
1994-03-01
It is the aim of this article to summarize our present knowledge on the double isovector giant dipole resonance (DGDR) and our understanding of the electromagnetic excitation mechanism in heavy ion collisions in the relativistic energy regime. In the following chapter, a brief resume on the history of giant resonances is given and, based on their understanding, conclusions on the expected properties of multi-phonon resonances are drawn. In chapter 2, the essential features of electromagnetic heavy ion interactions at (near) relativistic velocities will be illuminated and the theoretical framework is presented, which describes such processes. New experimental methods were required for an appropriate study of Coulomb dissociation processes, which are discussed in chapter 3 together with the experimental results. Chapter 4 is dedicated to summarize the results from electromagnetic excitation studies, to compare with those from alternative methods and, in particular, to contrast experimental findings with theoretical predictions and to address open problems. (orig.)
Theoretical study of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aucar, I. Agustín, E-mail: agustin.aucar@conicet.gov.ar; Gomez, Sergio S., E-mail: ssgomez@exa.unne.edu.ar [Institute for Modeling and Technological Innovation, IMIT (CONICET-UNNE) and Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Northeastern University of Argentina, Avenida Libertad 5400, W3404AAS Corrientes (Argentina); Giribet, Claudia G.; Ruiz de Azúa, Martín C. [Physics Department, Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires and IFIBA CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2014-11-21
An original formulation of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor valid for heavy atom containing compounds is presented. In such formulation, the relevant terms of a molecular Hamiltonian for non-relativistic nuclei and relativistic electrons in the laboratory system are considered. Terms linear and bilinear in the nuclear rotation angular momentum and an external uniform magnetic field are considered within first and second order (relativistic) perturbation theory to obtain the rotational g-tensor. Relativistic effects are further analyzed by carrying out the linear response within the elimination of the small component expansion. Quantitative results for model systems HX (X=F, Cl, Br, I), XF (X=Cl, Br, I), and YH{sup +} (Y=Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) are obtained both at the RPA and density functional theory levels of approximation. Relativistic effects are shown to be small for this molecular property. The relation between the rotational g-tensor and susceptibility tensor which is valid in the non-relativistic theory does not hold within the relativistic framework, and differences between both molecular parameters are analyzed for the model systems under study. It is found that the non-relativistic relation remains valid within 2% even for the heavy HI, IF, and XeH{sup +} systems. Only for the sixth-row Rn atom a significant deviation of this relation is found.
Theoretical study of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aucar, I. Agustín; Gomez, Sergio S.; Giribet, Claudia G.; Ruiz de Azúa, Martín C.
2014-01-01
An original formulation of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor valid for heavy atom containing compounds is presented. In such formulation, the relevant terms of a molecular Hamiltonian for non-relativistic nuclei and relativistic electrons in the laboratory system are considered. Terms linear and bilinear in the nuclear rotation angular momentum and an external uniform magnetic field are considered within first and second order (relativistic) perturbation theory to obtain the rotational g-tensor. Relativistic effects are further analyzed by carrying out the linear response within the elimination of the small component expansion. Quantitative results for model systems HX (X=F, Cl, Br, I), XF (X=Cl, Br, I), and YH + (Y=Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) are obtained both at the RPA and density functional theory levels of approximation. Relativistic effects are shown to be small for this molecular property. The relation between the rotational g-tensor and susceptibility tensor which is valid in the non-relativistic theory does not hold within the relativistic framework, and differences between both molecular parameters are analyzed for the model systems under study. It is found that the non-relativistic relation remains valid within 2% even for the heavy HI, IF, and XeH + systems. Only for the sixth-row Rn atom a significant deviation of this relation is found
Acoustic geometry for general relativistic barotropic irrotational fluid flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Visser, Matt; Molina-ParIs, Carmen
2010-01-01
'Acoustic spacetimes', in which techniques of differential geometry are used to investigate sound propagation in moving fluids, have attracted considerable attention over the last few decades. Most of the models currently considered in the literature are based on non-relativistic barotropic irrotational fluids, defined in a flat Newtonian background. The extension, first to special relativistic barotropic fluid flow and then to general relativistic barotropic fluid flow in an arbitrary background, is less straightforward than it might at first appear. In this paper, we provide a pedagogical and simple derivation of the general relativistic 'acoustic spacetime' in an arbitrary (d+1)-dimensional curved-space background.
Symmetric low-voltage powering system for relativistic electronic devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agafonov, A.V.; Lebedev, A.N.; Krastelev, E.G.
2005-01-01
A special driver for double-sided powering of relativistic magnetrons and several methods of localized electron flow forming in the interaction region of relativistic magnetrons are proposed and discussed. Two experimental installations are presented and discussed. One of them is designed for laboratory research and demonstration experiments at a rather low voltage. The other one is a prototype of a full-scale installation for an experimental research at relativistic levels of voltages on the microwave generation in the new integrated system consisting of a relativistic magnetron and symmetrical induction driver
Lagrangian formulation of a consistent relativistic guiding center theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wimmel, H.K.
1983-02-01
A new relativistic guiding center mechanics is presented that conserves energy (in time-independent fields) and satisfies a Liouville's theorem. The theory reduces to Littlejohn's theory in the non-relativistic limit and agrees to leading orders in epsilon identical rsub(g)/L with the relativistic theory by Morozov and Solov'ev (which generally lacks a Liouville's theorem). The new theory is developed from an appropriate Lagrangian and is supplemented by a collisionless relativistic kinetic equation for the guiding centers. Moment equations for guiding center density and energy density are also derived. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1977-03-01
At the 1975 Particle Accelerator Conference it was reported that a class of resonances were observed in SPEAR II that had not appeared before in SPEAR I. While the existence of sideband resonances of the main betatron oscillation frequencies has been previously observed and analyzed, the resonances observed in SPEAR do not appear to be of the same variety. Experiments were performed at SPEAR to identify the mechanism believed to be the most likely explanation. Some of the current experimental knowledge and theoretical views on the source of these resonances are presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tepikian, S.
1988-01-01
Siberian Snakes provide a practical means of obtaining polarized proton beams in large accelerators. The effect of snakes can be understood by studying the dynamics of spin precession in an accelerator with snakes and a single spin resonance. This leads to a new class of energy independent spin depolarizing resonances, called snake resonances. In designing a large accelerator with snakes to preserve the spin polarization, there is an added constraint on the choice of the vertical betatron tune due to the snake resonances. 11 refs., 4 figs
Regular and chaotic dynamics in time-dependent relativistic mean-field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vretenar, D.; Ring, P.; Lalazissis, G.A.; Poeschl, W.
1997-01-01
Isoscalar and isovector monopole oscillations that correspond to giant resonances in spherical nuclei are described in the framework of time-dependent relativistic mean-field theory. Time-dependent and self-consistent calculations that reproduce experimental data on monopole resonances in 208 Pb show that the motion of the collective coordinate is regular for isoscalar oscillations, and that it becomes chaotic when initial conditions correspond to the isovector mode. Regular collective dynamics coexists with chaotic oscillations on the microscopic level. Time histories, Fourier spectra, state-space plots, Poincare sections, autocorrelation functions, and Lyapunov exponents are used to characterize the nonlinear system and to identify chaotic oscillations. Analogous considerations apply to higher multipolarities. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society